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Sample records for a1 proteases evidence

  1. A Comprehensive Genetic Study of Streptococcal Immunoglobulin A1 Proteases: Evidence for Recombination within and between Species

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Knud; Reinholdt, Jesper; Jespersgaard, Christina; Boye, Kit; Brown, Thomas A.; Hauge, Majbritt; Kilian, Mogens

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of 13 immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) protease genes (iga) of strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus sanguis was carried out to obtain information on the structure, polymorphism, and phylogeny of this specific protease, which enables bacteria to evade functions of the predominant Ig isotype on mucosal surfaces. The analysis included cloning and sequencing of iga genes from S. oralis and S. mitis biovar 1, sequencing of an additional seven iga genes from S. sanguis biovars 1 through 4, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses of iga genes of another 10 strains of S. mitis biovar 1 and 6 strains of S. oralis. All 13 genes sequenced had the potential of encoding proteins with molecular masses of approximately 200 kDa containing the sequence motif HEMTH and an E residue 20 amino acids downstream, which are characteristic of Zn metalloproteinases. In addition, all had a typical gram-positive cell wall anchor motif, LPNTG, which, in contrast to such motifs in other known streptococcal and staphylococcal proteins, was located in their N-terminal parts. Repeat structures showing variation in number and sequence were present in all strains and may be of relevance to the immunogenicities of the enzymes. Protease activities in cultures of the streptococcal strains were associated with species of different molecular masses ranging from 130 to 200 kDa, suggesting posttranslational processing possibly as a result of autoproteolysis at post-proline peptide bonds in the N-terminal parts of the molecules. Comparison of deduced amino acid sequences revealed a 94% similarity between S. oralis and S. mitis IgA1 proteases and a 75 to 79% similarity between IgA1 proteases of these species and those of S. pneumoniae and S. sanguis, respectively. Combined with the results of RFLP analyses using different iga gene fragments as probes, the results of nucleotide sequence comparisons provide evidence of

  2. In vivo cleavage of immunoglobulin A1 by immunoglobulin A1 proteases from Prevotella and Capnocytophaga species.

    PubMed

    Frandsen, E V; Reinholdt, J; Kjeldsen, M; Kilian, M

    1995-10-01

    Immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) proteases secreted by oral Prevotella and Capnocytophaga species specifically cleave IgA1 at the same peptide bond in the hinge region, leaving intact monomeric Fab and Fc fragments. Assuming that Prevotella- and Capnocytophaga-induced Fab fragments of IgA1 expose a specific immunogenic neoepitope at the cleavage site, we established an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure human serum antibodies to this neoepitope as indirect evidence of in vivo activity of Prevotella and Capnocytophaga IgA1 proteases. The assay used a monoclonal antibody with specificity for the neoepitope, and the ability to block binding of the monoclonal antibody to the neoepitope was investigated. Absorption of sera with Prevotella melaninogenica-induced Fab fragments of IgA1 resulted in removal of antibodies blocking binding of the monoclonal antibody, whereas absorption with Fab fragments induced by bacterial IgA1 proteases of other cleavage specificities did not remove blocking antibodies. Consequently, we assume that the antibodies detected had been induced by a neoepitope an the Fab fragment of IgA1 exposed exclusively after cleavage with IgA1 proteases from Prevotella and Capnocytophaga, indicating in vivo activity of these IgA1 proteases. Evidence, though indirect, of in vivo activity of Prevotella and Capnocytophaga IgA1 proteases was present in 42 of 92 sera examined and in a significantly higher proportion of sera from adults with periodontal disease compared with control individuals. No correlation with disease was observed for the juvenile periodontitis groups.

