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Sample records for a1 iga1 cleaved

  1. Lack of cleavage of immunoglobulin A (IgA) from rhesus monkeys by bacterial IgA1 proteases.

    PubMed Central

    Reinholdt, J; Kilian, M

    1991-01-01

    Bacterial immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) proteases cleaving IgA1 and secretory IgA1 molecules in the hinge region are believed to be important virulence factors. Previous studies have indicated that IgA of humans, gorillas, and chimpanzees are the exclusive substrates of these enzymes. In a recent study, IgA from the rhesus monkey was found to be susceptible to the IgA1 protease activity of Streptococcus pneumoniae. In an attempt to reproduce this observation, we found that neither five isolates of S. pneumoniae nor other IgA1 protease-producing bacteria representing different cleavage specificities caused cleavage of rhesus monkey IgA. Hence, the rhesus monkey does not appear to be a suitable animal model for studies of IgA1 proteases as virulence factors. Images PMID:2037384

  2. Immunoglobulins in Nasal Secretions of Healthy Humans: Structural Integrity of Secretory Immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) and Occurrence of Neutralizing Antibodies to IgA1 Proteases of Nasal Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kirkeby, Line; Rasmussen, Trine Tang; Reinholdt, Jesper; Kilian, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    Certain bacteria, including overt pathogens as well as commensals, produce immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) proteases. By cleaving IgA1, including secretory IgA1, in the hinge region, these enzymes may interfere with the barrier functions of mucosal IgA antibodies, as indicated by experiments in vitro. Previous studies have suggested that cleavage of IgA1 in nasal secretions may be associated with the development and perpetuation of atopic disease. To clarify the potential effect of IgA1 protease-producing bacteria in the nasal cavity, we have analyzed immunoglobulin isotypes in nasal secretions of 11 healthy humans, with a focus on IgA, and at the same time have characterized and quantified IgA1 protease-producing bacteria in the nasal flora of the subjects. Samples in the form of nasal wash were collected by using a washing liquid that contained lithium as an internal reference. Dilution factors and, subsequently, concentrations in undiluted secretions could thereby be calculated. IgA, mainly in the secretory form, was found by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to be the dominant isotype in all subjects, and the vast majority of IgA (median, 91%) was of the A1 subclass, corroborating results of previous analyses at the level of immunoglobulin-producing cells. Levels of serum-type immunoglobulins were low, except for four subjects in whom levels of IgG corresponded to 20 to 66% of total IgA. Cumulative levels of IgA, IgG, and IgM in undiluted secretions ranged from 260 to 2,494 (median, 777) μg ml−1. IgA1 protease-producing bacteria (Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Streptococcus mitis biovar 1) were isolated from the nasal cavities of seven subjects at 2.1 × 103 to 7.2 × 106 CFU per ml of undiluted secretion, corresponding to 0.2 to 99.6% of the flora. Nevertheless, α-chain fragments characteristic of IgA1 protease activity were not detected in secretions from any subject by immunoblotting. Neutralizing antibodies to IgA1 proteases of autologous

  3. Serological Analysis of Immunogenic Properties of Recombinant Meningococcus IgA1 Protease-Based Proteins.

    PubMed

    Kotelnikova, O V; Zinchenko, A A; Vikhrov, A A; Alliluev, A P; Serova, O V; Gordeeva, E A; Zhigis, L S; Zueva, V S; Razgulyaeva, O A; Melikhova, T D; Nokel, E A; Drozhzhina, E Yu; Rumsh, L D

    2016-07-01

    Using the genome sequence of IgA1 protease of N. meningitidis of serogroup B, four recombinant proteins of different structure and molecular weight were constructed. These proteins were equal in inducing the formation of specific antibodies to IgA1 protease and had protective properties against meningococci. In the sera of immunized mice, anti-IgA1 protease antibodies were detected by whole-cell ELISA, which indicated the presence of IgA1 protease on the surface of these bacteria. We hypothesized that the protective properties of IgA1 protease-based antigens and IgA1 protease analogs could be realized not only via impairment of bacterium adhesion to the mucosa, but also via suppression of this pathogen in the organism. The presented findings seem promising for using these proteins as the basis for anti-meningococcus vaccine.

  4. Naturally Occurring Structural Isomers in Serum IgA1 O-Glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kazuo; Smith, Archer D.; Poulsen, Knud; Kilian, Mogens; Julian, Bruce A.; Mestecky, Jiri; Novak, Jan; Renfrow, Matthew B.

    2013-01-01

    IgA is the most abundantly produced antibody and plays an important role in the mucosal immune system. Human IgA is represented by two isotypes, IgA1 and IgA2. The major structural difference between these two subclasses is the presence of nine potential sites of O-glycosylation in the hinge region between the first and second constant region domains of the heavy chain. Thr225, Thr228, Ser230, Ser232 and Thr236 have been identified as the predominant sites of O-glycan attachment. The range and distribution of O-glycan chains at each site within the context of adjacent sites in this clustered region create a complex heterogeneity of surface epitopes that is incompletely defined. We previously described the analysis of IgA1 O-glycan heterogeneity by use of high resolution LC/MS and electron capture dissociation tandem MS to unambiguously localize all amino acid attachment sites in IgA1 (Ale) myeloma protein. Here, we report the identification and elucidation of IgA1 O-glycopeptide structural isomers that occur based on amino acid position of the attached glycans (positional isomers) and the structure of the O-glycan chains at individual sites (glycan isomers). These isomers are present in a model IgA1 (Mce1) myeloma protein and occur naturally in normal human serum IgA1. Variable O-glycan chains attached to Ser230, Thr233 or Thr236 produce the predominant positional isomers, including O-glycans composed of a single GalNAc residue. These findings represent the first definitive identification of structural isomeric IgA1 O-glycoforms, define the single-site heterogeneity for all O-glycan sites in a single sample, and have implications for defining epitopes based on clustered O-glycan variability. PMID:22067045

  5. Galactosylation of IgA1 Is Associated with Common Variation in C1GALT1.

    PubMed

    Gale, Daniel P; Molyneux, Karen; Wimbury, David; Higgins, Patricia; Levine, Adam P; Caplin, Ben; Ferlin, Anna; Yin, Peiran; Nelson, Christopher P; Stanescu, Horia; Samani, Nilesh J; Kleta, Robert; Yu, Xueqing; Barratt, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN), an important cause of kidney failure, is characterized by glomerular IgA deposition and is associated with changes in O -glycosylation of the IgA1 molecule. Here, we sought to identify genetic factors contributing to levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) in white and Chinese populations. Gd-IgA1 levels were elevated in IgAN patients compared with ethnically matched healthy subjects and correlated with evidence of disease progression. White patients with IgAN exhibited significantly higher Gd-IgA1 levels than did Chinese patients. Among individuals without IgAN, Gd-IgA1 levels did not correlate with kidney function. Gd-IgA1 level heritability (h 2 ), estimated by comparing midparental and offspring Gd-IgA1 levels, was 0.39. Genome-wide association analysis by linear regression identified alleles at a single locus spanning the C1GALT1 gene that strongly associated with Gd-IgA1 level ( β =0.26; P =2.35×10 -9 ). This association was replicated in a genome-wide association study of separate cohorts comprising 308 patients with membranous GN from the UK ( P <1.00×10 -6 ) and 622 controls with normal kidney function from the UK ( P <1.00×10 -10 ), and in a candidate gene study of 704 Chinese patients with IgAN ( P <1.00×10 -5 ). The same extended haplotype associated with elevated Gd-IgA1 levels in all cohorts studied. C1GALT1 encodes a galactosyltransferase enzyme that is important in O -galactosylation of glycoproteins. These findings demonstrate that common variation at C1GALT1 influences Gd-IgA1 level in the population, which independently associates with risk of progressive IgAN, and that the pathogenic importance of changes in IgA1 O -glycosylation may vary between white and Chinese patients with IgAN. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  6. GWAS for serum galactose-deficient IgA1 implicates critical genes of the O-glycosylation pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Moldoveanu, Zina; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Reily, Colin; Hou, Ping; Xie, Jingyuan; Mladkova, Nikol; Prakash, Sindhuri; Fischman, Clara; Shapiro, Samantha; Bradbury, Drew; Ionita-Laza, Iuliana; Eitner, Frank; Rauen, Thomas; Maillard, Nicolas; Floege, Jürgen; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Hong; Scolari, Francesco; Wyatt, Robert J.; Julian, Bruce A.; Gharavi, Ali G.; Novak, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Aberrant O-glycosylation of serum immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) represents a heritable pathogenic defect in IgA nephropathy, the most common form of glomerulonephritis worldwide, but specific genetic factors involved in its determination are not known. We performed a quantitative GWAS for serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) in 2,633 subjects of European and East Asian ancestry and discovered two genome-wide significant loci, in C1GALT1 (rs13226913, P = 3.2 x 10−11) and C1GALT1C1 (rs5910940, P = 2.7 x 10−8). These genes encode molecular partners essential for enzymatic O-glycosylation of IgA1. We demonstrated that these two loci explain approximately 7% of variability in circulating Gd-IgA1 in Europeans, but only 2% in East Asians. Notably, the Gd-IgA1-increasing allele of rs13226913 is common in Europeans, but rare in East Asians. Moreover, rs13226913 represents a strong cis-eQTL for C1GALT1 that encodes the key enzyme responsible for the transfer of galactose to O-linked glycans on IgA1. By in vitro siRNA knock-down studies, we confirmed that mRNA levels of both C1GALT1 and C1GALT1C1 determine the rate of secretion of Gd-IgA1 in IgA1-producing cells. Our findings provide novel insights into the genetic regulation of O-glycosylation and are relevant not only to IgA nephropathy, but also to other complex traits associated with O-glycosylation defects, including inflammatory bowel disease, hematologic disease, and cancer. PMID:28187132

  7. Separation of Two Distinct O-Glycoforms of Human IgA1 by Serial Lectin Chromatography Followed by Mass Spectrometry O-Glycan Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lehoux, S; Ju, T

    2017-01-01

    Human immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1), which carries four to six mucin-type O-glycans (O-glycans) on its hinge region (HR), is the most abundant O-glycoprotein in plasma or serum. While normal O-glycans from hematopoietic-originated cells are core 1-based complex structures, many reports showed that the IgA1 from patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) carries undergalactosylated or truncated O-glycans such as the Tn antigen and its sialylated version the SialylTn (STn) antigen on the HR. Yet, there is still a debate whether Tn/STn on the HR of IgA1 is specific to the IgA1 from patients with IgAN since these antigens have also been seen in serum IgA1 of healthy individuals. An additional question is whether the O-glycans at all sites on the two HRs of one IgA1 molecule are homogeneous (either all normal or all Tn/STn) or heterogeneous (both normal and Tn/STn O-glycans). To address these questions, we conducted a systematic study on the O-glycans of plasma IgA1 from both IgAN patients and healthy controls using serial HPA and PNA lectin chromatography followed by western blotting and further analysis of O-glycans from HPA-bound and PNA-bound IgA1 fractions by mass spectrometry. Unexpectedly, we found that a variable minor fraction of IgA1 from both IgAN patients and healthy controls had Tn/STn antigens, and that the O-glycoprotein IgA1 molecules from most samples had only two distinct O-glycoforms: one major glycoform with homogeneous normal core 1-based O-glycans and one minor glycoform with homogeneous Tn/STn antigens. These results raised a serious question about the role of Tn/STn antigens on IgA1 in pathogenesis of IgAN, and there is a demand for a practical methodology that any laboratory can utilize to analyze the O-glycans of IgA1. Herein, we describe the methodology we developed in more detail. The method could also be applied to the analysis of any other O-glycosylated proteins. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. CagA, a major virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori, promotes the production and underglycosylation of IgA1 in DAKIKI cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Man; Li, Fu-gang; Xie, Xi-sheng

    Highlights: • CagA stimulated cell proliferation and the production of IgA1 in DAKIKI cells. • CagA promoted the underglycosylation of IgA1 in DAKIKI cells. • CagA decreased the expression of C1GALT1 and its chaperone Cosmc in DAKIKI cells. • Helicobacter pylori infection may participate in the pathogenesis of IgAN via CagA. - Abstract: While Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection is closely associated with IgA nephropathy (IgAN), the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. This study was to investigate the effect of cytotoxin associated gene A protein (CagA), a major virulence factor of Hp, on the production and underglycosylation of IgA1more » in the B cell line DAKIKI cells. Cells were cultured and treated with recombinant CagA protein. We found that CagA stimulated cell proliferation and the production of IgA1 in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Moreover, CagA promoted the underglycosylation of IgA1, which at least partly attributed to the downregulation of β1,3-galactosyltransferase (C1GALT1) and its chaperone Cosmc. In conclusion, we demonstrated that Hp infection, at least via CagA, may participate in the pathogenesis of IgAN by influencing the production and glycosylation of IgA1 in B cells.« less

  9. Novel lectin-independent approach to detect galactose-deficient IgA1 in IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Yasutake, Junichi; Suzuki, Yusuke; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Hiura, Naoko; Yanagawa, Hiroyuki; Makita, Yuko; Kaneko, Etsuji; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2015-08-01

    Galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) is a critical effector molecule in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Although many researchers have measured serum levels of Gd-IgA1 using snail helix aspersa agglutinin (HAA) lectin-based assay, the lectin-dependent assay has some serious problems in robustness. In this study, we aimed to establish a more robust and stable enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method that uses a specific monoclonal antibody to recognize a hinge region in human Gd-IgA1 (Gd-IgA1 ELISA). Rats were immunized with human Gd-IgA1 hinge region peptide to obtain Gd-IgA1-specific monoclonal antibody KM55. Gd-IgA1 ELISA for specifically detecting serum Gd-IgA1 was consequently constructed. Serum Gd-IgA1 concentrations in human subjects were measured using KM55 ELISA assay. To further confirm specificity of the Gd-IgA1-specific antibody, KM55 was also applied for immunofluorescence staining of glomerular Gd-IgA1 in paraffin-embedded sections of renal biopsy specimens. Measurement of serum levels of Gd-IgA1 in human subjects by Gd-IgA1 ELISA revealed increased serum Gd-IgA1 level in patients with IgAN compared with patients with other renal diseases or non-renal diseases. Importantly, the results obtained from Gd-IgA1 ELISA positively correlated with those from the HAA lectin-based assay (R = 0.75). Immunofluorescence staining of renal biopsy specimens with KM55 detected glomerular co-localization of Gd-IgA1 and IgA. This novel lectin-independent method with KM55 for measuring serum levels of Gd-IgA1 can pave the way for more convincing diagnosis and activity assessment of IgAN, and can expedite clinical research to better understand this difficult disease. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  10. Novel lectin-independent approach to detect galactose-deficient IgA1 in IgA nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Yasutake, Junichi; Suzuki, Yusuke; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Hiura, Naoko; Yanagawa, Hiroyuki; Makita, Yuko; Kaneko, Etsuji; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Background Galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) is a critical effector molecule in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Although many researchers have measured serum levels of Gd-IgA1 using snail helix aspersa agglutinin (HAA) lectin-based assay, the lectin-dependent assay has some serious problems in robustness. In this study, we aimed to establish a more robust and stable enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method that uses a specific monoclonal antibody to recognize a hinge region in human Gd-IgA1 (Gd-IgA1 ELISA). Methods Rats were immunized with human Gd-IgA1 hinge region peptide to obtain Gd-IgA1-specific monoclonal antibody KM55. Gd-IgA1 ELISA for specifically detecting serum Gd-IgA1 was consequently constructed. Serum Gd-IgA1 concentrations in human subjects were measured using KM55 ELISA assay. To further confirm specificity of the Gd-IgA1-specific antibody, KM55 was also applied for immunofluorescence staining of glomerular Gd-IgA1 in paraffin-embedded sections of renal biopsy specimens. Results Measurement of serum levels of Gd-IgA1 in human subjects by Gd-IgA1 ELISA revealed increased serum Gd-IgA1 level in patients with IgAN compared with patients with other renal diseases or non-renal diseases. Importantly, the results obtained from Gd-IgA1 ELISA positively correlated with those from the HAA lectin-based assay (R = 0.75). Immunofluorescence staining of renal biopsy specimens with KM55 detected glomerular co-localization of Gd-IgA1 and IgA. Conclusion This novel lectin-independent method with KM55 for measuring serum levels of Gd-IgA1 can pave the way for more convincing diagnosis and activity assessment of IgAN, and can expedite clinical research to better understand this difficult disease. PMID:26109484

  11. Cloning and structural analysis of two highly divergent IgA isotypes, IgA1 and IgA2 from the duck billed platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus.

    PubMed

    Vernersson, M; Belov, K; Aveskogh, M; Hellman, L

    2010-01-01

    To trace the emergence of modern IgA isotypes during vertebrate evolution we have studied the immunoglobulin repertoire of a model monotreme, the platypus. Two highly divergent IgA-like isotypes (IgA1 and IgA2) were identified and their primary structures were determined from full-length cDNAs. A comparative analysis of the amino acid sequences for IgA from various animal species showed that the two platypus IgA isotypes form a branch clearly separated from their eutherian (placental) counterparts. However, they still conform to the general structure of eutherian IgA, with a hinge region and three constant domains. This indicates that the deletion of the second domain and the formation of a hinge region in IgA did occur very early during mammalian evolution, more than 166 million years ago. The two IgA isotypes in platypus differ in primary structure and appear to have arisen from a very early gene duplication, possibly preceding the metatherian eutherian split. Interestingly, one of these isotypes, IgA1, appears to be expressed in only the platypus, but is present in the echidna based on Southern blot analysis. The platypus may require a more effective mucosal immunity, with two highly divergent IgA forms, than the terrestrial echidna, due to its lifestyle, where it is exposed to pathogens both on land and in the water. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Serum under-O-glycosylated IgA1 level is not correlated with glomerular IgA deposition based upon heterogeneity in the composition of immune complexes in IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Satake, Kenji; Shimizu, Yoshio; Sasaki, Yohei; Yanagawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Yusuke; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Honda, Shinichiro; Shibuya, Kazuko; Shibuya, Akira; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2014-06-13

    Although serum under-O-glycosylated IgA1 in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients may deposit more preferentially in glomeruli than heavily-O-glycosylated IgA1, the relationship between the glomerular IgA deposition level and the O-glycan profiles of serum IgA1 remains obscure. Serum total under-O-glycosylated IgA1 levels were quantified in 32 IgAN patients by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with Helix aspersa (HAA) lectin. Serum under-O-glycosylated polymeric IgA1 (pIgA1) was selectively measured by an original method using mouse Fcα/μ receptor (mFcα/μR) transfectant and flow cytometry (pIgA1 trap). The percentage area of IgA deposition in the whole glomeruli (Area-IgA) was quantified by image analysis on the immunofluorescence of biopsy specimens. Correlations were assessed between the Area-IgA and data from HAA-ELISA or pIgA1 trap. The relationships between clinical parameters and data from HAA-ELISA or pIgA1 trap were analyzed by data mining approach. While the under-O-glycosylated IgA1 levels in IgAN patients were significantly higher than those in healthy controls when measured (p<0.05), there was no significant difference in under-O-glycosylated pIgA1. There was neither a correlation observed between the data from HAA-ELISA and pIgA1 trap (r2=0.09) in the IgAN patients (r2=0.005) nor was there a linear correlation between Area-IgA and data from HAA-ELISA or the pIgA1 trap (r2=0.005, 0.03, respectively). Contour plots of clinical parameters versus data from HAA-ELISA and the pIgA1 trap revealed that patients with a high score in each clinical parameter concentrated in specific areas, showing that patients with specific O-glycan profiles of IgA1 have similar clinical parameters. A decision tree analysis suggested that dominant immune complexes in glomeruli were consisted of: 1) IgA1-IgG and complements, 2) pIgA1 and complements, and 3) monomeric IgA1-IgA or aggregated monomeric IgA1. Serum under-O-glycosylated IgA1 levels are not correlated with

  13. Comparison of methods for profiling O-glycosylation: Human Proteome Organisation Human Disease Glycomics/Proteome Initiative multi-institutional study of IgA1.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yoshinao; Dell, Anne; Haslam, Stuart M; Tissot, Bérangère; Canis, Kévin; Azadi, Parastoo; Bäckström, Malin; Costello, Catherine E; Hansson, Gunnar C; Hiki, Yoshiyuki; Ishihara, Mayumi; Ito, Hiromi; Kakehi, Kazuaki; Karlsson, Niclas; Hayes, Catherine E; Kato, Koichi; Kawasaki, Nana; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Kobayashi, Kunihiko; Kolarich, Daniel; Kondo, Akihiro; Lebrilla, Carlito; Nakano, Miyako; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Novak, Jan; Novotny, Milos V; Ohno, Erina; Packer, Nicolle H; Palaima, Elizabeth; Renfrow, Matthew B; Tajiri, Michiko; Thomsson, Kristina A; Yagi, Hirokazu; Yu, Shin-Yi; Taniguchi, Naoyuki

    2010-04-01

    The Human Proteome Organisation Human Disease Glycomics/Proteome Initiative recently coordinated a multi-institutional study that evaluated methodologies that are widely used for defining the N-glycan content in glycoproteins. The study convincingly endorsed mass spectrometry as the technique of choice for glycomic profiling in the discovery phase of diagnostic research. The present study reports the extension of the Human Disease Glycomics/Proteome Initiative's activities to an assessment of the methodologies currently used for O-glycan analysis. Three samples of IgA1 isolated from the serum of patients with multiple myeloma were distributed to 15 laboratories worldwide for O-glycomics analysis. A variety of mass spectrometric and chromatographic procedures representative of current methodologies were used. Similar to the previous N-glycan study, the results convincingly confirmed the pre-eminent performance of MS for O-glycan profiling. Two general strategies were found to give the most reliable data, namely direct MS analysis of mixtures of permethylated reduced glycans in the positive ion mode and analysis of native reduced glycans in the negative ion mode using LC-MS approaches. In addition, mass spectrometric methodologies to analyze O-glycopeptides were also successful.

  14. Association of IgG co-deposition with serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 in pediatric IgA nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Eison, T. Matthew; Hastings, M. Colleen; Moldoveanu, Zina; Sanders, John T.; Gaber, Lillian; Walker, Patrick D.; Lau, Keith K; Julian, Bruce A.; Novak, Jan; Wyatt, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the absence of mesangial IgG deposits is associated with the absence of elevated blood levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) in pediatric patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Design and methods: Serum Gd-IgA1 levels were determined by ELISA using an N-acetylgalactosamine-specific lectin from Helix aspersa. Levels of Gd-IgA1 above the 90th percentile for healthy pediatric controls were considered to be elevated. Renal biopsy samples were examined by immunofluorescence for presence and intensity of staining for IgA, IgG, IgM, C3 and C1q and by light microscopy for histological changes. Findings were graded by a single pathologist (L. Gaber) at UTHSC until 2007 and by NephropathTM (Little Rock, AR, USA) thereafter. Staining for the mesangial deposits was considered negative when intensity was trace or less, and positive at greater intensity. Fisher’s exact-test was used to determine significance of 2 × 2 tables. Results: Serum samples were obtained from 30 patients with IgAN diagnosed before age 18 years. Male : female ratio was 2.3 : 1. Twenty were Caucasian and 10 were African-American. Blood was obtained within 3 months of biopsy (incident cases) for 12, while 18 provided blood > 3 months after biopsy (prevalent cases). Serum Gd-IgA1 level was elevated in 23 (77%) of cases and 20 (67%) had a biopsy positive for IgG. Of those 20 patients, 18 (90%) had an elevated serum Gd-IgA1 level, whereas 5 (50%) of patients with biopsies without IgG had a normal serum Gd-IgA1 level (p = 0.026). Summary: In this small study we found a weak association between the absence of IgG in the biopsy and normal serum Gd-IgA1 level. PMID:23006340

  15. Occurrence and Evolution of the Paralogous Zinc Metalloproteases IgA1 Protease, ZmpB, ZmpC, and ZmpD in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Related Commensal Species

    PubMed Central

    Bek-Thomsen, Malene; Poulsen, Knud; Kilian, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The distribution, genome location, and evolution of the four paralogous zinc metalloproteases, IgA1 protease, ZmpB, ZmpC, and ZmpD, in Streptococcus pneumoniae and related commensal species were studied by in silico analysis of whole genomes and by activity screening of 154 representatives of 20 species. ZmpB was ubiquitous in the Mitis and Salivarius groups of the genus Streptococcus and in the genera Gemella and Granulicatella, with the exception of a fragmented gene in Streptococcus thermophilus, the only species with a nonhuman habitat. IgA1 protease activity was observed in all members of S. pneumoniae, S. pseudopneumoniae, S. oralis, S. sanguinis, and Gemella haemolysans, was variably present in S. mitis and S. infantis, and absent in S. gordonii, S. parasanguinis, S. cristatus, S. oligofermentans, S. australis, S. peroris, and S. suis. Phylogenetic analysis of 297 zmp sequences and representative housekeeping genes provided evidence for an unprecedented selection for genetic diversification of the iga, zmpB, and zmpD genes in S. pneumoniae and evidence of very frequent intraspecies transfer of entire genes and combination of genes. Presumably due to their adaptation to a commensal lifestyle, largely unaffected by adaptive mucosal immune factors, the corresponding genes in commensal streptococci have remained conserved. The widespread distribution and significant sequence diversity indicate an ancient origin of the zinc metalloproteases predating the emergence of the humanoid species. zmpB, which appears to be the ancestral gene, subsequently duplicated and successfully diversified into distinct functions, is likely to serve an important but yet unknown housekeeping function associated with the human host. PMID:23033471

  16. In vivo cleavage of immunoglobulin A1 by immunoglobulin A1 proteases from Prevotella and Capnocytophaga species.

    PubMed

    Frandsen, E V; Reinholdt, J; Kjeldsen, M; Kilian, M

    1995-10-01

    Immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) proteases secreted by oral Prevotella and Capnocytophaga species specifically cleave IgA1 at the same peptide bond in the hinge region, leaving intact monomeric Fab and Fc fragments. Assuming that Prevotella- and Capnocytophaga-induced Fab fragments of IgA1 expose a specific immunogenic neoepitope at the cleavage site, we established an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure human serum antibodies to this neoepitope as indirect evidence of in vivo activity of Prevotella and Capnocytophaga IgA1 proteases. The assay used a monoclonal antibody with specificity for the neoepitope, and the ability to block binding of the monoclonal antibody to the neoepitope was investigated. Absorption of sera with Prevotella melaninogenica-induced Fab fragments of IgA1 resulted in removal of antibodies blocking binding of the monoclonal antibody, whereas absorption with Fab fragments induced by bacterial IgA1 proteases of other cleavage specificities did not remove blocking antibodies. Consequently, we assume that the antibodies detected had been induced by a neoepitope an the Fab fragment of IgA1 exposed exclusively after cleavage with IgA1 proteases from Prevotella and Capnocytophaga, indicating in vivo activity of these IgA1 proteases. Evidence, though indirect, of in vivo activity of Prevotella and Capnocytophaga IgA1 proteases was present in 42 of 92 sera examined and in a significantly higher proportion of sera from adults with periodontal disease compared with control individuals. No correlation with disease was observed for the juvenile periodontitis groups.

  17. Inhibition of Prevotella and Capnocytophaga immunoglobulin A1 proteases by human serum.

    PubMed

    Frandsen, E V; Kjeldsen, M; Kilian, M

    1997-07-01

    Oral Prevotella and Capnocytophaga species, regularly isolated from periodontal pockets and associated with extraoral infections, secret specific immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) proteases cleaving human IgA1 in the hinge region into intact Fab and Fc fragments. To investigate whether these enzymes are subject to inhibition in vivo in humans, we tested 34 sera from periodontally diseased and healthy individuals in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the presence and titers of inhibition of seven Prevotella and Capnocytophaga proteases. All or nearly all of the sera inhibited the IgA1 protease activity of Prevotella buccae, Prevotella oris, and Prevotella loescheii. A minor proportion of the sera inhibited Prevotella buccalis, Prevotella denticola, and Prevotella melaninogenica IgA1 proteases, while no sera inhibited Capnocytophaga ochracea IgA1 protease. All inhibition titers were low, ranging from 5 to 55, with titer being defined as the reciprocal of the dilution of serum causing 50% inhibition of one defined unit of protease activity. No correlation between periodontal disease status and the presence, absence, or titer of inhibition was observed. The nature of the low titers of inhibition in all sera of the IgA1 proteases of P. buccae, P. oris, and P. loescheii was further examined. In size exclusion chromatography, inhibitory activity corresponded to the peak volume of IgA. Additional inhibition of the P. oris IgA1 protease was found in fractions containing both IgA and IgG. Purification of the IgG fractions of five sera by passage of the sera on a protein G column resulted in recovery of inhibitory IgG antibodies against all three IgA1 proteases, with the highest titer being for the P. oris enzyme. These finding indicate that inhibitory activity is associated with enzyme-neutralizing antibodies.

  18. Inhibition of Prevotella and Capnocytophaga immunoglobulin A1 proteases by human serum.

    PubMed Central

    Frandsen, E V; Kjeldsen, M; Kilian, M

    1997-01-01

    Oral Prevotella and Capnocytophaga species, regularly isolated from periodontal pockets and associated with extraoral infections, secret specific immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) proteases cleaving human IgA1 in the hinge region into intact Fab and Fc fragments. To investigate whether these enzymes are subject to inhibition in vivo in humans, we tested 34 sera from periodontally diseased and healthy individuals in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the presence and titers of inhibition of seven Prevotella and Capnocytophaga proteases. All or nearly all of the sera inhibited the IgA1 protease activity of Prevotella buccae, Prevotella oris, and Prevotella loescheii. A minor proportion of the sera inhibited Prevotella buccalis, Prevotella denticola, and Prevotella melaninogenica IgA1 proteases, while no sera inhibited Capnocytophaga ochracea IgA1 protease. All inhibition titers were low, ranging from 5 to 55, with titer being defined as the reciprocal of the dilution of serum causing 50% inhibition of one defined unit of protease activity. No correlation between periodontal disease status and the presence, absence, or titer of inhibition was observed. The nature of the low titers of inhibition in all sera of the IgA1 proteases of P. buccae, P. oris, and P. loescheii was further examined. In size exclusion chromatography, inhibitory activity corresponded to the peak volume of IgA. Additional inhibition of the P. oris IgA1 protease was found in fractions containing both IgA and IgG. Purification of the IgG fractions of five sera by passage of the sera on a protein G column resulted in recovery of inhibitory IgG antibodies against all three IgA1 proteases, with the highest titer being for the P. oris enzyme. These finding indicate that inhibitory activity is associated with enzyme-neutralizing antibodies. PMID:9220164

  19. [Isolation and characteristics of IgA1 and its use for detecting bacterial IgA1 proteases].

    PubMed

    Amelina, I P; Zakharova, N A

    1984-12-01

    Sufficiently purified IgA, subclass I, has been isolated from the defibrinated plasma of a myeloma patient by chromatography on columns packed with DEAE-Sephadex A-50 or Sephadex G-200, and rabbit antiserum to this immunoglobulin has been obtained. These preparations have been used for detecting specific protease in Bordetella pertussis. The tested B. pertussis strains have been shown to induce, as revealed by immunoelectrophoretic methods, the proteolysis of human IgA, subclass I.

  20. Nucleotide cleaving agents and method

    DOEpatents

    Que, Jr., Lawrence; Hanson, Richard S.; Schnaith, Leah M. T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a unique series of nucleotide cleaving agents and a method for cleaving a nucleotide sequence, whether single-stranded or double-stranded DNA or RNA, using and a cationic metal complex having at least one polydentate ligand to cleave the nucleotide sequence phosphate backbone to yield a hydroxyl end and a phosphate end.

  1. Cleaved-coupled nanowire lasers

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hanwei; Fu, Anthony; Andrews, Sean C.; Yang, Peidong

    2013-01-01

    The miniaturization of optoelectronic devices is essential for the continued success of photonic technologies. Nanowires have been identified as potential building blocks that mimic conventional photonic components such as interconnects, waveguides, and optical cavities at the nanoscale. Semiconductor nanowires with high optical gain offer promising solutions for lasers with small footprints and low power consumption. Although much effort has been directed toward controlling their size, shape, and composition, most nanowire lasers currently suffer from emitting at multiple frequencies simultaneously, arising from the longitudinal modes native to simple Fabry–Pérot cavities. Cleaved-coupled cavities, two Fabry–Pérot cavities that are axially coupled through an air gap, are a promising architecture to produce single-frequency emission. The miniaturization of this concept, however, imposes a restriction on the dimensions of the intercavity gaps because severe optical losses are incurred when the cross-sectional dimensions of cavities become comparable to the lasing wavelength. Here we theoretically investigate and experimentally demonstrate spectral manipulation of lasing modes by creating cleaved-coupled cavities in gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires. Lasing operation at a single UV wavelength at room temperature was achieved using nanoscale gaps to create the smallest cleaved-coupled cavities to date. Besides the reduced number of lasing modes, the cleaved-coupled nanowires also operate with a lower threshold gain than that of the individual component nanowires. Good agreement was found between the measured lasing spectra and the predicted spectral modes obtained by simulating optical coupling properties. This agreement between theory and experiment presents design principles to rationally control the lasing modes in cleaved-coupled nanowire lasers. PMID:23284173

  2. A comparison of the binding of secretory component to immunoglobulin A (IgA) in human colostral S-IgA1 and S-IgA2

    PubMed Central

    Almogren, Adel; Senior, Bernard W; Kerr, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the binding of secretory component to immunoglobulin A (IgA) in human secretory IgA2 (S-IgA2) was made possible by the development of a new method of purifying S-IgA1, S-IgA2 and free secretory component from human colostrum using thiophilic gel chromatography and chromatography on Jacalin-agarose. Sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of unreduced pure S-IgA2 revealed that, unlike in S-IgA1, a significant proportion of the secretory component was bound non-covalently in S-IgA2. When S-IgA1 was incubated with a protease purified from Proteus mirabilis the secretory component, but not the α-chain, was cleaved. This is in contrast to serum IgA1, in which the α-chain was cleaved under the same conditions – direct evidence that secretory component does protect the α-chain from proteolytic cleavage in S-IgA. Comparisons between the products of cleavage with P. mirabilis protease of free secretory component and bound secretory component in S-IgA1 and S-IgA2 also indicated that, contrary to the general assumption, the binding of secretory component to IgA is different in S-IgA2 from that in S-IgA1. PMID:17156102

  3. Optimized catalytic DNA-cleaving ribozymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, Gerald F. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention discloses nucleic acid enzymes capable of cleaving nucleic acid molecules, including single-stranded DNA, in a site-specific manner under physiologic conditions, as well as compositions including same. The present invention also discloses methods of making and using the disclosed enzymes and compositions.

  4. Cleaved-edge-overgrowth nanogap electrodes.

    PubMed

    Luber, Sebastian M; Bichler, Max; Abstreiter, Gerhard; Tornow, Marc

    2011-02-11

    We present a method to fabricate multiple metal nanogap electrodes of tailored width and distance in parallel, on the cleaved plane of a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The three-dimensional patterned structures are obtained by a combination of molecular-beam-epitaxial regrowth on a crystal facet, using the cleaved-edge-overgrowth (CEO) method, and subsequent wet selective etching and metallization steps. SEM and AFM studies reveal smooth and co-planar electrodes of width and distance of the order of 10 nm. Preliminary electrical characterization indicates electrical gap insulation in the 100 MΩ range with kΩ lead resistance. We propose our methodology to realize multiple electrode geometries that would allow investigation of the electrical conductivity of complex nanoscale objects such as branched organic molecules.

  5. Bleomycin Can Cleave an Oncogenic Noncoding RNA.

    PubMed

    Angelbello, Alicia J; Disney, Matthew D

    2018-01-04

    Noncoding RNAs are pervasive in cells and contribute to diseases such as cancer. A question in biomedical research is whether noncoding RNAs are targets of medicines. Bleomycin is a natural product that cleaves DNA; however, it is known to cleave RNA in vitro. Herein, an in-depth analysis of the RNA cleavage preferences of bleomycin A5 is presented. Bleomycin A5 prefers to cleave RNAs with stretches of AU base pairs. Based on these preferences and bioinformatic analysis, the microRNA-10b hairpin precursor was identified as a potential substrate for bleomycin A5. Both in vitro and cellular experiments demonstrated cleavage. Importantly, chemical cleavage by bleomycin A5 in the microRNA-10b hairpin precursors occurred near the Drosha and Dicer enzymatic processing sites and led to destruction of the microRNA. Evidently, oncogenic noncoding RNAs can be considered targets of cancer medicines and might elicit their pharmacological effects by targeting noncoding RNA. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Heterojunction photodiode on cleaved SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovan, Mykhailo M.; Farah, John; Kovaliuk, Taras T.; Brus, Viktor V.; Mostovyi, Andrii I.; Maistruk, Eduard V.; Maryanchuk, Pavlo D.

    2018-01-01

    Graphite/n-SiC Shottky diodes were prepared by means of the recently proposed technique based on the transferring of drawn graphite films onto the n-SiC single crystal substrate. Current-voltage characteristics were measured and analyzed. High quality ohmic contancts were prepared by the DC magnetron sputtering of Ni thin films onto cleaved n-type SiC single crystal substrates. The height of the potential barrier and the series resistance of the graphite/n-SiC junctions were measured and analysed. The dominant current transport mechanisms through the diodes were determined. There was shown that the dominant current transport mechanisms through the graphite/n-SiC Shottky diodes were the multi-step tunnel-recombination at forward bias and the tunnelling mechanisms at reverse bias.

  7. RNA-Cleaving DNA Enzymes with Altered Regio- or Enantioselectivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordoukhanian, Phillip; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2002-01-01

    In vitro evolution methods were used to obtain DNA enzymes that cleave either a 2',5' - phosphodiester following a wibonucleotide or a 3',5' -phosphodiester following an L-ribonucleotide. Both enzymes can operate in an intermolecular reaction format with multiple turnover. The DNA enzyme that cleaves a 2',5' -phosphodiester exhibits a k(sub cat) of approx. 0.01/ min and catalytic efficiency, k(sub cat)/k(sub m) of approx. 10(exp 5)/ M min. The enzyme that cleaves an L-ribonudeotide is about 10-fold slower and has a catalytic efficiency of approx. 4 x 10(exp 5)/ M min. Both enzymes require a divalent metal cation for their activity and have optimal catalytic rate at pH 7-8 and 35-50 C. In a comparison of each enzyme s activity with either its corresponding substrate that contains an unnatural ribonudeotide or a substrate that instead contains a standard ribonucleotide, the 2',5' -phosphodiester-deaving DNA enzyme exhibited a regioselectivity of 6000- fold, while the L-ribonucleotide-cleaving DNA enzyme exhibited an enantioselectivity of 50-fold. These molecules demonstrate how in vitro evolution can be used to obtain regio- and enantioselective catalysts that exhibit specificities for nonnatural analogues of biological compounds.

  8. T. thermophila group I introns that cleave amide bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, Gerald F. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to nucleic acid enzymes or enzymatic RNA molecules that are capable of cleaving a variety of bonds, including phosphodiester bonds and amide bonds, in a variety of substrates. Thus, the disclosed enzymatic RNA molecules are capable of functioning as nucleases and/or peptidases. The present invention also relates to compositions containing the disclosed enzymatic RNA molecule and to methods of making, selecting, and using such enzymes and compositions.

  9. RNase P cleaves transient structures in some riboswitches.

    PubMed

    Altman, Sidney; Wesolowski, Donna; Guerrier-Takada, Cecilia; Li, Yong

    2005-08-09

    RNase P from Escherichia coli cleaves the coenzyme B12 riboswitch from E. coli and a similar one from Bacillus subtilis. The cleavage sites do not occur in any recognizable structure, as judged from theoretical schemes that have been drawn for these 5' UTRs. However, it is possible to draw a scheme that is a good representation of the E. coli cleavage site for RNase P and for the cleavage site in B. subtilis. These data indicate that transient structures are important in RNase P cleavage and in riboswitch function. Coenzyme B12 has a small inhibitory effect on E. coli RNase P cleavage of the E. coli riboswitch. Both E. coli RNase P and a partially purified RNase P from Aspergillus nidulans mycelia succeeded in cleaving a putative arginine riboswitch from A. nidulans. The cleavage site may be a representative of another model substrate for eukaryotic RNase P. This 5' UTR controls splicing of the arginase mRNA in A. nidulans. Four other riboswitches in E. coli were not cleaved by RNase P under the conditions tested.

  10. RNase P cleaves transient structures in some riboswitches

    PubMed Central

    Altman, Sidney; Wesolowski, Donna; Guerrier-Takada, Cecilia; Li, Yong

    2005-01-01

    RNase P from Escherichia coli cleaves the coenzyme B12 riboswitch from E. coli and a similar one from Bacillus subtilis. The cleavage sites do not occur in any recognizable structure, as judged from theoretical schemes that have been drawn for these 5′ UTRs. However, it is possible to draw a scheme that is a good representation of the E. coli cleavage site for RNase P and for the cleavage site in B. subtilis. These data indicate that transient structures are important in RNase P cleavage and in riboswitch function. Coenzyme B12 has a small inhibitory effect on E. coli RNase P cleavage of the E. coli riboswitch. Both E. coli RNase P and a partially purified RNase P from Aspergillus nidulans mycelia succeeded in cleaving a putative arginine riboswitch from A. nidulans. The cleavage site may be a representative of another model substrate for eukaryotic RNase P. This 5′ UTR controls splicing of the arginase mRNA in A. nidulans. Four other riboswitches in E. coli were not cleaved by RNase P under the conditions tested. PMID:16061811

  11. Graphene Visualizes the Ion Distribution on Air-Cleaved Mica.

    PubMed

    Bampoulis, Pantelis; Sotthewes, Kai; Siekman, Martin H; Zandvliet, Harold J W; Poelsema, Bene

    2017-03-06

    The distribution of potassium (K + ) ions on air-cleaved mica is important in many interfacial phenomena such as crystal growth, self-assembly and charge transfer on mica. However, due to experimental limitations to nondestructively probe single ions and ionic domains, their exact lateral organization is yet unknown. We show, by the use of graphene as an ultra-thin protective coating and scanning probe microscopies, that single potassium ions form ordered structures that are covered by an ice layer. The K + ions prefer to minimize the number of nearest neighbour K + ions by forming row-like structures as well as small domains. This trend is a result of repulsive ionic forces between adjacent ions, weakened due to screening by the surrounding water molecules. Using high resolution conductive atomic force microscopy maps, the local conductance of the graphene is measured, revealing a direct correlation between the K + distribution and the structure of the ice layer. Our results shed light on the local distribution of ions on the air-cleaved mica, solving a long-standing enigma. They also provide a detailed understanding of charge transfer from the ionic domains towards graphene.

  12. The nature of the air-cleaved mica surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christenson, Hugo K.; Thomson, Neil H.

    2016-06-01

    The accepted image of muscovite mica is that of an inert and atomically smooth surface, easily prepared by cleavage in an ambient atmosphere. Consequently, mica is extensively used a model substrate in many fundamental studies of surface phenomena and as a substrate for AFM imaging of biomolecules. In this review we present evidence from the literature that the above picture is not quite correct. The mica used in experimental work is almost invariably cleaved in laboratory air, where a reaction between the mica surface, atmospheric CO2 and water occurs immediately after cleavage. The evidence suggests very strongly that as a result the mica surface becomes covered by up to one formula unit of K2CO3 per nm2, which is mobile under humid conditions, and crystallises under drier conditions. The properties of mica in air or water vapour cannot be fully understood without reference to the surface K2CO3, and many studies of the structure of adsorbed water on mica surfaces may need to be revisited. With this new insight, however, the air-cleaved mica should provide exciting opportunities to study phenomena such as two-dimensional ion diffusion, electrolyte effects on surface conductivity, and two-dimensional crystal nucleation.

  13. STS-30 MS Cleave monitors fluids experiment apparatus (FEA) equipment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-05-08

    STS030-02-018 (4-8 May 1989) --- A 35mm overall scene of the operations devoted to the fluids experiment apparatus (FEA) aboard Atlantis for NASA’s STS-30 mission. Astronaut Mary L. Cleave, mission specialist, is seen with the computer which is instrumental in the carrying out of a variety of materials science experiments. Rockwell International is engaged in a joint endeavor agreement with NASA’s Office of Commercial Programs in the field of floating zone crystal growth and purification research. The March 1987 agreement provides for microgravity experiments to be performed in the company’s Microgravity Laboratory, the FEA. An 8 mm camcorder which documented details inside the apparatus is visible at bottom of the frame.

  14. Fibroblast Activation Protein Cleaves and Inactivates Fibroblast Growth Factor 21*

    PubMed Central

    Dunshee, Diana Ronai; Bainbridge, Travis W.; Kljavin, Noelyn M.; Zavala-Solorio, Jose; Schroeder, Amy C.; Chan, Ruby; Corpuz, Racquel; Wong, Manda; Zhou, Wei; Deshmukh, Gauri; Ly, Justin; Sutherlin, Daniel P.; Ernst, James A.; Sonoda, Junichiro

    2016-01-01

    FGF21 is a stress-induced hormone with potent anti-obesity, insulin-sensitizing, and hepatoprotective properties. Although proteolytic cleavage of recombinant human FGF21 in preclinical species has been observed previously, the regulation of endogenously produced FGF21 is not well understood. Here we identify fibroblast activation protein (FAP) as the enzyme that cleaves and inactivates human FGF21. A selective chemical inhibitor, immunodepletion, or genetic deletion of Fap stabilized recombinant human FGF21 in serum. In addition, administration of a selective FAP inhibitor acutely increased circulating intact FGF21 levels in cynomolgus monkeys. On the basis of our findings, we propose selective FAP inhibition as a potential therapeutic approach to increase endogenous FGF21 activity for the treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and related metabolic disorders. PMID:26797127

  15. A transcriptional blueprint for a spiral-cleaving embryo.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hsien-Chao; Pruitt, Margaret M; Bastin, Benjamin R; Schneider, Stephan Q

    2016-08-05

    The spiral cleavage mode of early development is utilized in over one-third of all animal phyla and generates embryonic cells of different size, position, and fate through a conserved set of stereotypic and invariant asymmetric cell divisions. Despite the widespread use of spiral cleavage, regulatory and molecular features for any spiral-cleaving embryo are largely uncharted. To address this gap we use RNA-sequencing on the spiralian model Platynereis dumerilii to capture and quantify the first complete genome-wide transcriptional landscape of early spiral cleavage. RNA-sequencing datasets from seven stages in early Platynereis development, from the zygote to the protrochophore, are described here including the de novo assembly and annotation of ~17,200 Platynereis genes. Depth and quality of the RNA-sequencing datasets allow the identification of the temporal onset and level of transcription for each annotated gene, even if the expression is restricted to a single cell. Over 4000 transcripts are maternally contributed and cleared by the end of the early spiral cleavage phase. Small early waves of zygotic expression are followed by major waves of thousands of genes, demarcating the maternal to zygotic transition shortly after the completion of spiral cleavages in this annelid species. Our comprehensive stage-specific transcriptional analysis of early embryonic stages in Platynereis elucidates the regulatory genome during early spiral embryogenesis and defines the maternal to zygotic transition in Platynereis embryos. This transcriptome assembly provides the first systems-level view of the transcriptional and regulatory landscape for a spiral-cleaving embryo.

  16. Laser fiber cleaving techniques: effects on tip morphology and power output.

    PubMed

    Vassantachart, Janna M; Lightfoot, Michelle; Yeo, Alexander; Maldonado, Jonathan; Li, Roger; Alsyouf, Muhannad; Martin, Jacob; Lee, Michael; Olgin, Gaudencio; Baldwin, D Duane

    2015-01-01

    Proper cleaving of reusable laser fibers is needed to maintain optimal functionality. This study quantifies the effect of different cleaving tools on power output of the holmium laser fiber and demonstrates morphologic changes using microscopy. The uncleaved tips of new 272 μm reusable laser fibers were used to obtain baseline power transmission values at 3 W (0.6 J, 5 Hz). Power output for each of four cleaving techniques-11-blade scalpel, scribe pen cleaving tool, diamond cleaving wheel, and suture scissors-was measured in a single-blinded fashion. Dispersion of light from the fibers was compared with manufacturer specifications and rated as "ideal," "acceptable," or "unacceptable" by blinded reviewers. The fiber tips were also imaged using confocal and scanning electron microscopy. Independent samples Kruskal-Wallis test and chi square were used for statistical analysis (α<0.05). New uncleaved fiber tips transmitted 3.04 W of power and were used as a reference (100%). The scribe pen cleaving tool produced the next highest output (97.1%), followed by the scalpel (83.4%), diamond cleaving wheel (77.1%), and suture scissors (61.7%), a trend that was highly significant (P<0.001). On pairwise comparison, no difference in power output was seen between the uncleaved fiber tips and those cleaved with the scribe pen (P=1.0). The rating of the light dispersion patterns from the different cleaving methods followed the same trend as the power output results (P<0.001). Microscopy showed that the scribe pen produced small defects along the fiber cladding but maintained a smooth, flat core surface. The other cleaving techniques produced defects on both the core and cladding. Cleaving techniques produce a significant effect on the initial power transmitted by reusable laser fibers. The scribe pen cleaving tool produced the most consistent and highest average power output.

  17. Universal binding energy relation for cleaved and structurally relaxed surfaces.

    PubMed

    Srirangarajan, Aarti; Datta, Aditi; Gandi, Appala Naidu; Ramamurty, U; Waghmare, U V

    2014-02-05

    The universal binding energy relation (UBER), derived earlier to describe the cohesion between two rigid atomic planes, does not accurately capture the cohesive properties when the cleaved surfaces are allowed to relax. We suggest a modified functional form of UBER that is analytical and at the same time accurately models the properties of surfaces relaxed during cleavage. We demonstrate the generality as well as the validity of this modified UBER through first-principles density functional theory calculations of cleavage in a number of crystal systems. Our results show that the total energies of all the relaxed surfaces lie on a single (universal) energy surface, that is given by the proposed functional form which contains an additional length-scale associated with structural relaxation. This functional form could be used in modelling the cohesive zones in crack growth simulation studies. We find that the cohesive law (stress-displacement relation) differs significantly in the case where cracked surfaces are allowed to relax, with lower peak stresses occurring at higher displacements.

  18. A Legionella Effector Disrupts Host Cytoskeletal Structure by Cleaving Actin

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yao; Zhu, Wenhan; Tan, Yunhao; ...

    2017-01-27

    Legionella pneumophila, the etiological agent of Legionnaires' disease, replicates intracellularly in protozoan and human hosts. Successful colonization and replication of this pathogen in host cells requires the Dot/Icm type IVB secretion system, which translocates approximately 300 effector proteins into the host cell to modulate various cellular processes. In this study, we identified RavK as a Dot/Icm substrate that targets the host cytoskeleton and reduces actin filament abundance in mammalian cells upon ectopic expression. RavK harbors an H 95E XXH 99 motif associated with diverse metalloproteases, which is essential for the inhibition of yeast growth and for the induction of cellmore » rounding in HEK293T cells. We demonstrate that the actin protein itself is the cellular target of RavK and that this effector cleaves actin at a site between residues Thr351 and Phe352. Importantly, RavK-mediated actin cleavage also occurs during L. pneumophila infection. Cleavage by RavK abolishes the ability of actin to form polymers. Furthermore, an F352A mutation renders actin resistant to RavK-mediated cleavage; expression of the mutant in mammalian cells suppresses the cell rounding phenotype caused by RavK, further establishing that actin is the physiological substrate of RavK. Furthermore, L. pneumophila exploits components of the host cytoskeleton by multiple effectors with distinct mechanisms, highlighting the importance of modulating cellular processes governed by the actin cytoskeleton in the intracellular life cycle of this pathogen.« less

  19. RNA-cleaving properties of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wan-Cheol; King, Dustin; Lee, Chow H.

    2010-01-01

    We have recently identified apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) as an endoribonuclease that cleaves c-myc mRNA in vitro and regulates c-myc mRNA levels and half-life in cells. This study was undertaken to further unravel the RNA-cleaving properties of APE1. Here, we show that APE1 cleaves RNA in the absence of divalent metal ions and, at 2 mM, Zn2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, or Co2+ inhibited the endoribonuclease activity of APE1. APE1 is able to cleave CD44 mRNA, microRNAs (miR-21, miR-10b), and three RNA components of SARS-corona virus (orf1b, orf3, spike) suggesting that, when challenged, it can cleave any RNAs in vitro. APE1 does not cleave strong doublestranded regions of RNA and it has a strong preference for 3’ of pyrimidine, especially towards UA, CA, and UG sites at single-stranded or weakly paired regions. It also cleaves RNA weakly at UC, CU, AC, and AU sites in single-stranded or weakly paired regions. Finally, we found that APE1 can reduce the ability of the Dicer enzyme to process premiRNAs in vitro. Overall, this study has revealed some previously unknown biochemical properties of APE1 which has implications for its role in vivo. PMID:21968700

  20. Plasmin-Cleaved β-2-Glycoprotein 1 Is an Inhibitor of Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Taro; Balasubramanian, Krishnakumar; Maiti, Sourindra; Halder, Jyotsna B.; Schroit, Alan J.

    2007-01-01

    β-2-Glycoprotein 1, an abundant plasma glycoprotein, binds anionic cell surfaces and functions as a regulator of thrombosis. Here, we show that cleavage of the kringle domain at Lys317/Thr318 switches its function to a regulator of angiogenesis. In vitro, the cleaved protein specifically inhibited the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. The protein was without effect on preformed endothelial cell tubes. In vivo, the cleaved protein inhibited neovascularization into subcutaneously implanted Matrigel and Gelfoam sponge implants and the growth of orthotopically injected tumors. Collectively, these data indicate that plasmin-cleaved β-2-glycoprotein 1 is a potent antiangiogenic and antitumor molecule of potential therapeutic significance. PMID:17872974

  1. Ripple formation on atomically flat cleaved Si surface with roughness of 0.038 nm rms by low-energy Ar{sup 1+} ion bombardment

    SciTech Connect

    Pahlovy, Shahjada A.; Mahmud, S. F.; Yanagimoto, K.

    The authors have conducted research regarding ripple formation on an atomically flat cleaved Si surface by low-energy Ar{sup +} ion bombardment. The cleaved atomically flat and smooth plane of a Si wafer was obtained by cutting vertically against the orientation of a Si (100) wafer. Next, the cleaved surface was sputtered by a 1 keV Ar{sup +} ion beam at ion-incidence angles of 0 deg., 60 deg., 70 deg., and 80 deg. The results confirm the successful ripple formation at ion-incidence angles of 60 deg. - 80 deg. and that the wavelength of the ripples increases with the increase ofmore » the ion-incidence angle, as well as the inverse of ion doses. The direction of the ripple also changes from perpendicular to parallel to the projection of the ion-beam direction along the surface with the increasing ion-incidence angle. The authors have also observed the dose effects on surface roughness of cleaved Si surface at the ion-incidence angle of 60 deg., where the surface roughness increases with the increased ion dose. Finally, to understand the roughening mechanism, the authors studied the scaling behavior, measured the roughness exponent {alpha}, and compared the evolution of scaling regimes with Cuerno's one-dimensional simulation results.« less

  2. Photoinduced release of Zn2+ with ZinCleav-1: a nitrobenzyl-based caged complex.

    PubMed

    Bandara, H M Dhammika; Kennedy, Daniel P; Akin, Elif; Incarvito, Christopher D; Burdette, Shawn C

    2009-09-07

    Caged complexes are metal ion chelators that release analytes when exposed to light of a specific wavelength. The synthesis and properties of ZinCleav-1, a cage for Zn(2+) that fragments upon photolysis, is reported. The general uncaging strategy involves integrating a nitrobenzyl group on the backbone of the ligand so that a carbon-heteroatom bond is cleaved by the photoreaction. The caged complex was obtained using a new synthetic strategy involving a Strecker synthesis to prepare a key aldehyde intermediate. ZinCleav-1 has a K(d) of 0.23 pM for Zn(2+) as measured by competitive titration with [Zn(PAR)(2)] (PAR = 4-(2-pyridyl-2-azo) resorcinol). The quantum yield for ZinCleav-1 is 2.4% and 0.55% for the apo and Zn(2+) complex, respectively. The ability of ZinCleav-1 to increase free [Zn(2+)] is calculated theoretically using the binding constants for the uncaged photoproducts, and demonstrated practically by using a fluorescent sensor to image the liberated Zn(2+). Free Zn(2+) may function as a neurotransmitter and have a role in the pathology of several neurological diseases. Studying these physiological functions remains challenging because Zn(2+) is silent to most common spectroscopic techniques. We expect ZinCleav-1 to be the first in a class of caged complexes that will facilitate biological investigations.

  3. Delta ribozyme has the ability to cleave in transan mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Roy, G; Ananvoranich, S; Perreault, J P

    1999-01-01

    We report here the first demonstration of the cleavage of an mRNA in trans by delta ribozyme derived from the antigenomic version of the human hepatitis delta virus (HDV). We characterized potential delta ribozyme cleavage sites within HDV mRNA sequence (i.e. C/UGN6), using oligonucleotide binding shift assays and ribonuclease H hydrolysis. Ribozymes were synthesized based on the structural data and then tested for their ability to cleave the mRNA. Of the nine ribozymes examined, three specifically cleaved a derivative HDV mRNA. All three active ribozymes gave consistent indications that they cleaved single-stranded regions. Kinetic characterization of the ability of ribozymes to cleave both the full-length mRNA and either wild-type or mutant small model substrate suggests: (i) delta ribozyme has turnovers, that is to say, several mRNA molecules can be successively cleaved by one ribozyme molecule; and (ii) the substrate specificity of delta ribozyme cleavage is not restricted to C/UGN6. Specifically, substrates with a higher guanosine residue content upstream of the cleavage site (i.e. positions -4 to -2) were always cleaved more efficiently than wild-type substrate. This work shows that delta ribozyme constitutes a potential catalytic RNA for further gene-inactivation therapy. PMID:9927724

  4. Cysteine digestive peptidases function as post-glutamine cleaving enzymes in tenebrionid stored product pests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cereals have storage proteins with high amounts of the amino acids glutamine and proline. Therefore, storage pests need to have digestive enzymes that are efficient in hydrolyzing these types of proteins. Post-glutamine cleaving peptidases (PGP) were isolated from the midgut of the stored product pe...

  5. Generation and characterization of antibodies specific for caspase-cleaved neo-epitopes: a novel approach

    PubMed Central

    Ai, X; Butts, B; Vora, K; Li, W; Tache-Talmadge, C; Fridman, A; Mehmet, H

    2011-01-01

    Apoptosis research has been significantly aided by the generation of antibodies against caspase-cleaved peptide neo-epitopes. However, most of these antibodies recognize the N-terminal fragment and are specific for the protein in question. The aim of this project was to create antibodies, which could identify caspase-cleaved proteins without a priori knowledge of the cleavage sites or even the proteins themselves. We hypothesized that many caspase-cleavage products might have a common antigenic shape, given that they must all fit into the same active site of caspases. Rabbits were immunized with the eight most prevalent exposed C-terminal tetrapeptide sequences following caspase cleavage. After purification of the antibodies we demonstrated (1) their specificity for exposed C-terminal (but not internal) peptides, (2) their ability to detect known caspase-cleaved proteins from apoptotic cell lysates or supernatants from apoptotic cell culture and (3) their ability to detect a caspase-cleaved protein whose tetrapeptide sequence differs from the eight tetrapeptides used to generate the antibodies. These antibodies have the potential to identify novel neo-epitopes produced by caspase cleavage and so can be used to identify pathway-specific caspase cleavage events in a specific cell type. Additionally this methodology may be applied to generate antibodies against products of other proteases, which have a well-defined and non-promiscuous cleavage activity. PMID:21881607

  6. Comparison of flat cleaved and cylindrical diffusing fibers as treatment sources for interstitial photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Baran, Timothy M; Foster, Thomas H

    2014-02-01

    For interstitial photodynamic therapy (iPDT) of bulky tumors, careful treatment planning is required in order to ensure that a therapeutic dose is delivered to the tumor, while minimizing damage to surrounding normal tissue. In clinical contexts, iPDT has typically been performed with either flat cleaved or cylindrical diffusing optical fibers as light sources. Here, the authors directly compare these two source geometries in terms of the number of fibers and duration of treatment required to deliver a prescribed light dose to a tumor volume. Treatment planning software for iPDT was developed based on graphics processing unit enhanced Monte Carlo simulations. This software was used to optimize the number of fibers, total energy delivered by each fiber, and the position of individual fibers in order to deliver a target light dose (D90) to 90% of the tumor volume. Treatment plans were developed using both flat cleaved and cylindrical diffusing fibers, based on tissue volumes derived from CT data from a head and neck cancer patient. Plans were created for four cases: fixed energy per fiber, fixed number of fibers, and in cases where both or neither of these factors were fixed. When the number of source fibers was fixed at eight, treatment plans based on flat cleaved fibers required each to deliver 7180-8080 J in order to deposit 90 J/cm(2) in 90% of the tumor volume. For diffusers, each fiber was required to deliver 2270-2350 J (333-1178 J/cm) in order to achieve this same result. For the case of fibers delivering a fixed 900 J, 13 diffusers or 19 flat cleaved fibers at a spacing of 1 cm were required to deliver the desired dose. With energy per fiber fixed at 2400 J and the number of fibers fixed at eight, diffuser fibers delivered the desired dose to 93% of the tumor volume, while flat cleaved fibers delivered this dose to 79%. With both energy and number of fibers allowed to vary, six diffusers delivering 3485-3600 J were required, compared to ten flat cleaved

  7. Comparison of flat cleaved and cylindrical diffusing fibers as treatment sources for interstitial photodynamic therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Baran, Timothy M., E-mail: timothy.baran@rochester.edu; Foster, Thomas H.

    Purpose: For interstitial photodynamic therapy (iPDT) of bulky tumors, careful treatment planning is required in order to ensure that a therapeutic dose is delivered to the tumor, while minimizing damage to surrounding normal tissue. In clinical contexts, iPDT has typically been performed with either flat cleaved or cylindrical diffusing optical fibers as light sources. Here, the authors directly compare these two source geometries in terms of the number of fibers and duration of treatment required to deliver a prescribed light dose to a tumor volume. Methods: Treatment planning software for iPDT was developed based on graphics processing unit enhanced Montemore » Carlo simulations. This software was used to optimize the number of fibers, total energy delivered by each fiber, and the position of individual fibers in order to deliver a target light dose (D{sub 90}) to 90% of the tumor volume. Treatment plans were developed using both flat cleaved and cylindrical diffusing fibers, based on tissue volumes derived from CT data from a head and neck cancer patient. Plans were created for four cases: fixed energy per fiber, fixed number of fibers, and in cases where both or neither of these factors were fixed. Results: When the number of source fibers was fixed at eight, treatment plans based on flat cleaved fibers required each to deliver 7180–8080 J in order to deposit 90 J/cm{sup 2} in 90% of the tumor volume. For diffusers, each fiber was required to deliver 2270–2350 J (333–1178 J/cm) in order to achieve this same result. For the case of fibers delivering a fixed 900 J, 13 diffusers or 19 flat cleaved fibers at a spacing of 1 cm were required to deliver the desired dose. With energy per fiber fixed at 2400 J and the number of fibers fixed at eight, diffuser fibers delivered the desired dose to 93% of the tumor volume, while flat cleaved fibers delivered this dose to 79%. With both energy and number of fibers allowed to vary, six diffusers delivering 3485

  8. megaTALs: a rare-cleaving nuclease architecture for therapeutic genome engineering.

    PubMed

    Boissel, Sandrine; Jarjour, Jordan; Astrakhan, Alexander; Adey, Andrew; Gouble, Agnès; Duchateau, Philippe; Shendure, Jay; Stoddard, Barry L; Certo, Michael T; Baker, David; Scharenberg, Andrew M

    2014-02-01

    Rare-cleaving endonucleases have emerged as important tools for making targeted genome modifications. While multiple platforms are now available to generate reagents for research applications, each existing platform has significant limitations in one or more of three key properties necessary for therapeutic application: efficiency of cleavage at the desired target site, specificity of cleavage (i.e. rate of cleavage at 'off-target' sites), and efficient/facile means for delivery to desired target cells. Here, we describe the development of a single-chain rare-cleaving nuclease architecture, which we designate 'megaTAL', in which the DNA binding region of a transcription activator-like (TAL) effector is used to 'address' a site-specific meganuclease adjacent to a single desired genomic target site. This architecture allows the generation of extremely active and hyper-specific compact nucleases that are compatible with all current viral and nonviral cell delivery methods.

  9. Human dipeptidyl peptidase III acts as a post-proline-cleaving enzyme on endomorphins.

    PubMed

    Barsun, Marina; Jajcanin, Nina; Vukelić, Bojana; Spoljarić, Jasminka; Abramić, Marija

    2007-03-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase III (DPP III) is a zinc exopeptidase with an implied role in the mammalian pain-modulatory system owing to its high affinity for enkephalins and localisation in the superficial laminae of the spinal cord dorsal horn. Our study revealed that this human enzyme hydrolyses opioid peptides belonging to three new groups, endomorphins, hemorphins and exorphins. The enzymatic hydrolysis products of endomorphin-1 were separated and quantified by capillary electrophoresis and the kinetic parameters were determined for human DPP III and rat DPP IV. Both peptidases cleave endomorphin-1 at comparable rates, with liberation of the N-terminal Tyr-Pro. This is the first evidence of DPP III acting as an endomorphin-cleaving enzyme.

  10. Cleaved thioredoxin fusion protein enables the crystallization of poorly soluble ERα in complex with synthetic ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Cura, Vincent; Gangloff, Monique; Eiler, Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    A new crystallization strategy: the presence of cleaved thioredoxin fusion is critical for crystallization of the estrogen nuclear receptor ligand binding domain in complex with synthetic ligands. This novel technique should be regarded as an interesting alternative for crystallization of difficult proteins. The ligand-binding domain (LBD) of human oestrogen receptor α was produced in Escherichia coli as a cleavable thioredoxin (Trx) fusion in order to improve solubility. Crystallization trials with either cleaved and purified LBD or with the purified fusion protein both failed to produce crystals. In another attempt, Trx was not removed from the LBD after endoproteolytic cleavage andmore » its presence promoted nucleation and subsequent crystal growth, which allowed the structure determination of two different LBD–ligand–coactivator peptide complexes at 2.3 Å resolution. This technique is likely to be applicable to other low-solubility proteins.« less

  11. Friction imprint effect in mechanically cleaved BaTiO{sub 3} (001)

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Christian J.; Maryland Nanocenter, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742; Ebeling, Daniel

    2014-09-28

    Adsorption, chemisorption, and reconstruction at the surfaces of ferroelectric materials can all contribute toward the pinning of ferroelectric polarization, which is called the electrical imprint effect. Here, we show that the opposite is also true: freshly cleaved, atomically flat surfaces of (001) oriented BaTiO{sub 3} exhibit a persistent change in surface chemistry that is driven by ferroelectric polarization. This surface modification is explored using lateral force microscopy (LFM), while the ferroelectric polarization is probed using piezoresponse force microscopy. We find that immediately after cleaving BaTiO{sub 3}, LFM reveals friction contrast between ferroelectric domains. We also find that this surface modificationmore » remains after the ferroelectric domain distribution is modified, resulting in an imprint of the original ferroelectric domain distribution on the sample surface. This friction imprint effect has implications for surface patterning as well as ferroelectric device operation and failure.« less

  12. Identification of ribozymes within a ribozyme library that efficiently cleave a long substrate RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, T B; Cech, T R

    1995-01-01

    Positions 2-6 of the substrate-binding internal guide sequence (IGS) of the L-21 Sca I form of the Tetrahymena thermophila intron were mutagenized to produce a GN5 IGS library. Ribozymes within the GN5 library capable of efficient cleavage of an 818-nt human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vif-vpr RNA, at 37 degrees C, were identified by ribozyme-catalyzed guanosine addition to the 3' cleavage product. Three ribozymes (IGS = GGGGCU, GGCUCC, and GUGGCU) within the GN5 library that actively cleaved the long substrate were characterized kinetically and compared to the wild-type ribozyme (GGAGGG) and two control ribozymes (GGAGUC and GGAGAU). The two control ribozymes have specific sites within the long substrate, but were not identified during screening of the library. Under single-turnover conditions, ribozymes GGGGCU, GGCUCC, and GUGGCU cleaved the 818-nt substrate 4- to 200-fold faster than control ribozymes. Short cognate substrates, which should be structureless and therefore accessible to ribozyme binding, were cleaved at similar rates by all ribozymes except GGGGCU, which showed a fourfold rate enhancement. The rate of cleavage of long relative to short substrate under single-turnover conditions suggests that GGCUCC and GUGGCU were identified because of accessibility to their specific cleavage sites within the long substrate (substrate-specific effects), whereas GGGGCU was identified because of an enhanced rate of substrate binding despite a less accessible site in the long substrate. Even though screening was performed with 100-fold excess substrate (relative to total ribozyme), the rate of multiple-turnover catalysis did not contribute to identification of trans-cleaving ribozymes in the GN5 library. PMID:7489519

  13. Enzymes that cleave non-glycosidic ether bonds between lignins or derivatives thereof and saccharides

    SciTech Connect

    Kravit, Nancy G.; Schmidt, Katherine A.

    The patent application relates to isolated polypeptides that specifically cleave non-glycosidic ether bonds between lignins or derivatives thereof and saccharides, and to cDNAs encoding the polypeptides. The patent application also relates to nucleic acid constructs, expression vectors and host cells comprising the cDNAs, as well as methods of producing and using the isolated polypeptides for treating pulp and biomass to increase soluble saccharide yield and enrich lignin fractions.

