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Sample records for a1 protease activity

  1. Plant cysteine proteases that evoke itch activate protease-activated receptors

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, V.B.; Lerner, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bromelain, ficin and papain are cysteine proteases from plants that produce itch upon injection into skin. Their mechanism of action has not been considered previously. Objectives To determine the mechanism by which these proteases function. Methods The ability of these proteases to activate protease-activated receptors was determined by ratiometric calcium imaging. Results We show here that bromelain, ficin and papain activate protease-activated receptors 2 and 4. Conclusions Bromelain, ficin and papain function as signalling molecules and activate protease-activated receptors. Activation of these receptors is the likely mechanism by which these proteases evoke itch. PMID:20491769

  2. Inhibition of Prevotella and Capnocytophaga immunoglobulin A1 proteases by human serum.

    PubMed

    Frandsen, E V; Kjeldsen, M; Kilian, M

    1997-07-01

    Oral Prevotella and Capnocytophaga species, regularly isolated from periodontal pockets and associated with extraoral infections, secret specific immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) proteases cleaving human IgA1 in the hinge region into intact Fab and Fc fragments. To investigate whether these enzymes are subject to inhibition in vivo in humans, we tested 34 sera from periodontally diseased and healthy individuals in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the presence and titers of inhibition of seven Prevotella and Capnocytophaga proteases. All or nearly all of the sera inhibited the IgA1 protease activity of Prevotella buccae, Prevotella oris, and Prevotella loescheii. A minor proportion of the sera inhibited Prevotella buccalis, Prevotella denticola, and Prevotella melaninogenica IgA1 proteases, while no sera inhibited Capnocytophaga ochracea IgA1 protease. All inhibition titers were low, ranging from 5 to 55, with titer being defined as the reciprocal of the dilution of serum causing 50% inhibition of one defined unit of protease activity. No correlation between periodontal disease status and the presence, absence, or titer of inhibition was observed. The nature of the low titers of inhibition in all sera of the IgA1 proteases of P. buccae, P. oris, and P. loescheii was further examined. In size exclusion chromatography, inhibitory activity corresponded to the peak volume of IgA. Additional inhibition of the P. oris IgA1 protease was found in fractions containing both IgA and IgG. Purification of the IgG fractions of five sera by passage of the sera on a protein G column resulted in recovery of inhibitory IgG antibodies against all three IgA1 proteases, with the highest titer being for the P. oris enzyme. These finding indicate that inhibitory activity is associated with enzyme-neutralizing antibodies.

  3. Inhibition of Prevotella and Capnocytophaga immunoglobulin A1 proteases by human serum.

    PubMed Central

    Frandsen, E V; Kjeldsen, M; Kilian, M

    1997-01-01

    Oral Prevotella and Capnocytophaga species, regularly isolated from periodontal pockets and associated with extraoral infections, secret specific immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) proteases cleaving human IgA1 in the hinge region into intact Fab and Fc fragments. To investigate whether these enzymes are subject to inhibition in vivo in humans, we tested 34 sera from periodontally diseased and healthy individuals in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the presence and titers of inhibition of seven Prevotella and Capnocytophaga proteases. All or nearly all of the sera inhibited the IgA1 protease activity of Prevotella buccae, Prevotella oris, and Prevotella loescheii. A minor proportion of the sera inhibited Prevotella buccalis, Prevotella denticola, and Prevotella melaninogenica IgA1 proteases, while no sera inhibited Capnocytophaga ochracea IgA1 protease. All inhibition titers were low, ranging from 5 to 55, with titer being defined as the reciprocal of the dilution of serum causing 50% inhibition of one defined unit of protease activity. No correlation between periodontal disease status and the presence, absence, or titer of inhibition was observed. The nature of the low titers of inhibition in all sera of the IgA1 proteases of P. buccae, P. oris, and P. loescheii was further examined. In size exclusion chromatography, inhibitory activity corresponded to the peak volume of IgA. Additional inhibition of the P. oris IgA1 protease was found in fractions containing both IgA and IgG. Purification of the IgG fractions of five sera by passage of the sera on a protein G column resulted in recovery of inhibitory IgG antibodies against all three IgA1 proteases, with the highest titer being for the P. oris enzyme. These finding indicate that inhibitory activity is associated with enzyme-neutralizing antibodies. PMID:9220164

  4. In vivo cleavage of immunoglobulin A1 by immunoglobulin A1 proteases from Prevotella and Capnocytophaga species.

    PubMed

    Frandsen, E V; Reinholdt, J; Kjeldsen, M; Kilian, M

    1995-10-01

    Immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) proteases secreted by oral Prevotella and Capnocytophaga species specifically cleave IgA1 at the same peptide bond in the hinge region, leaving intact monomeric Fab and Fc fragments. Assuming that Prevotella- and Capnocytophaga-induced Fab fragments of IgA1 expose a specific immunogenic neoepitope at the cleavage site, we established an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure human serum antibodies to this neoepitope as indirect evidence of in vivo activity of Prevotella and Capnocytophaga IgA1 proteases. The assay used a monoclonal antibody with specificity for the neoepitope, and the ability to block binding of the monoclonal antibody to the neoepitope was investigated. Absorption of sera with Prevotella melaninogenica-induced Fab fragments of IgA1 resulted in removal of antibodies blocking binding of the monoclonal antibody, whereas absorption with Fab fragments induced by bacterial IgA1 proteases of other cleavage specificities did not remove blocking antibodies. Consequently, we assume that the antibodies detected had been induced by a neoepitope an the Fab fragment of IgA1 exposed exclusively after cleavage with IgA1 proteases from Prevotella and Capnocytophaga, indicating in vivo activity of these IgA1 proteases. Evidence, though indirect, of in vivo activity of Prevotella and Capnocytophaga IgA1 proteases was present in 42 of 92 sera examined and in a significantly higher proportion of sera from adults with periodontal disease compared with control individuals. No correlation with disease was observed for the juvenile periodontitis groups.

  5. Activities of Vacuolar Cysteine Proteases in Plant Senescence.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Dana E; Costa, Lorenza; Guiamét, Juan José

    2018-01-01

    Plant senescence is accompanied by a marked increase in proteolytic activities, and cysteine proteases (Cys-protease) represent the prevailing class among the responsible proteases. Cys-proteases predominantly locate to lytic compartments, i.e., to the central vacuole (CV) and to senescence-associated vacuoles (SAVs), the latter being specific to the photosynthetic cells of senescing leaves. Cellular fractionation of vacuolar compartments may facilitate Cys-proteases purification and their concentration for further analysis. Active Cys-proteases may be analyzed by different, albeit complementary approaches: (1) in vivo examination of proteolytic activity by fluorescence microscopy using specific substrates which become fluorescent upon cleavage by Cys-proteases, (2) protease labeling with specific probes that react irreversibly with the active enzymes, and (3) zymography, whereby protease activities are detected in polyacrylamide gels copolymerized with a substrate for proteases. Here we describe the three methods mentioned above for detection of active Cys-proteases and a cellular fractionation technique to isolate SAVs.

  6. Lack of cleavage of immunoglobulin A (IgA) from rhesus monkeys by bacterial IgA1 proteases.

    PubMed Central

    Reinholdt, J; Kilian, M

    1991-01-01

    Bacterial immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) proteases cleaving IgA1 and secretory IgA1 molecules in the hinge region are believed to be important virulence factors. Previous studies have indicated that IgA of humans, gorillas, and chimpanzees are the exclusive substrates of these enzymes. In a recent study, IgA from the rhesus monkey was found to be susceptible to the IgA1 protease activity of Streptococcus pneumoniae. In an attempt to reproduce this observation, we found that neither five isolates of S. pneumoniae nor other IgA1 protease-producing bacteria representing different cleavage specificities caused cleavage of rhesus monkey IgA. Hence, the rhesus monkey does not appear to be a suitable animal model for studies of IgA1 proteases as virulence factors. Images PMID:2037384

  7. Subfamily-Specific Fluorescent Probes for Cysteine Proteases Display Dynamic Protease Activities during Seed Germination.

    PubMed

    Lu, Haibin; Chandrasekar, Balakumaran; Oeljeklaus, Julian; Misas-Villamil, Johana C; Wang, Zheming; Shindo, Takayuki; Bogyo, Matthew; Kaiser, Markus; van der Hoorn, Renier A L

    2015-08-01

    Cysteine proteases are an important class of enzymes implicated in both developmental and defense-related programmed cell death and other biological processes in plants. Because there are dozens of cysteine proteases that are posttranslationally regulated by processing, environmental conditions, and inhibitors, new methodologies are required to study these pivotal enzymes individually. Here, we introduce fluorescence activity-based probes that specifically target three distinct cysteine protease subfamilies: aleurain-like proteases, cathepsin B-like proteases, and vacuolar processing enzymes. We applied protease activity profiling with these new probes on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) protease knockout lines and agroinfiltrated leaves to identify the probe targets and on other plant species to demonstrate their broad applicability. These probes revealed that most commercially available protease inhibitors target unexpected proteases in plants. When applied on germinating seeds, these probes reveal dynamic activities of aleurain-like proteases, cathepsin B-like proteases, and vacuolar processing enzymes, coinciding with the remobilization of seed storage proteins. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Protease and Protease-Activated Receptor-2 Signaling in the Pathogenesis of Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Eun; Jeong, Se Kyoo

    2010-01-01

    Proteases in the skin are essential to epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis. In addition to their direct proteolytic effects, certain proteases signal to cells by activating protease-activated receptors (PARs), the G-protein-coupled receptors. The expression of functional PAR-2 on human skin and its role in inflammation, pruritus, and skin barrier homeostasis have been demonstrated. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease characterized by genetic barrier defects and allergic inflammation, which is sustained by gene-environmental interactions. Recent studies have revealed aberrant expression and activation of serine proteases and PAR-2 in the lesional skin of AD patients. The imbalance between proteases and protease inhibitors associated with genetic defects in the protease/protease inhibitor encoding genes, increase in skin surface pH, and exposure to proteolytically active allergens contribute to this aberrant protease/PAR-2 signaling in AD. The increased protease activity in AD leads to abnormal desquamation, degradation of lipid-processing enzymes and antimicrobial peptides, and activation of primary cytokines, thereby leading to permeability barrier dysfunction, inflammation, and defects in the antimicrobial barrier. Moreover, up-regulated proteases stimulate PAR-2 in lesional skin of AD and lead to the production of cytokines and chemokines involved in inflammation and immune responses, itching sensation, and sustained epidermal barrier perturbation with easier allergen penetration. In addition, PAR-2 is an important sensor for exogenous danger molecules, such as exogenous proteases from various allergens, and plays an important role in AD pathogenesis. Together, these findings suggest that protease activity or PAR-2 may be a future target for therapeutic intervention for the treatment of AD. PMID:20879045

  9. Serological Analysis of Immunogenic Properties of Recombinant Meningococcus IgA1 Protease-Based Proteins.

    PubMed

    Kotelnikova, O V; Zinchenko, A A; Vikhrov, A A; Alliluev, A P; Serova, O V; Gordeeva, E A; Zhigis, L S; Zueva, V S; Razgulyaeva, O A; Melikhova, T D; Nokel, E A; Drozhzhina, E Yu; Rumsh, L D

    2016-07-01

    Using the genome sequence of IgA1 protease of N. meningitidis of serogroup B, four recombinant proteins of different structure and molecular weight were constructed. These proteins were equal in inducing the formation of specific antibodies to IgA1 protease and had protective properties against meningococci. In the sera of immunized mice, anti-IgA1 protease antibodies were detected by whole-cell ELISA, which indicated the presence of IgA1 protease on the surface of these bacteria. We hypothesized that the protective properties of IgA1 protease-based antigens and IgA1 protease analogs could be realized not only via impairment of bacterium adhesion to the mucosa, but also via suppression of this pathogen in the organism. The presented findings seem promising for using these proteins as the basis for anti-meningococcus vaccine.

  10. In vivo imaging of protease activity by Probody therapeutic activation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kenneth R.; Menendez, Elizabeth; Craik, Charles S.; Kavanaugh, W. Michael; Vasiljeva, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Probody™ therapeutics are recombinant, proteolytically-activated antibody prodrugs, engineered to remain inert until activated locally by tumor-associated proteases. Probody therapeutics exploit the fundamental dysregulation of extracellular protease activity that exists in tumors relative to healthy tissue. Leveraging the ability of a Probody therapeutic to bind its target at the site of disease after proteolytic cleavage, we developed a novel method for profiling protease activity in living animals. Using NIR optical imaging, we demonstrated that a non-labeled anti-EGFR Probody therapeutic can become activated and compete for binding to tumor cells in vivo with a labeled anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody. Furthermore, by inhibiting matriptase activity in vivo with a blocking-matriptase antibody, we show that the ability of the Probody therapeutic to bind EGFR in vivo was dependent on protease activity. These results demonstrate that in vivo imaging of Probody therapeutic activation can be used for screening and characterization of protease activity in living animals, and provide a method that avoids some of the limitations of prior methods. This approach can improve our understanding of the activity of proteases in disease models and help to develop efficient strategies for cancer diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26546838

  11. Detection of protease and protease activity using a single nanoscrescent SERS probe

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gang L.; Ellman, Jonathan A.; Lee, Luke P.; Chen, Fanqing Frank

    2013-01-29

    This invention pertains to the in vitro detection of proteases using a single peptide-conjugate nanocrescent surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probes with at least nanomolar sensitivity. The probe enables detection of proteolytic activity in extremely small volume and at low concentration. In certain embodiments the probes comprise an indicator for the detection of an active protease, where the indicator comprises a nanocrescent attached to a peptide, where said peptide comprises a recognition site for the protease and a Raman tag attached to the peptide.

  12. Detection of protease and protease activity using a single nanocrescent SERS probe

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gang L.; Ellman, Jonathan A.; Lee, Luke P.; Chen, Fanqing Frank

    2015-09-29

    This invention pertains to the in vitro detection of proteases using a single peptide-conjugate nanocrescent surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probes with at least nanomolar sensitivity. The probe enables detection of proteolytic activity in extremely small volume and at low concentration. In certain embodiments the probes comprise an indicator for the detection of an active protease, where the indicator comprises a nanocrescent attached to a peptide, where said peptide comprises a recognition site for the protease and a Raman tag attached to the peptide.

  13. Fibrin(ogen)olytic activity of bumblebee venom serine protease

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu Yuling; Joint Laboratory between Dong-A University and Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang; Choo, Young Moo

    Bee venom is a rich source of pharmacologically active components; it has been used as an immunotherapy to treat bee venom hypersensitivity, and venom therapy has been applied as an alternative medicine. Here, we present evidence that the serine protease found in bumblebee venom exhibits fibrin(ogen)olytic activity. Compared to honeybee venom, bumblebee venom contains a higher content of serine protease, which is one of its major components. Venom serine proteases from bumblebees did not cross-react with antibodies against the honeybee venom serine protease. We provide functional evidence indicating that bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) venom serine protease (Bt-VSP) acts as a fibrin(ogen)olyticmore » enzyme. Bt-VSP activates prothrombin and directly degrades fibrinogen into fibrin degradation products. However, Bt-VSP is not a plasminogen activator, and its fibrinolytic activity is less than that of plasmin. Taken together, our results define roles for Bt-VSP as a prothrombin activator, a thrombin-like protease, and a plasmin-like protease. These findings offer significant insight into the allergic reaction sequence that is initiated by bee venom serine protease and its potential usefulness as a clinical agent in the field of hemostasis and thrombosis. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Bumblebee venom serine protease (Bt-VSP) is a fibrin(ogen)olytic enzyme. > Bt-VSP activates prothrombin. > Bt-VSP directly degrades fibrinogen into fibrin degradation products. > Bt-VSP is a hemostatically active protein that is a potent clinical agent.« less

  14. The Dimer Interfaces of Protease and Extra-Protease Domains Influence the Activation of Protease and the Specificity of GagPol Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Pettit, Steven C.; Gulnik, Sergei; Everitt, Lori; Kaplan, Andrew H.

    2003-01-01

    Activation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease is an essential step in viral replication. As is the case for all retroviral proteases, enzyme activation requires the formation of protease homodimers. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which retroviral proteases become active within their precursors. Using an in vitro expression system, we have examined the determinants of activation efficiency and the order of cleavage site processing for the protease of HIV-1 within the full-length GagPol precursor. Following activation, initial cleavage occurs between the viral p2 and nucleocapsid proteins. This is followed by cleavage of a novel site located in the transframe domain. Mutational analysis of the dimer interface of the protease produced differential effects on activation and specificity. A subset of mutations produced enhanced cleavage at the amino terminus of the protease, suggesting that, in the wild-type precursor, cleavages that liberate the protease are a relatively late event. Replacement of the proline residue at position 1 of the protease dimer interface resulted in altered cleavage of distal sites and suggests that this residue functions as a cis-directed specificity determinant. In summary, our studies indicate that interactions within the protease dimer interface help determine the order of precursor cleavage and contribute to the formation of extended-protease intermediates. Assembly domains within GagPol outside the protease domain also influence enzyme activation. PMID:12477841

  15. The dimer interfaces of protease and extra-protease domains influence the activation of protease and the specificity of GagPol cleavage.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Steven C; Gulnik, Sergei; Everitt, Lori; Kaplan, Andrew H

    2003-01-01

    Activation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease is an essential step in viral replication. As is the case for all retroviral proteases, enzyme activation requires the formation of protease homodimers. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which retroviral proteases become active within their precursors. Using an in vitro expression system, we have examined the determinants of activation efficiency and the order of cleavage site processing for the protease of HIV-1 within the full-length GagPol precursor. Following activation, initial cleavage occurs between the viral p2 and nucleocapsid proteins. This is followed by cleavage of a novel site located in the transframe domain. Mutational analysis of the dimer interface of the protease produced differential effects on activation and specificity. A subset of mutations produced enhanced cleavage at the amino terminus of the protease, suggesting that, in the wild-type precursor, cleavages that liberate the protease are a relatively late event. Replacement of the proline residue at position 1 of the protease dimer interface resulted in altered cleavage of distal sites and suggests that this residue functions as a cis-directed specificity determinant. In summary, our studies indicate that interactions within the protease dimer interface help determine the order of precursor cleavage and contribute to the formation of extended-protease intermediates. Assembly domains within GagPol outside the protease domain also influence enzyme activation.

  16. Protease activity, localization and inhibition in the human hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Bhogal, R K; Mouser, P E; Higgins, C A; Turner, G A

    2014-02-01

    In humans, the process of hair shedding, referred to as exogen, is believed to occur independently of the other hair cycle phases. Although the actual mechanisms involved in hair shedding are not fully known, it has been hypothesized that the processes leading to the final step of hair shedding may be driven by proteases and/or protease inhibitor activity. In this study, we investigated the presence of proteases and protease activity in naturally shed human hairs and assessed enzyme inhibition activity of test materials. We measured enzyme activity using a fluorescence-based assay and protein localization by indirect immunohistochemistry (IHC). We also developed an ex vivo skin model for measuring the force required to pull hair fibres from skin. Our data demonstrate the presence of protease activity in the tissue material surrounding club roots. We also demonstrated the localization of specific serine protease protein expression in human hair follicle by IHC. These data provide evidence demonstrating the presence of proteases around the hair club roots, which may play a role during exogen. We further tested the hypothesis that a novel protease inhibitor system (combination of Trichogen) and climbazole) could inhibit protease activity in hair fibre club root extracts collected from a range of ethnic groups (U.K., Brazil, China, first-generation Mexicans in the U.S.A., Thailand and Turkey) in both males and females. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this combination is capable of increasing the force required to remove hair in an ex vivo skin model system. These studies indicate the presence of proteolytic activity in the tissue surrounding the human hair club root and show that it is possible to inhibit this activity with a combination of Trichogen and climbazole. This technology may have potential to reduce excessive hair shedding. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  17. Major Cys protease activities are not essential for senescence in individually darkened Arabidopsis leaves.

    PubMed

    Pružinská, Adriana; Shindo, Takayuki; Niessen, Sherry; Kaschani, Farnusch; Tóth, Réka; Millar, A Harvey; van der Hoorn, Renier A L

    2017-01-06

    Papain-like Cys Proteases (PLCPs) and Vacuolar Processing Enzymes (VPEs) are amongst the most highly expressed proteases during leaf senescence in Arabidopsis. Using activity-based protein profiling (ABPP), a method that enables detection of active enzymes within a complex sample using chemical probes, the activities of PLCPs and VPEs were investigated in individually darkened leaves of Arabidopsis, and their role in senescence was tested in null mutants. ABPP and mass spectrometry revealed an increased activity of several PLCPs, particularly RD21A and AALP. By contrast, despite increased VPE transcript levels, active VPE decreased in individually darkened leaves. Eight protease knock-out lines and two protease over expressing lines were subjected to senescence phenotype analysis to determine the importance of individual protease activities to senescence. Unexpectedly, despite the absence of dominating PLCP activities in these plants, the rubisco and chlorophyll decline in individually darkened leaves and the onset of whole plant senescence were unaltered. However, a significant delay in progression of whole plant senescence was observed in aalp-1 and rd21A-1/aalp-1 mutants, visible in the reduced number of senescent leaves. Major Cys protease activities are not essential for dark-induced and developmental senescence and only a knock out line lacking AALP shows a slight but significant delay in plant senescence.

  18. Active Site Characterization of Proteases Sequences from Different Species of Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Morya, V K; Yadav, Virendra K; Yadav, Sangeeta; Yadav, Dinesh

    2016-09-01

    A total of 129 proteases sequences comprising 43 serine proteases, 36 aspartic proteases, 24 cysteine protease, 21 metalloproteases, and 05 neutral proteases from different Aspergillus species were analyzed for the catalytically active site residues using MEROPS database and various bioinformatics tools. Different proteases have predominance of variable active site residues. In case of 24 cysteine proteases of Aspergilli, the predominant active site residues observed were Gln193, Cys199, His364, Asn384 while for 43 serine proteases, the active site residues namely Asp164, His193, Asn284, Ser349 and Asp325, His357, Asn454, Ser519 were frequently observed. The analysis of 21 metalloproteases of Aspergilli revealed Glu298 and Glu388, Tyr476 as predominant active site residues. In general, Aspergilli species-specific active site residues were observed for different types of protease sequences analyzed. The phylogenetic analysis of these 129 proteases sequences revealed 14 different clans representing different types of proteases with diverse active site residues.

  19. Characterization of the protease activity of detergents: laboratory practicals for studying the protease profile and activity of various commercial detergents.

    PubMed

    Valls, Cristina; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallve, Santi; Mulero, Miquel

    2011-07-01

    Detergent enzymes account for about 30% of the total worldwide production of enzymes and are one of the largest and most successful applications of modern industrial biotechnology. Proteases can improve the wash performance of household, industrial, and institutional laundry detergents used to remove protein-based stains such as blood, grass, body fluids, and food soils. This article describes two easy and cheap laboratory exercises to study the presence, profile, and basic enzymology of detergent proteases. These laboratory practicals are based on the determination of the detergent protease activity of various commercial detergents using the N-succinyl-L-alanyl-L-alanyl-L-prolyl-L-phenylalanine p-nitroanilide method and the bovine serum albumin degradation capacity. Students are also required to elucidate the enzymatic subtype of detergent proteases by studying the inhibitory potential of several types of protease inhibitors revealed by the same experimental methodology. Additionally, the results of the exercises can be used to provide additional insights on elementary enzymology by studying the influence of several important parameters on protease activity such as temperature (in this article) and the influence of pH and effects of surfactants and oxidizers (proposed). Students also develop laboratory skills, problem-solving capacities, and the ability to write a laboratory report. The exercises are mainly designed for an advanced undergraduate project in the biochemistry and biotechnology sciences. Globally, these laboratory practicals show students the biotechnological applications of proteases in the detergent industry and also reinforce important enzymology concepts. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Proteases induce secretion of collagenase and plasminogen activator by fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Werb, Z.; Aggeler, J.

    1978-04-01

    We have observed that treatment of rabbit synovial fibroblasts with proteolytic enzymes can induce secretion of collagenase (EC 3.4.24.7) and plasminogen activator (EC 3.4.21.-). Cells treated for 2 to 24 hr with plasmin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, pancreatic elastase, papain, bromelain, thermolysin, or ..cap alpha..-protease but not with thrombin or neuraminidase secreted detectable amounts of collagenase within 16 to 48 hr. Treatment of fibroblasts with trypsin also induced secretion of plasminogen activator. Proteases initiated secretion of collagenase (up to 20 units per 10/sup 6/ cells per 24 hr) only when treatment produced decreased cell adhesion. Collagenase production did not depend on continuedmore » presence of proteolytic activity or on subsequent cell adhesion, spreading, or proliferation. Routine subculturing with crude trypsin also induced collagenase secretion by cells. Secretion of collagenase was prevented and normal spreading was obtained if the trypsinized cells were placed into medium containing fetal calf serum. Soybean trypsin inhibitor, ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antitrypsin, bovine serum albumin, collagen, and fibronectin did not inhibit collagenase production. Although proteases that induced collagenase secretion also removed surface glycoprotein, the kinetics of induction of cell protease secretion were different from those for removal of fibronectin. Physiological inducers of secretion of collagenase and plasminogen activator by cells have not been identified. These results suggest that extracellular proteases in conjunction with plasma proteins may govern protease secretion by cells.« less

  1. Association of frailty with the serine protease HtrA1 in older adults.

    PubMed

    Lorenzi, Maria; Lorenzi, Teresa; Marzetti, Emanuele; Landi, Francesco; Vetrano, Davide L; Settanni, Silvana; Antocicco, Manuela; Bonassi, Stefano; Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Bernabei, Roberto; Onder, Graziano

    2016-08-01

    Frailty is a geriatric syndrome characterized by multi system dysregulation. It has been suggested that chronic inflammation may be involved in the pathogenesis of frailty. No study so far has identified accurate, specific and sensitive molecular biomarkers for frailty. High-temperature requirement serine protease A1 (HtrA1) is a secreted multidomain serine protease implicated in the inhibition of signaling of active transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)1, a cytokine which has an important anti-inflammation role. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of circulating levels of HtrA1 with frailty in a sample of older adults. The study was performed in 120 older adults aged >65years and admitted to a geriatric outpatient clinic. The frailty status of participants was assessed by both the Fried's criteria (physical frailty, PF) and a modified Rockwood's frailty index (FI). Plasma HtrA1 concentration was measured using commercial ELISA kit. Frailty was identified in 61/120 participants (50.8%) using PF, and in 60/118 subjects (50.8%) using FI. Plasma levels of HtrA1 were significantly higher in individuals classified as frail according to PF (75.9ng/mL, 95% CI 67.4-85.6) as compared with non-frail participants (48.4ng/mL, 95% CI 42.5-54.6, p<0.001). A significant association was also observed between frailty, assessed by FI, and HtrA1 levels (72.2ng/mL, 95% CI 63.4-82.3, vs. 50.4ng/mL, 95% CI 44.3-58.0, p<0.001). These associations were confirmed after adjusting for potential confounders. This study demonstrates for the first time the association of plasma levels of HtrA1 with frailty status. Future investigations are needed to validate the potential value of HtrA1 as possible biomarker for frailty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Proteolytic Activation of the Protease-activated Receptor (PAR)-2 by the Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored Serine Protease Testisin*

    PubMed Central

    Driesbaugh, Kathryn H.; Buzza, Marguerite S.; Martin, Erik W.; Conway, Gregory D.; Kao, Joseph P. Y.; Antalis, Toni M.

    2015-01-01

    Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are a family of seven-transmembrane, G-protein-coupled receptors that are activated by multiple serine proteases through specific N-terminal proteolytic cleavage and the unmasking of a tethered ligand. The majority of PAR-activating proteases described to date are soluble proteases that are active during injury, coagulation, and inflammation. Less investigation, however, has focused on the potential for membrane-anchored serine proteases to regulate PAR activation. Testisin is a unique trypsin-like serine protease that is tethered to the extracellular membrane of cells through a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. Here, we show that the N-terminal domain of PAR-2 is a substrate for testisin and that proteolytic cleavage of PAR-2 by recombinant testisin activates downstream signaling pathways, including intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. When testisin and PAR-2 are co-expressed in HeLa cells, GPI-anchored testisin specifically releases the PAR-2 tethered ligand. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous testisin in NCI/ADR-Res ovarian tumor cells reduces PAR-2 N-terminal proteolytic cleavage. The cleavage of PAR-2 by testisin induces activation of the intracellular serum-response element and NFκB signaling pathways and the induction of IL-8 and IL-6 cytokine gene expression. Furthermore, the activation of PAR-2 by testisin results in the loss and internalization of PAR-2 from the cell surface. This study reveals a new biological substrate for testisin and is the first demonstration of the activation of a PAR by a serine protease GPI-linked to the cell surface. PMID:25519908

  3. Proteolytic activation of the protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 by the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored serine protease testisin.

    PubMed

    Driesbaugh, Kathryn H; Buzza, Marguerite S; Martin, Erik W; Conway, Gregory D; Kao, Joseph P Y; Antalis, Toni M

    2015-02-06

    Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are a family of seven-transmembrane, G-protein-coupled receptors that are activated by multiple serine proteases through specific N-terminal proteolytic cleavage and the unmasking of a tethered ligand. The majority of PAR-activating proteases described to date are soluble proteases that are active during injury, coagulation, and inflammation. Less investigation, however, has focused on the potential for membrane-anchored serine proteases to regulate PAR activation. Testisin is a unique trypsin-like serine protease that is tethered to the extracellular membrane of cells through a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. Here, we show that the N-terminal domain of PAR-2 is a substrate for testisin and that proteolytic cleavage of PAR-2 by recombinant testisin activates downstream signaling pathways, including intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. When testisin and PAR-2 are co-expressed in HeLa cells, GPI-anchored testisin specifically releases the PAR-2 tethered ligand. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous testisin in NCI/ADR-Res ovarian tumor cells reduces PAR-2 N-terminal proteolytic cleavage. The cleavage of PAR-2 by testisin induces activation of the intracellular serum-response element and NFκB signaling pathways and the induction of IL-8 and IL-6 cytokine gene expression. Furthermore, the activation of PAR-2 by testisin results in the loss and internalization of PAR-2 from the cell surface. This study reveals a new biological substrate for testisin and is the first demonstration of the activation of a PAR by a serine protease GPI-linked to the cell surface. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Structure of protease-cleaved Escherichia coli α-2-macroglobulin reveals a putative mechanism of conformational activation for protease entrapment

    SciTech Connect

    Fyfe, Cameron D.; Grinter, Rhys; Josts, Inokentijs

    The X-ray structure of protease-cleaved E. coli α-2-macroglobulin is described, which reveals a putative mechanism of activation and conformational change essential for protease inhibition. Bacterial α-2-macroglobulins have been suggested to function in defence as broad-spectrum inhibitors of host proteases that breach the outer membrane. Here, the X-ray structure of protease-cleaved Escherichia coli α-2-macroglobulin is described, which reveals a putative mechanism of activation and conformational change essential for protease inhibition. In this competitive mechanism, protease cleavage of the bait-region domain results in the untethering of an intrinsically disordered region of this domain which disrupts native interdomain interactions that maintain E. colimore » α-2-macroglobulin in the inactivated form. The resulting global conformational change results in entrapment of the protease and activation of the thioester bond that covalently links to the attacking protease. Owing to the similarity in structure and domain architecture of Escherichia coli α-2-macroglobulin and human α-2-macroglobulin, this protease-activation mechanism is likely to operate across the diverse members of this group.« less

  5. Serine protease activity in m-1 cortical collecting duct cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lian; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S; Schiro, Faith R; Hamm, L Lee

    2002-04-01

    An apical serine protease, channel-activating protease 1 (CAP1), augments sodium transport in A6 cells. Prostasin, a novel serine protease originally purified from seminal fluid, has been proposed to be the mammalian ortholog of CAP1. We have recently found functional evidence for a similar protease activity in the M-1 cortical collecting duct cell line. The purposes of the present studies were to determine whether prostasin (or CAP1) is present in collecting duct cells by use of mouse M-1 cells, to sequence mouse prostasin, and to further characterize the identity of the serine protease activity and additional functional features in M-1 cells. Using mouse expressed sequence tag sequences that are highly homologous to the published human prostasin sequence as templates, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) were used to sequence mouse prostasin mRNA, which shows 99% identical to published mouse CAP1 sequence. A single 1800-bp transcript was found by Northern analysis, and this was not altered by aldosterone. Equivalent short-circuit current (I(eq)), which represents sodium transport in these cells, dropped to 59+/-3% of control value within 1 hour of incubation with aprotinin, a serine protease inhibitor. Trypsin increased the I(eq) in aprotinin-treated cells to the value of the control group within 5 minutes. Application of aprotinin not only inhibited amiloride sensitive I(eq) but also reduced transepithelial resistance (R(te)) to 43+/-2%, an effect not expected with simple inhibition of sodium channels. Trypsin partially reversed the effect of aprotinin on R(te). Another serine protease inhibitor, soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI), decreased I(eq) in M-1 cells. STI inhibited I(eq) gradually over 6 hours, and the inhibition of I(eq) by 2 inhibitors was additive. STI decreased transepithelial resistance much less than did aprotinin. Neither aldosterone nor dexamethasone significantly augmented protease activity

  6. Detection of protease activity in cells and animals.

    PubMed

    Verdoes, Martijn; Verhelst, Steven H L

    2016-01-01

    Proteases are involved in a wide variety of biologically and medically important events. They are entangled in a complex network of processes that regulate their activity, which makes their study intriguing, but challenging. For comprehensive understanding of protease biology and effective drug discovery, it is therefore essential to study proteases in models that are close to their complex native environments such as live cells or whole organisms. Protease activity can be detected by reporter substrates and activity-based probes, but not all of these reagents are suitable for intracellular or in vivo use. This review focuses on the detection of proteases in cells and in vivo. We summarize the use of probes and substrates as molecular tools, discuss strategies to deliver these tools inside cells, and describe sophisticated read-out techniques such as mass spectrometry and various imaging applications. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Physiological Enzymology and Protein Functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The protease-activated receptor-2 upregulates keratinocyte phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Sharlow, E R; Paine, C S; Babiarz, L; Eisinger, M; Shapiro, S; Seiberg, M

    2000-09-01

    The protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) belongs to the family of seven transmembrane domain receptors, which are activated by the specific enzymatic cleavage of their extracellular amino termini. Synthetic peptides corresponding to the tethered ligand domain (SLIGRL in mouse, SLIGKV in human) can activate PAR-2 without the need for receptor cleavage. PAR-2 activation is involved in cell growth, differentiation and inflammatory processes, and was shown to affect melanin and melanosome ingestion by human keratinocytes. Data presented here suggest that PAR-2 activation may regulate human keratinocyte phagocytosis. PAR-2 activation by trypsin, SLIGRL or SLIGKV increased the ability of keratinocytes to ingest fluorescently labeled microspheres or E. coli K-12 bioparticles. This PAR-2 mediated increase in keratinocyte phagocytic capability correlated with an increase in actin polymerization and *-actinin reorganization, cell surface morphological changes and increased soluble protease activity. Moreover, addition of serine protease inhibitors downmodulated both the constitutive and the PAR-2 mediated increases in phagocytosis, suggesting that serine proteases mediate this functional activity in keratinocytes. PAR-2 involvement in keratinocyte phagocytosis is a novel function for this receptor.

  8. Intracellular serine protease 1 of Bacillus subtilis is formed in vivo as an unprocessed, active protease in stationary cells.

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, S M; Switzer, R L

    1990-01-01

    Western immunoblots and assays of Bacillus subtilis extracts showed that intracellular serine protease 1 is produced in a form larger than previously reported, appears not to have undergone N-terminal processing, and is active in the presence or absence of calcium. No evidence for an inactive precursor form of the protease was found. Images FIG. 1 PMID:2104610

  9. Human High Temperature Requirement Serine Protease A1 (HTRA1) Degrades Tau Protein Aggregates*

    PubMed Central

    Tennstaedt, Annette; Pöpsel, Simon; Truebestein, Linda; Hauske, Patrick; Brockmann, Anke; Schmidt, Nina; Irle, Inga; Sacca, Barbara; Niemeyer, Christof M.; Brandt, Roland; Ksiezak-Reding, Hanna; Tirniceriu, Anca Laura; Egensperger, Rupert; Baldi, Alfonso; Dehmelt, Leif; Kaiser, Markus; Huber, Robert; Clausen, Tim; Ehrmann, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Protective proteases are key elements of protein quality control pathways that are up-regulated, for example, under various protein folding stresses. These proteases are employed to prevent the accumulation and aggregation of misfolded proteins that can impose severe damage to cells. The high temperature requirement A (HtrA) family of serine proteases has evolved to perform important aspects of ATP-independent protein quality control. So far, however, no HtrA protease is known that degrades protein aggregates. We show here that human HTRA1 degrades aggregated and fibrillar tau, a protein that is critically involved in various neurological disorders. Neuronal cells and patient brains accumulate less tau, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuritic plaques, respectively, when HTRA1 is expressed at elevated levels. Furthermore, HTRA1 mRNA and HTRA1 activity are up-regulated in response to elevated tau concentrations. These data suggest that HTRA1 is performing regulated proteolysis during protein quality control, the implications of which are discussed. PMID:22535953

  10. Allicin and derivates are cysteine protease inhibitors with antiparasitic activity.

    PubMed

    Waag, Thilo; Gelhaus, Christoph; Rath, Jennifer; Stich, August; Leippe, Matthias; Schirmeister, Tanja

    2010-09-15

    Allicin and derivatives thereof inhibit the CAC1 cysteine proteases falcipain 2, rhodesain, cathepsin B and L in the low micromolar range. The structure-activity relationship revealed that only derivatives with primary carbon atom in vicinity to the thiosulfinate sulfur atom attacked by the active-site Cys residue are active against the target enzymes. Some compounds also show potent antiparasitic activity against Plasmodium falciparum and Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Comprehensive Genetic Study of Streptococcal Immunoglobulin A1 Proteases: Evidence for Recombination within and between Species

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Knud; Reinholdt, Jesper; Jespersgaard, Christina; Boye, Kit; Brown, Thomas A.; Hauge, Majbritt; Kilian, Mogens

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of 13 immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) protease genes (iga) of strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus sanguis was carried out to obtain information on the structure, polymorphism, and phylogeny of this specific protease, which enables bacteria to evade functions of the predominant Ig isotype on mucosal surfaces. The analysis included cloning and sequencing of iga genes from S. oralis and S. mitis biovar 1, sequencing of an additional seven iga genes from S. sanguis biovars 1 through 4, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses of iga genes of another 10 strains of S. mitis biovar 1 and 6 strains of S. oralis. All 13 genes sequenced had the potential of encoding proteins with molecular masses of approximately 200 kDa containing the sequence motif HEMTH and an E residue 20 amino acids downstream, which are characteristic of Zn metalloproteinases. In addition, all had a typical gram-positive cell wall anchor motif, LPNTG, which, in contrast to such motifs in other known streptococcal and staphylococcal proteins, was located in their N-terminal parts. Repeat structures showing variation in number and sequence were present in all strains and may be of relevance to the immunogenicities of the enzymes. Protease activities in cultures of the streptococcal strains were associated with species of different molecular masses ranging from 130 to 200 kDa, suggesting posttranslational processing possibly as a result of autoproteolysis at post-proline peptide bonds in the N-terminal parts of the molecules. Comparison of deduced amino acid sequences revealed a 94% similarity between S. oralis and S. mitis IgA1 proteases and a 75 to 79% similarity between IgA1 proteases of these species and those of S. pneumoniae and S. sanguis, respectively. Combined with the results of RFLP analyses using different iga gene fragments as probes, the results of nucleotide sequence comparisons provide evidence of

  12. Zebra chip disease decreases tuber (Solanum tuberosum L.) protein content by attenuating protease inhibitor levels and increasing protease activities.

    PubMed

    Kumar, G N Mohan; Knowles, Lisa O; Knowles, N Richard

    2015-11-01

    Zebra chip disease of potato decreases protease inhibitor levels resulting in enhanced serine-type protease activity, decreased protein content and altered protein profiles of fully mature tubers. Zebra-chip (ZC), caused by Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (CLso), is a relatively new disease of potato that negatively affects growth, yield, propagation potential, and fresh and process qualities of tubers. Diseased plants produce tubers with characteristic brown discoloration of vascular tissue accompanied by elevated levels of free amino acids and reducing sugars. Here we demonstrate that ZC disease induces selective protein catabolism in tubers through modulating protease inhibitor levels. Soluble protein content of tubers from CLso-infected plants was 33% lower than from non-infected plants and electrophoretic analyses revealed substantial reductions in major tuber proteins. Patatin (~40 kDa) and ser-, asp- (22 kDa) and cys-type (85 kDa) protease inhibitors were either absent or greatly reduced in ZC-afflicted tubers. In contrast to healthy (non-infected) tubers, the proteolytic activity in CLso infected tubers was high and the ability of extracts from infected tubers to inhibit trypsin (ser-type) and papain (cys-type) proteases greatly attenuated. Moreover, extracts from CLso-infected tubers rapidly catabolized proteins purified from healthy tubers (40 kDa patatin, 22 kDa protease inhibitors, 85 kDa potato multicystatin) when subjected to proteolysis individually. In contrast, crude extracts from non-infected tubers effectively inhibited the proteolytic activity from ZC-afflicted tubers. These results suggest that the altered protein profile of ZC afflicted tubers is largely due to loss of ser- and cys-type protease inhibitors. Further analysis revealed a novel PMSF-sensitive (ser) protease (ca. 80-120 kDa) in CLso infected tubers. PMSF abolished the proteolytic activities responsible for degrading patatin, the 22 kDa protease inhibitor(s) and potato

  13. Protease-Activated Receptor 2, Dipeptidyl Peptidase I, and Proteases Mediate Clostridium difficile Toxin A Enteritis

    PubMed Central

    COTTRELL, GRAEME S.; AMADESI, SILVIA; PIKIOS, STELLA; CAMERER, ERIC; WILLARDSEN, J. ADAM; MURPHY, BRETT R.; CAUGHEY, GEORGE H.; WOLTERS, PAUL J.; COUGHLIN, SHAUN R.; PETERSON, ANDERS; KNECHT, WOLFGANG; POTHOULAKIS, CHARALABOS; BUNNETT, NIGEL W.; GRADY, EILEEN F.

    2008-01-01

    Background & Aims We studied the role of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) and its activating enzymes, trypsins and tryptase, in Clostridium difficile toxin A (TxA)-induced enteritis. Methods We injected TxA into ileal loops in PAR2 or dipeptidyl peptidase I (DPPI) knockout mice or in wild-type mice pretreated with tryptase inhibitors (FUT-175 or MPI-0442352) or soybean trypsin inhibitor. We examined the effect of TxA on expression and activity of PAR2 and trypsin IV messenger RNA in the ileum and cultured colonocytes. We injected activating peptide (AP), trypsins, tryptase, and p23 in wild-type mice, some pretreated with the neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist SR140333. Results TxA increased fluid secretion, myeloperoxidase activity in fluid and tissue, and histologic damage. PAR2 deletion decreased TxA-induced ileitis, reduced luminal fluid secretion by 20%, decreased tissue and fluid myeloperoxidase by 50%, and diminished epithelial damage, edema, and neutrophil infiltration. DPPI deletion reduced secretion by 20% and fluid myeloperoxidase by 55%. In wild-type mice, FUT-175 or MPI-0442352 inhibited secretion by 24%−28% and tissue and fluid myeloperoxidase by 31%−71%. Soybean trypsin inhibitor reduced secretion to background levels and tissue myeloperoxidase by up to 50%. TxA increased expression of PAR2 and trypsin IV in enterocytes and colonocytes and caused a 2-fold increase in Ca2+ responses to PAR2 AP. AP, tryptase, and trypsin isozymes (trypsin I/II, trypsin IV, p23) caused ileitis. SR140333 prevented AP-induced ileitis. Conclusions PAR2 and its activators are proinflammatory in TxA-induced enteritis. TxA stimulates existing PAR2 and up-regulates PAR2 and activating proteases, and PAR2 causes inflammation by neurogenic mechanisms. PMID:17570216

  14. [Protease activity of microflora in the oral cavity of patients with periodontitis].

    PubMed

    Voropaeva, E A; Baĭrakova, A L; Bichucher, A M; D'iakov, V L; Kozlov, L V

    2008-01-01

    Microbial spectrum and non-specific as well as specific IgA1 protease activity of isolated microorganisms were investigated in gingival liquid of patients with periodontitis. Microorganisms from the gingival liqud of these patients belonged to conditional-pathogenic obligate and facultatively anaerobic bacteria. 24 strains of microorganisms have been identified. Nonspecific proteolytic activity was found in the following microorganisms: Actinomyces israelii, Actinomyces naeslundii, Aerococcus viridans, Bifidobacterium longum, Neisseria subflave, Streptococcus parvulus, Eubacterium alactolyticum, Lactobaccilus catenoforme, Bacillus spp. Specific IgA1-protease activity and lack of proteolytic activity towards IgG was found in Streptococcus acidominimus, Streptococcus hansenii, Streptococcus salivarius, Leptotrychia buccalis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Neisseria sicca. No proteolytic activity was found in cultivation medium of Eubacterium alactolyticum (1 strain), Prevotella buccalis, Aerococcus viridans and Streptococcus sanguis.

  15. Factors affecting the protease activity of venom from jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye.

    PubMed

    Li, Cuiping; Yu, Huahua; Liu, Song; Xing, Ronge; Guo, Zhanyong; Li, Pengcheng

    2005-12-15

    In this paper, the effects of some chemical and physical factors such as temperature, pH values, glycerol, and divalent metal cations on the protease activity of venom from jellyfish, Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye, were assayed. Protease activity was dependent on temperature and pH values. Zn(2+), Mg(2+), and Mn(2+) in sodium phosphate buffer (0.02M, pH 8.0) could increase protease activity. Mn(2+) had the best effects among the three metal cations and the effect was about 20 times of that of Zn(2+) or Mg(2+) and its maximal protease activity was 2.3x10(5)U/mL. EDTA could increase protease activity. PMSF had hardly affected protease activity. O-Phenanthroline and glycerol played an important part in inhibiting protease activity and their maximal inhibiting rates were 87.5% and 82.1%, respectively.

  16. Immunoglobulins in Nasal Secretions of Healthy Humans: Structural Integrity of Secretory Immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) and Occurrence of Neutralizing Antibodies to IgA1 Proteases of Nasal Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kirkeby, Line; Rasmussen, Trine Tang; Reinholdt, Jesper; Kilian, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    Certain bacteria, including overt pathogens as well as commensals, produce immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) proteases. By cleaving IgA1, including secretory IgA1, in the hinge region, these enzymes may interfere with the barrier functions of mucosal IgA antibodies, as indicated by experiments in vitro. Previous studies have suggested that cleavage of IgA1 in nasal secretions may be associated with the development and perpetuation of atopic disease. To clarify the potential effect of IgA1 protease-producing bacteria in the nasal cavity, we have analyzed immunoglobulin isotypes in nasal secretions of 11 healthy humans, with a focus on IgA, and at the same time have characterized and quantified IgA1 protease-producing bacteria in the nasal flora of the subjects. Samples in the form of nasal wash were collected by using a washing liquid that contained lithium as an internal reference. Dilution factors and, subsequently, concentrations in undiluted secretions could thereby be calculated. IgA, mainly in the secretory form, was found by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to be the dominant isotype in all subjects, and the vast majority of IgA (median, 91%) was of the A1 subclass, corroborating results of previous analyses at the level of immunoglobulin-producing cells. Levels of serum-type immunoglobulins were low, except for four subjects in whom levels of IgG corresponded to 20 to 66% of total IgA. Cumulative levels of IgA, IgG, and IgM in undiluted secretions ranged from 260 to 2,494 (median, 777) μg ml−1. IgA1 protease-producing bacteria (Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Streptococcus mitis biovar 1) were isolated from the nasal cavities of seven subjects at 2.1 × 103 to 7.2 × 106 CFU per ml of undiluted secretion, corresponding to 0.2 to 99.6% of the flora. Nevertheless, α-chain fragments characteristic of IgA1 protease activity were not detected in secretions from any subject by immunoblotting. Neutralizing antibodies to IgA1 proteases of autologous

  17. Antimicrobial activity of an aspartic protease from Salpichroa origanifolia fruits.

    PubMed

    Díaz, M E; Rocha, G F; Kise, F; Rosso, A M; Guevara, M G; Parisi, M G

    2018-05-08

    Plant proteases play a fundamental role in several processes like growth, development and in response to biotic and abiotic stress. In particular, aspartic proteases (AP) are expressed in different plant organs and have antimicrobial activity. Previously, we purified an AP from Salpichroa origanifolia fruits called salpichroin. The aim of this work was to determine the cytotoxic activity of this enzyme on selected plant and human pathogens. For this purpose, the growth of the selected pathogens was analysed after exposure to different concentrations of salpichroin. The results showed that the enzyme was capable of inhibiting Fusarium solani and Staphylococcus aureus in a dose-dependent manner. It was determined that 1·2 μmol l -1 of salpichroin was necessary to inhibit 50% of conidial germination, and the minimal bactericidal concentration was between 1·9 and 2·5 μmol l -1 . Using SYTOX Green dye we were able to demonstrate that salpichroin cause membrane permeabilization. Moreover, the enzyme treated with its specific inhibitor pepstatin A did not lose its antibacterial activity. This finding demonstrates that the cytotoxic activity of salpichroin is due to the alteration of the cell plasma membrane barrier but not due to its proteolytic activity. Antimicrobial activity of the AP could represent a potential alternative for the control of pathogens that affect humans or crops of economic interest. This study provides insights into the antimicrobial activity of an aspartic protease isolated from Salpichroa origanifolia fruits on plant and human pathogens. The proteinase inhibited Fusarium solani and Staphylococcus aureus in a dose-dependent manner due to the alteration of the cell plasma membrane barrier but not due to its proteolytic activity. Antimicrobial activity of salpichroin suggests its potential applications as an important tool for the control of pathogenic micro-organisms affecting humans and crops of economic interest. Therefore, it would

  18. Moringa oleifera Lam.: Protease activity against blood coagulation cascade

    PubMed Central

    Satish, A; Sairam, Sudha; Ahmed, Faiyaz; Urooj, Asna

    2012-01-01

    Background: The present study evaluated the protease activity of aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) leaf (MOL) and root (MOR). Materials and Methods: Protease activity was assayed using casein, human plasma clot and human fibrinogen as substrates. Results: Caseinolytic activity of MOL was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than that of MOR. Similar observations were found in case of human plasma clot hydrolyzing activity, wherein MOL caused significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) plasma clot hydrolysis than MOR. Zymographic techniques were used to detect proteolytic enzymes following electrophoretic separation in gels. Further, both the extracts exhibited significant procoagulant activity as reflected by a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in recalcification time, accompanied by fibrinogenolytic and fibrinolytic activities; clotting time was decreased from 180 ± 10 sec to 119 ± 8 sec and 143 ± 10 sec by MOL and MOR, respectively, at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL. Fibrinogenolytic (human fibrinogen) and fibrinolytic activity (human plasma clot) was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), plate method and colorimetric method. Zymographic profile indicated that both the extracts exerted their procoagulant activity by selectively hydrolyzing Aα and Bβ subunits of fibrinogen to form fibrin clot, thereby exhibiting fibrinogenolytic activity. However, prolonged incubation resulted in degradation of the formed fibrin clot, suggesting fibrinolytic like activity. Conclusions: These findings support the traditional usage of M. oleifera extracts for wound healing. PMID:22224061

  19. Moringa oleifera Lam.: Protease activity against blood coagulation cascade.

    PubMed

    Satish, A; Sairam, Sudha; Ahmed, Faiyaz; Urooj, Asna

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated the protease activity of aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) leaf (MOL) and root (MOR). Protease activity was assayed using casein, human plasma clot and human fibrinogen as substrates. Caseinolytic activity of MOL was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than that of MOR. Similar observations were found in case of human plasma clot hydrolyzing activity, wherein MOL caused significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) plasma clot hydrolysis than MOR. Zymographic techniques were used to detect proteolytic enzymes following electrophoretic separation in gels. Further, both the extracts exhibited significant procoagulant activity as reflected by a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in recalcification time, accompanied by fibrinogenolytic and fibrinolytic activities; clotting time was decreased from 180 ± 10 sec to 119 ± 8 sec and 143 ± 10 sec by MOL and MOR, respectively, at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL. Fibrinogenolytic (human fibrinogen) and fibrinolytic activity (human plasma clot) was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), plate method and colorimetric method. Zymographic profile indicated that both the extracts exerted their procoagulant activity by selectively hydrolyzing Aα and Bβ subunits of fibrinogen to form fibrin clot, thereby exhibiting fibrinogenolytic activity. However, prolonged incubation resulted in degradation of the formed fibrin clot, suggesting fibrinolytic like activity. These findings support the traditional usage of M. oleifera extracts for wound healing.

  20. Factor V activation and inactivation by venom proteases.

    PubMed

    Rosing, J; Govers-Riemslag, J W; Yukelson, L; Tans, G

    2001-01-01

    Blood coagulation factor V is a single-chain glycoprotein with M(r) = 330,000 which plays an important role in the procoagulant and anticoagulant pathways. Thrombin activates factor V into factor Va, a two-chain molecule which is composed of a heavy (M(r) = 105,000) and a light chain (M(r) = 71,000/74,000). Factor Va accelerates factor Xa-catalysed prothrombin activation more than 1,000-fold and under physiological conditions the cofactor activity of factor Va in prothrombin activation is down-regulated by activated protein C. Factor V can also be activated by a wide variety of snake venoms (e.g. from Vipera species, Naja naja oxiana, Bothrops atrox) and by proteases present in the bristles of a South American caterpillar (Lonomia achelous). Some venoms, notably of Vipera lebetina turanica and Lonomia achelous, contain proteases that are able to inactivate factor V or factor Va. Venom factor V activators are excellent tools in studying the structure-function relationship of factor V(a) and they are also used in diagnostic tests for quantification of plasma factor V levels and for the screening of defects in the protein C pathway. In this review, the structural and functional properties of animal venom factor V activators and inactivators is described. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. Effects of eye rubbing on the levels of protease, protease activity and cytokines in tears: relevance in keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Sivaraman A; Pye, David C; Willcox, Mark D P

    2013-03-01

    Proteases, protease activity and inflammatory molecules in tears have been found to be relevant in the pathogenesis of keratoconus. We sought to determine the influence of eye rubbing on protease expression, protease activity and concentration of inflammatory molecules in tears. Basal tears were collected from normal volunteers before and after 60 seconds of experimental eye rubbing. The total amount of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and inflammatory molecules interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the tear samples were measured using specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Tear collagenase activity was investigated using a specific activity assay. The concentrations of MMP-13 (51.9 ± 34.3 versus 63 ± 36.8 pg/ml, p = 0.006), IL-6 (1.24 ± 0.98 versus 2.02 ± 1.52 pg/ml, p = 0.004) and TNF-α (1.16 ± 0.74 versus 1.44 ± 0.66 pg/ml, p = 0.003) were significantly increased in normal subjects after eye rubbing. The experimental eye rub did not alter significantly the collagenase activity (5.02 ± 3 versus 7.50 ± 3.90 fluorescent intensity units, p = 0.14) of tears. Eye rubbing for 60 seconds increased the level of tear MMP-13, IL-6 and TNF-α in normal study subjects. This increase in protease, protease activity and inflammatory mediators in tears after eye rubbing may be exacerbated even further during persistent and forceful eye rubbing seen in people with keratoconus and this in turn may contribute to the progression of the disease. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2013 Optometrists Association Australia.

  2. Cloning, expression and activity analysis of a novel fibrinolytic serine protease from Arenicola cristata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chunling; Ju, Jiyu

    2015-06-01

    The full-length cDNA of a protease gene from a marine annelid Arenicola cristata was amplified through rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique and sequenced. The size of the cDNA was 936 bp in length, including an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 270 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequnce consisted of pro- and mature sequences. The protease belonged to the serine protease family because it contained the highly conserved sequence GDSGGP. This protease was novel as it showed a low amino acid sequence similarity (< 40%) to other serine proteases. The gene encoding the active form of A. cristata serine protease was cloned and expressed in E. coli. Purified recombinant protease in a supernatant could dissolve an artificial fibrin plate with plasminogen-rich fibrin, whereas the plasminogen-free fibrin showed no clear zone caused by hydrolysis. This result suggested that the recombinant protease showed an indirect fibrinolytic activity of dissolving fibrin, and was probably a plasminogen activator. A rat model with venous thrombosis was established to demonstrate that the recombinant protease could also hydrolyze blood clot in vivo. Therefore, this recombinant protease may be used as a thrombolytic agent for thrombosis treatment. To our knowledge, this study is the first of reporting the fibrinolytic serine protease gene in A. cristata.

  3. Protease signaling through protease activated receptor 1 mediate nerve activation by mucosal supernatants from irritable bowel syndrome but not from ulcerative colitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Buhner, Sabine; Hahne, Hannes; Hartwig, Kerstin; Li, Qin; Vignali, Sheila; Ostertag, Daniela; Meng, Chen; Hörmannsperger, Gabriele; Braak, Breg; Pehl, Christian; Frieling, Thomas; Barbara, Giovanni; De Giorgio, Roberto; Demir, Ihsan Ekin; Ceyhan, Güralp Onur; Zeller, Florian; Boeckxstaens, Guy; Haller, Dirk; Kuster, Bernhard

    2018-01-01

    Background & aims The causes of gastrointestinal complaints in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remain poorly understood. Altered nerve function has emerged as an important pathogenic factor as IBS mucosal biopsy supernatants consistently activate enteric and sensory neurons. We investigated the neurally active molecular components of such supernatants from patients with IBS and quiescent ulcerative colitis (UC). Method Effects of supernatants from 7 healthy controls (HC), 20 IBS and 12 UC patients on human and guinea pig submucous neurons were studied with neuroimaging techniques. We identify differentially expressed proteins with proteome analysis. Results Nerve activation by IBS supernatants was prevented by the protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) antagonist SCHE79797. UC supernatants also activated enteric neurons through protease dependent mechanisms but without PAR1 involvement. Proteome analysis of the supernatants identified 204 proteins, among them 17 proteases as differentially expressed between IBS, UC and HC. Of those the four proteases elastase 3a, chymotrypsin C, proteasome subunit type beta-2 and an unspecified isoform of complement C3 were significantly more abundant in IBS compared to HC and UC supernatants. Of eight proteases, which were upregulated in IBS, the combination of elastase 3a, cathepsin L and proteasome alpha subunit-4 showed the highest prediction accuracy of 98% to discriminate between IBS and HC groups. Elastase synergistically potentiated the effects of histamine and serotonin–the two other main neuroactive substances in the IBS supernatants. A serine protease inhibitor isolated from the probiotic Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705 (SERPINBL), known to inhibit elastase-like proteases, prevented nerve activation by IBS supernatants. Conclusion Proteases in IBS and UC supernatants were responsible for nerve activation. Our data demonstrate that proteases, particularly those signalling through neuronal PAR1, are biomarker candidates for

  4. Protease activity, localization and inhibition in the human hair follicle

    PubMed Central

    Bhogal, R K; Mouser, P E; Higgins, C A; Turner, G A

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Objective In humans, the process of hair shedding, referred to as exogen, is believed to occur independently of the other hair cycle phases. Although the actual mechanisms involved in hair shedding are not fully known, it has been hypothesized that the processes leading to the final step of hair shedding may be driven by proteases and/or protease inhibitor activity. In this study, we investigated the presence of proteases and protease activity in naturally shed human hairs and assessed enzyme inhibition activity of test materials. Methods We measured enzyme activity using a fluorescence-based assay and protein localization by indirect immunohistochemistry (IHC). We also developed an ex vivo skin model for measuring the force required to pull hair fibres from skin. Results Our data demonstrate the presence of protease activity in the tissue material surrounding club roots. We also demonstrated the localization of specific serine protease protein expression in human hair follicle by IHC. These data provide evidence demonstrating the presence of proteases around the hair club roots, which may play a role during exogen. We further tested the hypothesis that a novel protease inhibitor system (combination of Trichogen® and climbazole) could inhibit protease activity in hair fibre club root extracts collected from a range of ethnic groups (UK, Brazil, China, first-generation Mexicans in the USA, Thailand and Turkey) in both males and females. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this combination is capable of increasing the force required to remove hair in an ex vivo skin model system. Conclusion These studies indicate the presence of proteolytic activity in the tissue surrounding the human hair club root and show that it is possible to inhibit this activity with a combination of Trichogen® and climbazole. This technology may have potential to reduce excessive hair shedding. Résumé Objectif Chez l'homme, le processus de perte de cheveux, désigné comme exog

  5. Protease activation in glycerol-based deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hua; Baker, Gary A; Holmes, Shaletha

    2011-11-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) consisting of mixtures of a choline salt (chloride or acetate form) and glycerol are prepared as easily accessible, biodegradable, and inexpensive alternatives to conventional aprotic cation-anion paired ionic liquids. These DES systems display excellent fluidity coupled with thermal stability to nearly 200 °C. In this work, the transesterification activities of cross-linked proteases (subtilisin and α-chymotrypsin), immobilized on chitosan, were individually examined in these novel DESs. In the 1:2 molar ratio mixture of choline chloride/glycerol containing 3% (v/v) water, cross-linked subtilisin exhibited an excellent activity (2.9 μmo l min(-1) g(-1)) in conjunction with a selectivity of 98% in the transesterification reaction of N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester with 1-propanol. These highly encouraging results advocate more extensive exploration of DESs in protease-mediated biotransformations of additional polar substrates and use of DESs in biocatalysis more generally.

  6. MOFzyme: Intrinsic protease-like activity of Cu-MOF.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Chen, Daomei; Wang, Jiaqiang; Yan, Zhiying; Jiang, Liang; Deliang Duan; He, Jiao; Luo, Zhongrui; Zhang, Jinping; Yuan, Fagui

    2014-10-24

    The construction of efficient enzyme mimetics for the hydrolysis of peptide bonds in proteins is challenging due to the high stability of peptide bonds and the importance of proteases in biology and industry. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) consisting of infinite crystalline lattices with metal clusters and organic linkers may provide opportunities for protease mimic which has remained unknown. Herein, we report that Cu₂(C₉H₃O₆)₄/₃ MOF (which is well known as HKUST-1 and denoted as Cu-MOF here), possesses an intrinsic enzyme mimicking activity similar to that found in natural trypsin to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and casein. The Michaelis constant (Km) of Cu-MOF is about 26,000-fold smaller than that of free trypsin indicating a much higher affinity of BSA for Cu-MOF surface. Cu-MOF also exhibited significantly higher catalytic efficiency than homogeneous artificial metalloprotease Cu(II) complexes and could be reused for ten times without losing in its activity. Moreover, Cu-MOF was successfully used to simulate trypsinization in cell culture since it dissociated cells in culture even without EDTA.

  7. MOFzyme: Intrinsic protease-like activity of Cu-MOF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Chen, Daomei; Wang, Jiaqiang; Yan, Zhiying; Jiang, Liang; Deliang Duan; He, Jiao; Luo, Zhongrui; Zhang, Jinping; Yuan, Fagui

    2014-10-01

    The construction of efficient enzyme mimetics for the hydrolysis of peptide bonds in proteins is challenging due to the high stability of peptide bonds and the importance of proteases in biology and industry. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) consisting of infinite crystalline lattices with metal clusters and organic linkers may provide opportunities for protease mimic which has remained unknown. Herein, we report that Cu2(C9H3O6)4/3 MOF (which is well known as HKUST-1 and denoted as Cu-MOF here), possesses an intrinsic enzyme mimicking activity similar to that found in natural trypsin to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and casein. The Michaelis constant (Km) of Cu-MOF is about 26,000-fold smaller than that of free trypsin indicating a much higher affinity of BSA for Cu-MOF surface. Cu-MOF also exhibited significantly higher catalytic efficiency than homogeneous artificial metalloprotease Cu(II) complexes and could be reused for ten times without losing in its activity. Moreover, Cu-MOF was successfully used to simulate trypsinization in cell culture since it dissociated cells in culture even without EDTA.

  8. MOFzyme: Intrinsic protease-like activity of Cu-MOF

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Chen, Daomei; Wang, Jiaqiang; Yan, Zhiying; Jiang, Liang; Deliang Duan; He, Jiao; Luo, Zhongrui; Zhang, Jinping; Yuan, Fagui

    2014-01-01

    The construction of efficient enzyme mimetics for the hydrolysis of peptide bonds in proteins is challenging due to the high stability of peptide bonds and the importance of proteases in biology and industry. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) consisting of infinite crystalline lattices with metal clusters and organic linkers may provide opportunities for protease mimic which has remained unknown. Herein, we report that Cu2(C9H3O6)4/3 MOF (which is well known as HKUST-1 and denoted as Cu-MOF here), possesses an intrinsic enzyme mimicking activity similar to that found in natural trypsin to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and casein. The Michaelis constant (Km) of Cu-MOF is about 26,000-fold smaller than that of free trypsin indicating a much higher affinity of BSA for Cu-MOF surface. Cu-MOF also exhibited significantly higher catalytic efficiency than homogeneous artificial metalloprotease Cu(II) complexes and could be reused for ten times without losing in its activity. Moreover, Cu-MOF was successfully used to simulate trypsinization in cell culture since it dissociated cells in culture even without EDTA. PMID:25342169

  9. Antimalarial activity of HIV-1 protease inhibitor in chromone series.

    PubMed

    Lerdsirisuk, Pradith; Maicheen, Chirattikan; Ungwitayatorn, Jiraporn

    2014-12-01

    Increasing parasite resistance to nearly all available antimalarial drugs becomes a serious problem to human health and necessitates the need to continue the search for new effective drugs. Recent studies have shown that clinically utilized HIV-1 protease (HIV-1 PR) inhibitors can inhibit the in vitro and in vivo growth of Plasmodium falciparum. In this study, a series of chromone derivatives possessing HIV-1 PR inhibitory activity has been tested for antimalarial activity against P. falciparum (K1 multi-drug resistant strain). Chromone 15, the potent HIV-1 PR inhibitor (IC50=0.65μM), was found to be the most potent antimalarial compound with IC50=0.95μM while primaquine and tafenoquine showed IC50=2.41 and 1.95μM, respectively. Molecular docking study of chromone compounds against plasmepsin II, an aspartic protease enzyme important in hemoglobin degradation, revealed that chromone 15 exhibited the higher binding affinity (binding energy=-13.24kcal/mol) than the known PM II inhibitors. Thus, HIV-1 PR inhibitor in chromone series has the potential to be a new class of antimalarial agent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular characterization of protease activity in Serratia sp. strain SCBI and its importance in cytotoxicity and virulence.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Lauren M; Tisa, Louis S

    2014-11-01

    A newly recognized Serratia species, termed South African Caenorhabditis briggsae isolate (SCBI), is both a mutualist of the nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae KT0001 and a pathogen of lepidopteran insects. Serratia sp. strain SCBI displays high proteolytic activity, and because secreted proteases are known virulence factors for many pathogens, the purpose of this study was to identify genes essential for extracellular protease activity in Serratia sp. strain SCBI and to determine what role proteases play in insect pathogenesis and cytotoxicity. A bank of 2,100 transposon mutants was generated, and six SCBI mutants with defective proteolytic activity were identified. These mutants were also defective in cytotoxicity. The mutants were found defective in genes encoding the following proteins: alkaline metalloprotease secretion protein AprE, a BglB family transcriptional antiterminator, an inosine/xanthosine triphosphatase, GidA, a methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein, and a PIN domain protein. Gene expression analysis on these six mutants showed significant downregulation in mRNA levels of several different types of predicted protease genes. In addition, transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis provided insight into how inactivation of AprE, GidA, and a PIN domain protein influences motility and virulence, as well as protease activity. Using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) to further characterize expression of predicted protease genes in wild-type Serratia sp. SCBI, the highest mRNA levels for the alkaline metalloprotease genes (termed prtA1 to prtA4) occurred following the death of an insect host, while two serine protease and two metalloprotease genes had their highest mRNA levels during active infection. Overall, these results indicate that proteolytic activity is essential for cytotoxicity in Serratia sp. SCBI and that its regulation appears to be highly complex. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Molecular Characterization of Protease Activity in Serratia sp. Strain SCBI and Its Importance in Cytotoxicity and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Lauren M.

    2014-01-01

    A newly recognized Serratia species, termed South African Caenorhabditis briggsae isolate (SCBI), is both a mutualist of the nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae KT0001 and a pathogen of lepidopteran insects. Serratia sp. strain SCBI displays high proteolytic activity, and because secreted proteases are known virulence factors for many pathogens, the purpose of this study was to identify genes essential for extracellular protease activity in Serratia sp. strain SCBI and to determine what role proteases play in insect pathogenesis and cytotoxicity. A bank of 2,100 transposon mutants was generated, and six SCBI mutants with defective proteolytic activity were identified. These mutants were also defective in cytotoxicity. The mutants were found defective in genes encoding the following proteins: alkaline metalloprotease secretion protein AprE, a BglB family transcriptional antiterminator, an inosine/xanthosine triphosphatase, GidA, a methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein, and a PIN domain protein. Gene expression analysis on these six mutants showed significant downregulation in mRNA levels of several different types of predicted protease genes. In addition, transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis provided insight into how inactivation of AprE, GidA, and a PIN domain protein influences motility and virulence, as well as protease activity. Using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) to further characterize expression of predicted protease genes in wild-type Serratia sp. SCBI, the highest mRNA levels for the alkaline metalloprotease genes (termed prtA1 to prtA4) occurred following the death of an insect host, while two serine protease and two metalloprotease genes had their highest mRNA levels during active infection. Overall, these results indicate that proteolytic activity is essential for cytotoxicity in Serratia sp. SCBI and that its regulation appears to be highly complex. PMID:25182493

  12. Protease activated receptor-2 (PAR2): possible target of phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Kakarala, Kavita Kumari; Jamil, Kaiser

    2015-09-01

    The use of phytochemicals either singly or in combination with other anticancer drugs comes with an advantage of less toxicity and minimal side effects. Signaling pathways play central role in cell cycle, cell growth, metabolism, etc. Thus, the identification of phytochemicals with promising antagonistic effect on the receptor/s playing key role in single transduction may have better therapeutic application. With this background, phytochemicals were screened against protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2). PAR2 belongs to the superfamily of GPCRs and is an important target for breast cancer. Using in silico methods, this study was able to identify the phytochemicals with promising binding affinity suggesting their therapeutic potential in the treatment of breast cancer. The findings from this study acquires importance as the information on the possible agonists and antagonists of PAR2 is limited due its unique mechanism of activation.

  13. Evaluation of trypanocidal activity of combinations of anti-sleeping sickness drugs with cysteine protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Steverding, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is unsatisfactory because only a few drugs, with serious side effects and poor efficacy, are available. As drug combination regimes often achieve greater therapeutic efficacy than monotherapies, here the trypanocidal activity of the cysteine protease inhibitor K11777 in combination with current anti-HAT drugs using bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei was investigated. Isobolographic analysis was used to determine the interaction between cysteine protease inhibitors (K11777, CA-074Me and CAA0225) and anti-HAT drugs (suramin, pentamidine, melarsoprol and eflornithine). Bloodstream forms of T. brucei were incubated in culture medium containing cysteine protease inhibitors or anti-HAT drugs alone or in combination at a 1:1 fixed-dose ratio. After 48 h incubation, live cells were counted, the 50% growth inhibition values determined and combination indices calculated. The general cytotoxicity of drug combinations was evaluated with human leukaemia HL-60 cells. Combinations of K11777 with suramin, pentamidine and melarsoprol showed antagonistic effects while with eflornithine a synergistic effect was observed. Whereas eflornithine antagonises with CA-074Me, an inhibitor inactivating the targeted TbCATL only under reducing conditions, it synergises with CAA0255, an inhibitor structurally related to CA-074Me which inactivates TbCATL independently of thiols. These findings indicate an essential role of thiols for the synergistic interaction between K11777 and eflornithine. Encouragingly, the K11777/eflornithine combination displayed higher trypanocidal than cytotoxic activity. The results of this study suggest that the combination of the cysteine protease inhibitor K11777 and eflornithine display promising synergistic trypanocidal activity that warrants further investigation of the drug combination as possible alternative treatment of HAT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Monitoring single protease activities on triple-helical collagen molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harzar, Raj; Froberg, James; Srivastava, D. K.; Choi, Yongki

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a particular family of proteases, play a pivotal role in degrading the extracellular matrix (ECM). It has been known for more than 40 years that MMPs are closely involved in multiple human cancers during cell growth, invasion, and metastasis. However, the mechanisms of MMP activity are far from being understood. Here, we monitored enzymatic processing of MMPs with two complementary approaches, atomic force microscopy and nanocircuits measurements. AFM measurements demonstrated that incubation of collagen monomers with MMPs resulted in a single position cleavage, producing 3/4 and 1/4 collagen fragments. From electronic monitoring of single MMP nanocircuit measurements, we were able to capture a single cleavage event with a rate of 0.012 Hz, which were in good agreement with fluorescence assay measurements. This work was supported financially by the NIGMS/NIH (P30GM103332-02) and ND NASA EPSCoR RID Grant.

  15. Identification of inhibitors using a cell-based assay for monitoring Golgi-resident protease activity.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Julia M; Hamilton, Christin A; Bhojani, Mahaveer S; Larsen, Martha J; Ross, Brian D; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz

    2007-05-01

    Noninvasive real-time quantification of cellular protease activity allows monitoring of enzymatic activity and identification of activity modulators within the protease's natural milieu. We developed a protease activity assay based on differential localization of a recombinant reporter consisting of a Golgi retention signal and a protease cleavage sequence fused to alkaline phosphatase (AP). When expressed in mammalian cells, this protein localizes to Golgi bodies and, on protease-mediated cleavage, AP translocates to the extracellular medium where its activity is measured. We used this system to monitor the Golgi-associated protease furin, a pluripotent enzyme with a key role in tumorigenesis, viral propagation of avian influenza, ebola, and HIV as well as in activation of anthrax, pseudomonas, and diphtheria toxins. This technology was adapted for high-throughput screening of 39,000-compound small molecule libraries, leading to identification of furin inhibitors. Furthermore, this strategy was used to identify inhibitors of another Golgi protease, the beta-site amyloid precursor protein (APP)-cleaving enzyme (BACE). BACE cleavage of the APP leads to formation of the Abeta peptide, a key event that leads to Alzheimer's disease. In conclusion, we describe a customizable noninvasive technology for real-time assessment of Golgi protease activity used to identify inhibitors of furin and BACE.

  16. Chimeric exchange of coronavirus nsp5 proteases (3CLpro) identifies common and divergent regulatory determinants of protease activity.