  3. Serological Analysis of Immunogenic Properties of Recombinant Meningococcus IgA1 Protease-Based Proteins.

    PubMed

    Kotelnikova, O V; Zinchenko, A A; Vikhrov, A A; Alliluev, A P; Serova, O V; Gordeeva, E A; Zhigis, L S; Zueva, V S; Razgulyaeva, O A; Melikhova, T D; Nokel, E A; Drozhzhina, E Yu; Rumsh, L D

    2016-07-01

    Using the genome sequence of IgA1 protease of N. meningitidis of serogroup B, four recombinant proteins of different structure and molecular weight were constructed. These proteins were equal in inducing the formation of specific antibodies to IgA1 protease and had protective properties against meningococci. In the sera of immunized mice, anti-IgA1 protease antibodies were detected by whole-cell ELISA, which indicated the presence of IgA1 protease on the surface of these bacteria. We hypothesized that the protective properties of IgA1 protease-based antigens and IgA1 protease analogs could be realized not only via impairment of bacterium adhesion to the mucosa, but also via suppression of this pathogen in the organism. The presented findings seem promising for using these proteins as the basis for anti-meningococcus vaccine.

  4. Inhibition of Prevotella and Capnocytophaga immunoglobulin A1 proteases by human serum.

    PubMed

    Frandsen, E V; Kjeldsen, M; Kilian, M

    1997-07-01

    Oral Prevotella and Capnocytophaga species, regularly isolated from periodontal pockets and associated with extraoral infections, secret specific immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) proteases cleaving human IgA1 in the hinge region into intact Fab and Fc fragments. To investigate whether these enzymes are subject to inhibition in vivo in humans, we tested 34 sera from periodontally diseased and healthy individuals in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the presence and titers of inhibition of seven Prevotella and Capnocytophaga proteases. All or nearly all of the sera inhibited the IgA1 protease activity of Prevotella buccae, Prevotella oris, and Prevotella loescheii. A minor proportion of the sera inhibited Prevotella buccalis, Prevotella denticola, and Prevotella melaninogenica IgA1 proteases, while no sera inhibited Capnocytophaga ochracea IgA1 protease. All inhibition titers were low, ranging from 5 to 55, with titer being defined as the reciprocal of the dilution of serum causing 50% inhibition of one defined unit of protease activity. No correlation between periodontal disease status and the presence, absence, or titer of inhibition was observed. The nature of the low titers of inhibition in all sera of the IgA1 proteases of P. buccae, P. oris, and P. loescheii was further examined. In size exclusion chromatography, inhibitory activity corresponded to the peak volume of IgA. Additional inhibition of the P. oris IgA1 protease was found in fractions containing both IgA and IgG. Purification of the IgG fractions of five sera by passage of the sera on a protein G column resulted in recovery of inhibitory IgG antibodies against all three IgA1 proteases, with the highest titer being for the P. oris enzyme. These finding indicate that inhibitory activity is associated with enzyme-neutralizing antibodies.

  5. Inhibition of Prevotella and Capnocytophaga immunoglobulin A1 proteases by human serum.

    PubMed Central

    Frandsen, E V; Kjeldsen, M; Kilian, M

    1997-01-01

    Oral Prevotella and Capnocytophaga species, regularly isolated from periodontal pockets and associated with extraoral infections, secret specific immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) proteases cleaving human IgA1 in the hinge region into intact Fab and Fc fragments. To investigate whether these enzymes are subject to inhibition in vivo in humans, we tested 34 sera from periodontally diseased and healthy individuals in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the presence and titers of inhibition of seven Prevotella and Capnocytophaga proteases. All or nearly all of the sera inhibited the IgA1 protease activity of Prevotella buccae, Prevotella oris, and Prevotella loescheii. A minor proportion of the sera inhibited Prevotella buccalis, Prevotella denticola, and Prevotella melaninogenica IgA1 proteases, while no sera inhibited Capnocytophaga ochracea IgA1 protease. All inhibition titers were low, ranging from 5 to 55, with titer being defined as the reciprocal of the dilution of serum causing 50% inhibition of one defined unit of protease activity. No correlation between periodontal disease status and the presence, absence, or titer of inhibition was observed. The nature of the low titers of inhibition in all sera of the IgA1 proteases of P. buccae, P. oris, and P. loescheii was further examined. In size exclusion chromatography, inhibitory activity corresponded to the peak volume of IgA. Additional inhibition of the P. oris IgA1 protease was found in fractions containing both IgA and IgG. Purification of the IgG fractions of five sera by passage of the sera on a protein G column resulted in recovery of inhibitory IgG antibodies against all three IgA1 proteases, with the highest titer being for the P. oris enzyme. These finding indicate that inhibitory activity is associated with enzyme-neutralizing antibodies. PMID:9220164