  14. Asparagine endopeptidase cleaves α-synuclein and mediates pathologic activities in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhentao; Kang, Seong Su; Liu, Xia; Ahn, Eun Hee; Zhang, Zhaohui; He, Li; Iuvone, P Michael; Duong, Duc M; Seyfried, Nicholas T; Benskey, Matthew J; Manfredsson, Fredric P; Jin, Lingjing; Sun, Yi E; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Ye, Keqiang

    2017-08-01

    Aggregated forms of α-synuclein play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenic effects of α-synuclein are not completely understood. Here we show that asparagine endopeptidase (AEP) cleaves human α-synuclein, triggers its aggregation and escalates its neurotoxicity, thus leading to dopaminergic neuronal loss and motor impairments in a mouse model. AEP is activated and cleaves human α-synuclein at N103 in an age-dependent manner. AEP is highly activated in human brains with PD, and it fragments α-synuclein, which is found aggregated in Lewy bodies. Overexpression of the AEP-cleaved α-synuclein 1-103 fragment in the substantia nigra induces both dopaminergic neuronal loss and movement defects in mice. In contrast, inhibition of AEP-mediated cleavage of α-synuclein (wild type and A53T mutant) diminishes α-synuclein's pathologic effects. Together, these findings support AEP's role as a key mediator of α-synuclein-related etiopathological effects in PD.

  15. Meprin A impairs epithelial barrier function, enhances monocyte migration, and cleaves the tight junction protein occludin

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Jialing; Yura, Renee E.; Matters, Gail L.; Bradley, S. Gaylen; Shi, Pan; Tian, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Meprin metalloproteases are highly expressed at the luminal interface of the intestine and kidney and in certain leukocytes. Meprins cleave a variety of substrates in vitro, including extracellular matrix proteins, adherens junction proteins, and cytokines, and have been implicated in a number of inflammatory diseases. The linkage between results in vitro and pathogenesis, however, has not been elucidated. The present study aimed to determine whether meprins are determinative factors in disrupting the barrier function of the epithelium. Active meprin A or meprin B applied to Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell monolayers increased permeability to fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran and disrupted immunostaining of the tight junction protein occludin but not claudin-4. Meprin A, but not meprin B, cleaved occludin in MDCK monolayers. Experiments with recombinant occludin demonstrated that meprin A cleaves the protein between Gly100 and Ser101 on the first extracellular loop. In vivo experiments demonstrated that meprin A infused into the mouse bladder increased the epithelium permeability to sodium fluorescein. Furthermore, monocytes from meprin knockout mice on a C57BL/6 background were less able to migrate through an MDCK monolayer than monocytes from their wild-type counterparts. These results demonstrate the capability of meprin A to disrupt epithelial barriers and implicate occludin as one of the important targets of meprin A that may modulate inflammation. PMID:23804454

  16. Mesotrypsin has evolved four unique residues to cleave trypsin inhibitors as substrates [Mesotrypsin has evolved to cleave trypsin inhibitors as substrates using four unique residues

    DOE PAGES

    Alloy, Alexandre P.; Kayode, Olumide; Wang, Ruiying; ...

    2015-07-14

    Human mesotrypsin is highly homologous to other mammalian trypsins, and yet it is functionally unique in possessing resistance to inhibition by canonical serine protease inhibitors and in cleaving these inhibitors as preferred substrates. Arg-193 and Ser-39 have been identified as contributors to the inhibitor resistance and cleavage capability of mesotrypsin, but it is not known whether these residues fully account for the unusual properties of mesotrypsin. Here, we use human cationic trypsin as a template for engineering a gain of catalytic function, assessing mutants containing mesotrypsin-like mutations for resistance to inhibition by bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) and amyloid precursormore » protein Kunitz protease inhibitor (APPI), and for the ability to hydrolyze these inhibitors as substrates. We find that Arg-193 and Ser-39 are sufficient to confer mesotrypsin-like resistance to inhibition; however, compared with mesotrypsin, the trypsin-Y39S/G193R double mutant remains 10-fold slower at hydrolyzing BPTI and 2.5-fold slower at hydrolyzing APPI. We identify two additional residues in mesotrypsin, Lys-74 and Asp-97, which in concert with Arg-193 and Ser-39 confer the full catalytic capability of mesotrypsin for proteolysis of BPTI and APPI. Novel crystal structures of trypsin mutants in complex with BPTI suggest that these four residues function cooperatively to favor conformational dynamics that assist in dissociation of cleaved inhibitors. Our results reveal that efficient inhibitor cleavage is a complex capability to which at least four spatially separated residues of mesotrypsin contribute. As a result, these findings suggest that inhibitor cleavage represents a functional adaptation of mesotrypsin that may have evolved in response to positive selection pressure.« less

  17. Mesotrypsin has evolved four unique residues to cleave trypsin inhibitors as substrates [Mesotrypsin has evolved to cleave trypsin inhibitors as substrates using four unique residues

    SciTech Connect

    Alloy, Alexandre P.; Kayode, Olumide; Wang, Ruiying

    Human mesotrypsin is highly homologous to other mammalian trypsins, and yet it is functionally unique in possessing resistance to inhibition by canonical serine protease inhibitors and in cleaving these inhibitors as preferred substrates. Arg-193 and Ser-39 have been identified as contributors to the inhibitor resistance and cleavage capability of mesotrypsin, but it is not known whether these residues fully account for the unusual properties of mesotrypsin. Here, we use human cationic trypsin as a template for engineering a gain of catalytic function, assessing mutants containing mesotrypsin-like mutations for resistance to inhibition by bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) and amyloid precursormore » protein Kunitz protease inhibitor (APPI), and for the ability to hydrolyze these inhibitors as substrates. We find that Arg-193 and Ser-39 are sufficient to confer mesotrypsin-like resistance to inhibition; however, compared with mesotrypsin, the trypsin-Y39S/G193R double mutant remains 10-fold slower at hydrolyzing BPTI and 2.5-fold slower at hydrolyzing APPI. We identify two additional residues in mesotrypsin, Lys-74 and Asp-97, which in concert with Arg-193 and Ser-39 confer the full catalytic capability of mesotrypsin for proteolysis of BPTI and APPI. Novel crystal structures of trypsin mutants in complex with BPTI suggest that these four residues function cooperatively to favor conformational dynamics that assist in dissociation of cleaved inhibitors. Our results reveal that efficient inhibitor cleavage is a complex capability to which at least four spatially separated residues of mesotrypsin contribute. As a result, these findings suggest that inhibitor cleavage represents a functional adaptation of mesotrypsin that may have evolved in response to positive selection pressure.« less

  18. A Mutation in UL15 of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 That Reduces Packaging of Cleaved Genomes▿

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kui; Wills, Elizabeth G.; Baines, Joel D.

    2011-01-01

    Herpesvirus genomic DNA is cleaved from concatemers that accumulate in infected cell nuclei. Genomic DNA is inserted into preassembled capsids through a unique portal vertex. Extensive analyses of viral mutants have indicated that intact capsids, the portal vertex, and all components of a tripartite terminase enzyme are required to both cleave and package viral DNA, suggesting that DNA cleavage and packaging are inextricably linked. Because the processes have not been functionally separable, it has been difficult to parse the roles of individual proteins in the DNA cleavage/packaging reaction. In the present study, a virus bearing the deletion of codons 400 to 420 of UL15, encoding a terminase component, was analyzed. This virus, designated vJB27, failed to replicate on noncomplementing cells but cleaved concatemeric DNA to ca. 35 to 98% of wild-type levels. No DNA cleavage was detected in cells infected with a UL15-null virus or a virus lacking UL15 codons 383 to 385, comprising a motif proposed to couple ATP hydrolysis to DNA translocation. The amount of vJB27 DNA protected from DNase I digestion was reduced compared to the wild-type virus by 6.5- to 200-fold, depending on the DNA fragment analyzed, thus indicating a profound defect in DNA packaging. Capsids containing viral DNA were not detected in vJB27-infected cells, as determined by electron microscopy. These data suggest that pUL15 plays an essential role in DNA translocation into the capsid and indicate that this function is separable from its role in DNA cleavage. PMID:21880766

  19. In situ investigation of the mobility of small gold clusters on cleaved MgO surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metois, J. J.; Heinemann, K.; Poppa, H.

    1976-01-01

    The mobility of small clusters of gold (about 10 A in diameter) on electron-beam-cleaved MgO surfaces was studied by in situ transmission electron microscopy under controlled vacuum and temperature conditions. During the first 10 min following a deposition at room temperature, over 10 per cent of the crystallites moved over short distances (about 20 A) discontinuously, with a velocity greater than 150 A/sec. Eighty per cent of the mobility events were characterized by the avoidance of proximity of other crystallites, and this was tentatively explained as the result of repulsive elastic forces between the interacting crystallites.

  20. STS-30 MS Cleave uses camcorder to record FEA-2 crystal growth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-05-08

    STS030-10-002 (8 May 1989) --- STS-30 Mission Specialist Mary L. Cleave operates 8mm video camcorder at Fluids Experiment Apparatus 2 (FEA-2) (SK73-000102) unit located in aft middeck locker onboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Two 8mm video camcorders are positioned above FEA-2 unit to record experiment titled "Floating Zone Crystal Growth and Purification". Rockwell International (RI) through its Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California, is engaged in a joint endeavor agreement (JEA) with NASA's Office of Commercial Programs in the field for floating zone crystal growth research. Utah State University Aggies decal appears on aft bulkhead above FEA-2 unit.

  1. Toxin MqsR Cleaves Single-Stranded mRNA with Various 5 Ends

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-24

    either protein ORIGINAL RESEARCH Toxin MqsR cleaves single- stranded mRNA with various 5’ ends Nityananda Chowdhury1,*, Brian W. Kwan1,*, Louise C...in which a single 5′- GCU site was predicted to be single- stranded (ssRNA), double- stranded (dsRNA), in the loop of a stem - loop (slRNA), or in a...single- stranded 5′- GCU sites since cleavage was approximately 20- fold higher than cleavage seen with the 5′- GCU site in the stem - loop and

  2. Crystal structure of Pistol, a class of self-cleaving ribozyme

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Laura A.; Wang, Jimin; Steitz, Thomas A.

    2017-01-17

    Small self-cleaving ribozymes have been discovered in all evolutionary domains of life. They can catalyze site-specific RNA cleavage, and as a result, they have relevance in gene regulation. Comparative genomic analysis has led to the discovery of a new class of small self-cleaving ribozymes named Pistol. We report the crystal structure of Pistol at 2.97-Å resolution. Our results suggest that the Pistol ribozyme self-cleavage mechanism likely uses a guanine base in the active site pocket to carry out the phosphoester transfer reaction. The guanine G40 is in close proximity to serve as the general base for activating the nucleophile bymore » deprotonating the 2'-hydroxyl to initiate the reaction (phosphoester transfer). Furthermore, G40 can also establish hydrogen bonding interactions with the nonbridging oxygen of the scissile phosphate. The proximity of G32 to the O5' leaving group suggests that G32 may putatively serve as the general acid. The RNA structure of Pistol also contains A-minor interactions, which seem to be important to maintain its tertiary structure and compact fold. Our findings expand the repertoire of ribozyme structures and highlight the conserved evolutionary mechanism used by ribozymes for catalysis.« less

  3. High-throughput purification of recombinant proteins using self-cleaving intein tags.

    PubMed

    Coolbaugh, M J; Shakalli Tang, M J; Wood, D W

    2017-01-01

    High throughput methods for recombinant protein production using E. coli typically involve the use of affinity tags for simple purification of the protein of interest. One drawback of these techniques is the occasional need for tag removal before study, which can be hard to predict. In this work, we demonstrate two high throughput purification methods for untagged protein targets based on simple and cost-effective self-cleaving intein tags. Two model proteins, E. coli beta-galactosidase (βGal) and superfolder green fluorescent protein (sfGFP), were purified using self-cleaving versions of the conventional chitin-binding domain (CBD) affinity tag and the nonchromatographic elastin-like-polypeptide (ELP) precipitation tag in a 96-well filter plate format. Initial tests with shake flask cultures confirmed that the intein purification scheme could be scaled down, with >90% pure product generated in a single step using both methods. The scheme was then validated in a high throughput expression platform using 24-well plate cultures followed by purification in 96-well plates. For both tags and with both target proteins, the purified product was consistently obtained in a single-step, with low well-to-well and plate-to-plate variability. This simple method thus allows the reproducible production of highly pure untagged recombinant proteins in a convenient microtiter plate format. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evolving optical second-harmonic anisotropy at the cleaved Bi2Se3 surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yong; Green, Avery; Diebold, Alain

    Bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3) is a centrosymmetric topological insulator with conducting surface states. The surface states have been studied by various electrical and optical techniques in air, but ambience effects and surface aging have not been adequately addressed. Optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) is a suitable probe for the Bi2Se3 surface because SHG arises from symmetry breaking at the surface and thus should detect surface states preferentially over bulk states. However, a strong time dependence of SHG is often observed, hampering the detection and investigation of the surface states. Here we find a new phenomenon in which the major and minor intensity lobes of a measured rotational-anisotropy SHG pattern from a cleaved Bi2Se3 (111) surface can significantly change with time and eventually switch their amplitudes. This switching provides a means for tracking the progress of surface oxidation inside a quintuple layer of Bi2Se3. We also perform pump-probe SHG experiments, comparatively on freshly cleaved and oxidized Bi2Se3 surfaces, to study charge dynamics at the oxide/Bi2Se3 interface and to detect spin polarization of photoexcited surface states in the Bi2Se3 topological insulator. This work was supported by the SRC NRI Institute for Nanoelectronics Discovery and Exploration (INDEX).

  5. Structure of a novel antibacterial toxin that exploits elongation factor Tu to cleave specific transfer RNAs

    DOE PAGES

    Michalska, Karolina; Gucinski, Grant C.; Garza-Sanchez, Fernando; ...

    2017-08-11

    Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) is a mechanism of inter-cellular competition in which Gram-negative bacteria exchange polymorphic toxins using type V secretion systems. Here, we present structures of the CDI toxin from Escherichia coli NC101 in ternary complex with its cognate immunity protein and elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu). The toxin binds exclusively to domain 2 of EF-Tu, partially overlapping the site that interacts with the 3'-end of aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA). The toxin exerts a unique ribonuclease activity that cleaves the single-stranded 3'-end from tRNAs that contain guanine discriminator nucleotides. EF-Tu is required to support this tRNase activity in vitro, suggesting the toxinmore » specifically cleaves substrate in the context of GTP·EF-Tu·aa-tRNA complexes. However, superimposition of the toxin domain onto previously solved GTP·EF-Tu·aa-tRNA structures reveals potential steric clashes with both aa-tRNA and the switch I region of EF-Tu. Further, the toxin induces conformational changes in EF-Tu, displacing a β-hairpin loop that forms a critical salt-bridge contact with the 3'-terminal adenylate of aa-tRNA. Altogether, these observations suggest that the toxin remodels GTP·EF-Tu·aa-tRNA complexes to free the 3'-end of aa-tRNA for entry into the nuclease active site.« less

  6. Structure of a novel antibacterial toxin that exploits elongation factor Tu to cleave specific transfer RNAs

    SciTech Connect

    Michalska, Karolina; Gucinski, Grant C.; Garza-Sanchez, Fernando

    Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) is a mechanism of inter-cellular competition in which Gram-negative bacteria exchange polymorphic toxins using type V secretion systems. Here, we present structures of the CDI toxin from Escherichia coli NC101 in ternary complex with its cognate immunity protein and elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu). The toxin binds exclusively to domain 2 of EF-Tu, partially overlapping the site that interacts with the 3'-end of aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA). The toxin exerts a unique ribonuclease activity that cleaves the single-stranded 3'-end from tRNAs that contain guanine discriminator nucleotides. EF-Tu is required to support this tRNase activity in vitro, suggesting the toxinmore » specifically cleaves substrate in the context of GTP·EF-Tu·aa-tRNA complexes. However, superimposition of the toxin domain onto previously solved GTP·EF-Tu·aa-tRNA structures reveals potential steric clashes with both aa-tRNA and the switch I region of EF-Tu. Further, the toxin induces conformational changes in EF-Tu, displacing a β-hairpin loop that forms a critical salt-bridge contact with the 3'-terminal adenylate of aa-tRNA. Altogether, these observations suggest that the toxin remodels GTP·EF-Tu·aa-tRNA complexes to free the 3'-end of aa-tRNA for entry into the nuclease active site.« less

  7. Specialization of the DNA-Cleaving Activity of a Group I Ribozyme Through In Vitro Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, Joyce; Joyce, Gerald F.

    1996-01-01

    In an earlier study, an in vitro evolution procedure was applied to a large population of variants of the Tetrahymena group 1 ribozyme to obtain individuals with a 10(exp 5)-fold improved ability to cleave a target single-stranded DNA substrate under simulated physiological conditions. The evolved ribozymes also showed a twofold improvement, compared to the wild-type, in their ability to cleave a single-stranded RNA substrate. Here, we report continuation of the in vitro evolution process using a new selection strategy to achieve both enhanced DNA and diminished RNA-cleavage activity. Our strategy combines a positive selection for DNA cleavage with a negative selection against RNA binding. After 36 "generations" of in vitro evolution, the evolved population showed an approx. 100-fold increase in the ratio of DNA to RNA-cleavage activity. Site-directed mutagenesis experiment confirmed the selective advantage of two covarying mutations within the catalytic core of ribozyme that are largely responsible for this modified behavior. The population of ribozymes has now undergone a total of 63 successive generations of evolution, resulting in an average 28 mutations relative to the wild-type that are responsible for the altered phenotype.

  8. Structure and mechanism of NOV1, a resveratrol-cleaving dioxygenase

    DOE PAGES

    McAndrew, Ryan P.; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Mbughuni, Michael M.; ...

    2016-11-30

    Stilbenes are diphenyl ethene compounds produced naturally in a wide variety of plant species and some bacteria. Stilbenes are also derived from lignin during kraft pulping. Stilbene cleavage oxygenases (SCOs) cleave the central double bond of stilbenes, forming two phenolic aldehydes. Here in this paper, we report the structure of an SCO. The X-ray structure of NOV1 from Novosphingobium aromaticivorans was determined in complex with its substrate resveratrol (1.89 Å), its product vanillin (1.75 Å), and without any bound ligand (1.61 Å). The enzyme is a seven-bladed β-propeller with an iron cofactor coordinated by four histidines. In all three structures,more » dioxygen is observed bound to the iron in a side-on fashion. These structures, along with EPR analysis, allow us to propose a mechanism in which a ferric-superoxide reactswith substrate activated by deprotonation of a phenol group at position 4 of the substrate, which allows movement of electron density toward the central double bond and thus facilitates reaction with the ferric superoxide electrophile. Correspondingly, NOV1 cleaves a wide range of other stilbene-like compounds with a 4'-OH group, offering potential in processing some solubilized fragments of lignin into monomer aromatic compounds.« less

  9. Enzyme decorated drug carriers: Targeted swords to cleave and overcome the mucus barrier.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Claudia; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2018-01-15

    The use of mucus permeating drug carrier systems being able to overcome the mucus barrier can lead to a remarkable enhancement in bioavailability. One promising approach is the design of mucolytic enzyme decorated carrier systems (MECS). These systems include micro- and nanoparticles as well as self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) decorated with mucin cleaving enzymes such as papain (PAP) or bromelain (BRO). MECS are able to cross the mucus barrier in a comparatively efficient manner by cleaving mucus substructures in front of them on their way to the epithelium. Thereby these enzymes hydrolyze peptide bonds of mucus glycoproteins forming tiny holes or passages through the mucus. In various in vitro and in vivo studies MECS proved to be superior in their mucus permeating properties over nanocarriers without enzyme decoration. PAP decorated nanoparticles, for instance, remained 3h after oral administration to an even 2.5-fold higher extend in rat small intestine than the corresponding undecorated nanoparticles permeating the intestinal mucus gel layer to a much lower degree. As MECS break up the mucus network only locally without destroying its overall protective barrier function, even long term treatments with such systems seem feasible. Within this review article we address different drug carrier systems decorated with various types of enzymes, their particular pros and cons and potential applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Photoelectron Holographic Atomic Arrangement Imaging of Cleaved Bimetal-intercalated Graphite Superconductor Surface

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Fumihiko; Eguchi, Ritsuko; Nishiyama, Saki; Izumi, Masanari; Uesugi, Eri; Goto, Hidenori; Matsushita, Tomohiro; Sugita, Kenji; Daimon, Hiroshi; Hamamoto, Yuji; Hamada, Ikutaro; Morikawa, Yoshitada; Kubozono, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    From the C 1s and K 2p photoelectron holograms, we directly reconstructed atomic images of the cleaved surface of a bimetal-intercalated graphite superconductor, (Ca, K)C8, which differed substantially from the expected bulk crystal structure based on x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. Graphene atomic images were collected in the in-plane cross sections of the layers 3.3 Å and 5.7 Å above the photoelectron emitter C atom and the stacking structures were determined as AB- and AA-type, respectively. The intercalant metal atom layer was found between two AA-stacked graphenes. The K atomic image revealing 2 × 2 periodicity, occupying every second centre site of C hexagonal columns, was reconstructed, and the Ca 2p peak intensity in the photoelectron spectra of (Ca, K)C8 from the cleaved surface was less than a few hundredths of the K 2p peak intensity. These observations indicated that cleavage preferentially occurs at the KC8 layers containing no Ca atoms. PMID:27811975

  11. The first non Clostridial botulinum-like toxin cleaves VAMP within the juxtamembrane domain.

    PubMed

    Zornetta, Irene; Azarnia Tehran, Domenico; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Bano, Luca; Leka, Oneda; Zanotti, Giuseppe; Binz, Thomas; Montecucco, Cesare

    2016-07-22

    The genome of Weissella oryzae SG25T was recently sequenced and a botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) like gene was identified by bioinformatics methods. The typical three-domains organization of BoNTs with a N-terminal metalloprotease domain, a translocation and a cell binding domains could be identified. The BoNT family of neurotoxins is rapidly growing, but this was the first indication of the possible expression of a BoNT toxin outside the Clostridium genus. We performed molecular modeling and dynamics simulations showing that the 50 kDa N-terminal domain folds very similarly to the metalloprotease domain of BoNT/B, whilst the binding part is different. However, neither the recombinant metalloprotease nor the binding domains showed cross-reactivity with the standard antisera that define the seven serotypes of BoNTs. We found that the purified Weissella metalloprotease cleaves VAMP at a single site untouched by the other VAMP-specific BoNTs. This site is a unique Trp-Trp peptide bond located within the juxtamembrane segment of VAMP which is essential for neurotransmitter release. Therefore, the present study identifies the first non-Clostridial BoNT-like metalloprotease that cleaves VAMP at a novel and relevant site and we propose to label it BoNT/Wo.

  12. The TRPM7 chanzyme is cleaved to release a chromatin modifying kinase

    PubMed Central

    Krapivinsky, Grigory; Krapivinsky, Luba; Manasian, Yunona; Clapham, David E.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY TRPM7 is a ubiquitous ion channel and kinase, a unique ‘chanzyme’, required for proper early embryonic development. It conducts Zn2+, Mg2+, Ca2+ as well as monovalent cations, and contains a functional serine/threonine kinase at its carboxyl terminus. Here, we show that in normal tissues and cell lines, the kinase is proteolytically cleaved from the channel domain in a cell type-specific manner. These TRPM7 Cleaved Kinase fragments (M7CKs) translocate to the nucleus and bind multiple components of chromatin remodeling complexes, including Polycomb group proteins. In the nucleus, the kinase phosphorylates specific serines/threonines of histones. M7CK-dependent phosphorylation of H3Ser10 at promoters of TRPM7-dependent genes correlates with their activity. We also demonstrate that cytosolic free [Zn2+] is TRPM7-dependent and regulates M7CK binding to transcription factors containing zinc-finger domains. These findings suggest that TRPM7-mediated modulation of intracellular Zn2+ concentration couples ion channel signaling to epigenetic chromatin covalent modifications that affect gene expression patterns. PMID:24855944

  13. Immunoexpression of cleaved caspase-3 shows lower apoptotic area indices in lip carcinomas than in intraoral cancer.

    PubMed

    Leite, Ana Flávia Schueler de Assumpção; Bernardo, Vagner Gonçalves; Buexm, Luisa Aguirre; Fonseca, Eliene Carvalho da; Silva, Licínio Esmeraldo da; Barroso, Danielle Resende Camisasca; Lourenço, Simone de Queiroz Chaves

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate apoptosis by assessing cleaved caspase-3 immunoexpression in hyperplastic, potentially malignant disorder (PMD), and malignant tumors in intraoral and lower lip sites. A retrospective study using paraffin blocks with tissues from patients with inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia (IFH), actinic cheilitis, oral leukoplakia, lower lip and intraoral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was performed. The tissues were evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis with anti-cleaved caspase-3 antibody. Apoptotic area index was then correlated with lesion type. From 120 lesions assessed, 55 (46%) were cleaved caspase-3-positive. The SCC samples (n=40) had the highest apoptotic area indices (n=35; 87.5%). Significant differences were detected between SCCs and PMDs (p=0.0003), as well as SCCs and IFHs (p=0.001), regarding caspase-3 immunopositivity. Carcinomas of the lower lip had lower apoptotic area indices than intraoral cancer (p=0.0015). Cleaved caspase-3 immunoexpression showed differences in oral SCCs and PMDs and demonstrated a distinct role of apoptosis in carcinogenesis of intraoral and lower lip cancer. In future, the expression of cleaved caspase-3 with other target molecules in oral cancer may be helpful in delineating the prognosis and treatment of these tumors.

  14. Immunoexpression of cleaved caspase-3 shows lower apoptotic area indices in lip carcinomas than in intraoral cancer

    PubMed Central

    LEITE, Ana Flávia Schueler de Assumpção; BERNARDO, Vagner Gonçalves; BUEXM, Luisa Aguirre; da FONSECA, Eliene Carvalho; da SILVA, Licínio Esmeraldo; BARROSO, Danielle Resende Camisasca; LOURENÇO, Simone de Queiroz Chaves

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective This study aimed to evaluate apoptosis by assessing cleaved caspase-3 immunoexpression in hyperplastic, potentially malignant disorder (PMD), and malignant tumors in intraoral and lower lip sites. Material and Methods A retrospective study using paraffin blocks with tissues from patients with inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia (IFH), actinic cheilitis, oral leukoplakia, lower lip and intraoral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was performed. The tissues were evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis with anti-cleaved caspase-3 antibody. Apoptotic area index was then correlated with lesion type. Results From 120 lesions assessed, 55 (46%) were cleaved caspase-3-positive. The SCC samples (n=40) had the highest apoptotic area indices (n=35; 87.5%). Significant differences were detected between SCCs and PMDs (p=0.0003), as well as SCCs and IFHs (p=0.001), regarding caspase-3 immunopositivity. Carcinomas of the lower lip had lower apoptotic area indices than intraoral cancer (p=0.0015). Conclusions Cleaved caspase-3 immunoexpression showed differences in oral SCCs and PMDs and demonstrated a distinct role of apoptosis in carcinogenesis of intraoral and lower lip cancer. In future, the expression of cleaved caspase-3 with other target molecules in oral cancer may be helpful in delineating the prognosis and treatment of these tumors. PMID:27556207

  15. Generalized effective-mass theory of subsurface scanning tunneling microscopy: Application to cleaved quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, M.; Maksym, P. A.; Bruls, D.; Offermans, P.; Koenraad, P. M.

    2010-11-01

    An effective-mass theory of subsurface scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is developed. Subsurface structures such as quantum dots embedded into a semiconductor slab are considered. States localized around subsurface structures match on to a tail that decays into the vacuum above the surface. It is shown that the lateral variation in this tail may be found from a surface envelope function provided that the effects of the slab surfaces and the subsurface structure decouple approximately. The surface envelope function is given by a weighted integral of a bulk envelope function that satisfies boundary conditions appropriate to the slab. The weight function decays into the slab inversely with distance and this slow decay explains the subsurface sensitivity of STM. These results enable STM images to be computed simply and economically from the bulk envelope function. The method is used to compute wave-function images of cleaved quantum dots and the computed images agree very well with experiment.

  16. Ethenolysis: A Green Catalytic Tool to Cleave Carbon-Carbon Double Bonds.

    PubMed

    Bidange, Johan; Fischmeister, Cédric; Bruneau, Christian

    2016-08-22

    Remarkable innovations have been made in the field of olefin metathesis due to the design and preparation of new catalysts. Ethenolysis, which is cross-metathesis with ethylene, represents one catalytic transformation that has been used with the purpose of cleaving internal carbon-carbon double bonds. The objectives were either the ring opening of cyclic olefins to produce dienes or the shortening of unsaturated hydrocarbon chains to degrade polymers or generate valuable shorter terminal olefins in a controlled manner. This Review summarizes several aspects of this reaction: the catalysts, their degradation in the presence of ethylene, some parameters driving their productivity, the side reactions, and the applications of ethenolysis in organic synthesis and in potential industrial applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. ADAM13 Induces Cranial Neural Crest by Cleaving Class B Ephrins and Regulating Wnt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shuo; Xu, Guofeng; Bridges, Lance C.; Williams, Phoebe; White, Judith M.; DeSimone, Douglas W.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The cranial neural crest (CNC) are multipotent embryonic cells that contribute to craniofacial structures and other cells and tissues of the vertebrate head. During embryogenesis, CNC is induced at the neural plate boundary through the interplay of several major signaling pathways. Here we report that the metalloproteinase activity of ADAM13 is required for early induction of CNC in Xenopus. In both cultured cells and X. tropicalis embryos, membrane-bound Ephrins (Efns) B1 and B2 were identified as substrates for ADAM13. ADAM13 upregulates canonical Wnt signaling and early expression of the transcription factor snail2, whereas EfnB1 inhibits the canonical Wnt pathway and snail2 expression. We propose that by cleaving class B Efns, ADAM13 promotes canonical Wnt signaling and early CNC induction. PMID:20708595

  18. Mesotrypsin Has Evolved Four Unique Residues to Cleave Trypsin Inhibitors as Substrates.

    PubMed

    Alloy, Alexandre P; Kayode, Olumide; Wang, Ruiying; Hockla, Alexandra; Soares, Alexei S; Radisky, Evette S

    2015-08-28

    Human mesotrypsin is highly homologous to other mammalian trypsins, and yet it is functionally unique in possessing resistance to inhibition by canonical serine protease inhibitors and in cleaving these inhibitors as preferred substrates. Arg-193 and Ser-39 have been identified as contributors to the inhibitor resistance and cleavage capability of mesotrypsin, but it is not known whether these residues fully account for the unusual properties of mesotrypsin. Here, we use human cationic trypsin as a template for engineering a gain of catalytic function, assessing mutants containing mesotrypsin-like mutations for resistance to inhibition by bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) and amyloid precursor protein Kunitz protease inhibitor (APPI), and for the ability to hydrolyze these inhibitors as substrates. We find that Arg-193 and Ser-39 are sufficient to confer mesotrypsin-like resistance to inhibition; however, compared with mesotrypsin, the trypsin-Y39S/G193R double mutant remains 10-fold slower at hydrolyzing BPTI and 2.5-fold slower at hydrolyzing APPI. We identify two additional residues in mesotrypsin, Lys-74 and Asp-97, which in concert with Arg-193 and Ser-39 confer the full catalytic capability of mesotrypsin for proteolysis of BPTI and APPI. Novel crystal structures of trypsin mutants in complex with BPTI suggest that these four residues function cooperatively to favor conformational dynamics that assist in dissociation of cleaved inhibitors. Our results reveal that efficient inhibitor cleavage is a complex capability to which at least four spatially separated residues of mesotrypsin contribute. These findings suggest that inhibitor cleavage represents a functional adaptation of mesotrypsin that may have evolved in response to positive selection pressure. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Are we all doing it wrong? Influence of stripping and cleaving methods of laser fibers on laser lithotripsy performance.

    PubMed

    Kronenberg, Peter; Traxer, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    We assessed whether stripping and cleaving the laser fiber tip with specialized tools, namely laser fiber strippers, or ceramic or metal scissors, would influence lithotripsy performance. Laser fiber tips were stripped with a specialized laser fiber stripper or remained coated. The tips were then cleaved with metal or ceramic scissors. Laser lithotripsy experiments were performed with the 4 fiber tip combinations using an automated laser fragmentation testing system with artificial stones made of plaster of Paris or BegoStone Plus (Bego, Lincoln, Rhode Island). High frequency-low pulse energy (20 Hz and 0.5 J) and low frequency-high pulse energy (5 Hz and 2.0 J) settings were used for 30 seconds. Fissure width, depth and volume, and laser fiber tip photos were analyzed. Coated laser fiber tips always achieved significantly higher ablation volumes (sometimes greater than 50%) than stripped laser fiber tips (p <0.00001) regardless of cleaving scissor type, stone material or lithotripter setting. Coated fiber tips cleaved with metal scissors ablated as well as those cleaved with ceramic scissors (p = 0.16). However, stripped fibers were much less ablative when they were cut with metal scissors compared to ceramic scissors (p <0.00001). Harder stone material decreased ablation volume (p <0.00001). Low frequency-high pulse energy settings were an average of 3 times more ablative than high frequency-low pulse energy settings (p <0.00001). Stripping the fibers, a harder stone material and low frequency-high pulse energy settings were associated with increased fiber tip degradation. Coated laser fibers provided better lithotripsy performance and metal scissors were as good as ceramic scissors to cleave coated fibers. This knowledge may improve and simplify the way that laser lithotripsy procedures are done worldwide. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cleaving the Halqeh-ye-nur diamonds: a dynamic fracture analysis.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Colin; Martineau, Philip M; Khan, Rizwan U A; Field, John E; Fisher, David; Davies, Nick M; Samartseva, Julia V; Putterman, Seth J; Hird, Jonathan R

    2015-03-28

    The degree of surface roughness and clarity with which a surface in a brittle material can be formed via fracture is known to be related to the speed of the propagating crack. Cracks traversing a brittle material at low speed produce very smooth surfaces, while those propagating faster create less reflective and rough surfaces (Buehler MJ, Gao H. 2006 Nature 439, 307-310 (doi:10.1038/nature04408)). The elastic wave speeds (c(l)≈18 000 m s(-1), c(s)≈11 750 m s(-1)) in diamond are fast (Willmott GR, Field JE. 2006 Phil. Mag. 86, 4305-4318 (doi:10.1080/14786430500482336)) and present a particular problem in creating smooth surfaces during the cleaving of diamond-a routine operation in the fashioning of diamonds for gemstone purposes--as the waves are reflected from the boundaries of the material and can add a tensile component to the propagating crack tip causing the well-known cleavage steps observed on diamond surfaces (Field JE. 1971 Contemp. Phys. 12, 1-31 (doi:10.1080/00107517108205103); Field JE. 1979 Properties of diamond, 1st edn, Academic Press; Wilks EM. 1958 Phil. Mag. 3, 1074-1080 (doi:10.1080/14786435808237036)). Here we report an analysis of two diamonds, having large dimensions and high aspect ratio, which from a gemological analysis are shown to have been cleaved from the same 200 carat specimen. A methodology for their manufacture is calculated by an analysis of a model problem. This takes into account the effect of multiple reflections from the sample boundaries. It is suggested that the lapidary had an intuitive guide to how to apply the cleavage force in order to control the crack speed. In particular, it is shown that it is likely that this technique caused the fracture to propagate at a lower speed. The sacrifice of a large diamond with the intention of creating thin plates, rather than a faceted gemstone, demonstrates how symbolism and beliefs associated with gemstones have changed over the centuries (Harlow GE. 1998 The nature

  1. Cleaving the Halqeh-ye-nur diamonds: a dynamic fracture analysis

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Colin; Martineau, Philip M.; Khan, Rizwan U. A.; Field, John E.; Fisher, David; Davies, Nick M.; Samartseva, Julia V.; Putterman, Seth J.; Hird, Jonathan R.

    2015-01-01

    The degree of surface roughness and clarity with which a surface in a brittle material can be formed via fracture is known to be related to the speed of the propagating crack. Cracks traversing a brittle material at low speed produce very smooth surfaces, while those propagating faster create less reflective and rough surfaces (Buehler MJ, Gao H. 2006 Nature 439, 307–310 (doi:10.1038/nature04408)). The elastic wave speeds (cl≈18 000 m s−1, cs≈11 750 m s−1) in diamond are fast (Willmott GR, Field JE. 2006 Phil. Mag. 86, 4305–4318 (doi:10.1080/14786430500482336)) and present a particular problem in creating smooth surfaces during the cleaving of diamond—a routine operation in the fashioning of diamonds for gemstone purposes—as the waves are reflected from the boundaries of the material and can add a tensile component to the propagating crack tip causing the well-known cleavage steps observed on diamond surfaces (Field JE. 1971 Contemp. Phys. 12, 1–31 (doi:10.1080/00107517108205103); Field JE. 1979 Properties of diamond, 1st edn, Academic Press; Wilks EM. 1958 Phil. Mag. 3, 1074–1080 (doi:10.1080/14786435808237036)). Here we report an analysis of two diamonds, having large dimensions and high aspect ratio, which from a gemological analysis are shown to have been cleaved from the same 200 carat specimen. A methodology for their manufacture is calculated by an analysis of a model problem. This takes into account the effect of multiple reflections from the sample boundaries. It is suggested that the lapidary had an intuitive guide to how to apply the cleavage force in order to control the crack speed. In particular, it is shown that it is likely that this technique caused the fracture to propagate at a lower speed. The sacrifice of a large diamond with the intention of creating thin plates, rather than a faceted gemstone, demonstrates how symbolism and beliefs associated with gemstones have changed over the centuries (Harlow GE. 1998 The

  2. The structural and electronic properties of cleaved silicon (111) surfaces following adsorption of silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Lay, G.; Chauvet, A.; Manneville, M.; Kern, R.

    Silver overlayers for coverages ranging from zero to several monolayers are evaporated on vacuum-cleaved (111) silicon surfaces and carefully examined using low-energy electron diffraction (diffraction patterns and I(v) curves), and Auger electron spectroscopy (condensation/desorption curves), with the aim of establishing a closer correlation between the adsorption process, the different superlattices observed (i.e. 7 × 7-R(±19°1), 3 × 3-R(30° ), 3 × 1 and 6 × 1), the growth mechanism of the deposit on the one hand and the electronic properties of the system recently probed using photoemission yield spectroscopy on the other hand. These new results basically confirm the direct relations we had previously shown between the growth mode as monitored with electron diffraction LEED, RHEED, TED and Auger spectroscopy, and the electronic structures as investigated by low energy electron spectroscopy, but permit a deeper insight into the adsorption process at low coverage. At room temperature on the 2 × 1 cleavage structure where the silver-silicon interaction is weak, the adsorbed phase is completed at about 6/7 of a monolayer (θ ≃ 6/7) and a local arrangement of vacancies in the adlayer yields the 7 superstructure, while little effect on the silicon dangling bonds is noticed, but when silver two-dimensional islands (θ > 6/7) growing in a quasi layer fashion have covered the substrate surface. At higher temperatures three-dimensional growth of crystallites occurs after completion of the 3 phase whose saturation coverage increases with condensation temperatures, maxima ranging from θ ˜ 0.7 to θ ˜ 1.0 ( T ˜ 500°C) for different cleaves. This Si(111) 3-Ag surface exhibits again the same dangling bond peak as a clean 2 × 1 Si surface, despite the fact that the interaction between Ag and Si is now rather strong, as is confirmed by desorption experiments ( T ˜ 600°C). We thus critically discuss the geometrical models of this 3 phase previously devised and

  3. Polyglycine hydrolases: fungal b-lactamase-like endoproteases that cleave polyglycine regions within plant class IV chitinases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyglycine hydrolases are secreted fungal proteases that cleave glycine-glycine peptide bonds in the inter-domain linker region of specific plant defense chitinases. Previously, we reported the catalytic activity of polyglycine hydrolases from the phytopathogens Epicoccum sorghi (Es-cmp) and Cochli...

  4. Substrate-Induced Conformational Changes Occur in All Cleaved Forms of Caspase-6

    SciTech Connect

    S Vaidya; E Velazquez-Delgado; G Abbruzzese

    2011-12-31

    Caspase-6 is an apoptotic cysteine protease that also governs disease progression in Huntington's and Alzheimer's diseases. Caspase-6 is of great interest as a target for treatment of these neurodegenerative diseases; however, the molecular basis of caspase-6 function and regulation remains poorly understood. In the recently reported structure of caspase-6, the 60's and 130's helices at the base of the substrate-binding groove extend upward, in a conformation entirely different from that of any other caspase. Presently, the central question about caspase-6 structure and function is whether the extended conformation is the catalytically competent conformation or whether the extended helices must undergomore » a large conformational rearrangement in order to bind substrate. We have generated a series of caspase-6 cleavage variants, including a novel constitutively two-chain form, and determined crystal structures of caspase-6 with and without the intersubunit linker. This series allows evaluation of the role of the prodomain and intersubunit linker on caspase-6 structure and function before and after substrate binding. Caspase-6 is inherently more stable than closely related caspases. Cleaved caspase-6 with both the prodomain and the linker present is the most stable, indicating that these two regions act in concert to increase stability, but maintain the extended conformation in the unliganded state. Moreover, these data suggest that caspase-6 undergoes a significant conformational change upon substrate binding, adopting a structure that is more like canonical caspases.« less

  5. In vitro fertilization of water buffalo follicular oocytes and their ability to cleave in vitro.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T; Singla, S K; Sujata, J; Madan, M L

    1992-12-01

    Water buffalo (Murrah) oocytes were collected from ovaries obtained from a local slaughterhouse. They were classified according to the character of the cumulus cells under a stereomicroscope and then cultured in 25 mM Hepes buffered tissue culture medium-199 (TCM-199) supplemented with 5% estrous water buffalo serum in an atmosphere containing 5% CO2 in air at 39 degrees C. After 20 to 24 hours of in vitro maturation, the oocytes were cultured at 38.5 degrees C in TCM-199 supplemented with 1% estrous water buffalo serum and in an atmosphere containing 5% CO2 in air. Oocytes with compact and dense cumulus cells cleaved significantly further (P<0.01, 67.3%, 33/49) than those with fair, partially denuded oocytes with thin cumulus layers (27.5%, 25/91) or small remnants of cumulus cells and poor naked oocytes (3/100). A substantial variation in fertilization and developmental rates (16.0 to 43.8%) was observed among 4 different bulls. Late morulae were transferred nonsurgically into 14 buffalo recipients on Day 6 or 7 of their estrous cycle. One recipient was diagnosed to be pregnant by palpation per rectum on Day 60 and delivered a calf in October 1991.

  6. Cleaved Form of Osteopontin in Urine as a Clinical Marker of Lupus Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Kitagori, Koji; Yoshifuji, Hajime; Oku, Takuma; Sasaki, Chiyomi; Miyata, Hitomi; Mori, Keita P.; Nakajima, Toshiki; Ohmura, Koichiro; Kawabata, Daisuke; Yukawa, Naoichiro; Imura, Yoshitaka; Murakami, Kosaku; Nakashima, Ran; Usui, Takashi; Fujii, Takao; Sakai, Kaoru; Yanagita, Motoko; Hirayama, Yoshitaka; Mimori, Tsuneyo

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the utility of two forms of osteopontin (OPN), OPN full and its cleaved form (OPN N-half), in plasma and urine as markers of disease activity in lupus nephritis (LN). Samples were collected from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (LN: N = 29, non-LN: N = 27), IgA nephropathy (IgAN) (N = 14), minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) (N = 5), diabetic nephropathy (DN) (N = 14) and healthy volunteers (HC) (N = 17). While there was no significant difference in urine OPN full concentration between groups, urine OPN N-half concentration was significantly higher in patients with LN than HC (p < 0.05). Moreover, urine OPN N-half was higher in LN patients with overt proteinuria (urine protein/creatinine ratio: P/C > 0.5) than LN patients with minimal proteinuria (P/C < 0.5, p < 0.0001), and also higher than in DN patients with overt proteinuria (P/C > 0.5, p < 0.01). Urine thrombin activity correlated with urine OPN N-half concentration (p < 0.0001), but not with urine OPN full concentration. These results suggest that urine OPN N-half concentration reflects renal inflammation. Thus, urine OPN N-half may be a novel disease activity marker for LN. PMID:27992535

  7. Caspase-11 cleaves gasdermin D for non-canonical inflammasome signalling.

    PubMed

    Kayagaki, Nobuhiko; Stowe, Irma B; Lee, Bettina L; O'Rourke, Karen; Anderson, Keith; Warming, Søren; Cuellar, Trinna; Haley, Benjamin; Roose-Girma, Merone; Phung, Qui T; Liu, Peter S; Lill, Jennie R; Li, Hong; Wu, Jiansheng; Kummerfeld, Sarah; Zhang, Juan; Lee, Wyne P; Snipas, Scott J; Salvesen, Guy S; Morris, Lucy X; Fitzgerald, Linda; Zhang, Yafei; Bertram, Edward M; Goodnow, Christopher C; Dixit, Vishva M

    2015-10-29

    Intracellular lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, and Burkholderia thailandensis activates mouse caspase-11, causing pyroptotic cell death, interleukin-1β processing, and lethal septic shock. How caspase-11 executes these downstream signalling events is largely unknown. Here we show that gasdermin D is essential for caspase-11-dependent pyroptosis and interleukin-1β maturation. A forward genetic screen with ethyl-N-nitrosourea-mutagenized mice links Gsdmd to the intracellular lipopolysaccharide response. Macrophages from Gsdmd(-/-) mice generated by gene targeting also exhibit defective pyroptosis and interleukin-1β secretion induced by cytoplasmic lipopolysaccharide or Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, Gsdmd(-/-) mice are protected from a lethal dose of lipopolysaccharide. Mechanistically, caspase-11 cleaves gasdermin D, and the resulting amino-terminal fragment promotes both pyroptosis and NLRP3-dependent activation of caspase-1 in a cell-intrinsic manner. Our data identify gasdermin D as a critical target of caspase-11 and a key mediator of the host response against Gram-negative bacteria.

  8. Posttranslational processing of the prohormone-cleaving Kex2 protease in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, C A; Fuller, R S

    1991-10-01

    The Kex2 protease of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a prototypical eukaryotic prohormone-processing enzyme that cleaves precursors of secreted peptides at pairs of basic residues. Here we have established the pathway of posttranslational modification of Kex2 protein using immunoprecipitation of the biosynthetically pulse-labeled protein from a variety of wild-type and mutant yeast strains as the principal methodology. Kex2 protein is initially synthesized as a prepro-enzyme that undergoes cotranslational signal peptide cleavage and addition of Asn-linked core oligosaccharide and Ser/Thr-linked mannose in the ER. The earliest detectable species, I1 (approximately 129 kD), undergoes rapid amino-terminal proteolytic removal of a approximately 9-kD pro-segment yielding species I2 (approximately 120 kD) before arrival at the Golgi complex. Transport to the Golgi complex is marked by extensive elaboration of Ser/Thr-linked chains and minor modification of Asn-linked oligosaccharide. During the latter phase of its lifetime, Kex2 protein undergoes a gradual increase in apparent molecular weight. This final modification serves as a marker for association of Kex2 protease with a late compartment of the yeast Golgi complex in which it is concentrated about 27-fold relative to other secretory proteins.

  9. An Efficient Lanthanide-Dependent DNAzyme Cleaving 2'-5'-Linked RNA.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenhu; Ding, Jinsong; Liu, Juewen

    2016-05-17

    RNA can form two types of linkage. In addition to the predominant 3'-5' linkage, 2'-5'-linked RNA is also important in biology, medicine, and prebiotic studies. Here, in vitro selection was used to isolate a DNAzyme that specifically cleaves 2'-5' RNA by using Ce(3+) as the metal cofactor, but leaves the 3'-5' counterpart intact. This Ce5 DNAzyme requires trivalent light lanthanide ions and shows a rate of 0.16 min(-1) in the presence of 10 μm Ce(3+) ; the activity decreases with heavier lanthanide ions. This is the fastest DNAzyme reported for this reaction, and it might enable applications in chemical biology. As a proof-of-concept, using this DNAzyme, the reactions between phosphorothioate-modified RNA and strongly thiophilic metals (Hg(2+) and Tl(3+) ) were studied as a function of pH. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Human replication protein Cdc6 is selectively cleaved by caspase 3 during apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Pelizon, Cristina; d’Adda di Fagagna, Fabrizio; Farrace, Lorena; Laskey, Ronald A.

    2002-01-01

    In eukaryotes, the initiation of DNA replication involves the ordered assembly on chromatin of pre-replicative complexes (pre-RCs), including the origin recognition complex (ORC), Cdc6, Cdt1 and the minichromosome maintenance proteins (MCMs). In light of its indispensable role in the formation of pre-RCs, Cdc6 binding to chromatin represents a key step in the regulation of DNA replication and cell proliferation. Here, we study the human Cdc6 (HuCdc6) protein during programmed cell death (apoptosis). We find that HuCdc6, but not HuOrc2 (a member of the ORC) or HuMcm5 (one of the MCMs), is specifically cleaved in several human cell lines induced to undergo apoptosis by a variety of stimuli. Expression of caspase-uncleavable mutant HuCdc6 attenuates apoptosis, delaying cell death. Therefore, an important function for cleavage of HuCdc6 is to prevent a wounded cell from replicating and to facilitate death. PMID:12151338

  11. Family of BODIPY Photocages Cleaved by Single Photons of Visible/Near-Infrared Light.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Julie A; Wijesooriya, Chamari; Gehrmann, Elizabeth J; Mahoney, Kaitlyn M; Goswami, Pratik P; Albright, Toshia R; Syed, Aleem; Dutton, Andrew S; Smith, Emily A; Winter, Arthur H

    2018-06-13

    Photocages are light-sensitive chemical protecting groups that provide external control over when, where, and how much of a biological substrate is activated in cells using targeted light irradiation. Regrettably, most popular photocages (e.g., o-nitrobenzyl groups) absorb cell-damaging ultraviolet wavelengths. A challenge with achieving longer wavelength bond-breaking photochemistry is that long-wavelength-absorbing chromophores have shorter excited-state lifetimes and diminished excited-state energies. However, here we report the synthesis of a family of BODIPY-derived photocages with tunable absorptions across the visible/near-infrared that release chemical cargo under irradiation. Derivatives with appended styryl groups feature absorptions above 700 nm, yielding photocages cleaved with the highest known wavelengths of light via a direct single-photon-release mechanism. Photorelease with red light is demonstrated in living HeLa cells, Drosophila S2 cells, and bovine GM07373 cells upon ∼5 min irradiation. No cytotoxicity is observed at 20 μM photocage concentration using the trypan blue exclusion assay. Improved B-alkylated derivatives feature improved quantum efficiencies of photorelease ∼20-fold larger, on par with the popular o-nitrobenzyl photocages (εΦ = 50-100 M -1 cm -1 ), but absorbing red/near-IR light in the biological window instead of UV light.

  12. Cleaved high-molecular-weight kininogen inhibits neointima formation following vascular injury.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Jan-Marcus; Reich, Fabian; Dutzmann, Jochen; Weisheit, Simona; Teske, Rebecca; Gündüz, Dursun; Bauersachs, Johann; Preissner, Klaus T; Sedding, Daniel G

    2015-08-31

    Cleaved high-molecular-weight kininogen (HKa) or its peptide domain 5 (D5) alone exert anti-adhesive properties in vitro related to impeding integrin-mediated cellular interactions. However, the anti-adhesive effects of HKa in vivo remain elusive. In this study, we investigated the effects of HKa on leukocyte recruitment and neointima formation following wire-induced injury of the femoral artery in C57BL/6 mice. Local application of HKa significantly reduced the accumulation of monocytes and also reduced neointimal lesion size 14 days after injury. Moreover, C57BL/6 mice transplanted with bone marrow from transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP) showed a significantly reduced accumulation of eGFP+-cells at the arterial injury site and decreased neointimal lesion size after local application of HKa or the polypeptide D5 alone. A differentiation of accumulating eGFP+-cells into highly specific smooth muscle cells (SMC) was not detected in any group. In contrast, application of HKa significantly reduced the proliferation of locally derived neointimal cells. In vitro, HKa and D5 potently inhibited the adhesion of SMC to vitronectin, thus impairing their proliferation, migration, and survival rates. In conclusion, application of HKa or D5 decreases the inflammatory response to vascular injury and exerts direct effects on SMC by impeding the binding of integrins to extracellular matrix components. Therefore, HKa and D5 may hold promise as novel therapeutic substances to prevent neointima formation.

  13. CgII cleaves DNA using a mechanism distinct from other ATP-dependent restriction endonucleases

    PubMed Central

    Toliusis, Paulius; Silanskas, Arunas; Szczelkun, Mark D.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The restriction endonuclease CglI from Corynebacterium glutamicum recognizes an asymmetric 5′-GCCGC-3′ site and cleaves the DNA 7 and 6/7 nucleotides downstream on the top and bottom DNA strands, respectively, in an NTP-hydrolysis dependent reaction. CglI is composed of two different proteins: an endonuclease (R.CglI) and a DEAD-family helicase-like ATPase (H.CglI). These subunits form a heterotetrameric complex with R2H2 stoichiometry. However, the R2H2·CglI complex has only one nuclease active site sufficient to cut one DNA strand suggesting that two complexes are required to introduce a double strand break. Here, we report studies to evaluate the DNA cleavage mechanism of CglI. Using one- and two-site circular DNA substrates we show that CglI does not require two sites on the same DNA for optimal catalytic activity. However, one-site linear DNA is a poor substrate, supporting a mechanism where CglI complexes must communicate along the one-dimensional DNA contour before cleavage is activated. Based on experimental data, we propose that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis by CglI produces translocation on DNA preferentially in a downstream direction from the target, although upstream translocation is also possible. Our results are consistent with a mechanism of CglI action that is distinct from that of other ATP-dependent restriction-modification enzymes. PMID:28854738

  14. Expression of cleaved caspase-3 in renal tubular cells in Plasmodium falciparum malaria patients.

    PubMed

    Wichapoon, Benjamas; Punsawad, Chuchard; Viriyavejakul, Parnpen

    2017-01-01

    In Plasmodium falciparum malaria, the clinical manifestation of acute kidney injury (AKI) is commonly associated with acute tubular necrosis (ATN) in the kidney tissues. Renal tubular cells often exhibit various degrees of cloudy swelling, cell degeneration, and frank necrosis. To study individual cell death, this study evaluates the degree of renal tubular necrosis in association with apoptosis in malarial kidneys. Kidney tissues from P. falciparum malaria with AKI (10 cases), and without AKI (10 cases) were evaluated for tubular pathology. Normal kidney tissues from 10 cases served as controls. Tubular necrosis was assessed quantitatively in kidney tissues infected with P. falciparum malaria, based on histopathological evaluation. In addition, the occurrence of apoptosis was investigated using cleaved caspase-3 marker. Correlation between tubular necrosis and apoptosis was analyzed. Tubular necrosis was found to be highest in P. falciparum malaria patients with AKI (36.44% ± 3.21), compared to non-AKI (15.88% ± 1.63) and control groups (2.58% ± 0.39) (all p < 0.001). In the AKI group, the distal tubules showed a significantly higher degree of tubular necrosis than the proximal tubules (p = 0.021) and collecting tubules (p = 0.033). Tubular necrosis was significantly correlated with the level of serum creatinine (r = 0.596, p = 0.006), and the occurrence of apoptosis (r = 0.681, p = 0.001). In malarial AKI, the process of apoptosis occurs in ATN. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  15. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Integration Protein Expressed in Escherichia Coli Possesses Selective DNA Cleaving Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Paula A.; Fyfe, James A.

    1990-07-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) integration protein, a potential target for selective antiviral therapy, was expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified protein, free of detectable contaminating endonucleases, selectively cleaved double-stranded DNA oligonucleotides that mimic the U3 and the U5 termini of linear HIV DNA. Two nucleotides were removed from the 3' ends of both the U5 plus strand and the U3 minus strand; in both cases, cleavage was adjacent to a conserved CA dinucleotide. The reaction was metal-ion dependent, with a preference for Mn2+ over Mg2+. Reaction selectivity was further demonstrated by the lack of cleavage of an HIV U5 substrate on the complementary (minus) strand, an analogous substrate that mimics the U3 terminus of an avian retrovirus, and an HIV U5 substrate in which the conserved CA dinucleotide was replaced with a TA dinucleotide. Such an integration protein-mediated cleavage reaction is expected to occur as part of the integration event in the retroviral life cycle, in which a double-stranded DNA copy of the viral RNA genome is inserted into the host cell DNA.

  16. Disulphide linkage: To get cleaved or not? Bulk and nano copper based SERS of cystine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    P. J., Arathi; Seemesh, Bhaskar; Rajendra Kumar Reddy, G.; Suresh Kumar, P.; Ramanathan, V.

    2018-05-01

    Different nano-structures of noble metals have been the conventional substrates for carrying out Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). In this paper we examine electrodeposited copper (Cu) nano-structures on pencil graphite as novel substrate to carry out SERS measurements by considering L-cystine (Cys-Cys) (dimer of the amino acid cysteine) as the probe. The formation of monolayer of the probe molecule on the substrates was confirmed using cyclic voltammetric measurements. Mode of adsorption of Cys-Cys was observed to be different on bulk Cu (taken in the wire form) and nano-structured Cu on pencil graphite. Whereas in the former the disulphide bond of Cys-Cys remained intact, it got cleaved when Cys-Cys was adsorbed on electrodeposited copper indicating the activated nature of the nano-structure compared to bulk copper. Csbnd S stretching mode of vibration underwent blue shift in Cys-Cys adsorbed on Cu on pencil graphite vis-à-vis Cys-Cys adsorbed on Cu wire. Further evidence on the cleavage of the Csbnd S bond on an activated substrate was obtained by considering a bimetallic substrate comprising of silver on copper which was electrodeposited on pencil graphite. Our studies have demonstrated that nano-copper surface is an excellent substrate for SERS giving 200 μM as lower detection limit for Cys-Cys.

  17. Dicer cleaves 5'-extended microRNA precursors originating from RNA polymerase II transcription start sites.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Peike; Fields, Christopher; Aadland, Kelsey; Wei, Tianqi; Kolaczkowski, Oralia; Gu, Tongjun; Kolaczkowski, Bryan; Xie, Mingyi

    2018-05-09

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are approximately 22 nucleotide (nt) long and play important roles in post-transcriptional regulation in both plants and animals. In animals, precursor (pre-) miRNAs are ∼70 nt hairpins produced by Drosha cleavage of long primary (pri-) miRNAs in the nucleus. Exportin-5 (XPO5) transports pre-miRNAs into the cytoplasm for Dicer processing. Alternatively, pre-miRNAs containing a 5' 7-methylguanine (m7G-) cap can be generated independently of Drosha and XPO5. Here we identify a class of m7G-capped pre-miRNAs with 5' extensions up to 39 nt long. The 5'-extended pre-miRNAs are transported by Exportin-1 (XPO1). Unexpectedly, a long 5' extension does not block Dicer processing. Rather, Dicer directly cleaves 5'-extended pre-miRNAs by recognizing its 3' end to produce mature 3p miRNA and extended 5p miRNA both in vivo and in vitro. The recognition of 5'-extended pre-miRNAs by the Dicer Platform-PAZ-Connector (PPC) domain can be traced back to ancestral animal Dicers, suggesting that this previously unrecognized Dicer reaction mode is evolutionarily conserved. Our work reveals additional genetic sources for small regulatory RNAs and substantiates Dicer's essential role in RNAi-based gene regulation.

  18. Caspase-2 Is Localized at the Golgi Complex and Cleaves Golgin-160 during Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Marie; Machamer, Carolyn E.; Roy, Sophie; Nicholson, Donald W.; Thornberry, Nancy A.; Casciola-Rosen, Livia A.; Rosen, Antony

    2000-01-01

    Caspases are an extended family of cysteine proteases that play critical roles in apoptosis. Animals deficient in caspases-2 or -3, which share very similar tetrapeptide cleavage specificities, exhibit very different phenotypes, suggesting that the unique features of individual caspases may account for distinct regulation and specialized functions. Recent studies demonstrate that unique apoptotic stimuli are transduced by distinct proteolytic pathways, with multiple components of the proteolytic machinery clustering at distinct subcellular sites. We demonstrate here that, in addition to its nuclear distribution, caspase-2 is localized to the Golgi complex, where it cleaves golgin-160 at a unique site not susceptible to cleavage by other caspases with very similar tetrapeptide specificities. Early cleavage at this site precedes cleavage at distal sites by other caspases. Prevention of cleavage at the unique caspase-2 site delays disintegration of the Golgi complex after delivery of a pro-apoptotic signal. We propose that the Golgi complex, like mitochondria, senses and integrates unique local conditions, and transduces pro-apoptotic signals through local caspases, which regulate local effectors. PMID:10791974

  19. RNase MRP cleaves pre-tRNASer-Met in the tRNA maturation pathway.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yuichiro; Takeda, Jun; Adachi, Kousuke; Nobe, Yuko; Kobayashi, Junya; Hirota, Kouji; Oliveira, Douglas V; Taoka, Masato; Isobe, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Ribonuclease mitochondrial RNA processing (RNase MRP) is a multifunctional ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex that is involved in the maturation of various types of RNA including ribosomal RNA. RNase MRP consists of a potential catalytic RNA and several protein components, all of which are required for cell viability. We show here that the temperature-sensitive mutant of rmp1, the gene for a unique protein component of RNase MRP, accumulates the dimeric tRNA precursor, pre-tRNA(Ser-Met). To examine whether RNase MRP mediates tRNA maturation, we purified the RNase MRP holoenzyme from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and found that the enzyme directly and selectively cleaves pre-tRNA(Ser-Met), suggesting that RNase MRP participates in the maturation of specific tRNA in vivo. In addition, mass spectrometry-based ribonucleoproteomic analysis demonstrated that this RNase MRP consists of one RNA molecule and 11 protein components, including a previously unknown component Rpl701. Notably, limited nucleolysis of RNase MRP generated an active catalytic core consisting of partial mrp1 RNA fragments, which constitute "Domain 1" in the secondary structure of RNase MRP, and 8 proteins. Thus, the present study provides new insight into the structure and function of RNase MRP.

  20. RNase MRP Cleaves Pre-tRNASer-Met in the tRNA Maturation Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Kousuke; Nobe, Yuko; Kobayashi, Junya; Hirota, Kouji; Oliveira, Douglas V.; Taoka, Masato; Isobe, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Ribonuclease mitochondrial RNA processing (RNase MRP) is a multifunctional ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex that is involved in the maturation of various types of RNA including ribosomal RNA. RNase MRP consists of a potential catalytic RNA and several protein components, all of which are required for cell viability. We show here that the temperature-sensitive mutant of rmp1, the gene for a unique protein component of RNase MRP, accumulates the dimeric tRNA precursor, pre-tRNASer-Met. To examine whether RNase MRP mediates tRNA maturation, we purified the RNase MRP holoenzyme from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and found that the enzyme directly and selectively cleaves pre-tRNASer-Met, suggesting that RNase MRP participates in the maturation of specific tRNA in vivo. In addition, mass spectrometry–based ribonucleoproteomic analysis demonstrated that this RNase MRP consists of one RNA molecule and 11 protein components, including a previously unknown component Rpl701. Notably, limited nucleolysis of RNase MRP generated an active catalytic core consisting of partial mrp1 RNA fragments, which constitute “Domain 1” in the secondary structure of RNase MRP, and 8 proteins. Thus, the present study provides new insight into the structure and function of RNase MRP. PMID:25401760

  1. The nodulation factor hydrolase of Medicago truncatula: characterization of an enzyme specifically cleaving rhizobial nodulation signals.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye; Liu, Wei; Cai, Jie; Zhang, Lan-Yue; Wong, Kam-Bo; Feddermann, Nadja; Boller, Thomas; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Staehelin, Christian

    2013-11-01

    Nodule formation induced by nitrogen-fixing rhizobia depends on bacterial nodulation factors (NFs), modified chitin oligosaccharides with a fatty acid moiety. Certain NFs can be cleaved and inactivated by plant chitinases. However, the most abundant NF of Sinorhizobium meliloti, an O-acetylated and sulfated tetramer, is resistant to hydrolysis by all plant chitinases tested so far. Nevertheless, this NF is rapidly degraded in the host rhizosphere. Here, we identify and characterize MtNFH1 (for Medicago truncatula Nod factor hydrolase 1), a legume enzyme structurally related to defense-related class V chitinases (glycoside hydrolase family 18). MtNFH1 lacks chitinase activity but efficiently hydrolyzes all tested NFs of S. meliloti. The enzyme shows a high cleavage preference, releasing exclusively lipodisaccharides from NFs. Substrate specificity and kinetic properties of MtNFH1 were compared with those of class V chitinases from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), which cannot hydrolyze tetrameric NFs of S. meliloti. The Michaelis-Menten constants of MtNFH1 for NFs are in the micromolar concentration range, whereas nonmodified chitin oligosaccharides represent neither substrates nor inhibitors for MtNFH1. The three-dimensional structure of MtNFH1 was modeled on the basis of the known structure of class V chitinases. Docking simulation of NFs to MtNFH1 predicted a distinct binding cleft for the fatty acid moiety, which is absent in the class V chitinases. Point mutation analysis confirmed the modeled NF-MtNFH1 interaction. Silencing of MtNFH1 by RNA interference resulted in reduced NF degradation in the rhizosphere of M. truncatula. In conclusion, we have found a novel legume hydrolase that specifically inactivates NFs.

  2. Crystal structures of alkylperoxo and anhydride intermediates in an intradiol ring-cleaving dioxygenase

    DOE PAGES

    Knoot, Cory J.; Purpero, Vincent M.; Lipscomb, John D.

    2014-12-29

    Intradiol aromatic ring-cleaving dioxygenases use an active site, nonheme Fe 3+ to activate O 2 and catecholic substrates for reaction. The inability of Fe 3+ to directly bind O 2 presents a mechanistic conundrum. The reaction mechanism of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase is investigated in this paper using the alternative substrate 4-fluorocatechol. This substrate is found to slow the reaction at several steps throughout the mechanistic cycle, allowing the intermediates to be detected in solution studies. When the reaction was initiated in an enzyme crystal, it was found to halt at one of two intermediates depending on the pH of the surroundingmore » solution. The X-ray crystal structure of the intermediate at pH 6.5 revealed the key alkylperoxo-Fe 3+ species, and the anhydride-Fe 3+ intermediate was found for a crystal reacted at pH 8.5. Intermediates of these types have not been structurally characterized for intradiol dioxygenases, and they validate four decades of spectroscopic, kinetic, and computational studies. In contrast to our similar in crystallo crystallographic studies of an Fe 2+-containing extradiol dioxygenase, no evidence for a superoxo or peroxo intermediate preceding the alkylperoxo was found. This observation and the lack of spectroscopic evidence for an Fe 2+ intermediate that could bind O 2 are consistent with concerted formation of the alkylperoxo followed by Criegee rearrangement to yield the anhydride and ultimately ring-opened product. Finally, structural comparison of the alkylperoxo intermediates from the intra- and extradiol dioxygenases provides a rationale for site specificity of ring cleavage.« less

  3. Plasmodium falciparum signal peptide peptidase cleaves malaria heat shock protein 101 (HSP101). Implications for gametocytogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, Michael; Russo, Crystal; Li, Xuerong

    Highlights: • PfSPP is an ER resident protease. • PfSPP is expressed both as a monomer and dimer. • The signal peptide of HSP101 is the first known substrate of PfSPP. • Reduced PfSPP activity may significantly affect ER homeostasis. - Abstract: Previously we described the identification of a Plasmodium falciparum signal peptide peptidase (PfSPP) functioning at the blood stage of malaria infection. Our studies also demonstrated that mammalian SPP inhibitors prevent malaria parasite growth at the late-ring/early trophozoite stage of intra-erythrocytic development. Consistent with its role in development, we tested the hypothesis that PfSPP functions at the endoplasmic reticulummore » of P.falciparum where it cleaves membrane-bound signal peptides generated following the enzyme activity of signal peptidase. The localization of PfSPP to the endoplasmic reticulum was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy and immunogold electron microscopy. Biochemical analysis indicated the existence of monomer and dimer forms of PfSPP in the parasite lysate. A comprehensive bioinformatics screen identified several candidate PfSPP substrates in the parasite genome. Using an established transfection based in vivo luminescence assay, malaria heat shock protein 101 (HSP101) was identified as a substrate of PfSPP, and partial inhibition of PfSPP correlated with the emergence of gametocytes. This finding unveils the first known substrate of PfSPP, and provides new perspectives for the function of intra-membrane proteolysis at the erythrocyte stage of malaria parasite life cycle.« less

  4. High resolution structure of cleaved Serpin 42 Da from Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Ellisdon, Andrew M; Zhang, Qingwei; Henstridge, Michelle A; Johnson, Travis K; Warr, Coral G; Law, Ruby Hp; Whisstock, James C

    2014-04-24

    The Drosophila melanogaster Serpin 42 Da gene (previously Serpin 4) encodes a serine protease inhibitor that is capable of remarkable functional diversity through the alternative splicing of four different reactive centre loop exons. Eight protein isoforms of Serpin 42 Da have been identified to date, targeting the protease inhibitor to both different proteases and cellular locations. Biochemical and genetic studies suggest that Serpin 42 Da inhibits target proteases through the classical serpin 'suicide' inhibition mechanism, however the crystal structure of a representative Serpin 42 Da isoform remains to be determined. We report two high-resolution crystal structures of Serpin 42 Da representing the A/B isoforms in the cleaved conformation, belonging to two different space-groups and diffracting to 1.7 Å and 1.8 Å. Structural analysis reveals the archetypal serpin fold, with the major elements of secondary structure displaying significant homology to the vertebrate serpin, neuroserpin. Key residues known to have central roles in the serpin inhibitory mechanism are conserved in both the hinge and shutter regions of Serpin 42 Da. Furthermore, these structures identify important conserved interactions that appear to be of crucial importance in allowing the Serpin 42 Da fold to act as a versatile template for multiple reactive centre loops that have different sequences and protease specificities. In combination with previous biochemical and genetic studies, these structures confirm for the first time that the Serpin 42 Da isoforms are typical inhibitory serpin family members with the conserved serpin fold and inhibitory mechanism. Additionally, these data reveal the remarkable structural plasticity of serpins, whereby the basic fold is harnessed as a template for inhibition of a large spectrum of proteases by reactive centre loop exon 'switching'. This is the first structure of a Drosophila serpin reported to date, and will provide a platform for future mutational

  5. Induced Neural Differentiation of MMP-2 Cleaved (RADA)4 Drug Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Koss, K; Tsui, C; Unsworth, L D

    2016-12-10

    (RADA) 4 self-assembling peptides (SAPs) are promising for neural nanoscaffolds with on-demand drug delivery capabilities due to their automated synthesis, in-situ assembly, and potential for interaction with and release of biomolecules. Neuroinflammation cued on-demand drug release, due to up-regulated proteases, may well be vital in the treatment of several neurological diseases. In these conditions, releasing neurotrophic growth factors (NTFs) could potentially lead to neuroprotection and neurogenesis. As such, (RADA) 4 was made with the high and low activity matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) cleaved sequences, GPQG+IASQ (CP1) and GPQG+PAGQ (CP2), the brain-derived NTF secretion stimulating peptide MVG (DP1) and the ciliary NTF analogue DGGL (DP2). PC-12 cell culture was performed to assess bioactive substrate cell adhesion and NTF specific neuronal differentiation. The laminin-derived IKVAV peptide, known for neural cell attachment and interaction, was tethered to (RADA) 4 -IKVAV and mixed in increasing increments with (RADA) 4 for this purpose. With 1 nanomolar MMP-2 treatment, product formation was observed to increase over a three day period, with (RADA) 4 /(RADA) 4 -CP1/CP2 mixture, however there was little difference between groups. Smaller CP1/CP2 concentrations displayed comparable (RADA) 4 nanoscale morphology to higher concentrations. Acetylcholine esterase and neural differentiation was observed over 3 days with 1 nM MMP-2 treatment according to the following makeup: 8/1/1 (RADA)4/(RADA)4-IKVAV/(RADA)4-CP1/CP2-DP1/DP2. Signalling gradually increased in all groups, and neurite outgrowth was visible after three days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cleave and couple: toward fully sustainable catalytic conversion of lignocellulose to value added building blocks and fuels.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhuohua; Barta, Katalin

    2018-06-21

    The structural complexity of lignocellulose offers unique opportunities for the development of entirely new, energy efficient and waste-free pathways in order to obtain valuable bio-based building blocks. Such sustainable catalytic methods - specifically tailored to address the efficient conversion of abundant renewable starting materials - are necessary to successfully compete, in the future, with fossil-based multi-step processes. In this contribution we give a summary of recent developments in this field and describe our "cleave and couple" strategy, where "cleave" refers to the catalytic deconstruction of lignocellulose to aromatic and aliphatic alcohol intermediates, and "couple" involves the development of novel, sustainable transformations for the formation of C-C and C-N bonds in order to obtain a range of attractive products from lignocellulose.