    PubMed

    Stobart, Christopher C; Sexton, Nicole R; Munjal, Havisha; Lu, Xiaotao; Molland, Katrina L; Tomar, Sakshi; Mesecar, Andrew D; Denison, Mark R

    2013-12-01

    Human coronaviruses (CoVs) such as severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) cause epidemics of severe human respiratory disease. A conserved step of CoV replication is the translation and processing of replicase polyproteins containing 16 nonstructural protein domains (nsp's 1 to 16). The CoV nsp5 protease (3CLpro; Mpro) processes nsp's at 11 cleavage sites and is essential for virus replication. CoV nsp5 has a conserved 3-domain structure and catalytic residues. However, the intra- and intermolecular determinants of nsp5 activity and their conservation across divergent CoVs are unknown, in part due to challenges in cultivating many human and zoonotic CoVs. To test for conservation of nsp5 structure-function determinants, we engineered chimeric betacoronavirus murine hepatitis virus (MHV) genomes encoding nsp5 proteases of human and bat alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses. Exchange of nsp5 proteases from HCoV-HKU1 and HCoV-OC43, which share the same genogroup, genogroup 2a, with MHV, allowed for immediate viral recovery with efficient replication albeit with impaired fitness in direct competition with wild-type MHV. Introduction of MHV nsp5 temperature-sensitive mutations into chimeric HKU1 and OC43 nsp5 proteases resulted in clear differences in viability and temperature-sensitive phenotypes compared with MHV nsp5. These data indicate tight genetic linkage and coevolution between nsp5 protease and the genomic background and identify differences in intramolecular networks regulating nsp5 function. Our results also provide evidence that chimeric viruses within coronavirus genogroups can be used to test nsp5 determinants of function and inhibition in common isogenic backgrounds and cell types.

  17. An efficient method to eliminate the protease activity contaminating commercial bovine pancreatic DNase I.

    PubMed

    Le, Tien; Lee, Hak Jin; Jin, Hyung Jong

    2015-08-15

    A method was developed to eliminate the proteases contaminating commercial DNase I, which can cause degradation of target protein during the purification process. Bio Basic DNase stock solution (in Tris-HCl buffer [pH 8.0] containing 5mM CaCl2) was first incubated at 50 °C to generate autolysis of proteases and zymogens, leading to a significant reduction in protease activity while preserving DNase activity. The residual protease activity was completely inhibited by further incubation with 2mM PMSF (phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride) or 2× S8830 inhibitor cocktail. This approach could be readily applicable to eliminate the protease activity in any DNase products or during the preparation of commercial DNase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Network Analyses Reveal Pervasive Functional Regulation Between Proteases in the Human Protease Web

    PubMed Central

    Fortelny, Nikolaus; Cox, Jennifer H.; Kappelhoff, Reinhild; Starr, Amanda E.; Lange, Philipp F.; Pavlidis, Paul; Overall, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Proteolytic processing is an irreversible posttranslational modification affecting a large portion of the proteome. Protease-cleaved mediators frequently exhibit altered activity, and biological pathways are often regulated by proteolytic processing. Many of these mechanisms have not been appreciated as being protease-dependent, and the potential in unraveling a complex new dimension of biological control is increasingly recognized. Proteases are currently believed to act individually or in isolated cascades. However, conclusive but scattered biochemical evidence indicates broader regulation of proteases by protease and inhibitor interactions. Therefore, to systematically study such interactions, we assembled curated protease cleavage and inhibition data into a global, computational representation, termed the protease web. This revealed that proteases pervasively influence the activity of other proteases directly or by cleaving intermediate proteases or protease inhibitors. The protease web spans four classes of proteases and inhibitors and so links both recently and classically described protease groups and cascades, which can no longer be viewed as operating in isolation in vivo. We demonstrated that this observation, termed reachability, is robust to alterations in the data and will only increase in the future as additional data are added. We further show how subnetworks of the web are operational in 23 different tissues reflecting different phenotypes. We applied our network to develop novel insights into biologically relevant protease interactions using cell-specific proteases of the polymorphonuclear leukocyte as a system. Predictions from the protease web on the activity of matrix metalloproteinase 8 (MMP8) and neutrophil elastase being linked by an inactivating cleavage of serpinA1 by MMP8 were validated and explain perplexing Mmp8 −/− versus wild-type polymorphonuclear chemokine cleavages in vivo. Our findings supply systematically derived and

  19. Development of a protease activity assay using heat-sensitive Tus-GFP fusion protein substrates.

    PubMed

    Askin, Samuel P; Morin, Isabelle; Schaeffer, Patrick M

    2011-08-15

    Proteases are implicated in various diseases and several have been identified as potential drug targets or biomarkers. As a result, protease activity assays that can be performed in high throughput are essential for the screening of inhibitors in drug discovery programs. Here we describe the development of a simple, general method for the characterization of protease activity and its use for inhibitor screening. GFP was genetically fused to a comparatively unstable Tus protein through an interdomain linker containing a specially designed protease site, which can be proteolyzed. When this Tus-GFP fusion protein substrate is proteolyzed it releases GFP, which remains in solution after a short heat denaturation and centrifugation step used to eliminate uncleaved Tus-GFP. Thus, the increase in GFP fluorescence is directly proportional to protease activity. We validated the protease activity assay with three different proteases, i.e., trypsin, caspase 3, and neutrophil elastase, and demonstrated that it can be used to determine protease activity and the effect of inhibitors with small sample volumes in just a few simple steps using a fluorescence plate reader. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR(2)) in human periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Holzhausen, M; Cortelli, J R; da Silva, V Araújo; Franco, G C Nobre; Cortelli, S Cavalca; Vergnolle, N

    2010-09-01

    No evidence for the role of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR(2)) in human periodontal disease has been demonstrated so far. Thus, we sought to investigate the expression of PAR(2) mRNA in chronic periodontitis, and to examine whether its expression is related to the presence of PAR(2) potential activators. Microbiological and gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected from individuals with chronic periodontitis and control individuals, and the presence of neutrophil serine proteinase 3 (P3) and Porphyromonas gingivalis was evaluated. PAR(2) mRNA expression was higher (p < 0.001) in those with chronic periodontitis compared with control individuals, and it was statistically decreased (p = 0.0006) after periodontal treatment. Furthermore, those with chronic periodontitis presented higher (p < 0.05) levels of IL-1alpha, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha, total proteolytic activity, P. gingivalis prevalence, and P3mRNA expression compared with control individuals. We conclude that PAR(2) mRNA expression and its potential activators are elevated in human chronic periodontitis, therefore suggesting that PAR(2) may play a role in periodontal inflammation.

  1. Functional dissection of the alphavirus capsid protease: sequence requirements for activity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Saijo; Rai, Jagdish; John, Lijo; Günther, Stephan; Drosten, Christian; Pützer, Brigitte M; Schaefer, Stephan

    2010-11-18

    The alphavirus capsid is multifunctional and plays a key role in the viral life cycle. The nucleocapsid domain is released by the self-cleavage activity of the serine protease domain within the capsid. All alphaviruses analyzed to date show this autocatalytic cleavage. Here we have analyzed the sequence requirements for the cleavage activity of Chikungunya virus capsid protease of genus alphavirus. Amongst alphaviruses, the C-terminal amino acid tryptophan (W261) is conserved and found to be important for the cleavage. Mutating tryptophan to alanine (W261A) completely inactivated the protease. Other amino acids near W261 were not having any effect on the activity of this protease. However, serine protease inhibitor AEBSF did not inhibit the activity. Through error-prone PCR we found that isoleucine 227 is important for the effective activity. The loss of activity was analyzed further by molecular modelling and comparison of WT and mutant structures. It was found that lysine introduced at position 227 is spatially very close to the catalytic triad and may disrupt electrostatic interactions in the catalytic site and thus inactivate the enzyme. We are also examining other sequence requirements for this protease activity. We analyzed various amino acid sequence requirements for the activity of ChikV capsid protease and found that amino acids outside the catalytic triads are important for the activity.

  2. Protease Activated Receptor-2 Contributes to Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Antoniak, Silvio; Sparkenbaugh, Erica M.; Tencati, Michael; Rojas, Mauricio; Mackman, Nigel; Pawlinski, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure is a major clinical problem worldwide. Previous studies have demonstrated an important role for G protein-coupled receptors, including protease-activated receptors (PARs), in the pathology of heart hypertrophy and failure. Activation of PAR-2 on cardiomyocytes has been shown to induce hypertrophic growth in vitro. PAR-2 also contributes to myocardial infarction and heart remodeling after ischemia/reperfusion injury. In this study, we found that PAR-2 induced hypertrophic growth of cultured rat neonatal cardiomyocytes in a MEK1/2 and p38 dependent manner. In addition, PAR-2 activation on mouse cardiomyocytes increased expression of the pro-fibrotic chemokine MCP-1. Furthermore, cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of PAR-2 in mice induced heart hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis, inflammation and heart failure. Finally, in a mouse model of myocardial infarction induced by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery, PAR-2 deficiency attenuated heart remodeling and improved heart function independently of its contribution to the size of the initial infarct. Taken together, our data indicate that PAR-2 signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertrophy and heart failure. PMID:24312345

  3. Fluorescent diphenylphosphonate-based probes for detection of serine protease activity during inflammation.

    PubMed

    Edgington-Mitchell, Laura E; Barlow, Nicholas; Aurelio, Luigi; Samha, Aminath; Szabo, Monika; Graham, Bim; Bunnett, Nigel

    2017-01-15

    Activity-based probes are small molecules that covalently bind to the active site of a protease in an activity-dependent manner. We synthesized and characterized two fluorescent activity-based probes that target serine proteases with trypsin-like or elastase-like activity. We assessed the selectivity and potency of these probes against recombinant enzymes and demonstrated that while they are efficacious at labeling active proteases in complex protein mixtures in vitro, they are less valuable for in vivo studies. We used these probes to evaluate serine protease activity in two mouse models of acute inflammation, including pancreatitis and colitis. As anticipated, the activity of trypsin-like proteases was increased during pancreatitis. Levels of elastase-like proteases were low in pancreatic lysates and colonic luminal fluids, whether healthy or inflamed. Exogenously added recombinant neutrophil elastase was inhibited upon incubation with these samples, an effect that was augmented in inflamed samples compared to controls. These data suggest that endogenous inhibitors and elastase-degrading proteases are upregulated during inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Activity-based mass spectrometric characterization of proteases and inhibitors in human saliva

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiuli; Salih, Erdjan; Oppenheim, Frank G.; Helmerhorst, Eva J.

    2009-01-01

    Proteases present in oral fluid effectively modulate the structure and function of some salivary proteins and have been implicated in tissue destruction in oral disease. To identify the proteases operating in the oral environment, proteins in pooled whole saliva supernatant were separated by anion-exchange chromatography and individual fractions were analyzed for proteolytic activity by zymography using salivary histatins as the enzyme substrates. Protein bands displaying proteolytic activity were particularly prominent in the 50–75 kDa region. Individual bands were excised, in-gel trypsinized and subjected to LC/ESI-MS/MS. The data obtained were searched against human, oral microbial and protease databases. A total of 13 proteases were identified all of which were of mammalian origin. Proteases detected in multiple fractions with cleavage specificities toward arginine and lysine residues, were lactotransferrin, kallikrein-1, and human airway trypsin-like protease. Unexpectedly, ten protease inhibitors were co-identified suggesting they were associated with the proteases in the same fractions. The inhibitors found most frequently were alpha-2-macroglobulin-like protein 1, alpha-1-antitrypsin, and leukocyte elastase inhibitor. Regulation of oral fluid proteolysis is highly important given that an inbalance in such activities has been correlated to a variety of pathological conditions including oral cancer. PMID:20011683

  5. Protease inhibitor in scorpion (Mesobuthus eupeus) venom prolongs the biological activities of the crude venom.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hakim; Xiao-Peng, Tang; Yang, Shi-Long; Lu, Qiu-Min; Lai, Ren

    2016-08-01

    It is hypothesized that protease inhibitors play an essential role in survival of venomous animals through protecting peptide/protein toxins from degradation by proteases in their prey or predators. However, the biological function of protease inhibitors in scorpion venoms remains unknown. In the present study, a trypsin inhibitor was purified and characterized from the venom of scorpion Mesobuthus eupeus, which enhanced the biological activities of crude venom components in mice when injected in combination with crude venom. This protease inhibitor, named MeKTT-1, belonged to Kunitz-type toxins subfamily. Native MeKTT-1 selectively inhibited trypsin with a Kivalue of 130 nmol·L(-1). Furthermore, MeKTT-1 was shown to be a thermo-stable peptide. In animal behavioral tests, MeKTT-1 prolonged the pain behavior induced by scorpion crude venom, suggesting that protease inhibitors in scorpion venom inhibited proteases and protect the functionally important peptide/protein toxins from degradation, consequently keeping them active longer. In conclusion, this was the first experimental evidence about the natural existence of serine protease inhibitor in the venom of scorpion Mesobuthus eupeus, which preserved the activity of venom components, suggests that scorpions may use protease inhibitors for survival. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of inhibitors using a cell based assay for monitoring golgi-resident protease activity

    PubMed Central

    Coppola, Julia M.; Hamilton, Christin A.; Bhojani, Mahaveer S.; Larsen, Martha J.; Ross, Brian D.; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz

    2007-01-01

    Non-invasive real time quantification of cellular protease activity allows monitoring of enzymatic activity and identification of activity modulators within the protease’s natural milieu. We developed a protease-activity assay based on differential localization of a recombinant reporter consisting of a Golgi retention signal and a protease cleavage sequence fused to alkaline phosphatase (AP). When expressed in mammalian cells, this protein localizes to Golgi bodies and, upon protease mediated cleavage, AP translocates to the extracellular medium where its activity is measured. We used this system to monitor the Golgi-associated protease furin, a pluripotent enzyme with a key role in tumorigenesis, viral propagation of avian influenza, ebola, and HIV, and in activation of anthrax, pseudomonas, and diphtheria toxins. This technology was adapted for high throughput screening of 30,000 compound small molecule libraries, leading to identification of furin inhibitors. Further, this strategy was utilized to identify inhibitors of another Golgi protease, the β-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE). BACE cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein leads to formation of the Aβ peptide, a key event that leads to Alzheimer’s disease. In conclusion, we describe a customizable, non-invasive technology for real time assessment of Golgi protease activity used to identify inhibitors of furin and BACE. PMID:17316541

  7. [Isolation and characteristics of IgA1 and its use for detecting bacterial IgA1 proteases].

    PubMed

    Amelina, I P; Zakharova, N A

    1984-12-01

    Sufficiently purified IgA, subclass I, has been isolated from the defibrinated plasma of a myeloma patient by chromatography on columns packed with DEAE-Sephadex A-50 or Sephadex G-200, and rabbit antiserum to this immunoglobulin has been obtained. These preparations have been used for detecting specific protease in Bordetella pertussis. The tested B. pertussis strains have been shown to induce, as revealed by immunoelectrophoretic methods, the proteolysis of human IgA, subclass I.

  8. Uncoupling of Protease trans-Cleavage and Helicase Activities in Pestivirus NS3

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fengwei; Lu, Guoliang; Li, Ling

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The nonstructural protein NS3 from the Flaviviridae family is a multifunctional protein that contains an N-terminal protease and a C-terminal helicase, playing essential roles in viral polyprotein processing and genome replication. Here we report a full-length crystal structure of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV) NS3 in complex with its NS4A protease cofactor segment (PCS) at a 2.35-Å resolution. The structure reveals a previously unidentified ∼2,200-Å2 intramolecular protease-helicase interface comprising three clusters of interactions, representing a “closed” global conformation related to the NS3-NS4A cis-cleavage event. Although this conformation is incompatible with protease trans-cleavage, it appears to be functionally important and beneficial to the helicase activity, as the mutations designed to perturb this conformation impaired both the helicase activities in vitro and virus production in vivo. Our work reveals important features of protease-helicase coordination in pestivirus NS3 and provides a key basis for how different conformational states may explicitly contribute to certain functions of this natural protease-helicase fusion protein. IMPORTANCE Many RNA viruses encode helicases to aid their RNA genome replication and transcription by unwinding structured RNA. Being naturally fused to a protease participating in viral polyprotein processing, the NS3 helicases encoded by the Flaviviridae family viruses are unique. Therefore, how these two enzyme modules coordinate in a single polypeptide is of particular interest. Here we report a previously unidentified conformation of pestivirus NS3 in complex with its NS4A protease cofactor segment (PCS). This conformational state is related to the protease cis-cleavage event and is optimal for the function of helicase. This work provides an important basis to understand how different enzymatic activities of NS3 may be achieved by the coordination between the protease and helicase through

  9. The Rubella Virus Nonstructural Protease Requires Divalent Cations for Activity and Functions in trans

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Ropp, Susan L.; Jackson, Richard J.; Frey, Teryl K.

    1998-01-01

    The rubella virus (RUB) nonstructural (NS) protease is a papain-like cysteine protease (PCP) located in the NS-protein open reading frame (NSP-ORF) that cleaves the NSP-ORF translation product at a single site to produce two products, P150 (the N-terminal product) and P90 (the C-terminal product). The RUB NS protease was found not to function following translation in vitro in a standard rabbit reticulocyte lysate system, although all of the other viral PCPs do so. However, in the presence of divalent cations such as Zn2+, Cd2+, and Co2+, the RUB NS protease functioned efficiently, indicating that these cations are required either as direct cofactors in catalytic activity or for correct acquisition of three-dimensional conformation of the protease. Since other viral and cell PCPs do not require cations for activity and the RUB NS protease contains a putative zinc binding motif, the latter possibility is more likely. Previous in vivo expression studies of the RUB NS protease failed to demonstrate trans cleavage activity (J.-P. Chen et al., J. Virol. 70:4707–4713, 1996). To study whether trans cleavage could be detected in vitro, a protease catalytic site mutant and a mutant in which the C-terminal 31 amino acids of P90 were deleted were independently introduced into plasmid constructs that express the complete NSP-ORF. Cotranslation of these mutants in vitro yielded both the native and the mutated forms of P90, indicating that the protease present in the mutated construct cleaved the catalytic-site mutant precursor. Thus, RUB NS protease can function in trans. PMID:9557742

  10. Determination of the protease cleavage site repertoire—The RNase H but not the RT domain is essential for foamy viral protease activity

    SciTech Connect

    Spannaus, Ralf; Bodem, Jochen, E-mail: Jochen.Bodem@vim.uni-wuerzburg.de

    2014-04-15

    In contrast to orthoretroviruses, the foamy virus protease is only active as a protease-reverse transcriptase fusion protein and requires viral RNA for activation. Maturation of foamy viral proteins seems to be restricted to a single cleavage site in Gag and Pol. We provide evidence that unprocessed Gag is required for optimal infectivity, which is unique among retroviruses. Analyses of the cleavage site sequences of the Gag and Pol cleavage sites revealed a high similarity compared to those of Lentiviruses. We show that positions P2' and P2 are invariant and that Gag and Pol cleavage sites are processed with similar efficiencies.more » The RNase H domain is essential for protease activity, but can functionally be substituted by RNase H domains of other retroviruses. Thus, the RNase H domain might be involved in the stabilization of the protease dimer, while the RT domain is essential for RNA dependent protease activation. - Highlights: • Unprocessed Gag is required for optimal infectivity of foamy viruses. • Positions P2 and P2' are invariant in the foamy viral cleavage sites. • The RNaseH domain is essential for protease activity. • The RNaseH domains of other retroviruses support foamy viral protease activity.« less

  11. Proteases in agricultural dust induce lung inflammation through PAR-1 and PAR-2 activation.

    PubMed

    Romberger, Debra J; Heires, Art J; Nordgren, Tara M; Souder, Chelsea P; West, William; Liu, Xiang-de; Poole, Jill A; Toews, Myron L; Wyatt, Todd A

    2015-08-15

    Workers exposed to aerosolized dust present in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are susceptible to inflammatory lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Extracts of dust collected from hog CAFOs [hog dust extract (HDE)] are potent stimulators of lung inflammatory responses in several model systems. The observation that HDE contains active proteases prompted the present study, which evaluated the role of CAFO dust proteases in lung inflammatory processes and tested whether protease-activated receptors (PARs) are involved in the signaling pathway for these events. We hypothesized that the damaging proinflammatory effect of HDE is due, in part, to the proteolytic activation of PARs, and inhibiting the proteases in HDE or disrupting PAR activation would attenuate HDE-mediated inflammatory indexes in bronchial epithelial cells (BECs), in mouse lung slices in vitro, and in a murine in vivo exposure model. Human BECs and mouse lung slice cultures stimulated with 5% HDE released significantly more of each of the cytokines measured (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, keratinocyte-derived chemokine/CXC chemokine ligand 1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2/CXC chemokine ligand 2) than controls, and these effects were markedly diminished by protease inhibition. Inhibition of PARs also blunted the HDE-induced cytokine release from BECs. In addition, protease depletion inhibited HDE-induced BEC intracellular PKCα and PKCε activation. C57BL/6J mice administered 12.5% HDE intranasally, either once or daily for 3 wk, exhibited increased total cellular and neutrophil influx, bronchial alveolar fluid inflammatory cytokines, lung histopathology, and inflammatory scores compared with mice receiving protease-depleted HDE. These data suggest that proteases in dust from CAFOs are important mediators of lung inflammation, and these proteases and their receptors may provide novel targets for therapeutic intervention in CAFO dust-induced airways disease.

  12. Protease-activated receptor 2 activation of myeloid dendritic cells regulates allergic airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A common characteristic of allergens is that they contain proteases that can activate protease-activated receptor (PAR-2); however the mechanism by which PAR-2 regulates allergic airway inflammation is unclear. Methods Mice (wild type and PAR-2-deficient) were sensitized using German cockroach (GC) feces (frass), the isolated protease from GC frass, or through adoptive transfer of GC frass-treated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) and measurements of airway inflammation (cellular infiltration, cytokine expression, and mucin production), serum IgE levels and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) were assessed. BMDC were cultured, treated with GC frass and assessed for cytokine production. PAR-2 expression on pulmonary mDCs was determined by flow cytometry. Results Exposure to GC frass induced AHR and airway inflammation in wild type mice; however PAR-2-deficient mice had significantly attenuated responses. To directly investigate the role of the protease, we isolated the protease from GC frass and administered the endotoxin-free protease into the airways of mice in the presence of OVA. GC frass proteases were sufficient to promote the development of AHR, serum IgE, and Th2 cytokine production. PAR-2 expression on mDC was upregulated following GC frass exposure, but the presence of a functional PAR-2 did not alter antigen uptake. To determine if PAR-2 activation led to differential cytokine production, we cultured BMDC in the presence of GM-CSF and treated these cells ex vivo with GC frass. PAR-2-deficient BMDC released significantly less IL-6, IL-23 and TNFα compared to BMDC from wild type mice, suggesting PAR-2 activation was important in Th2/Th17 skewing cytokine production. To determine the role for PAR-2 on mDCs on the initiation of allergic airway inflammation, BMDCs from wild type and PAR-2-deficient mice were treated in the presence or absence of GC frass and then adoptively transferred into the airway of wild type mice. Importantly, GC frass

  13. Hyaluronidase and protease activities from Indian snake venoms: neutralization by Mimosa pudica root extract.

    PubMed

    Girish, K S; Mohanakumari, H P; Nagaraju, S; Vishwanath, B S; Kemparaju, K

    2004-06-01

    The aqueous root extract of Mimosa pudica dose dependently inhibited the hyaluronidase and protease activities of Indian snakes (Naja naja, Vipera russelii and Echis carinatus) venom. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Design, synthesis, and activity of nanocellulosic protease sensors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Here we contrast the molecular assembly, and biochemical utility of nanocellulosic materials prepared from cotton and wood as protease sensors. The cotton-based nanocellulosic substrates were prepared in a variety of ways to produce nanocrystals, films and aerogels, which were derivatized with eithe...

  15. Protease activation during in vivo pancreatitis is dependent on calcineurin activation.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ahsan U; Sarwar, Amna; Orabi, Abrahim I; Gautam, Samir; Grant, Wayne M; Park, Alexander J; Shah, Adnan U; Liu, Jun; Mistry, Pramod K; Jain, Dhanpat; Husain, Sohail Z

    2009-11-01

    The premature activation of digestive proenzymes, specifically proteases, within the pancreatic acinar cell is an early and critical event during acute pancreatitis. Our previous studies demonstrate that this activation requires a distinct pathological rise in cytosolic Ca(2+). Furthermore, we have shown that a target of aberrant Ca(2+) in acinar cells is the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin (PP2B). In this study, we hypothesized that PP2B mediates in vivo protease activation and pancreatitis severity. To test this, pancreatitis was induced in mice over 8 h by administering hourly intraperitoneal injections of the cholecystokinin analog caerulein (50 microg/kg). Treatment with the PP2B inhibitor FK506 at 1 and 8 h after pancreatitis induction reduced trypsin activities by greater than 50% (P < 0.005). Serum amylase and IL-6 was reduced by 86 and 84% relative to baseline (P < 0.0005) at 8 h, respectively. Histological severity of pancreatitis, graded on the basis of pancreatic edema, acinar cell vacuolization, inflammation, and apoptosis, was reduced early in the course of pancreatitis. Myeloperoxidase activity from both pancreas and lung was reduced by 93 and 83% relative to baseline, respectively (P < 0.05). These data suggest that PP2B is an important target of the aberrant acinar cell Ca(2+) rise associated with pathological protease activation and pancreatitis.

  16. Nematicidal activity of three novel extracellular proteases of the nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium sinense.

    PubMed

    Soares, Filippe E F; Braga, Fabio R; Araújo, Jackson V; Geniêr, Hugo L A; Gouveia, Angélica S; Queiroz, José H

    2013-04-01

    Extracellular proteases are an important virulence factor for the nematophagous fungi Monacrosporium. The objective of this study was to optimize, purify, partially characterize, and to evaluate the nematicidal activity of the proteases produced by the nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium sinense (SF53) by solid-state fermentation. Wheat bran was used as substrate for protease production. The variables moisture, pH, incubation time, temperature, glucose, yeast extract, and the number of conidia were tested for their influences on protease production by SF53. To determine the optimal level of the selected variables the central composite design was applied. The crude extract obtained was purified in two steps, an ion exchange chromatography and a gel excision. SDS-PAGE and zymogram were performed for analysis of the purification process. Proteolytic activity was also tested at different pHs and temperatures. In the in vitro assay, the nematicidal activity of the three proteases was evaluated. pH and incubation time showed a significant effect (p<0.05) on production of protease. The highest value of activity was 38.0 (U/ml) under the conditions of pH 5.0 and incubation time of 211 h. SF53 produced three different proteases (Ms1, Ms2, and Ms3) which were directly purified from the zymogram. Ms1, Ms2, and Ms3 showed the following percentage of reduction (p<0.05) on the number of Panagrellus redivivus compared to control after 24 h: 76.8, 68.1, and 92.1%. This is the first report of the use of proteases of the isolate SF53 on a phytonematode, which may be a research tool in future works.

  17. Noninvasive High-Throughput Single-Cell Analysis of HIV Protease Activity Using Ratiometric Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Gaber, Rok; Majerle, Andreja; Jerala, Roman; Benčina, Mojca

    2013-01-01

    To effectively fight against the human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic, ongoing development of novel HIV protease inhibitors is required. Inexpensive high-throughput screening assays are needed to quickly scan large sets of chemicals for potential inhibitors. We have developed a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based, HIV protease-sensitive sensor using a combination of a fluorescent protein pair, namely mCerulean and mCitrine. Through extensive in vitro characterization, we show that the FRET-HIV sensor can be used in HIV protease screening assays. Furthermore, we have used the FRET-HIV sensor for intracellular quantitative detection of HIV protease activity in living cells, which more closely resembles an actual viral infection than an in vitro assay. We have developed a high-throughput method that employs a ratiometric flow cytometry for analyzing large populations of cells that express the FRET-HIV sensor. The method enables FRET measurement of single cells with high sensitivity and speed and should be used when subpopulation-specific intracellular activity of HIV protease needs to be estimated. In addition, we have used a confocal microscopy sensitized emission FRET technique to evaluate the usefulness of the FRET-HIV sensor for spatiotemporal detection of intracellular HIV protease activity. PMID:24287545

  18. Characterization of the Protease Activity of Detergents: Laboratory Practicals for Studying the Protease Profile and Activity of Various Commercial Detergents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valls, Cristina; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallve, Santi; Mulero, Miquel

    2011-01-01

    Detergent enzymes account for about 30% of the total worldwide production of enzymes and are one of the largest and most successful applications of modern industrial biotechnology. Proteases can improve the wash performance of household, industrial, and institutional laundry detergents used to remove protein-based stains such as blood, grass, body…

  19. The role of protease activation of inflammation in allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Reed, Charles E; Kita, Hirohito

    2004-11-01

    Extracellular endogenous proteases, as well as exogenous proteases from mites and molds, react with cell-surface receptors in the airways to generate leukocyte infiltration and to amplify the response to allergens. Stimulation leads to increased intracellular Ca ++ and gene transcription. The most thoroughly investigated receptors, protease-activated receptors (PARs), are 7-transmembrane proteins coupled to G proteins. PARs are widely distributed on the cells of the airways, where they contribute to the inflammation characteristic of allergic diseases. PAR stimulation of epithelial cells opens tight junctions, causes desquamation, and produces cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. They degranulate eosinophils and mast cells. Proteases contract bronchial smooth muscle and cause it to proliferate. PARs also promote maturation, proliferation, and collagen production of fibroblast precursors and mature fibroblasts. PAR-2, apparently the most important of the 4 PARs that have been characterized, is increased on the epithelium of patients with asthma. Trypsin, a product of injured epithelial cells, and mast cell tryptase are potent activators of PAR-2. Mast cell chymase activates PAR-1. Proteases from mites and molds appear to act through similar receptors. They amplify IgE production to allergens, degranulate eosinophils, and can generate inflammation, even in the absence of IgE. Proteases produced by Aspergillus species to support its growth are presumably responsible for the exuberant IgE, IgG, and granulomatous response of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Similar proteases from molds germinating on the respiratory mucosa have been recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic hyperplastic rhinitis and polyps and, by extension, of intrinsic asthma. Finally, proteases from mites and fungi growing in damp, water-damaged buildings might be the basis for the increased prevalence in these buildings of rhinitis, asthma, and other respiratory diseases

  20. Cathepsin B Activity Initiates Apoptosis via Digestive Protease Activation in Pancreatic Acinar Cells and Experimental Pancreatitis*

    PubMed Central

    Sendler, Matthias; Maertin, Sandrina; John, Daniel; Persike, Maria; Weiss, F. Ulrich; Krüger, Burkhard; Wartmann, Thomas; Wagh, Preshit; Halangk, Walter; Schaschke, Norbert; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M.

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatitis is associated with premature activation of digestive proteases in the pancreas. The lysosomal hydrolase cathepsin B (CTSB) is a known activator of trypsinogen, and its deletion reduces disease severity in experimental pancreatitis. Here we studied the activation mechanism and subcellular compartment in which CTSB regulates protease activation and cellular injury. Cholecystokinin (CCK) increased the activity of CTSB, cathepsin L, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and caspase 3 in vivo and in vitro and induced redistribution of CTSB to a secretory vesicle-enriched fraction. Neither CTSB protein nor activity redistributed to the cytosol, where the CTSB inhibitors cystatin-B/C were abundantly present. Deletion of CTSB reduced and deletion of cathepsin L increased intracellular trypsin activation. CTSB deletion also abolished CCK-induced caspase 3 activation, apoptosis-inducing factor, as well as X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein degradation, but these depended on trypsinogen activation via CTSB. Raising the vesicular pH, but not trypsin inhibition, reduced CTSB activity. Trypsin inhibition did not affect apoptosis in hepatocytes. Deletion of CTSB affected apoptotic but not necrotic acinar cell death. In summary, CTSB in pancreatitis undergoes activation in a secretory, vesicular, and acidic compartment where it activates trypsinogen. Its deletion or inhibition regulates acinar cell apoptosis but not necrosis in two models of pancreatitis. Caspase 3-mediated apoptosis depends on intravesicular trypsinogen activation induced by CTSB, not CTSB activity directly, and this mechanism is pancreas-specific. PMID:27226576

  1. Cathepsin B Activity Initiates Apoptosis via Digestive Protease Activation in Pancreatic Acinar Cells and Experimental Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Sendler, Matthias; Maertin, Sandrina; John, Daniel; Persike, Maria; Weiss, F Ulrich; Krüger, Burkhard; Wartmann, Thomas; Wagh, Preshit; Halangk, Walter; Schaschke, Norbert; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M

    2016-07-08

    Pancreatitis is associated with premature activation of digestive proteases in the pancreas. The lysosomal hydrolase cathepsin B (CTSB) is a known activator of trypsinogen, and its deletion reduces disease severity in experimental pancreatitis. Here we studied the activation mechanism and subcellular compartment in which CTSB regulates protease activation and cellular injury. Cholecystokinin (CCK) increased the activity of CTSB, cathepsin L, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and caspase 3 in vivo and in vitro and induced redistribution of CTSB to a secretory vesicle-enriched fraction. Neither CTSB protein nor activity redistributed to the cytosol, where the CTSB inhibitors cystatin-B/C were abundantly present. Deletion of CTSB reduced and deletion of cathepsin L increased intracellular trypsin activation. CTSB deletion also abolished CCK-induced caspase 3 activation, apoptosis-inducing factor, as well as X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein degradation, but these depended on trypsinogen activation via CTSB. Raising the vesicular pH, but not trypsin inhibition, reduced CTSB activity. Trypsin inhibition did not affect apoptosis in hepatocytes. Deletion of CTSB affected apoptotic but not necrotic acinar cell death. In summary, CTSB in pancreatitis undergoes activation in a secretory, vesicular, and acidic compartment where it activates trypsinogen. Its deletion or inhibition regulates acinar cell apoptosis but not necrosis in two models of pancreatitis. Caspase 3-mediated apoptosis depends on intravesicular trypsinogen activation induced by CTSB, not CTSB activity directly, and this mechanism is pancreas-specific. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Supermarket Proteases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagar, William G.; Bullerwell, Lornie D.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a laboratory activity on enzymes. Uses common items found in the supermarket that contain protease enzymes, such as contact lens cleaner and meat tenderizer. Demonstrates the digestion of gelatin proteins as part of enzymatic reactions. (Author/SOE)

  3. The m-AAA Protease Associated with Neurodegeneration Limits MCU Activity in Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    König, Tim; Tröder, Simon E; Bakka, Kavya; Korwitz, Anne; Richter-Dennerlein, Ricarda; Lampe, Philipp A; Patron, Maria; Mühlmeister, Mareike; Guerrero-Castillo, Sergio; Brandt, Ulrich; Decker, Thorsten; Lauria, Ines; Paggio, Angela; Rizzuto, Rosario; Rugarli, Elena I; De Stefani, Diego; Langer, Thomas

    2016-10-06

    Mutations in subunits of mitochondrial m-AAA proteases in the inner membrane cause neurodegeneration in spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA28) and hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP7). m-AAA proteases preserve mitochondrial proteostasis, mitochondrial morphology, and efficient OXPHOS activity, but the cause for neuronal loss in disease is unknown. We have determined the neuronal interactome of m-AAA proteases in mice and identified a complex with C2ORF47 (termed MAIP1), which counteracts cell death by regulating the assembly of the mitochondrial Ca 2+ uniporter MCU. While MAIP1 assists biogenesis of the MCU subunit EMRE, the m-AAA protease degrades non-assembled EMRE and ensures efficient assembly of gatekeeper subunits with MCU. Loss of the m-AAA protease results in accumulation of constitutively active MCU-EMRE channels lacking gatekeeper subunits in neuronal mitochondria and facilitates mitochondrial Ca 2+ overload, mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, and neuronal death. Together, our results explain neuronal loss in m-AAA protease deficiency by deregulated mitochondrial Ca 2+ homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A serine protease inhibitor attenuates aldosterone-induced kidney injuries via the suppression of plasmin activity.

    PubMed

    Kakizoe, Yutaka; Miyasato, Yoshikazu; Onoue, Tomoaki; Nakagawa, Terumasa; Hayata, Manabu; Uchimura, Kohei; Morinaga, Jun; Mizumoto, Teruhiko; Adachi, Masataka; Miyoshi, Taku; Sakai, Yoshiki; Tomita, Kimio; Mukoyama, Masashi; Kitamura, Kenichiro

    2016-10-01

    Emerging evidence has suggested that aldosterone has direct deleterious effects on the kidney independently of its hemodynamic effects. However, the detailed mechanisms of these direct effects remain to be elucidated. We have previously reported that camostat mesilate (CM), a synthetic serine protease inhibitor, attenuated kidney injuries in Dahl salt-sensitive rats, remnant kidney rats, and unilateral ureteral obstruction rats, suggesting that some serine proteases would be involved in the pathogenesis of kidney injuries. The current study was conducted to investigate the roles of serine proteases and the beneficial effects of CM in aldosterone-related kidney injuries. We observed a serine protease that was activated by aldosterone/salt in rat kidney lysate, and identified it as plasmin with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Plasmin increased pro-fibrotic and inflammatory gene expressions in rat renal fibroblast cells. CM inhibited the protease activity of plasmin and suppressed cell injury markers induced by plasmin in the fibroblast cells. Furthermore, CM ameliorated glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis in the kidney of aldosterone/salt-treated rats. Our findings indicate that plasmin has important roles in kidney injuries that are induced by aldosterone/salt, and that serine protease inhibitor could provide a new strategy for the treatment of aldosterone-associated kidney diseases in humans. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of a 48-kDa protease (AMP48) from Artocarpus heterophyllus latex.

    PubMed

    Siritapetawee, J; Thammasirirak, S; Samosornsuk, W

    2012-01-01

    Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit) is a latex producing plant. Plant latex is produced from secretory cells and contains many intergradients. It also has been used in folk medicine. This study aimed to purify and characterize the biological activities of a protease from jackfruit latex. A protease was isolated and purified from crude latex of a jackfruit tree by acid precipitation and ion exchange chromatography. The proteolytic activities of protein were tested using gelatin- and casein-zymography. The molecular weight and isoelectric point (pl) of protein were analysed by SDS/12.5% PAGE and 2D-PAGE, respectively. Antimicrobial activity of protein was analysed by broth microdilution method. In addition, the antibacterial activity of protein against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 was observed and measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique. The purified protein contained protease activity by digesting gelatin- and casein-substrates. The protease was designated as antimicrobial protease-48 kDa or AMP48 due to its molecular mass on SDS-PAGE was approximately 48 kDa. The isoelectric point (pl) of AMP48 was approximately 4.2. In addition, AMP48 contained antimicrobial activities by it could inhibit the growths of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and clinical isolated Candida albicans at minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 2.2 mg/ml and Minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC) 8.8 mg/ml. AFM image also supported the antimicrobial activities of AMP48 by the treated bacterial morphology and size were altered from normal.

  6. Lectin Activation in Giardia lamblia by Host Protease: A Novel Host-Parasite Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lev, Boaz; Ward, Honorine; Keusch, Gerald T.; Pereira, Miercio E. A.

    1986-04-01

    A lectin in Giardia lamblia was activated by secretions from the human duodenum, the environment where the parasite lives. Incubation of the secretions with trypsin inhibitors prevented the appearance of lectin activity, implicating proteases as the activating agent. Accordingly, lectin activation was also produced by crystalline trypsin and Pronase; other proteases tested were ineffective. When activated, the lectin agglutinated intestinal cells to which the parasite adheres in vivo. The lectin was most specific to mannose-6-phosphate and apparently was bound to the plasma membrane. Activation of a parasite lectin by a host protease represents a novel mechanism of hostparasite interaction and may contribute to the affinity of Giardia lamblia to the infection site.

  7. A novel sulfate-reducing bacteria detection method based on inhibition of cysteine protease activity.

    PubMed

    Qi, Peng; Zhang, Dun; Wan, Yi

    2014-11-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have been extensively studied in corrosion and environmental science. However, fast enumeration of SRB population is still a difficult task. This work presents a novel specific SRB detection method based on inhibition of cysteine protease activity. The hydrolytic activity of cysteine protease was inhibited by taking advantage of sulfide, the characteristic metabolic product of SRB, to attack active cysteine thiol group in cysteine protease catalytic sites. The active thiol S-sulfhydration process could be used for SRB detection, since the amount of sulfide accumulated in culture medium was highly related with initial bacterial concentration. The working conditions of cysteine protease have been optimized to obtain better detection capability, and the SRB detection performances have been evaluated in this work. The proposed SRB detection method based on inhibition of cysteine protease activity avoided the use of biological recognition elements. In addition, compared with the widely used most probable number (MPN) method which would take up to at least 15days to accomplish whole detection process, the method based on inhibition of papain activity could detect SRB in 2 days, with a detection limit of 5.21×10(2) cfu mL(-1). The detection time for SRB population quantitative analysis was greatly shortened. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of tissue factor and protease-activated receptors in a mouse model of endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Pawlinski, Rafal; Pedersen, Brian; Schabbauer, Gernot; Tencati, Michael; Holscher, Todd; Boisvert, William; Andrade-Gordon, Patricia; Frank, Rolf Dario; Mackman, Nigel

    2004-02-15

    Sepsis is associated with a systemic activation of coagulation and an excessive inflammatory response. Anticoagulants have been shown to inhibit both coagulation and inflammation in sepsis. In this study, we used both genetic and pharmacologic approaches to analyze the role of tissue factor and protease-activated receptors in coagulation and inflammation in a mouse endotoxemia model. We used mice expressing low levels of the procoagulant molecule, tissue factor (TF), to analyze the effects of TF deficiency either in all tissues or selectively in hematopoietic cells. Low TF mice had reduced coagulation, inflammation, and mortality compared with control mice. Similarly, a deficiency of TF expression by hematopoietic cells reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced coagulation, inflammation, and mortality. Inhibition of the down-stream coagulation protease, thrombin, reduced fibrin deposition and prolonged survival without affecting inflammation. Deficiency of either protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) or protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) alone did not affect inflammation or survival. However, a combination of thrombin inhibition and PAR-2 deficiency reduced inflammation and mortality. These data demonstrate that hematopoietic cells are the major pathologic site of TF expression during endotoxemia and suggest that multiple protease-activated receptors mediate crosstalk between coagulation and inflammation.

  9. Activation of Bacteroides fragilis toxin by a novel bacterial protease contributes to anaerobic sepsis in mice.

    PubMed

    Choi, Vivian M; Herrou, Julien; Hecht, Aaron L; Teoh, Wei Ping; Turner, Jerrold R; Crosson, Sean; Bubeck Wardenburg, Juliane

    2016-05-01

    Bacteroides fragilis is the leading cause of anaerobic bacteremia and sepsis. Enterotoxigenic strains that produce B. fragilis toxin (BFT, fragilysin) contribute to colitis and intestinal malignancy, yet are also isolated in bloodstream infection. It is not known whether these strains harbor unique genetic determinants that confer virulence in extra-intestinal disease. We demonstrate that BFT contributes to sepsis in mice, and we identify a B. fragilis protease called fragipain (Fpn) that is required for the endogenous activation of BFT through the removal of its auto-inhibitory prodomain. Structural analysis of Fpn reveals a His-Cys catalytic dyad that is characteristic of C11-family cysteine proteases that are conserved in multiple pathogenic Bacteroides spp. and Clostridium spp. Fpn-deficient, enterotoxigenic B. fragilis has an attenuated ability to induce sepsis in mice; however, Fpn is dispensable in B. fragilis colitis, wherein host proteases mediate BFT activation. Our findings define a role for B. fragilis enterotoxin and its activating protease in the pathogenesis of bloodstream infection, which indicates a greater complexity of cellular targeting and activity of BFT than previously recognized. The expression of fpn by both toxigenic and nontoxigenic strains suggests that this protease may contribute to anaerobic sepsis in ways that extend beyond its role in toxin activation. It could thus potentially serve as a target for disease modification.

  10. Pathomimetic cancer avatars for live-cell imaging of protease activity

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Kyungmin; Heyza, Joshua; Cavallo-Medved, Dora; Sloane, Bonnie F.

    2016-01-01

    Proteases are essential for normal physiology as well as multiple diseases, e.g., playing a causative role in cancer progression, including in tumor angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Identification of dynamic alterations in protease activity may allow us to detect early stage cancers and to assess the efficacy of anti-cancer therapies. Despite the clinical importance of proteases in cancer progression, their functional roles individually and within the context of complex protease networks have not yet been well defined. These gaps in our understanding might be addressed with: 1) accurate and sensitive tools and methods to directly identify changes in protease activities in live cells, and 2) pathomimetic avatars for cancer that recapitulate in vitro the tumor in the context of its cellular and non-cellular microenvironment. Such avatars should be designed to facilitate mechanistic studies that can be translated to animal models and ultimately the clinic. Here, we will describe basic principles and recent applications of live-cell imaging for identification of active proteases. The avatars optimized by our laboratory are three-dimensional (3D) human breast cancer models in a matrix of reconstituted basement membrane (rBM). They are designated mammary architecture and microenvironment engineering (MAME) models as they have been designed to mimic the structural and functional interactions among cell types in the normal and cancerous human breast. We have demonstrated the usefulness of these pathomimetic avatars for following dynamic and temporal changes in cell:cell interactions and quantifying changes in protease activity associated with these interactions in real-time (4D). We also briefly describe adaptation of the avatars to custom-designed and fabricated tissue architecture and microenvironment engineering (TAME) chambers that enhance our ability to analyze concomitant changes in the malignant phenotype and the associated tumor microenvironment. PMID

  11. Pathomimetic cancer avatars for live-cell imaging of protease activity.

    PubMed

    Ji, Kyungmin; Heyza, Joshua; Cavallo-Medved, Dora; Sloane, Bonnie F

    2016-03-01

    Proteases are essential for normal physiology as well as multiple diseases, e.g., playing a causative role in cancer progression, including in tumor angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Identification of dynamic alterations in protease activity may allow us to detect early stage cancers and to assess the efficacy of anti-cancer therapies. Despite the clinical importance of proteases in cancer progression, their functional roles individually and within the context of complex protease networks have not yet been well defined. These gaps in our understanding might be addressed with: 1) accurate and sensitive tools and methods to directly identify changes in protease activities in live cells, and 2) pathomimetic avatars for cancer that recapitulate in vitro the tumor in the context of its cellular and non-cellular microenvironment. Such avatars should be designed to facilitate mechanistic studies that can be translated to animal models and ultimately the clinic. Here, we will describe basic principles and recent applications of live-cell imaging for identification of active proteases. The avatars optimized by our laboratory are three-dimensional (3D) human breast cancer models in a matrix of reconstituted basement membrane (rBM). They are designated mammary architecture and microenvironment engineering (MAME) models as they have been designed to mimic the structural and functional interactions among cell types in the normal and cancerous human breast. We have demonstrated the usefulness of these pathomimetic avatars for following dynamic and temporal changes in cell:cell interactions and quantifying changes in protease activity associated with these interactions in real-time (4D). We also briefly describe adaptation of the avatars to custom-designed and fabricated tissue architecture and microenvironment engineering (TAME) chambers that enhance our ability to analyze concomitant changes in the malignant phenotype and the associated tumor microenvironment. Copyright

  12. Rapid Detection of Thrombin and Other Protease Activity Directly in Whole Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Johnson Chung Sing

    Thrombin is a serine protease that plays a key role in the clotting cascade to promote hemostasis following injury to the endothelium. From a clinical diagnostic perspective, in-vivo thrombin activity is linked to various blood clotting disorders, as well as cardiovascular disease (DVT, arteriosclerosis, etc). Thus, the ability to rapidly measure protease activity directly in whole blood will provide important new diagnostics, and clinical researchers with a powerful tool to further elucidate the relationship between circulating protease levels and disease. The ultimate goal is to design novel point of care (POC) diagnostic devices that are capable of monitoring protease activities directly in whole blood and biological sample. A charge-changing substrate specific to the thrombin enzyme was engineered and its functionality was confirmed by a series of experiments. This led to the preliminary design, construction, and testing of two device platforms deemed fully functional for the electrophoretic separation and focusing of charged peptide fragments. The concept of using the existing charge-changing substrate platform for bacterial protease detection was also investigated. Certain strains of E coli are associated with severe symptoms such as abdominal cramps, bloody diarrhea, and vomiting. The OmpT protease is expressed on the outer membrane of E coli and plays a role in the cleavage of antimicrobial peptides, the degradation of recombinant heterologous proteins, and the activation of plasminogen in the host. Thus, a synthetic peptide substrate specific to the OmpT protease was designed and modeled for the purpose of detecting E coli in biological sample.

  13. A new fusion protein platform for quantitatively measuring activity of multiple proteases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recombinant proteins fused with specific cleavage sequences are widely used as substrate for quantitatively analyzing the activity of proteases. Here we propose a new fusion platform for multiple proteases, by using diaminopropionate ammonia-lyase (DAL) as the fusion protein. It was based on the finding that a fused His6-tag could significantly decreases the activities of DAL from E. coli (eDAL) and Salmonella typhimurium (sDAL). Previously, we have shown that His6GST-tagged eDAL could be used to determine the activity of tobacco etch virus protease (TEVp) under different temperatures or in the denaturant at different concentrations. In this report, we will assay different tags and cleavage sequences on DAL for expressing yield in E. coli, stability of the fused proteins and performance of substrate of other common proteases. Results We tested seven different protease cleavage sequences (rhinovirus 3C, TEV protease, factor Xa, Ssp DnaB intein, Sce VMA1 intein, thrombin and enterokinase), three different tags (His6, GST, CBD and MBP) and two different DALs (eDAL and sDAL), for their performance as substrate to the seven corresponding proteases. Among them, we found four active DAL-fusion substrates suitable for TEVp, factor Xa, thrombin and DnaB intein. Enterokinase cleaved eDAL at undesired positions and did not process sDAL. Substitution of GST with MBP increase the expression level of the fused eDAL and this fusion protein was suitable as a substrate for analyzing activity of rhinovirus 3C. We demonstrated that SUMO protease Ulp1 with a N-terminal His6-tag or MBP tag displayed different activity using the designed His6SUMO-eDAL as substrate. Finally, owing to the high level of the DAL-fusion protein in E. coli, these protein substrates can also be detected directly from the crude extract. Conclusion The results show that our designed DAL-fusion proteins can be used to quantify the activities of both sequence- and conformational-specific proteases, with

  14. Proteases and caspase-like activity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Derek; Ramsdale, Mark

    2011-10-01

    A variety of proteases have been implicated in yeast PCD (programmed cell death) including the metacaspase Mca1 and the separase Esp1, the HtrA-like serine protease Nma111, the cathepsin-like serine carboxypeptideases and a range of vacuolar proteases. Proteasomal activity is also shown to have an important role in determining cell fate, with both pro- and anti-apoptotic roles. Caspase 3-, 6- and 8-like activities are detected upon stimulation of yeast PCD, but not all of this activity is associated with Mca1, implicating other proteases with caspase-like activity in the yeast cell death response. Global proteolytic events that accompany PCD are discussed alongside a consideration of the conservation of the death-related degradome (both at the level of substrate choice and cleavage site). The importance of both gain-of-function changes in the degradome as well as loss-of-function changes are highlighted. Better understanding of both death-related proteases and their substrates may facilitate the design of future antifungal drugs or the manipulation of industrial yeasts for commercial exploitation.

  15. Peptide code-on-a-microplate for protease activity analysis via MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric quantitation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Junjie; Liu, Fei; Ju, Huangxian

    2015-04-21

    A peptide-encoded microplate was proposed for MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric (MS) analysis of protease activity. The peptide codes were designed to contain a coding region and the substrate of protease for enzymatic cleavage, respectively, and an internal standard method was proposed for the MS quantitation of the cleavage products of these peptide codes. Upon the cleavage reaction in the presence of target proteases, the coding regions were released from the microplate, which were directly quantitated by using corresponding peptides with one-amino acid difference as the internal standards. The coding region could be used as the unique "Protease ID" for the identification of corresponding protease, and the amount of the cleavage product was used for protease activity analysis. Using trypsin and chymotrypsin as the model proteases to verify the multiplex protease assay, the designed "Trypsin ID" and "Chymotrypsin ID" occurred at m/z 761.6 and 711.6. The logarithm value of the intensity ratio of "Protease ID" to internal standard was proportional to trypsin and chymotrypsin concentration in a range from 5.0 to 500 and 10 to 500 nM, respectively. The detection limits for trypsin and chymotrypsin were 2.3 and 5.2 nM, respectively. The peptide-encoded microplate showed good selectivity. This proposed method provided a powerful tool for convenient identification and activity analysis of multiplex proteases.

  16. Activation of Influenza A Viruses by Host Proteases from Swine Airway Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Peitsch, Catharina; Klenk, Hans-Dieter; Garten, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Pigs are important natural hosts of influenza A viruses, and due to their susceptibility to swine, avian, and human viruses, they may serve as intermediate hosts supporting adaptation and genetic reassortment. Cleavage of the influenza virus surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) by host cell proteases is essential for viral infectivity. Most influenza viruses, including human and swine viruses, are activated at a monobasic HA cleavage site, and we previously identified TMPRSS2 and HAT to be relevant proteases present in human airways. We investigated the proteolytic activation of influenza viruses in primary porcine tracheal and bronchial epithelial cells (PTEC and PBEC, respectively). Human H1N1 and H3N2 viruses replicated efficiently in PTECs and PBECs, and viruses containing cleaved HA were released from infected cells. Moreover, the cells supported the proteolytic activation of HA at the stage of entry. We found that swine proteases homologous to TMPRSS2 and HAT, designated swTMPRSS2 and swAT, respectively, were expressed in several parts of the porcine respiratory tract. Both proteases cloned from primary PBECs were shown to activate HA with a monobasic cleavage site upon coexpression and support multicycle replication of influenza viruses. swAT was predominantly localized at the plasma membrane, where it was present as an active protease that mediated activation of incoming virus. In contrast, swTMPRSS2 accumulated in the trans-Golgi network, suggesting that it cleaves HA in this compartment. In conclusion, our data show that HA activation in porcine airways may occur by similar proteases and at similar stages of the viral life cycle as in human airways. PMID:24155384

  17. Serine protease activity contributes to control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in hypoxic lung granulomas in mice

    PubMed Central

    Reece, Stephen T.; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Askew, David J.; Zedler, Ulrike; Schommer-Leitner, Sandra; Stein, Maik; Mir, Fayaz Ahmad; Dorhoi, Anca; Mollenkopf, Hans-Joachim; Silverman, Gary A.; Kaufmann, Stefan H.E.

    2010-01-01

    The hallmark of human Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is the presence of lung granulomas. Lung granulomas can have different phenotypes, with caseous necrosis and hypoxia present within these structures during active tuberculosis. Production of NO by the inducible host enzyme NOS2 is a key antimycobacterial defense mechanism that requires oxygen as a substrate; it is therefore likely to perform inefficiently in hypoxic regions of granulomas in which M. tuberculosis persists. Here we have used Nos2–/– mice to investigate host-protective mechanisms within hypoxic granulomas and identified a role for host serine proteases in hypoxic granulomas in determining outcome of disease. Nos2–/– mice reproduced human-like granulomas in the lung when infected with M. tuberculosis in the ear dermis. The granulomas were hypoxic and contained large amounts of the serine protease cathepsin G and clade B serine protease inhibitors (serpins). Extrinsic inhibition of serine protease activity in vivo resulted in distorted granuloma structure, extensive hypoxia, and increased bacterial growth in this model. These data suggest that serine protease activity acts as a protective mechanism within hypoxic regions of lung granulomas and present a potential new strategy for the treatment of tuberculosis. PMID:20679732

  18. Loss of hippocampal serine protease BSP1/neuropsin predisposes to global seizure activity.

    PubMed

    Davies, B; Kearns, I R; Ure, J; Davies, C H; Lathe, R

    2001-09-15

    Serine proteases in the adult CNS contribute both to activity-dependent structural changes accompanying learning and to the regulation of excitotoxic cell death. Brain serine protease 1 (BSP1)/neuropsin is a trypsin-like serine protease exclusively expressed, within the CNS, in the hippocampus and associated limbic structures. To explore the role of this enzyme, we have used gene targeting to disrupt this gene in mice. Mutant mice were viable and overtly normal; they displayed normal hippocampal long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP) and exhibited no deficits in spatial navigation (water maze). Nevertheless, electrophysiological studies revealed that the hippocampus of mice lacking this specifically expressed protease possessed an increased susceptibility for hyperexcitability (polyspiking) in response to repetitive afferent stimulation. Furthermore, seizure activity on kainic acid administration was markedly increased in mutant mice and was accompanied by heightened immediate early gene (c-fos) expression throughout the brain. In view of the regional selectivity of BSP1/neuropsin brain expression, the observed phenotype may selectively reflect limbic function, further implicating the hippocampus and amygdala in controlling cortical activation. Within the hippocampus, our data suggest that BSP1/neuropsin, unlike other serine proteases, has little effect on physiological synaptic remodeling and instead plays a role in limiting neuronal hyperexcitability induced by epileptogenic insult.

  19. Characterization of active-site residues of the NIa protease from tobacco vein mottling virus.

    PubMed

    Hwang, D C; Kim, D H; Lee, J S; Kang, B H; Han, J; Kim, W; Song, B D; Choi, K Y

    2000-10-31

    Nuclear inclusion a (NIa) protease of tobacco vein mottling virus is responsible for the processing of the viral polyprotein into functional proteins. In order to identify the active-site residues of the TVMV NIa protease, the putative active-site residues, His-46, Asp-81 and Cys-151, were mutated individually to generate H46R, H46A, D81E, D81N, C151S, and C151A, and their mutational effects on the proteolytic activities were examined. Proteolytic activity was completely abolished by the mutations of H46R, H46A, D81N, and C151A, suggesting that the three residues are crucial for catalysis. The mutation of D81E decreased kcat marginally by about 4.7-fold and increased Km by about 8-fold, suggesting that the aspartic acid at position 81 is important for substrate binding but can be substituted by glutamate without any significant decrease in catalysis. The replacement of Cys-151 by Ser to mimic the catalytic triad of chymotrypsin-like serine protease resulted in the drastic decrease in kcat by about 1,260-fold. This result might be due to the difference of the active-site geometry between the NIa protease and chymotrypsin. The protease exhibited a bell-shaped pH-dependent profile with a maximum activity approximately at pH 8.3 and with the abrupt changes at the respective pKa values of approximately 6.6 and 9.2, implying the involvement of a histidine residue in catalysis. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the three residues, His-46, Asp-81, and Cys-151, play a crucial role in catalysis of the TVMV NIa protease.

  20. DNA G-Wire Formation Using an Artificial Peptide is Controlled by Protease Activity.

    PubMed

    Usui, Kenji; Okada, Arisa; Sakashita, Shungo; Shimooka, Masayuki; Tsuruoka, Takaaki; Nakano, Shu-Ichi; Miyoshi, Daisuke; Mashima, Tsukasa; Katahira, Masato; Hamada, Yoshio

    2017-11-16

    The development of a switching system for guanine nanowire (G-wire) formation by external signals is important for nanobiotechnological applications. Here, we demonstrate a DNA nanostructural switch (G-wire <--> particles) using a designed peptide and a protease. The peptide consists of a PNA sequence for inducing DNA to form DNA-PNA hybrid G-quadruplex structures, and a protease substrate sequence acting as a switching module that is dependent on the activity of a particular protease. Micro-scale analyses via TEM and AFM showed that G-rich DNA alone forms G-wires in the presence of Ca 2+ , and that the peptide disrupted this formation, resulting in the formation of particles. The addition of the protease and digestion of the peptide regenerated the G-wires. Macro-scale analyses by DLS, zeta potential, CD, and gel filtration were in agreement with the microscopic observations. These results imply that the secondary structure change (DNA G-quadruplex <--> DNA/PNA hybrid structure) induces a change in the well-formed nanostructure (G-wire <--> particles). Our findings demonstrate a control system for forming DNA G-wire structures dependent on protease activity using designed peptides. Such systems hold promise for regulating the formation of nanowire for various applications, including electronic circuits for use in nanobiotechnologies.

  1. Neutrophil-Derived Proteases Escalate Inflammation through Activation of IL-36 Family Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Henry, Conor M; Sullivan, Graeme P; Clancy, Danielle M; Afonina, Inna S; Kulms, Dagmar; Martin, Seamus J

    2016-02-02

    Recent evidence has strongly implicated the IL-1 family cytokines IL-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ as key initiators of skin inflammation. Similar to the other members of the IL-1 family, IL-36 cytokines are expressed as inactive precursors and require proteolytic processing for activation; however, the responsible proteases are unknown. Here, we show that IL-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ are activated differentially by the neutrophil granule-derived proteases cathepsin G, elastase, and proteinase-3, increasing their biological activity ~500-fold. Active IL-36 promoted a strong pro-inflammatory signature in primary keratinocytes and was sufficient to perturb skin differentiation in a reconstituted 3D human skin model, producing features resembling psoriasis. Furthermore, skin eluates from psoriasis patients displayed significantly elevated cathepsin G-like activity that was sufficient to activate IL-36β. These data identify neutrophil granule proteases as potent IL-36-activating enzymes, adding to our understanding of how neutrophils escalate inflammatory reactions. Inhibition of neutrophil-derived proteases may therefore have therapeutic benefits in psoriasis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The expression and activation of protease-activated receptor-2 correlate with skin color.

    PubMed

    Babiarz-Magee, Laura; Chen, Nannan; Seiberg, Miri; Lin, Connie B

    2004-06-01

    Skin color results from the production and distribution of melanin in the epidermis. The protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2), expressed on keratinocytes but not on melanocytes, is involved in melanosome uptake via phagocytosis, and modulation of PAR-2 activation affects skin color. The pattern of melanosome distribution within the epidermis is skin color-dependent. In vitro, this distribution pattern is regulated by the ethnic origin of the keratinocytes, not the melanocytes. Therefore, we hypothesized that PAR-2 may play a role in the modulation of pigmentation in a skin type-dependent manner. We examined the expression of PAR-2 and its activator, trypsin, in human skins with different pigmentary levels. Here we show that PAR-2 and trypsin are expressed in higher levels, and are differentially localized in highly pigmented, relative to lightly pigmented skins. Moreover, highly pigmented skins exhibit an increase in PAR-2-specific protease cleavage ability. Microsphere phagocytosis was more efficient in keratinocytes from highly pigmented skins, and PAR-2 induced phagocytosis resulted in more efficient microsphere ingestion and more compacted microsphere organization in dark skin-derived keratinocytes. These results demonstrate that PAR-2 expression and activity correlate with skin color, suggesting the involvement of PAR-2 in ethnic skin color phenotypes.

  3. Comparative analysis of procoagulant and fibrinogenolytic activity of crude protease fractions of turmeric species.

    PubMed

    Shivalingu, B R; Vivek, H K; Nafeesa, Zohara; Priya, B S; Swamy, S Nanjunda

    2015-08-22

    Turmeric rhizome is a traditional herbal medicine, which has been widely used as a remedy to stop bleeding on fresh cuts and for wound healing by the rural and tribal population of India. To validate scientific and therapeutic application of turmeric rhizomes to stop bleeding on fresh cuts and its role in wound healing process. The water extracts of thoroughly scrubbed and washed turmeric rhizomes viz., Curcuma aromatica Salisb., Curcuma longa L., Curcuma caesia Roxb., Curcuma amada Roxb. and Curcuma zedoria (Christm.) Roscoe. were subjected to salting out and dialysis. The dialyzed crude enzyme fractions (CEFs) were assessed for proteolytic activity using casein as substrate and were also confirmed by caseinolytic zymography. Its coagulant activity and fibrinogenolytic activity were assessed using human citrated plasma and fibrinogen, respectively. The type of protease(s) in CEFs was confirmed by inhibition studies using specific protease inhibitors. The CEFs of C. aromatica, C. longa and C. caesia showed 1.89, 1.21 and 1.07 folds higher proteolytic activity, respectively, compared to papain. In contrast to these, C. amada and C. zedoria exhibited moderate proteolytic activity. CEFs showed low proteolytic activities compared to trypsin. The proteolytic activities of CEFs were confirmed by caseinolytic zymography. The CEFs of C. aromatica, C. longa and C. caesia showed complete hydrolysis of Aα, Bβ and γ subunits of human fibrinogen, while C. amada and C. zedoria showed partial hydrolysis. The CEFs viz., C. aromatica, C. longa, C. caesia, C. amada and C. zedoria exhibited strong procoagulant activity by reducing the human plasma clotting time from 172s (Control) to 66s, 84s 88s, 78s and 90s, respectively. The proteolytic activity of C. aromatica, C. longa, C. caesia and C. amada was inhibited (>82%) by PMSF, suggesting the possible presence of a serine protease(s). However, C. zedoria showed significant inhibition (60%) against IAA and moderate inhibition (30

  4. Activity of calcium activated protease in skeletal muscles and its changes in atrophy and stretch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, S.; Nagainis, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    The reduction of protein content in skeletal muscle undergoing disuse-induced atrophy is correlated with accelerated rates of protein degradation and reduced rates of protein synthesis (Goldspink, 1977). It is not known in what manner myofibers are partially disassembled during disuse atrophy to fibers of smaller diameter; nor is it known which proteases are responsible for this morphological change in contractile protein mass. Dayton and colleagues (1975) have suggested that the Ca(2+)-activated protease (CaP) may initiate myofibril degradation. The discovery of a form of CaP that is activatable by nano-molar concentrations of Ca(2+) indicates that CaP activity may be regulated by physiological concentrations of Ca(2+) (Mellgren, 1980). The enhancement of proteolysis by the Ca(2+) ionophore A23187, reported by Etlinger (1979), is consistent with a significant role for CaP in protein degradation. It was of interest, therefore, to measure the levels of CaP activity and the CaP inhibitor in extracts obtained from skeletal muscles of rat and chicken limbs undergoing disuse atrophy or stretch hypertrophy, respectively.

  5. Learning and memory deficits in mice lacking protease activated receptor-1

    PubMed Central

    Almonte, Antoine G.; Hamill, Cecily E.; Chhatwal, Jasmeer P.; Wingo, Thomas S.; Barber, Jeremy A.; Lyuboslavsky, Polina N.; Sweatt, J. David; Ressler, Kerry J.; White, David A.; Traynelis, Stephen F.

    2007-01-01

    The roles of serine proteases and protease activated receptors have been extensively studied in coagulation, wound healing, inflammation, and neurodegeneration. More recently, serine proteases have been suggested to influence synaptic plasticity. In this context, we examined the role of protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1), which is activated following proteolytic cleavage by thrombin and plasmin, in emotionally-motivated learning. We were particularly interested in PAR1 because its activation enhances the function of NMDA receptors, which are required for some forms of synaptic plasticity. We examined several baseline behavioral measures, including locomotor activity, expression of anxiety-like behavior, motor task acquisition, nociceptive responses, and startle responses in C57Bl/6 mice in which the PAR1 receptor has been genetically deleted. In addition, we evaluated learning and memory in these mice using two memory tasks, passive avoidance and cued fear-conditioning. Whereas locomotion, pain response, startle, and measures of baseline anxiety were largely unaffected by PAR1 removal, PAR1−/− animals showed significant deficits in a passive avoidance task and in cued fear conditioning. These data suggest that PAR1 may play an important role in emotionally-motivated learning. PMID:17544303

  6. Broad spectrum activity of a lectin-like bacterial serine protease family on human leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Lujan, Jorge Luis; Vijayakumar, Vidhya; Gong, Mei; Smith, Rachel; Santiago, Araceli E; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The serine protease autotransporter from Enterobacteriaceae (SPATE) family, which number more than 25 proteases with apparent diverse functions, have been phylogenetically divided into two distinct classes, designated 1 and 2. We recently demonstrated that Pic and Tsh, two members of the class-2 SPATE family produced by intestinal and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli, were able to cleave a number of O-glycosylated proteins on neutrophils and lymphocytes resulting in impaired leukocyte functions. Here we show that most members of the class-2 SPATE family have lectin-like properties and exhibit differential protease activity reliant on glycoprotein type and cell lineage. Protease activity was seen in virtually all tested O-glycosylated proteins including CD34, CD55, CD164, TIM1, TIM3, TIM4 and C1-INH. We also show that although SPATE proteins bound and cleaved glycoproteins more efficiently on granulocytes and monocytes, they also targeted glycoproteins on B, T and natural killer lymphocytes. Finally, we found that the characteristic domain-2 of class-2 SPATEs is not required for glycoprotease activity, but single amino acid mutations in Pic domain-1 to those residues naturally occurring in domain-1 of SepA, were sufficient to hamper Pic glycoprotease activity. This study shows that most class-2 SPATEs have redundant activities and suggest that they may function as immunomodulators at several levels of the immune system.

  7. Broad Spectrum Activity of a Lectin-Like Bacterial Serine Protease Family on Human Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ayala-Lujan, Jorge Luis; Vijayakumar, Vidhya; Gong, Mei; Smith, Rachel; Santiago, Araceli E.; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The serine protease autotransporter from Enterobacteriaceae (SPATE) family, which number more than 25 proteases with apparent diverse functions, have been phylogenetically divided into two distinct classes, designated 1 and 2. We recently demonstrated that Pic and Tsh, two members of the class-2 SPATE family produced by intestinal and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli, were able to cleave a number of O-glycosylated proteins on neutrophils and lymphocytes resulting in impaired leukocyte functions. Here we show that most members of the class-2 SPATE family have lectin-like properties and exhibit differential protease activity reliant on glycoprotein type and cell lineage. Protease activity was seen in virtually all tested O-glycosylated proteins including CD34, CD55, CD164, TIM1, TIM3, TIM4 and C1-INH. We also show that although SPATE proteins bound and cleaved glycoproteins more efficiently on granulocytes and monocytes, they also targeted glycoproteins on B, T and natural killer lymphocytes. Finally, we found that the characteristic domain-2 of class-2 SPATEs is not required for glycoprotease activity, but single amino acid mutations in Pic domain-1 to those residues naturally occurring in domain-1 of SepA, were sufficient to hamper Pic glycoprotease activity. This study shows that most class-2 SPATEs have redundant activities and suggest that they may function as immunomodulators at several levels of the immune system. PMID:25251283

  8. A novel serine protease with human fibrino(geno)lytic activities from Artocarpus heterophyllus latex.

    PubMed

    Siritapetawee, Jaruwan; Thumanu, Kanjana; Sojikul, Punchapat; Thammasirirak, Sompong

    2012-07-01

    A protease was isolated and purified from Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit) latex and designated as a 48-kDa antimicrobial protease (AMP48) in a previous publication. In this work, the enzyme was characterized for more biochemical and medicinal properties. Enzyme activity of AMP48 was strongly inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride and soybean trypsin inhibitor, indicating that the enzyme was a plant serine protease. The N-terminal amino acid sequences (A-Q-E-G-G-K-D-D-D-G-G) of AMP48 had no sequence similarity matches with any sequence databases of BLAST search and other plant serine protease. The secondary structure of this enzyme was composed of high α-helix (51%) and low β-sheet (9%). AMP48 had fibrinogenolytic activity with maximal activity between 55 and 60°C at pH 8. The enzyme efficiently hydrolyzed α followed by partially hydrolyzed β and γ subunits of human fibrinogen. In addition, the fibrinolytic activity was observed through the degradation products by SDS-PAGE and emphasized its activity by monitoring the alteration of secondary structure of fibrin clot after enzyme digestion using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. This study presented the potential role to use AMP48 as antithrombotic for treatment thromboembolic disorders such as strokes, pulmonary emboli and deep vein thrombosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Thrombin like activity of Asclepias curassavica L. latex: action of cysteine proteases.

    PubMed

    Shivaprasad, H V; Rajesh, R; Nanda, B L; Dharmappa, K K; Vishwanath, B S

    2009-05-04

    To validate the scientific basis of plant latex to stop bleeding on fresh cuts. Cysteine protease(s) from Asclepias curassavica (Asclepiadaceae) plant latex was assessed for pro-coagulant and thrombin like activities. A waxy material from the latex of Asclepias curassavica latex was removed by freezing and thawing. The resulted latex enzyme fraction was assayed for proteolytic activity using denatured casein as substrate. Its coagulant activity and thrombin like activity were determined using citrated plasma and pure fibrinogen, respectively. Inhibition studies were performed using specific protease inhibitors to know the type of protease. The latex enzyme fraction exhibited strong proteolytic activity when compared to trypsin and exerted pro-coagulant action by reducing plasma clotting time from 195 to 58 s whereas trypsin reduced clotting time marginally from 195 to 155 s. The pro-coagulant activity of this enzyme fraction was exerted by selectively hydrolyzing A alpha and B beta subunits of fibrinogen to form fibrin clot when pure fibrinogen was used as substrate as assessed by fibrinogen-agarose plate method and fibrinogen polymerization assay. Trypsin failed to induce any fibrin clot under similar conditions. The electrophoretic pattern of latex enzyme fraction-induced fibrin clot was very much similar to that of thrombin-induced fibrin clot and mimic thrombin like action. The proteolytic activity including thrombin like activity of Asclepias curassavica latex enzyme fraction was completely inhibited by iodoaceticacid (IAA). Cysteine proteases from Asclepias curassavica latex exhibited strong pro-coagulant action and were found to be specific in its action (Thrombin like). This could be the basis for the use of plant latex in pharmacological applications that justify their use as folk medicine.

  10. Design of a Selective Substrate and Activity Based Probe for Human Neutrophil Serine Protease 4

    PubMed Central

    Kasperkiewicz, Paulina; Poreba, Marcin; Snipas, Scott J.; Lin, S. Jack; Kirchhofer, Daniel; Salvesen, Guy S.; Drag, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Human neutrophil serine protease 4 (NSP4), also known as PRSS57, is a recently discovered fourth member of the neutrophil serine proteases family. Although its biological function is not precisely defined, it is suggested to regulate neutrophil response and innate immune reactions. To create optimal substrates and visualization probes for NSP4 that distinguish it from other NSPs we have employed a Hybrid Combinatorial Substrate Library approach that utilizes natural and unnatural amino acids to explore protease subsite preferences. Library results were validated by synthesizing individual substrates, leading to the identification of an optimal substrate peptide. This substrate was converted to a covalent diphenyl phosphonate probe with an embedded biotin tag. This probe demonstrated high inhibitory activity and stringent specificity and may be suitable for visualizing NSP4 in the background of other NSPs. PMID:26172376

  11. Quantitative Measurement of Protease-Activity with Correction of Probe Delivery and Tissue Absorption Effects

    PubMed Central

    Salthouse, Christopher D.; Reynolds, Fred; Tam, Jenny M.; Josephson, Lee; Mahmood, Umar

    2009-01-01

    Proteases play important roles in a variety of pathologies from heart disease to cancer. Quantitative measurement of protease activity is possible using a novel spectrally matched dual fluorophore probe and a small animal lifetime imager. The recorded fluorescence from an activatable fluorophore, one that changes its fluorescent amplitude after biological target interaction, is also influenced by other factors including imaging probe delivery and optical tissue absorption of excitation and emission light. Fluorescence from a second spectrally matched constant (non-activatable) fluorophore on each nanoparticle platform can be used to correct for both probe delivery and tissue absorption. The fluorescence from each fluorophore is separated using fluorescence lifetime methods. PMID:20161242

  12. Protease-activated receptor 2, a receptor involved in melanosome transfer, is upregulated in human skin by ultraviolet irradiation.