  6. Lack of cleavage of immunoglobulin A (IgA) from rhesus monkeys by bacterial IgA1 proteases.

    PubMed Central

    Reinholdt, J; Kilian, M

    1991-01-01

    Bacterial immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) proteases cleaving IgA1 and secretory IgA1 molecules in the hinge region are believed to be important virulence factors. Previous studies have indicated that IgA of humans, gorillas, and chimpanzees are the exclusive substrates of these enzymes. In a recent study, IgA from the rhesus monkey was found to be susceptible to the IgA1 protease activity of Streptococcus pneumoniae. In an attempt to reproduce this observation, we found that neither five isolates of S. pneumoniae nor other IgA1 protease-producing bacteria representing different cleavage specificities caused cleavage of rhesus monkey IgA. Hence, the rhesus monkey does not appear to be a suitable animal model for studies of IgA1 proteases as virulence factors. Images PMID:2037384

  7. Immunoglobulins in Nasal Secretions of Healthy Humans: Structural Integrity of Secretory Immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) and Occurrence of Neutralizing Antibodies to IgA1 Proteases of Nasal Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kirkeby, Line; Rasmussen, Trine Tang; Reinholdt, Jesper; Kilian, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    isolates were detected in secretions from five of the seven subjects but not in those from two subjects harboring IgA1 protease-producing S. mitis biovar 1. α-chain fragments different from Fcα and Fdα were detected in some samples, possibly reflecting nonspecific proteolytic activity of microbial or host origin. These results add to previous evidence for a role of secretory immunity in the defense of the nasal mucosa but do not help identify conditions under which bacterial IgA1 proteases may interfere with this defense. PMID:10618273

  8. Evidence for possible involvement of an elastolytic serine protease in aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Kolattukudy, P E; Lee, J D; Rogers, L M; Zimmerman, P; Ceselski, S; Fox, B; Stein, B; Copelan, E A

    1993-06-01

    A number of isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus obtained from the hospital environment produced extracellular elastolytic activity. This activity was found to be catalyzed by a single 33-kDa protein which was purified and characterized to be a serine protease. A. fumigatus, when grown on the insoluble structural material obtained from murine and bovine lung, produced the same extracellular 33-kDa elastolytic protease, indicating that this enzyme is likely to be produced when the organism infects the lung. Polymerase chain reaction with an oligonucleotide primer based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the elastolytic enzyme yielded a cDNA which was cloned and sequenced. The active serine motif showed more similarity to subtilisin than to mammalian elastase. The amino acid sequence showed 80% identity to the alkaline protease from Aspergillus oryzae. Screening of hospital isolates of Aspergillus flavus showed great variation in the production of elastolytic activity and a much lower level of activity than that produced by A. fumigatus. The elastolytic protease from A. flavus was shown to be a serine protease susceptible to modification and inactivation by active serine and histidine-directed reagents. This protease cross-reacted with the antibodies prepared against the elastolytic protease from A. fumigatus. Immunogold localization of the elastolytic enzyme showed that A. fumigatus germinating and penetrating into the lungs of neutropenic mice secreted the elastolytic protease. An elastase-deficient mutant generated from a highly virulent isolate of A. fumigatus caused drastically reduced mortality when nasally introduced into the lung of neutropenic mice. All of the evidence suggests that extracellular elastolytic protease is a significant virulence factor in invasive aspergillosis.