  7. Rubber Oxygenase and Latex Clearing Protein Cleave Rubber to Different Products and Use Different Cleavage Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Birke, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Two types of enzyme for oxidative cleavage of poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) are known. One is rubber oxygenase (RoxA) that is secreted by Xanthomonas sp. strain 35Y and a few other Gram-negative rubber-degrading bacteria during growth on polyisoprene. RoxA was studied in the past, and the recently solved structure showed a structural relationship to bacterial cytochrome c peroxidases (J. Seidel et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110:13833–13838, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1305560110). The other enzyme is latex-clearing protein (Lcp) that is secreted by rubber-degrading actinomycetes, but Lcp has not yet been purified. Here, we expressed Lcp of Streptomyces sp. strain K30 in a ΔroxA background of Xanthomonas sp. strain 35Y and purified native (untagged) Lcp. The specific activities of Lcp and RoxA were 0.70 and 0.48 U/mg, respectively. Lcp differed from RoxA in the absence of heme groups and other characteristics. Notably, Lcp degraded polyisoprene via endo-type cleavage to tetra-C20 and higher oligo-isoprenoids with aldehyde and keto end groups, whereas RoxA used an exo-type cleavage mechanism to give the main end product 12-oxo-4,8-dimethyltrideca-4,8-diene-1-al (ODTD). RoxA was able to cleave isolated Lcp-derived oligo-isoprenoid molecules to ODTD. Inhibitor studies, spectroscopic investigations and metal analysis gave no indication for the presence of iron, other metals, or cofactors in Lcp. Our results suggest that Lcp could be a member of the growing group of cofactor-independent oxygenases and differs in the cleavage mechanism from heme-dependent RoxA. In conclusion, RoxA and Lcp represent two different answers to the same biochemical problem, the cleavage of polyisoprene, a polymer that has carbon-carbon double bonds as the only functional groups for enzymatic attack. PMID:24907333

  8. ssDNA-dsRNAs are cleaved at the next to its chimera-junction point by an unknown RNase activity.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Shinichi; Higuchi, Sadaharu; Sakurai, Kazuo

    2012-11-30

    We found that there is an unknown aspect in serum RNases that cleaves ssDNA-dsRNA and ssRNA-dsRNA. In the first step, RNase cleaves the phosphodiester linkage between the first and second RNA, where the first one is connected to the single stranded RNA or DNA. In the second step, the ssRNA overhang attached siRNA is cleaved. When the 2' hydroxyl of the first RNA was replaced with methoxy, the cleavage did not occur. This RNase activity can be considered related to defense system against exogenous genetic materials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of the ScAlMgO4 cleaving layer by X-ray crystal truncation rod scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, Takashi; Tajiri, Hiroo; Sakata, Osami; Fukuda, Tsuguo; Matsuoka, Takashi

    2018-05-01

    ScAlMgO4—easily cleaved in c-plane—forms a natural superlattice structure of a ScO2 layer and two Al0.5Mg0.5O layers stacking along c-axis. ScAlMgO4 is one of the RAMO4-type layered multicomponent oxides and a promising lattice-matching substrate material for InGaN and ZnO. Identification of the topmost layer and the surface atomic structure of the cleaved ScAlMgO4 (0001) are investigated by the X-ray crystal truncation rod scattering method. It is confirmed that ScAlMgO4 is cleaved between the two Al0.5Mg0.5O layers. The two parts separated at this interlayer are inversion symmetric to each other and without surface charge. This prevents parallel-plate-capacitor-like electrostatic force during the cleavage. Two different mechanisms are proposed for the two types of cleavage caused by the impact of a wedge and by the in-plane stress due to an overgrown thick GaN film. It is also revealed that about 10%-20% of the topmost O atoms are desorbed during a surface cleaning at 600 °C in ultra-high vacuum. Surface observations using reflection high-energy electron diffraction are possible only after the high-temperature cleaning because the electrical conduction caused by the oxygen deficiency prevents the charge-up of the insulating sample.

  10. Crystal growth of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and noble cleaved (0001) surface properties

    SciTech Connect

    Atuchin, V.V., E-mail: atuchin@thermo.isp.nsc.ru; Functional Electronics Laboratory, Tomsk State University, Tomsk 634050; Golyashov, V.A.

    2016-04-15

    A high quality Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} crystal has been grown by Bridgman method with the use of rotating heat field. The phase purity and bulk structural quality of the crystal have been verified by XRD analysis and rocking curve observation. The atomically smooth Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}(0001) surface with an excellent crystallographic quality is formed by cleavage in the air. The chemical and microstructural properties of the surface have been evaluated with RHEED, AFM, STM, SE and XPS. The Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}(0001) cleaved surface is formed by atomically smooth terraces with the height of the elemental step of ~1.04±0.1 nm, asmore » estimated by AFM. There is no surface oxidation process detected over a month keeping in the air at normal conditions, as shown by comparative core level photoelectron spectroscopy. - Graphical abstract: A high quality Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} crystal has been grown by Bridgman method with the use of rotating heat field and the Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}(0001) cleaved surface has been evaluated with RHEED, AFM, STM, SE and XPS. - Highlights: • High-quality Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} crystal of 10 mm in diameter and 50 mm long have been grown. • The high-purity cleaved Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}(0001) surface has been evaluated by RHEED, AFM, STM and XPS methods. • The Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} surface covered by atomically smooth (0001) terraces is chemically stable for a long time.« less

  11. ADAMTS-13 rapidly cleaves newly secreted ultralarge von Willebrand factor multimers on the endothelial surface under flowing conditions.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing-fei; Moake, Joel L; Nolasco, Leticia; Bernardo, Aubrey; Arceneaux, Wendy; Shrimpton, Corie N; Schade, Alicia J; McIntire, Larry V; Fujikawa, Kazuo; López, José A

    2002-12-01

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a devastating thrombotic disorder caused by widespread microvascular thrombi composed of platelets and von Willebrand factor (VWF). The disorder is associated with a deficiency of the VWF-cleaving metalloprotease, ADAMTS-13, with consequent accumulation of ultralarge (UL) VWF multimers in the plasma. ULVWF multimers, unlike plasma forms of VWF, attach spontaneously to platelet GP Ibalpha, a component of the GP Ib-IX-V complex. We have found that ULVWF multimers secreted from stimulated endothelial cells (ECs) remained anchored to the endothelial surface where platelets and Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the GP Ib-IX-V complex attached to form long beads-on-a-string structures in the presence of fluid shear stresses in both the venous (2.5 dyne/cm(2)) and arterial (20 and 50 dyne/cm(2)) ranges. Although measurement of the activity of the ADAMTS-13 VWF-cleaving metalloprotease in vitro requires prolonged incubation of the enzyme with VWF under nonphysiologic conditions, EC-derived ULVWF strings with attached platelets were cleaved within seconds to minutes in the presence of normal plasma (containing approximately 100% ADAMTS-13 activity) or in the presence of partially purified ADAMTS-13. By contrast, the strings persisted for the entire period of perfusion (10 minutes) in the presence of plasma from patients with TTP containing 0% to 10% ADAMTS-13 activity. These results suggest that cleavage of EC-derived ULVWF multimers by ADAMTS-13 is a rapid physiologic process that occurs on endothelial cell surfaces.

  12. LBSizeCleav: improved support vector machine (SVM)-based prediction of Dicer cleavage sites using loop/bulge length.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yu; Hayashida, Morihiro; Akutsu, Tatsuya

    2016-11-25

    Dicer is necessary for the process of mature microRNA (miRNA) formation because the Dicer enzyme cleaves pre-miRNA correctly to generate miRNA with correct seed regions. Nonetheless, the mechanism underlying the selection of a Dicer cleavage site is still not fully understood. To date, several studies have been conducted to solve this problem, for example, a recent discovery indicates that the loop/bulge structure plays a central role in the selection of Dicer cleavage sites. In accordance with this breakthrough, a support vector machine (SVM)-based method called PHDCleav was developed to predict Dicer cleavage sites which outperforms other methods based on random forest and naive Bayes. PHDCleav, however, tests only whether a position in the shift window belongs to a loop/bulge structure. In this paper, we used the length of loop/bulge structures (in addition to their presence or absence) to develop an improved method, LBSizeCleav, for predicting Dicer cleavage sites. To evaluate our method, we used 810 empirically validated sequences of human pre-miRNAs and performed fivefold cross-validation. In both 5p and 3p arms of pre-miRNAs, LBSizeCleav showed greater prediction accuracy than PHDCleav did. This result suggests that the length of loop/bulge structures is useful for prediction of Dicer cleavage sites. We developed a novel algorithm for feature space mapping based on the length of a loop/bulge for predicting Dicer cleavage sites. The better performance of our method indicates the usefulness of the length of loop/bulge structures for such predictions.

  13. A Comprehensive Genetic Study of Streptococcal Immunoglobulin A1 Proteases: Evidence for Recombination within and between Species

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Knud; Reinholdt, Jesper; Jespersgaard, Christina; Boye, Kit; Brown, Thomas A.; Hauge, Majbritt; Kilian, Mogens

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of 13 immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) protease genes (iga) of strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus sanguis was carried out to obtain information on the structure, polymorphism, and phylogeny of this specific protease, which enables bacteria to evade functions of the predominant Ig isotype on mucosal surfaces. The analysis included cloning and sequencing of iga genes from S. oralis and S. mitis biovar 1, sequencing of an additional seven iga genes from S. sanguis biovars 1 through 4, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses of iga genes of another 10 strains of S. mitis biovar 1 and 6 strains of S. oralis. All 13 genes sequenced had the potential of encoding proteins with molecular masses of approximately 200 kDa containing the sequence motif HEMTH and an E residue 20 amino acids downstream, which are characteristic of Zn metalloproteinases. In addition, all had a typical gram-positive cell wall anchor motif, LPNTG, which, in contrast to such motifs in other known streptococcal and staphylococcal proteins, was located in their N-terminal parts. Repeat structures showing variation in number and sequence were present in all strains and may be of relevance to the immunogenicities of the enzymes. Protease activities in cultures of the streptococcal strains were associated with species of different molecular masses ranging from 130 to 200 kDa, suggesting posttranslational processing possibly as a result of autoproteolysis at post-proline peptide bonds in the N-terminal parts of the molecules. Comparison of deduced amino acid sequences revealed a 94% similarity between S. oralis and S. mitis IgA1 proteases and a 75 to 79% similarity between IgA1 proteases of these species and those of S. pneumoniae and S. sanguis, respectively. Combined with the results of RFLP analyses using different iga gene fragments as probes, the results of nucleotide sequence comparisons provide evidence of

  14. Bacteriophage-derived CHAP domain protein, P128, kills Staphylococcus cells by cleaving interpeptide cross-bridge of peptidoglycan.

    PubMed

    Sundarrajan, Sudarson; Raghupatil, Junjappa; Vipra, Aradhana; Narasimhaswamy, Nagalakshmi; Saravanan, Sanjeev; Appaiah, Chemira; Poonacha, Nethravathi; Desai, Srividya; Nair, Sandhya; Bhatt, Rajagopala Narayana; Roy, Panchali; Chikkamadaiah, Ravisha; Durgaiah, Murali; Sriram, Bharathi; Padmanabhan, Sriram; Sharma, Umender

    2014-10-01

    P128 is an anti-staphylococcal protein consisting of the Staphylococcus aureus phage-K-derived tail-associated muralytic enzyme (TAME) catalytic domain (Lys16) fused with the cell-wall-binding SH3b domain of lysostaphin. In order to understand the mechanism of action and emergence of resistance to P128, we isolated mutants of Staphylococcus spp., including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), resistant to P128. In addition to P128, the mutants also showed resistance to Lys16, the catalytic domain of P128. The mutants showed loss of fitness as shown by reduced rate of growth in vitro. One of the mutants tested was found to show reduced virulence in animal models of S. aureus septicaemia suggesting loss of fitness in vivo as well. Analysis of the antibiotic sensitivity pattern showed that the mutants derived from MRSA strains had become sensitive to meticillin and other β-lactams. Interestingly, the mutant cells were resistant to the lytic action of phage K, although the phage was able to adsorb to these cells. Sequencing of the femA gene of three P128-resistant mutants showed either a truncation or deletion in femA, suggesting that improper cross-bridge formation in S. aureus could be causing resistance to P128. Using glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion peptides as substrates it was found that both P128 and Lys16 were capable of cleaving a pentaglycine sequence, suggesting that P128 might be killing S. aureus by cleaving the pentaglycine cross-bridge of peptidoglycan. Moreover, peptides corresponding to the reported cross-bridge of Staphylococcus haemolyticus (GGSGG, AGSGG), which were not cleaved by lysostaphin, were cleaved efficiently by P128. This was also reflected in high sensitivity of S. haemolyticus to P128. This showed that in spite of sharing a common mechanism of action with lysostaphin, P128 has unique properties, which allow it to act on certain lysostaphin-resistant Staphylococcus strains. © 2014 The Authors.

  15. Observations of cleavage steps, slip traces and dislocation hollow cores on cleaved ?100? faces of ?-arginine phosphate monohydrate single crystals by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangwal, K.; Torrent-Burgués, J.; Sanz, F.; Servat, J.

    1997-03-01

    The results of an atomic force microscopy study of the nature of cleavage steps, observation of slip traces and formation of hollow cores at the centres of dislocations on the {100} faces of L-arginine phosphate monohydrate (LAP) single crystals grown from aqueous solutions are described and discussed. It was observed that: (1) most of the cleavage steps and all the slip traces are of elementary height, a = 1.085 nm; (2) the origin of a cleavage step may or may not have a hollow core; and (3) close to its origin, the curvature of a cleavage step may be positive or negative or may change from positive to negative. The results suggest that slip traces observed on the cleaved surfaces of LAP are formed during the cleavage process while the rounding and the rearrangement of elementary cleavage steps take place immediately after the occurrence of cleavage. Analysis of the results also shows that the dislocations responsible for the origin of hollow cores always represent a stress field state corresponding to a trapped solution of different local interface supersaturations.

  16. Kid cleaves specific mRNAs at UUACU sites to rescue the copy number of plasmid R1

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, Belén; Madine, Mark A; de la Cueva-Méndez, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    Stability and copy number of extra-chromosomal elements are tightly regulated in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Toxin Kid and antitoxin Kis are the components of the parD stability system of prokaryotic plasmid R1 and they can also function in eukaryotes. In bacteria, Kid was thought to become active only in cells that lose plasmid R1 and to cleave exclusively host mRNAs at UA(A/C/U) trinucleotide sites to eliminate plasmid-free cells. Instead, we demonstrate here that Kid becomes active in plasmid-containing cells when plasmid copy number decreases, cleaving not only host- but also a specific plasmid-encoded mRNA at the longer and more specific target sequence UUACU. This specific cleavage by Kid inhibits bacterial growth and, at the same time, helps to restore the plasmid copy number. Kid targets a plasmid RNA that encodes a repressor of the synthesis of an R1 replication protein, resulting in increased plasmid DNA replication. This mechanism resembles that employed by some human herpesviruses to regulate viral amplification during infection. PMID:16163387

  17. Structure of protease-cleaved Escherichia coli α-2-macroglobulin reveals a putative mechanism of conformational activation for protease entrapment

    SciTech Connect

    Fyfe, Cameron D.; Grinter, Rhys; Josts, Inokentijs

    The X-ray structure of protease-cleaved E. coli α-2-macroglobulin is described, which reveals a putative mechanism of activation and conformational change essential for protease inhibition. Bacterial α-2-macroglobulins have been suggested to function in defence as broad-spectrum inhibitors of host proteases that breach the outer membrane. Here, the X-ray structure of protease-cleaved Escherichia coli α-2-macroglobulin is described, which reveals a putative mechanism of activation and conformational change essential for protease inhibition. In this competitive mechanism, protease cleavage of the bait-region domain results in the untethering of an intrinsically disordered region of this domain which disrupts native interdomain interactions that maintain E. colimore » α-2-macroglobulin in the inactivated form. The resulting global conformational change results in entrapment of the protease and activation of the thioester bond that covalently links to the attacking protease. Owing to the similarity in structure and domain architecture of Escherichia coli α-2-macroglobulin and human α-2-macroglobulin, this protease-activation mechanism is likely to operate across the diverse members of this group.« less

  18. 2A self-cleaving peptide-based multi-gene expression system in the silkworm Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuancheng; Wang, Feng; Wang, Riyuan; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-01-01

    Fundamental and applied studies of silkworms have entered the functional genomics era. Here, we report a multi-gene expression system (MGES) based on 2A self-cleaving peptide (2A), which regulates the simultaneous expression and cleavage of multiple gene targets in the silk gland of transgenic silkworms. First, a glycine-serine-glycine spacer (GSG) was found to significantly improve the cleavage efficiency of 2A. Then, the cleavage efficiency of six types of 2As with GSG was analyzed. The shortest porcine teschovirus-1 2A (P2A-GSG) exhibited the highest cleavage efficiency in all insect cell lines that we tested. Next, P2A-GSG successfully cleaved the artificial human serum albumin (66 kDa) linked with human acidic fibroblast growth factor (20.2 kDa) fusion genes and vitellogenin receptor fragment (196 kD) of silkworm linked with EGFP fusion genes, importantly, vitellogenin receptor protein was secreted to the outside of cells. Furthermore, P2A-GSG successfully mediated the simultaneous expression and cleavage of a DsRed and EGFP fusion gene in silk glands and caused secretion into the cocoon of transgenic silkworms using our sericin1 expression system. We predicted that the MGES would be an efficient tool for gene function research and innovative research on various functional silk materials in medicine, cosmetics, and other biomedical areas. PMID:26537835

  19. Experimental and Metabolic Modeling Evidence for a Folate-Cleaving Side-Activity of Ketopantoate Hydroxymethyltransferase (PanB)

    SciTech Connect

    Thiaville, Jennifer J.; Frelin, Océane; García-Salinas, Carolina

    Tetrahydrofolate (THF) and its one-carbon derivatives, collectively termed folates, are essential cofactors, but are inherently unstable. While it is clear that chemical oxidation can cleave folates or damage their pterin precursors, very little is known about enzymatic damage to these molecules or about whether the folate biosynthesis pathway responds adaptively to damage to its end-products. The presence of a duplication of the gene encoding the folate biosynthesis enzyme 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin pyrophosphokinase (FolK) in many sequenced bacterial genomes combined with a strong chromosomal clustering of the folK gene with panB, encoding the 5,10-methylene-THF-dependent enzyme ketopantoate hydroxymethyltransferase, led us to infer that PanBmore » has a side activity that cleaves 5,10-methylene-THF, yielding a pterin product that is recycled by FolK. Genetic and metabolic analyses of Escherichia coli strains showed that overexpression of PanB leads to accumulation of the likely folate cleavage product 6-hydroxymethylpterin and other pterins in cells and medium, and—unexpectedly—to a 46% increase in total folate content. In silico modeling of the folate biosynthesis pathway showed that these observations are consistent with the in vivo cleavage of 5,10-methylene-THF by a side-activity of PanB, with FolK-mediated recycling of the pterin cleavage product, and with regulation of folate biosynthesis by folates or their damage products.« less

  20. Spontaneous brightening of dark excitons in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots near a cleaved facet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Y. H.; Křápek, V.; Schmidt, O. G.; Rastelli, A.

    2017-04-01

    Dark excitons (DEs) confined in epitaxial quantum dots (QDs) are interesting because of their long lifetime compared to bright excitons (BEs). For the same reason they are usually difficult to access in optical experiments. Here we report on the observation of vertically polarized light emission from DEs confined in high-quality epitaxial GaAs/AlGaAs QDs located in proximity of a cleaved facet of the QD specimen. Calculations based on the eight-band k.p method and configuration interaction allow us to attribute the brightening of the DE to the anisotropic strain present at the sample edge, which breaks the symmetry of the system and enhances valence-band mixing. The mechanism of DE brightening is discussed in detail by inspecting both the Bloch and envelope wave functions of the involved hole states. In addition, by investigating experimentally and theoretically QDs with different sizes, we find that the energy separation between DE and BEs tends to decrease with increasing QD height. Finally, the presence of a cleaved facet is found also to enhance the BE fine structure splitting. This work provides a simple method to optically probe dark excitonic states in QDs and shows that the properties of QDs can be significantly affected by the presence of nearby edges.

  1. Cleaved CD147 shed from the surface of malignant melanoma cells activates MMP2 produced by fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Miho; Higashi, Yuko; Fukushige, Tomoko; Baba, Naoko; Kawai, Kazuhiro; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Su, Juan; Zeng, Weiqi; Chen, Xiang; Kanekura, Takuro

    2014-12-01

    Cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147)/basigin on the malignant tumor cell surface is critical for tumor proliferation, invasiveness, metastasis, and angiogenesis. CD147 expressed on malignant melanoma cells can induce tumor cell invasion by stimulating the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by surrounding fibroblasts. Membrane vesicles, microvesicles and exosomes have attracted attention, as vehicles of functional molecules and their association with CD147 has been reported. Cleaved CD147 fragments released from tumor cells were reported to interact with fibroblasts. We investigated the intercellular mechanisms by which CD147 stimulates fibroblasts to induce MMP2 activity. CD147 was knocked-down using short hairpin RNA (shRNA). The stimulatory effect of CD147 in cell culture supernatants, microvesicles, and exosomes on the enzymatic activity of MMP2 was examined by gelatin zymography. Supernatants from A375 control cells induced increased enzymatic activity of fibroblasts; such activity was significantly lower in CD147 knock-down cells. Cleaved CD147 plays a pivotal role in stimulating fibroblasts to induce MMP2 activity. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  2. Aluminum and gold deposition on cleaved single crystals of Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, B. O.; Lindberg, P. A. P.; Shen, Z.-X.; Dessau, D. S.; Lindau, I.; Spicer, W. E.; Mitzi, D. B.; Kapitulnik, A.

    1989-02-01

    We have used photoelectron spectroscopy to study the changes in the electronic structure of cleaved, single crystal Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8 caused by deposition of aluminum and gold. Al reacts strongly with the superconductor surface. Even the lowest coverages of Al reduces the valency of Cu in the superconductor, draws oxygen out of the bulk, and strongly modifies the electronic states in the valence band. The Au shows little reaction with the superconductor surface. Underneath Au, the Cu valency is unchanged and the core peaks show no chemically shifted components. Au appears to passivate the surface of the superconductor and thus may aid in the processing of the Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O material. These results are consistent with earlier studies of Al and Au interfaces with other, polycrystalline oxide superconductors. Comparing with our own previous results, we conclude that Au is superior to Ag in passivating the Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O surface.

  3. Bacillus anthracis Overcomes an Amino Acid Auxotrophy by Cleaving Host Serum Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Terwilliger, Austen; Swick, Michelle C.; Pflughoeft, Kathryn J.; Pomerantsev, Andrei; Lyons, C. Rick; Koehler, Theresa M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteria sustain an infection by acquiring nutrients from the host to support replication. The host sequesters these nutrients as a growth-restricting strategy, a concept termed “nutritional immunity.” Historically, the study of nutritional immunity has centered on iron uptake because many bacteria target hemoglobin, an abundant circulating protein, as an iron source. Left unresolved are the mechanisms that bacteria use to attain other nutrients from host sources, including amino acids. We employed a novel medium designed to mimic the chemical composition of human serum, and we show here that Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax disease, proteolyzes human hemoglobin to liberate essential amino acids which enhance its growth. This property can be traced to the actions of InhA1, a secreted metalloprotease, and extends to at least three other serum proteins, including serum albumin. The results suggest that we must also consider proteolysis of key host proteins to be a way for bacterial pathogens to attain essential nutrients, and we provide an experimental framework to determine the host and bacterial factors involved in this process. IMPORTANCE The mechanisms by which bacterial pathogens acquire nutrients during infection are poorly understood. Here we used a novel defined medium that approximates the chemical composition of human blood serum, blood serum mimic (BSM), to better model the nutritional environment that pathogens encounter during bacteremia. Removing essential amino acids from BSM revealed that two of the most abundant proteins in blood—hemoglobin and serum albumin—can satiate the amino acid requirement for Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. We further demonstrate that hemoglobin is proteolyzed by the secreted protease InhA1. These studies highlight that common blood proteins can be a nutrient source for bacteria. They also challenge the historical view that hemoglobin is solely an iron source for

  4. A Domain of Herpes Simplex Virus pUL33 Required To Release Monomeric Viral Genomes from Cleaved Concatemeric DNA.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kui; Dang, Xiaoqun; Baines, Joel D

    2017-10-15

    Monomeric herpesvirus DNA is cleaved from concatemers and inserted into preformed capsids through the actions of the viral terminase. The terminase of herpes simplex virus (HSV) is composed of three subunits encoded by U L 15, U L 28, and U L 33. The U L 33-encoded protein (pU L 33) interacts with pU L 28, but its precise role in the DNA cleavage and packaging reaction is unclear. To investigate the function of pU L 33, we generated a panel of recombinant viruses with either deletions or substitutions in the most conserved regions of U L 33 using a bacterial artificial chromosome system. Deletion of 11 amino acids (residues 50 to 60 or residues 110 to 120) precluded viral replication, whereas the truncation of the last 10 amino acids from the pU L 33 C terminus did not affect viral replication or the interaction of pU L 33 with pU L 28. Mutations that replaced the lysine at codon 110 and the arginine at codon 111 with alanine codons failed to replicate, and the pU L 33 mutant interacted with pU L 28 less efficiently. Interestingly, genomic termini of the large (L) and small (S) components were detected readily in cells infected with these mutants, indicating that concatemeric DNA was cleaved efficiently. However, the release of monomeric genomes as assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was greatly diminished, and DNA-containing capsids were not observed. These results suggest that pU L 33 is necessary for one of the two viral DNA cleavage events required to release individual genomes from concatemeric viral DNA. IMPORTANCE This paper shows a role for pU L 33 in one of the two DNA cleavage events required to release monomeric genomes from concatemeric viral DNA. This is the first time that such a phenotype has been observed and is the first identification of a function of this protein relevant to DNA packaging other than its interaction with other terminase components. Copyright © 2017 Yang et al.

  5. An Undergraduate Investigation into the 10-23 DNA Enzyme that Cleaves RNA: DNA Can Cut It in the Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn-Charlebois, Amber; Burns, Jamie; Chapelliquen, Stephanie; Sanmartino, Holly

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost biochemistry experiment is described that demonstrates current techniques in the use of catalytic DNA molecules and introduces a nonradioactive, nonfluorescent, inexpensive, fast, and safe method for monitoring these nucleic acid reactions. The laboratory involves the exploration of the 10-23 DNA enzyme as it cleaves a specific RNA…

  6. Apoptosis through Bcl-2/Bax and Cleaved Caspase Up-Regulation in Melanoma Treated by Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Faião-Flores, Fernanda; Coelho, Paulo Rogério Pinto; Toledo Arruda-Neto, João Dias; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi; Tiago, Manoela; Capelozzi, Vera Luiza; Giorgi, Ricardo Rodrigues; Maria, Durvanei Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment involving selective accumulation of boron carriers in a tumor followed by irradiation with a thermal or epithermal neutron beam. The neutron capture reaction with a boron-10 nucleus yields high linear energy transfer (LET) particles, alpha and 7Li, with a range of 5 to 9 µm. These particles can only travel very short distances and release their damaging energy directly into the cells containing the boron compound. We aimed to evaluate proliferation, apoptosis and extracellular matrix (ECM) modifications of B16F10 melanoma and normal human melanocytes after BNCT. The amounts of soluble collagen and Hsp47, indicating collagen synthesis in the ECM, as well as the cellular markers of apoptosis, were investigated. BNCT decreased proliferation, altered the ECM by decreasing collagen synthesis and induced apoptosis by regulating Bcl-2/Bax in melanoma. Additionally, BNCT also increased the levels of TNF receptor and the cleaved caspases 3, 7, 8 and 9 in melanoma. These results suggest that multiple pathways related to cell death and cell cycle arrest are involved in the treatment of melanoma by BNCT. PMID:23527236

  7. Radiometric cytolysis inhibition assay, a new rapid test for neutralizing antibodies to intact and trypsin-cleaved poliovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Hovi, T.; Roivainen, M.

    1989-04-01

    We have developed a new rapid test, the radiometric cytolysis inhibition assay (RACINA), for the determination of neutralizing poliovirus antibodies. HeLa cells prelabeled with /sup 51/Cr, (/sup 3/H)leucine, or, preferentially, with (/sup 3/H)uridine are used as sensitive quantitative indicators of residual infectious virus. Both suspensions and monolayer cultures of the indicator cells can be used. Neutralization of a fraction of a high-titer virus preparation can be scored after the first replication cycle at 8 to 10 h. By lowering the incubation temperature to 30/degree/C, the completion of the cytolysis due to the first replication cycle of poliovirus was delayed beyondmore » 21 h. This makes it possible to use the RACINA, unlike the standard microneutralization assay, for measuring antibodies to trypsin-cleaved polioviruses. The RACINA was found to be as sensitive as and more reproducible than the standard microneutralization assay in the measurement of neutralizing poliovirus antibodies. The RACINA is a rapid and reliable test for neutralizing antibodies and in principle it may be applicable for quantitation of neutralizing antibodies to other cytolytic agents as well.« less

  8. The HIV-1 gp41 ectodomain is cleaved by matriptase to produce a chemotactic peptide that acts through FPR2

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Matthew P; Cole, Amy L; Eade, Colleen R; Chen, Li-Mei; Chai, Karl X; Cole, Alexander M

    2014-01-01

    Several aspects of HIV-1 virulence and pathogenesis are mediated by the envelope protein gp41. Additionally, peptides derived from the gp41 ectodomain have been shown to induce chemotaxis in monocytes and neutrophils. Whereas this chemotactic activity has been reported, it is not known how these peptides could be produced under biological conditions. The heptad repeat 1 (HR1) region of gp41 is exposed to the extracellular environment and could therefore be susceptible to proteolytic processing into smaller peptides. Matriptase is a serine protease expressed at the surface of most epithelia, including the prostate and mucosal surfaces. Here, we present evidence that matriptase efficiently cleaves the HR1 portion of gp41 into a 22-residue chemotactic peptide MAT-1, the sequence of which is highly conserved across HIV-1 clades. We found that MAT-1 induced migration of primary neutrophils and monocytes, the latter of which act as a cellular reservoir of HIV during early stage infection. We then used formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) and FPR2 inhibitors, along with HEK 293 cells, to demonstrate that MAT-1 can induce chemotaxis specifically using FPR2, a receptor found on the surface of monocytes, macrophages and neutrophils. These findings are the first to identify a proteolytic cleavage product of gp41 with chemotactic activity and highlight a potential role for matriptase in HIV-1 transmission and infection at epithelial surfaces and within tissue reservoirs of HIV-1. PMID:24617769

  9. Viral genome packaging terminase cleaves DNA using the canonical RuvC-like two-metal catalysis mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rui-Gang; Jenkins, Huw T.; Chechik, Maria; Blagova, Elena V.; Lopatina, Anna; Klimuk, Evgeny; Minakhin, Leonid; Severinov, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Bacteriophages and large dsDNA viruses encode sophisticated machinery to translocate their DNA into a preformed empty capsid. An essential part of this machine, the large terminase protein, processes viral DNA into constituent units utilizing its nuclease activity. Crystal structures of the large terminase nuclease from the thermophilic bacteriophage G20c show that it is most similar to the RuvC family of the RNase H-like endonucleases. Like RuvC proteins, the nuclease requires either Mn2+, Mg2+ or Co2+ ions for activity, but is inactive with Zn2+ and Ca2+. High resolution crystal structures of complexes with different metals reveal that in the absence of DNA, only one catalytic metal ion is accommodated in the active site. Binding of the second metal ion may be facilitated by conformational variability, which enables the two catalytic aspartic acids to be brought closer to each other. Structural comparison indicates that in common with the RuvC family, the location of the two catalytic metals differs from other members of the RNase H family. In contrast to a recently proposed mechanism, the available data do not support binding of the two metals at an ultra-short interatomic distance. Thus we postulate that viral terminases cleave DNA by the canonical RuvC-like mechanism. PMID:28100693

  10. Cholecystokinin octa- and tetrapeptide degradation by synaptic membranes. II. Solubilization and separation of membrane-bound CCK-8 cleaving enzymes.

    PubMed

    Deschodt-Lanckman, M; Bui, N D; Koulischer, D; Paroutaud, P; Strosberg, A D

    1983-01-01

    Solubilization of rat synaptic membranes by Triton X-100, followed by DEAE-cellulose chromatography allowed the identification of different CCK-8 cleaving enzymes. The first one (in the order of elution) removed the N-terminal aspartic acid residue of CCK-8 and was active on L-aspartic acid beta naphtylamide, suggesting that a corresponded to an aminopeptidase A. Two aminopeptidases of broad specificity hydrolyzed sequentially all the peptide bonds of CCK-8 as far as the release of free tryptophan. The removal of the sulfated tyrosine residue of CCK-8 occurred at a slower rate than that of the unsulfated residue. Another peptidase converted CCK-8 into its C-terminal heptapeptide. This enzyme had a lower affinity for the sulfated octapeptide in comparison with the unsulfated form (app Km of respectively 180 and 40 muM). The CCK-7 generating proteases displayed a moderate regional variation in five rat brain areas, with the highest activity in olfactory bulbs membranes and the lowest in cerebellar membranes. This distribution followed (with a lower amplitude) that of the CCK receptors.

  11. [Atypical hemolytic and uremic syndrome associated with von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease (ADAMTS 13) deficiency in children].

    PubMed

    Ben Abdallah Chabchoub, R; Boukedi, A; Bensalah, M; Maalej, B; Gargour, L; Turk, F; Ben Halima, N; Wolf, M; Veyradier, A; Mahfoudh, A

    2013-08-01

    Hemolytic and uremic syndrome (HUS) is a classical form of thrombotic microangiopathies characterized by the association of hemolytic anemia with schizocytes, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure. Two forms of HUS have been described: the typical form that occurs after ingestion of a strain of bacteria, usually Escherichia coli types, which expresses verotoxin (also called shiga-like toxin), typically followed by bloody diarrhea, and atypical HUS, which is rare during childhood and can also be revealed by bloody diarrhea. We report a case of a 25-month-old infant who presented with hematuria and pallor after an episode of diarrhea. Biological tests revealed anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal failure. The diagnosis of typical HUS was made, but the causal microorganism was not identified. Progression was favorable within 5 days of plasma transfusions. Two months later, the patient presented with the same symptoms and neurological impairment without any diarrhea. Von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease activity (ADAMTS 13) was low. Therefore, the diagnosis of atypical HUS by severe deficiency of ADAMTS 13 was suggested. The treatment was based on plasma transfusions resulting in remission. Atypical HUS associated with severe ADAMTS 13 deficiency rarely occurs in childhood. The prognosis, usually threatening, has been completely transformed thanks to a better understanding of the pathogenesis and to therapeutic progress. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  12. The antiangiogenic activity of cleaved high molecular weight kininogen is mediated through binding to endothelial cell tropomyosin

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing-Chuan; Doñate, Fernando; Qi, Xiaoping; Ziats, Nicholas P.; Juarez, Jose C.; Mazar, Andrew P.; Pang, Yuan-Ping; McCrae, Keith R.

    2002-01-01

    Conformationally altered proteins and protein fragments derived from the extracellular matrix and hemostatic system may function as naturally occurring angiogenesis inhibitors. One example of such a protein is cleaved high molecular weight kininogen (HKa). HKa inhibits angiogenesis by inducing apoptosis of proliferating endothelial cells, effects mediated largely by HKa domain 5. However, the mechanisms underlying the antiangiogenic activity of HKa have not been characterized, and its binding site on proliferating endothelial cells has not been defined. Here, we report that the induction of endothelial cell apoptosis by HKa, as well as the antiangiogenic activity of HKa in the chick chorioallantoic membrane, was inhibited completely by antitropomyosin monoclonal antibody TM-311. TM-311 also blocked the high-affinity Zn2+-dependent binding of HKa to both purified tropomyosin and proliferating endothelial cells. Confocal microscopic analysis of endothelial cells stained with monoclonal antibody TM-311, as well as biotin labeling of cell surface proteins on intact endothelial cells, revealed that tropomyosin exposure was enhanced on the surface of proliferating cells. These studies demonstrate that the antiangiogenic effects of HKa depend on high-affinity binding to endothelial cell tropomyosin. PMID:12196635

  13. Cytoplasmic peptide:N-glycanase cleaves N-glycans on a carboxypeptidase Y mutant during ERAD in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hosomi, Akira; Suzuki, Tadashi

    2015-04-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) is a pathway by which misfolded or improperly assembled proteins in the ER are directed to degradation. The cytoplasmic peptide:N-glycanase (PNGase) is a deglycosylating enzyme that cleaves N-glycans from misfolded glycoproteins during the ERAD process. The mutant form of yeast carboxypeptidase Y (CPY*) is an ERAD model substrate that has been extensively studied in yeast. While a delay in the degradation of CPY* in yeast cells lacking the cytoplasmic PNGase (Png1 in yeast) was evident, the in vivo action of PNGase on CPY* has not been detected. We constructed new ERAD substrates derived from CPY*, bearing epitope tags at both N- and C-termini and examined the degradation intermediates observed in yeast cells with compromised proteasome activity. The occurrence of the PNGase-mediated deglycosylation of intact CPY* and its degradation intermediates was evident. A major endoproteolytic reaction on CPY* appears to occur between amino acid 400 and 404. The findings reported herein clearly indicate that PNGase indeed releases N-glycans from CPY* during the ERAD process in vivo. This report implies that the PNGase-mediated deglycosylation during the ERAD process may occur more abundantly than currently envisaged. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cleaved high molecular weight kininogen, a novel factor in the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Vosgerau, Uwe; Lauer, Diljara; Unger, Thomas; Kaschina, Elena

    2010-01-15

    We previously reported that Brown Norway Katholiek rats, which feature a deficiency of plasma kininogens, develop severe abdominal aortic aneurysm. Increased activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the aortic wall, leading to degradation of extracellular matrix components, is considered to play a crucial role in aneurysm formation. Using an in vitro model of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), cultured from the rat aorta, we investigated whether the cleaved form of high molecular weight kininogen, designated HKa, affects the expression of MMP-9 and MMP-2 and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs). Treatment of VSMCs with HKa reduced in a concentration-dependent manner IL-1alpha-induced release of MMP-9 and MMP-2, associated with decreased MMP enzymatic activity levels in conditioned media, as demonstrated by gelatin zymography and fluorescein-labeled gelatin substrate assay, respectively. Real-time PCR revealed that HKa reduced corresponding MMP-9 mRNA levels. Further investigations showed that this effect did not result from a modified rate of MMP-9 mRNA degradation. TIMP-1 mRNA levels, already increased as a result of cytokine-stimulation, were significantly enhanced by HKa. Furthermore, we found elevated basal mRNA expression levels of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in VSMCs derived from kininogen-deficient Brown Norway Katholiek rats. These results demonstrate for the first time that HKa affects the regulation of MMPs in VSMCs.

  15. The paracaspase MALT1 cleaves HOIL1 reducing linear ubiquitination by LUBAC to dampen lymphocyte NF-κB signalling

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Theo; Fung, Shan-Yu; Renner, Florian; Blank, Michael A.; Dufour, Antoine; Kang, Sohyeong; Bolger-Munro, Madison; Scurll, Joshua M.; Priatel, John J.; Schweigler, Patrick; Melkko, Samu; Gold, Michael R.; Viner, Rosa I.; Régnier, Catherine H.; Turvey, Stuart E.; Overall, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Antigen receptor signalling activates the canonical NF-κB pathway via the CARD11/BCL10/MALT1 (CBM) signalosome involving key, yet ill-defined roles for linear ubiquitination. The paracaspase MALT1 cleaves and removes negative checkpoint proteins, amplifying lymphocyte responses in NF-κB activation and in B-cell lymphoma subtypes. To identify new human MALT1 substrates, we compare B cells from the only known living MALT1mut/mut patient with healthy MALT1+/mut family members using 10-plex Tandem Mass Tag TAILS N-terminal peptide proteomics. We identify HOIL1 of the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex as a novel MALT1 substrate. We show linear ubiquitination at B-cell receptor microclusters and signalosomes. Late in the NF-κB activation cycle HOIL1 cleavage transiently reduces linear ubiquitination, including of NEMO and RIP1, dampening NF-κB activation and preventing reactivation. By regulating linear ubiquitination, MALT1 is both a positive and negative pleiotropic regulator of the human canonical NF-κB pathway—first promoting activation via the CBM—then triggering HOIL1-dependent negative-feedback termination, preventing reactivation. PMID:26525107

  16. Clinical use of a rapid collagen binding assay for von Willebrand factor cleaving protease in patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    PubMed

    Rick, Margaret E; Moll, Stephan; Taylor, Mark A; Krizek, Dennis M; White, Gilbert C; Aronson, David L

    2002-10-01

    A simple collagen binding assay (CBA) for measuring activity of the von Willebrand factor cleaving protease in clinical samples is described, and results of fifty masked plasmapheresis samples rom patients with TTP/HUS and other diseases are presented. There was 97.5% concordance between the CBA and a multimer gel assay. The CBA identified low protease activity in 78% of patients who had a clinical syndrome consistent with TTP/HUS and in 2 of 10 sick controls, giving it a positive predictive value of 0.94. The heterogeneity regarding the presence or absence of vWF protease activity in patients with TTP/HUS was confirmed by finding a low negative predictive value of 0.50 with the CBA. The CBA detected inhibitors of the protease in 26 of 29 patients (90%) with TTP/HUS and low protease activity levels. The CBA is a useful clinical assay for examining von Willebrand factor protease activity and detecting inhibitors against the protease.

  17. Association between serum levels of caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 and early mortality in patients with severe spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Leonardo; Martín, María M; Pérez-Cejas, Antonia; Ramos, Luis; Argueso, Mónica; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Cáceres, Juan J; Jiménez, Alejandro; García-Marín, Victor

    2018-04-16

    Apoptotic changes after cerebral hemorrhage in brain samples of humans have been found. Caspase-cleaved cytokeratin (CCCK)-18 could be detected in the bloodstream during apoptosis. Higher circulating CCCK-18 levels have been associated with 6-month mortality in patients with basal ganglia hemorrhage. The aim of our study was to determine whether there is an association between serum CCCK-18 levels and early mortality of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SIH) patients. We performed an observational, prospective and multicentre study. There were included patients with severe SIH defined as Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) lower than 9. We determined serum CCCK-18 levels at the severe SIH diagnosis moment. We found that non-surviving SIH patients (n = 46) showed lower GCS, and higher serum CCCK-18 levels and APACHE-II score than survivor ones (n = 54). In ROC analysis was found that the area under the curve of serum CCCK-18 levels for 30-day mortality prediction was 90% (95% CI 82-95%; p < 0.001). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, we found an association between serum CCCK-18 levels and 30-day mortality (OR 1.034; 95% CI 1.013-1.055; p = 0.002). The novel finding of our study was that there is an association between high serum CCCK-18 levels and 30-day mortality in severe SIH patients.

  18. Latex Clearing Protein—an Oxygenase Cleaving Poly(cis-1,4-Isoprene) Rubber at the cis Double Bonds

    PubMed Central

    Hiessl, Sebastian; Böse, Dietrich; Oetermann, Sylvia; Eggers, Jessica; Pietruszka, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Gordonia polyisoprenivorans strain VH2, a potent rubber-degrading actinomycete, harbors two latex clearing proteins (Lcps), which are known to be essential for the microbial degradation of rubber. However, biochemical information on the exact role of this protein in the degradation of polyisoprene was lacking. In this study, the gene encoding Lcp1VH2 was heterologously expressed in strains of Escherichia coli, the corresponding protein was purified, and its role in rubber degradation was examined by measurement of oxygen consumption as well as by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. It turned out that active Lcp1VH2 is a monomer and is responsible for the oxidative cleavage of poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) in synthetic as well as in natural rubber by the addition of oxygen (O2) to the cis double bonds. The resulting oligomers possess repetitive isoprene units with aldehyde (CHO-CH2—) and ketone (—CH2-CO-CH3) functional groups at the termini. Two fractions with average isoprene contents of 18 and 10, respectively, were isolated, thus indicating an endocleavage mechanism. The activity of Lcp1VH2 was determined by applying a polarographic assay. Alkenes, acyclic terpenes, or other rubber-like polymers, such as poly(cis-1,4-butadiene) or poly(trans-1,4-isoprene), are not oxidatively cleaved by Lcp1VH2. The pH and temperature optima of the enzyme are at pH 7 and 30°C, respectively. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that active Lcp1VH2 is a Cu(II)-containing oxygenase that exhibits a conserved domain of unknown function which cannot be detected in any other hitherto-characterized enzyme. The results presented here indicate that this domain might represent a new protein family of oxygenases. PMID:24928880

  19. SARS-CoV 3CL protease cleaves its C-terminal autoprocessing site by novel subsite cooperativity.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Tomonari; Takemoto, Chie; Kim, Yong-Tae; Wang, Hongfei; Nishii, Wataru; Terada, Takaho; Shirouzu, Mikako; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2016-11-15

    The 3C-like protease (3CL pro ) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) cleaves 11 sites in the polyproteins, including its own N- and C-terminal autoprocessing sites, by recognizing P4-P1 and P1'. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of 3CL pro with the C-terminal prosequence and the catalytic-site C145A mutation, in which the enzyme binds the C-terminal prosequence of another molecule. Surprisingly, Phe at the P3' position [Phe(P3')] is snugly accommodated in the S3' pocket. Mutations of Phe(P3') impaired the C-terminal autoprocessing, but did not affect N-terminal autoprocessing. This difference was ascribed to the P2 residue, Phe(P2) and Leu(P2), in the C- and N-terminal sites, as follows. The S3' subsite is formed by Phe(P2)-induced conformational changes of 3CL pro and the direct involvement of Phe(P2) itself. In contrast, the N-terminal prosequence with Leu(P2) does not cause such conformational changes for the S3' subsite formation. In fact, the mutation of Phe(P2) to Leu in the C-terminal autoprocessing site abolishes the dependence on Phe(P3'). These mechanisms explain why Phe is required at the P3' position when the P2 position is occupied by Phe rather than Leu, which reveals a type of subsite cooperativity. Moreover, the peptide consisting of P4-P1 with Leu(P2) inhibits protease activity, whereas that with Phe(P2) exhibits a much smaller inhibitory effect, because Phe(P3') is missing. Thus, this subsite cooperativity likely exists to avoid the autoinhibition of the enzyme by its mature C-terminal sequence, and to retain the efficient C-terminal autoprocessing by the use of Phe(P2).

  20. The anti-tumor drug bleomycin preferentially cleaves at the transcription start sites of actively transcribed genes in human cells.

    PubMed

    Murray, Vincent; Chen, Jon K; Galea, Anne M

    2014-04-01

    The genome-wide pattern of DNA cleavage at transcription start sites (TSSs) for the anti-tumor drug bleomycin was examined in human HeLa cells using next-generation DNA sequencing. It was found that actively transcribed genes were preferentially cleaved compared with non-transcribed genes. The 143,600 identified human TSSs were split into non-transcribed genes (82,596) and transcribed genes (61,004) for HeLa cells. These transcribed genes were further split into quintiles of 12,201 genes comprising the top 20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, and 80-100 % of expressed genes. The bleomycin cleavage pattern at highly transcribed gene TSSs was greatly enhanced compared with purified DNA and non-transcribed gene TSSs. The top 20 and 20-40 % quintiles had a very similar enhanced cleavage pattern, the 40-60 % quintile was intermediate, while the 60-80 and 80-100 % quintiles were close to the non-transcribed and purified DNA profiles. The pattern of bleomycin enhanced cleavage had peaks that were approximately 200 bp apart, and this indicated that bleomycin was identifying the presence of phased nucleosomes at TSSs. Hence bleomycin can be utilized to detect chromatin structures that are present at actively transcribed genes. In this study, for the first time, the pattern of DNA damage by a clinically utilized cancer chemotherapeutic agent was performed on a human genome-wide scale at the nucleotide level.

  1. Spectral characterization, cyclic voltammetry, morphology, biological activities and DNA cleaving studies of amino acid Schiff base metal(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neelakantan, M. A.; Rusalraj, F.; Dharmaraja, J.; Johnsonraja, S.; Jeyakumar, T.; Sankaranarayana Pillai, M.

    2008-12-01

    Metal complexes are synthesized with Schiff bases derived from o-phthalaldehyde (opa) and amino acids viz., glycine (gly) L-alanine (ala), L-phenylalanine (pal). Metal ions coordinate in a tetradentate or hexadentate manner with these N 2O 2 donor ligands, which are characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moments, IR, electronic, 1H NMR and EPR spectral studies. The elemental analysis suggests the stoichiometry to be 1:1 (metal:ligand). Based on EPR studies, spin-Hamiltonian and bonding parameters have been calculated. The g-values calculated for copper complexes at 300 K and in frozen DMSO (77 K) indicate the presence of the unpaired electron in the d orbital. The evaluated metal-ligand bonding parameters showed strong in-plane σ- and π-bonding. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron micrography (SEM) analysis provide the crystalline nature and the morphology of the metal complexes. The cyclic voltammograms of the Cu(II)/Mn(II)/VO(II) complexes investigated in DMSO solution exhibit metal centered electroactivity in the potential range -1.5 to +1.5 V. The electrochemical data obtained for Cu(II) complexes explains the change of structural arrangement of the ligand around Cu(II) ions. The biological activity of the complexes has been tested on eight bacteria and three fungi. Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes show an increased activity in comparison to the controls. The metal complexes of opapal Schiff base were evaluated for their DNA cleaving activities with calf-thymus DNA (CT DNA) under aerobic conditions. Cu(II) and VO(II) complexes show more pronounced activity in presence of the oxidant.

  2. The Nodulation Factor Hydrolase of Medicago truncatula: Characterization of an Enzyme Specifically Cleaving Rhizobial Nodulation Signals1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ye; Liu, Wei; Cai, Jie; Zhang, Lan-Yue; Wong, Kam-Bo; Feddermann, Nadja; Boller, Thomas; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Staehelin, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Nodule formation induced by nitrogen-fixing rhizobia depends on bacterial nodulation factors (NFs), modified chitin oligosaccharides with a fatty acid moiety. Certain NFs can be cleaved and inactivated by plant chitinases. However, the most abundant NF of Sinorhizobium meliloti, an O-acetylated and sulfated tetramer, is resistant to hydrolysis by all plant chitinases tested so far. Nevertheless, this NF is rapidly degraded in the host rhizosphere. Here, we identify and characterize MtNFH1 (for Medicago truncatula Nod factor hydrolase 1), a legume enzyme structurally related to defense-related class V chitinases (glycoside hydrolase family 18). MtNFH1 lacks chitinase activity but efficiently hydrolyzes all tested NFs of S. meliloti. The enzyme shows a high cleavage preference, releasing exclusively lipodisaccharides from NFs. Substrate specificity and kinetic properties of MtNFH1 were compared with those of class V chitinases from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), which cannot hydrolyze tetrameric NFs of S. meliloti. The Michaelis-Menten constants of MtNFH1 for NFs are in the micromolar concentration range, whereas nonmodified chitin oligosaccharides represent neither substrates nor inhibitors for MtNFH1. The three-dimensional structure of MtNFH1 was modeled on the basis of the known structure of class V chitinases. Docking simulation of NFs to MtNFH1 predicted a distinct binding cleft for the fatty acid moiety, which is absent in the class V chitinases. Point mutation analysis confirmed the modeled NF-MtNFH1 interaction. Silencing of MtNFH1 by RNA interference resulted in reduced NF degradation in the rhizosphere of M. truncatula. In conclusion, we have found a novel legume hydrolase that specifically inactivates NFs. PMID:24082029

  3. Plus and minus RNAs of peach latent mosaic viroid self-cleave in vitro via hammerhead structures.

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, C; Flores, R

    1992-01-01

    Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd), the causal agent of peach latent mosaic disease, has been sequenced and found to be a circular RNA molecule of 337 nucleotide residues, which adopts a branched conformation when it is folded in the model of lowest free energy. PLMVd exhibits limited homologies with other viroids and some satellite RNAs, but it does not have any of the central conserved sequences characteristic of the subgroups of typical viroids. However, a segment of approximately one-third of the PLMVd sequence has the elements required to form in the RNAs of both polarities the hammerhead structures proposed to act in the in vitro self-cleavage of avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd) and some satellite RNAs. Plus and minus partial- and full-length RNA transcripts of PLMVd containing the hammerhead structures displayed self-cleavage during transcription and after purification as predicted by these structures. These data are consistent with the high stability of the PLMVd hammerhead structures, more similar to the corresponding structures of some satellite RNAs than to those of ASBVd, and indicate that the self-cleavage reactions of PLMVd are most probably mediated by single hammerhead structures. Our results support the inclusion of PLMVd in a viroid subgroup represented by ASBVd, whose members are characterized by their ability to self-cleave in vitro, and probably in vivo, through hammerhead structures. A consensus phylogenetic tree has been obtained suggesting that PLMVd, together with ASBVd, may represent an evolutionary link between viroids and viroid-like satellite RNAs. Images PMID:1373888

  4. The Ether-Cleaving Methyltransferase System of the Strict Anaerobe Acetobacterium dehalogenans: Analysis and Expression of the Encoding Genes▿

    PubMed Central

    Schilhabel, Anke; Studenik, Sandra; Vödisch, Martin; Kreher, Sandra; Schlott, Bernhard; Pierik, Antonio Y.; Diekert, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic O-demethylases are inducible multicomponent enzymes which mediate the cleavage of the ether bond of phenyl methyl ethers and the transfer of the methyl group to tetrahydrofolate. The genes of all components (methyltransferases I and II, CP, and activating enzyme [AE]) of the vanillate- and veratrol-O-demethylases of Acetobacterium dehalogenans were sequenced and analyzed. In A. dehalogenans, the genes for methyltransferase I, CP, and methyltransferase II of both O-demethylases are clustered. The single-copy gene for AE is not included in the O-demethylase gene clusters. It was found that AE grouped with COG3894 proteins, the function of which was unknown so far. Genes encoding COG3894 proteins with 20 to 41% amino acid sequence identity with AE are present in numerous genomes of anaerobic microorganisms. Inspection of the domain structure and genetic context of these orthologs predicts that these are also reductive activases for corrinoid enzymes (RACEs), such as carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl coenzyme A synthases or anaerobic methyltransferases. The genes encoding the O-demethylase components were heterologously expressed with a C-terminal Strep-tag in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant proteins methyltransferase I, CP, and AE were characterized. Gel shift experiments showed that the AE comigrated with the CP. The formation of other protein complexes with the O-demethylase components was not observed under the conditions used. The results point to a strong interaction of the AE with the CP. This is the first report on the functional heterologous expression of acetogenic phenyl methyl ether-cleaving O-demethylases. PMID:19011025

  5. Intracellular Trafficking of AIP56, an NF-κB-Cleaving Toxin from Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Liliana M. G.; Pinto, Rute D.; Silva, Daniela S.; Moreira, Ana R.; Beitzinger, Christoph; Oliveira, Pedro; Sampaio, Paula; Benz, Roland; Azevedo, Jorge E.; dos Santos, Nuno M. S.

    2014-01-01

    AIP56 (apoptosis-inducing protein of 56 kDa) is a metalloprotease AB toxin secreted by Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida that acts by cleaving NF-κB. During infection, AIP56 spreads systemically and depletes phagocytes by postapoptotic secondary necrosis, impairing the host phagocytic defense and contributing to the genesis of infection-associated necrotic lesions. Here we show that mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (mBMDM) intoxicated by AIP56 undergo NF-κB p65 depletion and apoptosis. Similarly to what was reported for sea bass phagocytes, intoxication of mBMDM involves interaction of AIP56 C-terminal region with cell surface components, suggesting the existence of a conserved receptor. Biochemical approaches and confocal microscopy revealed that AIP56 undergoes clathrin-dependent endocytosis, reaches early endosomes, and follows the recycling pathway. Translocation of AIP56 into the cytosol requires endosome acidification, and an acidic pulse triggers translocation of cell surface-bound AIP56 into the cytosol. Accordingly, at acidic pH, AIP56 becomes more hydrophobic, interacting with artificial lipid bilayer membranes. Altogether, these data indicate that AIP56 is a short-trip toxin that reaches the cytosol using an acidic-pH-dependent mechanism, probably from early endosomes. Usually, for short-trip AB toxins, a minor pool reaches the cytosol by translocating from endosomes, whereas the rest is routed to lysosomes for degradation. Here we demonstrate that part of endocytosed AIP56 is recycled back and released extracellularly through a mechanism requiring phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity but independent of endosome acidification. So far, we have been unable to detect biological activity of recycled AIP56, thereby bringing into question its biological relevance as well as the importance of the recycling pathway. PMID:25287919

  6. Central domain of IL-33 is cleaved by mast cell proteases for potent activation of group-2 innate lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    Lefrançais, Emma; Duval, Anais; Mirey, Emilie; Roga, Stéphane; Espinosa, Eric; Cayrol, Corinne; Girard, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is an alarmin cytokine from the IL-1 family. IL-33 activates many immune cell types expressing the interleukin 1 receptor-like 1 (IL1RL1) receptor ST2, including group-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s, natural helper cells, nuocytes), the major producers of IL-5 and IL-13 during type-2 innate immune responses and allergic airway inflammation. IL-33 is likely to play a critical role in asthma because the IL33 and ST2/IL1RL1 genes have been reproducibly identified as major susceptibility loci in large-scale genome-wide association studies. A better understanding of the mechanisms regulating IL-33 activity is thus urgently needed. Here, we investigated the role of mast cells, critical effector cells in allergic disorders, known to interact with ILC2s in vivo. We found that serine proteases secreted by activated mast cells (chymase and tryptase) generate mature forms of IL-33 with potent activity on ILC2s. The major forms produced by mast cell proteases, IL-3395–270, IL-33107–270, and IL-33109–270, were 30-fold more potent than full-length human IL-331–270 for activation of ILC2s ex vivo. They induced a strong expansion of ILC2s and eosinophils in vivo, associated with elevated concentrations of IL-5 and IL-13. Murine IL-33 is also cleaved by mast cell tryptase, and a tryptase inhibitor reduced IL-33–dependent allergic airway inflammation in vivo. Our study identifies the central cleavage/activation domain of IL-33 (amino acids 66–111) as an important functional domain of the protein and suggests that interference with IL-33 cleavage and activation by mast cell and other inflammatory proteases could be useful to reduce IL-33–mediated responses in allergic asthma and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:25313073

  7. High serum levels of caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 are associated with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction patient mortality.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Leonardo; Martín, María M; Pérez-Cejas, Antonia; Ramos, Luis; Argueso, Mónica; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Cáceres, Juan J; Jiménez, Alejandro; García-Marín, Victor

    2018-03-24

    There have been found apoptotic changes in brain tissue samples from humans after cerebral ischemia. Caspase-cleaved cytokeratin (CCCK)-18 could appears in blood during apoptosis. High circulating levels of CCCK-18 have been associated with a poor prognosis in patients with cerebral process, such as traumatic brain injury and spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage. However, they have not been explored in patients with ischemic stroke. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between serum CCCK-18 levels and mortality in patients with severe malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMCAI). This was an observational, prospective and multicentre study. We included patients with severe MMCAI. We considered MMCAI as severe when Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) was lower than 9. We measured serum CCCK-18 levels at the diagnosis moment of the severe MMCAI. We found that non-surviving severe MMCAI patients (n = 33) showed lower GCS and platelet count, and higher serum CCCK-18 levels than survivor ones (n = 33). We found an area under the curve (AUC) of serum CCCK-18 levels to predict 30-day mortality of 82% (95% CI = 71%-91%; p < 0.001). In the multiple logistic regression analysis was found that serum CCCK-18 levels were associated with 30-day mortality (OR = 1.023; 95% CI = 1.010-1.037; p = 0.001) after to control for platelet count and GCS. To our knowledge, this is the first series reporting data on serum CCCK-18 levels in ischemic stroke patients. The novel findings of our study were that non-surviving severe MMCAI patients had higher serum CCCK-18 levels than surviving patients, and that there is an association between high serum CCCK-18 levels and MMCAI patients mortality.

  8. EspL is a bacterial cysteine protease effector that cleaves RHIM proteins to block necroptosis and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Jaclyn S; Giogha, Cristina; Mühlen, Sabrina; Nachbur, Ueli; Pham, Chi L L; Zhang, Ying; Hildebrand, Joanne M; Oates, Clare V; Lung, Tania Wong Fok; Ingle, Danielle; Dagley, Laura F; Bankovacki, Aleksandra; Petrie, Emma J; Schroeder, Gunnar N; Crepin, Valerie F; Frankel, Gad; Masters, Seth L; Vince, James; Murphy, James M; Sunde, Margaret; Webb, Andrew I; Silke, John; Hartland, Elizabeth L

    2017-01-13

    Cell death signalling pathways contribute to tissue homeostasis and provide innate protection from infection. Adaptor proteins such as receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIPK1), receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 3 (RIPK3), TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) and Z-DNA-binding protein 1 (ZBP1)/DNA-dependent activator of IFN-regulatory factors (DAI) that contain receptor-interacting protein (RIP) homotypic interaction motifs (RHIM) play a key role in cell death and inflammatory signalling 1-3 . RHIM-dependent interactions help drive a caspase-independent form of cell death termed necroptosis 4,5 . Here, we report that the bacterial pathogen enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) uses the type III secretion system (T3SS) effector EspL to degrade the RHIM-containing proteins RIPK1, RIPK3, TRIF and ZBP1/DAI during infection. This requires a previously unrecognized tripartite cysteine protease motif in EspL (Cys47, His131, Asp153) that cleaves within the RHIM of these proteins. Bacterial infection and/or ectopic expression of EspL leads to rapid inactivation of RIPK1, RIPK3, TRIF and ZBP1/DAI and inhibition of tumour necrosis factor (TNF), lipopolysaccharide or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C))-induced necroptosis and inflammatory signalling. Furthermore, EPEC infection inhibits TNF-induced phosphorylation and plasma membrane localization of mixed lineage kinase domain-like pseudokinase (MLKL). In vivo, EspL cysteine protease activity contributes to persistent colonization of mice by the EPEC-like mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. The activity of EspL defines a family of T3SS cysteine protease effectors found in a range of bacteria and reveals a mechanism by which gastrointestinal pathogens directly target RHIM-dependent inflammatory and necroptotic signalling pathways.

  9. Electrical characteristics of n-GaN Schottky contacts on cleaved surfaces of free-standing substrates: Metal work function dependence of Schottky barrier height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imadate, Hiroyoshi; Mishima, Tomoyoshi; Shiojima, Kenji

    2018-04-01

    We report the electrical characteristics of Schottky contacts with nine different metals (Ag, Ti, Cr, W, Mo, Au, Pd, Ni, and Pt) formed on clean m-plane surfaces by cleaving freestanding GaN substrates, compared with these of contacts on Ga-polar c-plane n-GaN surfaces grown on GaN substrates. The n-values from the forward current–voltage (I–V) characteristics are as good as 1.02–1.18 and 1.02–1.09 for the m- and c-plane samples, respectively. We found that the reverse I–V curves of both samples can be explained by the thermionic field emission theory, and that the Schottky barrier height of the cleaved m-plane contacts shows a metal work function dependence.

  10. Characterization of a monoclonal antibody against P57, the C3/C3b-cleaving proteinase expressed in human erythrocyte membranes.

    PubMed

    Fiandino-Tirel, A; Barel, M; Lyamani, F; Gauffre, A; Hermann, J; Frade, R

    1991-08-01

    A monoclonal antibody was raised against p57, a serine proteinase, characterized by an apparent molecular weight of 57 kDa, and purified from human erythrocyte membranes. P57 proteinase cleaves the human third component of complement, C3. The antibody selected, MP1, of IgG2a isotype, precipitated specifically the p57 antigen which carried the C3/C3b-cleaving activity present in membrane crude extract of human erythrocytes. P57 proteinase eluted from MP1-sepharose was inhibited by 5 x 10(-4) M PMSF, enhanced by 0.5% SDS and generated C3 fragments identical to those generated by membrane crude extract of human erythrocytes. All these properties were identical to those of the p57 previously purified by biochemical procedures. In addition, 5000 binding sites were detected on cell surface. This MP1 monoclonal antibody will be helpful to analyse the role of p57 in human erythrocytes.

  11. Anti-apoptotic Role of Caspase-cleaved GAB1 Adaptor Protein in Hepatocyte Growth Factor/Scatter Factor-MET Receptor Protein Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Le Goff, Arnaud; Ji, Zongling; Leclercq, Bérénice; Bourette, Roland P.; Mougel, Alexandra; Guerardel, Cateline; de Launoit, Yvan; Vicogne, Jérôme; Goormachtigh, Gautier; Fafeur, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    The GRB2-associated binder 1 (GAB1) docking/scaffold protein is a key mediator of the MET-tyrosine kinase receptor activated by hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF). Activated MET promotes recruitment and tyrosine phosphorylation of GAB1, which in turn recruits multiple proteins and mediates MET signaling leading to cell survival, motility, and morphogenesis. We previously reported that, without its ligand, MET is a functional caspase target during apoptosis, allowing the generation of a p40-MET fragment that amplifies apoptosis. In this study we established that GAB1 is also a functional caspase target by evidencing a caspase-cleaved p35-GAB1 fragment that contains the MET binding domain. GAB1 is cleaved by caspases before MET, and the resulting p35-GAB1 fragment is phosphorylated by MET upon HGF/SF binding and can interact with a subset of GAB1 partners, PI3K, and GRB2 but not with SHP2. This p35-GAB1 fragment favors cell survival by maintaining HGF/SF-induced MET activation of AKT and by hindering p40-MET pro-apoptotic function. These data demonstrate an anti-apoptotic role of caspase-cleaved GAB1 in HGF/SF-MET signaling. PMID:22915589

  12. Redox Potential and C-H Bond Cleaving Properties of a Nonheme FeIV=O Complex in Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong; Zhang, Mo; Bühlmann, Philippe; Que, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    High-valent iron-oxo intermediates have been identified as the key oxidants in the catalytic cycles of many nonheme enzymes. Among the large number of synthetic FeIV=O complexes characterized to date, [FeIV(O)(N4Py)]2+ (1) exhibits the unique combination of thermodynamic stability, allowing its structural characterization by X-ray crystallography, and oxidative reactivity sufficient to cleave C-H bonds as strong as those in cyclohexane (DC-H = 99.3 kcal mol-1). However, its redox properties are not yet well understood. In this work, the effect of protons on the redox properties of 1 has been investigated electrochemically in nonaqueous and aqueous solutions. While the cyclic voltammetry of 1 in CH3CN is complicated by coupling of several chemical and redox processes, the FeIV/III couple is reversible in aqueous solution with E1/2 = +0.41 V vs. SCE at pH 4 and involves the transfer of one electron and one proton to give the FeIII-OH species. This is in fact the first example of reversible electrochemistry to be observed for this family of nonheme oxoiron(IV) complexes. C-H bond oxidations by 1 have been studied in H2O and found to have reactions rates that depend on the C-H bond strength but not on the solvent. Furthermore, our electrochemical results have allowed a DO-H value of 78(2) kcal mol-1 to be calculated for the FeIII-OH unit derived from 1. Interestingly, although this DO-H value is 6-11 kcal mol-1 lower than those corresponding to oxidants such as [FeIV(O)(TMP)] (TMP = tetramesitylporphinate), [RuIV(O)(bpy)2(py)]2+ (bpy = bipyridine, py = pyridine) and the tert-butylperoxyl radical, the oxidation of dihydroanthracene by 1 occurs at a rate comparable to those for these other oxidants. This comparison suggests that the nonheme N4Py ligand environment confers a kinetic advantage over the others that enhances the C-H bond cleavage ability of 1. PMID:20476758

  13. Implications of caspase-dependent proteolytic cleavage of cyclin A1 in DNA damage-induced cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, Sang Hyeok; Seo, Sung-Keum; An, Sungkwan

    Highlights: • Caspase-1 mediates doxorubicin-induced downregulation of cyclin A1. • Active caspase-1 effectively cleaved cyclin A1 at D165. • Cyclin A1 expression is involved in DNA damage-induced cell death. - Abstract: Cyclin A1 is an A-type cyclin that directly binds to CDK2 to regulate cell-cycle progression. In the present study, we found that doxorubicin decreased the expression of cyclin A1 at the protein level in A549 lung cancer cells, while markedly downregulating its mRNA levels. Interestingly, doxorubicin upregulated caspase-1 in a concentration-dependent manner, and z-YAVD-fmk, a specific inhibitor of caspase-1, reversed the doxorubicin-induced decrease in cyclin A1 in A549 lungmore » cancer and MCF7 breast cancer cells. Active caspase-1 effectively cleaved cyclin A1 at D165 into two fragments, which in vitro cleavage assays showed were further cleaved by caspase-3. Finally, we found that overexpression of cyclin A1 significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin, and knockdown of cyclin A1 by RNA interference enhanced the sensitivity of cells to ionizing radiation. Our data suggest a new mechanism for the downregulation of cyclin A1 by DNA-damaging stimuli that could be intimately involved in the cell death induced by DNA damage-inducing stimuli, including doxorubicin and ionizing radiation.« less

  14. Efficient and Accurate Algorithm for Cleaved Fragments Prediction (CFPA) in Protein Sequences Dataset Based on Consensus and Its Variants: A Novel Degradomics Prediction Application.