    PubMed

    Scott, G; Deng, A; Rodriguez-Burford, C; Seiberg, M; Han, R; Babiarz, L; Grizzle, W; Bell, W; Pentland, A

    2001-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that the protease-activated receptor 2 is involved in skin pigmentation through increased phagocytosis of melanosomes by keratinocytes. Ultraviolet irradiation is a potent stimulus for melanosome transfer. We show that protease-activated receptor 2 expression in human skin is upregulated by ultraviolet irradiation. Subjects with skin type I, II, or III were exposed to two or three minimal erythema doses of irradiation from a solar simulator. Biopsies were taken from nonexposed and irradiated skin 24 and 96 h after irradiation and protease-activated receptor 2 expression was detected using immunohistochemical staining. In nonirradiated skin, protease-activated receptor 2 expression was confined to keratinocytes in the lower one-third of the epidermis. After ultraviolet irradiation protease-activated receptor 2 expression was observed in keratinocytes in the upper two-thirds of the epidermis or the entire epidermis at both time points studied. Subjects with skin type I showed delayed upregulation of protease-activated receptor 2 expression, however, compared with subjects with skin types II and III. Irradiated cultured human keratinocytes showed upregulation in protease-activated receptor 2 expression as determined by immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting. Cell culture supernatants from irradiated keratinocytes also exhibited a dose-dependent increase in protease-activated receptor-2 cleavage activity. These results suggest an important role for protease-activated receptor-2 in pigmentation in vivo. Differences in protease-activated receptor 2 regulation in type I skin compared with skin types II and III suggest a potential mechanism for differences in tanning in subjects with different skin types.

  13. Isolation, activity and immunological characterisation of a secreted aspartic protease, CtsD, from Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Imelda; Reeves, Emer P; Kavanagh, Kevin A; Doyle, Sean

    2007-05-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that infects immunocompromised patients. A putative aspartic protease gene (ctsD; 1425 bp; intron-free) was identified and cloned. CtsD is evolutionarily distinct from all previously identified A. fumigatus aspartic proteases. Recombinant CtsD was expressed in inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli (0.2mg/g cells) and subjected to extensive proteolysis in the baculovirus expression system. Activation studies performed on purified, refolded, recombinant CtsD resulted in protease activation with a pH(opt)4.0 and specific activity=10 U/mg. Pepstatin A also inhibited recombinant CtsD activity by up to 72% thereby confirming classification as an aspartic protease. Native CtsD was also immunologically identified in culture supernatants and purified from fungal cultures using pepstatin-agarose affinity chromatography (7.8 microg CtsD/g mycelia). In A. fumigatus, semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed expression of ctsD in minimal and proteinaceous media only. Expression of ctsD was absent under nutrient-rich conditions. Expression of ctsD was also detected, in vivo, in the Galleria mellonella virulence model following A. fumigatus infection.

  14. Nepenthesin Protease Activity Indicates Digestive Fluid Dynamics in Carnivorous Nepenthes Plants

    PubMed Central

    Buch, Franziska; Kaman, Wendy E.; Bikker, Floris J.; Yilamujiang, Ayufu; Mithöfer, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Carnivorous plants use different morphological features to attract, trap and digest prey, mainly insects. Plants from the genus Nepenthes possess specialized leaves called pitchers that function as pitfall-traps. These pitchers are filled with a digestive fluid that is generated by the plants themselves. In order to digest caught prey in their pitchers, Nepenthes plants produce various hydrolytic enzymes including aspartic proteases, nepenthesins (Nep). Knowledge about the generation and induction of these proteases is limited. Here, by employing a FRET (fluorescent resonance energy transfer)-based technique that uses a synthetic fluorescent substrate an easy and rapid detection of protease activities in the digestive fluids of various Nepenthes species was feasible. Biochemical studies and the heterologously expressed Nep II from Nepenthes mirabilis proved that the proteolytic activity relied on aspartic proteases, however an acid-mediated auto-activation mechanism was necessary. Employing the FRET-based approach, the induction and dynamics of nepenthesin in the digestive pitcher fluid of various Nepenthes plants could be studied directly with insect (Drosophila melanogaster) prey or plant material. Moreover, we observed that proteolytic activity was induced by the phytohormone jasmonic acid but not by salicylic acid suggesting that jasmonate-dependent signaling pathways are involved in plant carnivory. PMID:25750992

  15. Isolation of Mucorales from processed maize (Zea mays L.) and screening for protease activity

    PubMed Central

    de Azevedo Santiago, André Luiz Cabral Monteiro; de Souza Motta, Cristina Maria

    2008-01-01

    Mucorales were isolated from maize flour, corn meal and cooked cornflakes using surface and depth plate methods. Rhizopus oryzae, Circinella muscae, Mucor subtilissimus, Mucor hiemalis f. hiemalis, Syncephalastrum racemosum, Rhizopus microsporus var. chinensis and Absidia cylindrospora showed protease activity. PMID:24031292

  16. Nepenthesin protease activity indicates digestive fluid dynamics in carnivorous nepenthes plants.

    PubMed

    Buch, Franziska; Kaman, Wendy E; Bikker, Floris J; Yilamujiang, Ayufu; Mithöfer, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Carnivorous plants use different morphological features to attract, trap and digest prey, mainly insects. Plants from the genus Nepenthes possess specialized leaves called pitchers that function as pitfall-traps. These pitchers are filled with a digestive fluid that is generated by the plants themselves. In order to digest caught prey in their pitchers, Nepenthes plants produce various hydrolytic enzymes including aspartic proteases, nepenthesins (Nep). Knowledge about the generation and induction of these proteases is limited. Here, by employing a FRET (fluorescent resonance energy transfer)-based technique that uses a synthetic fluorescent substrate an easy and rapid detection of protease activities in the digestive fluids of various Nepenthes species was feasible. Biochemical studies and the heterologously expressed Nep II from Nepenthes mirabilis proved that the proteolytic activity relied on aspartic proteases, however an acid-mediated auto-activation mechanism was necessary. Employing the FRET-based approach, the induction and dynamics of nepenthesin in the digestive pitcher fluid of various Nepenthes plants could be studied directly with insect (Drosophila melanogaster) prey or plant material. Moreover, we observed that proteolytic activity was induced by the phytohormone jasmonic acid but not by salicylic acid suggesting that jasmonate-dependent signaling pathways are involved in plant carnivory.

  17. Inhibition of proteases activity in intestine needs a sustainable acidic environment rather than a transient.

    PubMed

    Xing, Chang; Xing, Jin-Feng; Ge, Zhi-Qiang

    2017-10-01

    α-Chymotrypsin (α-CT) and trypsin are important components of the enzymatic barrier. They could degrade the therapeutic proteins and peptides, inhibit their activity consequently, and thereby reduce their oral bioavailability. Acidic agents, as one type of indirect protease inhibitors, have shown proof of concept in clinical trials. We report here the inactivated proteases due to acid influence can be reactivated immediately by environmental pH recovery regardless of how long the inactivation last. To keep the inactivation time of proteases for 4-5 h, we designed and prepared a sustained-release tablet containing citric acid (CA) which can effectively reduce the pH below 5.0 and maintain it for 5 h in the dissolution-reaction medium. The activity of α-CT and trypsin was quantified by analyzing the residual amount of their respective substrates BTEE and TAME. More than 80% of the substrates were survived in 5.0 h of incubation, whereas the common tablet inhibited the proteases activity for only two hours in the same experimental medium. It indicates that the sustained-release tablet loaded with CA can efficiently inhibit the α-CT and trypsin activity longer than the common tablet. The results will be beneficial for designing and formulating the peroral administration of peptide and protein drugs.

  18. Isolation and immunochemical characterization of fractions from membranes of Aspergillus fumigatus with protease activity.

    PubMed

    Piechura, J E; Kurup, V P; Daft, L J

    1990-01-01

    Two fractions exhibiting acid protease activity (AFPI and AFPII) were isolated by extraction of membrane vesicles of Aspergillus fumigatus with Triton X-100. These two fractions produced single bands in both polyacrylamide and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and showed apparent molecular weights of 73,000 and 43,000, respectively. Molecular weights determined by gel filtration in the absence and presence of Triton X-100 and sedimentation velocities in analytical ultracentrifugation indicated hydrophobic characteristics, since both fractions readily aggregated and complexed with Triton X-100; both exhibited elevated enzyme activities in the presence of Triton X-100. Carbohydrate content was 93% for AFPI and 85% for AFPII. The enzymatic fractions demonstrated different pH optima in the acid range as well as different temperature stabilities. Both protease fractions cross reacted in double immunodiffusion, while in crossed immunoelectrophoresis both demonstrated five precipitin peaks, each with similar patterns. AFPI demonstrated two additional precipitin peaks in crossed immunoelectrophoresis. As determined by crossed immunoaffinoelectrophoresis, the protease fractions demonstrated galactose and mannose residues. In biotin-avidin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay both fractions reacted with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and aspergilloma sera. It can be concluded that two fractions with protease activity of A. fumigatus reported here may be of significance in Aspergillus-induced diseases.

  19. Activity, specificity, and probe design for the smallpox virus protease K7L.

    PubMed

    Aleshin, Alexander E; Drag, Marcin; Gombosuren, Naran; Wei, Ge; Mikolajczyk, Jowita; Satterthwait, Arnold C; Strongin, Alex Y; Liddington, Robert C; Salvesen, Guy S

    2012-11-16

    The K7L gene product of the smallpox virus is a protease implicated in the maturation of viral proteins. K7L belongs to protease Clan CE, which includes distantly related cysteine proteases from eukaryotes, pathogenic bacteria, and viruses. Here, we describe its recombinant high level expression, biochemical mechanism, substrate preference, and regulation. Earlier studies inferred that the orthologous I7L vaccinia protease cleaves at an AG-X motif in six viral proteins. Our data for K7L suggest that the AG-X motif is necessary but not sufficient for optimal cleavage activity. Thus, K7L requires peptides extended into the P7 and P8 positions for efficient substrate cleavage. Catalytic activity of K7L is substantially enhanced by homodimerization, by the substrate protein P25K as well as by glycerol. RNA and DNA also enhance cleavage of the P25K protein but not of synthetic peptides, suggesting that nucleic acids augment the interaction of K7L with its protein substrate. Library-based peptide preference analyses enabled us to design an activity-based probe that covalently and selectively labels K7L in lysates of transfected and infected cells. Our study thus provides proof-of-concept for the design of inhibitors and probes that may contribute both to a better understanding of the role of K7L in the virus life cycle and the design of novel anti-virals.

  20. Protease and lipase activities of fungal and bacterial strains derived from an artisanal raw ewe's milk cheese.

    PubMed

    Ozturkoglu-Budak, Sebnem; Wiebenga, Ad; Bron, Peter A; de Vries, Ronald P

    2016-11-21

    We previously identified the microbiota present during cheese ripening and observed high protease and lipase activity in Divle Cave cheese. To determine the contribution of individual isolates to enzyme activities, we investigated a range of species representing this microbiota for their proteolytic and lipolytic ability. In total, 17 fungal, 5 yeast and 18 bacterial strains, previously isolated from Divle Cave cheese, were assessed. Qualitative protease and lipase activities were performed on skim-milk agar and spirit-blue lipase agar, respectively, and resulted in a selection of strains for quantitative assays. For the quantitative assays, the strains were grown on minimal medium containing irradiated Divle Cave cheese, obtained from the first day of ripening. Out of 16 selected filamentous fungi, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium cavernicola and Penicillium olsonii showed the highest protease activity, while Mucor racemosus was the best lipase producer. Yarrowia lipolytica was the best performing yeast with respect to protease and lipase activity. From the 18 bacterial strains, 14 and 11 strains, respectively showed protease and lipase activity in agar plates. Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus stratosphericus, Brevibacterium antiquum, Psychrobacter glacincola and Pseudomonas proteolytica displayed the highest protease and lipase activity. The proteases of yeast and filamentous fungi were identified as mainly aspartic protease by specific inhibition with Pepstatin A, whereas inhibition by PMSF (phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride) indicated that most bacterial enzymes belong to serine type protease. Our results demonstrate that aspartic proteases, which usually have high milk clotting activity, are predominantly derived from fungal strains, and therefore fungal enzymes appear to be more suitable for use in the cheese industry. Microbial enzymes studied in this research might be alternatives for rennin (chymosin) from animal source because of their low cost and stable

  1. Defining a new diagnostic assessment parameter for wound care: Elevated protease activity, an indicator of nonhealing, for targeted protease-modulating treatment.

    PubMed

    Serena, Thomas E; Cullen, Breda M; Bayliff, Simon W; Gibson, Molly C; Carter, Marissa J; Chen, Lingyun; Yaakov, Raphael A; Samies, John; Sabo, Matthew; DeMarco, Daniel; Le, Namchi; Galbraith, James

    2016-05-01

    It is widely accepted that elevated protease activity (EPA) in chronic wounds impedes healing. However, little progress has occurred in quantifying the level of protease activity that is detrimental for healing. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between inflammatory protease activity and wound healing status, and to establish the level of EPA above which human neutrophil-derived elastase (HNE) and matrix metalloproteases (MMP) activities correlate with nonhealing wounds. Chronic wound swab samples (n = 290) were collected from four wound centers across the USA to measure HNE and MMP activity. Healing status was determined according to percentage reduction in wound area over the previous 2-4 weeks; this was available for 211 wounds. Association between protease activity and nonhealing wounds was determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis (ROC), a statistical technique used for visualizing and analyzing the performance of diagnostic tests. ROC analysis showed that area under the curve (AUC) for HNE were 0.69 for all wounds and 0.78 for wounds with the most reliable wound trajectory information, respectively. For MMP, the corresponding AUC values were 0.70 and 0.82. Analysis suggested that chronic wounds having values of HNE >5 and/or MMP ≥13, should be considered wound healing impaired. EPA is indicative of nonhealing wounds. Use of a diagnostic test to detect EPA in clinical practice could enable clinicians to identify wounds that are nonhealing, thus enabling targeted treatment with protease modulating therapies. © 2016 by the Wound Healing Society.

  2. Role of enteric nerves in immune-mediated changes in protease activated receptor 2 effects on gut function

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Protease activated receptors (PARs) are expressed on structural cells and immune cells. Control of the initiation, duration, and magnitude of the PAR effects are linked to the level of receptor expression, the availability of proteases, and the intracellular signal transduction machinery. We inve...

  3. Activity of the Human Rhinovirus 3C Protease Studied in Various Buffers, Additives and Detergents Solutions for Recombinant Protein Production

    PubMed Central

    Tufail, Soban; Ismat, Fouzia; Imran, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mazhar; Mirza, Osman; Rhaman, Moazur

    2016-01-01

    Proteases are widely used to remove affinity and solubility tags from recombinant proteins to avoid potential interference of these tags with the structure and function of the fusion partner. In recent years, great interest has been seen in use of the human rhinovirus 3C protease owing to its stringent sequence specificity and enhanced activity. Like other proteases, activity of the human rhinovirus 3C protease can be affected in part by the buffer components and additives that are generally employed for purification and stabilization of proteins, hence, necessitate their removal by tedious and time-consuming procedures before proteolysis can occur. To address this issue, we examined the effect of elution buffers used for common affinity based purifications, salt ions, stability/solubility and reducing agents, and detergents on the activity of the human rhinovirus 3C protease using three different fusion proteins at 4°C, a temperature of choice for purification of many proteins. The results show that the human rhinovirus 3C protease performs better at 4°C than the frequently used tobacco etch virus protease and its activity was insensitive to most of the experimental conditions tested. Though number of fusion proteins tested is limited, we expect that these finding will facilitate the use of the human rhinovirus 3C protease in recombinant protein production for pharmaceutical and biotechnological applications. PMID:27093053

  4. Activity of the Human Rhinovirus 3C Protease Studied in Various Buffers, Additives and Detergents Solutions for Recombinant Protein Production.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Raheem; Shah, Majid Ali; Tufail, Soban; Ismat, Fouzia; Imran, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mazhar; Mirza, Osman; Rhaman, Moazur

    2016-01-01

    Proteases are widely used to remove affinity and solubility tags from recombinant proteins to avoid potential interference of these tags with the structure and function of the fusion partner. In recent years, great interest has been seen in use of the human rhinovirus 3C protease owing to its stringent sequence specificity and enhanced activity. Like other proteases, activity of the human rhinovirus 3C protease can be affected in part by the buffer components and additives that are generally employed for purification and stabilization of proteins, hence, necessitate their removal by tedious and time-consuming procedures before proteolysis can occur. To address this issue, we examined the effect of elution buffers used for common affinity based purifications, salt ions, stability/solubility and reducing agents, and detergents on the activity of the human rhinovirus 3C protease using three different fusion proteins at 4°C, a temperature of choice for purification of many proteins. The results show that the human rhinovirus 3C protease performs better at 4°C than the frequently used tobacco etch virus protease and its activity was insensitive to most of the experimental conditions tested. Though number of fusion proteins tested is limited, we expect that these finding will facilitate the use of the human rhinovirus 3C protease in recombinant protein production for pharmaceutical and biotechnological applications.

  5. LuxO controls extracellular protease, haemolytic activities and siderophore production in fish pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Liu, Q; Ma, Y; Rui, H; Zhang, Y

    2007-11-01

    To characterize the luxO gene in fish pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus MVP01 and investigate its roles in regulation of extracellular products (ECP) and siderophore production. The luxO gene was cloned from V. alginolyticus MVP01. Genetic analysis revealed that it encoded a protein with high similarity to other LuxO homologues. The luxO in-frame deletion mutant and rpoN null mutant were constructed with suicide plasmids. We demonstrated that sole deletion in LuxO increased the secretion of extracellular protease and haemolytic products, but decreased siderophore production for V. alginolyticus MVP01. Mutants with null rpoN displayed significantly enhanced protease level and siderophore production while notable reduction in haemolytic activities of ECP. Vibrio alginolyticus harbours functional luxO gene that regulates the secretion of extracellular protease and haemolytic materials as well as siderophore production in either sigma(54) dependent or independent manners. The current study demonstrated that V. alginolyticus MVP01 produces extracellular protease and haemolytic activity material as well as siderophore, which may be characteristics of the virulence of the strain. Revelations that secretion of these products is under the regulation of LuxO and sigma(54) as well as the potential quorum sensing systems in V. alginolyticus MVP01 will expedite the understanding of vibriosis pathogenesis.

  6. Soybean P34 Probable Thiol Protease Probably Has Proteolytic Activity on Oleosins.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Luping; Kong, Xiangzhen; Zhang, Caimeng; Hua, Yufei; Chen, Yeming

    2017-07-19

    P34 probable thiol protease (P34) and Gly m Bd 30K (30K) show high relationship with the protease of 24 kDa oleosin of soybean oil bodies. In this study, 9 day germinated soybean was used to separate bioprocessed P34 (P32) from bioprocessed 30K (28K). Interestingly, P32 existed as dimer, whereas 28K existed as monomer; a P32-rich sample had proteolytic activity and high cleavage site specificity (Lys-Thr of 24 kDa oleosin), whereas a 28K-rich sample showed low proteolytic activity; the P32-rich sample contained one thiol protease. After mixing with purified oil bodies, all P32 dimers were dissociated and bound to 24 kDa oleosins to form P32-24 kDa oleosin complexes. By incubation, 24 kDa oleosin was preferentially hydrolyzed, and two hydrolyzed products (HPs; 17 and 7 kDa) were confirmed. After most of 24 kDa oleosin was hydrolyzed, some P32 existed as dimer, and the other as P32-17 kDa HP. It was suggested that P32 was the protease.

  7. Salmon trypsin stimulates the expression of interleukin-8 via protease-activated receptor-2

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Anett K.; Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Biology, University of Tromso, Tromso; Seternes, Ole-Morten

    2008-08-01

    In this study, we focus on salmon trypsin as an activator of inflammatory responses in airway cells in vitro. The rationale behind the investigation is that salmon industry workers are exposed to aerosols containing enzymes, which are generated during industrial processing of the fish. Knowing that serine proteases such as trypsin are highly active mediators with diverse biological activities, the stimulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) and interleukin (IL)-8 and the role of protease-activated receptors (PAR) in inflammatory signal mediation were investigated. Protease-activated receptors are considered important under pathological situations in the human airways, and a thorough understanding of PAR-inducedmore » cellular events and their consequences in airway inflammation is necessary. Human airway epithelial cells (A549) were exposed to trypsin isolated from fish (Salmo salar), and we observed that purified salmon trypsin could generate secretion of IL-8 in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PAR-2 activation by salmon trypsin is coupled to an induction of NF-{kappa}B-mediated transcription using a PAR-2 transfected HeLa cell model. Finally, we show that the release of IL-8 from A549 following stimulation with purified salmon trypsin is mediated through activation of PAR-2 using specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). The results presented suggest that salmon trypsin, via activation of PAR-2, might influence inflammation processes in the airways if inhaled in sufficient amounts.« less

  8. Fully human antibodies against the Protease-Activated Receptor-2 (PAR-2) with anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Giblin, Patricia; Boxhammer, Rainer; Desai, Sudha; Kroe-Barrett, Rachel; Hansen, Gale; Ksiazek, John; Panzenbeck, Maret; Ralph, Kerry; Schwartz, Racheline; Zimmitti, Clare; Pracht, Catrin; Miller, Sandra; Magram, Jeanne; Litzenburger, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    PAR-2 belongs to a family of G-protein coupled Protease-Activated Receptors (PAR) which are activated by specific proteolytic cleavage in the extracellular N-terminal region. PAR-2 is activated by proteases such as trypsin, tryptase, proteinase 3, factor VIIa, factor Xa and is thought to be a mediator of inflammation and tissue injury, where elevated levels of proteases are found. Utilizing the HuCAL GOLD® phage display library we generated fully human antibodies specifically blocking the protease cleavage site in the N-terminal domain. In vitro affinity optimization resulted in antibodies with up to 1000-fold improved affinities relative to the original parental antibodies with dissociation constants as low as 100 pM. Corresponding increases in potency were observed in a mechanistic protease cleavage assay. The antibodies effectively inhibited PAR-2 mediated intracellular calcium release and cytokine secretion in various cell types stimulated with trypsin. In addition, the antibodies demonstrated potent inhibition of trypsin induced relaxation of isolated rat aortic rings ex vivo. In a short term mouse model of inflammation, the trans vivo DTH model, anti-PAR-2 antibodies showed inhibition of the inflammatory swelling response. In summary, potent inhibitors of PAR-2 were generated which allow further assessment of the role of this receptor in inflammation and evaluation of their potential as therapeutic agents.

  9. In Vitro Characterization of Chain Depolymerization Activities of SUMO-Specific Proteases.

    PubMed

    Eckhoff, Julia; Dohmen, R Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    SUMO-specific proteases, known as Ulps in baker's yeast and SENPs in humans, have important roles in controlling the dynamics of SUMO-modified proteins. They display distinct modes of action and specificity, in that they may act on the SUMO precursor, mono-sumoylated, and/or polysumoylated proteins, and they might be specific for substrates with certain SUMO paralogs. SUMO chains may be dismantled either by endo or exo mechanisms. Biochemical characterization of a protease usually requires purification of the protein of interest. Developing a purification protocol, however, can be very difficult, and in some cases, isolation of a protease in its pure form may go along with a substantial loss of activity. To characterize the reaction mechanism of Ulps, we have developed an in vitro assay, which makes use of substrates endowed with artificial poly-SUMO chains of defined lengths, and S. cerevisiae Ulp enzymes in crude extract from E. coli. This fast and economic approach should be applicable to SUMO-specific proteases from other species as well.

  10. Multispectral Photoacoustic Imaging of Tumor Protease Activity with a Gold Nanocage-Based Activatable Probe.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng; Li, Shiying; Gu, Yanjuan; Xiong, Huahua; Wong, Wing-Tak; Sun, Lei

    2018-05-07

    Tumor proteases have been recognized as significant regulators in the tumor microenvironment, but the current strategies for in vivo protease imaging have tended to focus on the development of a probe design rather than the investigation of a novel imaging strategy by leveraging the imaging technique and probe. Herein, it is the first report to investigate the ability of multispectral photoacoustic imaging (PAI) to estimate the distribution of protease cleavage sites inside living tumor tissue by using an activatable photoacoustic (PA) probe. The protease MMP-2 is selected as the target. In this probe, gold nanocages (GNCs) with an absorption peak at ~ 800 nm and fluorescent dye molecules with an absorption peak at ~ 680 nm are conjugated via a specific enzymatic peptide substrate. Upon enzymatic activation by MMP-2, the peptide substrate is cleaved and the chromophores are released. Due to the different retention speeds of large GNCs and small dye molecules, the probe alters its intrinsic absorption profile and produces a distinct change in the PA signal. A multispectral PAI technique that can distinguish different chromophores based on intrinsic PA spectral signatures is applied to estimate the signal composition changes and indicate the cleavage interaction sites. Finally, the multispectral PAI technique with the activatable probe is tested in solution, cultured cells, and a subcutaneous tumor model in vivo. Our experiment in solution with enzyme ± inhibitor, cell culture ± inhibitor, and in vivo tumor model with administration of the developed probe ± inhibitor demonstrated the probe was cleaved by the targeted enzyme. Particularly, the in vivo estimation of the cleavage site distribution was validated with the result of ex vivo immunohistochemistry analysis. This novel synergy of the multispectral PAI technique and the activatable probe is a potential strategy for the distribution estimation of tumor protease activity in vivo.

  11. Perfluorocarbon Nanoparticles as Delivery Vehicles for Melittin and Its Protease-Activated Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jallouk, Andrew Philip

    Melittin is a cytolytic peptide derived from honeybee venom which inserts into lipid membranes and oligomerizes to form membrane pores. While this peptide is an attractive candidate for treatment of cancers and infectious processes, its nonspecific cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity have limited its therapeutic applications. The goal of this dissertation was to enhance the specificity of melittin therapy through the use of perfluorocarbon nanoparticles to minimize nonspecific cytotoxicity and the development of melittin prodrugs which only exhibit cytolytic activity following activation by site-specific proteases. Although previous studies have characterized the biological effects of melittin-loaded nanoparticles following intravenous administration, we first investigated their use as topical agents for prevention of HIV infection. We found that incorporation of native melittin onto perfluorocarbon nanoparticles maintained antiviral activity while substantially reducing contact toxicity to sperm and vaginal epithelium. These results demonstrated the potential utility of melittin-loaded nanoparticles as a topical vaginal virucide. To further enhance melittin specificity, we developed melittin derivatives which could be activated by matrix metalloproteinase-9, a protease which is overexpressed in many tumors and which plays a critical role in cancer invasion and metastasis. We then characterized the interactions of these peptides with perfluorocarbon nanoparticles and demonstrated the safety and efficacy of intravenous prodrug-loaded nanoparticle therapy in a mouse model of melanoma. The versatility of this platform could facilitate development of personalized cancer therapies directed towards a patient's individual protease expression profile.

  12. Small Molecule-Induced Allosteric Activation of the Vibrio Cholerae RTX Cysteine Protease Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Lupardus, P.J.; Shen, A.; Bogyo, M.

    2009-05-19

    Vibrio cholerae RTX (repeats in toxin) is an actin-disrupting toxin that is autoprocessed by an internal cysteine protease domain (CPD). The RTX CPD is efficiently activated by the eukaryote-specific small molecule inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP{sub 6}), and we present the 2.1 angstrom structure of the RTX CPD in complex with InsP{sub 6}. InsP{sub 6} binds to a conserved basic cleft that is distant from the protease active site. Biochemical and kinetic analyses of CPD mutants indicate that InsP{sub 6} binding induces an allosteric switch that leads to the autoprocessing and intracellular release of toxin-effector domains.

  13. Correlation Between Expression of High Temperature Requirement Serine Protease A1 (HtrA1) in Nucleus Pulposus and T2 Value of Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Dapeng; Yue, Jiawei; Jiang, Lu; Huang, Yonghui; Sun, Jifu; Wu, Yan

    2017-04-22

    BACKGROUND Degrading enzymes play an important role in the process of disc degeneration. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between the expression of high temperature requirement serine protease A1 (HtrA1) in the nucleus pulposus and the T2 value of the nucleus pulposus region in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty-six patients who had undergone surgical excision of the nucleus pulposus were examined by MRI before surgery. Pfirrmann grading of the target intervertebral disc was performed according to the sagittal T2-weighted imaging, and the T2 value of the target nucleus pulposus was measured according to the median sagittal T2 mapping. The correlation between the Pfirrmann grade and the T2 value was analyzed. The expression of HtrA1 in the nucleus pulposus was analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blot. The correlation between the expression of HtrA1 and the T2 value was analyzed. RESULTS The T2 value of the nucleus pulposus region was 33.11-167.91 ms, with an average of 86.64±38.73 ms. According to Spearman correlation analysis, there was a rank correlation between T2 value and Pfirrmann grade (P<0.0001), and the correlation coefficient (rs)=-0.93617. There was a linear correlation between the mRNA level of HtrA1 and T2 value in nucleus pulposus tissues (a=3.88, b=-0.019, F=112.63, P<0.0001), normalized regression coefficient=-0.88. There was a linear correlation between the expression level of HtrA1 protein and the T2 value in the nucleus pulposus tissues (a=3.30, b=-0.016, F=93.15, P<0.0001) and normalized regression coefficient=-0.86. CONCLUSIONS The expression of HtrA1 was strongly related to the T2 value, suggesting that HtrA1 plays an important role in the pathological process of intervertebral disc degeneration.

  14. Cockroach protease allergen induces allergic airway inflammation via epithelial cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Sagar L.; Agrawal, Komal; Gaur, Shailendra Nath; Arora, Naveen

    2017-01-01

    Protease allergens are known to enhance allergic inflammation but their exact role in initiation of allergic reactions at mucosal surfaces still remains elusive. This study was aimed at deciphering the role of serine protease activity of Per a 10, a major cockroach allergen in initiation of allergic inflammation at mucosal surfaces. We demonstrate that Per a 10 increases epithelial permeability by disruption of tight junction proteins, ZO-1 and occludin, and enhances the migration of Monocyte derived dendritic cell precursors towards epithelial layer as exhibited by trans-well studies. Per a 10 exposure also leads to secretion of IL-33, TSLP and intracellular Ca2+ dependent increase in ATP levels. Further, in vivo experiments revealed that Per a 10 administration in mice elevated allergic inflammatory parameters along with high levels of IL-33, TSLP, IL-1α and uric acid in the mice lungs. We next demonstrated that Per a 10 cleaves CD23 (low affinity IgE receptor) from the surface of PBMCs and purified B cells and CD25 (IL-2 receptor) from the surface of PBMCs and purified T cells in an activity dependent manner, which might favour Th2 responses. In conclusion, protease activity of Per a 10 plays a significant role in initiation of allergic airway inflammation at the mucosal surfaces. PMID:28198394

  15. Suppression of Peripheral Sympathetic Activity Underlies Protease-Activated Receptor 2-Mediated Hypotension

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Hwan; Ahn, Duck-Sun; Joeng, Ji-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 is expressed in endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood pressure via the modulation of peripheral vascular tone. Although some reports have suggested involvement of a neurogenic mechanism in PAR-2-induced hypotension, the accurate mechanism remains to be elucidated. To examine this possibility, we investigated the effect of PAR-2 activation on smooth muscle contraction evoked by electrical field stimulation (EFS) in the superior mesenteric artery. In the present study, PAR-2 agonists suppressed neurogenic contractions evoked by EFS in endothelium-denuded superior mesenteric arterial strips but did not affect contraction elicited by the external application of noradrenaline (NA). However, thrombin, a potent PAR-1 agonist, had no effect on EFS-evoked contraction. Additionally, ω-conotoxin GVIA (CgTx), a selective N-type Ca2+ channel (ICa-N) blocker, significantly inhibited EFS-evoked contraction, and this blockade almost completely occluded the suppression of EFS-evoked contraction by PAR-2 agonists. Finally, PAR-2 agonists suppressed the EFS-evoked overflow of NA in endothelium-denuded rat superior mesenteric arterial strips and this suppression was nearly completely occluded by ω-CgTx. These results suggest that activation of PAR-2 may suppress peripheral sympathetic outflow by modulating activity of ICa-N which are located in peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals, which results in PAR-2-induced hypotension. PMID:25598663

  16. Biocontrol activity of an alkaline serine protease from Aureobasidium pullulans expressed in Pichia pastoris against four postharvest pathogens on apple.

    PubMed

    Banani, Houda; Spadaro, Davide; Zhang, Dianpeng; Matic, Slavica; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2014-07-16

    The yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans PL5 is a microbial antagonist against postharvest pathogens of fruits. The strain is able to produce hydrolases, including glucanases, chitinases and proteases. The alkaline serine protease gene ALP5 from A. pullulans was cloned, inserted into the vector pPIC9 to construct pPIC9/ALP5, and then expressed in Pichia pastoris strain KM71. ALP5 had a molecular mass of 42.9kDa after 5days growth with 1% methanol induction at 28°C. The recombinant protease expressed in P. pastoris showed its highest activity under alkaline conditions (at pH10) and a temperature of 50°C. The antifungal activity of the recombinant protease was investigated against Penicillium expansum, Botrytis cinerea, Monilinia fructicola and Alternaria alternata in vitro and on apple. The recombinant protease reduced significantly the spore germination and the germ tube length of the tested pathogens in PDB medium. The highest level of protease efficacy was observed against M. fructicola and B. cinerea, whereas a lower efficacy was observed against P. expansum and A. alternata indicating a possible effect of the pathogen cell wall composition on the proteolytic activity of the recombinant protease. The presence of protease was able to cause the swelling of the hyphae of B. cinerea, under an optical microscope. The recombinant protease expressed in P. pastoris was more active against the pathogens in vitro than the same enzyme expressed in E. coli in previous studies. The efficacy of ALP5 was also evaluated against the pathogens in vivo on cv Golden Delicious apples. The protease was more efficient in controlling M. fructicola, B. cinerea and P. expansum than A. alternata. However, the extent of the activity was dependent on the enzyme concentration and the length of fruit storage. This study demonstrated the capacity of the alkaline serine protease to keep its enzymatic activity for some days in the unfavorable environment of the fruit wounds. The alkaline

  17. Involvement of an Extracellular Protease in Algicidal Activity of the Marine Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain A28

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun-og; Kato, Junichi; Takiguchi, Noboru; Kuroda, Akio; Ikeda, Tsukasa; Mitsutani, Atsushi; Ohtake, Hisao

    2000-01-01

    The marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain A28 was able to kill the diatom Skeletonema costatum strain NIES-324. The culture supernatant of strain A28 showed potent algicidal activity when it was applied to a paper disk placed on a lawn of S. costatum NIES-324. The condensed supernatant, which was prepared by subjecting the A28 culture supernatant to ultrafiltration with a 10,000-Mw-cutoff membrane, showed algicidal activity, suggesting that strain A28 produced extracellular substances capable of killing S. costatum cells. The condensed supernatant was then found to have protease and DNase activities. Two Pseudoalteromonas mutants lacking algicidal activity, designated NH1 and NH2, were selected after N-methyl-N′-nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis. The culture supernatants of NH1 and NH2 showed less than 15% of the protease activity detected with the parental strain, A28. The protease was purified to homogeneity from A28 culture supernatants by using ion-exchange chromatography followed by preparative gel electrophoresis. Paper-disk assays revealed that the purified protease had potent algicidal activity. The purified protease had a molecular mass for 50 kDa, and the N-terminal amino acid sequence was determined to be Ala-Thr-Pro-Asn-Asp-Pro. The optimum pH and temperature of the protease were found to be 8.8 and 30°C, respectively, by using succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide as a substrate. The protease activity was strongly inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, diisopropyl fluorophosphate, antipain, chymostatin, and leupeptin. No significant inhibition was detected with EDTA, EGTA, phenanthroline or tetraethylenepentamine. These results suggest that Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain A28 produced an extracellular serine protease which was responsible for the algicidal activity of this marine bacterium. PMID:11010878

  18. Cytoprotective signaling by activated protein C requires protease-activated receptor-3 in podocytes

    PubMed Central

    Madhusudhan, Thati; Wang, Hongjie; Straub, Beate K.; Gröne, Elisabeth; Zhou, Qianxing; Shahzad, Khurrum; Müller-Krebs, Sandra; Schwenger, Vedat; Gerlitz, Bruce; Grinnell, Brian W.; Griffin, John H.; Reiser, Jochen; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Esmon, Charles T.; Nawroth, Peter P.

    2012-01-01

    The cytoprotective effects of activated protein C (aPC) are well established. In contrast, the receptors and signaling mechanism through which aPC conveys cytoprotection in various cell types remain incompletely defined. Thus, within the renal glomeruli, aPC preserves endothelial cells via a protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and endothelial protein C receptor-dependent mechanism. Conversely, the signaling mechanism through which aPC protects podocytes remains unknown. While exploring the latter, we identified a novel aPC/PAR-dependent cytoprotective signaling mechanism. In podocytes, aPC inhibits apoptosis through proteolytic activation of PAR-3 independent of endothelial protein C receptor. PAR-3 is not signaling competent itself as it requires aPCinduced heterodimerization with PAR-2 (human podocytes) or PAR-1 (mouse podocytes). This cytoprotective signaling mechanism depends on caveolin-1 dephosphorylation. In vivo aPC protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced podocyte injury and proteinuria. Genetic deletion of PAR-3 impairs the nephroprotective effect of aPC, demonstrating the crucial role of PAR-3 for aPC-dependent podocyte protection. This novel, aPC-mediated interaction of PARs demonstrates the plasticity and cell-specificity of cytoprotective aPC signaling. The evidence of specific, dynamic signaling complexes underlying aPC-mediated cytoprotection may allow the design of cell type specific targeted therapies. PMID:22117049

  19. Trypsin-protease activated receptor-2 signaling contributes to pancreatic cancer pain

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiao; Miao, Xue-Rong; Tao, Kun-Ming; Zhu, Hai; Liu, Zhi-Yun; Yu, Da-Wei; Chen, Qian-Bo; Qiu, Hai-Bo; Lu, Zhi-Jie

    2017-01-01

    Pain treatment is a critical aspect of pancreatic cancer patient clinical care. This study investigated the role of trypsin-protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) in pancreatic cancer pain. Pancreatic tissue samples were collected from pancreatic cancer (n=22) and control patients (n=22). Immunofluorescence analyses confirmed colocalization of PAR-2 and neuronal markers in pancreatic cancer tissues. Trypsin levels and protease activities were higher in pancreatic cancer tissue specimens than in the controls. Supernatants from cultured human pancreatic cancer tissues (PC supernatants) induced substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide release in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, and FS-NH2, a selective PAR-2 antagonist, inhibited this effect. A BALB/c nude mouse orthotopic tumor model was used to confirm the role of PAR-2 signaling in pancreatic cancer visceral pain, and male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to assess ambulatory pain. FS-NH2 treatment decreased hunch scores, mechanical hyperalgesia, and visceromotor reflex responses in tumor-bearing mice. In rats, subcutaneous injection of PC supernatant induced pain behavior, which was alleviated by treatment with FS-NH2 or FUT-175, a broad-spectrum serine protease inhibitor. Our findings suggest that trypsin-PAR-2 signaling contributes to pancreatic cancer pain in vivo. Treatment strategies targeting PAR-2 or its downstream signaling molecules might effectively relieve pancreatic cancer pain. PMID:28977906

  20. The prion protein protease sensitivity, stability and seeding activity in variably protease sensitive prionopathy brain tissue suggests molecular overlaps with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    PubMed

    Peden, Alexander H; Sarode, Deep P; Mulholland, Carl R; Barria, Marcelo A; Ritchie, Diane L; Ironside, James W; Head, Mark W

    2014-10-21

    Variably protease sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr) is a recently described, sporadic human prion disease that is pathologically and biochemically distinct from the currently recognised sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) subtypes. The defining biochemical features of the abnormal form of the prion protein (PrPSc) in VPSPr are increased sensitivity to proteolysis and the presence of an N- and C-terminally cleaved ~8 kDa protease resistant PrPSc (PrPres) fragment. The biochemical and neuropathological profile of VPSPr has been proposed to resemble either Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS) or familial CJD with the PRNP-V180I mutation. However, in some cases of VPSPr two protease resistant bands have been observed in Western blots that co-migrate with those of type 2 PrPres, suggesting that a proportion of the PrPSc present in VPSPr has properties similar to those of sCJD. Here, we have used conformation dependent immunoassay to confirm the presence of PrPSc in VPSPr that is more protease sensitive compared with sCJD. However, CDI also shows that a proportion of PrPSc in VPSPr resists PK digestion of its C-terminus, distinguishing it from GSS associated with ~8 kDa PrPres, and showing similarity to sCJD. Intensive investigation of a single VPSPr case with frozen tissue from multiple brain regions shows a broad, region-specific spectrum of protease sensitivity and differential stability of PrPSc in the absence of PK treatment. Finally, using protein misfolding cyclic amplification and real-time quaking induced conversion, we show that VPSPr PrPSc has the potential to seed conversion in vitro and that seeding activity is dispersed through a broad range of aggregate sizes. We further propose that seeding activity is associated with the ~19 and ~23 kDa PrPres rather than the ~8 kDa fragment. Therefore, PrPSc in VPSPr is heterogeneous in terms of protease sensitivity and stability to denaturation with the chaotrope GdnHCl and includes a proportion with

  1. Effect of protease inhibitors on angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in human T-lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Petrov, V; Fagard, R; Lijnen, P

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of these investigations was to determine whether the aminopeptidase B and leucine aminopeptidase inhibitor bestatin, the chymase inhibitor chymostatin, the calpain inhibitor E-64, and the neutral serine protease inhibitor leupeptin affect the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in T-lymphocytes. ACE activity in homogenates of T-lymphocytes or in intact T-lymphocytes in suspension was measured by determining fluorimetrically histidyl-leucine, formed from the conversion of hippuryl-histidyl-leucine, coupled with ophtaldialdehyde. The effect of various concentrations (10(-9) to 10(-3) mol/L) of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors lisinopril and captopril and of the various protease inhibitors on ACE activity was studied. Lisinopril and captopril reduced the ACE activity in homogenates of T-lymphocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. Lisinopril exhibited a more pronounced inhibition of ACE in T-lymphocytes than did captopril. Chymostatin and E-64 had no effect on the ACE activity in T-lymphocytes, whereas leupeptin inhibited its activity in a dose-dependent fashion. Bestatin, on the contrary, increased the ACE activity in homogenates of T-lymphocytes as well as in intact T-lymphocytes in proportion to the concentration. Our data showed that the ACE activity in T-lymphocytes was stimulated by bestatin and inhibited by leupeptin, whereas chymostatin and E-64 did not affect the ACE activity in T-lymphocytes.

  2. Prohibitin is involved in the activated internalization and degradation of protease-activated receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Jie; Guo, Xiao-Long; Li, Sheng-An; Zhao, Yu-Qi; Liu, Zi-Chao; Lee, Wen-Hui; Xiang, Yang; Zhang, Yun

    2014-07-01

    The protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is irreversibly activated by either thrombin or metalloprotease 1. Due this irrevocable activation, activated internalization and degradation are critical for PAR1 signaling termination. Prohibitin (PHB) is an evolutionarily conserved, ubiquitously expressed, pleiotropic protein and belongs to the stomatin/prohibitin/flotillin/HflK/C (SPFH) domain family. In a previous study, we found that PHB localized on the platelet membrane and participated in PAR1-mediated human platelet aggregation, suggesting that PHB likely regulates the signaling of PAR1. Unfortunately, PHB's exact function in PAR1 internalization and degradation is unclear. In the current study, flow cytometry revealed that PHB expressed on the surface of endothelial cells (HUVECs) but not cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). Further confocal microscopy revealed that PHB dynamically associates with PAR1 in a time-dependent manner following induction with PAR1-activated peptide (PAR1-AP), though differently between HUVECs and MDA-MB-231 cells. Depletion of PHB by RNA interference significantly inhibited PAR1 activated internalization and led to sustained Erk1/2 phosphorylation in the HUVECs; however, a similar effect was not observed in MDA-MB-231 cells. For both the endothelial and cancel cells, PHB repressed PAR1 degradation, while knockdown of PHB led to increased PAR1 degradation, and PHB overexpression inhibited PAR1 degradation. These results suggest that persistent PAR1 signaling due to the absence of membrane PHB and decreased PAR1 degradation caused by the upregulation of intracellular PHB in cancer cells (such as MDA-MB-231 cells) may render cells highly invasive. As such, PHB may be a novel target in future anti-cancer therapeutics, or in more refined cancer malignancy diagnostics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical application of a rapid method using agarose gel electrophoresis and Western blotting to evaluate von Willebrand factor protease activity.

    PubMed

    Kirzek, D M; Rick, M E

    2001-03-01

    A method for evaluating the activity of the von Willebrand factor (vWF) protease is described, and a clinical application is illustrated. The procedure utilizes gel electrophoresis, Western blotting, and luminographic detection methods to evaluate the distribution of vWF multimers before and after incubation of clinical samples under conditions that favor proteolysis by this enzyme. Physiologically, the high-molecular-weight multimers of vWF are cleaved by the vWF protease under conditions of high shear stress in parts of the arterial circulation; cleavage of vWF multimers is also observed after exposure of vWF to denaturing agents in vitro and thus can serve as a laboratory test for the activity of the protease. vWF protease activity is decreased or absent in patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura due to an inhibiting autoantibody, and this leads to high levels of noncleaved vWF and to life-threatening thrombosis, thrombocytopenia and anemia. The assay evaluates the activity of the protease by assessing the cleavage of vWF multimers after patient plasmas are incubated in vitro under denaturing conditions. With the use of these electrophoresis and Western blotting techniques, patient plasmas can be rapidly assessed for the activity of the vWF protease which may aid in the treatment strategy for these patients.

  4. Intracellular Activation of Tenofovir Alafenamide and the Effect of Viral and Host Protease Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Bam, Rujuta A.; Willkom, Madeleine; Frey, Christian R.; Tsai, Luong; Stray, Kirsten M.; Yant, Stephen R.; Cihlar, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (TAF) is an oral phosphonoamidate prodrug of the HIV reverse transcriptase nucleotide inhibitor tenofovir (TFV). Previous studies suggested a principal role for the lysosomal serine protease cathepsin A (CatA) in the intracellular activation of TAF. Here we further investigated the role of CatA and other human hydrolases in the metabolism of TAF. Overexpression of CatA or liver carboxylesterase 1 (Ces1) in HEK293T cells increased intracellular TAF hydrolysis 2- and 5-fold, respectively. Knockdown of CatA expression with RNA interference (RNAi) in HeLa cells reduced intracellular TAF metabolism 5-fold. Additionally, the anti-HIV activity and the rate of CatA hydrolysis showed good correlation within a large set of TFV phosphonoamidate prodrugs. The covalent hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease inhibitors (PIs) telaprevir and boceprevir potently inhibited CatA-mediated TAF activation (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 0.27 and 0.16 μM, respectively) in vitro and also reduced its anti-HIV activity in primary human CD4+ T lymphocytes (21- and 3-fold, respectively) at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. In contrast, there was no inhibition of CatA or any significant effect on anti-HIV activity of TAF observed with cobicistat, noncovalent HIV and HCV PIs, or various prescribed inhibitors of host serine proteases. Collectively, these studies confirm that CatA plays a pivotal role in the intracellular metabolism of TAF, whereas the liver esterase Ces1 likely contributes to the hepatic activation of TAF. Moreover, this work demonstrates that a wide range of viral and host PIs, with the exception of telaprevir and boceprevir, do not interfere with the antiretroviral activity of TAF. PMID:26503655

  5. Transcriptional Activation by Heat and Cold of a Thiol Protease Gene in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Schaffer, Mark A.; Fischer, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    We previously determined that low temperature induces the accumulation in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit of a cloned mRNA, designated C14, encoding a polypeptide related to thiol proteases (MA Schaffer, RL Fischer [1988] Plant Physiol 87: 431-436). We now demonstrate that C14 mRNA accumulation is a response common to both high (40°C) and low (4°C) temperature stresses. Exposure of tomato fruit to 40°C results in the accumulation of C14 mRNA, by 8 hours. This response is more rapid than that to 4°C, but slower than the induction of many heat shock messages by 40°C, and therefore unique. We have also studied the mechanism by which heat and cold exposure activate C14 gene expression. Both high and low temperature regulate protease gene expression through transcriptional induction of a single C14 gene. A hypothesis for the function of C14 thiol protease gene expression in response to heat and cold is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:16667644

  6. Antiviral activities of peptide-based covalent inhibitors of the Enterovirus 71 3C protease

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yong Wah; Ang, Melgious Jin Yan; Lau, Qiu Ying; Poulsen, Anders; Ng, Fui Mee; Then, Siew Wen; Peng, Jianhe; Hill, Jeffrey; Hong, Wan Jin; Chia, Cheng San Brian; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

    2016-01-01

    Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease is a highly contagious disease caused by a range of human enteroviruses. Outbreaks occur regularly, especially in the Asia-Pacific region, putting a burden on public healthcare systems. Currently, there is no antiviral for treating this infectious disease and the only vaccines are limited to circulation in China, presenting an unmet medical need that needs to be filled urgently. The human enterovirus 3 C protease has been deemed a plausible drug target due to its essential roles in viral replication. In this study, we designed and synthesized 10 analogues of the Rhinovirus 3 C protease inhibitor, Rupintrivir, and tested their 3 C protease inhibitory activities followed by a cellular assay using human enterovirus 71 (EV71)-infected human RD cells. Our results revealed that a peptide-based compound containing a trifluoromethyl moiety to be the most potent analogue, with an EC50 of 65 nM, suggesting its potential as a lead for antiviral drug discovery. PMID:27645381

  7. Structural Insights into the Activation and Inhibition of Histo-Aspartic Protease from Plasmodium falciparum

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaumik, Prasenjit; Xiao, Huogen; Hidaka, Koushi

    2012-09-17

    Histo-aspartic protease (HAP) from Plasmodium falciparum is a promising target for the development of novel antimalarial drugs. The sequence of HAP is highly similar to those of pepsin-like aspartic proteases, but one of the two catalytic aspartates, Asp32, is replaced with histidine. Crystal structures of the truncated zymogen of HAP and of the complex of the mature enzyme with inhibitor KNI-10395 have been determined at 2.1 and 2.5 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. As in other proplasmepsins, the propeptide of the zymogen interacts with the C-terminal domain of the enzyme, forcing the N- and C-terminal domains apart, thereby separating His32 and Asp215more » and preventing formation of the mature active site. In the inhibitor complex, the enzyme forms a tight domain-swapped dimer, not previously seen in any aspartic proteases. The inhibitor is found in an unprecedented conformation resembling the letter U, stabilized by two intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Surprisingly, the location and conformation of the inhibitor are similar to those of the fragment of helix 2 comprising residues 34p-38p in the prosegments of the zymogens of gastric aspartic proteases; a corresponding helix assumes a vastly different orientation in proplasmepsins. Each inhibitor molecule is in contact with two molecules of HAP, interacting with the carboxylate group of the catalytic Asp215 of one HAP protomer through a water molecule, while also making a direct hydrogen bond to Glu278A' of the other protomer. A comparison of the shifts in the positions of the catalytic residues in the inhibitor complex presented here with those published previously gives further hints regarding the enzymatic mechanism of HAP.« less

  8. Structural insights into activation and inhibition of histo-aspartic protease (HAP) from Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Bhaumik, Prasenjit; Xiao, Huogen; Hidaka, Koushi; Gustchina, Alla; Kiso, Yoshiaki; Yada, Rickey Y.; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Histo-aspartic protease (HAP) from Plasmodium falciparum offers a promising target for the development of novel antimalarial drugs. HAP exhibits high sequence similarity to pepsin-like aspartic proteases, but one of the two catalytic aspartates, Asp32, is replaced by histidine. Crystal structures of the truncated zymogen of HAP and of the complex of the mature enzyme with inhibitor KNI-10395 have been determined at 2.1 and 2.5 Å resolution, respectively. As in other proplasmepsins, the propeptide of the zymogen interacts with the C-terminal domain of the enzyme, forcing the N- and C- terminal domains apart, thereby separating His32 and Asp215 and preventing formation of the mature active site. In the inhibitor complex the enzyme forms a tight domain-swapped dimer, not previously seen in any aspartic proteases. The inhibitor is found in an unprecedented conformation resembling the letter “U”, stabilized by two intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Surprisingly, the location and conformation of the inhibitor are similar to the fragment of helix 2 comprising residues 34p–38p in the prosegments of the zymogens of gastric aspartic proteases; a corresponding helix assumes a vastly different orientation in proplasmepsins. Each inhibitor molecule is in contact with two molecules of HAP, interacting with the carboxylate group of the catalytic Asp215 of one HAP protomer through a water molecule, while also making a direct hydrogen bond to Glu278A′ of the other protomer. A comparison of the shifts in the positions of the catalytic residues in the inhibitor complex presented here with those published previously gives further hints regarding the enzymatic mechanism of HAP. PMID:21928835

  9. Lectin, hemolysin and protease inhibitors in seed fractions with ovicidal activity against Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Salles, Hévila Oliveira; Braga, Ana Carolina Linhares; Nascimento, Maria Thayana dos Santos Canuto do; Sousa, Ana Márjory Paiva; Lima, Adriano Rodrigues; Vieira, Luiz da Silva; Cavalcante, Antônio Cézar Rocha; Egito, Antonio Silvio do; Andrade, Lúcia Betânia da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive molecules of plant species are promising alternatives for the chemical control of gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants. Extracts of native and exotic seed species from Brazil's semi-arid region were tested in vitro in an egg hatch assay and the bioactivity of their proteins was investigated. Each seed species was subjected to three extractions with three types of solvents. All the seeds showed ovicidal activity, which varied according to the solvents. Higher ovicidal activity was found in the molecule fractions of low molecular weight (<12 kDa) for Albizia lebbeck, Ipomoea asarifolia, Jatropha curcas, Libidibia ferrea, Moringa oleifera and Ricinus communis (P<0.05, Bonferroni test). The two fractions of Crotalaria spectabilis showed the same ovicidal activity (P>0.05, Bonferroni test). Hemagglutinating activity was detected in the fractions of C. spectabilis and M. oleifera fractions, hemolysin activity in the A. lebbeck and M. oleifera fractions, serine protease inhibitory activity in the A. lebbeck, I. asarifolia, J. curcas, M. oleifera and R. communis fractions, cysteine protease inhibitor activity in the M. oleifera fraction, and no protein activity in the L. ferrea fraction. The results of this work reveal new plant species with a potential for use in controlling nematode parasites in goats, thus opening a new field of research involving plant protein molecules with ovicidal properties.

  10. Serine protease activity of Cur l 1 from Curvularia lunata augments Th2 response in mice.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Prabhanshu; Kukreja, Neetu; Singh, B P; Arora, Naveen

    2009-05-01

    Studies with mite allergens demonstrated that proteolytic activity augments allergic airway inflammation. This knowledge is limited to few enzyme allergens. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of serine protease Cur l 1 from Curvularia lunata in airway inflammation/hyper-responsiveness. Cur l 1 was purified and inactivated using a serine protease inhibitor. Balb/c mice were sensitized with enzymatically active Cur l 1 or C. lunata extract. Sensitized mice were given booster dose on day 14 with active or inactivated Cur l 1. Intranasal challenge was given on day 28, 29, and 30. Airway hyper-responsiveness was measured by plethysmography. Blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), spleen, and lungs from mice were analyzed for cellular infiltration, immunoglobulins, and cytokine levels. Mice challenged with enzymatically active Cur l 1 demonstrated significantly higher airway inflammation than inactive Cur l 1 group mice (p < 0.01). There was a significant difference in serum IgE and IgG1 levels among mice immunized with active Cur l 1 and inactive Cur l 1 (p < 0.01). IL-4 and IL-5 were higher in BALF and splenocyte culture supernatant of active Cur l 1 than inactive Cur l 1 mice. Lung histology revealed increased eosinophil infiltration, goblet cell hyperplasia and mucus secretion in active group. Proteolytic activity of Cur l 1 plays an important role in airway inflammation and the inactivated Cur l 1 has potential to be explored for immunotherapy.

  11. Activation of Protease Activated Receptor 2 by Exogenous Agonist Exacerbates Early Radiation Injury in Rat Intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Junru; Boerma, Marjan; Kulkarni, Ashwini

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR{sub 2}) is highly expressed throughout the gut and regulates the inflammatory, mitogenic, fibroproliferative, and nociceptive responses to injury. PAR{sub 2} is strikingly upregulated and exhibits increased activation in response to intestinal irradiation. We examined the mechanistic significance of radiation enteropathy development by assessing the effect of exogenous PAR{sub 2} activation. Methods and Materials: Rat small bowel was exposed to localized single-dose radiation (16.5 Gy). The PAR{sub 2} agonist (2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH{sub 2}) or vehicle was injected intraperitoneally daily for 3 days before irradiation (before), for 7 days after irradiation (after), or both 3 days before and 7 daysmore » after irradiation (before-after). Early and delayed radiation enteropathy was assessed at 2 and 26 weeks after irradiation using quantitative histologic examination, morphometry, and immunohistochemical analysis. Results: The PAR{sub 2} agonist did not elicit changes in the unirradiated (shielded) intestine. In contrast, in the irradiated intestine procured 2 weeks after irradiation, administration of the PAR{sub 2} agonist was associated with more severe mucosal injury and increased intestinal wall thickness in all three treatment groups (p <.05) compared with the vehicle-treated controls. The PAR{sub 2} agonist also exacerbated the radiation injury score, serosal thickening, and mucosal inflammation (p <.05) in the before and before-after groups. The short-term exogenous activation of PAR{sub 2} did not affect radiation-induced intestinal injury at 26 weeks. Conclusion: The results of the present study support a role for PAR{sub 2} activation in the pathogenesis of early radiation-induced intestinal injury. Pharmacologic PAR{sub 2} antagonists might have the potential to reduce the intestinal side effects of radiotherapy and/or as countermeasures in radiologic accidents or terrorism scenarios.« less

  12. Blockade of protease-activated receptor-4 (PAR4) provides robust antithrombotic activity with low bleeding.

    PubMed

    Wong, Pancras C; Seiffert, Dietmar; Bird, J Eileen; Watson, Carol A; Bostwick, Jeffrey S; Giancarli, Mary; Allegretto, Nick; Hua, Ji; Harden, David; Guay, Jocelyne; Callejo, Mario; Miller, Michael M; Lawrence, R Michael; Banville, Jacques; Guy, Julia; Maxwell, Brad D; Priestley, E Scott; Marinier, Anne; Wexler, Ruth R; Bouvier, Michel; Gordon, David A; Schumacher, William A; Yang, Jing

    2017-01-04

    Antiplatelet agents are proven efficacious treatments for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, the existing drugs are compromised by unwanted and sometimes life-threatening bleeding that limits drug usage or dosage. There is a substantial unmet medical need for an antiplatelet drug with strong efficacy and low bleeding risk. Thrombin is a potent platelet agonist that directly induces platelet activation via the G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein)-coupled protease-activated receptors PAR1 and PAR4. A PAR1 antagonist is approved for clinical use, but its use is limited by a substantial bleeding risk. Conversely, the potential of PAR4 as an antiplatelet target has not been well characterized. Using anti-PAR4 antibodies, we demonstrated a low bleeding risk and an effective antithrombotic profile with PAR4 inhibition in guinea pigs. Subsequently, high-throughput screening and an extensive medicinal chemistry effort resulted in the discovery of BMS-986120, an orally active, selective, and reversible PAR4 antagonist. In a cynomolgus monkey arterial thrombosis model, BMS-986120 demonstrated potent and highly efficacious antithrombotic activity. BMS-986120 also exhibited a low bleeding liability and a markedly wider therapeutic window compared to the standard antiplatelet agent clopidogrel tested in the same nonhuman primate model. These preclinical findings define the biological role of PAR4 in mediating platelet aggregation. In addition, they indicate that targeting PAR4 is an attractive antiplatelet strategy with the potential to treat patients at a high risk of atherothrombosis with superior safety compared with the current standard of care. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Tryptase activates isolated adult cardiac fibroblasts via protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2).

    PubMed

    Murray, David B; McLarty-Williams, Jennifer; Nagalla, Krishna T; Janicki, Joseph S

    2012-03-01

    Protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) derived cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) was recently implicated in a cardiac mast cell and fibroblast cross-talk signaling cascade mediating myocardial remodeling secondary to mechanical stress. We designed this study to investigate in vitro assays of isolated adult cardiac fibroblasts to determine whether binding of tryptase to the PAR-2 receptor on cardiac fibroblasts will lead to increased expression of COX-2 and subsequent formation of the arachodonic acid metabolite 15-d-Prostaglandin J(2) (15-d-PGJ(2)). The effects of tryptase (100 mU) and co-incubation with PAR-2 inhibitor peptide sequence FSLLRY-NH(2) (10(-6)M) on proliferation, hydroxyproline concentration, 15-d-PGJ(2) formation and PAR-2/COX-2 expression were investigated in fibroblasts isolated from 9 week old SD rats. Tryptase induced a significant increase in fibroproliferation, hydroxyproline, 15-d-PGJ(2) formation and PAR-2 expression which were markedly attenuated by FSLLRY. Tryptase-induced changes in cardiac fibroblast function utilize a PAR-2 dependent mechanism.

  14. Cathepsin K in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: LAM Cell-Fibroblast Interactions Enhance Protease Activity by Extracellular Acidification.

    PubMed

    Dongre, Arundhati; Clements, Debbie; Fisher, Andrew J; Johnson, Simon R

    2017-08-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease in which LAM cells and fibroblasts form lung nodules and it is hypothesized that LAM nodule-derived proteases cause cyst formation and tissue damage. On protease gene expression profiling in whole lung tissue, cathepsin K gene expression was 40-fold overexpressed in LAM compared with control lung tissue (P ≤ 0.0001). Immunohistochemistry confirmed cathepsin K protein was expressed in LAM but not control lungs. Cathepsin K gene expression and protein and protease activity were detected in LAM-associated fibroblasts but not the LAM cell line 621-101. In lung nodules, cathepsin K immunoreactivity predominantly co-localized with LAM-associated fibroblasts. In vitro, fibroblast extracellular cathepsin K activity was minimal at pH 7.5 but significantly enhanced at pH 7 and 6. 621-101 cells reduced extracellular pH with acidification dependent on 621-101 mechanistic target of rapamycin activity and net hydrogen ion exporters, particularly sodium bicarbonate co-transporters and carbonic anhydrases, which were also expressed in LAM lung tissue. In LAM cell-fibroblast co-cultures, acidification paralleled cathepsin K activity, and both were reduced by sodium bicarbonate co-transporter (P ≤ 0.0001) and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (P = 0.0021). Our findings suggest that cathepsin K activity is dependent on LAM cell-fibroblast interactions, and inhibitors of extracellular acidification may be potential therapies for LAM. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Serum protease activity in chronic kidney disease patients: The GANI_MED renal cohort

    PubMed Central

    Wolke, Carmen; Teumer, Alexander; Endlich, Karlhans; Endlich, Nicole; Rettig, Rainer; Stracke, Sylvia; Fiene, Beate; Aymanns, Simone; Felix, Stephan B; Hannemann, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Serum or plasma proteases have been associated with various diseases including cancer, inflammation, or reno-cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to investigate whether the enzymatic activities of serum proteases are associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in patients with different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Our study population comprised 268 participants of the “Greifswald Approach to Individualized Medicine” (GANI_MED) cohort. Enzymatic activity of aminopeptidase A, aminopeptidase B, alanyl (membrane) aminopeptidase, insulin-regulated aminopeptidase, puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase, leucine aminopeptidase 3, prolyl-endopeptidase (PEP), dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), angiotensin I-converting enzyme, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) proteases was measured in serum. Linear regression of the respective protease was performed on kidney function adjusted for age and sex. Kidney function was modeled either by the continuous Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD)-based eGFR or dichotomized by eGFR < 15 mL/min/1.73 m2 or <45 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. Results with a false discovery rate below 0.05 were deemed statistically significant. Among the 10 proteases investigated, only the activities of ACE2 and DPP4 were correlated with eGFR. Patients with lowest eGFR exhibited highest DPP4 and ACE2 activities. DPP4 and PEP were correlated with age, but all other serum protease activities showed no associations with age or sex. Our data indicate that ACE2 and DPP4 enzymatic activity are associated with the eGFR in patients with CKD. This finding distinguishes ACE2 and DPP4 from other serum peptidases analyzed and clearly indicates that further analyses are warranted to identify the precise role of these serum ectopeptidases in the pathogenesis of CKD and to fully elucidate underlying molecular mechanisms. Impact statement • Renal and cardiac diseases are very common and often occur concomitantly

  16. Serum protease activity in chronic kidney disease patients: The GANI_MED renal cohort.

    PubMed

    Wolke, Carmen; Teumer, Alexander; Endlich, Karlhans; Endlich, Nicole; Rettig, Rainer; Stracke, Sylvia; Fiene, Beate; Aymanns, Simone; Felix, Stephan B; Hannemann, Anke; Lendeckel, Uwe

    2017-03-01

    Serum or plasma proteases have been associated with various diseases including cancer, inflammation, or reno-cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to investigate whether the enzymatic activities of serum proteases are associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in patients with different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Our study population comprised 268 participants of the "Greifswald Approach to Individualized Medicine" (GANI_MED) cohort. Enzymatic activity of aminopeptidase A, aminopeptidase B, alanyl (membrane) aminopeptidase, insulin-regulated aminopeptidase, puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase, leucine aminopeptidase 3, prolyl-endopeptidase (PEP), dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), angiotensin I-converting enzyme, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) proteases was measured in serum. Linear regression of the respective protease was performed on kidney function adjusted for age and sex. Kidney function was modeled either by the continuous Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD)-based eGFR or dichotomized by eGFR < 15 mL/min/1.73 m 2 or <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , respectively. Results with a false discovery rate below 0.05 were deemed statistically significant. Among the 10 proteases investigated, only the activities of ACE2 and DPP4 were correlated with eGFR. Patients with lowest eGFR exhibited highest DPP4 and ACE2 activities. DPP4 and PEP were correlated with age, but all other serum protease activities showed no associations with age or sex. Our data indicate that ACE2 and DPP4 enzymatic activity are associated with the eGFR in patients with CKD. This finding distinguishes ACE2 and DPP4 from other serum peptidases analyzed and clearly indicates that further analyses are warranted to identify the precise role of these serum ectopeptidases in the pathogenesis of CKD and to fully elucidate underlying molecular mechanisms. Impact statement • Renal and cardiac diseases are very common and often occur concomitantly

  17. LIGR, a protease-activated receptor-2-derived peptide, enhances skin pigmentation without inducing inflammatory processes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Connie B; Chen, Nannan; Scarpa, Richard; Guan, Fei; Babiarz-Magee, Laura; Liebel, Frank; Li, Wen-Hwa; Kizoulis, Menas; Shapiro, Stanley; Seiberg, Miri

    2008-04-01

    The protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is a seven transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor that could be activated by serine protease cleavage or by synthetic peptide agonists. We showed earlier that activation of PAR-2 with Ser-Leu-Ile-Gly-Arg-Leu-NH(2) (SLIGRL), a known PAR-2 activating peptide, induces keratinocyte phagocytosis and increases skin pigmentation, indicating that PAR-2 regulates pigmentation by controlling phagocytosis of melanosomes. Here, we show that Leu-Ile-Gly-Arg-NH(2) (LIGR) can also induce skin pigmentation. Both SLIGRL and LIGR increased melanin deposition in vitro and in vivo, and visibly darkened human skins grafted onto severe combined immuno-deficient (SCID) mice. Both SLIGRL and LIGR stimulated Rho-GTP activation resulting in keratinocyte phagocytosis. Interestingly, LIGR activates only a subset of the PAR-2 signaling pathways, and unlike SLIGRL, it does not induce inflammatory processes. LIGR did not affect many PAR-2 signaling pathways, including [Ca(2+)] mobilization, cAMP induction, the induction of cyclooxgenase-2 (COX-2) expression and the secretion of prostaglandin E2, interleukin-6 and -8. PAR-2 siRNA inhibited LIGR-induced phagocytosis, indicating that LIGR signals via PAR-2. Our data suggest that LIGR is a more specific regulator of PAR-2-induced pigmentation relative to SLIGRL. Therefore, enhancing skin pigmentation by topical applications of LIGR may result in a desired tanned-like skin color, without enhancing inflammatory processes, and without the need of UV exposure.

  18. Cleavage and Activation of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Spike Protein by Human Airway Trypsin-Like Protease

    PubMed Central

    Bertram, Stephanie; Glowacka, Ilona; Müller, Marcel A.; Lavender, Hayley; Gnirss, Kerstin; Nehlmeier, Inga; Niemeyer, Daniela; He, Yuxian; Simmons, Graham; Drosten, Christian; Soilleux, Elizabeth J.; Jahn, Olaf; Steffen, Imke; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The highly pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) poses a constant threat to human health. The viral spike protein (SARS-S) mediates host cell entry and is a potential target for antiviral intervention. Activation of SARS-S by host cell proteases is essential for SARS-CoV infectivity but remains incompletely understood. Here, we analyzed the role of the type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs) human airway trypsin-like protease (HAT) and transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2), in SARS-S activation. We found that HAT activates SARS-S in the context of surrogate systems and authentic SARS-CoV infection and is coexpressed with the viral receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in bronchial epithelial cells and pneumocytes. HAT cleaved SARS-S at R667, as determined by mutagenesis and mass spectrometry, and activated SARS-S for cell-cell fusion in cis and trans, while the related pulmonary protease TMPRSS2 cleaved SARS-S at multiple sites and activated SARS-S only in trans. However, TMPRSS2 but not HAT expression rendered SARS-S-driven virus-cell fusion independent of cathepsin activity, indicating that HAT and TMPRSS2 activate SARS-S differentially. Collectively, our results show that HAT cleaves and activates SARS-S and might support viral spread in patients. PMID:21994442

  19. Detection of protease activity by fluorescent protein FRET sensors: from computer simulation to live cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryashchenko, Alexander S.; Khrenova, Maria G.; Savitsky, Alexander P.

    2018-04-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) sensors are widely used for the detection of protease activity in vitro and in vivo. Usually they consist of a FRET pair connected with a polypeptide linker containing a specific cleavage site for the relevant protease. Use of the fluorescent proteins as components of the FRET pair allows genetic encoding of such sensors and solves the problem of their delivery into live cells and animals. There are several ways to improve the properties of such sensors, mainly to increase FRET efficiency and therefore the dynamic range. One of the ways to achieve this is to use a non-fluorescent chromoprotein as an acceptor. Molecular dynamic simulations may assist in the construction of linker structures connecting donor and acceptor molecules. Estimation of the orientation factor κ 2 can be obtained by methods based on quantum theory and combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics approaches. The linker can be structured by hydrophobic interactions, bringing it into a closed conformation that shortens the distance between donor and acceptor and, consequently, increases FRET efficiency. We analyzed the effects of different linker structures on the detection of caspase-3 activity using a non-fluorescent acceptor. Also we have constructed the Tb3+- TagRFP sensor in which a complex of the terbium ion and terbium-binding peptide is used as a donor. This allowed us to use the unique property of lanthanide ions—fluorescence lifetime up to milliseconds—to perform measurements with time delay and exclude the nanosecond-order fluorescence. Using our systems as a starting point, by changing the recognition site in the linker it is possible to perform imaging of different protease activity in vitro or in vivo.

  20. A Camelid-derived Antibody Fragment Targeting the Active Site of a Serine Protease Balances between Inhibitor and Substrate Behavior*

    PubMed Central

    Kromann-Hansen, Tobias; Oldenburg, Emil; Yung, Kristen Wing Yu; Ghassabeh, Gholamreza H.; Muyldermans, Serge; Declerck, Paul J.; Huang, Mingdong; Andreasen, Peter A.; Ngo, Jacky Chi Ki

    2016-01-01

    A peptide segment that binds the active site of a serine protease in a substrate-like manner may behave like an inhibitor or a substrate. However, there is sparse information on which factors determine the behavior a particular peptide segment will exhibit. Here, we describe the first x-ray crystal structure of a nanobody in complex with a serine protease. The nanobody displays a new type of interaction between an antibody and a serine protease as it inserts its complementary determining region-H3 loop into the active site of the protease in a substrate-like manner. The unique binding mechanism causes the nanobody to behave as a strong inhibitor as well as a poor substrate. Intriguingly, its substrate behavior is incomplete, as 30–40% of the nanobody remained intact and inhibitory after prolonged incubation with the protease. Biochemical analysis reveals that an intra-loop interaction network within the complementary determining region-H3 of the nanobody balances its inhibitor versus substrate behavior. Collectively, our results unveil molecular factors, which may be a general mechanism to determine the substrate versus inhibitor behavior of other protease inhibitors. PMID:27226628

  1. A Camelid-derived Antibody Fragment Targeting the Active Site of a Serine Protease Balances between Inhibitor and Substrate Behavior.

    PubMed

    Kromann-Hansen, Tobias; Oldenburg, Emil; Yung, Kristen Wing Yu; Ghassabeh, Gholamreza H; Muyldermans, Serge; Declerck, Paul J; Huang, Mingdong; Andreasen, Peter A; Ngo, Jacky Chi Ki

    2016-07-15

    A peptide segment that binds the active site of a serine protease in a substrate-like manner may behave like an inhibitor or a substrate. However, there is sparse information on which factors determine the behavior a particular peptide segment will exhibit. Here, we describe the first x-ray crystal structure of a nanobody in complex with a serine protease. The nanobody displays a new type of interaction between an antibody and a serine protease as it inserts its complementary determining region-H3 loop into the active site of the protease in a substrate-like manner. The unique binding mechanism causes the nanobody to behave as a strong inhibitor as well as a poor substrate. Intriguingly, its substrate behavior is incomplete, as 30-40% of the nanobody remained intact and inhibitory after prolonged incubation with the protease. Biochemical analysis reveals that an intra-loop interaction network within the complementary determining region-H3 of the nanobody balances its inhibitor versus substrate behavior. Collectively, our results unveil molecular factors, which may be a general mechanism to determine the substrate versus inhibitor behavior of other protease inhibitors. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Protease-Activated Receptors and other G-Protein-Coupled Receptors: the Melanoma Connection

    PubMed Central

    Rosero, Rebecca A.; Villares, Gabriel J.; Bar-Eli, Menashe

    2016-01-01

    The vast array of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play crucial roles in both physiological and pathological processes, including vision, coagulation, inflammation, autophagy, and cell proliferation. GPCRs also affect processes that augment cell proliferation and metastases in many cancers including melanoma. Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer, yet limited therapeutic modalities are available to patients with metastatic melanoma. Studies have found that both chemokine receptors and protease-activated receptors, both of which are GPCRs, are central to the metastatic melanoma phenotype and may serve as potential targets in novel therapies against melanoma and other cancers. PMID:27379162

  3. Protease-Activated Receptors and other G-Protein-Coupled Receptors: the Melanoma Connection.

    PubMed

    Rosero, Rebecca A; Villares, Gabriel J; Bar-Eli, Menashe

    2016-01-01

    The vast array of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play crucial roles in both physiological and pathological processes, including vision, coagulation, inflammation, autophagy, and cell proliferation. GPCRs also affect processes that augment cell proliferation and metastases in many cancers including melanoma. Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer, yet limited therapeutic modalities are available to patients with metastatic melanoma. Studies have found that both chemokine receptors and protease-activated receptors, both of which are GPCRs, are central to the metastatic melanoma phenotype and may serve as potential targets in novel therapies against melanoma and other cancers.