  9. Evidence for possible involvement of an elastolytic serine protease in aspergillosis.

    PubMed Central

    Kolattukudy, P E; Lee, J D; Rogers, L M; Zimmerman, P; Ceselski, S; Fox, B; Stein, B; Copelan, E A

    1993-01-01

    A number of isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus obtained from the hospital environment produced extracellular elastolytic activity. This activity was found to be catalyzed by a single 33-kDa protein which was purified and characterized to be a serine protease. A. fumigatus, when grown on the insoluble structural material obtained from murine and bovine lung, produced the same extracellular 33-kDa elastolytic protease, indicating that this enzyme is likely to be produced when the organism infects the lung. Polymerase chain reaction with an oligonucleotide primer based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the elastolytic enzyme yielded a cDNA which was cloned and sequenced. The active serine motif showed more similarity to subtilisin than to mammalian elastase. The amino acid sequence showed 80% identity to the alkaline protease from Aspergillus oryzae. Screening of hospital isolates of Aspergillus flavus showed great variation in the production of elastolytic activity and a much lower level of activity than that produced by A. fumigatus. The elastolytic protease from A. flavus was shown to be a serine protease susceptible to modification and inactivation by active serine and histidine-directed reagents. This protease cross-reacted with the antibodies prepared against the elastolytic protease from A. fumigatus. Immunogold localization of the elastolytic enzyme showed that A. fumigatus germinating and penetrating into the lungs of neutropenic mice secreted the elastolytic protease. An elastase-deficient mutant generated from a highly virulent isolate of A. fumigatus caused drastically reduced mortality when nasally introduced into the lung of neutropenic mice. All of the evidence suggests that extracellular elastolytic protease is a significant virulence factor in invasive aspergillosis. Images PMID:8500876

  10. Association of frailty with the serine protease HtrA1 in older adults.

    PubMed

    Lorenzi, Maria; Lorenzi, Teresa; Marzetti, Emanuele; Landi, Francesco; Vetrano, Davide L; Settanni, Silvana; Antocicco, Manuela; Bonassi, Stefano; Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Bernabei, Roberto; Onder, Graziano

    2016-08-01

    Frailty is a geriatric syndrome characterized by multi system dysregulation. It has been suggested that chronic inflammation may be involved in the pathogenesis of frailty. No study so far has identified accurate, specific and sensitive molecular biomarkers for frailty. High-temperature requirement serine protease A1 (HtrA1) is a secreted multidomain serine protease implicated in the inhibition of signaling of active transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)1, a cytokine which has an important anti-inflammation role. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of circulating levels of HtrA1 with frailty in a sample of older adults. The study was performed in 120 older adults aged >65years and admitted to a geriatric outpatient clinic. The frailty status of participants was assessed by both the Fried's criteria (physical frailty, PF) and a modified Rockwood's frailty index (FI). Plasma HtrA1 concentration was measured using commercial ELISA kit. Frailty was identified in 61/120 participants (50.8%) using PF, and in 60/118 subjects (50.8%) using FI. Plasma levels of HtrA1 were significantly higher in individuals classified as frail according to PF (75.9ng/mL, 95% CI 67.4-85.6) as compared with non-frail participants (48.4ng/mL, 95% CI 42.5-54.6, p<0.001). A significant association was also observed between frailty, assessed by FI, and HtrA1 levels (72.2ng/mL, 95% CI 63.4-82.3, vs. 50.4ng/mL, 95% CI 44.3-58.0, p<0.001). These associations were confirmed after adjusting for potential confounders. This study demonstrates for the first time the association of plasma levels of HtrA1 with frailty status. Future investigations are needed to validate the potential value of HtrA1 as possible biomarker for frailty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Protease-functionalized mucus penetrating microparticles: In-vivo evidence for their potential.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Arshad; Laffleur, Flavia; Leonaviciute, Gintare; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2017-10-30