    PubMed

    El-Assaad, Atlal; Dawy, Zaher; Nemer, Georges; Hajj, Hazem; Kobeissy, Firas H

    2017-01-01

    Degradomics is a novel discipline that involves determination of the proteases/substrate fragmentation profile, called the substrate degradome, and has been recently applied in different disciplines. A major application of degradomics is its utility in the field of biomarkers where the breakdown products (BDPs) of different protease have been investigated. Among the major proteases assessed, calpain and caspase proteases have been associated with the execution phases of the pro-apoptotic and pro-necrotic cell death, generating caspase/calpain-specific cleaved fragments. The distinction between calpain and caspase protein fragments has been applied to distinguish injury mechanisms. Advanced proteomics technology has been used to identify these BDPs experimentally. However, it has been a challenge to identify these BDPs with high precision and efficiency, especially if we are targeting a number of proteins at one time. In this chapter, we present a novel bioinfromatic detection method that identifies BDPs accurately and efficiently with validation against experimental data. This method aims at predicting the consensus sequence occurrences and their variants in a large set of experimentally detected protein sequences based on state-of-the-art sequence matching and alignment algorithms. After detection, the method generates all the potential cleaved fragments by a specific protease. This space and time-efficient algorithm is flexible to handle the different orientations that the consensus sequence and the protein sequence can take before cleaving. It is O(mn) in space complexity and O(Nmn) in time complexity, with N number of protein sequences, m length of the consensus sequence, and n length of each protein sequence. Ultimately, this knowledge will subsequently feed into the development of a novel tool for researchers to detect diverse types of selected BDPs as putative disease markers, contributing to the diagnosis and treatment of related disorders.

  15. RNase MRP cleaves the CLB2 mRNA to promote cell cycle progression: novel method of mRNA degradation.

    PubMed

    Gill, Tina; Cai, Ti; Aulds, Jason; Wierzbicki, Sara; Schmitt, Mark E

    2004-02-01

    RNase mitochondrial RNA processing (RNase MRP) mutants have been shown to have an exit-from-mitosis defect that is caused by an increase in CLB2 mRNA levels, leading to increased Clb2p (B-cyclin) levels and a resulting late anaphase delay. Here we describe the molecular defect behind this delay. CLB2 mRNA normally disappears rapidly as cells complete mitosis, but the level remains high in RNase MRP mutants. This is in direct contrast to other exit-from-mitosis mutants and is the result of an increase in CLB2 mRNA stability. We found that highly purified RNase MRP cleaved the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the CLB2 mRNA in several places in an in vitro assay. In vivo, we identified RNase MRP-dependent cleavage products on the CLB2 mRNA that closely matched in vitro products. Disposal of these products was dependent on the 5'-->3' exoribonuclease Xrn1 and not the exosome. Our results demonstrate that the endoribonuclease RNase MRP specifically cleaves the CLB2 mRNA in its 5'-UTR to allow rapid 5' to 3' degradation by the Xrn1 nuclease. Degradation of the CLB2 mRNA by the RNase MRP endonuclease provides a novel way to regulate the cell cycle that complements the protein degradation machinery. In addition, these results denote a new mechanism of mRNA degradation not seen before in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  16. Purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of a novel ring-cleaving enzyme (BoxC{sub C}) from Burkholderia xenovorans LB400

    SciTech Connect

    Bains, Jasleen; Boulanger, Martin J., E-mail: mboulang@uvic.ca

    2008-05-01

    Preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of a novel ring-cleaving enzyme from B. xenovorans LB400 encoded by the benzoate-oxidation (box) pathway. The assimilation of aromatic compounds by microbial species requires specialized enzymes to cleave the thermodynamically stable ring. In the recently discovered benzoate-oxidation (box) pathway in Burkholderia xenovorans LB400, this is accomplished by a novel dihydrodiol lyase (BoxC{sub C}). Sequence analysis suggests that BoxC{sub C} is part of the crotonase superfamily but includes an additional uncharacterized region of approximately 115 residues that is predicted to mediate ring cleavage. Processing of X-ray diffraction data to 1.5 Å resolution revealed that BoxC{sub C} crystallizedmore » with two molecules in the asymmetric unit of the P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} space group, with a solvent content of 47% and a Matthews coefficient of 2.32 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}. Selenomethionine BoxC{sub C} has been purified and crystals are currently being refined for anomalous dispersion studies.« less

  17. GPR107, a G-protein-coupled receptor essential for intoxication by Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A, localizes to the Golgi and is cleaved by furin.

    PubMed

    Tafesse, Fikadu G; Guimaraes, Carla P; Maruyama, Takeshi; Carette, Jan E; Lory, Stephen; Brummelkamp, Thijn R; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2014-08-29

    A number of toxins, including exotoxin A (PE) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, kill cells by inhibiting protein synthesis. PE kills by ADP-ribosylation of the translation elongation factor 2, but many of the host factors required for entry, membrane translocation, and intracellular transport remain to be elucidated. A genome-wide genetic screen in human KBM7 cells was performed to uncover host factors used by PE, several of which were confirmed by CRISPR/Cas9-gene editing in a different cell type. Several proteins not previously implicated in the PE intoxication pathway were identified, including GPR107, an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor. GPR107 localizes to the trans-Golgi network and is essential for retrograde transport. It is cleaved by the endoprotease furin, and a disulfide bond connects the two cleaved fragments. Compromising this association affects the function of GPR107. The N-terminal region of GPR107 is critical for its biological function. GPR107 might be one of the long-sought receptors that associates with G-proteins to regulate intracellular vesicular transport. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Label-Free Biosensor Using a Silver Specific RNA-Cleaving DNAzyme Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube for Silver Ion Determination.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Yang; Liu, Gang

    2018-04-20

    Silver, a very common heavy metal, has been employed in electronics, medicine, jewelry, and catalysis due to its excellent chemical and physical characteristics. Silver-containing wastes can cause environmental pollution, so it is vital to monitor the Ag(I) concentration. Here, a label-free biosensor was developed for the Ag(I) detection, which used single-walled carbon nanotubes/field effect transistor (SWNTs/FET) to functionalize with a specific DNAzyme, containing an Agzyme and a complementary strand DNA (CS-DNA) embedded an RNA-base. The CS-DNA was covalently immobilized on the SWNTs’ surface through peptide bonds, and then combined with the Agzyme. When Ag(I) was bound with the Agzyme, the CS-DNA can be cleaved at the RNA site efficiently. The cleaved DNAzyme induced a remarkable change in the electrical conductivity of SWNTs. The performances of DNAzyme/SWNTs/FET were investigated using different spectroscopy and electrochemical methods. Under the optimized parameters, DNAzyme/SWNTs/FET presented a high sensitivity and selectivity towards Ag(I), in which the linear response range is 10 pM to 10⁶ pM and the limit of detection is 5 pM(S/N = 3). Additionally, the prepared biosensor was applied to measure the Ag(I) concentration in the water sample with good results.

  19. Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Nsp4 Cleaves VISA to Impair Antiviral Responses Mediated by RIG-I-like Receptors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen; Du, Yinping; Yu, Zhibin; Zhang, Qiong; Liu, Yihao; Tang, Jun; Shi, Jishu; Feng, Wen-Hai

    2016-06-22

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most significant etiological agents in the swine industry worldwide. It has been reported that PRRSV infection can modulate host immune responses, and innate immune evasion is thought to play a vital role in PRRSV pathogenesis. In this study, we demonstrated that highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) infection specifically down-regulated virus-induced signaling adaptor (VISA), a unique adaptor molecule that is essential for retinoic acid induced gene-I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation associated gene 5 (MDA5) signal transduction. Moreover, we verified that nsp4 inhibited IRF3 activation induced by signaling molecules, including RIG-I, MDA5, VISA, and TBK1, but not IRF3. Subsequently, we demonstrated that HP-PRRSV nsp4 down-regulated VISA and suppressed type I IFN induction. Importantly, VISA was cleaved by nsp4 and released from mitochondrial membrane, which interrupted the downstream signaling of VISA. However, catalytically inactive mutant of nsp4 abolished its ability to cleave VISA. Interestingly, nsp4 of typical PRRSV strain CH-1a had no effect on VISA. Taken together, these findings reveal a strategy evolved by HP-PRRSV to counteract anti-viral innate immune signaling, which complements the known PRRSV-mediated immune-evasion mechanisms.

  20. Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Nsp4 Cleaves VISA to Impair Antiviral Responses Mediated by RIG-I-like Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chen; Du, Yinping; Yu, Zhibin; Zhang, Qiong; Liu, Yihao; Tang, Jun; Shi, Jishu; Feng, Wen-hai

    2016-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most significant etiological agents in the swine industry worldwide. It has been reported that PRRSV infection can modulate host immune responses, and innate immune evasion is thought to play a vital role in PRRSV pathogenesis. In this study, we demonstrated that highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) infection specifically down-regulated virus-induced signaling adaptor (VISA), a unique adaptor molecule that is essential for retinoic acid induced gene-I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation associated gene 5 (MDA5) signal transduction. Moreover, we verified that nsp4 inhibited IRF3 activation induced by signaling molecules, including RIG-I, MDA5, VISA, and TBK1, but not IRF3. Subsequently, we demonstrated that HP-PRRSV nsp4 down-regulated VISA and suppressed type I IFN induction. Importantly, VISA was cleaved by nsp4 and released from mitochondrial membrane, which interrupted the downstream signaling of VISA. However, catalytically inactive mutant of nsp4 abolished its ability to cleave VISA. Interestingly, nsp4 of typical PRRSV strain CH-1a had no effect on VISA. Taken together, these findings reveal a strategy evolved by HP-PRRSV to counteract anti-viral innate immune signaling, which complements the known PRRSV-mediated immune-evasion mechanisms. PMID:27329948

  1. Label-Free Biosensor Using a Silver Specific RNA-Cleaving DNAzyme Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube for Silver Ion Determination

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Gang

    2018-01-01

    Silver, a very common heavy metal, has been employed in electronics, medicine, jewelry, and catalysis due to its excellent chemical and physical characteristics. Silver-containing wastes can cause environmental pollution, so it is vital to monitor the Ag(I) concentration. Here, a label-free biosensor was developed for the Ag(I) detection, which used single-walled carbon nanotubes/field effect transistor (SWNTs/FET) to functionalize with a specific DNAzyme, containing an Agzyme and a complementary strand DNA (CS-DNA) embedded an RNA-base. The CS-DNA was covalently immobilized on the SWNTs’ surface through peptide bonds, and then combined with the Agzyme. When Ag(I) was bound with the Agzyme, the CS-DNA can be cleaved at the RNA site efficiently. The cleaved DNAzyme induced a remarkable change in the electrical conductivity of SWNTs. The performances of DNAzyme/SWNTs/FET were investigated using different spectroscopy and electrochemical methods. Under the optimized parameters, DNAzyme/SWNTs/FET presented a high sensitivity and selectivity towards Ag(I), in which the linear response range is 10 pM to 106 pM and the limit of detection is 5 pM(S/N = 3). Additionally, the prepared biosensor was applied to measure the Ag(I) concentration in the water sample with good results. PMID:29677143

  2. The C-terminal portion of the cleaved HT motif is necessary and sufficient to mediate export of proteins from the malaria parasite into its host cell

    PubMed Central

    Tarr, Sarah J; Cryar, Adam; Thalassinos, Konstantinos; Haldar, Kasturi; Osborne, Andrew R

    2013-01-01

    The malaria parasite exports proteins across its plasma membrane and a surrounding parasitophorous vacuole membrane, into its host erythrocyte. Most exported proteins contain a Host Targeting motif (HT motif) that targets them for export. In the parasite secretory pathway, the HT motif is cleaved by the protease plasmepsin V, but the role of the newly generated N-terminal sequence in protein export is unclear. Using a model protein that is cleaved by an exogenous viral protease, we show that the new N-terminal sequence, normally generated by plasmepsin V cleavage, is sufficient to target a protein for export, and that cleavage by plasmepsin V is not coupled directly to the transfer of a protein to the next component in the export pathway. Mutation of the fourth and fifth positions of the HT motif, as well as amino acids further downstream, block or affect the efficiency of protein export indicating that this region is necessary for efficient export. We also show that the fifth position of the HT motif is important for plasmepsin V cleavage. Our results indicate that plasmepsin V cleavage is required to generate a new N-terminal sequence that is necessary and sufficient to mediate protein export by the malaria parasite. PMID:23279267

  3. Blast Exposure Causes Early and Persistent Aberrant Phospho- and Cleaved-Tau Expression in a Murine Model of Mild Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Bertrand R.; Meabon, James S.; Martin, Tobin J.; Mourad, Pierre D.; Bennett, Raymond; Kraemer, Brian C.; Cernak, Ibolja; Petrie, Eric C.; Emery, Michael J.; Swenson, Erik R.; Mayer, Cynthia; Mehic, Edin; Peskind, Elaine R.; Cook, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is considered the ‘signature injury’ of combat veterans that have served during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. This prevalence of mTBI is due in part to the common exposure to high explosive blasts in combat zones. In addition to the threats of blunt impact trauma caused by flying objects and the head itself being propelled against objects, the primary blast overpressure (BOP) generated by high explosives is capable of injuring the brain. Compared to other means of causing TBI, the pathophysiology of mild-to-moderate BOP is less well understood. To study the consequences of BOP exposure in mice, we employed a well-established approach using a compressed gas-driven shock tube that recapitulates battlefield-relevant open-field BOP. We found that 24 hours post-blast a single mild BOP provoked elevation of multiple phosphor- and cleaved-tau species in neurons, as well as elevating manganese superoxide-dismutase (MnSOD or SOD2) levels, a cellular response to oxidative stress. In hippocampus, aberrant tau species persisted for at least 30 days post-exposure, while SOD2 levels returned to sham control levels. These findings suggest that elevated phospho- and cleaved-tau species may be among the initiating pathologic processes induced by mild blast exposure. These findings may have important implications for efforts to prevent blast-induced insults to the brain from progressing into long-term neurodegenerative disease processes. PMID:23948882

  4. Prognostic Value of Serum Caspase-Cleaved Cytokeratin-18 Levels before Liver Transplantation for One-Year Survival of Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lorente, Leonardo; Rodriguez, Sergio T.; Sanz, Pablo; Pérez-Cejas, Antonia; Padilla, Javier; Díaz, Dácil; González, Antonio; Martín, María M.; Jiménez, Alejandro; Barrera, Manuel A.

    2016-01-01

    Cytokeratin (CK)-18 is the major intermediate filament protein in the liver and during hepatocyte apoptosis is cleaved by the action of caspases; the resulting fragments are released into the blood as caspase-cleaved cytokeratin (CCCK)-18. Higher circulating levels of CCCK-18 have been found in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) than in healthy controls and than in cirrhotic patients. However, it is unknown whether serum CCCK-18 levels before liver transplantation (LT) in patients with HCC could be used as a prognostic biomarker of one-year survival, and this was the objective of our study with 135 patients. At one year after LT, non-survivors showed higher serum CCCK-18 levels than survivors (p = 0.001). On binary logistic regression analysis, serum CCCK-18 levels >384 U/L were associated with death at one year (odds ratio = 19.801; 95% confidence interval = 5.301–73.972; p < 0.001) after controlling for deceased donor age. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of serum CCCK-18 levels to predict death at one year was 77% (95% CI = 69%–84%; p < 0.001). The new finding of our study was that serum levels of CCCK-18 before LT in patients with HCC could be used as prognostic biomarker of survival. PMID:27618033

  5. EF1A1/HSC70 Cooperatively Suppress Brain Endothelial Cell Apoptosis via Regulating JNK Activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Jiang, Shu; Yang, Peng-Yuan; Zhang, Yue-Fan; Li, Tie-Jun; Rui, Yao-Cheng

    2016-10-01

    In our previous study, eEF1A1 was identified to be a new target for protecting brain ischemia injury, but the mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we screened the downstream cellular protein molecules interacted with eEF1A1 and found mechanism of eEF1A1 in brain ischemia protection. Through co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry for searching the interaction of proteins with eEF1A1 in bEnd3 cells, HSC70 was identified to be a binding protein of eEF1A1, which was further validated by Western blot and immunofluorescence. eEF1A1 or HSC70 knockdown, respectively, increased OGD-induced apoptosis of brain vascular endothelial cells, which was detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. HSC70 or eEF1A1 knockdown enhances phosphorylated JNK, phosphorylation of c-JUN (Ser63, Ser73), cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved caspase-3 expression, which could be rescued by JNK inhibitor. In summary, our data suggest that the presence of chaperone forms of interaction between eEF1A1 and HSC70 in brain vascular endothelial cells, eEF1A1 and HSC70 can play a protective role in the process of ischemic stroke by inhibiting the JNK signaling pathway activation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A SNAP-25 cleaving chimera of botulinum neurotoxin /A and /E prevents TNFα-induced elevation of the activities of native TRP channels on early postnatal rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Marc; Yusef, Yamil R; Meng, Jianghui; Wang, Jiafu; Dolly, J Oliver

    2018-06-12

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) vallinoid 1 (TRPV1) and ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) are two transducing channels expressed on peripheral sensory nerves involved in pain sensation. Upregulation of their expression, stimulated by inflammatory cytokines and growth factors in animal pain models, correlate with the induction of nociceptive hyper-sensitivity. Herein, we firstly demonstrate by immuno-cytochemical labelling that TNFα augments the surface content of these channels on rat cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons which, in turn, enhances the electrophysiological and functional responses of the latter to their specific agonists. A molecular basis underlying this TNFα-dependent enhancement was unveiled by pre-treating DRGs with a recently-published chimeric protein, consisting of the protease light chain (LC) of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) serotype E fused to full-length BoNT/A (LC/E-BoNT/A). This cleaves synaptosomal-associated protein of Mr 25k (SNAP-25) and reported previously to exhibit anti-nociceptive activity in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Low pM concentrations of this chimera were found to prevent the TNFα-stimulated delivery of TRPV1/A1 to the neuronal plasmalemma and, accordingly, decreased their incremental functional activities relative to those of control cells, an effect accompanied by SNAP-25 cleavage. Advantageously, LC/E-BoNT/A did not reduce the basal surface contents of the two channels or their pharmacological responses. Thus, use of multiple complementary methodologies provides evidence that LC/E-BoNT/A abolishes the TNFα-dependent augmented, but not resting, surface trafficking of TRPV1/A1. As TNFα is known to induce nociceptive hyper-sensitivity in vivo, our observed inhibition by LC/E-BoNT/A of its action in vitro could contribute to its potential alleviation of pain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. RasGAP Shields Akt from Deactivating Phosphatases in Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling but Loses This Ability Once Cleaved by Caspase-3*

    PubMed Central

    Cailliau, Katia; Lescuyer, Arlette; Burnol, Anne-Françoise; Cuesta-Marbán, Álvaro; Widmann, Christian; Browaeys-Poly, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) are involved in proliferative and differentiation physiological responses. Deregulation of FGFR-mediated signaling involving the Ras/PI3K/Akt and the Ras/Raf/ERK MAPK pathways is causally involved in the development of several cancers. The caspase-3/p120 RasGAP module is a stress sensor switch. Under mild stress conditions, RasGAP is cleaved by caspase-3 at position 455. The resulting N-terminal fragment, called fragment N, stimulates anti-death signaling. When caspase-3 activity further increases, fragment N is cleaved at position 157. This generates a fragment, called N2, that no longer protects cells. Here, we investigated in Xenopus oocytes the impact of RasGAP and its fragments on FGF1-mediated signaling during G2/M cell cycle transition. RasGAP used its N-terminal Src homology 2 domain to bind FGFR once stimulated by FGF1, and this was necessary for the recruitment of Akt to the FGFR complex. Fragment N, which did not associate with the FGFR complex, favored FGF1-induced ERK stimulation, leading to accelerated G2/M transition. In contrast, fragment N2 bound the FGFR, and this inhibited mTORC2-dependent Akt Ser-473 phosphorylation and ERK2 phosphorylation but not phosphorylation of Akt on Thr-308. This also blocked cell cycle progression. Inhibition of Akt Ser-473 phosphorylation and entry into G2/M was relieved by PHLPP phosphatase inhibition. Hence, full-length RasGAP favors Akt activity by shielding it from deactivating phosphatases. This shielding was abrogated by fragment N2. These results highlight the role played by RasGAP in FGFR signaling and how graded stress intensities, by generating different RasGAP fragments, can positively or negatively impact this signaling. PMID:26109071

  8. Stable 293 T and CHO cell lines expressing cleaved, stable HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimers for structural and vaccine studies.

    PubMed

    Chung, Nancy P Y; Matthews, Katie; Kim, Helen J; Ketas, Thomas J; Golabek, Michael; de Los Reyes, Kevin; Korzun, Jacob; Yasmeen, Anila; Sanders, Rogier W; Klasse, Per Johan; Wilson, Ian A; Ward, Andrew B; Marozsan, Andre J; Moore, John P; Cupo, Albert

    2014-04-25

    Recombinant soluble, cleaved HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein SOSIP.664 gp140 trimers based on the subtype A BG505 sequence are being studied structurally and tested as immunogens in animals. For these trimers to become a vaccine candidate for human trials, they would need to be made in appropriate amounts at an acceptable quality. Accomplishing such tasks by transient transfection is likely to be challenging. The traditional way to express recombinant proteins in large amounts is via a permanent cell line, usually of mammalian origin. Making cell lines that produce BG505 SOSIP.664 trimers requires the co-expression of the Furin protease to ensure that the cleavage site between the gp120 and gp41 subunits is fully utilized. We designed a vector capable of expressing Env and Furin, and used it to create Stable 293 T and CHO Flp-In™ cell lines through site-specific recombination. Both lines produce high quality, cleaved trimers at yields of up to 12-15 mg per 1 × 109 cells. Trimer expression at such levels was maintained for up to 30 days (10 passages) after initial seeding and was consistently superior to what could be achieved by transient transfection. Electron microscopy studies confirm that the purified trimers have the same native-like appearance as those derived by transient transfection and used to generate high-resolution structures. They also have appropriate antigenic properties, including the presentation of the quaternary epitope for the broadly neutralizing antibody PGT145. The BG505 SOSIP.664 trimer-expressing cell lines yield proteins of an appropriate quality for structural studies and animal immunogenicity experiments. The methodology is suitable for making similar lines under Good Manufacturing Practice conditions, to produce trimers for human clinical trials. Moreover, any env gene can be incorporated into this vector system, allowing the manufacture of SOSIP trimers from multiple genotypes, either by transient transfection or from stable cell

  9. Empower multiplex cell and tissue-specific CRISPR-mediated gene manipulation with self-cleaving ribozymes and tRNA.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Zhao, Lixia; Gao, Yandi; Xu, Jing; Han, Renzhi

    2017-03-17

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system has emerged in recent years as a highly efficient RNA-guided gene manipulation platform. Simultaneous editing or transcriptional activation/suppression of different genes becomes feasible with the co-delivery of multiple guide RNAs (gRNAs). Here, we report that multiple gRNAs linked with self-cleaving ribozymes and/or tRNA could be simultaneously expressed from a single U6 promoter to exert genome editing of dystrophin and myosin binding protein C3 in human and mouse cells. Moreover, this strategy allows the expression of multiple gRNAs for synergistic transcription activation of follistatin when used with catalytically inactive dCas9-VP64 or dCas9-p300core fusions. Finally, the gRNAs linked by the self-cleaving ribozymes and tRNA could be expressed from RNA polymerase type II (pol II) promoters such as generic CMV and muscle/heart-specific MHCK7. This is particularly useful for in vivo applications when the packaging capacity of recombinant adeno-associated virus is limited while tissue-specific delivery of gRNAs and Cas9 is desired. Taken together, this study provides a novel strategy to enable tissue-specific expression of more than one gRNAs for multiplex gene editing from a single pol II promoter. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. NMR analysis of cleaved Escherichia coli thioredoxin (1-73/74-108) and its P76A variant: cis/trans peptide isomerization.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, W. F.; Tung, C. S.; Wang, H.; Tasayco, M. L.

    2000-01-01

    Inspection of high resolution three-dimensional (3D) structures from the protein database reveals an increasing number of cis-Xaa-Pro and cis-Xaa-Yaa peptide bonds. However, we are still far from being able to predict whether these bonds will remain cis upon single-site substitution of Pro or Yaa and/or cleavage of a peptide bond close to it in the sequence. We have chosen oxidized Escherichia coli thioredoxin (Trx), a member of the Trx superfamily with a single alpha/beta domain and cis P76 to determine the effect of single-site substitution and/or cleavage on this isomer. Standard two-dimensional (2D) NMR analysis were performed on cleaved Trx (1-73/74-108) and its P76A variant. Analysis of the NOE connectivities indicates remarkable similarity between the secondary and supersecondary structure of the noncovalent complexes and Trx. Analysis of the 2D version of the HCCH-TOCSY and HMQC-NOESY-HMQC and 13C-filtered HMQC-NOESY spectra of cleaved Trx with uniformly 13C-labeled 175 and P76 shows surprising conservation of both cis P76 and packing of 175 against W31. A similar NMR analysis of its P76A variant provides no evidence for cis A76 and shows only subtle local changes in both the packing of 175 and the interstrand connectivities between its most protected hydrophobic strands (beta2 and beta4). Indeed, a molecular simulation model for the trans P76A variant of Trx shows only subtle local changes around the substitution site. In conclusion, cleavage of R73 is insufficient to provoke cis/trans isomerization of P76, but cleavage and single-site substitution (P76A) favors the trans isomer. PMID:10739243

  11. γ-secretase composed of PS1/Pen2/Aph1a can cleave Notch and APP in the absence of Nicastrin

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guojun; Liu, Zhenyi; Ilagan, Ma. Xenia G.; Kopan, Raphael

    2010-01-01

    γ-secretase is a multiprotein intramembrane-cleaving protease with a growing list of protein substrates including the Notch receptors and the amyloid precursor protein. The four components of γ-secretase complex - presenilin (PS), nicastrin (NCT), Pen2, and Aph1 - are all thought to be essential for activity. The catalytic domain resides within PS proteins; NCT has been suggested to be critical for substrate recognition; the contributions of Pen2 and Aph1 remain unclear. The role of NCT has been challenged recently by the observation that a critical residue (E332) in NCT, thought to be essential for γ-secretase activity, is instead involved in complex maturation. Here we report that NCT is dispensable for γ-secretase activity. NCT-independent γ-secretase activity can be detected in two independent NCT-deficient MEF lines, and blocked by the γ-secretase inhibitors DAPT and L-685,458. This catalytic activity requires prior ectodomain shedding of the substrate, and can cleave ligand-activated endogenous Notch receptors, indicating presence at the plasma membrane. siRNA knockdown experiments demonstrated that NCT-independent γ-secretase activity requires the presence of PS1, Pen2 and Aph1a but can tolerate knockdown of PS2 or Aph1b. We conclude that a PS1/Pen2/Aph1a trimeric complex is an active enzyme, displaying similar biochemical properties to those of γ-secretase and roughly 50% of its activity when normalized to PS1 NTF levels. This PS1/Pen2/Aph1a complex, however, is highly unstable. Thus, NCT acts to stabilize γ-secretase, but is not required for substrate recognition. PMID:20130175

  12. RasGAP Shields Akt from Deactivating Phosphatases in Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling but Loses This Ability Once Cleaved by Caspase-3.

    PubMed

    Cailliau, Katia; Lescuyer, Arlette; Burnol, Anne-Françoise; Cuesta-Marbán, Álvaro; Widmann, Christian; Browaeys-Poly, Edith

    2015-08-07

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) are involved in proliferative and differentiation physiological responses. Deregulation of FGFR-mediated signaling involving the Ras/PI3K/Akt and the Ras/Raf/ERK MAPK pathways is causally involved in the development of several cancers. The caspase-3/p120 RasGAP module is a stress sensor switch. Under mild stress conditions, RasGAP is cleaved by caspase-3 at position 455. The resulting N-terminal fragment, called fragment N, stimulates anti-death signaling. When caspase-3 activity further increases, fragment N is cleaved at position 157. This generates a fragment, called N2, that no longer protects cells. Here, we investigated in Xenopus oocytes the impact of RasGAP and its fragments on FGF1-mediated signaling during G2/M cell cycle transition. RasGAP used its N-terminal Src homology 2 domain to bind FGFR once stimulated by FGF1, and this was necessary for the recruitment of Akt to the FGFR complex. Fragment N, which did not associate with the FGFR complex, favored FGF1-induced ERK stimulation, leading to accelerated G2/M transition. In contrast, fragment N2 bound the FGFR, and this inhibited mTORC2-dependent Akt Ser-473 phosphorylation and ERK2 phosphorylation but not phosphorylation of Akt on Thr-308. This also blocked cell cycle progression. Inhibition of Akt Ser-473 phosphorylation and entry into G2/M was relieved by PHLPP phosphatase inhibition. Hence, full-length RasGAP favors Akt activity by shielding it from deactivating phosphatases. This shielding was abrogated by fragment N2. These results highlight the role played by RasGAP in FGFR signaling and how graded stress intensities, by generating different RasGAP fragments, can positively or negatively impact this signaling. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. A1C

    MedlinePlus

    A1C is a blood test for type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. It measures your average blood glucose, or blood sugar, level over the past 3 ... A1C alone or in combination with other diabetes tests to make a diagnosis. They also use the ...

  14. Substrate-Triggered Formation and Remarkable Stability of the C-H-Cleaving Chloroferryl Intermediate in the Aliphatic Halogenase, SyrB2†

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Megan L.; Krest, Courtney M.; Barr, Eric W.; Vaillancourt, Frédéric H.; Walsh, Christopher T.; Green, Michael T.; Krebs, Carsten; Bollinger, J. Martin

    2009-01-01

    Aliphatic halogenases activate O2, cleave α-ketoglutarate (αKG) to CO2 and succinate, and form haloferryl [X-Fe(IV)=O; X = Cl, Br] complexes that cleave aliphatic C-H bonds to install halogens during the biosynthesis of natural products by non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). For the related αKG-dependent dioxygenases, it has been shown that reaction of the Fe(II) cofactor with O2 to form the C-H-cleaving ferryl complex is “triggered” by binding of the target substrate. In this study, we have tested for and defined structural determinants of substrate triggering (ST) in the halogenase, SyrB2, from the syringomycin E biosynthetic NRPS of Pseudomonas syringae B301D. As for other halogen ases, the substrate of SyrB2 is complex, consisting of l-Thr tethered via thioester linkage to a covalently bound phosphopantetheine (PPant) cofactor of a carrier protein, SyrB1. Without an appended amino acid, SyrB1 does not trigger formation of the chloroferryl intermediate state in SyrB2, even in the presence of free l-Thr or its analogues, but SyrB1 charged either by l-Thr or by any of several non-native amino acids does trigger the reaction by as much as 8,000-fold (for l-Thr-S-SyrB1). Triggering efficacy is sensitive to the structures of both the amino acid and the carrier protein, being diminished by 5–20-fold when the native l-Thr is replaced by another amino acid and by ∼ 40-fold when SyrB1 is replaced by a heterologous carrier protein, CytC2. The directing effect of the carrier protein and consequent tolerance for profound modifications to the target amino acid allow the chloroferryl state to be formed in the presence of substrates that perturb the ratio of its two putative coordination isomers, lack the target C-H bond (l-Ala-S-SyrB1), or contain a C-H bond of enhanced strength (l-cyclopropylglycyl-S-SyrB1). For the latter two cases, the SyrB2 chloroferryl state so formed exhibits unprecedented stability (t1/2 = 30 – 110 min at 0 °C), can be trapped in

  15. The Escherichia coli Subtilase Cytotoxin A Subunit Specifically Cleaves Cell-surface GRP78 Protein and Abolishes COOH-terminal-dependent Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Rupa; de Ridder, Gustaaf G.; Eu, Jerry P.; Paton, Adrienne W.; Paton, James C.; Pizzo, Salvatore V.

    2012-01-01

    GRP78, a molecular chaperone with critical endoplasmic reticulum functions, is aberrantly expressed on the surface of cancer cells, including prostate and melanoma. Here it functions as a pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic signaling receptor via NH2-terminal domain ligation. Auto-antibodies to this domain may appear in cancer patient serum where they are a poor prognostic indicator. Conversely, GRP78 COOH-terminal domain ligation is pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative. There is no method to disrupt cell-surface GRP78 without compromising the total GRP78 pool, making it difficult to study cell-surface GRP78 function. We studied six cell lines representing three cancer types. One cell line per group expresses high levels of cell-surface GRP78, and the other expresses low levels (human hepatoma: Hep3B and HepG2; human prostate cancer: PC3 and 1-LN; murine melanoma: B16F0 and B16F1). We investigated the effect of Escherichia coli subtilase cytoxin catalytic subunit (SubA) on GRP78. We report that SubA specifically cleaves cell-surface GRP78 on HepG2, 1-LN, and B16F1 cells without affecting intracellular GRP78. B16F0 cells (GRP78low) have lower amounts of cleaved cell-surface GRP78. SubA has no effect on Hep3B and PC3 cells. The predicted 28-kDa GRP78 COOH-terminal fragment is released into the culture medium by SubA treatment, and COOH-terminal domain signal transduction is abrogated, whereas pro-proliferative signaling mediated through NH2-terminal domain ligation is unaffected. These experiments clarify cell-surface GRP78 topology and demonstrate that the COOH-terminal domain is necessary for pro-apoptotic signal transduction occurring upon COOH-terminal antibody ligation. SubA is a powerful tool to specifically probe the functions of cell-surface GRP78. PMID:22851173

  16. The Escherichia coli subtilase cytotoxin A subunit specifically cleaves cell-surface GRP78 protein and abolishes COOH-terminal-dependent signaling.

    PubMed

    Ray, Rupa; de Ridder, Gustaaf G; Eu, Jerry P; Paton, Adrienne W; Paton, James C; Pizzo, Salvatore V

    2012-09-21

    GRP78, a molecular chaperone with critical endoplasmic reticulum functions, is aberrantly expressed on the surface of cancer cells, including prostate and melanoma. Here it functions as a pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic signaling receptor via NH(2)-terminal domain ligation. Auto-antibodies to this domain may appear in cancer patient serum where they are a poor prognostic indicator. Conversely, GRP78 COOH-terminal domain ligation is pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative. There is no method to disrupt cell-surface GRP78 without compromising the total GRP78 pool, making it difficult to study cell-surface GRP78 function. We studied six cell lines representing three cancer types. One cell line per group expresses high levels of cell-surface GRP78, and the other expresses low levels (human hepatoma: Hep3B and HepG2; human prostate cancer: PC3 and 1-LN; murine melanoma: B16F0 and B16F1). We investigated the effect of Escherichia coli subtilase cytoxin catalytic subunit (SubA) on GRP78. We report that SubA specifically cleaves cell-surface GRP78 on HepG2, 1-LN, and B16F1 cells without affecting intracellular GRP78. B16F0 cells (GRP78(low)) have lower amounts of cleaved cell-surface GRP78. SubA has no effect on Hep3B and PC3 cells. The predicted 28-kDa GRP78 COOH-terminal fragment is released into the culture medium by SubA treatment, and COOH-terminal domain signal transduction is abrogated, whereas pro-proliferative signaling mediated through NH(2)-terminal domain ligation is unaffected. These experiments clarify cell-surface GRP78 topology and demonstrate that the COOH-terminal domain is necessary for pro-apoptotic signal transduction occurring upon COOH-terminal antibody ligation. SubA is a powerful tool to specifically probe the functions of cell-surface GRP78.

  17. A1C test

    MedlinePlus

    ... every 3 or 6 months is recommended. Normal Results The following are the results when A1C is ... meaning of your specific test results. What Abnormal Results Mean An abnormal result means that you have ...

  18. Streptococcus pyogenes Infection and the Human Proteome with a Special Focus on the Immunoglobulin G-cleaving Enzyme IdeS.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Christofer A Q; Järnum, Sofia; Winstedt, Lena; Kjellman, Christian; Björck, Lars; Linder, Adam; Malmström, Johan A

    2018-06-01

    Infectious diseases are characterized by a complex interplay between host and pathogen, but how these interactions impact the host proteome is unclear. Here we applied a combined mass spectrometry-based proteomics strategy to investigate how the human proteome is transiently modified by the pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes , with a particular focus on bacterial cleavage of IgG in vivo In invasive diseases, S. pyogenes evokes a massive host response in blood, whereas superficial diseases are characterized by a local leakage of several blood plasma proteins at the site of infection including IgG. S. pyogenes produces IdeS, a protease cleaving IgG in the lower hinge region and we find highly effective IdeS-cleavage of IgG in samples from local IgG poor microenvironments. The results show that IdeS contributes to the adaptation of S. pyogenes to its normal ecological niches. Additionally, the work identifies novel clinical opportunities for in vivo pathogen detection. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. The cleaved FAS ligand activates the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE1 through Akt/ROCK1 to stimulate cell motility.

    PubMed

    Monet, Michael; Poët, Mallorie; Tauzin, Sébastien; Fouqué, Amélie; Cophignon, Auréa; Lagadic-Gossmann, Dominique; Vacher, Pierre; Legembre, Patrick; Counillon, Laurent

    2016-06-15

    Transmembrane CD95L (Fas ligand) can be cleaved to release a promigratory soluble ligand, cl-CD95L, which can contribute to chronic inflammation and cancer cell dissemination. The motility signaling pathway elicited by cl-CD95L remains poorly defined. Here, we show that in the presence of cl-CD95L, CD95 activates the Akt and RhoA signaling pathways, which together orchestrate an allosteric activation of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE1. Pharmacologic inhibition of Akt or ROCK1 independently blocks the cl-CD95L-induced migration. Confirming these pharmacologic data, disruption of the Akt and ROCK1 phosphorylation sites on NHE1 decreases cell migration in cells exposed to cl-CD95L. Together, these findings demonstrate that NHE1 is a novel molecular actor in the CD95 signaling pathway that drives the cl-CD95L-induced cell migration through both the Akt and RhoA signaling pathways.

  20. Production of Furin-cleaved Papillomavirus Pseudovirions and their use for in vitro neutralization assays of L1 or L2-specific antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Joshua W; Matsui, Ken; Pan, Yuanji; Kwak, Kihyuck; Peng, Shiwen; Kemp, Troy; Pinto, Ligia; Roden, Richard B.S

    2015-01-01

    Immunization with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) L1 virus-like particles or L2 capsid protein elicits neutralizing antibodies that mediate protection. A high throughput and sensitive in vitro neutralization assay is therefore valuable for prophylactic HPV vaccine studies. Over several hours during infection of the genital tract, virions take on a distinct intermediate conformation, including a required furin cleavage of L2 at its N-terminus. This intermediate is an important target for neutralization by L2-specific antibody, but it is very transiently exposed during in vitro infection of most cell lines resulting in insensitive measurement for L2, but not L1-specific neutralizing antibodies. To model this intermediate, we describe a protocol to generate furin-cleaved HPV pseudovirions (fc-PsV) which deliver an encapsidated reporter plasmid to facilitate infectivity measurements. We also describe a protocol for use of fc-PsV in a high throughput in vitro neutralization assay for the sensitive measurement of both L1 and L2-specific neutralizing antibodies. PMID:26237105

  1. Increased soluble serum markers caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18, histones, and ST2 indicate apoptotic turnover and chronic immune response in COPD.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Stefan; Lambers, Christopher; Pollreisz, Andreas; Hoetzenecker, Konrad; Lichtenauer, Michael; Mangold, Andreas; Niederpold, Tina; Hacker, Andreas; Lang, György; Dworschak, Martin; Vukovich, Thomas; Gerner, Christopher; Klepetko, Walter; Ankersmit, Hendrik Jan

    2009-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a worldwide burden and a major cause of death. The disease is accompanied by chronic inflammation and increased cellular turnover that is partly due to an overwhelming induction of apoptosis. In this study, we hypothesized that systemic markers of apoptosis are altered in patients with mild-to-severe COPD. A total number of 64 patients and controls were enrolled in the study. Lung function parameters of all groups (nonsmoker, healthy smoker, COPD GOLD I&II, COPD GOLD III&IV) were evaluated at the time of inclusion. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to quantify protein levels in serum samples. Serum contents of apoptotic end-products caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 and histone-associated-DNA-fragments were increased in patients with COPD, whereas anti-inflammatory soluble ST2 showed a peak in patients with COPD I&II (P=0.031) compared to healthy smokers. Levels of pro-inflammatory caspase-1/ ICE correlated significantly with the number of pack years (R=0.337; P=0.007). Our results indicate a systemic release of apoptosis-specific proteins as markers for increased cellular turnover accompanied by progression of COPD. Furthermore, soluble ST2 seems to have a critical role in the anti-inflammatory regulatory mechanism at early stages of the disease.

  2. Demonstration by Mass Spectrometry that Purified Native Treponema pallidum Rare Outer Membrane Protein 1 (Tromp1) Has a Cleaved Signal Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, David R.; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Miller, James N.; Lovett, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    Purified native Tromp1 was subjected to mass spectrometric analysis in order to determine conclusively whether this protein possesses a cleaved or uncleaved signal peptide. The molecular masses of Tromp1, three Treponema pallidum lipoproteins, and a bovine serum albumin (BSA) control were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. The molecular masses of all of the T. pallidum lipoproteins and BSA were within 0.7% of their respective calculated masses. The molecular mass of Tromp1 was 31,510 Da, which is consistent with a signal-less form of Tromp1, given a calculated mass of unprocessed Tromp1 of 33,571 Da, a difference of 2,061 Da (a 6.5% difference). Purified native Tromp1 was also subjected to MALDI-TOF analysis in comparison to recombinant Tromp1 following cyanogen bromide cleavage, which further confirmed the identity of Tromp1 and showed that native Tromp1 was not degraded at the carboxy terminus. These studies confirm that Tromp1 is processed and does not contain an uncleaved signal peptide as previously reported. PMID:10438785

  3. The cleaved FAS ligand activates the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1 through Akt/ROCK1 to stimulate cell motility

    PubMed Central

    Monet, Michael; Poët, Mallorie; Tauzin, Sébastien; Fouqué, Amélie; Cophignon, Auréa; Lagadic-Gossmann, Dominique; Vacher, Pierre; Legembre, Patrick; Counillon, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Transmembrane CD95L (Fas ligand) can be cleaved to release a promigratory soluble ligand, cl-CD95L, which can contribute to chronic inflammation and cancer cell dissemination. The motility signaling pathway elicited by cl-CD95L remains poorly defined. Here, we show that in the presence of cl-CD95L, CD95 activates the Akt and RhoA signaling pathways, which together orchestrate an allosteric activation of the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1. Pharmacologic inhibition of Akt or ROCK1 independently blocks the cl-CD95L-induced migration. Confirming these pharmacologic data, disruption of the Akt and ROCK1 phosphorylation sites on NHE1 decreases cell migration in cells exposed to cl-CD95L. Together, these findings demonstrate that NHE1 is a novel molecular actor in the CD95 signaling pathway that drives the cl-CD95L-induced cell migration through both the Akt and RhoA signaling pathways. PMID:27302366

  4. Marking Embryonic Stem Cells with a 2A Self-Cleaving Peptide: A NKX2-5 Emerald GFP BAC Reporter

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Edward C.; Yoshinaga, Yuko; Nguyen, Trieu D.; Musone, Stacy L.; Kim, Judy E.; Swinton, Paul; Espineda, Isidro; Manalac, Carlota; deJong, Pieter J.; Conklin, Bruce R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Fluorescent reporters are useful for assaying gene expression in living cells and for identifying and isolating pure cell populations from heterogeneous cultures, including embryonic stem (ES) cells. Multiple fluorophores and genetic selection markers exist; however, a system for creating reporter constructs that preserve the regulatory sequences near a gene's native ATG start site has not been widely available. Methodology Here, we describe a series of modular marker plasmids containing independent reporter, bacterial selection, and eukaryotic selection components, compatible with both Gateway recombination and lambda prophage bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) recombineering techniques. A 2A self-cleaving peptide links the reporter to the native open reading frame. We use an emerald GFP marker cassette to create a human BAC reporter and ES cell reporter line for the early cardiac marker NKX2-5. NKX2-5 expression was detected in differentiating mouse ES cells and ES cell-derived mice. Conclusions Our results describe a NKX2-5 ES cell reporter line for studying early events in cardiomyocyte formation. The results also demonstrate that our modular marker plasmids could be used for generating reporters from unmodified BACs, potentially as part of an ES cell reporter library. PMID:18596956

  5. Potential anti-cholinesterase and β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 inhibitory activities of cornuside and gallotannins from Cornus officinalis fruits.

    PubMed

    Bhakta, Himanshu Kumar; Park, Chan Hum; Yokozawa, Takako; Tanaka, Takashi; Jung, Hyun Ah; Choi, Jae Sue

    2017-07-01

    Cholinesterase (ChE) and β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) inhibitors are promising agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we examined the inhibitory activity of seven compounds isolated from the fruits of Cornus officinalis, cornuside, polymeric proanthocyanidins, 1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, tellimagrandin I, tellimagrandin II, and isoterchebin, against acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and BACE1. All of the compounds displayed concentration-dependent in vitro inhibitory activity toward the ChEs and BACE1. Among them, tellimagrandin II exhibited the best inhibitory activity toward ChEs, whereas the best BACE1 inhibitor was 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose. Isoterchebin and polymeric proanthocyanidins were also significant ChE inhibitors. The kinetic and docking studies demonstrated that all compounds interacted with both the catalytic active sites and the peripheral anionic sites of the ChEs and BACE1. Tellimagrandin II, isoterchebin, and the polymeric proanthocyanidins exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of peroxynitrite-mediated protein tyrosine nitration. In conclusion, we identified significant ChE and BACE1 inhibitors from Corni Fructus that could have value as new multi-targeted compounds for anti-AD agents.

  6. Clinical usefulness of a functional assay for the von Willebrand factor cleaving protease (ADAMTS 13) and its inhibitor in a patient with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    PubMed

    Rick, M E; Austin, H; Leitman, S F; Krizek, D M; Aronson, D L

    2004-02-01

    Decreased von Willebrand factor cleaving protease activity (VWFCP, ADAMTS 13) leads to persistence of unusually large multimers of von Willebrand factor that bind to platelets, causing platelet aggregates, microangiopathic hemolysis, and thrombocytopenia in patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). The clinical value of measuring ADAMTS 13 and its inhibitor is not fully defined; the case reported here illustrates the usefulness of the assay to help confirm the clinical diagnosis in a patient with other potential causes for thrombotic microangiopathy; the assay also helped in making treatment decisions. A patient with systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE) presented with fever and abdominal pain, thrombocytopenia, and anemia. Thrombotic microangiopathy was diagnosed by the appearance of schistocytes, decreasing platelet count, and evidence of hemolysis. ADAMTS 13 was decreased and an inhibitor was demonstrated in the patient's initial blood sample within 24 hr of admission. Plasma exchange was initiated, and serial assays showed increased ADAMTS 13 activity and decreased inhibitor after each plasma exchange; there was a rebound in inhibitor and a decrease in ADAMTS 13 activity prior to the next exchange that lessened over time. Increasing levels of protease activity correlated with clinical and laboratory improvement. Measurement of ADAMTS 13 activity and its inhibitor aided in the diagnosis of this complicated case of a patient with other potential causes for microangiopathic hemolysis. Subsequent levels correlated with the clinical course, and disappearance of the inhibitor indicated that long-term plasma exchange or other immunosuppressive treatment was not needed.

  7. Processing sites in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag-Pro-Pol precursor are cleaved by the viral protease at different rates

    PubMed Central

    Pettit, Steve C; Lindquist, Jeffrey N; Kaplan, Andrew H; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    We have examined the kinetics of processing of the HIV-1 Gag-Pro-Pol precursor in an in vitro assay with mature protease added in trans. The processing sites were cleaved at different rates to produce distinct intermediates. The initial cleavage occurred at the p2/NC site. Intermediate cleavages occurred at similar rates at the MA/CA and RT/IN sites, and to a lesser extent at sites upstream of RT. Late cleavages occurred at the sites flanking the protease (PR) domain, suggesting sequestering of these sites. We observed paired intermediates indicative of half- cleavage of RT/RH site, suggesting that the RT domain in Gag-Pro-Pol was in a dimeric form under these assay conditions. These results clarify our understanding of the processing kinetics of the Gag-Pro-Pol precursor and suggest regulated cleavage. Our results further suggest that early dimerization of the PR and RT domains may serve as a regulatory element to influence the kinetics of processing within the Pol domain. PMID:16262906

  8. Processing sites in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag-Pro-Pol precursor are cleaved by the viral protease at different rates.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Steve C; Lindquist, Jeffrey N; Kaplan, Andrew H; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2005-11-01

    We have examined the kinetics of processing of the HIV-1 Gag-Pro-Pol precursor in an in vitro assay with mature protease added in trans. The processing sites were cleaved at different rates to produce distinct intermediates. The initial cleavage occurred at the p2/NC site. Intermediate cleavages occurred at similar rates at the MA/CA and RT/IN sites, and to a lesser extent at sites upstream of RT. Late cleavages occurred at the sites flanking the protease (PR) domain, suggesting sequestering of these sites. We observed paired intermediates indicative of half- cleavage of RT/RH site, suggesting that the RT domain in Gag-Pro-Pol was in a dimeric form under these assay conditions. These results clarify our understanding of the processing kinetics of the Gag-Pro-Pol precursor and suggest regulated cleavage. Our results further suggest that early dimerization of the PR and RT domains may serve as a regulatory element to influence the kinetics of processing within the Pol domain.

  9. Development of cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) and high-resolution melting (HRM) markers from the chloroplast genome of Glycyrrhiza species.

    PubMed

    Jo, Ick-Hyun; Sung, Jwakyung; Hong, Chi-Eun; Raveendar, Sebastin; Bang, Kyong-Hwan; Chung, Jong-Wook

    2018-05-01

    Licorice ( Glycyrrhiza glabra ) is an important medicinal crop often used as health foods or medicine worldwide. The molecular genetics of licorice is under scarce owing to lack of molecular markers. Here, we have developed cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) and high-resolution melting (HRM) markers based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) by comparing the chloroplast genomes of two Glycyrrhiza species ( G. glabra and G. lepidota ). The CAPS and HRM markers were tested for diversity analysis with 24 Glycyrrhiza accessions. The restriction profiles generated with CAPS markers classified the accessions (2-4 genotypes) and melting curves (2-3) were obtained from the HRM markers. The number of alleles and major allele frequency were 2-6 and 0.31-0.92, respectively. The genetic distance and polymorphism information content values were 0.16-0.76 and 0.15-0.72, respectively. The phylogenetic relationships among the 24 accessions were estimated using a dendrogram, which classified them into four clades. Except clade III, the remaining three clades included the same species, confirming interspecies genetic correlation. These 18 CAPS and HRM markers might be helpful for genetic diversity assessment and rapid identification of licorice species.

  10. Cancer during pregnancy alters the activity of rat placenta and enhances the expression of cleaved PARP, cytochrome-c and caspase 3

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Mércia Tancredo; Ventrucci, Gislaine; Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra Gomes

    2006-01-01

    Background The presence of cancer makes it difficult to predict the progress of pregnancy and can be deleterious to the maternal-foetal relationship. Apoptosis may affect a range of placental functions and result in the retardation of foetal growth. In this work, we investigated the placental alterations produced by tumour growth and the effects on the expression of apoptotic factors in placental tissue. Methods Adult female Wistar rats (90 days old, n = 54) were allocated to control (C), tumour-bearing (W), or ascitic fluid-injected (A) groups and were killed on the 16th, 19th or 21st day of pregnancy. Placental tissues were analysed using biochemical and histochemical assays. Results The placental protein content and glutathione-S-transferase activity were decreased in groups W and A. Histochemical analysis showed an increase in the number of cells with cleaved PARP, caspase 3 and cytochrome-c in groups W and A, indicating that the tumour growth clearly damaged placental tissue and affected the levels of apoptotic factors. These results were confirmed by western blotting. Conclusion Since trophoblastic cells are responsible for maintaining a normal placental function, the uncontrolled death of these cells in response to tumour cell growth or substances derived from ascitic fluid could have a negative impact on foetal development. Further knowledge of these events may help to preserve the foetus and placenta during development. PMID:16800886

  11. Immuno-detection of cleaved SNAP-25 from differentiated mouse embryonic stem cells provides a sensitive assay for determination of botulinum A toxin and antitoxin potency.

    PubMed

    Yadirgi, G; Stickings, P; Rajagopal, S; Liu, Y; Sesardic, D

    2017-12-01

    Botulinum toxin type A is a causative agent of human botulism. Due to high toxicity and ease of production it is classified by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention as a category A bioterrorism agent. The same serotype, BoNT/A, is also the most widely used in pharmaceutical preparations for treatment of a diverse range of neuromuscular disorders. Traditionally, animals are used to confirm the presence and activity of toxin and to establish neutralizing capabilities of countermeasures in toxin neutralization tests. Cell based assays for BoNT/A have been reported as the most viable alternative to animal models, since they are capable of reflecting all key steps (binding, translocation, internalization and cleavage of intracellular substrate) involved in toxin activity. In this paper we report preliminary development of a simple immunochemical method for specifically detecting BoNT/A cleaved intracellular substrate, SNAP-25, in cell lysates of neurons derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. The assay offers sensitivity of better than 0.1LD50/ml (3fM) which is not matched by other functional assays, including the mouse bioassay, and provides serotype specificity for quantitative detection of BoNT/A and anti-BoNT/A antitoxin. Subject to formal validation, the method described here could potentially be used as a substitute for the mouse bioassay to measure potency and consistency of therapeutic products. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. P-I class metalloproteinase from Bothrops moojeni venom is a post-proline cleaving peptidase with kininogenase activity: insights into substrate selectivity and kinetic behavior.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Débora N; Kondo, Marcia Y; Oliveira, Lilian C G; Honorato, Rodrigo V; Zanphorlin, Leticia M; Coronado, Monika A; Araújo, Mariana S; da Motta, Guacyara; Veronez, Camila L; Andrade, Sheila S; Oliveira, Paulo S L; Arni, Raghuvir K; Cintra, Adelia C O; Sampaio, Suely V; Juliano, Maria A; Juliano, Luiz; Murakami, Mário T; Gouvea, Iuri E

    2014-03-01

    Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) belonging to P-I class are able to hydrolyze extracellular matrix proteins and coagulation factors triggering local and systemic reactions by multiple molecular mechanisms that are not fully understood. BmooMPα-I, a P-I class SMVP from Bothrops moojeni venom, was active upon neuro- and vaso-active peptides including angiotensin I, bradykinin, neurotensin, oxytocin and substance P. Interestingly, BmooMPα-I showed a strong bias towards hydrolysis after proline residues, which is unusual for most of characterized peptidases. Moreover, the enzyme showed kininogenase activity similar to that observed in plasma and cells by kallikrein. FRET peptide assays indicated a relative promiscuity at its S2-S'2 subsites, with proline determining the scissile bond. This unusual post-proline cleaving activity was confirmed by the efficient hydrolysis of the synthetic combinatorial library MCA-GXXPXXQ-EDDnp, described as resistant for canonical peptidases, only after Pro residues. Structural analysis of the tripeptide LPL complexed with BmooMPα-I, generated by molecular dynamics simulations, assisted in defining the subsites and provided the structural basis for subsite preferences such as the restriction of basic residues at the S2 subsite due to repulsive electrostatic effects and the steric impediment for large aliphatic or aromatic side chains at the S1 subsite. These new functional and structural findings provided a further understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing the physiological effects of this important class of enzymes in envenomation process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. von Willebrand factor and its cleaving protease ADAMTS13 balance in coronary artery vessels: Lessons learned from thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Morici, Nuccia; Cantoni, Silvia; Panzeri, Francesco; Sacco, Alice; Rusconi, Chiara; Stucchi, Miriam; Oliva, Fabrizio; Cattaneo, Marco

    2017-07-01

    Deficiency of the von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease ADAMTS13 is central to the pathophysiology of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), a microangiopathic syndrome that presents as an acute medical emergency. In this review we will explore the evidence of a two-way relationship between TTP and ACS. Moreover, we will review the evidence emerged from epidemiological studies of an inverse relationship between the plasma levels of ADAMTS13 and the risk of ACS. Pubmed, MEDLINE and EMBASE, CINHAL, COCHRANE and Google Scholar databases were searched from inception to January 2017. The search yielded 43 studies representing 23 unique patient cases, 5 case series, 5 cohort studies and 10 case-control studies. Most ACS cases developing in the setting of TTP resolved with standard treatment of the underlying microangiopathy, with only a few requiring coronary invasive management. Antiplatelet therapy was not usually prescribed and all of the currently used P2Y 12 were felt to be a potential trigger for a TTP-like syndrome, although our review revealed that the occurrence of TTP in patients treated with new P2Y 12 antagonists is rare. Most studies confirmed the inverse association among ADAMTS13 levels and ACS. The heart is a definite target organ in TTP. The clinical spectrum of its involvement is probably influenced by local factors that add on to the systemic deficiency characteristic of TTP. It follows that patients with TTP should be carefully monitored for ACS events, especially when multiple risk factors for coronary disease exist. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Acquisition of resistance toward HYD1 correlates with a reduction in cleaved α4 integrin expression and a compromised CAM-DR phenotype.

    PubMed

    Emmons, Michael F; Gebhard, Anthony W; Nair, Rajesh R; Baz, Rachid; McLaughlin, Mark L; Cress, Anne E; Hazlehurst, Lori A

    2011-12-01

    We recently reported that the β1 integrin antagonist, referred to as HYD1, induces necrotic cell death in myeloma cell lines as a single agent using in vitro and in vivo models. In this article, we sought to delineate the determinants of sensitivity and resistance toward HYD1-induced cell death. To this end, we developed an HYD1 isogenic resistant myeloma cell line by chronically exposing H929 myeloma cells to increasing concentrations of HYD1. Our data indicate that the acquisition of resistance toward HYD1 correlates with reduced levels of the cleaved α4 integrin subunit. Consistent with reduced VLA-4 (α4β1) expression, the resistant variant showed ablated functional binding to fibronectin, VCAM-1, and the bone marrow stroma cell line HS-5. The reduction in binding of the resistant cell line to HS-5 cells translated to a compromised cell adhesion-mediated drug resistant phenotype as shown by increased sensitivity to melphalan- and bortezomib-induced cell death in the bone marrow stroma coculture model of drug resistance. Importantly, we show that HYD1 is more potent in relapsed myeloma specimens than newly diagnosed patients, a finding that correlated with α4 integrin expression. Collectively, these data indicate that this novel d-amino acid peptide may represent a good candidate for pursuing clinical trials in relapsed myeloma and in particular patients with high levels of α4 integrin. Moreover, our data provide further rationale for continued preclinical development of HYD1 and analogues of HYD1 for the treatment of multiple myeloma and potentially other tumors that home and/or metastasize to the bone.

  15. The Na+-phosphate cotransport system (NaPi-II) with a cleaved protein backbone: implications on function and membrane insertion

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, Beate; Wagner, Carsten A; Huelseweh, Birgit; Busch, Andreas E; Werner, Andreas

    1998-01-01

    Renal handling of inorganic phosphate (Pi) involves a Na+-Pi cotransport system which is well conserved between vertebrates. The members of this protein family, denoted NaPi-II, share a topology with, it is thought, eight transmembrane domains. The transporter is proposed to be proteolytically cleaved within a large hydrophilic loop in vivo. The consequences of an interrupted backbone were tested by constructing cDNA clones encoding different N- (1-3 and 1-5) and C-terminal (4-8 and 6-8) complementary fragments of NaPi-II from winter flounder. When the cognate fragments were used in combination (1-3 plus 4-8; 1-5 plus 6-8) they comprised the full complement of the putative transporter domains. None of the four individual fragments or the 1-5 plus 6-8 combination when expressed in Xenopus oocytes increased Pi flux. Coexpression of fragments 1-3 plus 4-8 stimulated transport activity identical to that for expressed wild-type NaPi-II with regard to pH dependency and Km for Na+ and Pi binding; however, the maximal transport rate (vmax) was lower. Immunohistochemistry on cryosections confined the functionally active 1-3 plus 4-8 combination to the oocyte membrane. This was not the case for the 1-5 plus 6-8 combination or any of the individual fragments, all of which failed to induce fluorescence. A second immunohistochemical approach using intact oocytes allowed determination of the extracellular regions of the protein. Epitopes within the loop between transmembrane domains 3 and 4 enhanced fluorescence. Neither N- nor C-terminal tags induced fluorescence. PMID:9508800

  16. Identification of non-regulated aromatic amines of toxicological concern which can be cleaved from azo dyes used in clothing textiles.

    PubMed

    Brüschweiler, Beat J; Küng, Simon; Bürgi, Daniel; Muralt, Lorenz; Nyfeler, Erich

    2014-07-01

    Azo dyes in textiles may release aromatic amines after enzymatic cleavage by skin bacteria or after dermal absorption and metabolism in the human body. From the 896 azo dyes with known chemical structure in the available textile dyes database, 426 azo dyes (48%) can generate one or more of the 22 regulated aromatic amines in the European Union in Annex XVII of REACH. Another 470 azo dyes (52%) can be cleaved into exclusively non-regulated aromatic amines. In this study, a search for publicly available toxicity data on non-regulated aromatic amines was performed. For a considerable percentage of non-regulated aromatic amines, the toxicity database was found to be insufficient or non-existent. 62 non-regulated aromatic amines with available toxicity data were prioritized by expert judgment with objective criteria according to their potential for carcinogenicity, genotoxicity, and/or skin sensitization. To investigate the occurrence of azo dye cleavage products, 153 random samples of clothing textiles were taken from Swiss retail outlets and analyzed for 22 high priority non-regulated aromatic amines of toxicological concern. Eight of these 22 non-regulated aromatic amines of concern could be detected in 17% of the textile samples. In 9% of the samples, one or more of the aromatic amines of concern could be detected in concentrations >30 mg/kg, in 8% of the samples between 5 and 30 mg/kg. The highest measured concentration was 622 mg/kg textile. There is an obvious need to assess consumer health risks for these non-regulated aromatic amines and to fill this gap in the regulation of clothing textiles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 3' fragment of miR173-programmed RISC-cleaved RNA is protected from degradation in a complex with RISC and SGS3.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Manabu; Iki, Taichiro; Tsutsui, Yasuhiro; Miyashita, Kyoko; Poethig, R Scott; Habu, Yoshiki; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2013-03-05

    trans-acting small interfering RNAs (tasiRNAs) are plant-specific endogenous siRNAs produced via a unique pathway whose first step is the microRNA (miRNA)-programmed RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)-mediated cleavage of tasiRNA gene (TAS) transcripts. One of the products is subsequently transformed into tasiRNAs by a pathway that requires several factors including SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SILENCING3 (SGS3) and RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE6. Here, using in vitro assembled ARGONAUTE (AGO)1-RISCs, we show that SGS3 is recruited onto RISCs only when they bind target RNA. Following cleavage by miRNA173 (miR173)-programmed RISC, SGS3 was found in complexes containing cleaved TAS2 RNA and RISC. The 3' cleavage fragment (the source of tasiRNAs) was protected from degradation in this complex. Depletion of SGS3 did not affect TAS2 RNA cleavage by miR173-programmed RISC, but did affect the stability of the 3' cleavage fragment. When the 3' nucleotide of 22-nt miR173 was deleted or the corresponding nucleotide in TAS2 RNA was mutated, the complex was not observed and the 3' cleavage fragment was degraded. Importantly, these changes in miR173 or TAS2 RNA are known to lead to a loss of tasiRNA production in vivo. These results suggest that (i) SGS3 associates with AGO1-RISC via the double-stranded RNA formed by the 3'-terminal nucleotides of 22-nt miR173 and corresponding target RNA, which probably protrudes from the AGO1-RISC molecular surface, (ii) SGS3 protects the 3' cleavage fragment of TAS2 RNA from degradation, and (iii) the observed SGS3-dependent stabilization of the 3' fragment of TAS2 RNA is key to tasiRNA production.

  18. The mismatch repair and meiotic recombination endonuclease Mlh1-Mlh3 is activated by polymer formation and can cleave DNA substrates in trans

    PubMed Central

    Manhart, Carol M.; Ni, Xiaodan; White, Martin A.; Ortega, Joaquin; Surtees, Jennifer A.

    2017-01-01

    Crossing over between homologs is initiated in meiotic prophase by the formation of DNA double-strand breaks that occur throughout the genome. In the major interference-responsive crossover pathway in baker’s yeast, these breaks are resected to form 3' single-strand tails that participate in a homology search, ultimately forming double Holliday junctions (dHJs) that primarily include both homologs. These dHJs are resolved by endonuclease activity to form exclusively crossovers, which are critical for proper homolog segregation in Meiosis I. Recent genetic, biochemical, and molecular studies in yeast are consistent with the hypothesis of Mlh1-Mlh3 DNA mismatch repair complex acting as the major endonuclease activity that resolves dHJs into crossovers. However, the mechanism by which the Mlh1-Mlh3 endonuclease is activated is unknown. Here, we provide evidence that Mlh1-Mlh3 does not behave like a structure-specific endonuclease but forms polymers required to generate nicks in DNA. This conclusion is supported by DNA binding studies performed with different-sized substrates that contain or lack polymerization barriers and endonuclease assays performed with varying ratios of endonuclease-deficient and endonuclease-proficient Mlh1-Mlh3. In addition, Mlh1-Mlh3 can generate religatable double-strand breaks and form an active nucleoprotein complex that can nick DNA substrates in trans. Together these observations argue that Mlh1-Mlh3 may not act like a canonical, RuvC-like Holliday junction resolvase and support a novel model in which Mlh1-Mlh3 is loaded onto DNA to form an activated polymer that cleaves DNA. PMID:28453523

  19. The mismatch repair and meiotic recombination endonuclease Mlh1-Mlh3 is activated by polymer formation and can cleave DNA substrates in trans.

    PubMed

    Manhart, Carol M; Ni, Xiaodan; White, Martin A; Ortega, Joaquin; Surtees, Jennifer A; Alani, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Crossing over between homologs is initiated in meiotic prophase by the formation of DNA double-strand breaks that occur throughout the genome. In the major interference-responsive crossover pathway in baker's yeast, these breaks are resected to form 3' single-strand tails that participate in a homology search, ultimately forming double Holliday junctions (dHJs) that primarily include both homologs. These dHJs are resolved by endonuclease activity to form exclusively crossovers, which are critical for proper homolog segregation in Meiosis I. Recent genetic, biochemical, and molecular studies in yeast are consistent with the hypothesis of Mlh1-Mlh3 DNA mismatch repair complex acting as the major endonuclease activity that resolves dHJs into crossovers. However, the mechanism by which the Mlh1-Mlh3 endonuclease is activated is unknown. Here, we provide evidence that Mlh1-Mlh3 does not behave like a structure-specific endonuclease but forms polymers required to generate nicks in DNA. This conclusion is supported by DNA binding studies performed with different-sized substrates that contain or lack polymerization barriers and endonuclease assays performed with varying ratios of endonuclease-deficient and endonuclease-proficient Mlh1-Mlh3. In addition, Mlh1-Mlh3 can generate religatable double-strand breaks and form an active nucleoprotein complex that can nick DNA substrates in trans. Together these observations argue that Mlh1-Mlh3 may not act like a canonical, RuvC-like Holliday junction resolvase and support a novel model in which Mlh1-Mlh3 is loaded onto DNA to form an activated polymer that cleaves DNA.

  20. Fetzima (levomilnacipran), a drug for major depressive disorder as a dual inhibitor for human serotonin transporters and beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme-1.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Syed Mohd Danish; Shaikh, Sibhghatulla; Khan, Mahiuddin; Biswas, Deboshree; Hameed, Nida; Shakil, Shazi

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacological management of Major Depressive Disorder includes the use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors which targets serotonin transporters (SERT) to increase the synaptic concentrations of serotonin. Beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE-1) is responsible for amyloid β plaque formation. Hence it is an interesting target for Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapy. This study describes molecular interactions of a new Food and Drug Administration approved antidepressant drug named 'Fetzima' with BACE-1 and SERT. Fetzima is chemically known as levomilnacipran. The study has explored a possible link between the treatment of Depression and AD. 'Autodock 4.2' was used for docking study. The free energy of binding (ΔG) values for 'levomilnacipran-SERT' interaction and 'levomilnacipran-BACE1' interaction were found to be -7.47 and -8.25 kcal/mol, respectively. Levomilnacipran was found to interact with S438, known to be the most important amino acid residue of serotonin binding site of SERT during 'levomilnacipran-SERT' interaction. In the case of 'levomilnacipran-BACE1' interaction, levomilnacipran interacted with two very crucial aspartic acid residues of BACE-1, namely, D32 and D228. These residues are accountable for the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein and the subsequent formation of amyloid β plaques in AD brain. Hence, Fetzima (levomilnacipran) might act as a potent dual inhibitor of SERT and BACE-1 and expected to form the basis of a future dual therapy against depression and AD. It is an established fact that development of AD is associated with Major Depressive Disorder. Therefore, the design of new BACE-1 inhibitors based on antidepressant drug scaffolds would be particularly beneficial.