  4. The protease-activated receptor 2 regulates pigmentation via keratinocyte-melanocyte interactions.

    PubMed

    Seiberg, M; Paine, C; Sharlow, E; Andrade-Gordon, P; Costanzo, M; Eisinger, M; Shapiro, S S

    2000-01-10

    Close association exists between melanocytes, the pigment melanin-producing cells in the body, and their neighboring keratinocytes. Keratinocytes are the pigment recipients and skin pigmentation is the result of this interaction. While the chemical basis of melanin production (melanogenesis) is well documented, the molecular mechanism of melanosome transfer needs to be elucidated. We are now providing first evidence that the protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) expressed on keratinocytes, but not on melanocytes, is involved in melanosome transfer and therefore may regulate pigmentation. Activation of PAR-2 with trypsin or with the peptide agonist SLIGRL induced pigmentation in both two- and three-dimensional cocultures of keratinocytes and melanocytes, but not in cocultures that were spatially separated, indicating the need for intimate cell-cell contact. Topical application of SLIGRL on human skin transplanted on SCID mice resulted in a visible skin darkening. Histological examination revealed increased deposits of melanin in the keratinocytes. Inhibition of PAR-2 activation by RWJ-50353, a serine protease inhibitor, resulted in depigmentation and changes in expression of melanogenic-specific genes. Keratinocyte-melanocyte contact was essential for this depigmenting effect. Topical application of this inhibitor induced lightening of the dark skin Yucatan swine, which was confirmed by histochemical analysis. The results presented here suggest a novel mechanism for the regulation of pigmentation, mediated by the activation or inhibition of the keratinocyte receptor PAR-2. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  5. Dual functionality of β-tryptase protomers as both proteases and cofactors in the active tetramer.

    PubMed

    Maun, Henry R; Liu, Peter S; Franke, Yvonne; Eigenbrot, Charles; Forrest, William F; Schwartz, Lawrence B; Lazarus, Robert A

    2018-04-16

    Human β-tryptase, a tetrameric trypsin-like serine protease, is an important mediator of the allergic inflammatory responses in asthma. During acute hypersensitivity reactions, mast cells degranulate, releasing active tetramer as a complex with proteoglycans. Extensive efforts have focused on developing therapeutic β-tryptase inhibitors, but its unique activation mechanism is less well explored. Tryptase is active only after proteolytic removal of the pro-domain followed by tetramer formation via two distinct symmetry-related interfaces. We show that the cleaved I16G mutant cannot tetramerize, likely due to impaired insertion of its N-terminus into its 'activation pocket', indicating allosteric linkage at multiple sites on each protomer. We engineered cysteines into each of the two distinct interfaces (Y75C for small or I99C for large) to assess the activity of each tetramer and disulfide-locked dimer. Using size-exclusion chromatography and enzymatic assays, we demonstrate that the two large tetramer interfaces regulate enzymatic activity, elucidating the importance of this protein-protein interaction for allosteric regulation. Notably, the I99C large interface dimer is active, even in the absence of heparin. We show that a monomeric β-tryptase mutant (I99C*:Y75A:Y37bA where C* is cysteinylated Cys99) cannot form a dimer or tetramer, yet is active, but only in the presence of heparin. Thus heparin both stabilizes the tetramer and allosterically conditions the active site. We hypothesize that each β-tryptase protomer in the tetramer has two distinct roles, acting both as a protease and as a cofactor for its neighboring protomer, to allosterically regulate enzymatic activity, providing a rationale for direct correlation of tetramer stability with proteolytic activity. Copyright © 2018, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  6. Eotaxin-3 (CCL26) exerts innate host defense activities that are modulated by mast cell proteases.

    PubMed

    Gela, A; Kasetty, G; Jovic, S; Ekoff, M; Nilsson, G; Mörgelin, M; Kjellström, S; Pease, J E; Schmidtchen, A; Egesten, A

    2015-02-01

    During bacterial infections of the airways, a Th1-profiled inflammation promotes the production of several host defense proteins and peptides with antibacterial activities including β-defensins, ELR-negative CXC chemokines, and the cathelicidin LL-37. These are downregulated by Th2 cytokines of the allergic response. Instead, the eosinophil-recruiting chemokines eotaxin-1/CCL11, eotaxin-2/CCL24, and eotaxin-3/CCL26 are expressed. This study set out to investigate whether these chemokines could serve as innate host defense molecules during allergic inflammation. Antibacterial activities of the eotaxins were investigated using viable count assays, electron microscopy, and methods assessing bacterial permeabilization. Fragments generated by mast cell proteases were characterized, and their potential antibacterial, receptor-activating, and lipopolysaccharide-neutralizing activities were investigated. CCL11, CCL24, and CCL26 all showed potent bactericidal activity, mediated through membrane disruption, against the airway pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. CCL26 retained bactericidal activity in the presence of salt at physiologic concentrations, and the region holding the highest bactericidal activity was the cationic and amphipathic COOH-terminus. Proteolysis of CCL26 by chymase and tryptase, respectively, released distinct fragments of the COOH- and NH2 -terminal regions. The COOH-terminal fragment retained antibacterial activity while the NH2 -terminal had potent LPS-neutralizing properties in the order of CCL26 full-length protein. An identical fragment to NH2 -terminal fragment generated by tryptase was obtained after incubation with supernatants from activated mast cells. None of the fragments activated the CCR3-receptor. Taken together, the findings show that the eotaxins can contribute to host defense against common airway pathogens and that their activities are modulated by

  7. Cathepsin S Cleavage of Protease-Activated Receptor-2 on Endothelial Cells Promotes Microvascular Diabetes Complications

    PubMed Central

    Kumar VR, Santhosh; Darisipudi, Murthy N.; Steiger, Stefanie; Devarapu, Satish Kumar; Tato, Maia; Kukarni, Onkar P.; Mulay, Shrikant R.; Thomasova, Dana; Popper, Bastian; Demleitner, Jana; Zuchtriegel, Gabriele; Reichel, Christoph; Cohen, Clemens D.; Lindenmeyer, Maja T.; Liapis, Helen; Moll, Solange; Reid, Emma; Stitt, Alan W.; Schott, Brigitte; Gruner, Sabine; Haap, Wolfgang; Ebeling, Martin; Hartmann, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is a central pathomechanism in diabetes-associated complications. We hypothesized a pathogenic role in this dysfunction of cathepsin S (Cat-S), a cysteine protease that degrades elastic fibers and activates the protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) on endothelial cells. We found that injection of mice with recombinant Cat-S induced albuminuria and glomerular endothelial cell injury in a PAR2-dependent manner. In vivo microscopy confirmed a role for intrinsic Cat-S/PAR2 in ischemia–induced microvascular permeability. In vitro transcriptome analysis and experiments using siRNA or specific Cat-S and PAR2 antagonists revealed that Cat-S specifically impaired the integrity and barrier function of glomerular endothelial cells selectively through PAR2. In human and mouse type 2 diabetic nephropathy, only CD68+ intrarenal monocytes expressed Cat-S mRNA, whereas Cat-S protein was present along endothelial cells and inside proximal tubular epithelial cells also. In contrast, the cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin C was expressed only in tubules. Delayed treatment of type 2 diabetic db/db mice with Cat-S or PAR2 inhibitors attenuated albuminuria and glomerulosclerosis (indicators of diabetic nephropathy) and attenuated albumin leakage into the retina and other structural markers of diabetic retinopathy. These data identify Cat-S as a monocyte/macrophage–derived circulating PAR2 agonist and mediator of endothelial dysfunction–related microvascular diabetes complications. Thus, Cat-S or PAR2 inhibition might be a novel strategy to prevent microvascular disease in diabetes and other diseases. PMID:26567242

  8. Protease-Activated Receptor-2 Activation Contributes to House Dust Mite-Induced IgE Responses in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Post, Sijranke; Heijink, Irene H.; Petersen, Arjen H.; de Bruin, Harold G.; van Oosterhout, Antoon J. M.; Nawijn, Martijn C.

    2014-01-01

    Aeroallergens such as house dust mite (HDM), cockroach, and grass or tree pollen are innocuous substances that can induce allergic sensitization upon inhalation. The serine proteases present in these allergens are thought to activate the protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2, on the airway epithelium, thereby potentially inducing allergic sensitization at the expense of inhalation tolerance. We hypothesized that the proteolytic activity of allergens may play an important factor in the allergenicity to house dust mite and is essential to overcome airway tolerance. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of PAR-2 activation in allergic sensitization and HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation. In our study, Par-2 deficient mice were treated with two different HDM extracts containing high and low serine protease activities twice a week for a period of 5 weeks. We determined airway inflammation through quantification of percentages of mononuclear cells, eosinophils and neutrophils in the bronchial alveolar lavage fluid and measured total IgE and HDM-specific IgE and IgG1 levels in serum. Furthermore, Th2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-5, IL-13, Eotaxin-1, IL-17, KC, Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17 (CCL17) and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), were measured in lung tissue homogenates. We observed that independent of the serine protease content, HDM was able to induce elevated levels of eosinophils and neutrophils in the airways of both wild-type (WT) and Par-2 deficient mice. Furthermore, we show that induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines by HDM exposure is independent of Par-2 activation. In contrast, serine protease activity of HDM does contribute to enhanced levels of total IgE, but not HDM-specific IgE. We conclude that, while Par-2 activation contributes to the development of IgE responses, it is largely dispensable for the HDM-induced induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and airway inflammation in an experimental mouse model of HDM

  9. Evidence that the recA441 (tif-1) mutant of Escherichia coli K-12 contains a thermosensitive intragenic suppressor of RecA constitutive protease activity.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, W B; Tessman, E S

    1985-01-01

    The recA441 mutant of Escherichia coli, which has been thought to have thermoinducible constitutive RecA protease activity, is known to have two mutations within recA. We show here that the mutation that alters codon 38 actually confers temperature-independent constitutive protease activity; the second mutation in recA441, which is at codon 298, appears to be acting as a temperature-sensitive suppressor of the protease activity. Images PMID:3891740

  10. Evidence that the recA441 (tif-1) mutant of Escherichia coli K-12 contains a thermosensitive intragenic suppressor of RecA constitutive protease activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, W B; Tessman, E S

    1985-07-01

    The recA441 mutant of Escherichia coli, which has been thought to have thermoinducible constitutive RecA protease activity, is known to have two mutations within recA. We show here that the mutation that alters codon 38 actually confers temperature-independent constitutive protease activity; the second mutation in recA441, which is at codon 298, appears to be acting as a temperature-sensitive suppressor of the protease activity.

  11. Effect of leather industry effluents on soil microbial and protease activity.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, M Reddi; Narasimha, G

    2012-01-01

    Release of leather industry effluents into the agricultural fields causes indicative changes in nutrient cycling and organic matter processing. In the present study, leather industry effluent discharged soil (test) and undischarged soil(control) were collected from the surrounding areas of industry. The physico-chemical, biological properties and soil protease activity were examined. The study reflected the average mean value of pH, electrical conductivity and water holding capacity of the test soil was found to be 7.94, 0.89 microMhos cm(-1) and 0.51 ml g(-1), respectively. In chemical parameters, organic matter, total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium has the mean of 6.73%, 0.23 g kg(-1), 4.28 mg g(-1) and 28 microg g(-1), respectively. In all the respects, the test soil showed higher values than the control. The soil protease enzyme activity was determined by using substrate casein and the activity was found to be higher (180 microg TE g(-1) 24 hr(-1)) in test soil than the control soil (63 microg TE g(-1) 24 hr(-1)).

  12. Entomotoxicity, protease and chitinase activity of Bacillus thuringiensis fermented wastewater sludge with a high solids content.

    PubMed

    Brar, Satinder K; Verma, M; Tyagi, R D; Valéro, J R; Surampalli, R Y

    2009-10-01

    This study investigated the production of biopesticides, protease and chitinase activity by Bacillus thuringiensis grown in raw wastewater sludge at high solids concentration (30 g/L). The rheology of wastewater sludge was modified with addition of Tween-80 (0.2% v/v). This addition resulted in 1.6 and 1.3-fold increase in cell and spore count, respectively. The maximum specific growth rate (micro(max)) augmented from 0.17 to 0.22 h(-1) and entomotoxicity (Tx) increased by 29.7%. Meanwhile, volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k(L)a) showed marked variations during fermentation, and oxygen uptake rate (OUR) increased 2-fold. The proteolytic activity increased while chitinase decreased for Tween amended wastewater sludge, but the entomotoxicity increased. The specific entomotoxicity followed power law when plotted against spore concentration and the relation between Tx and protease activity was linear. The viscosity varied and volume percent of particles increased in Tween-80 amended wastewater sludge and particle size (D(50)) decreased at the end of fermentation. Thus, there was an increase in entomotoxicity at higher suspended solids (30 g/L) as Tween addition improved rheology (viscosity, particle size, surface tension); enhanced maximum growth rate and OUR.

  13. Serpin1 and WSCP differentially regulate the activity of the cysteine protease RD21 during plant development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Rustgi, Sachin; Boex-Fontvieille, Edouard; Reinbothe, Christiane; von Wettstein, Diter; Reinbothe, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Proteolytic enzymes (proteases) participate in a vast range of physiological processes, ranging from nutrient digestion to blood coagulation, thrombosis, and beyond. In plants, proteases are implicated in host recognition and pathogen infection, induced defense (immunity), and the deterrence of insect pests. Because proteases irreversibly cleave peptide bonds of protein substrates, their activity must be tightly controlled in time and space. Here, we report an example of how nature evolved alternative mechanisms to fine-tune the activity of a cysteine protease dubbed RD21 (RESPONSIVE TO DESICCATION-21). One mechanism in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana studied here comprises irreversible inhibition of RD21’s activity by Serpin1, whereas the other mechanism is a result of the reversible inhibition of RD21 activity by a Kunitz protease inhibitor named water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein (WSCP). Activity profiling, complex isolation, and homology modeling data revealed unique interactions of RD21 with Serpin1 and WSCP, respectively. Expression studies identified only partial overlaps in Serpin1 and WSCP accumulation that explain how RD21 contributes to the innate immunity of mature plants and arthropod deterrence of seedlings undergoing skotomorphogenesis and greening. PMID:28179567

  14. Serpin1 and WSCP differentially regulate the activity of the cysteine protease RD21 during plant development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Rustgi, Sachin; Boex-Fontvieille, Edouard; Reinbothe, Christiane; von Wettstein, Diter; Reinbothe, Steffen

    2017-02-28

    Proteolytic enzymes (proteases) participate in a vast range of physiological processes, ranging from nutrient digestion to blood coagulation, thrombosis, and beyond. In plants, proteases are implicated in host recognition and pathogen infection, induced defense (immunity), and the deterrence of insect pests. Because proteases irreversibly cleave peptide bonds of protein substrates, their activity must be tightly controlled in time and space. Here, we report an example of how nature evolved alternative mechanisms to fine-tune the activity of a cysteine protease dubbed RD21 (RESPONSIVE TO DESICCATION-21). One mechanism in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana studied here comprises irreversible inhibition of RD21's activity by Serpin1, whereas the other mechanism is a result of the reversible inhibition of RD21 activity by a Kunitz protease inhibitor named water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein (WSCP). Activity profiling, complex isolation, and homology modeling data revealed unique interactions of RD21 with Serpin1 and WSCP, respectively. Expression studies identified only partial overlaps in Serpin1 and WSCP accumulation that explain how RD21 contributes to the innate immunity of mature plants and arthropod deterrence of seedlings undergoing skotomorphogenesis and greening.

  15. Nanocaged enzymes with enhanced catalytic activity and increased stability against protease digestion

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhao; Fu, Jinglin; Dhakal, Soma; Johnson-Buck, Alexander; Liu, Minghui; Zhang, Ting; Woodbury, Neal W.; Liu, Yan; Walter, Nils G.; Yan, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Cells routinely compartmentalize enzymes for enhanced efficiency of their metabolic pathways. Here we report a general approach to construct DNA nanocaged enzymes for enhancing catalytic activity and stability. Nanocaged enzymes are realized by self-assembly into DNA nanocages with well-controlled stoichiometry and architecture that enabled a systematic study of the impact of both encapsulation and proximal polyanionic surfaces on a set of common metabolic enzymes. Activity assays at both bulk and single-molecule levels demonstrate increased substrate turnover numbers for DNA nanocage-encapsulated enzymes. Unexpectedly, we observe a significant inverse correlation between the size of a protein and its activity enhancement. This effect is consistent with a model wherein distal polyanionic surfaces of the nanocage enhance the stability of active enzyme conformations through the action of a strongly bound hydration layer. We further show that DNA nanocages protect encapsulated enzymes against proteases, demonstrating their practical utility in functional biomaterials and biotechnology. PMID:26861509

  16. Nanocaged enzymes with enhanced catalytic activity and increased stability against protease digestion.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhao; Fu, Jinglin; Dhakal, Soma; Johnson-Buck, Alexander; Liu, Minghui; Zhang, Ting; Woodbury, Neal W; Liu, Yan; Walter, Nils G; Yan, Hao

    2016-02-10

    Cells routinely compartmentalize enzymes for enhanced efficiency of their metabolic pathways. Here we report a general approach to construct DNA nanocaged enzymes for enhancing catalytic activity and stability. Nanocaged enzymes are realized by self-assembly into DNA nanocages with well-controlled stoichiometry and architecture that enabled a systematic study of the impact of both encapsulation and proximal polyanionic surfaces on a set of common metabolic enzymes. Activity assays at both bulk and single-molecule levels demonstrate increased substrate turnover numbers for DNA nanocage-encapsulated enzymes. Unexpectedly, we observe a significant inverse correlation between the size of a protein and its activity enhancement. This effect is consistent with a model wherein distal polyanionic surfaces of the nanocage enhance the stability of active enzyme conformations through the action of a strongly bound hydration layer. We further show that DNA nanocages protect encapsulated enzymes against proteases, demonstrating their practical utility in functional biomaterials and biotechnology.

  17. Nanocaged enzymes with enhanced catalytic activity and increased stability against protease digestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhao; Fu, Jinglin; Dhakal, Soma; Johnson-Buck, Alexander; Liu, Minghui; Zhang, Ting; Woodbury, Neal W.; Liu, Yan; Walter, Nils G.; Yan, Hao

    2016-02-01

    Cells routinely compartmentalize enzymes for enhanced efficiency of their metabolic pathways. Here we report a general approach to construct DNA nanocaged enzymes for enhancing catalytic activity and stability. Nanocaged enzymes are realized by self-assembly into DNA nanocages with well-controlled stoichiometry and architecture that enabled a systematic study of the impact of both encapsulation and proximal polyanionic surfaces on a set of common metabolic enzymes. Activity assays at both bulk and single-molecule levels demonstrate increased substrate turnover numbers for DNA nanocage-encapsulated enzymes. Unexpectedly, we observe a significant inverse correlation between the size of a protein and its activity enhancement. This effect is consistent with a model wherein distal polyanionic surfaces of the nanocage enhance the stability of active enzyme conformations through the action of a strongly bound hydration layer. We further show that DNA nanocages protect encapsulated enzymes against proteases, demonstrating their practical utility in functional biomaterials and biotechnology.

  18. Inhibition of the protease activity of the light chain of type A botulinum neurotoxin by aqueous extract from stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) leaf.

    PubMed

    Gul, Nizamettin; Ahmed, S Ashraf; Smith, Leonard A

    2004-11-01

    We investigated the inhibitory effect of stinging nettle leaf extract on the protease activity of botulinum neurotoxin type A and B light chains. The nettle leaf infusion was fractionated and HPLC-based enzymatic assays were performed to determine the capacity of each fraction to inhibit the protease activity of botulinum neurotoxin type A and B light chains. Assay results demonstrated that a water-soluble fraction obtained from the nettle leaf infusion inhibited type A, but did not inhibit type B light chain protease activity. The inhibition mode of water soluble fraction against protease activity of type A light chain was analyzed and found to be a non-competitive.

  19. Conservative Mechanisms of Extracellular Trap Formation by Annelida Eisenia andrei: Serine Protease Activity Requirement

    PubMed Central

    Ortmann, Weronika; Kolaczkowska, Elzbieta

    2016-01-01

    Formation of extracellular traps (ETs) capturing and immobilizing pathogens is now a well-established defense mechanism added to the repertoire of vertebrate phagocytes. These ETs are composed of extracellular DNA (extDNA), histones and antimicrobial proteins. Formation of mouse and human ETs depends on enzymes (i) facilitating decondensation of chromatin by citrullination of histones, and (ii) serine proteases degrading histones. In invertebrates, initial reports revealed existence of ETs composed of extDNA and histones, and here we document for the first time that also coelomocytes, immunocompetent cells of an earthworm Eisenia andrei, cast ETs which successfully trap bacteria in a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent and -independent manner. Importantly, the formation of ETs was observed not only when coelomocytes were studied ex vivo, but also in vivo, directly in the earthworm coelom. These ETs were composed of extDNA, heat shock proteins (HSP27) and H3 histones. Furthermore, the formation of E. andrei ETs depended on activity of serine proteases, including elastase-like activity. Moreover, ETs interconnected and hold together aggregating coelomocytes, a processes proceeding encapsulation. In conclusion, the study confirms ET formation by earthworms, and unravels mechanisms leading to ET formation and encapsulation in invertebrates. PMID:27416067

  20. Engineered Toxins “Zymoxins” Are Activated by the HCV NS3 Protease by Removal of an Inhibitory Protein Domain

    PubMed Central

    Shapira, Assaf; Gal-Tanamy, Meital; Nahary, Limor; Litvak-Greenfeld, Dana; Zemel, Romy; Tur-Kaspa, Ran; Benhar, Itai

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of inactive enzyme precursors, also known as “zymogens,” serves as a mechanism for regulating the execution of selected catalytic activities in a desirable time and/or site. Zymogens are usually activated by proteolytic cleavage. Many viruses encode proteases that execute key proteolytic steps of the viral life cycle. Here, we describe a proof of concept for a therapeutic approach to fighting viral infections through eradication of virally infected cells exclusively, thus limiting virus production and spread. Using the hepatitis C virus (HCV) as a model, we designed two HCV NS3 protease-activated “zymogenized” chimeric toxins (which we denote “zymoxins”). In these recombinant constructs, the bacterial and plant toxins diphtheria toxin A (DTA) and Ricin A chain (RTA), respectively, were fused to rationally designed inhibitor peptides/domains via an HCV NS3 protease-cleavable linker. The above toxins were then fused to the binding and translocation domains of Pseudomonas exotoxin A in order to enable translocation into the mammalian cells cytoplasm. We show that these toxins exhibit NS3 cleavage dependent increase in enzymatic activity upon NS3 protease cleavage in vitro. Moreover, a higher level of cytotoxicity was observed when zymoxins were applied to NS3 expressing cells or to HCV infected cells, demonstrating a potential therapeutic window. The increase in toxin activity correlated with NS3 protease activity in the treated cells, thus the therapeutic window was larger in cells expressing recombinant NS3 than in HCV infected cells. This suggests that the “zymoxin” approach may be most appropriate for application to life-threatening acute infections where much higher levels of the activating protease would be expected. PMID:21264238

  1. Anti-fibrinolytic and anti-microbial activities of a serine protease inhibitor from honeybee (Apis cerana) venom.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Lee, Kwang Sik; Kim, Bo Yeon; Choi, Yong Soo; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Jia, Jingming; Jin, Byung Rae

    2017-10-01

    Bee venom contains a variety of peptide constituents, including low-molecular-weight protease inhibitors. While the putative low-molecular-weight serine protease inhibitor Api m 6 containing a trypsin inhibitor-like cysteine-rich domain was identified from honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom, no anti-fibrinolytic or anti-microbial roles for this inhibitor have been elucidated. In this study, we identified an Asiatic honeybee (A. cerana) venom serine protease inhibitor (AcVSPI) that was shown to act as a microbial serine protease inhibitor and plasmin inhibitor. AcVSPI was found to consist of a trypsin inhibitor-like domain that displays ten cysteine residues. Interestingly, the AcVSPI peptide sequence exhibited high similarity to the putative low-molecular-weight serine protease inhibitor Api m 6, which suggests that AcVSPI is an allergen Api m 6-like peptide. Recombinant AcVSPI was expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells, and it demonstrated inhibitory activity against trypsin, but not chymotrypsin. Additionally, AcVSPI has inhibitory effects against plasmin and microbial serine proteases; however, it does not have any detectable inhibitory effects on thrombin or elastase. Consistent with these inhibitory effects, AcVSPI inhibited the plasmin-mediated degradation of fibrin to fibrin degradation products. AcVSPI also bound to bacterial and fungal surfaces and exhibited anti-microbial activity against fungi as well as gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. These findings demonstrate the anti-fibrinolytic and anti-microbial roles of AcVSPI as a serine protease inhibitor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Skeletal muscle protease activities in the early growth and development of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Lysenko, Liudmila A; Kantserova, Nadezda P; Kaivarainen, Elena I; Krupnova, Marina Yu; Nemova, Nina N

    2017-09-01

    Growth-related dynamics of intracellular protease activities in four year classes of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. 1758) parr and smolts inhabiting salmon rivers of northwestern Russia (the White Sea basin) were studied. Cathepsin B, cathepsin D, proteasome, and calpain activities in the skeletal muscles of salmon were assessed to investigate their relative contribution to the total protein degradation as well as to young fish growth process. It was confirmed that calpain activity dominates in salmon muscles while proteasome plays a minor role, in contrast to terrestrial vertebrates. Calpain and proteasome activities were maximal at the early post-larval stage (in parrs 0+) and declined with age (parrs 1+ through 2+) dropping to the lowest level in salmon smolts. Annual growth increments and proteolytic activities of calpains and proteasome in the muscles of salmon juveniles changed with age in an orchestrated manner, while lysosomal cathepsin activities increased with age. Comparing protease activities and growth increments in salmon parr and smolts we suggested that the partial suppression of the protein degradation could be a mechanism stimulating efficient growth in smoltifying salmon. Growth and smoltification-related dynamics of protease activities was quite similar in salmon populations from studied spawning rivers, such as Varzuga and Indera; however, some habitat-related differences were observed. Growth increments and protease activities varied in salmon parr 0+ (but not on later ages) inhabiting either main rivers or small tributaries apparently due to habitat difference on the resources for fish growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ethanol enhances carbachol-induced protease activation and accelerates Ca2+ waves in isolated rat pancreatic acini.

    PubMed

    Orabi, Abrahim I; Shah, Ahsan U; Muili, Kamaldeen; Luo, Yuhuan; Mahmood, Syeda Maham; Ahmad, Asim; Reed, Anamika; Husain, Sohail Z

    2011-04-22

    Alcohol abuse is a leading cause of pancreatitis, accounting for 30% of acute cases and 70-90% of chronic cases, yet the mechanisms leading to alcohol-associated pancreatic injury are unclear. An early and critical feature of pancreatitis is the aberrant signaling of Ca(2+) within the pancreatic acinar cell. An important conductor of this Ca(2+) is the basolaterally localized, intracellular Ca(2+) channel ryanodine receptor (RYR). In this study, we examined the effect of ethanol on mediating both pathologic intra-acinar protease activation, a precursor to pancreatitis, as well as RYR Ca(2+) signals. We hypothesized that ethanol sensitizes the acinar cell to protease activation by modulating RYR Ca(2+). Acinar cells were freshly isolated from rat, pretreated with ethanol, and stimulated with the muscarinic agonist carbachol (1 μM). Ethanol caused a doubling in the carbachol-induced activation of the proteases trypsin and chymotrypsin (p < 0.02). The RYR inhibitor dantrolene abrogated the enhancement of trypsin and chymotrypsin activity by ethanol (p < 0.005 for both proteases). Further, ethanol accelerated the speed of the apical to basolateral Ca(2+) wave from 9 to 18 μm/s (p < 0.0005; n = 18-22 cells/group); an increase in Ca(2+) wave speed was also observed with a change from physiologic concentrations of carbachol (1 μM) to a supraphysiologic concentration (1 mM) that leads to protease activation. Dantrolene abrogated the ethanol-induced acceleration of wave speed (p < 0.05; n = 10-16 cells/group). Our results suggest that the enhancement of pathologic protease activation by ethanol is dependent on the RYR and that a novel mechanism for this enhancement may involve RYR-mediated acceleration of Ca(2+) waves.

  4. Ethanol Enhances Carbachol-induced Protease Activation and Accelerates Ca2+ Waves in Isolated Rat Pancreatic Acini*

    PubMed Central

    Orabi, Abrahim I.; Shah, Ahsan U.; Muili, Kamaldeen; Luo, Yuhuan; Mahmood, Syeda Maham; Ahmad, Asim; Reed, Anamika; Husain, Sohail Z.

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a leading cause of pancreatitis, accounting for 30% of acute cases and 70–90% of chronic cases, yet the mechanisms leading to alcohol-associated pancreatic injury are unclear. An early and critical feature of pancreatitis is the aberrant signaling of Ca2+ within the pancreatic acinar cell. An important conductor of this Ca2+ is the basolaterally localized, intracellular Ca2+ channel ryanodine receptor (RYR). In this study, we examined the effect of ethanol on mediating both pathologic intra-acinar protease activation, a precursor to pancreatitis, as well as RYR Ca2+ signals. We hypothesized that ethanol sensitizes the acinar cell to protease activation by modulating RYR Ca2+. Acinar cells were freshly isolated from rat, pretreated with ethanol, and stimulated with the muscarinic agonist carbachol (1 μm). Ethanol caused a doubling in the carbachol-induced activation of the proteases trypsin and chymotrypsin (p < 0.02). The RYR inhibitor dantrolene abrogated the enhancement of trypsin and chymotrypsin activity by ethanol (p < 0.005 for both proteases). Further, ethanol accelerated the speed of the apical to basolateral Ca2+ wave from 9 to 18 μm/s (p < 0.0005; n = 18–22 cells/group); an increase in Ca2+ wave speed was also observed with a change from physiologic concentrations of carbachol (1 μm) to a supraphysiologic concentration (1 mm) that leads to protease activation. Dantrolene abrogated the ethanol-induced acceleration of wave speed (p < 0.05; n = 10–16 cells/group). Our results suggest that the enhancement of pathologic protease activation by ethanol is dependent on the RYR and that a novel mechanism for this enhancement may involve RYR-mediated acceleration of Ca2+ waves. PMID:21372126

  5. Expression of Bacillus protease (Protease BYA) from Bacillus sp. Y in Bacillus subtilis and enhancement of its specific activity by site-directed mutagenesis-improvement in productivity of detergent enzyme-.

    PubMed

    Tobe, Seiichi; Shimogaki, Hisao; Ohdera, Motoyasu; Asai, Yoshio; Oba, Kenkichi; Iwama, Masanori; Irie, Masachika

    2006-01-01

    An attempt was made to express protease BYA produced by an alkalophilic Bacillus sp. Y in Bacillus subtilis by gene engineering methods. The gene encoding protease BYA was cloned from Bacillus sp. Y, and expression vector pTA71 was constructed from the amylase promoter of Bacillus licheniformis, DNA fragments encoding the open reading frame of protease BYA, and pUB110. Protease BYA was secreted at an activity level of 5100 APU/ml in the common industrial culture medium of Bacillus subtilis transformed with pTA71. We then attempted to increase the specific activity of protease BYA by site-directed mutagenesis. Amino acid residue Ala29 next to catalytic Asp30 was replaced by one of three uncharged amino acid residues (Val29, Leu29, Ile29), and each mutant enzyme was expressed and isolated from the culture medium. Val29 mutant enzyme was secreted at an activity level of greater than 7000 APU/ml in culture medium, and its specific activity was 1.5-fold higher than that of the wild-type enzyme. Other mutant enzymes had specific activity similar to that of the original one and were less stabile than the wild-type enzyme. It can be thought that the substitution at amino acid residue 29 affects the level of activity and stability of protease BYA.

  6. Insecticidal activity of two proteases against Spodoptera frugiperda larvae infected with recombinant baculoviruses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Baculovirus comprise the largest group of insect viruses most studied worldwide, mainly because they efficiently kill agricutural insect pests. In this study, two recombinant baculoviruses containing the ScathL gene from Sarcophaga peregrina (vSynScathL), and the Keratinase gene from the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus (vSynKerat), were constructed. and their insecticidal properties analysed against Spodoptera frugiperda larvae. Results Bioassays of third-instar and neonate S. frugiperda larvae with vSynScathL and vSynKerat showed a decrease in the time needed to kill the infected insects when compared to the wild type virus. We have also shown that both recombinants were able to increase phenoloxidase activity in the hemolymph of S. frugiperda larvae. The expression of proteases in infected larvae resulted in destruction of internal tissues late in infection, which could be the reason for the increased viral speed of kill. Conclusions Baculoviruses and their recombinant forms constitute viable alternatives to chemical insecticides. Recombinant baculoviruses containing protease genes can be added to the list of engineered baculoviruses with great potential to be used in integrated pest management programs. PMID:20587066

  7. Host Plants Indirectly Influence Plant Virus Transmission by Altering Gut Cysteine Protease Activity of Aphid Vectors*

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Patricia V.; Ghanim, Murad; Rebelo, Ana Rita; Santos, Rogerio S.; Orsburn, Benjamin C.; Gray, Stewart

    2017-01-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, is a vector of the Potato leafroll virus (PLRV, Luteoviridae), transmitted exclusively by aphids in a circulative manner. PLRV transmission efficiency was significantly reduced when a clonal lineage of M. persicae was reared on turnip as compared with the weed physalis, and this was a transient effect caused by a host-switch response. A trend of higher PLRV titer in physalis-reared aphids as compared with turnip-reared aphids was observed at 24 h and 72 h after virus acquisition. The major difference in the proteomes of these aphids was the up-regulation of predicted lysosomal enzymes, in particular the cysteine protease cathepsin B (cathB), in aphids reared on turnip. The aphid midgut is the site of PLRV acquisition, and cathB and PLRV localization were starkly different in midguts of the aphids reared on the two host plants. In viruliferous aphids that were reared on turnip, there was near complete colocalization of cathB and PLRV at the cell membranes, which was not observed in physalis-reared aphids. Chemical inhibition of cathB restored the ability of aphids reared on turnip to transmit PLRV in a dose-dependent manner, showing that the increased activity of cathB and other cysteine proteases at the cell membrane indirectly decreased virus transmission by aphids. Understanding how the host plant influences virus transmission by aphids is critical for growers to manage the spread of virus among field crops. PMID:27932519

  8. Tumour necrosis factor α secretion induces protease activation and acinar cell necrosis in acute experimental pancreatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Sendler, Matthias; Dummer, Annegret; Weiss, Frank U; Krüger, Burkhard; Wartmann, Thomas; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; van Rooijen, Nico; Malla, Sudarshan Ravi; Aghdassi, Ali; Halangk, Walter; Lerch, Markus M; Mayerle, Julia

    2013-03-01

    Acute pancreatitis has long been considered a disorder of pancreatic self-digestion, in which intracellular activation of digestive proteases induces tissue injury. Chemokines, released from damaged pancreatic cells then attract inflammatory cells, whose systemic action ultimately determines the disease severity. In the present work the opposite mechanism is investigated; that is, whether and how inflammatory cells can activate intracellular proteases. Using mice either deficient for the CD18-α subunit of the membrane attack complex-1 (MAC-1) complex or tumour necrosis factor (TNF)α, as well as after depletion of leucocyte subpopulations, pancreatitis was induced by 7-hourly caerulein injections (50 μg/kg, intraperitoneally). Pancreatic acini were coincubated in vitro from wild-type and cathepsin-B-deficient animals with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-activated neutrophils and macrophages, caerulein or TNFα, and activities of trypsin, cathepsin-B and caspase-3 were measured, as well as necrosis using fluorogenic substrates. TNFα was inhibited with monospecific antibodies. Deletion of CD18 prevented transmigration of leucocytes into the pancreas during pancreatitis, greatly reduced disease severity and abolished digestive protease activation. Depletion of neutrophils and macrophages equally reduced premature trypsinogen activation and disease severity. In vitro activated neutrophils and macrophages directly induced premature protease activation and cell death in pancreatic acini and stimulation of acini with TNFα induced caspase-3 activation and necrosis via a cathepsin-B and calcium-dependent mechanism. Neutralising antibodies against TNFα and genetic deletion of TNFα prevented leucocyte-induced trypsin activity and necrosis in isolated acini. The soluble inflammatory cell mediator TNFα directly induces premature protease activation and necrosis in pancreatic acinar cells. This activation depends on calcium and cathepsin-B activity. The findings

  9. Assessing activity of Hepatitis A virus 3C protease using a cyclized luciferase-based biosensor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junwei; Wang, Dang; Xi, Yongqiang; Zhu, Xinyu; Yang, Yuting; Lv, Mengting; Luo, Chuanzhen; Chen, Jiyao; Ye, Xu; Fang, Liurong; Xiao, Shaobo

    2017-07-08

    Hepatitis A is an acute infection caused by Hepatitis A virus (HAV), which is widely distributed throughout the world. The HAV 3C cysteine protease (3C pro ), an important nonstructural protein, is responsible for most cleavage within the viral polyprotein and is critical for the processes of viral replication. Our group has previously demonstrated that HAV 3C pro cleaves human NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO), a kinase required in interferon signaling. Based on this finding, we generated four luciferase-based biosensors containing the NEMO sequence (PVLKAQ↓ADIYKA) that is cleaved by HAV 3C pro and/or the Nostoc punctiforme DnaE intein, to monitor the activity of HAV 3C pro in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293T). Western blotting showed that HAV 3C pro recognized and cleaved the NEMO cleavage sequence incorporated in the four biosensors, whereas only one cyclized luciferase-based biosensor (233-DnaE-HAV, 233DH) showed a measurable and reliable increase in firefly luciferase activity, with very low background, in the presence of HAV 3C pro . With this biosensor (233DH), we monitored HAV 3C pro activity in HEK-293T cells, and tested it against a catalytically deficient mutant HAV 3C pro and other virus-encoded proteases. The results showed that the activity of this luciferase biosensor is specifically dependent on HAV 3C pro . Collectively, our data demonstrate that the luciferase biosensor developed here might provide a rapid, sensitive, and efficient evaluation of HAV 3C pro activity, and should extend our better understanding of the biological relevance of HAV 3C pro . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Autocatalytic activity and substrate specificity of the pestivirus N-terminal protease N{sup pro}

    SciTech Connect

    Gottipati, Keerthi; Acholi, Sudheer; Ruggli, Nicolas

    Pestivirus N{sup pro} is the first protein translated in the viral polypeptide, and cleaves itself off co-translationally generating the N-terminus of the core protein. Once released, N{sup pro} blocks the host's interferon response by inducing degradation of interferon regulatory factor-3. N{sup pro'}s intracellular autocatalytic activity and lack of trans-activity have hampered in vitro cleavage studies to establish its substrate specificity and the roles of individual residues. We constructed N{sup pro}-GFP fusion proteins that carry the authentic cleavage site and determined the autoproteolytic activities of N{sup pro} proteins containing substitutions at the predicted catalytic sites Glu22 and Cys69, at Arg100 thatmore » forms a salt bridge with Glu22, and at the cleavage site Cys168. Contrary to previous reports, we show that N{sup pro'}s catalytic activity does not involve Glu22, which may instead be involved in protein stability. Furthermore, N{sup pro} does not have specificity for Cys168 at the cleavage site even though this residue is conserved throughout the pestivirus genus. - Highlights: • N{sup pro'}s autoproteolysis is studied using N{sup pro}-GFP fusion proteins. • N-terminal 17 amino acids are dispensable without loss of protease activity. • The putative catalytic residue Glu22 is not involved in protease catalysis. • No specificity for Cys168 at the cleavage site despite evolutionary conservation. • N{sup pro} prefers small amino acids with non-branched beta carbons at the P1 position.« less

  11. Structural basis for the ATP-independent proteolytic activity of LonB proteases and reclassification of their AAA+ modules.

    PubMed

    An, Young Jun; Na, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Myung-Il; Cha, Sun-Shin

    2015-10-01

    Lon proteases degrade defective or denature proteins as well as some folded proteins for the control of cellular protein quality. There are two types of Lon proteases, LonA and LonB. Each consists of two functional components: a protease component and an ATPase associated with various cellular activities (AAA+ module). Here, we report the 2.03 -resolution crystal structure of the isolated AAA+ module (iAAA+ module) of LonB from Thermococcus onnurineus NA1 (TonLonB). The iAAA+ module, having no bound nucleotide, adopts a conformation virtually identical to the ADP-bound conformation of AAA+ modules in the hexameric structure of TonLonB; this provides insights into the ATP-independent proteolytic activity observed in a LonB protease. Structural comparison of AAA+ modules between LonA and LonB revealed that the AAA+ modules of Lon proteases are separated into two distinct clades depending on their structural features. The AAA+ module of LonB belongs to the -H2 & Ins1 insert clade (HINS clade)- defined for the first time in this study, while the AAA+ module of LonA is a member of the HCLR clade.

  12. Jojoba seed meal proteins associated with proteolytic and protease inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Madan K; Peri, Irena; Smirnoff, Patricia; Birk, Yehudith; Golan-Goldhirsh, Avi

    2002-09-25

    The jojoba, Simmondsia chinensis, is a characteristic desert plant native to the Sonoran desert. The jojoba meal after oil extraction is rich in protein. The major jojoba proteins were albumins (79%) and globulins (21%), which have similar amino acid compositions and also showed a labile thrombin-inhibitory activity. SDS-PAGE showed two major proteins at 50 kDa and 25 kDa both in the albumins and in the globulins. The 25 kDa protein has trypsin- and chymotrypsin-inhibitory activities. In vitro digestibility of the globulins and albumins resembled that of casein and soybean protein concentrates and was increased after heat treatment. The increased digestibility achieved by boiling may be attributed to inactivation of the protease inhibitors and denaturation of proteins.

  13. Loss of second and sixth conserved cysteine residues from trypsin inhibitor-like cysteine-rich domain-type protease inhibitors in Bombyx mori may induce activity against microbial proteases.

    PubMed

    Li, Youshan; Liu, Huawei; Zhu, Rui; Xia, Qingyou; Zhao, Ping

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies have indicated that most trypsin inhibitor-like cysteine-rich domain (TIL)-type protease inhibitors, which contain a single TIL domain with ten conserved cysteines, inhibit cathepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, or elastase. Our recent findings suggest that Cys 2nd and Cys 6th were lost from the TIL domain of the fungal-resistance factors in Bombyx mori, BmSPI38 and BmSPI39, which inhibit microbial proteases and the germination of Beauveria bassiana conidia. To reveal the significance of these two missing cysteines in relation to the structure and function of TIL-type protease inhibitors in B. mori, cysteines were introduced at these two positions (D36 and L56 in BmSPI38, D38 and L58 in BmSPI39) by site-directed mutagenesis. The homology structure model of TIL domain of the wild-type and mutated form of BmSPI39 showed that two cysteine mutations may cause incorrect disulfide bond formation of B. mori TIL-type protease inhibitors. The results of Far-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectra indicated that both the wild-type and mutated form of BmSPI39 harbored predominantly random coil structures, and had slightly different secondary structure compositions. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis showed that cysteine mutations affected the multimerization states and electrophoretic mobility of BmSPI38 and BmSPI39. Activity staining and protease inhibition assays showed that the introduction of cysteine mutations dramaticly reduced the activity of inhibitors against microbial proteases, such as subtilisin A from Bacillus licheniformis, protease K from Engyodontium album, protease from Aspergillus melleus. We also systematically analyzed the key residue sites, which may greatly influence the specificity and potency of TIL-type protease inhibitors. We found that the two missing cysteines in B. mori TIL-type protease inhibitors might be crucial for their inhibitory activities against microbial proteases. The genetic engineering of TIL-type protease inhibitors may be

  14. Functional assembly of intrinsic coagulation proteases on monocytes and platelets. Comparison between cofactor activities induced by thrombin and factor Xa

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Generation of coagulation factor Xa by the intrinsic pathway protease complex is essential for normal activation of the coagulation cascade in vivo. Monocytes and platelets provide membrane sites for assembly of components of this protease complex, factors IXa and VIII. Under biologically relevant conditions, expression of functional activity by this complex is associated with activation of factor VIII to VIIIa. In the present studies, autocatalytic regulatory pathways operating on monocyte and platelet membranes were investigated by comparing the cofactor function of thrombin-activated factor VIII to that of factor Xa-activated factor VIII. Reciprocal functional titrations with purified human factor VIII and factor IXa were performed at fixed concentrations of human monocytes, CaCl2, factor X, and either factor IXa or factor VIII. Factor VIII was preactivated with either thrombin or factor Xa, and reactions were initiated by addition of factor X. Rates of factor X activation were measured using chromogenic substrate specific for factor Xa. The K1/2 values, i.e., concentration of factor VIIIa at which rates were half maximal, were 0.96 nM with thrombin- activated factor VIII and 1.1 nM with factor Xa-activated factor VIII. These values are close to factor VIII concentration in plasma. The Vsat, i.e., rates at saturating concentrations of factor VIII, were 33.3 and 13.6 nM factor Xa/min, respectively. The K1/2 and Vsat values obtained in titrations with factor IXa were not significantly different from those obtained with factor VIII. In titrations with factor X, the values of Michaelis-Menten coefficients (Km) were 31.7 nM with thrombin- activated factor VIII, and 14.2 nM with factor Xa-activated factor VIII. Maximal rates were 23.4 and 4.9 nM factor Xa/min, respectively. The apparent catalytic efficiency was similar with either form of factor VIIIa. Kinetic profiles obtained with platelets as a source of membrane were comparable to those obtained with monocytes

  15. Metal-Mediated Modulation of Streptococcal Cysteine Protease Activity and Its Biological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Chella Krishnan, Karthickeyan; Mukundan, Santhosh; Landero Figueroa, Julio A.; Caruso, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcal cysteine protease (SpeB), the major secreted protease produced by group A streptococcus (GAS), cleaves both host and bacterial proteins and contributes importantly to the pathogenesis of invasive GAS infections. Modulation of SpeB expression and/or its activity during invasive GAS infections has been shown to affect bacterial virulence and infection severity. Expression of SpeB is regulated by the GAS CovR-CovS two-component regulatory system, and we demonstrated that bacteria with mutations in the CovR-CovS two-component regulatory system are selected for during localized GAS infections and that these bacteria lack SpeB expression and exhibit a hypervirulent phenotype. Additionally, in a separate study, we showed that expression of SpeB can also be modulated by human transferrin- and/or lactoferrin-mediated iron chelation. Accordingly, the goal of this study was to investigate the possible roles of iron and other metals in modulating SpeB expression and/or activity in a manner that would potentiate bacterial virulence. Here, we report that the divalent metals zinc and copper inhibit SpeB activity at the posttranslational level. Utilizing online metal-binding site prediction servers, we identified two putative metal-binding sites in SpeB, one of which involves the catalytic-dyad residues 47Cys and 195His. Based on our findings, we propose that zinc and/or copper availability in the bacterial microenvironment can modulate the proteolytic activity of SpeB in a manner that preserves the integrity of several other virulence factors essential for bacterial survival and dissemination within the host and thereby may exacerbate the severity of invasive GAS infections. PMID:24799625

  16. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 is required for PAR-1 signalling in pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cong; von der Thüsen, Jan; Daalhuisen, Joost; ten Brink, Marieke; Crestani, Bruno; van der Poll, Tom; Borensztajn, Keren; Spek, C Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most devastating diffuse fibrosing lung disease of unknown aetiology. Compelling evidence suggests that both protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 and PAR-2 participate in the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Previous studies have shown that bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis is diminished in both PAR-1 and PAR-2 deficient mice. We thus have been suggested that combined inactivation of PAR-1 and PAR-2 would be more effective in blocking pulmonary fibrosis. Human and murine fibroblasts were stimulated with PAR-1 and PAR-2 agonists in the absence or presence of specific PAR-1 or PAR-2 antagonists after which fibrotic markers like collagen and smooth muscle actin were analysed by Western blot. Pulmonary fibrosis was induced by intranasal instillation of bleomycin into wild-type and PAR-2 deficient mice with or without a specific PAR-1 antagonist (P1pal-12). Fibrosis was assessed by hydroxyproline quantification and (immuno)histochemical analysis. We show that specific PAR-1 and/or PAR-2 activating proteases induce fibroblast migration, differentiation and extracellular matrix production. Interestingly, however, combined activation of PAR-1 and PAR-2 did not show any additive effects on these pro-fibrotic responses. Strikingly, PAR-2 deficiency as well as pharmacological PAR-1 inhibition reduced bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis to a similar extent. PAR-1 inhibition in PAR-2 deficient mice did not further diminish bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Finally, we show that the PAR-1-dependent pro-fibrotic responses are inhibited by the PAR-2 specific antagonist. Targeting PAR-1 and PAR-2 simultaneously is not superior to targeting either receptor alone in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. We postulate that the pro-fibrotic effects of PAR-1 require the presence of PAR-2. PMID:25689283

  17. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 is required for PAR-1 signalling in pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cong; von der Thüsen, Jan; Daalhuisen, Joost; ten Brink, Marieke; Crestani, Bruno; van der Poll, Tom; Borensztajn, Keren; Spek, C Arnold

    2015-06-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most devastating diffuse fibrosing lung disease of unknown aetiology. Compelling evidence suggests that both protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 and PAR-2 participate in the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Previous studies have shown that bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis is diminished in both PAR-1 and PAR-2 deficient mice. We thus have been suggested that combined inactivation of PAR-1 and PAR-2 would be more effective in blocking pulmonary fibrosis. Human and murine fibroblasts were stimulated with PAR-1 and PAR-2 agonists in the absence or presence of specific PAR-1 or PAR-2 antagonists after which fibrotic markers like collagen and smooth muscle actin were analysed by Western blot. Pulmonary fibrosis was induced by intranasal instillation of bleomycin into wild-type and PAR-2 deficient mice with or without a specific PAR-1 antagonist (P1pal-12). Fibrosis was assessed by hydroxyproline quantification and (immuno)histochemical analysis. We show that specific PAR-1 and/or PAR-2 activating proteases induce fibroblast migration, differentiation and extracellular matrix production. Interestingly, however, combined activation of PAR-1 and PAR-2 did not show any additive effects on these pro-fibrotic responses. Strikingly, PAR-2 deficiency as well as pharmacological PAR-1 inhibition reduced bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis to a similar extent. PAR-1 inhibition in PAR-2 deficient mice did not further diminish bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Finally, we show that the PAR-1-dependent pro-fibrotic responses are inhibited by the PAR-2 specific antagonist. Targeting PAR-1 and PAR-2 simultaneously is not superior to targeting either receptor alone in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. We postulate that the pro-fibrotic effects of PAR-1 require the presence of PAR-2. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  18. The Protease Activated Receptor2 Promotes Rab5a Mediated Generation of Pro-metastatic Microvesicles.

    PubMed

    Das, Kaushik; Prasad, Ramesh; Roy, Sreetama; Mukherjee, Ashis; Sen, Prosenjit

    2018-05-09

    Metastasis, the hallmark of cancer propagation is attributed by the modification of phenotypic/functional behavior of cells to break attachment and migrate to distant body parts. Cancer cell-secreted microvesicles (MVs) contribute immensely in disease propagation. These nano-vesicles, generated from plasma membrane outward budding are taken up by nearby healthy cells thereby inducing phenotypic alterations in those recipient cells. Protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2), activated by trypsin, also contributes to cancer progression by increasing metastasis, angiogenesis etc. Here, we report that PAR2 activation promotes pro-metastatic MVs generation from human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231. Rab5a, located at the plasma membrane plays vital roles in MVs biogenesis. We show that PAR2 stimulation promotes AKT phosphorylation which activates Rab5a by converting inactive Rab5a-GDP to active Rab5a-GTP. Active Rab5a polymerizes actin which critically regulates MVs shedding. Not only MVs generation, has this Rab5a activation also promoted cell migration and invasion. We reveal that Rab5a is over-expressed in human breast tumor specimen and contributes MVs generation in those patients. The involvement of p38 MAPK in MVs-induced cell metastasis has also been highlighted in the present study. Blockade of Rab5a activation can be a potential therapeutic approach to restrict MVs shedding and associated breast cancer metastasis.

  19. The story of an exceptional serine protease, tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA).

    PubMed

    Hébert, M; Lesept, F; Vivien, D; Macrez, R

    2016-03-01

    The only acute treatment of ischemic stroke approved by the health authorities is tissue recombinant plasminogen activator (tPA)-induced thrombolysis. Under physiological conditions, tPA, belonging to the serine protease family, is secreted by endothelial and brain cells (neurons, astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes). Although revascularisation induced by tPA is beneficial during a stroke, research over the past 20 years shows that tPA can also be deleterious for the brain parenchyma. Thus, in this review of the literature, after a brief history on the discovery of tPA, we reviewed current knowledge of mechanisms by which tPA can influence brain function in physiological and pathological conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Preparation, Characterization and Activity of a Peptide-Cellulosic Aerogel Protease Sensor from Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, J. Vincent; Fontenot, Krystal R.; Prevost, Nicolette T.; Pircher, Nicole; Liebner, Falk; Condon, Brian D.

    2016-01-01

    Nanocellulosic aerogels (NA) provide a lightweight biocompatible material with structural properties, like interconnected high porosity and specific surface area, suitable for biosensor design. We report here the preparation, characterization and activity of peptide-nanocellulose aerogels (PepNA) made from unprocessed cotton and designed with protease detection activity. Low-density cellulosic aerogels were prepared from greige cotton by employing calcium thiocyanate octahydrate/lithium chloride as a direct cellulose dissolving medium. Subsequent casting, coagulation, solvent exchange and supercritical carbon dioxide drying afforded homogeneous cellulose II aerogels of fibrous morphology. The cotton-based aerogel had a porosity of 99% largely dominated by mesopores (2–50 nm) and an internal surface of 163 m2·g−1. A fluorescent tripeptide-substrate (succinyl-alanine-proline-alanine-4-amino-7-methyl-coumarin) was tethered to NA by (1) esterification of cellulose C6 surface hydroxyl groups with glycidyl-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (FMOC), (2) deprotection and (3) coupling of the immobilized glycine with the tripeptide. Characterization of the NA and PepNA included techniques, such as elemental analysis, mass spectral analysis, attenuated total reflectance infrared imaging, nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy and bioactivity studies. The degree of substitution of the peptide analog attached to the anhydroglucose units of PepNA was 0.015. The findings from mass spectral analysis and attenuated total reflectance infrared imaging indicated that the peptide substrate was immobilized on to the surface of the NA. Nitrogen adsorption revealed a high specific surface area and a highly porous system, which supports the open porous structure observed from scanning electron microscopy images. Bioactivity studies of PepNA revealed a detection sensitivity of 0.13 units/milliliter for human neutrophil elastase, a diagnostic biomarker for inflammatory diseases. The

  1. Live-Cell Imaging of Protease Activity: Assays to Screen Therapeutic Approaches.

    PubMed

    Chalasani, Anita; Ji, Kyungmin; Sameni, Mansoureh; Mazumder, Samia H; Xu, Yong; Moin, Kamiar; Sloane, Bonnie F

    2017-01-01

    Methodologies to image and quantify the activity of proteolytic enzymes have been developed in an effort to identify protease-related druggable pathways that are involved in malignant progression of cancer. Our laboratory has pioneered techniques for functional live-cell imaging of protease activity in pathomimetic avatars for breast cancer. We analyze proteolysis in the context of proliferation and formation of structures by tumor cells in 3-D cultures over time (4D). In order to recapitulate the cellular composition and architecture of tumors in the pathomimetic avatars, we include other tumor-associated cells (e.g., fibroblasts, myoepithelial cells, microvascular endothelial cells). We also model noncellular aspects of the tumor microenvironment such as acidic pericellular pH. Use of pathomimetic avatars in concert with various types of imaging probes has allowed us to image, quantify, and follow the dynamics of proteolysis in the tumor microenvironment and to test interventions that impact directly or indirectly on proteolytic pathways. To facilitate use of the pathomimetic avatars for screening of therapeutic modalities, we have designed and fabricated custom 3D culture chambers with multiple wells that are either individual or connected by a channel to allow cells to migrate between wells. Optical glass microscope slides underneath an acrylic plate allow the cultures to be imaged with an inverted microscope. Fluid ports in the acrylic plate are at a level above the 3D cultures to allow introduction of culture media and test agents such as drugs into the wells and the harvesting of media conditioned by the cultures for immunochemical and biochemical analyses. We are using the pathomimetic avatars to identify druggable pathways, screen drug and natural product libraries and accelerate entry of validated drugs or natural products into clinical trials.

  2. Preparation, Characterization and Activity of a Peptide-Cellulosic Aerogel Protease Sensor from Cotton.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J Vincent; Fontenot, Krystal R; Prevost, Nicolette T; Pircher, Nicole; Liebner, Falk; Condon, Brian D

    2016-10-26

    Nanocellulosic aerogels (NA) provide a lightweight biocompatible material with structural properties, like interconnected high porosity and specific surface area, suitable for biosensor design. We report here the preparation, characterization and activity of peptide-nanocellulose aerogels (PepNA) made from unprocessed cotton and designed with protease detection activity. Low-density cellulosic aerogels were prepared from greige cotton by employing calcium thiocyanate octahydrate/lithium chloride as a direct cellulose dissolving medium. Subsequent casting, coagulation, solvent exchange and supercritical carbon dioxide drying afforded homogeneous cellulose II aerogels of fibrous morphology. The cotton-based aerogel had a porosity of 99% largely dominated by mesopores (2-50 nm) and an internal surface of 163 m²·g -1 . A fluorescent tripeptide-substrate (succinyl-alanine-proline-alanine-4-amino-7-methyl-coumarin) was tethered to NA by (1) esterification of cellulose C6 surface hydroxyl groups with glycidyl-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (FMOC), (2) deprotection and (3) coupling of the immobilized glycine with the tripeptide. Characterization of the NA and PepNA included techniques, such as elemental analysis, mass spectral analysis, attenuated total reflectance infrared imaging, nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy and bioactivity studies. The degree of substitution of the peptide analog attached to the anhydroglucose units of PepNA was 0.015. The findings from mass spectral analysis and attenuated total reflectance infrared imaging indicated that the peptide substrate was immobilized on to the surface of the NA. Nitrogen adsorption revealed a high specific surface area and a highly porous system, which supports the open porous structure observed from scanning electron microscopy images. Bioactivity studies of PepNA revealed a detection sensitivity of 0.13 units/milliliter for human neutrophil elastase, a diagnostic biomarker for inflammatory diseases. The

  3. Studies on activity, distribution, and zymogram of protease, α-amylase, and lipase in the paddlefish Polyodon spathula.

    PubMed

    Ji, H; Sun, H T; Xiong, D M

    2012-06-01

    A series of biochemical determination and electrophoretic observations have been conducted to analyze the activities and characteristics of protease, α-amylase, and lipase of paddlefish Polyodon spathula. The results obtained have been compared with those of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and hybrid sturgeon (Huso dauricus ♀ × Acipenser schrenki Brandt ♂), in order to increase available knowledge of the physiological characteristics of this sturgeon species and to gain information with regard to its nutrition. Further, a comparative study of enzymatic activity, distribution, and characterization between commercial feed-reared paddlefish (CG) and natural live food-reared (NG) paddlefish was conducted. Results showed that higher proteolytic activity was observed in the pH range 2.5-3.0 and at a pH of 7.0 for paddlefish. Levels of acid protease activity of paddlefish were similar to that of hybrid sturgeon, and significantly higher than that of bighead carp. The inhibition assay of paddlefish showed that the rate of inhibition of tosyl-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone was approximately 2.6-fold that of tosyl-lysine chloromethyl ketone. There was no significant difference observed for acid protease activity between PG and CG groups, whereas the activity of alkaline protease, α-amylase, and lipase in the PG group were significantly lower than those in the CG group. The substrate sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis further showed that there were certain types of enzymes, especially α-amylase, with similar molecular mass in the paddlefish and hybrid sturgeon. It can be inferred that acid digestion was main mechanism for protein hydrolysis in paddlefish, as reported for other fishes with a stomach. This indicates that the paddlefish requires higher alkaline protease, α-amylase, and lipase activity to digest natural live food.

  4. Methylene blue not ferrocene: Optimal reporters for electrochemical detection of protease activity.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, Eva; Avlonitis, Nicolaos; Murray, Alan F; Mount, Andrew R; Bradley, Mark

    2016-10-15

    Electrochemical peptide-based biosensors are attracting significant attention for the detection and analysis of proteins. Here we report the optimisation and evaluation of an electrochemical biosensor for the detection of protease activity using self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold surfaces, using trypsin as a model protease. The principle of detection was the specific proteolytic cleavage of redox-tagged peptides by trypsin, which causes the release of the redox reporter, resulting in a decrease of the peak current as measured by square wave voltammetry. A systematic enhancement of detection was achieved through optimisation of the properties of the redox-tagged peptide; this included for the first time a side-by-side study of the applicability of two of the most commonly applied redox reporters used for developing electrochemical biosensors, ferrocene and methylene blue, along with the effect of changing both the nature of the spacer and the composition of the SAM. Methylene blue-tagged peptides combined with a polyethylene-glycol (PEG) based spacer were shown to be the best platform for trypsin detection, leading to the highest fidelity signals (characterised by the highest sensitivity (signal gain) and a much more stable background than that registered when using ferrocene as a reporter). A ternary SAM (T-SAM) configuration, which included a PEG-based dithiol, minimised the non-specific adsorption of other proteins and was sensitive towards trypsin in the clinically relevant range, with a Limit of Detection (LoD) of 250pM. Kinetic analysis of the electrochemical response with time showed a good fit to a Michaelis-Menten surface cleavage model, enabling the extraction of values for kcat and KM. Fitting to this model enabled quantitative determination of the solution concentration of trypsin across the entire measurement range. Studies using an enzyme inhibitor and a range of real world possible interferents demonstrated a selective response to trypsin

  5. Effects of temperature and sodium chloride concentration on the activities of proteases and amylases in soy sauce koji.

    PubMed

    Su, Nan-Wei; Wang, Mei-Ling; Kwok, Kam-Fu; Lee, Min-Hsiung

    2005-03-09

    This study investigated the effects of temperature and sodium chloride concentration on the proteolytic and amylolytic activities of soy sauce koji. The optimal temperatures for both protease and amylase were found in the range of 50-55 degrees C. The protease was not stable at 55 degrees C and retained only approximately 20% residual activity after incubation at 55 degrees C for 4 h. The protease was labile in sodium chloride solution, whereas the amylase was quite stable. The residual protease activity in an 18% NaCl solution was only approximately 3%. The harvested koji was mixed with 1.5 volumes of water (v/w) and incubated at 45 degrees C for 48 h; the total nitrogen and amino nitrogen contents were 1.3 and 0.56%, respectively. The results indicated that the hydrolysis of koji at the critical temperature of 45 degrees C could be employed as a rapid fermentation method to reduce the time for soy sauce manufacturing. According to this study, the combination of 5% sodium chloride and fermentation at 45 degrees C was considered as the best condition for the prohydrolysis of koji for making soy sauce. In addition, the critical temperature of 45 degrees C was very important when used in the preparation of protein hydrolysates for the flavoring industry and for the preparation of biologically active peptides.

  6. In vitro antioxidant activity of rice protein affected by alkaline degree and gastrointestinal protease digestion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ye; Wang, Zhengxuan; Li, Hui; Liang, Mingcai; Yang, Lin

    2016-12-01

    To elucidate whether and how alkali treatment, which is a common process for rice protein (RP) extraction, affects antioxidant activity of RP, the different degree of alkali (from 0.1% to 0.4% of NaOH) was used to extract RP (RP-1, RP-2, RP-3, RP-4). The antioxidant capacities of scavenging free radicals [2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] diammonium salt, ABTS; 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH), chelating metals (iron, copper) and reducing power investigated in the hydrolysates of RPs (RP-1, RP-2, RP-3, RP-4) during in vitro pepsin-pancreatin digestion were effectively affected by alkali treatment. The present study demonstrated that the weakest antioxidant responses to ABTS radical-scavenging activity, DPPH radical-scavenging activity, iron chelating activity, copper chelating activity and reducing power were produced by RP-4 extracted by the highest alkali proportion (0.4% NaOH). The present study indicates that antioxidant capacity of RP could be more readily depressed by strict alkali degree and affected by gastrointestinal proteases. Results suggest that alkali extraction is a vital process to regulate the antioxidant activity of RP through modifying the compositions of amino acids, which are dependent on alkali magnitude. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Protease-activated receptor-2 stimulates intestinal epithelial chloride transport through activation of PLC and selective PKC isoforms.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, Jacques Q; Moreau, France; MacNaughton, Wallace K

    2009-06-01

    Serine proteases play important physiological roles through their activity at G protein-coupled protease-activated receptors (PARs). We examined the roles that specific phospholipase (PL) C and protein kinase (PK) C (PKC) isoforms play in the regulation of PAR(2)-stimulated chloride secretion in intestinal epithelial cells. Confluent SCBN epithelial monolayers were grown on Snapwell supports and mounted in modified Ussing chambers. Short-circuit current (I(sc)) responses to basolateral application of the selective PAR(2) activating peptide, SLIGRL-NH(2), were monitored as a measure of net electrogenic ion transport caused by PAR(2) activation. SLIGRL-NH(2) induced a transient I(sc) response that was significantly reduced by inhibitors of PLC (U73122), phosphoinositol-PLC (ET-18), phosphatidylcholine-PLC (D609), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K; LY294002). Immunoblot analysis revealed the phosphorylation of both PLCbeta and PLCgamma following PAR(2) activation. Pretreatment of the cells with inhibitors of PKC (GF 109203X), PKCalpha/betaI (Gö6976), and PKCdelta (rottlerin), but not PKCzeta (selective pseudosubstrate inhibitor), also attenuated this response. Cellular fractionation and immunoblot analysis, as well as confocal immunocytochemistry, revealed increases of PKCbetaI, PKCdelta, and PKCepsilon, but not PKCalpha or PKCzeta, in membrane fractions following PAR(2) activation. Pretreatment of the cells with U73122, ET-18, or D609 inhibited PKC activation. Inhibition of PI3K activity only prevented PKCdelta translocation. Immunoblots revealed that PAR(2) activation induced phosphorylation of both cRaf and ERK1/2 via PKCdelta. Inhibition of PKCbetaI and PI3K had only a partial effect on this response. We conclude that basolateral PAR(2)-induced chloride secretion involves activation of PKCbetaI and PKCdelta via a PLC-dependent mechanism resulting in the stimulation of cRaf and ERK1/2 signaling.

  8. Host Plants Indirectly Influence Plant Virus Transmission by Altering Gut Cysteine Protease Activity of Aphid Vectors.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Patricia V; Ghanim, Murad; Alexander, Mariko; Rebelo, Ana Rita; Santos, Rogerio S; Orsburn, Benjamin C; Gray, Stewart; Cilia, Michelle

    2017-04-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae , is a vector of the Potato leafroll virus (PLRV, Luteoviridae), transmitted exclusively by aphids in a circulative manner. PLRV transmission efficiency was significantly reduced when a clonal lineage of M. persicae was reared on turnip as compared with the weed physalis, and this was a transient effect caused by a host-switch response. A trend of higher PLRV titer in physalis-reared aphids as compared with turnip-reared aphids was observed at 24 h and 72 h after virus acquisition. The major difference in the proteomes of these aphids was the up-regulation of predicted lysosomal enzymes, in particular the cysteine protease cathepsin B (cathB), in aphids reared on turnip. The aphid midgut is the site of PLRV acquisition, and cathB and PLRV localization were starkly different in midguts of the aphids reared on the two host plants. In viruliferous aphids that were reared on turnip, there was near complete colocalization of cathB and PLRV at the cell membranes, which was not observed in physalis-reared aphids. Chemical inhibition of cathB restored the ability of aphids reared on turnip to transmit PLRV in a dose-dependent manner, showing that the increased activity of cathB and other cysteine proteases at the cell membrane indirectly decreased virus transmission by aphids. Understanding how the host plant influences virus transmission by aphids is critical for growers to manage the spread of virus among field crops. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. A Functional Interplay between Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease Residues 77 and 93 Involved in Differential Regulation of Precursor Autoprocessing and Mature Protease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Counts, Christopher J.; Ho, P. Shing; Donlin, Maureen J.; Tavis, John E.; Chen, Chaoping

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 protease (PR) is a viral enzyme vital to the production of infectious virions. It is initially synthesized as part of the Gag-Pol polyprotein precursor in the infected cell. The free mature PR is liberated as a result of precursor autoprocessing upon virion release. We previously described a model system to examine autoprocessing in transfected mammalian cells. Here, we report that a covariance analysis of miniprecursor (p6*-PR) sequences derived from drug naïve patients identified a series of amino acid pairs that vary together across independent viral isolates. These covariance pairs were used to build the first topology map of the miniprecursor that suggests high levels of interaction between the p6* peptide and the mature PR. Additionally, several PR-PR covariance pairs are located far from each other (>12 Å Cα to Cα) relative to their positions in the mature PR structure. Biochemical characterization of one such covariance pair (77–93) revealed that each residue shows distinct preference for one of three alkyl amino acids (V, I, and L) and that a polar or charged amino acid at either of these two positions abolishes precursor autoprocessing. The most commonly observed 77V is preferred by the most commonly observed 93I, but the 77I variant is preferred by other 93 variances (L, V, or M) in supporting precursor autoprocessing. Furthermore, the 77I93V covariant enhanced precursor autoprocessing and Gag polyprotein processing but decreased the mature PR activity. Therefore, both covariance and biochemical analyses support a functional association between residues 77 and 93, which are spatially distant from each other in the mature PR structure. Our data also suggests that these covariance pairs differentially regulate precursor autoprocessing and the mature protease activity. PMID:25893662

  10. Protease-activated receptor 2 modulates proliferation and invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Al-Eryani, Kamal; Cheng, Jun; Abé, Tatsuya; Maruyama, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Manabu; Babkair, Hamzah; Essa, Ahmed; Saku, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    Based on our previous finding that protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) regulates hemophagocytosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells, which induces their heme oxygenase 1-dependent keratinization, we have formulated a hypothesis that PAR-2 functions in wider activities of SCC cells. To confirm this hypothesis, we investigated immunohistochemical profiles of PAR-2 in oral SCC tissues and its functional roles in cell proliferation and invasion in SCC cells in culture. The PAR-2 expression modes were determined in 48 surgical tissue specimens of oral SCC. Using oral SCC-derived cell systems, we determined both gene and protein expression levels of PAR-2. SCC cell proliferation and invasive properties were also examined in conditions in which PAR-2 was activated by the synthetic peptide SLIGRL. PAR-2 was immunolocalized in oral SCC and carcinoma in situ cells, especially in those on the periphery of carcinoma cell foci (100% of cases), but not in normal oral epithelia. Its expression at both gene and protein levels was confirmed in 3 oral SCC cell lines including ZK-1. Activation of PAR-2 induced ZK-1 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. PAR-2-activated ZK-1 cells invaded faster than nonactivated ones. The expression of PAR-2 is specific to oral malignancies, and PAR-2 regulates the growth and invasion of oral SCC cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Actin and DNA Protect Histones from Degradation by Bacterial Proteases but Inhibit Their Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sol, Asaf; Skvirsky, Yaniv; Blotnick, Edna; Bachrach, Gilad; Muhlrad, Andras

    2016-01-01

    Histones are small polycationic proteins located in the cell nucleus. Together, DNA and histones are integral constituents of the nucleosomes. Upon apoptosis, necrosis, and infection – induced cell death, histones are released from the cell. The extracellular histones have strong antimicrobial activity but are also cytotoxic and thought as mediators of cell death in sepsis. The antimicrobial activity of the cationic extracellular histones is inhibited by the polyanionic DNA and F-actin, which also become extracellular upon cell death. DNA and F-actin protect histones from degradation by the proteases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Porphyromonas gingivalis. However, though the integrity of the histones is protected, the activity of histones as antibacterial agents is lost. The inhibition of the histone’s antibacterial activity and their protection from proteolysis by DNA and F-actin indicate a tight electrostatic interaction between the positively charged histones and negatively charged DNA and F-actin, which may have physiological significance in maintaining the equilibrium between the beneficial antimicrobial activity of extracellular histones and their cytotoxic effects. PMID:27555840

  12. Roles of CUB and LDL receptor class A domain repeats of a transmembrane serine protease matriptase in its zymogen activation

    PubMed Central

    Inouye, Kuniyo; Tomoishi, Marie; Yasumoto, Makoto; Miyake, Yuka; Kojima, Kenji; Tsuzuki, Satoshi; Fushiki, Tohru

    2013-01-01

    Matriptase is a type II transmembrane serine protease containing two complement proteases C1r/C1s–urchin embryonic growth factor–bone morphogenetic protein domains (CUB repeat) and four low-density lipoprotein receptor class A domains (LDLRA repeat). The single-chain zymogen of matriptase has been found to exhibit substantial protease activity, possibly causing its own activation (i.e. conversion to a disulfide-linked two-chain fully active form), although the activation seems to be mediated predominantly by two-chain molecules. Our aim was to assess the roles of CUB and LDLRA repeats in zymogen activation. Transient expression studies of soluble truncated constructs of recombinant matriptase in COS-1 cells showed that the CUB repeat had an inhibitory effect on zymogen activation, possibly because it facilitated the interaction of two-chain molecules with a matriptase inhibitor, hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type-1. By contrast, the LDLRA repeat had a promoting effect on zymogen activation. The effect of the LDLRA repeat seems to reflect its ability to increase zymogen activity. The proteolytic activities were higher in pseudozymogen forms of recombinant matriptase containing the LDLRA repeat than in a pseudozymogen without the repeat. Our findings provide new insights into the roles of these non-catalytic domains in the generation of active matriptase. PMID:23038671

  13. Bacillus subtilis Intramembrane Protease RasP Activity in Escherichia coli and In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Parrell, Daniel; Zhang, Yang; Olenic, Sandra; Kroos, Lee

    2017-10-01

    RasP is a predicted intramembrane metalloprotease of Bacillus subtilis that has been proposed to cleave the stress response anti-sigma factors RsiW and RsiV, the cell division protein FtsL, and remnant signal peptides within their transmembrane segments. To provide evidence for direct effects of RasP on putative substrates, we developed a heterologous coexpression system. Since expression of catalytically inactive RasP E21A inhibited expression of other membrane proteins in Escherichia coli , we added extra transmembrane segments to RasP E21A, which allowed accumulation of most other membrane proteins. A corresponding active version of RasP appeared to promiscuously cleave coexpressed membrane proteins, except those with a large periplasmic domain. However, stable cleavage products were not observed, even in clpP mutant E. coli Fusions of transmembrane segment-containing parts of FtsL and RsiW to E. coli maltose-binding protein (MBP) also resulted in proteins that appeared to be RasP substrates upon coexpression in E. coli , including FtsL with a full-length C-terminal domain (suggesting that prior cleavage by a site 1 protease is unnecessary) and RsiW designed to mimic the PrsW site 1 cleavage product (suggesting that further trimming by extracytoplasmic protease is unnecessary). Purified RasP cleaved His 6 -MBP-RsiW(73-118) in vitro within the RsiW transmembrane segment based on mass spectrometry analysis, demonstrating that RasP is an intramembrane protease. Surprisingly, purified RasP failed to cleave His 6 -MBP-FtsL(23-117). We propose that the lack of α-helix-breaking residues in the FtsL transmembrane segment creates a requirement for the membrane environment and/or an additional protein(s) in order for RasP to cleave FtsL. IMPORTANCE Intramembrane proteases govern important signaling pathways in nearly all organisms. In bacteria, they function in stress responses, cell division, pathogenesis, and other processes. Their membrane-associated substrates are

  14. Protease-activated receptor 2 agonist increases cell proliferation and invasion of human pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    XIE, LIQUN; DUAN, ZEXING; LIU, CAIJU; ZHENG, YANMIN; ZHOU, JING

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the expression of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) in the human pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990, and to evaluate its effect on cell proliferation and invasion. The expression of PAR-2 protein and mRNA in SW1990 cells was determined by immunocytochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. MTT and cell invasion and migration assays, as well as semi-quantitative PCR and zymography analysis, were additionally performed. PAR-2 mRNA was significantly upregulated in the cells treated with trypsin or the PAR-2 activating peptide Ser-Leu-Ile-Gly-Lys-Val (SLIGKV) (P<0.01), but not in the Val-Lys-Gly-Ile-Leu-Ser group (P>0.05). Trypsin and SLIGKV significantly promoted SW1990 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, trypsin and SLIGKV significantly increased the mRNA expression (P<0.01) and gelatinolytic activity (P<0.01) of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2. In conclusion, PAR-2 is expressed in SW1990 cells. PAR-2 activation may promote the invasion and migration of human pancreatic cancer cells by increasing MMP-2 expression. PMID:25452809

  15. Cyclic strain increases protease-activated receptor-1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, K. T.; Frye, S. R.; Eskin, S. G.; Patterson, C.; Runge, M. S.; McIntire, L. V.