    The focus of the current study was to explore whether immobilization of proteases to microparticles could result in their enhanced penetration into mucus. The proteases papain (PAP) and bromelain (BROM) were covalently attached to a polyacrylate (PAA; Carbopol 971P) via amide bond formation based on carbodiimide reaction. Microparticles containing these conjugates were generated via ionic gelation with calcium chloride and were characterized regarding size, surface charge, enzymatic activity and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) loading efficiency. Furthermore, mucus penetration potential of these microparticles was evaluated in-vitro on freshly collected porcine intestinal mucus, on intact intestinal mucosa and in-vivo in Sprague-Dawley rats. Results showed mean diameter of microparticles ranging between 2-3μm and surface charge between -8 to -18mV. The addition of PAA-microparticles to porcine intestinal mucus led to a 1.39-fold increase in dynamic viscosity whereas a 3.10- and 2.12-fold decrease was observed in case of PAA-PAP and PAA-BROM microparticles, respectively. Mucus penetration studies showed a 4.27- and 2.21- fold higher permeation of FDA loaded PAA-PAP and PAA-BROM microparticles as compared to PAA microparticles, respectively. Extent of mucus diffusion determined via silicon tube assay illustrated 3.96- fold higher penetration for PAA-PAP microparticles and 1.99- fold for PAA-BROM microparticles. An in-vitro analysis on porcine intestinal mucosa described up to 16- and 7.35-fold higher degree of retention and furthermore, during in-vivo evaluation in Sprague-Dawley rats a 3.35- and 2.07-fold higher penetration behavior was observed in small intestine for PAA-PAP and PAA-BROM microparticles as compared to PAA microparticles, respectively. According to these results, evidence for microparticles decorated with proteases in order to overcome the mucus barrier and to reach the absorption lining has been provided that offers wide ranging applications in mucosal

  12. Structural Evidence for Regulation and Specificity of Flaviviral Proteases and Evolution of the Flaviviridae Fold

    SciTech Connect

    Aleshin,A.; Shiryaev, S.; Strongin, A.

    2007-01-01

    Pathogenic members of the flavivirus family, including West Nile Virus (WNV) and Dengue Virus (DV), are growing global threats for which there are no specific treatments. The two-component flaviviral enzyme NS2B-NS3 cleaves the viral polyprotein precursor within the host cell, a process that is required for viral replication. Here, we report the crystal structure of WNV NS2B-NS3pro both in a substrate-free form and in complex with the trypsin inhibitor aprotinin/BPTI. We show that aprotinin binds in a substrate-mimetic fashion in which the productive conformation of the protease is fully formed, providing evidence for an 'induced fit' mechanism of catalysis andmore » allowing us to rationalize the distinct substrate specificities of WNV and DV proteases. We also show that the NS2B cofactor of WNV can adopt two very distinct conformations and that this is likely to be a general feature of flaviviral proteases, providing further opportunities for regulation. Finally, by comparing the flaviviral proteases with the more distantly related Hepatitis C virus, we provide insights into the evolution of the Flaviviridae fold. Our work should expedite the design of protease inhibitors to treat a range of flaviviral infections.« less