  1. Label-free Quantitative Proteomics of Mouse Cerebrospinal Fluid Detects β-Site APP Cleaving Enzyme (BACE1) Protease Substrates In Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Dislich, Bastian; Wohlrab, Felix; Bachhuber, Teresa; Müller, Stephan A.; Kuhn, Peer-Hendrik; Hogl, Sebastian; Meyer-Luehmann, Melanie; Lichtenthaler, Stefan F.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of murine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by quantitative mass spectrometry is challenging because of low CSF volume, low total protein concentration, and the presence of highly abundant proteins such as albumin. We demonstrate that the CSF proteome of individual mice can be analyzed in a quantitative manner to a depth of several hundred proteins in a robust and simple workflow consisting of single ultra HPLC runs on a benchtop mass spectrometer. The workflow is validated by a comparative analysis of BACE1−/− and wild-type mice using label-free quantification. The protease BACE1 cleaves the amyloid precursor protein (APP) as well as several other substrates and is a major drug target in Alzheimer's disease. We identified a total of 715 proteins with at least 2 unique peptides and quantified 522 of those proteins in CSF from BACE1−/− and wild-type mice. Several proteins, including the known BACE1 substrates APP, APLP1, CHL1 and contactin-2 showed lower abundance in the CSF of BACE1−/− mice, demonstrating that BACE1 substrate identification is possible from CSF. Additionally, ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase 5 was identified as a novel BACE1 substrate and validated in cells using immunoblots and by an in vitro BACE1 protease assay. Likewise, receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase N2 and plexin domain-containing 2 were confirmed as BACE1 substrates by in vitro assays. Taken together, our study shows the deepest characterization of the mouse CSF proteome to date and the first quantitative analysis of the CSF proteome of individual mice. The BACE1 substrates identified in CSF may serve as biomarkers to monitor BACE1 activity in Alzheimer patients treated with BACE inhibitors. PMID:26139848

  2. THAP5 is a human cardiac-specific inhibitor of cell cycle that is cleaved by the proapoptotic Omi/HtrA2 protease during cell death.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Meenakshi P; Cilenti, Lucia; Mashak, Zineb; Popat, Paiyal; Alnemri, Emad S; Zervos, Antonis S

    2009-08-01

    Omi/HtrA2 is a mitochondrial serine protease that has a dual function: while confined in the mitochondria, it promotes cell survival, but when released into the cytoplasm, it participates in caspase-dependent as well as caspase-independent cell death. To investigate the mechanism of Omi/HtrA2's function, we set out to isolate and characterize novel substrates for this protease. We have identified Thanatos-associated protein 5 (THAP5) as a specific interactor and substrate of Omi/HtrA2 in cells undergoing apoptosis. This protein is an uncharacterized member of the THAP family of proteins. THAP5 has a unique pattern of expression and is found predominantly in the human heart, although a very low expression is also seen in the human brain and muscle. THAP5 protein is localized in the nucleus and, when ectopically expressed, induces cell cycle arrest. During apoptosis, THAP5 protein is degraded, and this process can be blocked using a specific Omi/HtrA2 inhibitor, leading to reduced cell death. In patients with coronary artery disease, THAP5 protein levels substantially decrease in the myocardial infarction area, suggesting a potential role of this protein in human heart disease. This work identifies human THAP5 as a cardiac-specific nuclear protein that controls cell cycle progression. Furthermore, during apoptosis, THAP5 is cleaved and removed by the proapoptotic Omi/HtrA2 protease. Taken together, we provide evidence to support that THAP5 and its regulation by Omi/HtrA2 provide a new link between cell cycle control and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes.

  3. PAK2 is cleaved and activated during hyperosmotic shock-induced apoptosis via a caspase-dependent mechanism: evidence for the involvement of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Chan, W H; Yu, J S; Yang, S D

    1999-03-01

    Hyperosmotic shock elicits a stress response in mammalian cells and can lead to apoptotic cell death. In the present study, we report that hyperosmotic shock can induce activation of a 36 kDa kinase detected by an in-gel kinase assay in several cell types, including mouse Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts, and human Hep 3B and A431 cells. This 36 kDa kinase can be recognized by an antibody against the C-terminal region of a family of p21Cdc42/Rac-activated kinases (PAKs) on immunoblot. Further studies with this antibody and a PAK2-specific antibody against the N-terminal region of PAK2 demonstrate that hyperosmotic shock can induce cleavage of PAK2 to generate a 36 kDa C-terminal catalytic fragment in cells. The cleavage and activation of PAK2 was found to be closely associated with both DNA fragmentation and activation of an ICE/CED-3 family cysteine protease termed caspase-3 in hyperosmotically shocked cells. Furthermore, pretreating the cells with two caspase inhibitors (Ac-DEVD-cho and Ac-YVAD-cmk) could inhibit both cleavage/activation of PAK2 and DNA fragmentation induced by hyperosmotic shock. Moreover, all these hyperosmotic shock-induced changes (i.e., activation of caspase-3, cleavage/activation of PAK2, and DNA fragmentation) in cells could be blocked by antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (vitamine C), alpha-tocopherol (vitamine E), dithiothreitol, beta-mercaptoethanol, and glutathione. Taken together, our results show that PAK2 is cleaved and activated via a caspase-dependent mechanism during hyperosmotic shock-induced apoptosis and suggest the involvement of antioxidant-preventable oxidative stress in inducing this process.

  4. A complex structure in the mRNA of Tf1 is recognized and cleaved to generate the primer of reverse transcription.

    PubMed

    Lin, J H; Levin, H L

    1997-01-15

    All retroviruses and LTR-containing retrotransposons are thought to require specific tRNA molecules to serve as primers of reverse transcription. An exception is the LTR-containing retrotransposon Tf1, isolated from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Instead of requiring a tRNA, the reverse transcriptase of Tf1 uses the first 11 bases of the Tf1 transcript as the primer for reverse transcription. The primer is generated by a cleavage that occurs between bases 11 and 12 of the Tf1 mRNA. Sequence analysis of the 5' untranslated region of the Tf1 mRNA resulted in the identification of a region with the potential to form an RNA structure of 89 bases that included the primer binding site and the first 11 bases of the Tf1 mRNA. Systematic mutagenesis of this region revealed 34 single-point mutants in the structure that resulted in reduced transposition activity. The defects in transposition correlated with reduced level of Tf1 reverse transcripts as determined by DNA blot analysis. Evidence that the RNA structure did form in vivo included the result that strains with second site mutations that restored complementarity resulted in increased levels of reverse transcripts and Tf1 transposition. The majority of the mutants defective for reverse transcription were unable to cleave the Tf1 mRNA between bases 11 and 12. These data indicate that formation of an extensive RNA structure was required for the cleavage reaction that generated the primer for Tf1 reverse transcription.

  5. Partial purification and functional properties of an endoprotease from bovine neurosecretory granules cleaving proocytocin/neurophysin peptides at the basic amino acid doublet.

    PubMed

    Clamagirand, C; Creminon, C; Fahy, C; Boussetta, H; Cohen, P

    1987-09-22

    An enriched preparation of neurosecretory granules from bovine pituitary neural lobes was used as a source of processing enzymes possibly involved in the cleavage of the proocytocin/neurophysin precursor. A synthetic eicosapeptide reproducing the entire (1-20) sequence of the NH2-terminal domain of the bovine ocytocin/neurophysin precursor was used as a substrate to monitor an endoprotease activity cleaving at the Lys11-Arg12 doublet. The 58-kDa endoprotease detected in the lysate of neurohypophyseal granules produced a single cleavage, after the doublet, at the Arg12-Ala13 peptide bond. This endoprotease with pHi 6.9 and 7.2 exhibits maximal activity at pH around neutrality (7.0) and was strongly inhibited by divalent cation chelating agents [ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',-N'-tetraacetic acid] and to some extent by p-(chloromercuri)benzoate and p-(chloromercuri)benzenesulfonic acid, while phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride and pepstatin were not active. This endoprotease action was sensitive to any modification of the substrate at either basic amino acid of the doublet since replacement of either L-Lys11 or L-Arg12 by D-Lys or D-Arg and by L-Nle abolished the cleavage reaction. In contrast, reversal of the polarity of the doublet in [Arg11,Lys12]proocytocin/neurophysin(1-20) had no effect on the mode of endoproteolytic cleavage as well as modifications of Gly10 (replaced by Ala10). It is concluded that the selectivity of this endoprotease, which may be involved in the primary event occurring in proocytocin/neurophysin processing, is strictly dependent upon the integrity of the basic doublet but that other parameters determined by the amino acid sequence around this doublet may play an important role.

  6. Allergenic proteases cleave the chemokine CX3CL1 directly from the surface of airway epithelium and augment the effect of rhinovirus.

    PubMed

    Loxham, M; Smart, D E; Bedke, N J; Smithers, N P; Filippi, I; Blume, C; Swindle, E J; Tariq, K; Howarth, P H; Holgate, S T; Davies, D E

    2018-03-01

    CX3CL1 has been implicated in allergen-induced airway CD4 + T-lymphocyte recruitment in asthma. As epidemiological evidence supports a viral infection-allergen synergy in asthma exacerbations, we postulated that rhinovirus (RV) infection in the presence of allergen augments epithelial CX3CL1 release. Fully differentiated primary bronchial epithelial cultures were pretreated apically with house dust mite (HDM) extract and infected with rhinovirus-16 (RV16). CX3CL1 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting, and shedding mechanisms assessed using inhibitors, protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) agonist, and recombinant CX3CL1-expressing HEK293T cells. Basolateral CX3CL1 release was unaffected by HDM but stimulated by RV16; inhibition by fluticasone or GM6001 implicated nuclear factor-κB and ADAM (A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase) sheddases. Conversely, apical CX3CL1 shedding was stimulated by HDM and augmented by RV16. Although fluticasone or GM6001 reduced RV16+HDM-induced apical CX3CL1 release, heat inactivation or cysteine protease inhibition completely blocked CX3CL1 shedding. The HDM effect was via enzymatic cleavage of CX3CL1, not PAR-2 activation, yielding a product mitogenic for smooth muscle cells. Extracts of Alternaria fungus caused similar CX3CL1 shedding. We have identified a novel mechanism whereby allergenic proteases cleave CX3CL1 from the apical epithelial surface to yield a biologically active product. RV16 infection augmented HDM-induced CX3CL1 shedding-this may contribute to synergy between allergen exposure and RV infection in triggering asthma exacerbations and airway remodeling.

  7. Monitoring cleaved caspase-3 activity and apoptosis of immortalized oligodendroglial cells using live-cell imaging and cleaveable fluorogenic-dye substrates following potassium-induced membrane depolarization.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graham S T; Voyer-Grant, Janine A M; Harauz, George

    2012-01-13

    . We used a bi-functional caspase-3 substrate containing a DEVD (Asp-Glu-Val-Asp) caspase-3 recognition subunit and a DNA-binding dye. The substrate quickly enters the cytoplasm where it is cleaved by intracellular caspase-3. The dye, NucView 488 is released and enters the cell nucleus where it binds DNA and fluoresces green at 488 nm, signaling apoptosis. Use of the NucView 488 caspase-3 substrate allows for live-cell imaging in real-time. In this video, we also describe the culturing and transfection of immortalized N19-OLG cells, as well as live-cell imaging techniques.

  8. 3′ fragment of miR173-programmed RISC-cleaved RNA is protected from degradation in a complex with RISC and SGS3

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Manabu; Iki, Taichiro; Tsutsui, Yasuhiro; Miyashita, Kyoko; Poethig, R. Scott; Habu, Yoshiki; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    trans-acting small interfering RNAs (tasiRNAs) are plant-specific endogenous siRNAs produced via a unique pathway whose first step is the microRNA (miRNA)-programmed RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)–mediated cleavage of tasiRNA gene (TAS) transcripts. One of the products is subsequently transformed into tasiRNAs by a pathway that requires several factors including SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SILENCING3 (SGS3) and RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE6. Here, using in vitro assembled ARGONAUTE (AGO)1–RISCs, we show that SGS3 is recruited onto RISCs only when they bind target RNA. Following cleavage by miRNA173 (miR173)-programmed RISC, SGS3 was found in complexes containing cleaved TAS2 RNA and RISC. The 3′ cleavage fragment (the source of tasiRNAs) was protected from degradation in this complex. Depletion of SGS3 did not affect TAS2 RNA cleavage by miR173-programmed RISC, but did affect the stability of the 3′ cleavage fragment. When the 3′ nucleotide of 22-nt miR173 was deleted or the corresponding nucleotide in TAS2 RNA was mutated, the complex was not observed and the 3′ cleavage fragment was degraded. Importantly, these changes in miR173 or TAS2 RNA are known to lead to a loss of tasiRNA production in vivo. These results suggest that (i) SGS3 associates with AGO1–RISC via the double-stranded RNA formed by the 3′-terminal nucleotides of 22-nt miR173 and corresponding target RNA, which probably protrudes from the AGO1–RISC molecular surface, (ii) SGS3 protects the 3′ cleavage fragment of TAS2 RNA from degradation, and (iii) the observed SGS3-dependent stabilization of the 3′ fragment of TAS2 RNA is key to tasiRNA production. PMID:23417299

  9. Measurement of neutralizing serum antibodies of patients vaccinated with human papillomavirus L1 or L2-based immunogens using furin-cleaved HPV Pseudovirions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Joshua W; Jagu, Subhashini; Wang, Chenguang; Kitchener, Henry C; Daayana, Sai; Stern, Peter L; Pang, Susana; Day, Patricia M; Huh, Warner K; Roden, Richard B S

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies specific for neutralizing epitopes in either Human papillomavirus (HPV) capsid protein L1 or L2 can mediate protection from viral challenge and thus their accurate and sensitive measurement at high throughput is likely informative for monitoring response to prophylactic vaccination. Here we compare measurement of L1 and L2-specific neutralizing antibodies in human sera using the standard Pseudovirion-Based Neutralization Assay (L1-PBNA) with the newer Furin-Cleaved Pseudovirion-Based Neutralization Assay (FC-PBNA), a modification of the L1-PBNA intended to improve sensitivity towards L2-specific neutralizing antibodies without compromising assay of L1-specific responses. For detection of L1-specific neutralizing antibodies in human sera, the FC- PBNA and L1-PBNA assays showed similar sensitivity and a high level of correlation using WHO standard sera (n = 2), and sera from patients vaccinated with Gardasil (n = 30) or an experimental human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) L1 VLP vaccine (n = 70). The detection of L1-specific cross-neutralizing antibodies in these sera using pseudovirions of types phylogenetically-related to those targeted by the L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines was also consistent between the two assays. However, for sera from patients (n = 17) vaccinated with an L2-based immunogen (TA-CIN), the FC-PBNA was more sensitive than the L1-PBNA in detecting L2-specific neutralizing antibodies. Further, the neutralizing antibody titers measured with the FC-PBNA correlated with those determined with the L2-PBNA, another modification of the L1-PBNA that spacio-temporally separates primary and secondary receptor engagement, as well as the protective titers measured using passive transfer studies in the murine genital-challenge model. In sum, the FC-PBNA provided sensitive measurement for both L1 VLP and L2-specific neutralizing antibody in human sera. Vaccination with TA-CIN elicits weak cross-protective antibody in a subset of

  10. InhA1-Mediated Cleavage of the Metalloprotease NprA Allows Bacillus cereus to Escape From Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Haydar, Abbass; Tran, Seav-Ly; Guillemet, Elisabeth; Darrigo, Claire; Perchat, Stéphane; Lereclus, Didier; Coquet, Laurent; Jouenne, Thierry; Ramarao, Nalini

    2018-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium causing food poisoning and serious opportunistic infections. These infections are characterized by bacterial accumulation in the host despite the induction of inflammation. To circumvent inflammation, bacteria must resist the bactericidal activity of professional phagocytes, which constitute a first line of host defense against pathogens. Interactions between phagocytic cells and B. cereus are still poorly characterized and the mechanism of resistance to the host immune system is not known yet. We have previously shown that the spores are phagocytosed by macrophages but survive and escape from these cells. The metalloprotease InhA1 is a key effector involved in these processes. inhA1 -deficient spores are retained intracellularly, in contrast to the wild type strain spores. NprA is also a B. cereus metalloprotease able to cleave tissue components such as fibronectin, laminin, and collagen. Here, we show that NprA, concomitantly secreted with InhA1 in the B. cereus secretome, is essential to promote bacterial escape from macrophages. We show that InhA1 cleaves NprA at specific sites. This cleavage allows liberation of the mature form of the NprA protein in the supernatant of the wild type strain. This mature form of NprA is actually the principal effector allowing bacterial escape from host macrophages.

  11. A Novel Cryptic Binding Motif, LRSKSRSFQVSDEQY, in the C-Terminal Fragment of MMP-3/7-Cleaved Osteopontin as a Novel Ligand for α9β1 Integrin Is Involved in the Anti-Type II Collagen Antibody-Induced Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kon, Shigeyuki; Nakayama, Yosuke; Matsumoto, Naoki; Ito, Koyu; Kanayama, Masashi; Kimura, Chiemi; Kouro, Hitomi; Ashitomi, Dai; Matsuda, Tadashi; Uede, Toshimitsu

    2014-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional protein that has been linked to various intractable inflammatory diseases. One way by which OPN induces inflammation is the production of various functional fragments by enzyme cleavage. It has been well appreciated that OPN is cleaved by thrombin, and/or matrix metalloproteinase-3 and -7 (MMP-3/7). Although the function of thrombin-cleaved OPN is well characterized, little is known about the function of MMP-3/7-cleaved OPN. In this study, we found a novel motif, LRSKSRSFQVSDEQY, in the C-terminal fragment of MMP-3/7-cleaved mouse OPN binds to α9β1 integrin. Importantly, this novel motif is involved in the development of anti-type II collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA). This study provides the first in vitro and in vivo evidence that OPN cleavage by MMP-3/7 is an important regulatory mechanism for CAIA. PMID:25545242

  12. Blockade of D1 dopaminergic transmission alleviates c-fos induction and cleaved caspase-3 expression in the brains of rat pups exposed to prenatal cocaine or perinatal asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Ellen S; Snyder-Keller, Abigail

    2003-07-01

    Hypoxia due to uterine vasoconstriction may be an important cause of the teratogenic consequences of prenatal cocaine exposure. We used immediate-early gene and cleaved caspase-3 expression patterns to monitor fetal brain regions affected by intrauterine hypoxia and prenatal cocaine and pretreatment with the D1 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH 23390 to determine how much of the induction observed was due to dopamine. Both cocaine binge (3 x 15 mg/kg) and perinatal asphyxia on embryonic day 22 (E22) induced c-fos in the striatum as well as in several other brain regions within 3 h after treatment. Maternal administration of a D1 dopamine antagonist, SCH 23390, before either cocaine or asphyxia exposure dramatically reduced the numbers of Fos-immunoreactive cells in the striatum as well as in many other brain regions. Cells immunoreactive for cleaved caspase-3 expression were more numerous after perinatal asphyxia than after prenatal cocaine exposure in most brain regions 24 h after C-section. SCH 23390 decreased caspase-3 expression after both birth insults, indicating that the increased incidence of apoptosis is related to overactivation of dopaminergic pathways.

  13. Analysis of Apoptosis in Ultraviolet-Induced Sea Cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) Melting Using Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl-Transferase-Mediated dUTP Nick End-Labeling Assay and Cleaved Caspase-3 Immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing-Feng; Gao, Rong-Chun; Wu, Hai-Tao; Li, Peng-Fei; Hu, Xian-Shu; Zhou, Da-Yong; Zhu, Bei-Wei; Su, Yi-Cheng

    2015-11-04

    The sea cucumber body wall melting phenomenon occurs under certain circumstances, and the mechanism of this phenomenon remains unclear. This study investigated the apoptosis in the ultraviolet (UV)-induced sea cucumber melting phenomenon. Fresh sea cucumbers (Stichopus japonicus) were exposed to UV radiation for half an hour at an intensity of 0.056 mW/cm(2) and then held at room temperature for melting development. The samples were histologically processed into formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. The apoptosis of samples was analyzed with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay and cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry. The emergence of TUNEL-positive cells speeds up between 0.5 and 2 h after UV irradiation. Cleaved caspase-3 positive cells were obviously detected in sample tissues immediately after the UV irradiation. These results demonstrated that sea cucumber melting induced by UV irradiation was triggered by the activation of caspase-3 followed by DNA fragmentation in sea cucumber tissue, which was attributed to apoptosis but was not a consequence of autolysis activity.

  14. Human adenovirus serotype 12 virion precursors pMu and pVI are cleaved at amino-terminal and carboxy-terminal sites that conform to the adenovirus 2 endoproteinase cleavage consensus sequence.

    PubMed

    Freimuth, P; Anderson, C W

    1993-03-01

    The sequence of a 1158-base pair fragment of the human adenovirus serotype 12 (Ad12) genome was determined. This segment encodes the precursors for virion components Mu and VI. Both Ad12 precursors contain two sequences that conform to a consensus sequence motif for cleavage by the endoproteinase of adenovirus 2 (Ad2). Analysis of the amino terminus of VI and of the peptide fragments found in Ad12 virions demonstrated that these sites are cleaved during Ad12 maturation. This observation suggests that the recognition motif for adenovirus endoproteinases is highly conserved among human serotypes. The adenovirus 2 endoproteinase polypeptide requires additional co-factors for activity (C. W. Anderson, Protein Expression Purif., 1993, 4, 8-15). Synthetic Ad12 or Ad2 pVI carboxy-terminal peptides each permitted efficient cleavage of an artificial endoproteinase substrate by recombinant Ad2 endoproteinase polypeptide.

  15. Discovery of the 3-Imino-1,2,4-thiadiazinane 1,1-Dioxide Derivative Verubecestat (MK-8931)–A β-Site Amyloid Precursor Protein Cleaving Enzyme 1 Inhibitor for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Jack D.; Li, Sarah W.; Brunskill, Andrew P. J.

    Verubecestat 3 (MK-8931), a diaryl amide-substituted 3-imino-1,2,4-thiadiazinane 1,1-dioxide derivative, is a high-affinity β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) inhibitor currently undergoing Phase 3 clinical evaluation for the treatment of mild to moderate and prodromal Alzheimer’s disease. Although not selective over the closely related aspartyl protease BACE2, verubecestat has high selectivity for BACE1 over other key aspartyl proteases, notably cathepsin D, and profoundly lowers CSF and brain Aβ levels in rats and nonhuman primates and CSF Aβ levels in humans. In this annotation, we describe the discovery of 3, including design, validation, and selected SAR around the novel iminothiadiazinanemore » dioxide core as well as aspects of its preclinical and Phase 1 clinical characterization.« less

  16. Presence of Cleaved Synaptosomal-Associated Protein-25 and Decrease of Purinergic Receptors P2X3 in the Bladder Urothelium Influence Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin Treatment for Overactive Bladder Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsin-Tzu; Chen, Sung-Ho; Chancellor, Michael B; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate whether botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) injection and Lipotoxin (liposomes with 200 U of BoNT-A) instillation target different proteins, including P2X3, synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A, and SNAP-25, in the bladder mucosa, leading to different treatment outcomes. This was a retrospective study performed in a tertiary teaching hospital. We evaluated the clinical results of 27 OAB patients treated with intravesical BoNT-A injection (n = 16) or Lipotoxin instillation (n = 11). Seven controls were treated with saline. Patients were injected with 100 U of BoNT-A or Lipotoxinin a single intravesical instillation. The patients enrolled in this study all had bladder biopsies performed at baseline and one month after BoNT-A therapy. Treatment outcome was measured by the decreases in urgency and frequency episodes at 1 month. The functional protein expressions in the urothelium were measured at baseline and after 1 month. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test and ordinal logistic regression were used to compare the treatment outcomes. Both BoNT-A injection and Lipotoxin instillation treatments effectively decreased the frequency of urgency episodes in OAB patients. Lipotoxin instillation did not increase post-void residual volume. BoNT-A injection effectively cleaved SNAP-25 (p < 0.01). Liposome encapsulated BoNT-A decreased urothelial P2X3 expression in the five responders (p = 0.04), while SNAP-25 was not significantly cleaved. The results of this study provide a possible mechanism for the therapeutic effects of BoNT-A for the treatment of OAB via different treatment forms. BoNT-A and Lipotoxin treatments effectively decreased the frequency of urgency episodes in patients with OAB.

  17. A-1 Test Stand modifications

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-14

    Team members check the progress of a liquid nitrogen cold shock test on the A-1 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center on Sept. 15. The cold shock test is used to confirm the test stand's support system can withstand test conditions, when super-cold rocket engine propellant is piped. The A-1 Test Stand is preparing to conduct tests on the powerpack component of the J-2X rocket engine, beginning in early 2012.

  18. Rational design of botulinum neurotoxin A1 mutants with improved oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    López de la Paz, Manuela; Scheps, Daniel; Jurk, Marcel; Hofmann, Fred; Frevert, Jürgen

    2018-06-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most potent toxic proteins to mankind known but applied in low doses trigger a localized muscle paralysis that is beneficial for the therapy of several neurological disorders and aesthetic treatment. The paralytic effect is generated by the enzymatic activity of the light chain (LC) that cleaves specifically one of the SNARE proteins responsible for neurotransmitter exocytosis. The activity of the LC in a BoNT-containing therapeutic can be compromised by denaturing agents present during manufacturing and/or in the cell. Stabilization of the LC by reducing vulnerability towards denaturants would thus be advantageous for the development of BoNT-based therapeutics. In this work, we focused on increasing the stability of LC of BoNT/A1 (LC/A1) towards oxidative stress. We tackled this task by rational design of mutations at cysteine and methionine LC/A1 sites. Designed mutants showed improved oxidative stability in vitro and equipotency to wildtype toxin in vivo. Our results suggest that suitable modification of the catalytic domain can lead to more stable BoNTs without impairing their therapeutic efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A-1 Test Stand work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    A structural steel beam to support the new thrust measurement system on the A-1 Test Stand at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center is lifted to waiting employees for installation. The beam is part of the thrust takeout structure needed to support the new measurement system. Four such beams have been installed at the stand in preparation for installation of the system in upcoming weeks. Operators are preparing the stand for testing the next generation of rocket engines for the U.S. space program.

  20. Incoherent-to-coherent crossover of optical spectra in La0.825Sr0.175MnO3: Temperature-dependent reflectivity spectra measured on cleaved surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, K.; Sawaki, Y.; Sugai, S.

    1999-11-01

    Optical reflectivity spectra were measured on cleaved surfaces of La0.825Sr0.175MnO3 single crystals (TC=283 K) over a temperature range 10-295 K. The optical conductivity σ(ω) shows incoherent-to-coherent crossover with decreasing temperature. The minimum metallic conductivity σmin of this compound was determined by the dc resistivity ρ(T) measurements of Al-substituted crystals (La0.825Sr0.175)(Mn1-zAlz)O3 and was found to be 2000-3000 Ω-1 cm-1. This indicates that the dc conductivity of La0.825Sr0.175MnO3 is smaller than σmin over a wide temperature range below TC even though ρ(T) is metallic (dρ/dT>0). The present results suggest that there are two types of the ferromagnetic-metallic phase below TC-a ``high-temperature incoherent'' metallic (HIM) and a ``low-temperature coherent'' metallic phase. ``Colossal magnetoresistance'' is a characteristic of the HIM phase.

  1. A new fluorogenic small molecule labeling tool for surface diffusion analysis and advanced fluorescence imaging of β-site amyloid precursor protein (APP)-cleaving enzyme 1 based on silicone rhodamine: SiR-BACE1.

    PubMed

    Karch, Sandra; Broichhagen, Johannes; Schneider, Julia; Böning, Daniel; Hartmann, Stephanie; Schmid, Benjamin; Tripal, Philipp; Palmisano, Ralf; Alzheimer, Christian; Johnsson, Kai; Huth, Tobias

    2018-06-25

    β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is a major player in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Structural and functional fluorescence microscopy offers a powerful approach to learn about the physiology and pathophysiology of this protease. Up to now, however, common labeling techniques either require genetic manipulation, use large antibodies, or are not compatible with live cell imaging. Fluorescent small molecules that specifically bind to the protein of interest can overcome these limitations. Herein, we introduce SiR-BACE1, a conjugate of the BACE1 inhibitor S-39 and SiR647, as a novel fluorogenic, tag-free, and antibody-free label for BACE1. We present its chemical development, characterize its photo-physical and pharmacologic properties, and evaluate its behavior in solution, in over-expression systems, and in native brain tissue. We demonstrate its applicability in confocal, stimulated emission depletion (STED), and dynamic single molecule microscopy. First functional studies with SiR-BACE1 on the surface mobility of BACE1 revealed a markedly confined diffusion pattern.

  2. Genes from the medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis) coding for unusual enzymes that specifically cleave endo-epsilon (gamma-Glu)-Lys isopeptide bonds and help to dissolve blood clots.

    PubMed

    Zavalova, L; Lukyanov, S; Baskova, I; Snezhkov, E; Akopov, S; Berezhnoy, S; Bogdanova, E; Barsova, E; Sverdlov, E D

    1996-11-27

    We previously detected in salivary gland secretions of the medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis) a novel enzymatic activity, endo-epsilon(gamma-Glu)-Lys isopeptidase, which cleaves isopeptide bonds formed by transglutaminase (Factor XIIIa) between glutamine gamma-carboxamide and the epsilon-amino group of lysine. Such isopeptide bonds, either within or between protein polypeptide chains are formed in many biological processes. However, before we started our work no enzymes were known to be capable of specifically splitting isopeptide bonds in proteins. The isopeptidase activity we detected was specific for isopeptide bonds. The enzyme was termed destabilase. Here we report the first purification of destabilase, part of its amino acid sequence isolation and sequencing of two related cDNAs derived from the gene family that encodes destabilase proteins, and the detection of isopeptidase activity encoded by one of these cDNAs cloned in a baculovirus expression vector. The deduced mature protein products of these cDNAs contain 115 and 116 amino acid residues, including 14 highly conserved Cys residues, and are formed from precursors containing specific leader peptides. No homologous sequences were found in public databases.

  3. In vitro excision of adeno-associated virus DNA from recombinant plasmids: Isolation of an enzyme fraction from HeLa cells that cleaves DNA at poly(G) sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb, J.; Muzyczka, N.

    1988-06-01

    When circular recombinant plasmids containing adeno-associated virus (AAV) DNA sequences are transfected into human cells, the AAV provirus is rescued. Using these circular AAV plasmids as substrates, the authors isolated an enzyme fraction from HeLa cell nuclear extracts that excises intact AAV DNA in vitro from vector DNA and produces linear DNA products. The recognition signal for the enzyme is a polypurine-polypyrimidine sequence which is at least 9 residues long and rich in G . C base pairs. Such sequences are present in AAV recombinant plasmids as part of the first 15 base pairs of the AAV terminal repeat andmore » in some cases as the result of cloning the AAV genome by G . C tailing. The isolated enzyme fraction does not have significant endonucleolytic activity on single-stranded or double-stranded DNA. Plasmid DNA that is transfected into tissue culture cells is cleaved in vivo to produce a pattern of DNA fragments similar to that seen with purified enzyme in vitro. The activity has been called endo R for rescue, and its behavior suggests that it may have a role in recombination of cellular chromosomes.« less

  4. Membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase cleaves off the NH2-terminal portion of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor and converts it into a heparin-independent growth factor.

    PubMed

    Koshikawa, Naohiko; Mizushima, Hiroto; Minegishi, Tomoko; Iwamoto, Ryo; Mekada, Eisuke; Seiki, Motoharu

    2010-07-15

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors (ErbB) and EGF family members represent promising targets for cancer therapy. Heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF) is a member of the EGF family and is an important target for therapy in some types of human cancers. Processing of HB-EGF by proprotein convertases, and successively, by ADAM family proteases, generates a soluble growth factor that requires heparin as a cofactor. Although heparin potentiates HB-EGF activity in vitro, it is not clear how the heparin-binding activity of HB-EGF is regulated. Here, we show that membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP; MMP14), a potent invasion-promoting protease, markedly enhances HB-EGF-dependent tumor formation in mice. MT1-MMP additionally cleaves HB-EGF and removes the NH(2)-terminal 20 amino acids that are important for binding heparin. Consequently, the processing of HB-EGF by MT1-MMP converts HB-EGF into a heparin-independent growth factor with enhanced mitogenic activity, and thereby, expression of both proteins costimulates tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. The ErbB family of receptors expressed in human gastric carcinoma cells play a role in mediating enhanced HB-EGF activity by MT1-MMP during invasive cell growth in collagen. Thus, we shed light on a new mechanism whereby HB-EGF activity is regulated that should be considered when designing HB-EGF-targeted cancer therapy. (c)2010 AACR.

  5. Development of cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers and a CAPS-based genetic linkage map in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Matsum. and Nakai) constructed using whole-genome re-sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shi; Gao, Peng; Zhu, Qianglong; Luan, Feishi; Davis, Angela R.; Wang, Xiaolu

    2016-01-01

    Cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers are useful tools for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This study detected and converted SNP sites into CAPS markers based on high-throughput re-sequencing data in watermelon, for linkage map construction and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Two inbred lines, Cream of Saskatchewan (COS) and LSW-177 had been re-sequenced and analyzed by Perl self-compiled script for CAPS marker development. 88.7% and 78.5% of the assembled sequences of the two parental materials could map to the reference watermelon genome, respectively. Comparative assembled genome data analysis provided 225,693 and 19,268 SNPs and indels between the two materials. 532 pairs of CAPS markers were designed with 16 restriction enzymes, among which 271 pairs of primers gave distinct bands of the expected length and polymorphic bands, via PCR and enzyme digestion, with a polymorphic rate of 50.94%. Using the new CAPS markers, an initial CAPS-based genetic linkage map was constructed with the F2 population, spanning 1836.51 cM with 11 linkage groups and 301 markers. 12 QTLs were detected related to fruit flesh color, length, width, shape index, and brix content. These newly CAPS markers will be a valuable resource for breeding programs and genetic studies of watermelon. PMID:27162496

  6. Plasmin cleaves fibrinogen and the human complement proteins C3b and C5 in the presence of Leptospira interrogans proteins: A new role of LigA and LigB in invasion and complement immune evasion.

    PubMed

    Castiblanco-Valencia, Mónica Marcela; Fraga, Tatiana Rodrigues; Pagotto, Ana Helena; Serrano, Solange Maria de Toledo; Abreu, Patricia Antonia Estima; Barbosa, Angela Silva; Isaac, Lourdes

    2016-05-01

    Plasminogen is a single-chain glycoprotein found in human plasma as the inactive precursor of plasmin. When converted to proteolytically active plasmin, plasmin(ogen) regulates both complement and coagulation cascades, thus representing an important target for pathogenic microorganisms. Leptospira interrogans binds plasminogen, which is converted to active plasmin. Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like (Lig) proteins are surface exposed molecules that interact with extracellular matrix components and complement regulators, including proteins of the FH family and C4BP. In this work, we demonstrate that these multifunctional molecules also bind plasminogen through both N- and C-terminal domains. These interactions are dependent on lysine residues and are affected by ionic strength. Competition assays suggest that plasminogen does not share binding sites with C4BP or FH on Lig proteins at physiological molar ratios. Plasminogen bound to Lig proteins is converted to proteolytic active plasmin in the presence of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). Lig-bound plasmin is able to cleave the physiological substrates fibrinogen and the complement proteins C3b and C5. Taken together, our data point to a new role of LigA and LigB in leptospiral invasion and complement immune evasion. Plasmin(ogen) acquisition by these versatile proteins may contribute to Leptospira infection, favoring bacterial survival and dissemination inside the host. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  7. The Magic of Janice VanCleave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winarski, Diana L.

    1995-01-01

    Profiles the author of 28 science books for children, teachers, and parents. Most of the books focus on science fair projects, teaching science to elementary school students, and fun science activities that parents and teachers can use with students. (MDM)

  8. A DNA enzyme that cleaves RNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breaker, R. R.; Joyce, G. F.; Hoyce, G. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several types of RNA enzymes (ribozymes) have been identified in biological systems and generated in the laboratory. Considering the variety of known RNA enzymes and the similarity of DNA and RNA, it is reasonable to imagine that DNA might be able to function as an enzyme as well. No such DNA enzyme has been found in nature, however. We set out to identify a metal-dependent DNA enzyme using in vitro selection methodology. RESULTS: Beginning with a population of 10(14) DNAs containing 50 random nucleotides, we carried out five successive rounds of selective amplification, enriching for individuals that best promote the Pb(2+)-dependent cleavage of a target ribonucleoside 3'-O-P bond embedded within an otherwise all-DNA sequence. By the fifth round, the population as a whole carried out this reaction at a rate of 0.2 min-1. Based on the sequence of 20 individuals isolated from this population, we designed a simplified version of the catalytic domain that operates in an intermolecular context with a turnover rate of 1 min-1. This rate is about 10(5)-fold increased compared to the uncatalyzed reaction. CONCLUSIONS: Using in vitro selection techniques, we obtained a DNA enzyme that catalyzes the Pb(2+)-dependent cleavage of an RNA phosphoester in a reaction that proceeds with rapid turnover. The catalytic rate compares favorably to that of known RNA enzymes. We expect that other examples of DNA enzymes will soon be forthcoming.

  9. Janice VanCleave's World: Trapper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    2000-01-01

    Introduces young children to the safe study of insects and promotes respect for the study specimen. Children craft insects out of marshmallows, toothpicks, and cardboard and practice using a clear plastic cup to collect and observe insects through a magnifying lens. With their new skills, they can move on to studying real insects. (PVD)

  10. A-1 Test Stand work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Employees at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center work to maneuver a structural steam beam into place on the A-1 Test Stand on Jan. 13. The beam was one of several needed to form the thrust takeout structure that will support a new thrust measurement system being installed on the stand for future rocket engine testing. Once lifted onto the stand, the beams had to be hoisted into place through the center of the test stand, with only two inches of clearance on each side. The new thrust measurement system represents a state-of-the-art upgrade from the equipment installed more than 40 years ago when the test stand was first constructed.

  11. Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia-1 Attenuates Amyloid-β Generation and Cognitive Deficits in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice by Reduction of β-Site APP-Cleaving Enzyme 1 Levels

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Qing-Shan; Dong, Xing-Yu; Wu, Hao; Wang, Wang; Wang, Zhao-Tao; Zhu, Jian-Wei; Liu, Chun-Feng; Jia, Wei-Qiang; Zhang, Yan; Schachner, Melitta; Ma, Quan-Hong; Xu, Ru-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) is a genetic risk factor for a wide range of major mental disorders, including schizophrenia, major depression, and bipolar disorders. Recent reports suggest a potential role of DISC1 in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), by referring to an interaction between DISC1 and amyloid precursor protein (APP), and to an association of a single-nucleotide polymorphism in a DISC1 intron and late onset of AD. However, the function of DISC1 in AD remains unknown. In this study, decreased levels of DISC1 were observed in the cortex and hippocampus of 8-month-old APP/PS1 transgenic mice, an animal model of AD. Overexpression of DISC1 reduced, whereas knockdown of DISC1 increased protein levels, but not mRNA levels of β-site APP-Cleaving Enzyme 1 (BACE1), a key enzyme in amyloid-β (Aβ) generation. Reduction of BACE1 protein levels by overexpression of DISC1 was accompanied by an accelerating decline rate of BACE1, and was blocked by the lysosomal inhibitor chloroquine, rather than proteasome inhibitor MG-132. Moreover, overexpression of DISC1 in the hippocampus with an adeno-associated virus reduced the levels of BACE1, soluble Aβ40/42, amyloid plaque density, and rescued cognitive deficits of APP/PS1 transgenic mice. These results indicate that DISC1 attenuates Aβ generation and cognitive deficits of APP/PS1 transgenic mice through promoting lysosomal degradation of BACE1. Our findings provide new insights into the role of DISC1 in AD pathogenesis and link a potential function of DISC1 to the psychiatric symptoms of AD. PMID:26062786

  12. Secondary Structural Changes of Intact and Disulfide Bridges-Cleaved Human Serum Albumins in Thermal Denaturation up to 130°C - Additive Effects of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate on the Changes.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Yoshiko; Takeda, Kunio

    2017-05-01

    The secondary structural changes of human serum albumin with the intact 17 disulfide bridges (HSA) and the disulfide bridges-cleaved human serum albumin (RCM-HSA) in thermal denaturation were examined. Most of the helical structures of HSA, whose original helicity was 66%, were sharply disrupted between 50 and 100°C. However, 14% helicity remained even at 130°C. The temperature dependence of the degree of disrupted helical structures of HSA was discussed in connection with questions about a general protein denaturation model. When HSA lost the disulfide bridges, about two-thirds of the original helices were disrupted. Although the helices of RCM-HSA remaining after the cleavage of the disulfide bridges were relatively resistant against the heat treatment, the helicity changed from 22% at 25°C to 14% at 130℃. The helicity of RCM-HSA at 130°C agreed with the helicity of HSA at the same temperature, indicating that the same helical moieties of the polypeptides remained unaffected at this high temperature. The additive effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the structural changes of HSA and RCM-HSA in thermal denaturation were also examined. A slight amount of SDS protected the helical structures of HSA from thermal denaturation below 80°C. Upon cooling to 25°C after heat treatment at temperatures below 70°C with the coexistence of SDS of low concentrations, the helical structures of HSA were reformed to the original level at 25°C before heating. A similar tendency was also observed after heat treatment at 80°C. In contrast, the helical structures of the RCM-HSA complexes with SDS are completely recovered upon cooling to 25°C even after heat treatment up to 100°C. Similar investigations were also carried out on bovine serum albumins which had the intact 17 disulfide bridges and lost all of the bridges.

  13. First demonstration of cerebrospinal fluid and plasma A beta lowering with oral administration of a beta-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 inhibitor in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, Sethu; Holahan, Marie A; Colussi, Dennis; Crouthamel, Ming-Chih; Devanarayan, Viswanath; Ellis, Joan; Espeseth, Amy; Gates, Adam T; Graham, Samuel L; Gregro, Allison R; Hazuda, Daria; Hochman, Jerome H; Holloway, Katharine; Jin, Lixia; Kahana, Jason; Lai, Ming-tain; Lineberger, Janet; McGaughey, Georgia; Moore, Keith P; Nantermet, Philippe; Pietrak, Beth; Price, Eric A; Rajapakse, Hemaka; Stauffer, Shaun; Steinbeiser, Melissa A; Seabrook, Guy; Selnick, Harold G; Shi, Xiao-Ping; Stanton, Matthew G; Swestock, John; Tugusheva, Katherine; Tyler, Keala X; Vacca, Joseph P; Wong, Jacky; Wu, Guoxin; Xu, Min; Cook, Jacquelynn J; Simon, Adam J

    2009-01-01

    beta-Site amyloid precursor protein (APP)-cleaving enzyme (BACE) 1 cleavage of amyloid precursor protein is an essential step in the generation of the potentially neurotoxic and amyloidogenic A beta 42 peptides in Alzheimer's disease. Although previous mouse studies have shown brain A beta lowering after BACE1 inhibition, extension of such studies to nonhuman primates or man was precluded by poor potency, brain penetration, and pharmacokinetics of available inhibitors. In this study, a novel tertiary carbinamine BACE1 inhibitor, tertiary carbinamine (TC)-1, was assessed in a unique cisterna magna ported rhesus monkey model, where the temporal dynamics of A beta in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma could be evaluated. TC-1, a potent inhibitor (IC(50) approximately 0.4 nM), has excellent passive membrane permeability, low susceptibility to P-glycoprotein transport, and lowered brain A beta levels in a mouse model. Intravenous infusion of TC-1 led to a significant but transient lowering of CSF and plasma A beta levels in conscious rhesus monkeys because it underwent CYP3A4-mediated metabolism. Oral codosing of TC-1 with ritonavir, a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor, twice daily over 3.5 days in rhesus monkeys led to sustained plasma TC-1 exposure and a significant and sustained reduction in CSF sAPP beta, A beta 40, A beta 42, and plasma A beta 40 levels. CSF A beta 42 lowering showed an EC(50) of approximately 20 nM with respect to the CSF [TC-1] levels, demonstrating excellent concordance with its potency in a cell-based assay. These results demonstrate the first in vivo proof of concept of CSF A beta lowering after oral administration of a BACE1 inhibitor in a nonhuman primate.

  14. The Triple Roles of Glutathione for a DNA-Cleaving DNAzyme and Development of a Fluorescent Glutathione/Cu2+-Dependent DNAzyme Sensor for Detection of Cu2+ in Drinking Water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shijin; Liu, Chengcheng; Li, Guiying; Sheng, Yongjie; Sun, Yanhong; Rui, Hongyue; Zhang, Jin; Xu, Jiacui; Jiang, Dazhi

    2017-03-24

    Pistol-like DNAzyme (PLDz) is an oxidative DNA-cleaving catalytic DNA with ascorbic acid as cofactor. Herein, glutathione was induced into the reaction system to maintain reduced ascorbic acid levels for higher efficient cleavage. However, data indicated that glutathione played triple roles in PLDz-catalyzed reactions. Glutathione alone had no effect on PLDz, and showed inhibitory effect on ascorbic acid-induced PLDz catalysis, but exhibited stimulating effect on Cu 2+ -promoted self-cleavage of PLDz. Further analysis of the effect of glutathione/Cu 2+ on PLDz indicated that H 2 O 2 played a key role in PLDz catalysis. Finally, we developed a fluorescent Cu 2+ sensor (PL-Cu 1.0) based on the relationship between glutathione/Cu 2+ and catalytic activity of PLDz. The fluorescent intensity showed a linear response toward the logarithm concentration of Cu 2+ over the range from 80 nM to 30 μM, with a detection limit of 21.1 nM. PL-Cu 1.0 provided only detection of Cu 2+ over other divalent metal ions. Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ could not interfere with Cu 2+ detection even at a 1000-fold concentration. We further applied PL-Cu 1.0 for Cu 2+ detection in tap and bottled water. Water stored in copper taps overnight had relatively high Cu 2+ concentrations, with a maximum 22.3 μM. Trace Cu 2+ (52.2 nM) in deep spring was detected among the tested bottled water. Therefore, PL-Cu 1.0 is feasible to detect Cu 2+ in drinking water, with a practical application.

  15. Comparative Analysis of the Base Compositions of the Pre-mRNA 3′ Cleaved-Off Region and the mRNA 3′ Untranslated Region Relative to the Genomic Base Composition in Animals and Plants

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiu-Qing

    2014-01-01

    The precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) three-prime cleaved-off region (3′COR) and the mRNA three-prime untranslated region (3′UTR) play critical roles in regulating gene expression. The differences in base composition between these regions and the corresponding genomes are still largely uncharacterized in animals and plants. In this study, the base compositions of non-redundant 3′CORs and 3′UTRs were compared with the corresponding whole genomes of eleven animals, four dicotyledonous plants, and three monocotyledonous (cereal) plants. Among the four bases (A, C, G, and U for adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil, respectively), U (which corresponds to T, for thymine, in DNA) was the most frequent, A the second most frequent, G the third most frequent, and C the least frequent in most of the species in both the 3′COR and 3′UTR regions. In comparison with the whole genomes, in both regions the U content was usually the most overrepresented (particularly in the monocotyledonous plants), and the C content was the most underrepresented. The order obtained for the species groups, when ranked from high to low according to the U contents in the 3′COR and 3′UTR was as follows: dicotyledonous plants, monocotyledonous plants, non-mammal animals, and mammals. In contrast, the genomic T content was highest in dicotyledonous plants, lowest in monocotyledonous plants, and intermediate in animals. These results suggest the following: 1) there is a mechanism operating in both animals and plants which is biased toward U and against C in the 3′COR and 3′UTR; 2) the 3′UTR and 3′COR, as functional units, minimized the difference between dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants, while the dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous genomes evolved into two extreme groups in terms of base composition. PMID:24941005

  16. An evaluation of the role of a pyroglutamyl peptidase, a post-proline cleaving enzyme and a post-proline dipeptidyl amino peptidase, each purified from the soluble fraction of guinea-pig brain, in the degradation of thyroliberin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Browne, P; O'Cuinn, G

    1983-12-01

    The degradation of thyroliberin (less than Glu-His-Pro-NH2) to its component amino acids by the soluble fraction of guinea pig brain is catalysed by four enzymes namely a pyroglutamate aminopeptidase, a post-proline cleaving enzyme, a post-proline dipeptidyl aminopeptidase and a proline dipeptidase. 1. The pyroglutamate aminopeptidase was purified to over 90% homogeneity with a purification factor of 2868-fold and a yield of 5.7%. In addition to catalysing the hydrolysis of thyroliberin, acid thyroliberin and pyroglutamate-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin the pyroglutamate aminopeptidase catalysed the hydrolysis of the peptide bond adjacent to the pyroglutamic acid residue in luliberin, neurotensin bombesin, bradykinin-potentiating peptide B, the anorexogenic peptide and the dipeptides pyroglutamyl alanine and pyroglutamyl valine. Pyroglutamyl proline and eledoisin were not hydrolysed. 2. The post-proline cleaving enzyme was purified to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity with a purification factor of 2298-fold and a yield of 10.6%. The post-proline cleaving enzyme catalysed the hydrolysis of thyroliberin and N-benzyloxycarbonyl-glycylproline-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin. It did not catalyse the hydrolysis of glycylproline-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin or His-Pro-NH2. 3. The post-proline dipeptidyl aminopeptidase was partially purified with a purification factor of 301-fold and a yield of 8.9%. The post-proline dipeptidyl aminopeptidase catalysed the hydrolysis of His-Pro-NH2 and glycylproline-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin but did not exhibit any post-proline cleaving endopeptidase activity against thyroliberin or N-benzyloxycarbonyl-glycylproline-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin. 4. Studies with various functional reagents indicated that the pyroglutamate aminopeptidase could be specifically inhibited by 2-iodoacetamide (100% inhibition at an inhibitor concentration of 5 microM), the post-proline cleaving enzyme by bacitracin (IC50 = 42 microM) and the post-proline dipeptidyl aminopeptidase

  17. Comparison of the catalytic properties of the botulinum neurotoxin subtypes A1 and A5.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongxia; Krilich, Joan; Pellett, Sabine; Baudys, Jakub; Tepp, William H; Barr, John R; Johnson, Eric A; Kalb, Suzanne R

    2013-12-01

    Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cause the life-threatening disease botulism through the inhibition of neurotransmitter release by cleaving essential SNARE proteins. There are seven serologically distinctive types of BoNTs and many subtypes within a serotype have been identified. BoNT/A5 is a recently discovered subtype of type A botulinum neurotoxin which possesses a very high degree of sequence similarity and identity to the well-studied A1 subtype. In the present study, we examined the endopeptidase activity of these two BoNT/A subtypes and our results revealed significant differences in substrate binding and cleavage efficiency between subtype A5 and A1. Distinctive hydrolysis efficiency was observed between the two toxins during cleavage of the native substrate SNAP-25 versus a shortened peptide mimic. N-terminal truncation studies demonstrated that a key region of the SNAP-25, including the amino acid residues at 151 through 154 located in the remote binding region of the substrate, contributed to the differential catalytic properties between A1 and A5. Elevated binding affinity of the peptide substrate resulted from including these important residues and enhanced BoNT/A5's hydrolysis efficiency. In addition, mutations of these amino acid residues affect the proteolytic performance of the two toxins in different ways. This study provides a better understanding of the biological activity of these toxins, their performance characteristics in the Endopep-MS assay to detect BoNT in clinical samples and foods, and is useful for the development of peptide substrates. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Gluten exacerbates IgA nephropathy in humanized mice through gliadin-CD89 interaction.

    PubMed

    Papista, Christina; Lechner, Sebastian; Ben Mkaddem, Sanae; LeStang, Marie-Bénédicte; Abbad, Lilia; Bex-Coudrat, Julie; Pillebout, Evangéline; Chemouny, Jonathan M; Jablonski, Mathieu; Flamant, Martin; Daugas, Eric; Vrtovsnik, François; Yiangou, Minas; Berthelot, Laureline; Monteiro, Renato C

    2015-08-01

    IgA1 complexes containing deglycosylated IgA1, IgG autoantibodies, and a soluble form of the IgA receptor (sCD89), are hallmarks of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Food antigens, notably gluten, are associated with increased mucosal response and IgAN onset, but their implication in the pathology remains unknown. Here, an IgAN mouse model expressing human IgA1 and CD89 was used to examine the role of gluten in IgAN. Mice were given a gluten-free diet for three generations to produce gluten sensitivity, and then challenged for 30 days with a gluten diet. A gluten-free diet resulted in a decrease of mesangial IgA1 deposits, transferrin 1 receptor, and transglutaminase 2 expression, as well as hematuria. Mice on a gluten-free diet lacked IgA1-sCD89 complexes in serum and kidney eluates. Disease severity depended on gluten and CD89, as shown by reappearance of IgAN features in mice on a gluten diet and by direct binding of the gluten-subcomponent gliadin to sCD89. A gluten diet exacerbated intestinal IgA1 secretion, inflammation, and villous atrophy, and increased serum IgA1 anti-gliadin antibodies, which correlated with proteinuria in mice and patients. Moreover, early treatment of humanized mice with a gluten-free diet prevented mesangial IgA1 deposits and hematuria. Thus, gliadin-CD89 interaction may aggravate IgAN development through induction of IgA1-sCD89 complex formation and a mucosal immune response. Hence, early-stage treatment with a gluten-free diet could be beneficial to prevent disease.

  19. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/labtests/hemoglobina1chba1ctest.html Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) Test To use the sharing features on this page, ... enable JavaScript. What is a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test? A hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test measures the amount ...

  20. 46 CFR 147A.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose. 147A.1 Section 147A.1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION General § 147A.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to prescribe the requirements for shipboard...

  1. 46 CFR 147A.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purpose. 147A.1 Section 147A.1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION General § 147A.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to prescribe the requirements for shipboard...

  2. 46 CFR 147A.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 147A.1 Section 147A.1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION General § 147A.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to prescribe the requirements for shipboard...

  3. 46 CFR 147A.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 147A.1 Section 147A.1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION General § 147A.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to prescribe the requirements for shipboard...

  4. 46 CFR 147A.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 147A.1 Section 147A.1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION General § 147A.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to prescribe the requirements for shipboard...

  5. 42 CFR 2a.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability. 2a.1 Section 2a.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.1 Applicability. (a) Section 303(a) of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 242a...

  6. 42 CFR 2a.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability. 2a.1 Section 2a.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.1 Applicability. (a) Section 303(a) of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 242a...

  7. 42 CFR 2a.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applicability. 2a.1 Section 2a.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.1 Applicability. (a) Section 303(a) of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 242a...

  8. 18 CFR 3a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 3a.1 Section 3a.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.1 Purpose. This part 3a describes the...

  9. 18 CFR 3a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Purpose. 3a.1 Section 3a.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.1 Purpose. This part 3a describes the...

  10. 18 CFR 3a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Purpose. 3a.1 Section 3a.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.1 Purpose. This part 3a describes the...

  11. 18 CFR 3a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Purpose. 3a.1 Section 3a.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.1 Purpose. This part 3a describes the...

  12. 32 CFR 169a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 169a.1 Section 169a.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM... Department of Defense (DoD) to determine whether needed commercial activities (CAs) should be accomplished by...

  13. 32 CFR 169a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Purpose. 169a.1 Section 169a.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM... Department of Defense (DoD) to determine whether needed commercial activities (CAs) should be accomplished by...

  14. 32 CFR 169a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Purpose. 169a.1 Section 169a.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM... Department of Defense (DoD) to determine whether needed commercial activities (CAs) should be accomplished by...

  15. 32 CFR 168a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 168a.1 Section 168a.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND... National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Fellowships, as required by 10 U.S.C. 2191. (b...

  16. 32 CFR 169a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Purpose. 169a.1 Section 169a.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM... Department of Defense (DoD) to determine whether needed commercial activities (CAs) should be accomplished by...

  17. 32 CFR 168a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Purpose. 168a.1 Section 168a.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND... National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Fellowships, as required by 10 U.S.C. 2191. (b...

  18. 42 CFR 54a.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... 290aa, et seq., which are administered by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. This part does not apply to direct funding under any such authorities for only mental health services... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 54a.1 Section 54a.1 Public Health PUBLIC...

  19. 42 CFR 54a.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... 290aa, et seq., which are administered by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. This part does not apply to direct funding under any such authorities for only mental health services... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scope. 54a.1 Section 54a.1 Public Health PUBLIC...

  20. 42 CFR 54a.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... 290aa, et seq., which are administered by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. This part does not apply to direct funding under any such authorities for only mental health services... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scope. 54a.1 Section 54a.1 Public Health PUBLIC...

  1. 42 CFR 2a.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... research on mental health, including research on the use and effect of alcohol and other psychoactive drugs... engaged in research on mental health including research on the use and effect of alcohol and other... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability. 2a.1 Section 2a.1 Public Health...

  2. 42 CFR 54a.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... 290aa, et seq., which are administered by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. This part does not apply to direct funding under any such authorities for only mental health services... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scope. 54a.1 Section 54a.1 Public Health PUBLIC...

  3. 42 CFR 54a.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... 290aa, et seq., which are administered by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. This part does not apply to direct funding under any such authorities for only mental health services... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scope. 54a.1 Section 54a.1 Public Health PUBLIC...

  4. 42 CFR 2a.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... research on mental health, including research on the use and effect of alcohol and other psychoactive drugs... engaged in research on mental health including research on the use and effect of alcohol and other... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability. 2a.1 Section 2a.1 Public Health...

  5. 32 CFR 237a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 237a.1 Section 237a.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PUBLIC AFFAIRS... with industry on (1) public affairs matters in general, (2) industry-sponsored events, and (3...

  6. Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1C

    MedlinePlus

    ... levels can be high if diabetes is not well controlled. Why Are Hemoglobin A1c Tests Done? When a child has diabetes, hemoglobin A1c levels are followed to see how well medicines are working. If a child with diabetes ...

  7. 32 CFR 168a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.1 Purpose. This part: (a) Establishes guidelines for the award of National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Fellowships, as required by 10 U.S.C. 2191. (b...

  8. 32 CFR 168a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.1 Purpose. This part: (a) Establishes guidelines for the award of National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Fellowships, as required by 10 U.S.C. 2191. (b...

  9. 32 CFR 168a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.1 Purpose. This part: (a) Establishes guidelines for the award of National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Fellowships, as required by 10 U.S.C. 2191. (b...

  10. 32 CFR 352a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DEFENSE FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING SERVICE (DFAS) § 352a.1 Purpose. Pursuant to the authority vested in the... Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS) as an Agency of the Department of Defense with responsibilities...

  11. A-1 modification work under way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Phil Schemanski of Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne removes equipment inside the thrust drum on the A-1 Test Stand as part of a comprehensive modification project to prepare for testing the new J-2X engine.

  12. Last SSME test on A-1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-29

    The Stennis Space Center conducted the final space shuttle main engine test on its A-1 Test Stand Friday. The A-1 Test Stand was the site of the first test on a shuttle main engine in 1975. Stennis will continue testing shuttle main engines on its A-2 Test Stand through the end of the Space Shuttle Program in 2010. The A-1 stand begins a new chapter in its operational history in October. It will be temporarily decommissioned to convert it for testing the J-2X engine, which will power the upper stage of NASA's new crew launch vehicle, the Ares I. Although this ends the stand's work on the Space Shuttle Program, it will soon be used for the rocket that will carry America's next generation human spacecraft, Orion.

  13. 38 CFR 8a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 8a.1 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE... title to the housing unit for which his or her grant was made. (b) The term Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance (VMLI) means the mortgage protection life insurance authorized for veterans under 38 U.S.C. 2106...

  14. 8 CFR 1274a.1 - Employer requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1274a.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... proceedings. The procedures for hearings before an administrative law judge relating to civil penalties sought... administrative law judge and, to the extent relevant, to cases before an immigration judge or the Board of...

  15. 8 CFR 213a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... BEHALF OF IMMIGRANTS § 213a.1 Definitions. As used in this part, the term: Domicile means the place where... Support Contract Between Sponsor and Household Member, on behalf of the sponsor and intending immigrants. The “household income” may not, however, include the income of an intending immigrant, unless the...

  16. A1C Test and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... per day (fasting or pre-breakfast, pre-lunch, pre-dinner, and bedtime). The straight black line shows an A1C measurement of 7.0 percent. The blue line shows an example of how blood glucose test results might look from self-monitoring four times ...

  17. Beyond HbA1c.

    PubMed

    Bloomgarden, Zachary

    2017-12-01

    It can scarcely be denied that the supreme goal of all theory is to make the irreducible basic elements as simple and as few as possible without having to surrender the adequate representation of a single datum of experience. The diaTribe Foundation convened a meeting on the topic of glycemic outcomes beyond HbA1c on 21 July 2017, in Bethesda (MD, USA), focusing on potential uses of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Understanding patterns of glycemia in people with diabetes has long been a focus of approaches to improving treatment, and over the past few years this has become an available modality for clinical practice. Glucose levels are not the only biologic parameters affecting HbA1c levels; HbA1c changes with anemia or, more subtly, with changes in rates of erythrocyte turnover not reflected in hemoglobin levels outside the normal range. Renal disease often is associated with lower HbA1c than would be predicted based on an individual's glycemic levels. Furthermore, HbA1c levels tend to increase with age and are higher in some ethnic groups; for example, people of African ethnicity have higher HbA1c levels than people of Northern European descent. Indeed, we have argued that even as a measure of mean glycemia HbA1c is inherently imprecise. Overall, for some 20% of people with diabetes, HbA1c levels are substantially higher, or substantially lower, than those that would be predicted from mean blood glucose levels. If one recognizes that HbA1c is, at best, a partial measure of mean glycemic exposure, one must surely accept that HbA1c does not reflect variability within a day, from day to day, and from period to period. Many glucose-lowering medicines, particularly the sulfonylureas and insulin, cause hypoglycemia, with consequent negative effects on quality of life and patient-reported outcomes, as well as association with weight gain and adverse macrovascular outcome; hypoglycemia will, of course, not be captured by HbA1c measurement. Based on these

  18. TMS installation at A-1 Test Stand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-03

    A new thrust measurement system is lifted onto the A-1 Test Stand deck at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in preparation for its installation. The new system is a state-of-the-art upgrade for the testing structure, which is being prepared for testing of next-generation rocket engines. The system was fabricated by Thrust Measurement Systems in Illinois at a cost of about $3.5 million.

  19. Adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs) play a critical role in osteoclast formation and function

    PubMed Central

    Kara, Firas M.; Chitu, Violeta; Sloane, Jennifer; Axelrod, Matthew; Fredholm, Bertil B.; Stanley, E. Richard; Cronstein, Bruce N.

    2010-01-01

    Adenosine regulates a wide variety of physiological processes via interaction with one or more G-protein-coupled receptors (A1R, A2AR, A2BR, and A3R). Because A1R occupancy promotes fusion of human monocytes to form giant cells in vitro, we determined whether A1R occupancy similarly promotes osteoclast function and formation. Bone marrow cells (BMCs) were harvested from C57Bl/6 female mice or A1R-knockout mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates and differentiated into osteoclasts in the presence of colony stimulating factor-1 and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand in the presence or absence of the A1R antagonist 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentyl xanthine (DPCPX). Osteoclast morphology was analyzed in tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase or F-actin-stained samples, and bone resorption was evaluated by toluidine blue staining of dentin. BMCs from A1R-knockout mice form fewer osteoclasts than BMCs from WT mice, and the A1R antagonist DPCPX inhibits osteoclast formation (IC50=1 nM), with altered morphology and reduced ability to resorb bone. A1R blockade increased ubiquitination and degradation of TRAF6 in RAW264.7 cells induced to differentiate into osteoclasts. These studies suggest a critical role for adenosine in bone homeostasis via interaction with adenosine A1R and further suggest that A1R may be a novel pharmacologic target to prevent the bone loss associated with inflammatory diseases and menopause.—Kara, F. M., Chitu, V., Sloane, J., Axelrod, M., Fredholm, B. B., Stanley, R., Cronstein, B. N. Adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs) play a critical role in osteoclast formation and function. PMID:20181934

  20. J-2X installation on A-1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-09-20

    Core components of the J-2X engine being designed for NASA's Constellation Program recently were installed on the A-1 Test Stand at NASA's Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis, Miss. Tests of the components, known as Powerpack 1A, will be conducted from November 2007 through February 2008. The Powerpack 1A test article consists of a gas generator and engine turbopumps originally developed for the Apollo Program that put Americans on the moon in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Engineers are testing these heritage components to obtain data that will help them modify the turbomachinery to meet the higher performance requirements of the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles. The upcoming tests will simulate inlet and outlet conditions that would be present on the turbomachinery during a full-up engine hot-fire test.

  1. Architecture for a 1-GHz Digital RADAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallik, Udayan

    2011-01-01

    An architecture for a Direct RF-digitization Type Digital Mode RADAR was developed at GSFC in 2008. Two variations of a basic architecture were developed for use on RADAR imaging missions using aircraft and spacecraft. Both systems can operate with a pulse repetition rate up to 10 MHz with 8 received RF samples per pulse repetition interval, or at up to 19 kHz with 4K received RF samples per pulse repetition interval. The first design describes a computer architecture for a Continuous Mode RADAR transceiver with a real-time signal processing and display architecture. The architecture can operate at a high pulse repetition rate without interruption for an infinite amount of time. The second design describes a smaller and less costly burst mode RADAR that can transceive high pulse repetition rate RF signals without interruption for up to 37 seconds. The burst-mode RADAR was designed to operate on an off-line signal processing paradigm. The temporal distribution of RF samples acquired and reported to the RADAR processor remains uniform and free of distortion in both proposed architectures. The majority of the RADAR's electronics is implemented in digital CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor), and analog circuits are restricted to signal amplification operations and analog to digital conversion. An implementation of the proposed systems will create a 1-GHz, Direct RF-digitization Type, L-Band Digital RADAR--the highest band achievable for Nyquist Rate, Direct RF-digitization Systems that do not implement an electronic IF downsample stage (after the receiver signal amplification stage), using commercially available off-the-shelf integrated circuits.

  2. Antibody blocks acquisition of bacterial colonization through agglutination

    PubMed Central

    Roche, A. M.; Richard, A. L.; Rahkola, J. T.; Janoff, E. N.; Weiser, J. N.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive infection often begins with asymptomatic colonization of mucosal surfaces. A murine model of bacterial colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae was used to study the mechanism for mucosal protection by immunoglobulin. In previously colonized immune mice, bacteria were rapidly sequestered within large aggregates in the nasal lumen. To further examine the role of bacterial agglutination in protection by specific antibodies, mice were passively immunized with IgG purified from anti-pneumococcal sera or pneumococcal type-specific monoclonal human IgA (hIgA1 or hIgA2). Systemically-delivered IgG accessed the mucosal surface and blocked acquisition of colonization and transmission between littermates. Optimal protection by IgG was independent of Fc fragment and complement and, therefore, did not involve an opsonophagocytic mechanism. Enzymatic digestion or reduction of IgG prior to administration showed that protection required divalent binding that maintained its agglutinating effect. Divalent hIgA1 is cleaved by the pneumococcal member of a family of bacterial proteases that generate monovalent Fabα fragments. Thus, passive immunization with hIgA1 blocked colonization by an IgA1-protease deficient mutant (agglutinated), but not the protease-producing wild-type parent (not agglutinated), whereas protease-resistant hIgA2 agglutinated and blocked colonization by both. Our findings highlight the importance of agglutinating antibodies in mucosal defense and reveal how successful pathogens evade this effect. PMID:24962092

  3. Treadmill desks: A 1-year prospective trial.

    PubMed

    Koepp, Gabriel A; Manohar, Chinmay U; McCrady-Spitzer, Shelly K; Ben-Ner, Avner; Hamann, Darla J; Runge, Carlisle F; Levine, James A

    2013-04-01

    Sedentariness is associated with weight gain and obesity. A treadmill desk is the combination of a standing desk and a treadmill that allow employees to work while walking at low speed. The hypothesis was that a 1-year intervention with treadmill desks is associated with an increase in employee daily physical activity (summation of all activity per minute) and a decrease in daily sedentary time (zero activity). Employees (n = 36; 25 women, 11 men) with sedentary jobs (87 ± 27 kg, BMI 29 ± 7 kg/m(2) , n = 10 Lean BMI < 25 kg/m(2) , n = 15 Overweight 25 < BMI < 30 kg/m(2) , n = 11 Obese BMI > 30 kg/m(2) ) volunteered to have their traditional desk replaced with a treadmill desk to promote physical activity for 1 year. Daily physical activity (using accelerometers), work performance, body composition, and blood variables were measured at Baseline and 6 and 12 months after the treadmill desk intervention. Subjects who used the treadmill desk increased daily physical activity from baseline 3,353 ± 1,802 activity units (AU)/day to, at 6 months, 4,460 ± 2,376 AU/day (P < 0.001), and at 12 months, 4,205 ± 2,238 AU/day (P < 0.001). Access to the treadmill desks was associated with significant decreases in daily sedentary time (zero activity) from at baseline 1,020 ± 75 min/day to, at 6 months, 929 ± 84 min/day (P < 0.001), and at 12 months, 978 ± 95 min/day (P < 0.001). For the whole group, weight loss averaged 1.4 ± 3.3 kg (P < 0.05). Weight loss for obese subjects was 2.3 ± 3.5 kg (P < 0.03). Access to the treadmill desks was associated with increased daily physical activity compared to traditional chair-based desks; their deployment was not associated with altered performance. For the 36 participants, fat mass did not change significantly, however, those who lost weight (n = 22) lost 3.4 ± 5.4 kg (P < 0.001) of fat mass. Weight loss was greatest in people with obesity. Access to treadmill desks may improve the health of office workers without affecting work

  4. Janice VanCleave's World: Fluffy and White.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    2000-01-01

    Uses charcoal briquettes, ammonia, water, table salt, and laundry bluing to create white fluffy crystals. Briquettes are placed in a bowl while the remaining ingredients are mixed together and poured over the briquettes. The result is white fluffy crystals forming on top of the charcoal. This experiment dramatizes chemical reactions to…

  5. Furrow microtubules and localized exocytosis in cleaving Xenopus laevis embryos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilchik, Michael V.; Bedrick, Steven D.; Brown, Elizabeth E.; Ray, Kimberly

    2003-01-01

    In dividing Xenopus eggs, furrowing is accompanied by expansion of a new domain of plasma membrane in the cleavage plane. The source of the new membrane is known to include a store of oogenetically produced exocytotic vesicles, but the site where their exocytosis occurs has not been described. Previous work revealed a V-shaped array of microtubule bundles at the base of advancing furrows. Cold shock or exposure to nocodazole halted expansion of the new membrane domain, which suggests that these microtubules are involved in the localized exocytosis. In the present report, scanning electron microscopy revealed collections of pits or craters, up to approximately 1.5 micro m in diameter. These pits are evidently fusion pores at sites of recent exocytosis, clustered in the immediate vicinity of the deepening furrow base and therefore near the furrow microtubules. Confocal microscopy near the furrow base of live embryos labeled with the membrane dye FM1-43 captured time-lapse sequences of individual exocytotic events in which irregular patches of approximately 20 micro m(2) of unlabeled membrane abruptly displaced pre-existing FM1-43-labeled surface. In some cases, stable fusion pores, approximately 2 micro m in diameter, were seen at the surface for up to several minutes before suddenly delivering patches of unlabeled membrane. To test whether the presence of furrow microtubule bundles near the surface plays a role in directing or concentrating this localized exocytosis, membrane expansion was examined in embryos exposed to D(2)O to induce formation of microtubule monasters randomly under the surface. D(2)O treatment resulted in a rapid, uniform expansion of the egg surface via random, ectopic exocytosis of vesicles. This D(2)O-induced membrane expansion was completely blocked with nocodazole, indicating that the ectopic exocytosis was microtubule-dependent. Results indicate that exocytotic vesicles are present throughout the egg subcortex, and that the presence of microtubules near the surface is sufficient to mobilize them for exocytosis at the end of the cell cycle.