    2001-01-01

    Cyclic strain regulates many vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) functions through changing gene expression. This study investigated the effects of cyclic strain on protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) expression in VSMCs and the possible signaling pathways involved, on the basis of the hypothesis that cyclic strain would enhance PAR-1 expression, reflecting increased thrombin activity. Uniaxial cyclic strain (1 Hz, 20%) of cells cultured on elastic membranes induced a 2-fold increase in both PAR-1 mRNA and protein levels. Functional activity of PAR-1, as assessed by cell proliferation in response to thrombin, was also increased by cyclic strain. In addition, treatment of cells with antioxidants or an NADPH oxidase inhibitor blocked strain-induced PAR-1 expression. Preincubation of cells with protein kinase inhibitors (staurosporine or Ro 31-8220) enhanced strain-increased PAR-1 expression, whereas inhibitors of NO synthase, tyrosine kinase, and mitogen-activated protein kinases had no effect. Cyclic strain in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor induced PAR-1 mRNA levels beyond the effect of cyclic strain alone, whereas no additive effect was observed between cyclic strain and platelet-derived growth factor-AB. Our findings that cyclic strain upregulates PAR-1 mRNA expression but that shear stress downregulates this gene in VSMCs provide an opportunity to elucidate signaling differences by which VSMCs respond to different mechanical forces.

  16. F99 is critical for dimerization and activation of South African HIV-1 subtype C protease.

    PubMed

    Naicker, Previn; Seele, Palesa; Dirr, Heini W; Sayed, Yasien

    2013-10-01

    HIV-1 protease (PR) is an obligate homodimer which plays a pivotal role in the maturation and hence propagation of HIV. Although successful developments on PR active site inhibitors have been achieved, the major limiting factor has been the emergence of HIV drug-resistant strains. Disruption of the dimer interface serves as an alternative mechanism to inactivate the enzyme. The terminal residue, F99, was mutated to an alanine to investigate its contribution to dimer stability in the South African HIV-1 subtype C (C-SA) PR. The F99A PR and wild-type C-SA PR were overexpressed and purified. The activities of the PRs and their ability to bind an active site inhibitor, acetyl-pepstatin, were determined in vitro. The F99A PR showed no activity and the inability to bind to the inhibitor. Secondary and quaternary structure analysis were performed and revealed that the F99A PR is monomeric with reduced β-sheet content. The mutation of F99 to alanine disrupted the presumed 'lock-and-key' motif at the terminal dimer interface, in turn creating a cavity at the N- and C-terminal antiparallel β-sheet. These findings support the design of inhibitors targeting the C-terminus of the C-SA PR, centered on interactions with the bulky F99.

  17. Structure-activity relationship study of peptidomimetic aldehydes as enterovirus 71 3C protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yangyang; Ma, Yuying; Ma, Fei; Nie, Quandeng; Ren, Xuejiao; Wang, Yaxin; Shang, Luqing; Yin, Zheng

    2016-11-29

    A series of peptidomimetic aldehydes were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their biochemical activity against 3C protease (3C pro ) and anti-enterovirus 71 (EV71) activity in vitro. Molecular docking revealed that 5s (IC 50  = 0.22 ± 0.07 μM, EC 50  = 0.18 ± 0.05 μM) could bind well to the active site of EV71 3C pro , which was consistent with the biological data compared to reference 5a (IC 50  = 0.54 ± 0.02 μM, EC 50  = 0.26 ± 0.07 μM). Structure and relationship study led to the discovery of aldehyde 5x (IC 50  = 0.10 ± 0.02 μM, EC 50  = 0.11 ± 0.07 μM), which exhibited the most potent 3C pro inhibitory and antiviral activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Protease Activities Triggered by Ralstonia solanacearum Infection in Susceptible and Tolerant Tomato Lines.

    PubMed

    Planas-Marquès, Marc; Bernardo-Faura, Martí; Paulus, Judith; Kaschani, Farnusch; Kaiser, Markus; Valls, Marc; van der Hoorn, Renier A L; Coll, Núria S

    2018-06-01

    Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is a powerful proteomic technique to display protein activities in a proteome. It is based on the use of small molecular probes that react with the active site of proteins in an activity-dependent manner. We used ABPP to dissect the protein activity changes that occur in the intercellular spaces of tolerant (Hawaii 7996) and susceptible (Marmande) tomato plants in response to R. solanacearum , the causing agent of bacterial wilt, one of the most destructive bacterial diseases in plants. The intercellular space -or apoplast- is the first battlefield where the plant faces R. solanacearum Here, we explore the possibility that the limited R. solanacearum colonization reported in the apoplast of tolerant tomato is partly determined by its active proteome. Our work reveals specific activation of papain-like cysteine proteases (PLCPs) and serine hydrolases (SHs) in the leaf apoplast of the tolerant tomato Hawaii 7996 on R. solanacearum infection. The P69 family members P69C and P69F, and an unannotated lipase (Solyc02g077110.2.1), were found to be post-translationally activated. In addition, protein network analysis showed that deeper changes in network topology take place in the susceptible tomato variety, suggesting that the tolerant cultivar might be more prepared to face R. solanacearum in its basal state. Altogether this work identifies significant changes in the activity of 4 PLCPs and 27 SHs in the tomato leaf apoplast in response to R. solanacearum , most of which are yet to be characterized. Our findings denote the importance of novel proteomic approaches such as ABPP to provide new insights on old and elusive questions regarding the molecular basis of resistance to R. solanacearum . © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Per a 10 activates human derived epithelial cell line in a protease dependent manner via PAR-2.

    PubMed

    Kale, Sagar L; Arora, Naveen

    2015-04-01

    Protease activity of Per a 10 has been shown to modulate dendritic cells toward Th-2 polarization and to induce airway inflammation. To elucidate the role of serine protease activity of Per a 10 in inducing biochemical responses in epithelial cells. Per a 10 was inactivated by heat treatment (ΔPer a 10) or AEBSF (iPer a 10). A549 cells were exposed to either enzymatically active/inactive Per a 10. The supernatant was analyzed for the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by ELISA. Ca(2+) mobilization was analyzed by flow cytometry. A PAR-2 derived synthetic peptide 28GTNRSSKGRSLIGKVDGTSHVTGKGVTC54 was incubated with Per a 10 and the resultant cleaved products were analyzed by LC-MS. PAR-2 activation was inhibited by PAR-2 cleavage inhibiting antibody. ΔPer a 10 was completely inactivated whereas iPer a 10 showed some residual activity. nPer a 10 having protease activity increased the secretion of IL-6, IL-8 and GMCSF from A549 in a dose and time dependent manner whereas iPer a 10 has reduced cytokine secretion. ΔPer a 10 and rPer a 10 were unable to activate the cells. nPer a 10 mobilized intracellular Ca(2+). nPer a 10 cleaved the PAR-2 derived peptide between arginine and serine residues (36R-S37) to expose PAR-2 ligand SLIGKV, as determined by LC-MS. Incubating with anti-PAR-2 cleavage antibody showed diminished cytokine secretion when treated with nPer a 10. Serine protease activity of Per a 10 activates A549 cells to secrete proinflammatory cytokines by PAR-2 activation and Ca(2+)mobilization and can be exploited therapeutically. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Activation of cell-surface proteases promotes necroptosis, inflammation and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhenyu; Zhang, Anling; Choksi, Swati; Li, Weihua; Li, Tao; Zhang, Xue-Min; Liu, Zheng-Gang

    2016-08-01

    Necroptosis is a programmed, caspase-independent cell death that is morphologically similar to necrosis. TNF-induced necroptosis is mediated by receptor-interacting protein kinases, RIP1 and RIP3, and the mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL). After being phosphorylated by RIP3, MLKL is translocated to the plasma membrane and mediates necroptosis. However, the execution of necroptosis and its role in inflammation and other cellular responses remain largely elusive. In this study, we report that MLKL-mediated activation of cell-surface proteases of the a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) family promotes necroptosis, inflammation and cell migration. ADAMs are specifically activated at the early stage of necroptosis when MLKL is phosphorylated and translocated to the cell plasma membrane. Activation of ADAMs induces ectodomain shedding of diverse cell-surface proteins including adhesion molecules, receptors, growth factors and cytokines. Importantly, the shedding of cell-surface proteins disrupts cell adhesion and accelerates necroptosis, while the soluble fragments of the cleaved proteins trigger the inflammatory responses. We also demonstrate that the shedding of E-cadherin ectodomain from necroptotic cells promotes cell migration. Thus, our study provides a novel mechanism of necroptosis-induced inflammation and new insights into the physiological and pathological functions of this unique form of cell death.

  1. Thrombin Receptors and Protease-Activated Receptor-2 in Human Placentation

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Peter J.; Koi, Hideki; Parry, Samuel; Brass, Lawrence F.; Strauss, Jerome F.; Wang, Li-Peng; Tomaszewski, John E.; Christenson, Lane K.

    2003-01-01

    Proteolysis of the thrombin receptor, protease activated receptor-1 (PAR1), may enhance normal and pathological cellular invasion, and indirect evidence suggests that activation of PAR1 expressed by invasive extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) influences human placentation. Here we describe PAR1, PAR2, and PAR3 protein distribution in the developing human placenta and implicate PAR1 and PAR2 activation in functions central to EVT invasion. PAR1, PAR2, and PAR3 are expressed in cultured 8- to 13-week-old EVTs, and in situ in 18- to 20-week-old placental syncytiotrophoblasts and invasive trophoblasts. Thrombin, but not the PAR2 agonist peptide SLIGKV, inhibited proliferation in cultured EVTs, although both agonists stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis and EVT invasion through Matrigel barriers. Thrombin-induced phosphoinositide hydrolysis was completely inhibited and the thrombin effect on proliferation was prevented when PAR1 cleavage was first blocked with specific monoclonal antibodies, indicating that PAR1 is the predominant thrombin receptor on EVTs. Together these results support a role for PAR1, and potentially PAR2 and PAR3 in the invasive phase of human placentation. PMID:14507634

  2. Effects of protease-activated receptor 1 inhibition on anxiety and fear following status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Bogovyk, Ruslan; Lunko, Oleksii; Fedoriuk, Mihail; Isaev, Dmytro; Krishtal, Oleg; Holmes, Gregory L; Isaeva, Elena

    2017-02-01

    Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of a variety of brain disorders associated with a risk of epilepsy development. Using the lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), we recently showed that inhibition of this receptor during the first ten days after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) results in substantial anti-epileptogenic and neuroprotective effects. As PAR1 is expressed in the central nervous system regions of importance for processing emotional reactions, including amygdala and hippocampus, and TLE is frequently associated with a chronic alteration of the functions of these regions, we tested the hypothesis that PAR1 inhibition could modulate emotionally driven behavioral responses of rats experiencing SE. We showed that SE induces a chronic decrease in the animals' anxiety-related behavior and an increase of locomotor activity. PAR1 inhibition after SE abolished the alteration of the anxiety level but does not affect the increase of locomotor activity in the open field and elevated plus maze tests. Moreover, while PAR1 inhibition produces an impairment of memory recall in the context fear conditioning paradigm in the control group, it substantially improves contextual and cued fear learning in rats experiencing SE. These data suggest that PAR1-dependent signaling is involved in the mechanisms underlying emotional disorders in epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Protease-Activated Receptor 4 (PAR4): A Promising Target for Antiplatelet Therapy.

    PubMed

    Rwibasira Rudinga, Gamariel; Khan, Ghulam Jilany; Kong, Yi

    2018-02-14

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are currently among the leading causes of death worldwide. Platelet aggregation is a key cellular component of arterial thrombi and major cause of CVDs. Protease-activated receptors (PARs), including PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, fall within a subfamily of seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Human platelets express PAR1 and PAR4, which contribute to the signaling transduction processes. In association with CVDs, PAR4 not only contributes to platelet activation but also is a modulator of cellular responses that serve as hallmarks of inflammation. Although several antiplatelet drugs are available on the market, they have many side effects that limit their use. Emerging evidence shows that PAR4 targeting is a safer strategy for preventing thrombosis and consequently may improve the overall cardiac safety profile. Our present review summarizes the PAR4 structural characteristics, activation mechanism, role in the pathophysiology of diseases and understanding the association of PAR4 targeting for improved cardiac protection. Conclusively, this review highlights the importance of PAR4 antagonists and its potential utility in different CVDs.

  4. Activation of cell-surface proteases promotes necroptosis, inflammation and cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhenyu; Zhang, Anling; Choksi, Swati; Li, Weihua; Li, Tao; Zhang, Xue-Min; Liu, Zheng-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Necroptosis is a programmed, caspase-independent cell death that is morphologically similar to necrosis. TNF-induced necroptosis is mediated by receptor-interacting protein kinases, RIP1 and RIP3, and the mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL). After being phosphorylated by RIP3, MLKL is translocated to the plasma membrane and mediates necroptosis. However, the execution of necroptosis and its role in inflammation and other cellular responses remain largely elusive. In this study, we report that MLKL-mediated activation of cell-surface proteases of the a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) family promotes necroptosis, inflammation and cell migration. ADAMs are specifically activated at the early stage of necroptosis when MLKL is phosphorylated and translocated to the cell plasma membrane. Activation of ADAMs induces ectodomain shedding of diverse cell-surface proteins including adhesion molecules, receptors, growth factors and cytokines. Importantly, the shedding of cell-surface proteins disrupts cell adhesion and accelerates necroptosis, while the soluble fragments of the cleaved proteins trigger the inflammatory responses. We also demonstrate that the shedding of E-cadherin ectodomain from necroptotic cells promotes cell migration. Thus, our study provides a novel mechanism of necroptosis-induced inflammation and new insights into the physiological and pathological functions of this unique form of cell death. PMID:27444869

  5. A study on trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. protease inhibitory activity in Cassia tora (L.) syn Senna tora (L.) Roxb. seed extract.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Vinayak R; Kumar, Shailendra; Garg, Satyendra K

    2011-07-12

    Proteases play an important role in virulence of many human, plant and insect pathogens. The proteinaceous protease inhibitors of plant origin have been reported widely from many plant species. The inhibitors may potentially be used for multiple therapeutic applications in viral, bacterial, fungal diseases and physiological disorders. In traditional Indian medicine system, Cassia tora (Senna tora) is reportedly effective in treatment of skin and gastrointestinal disorders. The present study explores the protease inhibitory activity of the above plant seeds against trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. proteases. The crushed seeds of Cassia tora were washed thoroughly with acetone and hexane for depigmentation and defatting. The proteins were fractionated by ammonium sulphate (0-30, 30-60, 60-90%) followed by dialysis and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The inhibitory potential of crude seed extract and most active dialyzed fraction against trypsin and proteases was established by spot test using unprocessed x-ray film and casein digestion methods, respectively. Electrophoretic analysis of most active fraction (30-60%) and SEC elutes were carried employing Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Gelatin SDS-PAGE. Inhibition of fungal spore germination was studied in the presence of dialyzed active inhibitor fraction. Standard deviation (SD) and ANOVA were employed as statistical tools. The crude seeds' extract displayed strong antitryptic, bacterial and fungal protease inhibitory activity on x-ray film. The seed protein fraction 30-60% was found most active for trypsin inhibition in caseinolytic assay (P < 0.001). The inhibition of caseinolytic activity of the proteases increased with increasing ratio of seed extract. The residual activity of trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. proteases remained only 4, 7 and 3.1%, respectively when proteases were incubated with 3 mg ml-1 seed protein extract for 60 min. The

  6. Lon protease affects the RdxA nitroreductase activity and metronidazole susceptibility in Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Tu, I-Fan; Liao, Jiahn-Haur; Yang, Feng-Ling; Lin, Nien-Tsung; Chan, Hong-Lin; Wu, Shih-Hsiung

    2014-10-01

    The lon gene of Helicobacter pylori strains is constitutively expressed during growth. However, virtually nothing is understood concerning the role of Lon in H. pylori. This study examined the function and physiological role of Lon in H. pylori (HpLon) using a trapping approach to identify putative Lon binding partners in the bacterium. Protease-deficient Lon was expressed and served as the bait in trapping approach to capture the interacting partners in H. pylori. The antibiotic susceptibility of wild-type and lon derivative mutants was determined by the E test trips and the disc diffusion assay. The effect of HpLon on RdxA activity was detected the change in NADPH oxidation and metronidazole reduction by spectrophotometer. Lon in Helicobacter pylori (HpLon) interacting partners are mostly associated with metronidazole activation. lon mutant presents more susceptible to metronidazole than that of the wild type, and this phenotype is recovered by complementation of the wild-type Lon. We found that the ATPases associated with a variety of cellular activities (AAA(+) ) module of HpLon causes a decrease in both NADPH oxidase and Mtz reductase activity in RdxA, a major Mtz-activating enzyme in H. pylori. Metronidazole resistance of H. pylori causes the serious medical problem worldwide. In this study, HpLon is involved in metronidazole susceptibility among H. pylori strains. We provide the evidence that HpLon alters RdxA activity in vitro. The decrease in metronidazole activation caused by HpLon is possibly prior to accumulate mutation in rdxA gene before the metronidazole-resistant strains to be occurred. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. OMP Peptides Activate the DegS Stress-Sensor Protease by a Relief of Inhibition Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, Jungsan; Grant, Robert A.; Sauer, Robert T.

    2010-03-19

    In the E. coli periplasm, C-terminal peptides of misfolded outer-membrane porins (OMPs) bind to the PDZ domains of the trimeric DegS protease, triggering cleavage of a transmembrane regulator and transcriptional activation of stress genes. We show that an active-site DegS mutation partially bypasses the requirement for peptide activation and acts synergistically with mutations that disrupt contacts between the protease and PDZ domains. Biochemical results support an allosteric model, in which these mutations, active-site modification, and peptide/substrate binding act in concert to stabilize proteolytically active DegS. Cocrystal structures of DegS in complex with different OMP peptides reveal activation of the proteasemore » domain with varied conformations of the PDZ domain and without specific contacts from the bound OMP peptide. Taken together, these results indicate that the binding of OMP peptides activates proteolysis principally by relieving inhibitory contacts between the PDZ domain and the protease domain of DegS.« less

  8. Purification and characterization of a serine protease (CPM-2) with fibrinolytic activity from the dung beetles.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Mi Young; Hahn, Bum-Soo; Ryu, Kang Sun; Hwang, Jae Sam; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2005-07-01

    Catharsius protease-2 (CPM-2) was isolated from the body of dung beetles, Catharsius molossus, using a three step purification process (ammonium sulfate fractionation, gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-60, and affinity chromatography on DEAE Affi-Gel blue). The purified CPM-2, having a molecular weight of 24 kDa, was assessed homogeneously by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of CPM-2 was composed of X Val Gln Asp Phe Val Glu Glu Ile Leu. CPM-2 was inactivated by Cu2+ and Zn2+ and strongly inhibited by typical serine proteinase inhibitors such as TLCK, soybean trypsin inhibitor, aprotinin, benzamidine, and alpha1-antitrypsin. However, EDTA, EGTA, cysteine, beta-mercaptoethanol, E64, and elastatinal had little effect on enzyme activity. In addition, antiplasmin and antithrombin III were not sensitive to CPM-2. Based on the results of a fibrinolytic activity test, CPM-2 readily cleaved Aalpha- and Bbeta-chains of fibrinogen and fibrin, and gamma-chain of fibrinogen more slowly. The nonspecific action of the enzyme resulted in extensive hydrolysis, releasing a variety of fibrinopeptides of fibrinogen and fibrin. Polyclonal antibodies of CPM-2 were reactive to the native form of antigen. The ELISA was applied to detect quantities, in nanograms, of the antigen in CPM-2 protein.

  9. Protease-Activated Receptor-2 Is Associated with Terminal Differentiation of Epidermis and Eccrine Sweat Glands

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yong-Sup; Kim, Hyung Won; Kim, Chang Deok; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Park, Jin Woon; Jung, Sunggyun; Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Ko, Young-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Background Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) participates in various biological activities, including the regulation of epidermal barrier homeostasis, inflammation, pain perception, and melanosome transfer in the skin. Objective To evaluate the basic physiological role of PAR-2 in skin. Methods We investigated PAR-2 expression in human epidermis, skin tumors, and cultured epidermal cells using western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. Additionally, we examined the effect of the PAR-2 agonist, SLIGRL-NH2, on cultured keratinocytes. Results Strong PAR-2 immunoreactivity was observed in the granular layer of normal human skin and the acrosyringium of the eccrine sweat glands. In contrast, weak PAR-2 immunoreactivity was seen in the granular layer of callused skin and in the duct and gland cells of the eccrine sweat glands. Interestingly, PAR-2 immunoreactivity was very weak or absent in the tumor cells of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and syringoma. PAR-2 was detected in primary keratinocytes and SV-40T-transformed human epidermal keratinocytes (SV-HEKs), an immortalized keratinocyte cell line, but not in SCC12 cells. SV-HEKs that were fully differentiated following calcium treatment displayed higher PAR-2 expression than undifferentiated SV-HEKs. Treatment of cultured SV-HEKs with PAR-2 agonist increased loricrin and filaggrin expression, a terminal differentiation marker. Conclusion Our data suggest that PAR-2 is associated with terminal differentiation of epidermis and eccrine sweat glands. PMID:26273149

  10. Protease-Activated Receptor-2 Is Associated with Terminal Differentiation of Epidermis and Eccrine Sweat Glands.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Sup; Kim, Hyung Won; Kim, Chang Deok; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Park, Jin Woon; Jung, Sunggyun; Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Ko, Young-Kwon; Lee, Young Ho

    2015-08-01

    Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) participates in various biological activities, including the regulation of epidermal barrier homeostasis, inflammation, pain perception, and melanosome transfer in the skin. To evaluate the basic physiological role of PAR-2 in skin. We investigated PAR-2 expression in human epidermis, skin tumors, and cultured epidermal cells using western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. Additionally, we examined the effect of the PAR-2 agonist, SLIGRL-NH2, on cultured keratinocytes. Strong PAR-2 immunoreactivity was observed in the granular layer of normal human skin and the acrosyringium of the eccrine sweat glands. In contrast, weak PAR-2 immunoreactivity was seen in the granular layer of callused skin and in the duct and gland cells of the eccrine sweat glands. Interestingly, PAR-2 immunoreactivity was very weak or absent in the tumor cells of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and syringoma. PAR-2 was detected in primary keratinocytes and SV-40T-transformed human epidermal keratinocytes (SV-HEKs), an immortalized keratinocyte cell line, but not in SCC12 cells. SV-HEKs that were fully differentiated following calcium treatment displayed higher PAR-2 expression than undifferentiated SV-HEKs. Treatment of cultured SV-HEKs with PAR-2 agonist increased loricrin and filaggrin expression, a terminal differentiation marker. Our data suggest that PAR-2 is associated with terminal differentiation of epidermis and eccrine sweat glands.

  11. Aeromonas sobria serine protease (ASP): a subtilisin family endopeptidase with multiple virulence activities.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Takahisa; Murakami, Yoji; Nitta, Hidetoshi

    2017-09-26

    Aeromonas sobria serine protease (ASP) is secreted from Aeromonas sobria, a pathogen causing gastroenteritis and sepsis. ASP resembles Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kex2, a member of the subtilisin family, and preferentially cleaves peptide bonds at the C-terminal side of paired basic amino acid residues; also accepting unpaired arginine at the P1 site. Unlike Kex2, however, ASP lacks an intramolecular chaperone N-terminal propeptide, instead utilizes the external chaperone ORF2 for proper folding, therefore, ASP and its homologues constitute a new subfamily in the subtilisin family. Through activation of the kallikrein/kinin system, ASP induces vascular leakage, and presumably causes edema and septic shock. ASP accelerates plasma clotting by α-thrombin generation from prothrombin, whereas it impairs plasma clottability by fibrinogen degradation, together bringing about blood coagulation disorder that occurs in disseminated intravascular coagulation, a major complication of sepsis. From complement C5 ASP liberates C5a that induces neutrophil recruitment and superoxide release, and mast cell degranulation, which are associated with pus formation, tissue injury and diarrhea, respectively. Nicked two-chain ASP also secreted from A. sobria is more resistant to inactivation by α2-macroglobulin than single-chain ASP, thereby raising virulence activities. Thus, ASP is a potent virulence factor and may participate in the pathogenesis of A. sobria infection.

  12. Thrombin enhances herpes simplex virus infection of cells involving protease-activated receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, M R; Friedman, H M; Pryzdial, E L G

    2007-05-01

    We have previously shown that the surface of purified herpes family viruses can initiate thrombin production by expressing host-encoded and virus-encoded procoagulant factors. These enable the virus to bypass the normal cell-regulated mechanisms for initiating coagulation, and provide a link between infection and vascular disease. In the current study we investigated why these viruses may have evolved to generate thrombin. Using cytolytic viral plaque assays, the current study examines the effect of thrombin on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) or human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) infection by purified herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) and type 2 (HSV2). Demonstrating that the availability of thrombin is an advantage to the virus, purified thrombin added to serum-free inoculation media resulted in up to a 3-fold enhancement of infection depending on the virus strain and cell type. The effect of thrombin on HUVEC infection was generally greater than its effect on HFF. To illustrate the involvement of thrombin produced during inoculation, hirudin was shown to inhibit the infection of each HSV strain, but only when serum containing clotting factors for thrombin production was present in media. The involvement of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) was supported using PAR1-activating peptides in place of thrombin and PAR1-specific antibodies to inhibit the effects of thrombin. These data show that HSV1 and HSV2 initiate thrombin production to increase the susceptibility of cells to infection through a mechanism involving PAR1-mediated cell modulation.

  13. Influence of hydrophobic mismatch on the catalytic activity of Escherichia coli GlpG rhomboid protease

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Alexander C Y; Harvey, Brandon G R; Metz, Jeff J; Goto, Natalie K

    2015-01-01

    Rhomboids comprise a broad family of intramembrane serine proteases that are found in a wide range of organisms and participate in a diverse array of biological processes. High-resolution structures of the catalytic transmembrane domain of the Escherichia coli GlpG rhomboid have provided numerous insights that help explain how hydrolytic cleavage can be achieved below the membrane surface. Key to this are observations that GlpG hydrophobic domain dimensions may not be sufficient to completely span the native lipid bilayer. This formed the basis for a model where hydrophobic mismatch Induces thinning of the local membrane environment to promote access to transmembrane substrates. However, hydrophobic mismatch also has the potential to alter the functional properties of the rhomboid, a possibility we explore in the current work. For this purpose, we purified the catalytic transmembrane domain of GlpG into phosphocholine or maltoside detergent micelles of varying alkyl chain lengths, and assessed proteolytic function with a model water-soluble substrate. Catalytic turnover numbers were found to depend on detergent alkyl chain length, with saturated chains containing 10–12 carbon atoms supporting maximal activity. Similar results were obtained in phospholipid bicelles, with no proteolytic activity being detected in longer-chain lipids. Although differences in thermal stability and GlpG oligomerization could not explain these activity differences, circular dichroism spectra suggest that mismatch gives rise to a small change in structure. Overall, these results demonstrate that hydrophobic mismatch can exert an inhibitory effect on rhomboid activity, with the potential for changes in local membrane environment to regulate activity in vivo. PMID:25307614

  14. Thermolysin damages animal life through degradation of plasma proteins enhanced by rapid cleavage of serpins and activation of proteases.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lulu; Lu, Anrui; Guan, Jingmin; Yang, Bing; Li, Muwang; Hillyer, Julián F; Ramarao, Nalini; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Liu, Chaoliang; Ling, Erjun

    2015-01-01

    Thermolysin, a metallopeptidase secreted by pathogenic microbes, is concluded as an important virulence factor due to cleaving purified host proteins in vitro. Using the silkworm Bombyx mori as a model system, we found that thermolysin injection into larvae induces the destruction of the coagulation response and the activation of hemolymph melanization, which results in larval death. Thermolysin triggers the rapid degradation of insect and mammalian plasma proteins at a level that is considerably greater than expected in vitro and/or in vivo. To more specifically explore the mechanism, thermolysin-induced changes to key proteins belonging to the insect melanization pathway were assessed as a window for observing plasma protein cleavage. The application of thermolysin induced the rapid cleavage of the melanization negative regulator serpin-3, but did not directly activate the melanization rate-limiting enzyme prophenoloxidase (PPO) or the terminal serine proteases responsible for PPO activation. Terminal serine proteases of melanization are activated indirectly after thermolysin exposure. We hypothesize that thermolysin induces the rapid degradation of serpins and the activation of proteases directly or indirectly, boosting uncontrolled plasma protein degradation in insects and mammalians. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Drug resistance conferred by mutations outside the active site through alterations in the dynamic and structural ensemble of HIV-1 protease.

    PubMed

    Ragland, Debra A; Nalivaika, Ellen A; Nalam, Madhavi N L; Prachanronarong, Kristina L; Cao, Hong; Bandaranayake, Rajintha M; Cai, Yufeng; Kurt-Yilmaz, Nese; Schiffer, Celia A

    2014-08-27

    HIV-1 protease inhibitors are part of the highly active antiretroviral therapy effectively used in the treatment of HIV infection and AIDS. Darunavir (DRV) is the most potent of these inhibitors, soliciting drug resistance only when a complex combination of mutations occur both inside and outside the protease active site. With few exceptions, the role of mutations outside the active site in conferring resistance remains largely elusive. Through a series of DRV-protease complex crystal structures, inhibition assays, and molecular dynamics simulations, we find that single and double site mutations outside the active site often associated with DRV resistance alter the structure and dynamic ensemble of HIV-1 protease active site. These alterations correlate with the observed inhibitor binding affinities for the mutants, and suggest a network hypothesis on how the effect of distal mutations are propagated to pivotal residues at the active site and may contribute to conferring drug resistance.

  16. Protease-Activated Receptor 4 Induces Bladder Pain through High Mobility Group Box-1

    PubMed Central

    Kouzoukas, Dimitrios E.; Ma, Fei; Meyer-Siegler, Katherine L.; Westlund, Karin N.; Hunt, David E.; Vera, Pedro L.

    2016-01-01

    Pain is the significant presenting symptom in Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome (IC/PBS). Activation of urothelial protease activated receptor 4 (PAR4) causes pain through release of urothelial macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). High Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB1), a chromatin-binding protein, mediates bladder pain (but not inflammation) in an experimental model (cyclophosphamide) of cystitis. To determine if PAR4-induced bladder hypersensitivity depends on HMGB1 downstream, we tested whether: 1) bladder PAR4 stimulation affected urothelial HMGB1 release; 2) blocking MIF inhibited urothelial HMGB1 release; and 3) blocking HMGB1 prevented PAR4-induced bladder hypersensitivity. HMGB1 release was examined in immortalized human urothelial cultures (UROtsa) exposed to PAR4-activating peptide (PAR4-AP; 100 μM; 2 hours) or scrambled control peptide. Female C57BL/6 mice, pretreated with a HMGB1 inhibitor (glycyrrhizin: 50 mg/kg; ip) or vehicle, received intravesical PAR4-AP or a control peptide (100 μM; 1 hour) to determine 1) HMGB1 levels at 1 hour in the intravesical fluid (released HMGB1) and urothelium, and 2) abdominal hypersensitivity to von Frey filament stimulation 24 hours later. We also tested mice pretreated with a MIF blocker (ISO-1: 20 mg/kg; ip) to determine whether MIF mediated PAR4-induced urothelial HMGB1 release. PAR4-AP triggered HMGB1 release from human (in vitro) and mice (in vivo) urothelial cells. Intravesical PAR4 activation elicited abdominal hypersensitivity in mice that was prevented by blocking HMGB1. MIF inhibition prevented PAR4-mediated HMGB1 release from mouse urothelium. Urothelial MIF and HGMB1 represent novel targets for therapeutic intervention in bladder pain conditions. PMID:27010488

  17. Apixaban Enhances Vasodilatation Mediated by Protease-Activated Receptor 2 in Isolated Rat Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Villari, Ambra; Giurdanella, Giovanni; Bucolo, Claudio; Drago, Filippo; Salomone, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    Apixaban (APX) is a direct inhibitor of factor X (FXa) approved for prophylaxis and treatment of deep venous thrombosis and atrial fibrillation. Because FXa activates protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) in endothelium and vascular smooth muscle, inhibition of FXa by APX may affect vasomotor function. The effect of APX was assessed in vitro, by wire myography, in rat mesenteric resistance arteries (MRAs) and basilar arteries challenged with vasoconstrictors [phenylephrine (PE); 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)], vasodilators [acetylcholine (ACh); sodium nitroprusside (SNP)] or with the PAR-2 peptide agonist SLIGRL. APX (10 μM) reduced the vasoconstriction to PE and 5-HT while did not change the vasodilatation to ACh or SNP. SLIGRL induced concentration-dependent vasodilation in pre-constricted arteries, that was reduced by incubation with the NO inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) and abolished by endothelium removal. APX enhanced vasodilation to SLIGRL either in the presence or in the absence of L-NNA, but was ineffective in endothelium-denuded vessels. In preparations from heparin-treated rats (to inhibit FXa) APX did not change the vasodilation to SLIGRL. FXa enzymatic activity, detected in mesentery homogenates from controls, was inhibited by APX, whereas APX-sensitive enzymatic activity was undetectable in homogenates from heparin-treated rats. Immunoblot analysis showed that incubation of MRA or aorta with APX increased the abundance of PAR-2, an effect not seen in MRA from heparin-treated rats or in endothelium-denuded aortas. In conclusion, inhibition of FXa by APX increases vasodilatation mediated by PAR-2. APX may act by inhibiting PAR-2 desensitization induced by endogenous FXa. This effect could be useful in the context of endothelial dysfunction associated to cardiovascular diseases. PMID:28769809

  18. PAR2 (Protease-Activated Receptor 2) Deficiency Attenuates Atherosclerosis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Jones, Shannon M; Mann, Adrien; Conrad, Kelsey; Saum, Keith; Hall, David E; McKinney, Lisa M; Robbins, Nathan; Thompson, Joel; Peairs, Abigail D; Camerer, Eric; Rayner, Katey J; Tranter, Michael; Mackman, Nigel; Owens, A Phillip

    2018-06-01

    PAR2 (protease-activated receptor 2)-dependent signaling results in augmented inflammation and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of PAR2 deficiency on the development of atherosclerosis. PAR2 mRNA and protein expression is increased in human carotid artery and mouse aortic arch atheroma versus control carotid and aortic arch arteries, respectively. To determine the effect of PAR2 deficiency on atherosclerosis, male and female low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient ( Ldlr -/- ) mice (8-12 weeks old) that were Par2 +/+ or Par2 -/- were fed a fat- and cholesterol-enriched diet for 12 or 24 weeks. PAR2 deficiency attenuated atherosclerosis in the aortic sinus and aortic root after 12 and 24 weeks. PAR2 deficiency did not alter total plasma cholesterol concentrations or lipoprotein distributions. Bone marrow transplantation showed that PAR2 on nonhematopoietic cells contributed to atherosclerosis. PAR2 deficiency significantly attenuated levels of the chemokines Ccl2 and Cxcl1 in the circulation and macrophage content in atherosclerotic lesions. Mechanistic studies using isolated primary vascular smooth muscle cells showed that PAR2 deficiency is associated with reduced Ccl2 and Cxcl1 mRNA expression and protein release into the supernatant resulting in less monocyte migration. Our results indicate that PAR2 deficiency is associated with attenuation of atherosclerosis and may reduce lesion progression by blunting Ccl2 - and Cxcl1 -induced monocyte infiltration. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Shear stress reduces protease activated receptor-1 expression in human endothelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, K. T.; Eskin, S. G.; Patterson, C.; Runge, M. S.; McIntire, L. V.

    2001-01-01

    Shear stress has been shown to regulate several genes involved in the thrombotic and proliferative functions of endothelial cells. Thrombin receptor (protease-activated receptor-1: PAR-1) increases at sites of vascular injury, which suggests an important role for PAR-1 in vascular diseases. However, the effect of shear stress on PAR-1 expression has not been previously studied. This work investigates effects of shear stress on PAR-1 gene expression in both human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs). Cells were exposed to different shear stresses using a parallel plate flow system. Northern blot and flow cytometry analysis showed that shear stress down-regulated PAR-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels in both HUVECs and HMECs but with different thresholds. Furthermore, shear-reduced PAR-1 mRNA was due to a decrease of transcription rate, not increased mRNA degradation. Postshear stress release of endothelin-1 in response to thrombin was reduced in HUVECs and HMECs. Moreover, inhibitors of potential signaling pathways applied during shear stress indicated mediation of the shear-decreased PAR-1 expression by protein kinases. In conclusion, shear stress exposure reduces PAR-1 gene expression in HMECs and HUVECs through a mechanism dependent in part on protein kinases, leading to altered endothelial cell functional responses to thrombin.

  20. Protease activated receptor 2 in diabetic nephropathy: a double edged sword

    PubMed Central

    Waasdorp, Maaike; Duitman, JanWillem; Florquin, Sandrine; Spek, Arnold C

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a major microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus, and the leading cause of end stage renal disease worldwide. The pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy is complex, making the development of novel treatments that stop or reverse the progression of microalbuminuria into end stage renal disease a challenge. Protease activated receptor (PAR)-2 has recently been shown to aggravate disease progression in diabetic nephropathy based upon which it was suggested that PAR-2 would be a potential target for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. To fully appreciate the translational potential of PAR-2 in diabetic nephropathy, we evaluated the effect of PAR-2 deficiency on the development of diabetic nephropathy in a streptozotocin-induced diabetes model characteristic of type 1 diabetes. Although diabetic PAR-2 deficient mice showed reduced albuminuria compared to diabetic wild type mice, an increase in mesangial expansion was evident in the PAR-2 deficient mice. No differences were observed in blood glucose levels, podocyte numbers or in glomerular vascular density. These results show that PAR-2 plays a dual role in the development of streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy and may thus not be the eagerly awaited novel target to combat diabetic nephropathy. Targeting PAR-2 should consequently only be pursued with great care in a clinical setting. PMID:29118913

  1. Pharmacological Targeting of Protease-Activated Receptor 2 Affords Protection from Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cong; von der Thüsen, Jan; Daalhuisen, Joost; ten Brink, Marieke; Crestani, Bruno; van der Poll, Tom; Borensztajn, Keren; Spek, C Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most devastating diffuse fibrosing lung disease that remains refractory to therapy. Despite increasing evidence that protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) contributes to fibrosis, its importance in pulmonary fibrosis is under debate. We addressed whether PAR-2 deficiency persistently reduces bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis or merely delays disease progression and whether pharmacological PAR-2 inhibition limits experimental pulmonary fibrosis. Bleomycin was instilled intranasally into wild-type or PAR-2–deficient mice in the presence/absence of a specific PAR-2 antagonist (P2pal-18S). Pulmonary fibrosis was consistently reduced in PAR-2–deficient mice throughout the fibrotic phase, as evident from reduced Ashcroft scores (29%) and hydroxyproline levels (26%) at d 28. Moreover, P2pal-18S inhibited PAR-2–induced profibrotic responses in both murine and primary human pulmonary fibroblasts (p < 0.05). Once daily treatment with P2pal-18S reduced the severity and extent of fibrotic lesions in lungs of bleomycin-treated wild-type mice but did not further reduce fibrosis in PAR-2–deficient mice. Importantly, P2pal-18S treatment starting even 7 d after the onset of fibrosis limits pulmonary fibrosis as effectively as when treatment was started together with bleomycin instillation. Overall, PAR-2 contributes to the progression of pulmonary fibrosis, and targeting PAR-2 may be a promising therapeutic strategy for treating pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:26147947

  2. A novel cell-based assay to measure activity of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus nsP2 protease

    SciTech Connect

    Campos-Gomez, Javier; Ahmad, Fahim; Rodriguez, Efrain

    2016-09-15

    The encephalitic alphaviruses encode nsP2 protease (nsP2pro), which because of its vital role in virus replication, represents an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. To facilitate the discovery of nsP2 inhibitors we have developed a novel assay for quantitative measurement of nsP2pro activity in a cell-based format. The assay is based on a substrate fusion protein consisting of eGFP and Gaussia luciferase (Gluc) linked together by a small peptide containing a VEEV nsp2pro cleavage sequence. The expression of the substrate protein in cells along with recombinant nsP2pro results in cleavage of the substrate protein resulting in extracellular release of free Gluc.more » The Gluc activity in supernatants corresponds to intracellular nsP2pro-mediated substrate cleavage; thus, providing a simple and convenient way to quantify nsP2pro activity. Here, we demonstrate potential utility of the assay in identification of nsP2pro inhibitors, as well as in investigations related to molecular characterization of nsP2pro. - Highlights: • A novel cell-based assay to measure VEEV nsP2 protease activity was developed. • Assay utility was demonstrated for antiviral screening. • .The assay also proved to be useful in basic mechanistic studies of nsP2 protease.« less

  3. Diversity of proteolytic microbes isolated from Antarctic freshwater lakes and characteristics of their cold-active proteases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Mihoko; Kawamata, Akinori; Kosugi, Makiko; Imura, Satoshi; Kurosawa, Norio

    2017-09-01

    Despite being an extreme environment, the water temperature of freshwater lakes in Antarctica reaches 10 °C in summer, accelerating biological activity. In these environments, proteolytic microbial decomposers may play a large role in protein hydrolysis. We isolated 71 microbial strains showing proteolytic activity at 4 °C from three Antarctic freshwater lakes. They were classified as bacteria (63 isolates) and eukaryotes (8 isolates). The bacterial isolates were classified into the genera Flavobacterium (28 isolates), Pseudomonas (14 isolates), Arthrobacter (10 isolates), Psychrobacter (7 isolates), Cryobacterium (2 isolates), Hymenobacter (1 isolate), and Polaromonas (1 isolate). Five isolates of Flavobacterium and one of Hymenobacter seemed to belong to novel species. All eukaryotic isolates belonged to Glaciozyma antarctica, a psychrophilic yeast species originally isolated from the Weddell Sea near the Joinville Island, Antarctica. A half of representative strains were psychrophilic and did not grow at temperatures above 25 °C. The protease secreted by Pseudomonas prosekii strain ANS4-1 showed the highest activity among all proteases from representative isolates. The results of inhibitor tests indicated that nearly all the isolates secreted metalloproteases. Proteases from four representative isolates retained more than 30% maximal activity at 0 °C. These results expand our knowledge about microbial protein degradation in Antarctic freshwater lakes.

  4. Occurrence and Evolution of the Paralogous Zinc Metalloproteases IgA1 Protease, ZmpB, ZmpC, and ZmpD in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Related Commensal Species

    PubMed Central

    Bek-Thomsen, Malene; Poulsen, Knud; Kilian, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The distribution, genome location, and evolution of the four paralogous zinc metalloproteases, IgA1 protease, ZmpB, ZmpC, and ZmpD, in Streptococcus pneumoniae and related commensal species were studied by in silico analysis of whole genomes and by activity screening of 154 representatives of 20 species. ZmpB was ubiquitous in the Mitis and Salivarius groups of the genus Streptococcus and in the genera Gemella and Granulicatella, with the exception of a fragmented gene in Streptococcus thermophilus, the only species with a nonhuman habitat. IgA1 protease activity was observed in all members of S. pneumoniae, S. pseudopneumoniae, S. oralis, S. sanguinis, and Gemella haemolysans, was variably present in S. mitis and S. infantis, and absent in S. gordonii, S. parasanguinis, S. cristatus, S. oligofermentans, S. australis, S. peroris, and S. suis. Phylogenetic analysis of 297 zmp sequences and representative housekeeping genes provided evidence for an unprecedented selection for genetic diversification of the iga, zmpB, and zmpD genes in S. pneumoniae and evidence of very frequent intraspecies transfer of entire genes and combination of genes. Presumably due to their adaptation to a commensal lifestyle, largely unaffected by adaptive mucosal immune factors, the corresponding genes in commensal streptococci have remained conserved. The widespread distribution and significant sequence diversity indicate an ancient origin of the zinc metalloproteases predating the emergence of the humanoid species. zmpB, which appears to be the ancestral gene, subsequently duplicated and successfully diversified into distinct functions, is likely to serve an important but yet unknown housekeeping function associated with the human host. PMID:23033471

  5. Quantitation of fibroblast activation protein (FAP)-specific protease activity in mouse, baboon and human fluids and organs.

    PubMed

    Keane, Fiona M; Yao, Tsun-Wen; Seelk, Stefanie; Gall, Margaret G; Chowdhury, Sumaiya; Poplawski, Sarah E; Lai, Jack H; Li, Youhua; Wu, Wengen; Farrell, Penny; Vieira de Ribeiro, Ana Julia; Osborne, Brenna; Yu, Denise M T; Seth, Devanshi; Rahman, Khairunnessa; Haber, Paul; Topaloglu, A Kemal; Wang, Chuanmin; Thomson, Sally; Hennessy, Annemarie; Prins, John; Twigg, Stephen M; McLennan, Susan V; McCaughan, Geoffrey W; Bachovchin, William W; Gorrell, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    The protease fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is a specific marker of activated mesenchymal cells in tumour stroma and fibrotic liver. A specific, reliable FAP enzyme assay has been lacking. FAP's unique and restricted cleavage of the post proline bond was exploited to generate a new specific substrate to quantify FAP enzyme activity. This sensitive assay detected no FAP activity in any tissue or fluid of FAP gene knockout mice, thus confirming assay specificity. Circulating FAP activity was ∼20- and 1.3-fold less in baboon than in mouse and human plasma, respectively. Serum and plasma contained comparable FAP activity. In mice, the highest levels of FAP activity were in uterus, pancreas, submaxillary gland and skin, whereas the lowest levels were in brain, prostate, leukocytes and testis. Baboon organs high in FAP activity included skin, epididymis, bladder, colon, adipose tissue, nerve and tongue. FAP activity was greatly elevated in tumours and associated lymph nodes and in fungal-infected skin of unhealthy baboons. FAP activity was 14- to 18-fold greater in cirrhotic than in non-diseased human liver, and circulating FAP activity was almost doubled in alcoholic cirrhosis. Parallel DPP4 measurements concorded with the literature, except for the novel finding of high DPP4 activity in bile. The new FAP enzyme assay is the first to be thoroughly characterised and shows that FAP activity is measurable in most organs and at high levels in some. This new assay is a robust tool for specific quantitation of FAP enzyme activity in both preclinical and clinical samples, particularly liver fibrosis.

  6. Quantitation of fibroblast activation protein (FAP)-specific protease activity in mouse, baboon and human fluids and organs☆

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Fiona M.; Yao, Tsun-Wen; Seelk, Stefanie; Gall, Margaret G.; Chowdhury, Sumaiya; Poplawski, Sarah E.; Lai, Jack H.; Li, Youhua; Wu, Wengen; Farrell, Penny; Vieira de Ribeiro, Ana Julia; Osborne, Brenna; Yu, Denise M.T.; Seth, Devanshi; Rahman, Khairunnessa; Haber, Paul; Topaloglu, A. Kemal; Wang, Chuanmin; Thomson, Sally; Hennessy, Annemarie; Prins, John; Twigg, Stephen M.; McLennan, Susan V.; McCaughan, Geoffrey W.; Bachovchin, William W.; Gorrell, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    The protease fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is a specific marker of activated mesenchymal cells in tumour stroma and fibrotic liver. A specific, reliable FAP enzyme assay has been lacking. FAP's unique and restricted cleavage of the post proline bond was exploited to generate a new specific substrate to quantify FAP enzyme activity. This sensitive assay detected no FAP activity in any tissue or fluid of FAP gene knockout mice, thus confirming assay specificity. Circulating FAP activity was ∼20- and 1.3-fold less in baboon than in mouse and human plasma, respectively. Serum and plasma contained comparable FAP activity. In mice, the highest levels of FAP activity were in uterus, pancreas, submaxillary gland and skin, whereas the lowest levels were in brain, prostate, leukocytes and testis. Baboon organs high in FAP activity included skin, epididymis, bladder, colon, adipose tissue, nerve and tongue. FAP activity was greatly elevated in tumours and associated lymph nodes and in fungal-infected skin of unhealthy baboons. FAP activity was 14- to 18-fold greater in cirrhotic than in non-diseased human liver, and circulating FAP activity was almost doubled in alcoholic cirrhosis. Parallel DPP4 measurements concorded with the literature, except for the novel finding of high DPP4 activity in bile. The new FAP enzyme assay is the first to be thoroughly characterised and shows that FAP activity is measurable in most organs and at high levels in some. This new assay is a robust tool for specific quantitation of FAP enzyme activity in both preclinical and clinical samples, particularly liver fibrosis. PMID:24371721

  7. A protease-resistant Escherichia coli asparaginase with outstanding stability and enhanced anti-leukaemic activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Maristella; Mittelman, Steven D; Parmentier, Jean Hugues; Colombo, Giorgio; Meli, Massimiliano; Whitmire, Jeannette Marie; Merrell, D Scott; Whitelegge, Julian; Scotti, Claudia

    2017-11-03

    L-Asparaginases (ASNases) have been used as first line drugs for paediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL) treatment for more than 40 years. Both the Escherichia coli (EcAII) and Erwinia chrysanthemi (ErAII) type II ASNases currently used in the clinics are characterized by high in vivo instability, short half-life and the requirement of several administrations to obtain a pharmacologically active concentration. Moreover, they are sensitive to proteases (cathepsin B and asparagine endopeptidase) that are over-expressed by resistant leukaemia lymphoblasts, thereby impairing drug activity and pharmacokinetics. Herein, we present the biochemical, structural and in vitro antiproliferative characterization of a new EcAII variant, N24S. The mutant shows completely preserved asparaginase and glutaminase activities, long-term storage stability, improved thermal parameters, and outstanding resistance to proteases derived from leukaemia cells. Structural analysis demonstrates a modification in the hydrogen bond network related to residue 24, while Normal Mode-based geometric Simulation and Molecular Dynamics predict a general rigidification of the monomer as compared to wild-type. These improved features render N24S a potential alternative treatment to reduce the number of drug administrations in vivo and to successfully address one of the major current challenges of ALL treatment: spontaneous, protease-dependent and immunological inactivation of ASNase.

  8. Structural Insights into the Protease-like Antigen Plasmodium falciparum SERA5 and Its Noncanonical Active-Site Serine

    SciTech Connect

    Hodder, Anthony N.; Malby, Robyn L.; Clarke, Oliver B.

    The sera genes of the malaria-causing parasite Plasmodium encode a family of unique proteins that are maximally expressed at the time of egress of parasites from infected red blood cells. These multi-domain proteins are unique, containing a central papain-like cysteine-protease fragment enclosed between the disulfide-linked N- and C-terminal domains. However, the central fragment of several members of this family, including serine repeat antigen 5 (SERA5), contains a serine (S596) in place of the active-site cysteine. Here we report the crystal structure of the central protease-like domain of Plasmodium falciparum SERA5, revealing a number of anomalies in addition to the putativemore » nucleophilic serine: (1) the structure of the putative active site is not conducive to binding substrate in the canonical cysteine-protease manner; (2) the side chain of D594 restricts access of substrate to the putative active site; and (3) the S{sub 2} specificity pocket is occupied by the side chain of Y735, reducing this site to a small depression on the protein surface. Attempts to determine the structure in complex with known inhibitors were not successful. Thus, despite having revealed its structure, the function of the catalytic domain of SERA5 remains an enigma.« less

  9. Protease Activated Receptor-2 Mediates Activated Protein C–Induced Cutaneous Wound Healing via Inhibition of p38

    PubMed Central

    Julovi, Sohel M.; Xue, Meilang; Dervish, Suat; Sambrook, Philip N.; March, Lyn; Jackson, Christopher John

    2011-01-01

    Activated protein C (APC) is a natural anticoagulant that exerts anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective properties mediated through the protease activated receptor (PAR)-1. APC can also proteolytically cleave PAR-2, although subsequent function is unknown. On the basis of recent evidence that APC promotes wound healing, the aim of this study was to determine whether APC acts through PARs to heal murine excisional wounds or to regulate human cultured keratinocyte function and to determine the signaling mechanisms. Topical administration of APC accelerated wound healing in wild-type mice and, unexpectedly, in PAR-1 knockout mice. PAR-2 knockout mice healed significantly slower than wild-type mice, and healing was not altered by adding APC, indicating that APC acts through PAR-2 to heal wounds. In cultured human primary keratinocytes, APC enhanced PAR-2, stimulated proliferation, activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Src/Akt, and inhibited phosphorylated (P)-p38. Inhibiting PAR-1 or PAR-2, by small-interfering RNA or blocking antibody, reversed APC-induced keratinocyte proliferation and Akt activation. Blocking PAR-2, but not PAR-1, reversed the inhibition of P-p38 by APC. Furthermore, inhibition of P-p38 accelerated wound healing in wild-type mice. In summary, although APC acts through both PAR-1 and PAR-2 to activate Akt and to increase keratinocyte proliferation, APC-induced murine wound healing depends on PAR-2 activity and inhibition of P-p38. PMID:21907694

  10. Protease Activated Receptor-2 Expression and Function in Asthmatic Bronchial Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Guillaume; Carvalho, Gabrielle; Trian, Thomas; Ozier, Annaig; Gillibert-Duplantier, Jennifer; Ousova, Olga; Maurat, Elise; Thumerel, Matthieu; Quignard, Jean-François; Girodet, Pierre-Olivier; Marthan, Roger; Berger, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Asthmatic bronchial smooth muscle (BSM) is characterized by structural remodeling associated with mast cell infiltration displaying features of chronic degranulation. Mast cell-derived tryptase can activate protease activated receptor type-2 (PAR-2) of BSM cells. The aims of the present study were (i) to evaluate the expression of PAR-2 in both asthmatic and non asthmatic BSM cells and, (ii) to analyze the effect of prolonged stimulation of PAR-2 in asthmatic BSM cells on cell signaling and proliferation. BSM cells were obtained from both 33 control subjects and 22 asthmatic patients. PAR-2 expression was assessed by flow cytometry, western blot and quantitative RT-PCR. Calcium response, transduction pathways and proliferation were evaluated before and following PAR-2 stimulation by SLIGKV-NH2 or trypsin for 1 to 3 days. Asthmatic BSM cells expressed higher basal levels of functional PAR-2 compared to controls in terms of mRNA, protein expression and calcium response. When PAR-2 expression was increased by means of lentivirus in control BSM cells to a level similar to that of asthmatic cells, PAR-2-induced calcium response was then similar in both types of cell. However, repeated PAR-2 stimulations increased the proliferation of asthmatic BSM cells but not that of control BSM cells even following lentiviral over-expression of PAR-2. Such an increased proliferation was related to an increased phosphorylation of ERK in asthmatic BSM cells. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that asthmatic BSM cells express increased baseline levels of functional PAR-2. This higher basal level of PAR-2 accounts for the increased calcium response to PAR-2 stimulation, whereas the increased proliferation to repeated PAR-2 stimulation is related to increased ERK phosphorylation. PMID:24551046

  11. Macelignan inhibits melanosome transfer mediated by protease-activated receptor-2 in keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Jung; Kang, Young-Gyu; Kim, Jaekyung; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    Skin pigmentation is the result of melanosome transfer from melanocytes to keratinocytes. Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is a key mediator of melanosome transfer, which occurs as the melanocyte extends its dendrite toward surrounding keratinocytes that take up melanosomes by phagocytosis. We investigated the effects of macelignan isolated from Myristica fragrans HOUTT. (nutmeg) on melanosome transfer and the regulation of PAR-2 in human keratinocytes (HaCaT). HaCaT cells stimulated by the PAR-2-activating peptide Ser-Leu-Ile-Gly-Arg-Leu-NH₂ (SLIGRL) were treated with macelignan; PAR-2 expression was then determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot, and immunocytochemistry. We evaluated the effects of macelignan on calcium mobilization and keratinocyte phagocytosis. In addition, B16F10 melanoma cells and keratinocytes were co-cultured to assess the effects of macelignan on prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) secretion and subsequent dendrite formation. Macelignan decreased HaCaT PAR-2 mRNA and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, macelignan markedly reduced intracellular calcium mobilization and significantly downregulated keratinocyte phagocytosis, as shown by decreased ingestion of Escherichia coli bioparticles and fluorescent microspheres. In co-culture experiments, macelignan reduced keratinocyte PGE₂ secretion, thereby preventing dendrite formation in B16F10 melanoma cells compared with SLIGRL-treated controls. Macelignan inhibits melanosome transfer by downregulating PAR-2, thereby reducing keratinocyte phagocytosis and PGE₂ secretion, which in turn inhibits dendrite formation in B16F10 melanoma cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that macelignan could be used as a natural depigmenting agent to ameliorate hyperpigmentation.

  12. Quantification of Pelvic Organ Prolapse in Mice: Vaginal Protease Activity Precedes Increased MOPQ Scores in Fibulin 5 Knockout Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Wieslander, Cecilia K.; Rahn, David D.; McIntire, Donald D.; Acevedo, Jesús F.; Drewes, Peter G.; Yanagisawa, Hiromi; Word, R. Ann

    2008-01-01

    Two mouse models of pelvic organ prolapse have been generated recently, both of which have null mutations in genes involved in elastic fiber synthesis and assembly (fibulin 5 and lysyl oxidase-like 1). Interestingly, although these mice exhibit elastinopathies early in life, pelvic organ prolapse does not develop until later in life. In this investigation we developed and validated a tool to quantify the severity of pelvic organ prolapse in mice, and we used this tool prospectively to study the role of fibulin 5, aging, and vaginal proteases in the development of pelvic organ prolapse. The results indicate that >90% of Fbln5−/− mice develop prolapse by 6 mo of age, even in the absence of vaginal delivery, and that increased vaginal protease activity precedes the development of prolapse. PMID:18987327

  13. An association between Schistosoma mansoni worms and an enzymatically-active protease/peptidase in mouse blood.

    PubMed

    Darani, H Y; Doenhoff, M J

    2008-04-01

    An enzyme found previously in extracts of adult Schistosoma mansoni worms, that hydrolysed the chromogenic substrate N-acetyl-DL-phenylalanine beta-naphthyl-ester, has here been further investigated and characterized. Evidence that the molecule found in the parasite was antigenically and enzymatically homologous with a constituent of normal mouse plasma has been consolidated using a monospecific serum in immunoelectrophoresis and Western immunoblotting. The molecular size of the enzyme was found to be approximately 70 kDa and it was inhibited by a serine protease inhibitor, but not by inhibitors of other classes of protease. The enzymatic activity found in normal mouse serum was also found in normal rat serum, but not in sera from several other mammalian species.

  14. Screening of phytochemicals against protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1), a promising target for cancer.

    PubMed

    Kakarala, Kavita Kumari; Jamil, Kaiser

    2015-02-01

    Drug resistance and drug-associated toxicity are the primary causes for withdrawal of many drugs, although patient recovery is satisfactory in many instances. Interestingly, the use of phytochemicals in the treatment of cancer as an alternative to synthetic drugs comes with a host of advantages; minimum side effects, good human absorption and low toxicity to normal cells. Protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) has been established as a promising target in many diseases including various cancers. Strong evidences suggest its role in metastasis also. There are no natural compounds known to inhibit its activity, so we aimed to identify phytochemicals with antagonist activity against PAR1. We screened phytochemicals from Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anticancer Compound-Activity-Target database (NPACT, http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/npact/ ) against PAR1 using virtual screening workflow of Schrödinger software. It analyzes pharmaceutically relevant properties using Qikprop and calculates binding energy using Glide at three accuracy levels (high-throughput virtual screening, standard precision and extra precision). Our study led to the identification of phytochemicals, which showed interaction with at least one experimentally determined active site residue of PAR1, showed no violations to Lipinski's rule of five along with predicted high human absorption. Furthermore, structural interaction fingerprint analysis indicated that the residues H255, D256, E260, S344, V257, L258, L262, Y337 and S344 may play an important role in the hydrogen bond interactions of the phytochemicals screened. Of these residues, H255 and L258 residues were experimentally proved to be important for antagonist binding. The residues Y183, L237, L258, L262, F271, L332, L333, Y337, L340, A349, Y350, A352, and Y353 showed maximum hydrophobic interactions with the phytochemicals screened. The results of this work suggest that phytochemicals Reissantins D, 24,25-dihydro-27-desoxywithaferin A, Isoguaiacin

  15. HCV NS3 protease enhances liver fibrosis via binding to and activating TGF-β type I receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Kotaro; Hara, Mitsuko; Terada, Takaho; Watanabe, Noriyuki; Takaya, Daisuke; Yaguchi, So-Ichi; Matsumoto, Takehisa; Matsuura, Tomokazu; Shirouzu, Mikako; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Yamaguchi, Tokio; Miyazawa, Keiji; Aizaki, Hideki; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Wakita, Takaji; Imoto, Masaya; Kojima, Soichi

    2013-11-01

    Viruses sometimes mimic host proteins and hijack the host cell machinery. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes liver fibrosis, a process largely mediated by the overexpression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and collagen, although the precise underlying mechanism is unknown. Here, we report that HCV non-structural protein 3 (NS3) protease affects the antigenicity and bioactivity of TGF-β2 in (CAGA)9-Luc CCL64 cells and in human hepatic cell lines via binding to TGF-β type I receptor (TβRI). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α facilitates this mechanism by increasing the colocalization of TβRI with NS3 protease on the surface of HCV-infected cells. An anti-NS3 antibody against computationally predicted binding sites for TβRI blocked the TGF-β mimetic activities of NS3 in vitro and attenuated liver fibrosis in HCV-infected chimeric mice. These data suggest that HCV NS3 protease mimics TGF-β2 and functions, at least in part, via directly binding to and activating TβRI, thereby enhancing liver fibrosis.

  16. Per a 10 protease activity modulates CD40 expression on dendritic cell surface by nuclear factor-kappaB pathway.

    PubMed

    Goel, C; Kalra, N; Dwarakanath, B S; Gaur, S N; Arora, N

    2015-05-01

    Serine protease activity of Per a 10 from Periplaneta americana modulates dendritic cell (DC) functions by a mechanism(s) that remains unclear. In the present study, Per a 10 protease activity on CD40 expression and downstream signalling was evaluated in DCs. Monocyte-derived DCs from cockroach-allergic patients were treated with proteolytically active/heat-inactivated Per a 10. Stimulation with active Per a 10 demonstrated low CD40 expression on DCs surface (P < 0·05), while enhanced soluble CD40 level in the culture supernatant (P < 0·05) compared to the heat-inactivated Per a 10, suggesting cleavage of CD40. Per a 10 activity reduced the interleukin (IL)-12 and interferon (IFN)-γ secretion by DCs (P < 0·05) compared to heat-inactivated Per a 10, indicating that low CD40 expression is associated with low levels of IL-12 secretion. Active Per a 10 stimulation caused low nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation in DCs compared to heat-inactivated Per a 10. Inhibition of the NF-κB pathway suppressed the CD40 expression and IL-12 secretion by DCs, further indicating that NF-κB is required for CD40 up-regulation. CD40 expression activated the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), thereby suggesting its involvement in NF-κB activation. Protease activity of Per a 10 induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation that showed no significant effect on CD40 expression by DCs. However, inhibiting p38 MAPK or NF-κB suppressed the secretion of IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-6 and TNF-α by DCs. Such DCs further reduced the secretion of IL-4, IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α by CD4(+) T cells. In conclusion, protease activity of Per a 10 reduces CD40 expression on DCs. CD40 down-regulation leads to low NF-κB levels, thereby modulating DC-mediated immune responses. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  17. Per a 10 protease activity modulates CD40 expression on dendritic cell surface by nuclear factor-kappaB pathway

    PubMed Central

    Goel, C; Kalra, N; Dwarakanath, B S; Gaur, S N; Arora, N

    2015-01-01

    Serine protease activity of Per a 10 from Periplaneta americana modulates dendritic cell (DC) functions by a mechanism(s) that remains unclear. In the present study, Per a 10 protease activity on CD40 expression and downstream signalling was evaluated in DCs. Monocyte-derived DCs from cockroach-allergic patients were treated with proteolytically active/heat-inactivated Per a 10. Stimulation with active Per a 10 demonstrated low CD40 expression on DCs surface (P < 0·05), while enhanced soluble CD40 level in the culture supernatant (P < 0·05) compared to the heat-inactivated Per a 10, suggesting cleavage of CD40. Per a 10 activity reduced the interleukin (IL)-12 and interferon (IFN)-γ secretion by DCs (P < 0·05) compared to heat-inactivated Per a 10, indicating that low CD40 expression is associated with low levels of IL-12 secretion. Active Per a 10 stimulation caused low nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation in DCs compared to heat-inactivated Per a 10. Inhibition of the NF-κB pathway suppressed the CD40 expression and IL-12 secretion by DCs, further indicating that NF-κB is required for CD40 up-regulation. CD40 expression activated the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), thereby suggesting its involvement in NF-κB activation. Protease activity of Per a 10 induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation that showed no significant effect on CD40 expression by DCs. However, inhibiting p38 MAPK or NF-κB suppressed the secretion of IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-6 and TNF-α by DCs. Such DCs further reduced the secretion of IL-4, IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α by CD4+ T cells. In conclusion, protease activity of Per a 10 reduces CD40 expression on DCs. CD40 down-regulation leads to low NF-κB levels, thereby modulating DC-mediated immune responses. PMID:25492061

  18. Protease-activated receptor 1 and 2 contribute to angiotensin II-induced activation of adventitial fibroblasts from rat aorta

    SciTech Connect

    He, Rui-Qing; Tang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Bao-Li

    Adventitial fibroblasts (AFs) can be activated by angiotensin II (Ang II) and exert pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory effects in vascular remodeling. Protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 and 2 play a significant role in fibrogenic and inflammatory diseases. The present study hypothesized that PAR1 and PAR2 are involved in Ang II-induced AF activation and contribute to adventitial remodeling. We found that direct activation of PAR1 and PAR2 with PAR1-AP and PAR2-AP led to AF activation, including proliferation and differentiation of AFs, extracellular matrix synthesis, as well as production of pro-fibrotic cytokine TGF-β and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and MCP-1. Furthermore, PAR1 and PAR2 mediatedmore » Ang II-induced AF activation, since both PAR1 and PAR2 antagonists inhibited Ang II-induced proliferation, migration, differentiation, extracellular matrix synthesis and production of pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory cytokines in AFs. Finally, mechanistic study showed that Ang II, via Ang II type I receptor (AT1R), upregulated both PAR1 and PAR2 expression, and transactivated PAR1 and PAR2, as denoted by internalization of both proteins. In conclusion, our results suggest that PAR1 and PAR2 play a critical role in Ang II-induced AF activation, and this may contribute to adventitia-related pathological changes. - Highlights: • Direct activation of PAR1 and PAR2 led to adventitial fibroblast (AF) activation. • PAR1 and PAR2 antagonists attenuated Ang II-induced AF activation. • Ang II induced the upregulation and transactivation of PAR1/PAR2 in AFs.« less

  19. Central domain of IL-33 is cleaved by mast cell proteases for potent activation of group-2 innate lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    Lefrançais, Emma; Duval, Anais; Mirey, Emilie; Roga, Stéphane; Espinosa, Eric; Cayrol, Corinne; Girard, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is an alarmin cytokine from the IL-1 family. IL-33 activates many immune cell types expressing the interleukin 1 receptor-like 1 (IL1RL1) receptor ST2, including group-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s, natural helper cells, nuocytes), the major producers of IL-5 and IL-13 during type-2 innate immune responses and allergic airway inflammation. IL-33 is likely to play a critical role in asthma because the IL33 and ST2/IL1RL1 genes have been reproducibly identified as major susceptibility loci in large-scale genome-wide association studies. A better understanding of the mechanisms regulating IL-33 activity is thus urgently needed. Here, we investigated the role of mast cells, critical effector cells in allergic disorders, known to interact with ILC2s in vivo. We found that serine proteases secreted by activated mast cells (chymase and tryptase) generate mature forms of IL-33 with potent activity on ILC2s. The major forms produced by mast cell proteases, IL-3395–270, IL-33107–270, and IL-33109–270, were 30-fold more potent than full-length human IL-331–270 for activation of ILC2s ex vivo. They induced a strong expansion of ILC2s and eosinophils in vivo, associated with elevated concentrations of IL-5 and IL-13. Murine IL-33 is also cleaved by mast cell tryptase, and a tryptase inhibitor reduced IL-33–dependent allergic airway inflammation in vivo. Our study identifies the central cleavage/activation domain of IL-33 (amino acids 66–111) as an important functional domain of the protein and suggests that interference with IL-33 cleavage and activation by mast cell and other inflammatory proteases could be useful to reduce IL-33–mediated responses in allergic asthma and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:25313073

  20. Searching for discrimination rules in protease proteolytic cleavage activity using genetic programming with a min-max scoring function.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zheng Rong; Thomson, Rebecca; Hodgman, T Charles; Dry, Jonathan; Doyle, Austin K; Narayanan, Ajit; Wu, XiKun

    2003-11-01

    This paper presents an algorithm which is able to extract discriminant rules from oligopeptides for protease proteolytic cleavage activity prediction. The algorithm is developed using genetic programming. Three important components in the algorithm are a min-max scoring function, the reverse Polish notation (RPN) and the use of minimum description length. The min-max scoring function is developed using amino acid similarity matrices for measuring the similarity between an oligopeptide and a rule, which is a complex algebraic equation of amino acids rather than a simple pattern sequence. The Fisher ratio is then calculated on the scoring values using the class label associated with the oligopeptides. The discriminant ability of each rule can therefore be evaluated. The use of RPN makes the evolutionary operations simpler and therefore reduces the computational cost. To prevent overfitting, the concept of minimum description length is used to penalize over-complicated rules. A fitness function is therefore composed of the Fisher ratio and the use of minimum description length for an efficient evolutionary process. In the application to four protease datasets (Trypsin, Factor Xa, Hepatitis C Virus and HIV protease cleavage site prediction), our algorithm is superior to C5, a conventional method for deriving decision trees.

  1. Microplate fluorescence protease assays test the inhibition of select North American snake venoms' activities with an anti-proteinase library.

    PubMed

    Price, Joseph A

    2015-09-01

    Snake envenomation is a relatively neglected significant world health problem, designated an orphan disease by the WHO. While often effective, antivenins are insufficient. Could another approach greatly aid inhibition of the venom toxins? New fluorescent substrates for measuring protease activity in microplate assays suitable for high throughput screening were tested and found reproducible with snake venom. Representative North American venoms showed relatively strong proteinase and collagenase, but weaker elastase activities. Caseinolytic activity is inhibited by the nonspecific proteinase inhibitor 1,10-phenanthroline and by EDTA, as is collagenase activity, consistent with the action of metalloproteinases. Both general protease and collagenase assays CV average 3%, and Km measured were above normal working conditions. Using a library of anti -proteinase compounds with multiple venoms revealed high inhibitor activity by three agents with known multiple metalloproteinase inhibitor activity (Actinonin, GM6001, and NNGH), which incidentally supports the concept that much of the degradative activity of certain venoms is due to metalloproteinases with collagenase activity. These results together support the use of microplate proteinase assays, particularly this collagenase assay, in future drug repurposing studies leading to the development of new treatments for those envenomations that have a major proteolytic component in their pathophysiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nitrated Fatty Acids Reverse Cigarette Smoke-Induced Alveolar Macrophage Activation and Inhibit Protease Activity via Electrophilic S-Alkylation.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Aravind T; Lakshmi, Sowmya P; Muchumarri, Ramamohan R; Reddy, Raju C

    2016-01-01

    Nitrated fatty acids (NFAs), endogenous products of nonenzymatic reactions of NO-derived reactive nitrogen species with unsaturated fatty acids, exhibit substantial anti-inflammatory activities. They are both reversible electrophiles and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists, but the physiological implications of their electrophilic activity are poorly understood. We tested their effects on inflammatory and emphysema-related biomarkers in alveolar macrophages (AMs) of smoke-exposed mice. NFA (10-nitro-oleic acid or 12-nitrolinoleic acid) treatment downregulated expression and activity of the inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB while upregulating those of PPARγ. It also downregulated production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and of the protease cathepsin S (Cat S), a key mediator of emphysematous septal destruction. Cat S downregulation was accompanied by decreased AM elastolytic activity, a major mechanism of septal destruction. NFAs downregulated both Cat S expression and activity in AMs of wild-type mice, but only inhibited its activity in AMs of PPARγ knockout mice, pointing to a PPARγ-independent mechanism of enzyme inhibition. We hypothesized that this mechanism was electrophilic S-alkylation of target Cat S cysteines, and found that NFAs bind directly to Cat S following treatment of intact AMs and, as suggested by in silico modeling and calculation of relevant parameters, elicit S-alkylation of Cys25 when incubated with purified Cat S. These results demonstrate that NFAs' electrophilic activity, in addition to their role as PPARγ agonists, underlies their protective effects in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and support their therapeutic potential in this disease.