  13. Network Analyses Reveal Pervasive Functional Regulation Between Proteases in the Human Protease Web

    PubMed Central

    Fortelny, Nikolaus; Cox, Jennifer H.; Kappelhoff, Reinhild; Starr, Amanda E.; Lange, Philipp F.; Pavlidis, Paul; Overall, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Proteolytic processing is an irreversible posttranslational modification affecting a large portion of the proteome. Protease-cleaved mediators frequently exhibit altered activity, and biological pathways are often regulated by proteolytic processing. Many of these mechanisms have not been appreciated as being protease-dependent, and the potential in unraveling a complex new dimension of biological control is increasingly recognized. Proteases are currently believed to act individually or in isolated cascades. However, conclusive but scattered biochemical evidence indicates broader regulation of proteases by protease and inhibitor interactions. Therefore, to systematically study such interactions, we assembled curated protease cleavage and inhibition data into a global, computational representation, termed the protease web. This revealed that proteases pervasively influence the activity of other proteases directly or by cleaving intermediate proteases or protease inhibitors. The protease web spans four classes of proteases and inhibitors and so links both recently and classically described protease groups and cascades, which can no longer be viewed as operating in isolation in vivo. We demonstrated that this observation, termed reachability, is robust to alterations in the data and will only increase in the future as additional data are added. We further show how subnetworks of the web are operational in 23 different tissues reflecting different phenotypes. We applied our network to develop novel insights into biologically relevant protease interactions using cell-specific proteases of the polymorphonuclear leukocyte as a system. Predictions from the protease web on the activity of matrix metalloproteinase 8 (MMP8) and neutrophil elastase being linked by an inactivating cleavage of serpinA1 by MMP8 were validated and explain perplexing Mmp8 −/− versus wild-type polymorphonuclear chemokine cleavages in vivo. Our findings supply systematically derived and

  14. [Isolation and characteristics of IgA1 and its use for detecting bacterial IgA1 proteases].

    PubMed

    Amelina, I P; Zakharova, N A

    1984-12-01

    Sufficiently purified IgA, subclass I, has been isolated from the defibrinated plasma of a myeloma patient by chromatography on columns packed with DEAE-Sephadex A-50 or Sephadex G-200, and rabbit antiserum to this immunoglobulin has been obtained. These preparations have been used for detecting specific protease in Bordetella pertussis. The tested B. pertussis strains have been shown to induce, as revealed by immunoelectrophoretic methods, the proteolysis of human IgA, subclass I.

  15. Human High Temperature Requirement Serine Protease A1 (HTRA1) Degrades Tau Protein Aggregates*

    PubMed Central

    Tennstaedt, Annette; Pöpsel, Simon; Truebestein, Linda; Hauske, Patrick; Brockmann, Anke; Schmidt, Nina; Irle, Inga; Sacca, Barbara; Niemeyer, Christof M.; Brandt, Roland; Ksiezak-Reding, Hanna; Tirniceriu, Anca Laura; Egensperger, Rupert; Baldi, Alfonso; Dehmelt, Leif; Kaiser, Markus; Huber, Robert; Clausen, Tim; Ehrmann, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Protective proteases are key elements of protein quality control pathways that are up-regulated, for example, under various protein folding stresses. These proteases are employed to prevent the accumulation and aggregation of misfolded proteins that can impose severe damage to cells. The high temperature requirement A (HtrA) family of serine proteases has evolved to perform important aspects of ATP-independent protein quality control. So far, however, no HtrA protease is known that degrades protein aggregates. We show here that human HTRA1 degrades aggregated and fibrillar tau, a protein that is critically involved in various neurological disorders. Neuronal cells and patient brains accumulate less tau, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuritic plaques, respectively, when HTRA1 is expressed at elevated levels. Furthermore, HTRA1 mRNA and HTRA1 activity are up-regulated in response to elevated tau concentrations. These data suggest that HTRA1 is performing regulated proteolysis during protein quality control, the implications of which are discussed. PMID:22535953

  16. Characterization of Bactrocera dorsalis Serine Proteases and Evidence for Their Indirect Role in Insecticide Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Ming-Zhe; Shen, Guang-Mao; Wei, Dong; Li, Ya-Li; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) causes devastating losses to agricultural crops world-wide and is considered to be an economically important pest. Little is known about the digestive enzymes such as serine proteases (SPs) in B. dorsalis, which are important both for energy supply and mitigation of fitness cost associated with insecticide tolerance. In this study, we identified five SP genes in the midgut of B. dorsalis, and the alignments of their deduced amino acid sequences revealed the presence of motifs conserved in the SP superfamily. Phylogenetic analyses with known SPs from other insect species suggested that three of them were trypsin-like proteases. Analyses of the expression profiles among the different developmental stages showed that all five genes were most abundant in larvae than in other stages. When larvae were continuously fed on diet containing 0.33 μg/g β-Cypermethrin, expression of all five genes were upregulated in the midgut but the larval development was delayed. Biochemical assays were consistent with the increased protease activity exhibited by SPs in the midgut after treatment with β-Cypermethrin. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the hypothesis that enhanced SP activity may play an indirect role in relieving the toxicity stress of insecticide in B. dorsalis. PMID:24566149