  6. Lattice Cleaving: A Multimaterial Tetrahedral Meshing Algorithm with Guarantees

    PubMed Central

    Bronson, Jonathan; Levine, Joshua A.; Whitaker, Ross

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new algorithm for generating tetrahedral meshes that conform to physical boundaries in volumetric domains consisting of multiple materials. The proposed method allows for an arbitrary number of materials, produces high-quality tetrahedral meshes with upper and lower bounds on dihedral angles, and guarantees geometric fidelity. Moreover, the method is combinatoric so its implementation enables rapid mesh construction. These meshes are structured in a way that also allows grading, to reduce element counts in regions of homogeneity. Additionally, we provide proofs showing that both element quality and geometric fidelity are bounded using this approach. PMID:24356365

  7. Tensiometric studies of cytokinesis in cleaving sand dollar eggs.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, R

    1977-09-01

    Tensions exerted by cleavage furrows of Echinarachnius parma were measured by means of calibrated, flexible glass needles. The tensions exerted by the first and second furrows in isometric contraction were, respectively, 1.58 X 10(-3) dyne (S.D. 0.41 X 10(-3) dyne) and 1.43 X 10(-3) dyne (S.D. 0.44 X 10(-3) dyne). The difference between the two means is not significant. The tensions exerted by the same cleavage furrow at two different lengths, of which the shorter was about 66% the length of the longer, were not significantly different. When the progress of a second cleavage furrow was mechanically blocked, it continued to exert maximum tension up to 9 minutes after its companion blastomere, which served as a time control, completed cleavage.

  8. An RNA-Cleaving Catalytic DNA Accelerated by Freezing.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tianmeng; Zhou, Wenhu; Liu, Juewen

    2018-05-18

    The EtNa DNAzyme was isolated during the isopropanol precipitation step of an in vitro selection effort. Although inactive with the intended cofactor, its RNA cleavage activity was observed under a few conditions. With Na + , EtNa was highly active in ∼50 % ethanol, whereas in water, it was highly active with Ca 2+ . In this work, we showed that the EtNa DNAzyme was accelerated by freezing in water in the presence of Na + . The apparent K d value reached 6.2 mm Na + under the frozen condition, over 20 times tighter than that in water at room temperature. With 10 mm Na + , EtNa had a cleavage rate of 0.12 h -1 after freezing at -20 °C. This effect was unique to EtNa, as all other tested DNAzymes were inhibited by freezing except for the Na + -specific NaA43. Freezing also inhibited EtNa if Ca 2+ was used. We attributed this to the concentrations of EtNa and Na + in the micropockets between ice crystals, but divalent metals might misfold DNA. Overall, we have systematically studied the effect of freezing on the RNA-cleavage activity of DNAzymes. The DNAzyme sequence and the metal ion species are both crucial to determine the effect of freezing. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. hUTP24 is essential for processing of the human rRNA precursor at site A1, but not at site A0

    PubMed Central

    Tomecki, Rafal; Labno, Anna; Drazkowska, Karolina; Cysewski, Dominik; Dziembowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Production of ribosomes relies on more than 200 accessory factors to ensure the proper sequence of steps and faultless assembly of ribonucleoprotein machinery. Among trans-acting factors are numerous enzymes, including ribonucleases responsible for processing the large rRNA precursor synthesized by RNA polymerase I that encompasses sequences corresponding to mature 18S, 5.8S, and 25/28S rRNA. In humans, the identity of most enzymes responsible for individual processing steps, including endoribonucleases that cleave pre-rRNA at specific sites within regions flanking and separating mature rRNA, remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of hUTP24 in rRNA maturation in human cells. hUTP24 is a human homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae putative PIN domain-containing endoribonuclease Utp24 (yUtp24), which was suggested to participate in the U3 snoRNA-dependent processing of yeast pre-rRNA at sites A0, A1, and A2. We demonstrate that hUTP24 interacts to some extent with proteins homologous to the components of the yeast small subunit (SSU) processome. Moreover, mutation in the putative catalytic site of hUTP24 results in slowed growth of cells and reduced metabolic activity. These effects are associated with a defect in biogenesis of the 40S ribosomal subunit, which results from decreased amounts of 18S rRNA as a consequence of inaccurate pre-rRNA processing at the 5′-end of the 18S rRNA segment (site A1). Interestingly, and in contrast to yeast, site A0 located upstream of A1 is efficiently processed upon UTP24 dysfunction. Finally, hUTP24 inactivation leads to aberrant processing of 18S rRNA 2 nucleotides downstream of the normal A1 cleavage site. PMID:26237581

  10. Diagnostics for a 1.2 kA, 1 MeV, electron induction injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houck, T. L.; Anderson, D. E.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S. M.; Vanecek, D. L.; Westenskow, G. A.; Yu, S. S.

    1998-12-01

    We are constructing a 1.2 kA, 1 MeV, electron induction injector as part of the RTA program, a collaborative effort between LLNL and LBNL to develop relativistic klystrons for Two-Beam Accelerator applications. The RTA injector will also be used in the development of a high-gradient, low-emittance, electron source and beam diagnostics for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility. The electron source will be a 3.5″-diameter, thermionic, flat-surface, m-type cathode with a maximum shroud field stress of approximately 165 kV/cm. Additional design parameters for the injector include a pulse length of over 150 ns flat top (1% energy variation), and a normalized edge emittance of less than 200 π-mm-mr. Precise measurement of the beam parameters is required so that performance of the RTA injector can be confidently scaled to the 4 kA, 3 MeV, and 2-microsecond pulse parameters of the DARHT injector. Planned diagnostics include an isolated cathode with resistive divider for direct measurement of current emission, resistive wall and magnetic probe current monitors for measuring beam current and centroid position, capacitive probes for measuring A-K gap voltage, an energy spectrometer, and a pepperpot emittance diagnostic. Details of the injector, beam line, and diagnostics are presented.

  11. MicroRNA-339-5p down-regulates protein expression of β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) in human primary brain cultures and is reduced in brain tissue specimens of Alzheimer disease subjects.

    PubMed

    Long, Justin M; Ray, Balmiki; Lahiri, Debomoy K

    2014-02-21

    Alzheimer disease (AD) results, in part, from the excess accumulation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide as neuritic plaques in the brain. The short Aβ peptide is derived from the large transmembrane Aβ precursor protein (APP). The rate-limiting step in the production of Aβ from APP is mediated by the β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1). Dysregulation of BACE1 levels leading to excess Aβ deposition is implicated in sporadic AD. Thus, elucidating the full complement of regulatory pathways that control BACE1 expression is key to identifying novel drug targets central to the Aβ-generating process. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are expected to participate in this molecular network. Here, we identified a known miRNA, miR-339-5p, as a key contributor to this regulatory network. Two distinct miR-339-5p target sites were predicted in the BACE1 3'-UTR by in silico analyses. Co-transfection of miR-339-5p with a BACE1 3'-UTR reporter construct resulted in significant reduction in reporter expression. Mutation of both target sites eliminated this effect. Delivery of the miR-339-5p mimic also significantly inhibited expression of BACE1 protein in human glioblastoma cells and human primary brain cultures. Delivery of target protectors designed against the miR-339-5p BACE1 3'-UTR target sites in primary human brain cultures significantly elevated BACE1 expression. Finally, miR-339-5p levels were found to be significantly reduced in brain specimens isolated from AD patients as compared with age-matched controls. Therefore, miR-339-5p regulates BACE1 expression in human brain cells and is most likely dysregulated in at least a subset of AD patients making this miRNA a novel drug target.

  12. MicroRNA-339-5p Down-regulates Protein Expression of β-Site Amyloid Precursor Protein-Cleaving Enzyme 1 (BACE1) in Human Primary Brain Cultures and Is Reduced in Brain Tissue Specimens of Alzheimer Disease Subjects*

    PubMed Central

    Long, Justin M.; Ray, Balmiki; Lahiri, Debomoy K.

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) results, in part, from the excess accumulation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide as neuritic plaques in the brain. The short Aβ peptide is derived from the large transmembrane Aβ precursor protein (APP). The rate-limiting step in the production of Aβ from APP is mediated by the β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1). Dysregulation of BACE1 levels leading to excess Aβ deposition is implicated in sporadic AD. Thus, elucidating the full complement of regulatory pathways that control BACE1 expression is key to identifying novel drug targets central to the Aβ-generating process. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are expected to participate in this molecular network. Here, we identified a known miRNA, miR-339-5p, as a key contributor to this regulatory network. Two distinct miR-339-5p target sites were predicted in the BACE1 3′-UTR by in silico analyses. Co-transfection of miR-339-5p with a BACE1 3′-UTR reporter construct resulted in significant reduction in reporter expression. Mutation of both target sites eliminated this effect. Delivery of the miR-339-5p mimic also significantly inhibited expression of BACE1 protein in human glioblastoma cells and human primary brain cultures. Delivery of target protectors designed against the miR-339-5p BACE1 3′-UTR target sites in primary human brain cultures significantly elevated BACE1 expression. Finally, miR-339-5p levels were found to be significantly reduced in brain specimens isolated from AD patients as compared with age-matched controls. Therefore, miR-339-5p regulates BACE1 expression in human brain cells and is most likely dysregulated in at least a subset of AD patients making this miRNA a novel drug target. PMID:24352696

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of alginate lyases A1-II and A1-II′ from Sphingomonas sp. A1

    SciTech Connect

    Yamasaki, Masayuki; Ogura, Kohei; Moriwaki, Satoko

    The crystallization and preliminary characterization of the family PL-7 alginate lyases A1-II and A1-II′ from Sphingomonas sp. A1 are presented. Alginate lyases depolymerize alginate, a heteropolysaccharide consisting of α-l-guluronate and β-d-mannuronate, through a β-elimination reaction. The alginate lyases A1-II (25 kDa) and A1-II′ (25 kDa) from Sphingomonas sp. A1, which belong to polysaccharide lyase family PL-7, exhibit 68% homology in primary structure but have different substrate specificities. To determine clearly the structural basis for substrate recognition in the depolymerization mechanism by alginate lyases, both proteins were crystallized at 293 K using the vapour-diffusion method. A crystal of A1-II belonged tomore » space group P2{sub 1} and diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution, with unit-cell parameters a = 51.3, b = 30.1, c = 101.6 Å, β = 100.2°, while a crystal of A1-II′ belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and diffracted to 1.0 Å resolution, with unit-cell parameters a = 34.6, b = 68.5, c = 80.3 Å.« less

  14. Global standardisation of HbA1c.

    PubMed

    Lai, Leslie C

    2008-12-01

    HbA1c is used for assessing glycaemic control in patients with diabetes. It is also used for treatment goals and as a target for therapeutic intervention. The Direct Control and Complications Trial in the USA showed that HbA1c can be used to predict the risk of complications. Hence, it is important for HbA1c assays to be standardised. The National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP) in the USA was formed in 1996 so that HbA1c results from different laboratories would be comparable to those reported in the DCCT study. There were also HbA1c standardisation programmes in Sweden and Japan. These three standardisation programmes are, in fact, direct comparison methods (DCMs), and yield different HbA1c results. In 1994, the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) established a Working Group on Standardisation of HbA1c. This working group has developed a global HbA1c reference system with very much improved intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation. Recommendations have been made to report HbA1c results as IFCC-HbA1c values in SI units (mmol HbA1c/mol Hb) and NGSP-HbA1c (%) as well as estimated average glucose (eAG), once a tight relationship has been shown to exist between eAG and HbA1c.

  15. 29 CFR 2550.404a-1 - Investment duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Investment duties. 2550.404a-1 Section 2550.404a-1 Labor... FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY § 2550.404a-1 Investment duties. (a) In general. Section 404(a)(1)(B) of the... use in the conduct of an enterprise of a like character and with like aims. (b) Investment duties. (1...

  16. 29 CFR 2550.404a-1 - Investment duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Investment duties. 2550.404a-1 Section 2550.404a-1 Labor... FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY § 2550.404a-1 Investment duties. (a) In general. Section 404(a)(1)(B) of the... use in the conduct of an enterprise of a like character and with like aims. (b) Investment duties. (1...

  17. 26 CFR 1.1311(a)-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Introduction. 1.1311(a)-1 Section 1.1311(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Readjustment of Tax Between Years and Special Limitations § 1.1311(a)-1 Introduction. (a...

  18. 26 CFR 1.501(a)-1 - Exemption from taxation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exemption from taxation. 1.501(a)-1 Section 1.501(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.501(a)-1 Exemption from taxation. (a) In...

  19. 26 CFR 1.56A-1 - Imposition of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Imposition of tax. 1.56A-1 Section 1.56A-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Regulations Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning in 1969 and Ending in 1970 § 1.56A-1 Imposition of tax. (a) In general...

  20. 26 CFR 1.501(a)-1 - Exemption from taxation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Exemption from taxation. 1.501(a)-1 Section 1.501(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.501(a)-1 Exemption from taxation. (a) In...

  1. 49 CFR 178.33a-1 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance. 178.33a-1 Section 178.33a-1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Specifications for Inside Containers, and Linings § 178.33a-1 Compliance. (a) Required in all details. (b...

  2. 49 CFR 178.33a-1 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compliance. 178.33a-1 Section 178.33a-1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers, and Linings § 178.33a-1 Compliance. (a) Required in all details. (b) [Reserved] [Order 71, 31 FR...

  3. Methods for Tumor Targeting with Salmonella typhimurium A1-R.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert M; Zhao, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (S. typhimurium A1-R) has shown great preclinical promise as a broad-based anti-cancer therapeutic (please see Chapter 1 ). The present chapter describes materials and methods for the preclinical study of S. typhimurium A1-R in clinically-relevant mouse models. Establishment of orthotopic metastatic mouse models of the major cancer types is described, as well as other useful models, for efficacy studies of S. typhimurium A1-R or other tumor-targeting bacteria, as well. Imaging methods are described to visualize GFP-labeled S. typhimurium A1-R, as well as GFP- and/or RFP-labeled cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, which S. typhimurium A1-R targets. The mouse models include metastasis to major organs that are life-threatening to cancer patients including the liver, lung, bone, and brain and how to target these metastases with S. typhimurium A1-R. Various routes of administration of S. typhimurium A1-R are described with the advantages and disadvantages of each. Basic experiments to determine toxic effects of S. typhimurium A1-R are also described. Also described are methodologies for combining S. typhimurium A1-R and chemotherapy. The testing of S. typhimurium A1-R on patient tumors in patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) mouse models is also described. The major methodologies described in this chapter should be translatable for clinical studies.

  4. Nicotiana benthamiana α-galactosidase A1.1 can functionally complement human α-galactosidase A deficiency associated with Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Kytidou, Kassiani; Beekwilder, Jules; Artola, Marta; van Meel, Eline; Wilbers, Ruud H P; Moolenaar, Geri F; Goosen, Nora; Ferraz, Maria J; Katzy, Rebecca; Voskamp, Patrick; Florea, Bogdan I; Hokke, Cornelis H; Overkleeft, Herman S; Schots, Arjen; Bosch, Dirk; Pannu, Navraj; Aerts, Johannes M F G

    2018-04-19

    α-Galactosidases (EC 3.2.1.22) are retaining glycosidases that cleave terminal α-linked galactose residues from glycoconjugate substrates. α-Galactosidases take part in the turnover of cell wall-associated galactomannans in plants and in the lysosomal degradation of glycosphingolipids in animals. Deficiency of human α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A) causes Fabry disease (FD), a heritable, X-linked lysosomal storage disorder, characterized by accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) and globotriaosylsphingosine (lysoGb3). Current management of FD involves enzyme-replacement therapy (ERT). An activity-based probe (ABP) covalently labeling the catalytic nucleophile of α-Gal A has been previously designed to study α-galactosidases for use in FD therapy. Here, we report that this ABP labels proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf extracts, enabling the identification and biochemical characterization of an N. benthamiana α-galactosidase we name here A1.1 (gene accession GJZM-1660). The transiently overexpressed and purified enzyme was a monomer lacking N-glycans and was active toward 4-methylumbelliferyl-α-D-galactopyranoside substrate (Km = 0.17 mM) over a broad pH range. A1.1 structural analysis by X-ray crystallography revealed marked similarities with human α-Gal A, even including A1.1's ability to hydrolyze Gb3 and lysoGb3, which are not endogenous in plants. Of note, A1.1 uptake into FD fibroblasts reduced the elevated lysoGb3 levels in these cells, consistent with A1.1 delivery to lysosomes as revealed by confocal microscopy. The ease of production and the features of A1.1, such as stability over a broad pH range, combined with its capacity to degrade glycosphingolipid substrates, warrant further examination of its value as a potential therapeutic agent for ERT-based FD management. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. SRD5A1 Genetic Variation and Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    DAMD17-03-1-0136 TITLE: SRD5A1 Genetic Variation and Prostate Cancer Epidemiology PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Troy Phipps...DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 May 2003 – 30 Apr 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER SRD5A1 Genetic Variation and Prostate Cancer...Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The human steroid 5-alpha reductase type I ( SRD5A1 ) gene was sequenced in 101

  6. 26 CFR 40.6011(a)-1 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Returns. 40.6011(a)-1 Section 40.6011(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS § 40.6011(a)-1 Returns. (a) In general—(1) Return required. The return of any tax to which this part 40 applies...

  7. 29 CFR 2550.403a-1 - Establishment of trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Establishment of trust. 2550.403a-1 Section 2550.403a-1... REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY § 2550.403a-1 Establishment of trust. (a) In general. Except as otherwise provided in § 403b-1, all assets of an employee benefit plan shall be held in trust by one or more...

  8. Current aspects in hemoglobin A1c detection: a review.

    PubMed

    Ang, Shu Hwang; Thevarajah, M; Alias, Yatimah; Khor, Sook Mei

    2015-01-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a pressing health issue that threatens global health and the productivity of populations worldwide. Despite its long-recognized role in diabetes management, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) only received WHO endorsement as a T2DM diagnostic tool in 2011. Although conventional plasma-specific tests have long been utilized to diagnose T2DM, the public should be informed that plasma-specific tests are not markedly better than HbA1c tests, particularly in terms of variability and convenience for diagnosing diabetes. In the midst of the debates associated with establishing HbA1c as the preeminent diabetes diagnostic tool, unceasing efforts to standardize HbA1c tests have played an integral part in achieving more efficient communication from laboratory to clinical practice and thus better diabetes care. This review discusses the current status of HbA1c tests in the diagnosis, prevention, treatment and management of T2DM across the globe, focusing on increasing the recognition of glycated hemoglobin variants with effective utilization of different HbA1c methods, updating the current status of HbA1c standardization programs, tapping into the potential of POC analyzers to establish a cost-effective HbA1c test for diabetes care, and inspiring the advancement of HbA1c biosensors for future clinical usage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A1c Gear: Laboratory quality HbA1c measurement at the point of care.

    PubMed

    Ejilemele, Adetoun; Unabia, Jamie; Ju, Hyunsu; Petersen, John R

    2015-05-20

    HbA1c is an important part of assessing the diabetic control and since the use of point-of-care devices for monitoring HbA1c is increasing, it is important to determine how these devices compare to the central laboratory. One hundred and twenty patient samples were analyzed on the Bio-Rad Variant™II and one POC analyzer (Sakae A1c Gear). Three patient sample pools containing ~5%, ~7%, and ~10% HbA1c levels were run over 20 days. Three reagent lots and three instruments were evaluated for the A1c Gear. The 120 patient samples showed strong correlation (R(2)>0.989) when compared to the Variant™II with means=8.06% and 7.81%, for Variant IIand A1c Gear, respectively. Changing reagent lots or instruments had no impact for the A1c Gear. The ~5%, ~7%, and ~10% pools within-run and between-run imprecision was between 0.87-1.33% and 1.03-1.32%, and 1.41-2.35% and 1.24-1.89% with total imprecision of 1.67-2.35% and 1.61-2.31% for the A1c Gear and Variant II, respectively. The A1c Gear showed a small negative bias (0.25% HbA1c) across HbA1c measurement ranges of <11.5%. This bias was, however, acceptable and not considered to be clinically significant. The A1c Gear meets the criteria of total CV <3% leading us to the conclusion that the A1c Gear can give results as precise as the laboratory at the POC. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. New a1(1420 ) state: Structure, mass, and width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundu, H.; Agaev, S. S.; Azizi, K.

    2018-03-01

    The structure, spectroscopic parameters and width of the resonance with quantum numbers JP C=1++ discovered by the COMPASS Collaboration and classified as the a1(1420 ) meson are examined in the context of QCD sum rule method. In the calculations the axial-vector meson a1(1420 ) is treated as a four-quark state with the diquark-antidiquark structure. The mass and current coupling of a1(1420 ) are evaluated using QCD two-point sum rule approach. Its observed decay mode a1(1420 )→f0(980 )π , and kinematically allowed ones, namely a1→K*±K∓ , a1→K*0K¯ 0 and a1→K¯ *0K0 channels are studied employing QCD sum rules on the light-cone. Our prediction for the mass of the a1(1420 ) state ma1=1416-79+81 MeV is in excellent agreement with the experimental result. Width of this state Γ =145.52 ±20.79 MeV within theoretical and experimental errors is also in accord with the COMPASS data.

  11. 26 CFR 49.4262(a)-1 - Taxable transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Taxable transportation. 49.4262(a)-1 Section 49...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES FACILITIES AND SERVICES EXCISE TAXES Transportation of Persons § 49.4262(a)-1 Taxable transportation. (a) In general. Unless excluded under section 4262(b) (see § 49.4262(b)-1), taxable...

  12. 26 CFR 49.4262(a)-1 - Taxable transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Taxable transportation. 49.4262(a)-1 Section 49...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES FACILITIES AND SERVICES EXCISE TAXES Transportation of Persons § 49.4262(a)-1 Taxable transportation. (a) In general. Unless excluded under section 4262(b) (see § 49.4262(b)-1), taxable...

  13. 26 CFR 49.4262(a)-1 - Taxable transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Taxable transportation. 49.4262(a)-1 Section 49...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES FACILITIES AND SERVICES EXCISE TAXES Transportation of Persons § 49.4262(a)-1 Taxable transportation. (a) In general. Unless excluded under section 4262(b) (see § 49.4262(b)-1), taxable...

  14. 42 CFR 5a.1 - Statutory basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Statutory basis and purpose. 5a.1 Section 5a.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL... the Public Health Service Act. These provisions define “underserved rural community” for purposes of...

  15. 42 CFR 5a.1 - Statutory basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Statutory basis and purpose. 5a.1 Section 5a.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL... the Public Health Service Act. These provisions define “underserved rural community” for purposes of...

  16. 42 CFR 5a.1 - Statutory basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Statutory basis and purpose. 5a.1 Section 5a.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL... the Public Health Service Act. These provisions define “underserved rural community” for purposes of...

  17. Retinoid regulation of the zebrafish cyp26a1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ping; Tian, Miao; Bao, Jie; Xing, Guangdong; Gu, Xingxing; Gao, Xiang; Linney, Elwood; Zhao, Qingshun

    2008-12-01

    Cyp26A1 is a major enzyme that controls retinoic acid (RA) homeostasis by metabolizing RA into bio-inactive metabolites. Previous research revealed that the mouse Cyp26A1 promoter has two canonical RA response elements (RAREs) that underlie the regulation of the gene by RA. Analyzing the 2,533-base pairs (2.5 k) genomic sequence upstream of zebrafish cyp26a1 start codon, we report that the two RAREs are conserved in zebrafish cyp26a1 promoter. Mutagenesis demonstrated that the two RAREs work synergistically in RA inducibility of cyp26a1. Fusing the 2.5 k (kilobase pairs) fragment to the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) reporter gene, we have generated two transgenic lines of zebrafish [Tg(cyp26a1:eYFP)]. The transgenic zebrafish display expression patterns similar to that of cyp26a1 gene in vivo. Consistent with the in vitro results, the reporter activity is RA inducible in embryos. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the 2.5 k fragment underlies the regulation of the zebrafish cyp26a1 gene by RA. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1 - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...,000 in 1958, none in 1957, $1,000 in 1956. Example 3. A trust is created in 1952 under the laws of...) INCOME TAXES Treatment of Excess Distributions of Trusts Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1 Amount allocated. (a)(1) If a trust other than a foreign trust created by a U...

  19. An example of auto-anti-A1 agglutinins.

    PubMed

    Wright, J; Lim, F C; Freedman, J

    1980-10-01

    The serum of an elderly man, group A, Le(a+b-), contained an IgM antibody that agglutinated his own cells and the cells of random group A1 donors. Over a period of 5 months, the titre of these auto-anti-A1 agglutinins was 4 at 22 degrees C.

  20. Note on the photoproduction of the charged A1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condo, G. T.; Handler, T.

    1987-05-01

    Arguments made nearly 15 years ago by Fox and Hey are updated in the light of recent experimental findings. These indicate that the charge-exchange photoproduction of the A1 should dominate that of the A2. Consistency with the experimental data demands an A1 mass of 1335+/-20 MeV and width of 180+/-55 MeV.

  1. 42 CFR 5a.1 - Statutory basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statutory basis and purpose. 5a.1 Section 5a.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL... the Public Health Service Act. These provisions define “underserved rural community” for purposes of...

  2. 42 CFR 5a.1 - Statutory basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Statutory basis and purpose. 5a.1 Section 5a.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL... the Public Health Service Act. These provisions define “underserved rural community” for purposes of...

  3. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 7A1 (ALDH7A1) is a novel enzyme involved in cellular defense against hyperosmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Brocker, Chad; Lassen, Natalie; Estey, Tia; Pappa, Aglaia; Cantore, Miriam; Orlova, Valeria V; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Kavanagh, Kathryn L; Oppermann, Udo; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2010-06-11

    Mammalian ALDH7A1 is homologous to plant ALDH7B1, an enzyme that protects against various forms of stress, such as salinity, dehydration, and osmotic stress. It is known that mutations in the human ALDH7A1 gene cause pyridoxine-dependent and folic acid-responsive seizures. Herein, we show for the first time that human ALDH7A1 protects against hyperosmotic stress by generating osmolytes and metabolizing toxic aldehydes. Human ALDH7A1 expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells attenuated osmotic stress-induced apoptosis caused by increased extracellular concentrations of sucrose or sodium chloride. Purified recombinant ALDH7A1 efficiently metabolized a number of aldehyde substrates, including the osmolyte precursor, betaine aldehyde, lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes, and the intermediate lysine degradation product, alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde. The crystal structure for ALDH7A1 supports the enzyme's substrate specificities. Tissue distribution studies in mice showed the highest expression of ALDH7A1 protein in liver, kidney, and brain, followed by pancreas and testes. ALDH7A1 protein was found in the cytosol, nucleus, and mitochondria, making it unique among the aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes. Analysis of human and mouse cDNA sequences revealed mitochondrial and cytosolic transcripts that are differentially expressed in a tissue-specific manner in mice. In conclusion, ALDH7A1 is a novel aldehyde dehydrogenase expressed in multiple subcellular compartments that protects against hyperosmotic stress by generating osmolytes and metabolizing toxic aldehydes.

  4. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 7A1 (ALDH7A1) Is a Novel Enzyme Involved in Cellular Defense against Hyperosmotic Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Brocker, Chad; Lassen, Natalie; Estey, Tia; Pappa, Aglaia; Cantore, Miriam; Orlova, Valeria V.; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Kavanagh, Kathryn L.; Oppermann, Udo; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian ALDH7A1 is homologous to plant ALDH7B1, an enzyme that protects against various forms of stress, such as salinity, dehydration, and osmotic stress. It is known that mutations in the human ALDH7A1 gene cause pyridoxine-dependent and folic acid-responsive seizures. Herein, we show for the first time that human ALDH7A1 protects against hyperosmotic stress by generating osmolytes and metabolizing toxic aldehydes. Human ALDH7A1 expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells attenuated osmotic stress-induced apoptosis caused by increased extracellular concentrations of sucrose or sodium chloride. Purified recombinant ALDH7A1 efficiently metabolized a number of aldehyde substrates, including the osmolyte precursor, betaine aldehyde, lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes, and the intermediate lysine degradation product, α-aminoadipic semialdehyde. The crystal structure for ALDH7A1 supports the enzyme's substrate specificities. Tissue distribution studies in mice showed the highest expression of ALDH7A1 protein in liver, kidney, and brain, followed by pancreas and testes. ALDH7A1 protein was found in the cytosol, nucleus, and mitochondria, making it unique among the aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes. Analysis of human and mouse cDNA sequences revealed mitochondrial and cytosolic transcripts that are differentially expressed in a tissue-specific manner in mice. In conclusion, ALDH7A1 is a novel aldehyde dehydrogenase expressed in multiple subcellular compartments that protects against hyperosmotic stress by generating osmolytes and metabolizing toxic aldehydes. PMID:20207735

  5. [About the HbA1c in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Farcet, Anaïs; Delalande, Géraldine; Oliver, Charles; Retornaz, Frédérique

    2016-03-01

    HbA1c product of non enzymatic glycation of HbA increases in relation with the mean blood glucose level during the former 2-3 months. HbA1c levels are correlated with the development of diabetic complications and HbA1c assessment is now the gold standard for evaluation of diabetes control. HbA1c level should not be higher than 7% to avoid these complications. However, in aged peoples, the objectives of diabetes control vary according to their health status. It must be good with HbA1c lower than 7-7.5% in healthy subjects and more relax in subjects with symptoms of frailty and risks of non perceived and self corrected hypoglycemia. Under these conditions, HbA1c values lower than 8 to 9% are advised. Nevertheless, hypoglycemia episodes may occur in patients with high HbA1c and capillary glucose follow-up is necessary for detection of such complications.

  6. Effect of DNA methylation profile on OATP3A1 and OATP4A1 transcript levels in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Rawłuszko-Wieczorek, Agnieszka Anna; Horst, Nikodem; Horbacka, Karolina; Bandura, Artur Szymon; Świderska, Monika; Krokowicz, Piotr; Jagodziński, Paweł Piotr

    2015-08-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that 17β-estradiol (E2) prevents colorectal cancer (CRC). Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are involved in the cellular uptake of various endogenous and exogenous substrates, including hormone conjugates. Because transfer of estrone sulfate (E1-S) can contribute to intra-tissue conversion of estrone to the biologically active form -E2, it is evident that the expression patterns of OATPs may be relevant to the analysis of CRC incidence and therapy. We therefore evaluated DNA methylation and transcript levels of two members of the OATP family, OATP3A1 and OATP4A1, that may be involved in E1-S transport in colorectal cancer patients. We detected a significant reduction in OATP3A1 and a significant increase in OATP4A1 mRNA levels in cancerous tissue, compared with histopathologically unchanged tissue (n=103). Moreover, we observed DNA hypermethylation in the OATP3A1 promoter region in a small subset of CRC patients and in HCT116 and Caco-2 colorectal cancer cell lines. We also observed increased OATP3A1 transcript following treatment with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine and sodium butyrate. The OATP4A1 promoter region was hypomethylated in analyzed tissues and CRC cell lines and was not affected by these treatments. Our results suggest a potential mechanism for OATP3A1 downregulation that involves DNA methylation during colorectal carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. SRD5A1 Genetic Variation and Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    DATES COVERED (Leave blank) May 2005 Annual Summary (1 May 2004 - 30 Apr 2005) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS SRD5A1 Genetic Variation and...secondary structure of the luciferase+ SRD5A1 3’-UTR mRNA was so different from the native SRD5Al message, that the 3’-UTR variants should be tested...in the context of a native mRNA. A eukaryotic expression vector containing 850bp of the human SRD5A1 promoter was seamlessly cloned onto the 5’ end of

  8. Selecting an A1C Point-of-Care Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Ee Vonn; Rasinen, Casey

    2015-01-01

    A1C point-of-care (POC) instruments benefit patients with diabetes by facilitating clinician decision making that results in significant glycemic improvements. Three National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP)–certified POC products are available in the United States: the handheld A1CNow (formerly manufactured by Bayer Diabetes Care but now made by Chek Diagnostics) and two bench-top models called the Axis-Shield Afinion Analyzer and the Siemens DCA Vantage. This article compares the three available NGSP-certified POC products in terms of accuracy, precision, ease of use, cost, and additional features. Its goal is to aid health care facilities in conveniently identifying the A1C POC product that best meets their needs. It additionally reviews evidence that supports the continued use of A1C POC instruments in the clinical arena. PMID:26300614

  9. Prevalence of normoglycemic, prediabetic and diabetic A1c levels

    PubMed Central

    Aponte, Judith

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate normoglycemic, prediabetic and diabetic A1c levels in those with prediabetes; and prediabetic and diabetic A1c levels in those with non-prediabetes. METHODS: The National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008 and NHANES 2009-2010 were utilized to examine and compare trends and differences among five different ethnic groups (Mexican Americans, Other Hispanics, Non-Hispanic Whites, Non-Hispanic Blacks, Other/Multi-racials) with normoglycemic, prediabetic and diabetic A1c levels with self-reported prediabetes and prediabetic and diabetic A1c levels in those with self-reported non-prediabetes. Sample participants of the five ethnic groups were limited to those 20 years of age and older, who had completed the diabetes questionnaire and had A1c measured. Descriptive statistics were computed for all variables. χ2 were performed on all five ethnic groups to examine significant differences of normoglycemic, prediabetic and diabetic A1c levels in those with self-reported prediabetes, and prediabetic and diabetic A1c levels in those with self-reported non-prediabetes. RESULTS: This study demonstrates that of the five different ethnic groups from NHANES 2007-2008 to NHANES 2009-2010, Non-Hispanic Whites (6.5% increase) and Non-Hispanic Blacks (0.2% increase) were the only two groups with an increase in the number of self-reported prediabetes. Although the overall percentage of Mexican Americans who self-reported prediabetes had remained the same (5%) from NHANES 2007-2008 to NHANES 2009-2010, χ2 analysis showed significant differences when examining the different ranges of A1c levels (normoglycemic, prediabetic and diabetic). Among Mexican Americans who self-reported prediabetes, normoglycemic (P = 0.0001) and diabetic (P = 0.0001) A1c levels from NHANES 2007-2008 to NHANES 2009-2010. For Non-Hispanic Whites who self-reported prediabetes, prediabetic (P = 0.0222); and diabetic (P ≤ 0.0001) A1c levels from NHANES 2007-2008 to

  10. RNAi of COL1A1 in mesenchymal progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Millington-Ward, Sophia; McMahon, Helena P; Allen, Danny; Tuohy, Gearóid; Kiang, Anna-Sophia; Palfi, Arpad; Kenna, Paul F; Humphries, Peter; Farrar, G Jane

    2004-10-01

    Given that mutant COL1A1 is known to cause Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI), tools to modulate COL1A1 expression are likely to be of significant therapeutic value. In this context, we have evaluated RNA interference (RNAi) as a means to downregulate COL1A1 expression in Cos-7 cells and in human mesenchymal progenitor stem cells (MPCs), the latter cells giving rise to bone and therefore representing a target cell type for collagen-related disorders. In addition, allele-specificity, a key factor to the success of RNAi-based suppression, was explored with a view to developing a mutation-independent RNAi-based therapeutic for OI by targeting an intragenic SNP within transcripts derived from the COL1A1 gene. Preferential suppression of individual polymorphic alleles that differed by a single nucleotide was observed.

  11. ISS 7A.1 Flight Control Team Photo in BFCR

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-08-17

    JSC2001-02225 (17 August 2001) --- The members of the STS-105/ISS 7A.1 Orbit 2 team pose for a group portrait in the International Space Station (ISS) flight control room (BFCR) in Houston’s Mission Control Center (MCC). Orbit 2 flight director Rick LaBrode (front right) holds the STS-105 mission logo, and Astronaut Joan E. Higginbotham, ISS spacecraft communicator (CAPCOM), holds the ISS 7A.1 mission logo.

  12. Ephs and Ephrins in Cancer: Ephrin-A1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Beauchamp, Amanda; Debinski, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    Ephrin-A1 and its primary receptor, EphA2, are involved in numerous physiological processes and have been intensely studied for their roles in malignancy. Ephrin-Eph signalling is complex on its own and is also cell-type dependent, making elucidation of the exact role of ephrin-A1 in neoplasia challenging. Multiple oncogenic signalling pathways, such as MAP/ERK and PI3K are affected by ephrin-A1, and in some cases evidence suggests the promotion of a specific pathway in one cell or cancer type and inhibition of the same pathway in another type of cell or cancer. EphrinA1 also plays an integral role in angiogenesis and tumor neovascularization. Until recently, studies investigating ephrins focused on the ligands as GPI-anchored proteins that required membrane anchoring or artificial clustering for Eph receptor activation. However, recent studies have demonstrated a functional role for soluble, monomeric ephrin-A1. This review will focus on various forms of ephrin-A1-specific signalling in human malignancy. PMID:22040911

  13. AMP is an adenosine A1 receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Rittiner, Joseph E; Korboukh, Ilia; Hull-Ryde, Emily A; Jin, Jian; Janzen, William P; Frye, Stephen V; Zylka, Mark J

    2012-02-17

    Numerous receptors for ATP, ADP, and adenosine exist; however, it is currently unknown whether a receptor for the related nucleotide adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) exists. Using a novel cell-based assay to visualize adenosine receptor activation in real time, we found that AMP and a non-hydrolyzable AMP analog (deoxyadenosine 5'-monophosphonate, ACP) directly activated the adenosine A(1) receptor (A(1)R). In contrast, AMP only activated the adenosine A(2B) receptor (A(2B)R) after hydrolysis to adenosine by ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E, CD73) or prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP, ACPP). Adenosine and AMP were equipotent human A(1)R agonists in our real-time assay and in a cAMP accumulation assay. ACP also depressed cAMP levels in mouse cortical neurons through activation of endogenous A(1)R. Non-selective purinergic receptor antagonists (pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid and suramin) did not block adenosine- or AMP-evoked activation. Moreover, mutation of His-251 in the human A(1)R ligand binding pocket reduced AMP potency without affecting adenosine potency. In contrast, mutation of a different binding pocket residue (His-278) eliminated responses to AMP and to adenosine. Taken together, our study indicates that the physiologically relevant nucleotide AMP is a full agonist of A(1)R. In addition, our study suggests that some of the physiological effects of AMP may be direct, and not indirect through ectonucleotidases that hydrolyze this nucleotide to adenosine.

  14. New phospholipase A1-producing bacteria from a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, Masaaki; Kamata, Masazumi; Koyama, Tomoyuki; Yazawa, Kazunaga

    2008-01-01

    Phospholipase A1 is a hydrolytic enzyme that catalyzes the removal of the acyl group from position 1 of glycerophospholipids to form 2-acyl lysophospholipids. Lysophospholipids are used in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals as surfactants. Novel forms of phospholipase A1 that function at low temperatures are desirable for use in lipophilic systems in food processing. However, there is currently little variety in the available sources of phospholipase A1. Given this situation, we screened the intestinal contents of marine animals for phospholipase A1-producing bacteria. Colonies that formed a halo on K28CP screening medium and that grew in K28 medium were cultured in liquid K28 medium, and the supernatant was retrieved for analysis. Phosphatidylcholine was added to the culture supernatant, and the product of the reaction was analyzed by using TLC. For culture supernatants that were able to generate lysophosphatidylcholine, synthetic phosphatidylcholines were added, and the site of the reaction was determined by analyzing the fatty acid compositions of the lysophosphatidylcholines generated by GLC. A bacterial isolate from a flatfish, which we named HFKI0020, was found to have phospholipase A1 activity at low temperatures. We determined that the isolate HFKI0020 is closely related to Pseudomonas by using 16S rDNA sequence analysis and by characterizing the isolate with respect to its physiologic and biochemical properties. From the intestinal contents of a marine fish, we successfully isolated a bacterium that secretes phospholipase A1 that is active at low temperatures.

  15. Cooperative unfolding of apolipoprotein A-1 induced by chemical denaturation.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, D; Li-Blatter, X; Schönfeld, H-J; Heerklotz, H; Seelig, J

    2018-05-25

    Apolipoprotein A-1 (Apo A-1) plays an important role in lipid transfer and obesity. Chemical unfolding of α-helical Apo A-1 is induced with guanidineHCl and monitored with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and CD spectroscopy. The unfolding enthalpy and the midpoint temperature of unfolding decrease linearly with increasing guanidineHCl concentration, caused by the weak binding of denaturant. At room temperature, binding of 50-60 molecules guanidineHCl leads to a complete Apo A-1 unfolding. The entropy of unfolding decreases to a lesser extent than the unfolding enthalpy. Apo A-1 chemical unfolding is a dynamic multi-state equilibrium that is analysed with the Zimm-Bragg theory modified for chemical unfolding. The chemical Zimm-Bragg theory predicts the denaturant binding constant K D and the protein cooperativity σ. Chemical unfolding of Apo A-1 is two orders of magnitude less cooperative than thermal unfolding. The free energy of thermal unfolding is ~0.2 kcal/mol per amino acid residue and ~1.0 kcal/mol for chemical unfolding at room temperature. The Zimm-Bragg theory calculates conformational probabilities and the chemical Zimm-Bragg theory predicts stretches of α-helical segments in dynamic equilibrium, unfolding and refolding independently and fast. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficient purification of Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) from plasma by HEA HyperCel™: An alternative approach.

    PubMed

    G, Arun Govind; Kamalanathan, Agamudi Shivasankaran; Vijayalakshmi, Mookambeswaran Arunachalam; Venkataraman, Krishnan

    2018-01-15

    HDL-ApoA1 plays a pivotal role in the prevention of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. ApoA1 purification from blood plasma has always remained tedious, involving multiple steps, large volumes of plasma and substantial loss in the final yield of pure ApoA1. In this study, a two-step method has been developed and optimized for the purification of ApoA1 from plasma. Plasma was first subjected to 60% ammonium sulphate (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 precipitation and subsequently, ApoA1 was recovered using mixed mode chromatographic sorbent, HEA HyperCel™. ApoA1 was found to be enriched in 60% (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 supernatant that was dialyzed and injected onto HEA sorbent with 50 mM phosphate buffer pH 7.4. The bound proteins were eluted by decreasing the pH in step-gradient from pH 7.4 to pH 4.0 and subsequently to pH 3.5 using 50 mM sodium acetate buffer. Gel electrophoresis showed elution of homogeneous apoA1 at pH 3.5, with purity and yield of 63%. An interesting feature of this approach is that the purified ApoA1 was monomeric with a mass of 28,079.30 Da as confirmed by MS analysis. This simple and efficient method of purification of apoA1 serves as an alternative method which can be combined with traditional approaches and has a great potential for biochemical and clinical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of FDA-Approved Drugs on the Prostaglandin Transporter OATP2A1/SLCO2A1.

    PubMed

    Kamo, Shunsuke; Nakanishi, Takeo; Aotani, Rika; Nakamura, Yoshinobu; Gose, Tomoka; Tamai, Ikumi

    2017-09-01

    To understand interaction of drugs with the prostaglandin transporter OATP2A1/SLCO2A1 that regulates disposition of prostaglandins, we explored the impact of 636 drugs in an FDA-approved drug library on 6-carboxyfluorescein (6-CF) uptake by OATP2A1-expressing HEK293 cells (HEK/2A1). Fifty-one and 10 drugs were found to inhibit and enhance 6-CF uptake by more than 50%, respectively. Effect of the 51 drugs on 6-CF uptake was positively correlated with that on PGE 2 uptake (r = 0.64, p < 0.001). Among those, 5 drugs not structurally related to prostaglandins, suramin, pranlukast, zafirlukast, olmesartan medoxomil, and losartan potassium, exhibited more than 90% PGE 2 uptake inhibition. Inhibitory affinity of suramin to OATP2A1 was the highest (IC 50,2A1 of 0.17 μM), and its IC 50 values to MRP4-mediated PGE 2 transport (IC 50,MRP4 ) and PGE 2 synthesis in human U-937 cells treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (IC 50,Syn ) were 73.6 and 336.7 times higher than IC 50,2A1 , respectively. Moreover, structure-activity relationship study in 29 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs contained in the library displayed inhibitory activities of anthranilic acid derivatives, but enhancing effects of propionic acid derivatives. These results demonstrate that suramin is a potent selective inhibitor of OATP2A1, providing a comprehensive information about drugs in clinical use that interact with OATP2A1. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A novel p. Gly630Ser mutation of COL2A1 in a Chinese family with presentations of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease or avascular necrosis of the femoral head.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Yu, Jian; Cao, Xiang; Wu, Qiu-Yue; Li, Wei-Wei; Li, Tian-Fu; Zhang, Cui; Cui, Ying-Xia; Li, Xiao-Jun; Yin, Zhi-Min; Xia, Xin-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the type II collagen gene are associated with certain human disorders, collectively termed type II collagenopathies. They include Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) and avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH). These two diseases are skeletal dysplasias, inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, characterized by groin pain, dislocation of the hip and diminished joint mobility. Coxa vara and elevation of the greater trochanter of the femur comprise the typical phenotype of LCPD, but do not occur in ANFH. Lack of synthesis of type II collagen and structural defects are responsible for the major clinical outcomes, because collagen is the essential matrix protein of all connective tissues. Type II collagen, encoded by the COL2A1 gene, contains N- and C- terminal regions that are cleaved after secretion into the extracellular matrix, and the core area is composed of a triple helical (Gly-X-Y) domain. If the Gly in this specific region is replaced by other amino acids, the structure of type II collagen will be destroyed. Forty-five members of a four-generation family were recruited and investigated. Diagnosis was made by independent orthopedic surgeons and radiologists. A mutation of the COL2A1 gene was detected. In our research, we identify a heterozygous mutation (c.1888 G>A, p. Gly630Ser) in exon 29 of COL2A1 in the Gly-X-Y domain, in a Chinese family affected by LCPD and ANFH. Our findings provide significant clues to the phenotype-genotype relationships in these syndromes and may be helpful in clinical diagnosis. Furthermore, these results should assist further studies of the mechanisms underlying collagen diseases. Our data add new variants to the repertoire of COL2A1 mutation resulting in related collagenopathies.

  19. Material Assessment of L97A1/L96A1 Grenades by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Thermogravimetric Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy Differential scanning calorimetry ( DSC ) L97A1/L96A1 grenades Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...Spectroscopy The FTIR scan (fig. 3) shows two baseline materials • The blue spectra represent the Nylon 6 sample • The black spectra represent Nylon 6...The black spectra represent a sample taken from the body of the older grenade body • The relative size and location of all the peaks are identical

  20. Human SLC26A1 gene variants: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Paul A; Sim, Pearl; Mudge, David W; Cowley, David

    2013-01-01

    Kidney stones are a global health problem, incurring massive health costs annually. Why stones recur in many patients remains unknown but likely involves environmental, physiological, and genetic factors. The solute linked carrier (SLC) 26A1 gene has previously been linked to kidney stones in mice. SLC26A1 encodes the sulfate anion transporter 1 (SAT1) protein, and its loss in mice leads to hyperoxaluria and calcium oxalate renal stones. To investigate the possible involvement of SAT1 in human urolithiasis, we screened the SLC26A1 gene in a cohort of 13 individuals with recurrent calcium oxalate urolithiasis, which is the commonest type. DNA sequence analyses showed missense mutations in seven patients: one individual was heterozygous R372H; 4 individuals were heterozygous Q556R; one patient was homozygous Q556R; and one patient with severe nephrocalcinosis (requiring nephrectomy) was homozygous Q556R and heterozygous M132T. The M132 amino acid in human SAT1 is conserved with 15 other species and is located within the third transmembrane domain of the predicted SAT1 protein structure, suggesting that this amino acid may be important for SAT1 function. These initial findings demonstrate genetic variants in SLC26A1 of recurrent stone formers and warrant wider independent studies of SLC26A1 in humans with recurrent calcium oxalate stones.

  1. How does CKD affect HbA1c?

    PubMed

    Bloomgarden, Zachary; Handelsman, Yehuda

    2018-04-01

    HOW DOES CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE AFFECT HBA1C?: A number of factors determine HbA1c other than the level of glucose exposure alone. In an subset analysis of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study of 941 diabetic people with varying degrees of chronic kidney disease (CKD), as well as 724 who did not have CKD, and mean age in the eighth decade, Jung et al. ask whether HbA1c is reliable as an indicator of glycemia in people with kidney disease (CKD) to the same degree as in those not having kidney disease, and, if not, whether measures of glycated serum proteins may be more useful. The only available measure of glycemia for comparison was a single fasting glucose level, and the authors acknowledge that this gives an incomplete measure, particularly in people with relatively mild diabetes, whose mean HbA1c was 6.4%, with most having levels of 7.5% or lower. In patients of this sort, postprandial glucose levels may better explain variations in mean HbA1c. Recognizing that the dataset may be limited, Jung et al. nevertheless give an intriguingly negative answer to the first question, of the reliability of HbA1c with kidney disease. Using Deming regression analysis, Jung et al. showed that the correlation between HbA1c and fasting glucose weakens as renal function worsens, and, moreover, that this appears particularly to be the case in people with anemia (hemoglobin <130 and <120 g/L for men and women, respectively), confirming earlier observations. Among those diabetic people with neither anemia nor CKD, the correlation coefficient between HbA1c and fasting glucose was r = 0.70, compared with r = 0.35 among those with both anemia and very severe CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <30 or <45 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 with at least microalbuminuria, or eGFR <60 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 with macroalbuminuria). As far as the second question, of whether the alternative measures, namely fructosamine and glycated albumin, may be more useful with CKD

  2. Current Status of HbA1c Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hua; Yi, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is formed via non-enzymatic glycosylation reactions at the α–amino group of βVal1 residues in the tetrameric Hb, and it can reflect the ambient glycemic level over the past two to three months. A variety of HbA1c detection methods, including chromatography, immunoassay, enzymatic measurement, electrochemical sensor and capillary electrophoresis have been developed and used in research laboratories and in clinics as well. In this review, we summarize the current status of HbA1c biosensors based on the recognition of the sugar moiety on the protein and also their applications in the whole blood sample measurements. PMID:28777351

  3. AMP Is an Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonist*

    PubMed Central

    Rittiner, Joseph E.; Korboukh, Ilia; Hull-Ryde, Emily A.; Jin, Jian; Janzen, William P.; Frye, Stephen V.; Zylka, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous receptors for ATP, ADP, and adenosine exist; however, it is currently unknown whether a receptor for the related nucleotide adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP) exists. Using a novel cell-based assay to visualize adenosine receptor activation in real time, we found that AMP and a non-hydrolyzable AMP analog (deoxyadenosine 5′-monophosphonate, ACP) directly activated the adenosine A1 receptor (A1R). In contrast, AMP only activated the adenosine A2B receptor (A2BR) after hydrolysis to adenosine by ecto-5′-nucleotidase (NT5E, CD73) or prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP, ACPP). Adenosine and AMP were equipotent human A1R agonists in our real-time assay and in a cAMP accumulation assay. ACP also depressed cAMP levels in mouse cortical neurons through activation of endogenous A1R. Non-selective purinergic receptor antagonists (pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2′,4′-disulfonic acid and suramin) did not block adenosine- or AMP-evoked activation. Moreover, mutation of His-251 in the human A1R ligand binding pocket reduced AMP potency without affecting adenosine potency. In contrast, mutation of a different binding pocket residue (His-278) eliminated responses to AMP and to adenosine. Taken together, our study indicates that the physiologically relevant nucleotide AMP is a full agonist of A1R. In addition, our study suggests that some of the physiological effects of AMP may be direct, and not indirect through ectonucleotidases that hydrolyze this nucleotide to adenosine. PMID:22215671

  4. [Microsurgical anatomy importance of A1-anterior communicating artery complex].

    PubMed

    Monroy-Sosa, Alejandro; Pérez-Cruz, Julio César; Reyes-Soto, Gervith; Delgado-Hernández, Carlos; Macías-Duvignau, Mario Alberto; Delgado-Reyes, Luis

    2013-01-01

    The anterior cerebral artery originates from the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery lateral to the optic chiasm, then joins with its contralateral counterpart via the anterior communicating artery. A1-anterior communicating artery complex is the most frequent anatomical variants and is the major site of aneurysms between 30 to 37%. Know the anatomy microsurgical, variants anatomical and importance of complex precommunicating segment-artery anterior communicating in surgery neurological of the pathology vascular, mainly aneurysms, in Mexican population. The study was performed in 30 brains injected. Microanatomy was studied (length and diameter) of A1-anterior communicating artery complex and its variants. 60 segments A1, the average length of left side was 11.35 mm and 11.84 mm was right. The average diameter of left was 1.67 mm and the right was 1.64 mm. The average number of perforators on the left side was 7.9 and the right side was 7.5. Anterior communicating artery was found in 29 brains of the optic chiasm, its course depended on the length of the A1 segment. The average length of the segment was 2.84 mm, the average diameter was 1.41 mm and the average number of perforators was 3.27. A1-anterior communicating artery complex variants were found in 18 (60%) and the presence of two blister-like aneurysms. It is necessary to understand the A1-anterior communicating artery complex microanatomy of its variants to have a three-dimensional vision during aneurysm surgery.

  5. Functional characterization of the human phosphodiesterase 7A1 promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Torras-Llort, Mònica; Azorín, Fernando

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the human phosphodiesterase 7A1 (h PDE7A1 ) promoter region was identified and functionally characterized. Transient transfection experiments indicated that a 2.9 kb fragment of the h PDE7A1 5'-flanking region, to position -2907, has strong promoter activity in Jurkat T-cells. Deletion analysis showed that the proximal region, up to position -988, contains major cis -regulatory elements of the h PDE7A1 promoter. This minimal promoter region contains a regulatory CpG island which is essential for promoter activity. The CpG island contains three potential cAMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB)-binding sites that, as judged by in vivo dimethyl sulphate (DMS) footprinting, are occupied in Jurkat T-cells. Moreover, over-expression of CREB results in increased promoter activity, but, on the other hand, promoter activity decreases when a dominant-negative form of CREB (KCREB) is over-expressed. In vivo DMS footprinting strongly indicates that other transcription factors, such Ets-2, nuclear factor of activated T-cells 1 (NFAT-1) and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), might also contribute to the regulation of h PDE7A1 promoter. Finally, h PDE7A1 promoter was found to be induced by treatment with PMA, but not by treatment with dibutyryl cAMP or forskolin. These results provide insights into the factors and mechanisms that regulate expression of the h PDE7A gene. PMID:12737631

  6. Characterization of SLCO5A1/OATP5A1, a Solute Carrier Transport Protein with Non-Classical Function

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, Katrin; Detro-Dassen, Silvia; Rinis, Natalie; Fahrenkamp, Dirk; Müller-Newen, Gerhard; Merk, Hans F.; Schmalzing, Günther

    2013-01-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP/SLCO) have been identified to mediate the uptake of a broad range of mainly amphipathic molecules. Human OATP5A1 was found to be expressed in the epithelium of many cancerous and non-cancerous tissues throughout the body but protein characterization and functional analysis have not yet been performed. This study focused on the biochemical characterization of OATP5A1 using Xenopus laevis oocytes and Flp-In T-REx-HeLa cells providing evidence regarding a possible OATP5A1 function. SLCO5A1 is highly expressed in mature dendritic cells compared to immature dendritic cells (∼6.5-fold) and SLCO5A1 expression correlates with the differentiation status of primary blood cells. A core- and complex- N-glycosylated polypeptide monomer of ∼105 kDa and ∼130 kDa could be localized in intracellular membranes and on the plasma membrane, respectively. Inducible expression of SLCO5A1 in HeLa cells led to an inhibitory effect of ∼20% after 96 h on cell proliferation. Gene expression profiling with these cells identified immunologically relevant genes (e.g. CCL20) and genes implicated in developmental processes (e.g. TGM2). A single nucleotide polymorphism leading to the exchange of amino acid 33 (L→F) revealed no differences regarding protein expression and function. In conclusion, we provide evidence that OATP5A1 might be a non-classical OATP family member which is involved in biological processes that require the reorganization of the cell shape, such as differentiation and migration. PMID:24376674

  7. Endoxifen and Other Metabolites of Tamoxifen Inhibit Human Hydroxysteroid Sulfotransferase 2A1 (hSULT2A1)

    PubMed Central

    Squirewell, Edwin J.; Qin, Xiaoyan

    2014-01-01

    Although tamoxifen is a successful agent for treatment and prevention of estrogen-dependent breast cancer, its use has been limited by the low incidence of endometrial cancer. Human hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase 2A1 (hSULT2A1) catalyzes the formation of an α-sulfooxy metabolite of tamoxifen that is reactive toward DNA, and this has been implicated in its carcinogenicity. Also, hSULT2A1 functions in the metabolism of steroid hormones such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and pregnenolone (PREG). These roles of hSULT2A1 in steroid hormone metabolism and in generating a reactive metabolite of tamoxifen led us to examine its interactions with tamoxifen and several of its major metabolites. We hypothesized that metabolites of tamoxifen may regulate the catalytic activity of hSULT2A1, either through direct inhibition or through serving as alternate substrates for the enzyme. We found that 4-hydroxy-N-desmethyltamoxifen (endoxifen) is a potent inhibitor of hSULT2A1-catalyzed sulfation of PREG and DHEA, with Ki values of 3.5 and 2.8 μM, respectively. In the hSULT2A1-catalyzed sulfation of PREG, 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHTAM) and N-desmethyltamoxifen (N-desTAM) exhibited Ki values of 12.7 and 9.8 μM, respectively, whereas corresponding Ki values of 19.4 and 17.2 μM were observed with DHEA as substrate. A Ki value of 9.1 μM was observed for tamoxifen-N-oxide with DHEA as substrate, and this increased to 16.9 μM for the hSULT2A1-catalyzed sulfation of PREG. Three metabolites were substrates for hSULT2A1, with relative sulfation rates of 4-OHTAM > N-desTAM > > endoxifen. These results may be useful in interpreting ongoing clinical trials of endoxifen and in improving the design of related molecules. PMID:25157097

  8. PTSD and Sexual Orientation: An Examination of Criterion A1 and Non-Criterion A1 Events

    PubMed Central

    Alessi, Edward J.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Martin, James I.

    2015-01-01

    This large-scale cross-sectional study compared posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalence among White, Black, and Latino lesbian, gay and bisexual individuals (LGBs; n = 382) and compared them with heterosexual individuals (n = 126). Building on previous research, we relaxed the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM–IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994), allowing non-Criterion A1 events such as ending a relationship, unemployment, homelessness, and separation from parents to qualify, and we assessed differences in PTSD prevalence between standard DSM–IV criteria and the relaxed criteria. Findings revealed that participants reporting a non-Criterion A1 event were more likely than those reporting a Criterion A1 event to have symptoms diagnosable as PTSD. There was no significant difference in either DSM–IV or relaxed Criterion A1 PTSD prevalence between lesbian and gay, and heterosexual individuals or between bisexual and heterosexual individuals. Compared with White LGBs, Black and Latino LGBs had higher prevalence of PTSD with the relaxed Criterion A1 definition, but this was statistically significant only for Latinos. PMID:26113955

  9. Solution structure of the strawberry allergen Fra a 1

    PubMed Central

    Seutter von Loetzen, Christian; Schweimer, Kristian; Schwab, Wilfried; Rösch, Paul; Hartl-Spiegelhauer, Olivia

    2012-01-01

    The PR10 family protein Fra a 1E from strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) is down-regulated in white strawberry mutants, and transient RNAi (RNA interference)-mediated silencing experiments confirmed that Fra a 1 is involved in fruit pigment synthesis. In the present study, we determined the solution structure of Fra a 1E. The protein fold is identical with that of other members of the PR10 protein family and consists of a seven-stranded antiparallel β-sheet, two short V-shaped α-helices and a long C-terminal α-helix that encompass a hydrophobic pocket. Whereas Fra a 1E contains the glycine-rich loop that is highly conserved throughout the protein family, the volume of the hydrophobic pocket and the size of its entrance are much larger than expected. The three-dimensional structure may shed some light on its physiological function and may help to further understand the role of PR10 proteins in plants. PMID:22913709

  10. 26 CFR 1.512(a)-1 - Definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.512(a)-1.... The unrelated business taxable income of a foreign organization exempt from taxation under section 501... taxation under section 501(a) consists of the organization's unrelated business taxable income which: (i...

  11. Passive smoking, Cyp1A1 gene polymorphism and dysmenorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong; Yang, Fan; Li, Zhiping; Chen, Changzhong; Fang, Zhian; Wang, Lihua; Hu, Yonghua; Chen, Dafang

    2007-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether the association between passive smoking exposure and dysmenorrhea is modified by two susceptibility genes, CYP1A1MspI and CYP1A1HincII. Methods This report includes 1645 (1124 no dysmenorrhea, 521 dysmenorrhea) nonsmoking and nondrinking newly wed female workers at Anqing, China between June 1997 and June 2000. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations of passive smoking exposure and genetic susceptibility with dysmenorrhea, adjusting for perceived stress. Results When stratified by women genotype, the adjusted OR of dysmenorrhea was 1.6 (95%CI=1.3-2.1) for passive smoking group with Ile/Ile462 genotype, and 1.5 (95%CI=1.1-2.1) with C/C6235 genotype, compared to non passive smoking group, respectively. The data further showed that there was a significant combined effect between passive smoking and the CYP1A1 Msp1 C/C6235 and HincII Ile/Ile462 genotype (OR=2.6, 95%CI=1.3-5.2). Conclusion CYP1A1 MspI and HincII genotypes modified the association between passive smoking and dysmenorrhea. PMID:17566695

  12. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)-1 - Wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Income Tax at Source § 31.3401(a)-1 Wages. (a) In general. (1) The term “wages” means all remuneration...(a) or excepted under section 3402(e). (2) The name by which the remuneration for services is... performed by the employee for his employer. (3) The basis upon which the remuneration is paid is immaterial...

  13. 26 CFR 31.3231(a)-1 - Who are employers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... insubstantial. (d) The term “employer” does not include any street, interurban, or suburban electric railway... Railroad Retirement Tax Act (Chapter 22, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3231(a)-1... connection with— (a) The transportation of passengers or property by railroad, or (b) The receipt, delivery...

  14. 26 CFR 49.4262(a)-1 - Taxable transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES FACILITIES AND SERVICES EXCISE TAXES Transportation of Persons § 49.4262(a)-1 Taxable... which begins after November 15, 1962, only if such portion is not part of “uninterrupted international... transportation which begins after November 15, 1962, the tax, if applicable, applies only to the amount paid for...

  15. 29 CFR 1912a.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH § 1912a.1 Purpose and scope. (a) Section 7(a) of the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 establishes a National...

  16. 29 CFR 1912a.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH § 1912a.1 Purpose and scope. (a) Section 7(a) of the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 establishes a National...

  17. ISS 7A.1 Flight Control Team Photo in BFCR

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-08-16

    JSC2001-02227 (16 August 2001) --- The members of the STS-105/ISS 7A.1 Planning team pose for a group portrait in the International Space Station (ISS) flight control room (BFCR) in Houston’s Mission Control Center (MCC).

  18. Characterization of the COL2A1 VNTR polymorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, E.S.; Olaisen, B.

    1993-05-01

    The variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) region 3{prime} to the collagen type II gene (COL2A1) was amplified in vitro by the polymerase chain reaction. Subsequent high-resolution gel electrophoresis showed that the five earlier reported alleles could be further subtyped. A total of 17 allelic variants with a heterozygosity of 73.0% were found in 202 unrelated Norwegians. DNA sequencing of 19 COL2A1 alleles has been performed. The internal organization of the VNTR was common for all alleles, as previously shown for a few alleles. Moreover, the polymorphism in the COL2A1 locus is mainly due to variation in the numbers ofmore » copies of two repeat units, containing 34 and 31 bp, respectively, and/or to small deletions in either of the two units. DNA sequencing of alleles with the same electrophoretic size revealed no heterogeneity such as an alternating order of the different units, a feature that might have been expected to be the result of unequal crossing-over events. The observed ordered structure of the VNTR and the possibility of single-stranded DNA from the cores in the VNTR forming hairpins and loops suggest that the COL2A1 polymorphism may have evolved mainly by replication slippage mechanisms. 23 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  19. 29 CFR 1912a.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH § 1912a.1 Purpose and scope. (a) Section 7(a) of the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 establishes a National...

  20. 26 CFR 1.926(a)-1 - Distributions to shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... either of the administrative pricing methods of section 925(a)(1) or (2), (D) Out of earnings and profits... income and other exempt foreign trade income determined under either of the administrative pricing... earnings and profits attributable to other exempt foreign trade income determined under the transfer...

  1. 26 CFR 1.926(a)-1 - Distributions to shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... either of the administrative pricing methods of section 925(a)(1) or (2), (D) Out of earnings and profits... income and other exempt foreign trade income determined under either of the administrative pricing... earnings and profits attributable to other exempt foreign trade income determined under the transfer...

  2. Ultraviolet-A1 irradiation therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    McGrath, H

    2017-10-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus, SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the production of autoantibodies, which bind to antigens and are deposited within tissues to fix complement, resulting in widespread systemic inflammation. The studies presented herein are consistent with hyperpolarized, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-deficient mitochondria being central to the disease process. These hyperpolarized mitochondria resist the depolarization required for activation-induced apoptosis. The mitochondrial ATP deficits add to this resistance to apoptosis and also reduce the macrophage energy that is needed to clear apoptotic bodies. In both cases, necrosis, the alternative pathway of cell death, results. Intracellular constituents spill into the blood and tissues, eliciting inflammatory responses directed at their removal. What results is "autoimmunity." Ultraviolet (UV)-A1 photons have the capacity to remediate this aberrancy. Exogenous exposure to low-dose, full-body, UV-A1 radiation generates singlet oxygen. Singlet oxygen has two major palliative actions in patients with lupus and the UV-A1 photons themselves have several more. Singlet oxygen depolarizes the hyperpolarized mitochondrion, triggering non-ATP-dependent apoptosis that deters necrosis. Next, singlet oxygen activates the gene encoding heme oxygenase (HO-1), a major governor of systemic homeostasis. HO-1 catalyzes the degradation of the oxidant heme into biliverdin (converted to bilirubin), Fe, and carbon monoxide (CO), the first three of these exerting powerful antioxidant effects, and in conjunction with a fourth, CO, protecting against injury to the coronary arteries, the central nervous system, and the lungs. The UV-A1 photons themselves directly attenuate disease in lupus by reducing B cell activity, preventing the suppression of cell-mediated immunity, slowing an epigenetic progression toward SLE, and ameliorating discoid and subacute cutaneous lupus. Finally, a combination of these

  3. Ultraviolet-A1 irradiation therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus, SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the production of autoantibodies, which bind to antigens and are deposited within tissues to fix complement, resulting in widespread systemic inflammation. The studies presented herein are consistent with hyperpolarized, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-deficient mitochondria being central to the disease process. These hyperpolarized mitochondria resist the depolarization required for activation-induced apoptosis. The mitochondrial ATP deficits add to this resistance to apoptosis and also reduce the macrophage energy that is needed to clear apoptotic bodies. In both cases, necrosis, the alternative pathway of cell death, results. Intracellular constituents spill into the blood and tissues, eliciting inflammatory responses directed at their removal. What results is “autoimmunity.” Ultraviolet (UV)-A1 photons have the capacity to remediate this aberrancy. Exogenous exposure to low-dose, full-body, UV-A1 radiation generates singlet oxygen. Singlet oxygen has two major palliative actions in patients with lupus and the UV-A1 photons themselves have several more. Singlet oxygen depolarizes the hyperpolarized mitochondrion, triggering non-ATP-dependent apoptosis that deters necrosis. Next, singlet oxygen activates the gene encoding heme oxygenase (HO-1), a major governor of systemic homeostasis. HO-1 catalyzes the degradation of the oxidant heme into biliverdin (converted to bilirubin), Fe, and carbon monoxide (CO), the first three of these exerting powerful antioxidant effects, and in conjunction with a fourth, CO, protecting against injury to the coronary arteries, the central nervous system, and the lungs. The UV-A1 photons themselves directly attenuate disease in lupus by reducing B cell activity, preventing the suppression of cell-mediated immunity, slowing an epigenetic progression toward SLE, and ameliorating discoid and subacute cutaneous lupus. Finally, a combination of

  4. C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring vs. Mars)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorhead, Althea; Cooke, William

    2013-01-01

    Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring): recently discovered long period comet. Will have close encounter with Mars on October 19, 2014. Collision is extremely unlikely. Passing through the coma and/or tail is likely. Increases risk to Martian spacecraft. Meteoroids (100 microns or larger): approx. or <20% chance of impact per square meter due to coma and tail. Gas may also a ect Martian atmosphere.