  3. Nitrated Fatty Acids Reverse Cigarette Smoke-Induced Alveolar Macrophage Activation and Inhibit Protease Activity via Electrophilic S-Alkylation

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Aravind T.; Lakshmi, Sowmya P.; Muchumarri, Ramamohan R.; Reddy, Raju C.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrated fatty acids (NFAs), endogenous products of nonenzymatic reactions of NO-derived reactive nitrogen species with unsaturated fatty acids, exhibit substantial anti-inflammatory activities. They are both reversible electrophiles and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists, but the physiological implications of their electrophilic activity are poorly understood. We tested their effects on inflammatory and emphysema-related biomarkers in alveolar macrophages (AMs) of smoke-exposed mice. NFA (10-nitro-oleic acid or 12-nitrolinoleic acid) treatment downregulated expression and activity of the inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB while upregulating those of PPARγ. It also downregulated production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and of the protease cathepsin S (Cat S), a key mediator of emphysematous septal destruction. Cat S downregulation was accompanied by decreased AM elastolytic activity, a major mechanism of septal destruction. NFAs downregulated both Cat S expression and activity in AMs of wild-type mice, but only inhibited its activity in AMs of PPARγ knockout mice, pointing to a PPARγ-independent mechanism of enzyme inhibition. We hypothesized that this mechanism was electrophilic S-alkylation of target Cat S cysteines, and found that NFAs bind directly to Cat S following treatment of intact AMs and, as suggested by in silico modeling and calculation of relevant parameters, elicit S-alkylation of Cys25 when incubated with purified Cat S. These results demonstrate that NFAs’ electrophilic activity, in addition to their role as PPARγ agonists, underlies their protective effects in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and support their therapeutic potential in this disease. PMID:27119365

  4. Inhibition of Protease-Activated Receptor (PAR1) Reduces Activation of the Endothelium, Coagulation, Fibrinolysis and Inflammation during Human Endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Schoergenhofer, Christian; Schwameis, Michael; Gelbenegger, Georg; Buchtele, Nina; Thaler, Barbara; Mussbacher, Marion; Schabbauer, Gernot; Wojta, Johann; Jilma-Stohlawetz, Petra; Jilma, Bernd

    2018-06-04

    The protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) is critically involved in the co-activation of coagulation and inflammatory responses. Vorapaxar is a reversible, orally active, low molecular weight, competitive antagonist of PAR-1.We investigated the effects of PAR-1 inhibition by vorapaxar on the inflammatory response, the activation of coagulation, fibrinolysis and endothelium during experimental endotoxemia. In this randomized, double blind, crossover trial, 16 healthy volunteers received a bolus infusion of 2 ng/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) ± placebo/vorapaxar with a washout period of 8 weeks. Vorapaxar dosing was guided by thrombin receptor-activating peptide-6-induced whole blood aggregometry. Participants received 10 mg vorapaxar or placebo as an initial dose and, depending on the aggregometry, potentially an additional 10 mg. Goal was > 80% inhibition of aggregation compared with baseline. Vorapaxar significantly reduced the LPS-induced increase in pro-thrombin fragments F1 + 2 by a median of 27% (quartiles: 11-49%), thrombin-anti-thrombin concentrations by 22% (-3 to 46%) and plasmin-anti-plasmin levels by 38% (23-53%). PAR-1 inhibition dampened peak concentrations of tumour necrosis factor -α, interleukin-6 and consequently C-reactive protein by 66% (-11-71%), 50% (15-79%) and 23% (16-38%), respectively. Vorapaxar decreased maximum von Willebrand factor levels by 29% (26-51%) and soluble E-selectin concentrations by 30% (25-38%) after LPS infusion. PAR-1 inhibition did not affect thrombomodulin, soluble P-selectin and platelet factor-4 concentrations.PAR-1 inhibition significantly reduced the activation of coagulation, fibrinolysis, the inflammatory response and endothelial activation during experimental human endotoxemia. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  5. The SARS coronavirus papain like protease can inhibit IRF3 at a post activation step that requires deubiquitination activity.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Krystal; Schäfer, Alexandra; Pham, Alissa; Frieman, Matthew

    2014-12-07

    The outcome of a viral infection is regulated by complex interactions of viral and host factors. SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) engages and regulates several innate immune response pathways during infection. We have previously shown that the SARS-CoV Papain-like Protease (PLpro) inhibits type I interferon (IFN) by inhibiting IRF3 phosphorylation thereby blocking downstream Interferon induction. This finding prompted us to identify other potential mechanisms of inhibition of PLpro on IFN induction. We have used plasmids expressing PLpro and IRF3 including an IRF3 mutant that is constitutively active, called IRF3(5D). In these experiments we utilize transfections, chromatin immunoprecipitation, Electro-mobility Shift Assays (EMSA) and protein localization to identify where IRF3 and IRF3(5D) are inhibited by PLpro. Here we show that PLpro also inhibits IRF3 activation at a step after phosphorylation and that this inhibition is dependent on the de-ubiquitination (DUB) activity of PLpro. We found that PLpro is able to block the type I IFN induction of a constitutively active IRF3, but does not inhibit IRF3 dimerization, nuclear localization or DNA binding. However, inhibition of PLpro's DUB activity by mutagenesis blocked the IRF3 inhibition activity of PLpro, suggesting a role for IRF3 ubiquitination in induction of a type I IFN innate immune response. These results demonstrate an additional mechanism that PLpro is able to inhibit IRF3 signaling. These data suggest novel innate immune antagonism activities of PLpro that may contribute to SARS-CoV pathogenesis.

  6. Midgut Protease Activity During Larval Development of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) Fed With Natural and Artificial Diet

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Ciprian, José Pedro; Aceituno-Medina, Marysol; Guillen, Karina

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we examined the activity of two serine proteases (chymotrypsin and trypsin) and two metalloproteases (carboxypeptidases A and B) during larval development in Anastrepha obliqua fed natural (mango fruit) and artificial (formulation used in mass-rearing) diets. Proteolytic activity of chymotrypsin, trypsin, carboxypeptidase A, and carboxypeptidase B was detected in the midgut of different instars of A. obliqua and was strongly affected by the pH and diet type. The protein content of the natural and artificial diets was similar. Enzymatic activity was higher in the midgut of the larvae fed the natural diet than in larvae fed the artificial diet. The activity of the endopeptidases (chymotrypsin and trypsin) was lower than those of the exopeptidases (carboxypeptidases A and B). The pH of the midgut varied from acidic to neutral. The results indicate that in the midgut of the larvae reared on both types of diet, the level of carboxypeptidase activity was approximately 100-fold greater than the level of chymotrypsin activity and 10,000-fold greater than the level of trypsin. In conclusion, carboxypeptidase A and B are the main proteases involved in the digestion of proteins in the larvae of A. obliqua. The natural diet showed a high bioaccessibility. A clear tendency to express high activities of chymotrypsin and trypsin was observed by the third instar. Our research contributes to the planning and development of novel bioaccessibility assays to understand the nutrition processing of A. obliqua larvae under mass-rearing conditions for sterile insect technique.

  7. Protease-mediated drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, Eva F.; Goyan, Rebecca L.; Kennedy, James C.; Mackay, M.; Mendes, M. A. K.; Pottier, Roy H.

    2003-12-01

    Drugs used in disease treatment can cause damage to both malignant and normal tissue. This toxicity limits the maximum therapeutic dose. Drug targeting is of high interest to increase the therapeutic efficacy of the drug without increasing systemic toxicity. Certain tissue abnormalities, disease processes, cancers, and infections are characterized by high levels of activity of specific extracellular and/or intracellular proteases. Abnormally high activity levels of specific proteases are present at sites of physical or chemical trauma, blood clots, malignant tumors, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, gingival disease, glomerulonerphritis, and acute pancreatitis. Abnormal protease activity is suspected in development of liver thrombosis, pulmonary emphysema, atherosclerosis, and muscular dystrophy. Inactiviating disease-associated proteases by the administration of appropriate protease inhibitors has had limited success. Instead, one could use such proteases to target drugs to treat the condition. Protease mediated drug delivery offers such a possibility. Solubilizing groups are attached to insoluble drugs via a polypeptide chain which is specifically cleavable by certian proteases. When the solubilized drug enounters the protease, the solubilizing moieties are cleaved, and the drug precipitates at the disease location. Thus, a smaller systemic dosage could result in a therapeutic drug concentration at the treatment site with less systemic toxicity.

  8. Two Kazal-type protease inhibitors from Macrobrachium nipponense and Eriocheir sinensis: comparative analysis of structure and activities.

    PubMed

    Qian, Ye-Qing; Li, Ye; Yang, Fan; Yu, Yan-Qin; Yang, Jin-Shu; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2012-03-01

    Kazal-type inhibitors (KPIs) play important roles in many biological and physiological processes, such as blood clotting, the immune response and reproduction. In the present study, two male reproductive tract KPIs, termed Man-KPI and Ers-KPI, were identified in Macrobrachium nipponense and Eriocheir sinensis, respectively. The inhibitory activities of recombinant Man-KPI and Ers-KPI against chymotrypsin, elastase, trypsin and thrombin were determined. The results showed that both of them strongly inhibit chymotrypsin and elastase. Kinetic studies were performed to elucidate their inhibition mechanism. Furthermore, individual domains were also expressed to learn further which domain contributes to the inhibitory activities of intact KPIs. Only Man-KPI_domain3 is active in the inhibition of chymotrypsin and elastase. Meanwhile, Ers-KPI_domain2 and 3 are responsible for inhibition of chymotrypsin, and Ers-KPI_domains2, 3 and 4 are responsible for the inhibition of elastase. Meanwhile, the inhibitory activities of these two KPIs toward Macrobrachium rosenbergii, M. nipponense and E. sinensis sperm were compared with that of the Kazal-type peptidase inhibitor (MRPINK) characterized from the M. rosenbergii reproductive tract in a previous study. The results demonstrated that KPIs can completely inhibit the gelatinolytic activities of sperm proteases from their own species, while different levels of cross-inhibition were observed between KPI and proteases from different species. These results may provide new perspective to further clarify the mechanism of KPI-proteases interaction in the male reproductive system. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The influence of repeated administration of poloxamer 407 on serum lipoproteins and protease activity in mouse liver and heart.

    PubMed

    Korolenko, Tatyana A; Tuzikov, Fedor V; Johnston, Thomas P; Tuzikova, Natalia A; Kisarova, Yana A; Zhanaeva, Svetlana Ya; Alexeenko, Tatyana V; Zhukova, Natalia A; Brak, Ivan V; Spiridonov, Victor K; Filjushina, Elena E; Cherkanova, Marina S; Monoszon, Anna A

    2012-11-01

    The effects of repeated administration of poloxamer 407 (P-407) on lipoprotein-cholesterol (LP-C) and lipoprotein-triglyceride (LP-TG) fractions and subfractions, as well as the effect on liver and heart proteases, were studied. Repeated administration of P-407 to male CBA mice resulted in a model of atherosclerosis with increased diastolic blood pressure; there was a drastic increase in total serum cholesterol and especially TG. A novel small-angle X-ray scattering method for the determination of the fractional and subfractional composition of LP-C and LP-TG was used. In chronically P-407-treated mice, P-407 significantly increased atherogenic low-density lipoprotein C (LDL-C) fractions, as well as intermediate-density lipoprotein C (IDL-C), and LDL₁₋₃-C subfractions, and very-low-density lipoprotein-C (VLDL-C) fractions, as well as VLDL₁₋₂-C and VLDL₃₋₅-C subfractions), to a lesser extent, the total anti-atherogenic high-density lipoprotein C (HDL-C) fraction, as well as HDL₂-C and HDL₃-C subfractions. Additionally, we demonstrated an increase in the serum chitotriosidase activity, without significant changes in serum matrix metalloprotease (MMP) activity. Morphological changes observed in P-407-treated mice included atherosclerosis in the heart and storage syndrome in the liver macrophages. P-407 significantly increased the activity of cysteine, aspartate proteases, and MMPs in the heart, and only the activity of cathepsin B and MMPs in the liver of mice. Thus, repeated administration of P-407 to mice induced atherosclerosis secondary to sustained dyslipidemia and formation of foamy macrophages in liver, and also modulated the activity of heart and liver proteases.

  10. A Clinical Wide-Field Fluorescence Endoscopic Device for Molecular Imaging Demonstrating Cathepsin Protease Activity in Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sensarn, Steven; Zavaleta, Cristina L.; Segal, Ehud; Rogalla, Stephan; Lee, Wansik; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Bogyo, Matthew; Contag, Christopher H.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Early and effective detection of cancers of the gastrointestinal tract will require novel molecular probes and advances in instrumentation that can reveal functional changes in dysplastic and malignant tissues. Here, we describe adaptation of a wide-field clinical fiberscope to perform wide-field fluorescence imaging while preserving its white-light capability for the purpose of providing wide-field fluorescence imaging capability to point-of-care microscopes. Procedures We developed and used a fluorescent fiberscope to detect signals from a quenched probe, BMV109, that becomes fluorescent when cleaved by, and covalently bound to, active cathepsin proteases. Cathepsins are expressed in inflammation- and tumor-associated macrophages as well as directly from tumor cells and are a promising target for cancer imaging. The fiberscope has a 1-mm outer diameter enabling validation via endoscopic exams in mice, and therefore we evaluated topically applied BMV109 for the ability to detect colon polyps in an azoxymethane-induced colon tumor model in mice. Results This wide-field endoscopic imaging device revealed consistent and clear fluorescence signals from BMV109 that specifically localized to the polypoid regions as opposed to the normal adjacent colon tissue (p < 0.004) in the murine colon carcinoma model. Conclusions The sensitivity of detection of BMV109 with the fluorescence fiberscope suggested utility of these tools for early detection at hard-to-reach sites. The fiberscope was designed to be used in conjunction with miniature, endoscope-compatible fluorescence microscopes for dual wide-field and microscopic cancer detection. PMID:27154508

  11. A Clinical Wide-Field Fluorescence Endoscopic Device for Molecular Imaging Demonstrating Cathepsin Protease Activity in Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sensarn, Steven; Zavaleta, Cristina L; Segal, Ehud; Rogalla, Stephan; Lee, Wansik; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Bogyo, Matthew; Contag, Christopher H

    2016-12-01

    Early and effective detection of cancers of the gastrointestinal tract will require novel molecular probes and advances in instrumentation that can reveal functional changes in dysplastic and malignant tissues. Here, we describe adaptation of a wide-field clinical fiberscope to perform wide-field fluorescence imaging while preserving its white-light capability for the purpose of providing wide-field fluorescence imaging capability to point-of-care microscopes. We developed and used a fluorescent fiberscope to detect signals from a quenched probe, BMV109, that becomes fluorescent when cleaved by, and covalently bound to, active cathepsin proteases. Cathepsins are expressed in inflammation- and tumor-associated macrophages as well as directly from tumor cells and are a promising target for cancer imaging. The fiberscope has a 1-mm outer diameter enabling validation via endoscopic exams in mice, and therefore we evaluated topically applied BMV109 for the ability to detect colon polyps in an azoxymethane-induced colon tumor model in mice. This wide-field endoscopic imaging device revealed consistent and clear fluorescence signals from BMV109 that specifically localized to the polypoid regions as opposed to the normal adjacent colon tissue (p < 0.004) in the murine colon carcinoma model. The sensitivity of detection of BMV109 with the fluorescence fiberscope suggested utility of these tools for early detection at hard-to-reach sites. The fiberscope was designed to be used in conjunction with miniature, endoscope-compatible fluorescence microscopes for dual wide-field and microscopic cancer detection.

  12. Cpa, the outer membrane protease of Cronobacter sakazakii, activates plasminogen and mediates resistance to serum bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Franco, A A; Kothary, M H; Gopinath, G; Jarvis, K G; Grim, C J; Hu, L; Datta, A R; McCardell, B A; Tall, B D

    2011-04-01

    Cronobacter spp. are emerging neonatal pathogens in humans, associated with outbreaks of meningitis and sepsis. To cause disease, they must survive in blood and invade the central nervous system by penetrating the blood-brain barrier. C. sakazakii BAA-894 possesses an ~131-kb plasmid (pESA3) that encodes an outer membrane protease (Cpa) that has significant identity to proteins that belong to the Pla subfamily of omptins. Members of this subfamily of proteins degrade a number of serum proteins, including circulating complement, providing protection from the complement-dependent serum killing. Moreover, proteins of the Pla subfamily can cause uncontrolled plasmin activity by converting plasminogen to plasmin and inactivating the plasmin inhibitor α2-antiplasmin (α2-AP). These reactions enhance the spread and invasion of bacteria in the host. In this study, we found that an isogenic cpa mutant showed reduced resistance to serum in comparison to its parent C. sakazakii BAA-894 strain. Overexpression of Cpa in C. sakazakii or Escherichia coli DH5α showed that Cpa proteolytically cleaved complement components C3, C3a, and C4b. Furthermore, a strain of C. sakazakii overexpressing Cpa caused a rapid activation of plasminogen and inactivation of α2-AP. These results strongly suggest that Cpa may be an important virulence factor involved in serum resistance, as well as in the spread and invasion of C. sakazakii.

  13. Activated protein C (APC) can increase bone anabolism via a protease-activated receptor (PAR)1/2 dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Shen, Kaitlin; Murphy, Ciara M; Chan, Ben; Kolind, Mille; Cheng, Tegan L; Mikulec, Kathy; Peacock, Lauren; Xue, Meilang; Park, Sang-Youel; Little, David G; Jackson, Chris J; Schindeler, Aaron

    2014-12-01

    Activated Protein C (APC) is an anticoagulant with strong cytoprotective properties that has been shown to promote wound healing. In this study APC was investigated for its potential orthopedic application using a Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (rhBMP-2) induced ectopic bone formation model. Local co-administration of 10 µg rhBMP-2 with 10 µg or 25 µg APC increased bone volume at 3 weeks by 32% (N.S.) and 74% (p<0.01) compared to rhBMP-2 alone. This was associated with a significant increase in CD31+ and TRAP+ cells in tissue sections of ectopic bone, consistent with enhanced vascularity and bone turnover. The actions of APC are largely mediated by its receptors endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) and protease-activated receptors (PARs). Cultured pre-osteoblasts and bone nodule tissue sections were shown to express PAR1/2 and EPCR. When pre-osteoblasts were treated with APC, cell viability and phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Akt, and p38 were increased. Inhibition with PAR1 and sometimes PAR2 antagonists, but not with EPCR blocking antibodies, ameliorated the effects of APC on cell viability and kinase phosphorylation. These data indicate that APC can affect osteoblast viability and signaling, and may have in vivo applications with rhBMP-2 for bone repair. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Beta-arrestin inhibits CAMKKbeta-dependent AMPK activation downstream of protease-activated-receptor-2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Jiang, Yong; Wang, Yinsheng; Shyy, John Y; DeFea, Kathryn A

    2010-09-21

    Proteinase-activated-receptor-2 (PAR2) is a seven transmembrane receptor that can activate two separate signaling arms: one through Gαq and Ca2+ mobilization, and a second through recruitment of β-arrestin scaffolds. In some cases downstream targets of the Gαq/Ca2+ signaling arm are directly inhibited by β-arrestins, while in other cases the two pathways are synergistic; thus β-arrestins act as molecular switches capable of modifying the signal generated by the receptor. Here we demonstrate that PAR2 can activate adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key regulator of cellular energy balance, through Ca2+-dependent Kinase Kinase β (CAMKKβ), while inhibiting AMPK through interaction with β-arrestins. The ultimate outcome of PAR2 activation depended on the cell type studied; in cultured fibroblasts with low endogenous β-arrestins, PAR2 activated AMPK; however, in primary fat and liver, PAR2 only activated AMPK in β-arrestin-2-/- mice. β-arrestin-2 could be co-immunoprecipitated with AMPK and CAMKKβ under baseline conditions from both cultured fibroblasts and primary fat, and its association with both proteins was increased by PAR2 activation. Addition of recombinant β-arrestin-2 to in vitro kinase assays directly inhibited phosphorylation of AMPK by CAMKKβ on Thr172. Studies have shown that decreased AMPK activity is associated with obesity and Type II Diabetes, while AMPK activity is increased with metabolically favorable conditions and cholesterol lowering drugs. These results suggest a role for β-arrestin in the inhibition of AMPK signaling, raising the possibility that β-arrestin-dependent PAR2 signaling may act as a molecular switch turning a positive signal to AMPK into an inhibitory one.

  15. Characterization of detergent compatible protease of a halophilic Bacillus sp. EMB9: differential role of metal ions in stability and activity.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rajeshwari; Khare, S K

    2013-10-01

    A moderately halophilic protease producer, Bacillus sp. strain isolated from sea water is described. The protease is purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulphate precipitation and CM cellulose chromatography. The serine protease has a molecular mass of 29 kDa. Enzymatic characterization of protease revealed K(m) 2.22 mg mL(-1), Vmax 1111.11 U mL(-1), pH optimum 9.0, t1/2 190 min at 60°C and salt optima 1% (w/v) NaCl. The protease is remarkably stable in hydrophilic and hydrophobic solvents at high concentrations. The purified preparation is unstable at room temperature. Ca(2+) ions are required for preventing this loss of activity. Interestingly, the activity and stability are modulated differentially. Whereas, divalent cation Ca(2+) are involved in maintaining stability in solution at room temperature by preventing unfolding, monovalent Na(+) and K(+) ions participate in regulating the activity and assist in refolding of the enzyme. Application of the protease is shown in efficient removal of blood stain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterisation of faecal protease activity in irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhoea: origin and effect of gut transit.

    PubMed

    Tooth, David; Garsed, Klara; Singh, Gulzar; Marciani, Luca; Lam, Ching; Fordham, Imogen; Fields, Annie; Banwait, Rawinder; Lingaya, Melanie; Layfield, Robert; Hastings, Maggie; Whorwell, Peter; Spiller, Robin

    2014-05-01

    Faecal serine proteases (FSPs) may play a role in irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhoea (IBS-D), but their origin is unclear. We aimed to structurally characterise them and define the impact of colonic cleansing and transit time. Faecal samples were obtained from 30 healthy volunteers (HV) and 79 patients with IBS-D participating in a trial of ondansetron versus placebo. Colonic transit was measured using radio-opaque markers. Samples were also obtained from 24 HV before and after colonic cleansing with the osmotic laxative MoviPrep. FSPs were purified from faecal extracts using benzamidine-Sepharose affinity chromatography. SDS-PAGE profiled components were identified using trypsinolysis and tandem mass spectrometry. Functional protease activity in faecal extracts was measured using a colorimetric assay based on the proteolysis of azo-casein. Protein analysis identified the most abundant FSPs as being of human origin and probably derived from pancreatic juice. Functional assays showed increased faecal protease (FP) and amylase in patients with IBS-D compared with HV. Those with higher amylase had significantly higher FP and greater anxiety. FP activity correlated negatively with whole gut transit in patients with IBS-D (Spearman r=-0.32, p=0.005) and HV (r=-0.55, p=0.014). Colon cleansing caused a significant rise in FP activity in HV from a baseline of median (IQR) 253 (140-426) to 1031 (435-2296), levels similar to those seen in patients with IBS-D. FSP activity correlated positively with days/week with urgency. The most abundant FSPs are of human origin. Rapid transit through the colon and/or decreased (possibly bacterial) proteolytic degradation increases their faecal concentration and could contribute to visceral hypersensitivity in patients with IBS-D. NCT00745004.

  17. Protease-Activated Receptor 2 Activation Inhibits N-Type Ca2+ Currents in Rat Peripheral Sympathetic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Hwan; Ahn, Duck-Sun; Kim, Myeong Ok; Joeng, Ji-Hyun; Chung, Seungsoo

    2014-01-01

    The protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 is highly expressed in endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood pressure via the modulation of peripheral vascular tone. Although several mechanisms have been suggested to explain PAR-2-induced hypotension, the precise mechanism remains to be elucidated. To investigate this possibility, we investigated the effects of PAR-2 activation on N-type Ca2+ currents (ICa-N) in isolated neurons of the celiac ganglion (CG), which is involved in the sympathetic regulation of mesenteric artery vascular tone. PAR-2 agonists irreversibly diminished voltage-gated Ca2+ currents (ICa), measured using the patch-clamp method, in rat CG neurons, whereas thrombin had little effect on ICa. This PAR-2-induced inhibition was almost completely prevented by ω-CgTx, a potent N-type Ca2+ channel blocker, suggesting the involvement of N-type Ca2+ channels in PAR-2-induced inhibition. In addition, PAR-2 agonists inhibited ICa–N in a voltage-independent manner in rat CG neurons. Moreover, PAR-2 agonists reduced action potential (AP) firing frequency as measured using the current-clamp method in rat CG neurons. This inhibition of AP firing induced by PAR-2 agonists was almost completely prevented by ω-CgTx, indicating that PAR-2 activation may regulate the membrane excitability of peripheral sympathetic neurons through modulation of N-type Ca2+ channels. In conclusion, the present findings demonstrate that the activation of PAR-2 suppresses peripheral sympathetic outflow by modulating N-type Ca2+ channel activity, which appears to be involved in PAR-2-induced hypotension, in peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals. PMID:25410909

  18. Protease-Activated Receptor 1 Inhibition by SCH79797 Attenuates Left Ventricular Remodeling and Profibrotic Activities of Cardiac Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Sonin, Dmitry L.; Wakatsuki, Tetsuro; Routhu, Kasi V.; Harmann, Leanne M.; Petersen, Matthew; Meyer, Jennifer; Strande, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Fibroblast activity promotes adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling that underlies the development of ischemic cardiomyopathy. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a potent stimulus for fibrosis, and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases(ERK) 1/2 pathway also contributes to the fibrotic response. The thrombin receptor, protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), has been shown to play an important role in the excessive fibrosis in different tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a PAR1 inhibitor, SCH79797, on cardiac fibrosis, tissue stiffness and postinfarction remodeling, and effects of PAR1 inhibition on thrombin-induced TGF-β and (ERK) 1/2 activities in cardiac fibroblasts. Methods We used a rat model of myocardial ischemia–reperfusion injury, isolated cardiac fibroblasts, and 3-dimensional (3D) cardiac tissue models fabricated to ascertain the contribution of PAR1 activation on cardiac fibrosis and LV remodeling. Results The PAR1 inhibitor attenuated LV dilation and improved LV systolic function of the reperfused myocardium at 28 days. This improvement was associated with a nonsignificant decrease in scar size (%LV) from 23 ± % in the control group (n = 10) to 16% ± 5.5% in the treated group (n = 9; P = .052). In the short term, the PAR1 inhibitor did not rescue infarct size or LV systolic function after 3 days. The PAR1 inhibition abolished thrombin-mediated ERK1/2 phosphorylation, TGF-β and type I procollagen production, matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 activation, myofibroblasts transformation in vitro, and abrogated the remodeling of 3D tissues induced by chronic thrombin treatment. Conclusion These studies suggest PAR1 inhibition initiated after ischemic injury attenuates adverse LV remodeling through late-stage antifibrotic events. PMID:23598708

  19. Curcumin derivatives as HIV-1 protease inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Sui, Z.; Li, J.; Craik, C.S.

    1993-12-31

    Curcumin, a non-toxic natural compound from Curcuma longa, has been found to be an HIV-1 protease inhibitor. Some of its derivatives were synthesized and their inhibitory activity against the HIV-1 protease was tested. Curcumin analogues containing boron enhanced the inhibitory activity. At least of the the synthesized compounds irreversibly inhibits the HIV-1 protease.

  20. DC type 2 polarization depends on both the allergic status of the individual and protease activity of Per a 10.

    PubMed

    Goel, Chhavi; Gaur, S N; Bhati, Gaurav; Arora, Naveen

    2015-10-01

    Cockroach proteases are important risk factors for asthma development in predisposed individuals. In the present study, effect of allergic status of patients on DCs polarization in response to protease allergen Per a 10 was investigated. Cockroach-allergic, other-allergic patients and healthy individuals were selected following the guidelines of ATS/ARIA. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) were generated from the selected individuals and stimulated with Per a 10. Flow cytometric analysis showed a significantly high expression of CD80 and CD86 on DCs from cockroach-allergic patients after Per a 10 stimulation as compared to healthy individuals or other-allergic patients (P<0.05). Per a 10 induced comparable level of CD83 expression on DCs from all the 3 groups, showing it was irrespective of the allergic status. CD40 expression was significantly low (P<0.05) on the DCs from cockroach-allergic patients as compared to healthy individuals or other-allergic patients. Further, proteolytically active Per a 10 induced lower CD40 expression on DCs than the heat-inactivated Per a 10 (P<0.05) indicating role of protease activity in the generation of an immune response. The sCD40 level in active Per a 10 stimulated DC cultures was significantly higher than in heat-inactivated Per a 10 (P<0.05). There was two-fold decrease (P<0.05) in IL-12 production by active Per a 10-stimulated DCs than heat-inactivated Per a 10-stimulated DCs. Per a 10-stimulated DCs from cockroach-allergic patients secreted high levels of IL-5, IL-6, TNF-α than that from healthy individuals or other-allergic patients (P<0.05). Furthermore, Per a 10-stimulated DCs from cockroach-allergic patients induced increased secretions of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, TNF-α and low IL-12 by T cells as compared to those from other groups (P<0.05). Thus, in presence of Per a 10 allergen, polarization of DCs shifts toward type 2 in cockroach-allergic patients but not in the healthy individuals or other-allergic patients. In

  1. Determining Protease Activity In Vivo by Fluorescence Cross-Correlation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, Tobias; Haustein, Elke; Schwille, Petra

    2005-01-01

    To date, most biochemical approaches to unravel protein function have focused on purified proteins in vitro. Whereas they analyze enzyme performance under assay conditions, they do not necessarily tell us what is relevant within a living cell. Ideally, cellular functions should be examined in situ. In particular, association/dissociation reactions are ubiquitous, but so far there is no standard technique permitting online analysis of these processes in vivo. Featuring single-molecule sensitivity combined with intrinsic averaging, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy is a minimally invasive technique ideally suited to monitor proteins. Moreover, endogenous fluorescence-based assays can be established by genetically encoding fusions of autofluorescent proteins and cellular proteins, thus avoiding the disadvantages of in vitro protein labeling and subsequent delivery to cells. Here, we present an in vivo protease assay as a model system: Green and red autofluorescent proteins were connected by Caspase-3- sensitive and insensitive protein linkers to create double-labeled protease substrates. Then, dual-color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy was employed to study the protease reaction in situ. Allowing assessment of multiple dynamic parameters simultaneously, this method provided internal calibration and improved experimental resolution for quantifying protein stability. This approach, which is easily extended to reversible protein-protein interactions, seems very promising for elucidating intracellular protein functions. PMID:16055538

  2. Transcriptional activation by heat and cold of a thiol protease gene in tomato. [Lycopersicon esculentum

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffer, M.A.; Fischer, R.L.

    We previously determined that low temperature induces the accumulation in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit of a cloned mRNA, designated C14, encoding a polypeptide related to thiol proteases. We now demonstrate that C14 mRNA accumulation is a response common to both high (40{degree}C) and low (4{degree}C) temperature stresses. Exposure of tomato fruit to 40{degree}C results in the accumulation of C14 mRNA, by 8 hours. This response is more rapid than that to 4{degree}C, but slower than the induction of many heat shock messages by 40{degree}C, and therefore unique. We have also studied the mechanism by which heat and cold exposure activatemore » C14 gene expression. Both high and low temperature regulate protease gene expression through transcriptional induction of a single C14 gene. A hypothesis for the function of C14 thiol protease gene expression in response to heat and cold is discussed.« less

  3. Regulation of Hippocampal Glutamate Receptors: Evidence for the Involvement of a Calcium-Activated Protease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudry, Michel; Lynch, Gary

    1980-04-01

    Specific [3H]glutamate binding to rat hippocampal membranes and the calcium-induced increase in this binding are markedly temperature-sensitive and are inhibited by alkylating or reducing agents as well as by various protease inhibitors. N-Ethylmaleimide, chloromethyl ketone derivatives of lysine and phenylalanine, and tosylarginine methyl ester decrease the maximum number of [3H]glutamate binding sites without changing their affinity for glutamate. Preincubation of the membranes with glutamate does not protect the glutamate ``receptors'' from the suppressive effects of these agents. The proteases trypsin and α -chymotrypsin increase the maximum number of [3H]glutamate binding sites. The effects of calcium on glutamate binding are different across brain regions. Cerebellar membranes are almost insensitive whereas hippocampal and striatal membranes exhibit a strong increase in the number of binding sites after exposure to even low concentrations of calcium. These results suggest that an endogenous membrane-associated thiol protease regulates the number of [3H]glutamate binding sites in hippocampal membranes and that this is the mechanism by which calcium stimulates glutamate binding. The possibility is discussed that the postulated mechanisms participate in synaptic physiology and in particular may be related to the long-term potentiation of transmission found in hippocampus under certain conditions.

  4. 3D-quantitative structure-activity relationship study for the design of novel enterovirus A71 3C protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Nie, Quandeng; Xu, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Qi; Ma, Yuying; Yin, Zheng; Shang, Luqing

    2018-06-07

    A three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships model of enterovirus A71 3C protease inhibitors was constructed in this study. The protein-ligand interaction fingerprint was analyzed to generate a pharmacophore model. A predictive and reliable three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships model was built based on the Flexible Alignment of AutoGPA. Moreover, three novel compounds (I-III) were designed and evaluated for their biochemical activity against 3C protease and anti-enterovirus A71 activity in vitro. III exhibited excellent inhibitory activity (IC 50 =0.031 ± 0.005 μM, EC 50 =0.036 ± 0.007 μM). Thus, this study provides a useful quantitative structure-activity relationships model to develop potent inhibitors for enterovirus A71 3C protease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased Expression of Cathelicidin by Direct Activation of Protease-Activated Receptor 2: Possible Implications on the Pathogenesis of Rosacea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Yoon Jee; Lim, Beom Jin; Sohn, Hyo Jung; Shin, Dongyun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Recent findings of increased cathelicidin protein and its proteolytic fragments in rosacea suggest a pathogenic role for cathelicidin in this disease. The relationship between cathelicidin and protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) is therefore of interest, as PAR-2, expressed principally in keratinocytes, regulates pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the skin. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between expression of PAR-2 and cathelicidin in rosacea and to test the effect of direct PAR-2 activation on cathelicidin expression in keratinocytes. Materials and Methods Samples from 40 patients with clinicopathologic diagnosis of rosacea and facial skin tissue samples from 20 patients with no specific findings or milium without inflammation were retrieved. Intensities of immunohistochemical staining for PAR-2 and cathelicidin were compared between normal and rosacea-affected skin tissues. Additionally, correlations between PAR-2 and cathelicidin staining intensities within rosacea patients were analyzed. In cultured keratinocytes, changes in PAR-2, cathelicidin, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA and protein were analyzed after treatment with PAR-2 activating peptide (AP). Results Cathelicidin expression was significantly higher in rosacea skin tissues than in normal tissues (p<0.001), while PAR-2 expression was not significantly higher in rosacea tissues than in normal skin tissues. A positive correlation between PAR-2 and cathelicidin within rosacea samples was observed (R=0.330, p=0.037). After treatment of PAR-2 AP, both mRNA and protein levels for PAR-2, cathelicidin, and VEGF significantly increased in cultured keratinocytes, compared with PAR-2 control peptide treatment. Conclusion PAR-2 may participate in the pathogenesis of rosacea through activation of cathelicidin LL-37, a mediator of innate immune responses in the skin. PMID:25323904

  6. Design of Protease Activated Optical Contrast Agents That Exploit a Latent Lysosomotropic Effect for Use in Fluorescence-Guided Surgery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for new molecular-guided contrast agents to enhance surgical procedures such as tumor resection that require a high degree of precision. Cysteine cathepsins are highly up-regulated in a wide variety of cancers, both in tumor cells and in the tumor-supporting cells of the surrounding stroma. Therefore, tools that can be used to dynamically monitor their activity in vivo could be used as imaging contrast agents for intraoperative fluorescence image guided surgery (FGS). Although multiple classes of cathepsin-targeted substrate probes have been reported, most suffer from overall fast clearance from sites of protease activation, leading to reduced signal intensity and duration in vivo. Here we describe the design and synthesis of a series of near-infrared fluorogenic probes that exploit a latent cationic lysosomotropic effect (LLE) to promote cellular retention upon protease activation. These probes show tumor-specific retention, fast activation kinetics, and rapid systemic distribution. We demonstrate that they are suitable for detection of diverse cancer types including breast, colon and lung tumors. Most importantly, the agents are compatible with the existing, FDA approved, da Vinci surgical system for fluorescence guided tumor resection. Therefore, our data suggest that the probes reported here can be used with existing clinical instrumentation to detect tumors and potentially other types of inflammatory lesions to guide surgical decision making in real time. PMID:26039341

  7. The Inflammasome Drives GSDMD-Independent Secondary Pyroptosis and IL-1 Release in the Absence of Caspase-1 Protease Activity.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Katharina S; Groß, Christina J; Dreier, Roland F; Saller, Benedikt S; Mishra, Ritu; Gorka, Oliver; Heilig, Rosalie; Meunier, Etienne; Dick, Mathias S; Ćiković, Tamara; Sodenkamp, Jan; Médard, Guillaume; Naumann, Ronald; Ruland, Jürgen; Kuster, Bernhard; Broz, Petr; Groß, Olaf

    2017-12-26

    Inflammasomes activate the protease caspase-1, which cleaves interleukin-1β and interleukin-18 to generate the mature cytokines and controls their secretion and a form of inflammatory cell death called pyroptosis. By generating mice expressing enzymatically inactive caspase-1 C284A , we provide genetic evidence that caspase-1 protease activity is required for canonical IL-1 secretion, pyroptosis, and inflammasome-mediated immunity. In caspase-1-deficient cells, caspase-8 can be activated at the inflammasome. Using mice either lacking the pyroptosis effector gasdermin D (GSDMD) or expressing caspase-1 C284A , we found that GSDMD-dependent pyroptosis prevented caspase-8 activation at the inflammasome. In the absence of GSDMD-dependent pyroptosis, the inflammasome engaged a delayed, alternative form of lytic cell death that was accompanied by the release of large amounts of mature IL-1 and contributed to host protection. Features of this cell death modality distinguished it from apoptosis, suggesting it may represent a distinct form of pro-inflammatory regulated necrosis. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cylindrospermopsin inhibits growth and modulates protease activity in the aquatic plants Lemna minor L. and Wolffia arrhiza (L.) Horkel.

    PubMed

    Jámbrik, Katalin; Máthé, C; Vasas, G; Bácsi, I; Surányi, G; Gonda, S; Borbély, G; M-Hamvas, Márta

    2010-01-01

    The toxic effects of cylindrospermopsin (cyanobacterial toxin) on animals have been examined extensively, but little research has focused on their effects on plants. In this study cylindrospermopsin (CYN) caused alterations of growth, soluble protein content and protease enzyme activity were studied on two aquatic plants Lemna minor and Wolffia arrhiza in short-term (5 days) experiments. For the treatments we used CYN containing crude extracts of Aphanizomenon ovalisporum (BGSD-423) and purified CYN as well. The maximal inhibitory effects on fresh weight of L. minor and W. arrhiza caused by crude extract were 60% and 54%, respectively, while the maximum inhibitory effects were 30% and 43% in the case of purified CYN at 20 μg ml(-1) CYN content of culture medium. In CYN-treated plants the concentration of soluble protein showed mild increases, especially in W. arrhiza. Protease isoenzyme activity gels showed significant alterations of enzyme activities under the influence of CYN. Several isoenzymes were far more active and new ones appeared in CYN-treated plants. Treatments with cyanobacterial crude extract caused stronger effects than the purified cyanobacterial toxins used in equivalent CYN concentrations.

  9. Extensive Basal Level Activation of Complement Mannose-Binding Lectin-Associated Serine Protease-3: Kinetic Modeling of Lectin Pathway Activation Provides Possible Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Oroszlán, Gábor; Dani, Ráhel; Szilágyi, András; Závodszky, Péter; Thiel, Steffen; Gál, Péter; Dobó, József

    2017-01-01

    Serine proteases (SPs) are typically synthesized as precursors, termed proenzymes or zymogens, and the fully active form is produced via limited proteolysis by another protease or by autoactivation. The lectin pathway of the complement system is initiated by mannose-binding lectin (MBL)-associated SPs (MASP)-1, and MASP-2, which are known to be present as proenzymes in blood. The third SP of the lectin pathway, MASP-3, was recently shown to be the major activator, and the exclusive "resting blood" activator of profactor D, producing factor D, the initiator protease of the alternative pathway. Because only activated MASP-3 is capable of carrying out this cleavage, it was presumed that a significant fraction of MASP-3 must be present in the active form in resting blood. Here, we aimed to detect active MASP-3 in the blood by a more direct technique and to quantitate the active to zymogen ratio. First, MASPs were partially purified (enriched) from human plasma samples by affinity chromatography using immobilized MBL in the presence of inhibitors. Using this MASP pool, only the zymogen form of MASP-1 was detected by Western blot, whereas over 70% MASP-3 was in an activated form in the same samples. Furthermore, the active to zymogen ratio of MASP-3 showed little individual variation. It is enigmatic how MASP-3, which is not able to autoactivate, is present mostly as an active enzyme, whereas MASP-1, which has a potent autoactivation capability, is predominantly proenzymic in resting blood. In an attempt to explain this phenomenon, we modeled the basal level fluid-phase activation of lectin pathway proteases and their subsequent inactivation by C1 inhibitor and antithrombin using available and newly determined kinetic constants. The model can explain extensive MASP-3 activation only if we assume efficient intracomplex activation of MASP-3 by zymogen MASP-1. On the other hand, the model is in good agreement with the fact that MASP-1 and -2 are predominantly proenzymic and

  10. Inhibition of dengue virus replication by novel inhibitors of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and protease activities.

    PubMed

    Pelliccia, Sveva; Wu, Yu-Hsuan; Coluccia, Antonio; La Regina, Giuseppe; Tseng, Chin-Kai; Famiglini, Valeria; Masci, Domiziana; Hiscott, John; Lee, Jin-Ching; Silvestri, Romano

    2017-12-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the leading mosquito-transmitted viral infection in the world. With more than 390 million new infections annually, and up to 1 million clinical cases with severe disease manifestations, there continues to be a need to develop new antiviral agents against dengue infection. In addition, there is no approved anti-DENV agents for treating DENV-infected patients. In the present study, we identified new compounds with anti-DENV replication activity by targeting viral replication enzymes - NS5, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and NS3 protease, using cell-based reporter assay. Subsequently, we performed an enzyme-based assay to clarify the action of these compounds against DENV RdRp or NS3 protease activity. Moreover, these compounds exhibited anti-DENV activity in vivo in the ICR-suckling DENV-infected mouse model. Combination drug treatment exhibited a synergistic inhibition of DENV replication. These results describe novel prototypical small anti-DENV molecules for further development through compound modification and provide potential antivirals for treating DENV infection and DENV-related diseases.

  11. Novel thrombolytic protease from edible and medicinal plant Aster yomena (Kitam.) Honda with anticoagulant activity: purification and partial characterization.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun-Hui; Kim, Dae-Won; Park, Se-Eun; Choi, Bong-Suk; Sapkota, Kumar; Kim, Seung; Kim, Sung-Jun

    2014-10-01

    A thrombolytic protease named kitamase possessing anticoagulant property was purified from edible and medicinal plant Aster yomena (Kitam.) Honda. Kitamase showed a molecular weight of 50 kDa by SDS-PAGE and displayed a strong fibrin zymogram lysis band corresponding to the similar molecular mass. The enzyme was active at high temperatures (50°C). The fibrinolytic activity of kitamase was strongly inhibited by EDTA, EGTA, TPCK and PMSF, inhibited by Zn(2+). The Km and Vmax values for substrate S-2251 were determined as 4.31 mM and 23.81 mM/mg respectively. It dissolved fibrin clot directly and specifically cleaved the α, Aα and γ-γ chains of fibrin and fibrinogen. In addition, kitamase delayed the coagulation time and increased activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time. Kitamase exerted a significant protective effect against collagen and epinephrine induced pulmonary thromboembolism in mice. These results suggest that kitamase may have the property of metallo-protease like enzyme, novel fibrino(geno)lytic enzyme and a potential to be a therapeutic agent for thrombosis. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cathelicidin, kallikrein 5, and serine protease activity is inhibited during treatment of rosacea with azelaic acid 15% gel

    PubMed Central

    Coda, Alvin B.; Hata, Tissa; Miller, Jeremiah; Audish, David; Kotol, Paul; Two, Aimee; Shafiq, Faiza; Yamasaki, Kenshi; Harper, Julie C.; Del Rosso, James Q.; Gallo, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Excess cathelicidin and kallikrein 5 (KLK5) have been hypothesized to play a role in the pathophysiology of rosacea. Objective We sought to evaluate the effects of azelaic acid (AzA) on these elements of the innate immune system. Methods Gene expression and protease activity were measured in laboratory models and patients with rosacea during a 16-week multicenter, prospective, open-label study of 15% AzA gel. Results AzA directly inhibited KLK5 in cultured keratinocytes and gene expression of KLK5, Toll-like receptor-2, and cathelicidin in mouse skin. Patients with rosacea showed reduction in cathelicidin and KLK5 messenger RNA after treatment with AzA gel. Subjects without rosacea had lower serine protease activity (SPA) than patients with rosacea. Distinct subsets of patients with rosacea who had high and low baseline SPA were identified, and patients with high baseline exhibited a statistically significant reduction of SPA with 15% AzA gel treatment. Limitations Study size was insufficient to predict clinical efficacy based on the innate immune response to AzA. Conclusions These results show that cathelicidin and KLK5 decrease in association with AZA exposure. Our observations suggest a new mechanism of action for AzA and that SPA may be a useful biomarker for disease activity. PMID:23871720

  13. Cathelicidin, kallikrein 5, and serine protease activity is inhibited during treatment of rosacea with azelaic acid 15% gel.

    PubMed

    Coda, Alvin B; Hata, Tissa; Miller, Jeremiah; Audish, David; Kotol, Paul; Two, Aimee; Shafiq, Faiza; Yamasaki, Kenshi; Harper, Julie C; Del Rosso, James Q; Gallo, Richard L

    2013-10-01

    Excess cathelicidin and kallikrein 5 (KLK5) have been hypothesized to play a role in the pathophysiology of rosacea. We sought to evaluate the effects of azelaic acid (AzA) on these elements of the innate immune system. Gene expression and protease activity were measured in laboratory models and patients with rosacea during a 16-week multicenter, prospective, open-label study of 15% AzA gel. AzA directly inhibited KLK5 in cultured keratinocytes and gene expression of KLK5, Toll-like receptor-2, and cathelicidin in mouse skin. Patients with rosacea showed reduction in cathelicidin and KLK5 messenger RNA after treatment with AzA gel. Subjects without rosacea had lower serine protease activity (SPA) than patients with rosacea. Distinct subsets of patients with rosacea who had high and low baseline SPA were identified, and patients with high baseline exhibited a statistically significant reduction of SPA with 15% AzA gel treatment. Study size was insufficient to predict clinical efficacy based on the innate immune response to AzA. These results show that cathelicidin and KLK5 decrease in association with AZA exposure. Our observations suggest a new mechanism of action for AzA and that SPA may be a useful biomarker for disease activity. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Discovery of potent peptide-mimetic antagonists for the human thrombin receptor, protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1).

    PubMed

    Maryanoff, Bruce E; Zhang, Han-Cheng; Andrade-Gordon, Patricia; Derian, Claudia K

    2003-03-01

    Protease-activated receptors (PARs) represent a unique family of seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors, which are enzymatically cleaved to expose a new extracellular N-terminus that acts as a tethered activating ligand. PAR-1 is cleaved and activated by the serine protease alpha-thrombin, is expressed in various tissues (e.g. platelets and vascular cells), and is involved in cellular responses associated with hemostasis, proliferation, and tissue injury. By using a de novo design approach, we have discovered a series of potent heterocycle-based peptide-miimetic antagonists of PAR-1, exemplified by advanced leads RWJ-56110 (22) and RWJ-58259 (32). These compounds are potent, selective PAR-1 antagonists, devoid of PAR-1 agonist and thrombin inhibitory activity: they bind to PAR-1, interfere with calcium mobilization and cellular functions associated with PAR-1, and do not affect PAR-2, PAR-3, or PAR-4. RWJ-56110 was determined to be a direct inhibitor of PAR-1 activation and internalization, without affecting PAR-1 N-terminal cleavage. At high concentrations of alpha-thrombin, RWJ-56110 fully blocked activation responses in human vascular cells, but not in human platelets; whereas, at high concentrations of TRAP-6, RWJ-56110 blocked activation responses in both cell types. This result is consistent with the presence of another thrombin receptor on human platelets, namely PAR-4. RWJ-56110 and RWJ-58259 clearly interrupt the binding of a tethered ligand to its receptor. RWJ-58259 demonstrated antirestenotic activity in a rat balloon angioplasty model and antithrombotic activity in a cynomolgus monkey arterial injury model. Such PAR-1 antagonists should not only serve as useful tools to delineate the physiological and pathophysiological roles of PAR-1, but also may have therapeutic potential for treating thrombosis and restenosis in humans.

  15. Differential regulation of protease activated receptor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator expression by shear stress in vascular smooth muscle cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadaki, M.; Ruef, J.; Nguyen, K. T.; Li, F.; Patterson, C.; Eskin, S. G.; McIntire, L. V.; Runge, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that vascular smooth muscle cells are responsive to changes in their local hemodynamic environment. The effects of shear stress on the expression of human protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) mRNA and protein were investigated in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). Under conditions of low shear stress (5 dyn/cm2), PAR-1 mRNA expression was increased transiently at 2 hours compared with stationary control values, whereas at high shear stress (25 dyn/cm2), mRNA expression was decreased (to 29% of stationary control; P<0.05) at all examined time points (2 to 24 hours). mRNA half-life studies showed that this response was not due to increased mRNA instability. tPA mRNA expression was decreased (to 10% of stationary control; P<0.05) by low shear stress after 12 hours of exposure and was increased (to 250% of stationary control; P<0.05) after 24 hours at high shear stress. The same trends in PAR-1 mRNA levels were observed in rat smooth muscle cells, indicating that the effects of shear stress on human PAR-1 were not species-specific. Flow cytometry and ELISA techniques using rat smooth muscle cells and HASMCs, respectively, provided evidence that shear stress exerted similar effects on cell surface-associated PAR-1 and tPA protein released into the conditioned media. The decrease in PAR-1 mRNA and protein had functional consequences for HASMCs, such as inhibition of [Ca2+] mobilization in response to thrombin stimulation. These data indicate that human PAR-1 and tPA gene expression are regulated differentially by shear stress, in a pattern consistent with their putative roles in several arterial vascular pathologies.

  16. DPC 681 and DPC 684: Potent, Selective Inhibitors of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Active against Clinically Relevant Mutant Variants

    PubMed Central

    Kaltenbach, Robert F.; Trainor, George; Getman, Daniel; Harris, Greg; Garber, Sena; Cordova, Beverly; Bacheler, Lee; Jeffrey, Susan; Logue, Kelly; Cawood, Pamela; Klabe, Ronald; Diamond, Sharon; Davies, Marc; Saye, Joanne; Jona, Janan; Erickson-Viitanen, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors (PIs) are important components of many highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens. However, development of phenotypic and/or genotypic resistance can occur, including cross-resistance to other PIs. Development of resistance takes place because trough levels of free drug are inadequate to suppress preexisting resistant mutant variants and/or to inhibit de novo-generated resistant mutant variants. There is thus a need for new PIs, which are more potent against mutant variants of HIV and show higher levels of free drug at the trough. We have optimized a series of substituted sulfonamides and evaluated the inhibitors against laboratory strains and clinical isolates of HIV type 1 (HIV-1), including viruses with mutations in the protease gene. In addition, serum protein binding was determined to estimate total drug requirements for 90% suppression of virus replication (plasma IC90). Two compounds resulting from our studies, designated DPC 681 and DPC 684, are potent and selective inhibitors of HIV protease with IC90s for wild-type HIV-1 of 4 to 40 nM. DPC 681 and DPC 684 showed no loss in potency toward recombinant mutant HIVs with the D30N mutation and a fivefold or smaller loss in potency toward mutant variants with three to five amino acid substitutions. A panel of chimeric viruses constructed from clinical samples from patients who failed PI-containing regimens and containing 5 to 11 mutations, including positions 10, 32, 46, 47, 50, 54, 63, 71, 82, 84, and 90 had mean IC50 values of <20 nM for DPC 681 and DPC 681, respectively. In contrast, marketed PIs had mean IC50 values ranging from 200 nM (amprenavir) to >900 nM (nelfinavir). PMID:11600351

  17. Protease activity of Per a 10 potentiates Th2 polarization by increasing IL-23 and OX40L.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Komal; Kale, Sagar L; Arora, Naveen

    2015-12-01

    Proteases are implicated in exacerbation of allergic diseases. In this study, the role of proteolytic activity of Per a 10 was evaluated on Th2 polarization. Intranasal administration of Per a 10 in mice led to allergic airway inflammation as seen by higher IgE levels, cellular infiltration, IL-17A, and Th2 cytokines, whereas, inactive (Δ)Per a 10 showed attenuated response. There was an increased OX40L expression on lung and lymph node dendritic cells in Per a 10 immunized group and on Per a 10 stimulated BMDCs. Reduction in CD40 expression without any change at transcript level in lungs of Per a 10 immunized mice suggested CD40 cleavage. BMDCs pulsed with Per a 10 showed reduced CD40 expression with lower IL-12p70 secretion as compared to heat inactivated Per a 10. IL-23, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in Per a 10 stimulated BMDCs supernatant. In DC-T cell coculture studies, Per a 10 pulsed BMDCs showed higher levels of IL-4 and IL-13 that were reduced on blocking of either IL-23 or OX40L. In conclusion, the data suggests a critical role of protease activity of Per a 10 in promoting Th2 polarization by increasing IL-23 secretion and OX40L expression on dendritic cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Exploration of peptides that fit into the thermally vibrating active site of cathepsin K protease by alternating artificial intelligence and molecular simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Katsuhiko

    2017-08-01

    Eighteen tripeptides that fit into the thermally vibrating active site of cathepsin K were discovered by alternating artificial intelligence and molecular simulation. The 18 tripeptides fit the active site better than the cysteine protease inhibitor E64, and a better inhibitor of cathepsin K could be designed considering these tripeptides. Among the 18 tripeptides, Phe-Arg-Asp and Tyr-Arg-Asp fit the active site the best and their structural similarity should be considered in the design process. Interesting factors emerged from the structure of the decision tree, and its structural information will guide exploration of potential inhibitor molecules for proteases.

  19. Serine protease allergen favours Th2 responses via PAR-2 and STAT3 activation in murine model.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, K; Arora, N

    2018-03-01

    Protease activity of Per a 10 favours Th2 responses by differential regulation of IL-12p70 and IL-23 cytokine subunits. This study aimed to elucidate the underlying mechanism of differential regulation of IL-12p70 and IL-23. PAR-2 activation was blocked in murine model by administering SAM11 before each sensitization. CD11c + p-STAT3 + cells were measured in lungs by flow cytometry. BMDCs were pretreated with SAM11 or isotype control or stattic and stimulated with Per a 10. p-STAT3 levels were measured using Western blot. Transcript levels of IL-12p35, IL-12/23p40 and IL-23p19 were measured using RT-PCR. Cytokine levels were analysed using ELISA. Protease activity of Per a 10 increased p-STAT3 levels in mouse lungs, which was reduced upon PAR-2 blockage. Percentage of p-STAT3 + CD11c + cells was higher in Per a 10-administered mice and was reduced upon PAR-2 blockage. IL-12p35 and IL-12p70 levels were higher, and IL-23p19 and IL-23 levels were lower in both SAM11-treated mice and BMDCs indicating a role of PAR-2-mediated signalling. IL-4, TSLP, IL-17A, EPO activity, total cell count and specific IgE and IgG1 levels were lower in SAM11-administered mice. Inhibiting STAT3 activation via stattic also leads to lower levels of IL-23p19 and IL-23 and higher levels of IL-12p35. Per a 10 leads to PAR-2 activation on BMDCs resulting in downstream activation of STAT3 to regulate the balance between IL-12/IL-23 subunits causing a cytokine milieu rich in IL-23 to favour Th2 polarization. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  20. Casp8p41 generated by HIV protease kills CD4 T cells through direct Bak activation

    PubMed Central

    Sainski, Amy M.; Dai, Haiming; Natesampillai, Sekar; Pang, Yuan-Ping; Bren, Gary D.; Cummins, Nathan W.; Correia, Cristina; Meng, X. Wei; Tarara, James E.; Ramirez-Alvarado, Marina; Katzmann, David J.; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Kappes, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease cleaves procaspase 8 to a fragment, termed Casp8p41, that lacks caspase activity but nonetheless contributes to T cell apoptosis. Herein, we show that Casp8p41 contains a domain that interacts with the BH3-binding groove of pro-apoptotic Bak to cause Bak oligomerization, Bak-mediated membrane permeabilization, and cell death. Levels of active Bak are higher in HIV-infected T cells that express Casp8p41. Conversely, targeted mutations in the Bak-interacting domain diminish Bak binding and Casp8p41-mediated cell death. Similar mutations in procaspase 8 impair the ability of HIV to kill infected T cells. These observations support a novel paradigm in which HIV converts a normal cellular constituent into a direct activator that functions like a BH3-only protein. PMID:25246614

  1. P1-Substituted Symmetry-Based Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Inhibitors with Potent Antiviral Activity against Drug-Resistant Viruses

    SciTech Connect

    DeGoey, David A.; Grampovnik, David J.; Chen, Hui-Ju

    2013-03-07

    Because there is currently no cure for HIV infection, patients must remain on long-term drug therapy, leading to concerns over potential drug side effects and the emergence of drug resistance. For this reason, new and safe antiretroviral agents with improved potency against drug-resistant strains of HIV are needed. A series of HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) with potent activity against both wild-type (WT) virus and drug-resistant strains of HIV was designed and synthesized. The incorporation of substituents with hydrogen bond donor and acceptor groups at the P1 position of our symmetry-based inhibitor series resulted in significant potency improvements against the resistantmore » mutants. By this approach, several compounds, such as 13, 24, and 29, were identified that demonstrated similar or improved potencies compared to 1 against highly mutated strains of HIV derived from patients who previously failed HIV PI therapy. Overall, compound 13 demonstrated the best balance of potency against drug resistant strains of HIV and oral bioavailability in pharmacokinetic studies. X-ray analysis of an HIV PI with an improved resistance profile bound to WT HIV protease is also reported.« less

  2. Proteases in doping control analysis.

    PubMed

    Thevis, M; Maurer, J; Kohler, M; Geyer, H; Schänzer, W

    2007-07-01

    Urine manipulation in sports drug testing has become a serious problem for doping control laboratories, and recent scandals in elite endurance sports have revealed the problem of urine manipulation presumably using proteases, which will impede the detection of drugs such as erythropoietin (EPO) or other peptide hormones. Using commonly accepted analytical strategies, a protocol was developed enabling the determination of elevated protease activities in doping control specimens followed by the visualization of protein degradation and identification of proteases such as chymotrypsin, trypsin and papain. Therefore, protease detection kits based on fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled casein were employed, and protease concentrations greater than 15 microg/mL of urine entailed subsequent 1-dimensional gel electrophoretic visualization of urinary proteins. The presence of 20 microg of proteases per mL of urine caused a complete degradation of proteins usually observed in urinary matrices ("trace of burning"), while respective proteases were still detected in spiked urine samples after 10 days of storage at + 4 and - 20 degrees C. Identification of target proteases at respective molecular weights was accomplished using bottom-up sequencing approaches based on in-gel digestion of separated enzymes followed by capillary liquid chromatography--Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry.

  3. A real-time fluorescence assay for protease activity and inhibitor screening based on the aggregation-caused quenching of a perylene probe.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Zhifang; Zhang, Ya; Yu, Cong

    2018-06-01

    We have established a real-time and label-free fluorescence turn-on strategy for protease activity detection and inhibitor screening via peptide-induced aggregation-caused quenching of a perylene probe. Because of electrostatic interactions and high hydrophilicity, poly-l-glutamic acid sodium salt (PGA; a negatively charged peptide) could induce aggregation of a positively charged perylene probe (probe 1) and the monomer fluorescence of probe 1 was effectively quenched. After a protease was added, PGA was enzymatically hydrolyzed into small fragments and probe 1 disaggregated. The fluorescence recovery of probe 1 was found to be proportional to the concentration of protease in the range from 0 to 1 mU/ml. The detection limit was down to 0.1 mU/ml. In the presence of a protease inhibitor, protease activity was inhibited and fluorescence recovery reduced. Moreover, we demonstrated the potential application of our method in a complex mixture sample including 1% human serum. Our method is simple, fast and cost effective. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. ENMD-1068, a protease-activated receptor 2 antagonist, inhibits the development of endometriosis in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yifeng; Lin, Min; Weng, Huinan; Wang, Xuefeng; Yang, Li; Liu, Fenghua

    2014-06-01

    Protease-activated receptor 2 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. We studied the effect of ENMD-1068, a protease-activated receptor 2 antagonist, on the development of endometriosis in a noninvasive fluorescent mouse model. A red fluorescent protein-expressing xenograft model of human endometriosis was created in nude mice. After endometriosis induction, the mice were injected intraperitoneally with either 25 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg ENMD-1068 or with 200 μL of the vehicle control daily for 5 days. The endometriotic lesions that developed in the mice were then counted, measured, and collected. The lesions were assessed for the production of interleukin 6 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and evaluated for the activation of nuclear factor-κB and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor by immunohistochemical analyses. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed by immunohistochemistry for Ki-67 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling, respectively. ENMD-1068 dose-dependently inhibited the development of endometriotic lesions (P < .05) without apparent toxicity to various organs of the treated mice. Consistently, ENMD-1068 dose-dependently inhibited the expression of interleukin 6 and nuclear factor-κB (P < .05) and cell proliferation (P < .05) in the lesions, as well as increased the percentage of apoptotic cells (P < .05). ENMD-1068 reduced the levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor in the lesions (P < .05), but not in a dose-dependent manner. Our study suggests that ENMD-1068 is effective in suppressing the growth of endometriosis, which might be attributed to the drug's antiangiogenic and antiinflammatory activities. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Tissue Factor-Factor VIIa Complex Triggers Protease Activated Receptor 2-Dependent Growth Factor Release and Migration in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chanakira, Alice; Westmark, Pamela R.; Ong, Irene M.; Sheehan, John P.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Enhanced tissue factor (TF) expression in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is associated with aggressive disease. Our objective was to evaluate the role of the TF-factor VIIa-protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) pathway in human EOC. Methods TCGA RNAseq data from EOC databases were analyzed for PAR expression. Cell and microparticle (MP) associated TF protein expression (Western blot) and MP-associated coagulant activity were determined in human EOC (SKOV-3, OVCAR-3 and CaOV-3) and control cell lines. PAR-1 and PAR-2 protein expression were similarly examined. The PAR dependence of VEGF-A release (ELISA) and chemotactic migration in response to FVIIa and cellular proliferation in response to thrombin was evaluated with small molecule antagonists. Results Relative mRNA expression consistently demonstrated PAR-2>PAR-1≫PAR-3/4 in multiple EOC datasets. Human EOC cell line lysates confirmed expression of TF, PAR-1 and PAR-2 proteins. MPs isolated from EOC cell lines demonstrated markedly enhanced (4–10 fold) TF coagulant activity relative to control cell lines. FVIIa induced a dose-dependent increase in VEGF-A release (2.5-3 fold) from EOC cell lines that was abrogated by the PAR-2 antagonist ENMD-1068. FVIIa treatment of CaOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells resulted in increased chemotactic migration that was abolished by ENMD-1068. Thrombin induced dose-dependent EOC cell line proliferation was completely reversed by the PAR-1 antagonist vorapaxar. Small molecule antagonists had no effect on these phenotypes without protease present. Conclusions Enhanced activity of the TF-FVIIa-PAR-2 axis may contribute to the EOC progression via PAR-2 dependent signaling that supports an angiogenic and invasive phenotype and local thrombin generation supporting PAR-1 dependent proliferation. PMID:28148395

  6. Effect of poloxamer 407 administration on the serum lipids profile, anxiety level and protease activity in the heart and liver of mice

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Thomas P.; Dubrovina, Nina I.; Kisarova, Yana A.; Zhanaeva, Svetlana Ya.; Cherkanova, Marina S.; Filjushina, Elena E.; Alexeenko, Tatyana V.; Machova, Eva; Zhukova, Natalya A.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic administration of the poloxamer 407 (P-407), a block copolymer, to elevate serum lipids in mice is a well-established mouse model of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. We tested the hypothesis that the activity of several types of proteases in heart and liver tissue is changed in the early stages of atherosclerosis development. Additionally, we evaluated whether increased serum lipids would induce anxiety in mice, as determined by using a ‘plus-maze’ test. The mice were administered P-407 by intraperitoneal injection twice a week for one month. P-407 administration to mice resulted in a marked increase in total serum cholesterol, atherogenic non-HDL-cholesterol, and especially in total triglycerides, and it also increased anxiety. Morphological changes observed in P-407-treated mice included contractile type changes in cardiomyocytes and foamy macrophages in liver. A significant increase of cysteine proteases cathepsin B and cathepsin L (at 24 h) and aspartate protease cathepsin D (at both 24 h and 5 days) was determined in heart tissue following P-407 administration. However, no changes were noted in heart matrix metalloproteinase activity. The activity of cysteine and aspartate proteases was significantly increased in liver at both 24 hours and 5 days after P-407 administration. In conclusion, administration of P-407 to mice for one month resulted in increased anxiety, and more importantly, there was an increase in the activity of heart and liver proteases secondary to sustained dyslipidemia. It is suggested that heart and liver cysteine and aspartate proteases may represent potential therapeutic targets in the early stages of atherosclerosis. PMID:24170975

  7. Activation of mas-related G-protein-coupled receptors by the house dust mite cysteine protease Der p1 provides a new mechanism linking allergy and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Vemuri B; Lerner, Ethan A

    2017-10-20

    Cysteine and serine proteases function via protease-activated and mas-related G-protein-coupled receptors (Mrgprs) to contribute to allergy and inflammation. Der p1 is a cysteine protease and major allergen from the house dust mite and is associated with allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Der p1 activates protease-activated receptor 2 and induces the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 from cells. However, the possibility that Der p1 acts on Mrgprs has not been considered. We report here that ratiometric calcium imaging reveals that Der p1 activates the human receptor MRGPRX1 and the mouse homolog MrgprC11, implicated previously in itch. Der p1 cleavage of N-terminal receptor peptides followed by site-directed mutagenesis of the cleavage sites links receptor activation to specific amino acid residues. Der p1 also induced the release of IL-6 from heterologous cells expressing MRGPRX1. In summary, activation of Mrgprs by the allergen Der p1 may contribute to inflammation. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Transcriptional activation of a 37 kDa ethylene responsive cysteine protease gene, RbCP1, is associated with protein degradation during petal abscission in rose

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Siddharth Kaushal; Singh, Amar Pal; Sane, Aniruddha P.; Nath, Pravendra

    2009-01-01

    Cysteine proteases play an important role in several developmental processes in plants, particularly those related to senescence and cell death. A cysteine protease gene, RbCP1, has been identified that encodes a putative protein of 357 amino acids and is expressed in the abscission zone (AZ) of petals in rose. The gene was responsive to ethylene in petals, petal abscission zones, leaves, and thalamus. The expression of RbCP1 increased during both ethylene-induced as well as natural abscission and was inhibited by 1-MCP. Transcript accumulation of RbCP1 was accompanied by the appearance of a 37 kDa cysteine protease, a concomitant increase in protease activity and a substantial decrease in total protein content in the AZ of petals. Agro-injection of rose petals with a 2.0 kb region upstream of the RbCP1 gene could drive GUS expression in an abscission zone-specific manner and was blocked by 1-MCP. It is concluded that petal abscission is associated with a decrease in total protein content resulting from rapid transcription of RbCP1 and the expression of a 37 kDa protease. PMID:19346241

  9. Protease-activated receptor-1 antagonists in long-term antiplatelet therapy. Current state of evidence and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Moschonas, I C; Goudevenos, J A; Tselepis, A D

    2015-04-15

    Atherothrombosis and its clinical manifestations are among the leading causes of death in the developed world. The current standard-of-care antiplatelet therapy for the treatment of such events comprises aspirin and a thienopyridine or ticagrelor. However, recurrent ischemic events due to residual cardiovascular risk are a common phenomenon in these patients. It is believed that this residual risk is caused, at least in part, by thrombin, which signals through protease-activated receptors (PARs) and especially PAR-1. Thus, PAR-1 antagonism could represent an effective approach in the treatment of atherothrombotic disease. In this context, two potent and selective agents have been developed, vorapaxar and atopaxar. However, only vorapaxar has completed phase 3 clinical trials. In the present review, the main pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of the PAR-1 antagonists are briefly described and the latest clinical data on vorapaxar are presented. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. The interdomain interface in bifunctional enzyme protein 3/4A (NS3/4A) regulates protease and helicase activities.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Cihan; Mukherjee, Sourav; Hanson, Alicia M; Frick, David N; Schiffer, Celia A

    2013-12-01

    Hepatitis C (HCV) protein 3/4A (NS3/4A) is a bifunctional enzyme comprising two separate domains with protease and helicase activities, which are essential for viral propagation. Both domains are stable and have enzymatic activity separately, and the relevance and implications of having protease and helicase together as a single protein remains to be explored. Altered in vitro activities of isolated domains compared with the full-length NS3/4A protein suggest the existence of interdomain communication. The molecular mechanism and extent of this communication was investigated by probing the domain-domain interface observed in HCV NS3/4A crystal structures. We found in molecular dynamics simulations that the two domains of NS3/4A are dynamically coupled through the interface. Interestingly, mutations designed to disrupt this interface did not hinder the catalytic activities of either domain. In contrast, substrate cleavage and DNA unwinding by these mutants were mostly enhanced compared with the wild-type protein. Disrupting the interface did not significantly alter RNA unwinding activity; however, the full-length protein was more efficient in RNA unwinding than the isolated protease domain, suggesting a more direct role in RNA processing independent of the interface. Our findings suggest that HCV NS3/4A adopts an "extended" catalytically active conformation, and interface formation acts as a switch to regulate activity. We propose a unifying model connecting HCV NS3/4A conformational states and protease and helicase function, where interface formation and the dynamic interplay between the two enzymatic domains of HCV NS3/4A potentially modulate the protease and helicase activities in vivo. © 2013 The Protein Society.

  11. Protease-inhibiting, molecular modeling and antimicrobial activities of extracts and constituents from Helichrysum foetidum and Helichrysum mechowianum (compositae).

    PubMed

    Malolo, Fanny-Aimée Essombe; Bissoue Nouga, Achille; Kakam, Antoine; Franke, Katrin; Ngah, Lidwine; Flausino, Otavio; Mpondo Mpondo, Emmanuel; Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Ndom, Jean Claude; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Wessjohann, Ludger

    2015-01-01

    Helichrysum species are used extensively for stress-related ailments and as dressings for wounds normally encountered in circumcision rites, bruises, cuts and sores. It has been reported that Helichysum species are used to relief abdominal pain, heart burn, cough, cold, wounds, female sterility, menstrual pain. From the extracts of Helichrysum foetidum (L.) Moench, six known compounds were isolated and identified. They were 7, 4'-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-flavanone (1), 6'-methoxy-2',4, 4'-trihydroxychalcone (2), 6'-methoxy-2',4-dihydroxychalcone -4'-O-β-D-glucoside (3), apigenin (4), apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (5), kaur-16-en-18-oic acid (6) while two known compounds 3,5,7-trihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone (12), 4,5-dicaffeoyl quinic acid (13) together with a mixture of phytosterol were isolated from the methanol extract of Helichrysum mechowianum Klatt. All the compounds were characterized by spectroscopic and mass spectrometric methods, and by comparison with literature data. Both extracts and all the isolates were screened for the protease inhibition, antibacterial and antifungal activities. In addition, the phytochemical profiles of both species were investigated by ESI-MS experiments. These results showed that the protease inhibition assay of H. foetidum could be mainly attributed to the constituents of flavonoids glycosides (3, 5) while the compound (13) from H. mechowianum contributes to the stomach protecting effects. In addition, among the antibacterial and antifungal activities of all the isolates, compound (6) was found to possess a potent inhibitor effect against the tested microorganisms. The heterogeneity of the genus is also reflected in its phytochemical diversity. The differential bioactivities and determined constituents support the traditional use of the species. Molecular modelling was carried out by computing selected descriptors related to drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET). Graphical abstractCompounds isolated

  12. Protease-activated receptor 2 in dorsal root ganglion contributes to peripheral sensitization of bone cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Liu, S; Liu, Y-P; Yue, D-M; Liu, G-J

    2014-03-01

    Treating bone cancer pain continues to be a major clinical challenge, and the underlying mechanisms of bone cancer pain remain elusive. Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) has been reported to be involved in neurogenic inflammation, nociceptive pain and hyperalgesia. Here, we investigated the role of PAR2 in bone cancer pain development. Expression of PAR2, mechanical allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia and neurochemical alterations induced by bone cancer pain were analysed in male, adult C3H/HeJ mice with tumour cell implantation (TCI). To investigate the contribution of PAR2 to bone cancer pain, PAR2 antagonist peptide and PAR2 knockout mice were used. TCI produced bone cancer-related pain behaviours. Production and persistence of these pain behaviours were well correlated with TCI-induced up-regulation of PAR2 in sciatic nerve and dorsal root ganglia (DRG). PAR2 knockout and spinal administration of PAR2 antagonist peptide prevented and/or reversed bone cancer-related pain behaviours and associated neurochemical changes in DRG and dorsal horn (DH). TCI also induced proteases release in tumour-bearing tibia, sciatic nerve and DRG. Plantar injection of supernatant from sarcoma cells induced PAR2 up-regulation and intracellular calcium [Ca(2+) ]i increase in DRG, and calcitonin gene-related peptide accumulation in DH, as well as significant thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia, which were all in PAR2-dependent manners. These findings suggest that PAR2 may be a key mediator for peripheral sensitization of bone cancer pain. Inhibiting PAR2 activation, especially during the early phase, may be a new therapy for preventing/suppressing development of bone cancer pain. © 2013 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  13. The Second-Generation Maturation Inhibitor GSK3532795 Maintains Potent Activity Toward HIV Protease Inhibitor-Resistant Clinical Isolates.