  17. Extracellular fluid proteins of goldfish brain: evidence for the presence of proteases and esterases.

    PubMed

    Shashoua, V E; Holmquist, B

    1986-09-01

    Preparations of enriched fractions of extracellular fluid (ECF) proteins from goldfish brain were found to contain protease(s) and esterase(s). The N-substituted furanacryloyl (FA) peptides FA-Phe-Gly-Gly and FA-Phe-OMe were used as model substrates for determining protease and esterase activity, respectively, in a spectrophotometric assay. Studies of the profile of substrate specificity and identification of the types of compounds that were effective as inhibitors showed that these ECF enzymes have some distinctive properties. GSH, but not GSSG, and EDTA inhibited the protease(s) without influencing the esterase(s), whereas L-1-tosylamide-2-phenylethylchloromethyl ketone blocked both protease and esterase activities of ECF. Most of the protease and esterase properties of ECF could be bound to concanavalin A-Sepharose affinity chromatographic columns in association with ependymin--a brain extracellular protein. These observations indicate that ECF may contain a metalloprotease(s) and raise the possibility that the ependymins might be a substrate for these ECF enzymes.

  18. Correlation Between Expression of High Temperature Requirement Serine Protease A1 (HtrA1) in Nucleus Pulposus and T2 Value of Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Dapeng; Yue, Jiawei; Jiang, Lu; Huang, Yonghui; Sun, Jifu; Wu, Yan

    2017-04-22

    BACKGROUND Degrading enzymes play an important role in the process of disc degeneration. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between the expression of high temperature requirement serine protease A1 (HtrA1) in the nucleus pulposus and the T2 value of the nucleus pulposus region in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty-six patients who had undergone surgical excision of the nucleus pulposus were examined by MRI before surgery. Pfirrmann grading of the target intervertebral disc was performed according to the sagittal T2-weighted imaging, and the T2 value of the target nucleus pulposus was measured according to the median sagittal T2 mapping. The correlation between the Pfirrmann grade and the T2 value was analyzed. The expression of HtrA1 in the nucleus pulposus was analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blot. The correlation between the expression of HtrA1 and the T2 value was analyzed. RESULTS The T2 value of the nucleus pulposus region was 33.11-167.91 ms, with an average of 86.64±38.73 ms. According to Spearman correlation analysis, there was a rank correlation between T2 value and Pfirrmann grade (P<0.0001), and the correlation coefficient (rs)=-0.93617. There was a linear correlation between the mRNA level of HtrA1 and T2 value in nucleus pulposus tissues (a=3.88, b=-0.019, F=112.63, P<0.0001), normalized regression coefficient=-0.88. There was a linear correlation between the expression level of HtrA1 protein and the T2 value in the nucleus pulposus tissues (a=3.30, b=-0.016, F=93.15, P<0.0001) and normalized regression coefficient=-0.86. CONCLUSIONS The expression of HtrA1 was strongly related to the T2 value, suggesting that HtrA1 plays an important role in the pathological process of intervertebral disc degeneration.

  19. Regulation of Hippocampal Glutamate Receptors: Evidence for the Involvement of a Calcium-Activated Protease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudry, Michel; Lynch, Gary