  5. Bafilomycin A1 and intracellular multiplication of Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed Central

    Cattani, L; Goldoni, P; Pastoris, M C; Sinibaldi, L; Orsi, N

    1997-01-01

    Multiplication of Legionella pneumophila in HeLa cells was found to be inhibited by noncytotoxic concentrations of bafilomycin A1, with blockage of bacterial growth at a concentration 15.6 nM. The inhibiting action was evident only when the antibiotic was present during the initial phase of intracellular multiplication, i.e., during the formation of the phagosome, whereas the addition of the drug did not affect microorganisms already actively multiplying within the phagosome. PMID:8980784

  6. ISS 7A.1 Flight Control Team Photo in BFCR

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-08-16

    JSC2001-02229 (16 August 2001) --- The members of the STS-105/ISS 7A.1 Orbit 1 team pose for a group portrait in the International Space Station (ISS) flight control room (BFCR) in Houston’s Mission Control Center (MCC). Flight director Mark Ferring is kneeling as he holds the Expedition Three mission logo. Astronaut Stephanie D. Wilson, ISS spacecraft communicator (CAPCOM), is standing behind Ferring.

  7. Catechol-O-methyltransferase association with hemoglobin A1c

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Kathryn T.; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Chen, Ling; Harden, Maegan; Tolkin, Benjamin R.; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Bray, George A.; Ridker, Paul M.; Florez, Jose C.; Chasman, Daniel I.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Catecholamines have metabolic effects on blood pressure, insulin sensitivity and blood glucose. Genetic variation in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), an enzyme that degrades catecholamines, is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). Here we examined COMT effects on glycemic function and type 2 diabetes. Methods We tested whether COMT polymorphisms were associated with baseline HbA1c in the Women’s Genome Health Study (WGHS), and Meta-Analyses of Glucose and Insulin-related traits Consortium (MAGIC), and with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in WGHS, DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis consortium (DIAGRAM), and the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). Given evidence that COMT modifies some drug responses, we examined association with type 2 diabetes and randomized metformin and aspirin treatment. Results COMT rs4680 high-activity G-allele was associated with lower HbA1c in WGHS (β = −0.032% [0.012], p = 0.008) and borderline significant in MAGIC (β = −0.006% [0.003], p = 0.07). Combined COMT per val allele effects on type 2 diabetes were significant (OR = 0.98 [0.96–0.998], p = 0.03) in fixed-effects analyses across WGHS, DIAGRAM, and DPP. Similar results were obtained for 2 other COMT SNPs rs4818 and rs4633. In the DPP, the rs4680 val allele was borderline associated with lower diabetes incidence among participants randomized to metformin (HR = 0.81 [0.65–1.00], p = 0.05). Conclusions COMT rs4680 high-activity G-allele was associated with lower HbA1c and modest protection from type 2 diabetes. The directionality of COMT associations was concordant with those previously observed for cardiometabolic risk factors and CVD. PMID:27282867

  8. Analysis of M16A1 Basic Rifle Marksmanship Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    preparatory marks- manship); A lecture is an oral explanation presented by a trainer to a group of trainees. Trainee participation is limited to...program employs two of.these* (the MIS Sighting Device and the Shot Group Analysis r;drd), while tri,. F-rt iHt -nning program emoloys only the Shot...stroi.’,. ti’, i:4 .’,, tlt i dlri’•.. . i•- iht hours. It is fol lowc-d 1ý ; .. ract !,ý i i Nit’oa ’ecord Firc oxcrc is.. Th I; practi(v tirint ir i a1

  9. Operating nanoliter scale NMR microcoils in a 1 tesla field.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Andrew F; Adolphi, Natalie L

    2007-09-01

    Microcoil probes enclosing sample volumes of 1.2, 3.3, 7.0, and 81 nanoliters are constructed as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) detectors for operation in a 1 tesla permanent magnet. The probes for the three smallest volumes utilize a novel auxiliary tuning inductor for which the design criteria are given. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and line width of water samples are measured. Based on the measured DC resistance of the microcoils, together with the calculated radio frequency (RF) resistance of the tuning inductor, the SNR is calculated and shown to agree with the measured values. The details of the calculations indicate that the auxiliary inductor does not degrade the NMR probe performance. The diameter of the wire used to construct the microcoils is shown to affect the signal line widths.

  10. A 1.375-approximation algorithm for sorting by transpositions.

    PubMed

    Elias, Isaac; Hartman, Tzvika

    2006-01-01

    Sorting permutations by transpositions is an important problem in genome rearrangements. A transposition is a rearrangement operation in which a segment is cut out of the permutation and pasted in a different location. The complexity of this problem is still open and it has been a 10-year-old open problem to improve the best known 1.5-approximation algorithm. In this paper, we provide a 1.375-approximation algorithm for sorting by transpositions. The algorithm is based on a new upper bound on the diameter of 3-permutations. In addition, we present some new results regarding the transposition diameter: we improve the lower bound for the transposition diameter of the symmetric group and determine the exact transposition diameter of simple permutations.

  11. New insights into the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Yeo, See Cheng; Cheung, Chee Kay; Barratt, Jonathan

    2018-05-01

    IgA nephropathy is the most common form of glomerulonephritis in many parts of the world and remains an important cause of end-stage renal disease. Current evidence suggests that IgA nephropathy is not due to a single pathogenic insult, but rather the result of multiple sequential pathogenic "hits". An abnormally increased level of circulating poorly O-galactosylated IgA1 and the production of O-glycan-specific antibodies leads to the formation of IgA1-containing immune complexes, and their subsequent mesangial deposition results in inflammation and glomerular injury. While this general framework has formed the foundation of our current understanding of the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy, much work is ongoing to try to precisely define the genetic, epigenetic, immunological, and molecular basis of IgA nephropathy. In particular, the precise origin of poorly O-galactosylated IgA1 and the inciting factors for the production of O-glycan-specific antibodies continue to be intensely evaluated. The mechanisms responsible for mesangial IgA1 deposition and subsequent renal injury also remain incompletely understood. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the key steps involved in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy. It is hoped that further advances in our understanding of this common glomerulonephritis will lead to novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, and targeted therapies to ameliorate disease progression.

  12. The role of the carbohydrate chains in complement (C3) fixation by solid-phase-bound human IgA.

    PubMed Central

    Nikolova, E B; Tomana, M; Russell, M W

    1994-01-01

    In contrast to antigen-antibody complexes containing native human IgA, solid-phase-deposited IgA activates the alternative complement pathway and binds C3b. To investigate the role of carbohydrate chains in this, various human IgA preparations were treated with neuraminidase alone or together with N-glycanase or O-glycanase, or with mixed glycosidases from the oral bacterium, Streptococcus mitis. Depletion of oligosaccharides was determined by carbohydrate analysis. Removal of sialic acid and N-linked glycan chains greatly increased the C3b-fixing properties of normal serum IgA1 and IgA2. Myeloma IgA1 and IgA2 proteins and secretory IgA had higher C3b-binding activity than normal serum IgA, and this was further increased by removal of sialic acid and N-linked glycans. Fc alpha and Fc alpha-SC fragments of myeloma and secretory IgA1, respectively, but not Fab alpha fragments, obtained by cleavage with bacterial IgA1 proteases and also free secretory component, fixed C3b by the alternative pathway. Images Figure 4 PMID:7927504

  13. Optimizing the Construction of the A1 Collaboration Neutron Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinn, Edward; A1 Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    We report on the design and construction of a frame designed to optimize both the time efficiency and construction quality of the large scintillator elements These elements will be assembled to form a neutron detector for use by the A1 Collaboration at the Institute for Nuclear Physics in Mainz, Germany. The design had to provide adequate support for the 20 kg scintillator bars while gluing light guides and photomultiplier tubes to both sides of the bars using optical cement. The optical cement requires approximately 24 hours to dry and 100 bars have to be glued with this apparatus. To address each of these issues, several different prototypes were designed and reviewed. The selected apparatus minimized size to meet space constraints, with reduced material cost and provided the most time-efficient way to build the neutron detector. Once the schematic design was selected, we produced technical drawings in AutoDesk Inventor. Assembled the structure and completed gluing of the first batch of scintillators, in order to verify the performance. This apparatus was successful at producing high quality scintillators which were evaluated using cosmic rays. National Science Foundation Grant No. IIA-1358175.

  14. Bootstrapping the (A1, A2) Argyres-Douglas theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornagliotto, Martina; Lemos, Madalena; Liendo, Pedro

    2018-03-01

    We apply bootstrap techniques in order to constrain the CFT data of the ( A 1 , A 2) Argyres-Douglas theory, which is arguably the simplest of the Argyres-Douglas models. We study the four-point function of its single Coulomb branch chiral ring generator and put numerical bounds on the low-lying spectrum of the theory. Of particular interest is an infinite family of semi-short multiplets labeled by the spin ℓ. Although the conformal dimensions of these multiplets are protected, their three-point functions are not. Using the numerical bootstrap we impose rigorous upper and lower bounds on their values for spins up to ℓ = 20. Through a recently obtained inversion formula, we also estimate them for sufficiently large ℓ, and the comparison of both approaches shows consistent results. We also give a rigorous numerical range for the OPE coefficient of the next operator in the chiral ring, and estimates for the dimension of the first R-symmetry neutral non-protected multiplet for small spin.

  15. Detection of alkaptonuria in a 1-week-old infant.

    PubMed

    Thalagahage, Krishan Nilantha Hewa; Jayaweera, Jayaweera Arachchige Asela Sampath; Kumbukgolla, Wikum Widuranga; Senavirathne, Indika

    2015-05-08

    Alkaptonuria is a rare disorder that results from an inherited deficiency of aromatic amino acid metabolism. Only 21% of the children under the age of 1 year having the disease are identified in clinics. We report a case of a 1-week-old child of a first-degree consanguineous couple with a symptom of frequent nappy staining. Analysis of urine showed a homogentisic acid concentration exceeding 200 mg/dL. The physical examination revealed that the child was healthy. The parents' watchfulness and the close attention paid to the child were the keys to the early detection of this rare disease. After identifying the disease, adequate follow-up of the patient is important to reduce further complications. Anti-inflammatory therapy and increasing the muscle strength by exercises such as swimming would be useful to restrict joint pains and immobilisation. A low protein diet also could be recommended; that fact is yet to be proven by clinical trials. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  16. Detection of alkaptonuria in a 1-week-old infant

    PubMed Central

    Thalagahage, Krishan Nilantha Hewa; Jayaweera, Jayaweera Arachchige Asela Sampath; Kumbukgolla, Wikum Widuranga; Senavirathne, Indika

    2015-01-01

    Alkaptonuria is a rare disorder that results from an inherited deficiency of aromatic amino acid metabolism. Only 21% of the children under the age of 1 year having the disease are identified in clinics. We report a case of a 1-week-old child of a first-degree consanguineous couple with a symptom of frequent nappy staining. Analysis of urine showed a homogentisic acid concentration exceeding 200 mg/dL. The physical examination revealed that the child was healthy. The parents’ watchfulness and the close attention paid to the child were the keys to the early detection of this rare disease. After identifying the disease, adequate follow-up of the patient is important to reduce further complications. Anti-inflammatory therapy and increasing the muscle strength by exercises such as swimming would be useful to restrict joint pains and immobilisation. A low protein diet also could be recommended; that fact is yet to be proven by clinical trials. PMID:25956497

  17. A +1 ribosomal frameshifting motif prevalent among plant amalgaviruses.

    PubMed

    Nibert, Max L; Pyle, Jesse D; Firth, Andrew E

    2016-11-01

    Sequence accessions attributable to novel plant amalgaviruses have been found in the Transcriptome Shotgun Assembly database. Sixteen accessions, derived from 12 different plant species, appear to encompass the complete protein-coding regions of the proposed amalgaviruses, which would substantially expand the size of genus Amalgavirus from 4 current species. Other findings include evidence for UUU_CGN as a +1 ribosomal frameshifting motif prevalent among plant amalgaviruses; for a variant version of this motif found thus far in only two amalgaviruses from solanaceous plants; for a region of α-helical coiled coil propensity conserved in a central region of the ORF1 translation product of plant amalgaviruses; and for conserved sequences in a C-terminal region of the ORF2 translation product (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase) of plant amalgaviruses, seemingly beyond the region of conserved polymerase motifs. These results additionally illustrate the value of mining the TSA database and others for novel viral sequences for comparative analyses. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Annexin A1: A new immunohistological marker of cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hongsrichan, Nuttanan; Rucksaken, Rucksak; Chamgramol, Yaovalux; Pinlaor, Porntip; Techasen, Anchalee; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Khuntikeo, Narong; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Pinlaor, Somchai

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate a new immunohistological marker, annexin A1 (ANXA1), in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Expression of ANXA1 protein was investigated in liver tissues from patients with CCA and HCC by immunohistochemistry. Its expression on differences stages of tumor development was investigated in hamster CCA tissues induced by Opisthorchis viverrini and N-nitrosodimethylamine. Moreover, mRNA expression of ANXA1 was assessed in CCA cell lines by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and silencing of ANXA1 gene expression using small interfering RNA. RESULTS: In human CCA tissue arrays, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the positive expression of ANXA1 was 94.1% (64/68 cases) consisting of a high expression (66.2%, 45/68 cases) and a low expression (33.8%, 23/68 cases). However, expression of ANXA1 protein was negative in all histologic patterns for HCC (46/46 cases) and healthy individuals (6/6 cases). In hamster with opisthorchiasis-associated CCA, the expression of ANXA1 was observed in the cytoplasm of inflammatory cells, bile duct epithelia and tumor cells. Grading scores of ANXA1 expression were significantly increased with tumor progression. In addition, mRNA expression of ANXA1 significantly increased in all of the various CCA cell lines tested compared to an immortalized human cholangiocyte cell line (MMNK1). Suppressing the ANXA1 gene significantly reduced the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and MMP9, and transforming growth factor-β genes, but increased nuclear factor-κB gene expression. CONCLUSION: ANXA1 is highly expressed in CCA, but low in HCC, suggesting it may serve as a new immunohistochemical marker of CCA. ANXA1 may play a role in opisthorchiasis-associated cholangiocarcinogenesis. PMID:23674846

  19. Annexin A1 Complex Mediates Oxytocin Vesicle Transport

    PubMed Central

    Makani, Vishruti; Sultana, Rukhsana; Sie, Khin Sander; Orjiako, Doris; Tatangelo, Marco; Dowling, Abigail; Cai, Jian; Pierce, William; Butterfield, D. Allan; Hill, Jennifer; Park, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Oxytocin is a major neuropeptide that modulates the brain functions involved in social behavior and interaction. Despite of the importance of oxytocin for neural control of social behavior, little is known about the molecular mechanism(s) by which oxytocin secretion in the brain is regulated. Pro-oxytocin is synthesized in the cell bodies of hypothalamic neurons in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei and processed to a 9-amino-acid mature form during post-Golgi transport to the secretion sites at the axon terminals and somatodendritic regions. Oxytocin secreted from the somatodendritic regions diffuses throughout the hypothalamus and its neighboring brain regions. Some oxytocin-positive axons innervate and secrete oxytocin to the brain regions distal to the hypothalamus. Brain oxytocin binds to its receptors in the brain regions involved in social behavior. Oxytocin is also secreted from the axon terminal at the posterior pituitary gland into the blood circulation. We have discovered a new molecular complex consisting of annexin A1 (ANXA1), A-kinase anchor protein 150 (AKAP150), and microtubule motor, that controls the distribution of oxytocin vesicles between the axon and the cell body in a protein kinase A (PKA)- and protein kinase C (PKC)-sensitive manner. ANXA1 showed significant co-localization with oxytocin vesicles. Activation of PKA enhanced the association of kinesin-2 with ANXA1, thus increasing the axon-localization of oxytocin vesicles. Conversely, activation of PKC decreased the binding of kinesin-2 to ANXA1, thus attenuating the axon-localization of oxytocin vesicles. Our study suggests that ANXA1 complex coordinates the actions of PKA and PKC to control the distribution of oxytocin vesicles between the axon and the cell body. PMID:24118254

  20. Monitoring of a 1 kWp Solar Photovoltaic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, M. F.; Zainuddin, H.; Rejab, S. N. M.; Shaari, S. N.; Shaari, S.; Omar, A. M.; Rusop, M.

    2009-06-01

    A 1 kWp `stand alone' PV system consists of 4 module (2 BP SX75U module and 2 BP 275F module), inverter, 2 thermocouple, 3 voltage sensor, 3 current sensor, 4 battery and data logger (Data Taker DT80) has been set up. This research involve nine parameters which are irradiance (Ia), ambient temperature (Tamb), module temperature (Tmod), module voltage (Vmod), battery voltage (Vbat), load voltage (Vload), module current (Imod), battery current (Ibat) and load current (Iload). All parameters were measured using the equipments and sensors that connected directly to data logger (Data Taker DT80) to interpret and show the data on computer using the Delogger sofware. The data then was transferred into the computer and analyzed using the Deview and Microsoft Excel software to determine the performance indices for the stand alone PV system. From the analysis a few performance indices were determined. The range of daily solar irradiation is between 2.20 kWhm-2 to 4.00 kWhm-2, while the range of total global irradiation is between 5.76 kWh to 10.48 kWh. For daily total energy yield, the range is between 0.23 kWh d-1 to 0.28 kWh d-1. The range for clearness index is between 0.49% to 0.89%. The range for final yield is between 0.77 kWh d-1 kWp-1 to 0.93 kWhd-1 kWp-1 while the range of array efficiency is between 2.53% to 4.65%. Lastly, the range of the performance ratio is between 22.08% to 40.58%.

  1. The cometary activity of Centaur P/2004 A1 (LONEOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epifani, E. Mazzotta; Dall'Ora, M.; Perna, D.; Palumbo, P.; Colangeli, L.

    2011-08-01

    P/2004 A1 (LONEOS) is one of the few active objects in the dynamical class of Centaurs. It has been recently injected into an inner orbit with a perihelion distance q = 5.5 au. The aim of this paper is to characterize the dust coma of this peculiar object, 2.5 yr after its first 'new' perihelion passage inside the Solar system. Broad-band visible images taken at the TNG telescope in 2007 February were analysed in order to characterize the dust coma of the Centaur: it was still quite active at rh = 6.5 au post-perihelion, with a coma and a well-developed wide tail-like structure, with a measured R-Afρ= 162 ± 10 cm in an aperture radius ρ= 104 km. The (V - R) colour and the reddening values depict a scenario of a slightly red dust coma. A dust mass-loss rate of ? = 133 kg s-1 is derived from a photometric model, consistent with a scenario of a quite constant emission rate along the Centaur orbit. An upper limit for the Centaur radius of 3.5 km is derived by some realistic hypotheses on CO molecular production rate and on the mean grain scatterer size in the coma. Dynamical lifetime estimates compared to modelled loss rate result in a radius lower limit of 0.5 km, indicating therefore that the Centaur size is likely of the same order of magnitude of the short-period comets. Based on observations made at the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

  2. Experimental study of a 1 MW, 170 GHz gyrotron oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Takuji

    A detailed experimental study is presented of a 1 MW, 170 GHz gyrotron oscillator whose design is consistent with the ECH requirements of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) for bulk heating and current drive. This work is the first to demonstrate that megawatt power level at 170 GHz can be achieved in a gyrotron with high efficiency for plasma heating applications. Maximum output power of 1.5 MW is obtained at 170.1 GHz in 85 kV, 50A operation for an efficiency of 35%. Although the experiment at MIT is conducted with short pulses (3 μs), the gyrotron is designed to be suitable for development by industry for continuous wave operation. The peak ohmic loss on the cavity wall for 1 MW of output power is calculated to be 2.3 kW/cm2, which can be handled using present cooling technology. Mode competition problems in a highly over-moded cavity are studied to maximize the efficiency. Various aspects of electron gun design are examined to obtain high quality electron beams with very low velocity spread. A triode magnetron injection gun is designed using the EGUN simulation code. A total perpendicular velocity spread of less than 8% is realized by designing a low- sensitivity, non-adiabatic gun. The RF power is generated in a short tapered cavity with an iris step. The operating mode is the TE28,8,1 mode. A mode converter is designed to convert the RF output to a Gaussian beam. Power and efficiency are measured in the design TE28,8,1 mode at 170.1 GHz as well as the TE27,8,1 mode at 166.6 GHz and TE29,8,1 mode at 173.5 GHz. Efficiencies between 34%-36% are consistently obtained over a wide range of operating parameters. These efficiencies agree with the highest values predicted by the multimode simulations. The startup scenario is investigated and observed to agree with the linear theory. The measured beam velocity ratio is consistent with EGUN simulation. Interception of reflected beam by the mod-anode is measured as a function of velocity ratio

  3. Human milk lactoferrin inactivates two putative colonization factors expressed by Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Qiu, J; Hendrixson, D R; Baker, E N; Murphy, T F; St Geme, J W; Plaut, A G

    1998-10-13

    Haemophilus influenzae is a major cause of otitis media and other respiratory tract disease in children. The pathogenesis of disease begins with colonization of the upper respiratory mucosa, a process that involves evasion of local immune mechanisms and adherence to epithelial cells. Several studies have demonstrated that human milk is protective against H. influenzae colonization and disease. In the present study, we examined the effect of human milk on the H. influenzae IgA1 protease and Hap adhesin, two autotransported proteins that are presumed to facilitate colonization. Our results demonstrated that human milk lactoferrin efficiently extracted the IgA1 protease preprotein from the bacterial outer membrane. In addition, lactoferrin specifically degraded the Hap adhesin and abolished Hap-mediated adherence. Extraction of IgA1 protease and degradation of Hap were localized to the N-lobe of the bilobed lactoferrin molecule and were inhibited by serine protease inhibitors, suggesting that the lactoferrin N-lobe may contain serine protease activity. Additional experiments revealed no effect of lactoferrin on the H. influenzae P2, P5, and P6 outer-membrane proteins, which are distinguished from IgA1 protease and Hap by the lack of an N-terminal passenger domain or an extracellular linker region. These results suggest that human milk lactoferrin may attenuate the pathogenic potential of H. influenzae by selectively inactivating IgA1 protease and Hap, thereby interfering with colonization. Future studies should examine the therapeutic potential of lactoferrin, perhaps as a supplement in infant formulas.

  4. The Collection of Ice in Jet A-1 Fuel Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, Thomas C.

    Ice collection and blockages in fuel systems have been of interest to the aerospace community since their discovery in the late 1950's when a B-52 crashed. A recent growth of interest was provoked by several incidents that occurred within the last few years. This study seeks to understand the underlying principles of ice growth in fuel flow systems. Tests were performed in a recirculated fuel system with a fuel tank that held approximately 115 gallons of Jet A-1 fuel and ice accumulation was observed in two removable test pipes. The setup was in an altitude chamber capable of -60 °F and the experiments involved full scale flow components. Initially, tests were done to better understand the system and variables that effected accumulation. First, initial conditions within the test pipes were varied. Next, pipe geometry, pipe surface properties, initial water content of the fuel and heat transfer from the fuel pipe were varied. As a result of the tests, observations were made about other effects involved in the study. The effects include: the result of sequentially run tests, the effect of the fuel on the freezing temperature of the entrained water, the effect of ice accumulation on pipe welds, and the effect of the test pipe entrance and exit flow conditions on ice accumulation. The results of initial tests were qualitative. Later quantitative tests were done to demonstrate the dependence of temperature, Reynolds number, and heat transfer on ice accumulation. Tests were quantified with a pressure increase across the pipe sections that was normalized by the expected theoretical initial pressure. As a result of these tests the effect of contamination in the fuel was revealed. For ease of reference, the initial tests were called "stage I" and the later tests were called "stage II". The results of stage I showed that accumulation of soft ice was greatest when a layer of hard ice had initially formed on the pipe surface. Stainless steel collected more ice than Teflon

  5. 17 CFR 240.11a1-1(T) - Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., parity, and precedence. 240.11a1-1(T) Section 240.11a1-1(T) Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... (rule 11a-1) § 240.11a1-1(T) Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence. (a) A transaction... section 11(a)(1) of the Act or specified in 17 CFR 240.11a1-4(T) shall be deemed to be revenue derived...

  6. 17 CFR 240.11a1-1(T) - Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., parity, and precedence. 240.11a1-1(T) Section 240.11a1-1(T) Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... (rule 11a-1) § 240.11a1-1(T) Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence. (a) A transaction... section 11(a)(1) of the Act or specified in 17 CFR 240.11a1-4(T) shall be deemed to be revenue derived...

  7. Excess body weight affects HbA1c progression irrespective of baseline HbA1c levels in Japanese individuals: a longitudinal retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kei; Suwa, Kaname

    2015-01-01

    Obese individuals with normal HbA1c levels and low-body-weight individuals with high-normal HbA1c levels are frequently encountered in clinical settings, but the effects of these phenotypes on the onset of diabetes are poorly understood. Therefore, we addressed this issue in a longitudinal study. We analyzed clinical parameters, including body mass index (BMI) and HbA1c levels, in 5325 non-diabetic Japanese people aged 20-75 years who underwent four medical checkups between 1999 (baseline) and 2007. The subjects were then classified into six baseline BMI categories, each of which was divided into two HbA1c groups, resulting in a total of 12 groups. In 405 obese subjects with a normal baseline HbA1c (BMI ≥ 27.0 kg/m(2), HbA1c 5.2-5.6%), the mean HbA1c level increased during the study period, and 50.9% developed prediabetes/diabetes. In contrast, in 77 low-body-weight subjects with a high-normal baseline HbA1c (BMI ≤ 18.9 kg/m(2), HbA1c 5.7-6.4%), the mean HbA1c level remained constant. Similar changes occurred in the other groups during the study, resulting in a linear increase in HbA1c levels with increasing BMI. Our results suggest that approximately half of the obese individuals with HbA1c in the normal range develop prediabetes or diabetes within 8 years, whereas low-body-weight individuals with high-normal HbA1c are less likely to exhibit worsening in glycemia. Thus, excess body weight may be the primary therapeutic target to prevent the early onset of diabetes, regardless of the individual's HbA1c.

  8. Isolation and characterization of cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b promoters in the protogynous hermaphrodite orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weimin; Lu, Huijie; Jiang, Haiyan; Li, Mu; Zhang, Shen; Liu, Qiongyou; Zhang, Lihong

    2012-02-01

    Aromatase (CYP19A1) catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens. In teleosts, duplicated copies of cyp19a1 genes, namely cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b, were identified, however, the transcriptional regulation of these two genes remains poorly understood. In the present study, the 5'-flanking regions of the orange-spotted grouper cyp19a1a (gcyp19a1a) and cyp19a1b (gcyp19a1b) genes were isolated and characterized. The proximal promoter regions of both genes were relatively conserved when compared to those of the other teleosts. Notably, a conserved FOXO transcriptional factor binding site was firstly reported in the proximal promoter of gcyp19a1a, and deletion of the region (-112 to -60) containing this site significantly decreased the promoter activities. The deletion of the region (-246 to -112) containing the two conserved FTZ-F1 sites also dramatically decreased the transcriptional activities of gcyp19a1a promoter, and both two FTZ-F1 sites were shown to be stimulatory cis-acting elements. A FTZ-F1 homologue isolated from ricefield eel (eFTZ-F1) up-regulated gcyp19a1a promoter activities possibly via the FTZ-F1 sites, however, a previously identified orange-spotted grouper FTZ-F1 homologue (gFTZ-F1) did not activate the transcription of gcyp19a1a promoter unexpectedly. As to gcyp19a1b promoter, all the deletion constructs did not show good promoter activities in either TM4 or U251-MG cells. Estradiol (100nM) up-regulated gcyp19a1b promoter activities by about 13- and 36-fold in TM4 and U251-MG cells, respectively, via the conserved ERE motif, but did not stimulate gcyp19a1a promoter activities. These results are helpful to further elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b expression in the orange-spotted grouper as well as other teleosts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 26 CFR 1.381(a)-1 - General rule relating to carryovers in certain corporate acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... corporate acquisitions. 1.381(a)-1 Section 1.381(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Reorganizations § 1.381(a)-1 General rule relating to carryovers in certain corporate acquisitions. (a) Allowance... change in identity, form, or place of organization qualifying under section 368(a)(1)(F). (2) Acquiring...

  10. 26 CFR 1.381(a)-1 - General rule relating to carryovers in certain corporate acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... corporate acquisitions. 1.381(a)-1 Section 1.381(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Reorganizations § 1.381(a)-1 General rule relating to carryovers in certain corporate acquisitions. (a) Allowance... change in identity, form, or place of organization qualifying under section 368(a)(1)(F). (2) Acquiring...

  11. 26 CFR 1.381(a)-1 - General rule relating to carryovers in certain corporate acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... corporate acquisitions. 1.381(a)-1 Section 1.381(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Reorganizations § 1.381(a)-1 General rule relating to carryovers in certain corporate acquisitions. (a) Allowance... change in identity, form, or place of organization qualifying under section 368(a)(1)(F). (2) Acquiring...

  12. Physical interaction between the strawberry allergen Fra a 1 and an associated partner FaAP: Interaction of Fra a 1 proteins and FaAP.

    PubMed

    Franz-Oberdorf, Katrin; Langer, Andreas; Strasser, Ralf; Isono, Erika; Ranftl, Quirin L; Wunschel, Christian; Schwab, Wilfried

    2017-10-01

    The strawberry fruit allergens Fra a 1.01E, Fra a 1.02 and Fra a 1.03 belong to the group of pathogenesis-related 10 (PR-10) proteins and are homologs of the major birch pollen Bet v 1 and apple allergen Mal d 1. Bet v 1 related proteins are the most extensively studied allergens but their physiological function in planta remains elusive. Since Mal d 1-Associated Protein has been previously identified as interaction partner of Mal d 1 we studied the binding of the orthologous Fra a 1-Associated Protein (FaAP) to Fra a 1.01E/1.02/1.03. As the C-terminal sequence of FaAP showed strong auto-activation activity in yeast 2-hybrid analysis a novel time resolved DNA-switching system was successfully applied. Fra a 1.01E, Fra a 1.02, and Fra a 1.03 bind to FaAP with K D of 4.5 ± 1.1, 15 ± 3, and 11 ± 2 nM, respectively. Fra a 1.01E forms a dimer, whereas Fra a 1.02 and Fra a 1.03 bind as monomer. The results imply that PR-10 proteins might be integrated into a protein-interaction network and FaAP binding appears to be essential for the physiological function of the Fra a 1 proteins. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. M825A1 White Phosphorous Malfunction Investigation Related to the M739/ M739A1 Safing and Arming Module

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    AD-A269 205 AD AD-E402 378 Technical Report ARAED-TR-92031 M825A1 WHITE PHOSPHOROUS MALFUNCTION INVESTIGATION RELATED TO THE M739 /M739A1 SAFING AND...Aug 1993 - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5 FUNDING NUMBERS M825A1 WHITE PHOSPHOROUS MALFUNCTION INVESTIGATION RELATED TO THE M739 /M739AI SAFING AND ARMING...LT). An investigation of the data revealed changes in the burster and the M739 /M739A1 safing and arming (S&A) module. The Armaments Research

  14. A study assessing the association of glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) associated variants with HbA1C, chronic kidney disease and diabetic retinopathy in populations of Asian ancestry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Tay, Wan-Ting; Sim, Xueling; Ali, Mohammad; Xu, Haiyan; Suo, Chen; Liu, Jianjun; Chia, Kee-Seng; Vithana, Eranga; Young, Terri L; Aung, Tin; Lim, Wei-Yen; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien-Yin; Teo, Yik-Ying; Tai, E-Shyong

    2013-01-01

    Glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) level is used as a diagnostic marker for diabetes mellitus and a predictor of diabetes associated complications. Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associated with HbA1C level. Most of these studies have been conducted in populations of European ancestry. Here we report the findings from a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of HbA1C levels in 6,682 non-diabetic subjects of Chinese, Malay and South Asian ancestries. We also sought to examine the associations between HbA1C associated SNPs and microvascular complications associated with diabetes mellitus, namely chronic kidney disease and retinopathy. A cluster of 6 SNPs on chromosome 17 showed an association with HbA1C which achieved genome-wide significance in the Malays but not in Chinese and Asian Indians. No other variants achieved genome-wide significance in the individual studies or in the meta-analysis. When we investigated the reproducibility of the findings that emerged from the European studies, six loci out of fifteen were found to be associated with HbA1C with effect sizes similar to those reported in the populations of European ancestry and P-value ≤ 0.05. No convincing associations with chronic kidney disease and retinopathy were identified in this study.

  15. A Study Assessing the Association of Glycated Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) Associated Variants with HbA1C, Chronic Kidney Disease and Diabetic Retinopathy in Populations of Asian Ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Tay, Wan-Ting; Sim, Xueling; Ali, Mohammad; Xu, Haiyan; Suo, Chen; Liu, Jianjun; Chia, Kee-Seng; Vithana, Eranga; Young, Terri L.; Aung, Tin; Lim, Wei-Yen; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien-Yin; Teo, Yik-Ying; Tai, E-Shyong

    2013-01-01

    Glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) level is used as a diagnostic marker for diabetes mellitus and a predictor of diabetes associated complications. Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associated with HbA1C level. Most of these studies have been conducted in populations of European ancestry. Here we report the findings from a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of HbA1C levels in 6,682 non-diabetic subjects of Chinese, Malay and South Asian ancestries. We also sought to examine the associations between HbA1C associated SNPs and microvascular complications associated with diabetes mellitus, namely chronic kidney disease and retinopathy. A cluster of 6 SNPs on chromosome 17 showed an association with HbA1C which achieved genome-wide significance in the Malays but not in Chinese and Asian Indians. No other variants achieved genome-wide significance in the individual studies or in the meta-analysis. When we investigated the reproducibility of the findings that emerged from the European studies, six loci out of fifteen were found to be associated with HbA1C with effect sizes similar to those reported in the populations of European ancestry and P-value ≤ 0.05. No convincing associations with chronic kidney disease and retinopathy were identified in this study. PMID:24244560

  16. Antinociception by systemically-administered acetaminophen (paracetamol) involves spinal serotonin 5-HT7 and adenosine A1 receptors, as well as peripheral adenosine A1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jean; Reid, Allison R; Sawynok, Jana

    2013-03-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a widely used analgesic, but its sites and mechanisms of action remain incompletely understood. Recent studies have separately implicated spinal adenosine A(1) receptors (A(1)Rs) and serotonin 5-HT(7) receptors (5-HT(7)Rs) in the antinociceptive effects of systemically administered acetaminophen. In the present study, we determined whether these two actions are linked by delivering a selective 5-HT(7)R antagonist to the spinal cord of mice and examining nociception using the formalin 2% model. In normal and A(1)R wild type mice, antinociception by systemic (i.p.) acetaminophen 300mg/kg was reduced by intrathecal (i.t.) delivery of the selective 5-HT(7)R antagonist SB269970 3μg. In mice lacking A(1)Rs, i.t. SB269970 did not reverse antinociception by systemic acetaminophen, indicating a link between spinal 5-HT(7)R and A(1)R mechanisms. We also explored potential roles of peripheral A(1)Rs in antinociception by acetaminophen administered both locally and systemically. In normal mice, intraplantar (i.pl.) acetaminophen 200μg produced antinociception in the formalin test, and this was blocked by co-administration of the selective A(1)R antagonist DPCPX 4.5μg. Acetaminophen administered into the contralateral hindpaw had no effect, indicating a local peripheral action. When acetaminophen was administered systemically, its antinociceptive effect was reversed by i.pl. DPCPX in normal mice; this was also observed in A(1)R wild type mice, but not in those lacking A(1)Rs. In summary, we demonstrate a link between spinal 5-HT(7)Rs and A(1)Rs in the spinal cord relevant to antinociception by systemic acetaminophen. Furthermore, we implicate peripheral A(1)Rs in the antinociceptive effects of locally- and systemically-administered acetaminophen. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Critical early roles for col27a1a and col27a1b in zebrafish notochord morphogenesis, vertebral mineralization and post-embryonic axial growth.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Helena E; Lang, Michael R; Pace, James M; Parichy, David M

    2009-12-29

    Fibrillar collagens are well known for their links to human diseases, with which all have been associated except for the two most recently identified fibrillar collagens, type XXIV collagen and type XXVII collagen. To assess functions and potential disease phenotypes of type XXVII collagen, we examined its roles in zebrafish embryonic and post-embryonic development. We identified two type XXVII collagen genes in zebrafish, col27a1a and col27a1b. Both col27a1a and col27a1b were expressed in notochord and cartilage in the embryo and early larva. To determine sites of type XXVII collagen function, col27a1a and col27a1b were knocked down using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides. Knockdown of col27a1a singly or in conjunction with col27a1b resulted in curvature of the notochord at early stages and formation of scoliotic curves as well as dysmorphic vertebrae at later stages. These defects were accompanied by abnormal distributions of cells and protein localization in the notochord, as visualized by transmission electron microscopy, as well as delayed vertebral mineralization as detected histologically. Together, our findings indicate a key role for type XXVII collagen in notochord morphogenesis and axial skeletogenesis and suggest a possible human disease phenotype.

  18. Forskolin stimulation promotes urea transporter UT-A1 ubiquitination, endocytosis, and degradation in MDCK cells

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hua; Carter, Conner B.; Laur, Oskar; Sands, Jeff M.

    2012-01-01

    The adenylyl cyclase stimulator forskolin (FSK) stimulates UT-A1 phosphorylation, membrane trafficking, and urea transport activity. Here, we found that FSK stimulation induces UT-A1 ubiquitination in UT-A1 Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. This suggests that phosphorylation by FSK also triggers the protein degradation machinery for UT-A1. UT-A1-MDCK cells were treated with 100 μg/ml cycloheximide to inhibit protein synthesis, with or without 10 μM FSK. Total UT-A1 protein abundance was significantly reduced after FSK treatment, concomitantly ubiquitinated UT-A1 was increased. We then specifically investigated the effect of FSK on UT-A1 expressed on the cell plasma membrane. FSK treatment accelerated UT-A1 removal from the cell plasma membrane by increasing UT-A1 endocytosis as judged by biotinylation/MesNa treatment and confocal microscopy. We further found that inhibition of the clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway, but not the caveolin-mediated endocytic pathway, significantly blocks FSK-stimulated UT-A1 endocytosis. The PKA inhibitor H89 and the proteasome inhibitors MG132 and lactacystin reduced FSK-induced membrane UT-A1 reduction. Our study shows that FSK activates the UT-A1 urea transporter and the activation/phosphorylation subsequently triggers the downregulation of UT-A1, which represents an important mechanism for the cell to return to the basal conditions after vasopressin stimulation. PMID:22914781

  19. UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*28 polymorphisms are correlated with irinotecan-induced toxicity: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuwei; Zhou, MengMeng; Hu, Mingjun; Cui, Yanjie; Zhong, Qi; Liang, Ling; Huang, Fen

    2018-06-22

    Previous articles explored the role of UGT1A1 polymorphism on predicting irinotecan-induced toxicity, but the conclusions were still inconsistent and not comprehensive. We performed this meta-analysis to investigate the association between UGT1A1 polymorphism and irinotecan-induced toxicity. PubMed and Web of Science were searched for articles before July 2017. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were set to select eligible articles, and corresponding data were extracted from those articles. Subgroup analyses based on different cancer categories, doses and races were carried out to achieve comprehensive results. Statistical analyses were conducted using STATA 11.0. A total of 38 studies with 6742 cases were included after reading full text. Both UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*28 polymorphism are significantly associated with severe irinotecan-induced toxicity. Both Asian and Caucasian cancer patients with UGT1A1*28 variant had an increased risk. Compared with heterozygous variant, patients with homozygous variant suffered from a higher risk of toxicity. The effect of UGT1A1*28 polymorphism on diarrhea was less than on neutropenia. Subgroup analysis exhibited that for UGT1A1*6 polymorphism, patients treated with low-dose irinotecan were at a notable risk of toxicity. Moreover, the association between UGT1A1*6 polymorphism and irinotecan-induced toxicity was found in patients suffering from respiratory system cancers. Both UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*28 polymorphisms can be considered as predictors of irinotecan-induced toxicity, with effect varying by race, cancer type and irinotecan dose. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Prostaglandin transporter (OATP2A1/SLCO2A1) contributes to local disposition of eicosapentaenoic acid-derived PGE3.

    PubMed

    Gose, Tomoka; Nakanishi, Takeo; Kamo, Shunsuke; Shimada, Hiroaki; Otake, Katsumasa; Tamai, Ikumi

    2016-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-derived prostaglandin E3 (PGE3) possesses an anti-inflammatory effect; however, information for transporters that regulate its peri-cellular concentration is limited. The present study, therefore, aimed to clarify transporters involved in local disposition of PGE3. PGE3 uptake was assessed in HEK293 cells transfected with OATP2A1/SLCO2A1, OATP1B1/SLCO1B1, OATP2B1/SLCO2B1, OAT1/SLC22A6, OCT1/SLC22A1 or OCT2/SLC22A2 genes, compared with HEK293 cells transfected with plasmid vector alone (Mock). PGE3 uptake by OATP2A1-expressing HEK293 cells (HEK/2A1) was the highest and followed by HEK/1B1, while no significantly higher uptake of PGE3 than Mock cells was detected by other transporters. Saturation kinetics in PGE3 uptake by HEK/2A1 estimated the Km as 7.202 ± 0.595 μM, which was 22 times higher than that of PGE2 (Km=0.331 ± 0.131 μM). Furthermore, tissue disposition of PGE3 was examined in wild-type (WT) and Slco2a1-deficient (Slco2a1(-/-)) mice after oral administration of EPA ethyl ester (EPA-E) when they underwent intraperitoneal injection of endotoxin (e.g., lipopolysaccharide). PGE3 concentration was significantly higher in the lung, and tended to increase in the colon, stomach, and kidney of Slco2a1(-/-), compared to WT mice. Ratio of PGE2 metabolite 15-keto PGE2 over PGE2 concentration was significantly lower in the lung and colon of Slco2a1(-/-) than that of WT mice, suggesting that PGE3 metabolism is downregulated in Slco2a1(-/-) mice. In conclusion, PGE3 was found to be a substrate of OATP2A1, and local disposition of PGE3 could be regulated by OATP2A1 at least in the lung. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Haemoglobin J-Baltimore can be detected by HbA1c electropherogram but with underestimated HbA1c value.

    PubMed

    Brunel, Valéry; Lahary, Agnčs; Chagraoui, Abdeslam; Thuillez, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) is considered the gold standard for assessing diabetes compensation and treatment. In addition, fortuitous detection of haemoglobin variants during HbA1c measurement is not rare. Recently, two publications reported different conclusions on accuracy of HbA(1c) value using capillary electrophoresis method in presence of haemoglobin J-Baltimore (HbJ).
Here we describe the fortuitous detection of unknown HbJ using capillary electrophoresis for measurement of HbA(1c). A patient followed for gestational diabetes in our laboratory presented unknown haemoglobin on Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing analyser which was identified as HbJ. HbJ is not associated with haematological abnormalities. High Performance Liquid Chromatography methods are known to possibly underestimate HbA(1c) value in the presence of this variant. This variant and its glycated form are clearly distinguished on electropherogram but HbJ was responsible for underestimating the true area of HbA(1c).
 Capillary electrophoresis is a good method for detecting HbJ but does not seem suitable for evaluation of HbA(1C) value in patients in presence of HbJ variant.

  2. The Long and Winding Road to Optimal HbA1c Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Little, Randie R.; Rohlfing, Curt

    2016-01-01

    The importance of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) as an indicator of mean glycemia and risks for complications in patients with diabetes mellitus was established by the results of long-term clinical trials, most notably the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS), published in 1993 and 1998 respectively. However, clinical application of recommended HbA1c targets that were based on these studies was difficult due to lack of comparability of HbA1c results among assay methods and laboratories. Thus, the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP) was initiated in 1996 with the goal of standardizing HbA1c results to those of the DCCT/UKPDS. HbA1c standardization efforts have been highly successful; however, a number of issues have emerged on the “long and winding road” to better HbA1c, including the development of a higher-order HbA1c reference method by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC), recommendations to use HbA1c to diagnose as well as monitor diabetes, and point-of-care (POC) HbA1c testing. Here, we review the past, present and future of HbA1c standardization and describe the current status of HbA1c testing, including limitations that healthcare providers need to be aware of when interpreting HbA1c results. PMID:23318564

  3. Point-of-Care Hemoglobin A1c Testing: An Evidence-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The increasing prevalence of diabetes in Ontario means that there will be growing demand for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) testing to monitor glycemic control for the management of this chronic disease. Testing HbA1c where patients receive their diabetes care may improve system efficiency if the results from point-of-care HbA1c testing are comparable to those from laboratory HbA1c measurements. Objectives To review the correlation between point-of-care HbA1c testing and laboratory HbA1c measurement in patients with diabetes in clinical settings. Data Sources The literature search included studies published between January 2003 and June 2013. Search terms included glycohemoglobin, hemoglobin A1c, point of care, and diabetes. Review Methods Studies were included if participants had diabetes; if they compared point-of-care HbA1c devices (licensed by Health Canada and available in Canada) with laboratory HbA1c measurement (reference method); if they performed point-of-care HbA1c testing using capillary blood samples (finger pricks) and laboratory HbA1c measurement using venous blood samples within 7 days; and if they reported a correlation coefficient between point-of-care HbA1c and laboratory HbA1c results. Results Three point-of-care HbA1c devices were reviewed in this analysis: Bayer's A1cNow+, Bio-Rad's In2it, and Siemens’ DCA Vantage. Five observational studies met the inclusion criteria. The pooled results showed a positive correlation between point-of-care HbA1c testing and laboratory HbA1c measurement (correlation coefficient, 0.967; 95% confidence interval, 0.960–0.973). Limitations Outcomes were limited to the correlation coefficient, as this was a commonly reported measure of analytical performance in the literature. Results should be interpreted with caution due to risk of bias related to selection of participants, reference standards, and the multiple steps involved in POC HbA1c testing. Conclusions Moderate quality evidence showed a positive

  4. Depleted aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) reverses cisplatin resistance of human lung adenocarcinoma cell A549/DDP.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yunyan; Wu, Shuangshuang; Xu, Wei; Liang, Yan; Li, Yue; Zhao, Weihong; Wu, Jianqing

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin is the standard first-line chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, resistance to chemotherapy has been a major obstacle in the management of NSCLC. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) overexpression has been observed in a variety of cancers, including lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ALDH1A1 expression on cisplatin resistance and explore the mechanism responsible. Reverse transcriptase-PCR was applied to measure the messenger RNA expression of ALDH1A1, while Western blot assay was employed to evaluate the protein expression of ALDH1A1, B-cell lymphoma 2, Bcl-2-like protein 4, phospho-protein kinase B (p-AKT) and AKT. A short hairpin RNA was used to knockdown ALDH1A1 expression. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to determine the effect of ALDH1A1 decrease on cell viability. The cell apoptotic rate was tested using flow cytometry assay. ALDH1A1 is overexpressed in cisplatin resistant cell line A549/DDP, compared with A549. ALDH1A1 depletion significantly decreased A549/DDP proliferation, increased apoptosis, and reduced cisplatin resistance. In addition, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) / AKT pathway is activated in A549/DDP, and ALDH1A1 knockdown reduced the phosphorylation level of AKT. Moreover, the combination of ALDH1A1-short hairpin RNA and PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitor LY294002 markedly inhibited cell viability, enhanced apoptotic cell death, and increased cisplatin sensitivity. These results suggest that ALDH1A1 depletion could reverse cisplatin resistance in human lung cancer cell line A549/DDP, and may act as a potential target for the treatment of lung cancers resistant to cisplatin. © 2016 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Efficient sortase-mediated N-terminal labeling of TEV protease cleaved recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Sarpong, Kwabena; Bose, Ron

    2017-03-15

    A major challenge in attaching fluorophores or other handles to proteins is the availability of a site-specific labeling strategy that provides stoichiometric modification without compromising protein integrity. We developed a simple approach that combines TEV protease cleavage, sortase modification and affinity purification to N-terminally label proteins. To achieve stoichiometrically-labeled protein, we included a short affinity tag in the fluorophore-containing peptide for post-labeling purification of the modified protein. This strategy can be easily applied to any recombinant protein with a TEV site and we demonstrate this on Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and Membrane Scaffold Protein (MSP) constructs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of body temperature on chondroitinase ABC's ability to cleave chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans.

    PubMed

    Tester, Nicole J; Plaas, Anna H; Howland, Dena R

    2007-04-01

    Chondroitinase ABC (Ch'ase ABC) is a bacterial lyase that degrades chondroitin sulfate (CS), dermatan sulfate, and hyaluronan glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). This enzyme has received significant attention as a potential therapy for promoting central nervous system and peripheral nervous system repair based on its degradation of CS GAGs. Determination of the stability of Ch'ase ABC activity at temperatures equivalent to normal (37 degrees C) and elevated (39 degrees C) body temperatures is important for optimizing its clinical usage. We report here data obtained from examining enzymatic activity at these temperatures across nine lots of commercially available protease-free Ch'ase ABC. CS GAG degrading activity was assayed by using 1) immunohistochemical detection of unsaturated disaccharide stubs generated by digestion of proteoglycans in tissue sections and 2) fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) and/or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to separate and quantify unsaturated disaccharide digestion products. Our results indicate that there is a significant effect of lot and time on enzymatic thermostability. Average enzymatic activity is significantly decreased at 1 and 3 days at 39 degrees C and 37 degrees C, respectively. Furthermore, the average activity seen after 1 day was significantly different between the two temperatures. Addition of bovine serum albumin as a stabilizer significantly preserved enzymatic activity at 1 day, but not 3 days, at 39 degrees C. These results show that the CS GAG degrading activity of Ch'ase ABC is significantly decreased with incubation at body temperature over time and that all lots do not show equal thermostability. These findings are important for the design and interpretation of experimental and potential clinical studies involving Ch'ase ABC. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Physicochemical, antioxidant, DNA cleaving properties and antimicrobial activity of fisetin-copper chelates.

    PubMed

    Łodyga-Chruscińska, Elżbieta; Pilo, Maria; Zucca, Antonio; Garribba, Eugenio; Klewicka, Elżbieta; Rowińska-Żyrek, Magdalena; Symonowicz, Marzena; Chrusciński, Longin; Cheshchevik, Vitalij T

    2018-03-01

    Fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone) metal chelates are of interest as this plant polyphenol has revealed broad prospects for its use as natural medicine in the treatment of various diseases. Metal interactions may change or enhance fisetin biological properties so understanding fisetin metal chelation is important for its application not only in medicine but also as a food additive in nutritional supplements. This work was aimed to determine and characterize copper complexes formed in different pH range at applying various metal/ligand ratios. Fisetin and Cu(II)-fisetin complexes were characterized by potentiometric titrations, UV-Vis (Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy), EPR, ESI-MS, FTIR and cyclic voltammetry. Their effects on DNA were investigated by using circular dichroism, spectrofluorimetry and gel electrophoresis methods. The copper complex with the ratio of Cu(II)/fisetin 1/2 exhibited significant DNA cleavage activity, followed by complete degradation of DNA. The influence of copper(II) ions on antioxidant activity of fisetin in vitro has been studied using DPPH, ABTS and mitochondrial assays. The results have pointed out that fisetin or copper complexes can behave both as antioxidants or pro-oxidants. Antimicrobial activity of the compounds has been investigated towards several bacteria and fungi. The copper complex of Cu(II)/fisetin 1/2 ratio showed higher antagonistic activity against bacteria comparing to the ligand and it revealed a promising antifungal activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Oligonucleoside alkyl or arylphosphonate derivatives capable of crosslinking with or cleaving nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Miller, P.S.; Ts'o, P.O.P.

    1999-06-15

    A composition for inactivating a target nucleic acid which comprises an oligonucleoside alkyl or arylphosphonate analogue which is complementary to the sequence of the target nucleic acid is provided. It includes a functional group which reacts with the target nucleic acid to render the target nucleic acid inactive or nonfunctional. 16 figs.

  9. Always cleave up your mess: targeting collagen degradation to treat tissue fibrosis.

    PubMed

    McKleroy, William; Lee, Ting-Hein; Atabai, Kamran

    2013-06-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a vexing clinical problem with no proven therapeutic options. In the normal lung there is continuous collagen synthesis and collagen degradation, and these two processes are precisely balanced to maintain normal tissue architecture. With lung injury there is an increase in the rate of both collagen production and collagen degradation. The increase in collagen degradation is critical in preventing the formation of permanent scar tissue each time the lung is exposed to injury. In pulmonary fibrosis, collagen degradation does not keep pace with collagen production, resulting in extracellular accumulation of fibrillar collagen. Collagen degradation occurs through both extracellular and intracellular pathways. The extracellular pathway involves cleavage of collagen fibrils by proteolytic enzyme including the metalloproteinases. The less-well-described intracellular pathway involves binding and uptake of collagen fragments by fibroblasts and macrophages for lysosomal degradation. The relationship between these two pathways and their relevance to the development of fibrosis is complex. Fibrosis in the lung, liver, and skin has been associated with an impaired degradative environment. Much of the current scientific effort in fibrosis is focused on understanding the pathways that regulate increased collagen production. However, recent reports suggest an important role for collagen turnover and degradation in regulating the severity of tissue fibrosis. The objective of this review is to evaluate the roles of the extracellular and intracellular collagen degradation pathways in the development of fibrosis and to examine whether pulmonary fibrosis can be viewed as a disease of impaired matrix degradation rather than a disease of increased matrix production.

  10. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 454 cleaves allergenic peptides of β-lactoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Pescuma, Micaela; Hébert, Elvira M; Haertlé, Thomas; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Mozzi, Fernanda; Font de Valdez, Graciela

    2015-03-01

    Whey, a cheese by-product used as a food additive, is produced worldwide at 40.7 million tons per year. β-Lactoglobulin (BLG), the main whey protein, is poorly digested and is highly allergenic. We aimed to study the contribution of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 454 to BLG digestion and to analyse its ability to degrade the main allergenic sequences of this protein. Pre-hydrolysis of BLG by L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 454 increases digestion of BLG assayed by an in vitro simulated gastrointestinal system. Moreover, peptides from hydrolysis of the allergenic sequences V41-K60, Y102-R124, C121-L140 and L149-I162 were found when BLG was hydrolysed by this strain. Interestingly, peptides possessing antioxidant, ACE inhibitory, antimicrobial and immuno-modulating properties were found in BLG degraded by both the Lactobacillus strain and digestive enzymes. To conclude, pre-hydrolysis of BLG by L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 454 has a positive effect on BLG digestion and could diminish allergenic reactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cleaving Off Uranyl Oxygens through Chelation: A Mechanistic Study in the Gas Phase

    DOE PAGES

    Abergel, Rebecca J.; de Jong, Wibe A.; Deblonde, Gauthier J. -P.; ...

    2017-10-11

    Recent efforts to activate the strong uranium-oxygen bonds in the dioxo uranyl cation have been limited to single oxo-group activation through either uranyl reduction and functionalization in solution, or by collision induced dissociation (CID) in the gas-phase, using mass spectrometry (MS). Here, we report and investigate the surprising double activation of uranyl by an organic ligand, 3,4,3-LI(CAM), leading to the formation of a formal U 6+ chelate in the gas-phase. The cleavage of both uranyl oxo bonds was experimentally evidence d by CID, using deuterium and 18O isotopic substitutions, and by infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy. Density functional theorymore » (DFT) computations predict that the overall reaction requires only 132 kJ/mol, with the first oxygen activation entailing about 107 kJ/mol. Here, combined with analysis of similar, but unreactive ligands, these results shed light on the chelation-driven mechanism of uranyl oxo bond cleavage, demonstrating its dependence on the presence of ligand hydroxyl protons available for direct interactions with the uranyl oxygens.« less

  12. Duration of division-related events in cleaving sand dollar eggs.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, R; Rappaport, B N

    1993-07-01

    A minimal mechanism for cytokinesis comprises a stimulus-to-surface contraction, a receptive surface, and a localized surface contractile mechanism. Duration of each is brief and times when they function are predictable. The processes that begin and end the functional period of each component were investigated. Sand dollar blastomeres from the completion of first cleavage to the beginning of fourth cleavage were used. By changing a cell's shape, it was possible to determine whether its capacity to accomplish an activity is restricted to its usual time frame. The first appearance of the furrow was advanced about 5 min by confining the mitotic apparatus in a narrow cytoplasmic cylinder. The period when the mitotic apparatus induces furrowing was prolonged about 18 min by moving the mitotic apparatus in an elongate cell each time the furrow appeared. The period of active furrowing was prolonged to about 21.8 min by pushing the mitotic apparatus close to the cell margin and then stretching the region through which the unilateral furrow must pass. In relation to normal division cycle events, results showed that each event of cytokinesis can operate both before and after its normal active period. Components of the mechanism are capable of functioning for about half the period of the division cycle. Normal timing of events may be determined by geometrical factors and the normal consequences of each activity.

  13. Always cleave up your mess: targeting collagen degradation to treat tissue fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    McKleroy, William; Lee, Ting-Hein

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a vexing clinical problem with no proven therapeutic options. In the normal lung there is continuous collagen synthesis and collagen degradation, and these two processes are precisely balanced to maintain normal tissue architecture. With lung injury there is an increase in the rate of both collagen production and collagen degradation. The increase in collagen degradation is critical in preventing the formation of permanent scar tissue each time the lung is exposed to injury. In pulmonary fibrosis, collagen degradation does not keep pace with collagen production, resulting in extracellular accumulation of fibrillar collagen. Collagen degradation occurs through both extracellular and intracellular pathways. The extracellular pathway involves cleavage of collagen fibrils by proteolytic enzyme including the metalloproteinases. The less-well-described intracellular pathway involves binding and uptake of collagen fragments by fibroblasts and macrophages for lysosomal degradation. The relationship between these two pathways and their relevance to the development of fibrosis is complex. Fibrosis in the lung, liver, and skin has been associated with an impaired degradative environment. Much of the current scientific effort in fibrosis is focused on understanding the pathways that regulate increased collagen production. However, recent reports suggest an important role for collagen turnover and degradation in regulating the severity of tissue fibrosis. The objective of this review is to evaluate the roles of the extracellular and intracellular collagen degradation pathways in the development of fibrosis and to examine whether pulmonary fibrosis can be viewed as a disease of impaired matrix degradation rather than a disease of increased matrix production. PMID:23564511

  14. Rhizobial peptidase HrrP cleaves host-encoded signaling peptides and mediates symbiotic compatibility.

    PubMed

    Price, Paul A; Tanner, Houston R; Dillon, Brett A; Shabab, Mohammed; Walker, Graham C; Griffitts, Joel S

    2015-12-08

    Legume-rhizobium pairs are often observed that produce symbiotic root nodules but fail to fix nitrogen. Using the Sinorhizobium meliloti and Medicago truncatula symbiotic system, we previously described several naturally occurring accessory plasmids capable of disrupting the late stages of nodule development while enhancing bacterial proliferation within the nodule. We report here that host range restriction peptidase (hrrP), a gene found on one of these plasmids, is capable of conferring both these properties. hrrP encodes an M16A family metallopeptidase whose catalytic activity is required for these symbiotic effects. The ability of hrrP to suppress nitrogen fixation is conditioned upon the genotypes of both the host plant and the hrrP-expressing rhizobial strain, suggesting its involvement in symbiotic communication. Purified HrrP protein is capable of degrading a range of nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides encoded by M. truncatula. NCR peptides are crucial signals used by M. truncatula for inducing and maintaining rhizobial differentiation within nodules, as demonstrated in the accompanying article [Horváth B, et al. (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 10.1073/pnas.1500777112]. The expression pattern of hrrP and its effects on rhizobial morphology are consistent with the NCR peptide cleavage model. This work points to a symbiotic dialogue involving a complex ensemble of host-derived signaling peptides and bacterial modifier enzymes capable of adjusting signal strength, sometimes with exploitative outcomes.

  15. Rhizobial peptidase HrrP cleaves host-encoded signaling peptides and mediates symbiotic compatibility

    PubMed Central

    Price, Paul A.; Tanner, Houston R.; Dillon, Brett A.; Shabab, Mohammed; Walker, Graham C.; Griffitts, Joel S.

    2015-01-01

    Legume–rhizobium pairs are often observed that produce symbiotic root nodules but fail to fix nitrogen. Using the Sinorhizobium meliloti and Medicago truncatula symbiotic system, we previously described several naturally occurring accessory plasmids capable of disrupting the late stages of nodule development while enhancing bacterial proliferation within the nodule. We report here that host range restriction peptidase (hrrP), a gene found on one of these plasmids, is capable of conferring both these properties. hrrP encodes an M16A family metallopeptidase whose catalytic activity is required for these symbiotic effects. The ability of hrrP to suppress nitrogen fixation is conditioned upon the genotypes of both the host plant and the hrrP-expressing rhizobial strain, suggesting its involvement in symbiotic communication. Purified HrrP protein is capable of degrading a range of nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides encoded by M. truncatula. NCR peptides are crucial signals used by M. truncatula for inducing and maintaining rhizobial differentiation within nodules, as demonstrated in the accompanying article [Horváth B, et al. (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 10.1073/pnas.1500777112]. The expression pattern of hrrP and its effects on rhizobial morphology are consistent with the NCR peptide cleavage model. This work points to a symbiotic dialogue involving a complex ensemble of host-derived signaling peptides and bacterial modifier enzymes capable of adjusting signal strength, sometimes with exploitative outcomes. PMID:26401024

  16. Profilicollis botulus (Van Cleave, 1916) from diving ducks and shore crabs of British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Ching, H L

    1989-02-01

    Adults of Profilicollis botulus were found in 6 species of diving ducks in British Columbia including 3 new hosts: common goldeneye, Bucephala clangula (L.); Barrow's goldeneye, B. islandica (Gmelin); and greater scaup, Aythya marila (L.). The identification of the species was verified by the examination of co-types and specimens from eider ducks, Somateria mollissima (L.), from Scotland and oldsquaw, Clangula hyemalis (L.), from New Brunswick. Cystacanths from the hairy shore crab, Hemigrapsus oregonensis (Dana), were similar in morphology to those from Carcinus maenas (L.) from Scotland.

  17. Janice VanCleave's Electricity: Mind-Boggling Experiments You Can Turn into Science Fair Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    This book is designed to provide guidance and ideas for science projects to help students learn more about science as they search for answers to specific problems. The 20 topics on electricity in this book suggest many possible problems to solve. Each topic has one detailed experiment followed by a section that provides additional questions about…

  18. Oligonucleoside alkyl or arylphosphonate derivatives capable of crosslinking with or cleaving nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Paul S.; Ts'o, Paul O.P.

    1999-06-15

    A composition for inactivating a target nucleic acid which comprises an oligonucleoside alkyl or arylphosphonate analogue which is complementary to the sequence of the target nucleic acid and includes a functional group which reacts with the target nucleic acid to render the target nucleic acid inactive or nonfunctional.

  19. Crystal structure and stability of gyrase–fluoroquinolone cleaved complexes from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Benjamin H.; Kerns, Robert J.; Berger, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infects one-third of the world’s population and in 2013 accounted for 1.5 million deaths. Fluoroquinolone antibacterials, which target DNA gyrase, are critical agents used to halt the progression from multidrug-resistant tuberculosis to extensively resistant disease; however, fluoroquinolone resistance is emerging and new ways to bypass resistance are required. To better explain known differences in fluoroquinolone action, the crystal structures of the WT Mtb DNA gyrase cleavage core and a fluoroquinolone-sensitized mutant were determined in complex with DNA and five fluoroquinolones. The structures, ranging from 2.4- to 2.6-Å resolution, show that the intrinsically low susceptibility of Mtb to fluoroquinolones correlates with a reduction in contacts to the water shell of an associated magnesium ion, which bridges fluoroquinolone–gyrase interactions. Surprisingly, the structural data revealed few differences in fluoroquinolone–enzyme contacts from drugs that have very different activities against Mtb. By contrast, a stability assay using purified components showed a clear relationship between ternary complex reversibility and inhibitory activities reported with cultured cells. Collectively, our data indicate that the stability of fluoroquinolone/DNA interactions is a major determinant of fluoroquinolone activity and that moieties that have been appended to the C7 position of different quinolone scaffolds do not take advantage of specific contacts that might be made with the enzyme. These concepts point to new approaches for developing quinolone-class compounds that have increased potency against Mtb and the ability to overcome resistance. PMID:26792525

  20. Characterization of member of DUF1888 protein family, self-cleaving and self-assembling endopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Osipiuk, Jerzy; Mulligan, Rory; Bargassa, Monireh; Hamilton, John E; Cunningham, Mark A; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2012-06-01

    The crystal structure of SO1698 protein from Shewanella oneidensis was determined by a SAD method and refined to 1.57 Å. The structure is a β sandwich that unexpectedly consists of two polypeptides; the N-terminal fragment includes residues 1-116, and the C-terminal one includes residues 117-125. Electron density also displayed the Lys-98 side chain covalently linked to Asp-116. The putative active site residues involved in self-cleavage were identified; point mutants were produced and characterized structurally and in a biochemical assay. Numerical simulations utilizing molecular dynamics and hybrid quantum/classical calculations suggest a mechanism involving activation of a water molecule coordinated by a catalytic aspartic acid.

  1. Characterization of Member of DUF1888 Protein Family, Self-cleaving and Self-assembling Endopeptidase*

    PubMed Central

    Osipiuk, Jerzy; Mulligan, Rory; Bargassa, Monireh; Hamilton, John E.; Cunningham, Mark A.; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The crystal structure of SO1698 protein from Shewanella oneidensis was determined by a SAD method and refined to 1.57 Å. The structure is a β sandwich that unexpectedly consists of two polypeptides; the N-terminal fragment includes residues 1–116, and the C-terminal one includes residues 117–125. Electron density also displayed the Lys-98 side chain covalently linked to Asp-116. The putative active site residues involved in self-cleavage were identified; point mutants were produced and characterized structurally and in a biochemical assay. Numerical simulations utilizing molecular dynamics and hybrid quantum/classical calculations suggest a mechanism involving activation of a water molecule coordinated by a catalytic aspartic acid. PMID:22493430

  2. YihQ is a sulfoquinovosidase that cleaves sulfoquinovosyl diacylglyceride sulfolipids.

    PubMed

    Speciale, Gaetano; Jin, Yi; Davies, Gideon J; Williams, Spencer J; Goddard-Borger, Ethan D

    2016-04-01

    Sulfoquinovose is produced by photosynthetic organisms at a rate of 10(10) tons per annum and is degraded by bacteria as a source of carbon and sulfur. We have identified Escherichia coli YihQ as the first dedicated sulfoquinovosidase and the gateway enzyme to sulfoglycolytic pathways. Structural and mutagenesis studies unveiled the sequence signatures for binding the distinguishing sulfonate residue and revealed that sulfoquinovoside degradation is widespread across the tree of life.

  3. Murine Antibody Responses to Cleaved Soluble HIV-1 Envelope Trimers Are Highly Restricted in Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Joyce K.; Crampton, Jordan C.; Cupo, Albert; Ketas, Thomas; van Gils, Marit J.; Sliepen, Kwinten; de Taeye, Steven W.; Sok, Devin; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Deresa, Isaiah; Stanfield, Robyn; Ward, Andrew B.; Burton, Dennis R.; Klasse, Per Johan; Sanders, Rogier W.; Moore, John P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Generating neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) is a major goal of many current HIV-1 vaccine efforts. To be of practical value, these nAbs must be both potent and cross-reactive in order to be capable of preventing the transmission of the highly diverse and generally neutralization resistant (Tier-2) HIV-1 strains that are in circulation. The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) spike is the only target for nAbs. To explore whether Tier-2 nAbs can be induced by Env proteins, we immunized conventional mice with soluble BG505 SOSIP.664 trimers that mimic the native Env spike. Here, we report that it is extremely difficult for murine B cells to recognize the Env epitopes necessary for inducing Tier-2 nAbs. Thus, while trimer-immunized mice raised Env-binding IgG Abs and had high-quality T follicular helper (Tfh) cell and germinal center (GC) responses, they did not make BG505.T332N nAbs. Epitope mapping studies showed that Ab responses in mice were specific to areas near the base of the soluble trimer. These areas are not well shielded by glycans and likely are occluded on virions, which is consistent with the lack of BG505.T332N nAbs. These data inform immunogen design and suggest that it is useful to obscure nonneutralizing epitopes presented on the base of soluble Env trimers and that the glycan shield of well-formed HIV Env trimers is virtually impenetrable for murine B cell receptors (BCRs). IMPORTANCE Human HIV vaccine efficacy trials have not generated meaningful neutralizing antibodies to circulating HIV strains. One possible hindrance has been the lack of immunogens that properly mimic the native conformation of the HIV envelope trimer protein. Here, we tested the first generation of soluble, native-like envelope trimer immunogens in a conventional mouse model. We attempted to generate neutralizing antibodies to neutralization-resistant circulating HIV strains. Various vaccine strategies failed to induce neutralizing antibodies to a neutralization-resistant HIV strain. Further analysis revealed that mouse antibodies targeted areas near the bottom of the soluble envelope trimers. These areas are not easily accessible on the HIV virion due to occlusion by the viral membrane and may have resulted from an absence of glycan shielding. Our results suggest that obscuring the bottom of soluble envelope trimers is a useful strategy to reduce antibody responses to epitopes that are not useful for virus neutralization. PMID:26246566

  4. High-accuracy calculations of the ground, 1 1A1', and the 2 1A1', 2 3A1', and 1 1E' excited states of H3+.

    PubMed

    Pavanello, Michele; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2009-01-21

    Accurate variational Born-Oppenheimer calculations of the 1 (1)A(1) ('), 2 (1)A(1) ('), 2 (3)A(1) ('), and 1 (1)E(') states of the H(3) (+) ion at the ground-state equilibrium geometry are reported. The wave functions of the states are expanded in terms of explicitly correlated spherical Gaussian functions with shifted centers. In the variational optimization the analytical gradient of the energy with respect to the nonlinear exponential parameters of the Gaussians has been employed. The energies obtained in the calculations are the best variational estimates ever calculated for the four states. One-electron densities for the states, as well as a D(3h)-restricted potential energy surface of the ground state calculated around the equilibrium geometry, are also presented and discussed.

  5. 26 CFR 1.652(a)-1 - Simple trusts; inclusion of amounts in income of beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Simple trusts; inclusion of amounts in income of beneficiaries. 1.652(a)-1 Section 1.652(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Only § 1.652(a)-1 Simple trusts; inclusion of amounts in income of beneficiaries. Subject to the rules...