    PubMed

    Ray, Neelanjana; Li, Tianbo; Lin, Zeyu; Protack, Tricia; van Ham, Petronella Maria; Hwang, Carey; Krystal, Mark; Nijhuis, Monique; Lataillade, Max; Dicker, Ira

    2017-05-01

    Protease inhibitor (PI)-resistant HIV-1 isolates with primary substitutions in protease (PR) and secondary substitutions in Gag could potentially exhibit cross-resistance to maturation inhibitors. We evaluated the second-generation maturation inhibitor, GSK3532795, for activity toward clinical isolates with genotypic and phenotypic characteristics associated with PI resistance (longitudinal). Longitudinal clinical isolates from 15 PI-treated patients and 7 highly PI-resistant (nonlongitudinal) viruses containing major and minor PI resistance-associated mutations were evaluated for GSK3532795 sensitivity. Phenotypic sensitivity was determined using the PhenoSense Gag/PR assay (Monogram Biosciences) or in-house single- and multiple-cycle assays. Changes from baseline [CFB; ratio of post- to pre-treatment FC-IC50 (fold-change in IC50 versus wild-type virus)] <3 were considered to be within the no-effect level. All nonlongitudinal viruses tested were sensitive to GSK3532795 (FC-IC50 range 0.16-0.68). Among longitudinal isolates, all post-PI treatment samples had major PI resistance-associated mutations in PR and 17/21 had PI resistance-associated changes in Gag. Nineteen of the 21 post-PI treatment samples had GSK3532795 CFB <3. Median (range) CFB was 0.83 (0.05-27.4) [Monogram (11 patients)] and 1.5 (1.0-2.2) [single-cycle (4 patients)]. The 2 post-PI treatment samples showing GSK3532795 CFB >3 (Monogram) were retested using single- and multiple-cycle assays. Neither sample had meaningful sensitivity changes in the multiple-cycle assay. Gag changes were not associated with an increased GSK3532795 CFB. GSK3532795 maintained antiviral activity against PI-resistant isolates with emergent PR and/or Gag mutations. This finding supports continued development of GSK3532795 in treatment-experienced patients with or without previous PI therapy.

  14. The Second-Generation Maturation Inhibitor GSK3532795 Maintains Potent Activity Toward HIV Protease Inhibitor–Resistant Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Neelanjana; Li, Tianbo; Lin, Zeyu; Protack, Tricia; van Ham, Petronella Maria; Hwang, Carey; Krystal, Mark; Nijhuis, Monique; Lataillade, Max

    2017-01-01

    Background: Protease inhibitor (PI)-resistant HIV-1 isolates with primary substitutions in protease (PR) and secondary substitutions in Gag could potentially exhibit cross-resistance to maturation inhibitors. We evaluated the second-generation maturation inhibitor, GSK3532795, for activity toward clinical isolates with genotypic and phenotypic characteristics associated with PI resistance (longitudinal). Methods: Longitudinal clinical isolates from 15 PI-treated patients and 7 highly PI-resistant (nonlongitudinal) viruses containing major and minor PI resistance-associated mutations were evaluated for GSK3532795 sensitivity. Phenotypic sensitivity was determined using the PhenoSense Gag/PR assay (Monogram Biosciences) or in-house single- and multiple-cycle assays. Changes from baseline [CFB; ratio of post- to pre-treatment FC-IC50 (fold-change in IC50 versus wild-type virus)] <3 were considered to be within the no-effect level. Results: All nonlongitudinal viruses tested were sensitive to GSK3532795 (FC-IC50 range 0.16–0.68). Among longitudinal isolates, all post-PI treatment samples had major PI resistance-associated mutations in PR and 17/21 had PI resistance-associated changes in Gag. Nineteen of the 21 post-PI treatment samples had GSK3532795 CFB <3. Median (range) CFB was 0.83 (0.05–27.4) [Monogram (11 patients)] and 1.5 (1.0–2.2) [single-cycle (4 patients)]. The 2 post-PI treatment samples showing GSK3532795 CFB >3 (Monogram) were retested using single- and multiple-cycle assays. Neither sample had meaningful sensitivity changes in the multiple-cycle assay. Gag changes were not associated with an increased GSK3532795 CFB. Conclusions: GSK3532795 maintained antiviral activity against PI-resistant isolates with emergent PR and/or Gag mutations. This finding supports continued development of GSK3532795 in treatment-experienced patients with or without previous PI therapy. PMID:28234686

  15. Inhibition of protease activity by antisense RNA improves recombinant protein production in Nicotiana tabacum cv. Bright Yellow 2 (BY-2) suspension cells.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Manoj K; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan; Schiermeyer, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    Recombinant proteins produced in plant suspension cultures are often degraded by endogenous plant proteases when secreted into the medium, resulting in low yields. To generate protease-deficient tobacco BY-2 cell lines and to retrieve the sequence information, we cloned four different protease cDNAs from tobacco BY-2 cells (NtAP, NtCP, NtMMP1, and NtSP), which represent the major catalytic classes. The simultaneous expression of antisense RNAs against these endogenous proteases led to the establishment of cell lines with reduced levels of endogenous protease expression and activity at late stages of the cultivation cycle. One of the cell lines showing reduced proteolytic activity in the culture medium was selected for the expression of the recombinant full-length IgG1(κ) antibody 2F5, recognizing the gp41 surface protein of HIV-1. This cell line showed significantly reduced degradation of the 2F5 heavy chain, resulting in four-fold higher accumulation of the intact antibody heavy chain when compared to transformed wild type cells expressing the same antibody. N-terminal sequencing data revealed that the antibody has two cleavage sites within the CDR-H3 and one site at the end of the H4-framework region. These cleavage sites are found to be vulnerable to serine proteases. The data provide a basis for further improvement of plant cells for the production of recombinant proteins in plant cell suspension cultures. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. THERAPEUTIC DRUG MONITORING OF PROTEASE INHIBITORS AND EFAVIRENZ IN HIV-INFECTED INDIVIDUALS WITH ACTIVE SUBSTANCE RELATED DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qing; Zingman, Barry S.; Luque, Amneris; Fischl, Margaret A.; Gripshover, Barbara; Venuto, Charles; DiFrancesco, Robin; Forrest, Alan; Morse, Gene D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Achieving targeted antiretroviral (ART) plasma concentrations during long-term treatment in HIV-infected patients with substance related disorders (SRD) may be challenging due to a number of factors including medication adherence, co-infection with hepatitis B or C virus, medication intolerance and drug interactions. One approach to investigate these factors is to conduct therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) to measure ART exposure during treatment. The objective of this study was to utilize TDM to compare efavirenz and protease inhibitor pharmacokinetics in patients with and without SRDs. Methods This was a multi-center, cross-sectional open-label study in patients with HIV-1 infection receiving ART, with active (n=129) or without (n=146) SRD according to National Institute on Drug Abuse criteria. 275 subjects who were receiving either protease inhibitor- or efavirenz-based ART regimens for more than 6 months were enrolled at four HIV treatment centers with an equal distribution of SRD and non-SRD at each site. Patients were instructed during enrollment visits with regard to the importance of adherence prior to and after study visits. Demographics and routine clinical laboratory tests were recorded. Results Among the 275 patients, 47% had SRD with at least one substance. There were no significant differences between SRD and non-SRD groups for race, gender, age, or CD4 count at entry. A significantly higher proportion of patients with SRD had an entry HIV RNA plasma concentration > 75 copies/ml compared to patients without SRD (40% vs. 28%, p=0.044). Logistic regression modeling revealed an association between HIV RNA plasma concentration and African-American race (p=0.017). A significantly higher proportion of SRDs also had an efavirenz or protease inhibitor trough concentration below the desired range (23% vs. 9%, p=0.048). Significantly lower trough concentrations were noted in patients with SRDs receiving atazanavir (0.290 vs. 0.976 µg/mL) or lopinavir

  17. Therapeutic drug monitoring of protease inhibitors and efavirenz in HIV-infected individuals with active substance-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qing; Zingman, Barry S; Luque, Amneris E; Fischl, Margaret A; Gripshover, Barbara M; Venuto, Charles S; DiFrancesco, Robin; Forrest, Alan; Morse, Gene D

    2011-06-01

    Achieving targeted antiretroviral (ARV) plasma concentrations during long-term treatment in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with substance-related disorders (SRDs) may be challenging due to a number of factors, including medication adherence, coinfection with hepatitis B or C virus, medication intolerance, and drug interactions. One approach to investigate these factors is to conduct therapeutic drug monitoring to measure ARV exposure during treatment. The objective of this study was to utilize therapeutic drug monitoring to compare efavirenz (EFV) and protease inhibitor pharmacokinetics in patients with and without SRDs. This was a multicenter, cross-sectional open-label study in patients with HIV-1 infection receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), with active (n=129) or without (n=146) SRD according to National Institute on Drug Abuse criteria. Two hundred seventy-five subjects who were receiving either protease inhibitor-based or EFV-based ART regimens for >6 months were enrolled at 4 HIV treatment centers with an equal distribution of SRD and non-SRD at each site. The patients were instructed during enrollment visits with regard to the importance of adherence before and after study visits. Demographics and routine clinical laboratory tests were recorded. Among the 275 patients, 47% had SRD with at least 1 substance. There were no significant differences between SRD and non-SRD groups for race, gender, age, or CD4 count at entry. A significantly higher proportion of patients with SRD had an entry HIV RNA plasma concentration>75 copies per milliliter compared with patients without SRD (40% vs 28%, P=0.044). Logistic regression modeling revealed an association between HIV RNA plasma concentration and African American race (P=0.017). A significantly higher proportion of SRDs also had an EFV or protease inhibitor trough concentration below the desired range (23% vs 9%, P=0.048). Significantly lower trough concentrations were noted in patients

  18. Changes in protease activity and Cry3Aa toxin binding in the Colorado potato beetle: implications for insect resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins

    Treesearch

    Olga Loseva; Mohamed Ibrahim; Mehmet Candas; C. Noah Koller; Leah S. Bauer; Lee A. Jr. Bulla

    2002-01-01

    Widespread commercial use of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins to control pest insects has increased the likelihood for development of insect resistance to this entomopathogen. In this study, we investigated protease activity profiles and toxin-binding capacities in the midgut of a strain of Colorado potato beetle (CPB) that has developed resistance...

  19. Antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) protein hydrolysates produced by the proteases AFP, HT, Pro-G, actinidin and zingibain.

    PubMed

    Teh, Sue-Siang; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Carne, Alan; Birch, John

    2016-07-15

    Hemp protein isolates (HPIs) were hydrolysed by proteases (AFP, HT, ProG, actinidin and zingibain). The enzymatic hydrolysis of HPIs was evaluated through the degree of hydrolysis and SDS-PAGE profiles. The bioactive properties of the resultant hydrolysates (HPHs) were accessed through ORAC, DPPḢ scavenging and ACE-inhibitory activities. The physical properties of the resultant HPHs were evaluated for their particle sizes, zeta potential and surface hydrophobicity. HT had the highest rate of caseinolytic activity at the lowest concentration (0.1 mg mL(-1)) compared to other proteases that required concentration of 100 mg mL(-1) to achieve their maximum rate of caseinolytic activity. This led to the highest degree of hydrolysis of HPIs by HT in the SDS-PAGE profiles. Among all proteases and substrates, HT resulted in the highest bioactivities (ORAC, DPPḢ scavenging and ACE-inhibitory activities) generated from alkali extracted HPI in the shortest time (2 h) compared to the other protease preparations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. HIV-1 protease has a genetic T-cell adjuvant effect which is negatively regulated by proteolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Soon; Jin, Dong Bin; Ahn, So Shin; Park, Ki Seok; Seo, Sang Hwan; Suh, You Suk; Sung, Young Chul

    2010-08-01

    HIV protease (PR) mediates the processing of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) polyproteins and is necessary for the viral production. Recently, HIV PR was shown to possess both cytotoxic and chaperone like activity. We demonstrate here that HIV PR can serve as a genetic adjuvant that enhances the HIV Env and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA vaccine-induced T-cell response in a dose-dependent manner, only when codelivered with DNA vaccine. Interestingly, the T-cell adjuvant effects of HIV PR were increased by introducing several mutations that inhibited its proteolytic activity, indicating that the adjuvant properties were inversely correlated with its proteolytic activity. Conversely, the introduction of a mutation in the flap region of HIV PR limiting the access to the core domain of HIV PR inhibited the T-cell adjuvant effect, suggesting that the HIV PR chaperone like activity may play a role in mediating T-cell adjuvant properties. A similar adjuvant effect was also observed in adenovirus vaccine, indicating vaccine type independency. These findings suggest that HIV PR can modulate T-cell responses elicited by a gene-based vaccine positively by inherent chaperone like activity and negatively by its proteolytic activity.

  1. Effects of protease and non-starch polysaccharide enzyme on performance, digestive function, activity and gene expression of endogenous enzyme of broilers.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lin; Wang, Mingfa; Zhang, Xiaotu; Wang, Zhixiang

    2017-01-01

    Three hundred one-day-old male broiler chickens (Ross-308) were fed corn-soybean basal diets containing non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) enzyme and different levels of acid protease from 1 to 42 days of age to investigate the effects of exogenous enzymes on growth performance, digestive function, activity of endogenous digestive enzymes in the pancreas and mRNA expression of pancreatic digestive enzymes. For days 1-42, compared to the control chickens, average daily feed intake (ADFI) and average daily gain (ADG) were significantly enhanced by the addition of NSP enzyme in combination with protease supplementation at 40 or 80 mg/kg (p<0.05). Feed-to-gain ratio (FGR) was significantly improved by supplementation with NSP enzymes or NSP enzyme combined with 40 or 80 mg/kg protease compared to the control diet (p<0.05). Apparent digestibility of crude protein (ADCP) was significantly enhanced by the addition of NSP enzyme or NSP enzyme combined with 40 or 80 mg/kg protease (p<0.05). Cholecystokinin (CCK) level in serum was reduced by 31.39% with NSP enzyme combined with protease supplementation at 160 mg/kg (p<0.05), but the CCK level in serum was increased by 26.51% with NSP enzyme supplementation alone. After 21 days, supplementation with NSP enzyme and NSP enzyme combined with 40 or 80 mg/kg protease increased the activity of pancreatic trypsin by 74.13%, 70.66% and 42.59% (p<0.05), respectively. After 42 days, supplementation with NSP enzyme and NSP enzyme combined with 40 mg/kg protease increased the activity of pancreatic trypsin by 32.45% and 27.41%, respectively (p<0.05). However, supplementation with NSP enzyme and 80 or 160 mg/kg protease decreased the activity of pancreatic trypsin by 10.75% and 25.88%, respectively (p<0.05). The activities of pancreatic lipase and amylase were significantly higher in treated animals than they were in the control group (p<0.05). Supplementation with NSP enzyme, NSP enzyme combined with 40 or 80 mg/kg protease increased

  2. Effects of protease and non-starch polysaccharide enzyme on performance, digestive function, activity and gene expression of endogenous enzyme of broilers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingfa; Zhang, Xiaotu; Wang, Zhixiang

    2017-01-01

    Three hundred one-day-old male broiler chickens (Ross-308) were fed corn-soybean basal diets containing non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) enzyme and different levels of acid protease from 1 to 42 days of age to investigate the effects of exogenous enzymes on growth performance, digestive function, activity of endogenous digestive enzymes in the pancreas and mRNA expression of pancreatic digestive enzymes. For days 1-42, compared to the control chickens, average daily feed intake (ADFI) and average daily gain (ADG) were significantly enhanced by the addition of NSP enzyme in combination with protease supplementation at 40 or 80 mg/kg (p<0.05). Feed-to-gain ratio (FGR) was significantly improved by supplementation with NSP enzymes or NSP enzyme combined with 40 or 80 mg/kg protease compared to the control diet (p<0.05). Apparent digestibility of crude protein (ADCP) was significantly enhanced by the addition of NSP enzyme or NSP enzyme combined with 40 or 80 mg/kg protease (p<0.05). Cholecystokinin (CCK) level in serum was reduced by 31.39% with NSP enzyme combined with protease supplementation at 160 mg/kg (p<0.05), but the CCK level in serum was increased by 26.51% with NSP enzyme supplementation alone. After 21 days, supplementation with NSP enzyme and NSP enzyme combined with 40 or 80 mg/kg protease increased the activity of pancreatic trypsin by 74.13%, 70.66% and 42.59% (p<0.05), respectively. After 42 days, supplementation with NSP enzyme and NSP enzyme combined with 40 mg/kg protease increased the activity of pancreatic trypsin by 32.45% and 27.41%, respectively (p<0.05). However, supplementation with NSP enzyme and 80 or 160 mg/kg protease decreased the activity of pancreatic trypsin by 10.75% and 25.88%, respectively (p<0.05). The activities of pancreatic lipase and amylase were significantly higher in treated animals than they were in the control group (p<0.05). Supplementation with NSP enzyme, NSP enzyme combined with 40 or 80 mg/kg protease increased

  3. PSA-selective activation of cytotoxic human serine proteases within the tumor microenvironment as a therapeutic strategy to target prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Oliver C; Anthony, Lizamma; Rosen, D Marc; Brennen, W Nathaniel; Denmeade, Samuel R

    2018-04-27

    Prostate cancer is the most diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in American men. While localized therapy is highly curative, treatments for metastatic prostate cancer are largely palliative. Thus, new innovative therapies are needed to target metastatic tumors. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) is a chymotrypsin-like protease with a unique substrate specificity that is secreted by both normal and malignant prostate epithelial cells. Previous studies demonstrated the presence of high levels (μM-mM) of enzymatically active PSA is present in the extracellular fluid of the prostate cancer microenvironment. Because of this, PSA is an attractive target for a protease activated pro-toxin therapeutic strategy. Because prostate cancers typically grow very slowly, a strategy employing a proliferation-independent cytotoxic payload is preferred. Recently, it was shown that the human protease Granzyme B (GZMB), at low micromolar concentrations in the extracellular space, can cleave an array of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins thus perturbing cell growth, signaling, motility, and integrity. It is also well established that other human proteases such as trypsin can induce similar effects. Because both enzymes require N-terminal proteolytic activation, we propose to convert these proteins into PSA-activated cytotoxins. In this study, we examine the enzymatic and cell targeting parameters of these PSA-activated cytotoxic serine proteases. These pro-enzymes were activated robustly by PSA and induced ECM damage that led to the death of prostate cancer cells in vitro thus supporting the potential use of this strategy as means to target metastatic prostate cancers.

  4. PSA-selective activation of cytotoxic human serine proteases within the tumor microenvironment as a therapeutic strategy to target prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Oliver C.; Anthony, Lizamma; Rosen, D. Marc; Brennen, W. Nathaniel; Denmeade, Samuel R.

    2018-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in American men. While localized therapy is highly curative, treatments for metastatic prostate cancer are largely palliative. Thus, new innovative therapies are needed to target metastatic tumors. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) is a chymotrypsin-like protease with a unique substrate specificity that is secreted by both normal and malignant prostate epithelial cells. Previous studies demonstrated the presence of high levels (μM-mM) of enzymatically active PSA is present in the extracellular fluid of the prostate cancer microenvironment. Because of this, PSA is an attractive target for a protease activated pro-toxin therapeutic strategy. Because prostate cancers typically grow very slowly, a strategy employing a proliferation-independent cytotoxic payload is preferred. Recently, it was shown that the human protease Granzyme B (GZMB), at low micromolar concentrations in the extracellular space, can cleave an array of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins thus perturbing cell growth, signaling, motility, and integrity. It is also well established that other human proteases such as trypsin can induce similar effects. Because both enzymes require N-terminal proteolytic activation, we propose to convert these proteins into PSA-activated cytotoxins. In this study, we examine the enzymatic and cell targeting parameters of these PSA-activated cytotoxic serine proteases. These pro-enzymes were activated robustly by PSA and induced ECM damage that led to the death of prostate cancer cells in vitro thus supporting the potential use of this strategy as means to target metastatic prostate cancers. PMID:29854290

  5. Insecticide resistance and intracellular proteases.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Richard M

    2017-12-01

    Pesticide resistance is an example of evolution in action with mechanisms of resistance arising from mutations or increased expression of intrinsic genes. Intracellular proteases have a key role in maintaining healthy cells and in responding to stressors such as pesticides. Insecticide-resistant insects have constitutively elevated intracellular protease activity compared to corresponding susceptible strains. This increase was shown for some cases originally through biochemical enzyme studies and subsequently putatively by transcriptomics and proteomics methods. Upregulation and expression of proteases have been characterised in resistant strains of some insect species, including mosquitoes. This increase in proteolysis results in more degradation products (amino acids) of intracellular proteins. These may be utilised in the resistant strain to better protect the cell from stress. There are changes in insect intracellular proteases shortly after insecticide exposure, suggesting a role in stress response. The use of protease and proteasome inhibitors or peptide mimetics as synergists with improved application techniques and through protease gene knockdown using RNA interference (possibly expressed in crop plants) may be potential pest management strategies, in situations where elevated intracellular proteases are relevant. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Breeding and identification of novel koji molds with high activity of acid protease by genome recombination between Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Xu, Defeng; Pan, Li; Zhao, Haifeng; Zhao, Mouming; Sun, Jiaxin; Liu, Dongmei

    2011-09-01

    Acid protease is essential for degradation of proteins during soy sauce fermentation. To breed more suitable koji molds with high activity of acid protease, interspecific genome recombination between A. oryzae and A. niger was performed. Through stabilization with d-camphor and haploidization with benomyl, several stable fusants with higher activity of acid protease were obtained, showing different degrees of improvement in acid protease activity compared with the parental strain A. oryzae. In addition, analyses of mycelial morphology, expression profiles of extracellular proteins, esterase isoenzyme profiles, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were applied to identify the fusants through their phenotypic and genetic relationships. Morphology analysis of the mycelial shape of fusants indicated a phenotype intermediate between A. oryzae and A. niger. The profiles of extracellular proteins and esterase isoenzyme electrophoresis showed the occurrence of genome recombination during or after protoplast fusion. The dendrogram constructed from RAPD data revealed great heterogeneity, and genetic dissimilarity indices showed there were considerable differences between the fusants and their parental strains. This investigation suggests that genome recombination is a powerful tool for improvement of food-grade industrial strains. Furthermore, the presented strain improvement procedure will be applicable for widespread use for other industrial strains.

  7. Cloning, characterization, expression and antifungal activity of an alkaline serine protease of Aureobasidium pullulans PL5 involved in the biological control of postharvest pathogens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dianpeng; Spadaro, Davide; Valente, Silvia; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2012-02-15

    An alkaline protease gene was amplified from genomic DNA and cDNA of the antagonistic yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans PL5, a biocontrol agent effective against Monilinia laxa on stone fruit and Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum on pome fruits. An open reading frame of 1248 bp encoding a 415-amino acid (aa) protein with a calculated molecular weight (M(r)) of 42.9 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 4.5 was characterized. The cDNAALP5 gene had an 18-amino acid signal peptide, one N-gylcosylation, one histidine active site, and one serine active site. The ALP5 gene with a M(r) of 1351 bp contained two introns. One intron was of 54 bp, while the other was of 50 bp. Protein BLAST and phylogenetic tree analysis of the deduced amino sequences from the cDNAALP5 gene showed that the encoded protein had 100% homology to a protease enzyme (ALP2) of a sea strain of A. pullulans, suggesting that the protein ALP5 was an alkaline serine protease. Expression of ALP5 in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), followed by identification with Western-blotting, purification with Ni-NTA and analysis of enzymatic activity, yielded an homogeneous recombinant ALP5 which hydrolysed the substrate casein and inhibited the mycelial growth of the pathogens. At its optimal pH of 10.0 and reaction temperature of 50°C, the recombinant protease exhibited the highest activity towards the substrate casein, though the highest stability was at lower temperatures and pH between 7.0 and 9.0. This study provided the direct evidence that extracellular proteases secreted by the antagonist A. pullulans PL5 played a role in the biocontrol activities against some postharvest pathogens of apple and peach. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. α-Enolase Causes Proinflammatory Activation of Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Cells and Primes Neutrophils Through Plasmin Activation of Protease-Activated Receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Bock, Ashley; Tucker, Nicole; Kelher, Marguerite R; Khan, Samina Y; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Wohlauer, Max; Hansen, Kirk; Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Sauaia, Angels; Banerjee, Anirban; Moore, Ernest E; Silliman, Christopher C

    2015-08-01

    Proinflammatory activation of vascular endothelium leading to increased surface expression of adhesion molecules and neutrophil (PMN) sequestration and subsequent activation is paramount in the development of acute lung injury and organ injury in injured patients. We hypothesize that α-enolase, which accumulates in injured patients, primes PMNs and causes proinflammatory activation of endothelial cells leading to PMN-mediated cytotoxicity. Proteomic analyses of field plasma samples from injured versus healthy patients were used for protein identification. Human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) were incubated with α-enolase or thrombin, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 surface expression was measured by flow cytometry. A two-event in vitro model of PMN cytotoxicity HMVECs activated with α-enolase, thrombin, or buffer was used as targets for lysophosphatidylcholine-primed or buffer-treated PMNs. The PMN priming activity of α-enolase was completed, and lysates from both PMNs and HMVECs were immunoblotted for protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) and PAR-2 and coprecipitation of α-enolase with PAR-2 and plasminogen/plasmin. α-Enolase increased 10.8-fold in injured patients (P < 0.05). Thrombin and α-enolase significantly increased intercellular adhesion molecule-1 surface expression on HMVECs, which was inhibited by antiproteases, induced PMN adherence, and served as the first event in the two-event model of PMN cytotoxicity. α-Enolase coprecipitated with PAR-2 and plasminogen/plasmin on HMVECs and PMNs and induced PMN priming, which was inhibited by tranexamic acid, and enzymatic activity was not required. α-Enolase increases after injury and may activate pulmonary endothelial cells and prime PMNs through plasmin activity and PAR-2 activation. Such proinflammatory endothelial activation may predispose to PMN-mediated organ injury.

  9. Localization and activation of the Drosophila protease easter require the ER-resident saposin-like protein seele.

    PubMed

    Stein, David; Charatsi, Iphigenie; Cho, Yong Suk; Zhang, Zhenyu; Nguyen, Jesse; DeLotto, Robert; Luschnig, Stefan; Moussian, Bernard

    2010-11-09

    Drosophila embryonic dorsal-ventral polarity is generated by a series of serine protease processing events in the egg perivitelline space. Gastrulation Defective processes Snake, which then cleaves Easter, which then processes Spätzle into the activating ligand for the Toll receptor. seele was identified in a screen for mutations that, when homozygous in ovarian germline clones, lead to the formation of progeny embryos with altered embryonic patterning; maternal loss of seele function leads to the production of moderately dorsalized embryos. By combining constitutively active versions of Gastrulation Defective, Snake, Easter, and Spätzle with loss-of-function alleles of seele, we find that Seele activity is dispensable for Spätzle-mediated activation of Toll but is required for Easter, Snake, and Gastrulation Defective to exert their effects on dorsal-ventral patterning. Moreover, Seele function is required specifically for secretion of Easter from the developing embryo into the perivitelline space and for Easter processing. Seele protein resides in the endoplasmic reticulum of blastoderm embryos, suggesting a role in the trafficking of Easter to the perivitelline space, prerequisite to its processing and function. Easter transport to the perivitelline space represents a previously unappreciated control point in the signal transduction pathway that controls Drosophila embryonic dorsal-ventral polarity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Recognition of Lys48-Linked Di-ubiquitin and Deubiquitinating Activities of the SARS Coronavirus Papain-like Protease.

    PubMed

    Békés, Miklós; van der Heden van Noort, Gerbrand J; Ekkebus, Reggy; Ovaa, Huib; Huang, Tony T; Lima, Christopher D

    2016-05-19

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) recognize and cleave linkage-specific polyubiquitin (polyUb) chains, but mechanisms underlying specificity remain elusive in many cases. The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus papain-like protease (PLpro) is a DUB that cleaves ISG15, a two-domain Ub-like protein, and Lys48-linked polyUb chains, releasing diUb(Lys48) products. To elucidate this specificity, we report the 2.85 Å crystal structure of SARS PLpro bound to a diUb(Lys48) activity-based probe. SARS PLpro binds diUb(Lys48) in an extended conformation via two contact sites, S1 and S2, which are proximal and distal to the active site, respectively. We show that specificity for polyUb(Lys48) chains is predicated on contacts in the S2 site and enhanced by an S1-S1' preference for a Lys48 linkage across the active site. In contrast, ISG15 specificity is dominated by contacts in the S1 site. Determinants revealed for polyUb(Lys48) specificity should prove useful in understanding PLpro deubiquitinating activities in coronavirus infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is upregulated by Acanthamoeba plasminogen activator (aPA) and induces proinflammatory cytokine in human corneal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Trivendra; Abdi, Mahshid; Alizadeh, Hassan

    2014-05-29

    Acanthamoeba plasminogen activator (aPA) is a serine protease elaborated by Acanthamoeba trophozoites that facilitates the invasion of trophozoites to the host and contributes to the pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). The aim of this study was to explore if aPA stimulates proinflammatory cytokine in human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells via the protease-activated receptors (PARs) pathway. Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites were grown in peptone-yeast extract glucose for 7 days, and the supernatants were collected and centrifuged. The aPA was purified using the fast protein liquid chromatography system, and aPA activity was determined by zymography assays. Human corneal epithelial cells were incubated with or without aPA (100 μg/mL), PAR1 agonists (thrombin, 10 μM; TRAP-6, 10 μM), and PAR2 agonists (SLIGRL-NH2, 100 μM; AC 55541, 10 μM) for 24 and 48 hours. Inhibition of PAR1 and PAR2 involved preincubating the HCE cells for 1 hour with the antagonist of PAR1 (SCH 79797, 60 μM) and PAR2 (FSLLRY-NH2, 100 μM) with or without aPA. Human corneal epithelial cells also were preincubated with PAR1 and PAR2 antagonists and then incubated with or without PAR1 agonists (thrombin and TRAP-6) and PAR2 agonists (SLIGRL-NH2 and AC 55541). Expression of PAR1 and PAR2 was examined by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), flow cytometry, and immunocytochemistry. Interleukin-8 expression was quantified by qRT-PCR and ELISA. Human corneal epithelial cells constitutively expressed PAR1 and PAR2 mRNA. Acanthamoeba plasminogen activator and PAR2 agonists significantly upregulated PAR2 mRNA expression (1- and 2-fold, respectively) (P < 0.05). Protease-activated receptor 2 antagonist significantly inhibited aPA, and PAR2 agonists induced PAR2 mRNA expression in HCE cells (P < 0.05). Protease-activated receptor 1 agonists, but not aPA, significantly upregulated PAR1 mRNA expression, which was significantly inhibited by PAR1 antagonist in HCE cells. Acanthamoeba plasminogen

  12. D-BMAP18 antimicrobial peptide is active in vitro, resists to pulmonary proteases but loses its activity in a murine model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardirossian, Mario; Pompilio, Arianna; Degasperi, Margherita; Runti, Giulia; Pacor, Sabrina; Di Bonaventura, Giovanni; Scocchi, Marco

    2017-06-01

    The spread of antibiotic resistant-pathogens is driving the search for new antimicrobial compounds. Pulmonary infections experienced by cystic fibrosis patients are a dramatic example of this health-care emergency. Antimicrobial peptides could answer the need for new antibiotics but translating them from basic research to the clinic is a challenge. We have previously evaluated the potential of the small membranolytic peptide BMAP-18 to treat CF-related infections, discovering that while this molecule had a good activity in vitro it was not active in vivo because of its rapid degradation by pulmonary proteases. In this study, we synthesized and tested the proteases-resistant all-D enantiomer. In spite of a good antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia clinical isolates and of a tolerable cytotoxicity in vitro, D-BMAP18 was ineffective to treat P. aeruginosa pulmonary infection in mice, in comparison to tobramycin. We observed that different factors other than peptide degradation hampered its efficacy for pulmonary application. These results indicate that D-BMAP18 needs further optimization before being suitable for clinical application and this approach may represent a guide for optimization of other anti-infective peptides eligible for the treatment of pulmonary infections.

  13. Multifunctional Mitochondrial AAA Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, Steven E.

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria perform numerous functions necessary for the survival of eukaryotic cells. These activities are coordinated by a diverse complement of proteins encoded in both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes that must be properly organized and maintained. Misregulation of mitochondrial proteostasis impairs organellar function and can result in the development of severe human diseases. ATP-driven AAA+ proteins play crucial roles in preserving mitochondrial activity by removing and remodeling protein molecules in accordance with the needs of the cell. Two mitochondrial AAA proteases, i-AAA and m-AAA, are anchored to either face of the mitochondrial inner membrane, where they engage and process an array of substrates to impact protein biogenesis, quality control, and the regulation of key metabolic pathways. The functionality of these proteases is extended through multiple substrate-dependent modes of action, including complete degradation, partial processing, or dislocation from the membrane without proteolysis. This review discusses recent advances made toward elucidating the mechanisms of substrate recognition, handling, and degradation that allow these versatile proteases to control diverse activities in this multifunctional organelle. PMID:28589125

  14. Multifunctional Mitochondrial AAA Proteases.

    PubMed

    Glynn, Steven E

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria perform numerous functions necessary for the survival of eukaryotic cells. These activities are coordinated by a diverse complement of proteins encoded in both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes that must be properly organized and maintained. Misregulation of mitochondrial proteostasis impairs organellar function and can result in the development of severe human diseases. ATP-driven AAA+ proteins play crucial roles in preserving mitochondrial activity by removing and remodeling protein molecules in accordance with the needs of the cell. Two mitochondrial AAA proteases, i-AAA and m-AAA, are anchored to either face of the mitochondrial inner membrane, where they engage and process an array of substrates to impact protein biogenesis, quality control, and the regulation of key metabolic pathways. The functionality of these proteases is extended through multiple substrate-dependent modes of action, including complete degradation, partial processing, or dislocation from the membrane without proteolysis. This review discusses recent advances made toward elucidating the mechanisms of substrate recognition, handling, and degradation that allow these versatile proteases to control diverse activities in this multifunctional organelle.

  15. Co-evolution of insect proteases and plant protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jongsma, Maarten A; Beekwilder, Jules

    2011-08-01

    Plants are at the basis of the food chain, but there is no such thing as a "free lunch" for herbivores. To promote reproductive success, plants evolved multi-layered defensive tactics to avoid or discourage herbivory. To the detriment of plants, herbivores, in turn, evolved intricate strategies to find, eat, and successfully digest essential plant parts to raise their own offspring. In this battle the digestive tract is the arena determining final victory or defeat as measured by growth or starvation of the herbivore. Earlier, specific molecular opponents were identified as proteases and inhibitors: digestive proteases of herbivores evolved structural motifs to occlude plant protease inhibitors, or alternatively, the insects evolved proteases capable of specifically degrading the host plant inhibitors. In response plant inhibitors evolved hyper-variable and novel protein folds to remain active against potential herbivores. At the level of protease regulation in herbivorous insects, it was shown that inhibition-insensitive digestive proteases are up-regulated when sensitive proteases are inhibited. The way this regulation operates in mammals is known as negative feedback by gut-luminal factors, so-called 'monitor peptides' that are sensitive to the concentration of active enzymes. We propose that regulation of gut enzymes by endogenous luminal factors has been an open invitation to plants to "hijack" this regulation by evolving receptor antagonists, although yet these plant factors have not been identified. In future research the question of the co-evolution of insect proteases and plant inhibitors should, therefore, be better approached from a systems level keeping in mind that evolution is fundamentally opportunistic and that the plant's fitness is primarily improved by lowering the availability of essential amino acids to an herbivore by any available mechanism.

  16. Crystal structures of yellowtail ascites virus VP4 protease: trapping an internal cleavage site trans acyl-enzyme complex in a native Ser/Lys dyad active site.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ivy Yeuk Wah; Paetzel, Mark

    2013-05-03

    Yellowtail ascites virus (YAV) is an aquabirnavirus that causes ascites in yellowtail, a fish often used in sushi. Segment A of the YAV genome codes for a polyprotein (pVP2-VP4-VP3), where processing by its own VP4 protease yields the capsid protein precursor pVP2, the ribonucleoprotein-forming VP3, and free VP4. VP4 protease utilizes the rarely observed serine-lysine catalytic dyad mechanism. Here we have confirmed the existence of an internal cleavage site, preceding the VP4/VP3 cleavage site. The resulting C-terminally truncated enzyme (ending at Ala(716)) is active, as shown by a trans full-length VP4 cleavage assay and a fluorometric peptide cleavage assay. We present a crystal structure of a native active site YAV VP4 with the internal cleavage site trapped as trans product complexes and trans acyl-enzyme complexes. The acyl-enzyme complexes confirm directly the role of Ser(633) as the nucleophile. A crystal structure of the lysine general base mutant (K674A) reveals the acyl-enzyme and empty binding site states of VP4, which allows for the observation of structural changes upon substrate or product binding. These snapshots of three different stages in the VP4 protease reaction mechanism will aid in the design of anti-birnavirus compounds, provide insight into previous site-directed mutagenesis results, and contribute to understanding of the serine-lysine dyad protease mechanism. In addition, we have discovered that this protease contains a channel that leads from the enzyme surface (adjacent to the substrate binding groove) to the active site and the deacylating water.

  17. Expression of protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) in central airways of smokers and non-smokers

    PubMed Central

    Miotto, D; Hollenberg, M; Bunnett, N; Papi, A; Braccioni, F; Boschetto, P; Rea, F; Zuin, A; Geppetti, P; Saetta, M; Maestrelli, P; Fabbri, L; Mapp, C

    2002-01-01

    Background: Protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is a transmembrane G protein coupled receptor preferentially activated by trypsin and tryptase. The protease activated receptors play an important role in most components of injury responses including cell proliferation, migration, matrix remodelling, and inflammation. Cigarette smoking causes an inflammatory process in the central airways, peripheral airways, lung parenchyma, and adventitia of pulmonary arteries. Methods: To quantify the expression of PAR-2 in the central airways of smokers and non-smokers, surgical specimens obtained from 30 subjects undergoing lung resection for localised pulmonary lesions (24 with a history of cigarette smoking and six non-smoking control subjects) were examined. Central airways were immunostained with an antiserum specific for PAR-2 and PAR-2 expression was quantified using light microscopy and image analysis. Results: PAR-2 expression was found in bronchial smooth muscle, epithelium, glands, and in the endothelium and smooth muscle of bronchial vessels. PAR-2 expression was similar in the central airways of smokers and non-smokers. When smokers were divided according to the presence of symptoms of chronic bronchitis and chronic airflow limitation, PAR-2 expression was increased in smooth muscle (median 3.8 (interquartile range 2.9–5.8) and 1.4 (1.07–3.4) respectively); glands (33.3 (18.2–43.8) and 16.2 (11.5–22.2), respectively); and bronchial vessels (54.2 (48.7–56.8) and 40.0 (36–40.4), respectively) of smokers with symptoms of chronic bronchitis with normal lung function compared with smokers with chronic airflow limitation (COPD), but the increase was statistically significant (p<0.005) only for bronchial vessels. Conclusions: PAR-2 is present in bronchial smooth muscle, glands, and bronchial vessels of both smokers and non-smokers. An increased expression of PAR-2 was found in bronchial vessels of patients with bronchitis compared with those with COPD. PMID

  18. The role of protease-activated receptor-2 on pulmonary neutrophils in the innate immune response to cockroach allergen

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Serine proteases in German cockroach (GC) have been shown to mediate allergic airway inflammation through the activation of protease activated receptor (PAR)-2. Neutrophils play an important role in regulating the innate immune response, and are recruited into the airways following GC frass exposure. As such, we investigated the role of PAR-2 in airway neutrophil recruitment, activation and cytokine production following allergen exposure. Methods Wild type and PAR-2-deficient mice were administered a single intratracheal instillation of PBS or GC frass and neutrophil recruitment, expression of PAR-2, CD80, CD86, and MHC class II were assessed by flow cytometry and levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α was assessed by ELISA. Uptake of AlexaFluor 405-labeled GC frass by neutrophils was performed by flow cytometry. Results Neutrophil recruitment in the lung and airways following GC frass exposure was significantly decreased in PAR-2-deficient mice compared to wild type mice. GC frass exposure increased the level of PAR-2 on pulmonary neutrophils and increased numbers of PAR-2-positive neutrophils were found in the lungs; however PAR-2 did not play a role in meditating allergen uptake. Comparing wild type and PAR-2-deficient mice, we found that a single exposure to GC frass increased levels of CD80 and CD86 on pulmonary neutrophils, an effect which was independent of PAR-2 expression. Neutrophils isolated from the whole lungs of naïve PAR-2-deficient mice treated ex vivo with GC frass produced significantly less TNFα than in similarly treated wild type neutrophils. Lastly, neutrophils were isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of wild type and PAR-2-deficient mice following a single intratracheal exposure to GC frass. Airway neutrophils from PAR-2-deficient mice released substantially decreased levels of TNFα, suggesting a role for PAR-2 in neutrophil-derived cytokine production. Conclusions Together these data suggest PAR-2 expression can be

  19. Different residues in the SARS-CoV spike protein determine cleavage and activation by the host cell protease TMPRSS2

    PubMed Central

    Reinke, Lennart Michel; Hartleib, Anika; Nehlmeier, Inga; Gierer, Stefanie; Hoffmann, Markus; Hofmann-Winkler, Heike; Winkler, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) mediates viral entry into target cells. Cleavage and activation of SARS S by a host cell protease is essential for infectious viral entry and the responsible enzymes are potential targets for antiviral intervention. The type II transmembrane serine protease TMPRSS2 cleaves and activates SARS S in cell culture and potentially also in the infected host. Here, we investigated which determinants in SARS S control cleavage and activation by TMPRSS2. We found that SARS S residue R667, a previously identified trypsin cleavage site, is also required for S protein cleavage by TMPRSS2. The cleavage fragments produced by trypsin and TMPRSS2 differed in their decoration with N-glycans, suggesting that these proteases cleave different SARS S glycoforms. Although R667 was required for SARS S cleavage by TMPRSS2, this residue was dispensable for TMPRSS2-mediated S protein activation. Conversely, residue R797, previously reported to be required for SARS S activation by trypsin, was dispensable for S protein cleavage but required for S protein activation by TMPRSS2. Collectively, these results show that different residues in SARS S control cleavage and activation by TMPRSS2, suggesting that these processes are more complex than initially appreciated. PMID:28636671

  20. Different residues in the SARS-CoV spike protein determine cleavage and activation by the host cell protease TMPRSS2.

    PubMed

    Reinke, Lennart Michel; Spiegel, Martin; Plegge, Teresa; Hartleib, Anika; Nehlmeier, Inga; Gierer, Stefanie; Hoffmann, Markus; Hofmann-Winkler, Heike; Winkler, Michael; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) mediates viral entry into target cells. Cleavage and activation of SARS S by a host cell protease is essential for infectious viral entry and the responsible enzymes are potential targets for antiviral intervention. The type II transmembrane serine protease TMPRSS2 cleaves and activates SARS S in cell culture and potentially also in the infected host. Here, we investigated which determinants in SARS S control cleavage and activation by TMPRSS2. We found that SARS S residue R667, a previously identified trypsin cleavage site, is also required for S protein cleavage by TMPRSS2. The cleavage fragments produced by trypsin and TMPRSS2 differed in their decoration with N-glycans, suggesting that these proteases cleave different SARS S glycoforms. Although R667 was required for SARS S cleavage by TMPRSS2, this residue was dispensable for TMPRSS2-mediated S protein activation. Conversely, residue R797, previously reported to be required for SARS S activation by trypsin, was dispensable for S protein cleavage but required for S protein activation by TMPRSS2. Collectively, these results show that different residues in SARS S control cleavage and activation by TMPRSS2, suggesting that these processes are more complex than initially appreciated.

  1. Proteases and the gut barrier.

    PubMed

    Biancheri, Paolo; Di Sabatino, Antonio; Corazza, Gino R; MacDonald, Thomas T

    2013-02-01

    Serine proteases, cysteine proteases, aspartic proteases and matrix metalloproteinases play an essential role in extracellular matrix remodeling and turnover through their proteolytic action on collagens, proteoglycans, fibronectin, elastin and laminin. Proteases can also act on chemokines, receptors and anti-microbial peptides, often potentiating their activity. The intestinal mucosa is the largest interface between the external environment and the tissues of the human body and is constantly exposed to proteolytic enzymes from many sources, including bacteria in the intestinal lumen, fibroblasts and immune cells in the lamina propria and enterocytes. Controlled proteolytic activity is crucial for the maintenance of gut immune homeostasis, for normal tissue turnover and for the integrity of the gut barrier. However, in intestinal immune-mediated disorders, pro-inflammatory cytokines induce the up-regulation of proteases, which become the end-stage effectors of mucosal damage by destroying the epithelium and basement membrane integrity and degrading the extracellular matrix of the lamina propria to produce ulcers. Protease-mediated barrier disruption in turn results in increased amounts of antigen crossing into the lamina propria, driving further immune responses and sustaining the inflammatory process.

  2. Secreted Aspartic Protease Cleavage of Candida albicans Msb2 Activates Cek1 MAPK Signaling Affecting Biofilm Formation and Oropharyngeal Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Chadha, Sonia; Tati, Swetha; Conti, Heather R.; Hube, Bernhard; Cullen, Paul J.; Edgerton, Mira

    2012-01-01

    Perception of external stimuli and generation of an appropriate response are crucial for host colonization by pathogens. In pathogenic fungi, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways regulate dimorphism, biofilm/mat formation, and virulence. Signaling mucins, characterized by a heavily glycosylated extracellular domain, a transmembrane domain, and a small cytoplasmic domain, are known to regulate various signaling pathways. In Candida albicans, the mucin Msb2 regulates the Cek1 MAPK pathway. We show here that Msb2 is localized to the yeast cell wall and is further enriched on hyphal surfaces. A msb2Δ/Δ strain formed normal hyphae but had biofilm defects. Cek1 (but not Mkc1) phosphorylation was absent in the msb2Δ/Δ mutant. The extracellular domain of Msb2 was shed in cells exposed to elevated temperature and carbon source limitation, concomitant with germination and Cek1 phosphorylation. Msb2 shedding occurred differentially in cells grown planktonically or on solid surfaces in the presence of cell wall and osmotic stressors. We further show that Msb2 shedding and Cek1 phosphorylation were inhibited by addition of Pepstatin A (PA), a selective inhibitor of aspartic proteases (Saps). Analysis of combinations of Sap protease mutants identified a sap8Δ/Δ mutant with reduced MAPK signaling along with defects in biofilm formation, thereby suggesting that Sap8 potentially serves as a major regulator of Msb2 processing. We further show that loss of either Msb2 (msb2Δ/Δ) or Sap8 (sap8Δ/Δ) resulted in higher C. albicans surface β-glucan exposure and msb2Δ/Δ showed attenuated virulence in a murine model of oral candidiasis. Thus, Sap-mediated proteolytic cleavage of Msb2 is required for activation of the Cek1 MAPK pathway in response to environmental cues including those that induce germination. Inhibition of Msb2 processing at the level of Saps may provide a means of attenuating MAPK signaling and reducing C. albicans virulence. PMID:23139737

  3. Calcium and adenosine triphosphate control of cellular pathology: asparaginase-induced pancreatitis elicited via protease-activated receptor 2

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Shuang; Gerasimenko, Julia V.; Tsugorka, Tatiana; Gryshchenko, Oleksiy; Samarasinghe, Sujith; Gerasimenko, Oleg V.

    2016-01-01

    Exocytotic secretion of digestive enzymes from pancreatic acinar cells is elicited by physiological cytosolic Ca2+ signals, occurring as repetitive short-lasting spikes largely confined to the secretory granule region, that stimulate mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. By contrast, sustained global cytosolic Ca2+ elevations decrease ATP levels and cause necrosis, leading to the disease acute pancreatitis (AP). Toxic Ca2+ signals can be evoked by products of alcohol and fatty acids as well as bile acids. Here, we have investigated the mechanism by which l-asparaginase evokes AP. Asparaginase is an essential element in the successful treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, the most common type of cancer affecting children, but AP is a side-effect occurring in about 5–10% of cases. Like other pancreatitis-inducing agents, asparaginase evoked intracellular Ca2+ release followed by Ca2+ entry and also substantially reduced Ca2+ extrusion because of decreased intracellular ATP levels. The toxic Ca2+ signals caused extensive necrosis. The asparaginase-induced pathology depended on protease-activated receptor 2 and its inhibition prevented the toxic Ca2+ signals and necrosis. We tested the effects of inhibiting the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ entry by the Ca2+ channel inhibitor GSK-7975A. This markedly reduced asparaginase-induced Ca2+ entry and also protected effectively against the development of necrosis. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evolution brings Ca2+ and ATP together to control life and death’. PMID:27377732

  4. Calcium and adenosine triphosphate control of cellular pathology: asparaginase-induced pancreatitis elicited via protease-activated receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shuang; Gerasimenko, Julia V; Tsugorka, Tatiana; Gryshchenko, Oleksiy; Samarasinghe, Sujith; Petersen, Ole H; Gerasimenko, Oleg V

    2016-08-05

    Exocytotic secretion of digestive enzymes from pancreatic acinar cells is elicited by physiological cytosolic Ca(2+) signals, occurring as repetitive short-lasting spikes largely confined to the secretory granule region, that stimulate mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. By contrast, sustained global cytosolic Ca(2+) elevations decrease ATP levels and cause necrosis, leading to the disease acute pancreatitis (AP). Toxic Ca(2+) signals can be evoked by products of alcohol and fatty acids as well as bile acids. Here, we have investigated the mechanism by which l-asparaginase evokes AP. Asparaginase is an essential element in the successful treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, the most common type of cancer affecting children, but AP is a side-effect occurring in about 5-10% of cases. Like other pancreatitis-inducing agents, asparaginase evoked intracellular Ca(2+) release followed by Ca(2+) entry and also substantially reduced Ca(2+) extrusion because of decreased intracellular ATP levels. The toxic Ca(2+) signals caused extensive necrosis. The asparaginase-induced pathology depended on protease-activated receptor 2 and its inhibition prevented the toxic Ca(2+) signals and necrosis. We tested the effects of inhibiting the Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) entry by the Ca(2+) channel inhibitor GSK-7975A. This markedly reduced asparaginase-induced Ca(2+) entry and also protected effectively against the development of necrosis.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolution brings Ca(2+) and ATP together to control life and death'. © 2016 The Authors.

  5. Cpa, the Outer Membrane Protease of Cronobacter sakazakii, Activates Plasminogen and Mediates Resistance to Serum Bactericidal Activity▿

    PubMed Central

    Franco, A. A.; Kothary, M. H.; Gopinath, G.; Jarvis, K. G.; Grim, C. J.; Hu, L.; Datta, A. R.; McCardell, B. A.; Tall, B. D.

    2011-01-01

    Cronobacter spp. are emerging neonatal pathogens in humans, associated with outbreaks of meningitis and sepsis. To cause disease, they must survive in blood and invade the central nervous system by penetrating the blood-brain barrier. C. sakazakii BAA-894 possesses an ∼131-kb plasmid (pESA3) that encodes an outer membrane protease (Cpa) that has significant identity to proteins that belong to the Pla subfamily of omptins. Members of this subfamily of proteins degrade a number of serum proteins, including circulating complement, providing protection from the complement-dependent serum killing. Moreover, proteins of the Pla subfamily can cause uncontrolled plasmin activity by converting plasminogen to plasmin and inactivating the plasmin inhibitor α2-antiplasmin (α2-AP). These reactions enhance the spread and invasion of bacteria in the host. In this study, we found that an isogenic cpa mutant showed reduced resistance to serum in comparison to its parent C. sakazakii BAA-894 strain. Overexpression of Cpa in C. sakazakii or Escherichia coli DH5α showed that Cpa proteolytically cleaved complement components C3, C3a, and C4b. Furthermore, a strain of C. sakazakii overexpressing Cpa caused a rapid activation of plasminogen and inactivation of α2-AP. These results strongly suggest that Cpa may be an important virulence factor involved in serum resistance, as well as in the spread and invasion of C. sakazakii. PMID:21245266

  6. Advances in protease engineering for laundry detergents.

    PubMed

    Vojcic, Ljubica; Pitzler, Christian; Körfer, Georgette; Jakob, Felix; Ronny Martinez; Maurer, Karl-Heinz; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2015-12-25

    Proteases are essential ingredients in modern laundry detergents. Over the past 30 years, subtilisin proteases employed in the laundry detergent industry have been engineered by directed evolution and rational design to tailor their properties towards industrial demands. This comprehensive review discusses recent success stories in subtilisin protease engineering. Advances in protease engineering for laundry detergents comprise simultaneous improvement of thermal resistance and activity at low temperatures, a rational strategy to modulate pH profiles, and a general hypothesis for how to increase promiscuous activity towards the production of peroxycarboxylic acids as mild bleaching agents. The three protease engineering campaigns presented provide in-depth analysis of protease properties and have identified principles that can be applied to improve or generate enzyme variants for industrial applications beyond laundry detergents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Extracellular proteases as targets for drug development

    PubMed Central

    Cudic, Mare

    2015-01-01

    Proteases constitute one of the primary targets in drug discovery. In the present review, we focus on extracellular proteases (ECPs) because of their differential expression in many pathophysiological processes, including cancer, cardiovascular conditions, and inflammatory, pulmonary, and periodontal diseases. Many new ECP inhibitors are currently under clinical investigation and a significant increase in new therapies based on protease inhibition can be expected in the coming years. In addition to directly blocking the activity of a targeted protease, one can take advantage of differential expression in disease states to selectively deliver therapeutic or imaging agents. Recent studies in targeted drug development for the metalloproteases (matrix metalloproteinases, adamalysins, pappalysins, neprilysin, angiotensin-converting enzyme, metallocarboxypeptidases, and glutamate carboxypeptidase II), serine proteases (elastase, coagulation factors, tissue/urokinase plasminogen activator system, kallikreins, tryptase, dipeptidyl peptidase IV), cysteine proteases (cathepsin B), and renin system are discussed herein. PMID:19689354

  8. [Fish ovarian fluid contains protease inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Minin, A A; Ozerova, S G

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the conditions under which fish egg is activated spontaneously without the sperm showed that the egg retains the ability for fertilization in the ovarian (coelomic) fluid, which surrounds it in the gonad cavity after ovulation. Earlier, we showed that, in artificial media, the spontaneous activation is suppressed by protease inhibitors. In this study, we investigated the presence of natural protease inhibitors in the ovarian fluid and showed that the ovarian fluid of zebrafish and loach contains protease inhibitors, in particular, type I serpin a, a protein inhibitor of trypsin proteases.

  9. Vitamin D modulates tissue factor and protease-activated receptor 2 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Moreno, Julio M; Herencia, Carmen; Montes de Oca, Addy; Muñoz-Castañeda, Juan R; Rodríguez-Ortiz, M Encarnación; Díaz-Tocados, Juan M; Peralbo-Santaella, Esther; Camargo, Antonio; Canalejo, Antonio; Rodriguez, Mariano; Velasco-Gimena, Francisco; Almaden, Yolanda

    2016-03-01

    Clinical and epidemiologic studies reveal an association between vitamin D deficiency and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Because vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC)-derived tissue factor (TF) is suggested to be critical for arterial thrombosis, we investigated whether the vitamin D molecules calcitriol and paricalcitol could reduce the expression of TF induced by the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α in human aortic VSMCs. We found that, compared with controls, incubation with TNF-α increased TF expression and procoagulant activity in a NF-κB-dependent manner, as deduced from the increased nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells protein 65 (p65-NF-κB) and direct interaction of NF-κB to the TF promoter. This was accompanied by the up-regulation of TF signaling mediator protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) expression and by the down-regulation of vitamin D receptor expression in a miR-346-dependent way. However, addition of calcitriol or paricalcitol blunted the TNF-α-induced TF expression and activity (2.01 ± 0.24 and 1.32 ± 0.14 vs. 3.02 ± 0.39 pmol/mg protein, P < 0.05), which was associated with down-regulation of NF-κB signaling and PAR-2 expression, as well as with restored levels of vitamin D receptor and enhanced expression of TF pathway inhibitor. Our data suggest that inflammation promotes a prothrombotic state through the up-regulation of TF function in VSMCs and that the beneficial cardiovascular effects of vitamin D may be partially due to decreases in TF expression and its activity in VSMCs. © FASEB.

  10. Expression of protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2, but not other PARs, is regulated by inflammatory cytokines in rat astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Sokolova, Elena; Aleshin, Stepan; Reiser, Georg

    2012-02-01

    Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and are believed to play an important role in normal brain functioning as well as in development of various inflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. Pathological conditions cause altered expression of PARs in brain cells and therefore altered responsiveness to PAR activation. The exact mechanisms of regulation of PAR expression are not well studied. Here, we evaluated in rat astrocytes the influence of LPS, pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-1β and continuous PAR activation by PAR agonists on the expression levels of PARs. These stimuli are important in inflammatory and neurological disorders, where their levels are increased. We report that LPS as well as cytokines TNFα and IL-1β affected only the PAR-2 level, but their effects were opposite. LPS and TNFα increased the functional expression of PAR-2, whereas IL-1β down-regulated the functional response of PAR-2. Agonists of PAR-1 specifically increased mRNA level of PAR-2, but not protein level. Transcript levels of other PARs were not changed after PAR-1 activation. Stimulation of the cells with PAR-2 or PAR-4 agonists did not alter PAR levels. We found that up-regulation of PAR-2 is dependent on PKC activity, mostly via its Ca²⁺-sensitive isoforms. Two transcription factors, NFκB and AP-1, are involved in up-regulation of PAR-2. These findings provide new information about the regulation of expression of PAR subtypes in brain cells. This is of importance for targeting PARs, especially PAR-2, for the treatment of CNS disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Using molecular imaging to assess the delivery and infection of protease activated virus in animal model of myocardial infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Banghe; Guenther, Caitlin; Kwon, Sunkuk; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Suh, Junghae

    2017-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases remain the greatest cause of death in the US and gene therapy has the potential to be an effective therapy. In this study, we demonstrated MMP-9 based protease-activatable virus (PAV) for selective infection of myocardial infarct (MI) that is associated with active MMP-9 expression. To test the specificity of PAV, we used expression of a far-red fluorescence protein (iRFP) delivered by the PAV together with a dual PET/NIRF imaging agent specific for active MMP-9 activity at the site of MI in a murine model. Calibrated fluorescence imaging employed a highly-sensitive intensified camera, laser diode excitation sources, and filtration schemes based upon the spectra of iRFP and the NIRF agent. One to two days after ligation of the left anterior descending artery, the PAV or WT AAV9 virus encoding for iRFP (5x1010 genomic particles) and radiolabeled MMP-9 imaging agent (3 nmol) were injected intravenously (i.v.). PET imaging showed MMP activity was associated with adverse tissue remodeling at the site of the MI. One week after, animals were again injected i.v. with the MMP-9 agent (3 nmol) and 18-24 h later, the animals were euthanized and the hearts were harvested, sliced, and imaged for congruent iRFP transgene expression and NIRF signals associated with MMP-9 tissue activity. The fluorescent margins of iRFP and NIRF contrasted tissues were quantified in terms Standard International units of mW/cm2/sr. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of PAV and WT targeting to sites of MI was determined from these calibrated fluorescence measurements. The PAV demonstrated significantly higher delivery performance than that of the WT AAV9 virus.

  12. Protease-activated Receptor-2 (PAR-2)-mediated Nf-κB Activation Suppresses Inflammation-associated Tumor Suppressor MicroRNAs in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jeff J.; Miller, Daniel L.; Jiang, Rong; Liu, Yueying; Shi, Zonggao; Tarwater, Laura; Williams, Russell; Balsara, Rashna; Sauter, Edward R.; Stack, M. Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer is the sixth most common cause of death from cancer with an estimated 400,000 deaths worldwide and a low (50%) 5-year survival rate. The most common form of oral cancer is oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). OSCC is highly inflammatory and invasive, and the degree of inflammation correlates with tumor aggressiveness. The G protein-coupled receptor protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) plays a key role in inflammation. PAR-2 is activated via proteolytic cleavage by trypsin-like serine proteases, including kallikrein-5 (KLK5), or by treatment with activating peptides. PAR-2 activation induces G protein-α-mediated signaling, mobilizing intracellular calcium and Nf-κB signaling, leading to the increased expression of pro-inflammatory mRNAs. Little is known, however, about PAR-2 regulation of inflammation-related microRNAs. Here, we assess PAR-2 expression and function in OSCC cell lines and tissues. Stimulation of PAR-2 activates Nf-κB signaling, resulting in RelA nuclear translocation and enhanced expression of pro-inflammatory mRNAs. Concomitantly, suppression of the anti-inflammatory tumor suppressor microRNAs let-7d, miR-23b, and miR-200c was observed following PAR-2 stimulation. Analysis of orthotopic oral tumors generated by cells with reduced KLK5 expression showed smaller, less aggressive lesions with reduced inflammatory infiltrate relative to tumors generated by KLK5-expressing control cells. Together, these data support a model wherein KLK5-mediated PAR-2 activation regulates the expression of inflammation-associated mRNAs and microRNAs, thereby modulating progression of oral tumors. PMID:26839311

  13. Protease-activated Receptor-2 (PAR-2)-mediated Nf-κB Activation Suppresses Inflammation-associated Tumor Suppressor MicroRNAs in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeff J; Miller, Daniel L; Jiang, Rong; Liu, Yueying; Shi, Zonggao; Tarwater, Laura; Williams, Russell; Balsara, Rashna; Sauter, Edward R; Stack, M Sharon

    2016-03-25

    Oral cancer is the sixth most common cause of death from cancer with an estimated 400,000 deaths worldwide and a low (50%) 5-year survival rate. The most common form of oral cancer is oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). OSCC is highly inflammatory and invasive, and the degree of inflammation correlates with tumor aggressiveness. The G protein-coupled receptor protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) plays a key role in inflammation. PAR-2 is activated via proteolytic cleavage by trypsin-like serine proteases, including kallikrein-5 (KLK5), or by treatment with activating peptides. PAR-2 activation induces G protein-α-mediated signaling, mobilizing intracellular calcium and Nf-κB signaling, leading to the increased expression of pro-inflammatory mRNAs. Little is known, however, about PAR-2 regulation of inflammation-related microRNAs. Here, we assess PAR-2 expression and function in OSCC cell lines and tissues. Stimulation of PAR-2 activates Nf-κB signaling, resulting in RelA nuclear translocation and enhanced expression of pro-inflammatory mRNAs. Concomitantly, suppression of the anti-inflammatory tumor suppressor microRNAs let-7d, miR-23b, and miR-200c was observed following PAR-2 stimulation. Analysis of orthotopic oral tumors generated by cells with reduced KLK5 expression showed smaller, less aggressive lesions with reduced inflammatory infiltrate relative to tumors generated by KLK5-expressing control cells. Together, these data support a model wherein KLK5-mediated PAR-2 activation regulates the expression of inflammation-associated mRNAs and microRNAs, thereby modulating progression of oral tumors. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David B.; Lao, Guifang

    1998-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium.

  15. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, D.B.; Lao, G.

    1998-01-06

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium. 3 figs.

  16. Pharmacophore-based virtual screening, biological evaluation and binding mode analysis of a novel protease-activated receptor 2 antagonist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Nam-Chul; Seo, Seoung-Hwan; Kim, Dohee; Shin, Ji-Sun; Ju, Jeongmin; Seong, Jihye; Seo, Seon Hee; Lee, Iiyoun; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Kim, Yun Kyung; No, Kyoung Tai; Pae, Ae Nim

    2016-08-01

    Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is a G protein-coupled receptor, mediating inflammation and pain signaling in neurons, thus it is considered to be a potential therapeutic target for inflammatory diseases. In this study, we performed a ligand-based virtual screening of 1.6 million compounds by employing a common-feature pharmacophore model and two-dimensional similarity search to identify a new PAR2 antagonist. The common-feature pharmacophore model was established based on the biological screening results of our in-house library. The initial virtual screening yielded a total number of 47 hits, and additional biological activity tests including PAR2 antagonism and anti-inflammatory effects resulted in a promising candidate, compound 43, which demonstrated an IC50 value of 8.22 µM against PAR2. In next step, a PAR2 homology model was constructed using the crystal structure of the PAR1 as a template to explore the binding mode of the identified ligands. A molecular docking method was optimized by comparing the binding modes of a known PAR2 agonist GB110 and antagonist GB83, and applied to predict the binding mode of our hit compound 43. In-depth docking analyses revealed that the hydrophobic interaction with Phe2435.39 is crucial for PAR2 ligands to exert antagonistic activity. MD simulation results supported the predicted docking poses that PAR2 antagonist blocked a conformational rearrangement of Na+ allosteric site in contrast to PAR2 agonist that showed Na+ relocation upon GPCR activation. In conclusion, we identified new a PAR2 antagonist together with its binding mode, which provides useful insights for the design and development of PAR2 ligands.

  17. Protease-Activated Receptor-2 Deficiency Attenuates Atherosclerotic Lesion Progression and Instability in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Pengfei; Zuo, Zhi; Zheng, Yueyue; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Qianxing; Chen, Long; Ma, Genshan

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory mechanisms are involved in the process of atherosclerotic plaque formation and rupture. Accumulating evidence suggests that protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 contributes to the pathophysiology of chronic inflammation on the vasculature. To directly examine the role of PAR-2 in atherosclerosis, we generated apolipoprotein E/PAR-2 double-deficient mice. Mice were fed with high-fat diet for 12 weeks starting at ages of 6 weeks. PAR-2 deficiency attenuated atherosclerotic lesion progression with reduced total lesion area, reduced percentage of stenosis and reduced total necrotic core area. PAR-2 deficiency increased fibrous cap thickness and collagen content of plaque. Moreover, PAR-2 deficiency decreased smooth muscle cell content, macrophage accumulation, matrix metallopeptidase-9 expression and neovascularization in plaque. Relative quantitative PCR assay using thoracic aorta revealed that PAR-2 deficiency reduced mRNA expression of inflammatory molecules, such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1. In vitro experiment, we found that PAR-2 deficiency reduced mRNA expression of interferon-γ, interleukin-6, TNF-α and MCP-1 in macrophage under unstimulated and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated conditions. These results suggest that PAR-2 deficiency attenuates the progression and instability of atherosclerotic plaque. PMID:28959204

  18. Expression of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: correlation with clinicopathological features and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Bian, Li-Juan; Li, Yang; Liang, Ying-Jie; Liang, Hui-Zhen

    2009-01-01

    We aimed at determining whether the expression of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) is involved in the progression of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and correlated with latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1), matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP9), and angiogenesis of tumor. PAR-2, LMP-1, and MMP9 expressions were detected in 57 biopsies of primary NPC by immunohistochemistry. The presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was determined using EBER in situ hybridization, and intratumoral microvessels were highlighted by staining endothelial cells for anti-CD34. The correlations with immunostainings and clinicopathological factors, as well as the follow-up data of patients, were analyzed statistically. Strong expression of PAR-2 in 61.4% (35/57) of the biopsies was correlated with extensive lymph node metastasis and advanced stage of NPC. The patients with PAR-2/LMP-1 or PAR-2/MMP9 dual high-expression tumors had a significant worse prognosis than those with single protein high expression and dual low or negative expression tumors (P=0.013 and 0.004, respectively). Angiogenesis in the tumor is related to overall survival of NPC patients (P=0.001), and exhibits strong PAR-2 expression or LMP-1 expression in tumors associated with increased intratumoral microvessel density (P=0.026 and 0.006, respectively). PAR-2 is a possible mediator cooperating with LMP-1 and MMP9 to influence the progression of NPC by inducing angiogenesis and promoting lymph node metastasis.

  19. Vorapaxar: The Current Role and Future Directions of a Novel Protease-Activated Receptor Antagonist for Risk Reduction in Atherosclerotic Disease.

    PubMed

    Gryka, Rebecca J; Buckley, Leo F; Anderson, Sarah M

    2017-03-01

    Despite the current standard of care, patients with cardiovascular disease remain at a high risk for recurrent events. Inhibition of thrombin-mediated platelet activation through protease-activated receptor-1 antagonism may provide reductions in atherosclerotic disease beyond those achievable with the current standard of care. Our primary objective is to evaluate the clinical literature regarding the role of vorapaxar (Zontivity™) in the reduction of cardiovascular events in patients with a history of myocardial infarction and peripheral artery disease. In particular, we focus on the potential future directions for protease-activating receptor antagonists in the treatment of a broad range of atherosclerotic diseases. A literature search of PubMed and EBSCO was conducted to identify randomized clinical trials from August 2005 to June 2016 using the search terms: 'vorapaxar', 'SCH 530348', 'protease-activated receptor-1 antagonist', and 'Zontivity™'. Bibliographies were searched and additional resources were obtained. Vorapaxar is a first-in-class, protease-activated receptor-1 antagonist. The Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction (TRACER) trial did not demonstrate a significant reduction in a broad primary composite endpoint. However, the Thrombin-Receptor Antagonist in Secondary Prevention of Atherothrombotic Ischemic Events (TRA 2°P-TIMI 50) trial examined a more traditional composite endpoint and found a significant benefit with vorapaxar. Vorapaxar significantly increased bleeding compared with standard care. Ongoing trials will help define the role of vorapaxar in patients with peripheral arterial disease, patients with diabetes mellitus, and other important subgroups. The use of multivariate modeling may enable the identification of subgroups with maximal benefit and minimal harm from vorapaxar. Vorapaxar provides clinicians with a novel mechanism of action to further reduce the burden of ischemic heart disease. Identification of

  20. Activation of the classical complement pathway by mannose-binding protein in association with a novel C1s-like serine protease

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Serum mannose-binding protein (MBP) is a C-type lectin that binds to terminal mannose and N-acetylglucosamine moieties present on surfaces of certain pathogens and activates the classical complement pathway. In the present study, we describe the mechanism underlying the activation triggered by MBP. The human serum MBP fraction was obtained by sequential affinity chromatography on mannan-Sepharose, anti-IgM- Sepharose and anti-MBP-Sepharose in the presence of calcium ions. This fraction contained a C1s-like serine protease as assessed by C4 consumption. The C1s-like serine protease, designated MBP-associated serine protease (MASP), was separated from MBP by rechromatography on anti-MBP-Sepharose in the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. MASP exhibited both C4- and C2-consuming activities. The molecular mass of MASP was estimated to be 83 kD with two polypeptides of heavy (66 kD) and light (L) (31 kD) chains linked by disulfide bonds. The serine residue responsible for protease activity is located on the L chain. Reconstitution experiments using MASP and MBP revealed that combination of the two components restores C4- and C2-activating capacity on mannan. Based on analyses of molecular size, antigenicity, and 11 NH2- terminal amino acid sequences of the L chain, we conclude that MASP is a novel protein different from C1r or C1s. Our findings are not in accord with a proposed mechanism by which MBP utilizes the C1r2-C1s2 complex to initiate the classical complement pathway. PMID:1460414

  1. Immunoglobulin A with protease activity secreted in human milk activates PAR-2 receptors, of intestinal epithelial cells HT-29, and promotes beta-defensin-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Barrera, G J; Portillo, R; Mijares, A; Rocafull, M A; del Castillo, J R; Thomas, L E

    2009-03-24

    Secretory antibodies of the immunoglobulin A (sIgA) class constitute the first line of antigen-specific immune protection against pathogens and other antigens at mucosal surfaces. Although initially perceived as potentially deleterious, catalytic antibodies have been proposed to participate in the removal of metabolic wastes and in protection against infection. Here we show that the presence of sIgA endowed with serine protease-like hydrolytic activity in milk strongly correlates with PAR-2 activation in human intestinal epithelial cells. F(ab')(2) fragments of sIgA activated the epithelial cells in culture to produce beta-defensin-2 (hBD2). Intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization was induced by treatment with (1) sIgA-F(ab')(2) fragments; (2) trypsin, a recognized PAR-2 agonist; or (3) a synthetic PAR-2 agonist peptide (SLIGKV). The co-treatment with a synthetic PAR-2 antagonist peptide (FSLLRY) and sIgA-F(ab')(2) fragments eliminates the latter's effect; nevertheless, cells were not refractory to subsequent stimulation with sIgA-F(ab')(2) fragments. Both the induction of hBD-2 expression in epithelial cells and the increase in intracellular [Ca(2+)] stimulated by sIgA-F(ab')(2) fragments were inhibited by treatment with serine protease inhibitors or pertussis toxin (PTX). These findings suggest that catalytic antibodies can activate intestinal epithelial cells through G-protein-coupled PAR-2, and could actively participate in the immune system of breastfed babies inducing the production of peptides related to innate defense, such as defensins.

  2. Substrates and controls for the quantitative detection of active botulinum neurotoxin in protease-containing samples

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) enjoy a wide variety of medical applications. However, limited pharmacokinetic data on active BoNT is available. Monitoring BoNT activity in the circulation is a challenging task, due to BoNT’s enormous toxicity, rapid neuronal uptake, and removal from the bloodstream. ...

  3. The Androgen-Regulated Protease TMPRSS2 Activates aProteolytic Cascade Involving Components of the Tumor Microenvironment and Promotes Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Jared M.; Heinlein, Cynthia; Kim, Tom; Hernandez, Susana A.; Malik, Muzdah S.; True, Lawrence D.; Morrissey, Colm; Corey, Eva; Montgomery, Bruce; Mostaghel, Elahe; Clegg, Nigel; Coleman, Ilsa; Brown, Christopher M.; Schneider, Eric L.; Craik, Charles; Simon, Julian; Bedalov, Tony; Nelson, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    TMPRSS2 is an androgen-regulated cell surface serine protease expressed predominantly in prostate epithelium. TMPRSS2 is expressed highly in localized high-grade prostate cancers and in the majority of human prostate cancer metastasis. Through the generation of mouse models with a targeted deletion of Tmprss2, we demonstrate that the activity of this protease regulates cancer cell invasion and metastasis to distant organs. By screening combinatorial peptide libraries we identified a spectrum of TMPRSS2 substrates that include pro-hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). HGF activated by TMPRSS2 promoted c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase signaling, and initiated a pro-invasive EMT phenotype. Chemical library screens identified a potent bioavailable TMPRSS2 inhibitor that suppressed prostate cancer metastasis in vivo. Together, these findings provide a mechanistic link between androgen-regulated signaling programs and prostate cancer metastasis that operate via context-dependent interactions with extracellular constituents of the tumor microenvironment. PMID:25122198

  4. Midgut protease activities in monophagous larvae of Apollo butterfly, Parnassius apollo ssp. frankenbergeri.

    PubMed

    Nakonieczny, Mirosław; Michalczyk, Katarzyna; Kedziorski, Andrzej

    2007-02-01

    We assayed the relative activities of midgut proteolytic enzymes in individuals of the fourth (L(4)) and fifth (L(5)) instar of Apollo larvae, inhabiting Pieniny Mts (southern Poland). The comparisons between midgut tissue with glicocalyx (MT) and liquid midgut contents with peritrophic membrane (MC) were made. Optimal media pHs of the assayed proteolytic enzymes in P. apollo midgut samples were similar to those of other lepidopteran species. Endopeptidases, as well as carboxypeptidases, digested effectively in alkaline environment, while aminopeptidases were active in a broad pH range. Trypsin is probably the main endoprotease (correlation with caseinolytic activity in MC of L(5) larvae: r=0.606; p=0.004); however, its activity was low as compared with that in other leaf-eating Lepidoptera. This suggests a minor role of trypsin and chymotrypsin in protein digestion in Apollo larvae, probably due to limited availability of the leaf proteins. Instead, due to very high carboxypeptidase A activity in midgut tissue, the larvae obtain exogenous amino acids either directly or from oligopeptides and glycoproteins. High and significant positive correlations between the enzyme activity and glucosidase as well as galactosidase activities strongly support this opinion.