  6. 26 CFR 1.652(a)-1 - Simple trusts; inclusion of amounts in income of beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Simple trusts; inclusion of amounts in income of beneficiaries. 1.652(a)-1 Section 1.652(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Only § 1.652(a)-1 Simple trusts; inclusion of amounts in income of beneficiaries. Subject to the rules...

  7. 26 CFR 1.652(a)-1 - Simple trusts; inclusion of amounts in income of beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Simple trusts; inclusion of amounts in income of beneficiaries. 1.652(a)-1 Section 1.652(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Only § 1.652(a)-1 Simple trusts; inclusion of amounts in income of beneficiaries. Subject to the rules...

  8. 17 CFR 270.3a-1 - Certain prima facie investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain prima facie investment companies. 270.3a-1 Section 270.3a-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.3a-1 Certain prima facie investment...

  9. 17 CFR 240.15a-1 - Securities activities of OTC derivatives dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... options, forwards, futures, swap agreements, or collars involving currencies, interest or other rates... derivatives dealers. 240.15a-1 Section 240.15a-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Exemption of Certain Otc Derivatives Dealers § 240.15a-1...

  10. 17 CFR 240.15a-1 - Securities activities of OTC derivatives dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... derivatives dealers. 240.15a-1 Section 240.15a-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Exemption of Certain Otc Derivatives Dealers § 240.15a-1 Securities activities of OTC derivatives dealers. Preliminary Note: OTC derivatives dealers are a special...

  11. 17 CFR 240.36a1-2 - Exemption from SIPA for OTC derivatives dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... derivatives dealers. 240.36a1-2 Section 240.36a1-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... § 240.36a1-2 Exemption from SIPA for OTC derivatives dealers. Preliminary Note: OTC derivatives dealers... derivative dealers are subject to special requirements, including limitations on the scope of their...

  12. 26 CFR 1.652(a)-1 - Simple trusts; inclusion of amounts in income of beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Simple trusts; inclusion of amounts in income of beneficiaries. 1.652(a)-1 Section 1.652(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Only § 1.652(a)-1 Simple trusts; inclusion of amounts in income of beneficiaries. Subject to the rules...

  13. 26 CFR 1.642(a)(1)-1 - Partially tax-exempt interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Partially tax-exempt interest. 1.642(a)(1)-1 Section 1.642(a)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(a)(1)-1...

  14. 26 CFR 1.642(a)(1)-1 - Partially tax-exempt interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Partially tax-exempt interest. 1.642(a)(1)-1 Section 1.642(a)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(a)(1)-1 Partially tax...

  15. 17 CFR 240.11a1-4(T) - Bond transactions on national securities exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bond transactions on national securities exchanges. 240.11a1-4(T) Section 240.11a1-4(T) Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND....11a1-4(T) Bond transactions on national securities exchanges. A transaction in a bond, note, debenture...

  16. 17 CFR 240.11a1-4(T) - Bond transactions on national securities exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bond transactions on national securities exchanges. 240.11a1-4(T) Section 240.11a1-4(T) Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND....11a1-4(T) Bond transactions on national securities exchanges. A transaction in a bond, note, debenture...

  17. 26 CFR 1.652(a)-1 - Simple trusts; inclusion of amounts in income of beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Simple trusts; inclusion of amounts in income of beneficiaries. 1.652(a)-1 Section 1.652(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE....652(a)-1 Simple trusts; inclusion of amounts in income of beneficiaries. Subject to the rules in §§ 1...

  18. 26 CFR 1.860A-1 - Effective dates and transition rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effective dates and transition rules. 1.860A-1 Section 1.860A-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.860A-1 Effective dates and...

  19. 26 CFR 1.860A-1 - Effective dates and transition rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective dates and transition rules. 1.860A-1 Section 1.860A-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.860A-1 Effective dates and...

  20. 26 CFR 1.860A-1 - Effective dates and transition rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effective dates and transition rules. 1.860A-1 Section 1.860A-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.860A-1 Effective dates and...

  1. 26 CFR 1.860A-1 - Effective dates and transition rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective dates and transition rules. 1.860A-1 Section 1.860A-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.860A-1 Effective dates and...

  2. 42 CFR 59a.1 - Programs to which these regulations apply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Programs to which these regulations apply. 59a.1 Section 59a.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE GRANTS Grants for Establishing, Expanding, and Improving Basic Resources § 59a.1...

  3. 42 CFR 59a.1 - Programs to which these regulations apply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Programs to which these regulations apply. 59a.1 Section 59a.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE GRANTS Grants for Establishing, Expanding, and Improving Basic Resources § 59a.1...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: COL4A1-related brain small-vessel disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... COL4A1-related brain small-vessel disease COL4A1-related brain small-vessel disease Printable PDF Open All Close ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description COL4A1 -related brain small-vessel disease is part of a group ...

  5. 26 CFR 1.642(a)(1)-1 - Partially tax-exempt interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Partially tax-exempt interest. 1.642(a)(1)-1 Section 1.642(a)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(a)(1)-1...

  6. 26 CFR 1.642(a)(1)-1 - Partially tax-exempt interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Partially tax-exempt interest. 1.642(a)(1)-1 Section 1.642(a)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(a)(1)-1...

  7. 26 CFR 1.642(a)(1)-1 - Partially tax-exempt interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Partially tax-exempt interest. 1.642(a)(1)-1 Section 1.642(a)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(a)(1)-1...

  8. 26 CFR 1.168(a)-1 - Modified accelerated cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Modified accelerated cost recovery system. 1.168(a)-1 Section 1.168(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Corporations § 1.168(a)-1 Modified accelerated cost recovery system. (a) Section 168 determines the...

  9. 26 CFR 1.168(a)-1 - Modified accelerated cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Modified accelerated cost recovery system. 1.168(a)-1 Section 1.168(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Corporations § 1.168(a)-1 Modified accelerated cost recovery system. (a) Section 168 determines the...

  10. 26 CFR 1.168(a)-1 - Modified accelerated cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Modified accelerated cost recovery system. 1.168(a)-1 Section 1.168(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Corporations § 1.168(a)-1 Modified accelerated cost recovery system. (a) Section 168 determines the...

  11. 26 CFR 1.168(a)-1 - Modified accelerated cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Modified accelerated cost recovery system. 1.168(a)-1 Section 1.168(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Corporations § 1.168(a)-1 Modified accelerated cost recovery system. (a) Section 168 determines the...

  12. 26 CFR 1.168(a)-1 - Modified accelerated cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Modified accelerated cost recovery system. 1.168(a)-1 Section 1.168(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Corporations § 1.168(a)-1 Modified accelerated cost recovery system. (a) Section 168 determines the...

  13. Protective role of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) against benzo[a]pyrene-induced toxicity in mouse aorta.

    PubMed

    Uno, Shigeyuki; Sakurai, Kenichi; Nebert, Daniel W; Makishima, Makoto

    2014-02-28

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is an environmental pollutant produced by combustive processes, such as cigarette smoke and coke ovens, and is implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) plays a role in both metabolic activation and detoxication of BaP in a context-dependent manner. The role of CYP1A1 in BaP-induced toxicity in aorta remains unknown. First, we fed Apoe⁻/⁻ mice an atherogenic diet plus BaP and found that oral BaP-enhanced atherosclerosis is associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory markers, such as plasma tumor necrosis factor levels and aortic mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa). We next examined the effect of an atherogenic diet plus BaP on ROS and inflammatory markers in Cyp1a1⁻/⁻ mice. Although this treatment was not sufficient to induce atherosclerotic lesions in Cyp1a1⁻/⁻ mice, plasma antioxidant levels were decreased in Cyp1a1⁻/⁻ mice even in the absence of BaP treatment. The atherogenic diet plus BaP effectively elevated plasma ROS levels and expression of atherosclerosis-related genes, specifically Vegfa, in Cyp1a1⁻/⁻ mice compared with wild-type mice. BaP treatment increased Vegfa mRNA levels in mouse embryonic fibroblasts from Cyp1a1⁻/⁻ mice but not from wild-type mice. BaP-induced DNA adduct formation was increased in the aorta of Cyp1a1⁻/⁻ mice, but not wild-type or Apoe⁻/⁻ mice, and the atherogenic diet decreased BaP-induced DNA adducts in Cyp1a1⁻/⁻ mice compared with mice on a control diet. These data suggest that ROS production contributes to BaP-exacerbated atherosclerosis and that CYP1A1 plays a protective role against oral BaP toxicity in aorta. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) changes over time among adolescent and young adult participants in the T1D exchange clinic registry.

    PubMed

    Clements, Mark A; Foster, Nicole C; Maahs, David M; Schatz, Desmond A; Olson, Beth A; Tsalikian, Eva; Lee, Joyce M; Burt-Solorzano, Christine M; Tamborlane, William V; Chen, Vincent; Miller, Kellee M; Beck, Roy W

    2016-08-01

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels among individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) influence the longitudinal risk for diabetes-related complications. Few studies have examined HbA1c trends across time in children, adolescents, and young adults with T1D. This study examines changes in glycemic control across the specific transition periods of pre-adolescence-to-adolescence and adolescence-to-young adulthood, and the demographic and clinical factors associated with these changes. Available HbA1c lab results for up to 10 yr were collected from medical records at 67 T1D Exchange clinics. Two retrospective cohorts were evaluated: the pre-adolescent-to-adolescent cohort consisting of 85 016 HbA1c measurements from 6574 participants collected when the participants were 8-18 yr old and the adolescent-to-young adult cohort, 2200 participants who were 16-26 yr old at the time of 17 279 HbA1c measurements. HbA1c in the 8-18 cohort increased over time after age 10 yr until ages 16-17; followed by a plateau. HbA1c levels in the 16-26 cohort remained steady from 16-18, and then gradually declined. For both cohorts, race/ethnicity, income, health insurance, and pump use were all significant in explaining individual variations in age-centered HbA1c (p < 0.001). For the 8-18 cohort, insulin pump use, age of onset, and health insurance were significant in predicting individual HbA1c trajectory. Glycemic control among patients 8-18 yr old worsens over time, through age 16. Elevated HbA1c levels observed in 18 yr-olds begin a steady improvement into early adulthood. Focused interventions to prevent deterioration in glucose control in pre-adolescence, adolescence, and early adulthood are needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Bis-Indole-Derived NR4A1 Ligands and Metformin Exhibit NR4A1-Dependent Glucose Metabolism and Uptake in C2C12 Cells.

    PubMed

    Mohankumar, Kumaravel; Lee, Jehoon; Wu, Chia Shan; Sun, Yuxiang; Safe, Stephen

    2018-05-01

    Treatment of C2C12 muscle cells with metformin or the NR4A1 ligand 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-hydroxyphenyl)methane (DIM-C-pPhOH) induced NR4A1 and Glut4 messenger RNA and protein expression. Similar results were observed with buttressed (3- or 3,5-substituted) analogs of DIM-C-pPhOH, including 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(3-chloro-4-hydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)methane (DIM-C-pPhOH-3-Cl-5-OCH3), and the buttressed analogs were more potent than DIM-C-pPhOH NR4A1 agonists. Metformin and the bis-indole substituted analogs also induced expression of several glycolytic genes and Rab4, which has previously been linked to enhancing cell membrane accumulation of Glut4 and overall glucose uptake in C2C12 cells, and these responses were also observed after treatment with metformin and the NR4A1 ligands. The role of NR4A1 in mediating the responses induced by the bis-indoles and metformin was determined by knockdown of NR4A1, and this resulted in attenuating the gene and protein expression and enhanced glucose uptake responses induced by these compounds. Our results demonstrate that the bis-indole-derived NR4A1 ligands represent a class of drugs that enhance glucose uptake in C2C12 muscle cells, and we also show that the effects of metformin in this cell line are NR4A1-dependent.

  16. Physicochemical properties of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls aid in predicting their interactions with rat sulfotransferase 1A1 (rSULT1A1)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yungang; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Robertson, Larry W.; Duffel, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    Hydroxylated metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (OHPCBs) interact with rat sulfotransferase 1A1 (rSULT1A1) as substrates and inhibitors. Previous studies have shown that there are complex and incompletely understood structure-activity relationships governing the interaction of rSULT1A1 with these molecules. Furthermore, modification of the enzyme with glutathione disulfide (GSSG) results in the conversion of some OHPCBs from inhibitors to substrates. We have now examined estimated values for the acid-dissociation constant (Ka) and the octanol-water distribution coefficient (D), as well as experimentally determined dissociation constants for enzyme complexes, to assist in the prediction of interactions of OHPCBs with rSULT1A1. Under reducing conditions, initial velocities for rSULT1A1-catalyzed sulfation exhibited a positive correlation with pKa and a negative correlation with log D of the OHPCBs. IC50 values of inhibitory OHPCBs decreased with decreasing pKa values for both the glutathione (GSH)-pretreated and GSSG-pretreated forms of rSULT1A1. Comparison of GSH- and GSSG-pretreated forms of rSULT1A1 with respect to binding of OHPCB in the presence and absence of adenosine 3’,5’-diphosphate (PAP) revealed that the dissociation constants with the two redox states of the enzyme were similar for each OHPCB. Thus, pKa and log D values are useful in predicting the binding of OHPCBs to the two redox forms of rSULT1A1 as well as the rates of sulfation of those OHPCBs that are substrates. However, the differences in substrate specificity for OHPCBs that are seen with changes in redox status of the enzyme are not directly related to specific structural effects of individual OHPCBs within inhibitory enzyme-PAP-OHPCB complexes. PMID:21130751

  17. Retinal and Nonocular Abnormalities in Cyp27a1−/−Cyp46a1−/− Mice with Dysfunctional Metabolism of Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Saadane, Aicha; Mast, Natalia; Charvet, Casey D.; Omarova, Saida; Zheng, Wenchao; Huang, Suber S.; Kern, Timothy S.; Peachey, Neal S.; Pikuleva, Irina A.

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol elimination from nonhepatic cells involves metabolism to side-chain oxysterols, which serve as transport forms of cholesterol and bioactive molecules modulating a variety of cellular processes. Cholesterol metabolism is tissue specific, and its significance has not yet been established for the retina, where cytochromes P450 (CYP27A1 and CYP46A1) are the major cholesterol-metabolizing enzymes. We generated Cyp27a1−/−Cyp46a1−/− mice, which were lean and had normal serum cholesterol and glucose levels. These animals, however, had changes in the retinal vasculature, retina, and several nonocular organs (lungs, liver, and spleen). Changes in the retinal vasculature included structural abnormalities (retinal-choroidal anastomoses, arteriovenous shunts, increased permeability, dilation, nonperfusion, and capillary degeneration) and cholesterol deposition and oxidation in the vascular wall, which also exhibited increased adhesion of leukocytes and activation of the complement pathway. Changes in the retina included increased content of cholesterol and its metabolite, cholestanol, which were focally deposited at the apical and basal sides of the retinal pigment epithelium. Retinal macrophages of Cyp27a1−/−Cyp46a1−/− mice were activated, and oxidative stress was noted in their photoreceptor inner segments. Our findings demonstrate the importance of retinal cholesterol metabolism for maintenance of the normal retina, and suggest new targets for diseases affecting the retinal vasculature. PMID:25065682

  18. Association of Hemoglobin A1c and Wound Healing in Diabetic Foot Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Fesseha, Betiel K; Abularrage, Christopher J; Hines, Kathryn F; Sherman, Ronald; Frost, Priscilla; Langan, Susan; Canner, Joseph; Likes, Kendall C; Hosseini, Sayed M; Jack, Gwendolyne; Hicks, Caitlin W; Yalamanchi, Swaytha; Mathioudakis, Nestoras

    2018-04-16

    This study evaluated the association between hemoglobin A 1c (A1C) and wound outcomes in patients with diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). We conducted a retrospective analysis of an ongoing prospective, clinic-based study of patients with DFUs treated at an academic institution during a 4.7-year period. Data from 270 participants and 584 wounds were included in the analysis. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess the incidence of wound healing at any follow-up time in relation to categories of baseline A1C and the incidence of long-term (≥90 days) wound healing in relation to tertiles of nadir A1C change and mean A1C change from baseline, adjusted for potential confounders. Baseline A1C was not associated with wound healing in univariate or fully adjusted models. Compared with a nadir A1C change from baseline of -0.29 to 0.0 (tertile 2), a nadir A1C change of 0.09 to 2.4 (tertile 3) was positively associated with long-term wound healing in the subset of participants with baseline A1C <7.5% (hazard ratio [HR], 2.07; 95% CI, 1.08-4.00), but no association with wound healing was seen with the mean A1C change from baseline in this group. Neither nadir A1C change nor mean A1C change were associated with long-term wound healing in participants with baseline A1C ≥7.5%. There does not appear to be a clinically meaningful association between baseline or prospective A1C and wound healing in patients with DFUs. The paradoxical finding of accelerated wound healing and increase in A1C in participants with better baseline glycemic control requires confirmation in further studies. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  19. False positive fecal coliform in biosolid samples assayed using A-1 medium.

    PubMed

    Baker, Katherine H; Redmond, Brady; Herson, Diane S

    2005-01-01

    Two most probable number (MPN) methods-lauryl tryptose broth with Escherichia coli broth confirmation and direct A-1 broth incubation (A-1)--were compared for the enumeration of fecal coliform in lime-treated biosolid. Fecal coliform numbers were significantly higher using the A-1 method. Analysis of positive A-1 tubes, however, indicated that a high percentage of these were false positives. Therefore, the use of A-1 broth for 40 CFR Part 503 Pathogen Reduction (CFR, 1993) compliance testing is not recommended.

  20. Cytochrome P450 20A1 in zebrafish: Cloning, regulation and potential involvement in hyperactivity disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Lemaire, Benjamin; Kubota, Akira; O'Meara, Conor M.

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes for which there is no functional information are considered “orphan” CYPs. Previous studies showed that CYP20A1, an orphan, is expressed in human hippocampus and substantia nigra, and in zebrafish (Danio rerio) CYP20A1 maternal transcript occurs in eggs, suggesting involvement in brain and in early development. Moreover, hyperactivity is reported in humans with chromosome 2 microdeletions including CYP20A1. We examined CYP20A1 in zebrafish, including impacts of chemical exposure on expression. Zebrafish CYP20A1 cDNA was cloned, sequenced, and aligned with cloned human CYP20A1 and predicted vertebrate orthologs. CYP20A1s share a highly conserved N-terminal region and unusual sequences inmore » the I-helix and the heme-binding CYP signature motifs. CYP20A1 mRNA expression was observed in adult zebrafish organs including the liver, heart, gonads, spleen and brain, as well as the eye and optic nerve. Putative binding sites in proximal promoter regions of CYP20A1s, and response of zebrafish CYP20A1 to selected nuclear and xenobiotic receptor agonists, point to up-regulation by agents involved in steroid hormone response, cholesterol and lipid metabolism. There also was a dose-dependent reduction of CYP20A1 expression in embryos exposed to environmentally relevant levels of methylmercury. Morpholino knockdown of CYP20A1 in developing zebrafish resulted in behavioral effects, including hyperactivity and a slowing of the optomotor response in larvae. The results suggest that altered expression of CYP20A1 might be part of a mechanism linking methylmercury exposure to neurobehavioral deficits. The expanded information on CYP20A1 brings us closer to “deorphanization”, that is, identifying CYP20A1 functions and its roles in health and disease. - Highlights: • The “orphan” CYP20A1 was cloned from zebrafish and its sequence analyzed. • Knockdown of CYP20A1 reduced an optomotor response and elicited bursts of activity. • Effects

  1. Flavor changing neutral current transition of B to a1 with light-cone sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momeni, S.; Khosravi, R.; Falahati, F.

    2017-01-01

    The B →a1ℓ+ℓ- decays occur by the electroweak penguin and box diagrams, which can be performed through the flavor changing neutral current (FCNC). We calculate the form factors of the FCNC B →a1 transitions in the light-cone sum rules approach, up to twist-4 distribution amplitudes of the axial vector meson a1. Forward-backward asymmetry, as well as branching ratios of B →a1ℓ+ℓ-, and B →a1γ decays are considered. A comparison is also made between our results and the predictions of other methods.

  2. Use of Fructosyl Peptide Oxidase for HbA1c Assay

    PubMed Central

    Yonehara, Satoshi; Inamura, Norio; Fukuda, Miho; Sugiyama, Koji

    2015-01-01

    ARKRAY, Inc developed the world’s first automatic glycohemoglobin analyzer based on HPLC (1981). After that, ARKRAY developed enzymatic HbA1c assay “CinQ HbA1c” with the spread and diversification of HbA1c measurement (2007). CinQ HbA1c is the kit of Clinical Chemistry Analyzer, which uses fructosyl peptide oxidase (FPOX) for a measurement reaction. This report mainly indicates the developmental background, measurement principle, and future of the enzymatic method HbA1c reagent. PMID:25633966

  3. Recovery sleep after extended wakefulness restores elevated A1 adenosine receptor availability in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Elmenhorst, Eva-Maria; Hennecke, Eva; Kroll, Tina; Matusch, Andreas; Aeschbach, Daniel; Bauer, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine and functional A1 adenosine receptor (A1AR) availability are supposed to mediate sleep–wake regulation and cognitive performance. We hypothesized that cerebral A1AR availability after an extended wake period decreases to a well-rested state after recovery sleep. [18F]CPFPX positron emission tomography was used to quantify A1AR availability in 15 healthy male adults after 52 h of sleep deprivation and following 14 h of recovery sleep. Data were additionally compared with A1AR values after 8 h of baseline sleep from an earlier dataset. Polysomnography, cognitive performance, and sleepiness were monitored. Recovery from sleep deprivation was associated with a decrease in A1AR availability in several brain regions, ranging from 11% (insula) to 14% (striatum). A1AR availabilities after recovery did not differ from baseline sleep in the control group. The degree of performance impairment, sleepiness, and homeostatic sleep-pressure response to sleep deprivation correlated negatively with the decrease in A1AR availability. Sleep deprivation resulted in a higher A1AR availability in the human brain. The increase that was observed after 52 h of wakefulness was restored to control levels during a 14-h recovery sleep episode. Individuals with a large increase in A1AR availability were more resilient to sleep-loss effects than those with a subtle increase. This pattern implies that differences in endogenous adenosine and A1AR availability might be causal for individual responses to sleep loss. PMID:28373571

  4. Structured education using Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) reduces long-term HbA1c and HbA1c variability.

    PubMed

    Walker, G S; Chen, J Y; Hopkinson, H; Sainsbury, C A R; Jones, G C

    2018-06-01

    Previous evidence has demonstrated that participation in the Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) education programme can reduce HbA 1c and severe hypoglycaemia in people with Type 1 diabetes. In a number of studies, increased HbA 1c variability has been associated with higher diabetic morbidity and mortality. No studies have examined the impact of structured education on HbA 1c variability in Type 1 diabetes. People with Type 1 diabetes who had attended DAFNE were identified for inclusion from the Scottish Care Information-Diabetes dataset. HbA 1c median and variability, expressed as coefficient of variation (CV) before and after DAFNE was calculated. Some 1061 individuals participated in DAFNE education and 687 met the inclusion criteria. A significant median reduction in HbA 1c [-3.5 mmol/mol (-0.3%)] was seen at 12 months with a significant reduction [-1.5 mmol/mol (-0.1%)] still seen at 60 months of follow-up. HbA 1c variability as measured by CV was significantly lower during the post-DAFNE period: 0.08 (IQR 0.05-0.12) reduced to 0.07 (IQR 0.05-0.10); P = 0.002. The data confirm that DAFNE participation improves glycaemic control in Type 1 diabetes with benefits being sustained for 5 years. This study is the first to demonstrate reduced HbA 1c variability after completion of structured education. This is new evidence of the beneficial impact of DAFNE on glycaemic profile. © 2018 Diabetes UK.

  5. Apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1) deposition in, and release from, the enterocyte brush border: a possible role in transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE)?

    PubMed

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Rasmussen, Karina; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte; Frenzel, Franz

    2012-03-01

    Transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) has been proposed to represent a non-hepatobiliary route of cholesterol secretion directly "from blood to gut" and to play a physiologically significant role in excretion of neutral sterols, but so far little is known about the proteins involved in the process. We have previously observed that apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1) synthesized by enterocytes of the small intestine is mainly secreted apically into the gut lumen during fasting where its assembly into chylomicrons and basolateral discharge is at a minimal level. In the present work we showed, both by immunomicroscopy and subcellular fractionation, that a fraction of the apically secreted apoA-1 in porcine small intestine was not released from the cell surface but instead deposited in the brush border. Cholesterol was detected in immunoisolated microvillar apoA-1, and it was partially associated with detergent resistant membranes (DRMs), indicative of localization in lipid raft microdomains. The apolipoprotein was not readily released from microvillar vesicles by high salt or by incubation with phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C or trypsin, indicating a relatively firm attachment to the membrane bilayer. However, whole bile or taurocholate efficiently released apoA-1 at low concentrations that did not solubilize the transmembrane microvillar protein aminopeptidase N. Based on these findings and the well known role played by apoA-1 in extrahepatic cellular cholesterol removal and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), we propose that brush border-deposited apoA-1 in the small intestine acts in TICE by mediating cholesterol efflux into the gut lumen. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Expression and Functional Significance of HtrA1 Loss in Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mullany, Sally A.; Moslemi-Kebria, Mehdi; Rattan, Ramandeep; Khurana, Ashwani; Clayton, Amy; Ota, Takayo; Mariani, Andrea; Podratz, Karl C.; Chien, Jeremy; Shridhar, Viji

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine if loss of serine protease HtrA1 in endometrial cancer will promote the invasive potential of EC cell lines. Experimental design Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry methods were used to determine HtrA1 expression in EC cell lines and primary tumors, respectively. Migration, invasion assays and in vivo xenograft experiment were performed to compare the extent of metastasis between HtrA1 expressing and HtrA-1 knocked down clones. Results Western blot analysis of HtrA1 in 13 EC cell lines revealed complete loss of HtrA1 expression in all 7 papillary serous EC cell lines. Downregulation of HtrA1 in Hec1A and Hec1B cell lines resulted in a 3-4 fold increase in the invasive potential. Exogenous expression of HtrA1 in Ark 1 and Ark 2 cells resulted in 3-4 fold decrease in both invasive and migration potential of these cells. There was an increased rate of metastasis to the lungs associated with HtrA1 downregulation in Hec1B cells compared to control cells with endogenous HtrA1 expression. Enhanced expression of HtrA1 in Ark 2 cells resulted in significantly less tumor nodules metastasizing to the lungs compared to parental or protease deficient (SA mutant) Ark 2 cells. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis showed 57% (105/184) of primary EC tumors had low HtrA1 expression. The association of low HtrA1 expression with high-grade endometrioid tumors was statistically significant (p=0.016). Conclusions Collectively, these data indicate loss of HtrA1 may contribute to the aggressiveness and metastatic ability of endometrial tumors. PMID:21098697

  7. Experimental murine myopia induces collagen type Iα1 (COL1A1) DNA methylation and altered COL1A1 messenger RNA expression in sclera

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiangtian; Ji, Fengtao; An, Jianhong; Zhao, Fuxin; Shi, Fanjun; Huang, Furong; Li, Yuan; Jiao, Shiming; Yan, Dongsheng; Chen, Xiaoyan; Chen, JiangFan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether myopia development is associated with changes of scleral DNA methylation in cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites in the collagen 1A1 (COL1A1) promoter and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels following murine form deprivation myopia. Methods Fifty-seven C57BL/6 mice (postnatal day 23) were randomly assigned to four groups: (1) monocular form deprivation (MD) in which a diffuser lens was placed over one eye for 28 days; (2) normal controls without MD; (3) MD recovery in which the diffuser lens was removed for seven days; and (4) MD recovery normal controls. The DNA methylation pattern in COL1A1 promoter and exon 1 was determined by bisulfite DNA sequencing, and the COL1A1 mRNA level in sclera was determined by quantitative PCR. Results MD was found to induce myopia in the treated eyes. Six CpG sites in the promoter and exon 1 region of COL1A1 were methylated with significantly higher frequency in the treated eyes than normal control eyes (p<0.05), with CpG island methylation in MD-contralateral eyes being intermediate. Consistent with the CpG methylation, scleral COL1A1 mRNA was reduced by 57% in the MD-treated eyes compared to normal controls (p<0.05). After seven days of MD recovery, CpG methylation was significantly reduced (p=0.01). The methylation patterns returned to near normal level in five CpG sites, but the sixth was hypomethylated compared to normal controls. Conclusions In parallel with the development of myopia and the reduced COL1A1 mRNA, the frequency of methylation in CpG sites of the COL1A1 promoter/exon 1 increased during MD and returned to near normal during recovery. Thus, hypermethylation of CpG sites in the promoter/exon 1 of COL1A1 may underlie reduced collagen synthesis at the transcriptional level in myopic scleras. PMID:22690110

  8. Bilirubin UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) Gene Promoter Polymorphisms and HPRT, Glycophorin A, and Micronuclei Mutant Frequencies in Human Blood

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, D; Hall, I J; Eastmond, D

    2004-10-06

    A dinucleotide repeat polymorphism (5-, 6-, 7-, or 8-TA units) has been identified within the promoter region of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 gene (UGT1A1). The 7-TA repeat allele has been associated with elevated serum bilirubin levels that cause a mild hyperbilirubinemia (Gilbert's syndrome). Studies suggest that promoter transcriptional activity of UGT1A1 is inversely related to the number of TA repeats and that unconjugated bilirubin concentration increases directly with the number of TA repeat elements. Because bilirubin is a known antioxidant, we hypothesized that UGT1A1 repeats associated with higher bilirubin may be protective against oxidative damage. We examined the effect of UGT1A1 genotypemore » on somatic mutant frequency in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl-transferase (HPRT) gene in human lymphocytes and the glycophorin A (GPA) gene of red blood cells (both N0, NN mutants), and the frequency of lymphocyte micronuclei (both kinetochore (K) positive or micronuclei K negative) in 101 healthy smoking and nonsmoking individuals. As hypothesized, genotypes containing 7-TA and 8-TA displayed marginally lower GPA{_}NN mutant frequency relative to 5/5, 5/6, 6/6 genotypes (p<0.05). In contrast, our analysis showed that lower expressing UGT1A1 alleles (7-TA and 8-TA) were associated with modestly increased HPRT mutation frequency (p<0.05) while the same low expression genotypes were not significantly associated with micronuclei frequencies (K-positive or K-negative) when compared to high expression genotypes (5-TA and 6-TA). We found weak evidence that UGT1A1 genotypes containing 7-TA and 8-TA were associated with increased GPA{_}N0 mutant frequency relative to 5/5, 5/6, 6/6 genotypes (p<0.05). These data suggest that UGT1A1 genotype may modulate somatic mutation of some types, in some cell lineages, by a mechanism not involving bilirubin antioxidant activity. More detailed studies examining UGT1A1 promoter variation, oxidant/antioxidant balance and

  9. Successful ABO-Incompatible Renal Transplantation:  Blood Group A1B Donor Into A2B Recipient With Anti-A1 Isoagglutinins.

    PubMed

    Fadeyi, Emmanuel A; Stratta, Robert J; Farney, Alan C; Pomper, Gregory J

    2016-08-01

    Transplantation of the blood group A2B in a recipient was successfully performed in the setting of receiving a deceased donor kidney from an "incompatible" A1B donor. The donor and recipient were both typed for ABO blood group, including ABO genotyping. The donor and recipient were tested for ABO, non-ABO, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies. The donor and recipient were typed for HLA antigens, including T- and B-flow cytometry crossmatch tests. The recipient's RBCs were negative with A1 lectin, and immunoglobulin G anti-A1 was demonstrated in the recipient's plasma. The donor-recipient pair was a four-antigen HLA mismatch, but final T- and B-flow cytometry crossmatch tests were compatible. The transplant procedure was uneventful; the patient experienced immediate graft function with no episodes of rejection or readmissions more than 2 years later. It may be safe to transplant across the A1/A2 blood group AB mismatch barrier in the setting of low titer anti-A1 isoagglutinins without the need for pretransplant desensitization even if the antibody produced reacts with anti-human globulin. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Fine Mapping and Functional Analysis Reveal a Role of SLC22A1 in Acylcarnitine Transport.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye In; Raffler, Johannes; Lu, Wenyun; Lee, Jung-Jin; Abbey, Deepti; Saleheen, Danish; Rabinowitz, Joshua D; Bennett, Michael J; Hand, Nicholas J; Brown, Christopher; Rader, Daniel J

    2017-10-05

    Genome-wide association studies have identified a signal at the SLC22A1 locus for serum acylcarnitines, intermediate metabolites of mitochondrial oxidation whose plasma levels associate with metabolic diseases. Here, we refined the association signal, performed conditional analyses, and examined the linkage structure to find coding variants of SLC22A1 that mediate independent association signals at the locus. We also employed allele-specific expression analysis to find potential regulatory variants of SLC22A1 and demonstrated the effect of one variant on the splicing of SLC22A1. SLC22A1 encodes a hepatic plasma membrane transporter whose role in acylcarnitine physiology has not been described. By targeted metabolomics and isotope tracing experiments in loss- and gain-of-function cell and mouse models of Slc22a1, we uncovered a role of SLC22A1 in the efflux of acylcarnitines from the liver to the circulation. We further validated the impacts of human variants on SLC22A1-mediated acylcarnitine efflux in vitro, explaining their association with serum acylcarnitine levels. Our findings provide the detailed molecular mechanisms of the GWAS association for serum acylcarnitines at the SLC22A1 locus by functionally validating the impact of SLC22A1 and its variants on acylcarnitine transport. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Interaction of atorvastatin with the human glial transporter SLC16A1.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Shotaro; Futagi, Yuya; Ideno, Masaya; Kobayashi, Masaki; Narumi, Katsuya; Furugen, Ayako; Iseki, Ken

    2016-10-05

    Solute carrier (SLC) 16A1 is a pH-dependent carrier of 5-oxoproline, a derivative of the amino acid. SLC16A1 interacts with carboxylate group-containing substrates, which are also present in atorvastatin, and might be the reason for its ability to interact with atorvastatin. Does atorvastatin interact with the carrier? Does it also interact with the carrier via the substrate recognition site? This study was carried out to answer these questions. Polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the expression of SLC16A1 in normal human astrocytes. We induced SLC16A1 expression in a mammalian cell line and in Xenopus laevis oocytes. We used [(3)H] 5-oxoproline for direct measurement of SLC16A1-specific transport activity. SLC16A1 was clearly observed in normal human astrocytes. 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors inhibited the SLC16A1-specific transport of 5-oxoproline. Atorvastatin was the most potent inhibitor, with an inhibition constant of 40μM. The drug was a non-competitive inhibitor of SLC16A1. In the present study, we showed non-competitive inhibition of SLC16A1-specific transport activity by atorvastatin. However, the affinity between the drug and the carrier was extremely low. Therefore, the interaction of atorvastatin with SLC16A1 is unlikely to be a problem in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Phylogenetic relationships among Perissodactyla: secretoglobin 1A1 gene duplication and triplication in the Equidae family.

    PubMed

    Côté, Olivier; Viel, Laurent; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2013-12-01

    Secretoglobin family 1A member 1 (SCGB 1A1) is a small anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory protein that is abundantly secreted in airway surface fluids. We recently reported the existence of three distinct SCGB1A1 genes in the domestic horse genome as opposed to the single gene copy consensus present in other mammals. The origin of SCGB1A1 gene triplication and the evolutionary relationship of the three genes amongst Equidae family members are unknown. For this study, SCGB1A1 genomic data were collected from various Equus individuals including E. caballus, E. przewalskii, E. asinus, E. grevyi, and E. quagga. Three SCGB1A1 genes in E. przewalskii, two SCGB1A1 genes in E. asinus, and a single SCGB1A1 gene in E. grevyi and E. quagga were identified. Sequence analysis revealed that the non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions between the different equid genes coded for 17 amino acid changes. Most of these changes localized to the SCGB 1A1 central cavity that binds hydrophobic ligands, suggesting that this area of SCGB 1A1 evolved to accommodate diverse molecular interactions. Three-dimensional modeling of the proteins revealed that the size of the SCGB 1A1 central cavity is larger than that of SCGB 1A1A. Altogether, these findings suggest that evolution of the SCGB1A1 gene may parallel the separation of caballine and non-caballine species amongst Equidae, and may indicate an expansion of function for SCGB1A1 gene products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. HsfA1a upregulates melatonin biosynthesis to confer cadmium tolerance in tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shu-Yu; Zhang, Yun; Xu, You-Ping; Qi, Zhen-Yu; Li, Meng-Qi; Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Xia, Xiao-Jian; Shi, Kai; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Reiter, Russel J; Yu, Jing-Quan; Zhou, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Melatonin regulates broad aspects of plant responses to various biotic and abiotic stresses, but the upstream regulation of melatonin biosynthesis by these stresses remains largely unknown. Herein, we demonstrate that transcription factor heat-shock factor A1a (HsfA1a) conferred cadmium (Cd) tolerance to tomato plants, in part through its positive role in inducing melatonin biosynthesis under Cd stress. Analysis of leaf phenotype, chlorophyll content, and photosynthetic efficiency revealed that silencing of the HsfA1a gene decreased Cd tolerance, whereas its overexpression enhanced plant tolerance to Cd. HsfA1a-silenced plants exhibited reduced melatonin levels, and HsfA1a overexpression stimulated melatonin accumulation and the expression of the melatonin biosynthetic gene caffeic acid O-methyltransferase 1 (COMT1) under Cd stress. Both an in vitro electrophoretic mobility shift assay and in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with qPCR analysis revealed that HsfA1a binds to the COMT1 gene promoter. Meanwhile, Cd stress induced the expression of heat-shock proteins (HSPs), which was compromised in HsfA1a-silenced plants and more robustly induced in HsfA1a-overexpressing plants under Cd stress. COMT1 silencing reduced HsfA1a-induced Cd tolerance and melatonin accumulation in HsfA1a-overexpressing plants. Additionally, the HsfA1a-induced expression of HSPs was partially compromised in COMT1-silenced wild-type or HsfA1a-overexpressing plants under Cd stress. These results demonstrate that HsfA1a confers Cd tolerance by activating transcription of the COMT1 gene and inducing accumulation of melatonin that partially upregulates expression of HSPs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Should Studies of Diabetes Treatment Stratification Correct for Baseline HbA1c?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Angus G.; Lonergan, Mike; Henley, William E.; Pearson, Ewan R.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Shields, Beverley M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Baseline HbA1c is a major predictor of response to glucose lowering therapy and therefore a potential confounder in studies aiming to identify other predictors. However, baseline adjustment may introduce error if the association between baseline HbA1c and response is substantially due to measurement error and regression to the mean. We aimed to determine whether studies of predictors of response should adjust for baseline HbA1c. Methods We assessed the relationship between baseline HbA1c and glycaemic response in 257 participants treated with GLP-1R agonists and assessed whether it reflected measurement error and regression to the mean using duplicate ‘pre-baseline’ HbA1c measurements not included in the response variable. In this cohort and an additional 2659 participants treated with sulfonylureas we assessed the relationship between covariates associated with baseline HbA1c and treatment response with and without baseline adjustment, and with a bias correction using pre-baseline HbA1c to adjust for the effects of error in baseline HbA1c. Results Baseline HbA1c was a major predictor of response (R2 = 0.19,β = -0.44,p<0.001).The association between pre-baseline and response was similar suggesting the greater response at higher baseline HbA1cs is not mainly due to measurement error and subsequent regression to the mean. In unadjusted analysis in both cohorts, factors associated with baseline HbA1c were associated with response, however these associations were weak or absent after adjustment for baseline HbA1c. Bias correction did not substantially alter associations. Conclusions Adjustment for the baseline HbA1c measurement is a simple and effective way to reduce bias in studies of predictors of response to glucose lowering therapy. PMID:27050911

  15. Phase transition in a tetragonal In90Pb10 alloy under high pressure: a switch from c/a > 1 to c/a < 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degtyareva, V. F.; Bdikin, I. K.; Porsch, F.; Novokhatskaya, N. I.

    2003-03-01

    The effect of pressure on tetragonal In-Pb alloys with 10, 15, and 22 at.% Pb has been studied up to pressure 30 GPa with diamond anvil cells using synchrotron radiation. The In-type face-centred tetragonal phase of the In alloy with 10 at.% Pb undergoes under pressure a phase transition with a discontinuous jump of the axial ratio from c/a > 1 to c/a < 1 via a two-phase region from 7 to 20 GPa. The tetragonal phases of the In alloys with 15 and 22 at.% Pb with c/a < 1 at ambient pressure show only a slight decrease in c/a with pressure increase. The correlation of the axial ratio with the alloy content and its change with pressure in In alloys and In itself are attributed to Brillouin-zone-Fermi-sphere interactions.

  16. Polar catastrophe and the structure of KT a 1 - x N b x O 3 surfaces: Results from elastic and inelastic helium atom scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Flaherty, F. A.; Trelenberg, T. W.; Li, Jiefang A.

    2015-07-13

    In this paper, the structure and dynamics of cleaved (001) surfaces of potassium tantalates doped with niobium, KTa 1-xNb xO 3 (KTN), with x ranging from 0% to 30%, were measured by helium atom scattering (HAS). Through HAS time-of-flight (TOF) experiments, a dispersionless branch (Einstein phonon branch) with energy of 13-14meV was observed across the surface Brillouin zone in all samples. When this observation is combined with the results from earlier experimental and theoretical studies on these materials, a consistent picture of the stable surface structure emerges: After cleaving the single-crystal sample, the surface should be composed of equal areasmore » of KO and TaO 2/NbO 2 terraces. The data, however, suggest that K + and O 2- ions migrate from the bulk to the surface, forming a charged KO lattice that is neutralized primarily by additional K + ions bridging pairs of surface oxygens. This structural and dynamic modification at the (001) surface of KTN appears due to its formally charged KO(-1) and TaO 2/NbO 2(+1) layers and avoids a “polar catastrophe.” Finally, this behavior is contrasted with the (001) surface behavior of the fluoride perovskite KMnF 3 with its electrically neutral KF and MnF 2 layers.« less

  17. S1(1A1)<--S0(1A1) transition of benzo[g,h,i]perylene in supersonic jets and rare gas matrices.

    PubMed

    Rouillé, G; Arold, M; Staicu, A; Krasnokutski, S; Huisken, F; Henning, Th; Tan, X; Salama, F

    2007-05-07

    The study of the S1(1A1)<--S0(1A1) transition of benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BghiP, C22H12) in supersonic jets and solid rare gas matrices is reported. In the jet-cooled spectrum, the origin band position is located at 25,027.1+/-0.2 cm-1, the assignment being supported by the analysis of vibrational shifts and rotational band contours. Except for the origin band, which is weak, all bands are attributed to the fundamental excitation of nontotally symmetric b1 vibrational modes of S1. The intensity pattern is interpreted as a consequence of the weak oscillator strength of the electronic transition combined with intensity-borrowing through vibronic interaction between the S1(1A1) and S2(1B1) states. The spectra of the S1(1A1)<--S0(1A1) and S2(1B1)<--S0(1A1) transitions have also been measured for BghiP in solid neon and argon matrices. The comparison of the redshifts determined for either transition reveals that the polarizability of BghiP is larger in its S2 than in its S1 state. Bandwidths of 2.7 cm-1 measured in supersonic jets, which provide conditions relevant for astrophysics, are similar to those of most diffuse interstellar bands. The electronic transitions of BghiP are found to lie outside the ranges covered by present databases. From the comparison between experimental spectra and theoretical computations, it is concluded that the accuracy of empirical and ab initio approaches in predicting electronic energies is still not sufficient to identify astrophysically interesting candidates for spectroscopic laboratory studies.

  18. Correlation Between Expression of High Temperature Requirement Serine Protease A1 (HtrA1) in Nucleus Pulposus and T2 Value of Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Dapeng; Yue, Jiawei; Jiang, Lu; Huang, Yonghui; Sun, Jifu; Wu, Yan

    2017-04-22

    BACKGROUND Degrading enzymes play an important role in the process of disc degeneration. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between the expression of high temperature requirement serine protease A1 (HtrA1) in the nucleus pulposus and the T2 value of the nucleus pulposus region in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty-six patients who had undergone surgical excision of the nucleus pulposus were examined by MRI before surgery. Pfirrmann grading of the target intervertebral disc was performed according to the sagittal T2-weighted imaging, and the T2 value of the target nucleus pulposus was measured according to the median sagittal T2 mapping. The correlation between the Pfirrmann grade and the T2 value was analyzed. The expression of HtrA1 in the nucleus pulposus was analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blot. The correlation between the expression of HtrA1 and the T2 value was analyzed. RESULTS The T2 value of the nucleus pulposus region was 33.11-167.91 ms, with an average of 86.64±38.73 ms. According to Spearman correlation analysis, there was a rank correlation between T2 value and Pfirrmann grade (P<0.0001), and the correlation coefficient (rs)=-0.93617. There was a linear correlation between the mRNA level of HtrA1 and T2 value in nucleus pulposus tissues (a=3.88, b=-0.019, F=112.63, P<0.0001), normalized regression coefficient=-0.88. There was a linear correlation between the expression level of HtrA1 protein and the T2 value in the nucleus pulposus tissues (a=3.30, b=-0.016, F=93.15, P<0.0001) and normalized regression coefficient=-0.86. CONCLUSIONS The expression of HtrA1 was strongly related to the T2 value, suggesting that HtrA1 plays an important role in the pathological process of intervertebral disc degeneration.

  19. Matrix Metalloproteinase-9-Generated COOH-, but Not NH2-Terminal Fragments of Serum Amyloid A1 Retain Potentiating Activity in Neutrophil Migration to CXCL8, With Loss of Direct Chemotactic and Cytokine-Inducing Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Gouwy, Mieke; De Buck, Mieke; Abouelasrar Salama, Sara; Vandooren, Jennifer; Knoops, Sofie; Pörtner, Noëmie; Vanbrabant, Lotte; Berghmans, Nele; Opdenakker, Ghislain; Proost, Paul; Van Damme, Jo; Struyf, Sofie

    2018-01-01

    Serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) is a prototypic acute phase protein, induced to extremely high levels by physical insults, including inflammation and infection. Human SAA and its NH2-terminal part have been studied extensively in the context of amyloidosis. By contrast, little is known about COOH-terminal fragments of SAA. Intact SAA1 chemoattracts leukocytes via the G protein-coupled receptor formyl peptide receptor like 1/formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2). In addition to direct leukocyte activation, SAA1 induces chemokine production by signaling through toll-like receptor 2. We recently discovered that these induced chemokines synergize with intact SAA1 to chemoattract leukocytes in vitro and in vivo. Gelatinase B or matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is also induced by SAA1 during infection and inflammation and processes many substrates in the immune system. We demonstrate here that MMP-9 rapidly cleaves SAA1 at a known consensus sequence that is also present in gelatins. Processing of SAA1 by MMP-9 at an accessible loop between two alpha helices yielded predominantly three COOH-terminal fragments: SAA1(52–104), SAA1(57–104), and SAA1(58–104), with a relative molecular mass of 5,884.4, 5,327.3, and 5,256.3, respectively. To investigate the effect of proteolytic processing on the biological activity of SAA1, we chemically synthesized the COOH-terminal SAA fragments SAA1(52–104) and SAA1(58–104) and the complementary NH2-terminal peptide SAA1(1–51). In contrast to intact SAA1, the synthesized SAA1 peptides did not induce interleukin-8/CXCL8 in monocytes or fibroblasts. Moreover, these fragments possessed no direct chemotactic activity for neutrophils, as observed for intact SAA1. However, comparable to intact SAA1, SAA1(58–104) cooperated with CXCL8 in neutrophil activation and migration, whereas SAA1(1–51) lacked this potentiating activity. This cooperative interaction between the COOH-terminal SAA1 fragment and CXCL8 in neutrophil chemotaxis was mediated

  20. 26 CFR 1.667(a)-1A - Denial of refund to trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Denial of refund to trusts. 1.667(a)-1A Section 1.667(a)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME... Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.667(a)-1A Denial of refund to trusts. If an amount is...

  1. 26 CFR 1.667(a)-1A - Denial of refund to trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Denial of refund to trusts. 1.667(a)-1A Section 1.667(a)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.667(a)-1A Denial of refund to trusts. If an amount is deemed under...

  2. Systemic effects of arctic pollutants in beluga whales indicated by CYP1A1 expression.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Joanna Y; Cooke, Suzy R; Moore, Michael J; Martineau, Daniel; Mikaelian, Igor; Metner, Donald A; Lockhart, W Lyle; Stegeman, John J

    2005-11-01

    Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) is induced by exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) such as non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, we examined CYP1A1 protein expression immunohistochemically in multiple organs of beluga whales from two locations in the Arctic and from the St. Lawrence estuary. These beluga populations have some of the lowest (Arctic sites) and highest (St. Lawrence estuary) concentrations of PCBs in blubber of all cetaceans. Samples from these populations might be expected to have different contaminant-induced responses, reflecting their different exposure histories. The pattern and extent of CYP1A1 staining in whales from all three locations were similar to those seen in animal models in which CYP1A has been highly induced, indicating a high-level expression in these whales. CYP1A1 induction has been related to toxic effects of PHAHs or PAHs in some species. In St. Lawrence beluga, the high level of CYP1A1 expression coupled with high levels of contaminants (including CYP1A1 substrates, e.g., PAH procarcinogens potentially activated by CYP1A1) indicates that CYP1A1 could be involved in the development of neoplastic lesions seen in the St. Lawrence beluga population. The systemic high-level expression of CYP1A1 in Arctic beluga suggests that effects of PAHs or PHAHs may be expected in Arctic populations, as well. The high-level expression of CYP1A1 in the Arctic beluga suggests that this species is highly sensitive to CYP1A1 induction by aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists.

  3. Longitudinal trends in HbA1c patterns and association with outcomes: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Luo, Miyang; Tan, Kristin Hui Xian; Tan, Chuen Seng; Lim, Wei Yen; Tai, E-Shyong; Venkataraman, Kavita

    2018-04-17

    This study aimed to review studies that identified patterns of longitudinal HbA 1c trends in patients with diabetes and to summarize factors and outcomes associated with distinct trajectory patterns. PubMed and Web of Science were systematically searched for studies examining HbA 1c trends among patients with diabetes from database inception through September 2017. Articles were included if they met the following inclusion criteria: (a) longitudinal study of subjects with diabetes only, (b) use of serial measurements of HbA 1c , and (c) analysis of the trend of HbA 1c using group-based trajectory approaches. Twenty studies were included, 11 on type 1 diabetes and 9 on type 2 diabetes. These studies identified 2 to 6 HbA 1c trajectory patterns. The most commonly identified patterns included stable HbA 1c around 7.0% and at levels between 8.0% and 9.9%, which usually captured the HbA 1c pattern among the majority of subjects in the study population. Unstable patterns identified included increasing HbA 1c trend, decreasing HbA 1c trend, and non-linear patterns. These patterns were associated with differential risk of disease outcomes, over and beyond single-point HbA 1c measures. Age, gender, ethnicity, diabetes duration, disease management frequency, cardiovascular risk factors, insulin treatment, family environment, and psychosocial factors were the most frequently reported factors associated with membership of specific HbA 1c pattern groups. Common patterns of longitudinal HbA 1c trends were identified despite heterogeneity among the studies. A better understanding of what underlies these different patterns may provide opportunities to tailor therapies and care for these patients to reduce adverse outcomes. © 2018 The Authors. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Systemic Effects of Arctic Pollutants in Beluga Whales Indicated by CYP1A1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Joanna Y.; Cooke, Suzy R.; Moore, Michael J.; Martineau, Daniel; Mikaelian, Igor; Metner, Donald A.; Lockhart, W. Lyle; Stegeman, John J.

    2005-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) is induced by exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) such as non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, we examined CYP1A1 protein expression immunohistochemically in multiple organs of beluga whales from two locations in the Arctic and from the St. Lawrence estuary. These beluga populations have some of the lowest (Arctic sites) and highest (St. Lawrence estuary) concentrations of PCBs in blubber of all cetaceans. Samples from these populations might be expected to have different contaminant-induced responses, reflecting their different exposure histories. The pattern and extent of CYP1A1 staining in whales from all three locations were similar to those seen in animal models in which CYP1A has been highly induced, indicating a high-level expression in these whales. CYP1A1 induction has been related to toxic effects of PHAHs or PAHs in some species. In St. Lawrence beluga, the high level of CYP1A1 expression coupled with high levels of contaminants (including CYP1A1 substrates, e.g., PAH procarcinogens potentially activated by CYP1A1) indicates that CYP1A1 could be involved in the development of neoplastic lesions seen in the St. Lawrence beluga population. The systemic high-level expression of CYP1A1 in Arctic beluga suggests that effects of PAHs or PHAHs may be expected in Arctic populations, as well. The high-level expression of CYP1A1 in the Arctic beluga suggests that this species is highly sensitive to CYP1A1 induction by aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists. PMID:16263517

  5. Idiosyncrasies of hnRNP A1-RNA recognition: Can binding mode influence function.

    PubMed

    Levengood, Jeffrey D; Tolbert, Blanton S

    2018-04-09

    The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) are a diverse family of RNA binding proteins that function in most stages of RNA metabolism. The prototypical member, hnRNP A1, is composed of three major domains; tandem N-terminal RNA Recognition Motifs (RRMs) and a C-terminal mostly intrinsically disordered region. HnRNP A1 is broadly implicated in basic cellular RNA processing events such as splicing, stability, nuclear export and translation. Due to its ubiquity and abundance, hnRNP A1 is also frequently usurped to control viral gene expression. Deregulation of the RNA metabolism functions of hnRNP A1 in neuronal cells contributes to several neurodegenerative disorders. Because of these roles in human pathologies, the study of hnRNP A1 provides opportunities for the development of novel therapeutics, with disruption of its RNA binding capabilities being the most promising target. The functional diversity of hnRNP A1 is reflected in the complex nature by which it interacts with various RNA targets. Indeed, hnRNP A1 binds both structured and unstructured RNAs with binding affinities that span several magnitudes. Available structures of hnRNP A1-RNA complexes also suggest a degree of plasticity in molecular recognition. Given the reinvigoration in hnRNP A1, the goal of this review is to use the available structural biochemical developments as a framework to interpret its wide-range of RNA functions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Tyrosine Phosphorylation of the Pioneer Transcription Factor FoxA1 Promotes Activation of Estrogen Signaling.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Noritaka; Shibazaki, Misato; Yamada, Chiaki; Anzai, Erina; Morii, Mariko; Nakayama, Yuji; Kuga, Takahisa; Hashimoto, Yuuki; Tomonaga, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2017-06-01

    The pioneer transcription factor FoxA1 plays an important role in estrogen signaling by opening closed chromatin and promoting recruitment of the estrogen receptor to its target regions in DNA. In this study, we analyzed tyrosine phosphorylation of FoxA1 by the non-receptor-type tyrosine kinase c-Abl. c-Abl was shown to phosphorylate FoxA1 at multiple sites, especially in the N- and C-terminal regions. Tyr429 and Tyr464 were identified as the major phosphorylation sites in the FoxA1 C-terminal region. The phosphomimetic and nonphosphorylatable FoxA1 mutants were generated by glutamic acid and phenylalanine substitutions at these tyrosine residues, respectively. The phosphomimetic FoxA1 promoted the activation of estrogen signaling, whereas the nonphosphorylatable FoxA1 suppressed its activation. Stimulation with the epidermal growth factor, which activates c-Abl, enhanced the activation of estrogen signaling. In contrast, the c-Abl inhibitor imatinib reduced its activation. The phosphomimetic FoxA1 mutant showed a higher affinity toward histone H3 than the wild-type. These results suggest that c-Abl-mediated phosphorylation of FoxA1 promotes the activation of estrogen signaling by inducing its binding to histones. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1453-1461, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The biosynthesis of human hemoglobin A1c. Slow glycosylation of hemoglobin in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Bunn, H F; Haney, D N; Kamin, S; Gabbay, K H; Gallop, P M

    1976-01-01

    Hemoglobin A1c, the most abundant minor hemoglobin component in human erythrocytes, is formed by the condensation of glucose with the N-terminal amino groups of the beta-chains of Hb A. The biosynthesis of this glycosylated hemoglobin was studied in vitro by incubating suspensions of reticulocytes and bone marrow cells with [3H]leucine or 59Fe-bound transferrin. In all experiments, the specific activity of Hb A1c was significantly lower than that of Hb A, suggesting that the formation of Hb A1c is a posttranslational modification. The formation of Hb A1c in vivo was determined in two individuals who were given an infusion of 59Fe-labeled transferrin. As expected, the specific activity of Hb A rose promptly to a maximum during the 1st week and remained nearly constant thereafter. In contrast, the specific activity of Hb A1c and also of Hbs A1a and A1b rose slowly, reaching that of Hb A by about day 60. These results indicate that Hb A1c is slowly formed during the 120-day life-span of the erythrocyte, probably by a nonenzymatic process. Patients with shortened erythrocyte life-span due to hemolysis had markedly decreased levels of Hb A1c. PMID:932199

  8. The impact of the UGT1A1*60 allele on bilirubin serum concentrations.

    PubMed

    Pasternak, Amy L; Crews, Kristine R; Caudle, Kelly E; Smith, Colton; Pei, Deqing; Cheng, Cheng; Broeckel, Ulrich; Gaur, Aditya H; Hankins, Jane; Relling, Mary V; Haidar, Cyrine E

    2017-01-01

    Identify the functional status of the uridine-diphosphate glucuronyl transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) -3279T>G (*60) variant. Retrospective review of clinically obtained serum bilirubin concentrations in pediatric patients to evaluate the association of the UGT1A1 -3279T>G (*60) variant with bilirubin concentrations and assessed linkage disequilibrium of the UGT1A1 -3279T>G (*60) and A(TA)7TAA (*28) variants. Total bilirubin concentration did not differ between patients who had a UGT1A1*1/*1 diplotype and patients homozygous for the UGT1A1 -3279T>G (*60/*60) variant. Total bilirubin concentration was lower in patients homozygous for the UGT1A1 -3279T>G (*60/*60) variant than in patients homozygous for the UGT1A1 A(TA)7TAA (*28/*28) variant (p < 0.01). The -3279T>G (*60) and A(TA)7TAA (*28) variants were in strong incomplete linkage disequilibrium in both black and white patients. The presence of the UGT1A1 -3279T>G (*60) variant is not associated with increased bilirubin concentrations.

  9. Can overt diabetes mellitus be predicted by an early A1C value in gestational diabetics?

    PubMed

    Granada, Catalina; Forbes, Joanna; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Davidson, Christina

    2014-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that a hemoglobin A1C value (A1C) in early pregnancy is predictive of overt diabetes mellitus (DM) postpartum in women with gestational diabetes (GDM). In this case-control analysis of women with an early pregnancy diagnosis of GDM, we estimated the association between an early pregnancy A1C and subsequent diagnosis of DM. Women with a normal postpartum diabetic screen (controls) were compared against those with confirmed postpartum DM (cases). Ability of A1C levels to predict DM was examined via logistic regression analysis and corresponding receiver operating characteristic values. During the 10-year study period 166 women met the inclusion criteria: 140 (84%) had normal postpartum testing (controls), and 26 (16%) were diagnosed with DM (cases). The mean A1C value was significantly higher among cases than controls (6.7 vs. 5.6, p < 0.0001, SD 1.3-5). Cases had A1Cs ranging from 5.5- 11.7%, while controls had A1Cs ranging from 4.3-7.8%. The best discriminatory cut point for postpartum DM was an A1C > 5.9% (sensitivity 81%, specificity 83%, positive predictive value 47%, negative predictive value Our findings suggest that an elevated early pregnancy A1C may be predictive of overt DM. Larger studies are needed to further validate this association.

  10. Analytical performances of a new enzymatic assay for hemoglobin A1c.

    PubMed

    Jaisson, Stéphane; Desmons, Aurore; Renard, Benoît; Chevelle, Benjamin; Leroy, Nathalie; Gillery, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    HbA1c is considered the gold standard for the follow-up of diabetic patients and a new diagnostic tool for diabetes mellitus, which implies the availability of reliable assay methods. We have evaluated a new assay developed by Abbott Laboratories, based on the enzymatic quantification of HbA1c by a fructosyl dipeptide oxidase using Architect analyzers. Precision, linearity, correlation with a HPLC method, accuracy and potential impact interferences on HbA1c measurement have been evaluated. Intra-day and between-day CVs were lower than 1.2% and linearity was excellent from 19 mmol/mol (3.9%) to 163 mmol/mol (17.1%). The results were well correlated with those obtained by the HPLC (Variant II device, kit NU - BioRad): HbA1c [Architect, mmol/mol]=0.986×HbA1c [Variant II, mmol/mol]+0.713 (r=0.998, n=109). This method provided consistent results with IFCC titrated quality control samples. Classical interferences in HbA1c assays (i.e. labile HbA1c, carbamylated hemoglobin, triglycerides or bilirubin) did not have an impact on HbA1c quantification by this method. This new enzymatic assay proved to be a robust and reliable method for HbA1c measurement suitable for routine practice in clinical chemistry laboratories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship of hemoglobin A1c to mortality in nonsmoking insurance applicants.

    PubMed

    Stout, Robert L; Fulks, Michael; Dolan, Vera F; Magee, Mark E; Suarez, Luis

    2007-01-01

    Determine the relationship between hemoglobin A1c value and 5-year, all-cause mortality in nonsmoking life insurance applicants. By use of the Social Security Master Death Index, mortality was examined in 286,443 non-smoking insurance applicants aged 40 and up for whom blood samples for hemoglobin A1c were submitted to the Clinical Reference Laboratory. Results were stratified by hemoglobin A1c value, gender and age bands 40 to 59, 60 to 69 and 70 and up. Increased mortality is apparent at hemoglobin A1c values of 6% and above, is linear, and on a percentage basis decreases with age. Hemoglobin A1c values less than 5% also are associated with increased mortality. Absolute mortality rates for females with elevated hemoglobin A1c are generally lower than rates for males, although mortality relative to the gender-specific reference group with hemoglobin A1c of 5% to 5.9% is generally the same for both. The importance of even small elevations of hemoglobin A1c above 5.9% is apparent. For screening, it is the degree of blood sugar elevation as measured by hemoglobin A1c rather than any diagnostic label that is critical in risk assessment.

  12. Analysis of HbA1c on an automated multicapillary zone electrophoresis system.

    PubMed

    Rollborn, Niclas; Åkerfeldt, Torbjörn; Nordin, Gunnar; Xu, Xiao Yan; Mandic-Havelka, Aleksandra; Hansson, Lars-Olof; Larsson, Anders

    2017-02-01

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a frequently requested laboratory test and there is thus a need for high throughput instruments for this assay. We evaluated a new automated multicapillary zone electrophoresis instrument (Capillarys 3 Tera, Sebia, Lisses, France) for analysis of HbA1c in venous samples. Routine requested HbA1c samples were analyzed immunologically on a Roche c6000 instrument (n = 142) and then with the Capillarys 3 Tera instrument. The Capillarys 3 Tera instrument performed approximately 70 HbA1c tests/hour. There was a strong linear correlation between Capillarys 3 Tera and Roche Tina-Quant HbA1c Gen 3 assay (y = 1.003x - 0.3246 R 2  = .996). The total CV for the 12 capillaries varied between 0.8 and 2.2% and there was a good agreement between duplicate samples (R 2  = .997). In conclusion, the Capillarys 3 Tera instrument has a high assay capacity for HbA1c. It has a good precision and agreement with the Roche Tina-Quant HbA1c method and is well suited for high volume testing of HbA1c.

  13. The Analysis of A1 Level Speaking Exam in Terms of Syntax: The Effect of General Competence on Syntax in A1 Level Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misir, Hülya

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at discovering the relevance of general competence of Turkish and Arab learners who have an A1 level of English proficiency in preparatory school of University of Turkish Aeronautical Association (UTAA) to their speaking skill in terms of syntax by analyzing the recordings of speaking exams in the first semester. One can ask why…

  14. Up-regulation of hnRNP A1, Ezrin, tubulin β-2C and Annexin A1 in sentinel lymph nodes of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhen-Yu; Wen, Hao; Shi, Chuan-Bing; Wang, Jie

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the early metastasis-associated proteins in sentinel lymph node micrometastasis (SLNMM) of colorectal cancer (CRC) through comparative proteome. METHODS: Hydrophobic protein samples were extracted from individual-matched normal lymph nodes (NLN) and SLNMM of CRC. Differentially expressed protein spots were detected by two-dimensional electrophoresis and image analysis, and subsequently identified by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry and Western blotting, respectively. RESULTS: Forty proteins were differentially expressed in NLN and SLNMM, and 4 metastasis-concerned proteins highly expressed in SLNMM were identified to be hnRNP A1, Ezrin, tubulin β-2C and Annexin A1. Further immunohistochemistry staining of these four proteins showed their clinicopathological characteristics in lymph node metastasis of CRC. CONCLUSION: Variations of hydrophobic protein expression in NLN and SLNMM of CRC and increased expression of hnRNP A1, Ezrin, tubulin β-2C and Annexin A1 in SLNMM suggest a significantly elevated early CRC metastasis. PMID:20872967

  15. Proteomic analysis reveals the enhancement of human serum apolipoprotein A-1(APO A-1) in individuals infected with multiple dengue virus serotypes.

    PubMed

    Manchala, Nageswar Reddy; Dungdung, Ranjeet; Pilankatta, Rajendra

    2017-10-01

    Human serum protein profiling of the individual infected with multiple dengue virus serotypes for identifying the potential biomarkers and to investigate the cause for the severity of dengue virus infection. Dengue virus NS1-positive serum samples were pooled into two groups (S2 and S3) based on the molecular serotyping and number of heterotypic infections. The pooled serum samples were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) to identify the differentially expressed proteins. The peptide masses of upregulated protein were detected by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation time-of-flight MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and analysed by MASCOT search engine. The results were compared with the control group (S1). The commonly upregulated protein was validated by quantitative ELISA and compared with control as well as single serotypic infected samples. Based on 2DGE, total thirteen proteins were differentially upregulated in S2 and S3 groups as compared to control. Some of the upregulated proteins were involved in mediating the complement activation of immune response. The apolipoprotein A-1 (APO A-1) was upregulated in S2 and S3 groups. Upon validation, APO A-1 levels were increased in line with the number of heterotypic infection of dengue viruses. Heterotypic infection of dengue viruses upregulate the serum proteins involved in the complement pathway in the early phase of infection. There was a significant increase in the level of APO A-1 in three different serotypic infections of dengue virus as compared to control. Further, the role of APO-A1 can be explored in elucidating the mechanism of dengue pathogenesis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Deletions at SLC18A1 increased the risk of CRC and lower SLC18A1 expression associated with poor CRC outcome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dandan; Li, Zhenli; Xu, Xiaohong; Zhou, Dan; Tang, Shunli; Yin, Xiaoyang; Xu, Fangying; Li, Hui; Zhou, Yuan; Zhu, Tao; Deng, Hong; Zhang, Shuai; Huang, Qiong; Wang, Jing; Yin, Wei; Zhu, Yimin; Lai, Maode

    2017-10-26

    Copy number variations (CNVs) contribute to the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). We conducted a two-stage association study to identify CNV risk loci for CRC. We performed a gene-based rare CNV study on 694 sporadic CRC and 1641 controls using Illumina Human-OmniExpress-12v1.0 BeadChips, and further replicated in 934 CRC cases and 2680 controls for risk CNVs by using TaqMan Copy Number Assay. Tumor buddings, cancer cells in the center of primary tumor and normal intestinal epithelial cells were captured using laser capture microdissection (LCM) and were assayed using AffymetrixGeneChip® Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array. In addition, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus data were assessed for the effects of risk CNVs. We found that germline deletions affecting the last six exons of SLC18A1 significantly associated with CRC with a combined P value of 6.4 × 10-5 by a two-stage analysis. Both in TCGA CRC RNA seq dataset and GDS4382, SLC18A1 was significantly down regulated in CRC tissues than in paired normal tissues (N = 32 and 17 pairs, P = 0.004 and 0.009, respectively). In LCM samples, similar observations were obtained that the expression levels of SLC18A1 in the tumor buddings, cancer cells in the center of primary tumor, and stroma of both tumor budding and cancer cells were lower than normal intestinal epithelial and stromal cells (fold change = 0.17-0.62, 0.12-0.57 and 0.37-0.68, respectively). In summary, the germline deletions at SLC18A1 contributed to the development of CRC. The role of SLC18A1 required further exploration. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. HUMAN HtrA1 IN THE ARCHIVED EYES WITH AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chi-Chao; Shen, Defen; Zhou, Min; Ross, Robert J.; Ding, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Kang; Green, W. Richard; Tuo, Jingsheng

    2007-01-01

    Purpose HtrA1 belongs to the high temperature requirement factor A family of serine proteases, which are involved in protein quality control and cell fate. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs11200638, in the promoter of HtrA1 at chromosome 10q26 is reported as a likely causal variant for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The SNP is located in the regulatory region and increases production of HtrA1 protein. This study investigates HtrA1 expression and SNP genotypes in archived ocular slides with AMD. Methods Macular, nonretinal, and peripheral retinal cells were microdissected from archived slides from 57 eyes with AMD and 16 age-matched, non-AMD controls. HtrA1 rs11200638 SNP genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. HtrA1 transcripts were measured using real-time reverse transcriptase–PCR. HtrA1 protein expression was evaluated using avidin-biotin complex immunohistochemistry. Results HtrA1 (G/A) SNP was successfully genotyped in 52 AMD cases and 13 non-AMD subjects. The frequencies of the risk allele (A) were 55 of 104 (52.9%) and 8 of 26 (30.8%) in AMD and control groups, respectively. HtrA1 mRNA was detected in normal peripheral and macular retinas, higher in the periphery than maculae. HtrA1 mRNA was much higher in the macula and a lot lower in the periphery of the AMD eyes as compared to control eyes. HtrA1 protein was expressed in normal retinal vascular endothelia and retinal pigment epithelia. Intense immunoreaction against HtrA1 was found in AMD lesions, slightly more in wet than dry AMD lesions. Conclusion This study successfully analyzes HtrA1 SNP and transcript expression in microdissected cells from archived paraffin fixed slides. Up-regulation of HtrA1 is detected in the macular lesions of AMD eyes. The data further suggest that rs11200638 in HtrA1 promoter is associated with AMD development. PMID:18427598

  18. Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1a1 Null Mice Are Sensitive to Cholestatic Liver Injury