  5. Use of Different Proteases to Obtain Flaxseed Protein Hydrolysates with Antioxidant Activity.

    PubMed

    Karamać, Magdalena; Kosińska-Cagnazzo, Agnieszka; Kulczyk, Anna

    2016-06-29

    The antioxidant activity of flaxseed protein hydrolysates obtained using five different enzymes was evaluated. Proteins were isolated from flaxseed cake and were separately treated with papain, trypsin, pancreatin, Alcalase and Flavourzyme. The degree of hydrolysis (DH) was determined as the percentage of cleaved peptide bonds using a spectrophotometric method with o-phthaldialdehyde. The distribution of the molecular weights (MW) of the hydrolysis products was profiled using Tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Tricine-SDS-PAGE) and size exclusion-high performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC) separations. The antioxidant activities of the protein isolate and hydrolysates were probed for their radical scavenging activity using 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) radical cation (ABTS(•+)) and photochemiluminescence (PCL-ACL) assays, and for their ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and ability to bind Fe(2+). The hydrolysates were more effective as antioxidants than the protein isolate in all systems. The PCL-ACL values of the hydrolysates ranged from 7.2 to 35.7 μmol Trolox/g. Both the FRAP and ABTS(•+) scavenging activity differed among the hydrolysates to a lower extent, with the ranges of 0.20-0.24 mmol Fe(2+)/g and 0.17-0.22 mmol Trolox/g, respectively. The highest chelating activity (71.5%) was noted for the pancreatin hydrolysate. In general, the hydrolysates obtained using Alcalase and pancreatin had the highest antioxidant activity, even though their DH (15.4% and 29.3%, respectively) and the MW profiles of the peptides varied substantially. The O₂(•-) scavenging activity and the ability to chelate Fe(2+) of the Flavourzyme hydrolysate were lower than those of the Alcalase and pancreatin hydrolysates. Papain was the least effective in releasing the peptides with antioxidant activity. The study showed that the type of enzyme used for flaxseed protein hydrolysis determines the antioxidant activity

  6. Effects of protease activated receptor (PAR)2 blocking peptide on endothelin-1 levels in kidney tissues in endotoxemic rat mode.

    PubMed

    Jesmin, Subrina; Shimojo, Nobutake; Yamaguchi, Naoto; Mowa, Chishimba Nathan; Oki, Masami; Zaedi, Sohel; Sultana, Sayeeda Nusrat; Rahman, Arifur; Islam, Majedul; Sawamura, Atsushi; Gando, Satoshi; Kawano, Satoru; Miyauchi, Takashi; Mizutani, Taro

    2014-05-02

    Septic shock, the severe form of sepsis, is associated with development of progressive damage in multiple organs. Kidney can be injured and its functions altered by activation of coagulation, vasoactive-peptide and inflammatory processes in sepsis. Endothelin (ET)-1, a potent vasoconstrictor, is implicated in the pathogenesis of sepsis and its complications. Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are shown to play an important role in the interplay between inflammation and coagulation. We examined the time-dependent alterations of ET-1 and inflammatory cytokine, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in kidney tissue in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic rat model and the effects of PAR2 blocking peptide on the LPS-induced elevations of renal ET-1 and TNF-α levels. Male Wistar rats at 8 weeks of age were administered with either saline solution or LPS at different time points (1, 3, 6 and 10h). Additionally, we treated LPS-administered rats with PAR2 blocking peptide for 3h to assess whether blockade of PAR2 has a regulatory role on the ET-1 level in septic kidney. An increase in ET-1 peptide level was observed in kidney tissue after LPS administration time-dependently. Levels of renal TNF-α peaked (around 12-fold) at 1h of sepsis. Interestingly, PAR2 blocking peptide normalized the LPS-induced elevations of renal ET-1 and TNF-α levels. The present study reveals a distinct chronological expression of ET-1 and TNF-α in LPS-administered renal tissues and that blockade of PAR2 may play a crucial role in treating renal injury, via normalization of inflammation, coagulation and vaso-active peptide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Selection of molecular descriptors with artificial intelligence for the understanding of HIV-1 protease peptidomimetic inhibitors-activity.

    PubMed

    Sirois, S; Tsoukas, C M; Chou, Kuo-Chen; Wei, Dongqing; Boucher, C; Hatzakis, G E

    2005-03-01

    Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) techniques are used routinely by computational chemists in drug discovery and development to analyze datasets of compounds. Quantitative numerical methods like Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have been used on QSAR to establish correlations between molecular properties and bioactivity. However, ANN may be advantageous over PLS because it considers the interrelations of the modeled variables. This study focused on the HIV-1 Protease (HIV-1 Pr) inhibitors belonging to the peptidomimetic class of compounds. The main objective was to select molecular descriptors with the best predictive value for antiviral potency (Ki). PLS and ANN were used to predict Ki activity of HIV-1 Pr inhibitors and the results were compared. To address the issue of dimensionality reduction, Genetic Algorithms (GA) were used for variable selection and their performance was compared against that of ANN. Finally, the structure of the optimum ANN achieving the highest Pearson's-R coefficient was determined. On the basis of Pearson's-R, PLS and ANN were compared to determine which exhibits maximum performance. Training and validation of models was performed on 15 random split sets of the master dataset consisted of 231 compounds. For each compound 192 molecular descriptors were considered. The molecular structure and constant of inhibition (Ki) were selected from the NIAID database. Study findings suggested that non-covalent interactions such as hydrophobicity, shape and hydrogen bonding describe well the antiviral activity of the HIV-1 Pr compounds. The significance of lipophilicity and relationship to HIV-1 associated hyperlipidemia and lipodystrophy syndrome warrant further investigation.

  8. Protease-Activated Receptor 4 Variant p.Tyr157Cys Reduces Platelet Functional Responses and Alters Receptor Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Norman, Jane E; Cunningham, Margaret R; Jones, Matthew L; Walker, Mary E; Westbury, Sarah K; Sessions, Richard B; Mundell, Stuart J; Mumford, Andrew D

    2016-05-01

    Protease-activated receptor 4 (PAR4) is a key regulator of platelet reactivity and is encoded by F2RL3, which has abundant rare missense variants. We aimed to provide proof of principle that rare F2LR3 variants potentially affect platelet reactivity and responsiveness to PAR1 antagonist drugs and to explore underlying molecular mechanisms. We identified 6 rare F2RL3 missense variants in 236 cardiac patients, of which the variant causing a tyrosine 157 to cysteine substitution (Y157C) was predicted computationally to have the greatest effect on PAR4 structure. Y157C platelets from 3 cases showed reduced responses to PAR4-activating peptide and to α-thrombin compared with controls, but no reduction in responses to PAR1-activating peptide. Pretreatment with the PAR1 antagonist vorapaxar caused lower residual α-thrombin responses in Y157C platelets than in controls, indicating greater platelet inhibition. HEK293 cells transfected with a PAR4 Y157C expression construct had reduced PAR4 functional responses, unchanged total PAR4 expression but reduced surface expression. PAR4 Y157C was partially retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and displayed an expression pattern consistent with defective N-glycosylation. Mutagenesis of Y322, which is the putative hydrogen bond partner of Y157, also reduced PAR4 surface expression in HEK293 cells. Reduced PAR4 responses associated with Y157C result from aberrant anterograde surface receptor trafficking, in part, because of disrupted intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Characterization of PAR4 Y157C establishes that rare F2RL3 variants have the potential to markedly alter platelet PAR4 reactivity particularly after exposure to therapeutic PAR1 antagonists. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Contributions of protein kinases and β-arrestin to termination of protease-activated receptor 2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seung-Ryoung; Seo, Jong Bae; Deng, Yi; Asbury, Charles L; Hille, Bertil; Koh, Duk-Su

    2016-03-01

    Activated Gq protein-coupled receptors (GqPCRs) can be desensitized by phosphorylation and β-arrestin binding. The kinetics and individual contributions of these two mechanisms to receptor desensitization have not been fully distinguished. Here, we describe the shut off of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2). PAR2 activates Gq and phospholipase C (PLC) to hydrolyze phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) into diacylglycerol and inositol trisphosphate (IP3). We used fluorescent protein-tagged optical probes to monitor several consequences of PAR2 signaling, including PIP2 depletion and β-arrestin translocation in real time. During continuous activation of PAR2, PIP2 was depleted transiently and then restored within a few minutes, indicating fast receptor activation followed by desensitization. Knockdown of β-arrestin 1 and 2 using siRNA diminished the desensitization, slowing PIP2 restoration significantly and even adding a delayed secondary phase of further PIP2 depletion. These effects of β-arrestin knockdown on PIP2 recovery were prevented when serine/threonine phosphatases that dephosphorylate GPCRs were inhibited. Thus, PAR2 may continuously regain its activity via dephosphorylation when there is insufficient β-arrestin to trap phosphorylated receptors. Similarly, blockers of protein kinase C (PKC) and G protein-coupled receptor kinase potentiated the PIP2 depletion. In contrast, an activator of PKC inhibited receptor activation, presumably by augmenting phosphorylation of PAR2. Our interpretations were strengthened by modeling. Simulations supported the conclusions that phosphorylation of PAR2 by protein kinases initiates receptor desensitization and that recruited β-arrestin traps the phosphorylated state of the receptor, protecting it from phosphatases. Speculative thinking suggested a sequestration of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5 kinase (PIP5K) to the plasma membrane by β-arrestin to explain why knockdown of β-arrestin led to secondary

  10. Contributions of protein kinases and β-arrestin to termination of protease-activated receptor 2 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Seung-Ryoung; Seo, Jong Bae; Deng, Yi; Asbury, Charles L.; Hille, Bertil

    2016-01-01

    Activated Gq protein–coupled receptors (GqPCRs) can be desensitized by phosphorylation and β-arrestin binding. The kinetics and individual contributions of these two mechanisms to receptor desensitization have not been fully distinguished. Here, we describe the shut off of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2). PAR2 activates Gq and phospholipase C (PLC) to hydrolyze phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) into diacylglycerol and inositol trisphosphate (IP3). We used fluorescent protein–tagged optical probes to monitor several consequences of PAR2 signaling, including PIP2 depletion and β-arrestin translocation in real time. During continuous activation of PAR2, PIP2 was depleted transiently and then restored within a few minutes, indicating fast receptor activation followed by desensitization. Knockdown of β-arrestin 1 and 2 using siRNA diminished the desensitization, slowing PIP2 restoration significantly and even adding a delayed secondary phase of further PIP2 depletion. These effects of β-arrestin knockdown on PIP2 recovery were prevented when serine/threonine phosphatases that dephosphorylate GPCRs were inhibited. Thus, PAR2 may continuously regain its activity via dephosphorylation when there is insufficient β-arrestin to trap phosphorylated receptors. Similarly, blockers of protein kinase C (PKC) and G protein–coupled receptor kinase potentiated the PIP2 depletion. In contrast, an activator of PKC inhibited receptor activation, presumably by augmenting phosphorylation of PAR2. Our interpretations were strengthened by modeling. Simulations supported the conclusions that phosphorylation of PAR2 by protein kinases initiates receptor desensitization and that recruited β-arrestin traps the phosphorylated state of the receptor, protecting it from phosphatases. Speculative thinking suggested a sequestration of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5 kinase (PIP5K) to the plasma membrane by β-arrestin to explain why knockdown of β-arrestin led to

  11. Structure of human dipeptidyl peptidase I (cathepsin C): exclusion domain added to an endopeptidase framework creates the machine for activation of granular serine proteases

    PubMed Central

    Turk, Dušan; Janjić, Vojko; Štern, Igor; Podobnik, Marjetka; Lamba, Doriano; Weis Dahl, Søren; Lauritzen, Connie; Pedersen, John; Turk, Vito; Turk, Boris

    2001-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase I (DPPI) or cathepsin C is the physiological activator of groups of serine proteases from immune and inflammatory cells vital for defense of an organism. The structure presented shows how an additional domain transforms the framework of a papain-like endopeptidase into a robust oligomeric protease-processing enzyme. The tetrahedral arrangement of the active sites exposed to solvent allows approach of proteins in their native state; the massive body of the exclusion domain fastened within the tetrahedral framework excludes approach of a polypeptide chain apart from its termini; and the carboxylic group of Asp1 positions the N-terminal amino group of the substrate. Based on a structural comparison and interactions within the active site cleft, it is suggested that the exclusion domain originates from a metallo-protease inhibitor. The location of missense mutations, characterized in people suffering from Haim–Munk and Papillon–Lefevre syndromes, suggests how they disrupt the fold and function of the enzyme. PMID:11726493

  12. Effects of temperature, pH and NaCl on protease activity in digestive tract of young turbot, Scophthalmus maximus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Muyan; Zhang, Xiumei; Gao, Tianxiang; Chen, Chao

    2006-09-01

    The protease activity in digestive tract of young turbot Scophthalmus maximum was studied, and the optimal pH, temperature and NaCl concentration were determined for different portions of the fish's internal organs. The optimal activity in the fish's stomach was at pH of 2.2, while that in the intestinal extracts was within the alkaline range from 9.5 to 10.0. In hepatopancreas, the optimal pH was in low alkalinity at 8.5. The optimal reaction temperature was above 40°C in stomach, intestine and hepatopancreas. With increasing temperature, the pH value increased in stomach, while in the intestine, an opposite tendency was observed due to combined effect of pH and temperature. NaCl concentration showed inhibitory impact on protein digestion in hepatopancreas. The main protease for protein digestion in turbot seemed to be pepsin. Moreover, the maximum protease activity in different segments of intestine existed in the hindgut.

  13. Encephalomyocarditis Virus 3C Protease Relieves TRAF Family Member-associated NF-κB Activator (TANK) Inhibitory Effect on TRAF6-mediated NF-κB Signaling through Cleavage of TANK*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li; Liu, Qinfang; Zhang, Lijie; Zhang, Quan; Hu, Liang; Li, Changyao; Wang, Shengnan; Li, Jiangnan; Zhang, Yuanfeng; Yu, Huibin; Wang, Yan; Zhong, Zhaohua; Xiong, Tao; Xia, Xueshan; Wang, Xiaojun; Yu, Li; Deng, Guohua; Cai, Xuehui; Cui, Shangjin; Weng, Changjiang

    2015-01-01

    TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator (TANK) is a negative regulator of canonical NF-κB signaling in the Toll-like receptor- and B-cell receptor-mediated signaling pathways. However, functions of TANK in viral infection-mediated NF-κB activation remain unclear. Here, we reported that TANK was cleaved by encephalomyocarditis virus 3C at the 197 and 291 glutamine residues, which depends on its cysteine protease activity. In addition, encephalomyocarditis virus 3C impaired the ability of TANK to inhibit TRAF6-mediated NF-κB signaling. Interestingly, we found that several viral proteases encoded by the foot and mouth disease virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and equine arteritis virus also cleaved TANK. Our results suggest that TANK is a novel target of some viral proteases, indicating that some positive RNA viruses have evolved to utilize their major proteases to regulate NF-κB activation. PMID:26363073

  14. Heterologous expression and structure-function relationship of low-temperature and alkaline active protease from Acinetobacter sp. IHB B 5011(MN12).

    PubMed

    Salwan, Richa; Sharma, Vivek; Pal, Mohinder; Kasana, Ramesh Chand; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar; Gulati, Arvind

    2018-02-01

    The gene encoding protease from Acinetobacter sp. IHB B 5011(MN12) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The nucleotide sequence revealed 1323bp ORF encoding 441 amino acids protein with molecular weight 47.2kDa. The phylogenetic analysis showed clustering of Alp protease with subtilisin-like serine proteases of S8 family. The amino acid sequence was comprised of N-terminal signal peptide 1-21 amino acids, pre-peptide 22-143 amino acids, peptidase S8 domain 144-434 amino acids, and pro-peptide 435-441 amino acids at C-terminus. Three constructs with signal peptide pET-Alp, without signal peptide pET-Alp1 and peptidase S8 domain pET-Alp2 were prepared for expression in E. coli BL21(DE3). The recombinant proteins Alp1 and Alp2 expressed as inclusion bodies showed ∼50kDa and ∼40kDa bands, respectively. The pre-propeptide ∼11kDa removed from Alp1 resulted in mature protein of ∼35kDa with 1738Umg -1 specific activity. The recombinant protease was optimally active at 40°C and pH 9, and stable over 10-70°C and 6-12pH. The activity at low-temperature and alkaline pH was supported by high R/(R+K) ratio, more glycine, less proline, negatively charged amino acids, less salt bridges and longer loops. These properties suggested the suitability of Alp as additive in the laundry. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Hyaluronidase, phospholipase A2 and protease inhibitory activity of plants used in traditional treatment of snakebite-induced tissue necrosis in Mali, DR Congo and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Molander, Marianne; Nielsen, Line; Søgaard, Søren; Staerk, Dan; Rønsted, Nina; Diallo, Drissa; Chifundera, Kusamba Zacharie; van Staden, Johannes; Jäger, Anna K

    2014-11-18

    Snakebite envenomation, every year, causes estimated 5-10,000 mortalities and results in more than 5-15,000 amputations in sub-Saharan Africa alone. Antiserum is not easily accessible in these regions or doctors are simply not available, thus more than 80% of all patients seek traditional practitioners as first-choice. Therefore it is important to investigate whether the plants used in traditional medicine systems contain compounds against the necrosis-inducing enzymes of snake venom. Extracts from traditionally used plants from DR Congo, Mali and South Africa were tested in hyaluronidase, phospholipase A2 and protease enzyme bioassays using Bitis arietans and Naja nigricollis as enzyme source. A total of 226 extracts from 94 different plant species from the three countries, Mali, Democratic Republic of Congo and South Africa were tested in phospholipase A2, proteases and hyaluronidase enzyme assays. Forty plant species showed more than 90% inhibition in one or more assay. Fabaceae, Anacardiaceae and Malvaceae were the families with the highest number of active species, and the active compounds were distributed in different plant parts depending on plant species. Polyphenols were removed in the search for specific enzyme inhibitors against hyaluronidase, phospholipase A2 or proteases from extracts with IC50 values below 100µg/ml. Water extracts of Pupalia lappacea, Combretum molle, Strychnos innocua and Grewia mollis and ethanol extract of Lannea acida and Bauhinia thonningii still showed IC50 values below 100µg/ml in either the hyaluronidase or protease bioassay after removal of polyphenols. As four of the active plants are widely distributed in the areas where the snake species Bitis arietans and Naja nigricollis occur a potential inhibitor of the necrotic enzymes is accessible for many people in sub-Saharan Africa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Preparation, characterization, and activity of a peptide-cellulosic aerogel protease sensor from cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nanocellulosic aerogels (NA) provide a lightweight biocompatible material with structural properties of both high porosity and specific surface area for biosensor design. We report here the preparation, characterization, and activity of a peptide-nanocellulose aerogel (PA) made from unprocessed cot...

  17. Wound healing and protease inhibition activity of Bacoside-A, isolated from Bacopa monnieri wettest.

    PubMed

    Sharath, R; Harish, B G; Krishna, V; Sathyanarayana, B N; Swamy, H M Kumara

    2010-08-01

    Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettest. (Scrophulariaceae) is a well-known medicinal herb. In the Indian system of medicine it is known as Brahmi (Sanskrit) and Indian water hyssop. Methanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri and its isolated constituent Bacoside-A were screened for wound healing activity. Bacoside-A was screened for wound healing activity by excision, incision and dead space wound on Swiss albino rats. Significant wound healing activity was observed in both extract and the Bacoside-A treated groups. The SDS-PAGE caseinolytic zymogram analysis of inhibition of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) enzyme from the excision wound by Bacoside-A, an isolated constituent, was done with the concentrations 100 and 200 micromg/ml. In Bacoside-A treated groups, epithelialization of the excision wound was faster with a high rate (18.30 +/- 0.01 days) of wound contraction. The tensile strength of the incision wound was increased (538.47 +/- 0.14 g) in the Bacoside-A treated group. In the dead space wound model, the weight of the granuloma was also increased (89.15 +/- 0.08 g). The histological examination of the granuloma tissue of the Bacoside-A treated group showed increased cross-linking of collagen fibers and absence of monocytes. The wound healing activity of Bacoside-A was more effective in various wound models compared to the standard skin ointment Nitrofurazone.

  18. Hypofibrinolytic state in HIV-1-infected patients treated with protease inhibitor-containing highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Kristina; Bratt, Göran; Schulman, Sam; Bylund, Håkan; Sandström, Eric

    2002-04-15

    Decreased insulin sensitivity, hyperlipidemia, and body fat changes are considered as risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). A clustering of such factors (metabolic syndrome [MSDR]) exponentially increases the risk. Impaired fibrinolysis and increased coagulation are additional independent risk factors for CHD. We studied the effects of protease inhibitor (PI)-containing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on metabolic and hemostatic parameters in 363 HIV-infected individuals, of whom 266 were receiving PI-containing HAART and 97 were treatment naive. The fasting plasma levels of insulin, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), and fibrinogen were evaluated together with the areas of visceral adipose tissue and the visceral adipose tissue/subcutaneous adipose tissue area ratio. The levels of insulin, triglycerides, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; visceral adipose tissue area; low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein ratio; and visceral adipose tissue/subcutaneous adipose tissue area ratio were significantly increased in patients receiving PI-containing HAART compared with treatment-naive patients. The levels of PAI-1 and fibrinogen were significantly higher in patients receiving PI-containing HAART. PAI-1 levels were higher in individuals with MSDR but also in patients without MSDR who were receiving PI-containing HAART. PAI-1 was independently correlated to use of PI-containing HAART, triglyceride level, insulin level, and body mass index (p <.001). These findings suggest that patients receiving PI-containing HAART have decreased fibrinolysis and increased coagulability, which may thus represent additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease in this patient group.

  19. Expression of protease-activated-receptor 2 (PAR-2) in human esophageal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Inci, Kamuran; Edebo, Anders; Olbe, Lars; Casselbrant, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The role of duodenal reflux in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) containing bile salts and pancreatic enzymes (with special attention to trypsin) is still under discussion. Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are a novel family and PAR-2 is a unique member of this family because it is activated by trypsin. The aim of the present study was to examine the presence and the position of the PAR-2 receptor in human esophageal mucosa in different subgroups of GERD. Distal biopsies taken from healthy controls, patients with erosive reflux disease (ERD), patients with specialized intestinal metaplasia (SIM) and adenocarcinoma were analyzed for the PAR-2 receptor with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Gene transcripts for the PAR-2 receptor were found in all groups, with increased levels in SIM patients compared to controls. However, this visual pattern was not seen for the protein expression of the PAR-2 receptor showing no apparent quantitative differences between the groups. Immunohistochemistry revealed distinct staining for the PAR-2 receptor in the luminal part of the esophageal epithelium. The localization of the PAR-2 receptor indicates that the receptor can be cleaved and activated by trypsin in duodenogastric esophageal refluxate. The data thus suggest that the trypsin-PAR-2 pathway may be involved in the pathogenesis of GERD.

  20. An extraovarian aspartic protease accumulated in tick oocytes with vitellin-degradation activity.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Paula C; Sorgine, Marcos Henrique F; Leal, Alexandre T; Logullo, Carlos; Oliveira, Pedro L; Vaz, Itabajara da Silva; Masuda, Aoi

    2008-12-01

    An aspartic endopeptidase named THAP, from the eggs of the tick Riphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has been suggested to be involved in vitellin-degradation. Here we characterized this enzyme further, showing that THAP mRNA is present in the fat body, midgut and ovary of ticks, in two developmental stages (partially and fully engorged females). However, higher transcription levels were found in fully engorged vitellogenic females. The THAP protein was detected in the haemolymph, midgut and fat body and, in higher quantity, in the ovary of fully engorged females, and it was present throughout embryo development. The protein is synthesized as a higher molecular mass form and after the onset of embryogenesis THAP is converted into an active form by autocatalysis. We also produced a recombinant protein (rTHAP) in E. coli that was active in the fluorogenic peptide substrate and able to hydrolyze vitellin from 7-day-old eggs in a reaction that is heme-sensitive and inhibited by pepstatin A. However, rTHAP does not hydrolyze vitellin from 1 and 12-day-old eggs. As a result, we suggest a model for THAP synthesis, transport, storage and activation and for the role it plays in embryonic development by participating in vitellin processing.

  1. Site-Specific 64Cu Labeling of the Serine Protease, Active Site Inhibited Factor Seven Azide (FVIIai-N3), Using Copper Free Click Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Jeppesen, Troels E; Kristensen, Lotte K; Nielsen, Carsten H; Petersen, Lars C; Kristensen, Jesper B; Behrens, Carsten; Madsen, Jacob; Kjaer, Andreas

    2018-01-17

    A method for site-specific radiolabeling of the serine protease active site inhibited factor seven (FVIIai) with 64 Cu has been applied using a biorthogonal click reaction. FVIIai binds to tissue factor (TF), a trans-membrane protein involved in hemostasis, angiogenesis, proliferation, cell migration, and survival of cancer cells. First a single azide moiety was introduced in the active site of this 50 kDa protease. Then a NOTA moiety was introduced via a strain promoted azide-alkyne reaction and the corresponding conjugate was labeled with 64 Cu. Binding to TF and the stability was evaluated in vitro. TF targeting capability of the radiolabeled conjugate was tested in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in pancreatic human xenograft cancer mouse models with various TF expressions. The conjugate showed good stability (>91% at 16 h), an immunoreactivity of 93.5%, and a mean tumor uptake of 2.1 ± 0.2%ID/g at 15 h post injection. In conclusion, FVIIai was radiolabeled with 64 Cu in single well-defined position of the protein. This method can be utilized to prepare conjugates from serine proteases with the label at a specific position.

  2. Serine proteases in rodent hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Davies, B J; Pickard, B S; Steel, M; Morris, R G; Lathe, R

    1998-09-04

    Brain serine proteases are implicated in developmental processes, synaptic plasticity, and in disorders including Alzheimer's disease. The spectrum of the major enzymes expressed in brain has not been established previously. We now present a systematic study of the serine proteases expressed in adult rat and mouse hippocampus. Using a combination of techniques including polymerase chain reaction amplification and Northern blotting we show that tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) is the major species represented. Unexpectedly, the next most abundant species were RNK-Met-1, a lymphocyte protease not reported previously in brain, and two new family members, BSP1 (brain serine protease 1) and BSP2. We report full-length sequences of the two new proteases; homologies indicate that these are of tryptic specificity. Although BSP2 is expressed in several brain regions, BSP1 expression is strikingly restricted to hippocampus. Other enzymes represented, but at lower levels, included elastase IV, proteinase 3, complement C2, chymotrypsin B, chymotrypsin-like protein, and Hageman factor. Although thrombin and urokinase-type plasminogen activator were not detected in the primary screen, low level expression was confirmed using specific polymerase chain reaction primers. In contrast, and despite robust expression of t-PA, the usual t-PA substrate plasminogen was not expressed at detectable levels.

  3. Activities of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitor nelfinavir mesylate in combination with reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors against acute HIV-1 infection in vitro.

    PubMed

    Patick, A K; Boritzki, T J; Bloom, L A

    1997-10-01

    Nelfinavir mesylate (formerly AG1343) is a potent and selective, nonpeptidic inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease that was discovered by protein structure-based design methodologies. We evaluated the antiviral and cytotoxic effects of two-drug combinations of nelfinavir with the clinically approved antiretroviral therapeutics zidovudine (ZDV), lamivudine (3TC), dideoxycytidine (ddC; zalcitabine), stavudine (d4T), didanosine (ddI), indinavir, saquinavir, and ritonavir and a three-drug combination of nelfinavir with ZDV and 3TC against an acute HIV-1 strain RF infection of CEM-SS cells in vitro. Quantitative assessment of drug interaction was evaluated by a universal response surface approach (W. R. Greco, G. Bravo, and J. C. Parsons, Pharm. Rev. 47:331-385, 1995) and by the method of M. N. Prichard and C. Shipman (Antiviral Res. 14:181-206, 1990). Both analytical methods yielded similar results and showed that the two-drug combinations of nelfinavir with the reverse transcriptase inhibitors ZDV, 3TC, ddI, d4T, and ddC and the three-drug combination with ZDV and 3TC resulted in additive to statistically significant synergistic interactions. In a similar manner, the combination of nelfinavir with the three protease inhibitors resulted in additive (ritonavir and saquinavir) to slightly antagonistic (indinavir) interactions. In all combinations, minimal cellular cytotoxicity was observed with any drug alone and in combination. These results suggest that administration of combinations of the appropriate doses of nelfinavir with other currently approved antiretroviral therapeutic agents in vivo may result in enhanced antiviral activity with no associated increase in cellular cytotoxicity.

  4. Activities of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitor nelfinavir mesylate in combination with reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors against acute HIV-1 infection in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Patick, A K; Boritzki, T J; Bloom, L A

    1997-01-01

    Nelfinavir mesylate (formerly AG1343) is a potent and selective, nonpeptidic inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease that was discovered by protein structure-based design methodologies. We evaluated the antiviral and cytotoxic effects of two-drug combinations of nelfinavir with the clinically approved antiretroviral therapeutics zidovudine (ZDV), lamivudine (3TC), dideoxycytidine (ddC; zalcitabine), stavudine (d4T), didanosine (ddI), indinavir, saquinavir, and ritonavir and a three-drug combination of nelfinavir with ZDV and 3TC against an acute HIV-1 strain RF infection of CEM-SS cells in vitro. Quantitative assessment of drug interaction was evaluated by a universal response surface approach (W. R. Greco, G. Bravo, and J. C. Parsons, Pharm. Rev. 47:331-385, 1995) and by the method of M. N. Prichard and C. Shipman (Antiviral Res. 14:181-206, 1990). Both analytical methods yielded similar results and showed that the two-drug combinations of nelfinavir with the reverse transcriptase inhibitors ZDV, 3TC, ddI, d4T, and ddC and the three-drug combination with ZDV and 3TC resulted in additive to statistically significant synergistic interactions. In a similar manner, the combination of nelfinavir with the three protease inhibitors resulted in additive (ritonavir and saquinavir) to slightly antagonistic (indinavir) interactions. In all combinations, minimal cellular cytotoxicity was observed with any drug alone and in combination. These results suggest that administration of combinations of the appropriate doses of nelfinavir with other currently approved antiretroviral therapeutic agents in vivo may result in enhanced antiviral activity with no associated increase in cellular cytotoxicity. PMID:9333041

  5. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor primes interleukin-13 production by macrophages via protease-activated receptor-2.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Manabu; Yamaguchi, Rui; Yamamoto, Takatoshi; Ishimaru, Yasuji; Ono, Tomomichi; Sakamoto, Arisa; Narahara, Shinji; Sugiuchi, Hiroyuki; Hirose, Eiji; Yamaguchi, Yasuo

    2015-04-01

    Chronic inflammation is often linked to the presence of type 2-polarized macrophages, which are induced by the T helper type 2 cytokines interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 (IL-13). IL-13 is a key mediator of tissue fibrosis caused by T helper type 2-based inflammation. Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. This study investigated the priming effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on IL-13 expression by macrophages stimulated with HNE. Adherent macrophages were obtained from primary cultures of human mononuclear cells. Expression of IL-13 mRNA and protein by GM-CSF-dependent macrophages was investigated after stimulation with HNE, using the polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. GM-CSF had a priming effect on IL-13 mRNA and protein expression by macrophages stimulated with HNE, while this effect was not observed for various other cytokines. GM-CSF-dependent macrophages showed a significant increase in the expression of protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) mRNA and protein. The response of IL-13 mRNA to HNE was significantly decreased by pretreatment with alpha1-antitrypsin, a PAR-2 antibody (SAM11), or a PAR-2 antagonist (ENMD-1068). These findings suggest that stimulation with HNE can induce IL-13 production by macrophages, especially GM-CSF-dependent macrophages. Accordingly, neutrophil elastase may have a key role in fibrosis associated with chronic inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Static magnetic field effects on proteases with fibrinolytic activity produced by Mucor subtilissimus.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Wendell; Nascimento, Thiago; Brandão-Costa, Romero; Fernandes, Thiago; Porto, Ana

    2017-02-01

    The influence of a static magnetic field (SMF) on crude enzyme extracts with proteolytic activity is described and discussed. Proteolytic enzymes, which hydrolyze peptide bonds, and fibrinolytic enzymes, which dissolve fibrin clots, have industrial relevance, and applicability dependent on improvements of productivity and activity. We investigated whether a moderate SMF affects proteolysis in different in vitro tests: general proteolysis of azocasein substrate, and static and dynamic fibrinolytic processes (to compare fibrin gel configuration under exposure). Crude enzyme extracts, obtained from solid state fermentation of Mucor subtilissimus UCP (Universidade Católica de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil) 1262, were used to carry out assays under slightly heterogeneous fields: a varied vertical SMF (for tests in Eppendorf tubes, from 0.100 to 0.170 T) and a varied horizontal SMF (for tests in Petri dishes, from 0.01 to 0.122 T), generated by two permanent magnets (NdFeB alloy). Results showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in static fibrinolysis assays after 24 h of exposure. The mean diameter of halos of fibrin degradation in the treated group increased by 21% compared to the control group; and the pixel number count of fibrin consumption (in a computational analysis of the area of each halo) enhanced by 30% with exposure. However, in dynamic fibrinolysis assays, no effects of SMF were observed. These results suggest a response of fibrin monomers to the SMF as a possible cause of the observed effects. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:109-120, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Mechanisms of Mannose-Binding Lectin-Associated Serine Proteases-1/3 Activation of the Alternative Pathway of Complement

    PubMed Central

    Banda, Nirmal K.; Takahashi, Minoru; Takahashi, Kazue; Stahl, Gregory L.; Hyatt, Stephanie; Glogowska, Magdalena; Wiles, Timothy A.; Endo, Yuichi; Fujita, Teizo; Holers, V. Michael; Arend, William P.

    2011-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin-associated serine proteases-1/3 (MASP-1/3) are essential in activating the alternative pathway (AP) of complement through cleaving pro-factor D (pro-Df) into mature Df. MASP are believed to require binding to mannose binding lectins (MBL) or ficolins (FCN) to carry out their biological activities. Murine sera have been reported to contain MBL-A, MBL-C, and FCN-A, but not FCN-B that exists endogenously in monocytes and is thought not to bind MASP-1. We examined some possible mechanisms whereby MASP-1/3 might activate the AP. Collagen antibody-induced arthritis, a murine model of inflammatory arthritis dependent on the AP, was unchanged in mice lacking MBL-A, MBL-C, and FCN-A (MBL−/−/FCN A−/− mice) in comparison to wild-type mice. The in vitro induction of the AP by adherent mAb to collagen II was intact using sera from MBL−/−/FCN A−/− mice. Furthermore, sera from MBL−/−/FCN A−/− mice lacked pro-Df and possessed only mature Df. Gel filtration of sera from MBL−/−/FCN A−/− mice showed the presence of MASP-1 protein in fractions containing proteins smaller than the migration of MBL-A and MBL-C in sera from C4−/− mice, suggesting possible binding of MASP-1 to an unknown protein. Lastly, we show that FCN-B was present in the sera of MBL−/−/FCN A−/−mice and that it was bound to MASP-1. We conclude that MASP-1 does not require binding to MBL-A, MBL-C, or FCN-A to activate the AP. MASP-1 may cleave pro-Df into mature Df through binding to FCN-B or to an unknown protein, or may function as an unbound soluble protein. PMID:21943708

  8. Protease nexin 1 is a potent urinary plasminogen activator inhibitor in the presence of collagen type IV.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Robert J; Knauer, Mary F; Knauer, Daniel J

    2002-12-06

    Protease nexin 1 (PN1) in solution forms inhibitory complexes with thrombin or urokinase, which have opposing effects on the blood coagulation cascade. An initial report provided data supporting the idea that PN1 target protease specificity is under the influence of collagen type IV (1). Although collagen type IV demonstrated no effect on the association rate between PN1 and thrombin, the study reported that the association rate between PN1 and urokinase was allosterically reduced 10-fold. This has led to the generally accepted idea that the primary role of PN1 in the brain is to act as a rapid thrombin inhibition and clearance mechanism during trauma and loss of vascular integrity. In studies to identify the structural determinants of PN1 that mediate the allosteric interaction with collagen type IV, we found that protease specificity was only affected after transient exposure of PN1 to acidic conditions that mimic the elution protocol from a monoclonal antibody column. Because PN1 used in previous studies was purified over a monoclonal antibody column, we propose that the allosteric regulation of PN1 target protease specificity by collagen type IV is a result of the purification protocol. We provide both biochemical and kinetic data to support this conclusion. This finding is significant because it implies that PN1 may play a much larger role in the modeling and remodeling of brain tissues during development and is not simply an extravasated thrombin clearance mechanism as previously suggested.

  9. DNA Stimulates ATP-Dependent Proteolysis and Protein-Dependent ATPase Activity of Protease La from Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Chin Ha; Goldberg, Alfred L.

    1982-02-01

    The product of the lon gene in Escherichia coli is an ATP-dependent protease, protease La, that also binds strongly to DNA. Addition of double-stranded or single-stranded DNA to the protease in the presence of ATP was found to stimulate the hydrolysis of casein or globin 2- to 7-fold, depending on the DNA concentration. Native DNA from several sources (plasmid pBR322, phage T7, or calf thymus) had similar effects, but after denaturation the DNA was 20-100% more effective than the native form. Although poly(rA), globin mRNA, and various tRNAs did not stimulate proteolysis, poly(rC) and poly(rU) were effective. Poly(dT) was stimulatory but (dT)10 was not. In the presence of DNA as in its absence, proteolysis required concomitant ATP hydrolysis, and the addition of DNA also enhanced ATP hydrolysis by protease La 2-fold, but only in the presence of casein. At much higher concentrations, DNA inhibited proteolysis as well as ATP cleavage. Thus, association of this enzyme with DNA may regulate the degradation of cell proteins in vivo.

  10. Molecular architecture of the ATP-dependent CodWX protease having an N-terminal serine active site

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min Suk; Kim, Soon Rae; Kwack, Pyeongsu; Lim, Byung Kook; Ahn, Sung Won; Rho, Young Min; Seong, Ihn Sik; Park, Seong-Chul; Eom, Soo Hyun; Cheong, Gang-Won; Chung, Chin Ha

    2003-01-01

    CodWX in Bacillus subtilis is an ATP-dependent, N-terminal serine protease, consisting of CodW peptidase and CodX ATPase. Here we show that CodWX is an alkaline protease and has a distinct molecular architecture. ATP hydrolysis is required for the formation of the CodWX complex and thus for its proteolytic function. Remarkably, CodX has a ‘spool-like’ structure that is formed by interaction of the intermediate domains of two hexameric or heptameric rings. In the CodWX complex, CodW consisting of two stacked hexameric rings (WW) binds to either or both ends of a CodX double ring (XX), forming asymmetric (WWXX) or symmetric cylindrical particles (WWXXWW). CodWX can also form an elongated particle, in which an additional CodX double ring is bound to the symmetric particle (WWXXWWXX). In addition, CodWX is capable of degrading EzrA, an inhibitor of FtsZ ring formation, implicating it in the regulation of cell division. Thus, CodWX appears to constitute a new type of protease that is distinct from other ATP-dependent proteases in its structure and proteolytic mechanism. PMID:12805205

  11. Soluble expression of an amebic cysteine protease in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli SHuffle Express cells and purification of active enzyme.

    PubMed

    Jalomo-Khayrova, Ekaterina; Mares, Rosa E; Muñoz, Patricia L A; Meléndez-López, Samuel G; Rivero, Ignacio A; Ramos, Marco A

    2018-04-03

    Recombinant production of amebic cysteine proteases using Escherichia coli cells as the bacterial system has become a challenging effort, with protein insolubility being the most common issue. Since many of these enzymes need a native conformation stabilized by disulfide bonds, an elaborate process of oxidative folding is usually demanded to get a functional protein. The cytoplasm of E. coli SHuffle Express cells owns an enhanced ability to properly fold proteins with disulfide bonds. Because of this cellular feature, it was possible to assume that this strain represents a reliable expression system and worthwhile been considered as an efficient bacterial host for the recombinant production of amebic cysteine proteases. Using E. coli SHuffle Express cells as the bacterial system, we efficiently produce soluble recombinant EhCP1protein. Enzymatic and inhibition analyses revealed that it exhibits proper catalytic abilities, proceeds effectively over the substrate (following an apparent Michaelis-Menten kinetics), and displays a typical inhibition profile. We report the first feasibility study of the recombinant production of amebic cysteine proteases using E. coli SHuffle Express as the bacterial host. We present a simple protocol for the recombinant expression and purification of fully soluble and active EhCP1 enzyme. We confirm the suitability of recombinant EhCP1 as a therapeutic target. We propose an approachable bacterial system for the recombinant production of amebic proteins, particularly for those with a need for proper oxidative folding.

  12. Extended substrate specificity and first potent irreversible inhibitor/activity-based probe design for Zika virus NS2B-NS3 protease.

    PubMed

    Rut, Wioletta; Zhang, Linlin; Kasperkiewicz, Paulina; Poreba, Marcin; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; Drąg, Marcin

    2017-03-01

    Zika virus is spread by Aedes mosquitoes and is linked to acute neurological disorders, especially to microcephaly in newborn children and Guillan-Barré Syndrome. The NS2B-NS3 protease of this virus is responsible for polyprotein processing and therefore considered an attractive drug target. In this study, we have used the Hybrid Combinatorial Substrate Library (HyCoSuL) approach to determine the substrate specificity of ZIKV NS2B-NS3 protease in the P4-P1 positions using natural and a large spectrum of unnatural amino acids. Obtained data demonstrate a high level of specificity of the S3-S1 subsites, especially for basic amino acids. However, the S4 site exhibits a very broad preference toward natural and unnatural amino acids with selected D-amino acids being favored over L enantiomers. This information was used for the design of a very potent phosphonate inhibitor/activity-based probe of ZIKV NS2B-NS3 protease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Theoretical study on the mechanism of a ring-opening reaction of oxirane by the active-site aspartic dyad of HIV-1 protease.

    PubMed

    Kóna, Juraj

    2008-01-21

    Two possible mechanisms of the irreversible inhibition of HIV-1 protease by epoxide inhibitors are investigated on an enzymatic model using ab initio (MP2) and density functional theory (DFT) methods (B3LYP, MPW1K and M05-2X). The calculations predict the inhibition as a general acid-catalyzed nucleophilic substitution reaction proceeding by a concerted SN2 mechanism with a reaction barrier of ca. 15-21 kcal mol(-1). The irreversible nature of the inhibition is characterized by a large negative reaction energy of ca. -17-(-24) kcal mol(-1). A mechanism with a direct proton transfer from an aspartic acid residue of the active site onto the epoxide ring has been shown to be preferred compared to one with the proton transfer from the acid catalyst facilitated by a bridging catalytic water molecule. Based on the geometry of the transition state, structural data important for the design of irreversible epoxide inhibitors of HIV-1 protease were defined. Here we also briefly discuss differences between the epoxide ring-opening reaction in HIV-1 protease and epoxide hydrolase, and the accuracy of the DFT method used.

  14. Plasmodium subtilisin-like protease 1 (SUB1): insights into the active-site structure, specificity and function of a pan-malaria drug target.

    PubMed

    Withers-Martinez, Chrislaine; Suarez, Catherine; Fulle, Simone; Kher, Samir; Penzo, Maria; Ebejer, Jean-Paul; Koussis, Kostas; Hackett, Fiona; Jirgensons, Aigars; Finn, Paul; Blackman, Michael J

    2012-05-15

    Release of the malaria merozoite from its host erythrocyte (egress) and invasion of a fresh cell are crucial steps in the life cycle of the malaria pathogen. Subtilisin-like protease 1 (SUB1) is a parasite serine protease implicated in both processes. In the most dangerous human malarial species, Plasmodium falciparum, SUB1 has previously been shown to have several parasite-derived substrates, proteolytic cleavage of which is important both for egress and maturation of the merozoite surface to enable invasion. Here we have used molecular modelling, existing knowledge of SUB1 substrates, and recombinant expression and characterisation of additional Plasmodium SUB1 orthologues, to examine the active site architecture and substrate specificity of P. falciparum SUB1 and its orthologues from the two other major human malaria pathogens Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi, as well as from the rodent malaria species, Plasmodium berghei. Our results reveal a number of unusual features of the SUB1 substrate binding cleft, including a requirement to interact with both prime and non-prime side residues of the substrate recognition motif. Cleavage of conserved parasite substrates is mediated by SUB1 in all parasite species examined, and the importance of this is supported by evidence for species-specific co-evolution of protease and substrates. Two peptidyl alpha-ketoamides based on an authentic PfSUB1 substrate inhibit all SUB1 orthologues examined, with inhibitory potency enhanced by the presence of a carboxyl moiety designed to introduce prime side interactions with the protease. Our findings demonstrate that it should be possible to develop 'pan-reactive' drug-like compounds that inhibit SUB1 in all three major human malaria pathogens, enabling production of broad-spectrum antimalarial drugs targeting SUB1. Copyright © 2012 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Structural Basis for the Ubiquitin-Linkage Specificity and deISGylating Activity of SARS-CoV Papain-Like Protease

    PubMed Central

    Ratia, Kiira; Kilianski, Andrew; Baez-Santos, Yahira M.; Baker, Susan C.; Mesecar, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) encodes a papain-like protease (PLpro) with both deubiquitinating (DUB) and deISGylating activities that are proposed to counteract the post-translational modification of signaling molecules that activate the innate immune response. Here we examine the structural basis for PLpro's ubiquitin chain and interferon stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) specificity. We present the X-ray crystal structure of PLpro in complex with ubiquitin-aldehyde and model the interaction of PLpro with other ubiquitin-chain and ISG15 substrates. We show that PLpro greatly prefers K48- to K63-linked ubiquitin chains, and ISG15-based substrates to those that are mono-ubiquitinated. We propose that PLpro's higher affinity for K48-linked ubiquitin chains and ISG15 stems from a bivalent mechanism of binding, where two ubiquitin-like domains prefer to bind in the palm domain of PLpro with the most distal ubiquitin domain interacting with a “ridge” region of the thumb domain. Mutagenesis of residues within this ridge region revealed that these mutants retain viral protease activity and the ability to catalyze hydrolysis of mono-ubiquitin. However, a select number of these mutants have a significantly reduced ability to hydrolyze the substrate ISG15-AMC, or be inhibited by K48-linked diubuiquitin. For these latter residues, we found that PLpro antagonism of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NFκB) signaling pathway is abrogated. This identification of key and unique sites in PLpro required for recognition and processing of diubiquitin and ISG15 versus mono-ubiquitin and protease activity provides new insight into ubiquitin-chain and ISG15 recognition and highlights a role for PLpro DUB and deISGylase activity in antagonism of the innate immune response. PMID:24854014

  16. Enzyme-triggered Gelation: Targeting Proteases with Internal Cleavage Sites

    PubMed Central

    Bremmer, Steven C.

    2014-01-01

    A generalizable method for detecting protease activity via gelation is described. A recognition sequence is used to target the protease of interest while a second protease is used to remove the residual residues from the gelator scaffold. Using this approach, selective assays for both MMP-9 and PSA are demonstrated. PMID:24394494

  17. Heterocyclic HIV-protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Calugi, C; Guarna, A; Trabocchi, A

    2013-01-01

    In the panorama of HIV protease inhibitors (HIV PIs), many efforts have been devoted to the development of new compounds with reduced peptidic nature in order to improve pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics features. The introduction of cyclic scaffolds in the design of new chemical entities reduces flexibility and affords more rigid inhibitors. Specifically, common dipeptide isosteres are replaced by a central cyclic scaffold designed to address the key interactions with catalytic aspartic acids and residues belonging to the flap region of the active site. The current interest in cyclic chemotypes addressing key interactions of HIV protease is motivated by the different nature of interactions formed with the enzyme, although maintaining key structural resemblance to a peptide substrate, hopefully giving rise to novel HIV-1 PIs displaying an improved profile towards multidrug resistant strains. This approach has been demonstrated for Tipranavir, which is a potent FDA approved HIV-1 PI representing the most famous example of heterocyclic aspartic protease inhibitors.

  18. A mobile loop near the active site acts as a switch between the dual activities of a viral protease/deubiquitinase

    PubMed Central

    Ayach, Maya; Fieulaine, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    The positive-strand RNA virus Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) encodes an ovarian tumor (OTU)-like protease/deubiquitinase (PRO/DUB) protein domain involved both in proteolytic processing of the viral polyprotein through its PRO activity, and in removal of ubiquitin chains from ubiquitylated substrates through its DUB activity. Here, the crystal structures of TYMV PRO/DUB mutants and molecular dynamics simulations reveal that an idiosyncratic mobile loop participates in reversibly constricting its unusual catalytic site by adopting "open", "intermediate" or "closed" conformations. The two cis-prolines of the loop form a rigid flap that in the most closed conformation zips up against the other side of the catalytic cleft. The intermediate and closed conformations also correlate with a reordering of the TYMV PRO/DUB catalytic dyad, that then assumes a classical, yet still unusually mobile, OTU DUB alignment. Further structure-based mutants designed to interfere with the loop's mobility were assessed for enzymatic activity in vitro and in vivo, and were shown to display reduced DUB activity while retaining PRO activity. This indicates that control of the switching between the dual PRO/DUB activities resides prominently within this loop next to the active site. Introduction of mutations into the viral genome revealed that the DUB activity contributes to the extent of viral RNA accumulation both in single cells and in whole plants. In addition, the conformation of the mobile flap was also found to influence symptoms severity in planta. Such mutants now provide powerful tools with which to study the specific roles of reversible ubiquitylation in viral infection. PMID:29117247

  19. UV-B radiation induces macrophage migration inhibitory factor-mediated melanogenesis through activation of protease-activated receptor-2 and stem cell factor in keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Akiko; Yoshihisa, Yoko; Yamakoshi, Takako; Ur Rehman, Mati; Norisugi, Osamu; Hara, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Kenji; Makino, Teruhiko; Nishihira, Jun; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2011-02-01

    UV radiation indirectly regulates melanogenesis in melanocytes through a paracrine regulatory mechanism involving keratinocytes. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 activation induces melanosome transfer by increasing phagocytosis of melanosomes by keratinocytes. This study demonstrated that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) stimulated PAR-2 expression in human keratinocytes. In addition, we showed that MIF stimulated stem cell factor (SCF) release in keratinocytes; however, MIF had no effect on the release of endothelin-1 or prostaglandin E2 in keratinocytes. In addition, MIF had no direct effect on melanin and tyrosinase synthesis in cultured human melanocytes. The effect of MIF on melanogenesis was also examined using a three-dimensional reconstituted human epidermal culture model, which is a novel, commercially available, cultured human epidermis containing functional melanocytes. Migration inhibitory factor induced an increase in melanin content in the epidermis after a 9-day culture period. Moreover, melanin synthesis induced by UV-B stimulation was significantly down-regulated by anti-MIF antibody treatment. An in vivo study showed that the back skin of MIF transgenic mice had a higher melanin content than that of wild-type mice after 12 weeks of UV-B exposure. Therefore, MIF-mediated melanogenesis occurs mainly through the activation of PAR-2 and SCF expression in keratinocytes after exposure to UV-B radiation. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. UV-B Radiation Induces Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor–Mediated Melanogenesis through Activation of Protease-Activated Receptor-2 and Stem Cell Factor in Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Enomoto, Akiko; Yoshihisa, Yoko; Yamakoshi, Takako; Ur Rehman, Mati; Norisugi, Osamu; Hara, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Kenji; Makino, Teruhiko; Nishihira, Jun; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2011-01-01

    UV radiation indirectly regulates melanogenesis in melanocytes through a paracrine regulatory mechanism involving keratinocytes. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 activation induces melanosome transfer by increasing phagocytosis of melanosomes by keratinocytes. This study demonstrated that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) stimulated PAR-2 expression in human keratinocytes. In addition, we showed that MIF stimulated stem cell factor (SCF) release in keratinocytes; however, MIF had no effect on the release of endothelin-1 or prostaglandin E2 in keratinocytes. In addition, MIF had no direct effect on melanin and tyrosinase synthesis in cultured human melanocytes. The effect of MIF on melanogenesis was also examined using a three-dimensional reconstituted human epidermal culture model, which is a novel, commercially available, cultured human epidermis containing functional melanocytes. Migration inhibitory factor induced an increase in melanin content in the epidermis after a 9-day culture period. Moreover, melanin synthesis induced by UV-B stimulation was significantly down-regulated by anti-MIF antibody treatment. An in vivo study showed that the back skin of MIF transgenic mice had a higher melanin content than that of wild-type mice after 12 weeks of UV-B exposure. Therefore, MIF-mediated melanogenesis occurs mainly through the activation of PAR-2 and SCF expression in keratinocytes after exposure to UV-B radiation. PMID:21281800

  1. Mosaic serine proteases in the mammalian central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Shinichi; Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Yamaguchi, Tatsuyuki; Yamaguchi, Nozomi

    2008-01-01

    We review the structure and function of three kinds of mosaic serine proteases expressed in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Mosaic serine proteases have several domains in the proenzyme fragment, which modulate proteolytic function, and a protease domain at the C-terminus. Spinesin/TMPRSS5 is a transmembrane serine protease whose presynaptic distribution on motor neurons in the spinal cord suggests that it is significant for neuronal plasticity. Cell type-specific alternative splicing gives this protease diverse functions by modulating its intracellular localization. Motopsin/PRSS12 is a mosaic protease, and loss of its function causes mental retardation. Recent reports indicate the significance of this protease for cognitive function. We mention the fibrinolytic protease, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), which has physiological and pathological functions in the CNS.

  2. Serine proteases activity is important for the interaction of nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans with infective larvae of trichostrongylides and free-living nematodes Panagrellus spp.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Daniela G; Costa, Luana M; Rocha, Letícia O; Retamal, Claudio A; Vieira, Ricardo A M; Seabra, Sergio H; Silva, Carlos P; DaMatta, Renato A; Santos, Clóvis P

    2015-08-01

    The nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans has been studied as a possible control method for gastrointestinal nematodes of livestock animals. These fungi capture and infect the nematode by cuticle penetration, immobilization, and digestion of the internal contents. It has been suggested that this sequence of events occurs by a combination of physical and enzymatical activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the participation of proteolytic enzymatic activity during the interaction of the nematophagous fungus D. flagrans with infective larvae of trichostrongylides and the free-living nematode Panagrellus spp. Protease inhibitors used interfered in the predatory activity of D. flagrans. However, only PMSF significantly reduced the mean number of Panagrellus spp. captured by D. flagrans in comparison with the control. The experiment with fluorogenic substrate showed that maximum urokinase activity during the interaction of the fungus with the infective larvae of trichostrongylides or Panagrellus spp. occurred within 7 or 1 h of incubation, respectively. The protease activity, especially of the serine class, may be important during the interaction between the fungus and nematodes. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel ATPase activity of the polyprotein intermediate, Viral Protein genome-linked-Nuclear Inclusion-a protease, of Pepper vein banding potyvirus

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, Chhavi; Savithri, Handanahal S., E-mail: bchss@biochem.iisc.ernet.in

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pepper vein banding potyvirus VPg harbors Walker motifs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VPg exhibits ATPase activity in the presence of NIa-Pro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Plausible structural and functional interplay between VPg and NIa-Pro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Functional relevance of prolonged presence of VPg-Pro during infection. -- Abstract: Potyviruses temporally regulate their protein function by polyprotein processing. Previous studies have shown that VPg (Viral Protein genome-linked) of Pepper vein banding virus interacts with the NIa-Pro (Nuclear Inclusion-a protease) domain, and modulates the kinetics of the protease. In the present study, we report for the first time that VPg harbors the Walker motifs A and B, andmore » the presence of NIa-Pro, especially in cis (cleavage site (E191A) VPg-Pro mutant), is essential for manifestation of the ATPase activity. Mutation of Lys47 (Walker motif A) and Asp88:Glu89 (Walker motif B) to alanine in E191A VPg-Pro lead to reduced ATPase activity, confirming that this activity was inherent to VPg. We propose that potyviral VPg, established as an intrinsically disordered domain, undergoes plausible structural alterations upon interaction with globular NIa-Pro which induces the ATPase activity.« less

  4. The role of protease-activated receptors PAR-1 and PAR-2 in the repair of 16HBE 14o(-) epithelial cell monolayers in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ewen, D; Clarke, S L; Smith, J R; Berger, C; Salmon, G; Trevethick, M; Shute, J K

    2010-03-01

    We recently reported that repair following mechanical wounding of epithelial cell layers in vitro is dependent on fibrin formation and the activity of locally expressed coagulation cascade proteins. Serine proteases of the coagulation cascade are an important group of protease-activated receptor (PAR) activators and PAR-1 to 4 are expressed by the normal bronchial epithelium. We tested the hypothesis that activation of PAR-1 and PAR-2 by coagulation cascade proteases stimulates epithelial repair via effects on fibrin formation. Using mechanically wounded 16HBE 14o(-) epithelial cell layers in culture, we investigated the effect of PAR-1 and PAR-2 agonist peptides, control partially scrambled peptides and PAR-neutralizing antibodies on the rate of repair and fibrin formation. Coagulation factors in culture supernatants were measured by immunoblot. RT-PCR was used to investigate PAR-1, PAR-2 and PGE2 receptor (EP-1 to EP-4) expression in this model and qRT-PCR to quantify responses to wounding. Additionally, we investigated the effect of exogenously added factor Xa (FXa) and neutrophil elastase and the influence of PGE2 and indomethacin on the repair response. PAR-1 and PAR-2 peptide agonists stimulated the rate of repair and enhanced the formation of a fibrin provisional matrix to support the repair process. Conversely, PAR-neutralizing antibodies inhibited repair. Under serum-free culture conditions, 16HBE 14o(-) cells expressed EP-2 and EP-3, but not EP-1 or EP-4, receptors. Wounding induced an increased expression of EP-3 but did not alter EP-2, PAR-1 or PAR-2 expression. In the absence of PAR agonists, there was no evidence for a role for PGE2 in fibrin formation or the repair process. Indomethacin attenuated fibrin formation in wounded cultures only in the presence of the PAR-2 peptide. FXa stimulated epithelial repair while neutrophil elastase reduced the levels of coagulation factors and inhibited repair. Locally expressed serine proteases of the coagulation

  5. Protease-activated receptor-4 and purinergic receptor P2Y12 dimerize, co-internalize, and activate Akt signaling via endosomal recruitment of β-arrestin.

    PubMed

    Smith, Thomas H; Li, Julia G; Dores, Michael R; Trejo, JoAnn

    2017-08-18

    Vascular inflammation and thrombosis require the concerted actions of several different agonists, many of which act on G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). GPCR dimerization is a well-established phenomenon that can alter protomer function. In platelets and other cell types, protease-activated receptor-4 (PAR4) has been shown to dimerize with the purinergic receptor P2Y12 to coordinate β-arrestin-mediated Akt signaling, an important mediator of integrin activation. However, the mechanism by which the PAR4-P2Y12 dimer controls β-arrestin-dependent Akt signaling is not known. We now report that PAR4 and P2Y12 heterodimer internalization is required for β-arrestin recruitment to endosomes and Akt signaling. Using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, immunofluorescence microscopy, and co-immunoprecipitation in cells expressing receptors exogenously and endogenously, we demonstrate that PAR4 and P2Y12 specifically interact and form dimers expressed at the cell surface. We also found that activation of PAR4 but not of P2Y12 drives internalization of the PAR4-P2Y12 heterodimer. Remarkably, activated PAR4 internalization was required for recruitment of β-arrestin to endocytic vesicles, which was dependent on co-expression of P2Y12. Interestingly, stimulation of the PAR4-P2Y12 heterodimer promotes β-arrestin and Akt co-localization to intracellular vesicles. Moreover, activated PAR4-P2Y12 internalization is required for sustained Akt activation. Thus, internalization of the PAR4-P2Y12 heterodimer is necessary for β-arrestin recruitment to endosomes and Akt signaling and lays the foundation for examining whether blockade of PAR4 internalization reduces integrin and platelet activation. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. A protein extract and a cysteine protease inhibitor enriched fraction from Jatropha curcas seed cake have in vitro anti-Toxoplasma gondii activity.

    PubMed

    Soares, A M S; Carvalho, L P; Melo, E J T; Costa, H P S; Vasconcelos, I M; Oliveira, J T A

    2015-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite of great medical and veterinary importance that has worldwide distribution and causes toxoplasmosis. There are few treatments available for toxoplasmosis and the search for plant extracts and compounds with anti-Toxoplasma activity is of utmost importance for the discovery of new active drugs. The objective of this study was to investigate the action of a protein extract and a protease inhibitor enriched fraction from J. curcas seed cake on developing tachyzoites of T. gondii-infected Vero cells. The protein extract (JcCE) was obtained after solubilization of the J. curcas seed cake with 100 mM sodium borate buffer, pH 10, centrifugation and dialysis of the resulting supernatant with the extracting buffer. JcCE was used for the in vitro assays of anti-Toxoplasma activity at 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0 and 5.0 mg/ml concentration for 24 h. The results showed that JcCE reduced the percentage of infection and the number of intracellular parasites, but had no effect on the morphology of Vero cells up to 3.0 mg/mL. The cysteine protease inhibitor enriched fraction, which was obtained after chromatography of JcCE on Sephadex G-75 and presented a unique protein band following SDS-PAGE, reduced both the number of T. gondii infected cells and intracellular parasites. These results suggest that both JcCE and the cysteine protease inhibitor enriched fraction interfere with the intracellular growth of T. gondii. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimizing protease production from an isolate of the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans using response surface methodology and its larvicidal activity on horse cyathostomins.

    PubMed

    Braga, F R; Araújo, J V; Soares, F E F; Araujo, J M; Genier, H L A; Silva, A R; Carvalho, R O; Queiroz, J H; Ferreira, S R

    2011-06-01

    Protease production from Duddingtonia flagrans (isolate AC001) was optimized and the larvicidal activity of the enzymatic extract was evaluated on infective horse cyathostomin larvae (L3). Duddingtonia flagrans was grown in liquid medium with eight different variables: glucose, casein, bibasic potassium phosphate (K2HPO4), magnesium sulphate (MgSO4), zinc sulphate (ZnSO4), ferrous sulphate (FeSO4), copper sulphate (CuSO4) and temperature. The Plackett-Burman analysis showed a significant influence of MgSO4, CuSO4 and casein (P < 0.05) on protease production by D. flagrans in liquid medium. Central composite design indicated that the highest proteolytic activity was 39.56 U/ml as a function of the concentrations of casein (18.409 g/l), MgSO4 (0.10 g/l) and CuSO4 (0.50 mg/l). A significant difference (P < 0.01) was found for the larval number between the treated and control groups at the end of the experiment. A reduction of 95.46% in the number of free-living larvae was found in the treated group compared with the control. The results of this study suggest that protease production by D. flagrans (AC001) in liquid medium was optimized by MgSO4, CuSO4 and casein, showing that the optimized enzymatic extract exerted larvicidal activity on cyathostomins and therefore may contribute to large-scale industrial production.

  8. Proteases as therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Craik, Charles S.; Page, Michael J.; Madison, Edwin L.

    2015-01-01

    Proteases are an expanding class of drugs that hold great promise. The U.S. FDA (Food and Drug Administration) has approved 12 protease therapies, and a number of next generation or completely new proteases are in clinical development. Although they are a well-recognized class of targets for inhibitors, proteases themselves have not typically been considered as a drug class despite their application in the clinic over the last several decades; initially as plasma fractions and later as purified products. Although the predominant use of proteases has been in treating cardiovascular disease, they are also emerging as useful agents in the treatment of sepsis, digestive disorders, inflammation, cystic fibrosis, retinal disorders, psoriasis and other diseases. In the present review, we outline the history of proteases as therapeutics, provide an overview of their current clinical application, and describe several approaches to improve and expand their clinical application. Undoubtedly, our ability to harness proteolysis for disease treatment will increase with our understanding of protease biology and the molecular mechanisms responsible. New technologies for rationally engineering proteases, as well as improved delivery options, will expand greatly the potential applications of these enzymes. The recognition that proteases are, in fact, an established class of safe and efficacious drugs will stimulate investigation of additional therapeutic applications for these enzymes. Proteases therefore have a bright future as a distinct therapeutic class with diverse clinical applications. PMID:21406063

  9. Protease-activated receptor 2-mediated protection of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury: role of transient receptor potential vanilloid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Beihua

    2009-01-01

    Activation of the protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) or the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channels expressed in cardiac sensory afferents containing calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and/or substance P (SP) has been proposed to play a protective role in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the interaction between PAR2 and TRPV1 is largely unknown. Using gene-targeted TRPV1-null mutant (TRPV1−/−) or wild-type (WT) mice, we test the hypothesis that TRPV1 contributes to PAR2-mediated cardiac protection via increasing the release of CGRP and SP. Immunofluorescence labeling showed that TRPV1 coexpressed with PAR2, PKC-ε, or PKAc in cardiomyocytes, cardiac blood vessels, and perivascular nerves in WT but not TRPV1−/− hearts. WT or TRPV1−/− hearts were Langendorff perfused with the selective PAR2 agonist, SLIGRL, in the presence or absence of various antagonists, followed by 35 min of global ischemia and 40 min of reperfusion (I/R). The recovery rate of coronary flow, the maximum rate of left ventricular pressure development, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, and left ventricular developed pressure were evaluated after I/R. SLIGRL improved the recovery of hemodynamic parameters, decreased lactate dehydrogenase release, and reduced the infarct size in both WT and TRPV1−/− hearts (P < 0.05). The protection of SLIGRL was significantly surpassed for WT compared with TRPV1−/− hearts (P < 0.05). CGRP8–37, a selective CGRP receptor antagonist, RP67580, a selective neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, PKC-ε V1–2, a selective PKC-ε inhibitor, or H-89, a selective PKA inhibitor, abolished SLIGRL protection by inhibiting the recovery of the rate of coronary flow, maximum rate of left ventricular pressure development, and left ventricular developed pressure, and increasing left ventricular end-diastolic pressure in WT but not TRPV1−/− hearts. Radioimmunoassay showed that SLIGRL increased the release

  10. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel dipeptide-type SARS-CoV 3CL protease inhibitors: structure-activity relationship study.

    PubMed

    Thanigaimalai, Pillaiyar; Konno, Sho; Yamamoto, Takehito; Koiwai, Yuji; Taguchi, Akihiro; Takayama, Kentaro; Yakushiji, Fumika; Akaji, Kenichi; Kiso, Yoshiaki; Kawasaki, Yuko; Chen, Shen-En; Naser-Tavakolian, Aurash; Schön, Arne; Freire, Ernesto; Hayashi, Yoshio

    2013-07-01

    This work describes the design, synthesis, and evaluation of low-molecular weight peptidic SARS-CoV 3CL protease inhibitors. The inhibitors were designed based on the potent tripeptidic Z-Val-Leu-Ala(pyrrolidone-3-yl)-2-benzothiazole (8; Ki = 4.1 nM), in which the P3 valine unit was substituted with a variety of distinct moieties. The resulting series of dipeptide-type inhibitors displayed moderate to good inhibitory activities against 3CL(pro). In particular, compounds 26m and 26n exhibited good inhibitory activities with Ki values of 0.39 and 0.33 μM, respectively. These low-molecular weight compounds are attractive leads for the further development of potent peptidomimetic inhibitors with pharmaceutical profiles. Docking studies were performed to model the binding interaction of the compound 26m with the SARS-CoV 3CL protease. The preliminary SAR study of the peptidomimetic compounds with potent inhibitory activities revealed several structural features that boosted the inhibitory activity: (i) a benzothiazole warhead at the S1' position, (ii) a γ-lactam unit at the S1-position, (iii) an appropriately hydrophobic leucine moiety at the S2-position, and (iv) a hydrogen bond between the N-arylglycine unit and a backbone hydrogen bond donor at the S3-position. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Peptide selectivity between the PDZ domains of human pregnancy-related serine proteases (HtrA1, HtrA2, HtrA3, and HtrA4) can be reshaped by different halogen probes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mei-Ling; Sun, Li-Mei; Wang, Yong-Qing

    2018-06-01

    The human HtrA family of serine proteases (HtrA1, HtrA2, HtrA3, and HtrA4) are the key enzymes associated with pregnancy and closely related to the development and progression of many pathological events. Previously, it was found that halogen substitution at the indole moiety of peptide Trp-1 residue can form a geometrically satisfactory halogen bond with the Drosophila discs large, zona occludens-1 (PDZ) domain of HtrA proteases. Here, we attempt to systematically investigate the effect of substitution with 4 halogen types and 2 indole positions on the binding affinity and specificity of peptide ligands to the 4 HtrA PDZ domains. The complex structures, interaction energies, halogen-bonding strength, and binding affinity of domain-peptide systems were modeled, analyzed, and measured via computational modeling and fluorescence-based assay. It is revealed that there is a compromise between the local rearrangement of halogen bond involving different halogen atoms and the global optimization of domain-peptide interaction; the substitution position is fundamentally important for peptide-binding affinity, while the halogen type can effectively shift peptide selectivity between the 4 domains. The HtrA1-PDZ and HtrA4-PDZ as well as HtrA2-PDZ and HtrA3-PDZ respond similarly to different halogen substitutions of peptide; -Br substitution at R2-position and -I substitution at R4-position are most effective in improving peptide selectivity for HtrA1-PDZ/HtrA4-PDZ and HtrA2-PDZ/HtrA3-PDZ, respectively; -F substitution would not address substantial effect on peptide selectivity for all the 4 domains. Consequently, the binding affinities of a native peptide ligand DSRIWWV -COOH as well as its 4 R2-halogenated counterparts were determined as 1.9, 1.4, 0.5, 0.27, and 0.92 μM, which are basically consistent with computational analysis. This study would help to rationally design selective peptide inhibitors of HtrA family members by using different halogen substitutions. Copyright

  12. The Membrane-anchored Serine Protease Prostasin (CAP1/PRSS8) Supports Epidermal Development and Postnatal Homeostasis Independent of Its Enzymatic Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Diane E.; Szabo, Roman; Friis, Stine; Shylo, Natalia A.; Uzzun Sales, Katiuchia; Holmbeck, Kenn; Bugge, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    The membrane-anchored serine protease prostasin (CAP1/PRSS8) is part of a cell surface proteolytic cascade that is essential for epithelial barrier formation and homeostasis. Here, we report the surprising finding that prostasin executes these functions independent of its own enzymatic activity. Prostasin null (Prss8−/−) mice lack barrier formation and display fatal postnatal dehydration. In sharp contrast, mice homozygous for a point mutation in the Prss8 gene, which causes the substitution of the active site serine within the catalytic histidine-aspartate-serine triad with alanine and renders prostasin catalytically inactive (Prss8Cat−/Cat− mice), develop barrier function and are healthy when followed for up to 20 weeks. This striking difference could not be explained by genetic modifiers or by maternal effects, as these divergent phenotypes were displayed by Prss8−/− and Prss8Cat−/Cat− mice born within the same litter. Furthermore, Prss8Cat−/Cat− mice were able to regenerate epidermal covering following cutaneous wounding. This study provides the first demonstration that essential in vivo functions of prostasin are executed by a non-enzymatic activity of this unique membrane-anchored serine protease. PMID:24706745

  13. Real time in vivo imaging and measurement of serine protease activity in the mouse hippocampus using a dedicated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor imaging device.

    PubMed

    Ng, David C; Tamura, Hideki; Tokuda, Takashi; Yamamoto, Akio; Matsuo, Masamichi; Nunoshita, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Shiosaka, Sadao; Ohta, Jun

    2006-09-30

    The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the application of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) imaging technology for studying the mouse brain. By using a dedicated CMOS image sensor, we have successfully imaged and measured brain serine protease activity in vivo, in real-time, and for an extended period of time. We have developed a biofluorescence imaging device by packaging the CMOS image sensor which enabled on-chip imaging configuration. In this configuration, no optics are required whereby an excitation filter is applied onto the sensor to replace the filter cube block found in conventional fluorescence microscopes. The fully packaged device measures 350 microm thick x 2.7 mm wide, consists of an array of 176 x 144 pixels, and is small enough for measurement inside a single hemisphere of the mouse brain, while still providing sufficient imaging resolution. In the experiment, intraperitoneally injected kainic acid induced upregulation of serine protease activity in the brain. These events were captured in real time by imaging and measuring the fluorescence from a fluorogenic substrate that detected this activity. The entire device, which weighs less than 1% of the body weight of the mouse, holds promise for studying freely moving animals.

  14. Developmental regulation of P-glycoprotein activity within thymocytes results in increased anti-HIV protease inhibitor activity.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Soichi; Ho, Sarah K; Morrow, Matthew; Goodenow, Maureen M; Sleasman, John W

    2011-10-01

    The thymus harbors HIV-1 and supports its replication. Treatment with PI-containing ART restores thymic output of naïve T cells. This study demonstrates that CXCR4-using WT viruses are more sensitive to PI in fetal thymcocytes than mature T cells with average IC(50) values for two PIs, RTV and IDV, of 1.5 nM (RTV) and 4.4 nM (IDV) in thymocytes versus 309.4 nM (RTV) and 27.3 nM (IDV) in mature T cells. P-gp activity, as measured using Rh123 efflux and quantitation of P-gp mRNA, increased with thymocyte maturation into CD4 and CD8 lineage T cells. P-gp activity is developmentally regulated in the thymus. Thymocytes developed increased levels of P-gp activity as maturation from DP to SP CD4 or CD8 T cells occurred, although CD4 T cells acquired activity more rapidly. Reduced P-gp activity in thymocytes is one mechanism for effectiveness of PI therapy in suppressing viral replication in the thymus and in reconstitution of naïve T cells, particularly among children receiving PI-containing ART.

  15. Mast cell proteases as pharmacological targets

    PubMed Central

    Caughey, George H.

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells are rich in proteases, which are the major proteins of intracellular granules and are released with histamine and heparin by activated cells. Most of these proteases are active in the granule as well outside of the mast cell when secreted, and can cleave targets near degranulating mast cells and in adjoining tissue compartments. Some proteases released from mast cells reach the bloodstream and may have far-reaching actions. In terms of relative amounts, the major mast cell proteases include the tryptases, chymases, cathepsin G, carboxypeptidase A3, dipeptidylpeptidase I/cathepsin C, and cathepsins L and S. Some mast cells also produce granzyme B, plasminogen activators, and matrix metalloproteinases. Tryptases and chymases are almost entirely mast cell-specific, whereas other proteases, such as cathepsins G, C, and L are expressed by a variety of inflammatory cells. Carboxypeptidase A3 expression is a property shared by basophils and mast cells. Other proteases, such as mastins, are largely basophil-specific, although human basophils are protease-deficient compared with their murine counterparts. The major classes of mast cell proteases have been targeted for development of therapeutic inhibitors. Also, a human β-tryptase has been proposed as a potential drug itself, to inactivate