    1980-04-01

    Specific [3H]glutamate binding to rat hippocampal membranes and the calcium-induced increase in this binding are markedly temperature-sensitive and are inhibited by alkylating or reducing agents as well as by various protease inhibitors. N-Ethylmaleimide, chloromethyl ketone derivatives of lysine and phenylalanine, and tosylarginine methyl ester decrease the maximum number of [3H]glutamate binding sites without changing their affinity for glutamate. Preincubation of the membranes with glutamate does not protect the glutamate ``receptors'' from the suppressive effects of these agents. The proteases trypsin and α -chymotrypsin increase the maximum number of [3H]glutamate binding sites. The effects of calcium on glutamate binding are different across brain regions. Cerebellar membranes are almost insensitive whereas hippocampal and striatal membranes exhibit a strong increase in the number of binding sites after exposure to even low concentrations of calcium. These results suggest that an endogenous membrane-associated thiol protease regulates the number of [3H]glutamate binding sites in hippocampal membranes and that this is the mechanism by which calcium stimulates glutamate binding. The possibility is discussed that the postulated mechanisms participate in synaptic physiology and in particular may be related to the long-term potentiation of transmission found in hippocampus under certain conditions.

  20. Occurrence and Evolution of the Paralogous Zinc Metalloproteases IgA1 Protease, ZmpB, ZmpC, and ZmpD in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Related Commensal Species

    PubMed Central

    Bek-Thomsen, Malene; Poulsen, Knud; Kilian, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The distribution, genome location, and evolution of the four paralogous zinc metalloproteases, IgA1 protease, ZmpB, ZmpC, and ZmpD, in Streptococcus pneumoniae and related commensal species were studied by in silico analysis of whole genomes and by activity screening of 154 representatives of 20 species. ZmpB was ubiquitous in the Mitis and Salivarius groups of the genus Streptococcus and in the genera Gemella and Granulicatella, with the exception of a fragmented gene in Streptococcus thermophilus, the only species with a nonhuman habitat. IgA1 protease activity was observed in all members of S. pneumoniae, S. pseudopneumoniae, S. oralis, S. sanguinis, and Gemella haemolysans, was variably present in S. mitis and S. infantis, and absent in S. gordonii, S. parasanguinis, S. cristatus, S. oligofermentans, S. australis, S. peroris, and S. suis. Phylogenetic analysis of 297 zmp sequences and representative housekeeping genes provided evidence for an unprecedented selection for genetic diversification of the iga, zmpB, and zmpD genes in S. pneumoniae and evidence of very frequent intraspecies transfer of entire genes and combination of genes. Presumably due to their adaptation to a commensal lifestyle, largely unaffected by adaptive mucosal immune factors, the corresponding genes in commensal streptococci have remained conserved. The widespread distribution and significant sequence diversity indicate an ancient origin of the zinc metalloproteases predating the emergence of the humanoid species. zmpB, which appears to be the ancestral gene, subsequently duplicated and successfully diversified into distinct functions, is likely to serve an important but yet unknown housekeeping function associated with the human host. PMID:23033471

  1. Evidence for multiple modes of neutrophil serine protease recognition by the EAP family of Staphylococcal innate immune evasion proteins.

    PubMed

    Stapels, Daphne A C; Woehl, Jordan L; Milder, Fin J; Tromp, Angelino T; van Batenburg, Aernoud A; de Graaf, Wilco C; Broll, Samuel C; White, Natalie M; Rooijakkers, Suzan H M; Geisbrecht, Brian V

    2018-02-01

    Neutrophils contain high levels of chymotrypsin-like serine proteases (NSPs) within their azurophilic granules that have a multitude of functions within the immune system. In response, the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus has evolved three potent inhibitors (Eap, EapH1, and EapH2) that protect the bacterium as well as several of its secreted virulence factors from the degradative action of NSPs. We previously showed that these so-called EAP domain proteins represent a novel class of NSP inhibitors characterized by a non-covalent inhibitory mechanism and a distinct target specificity profile. Based upon high levels of structural homology amongst the EAP proteins and the NSPs, as well as supporting biochemical data, we predicted that the inhibited complex would be similar for all EAP/NSP pairs. However, we present here evidence that EapH1 and EapH2 bind the canonical NSP, Neutrophil Elastase (NE), in distinct orientations. We discovered that alteration of EapH1 residues at the EapH1/NE interface caused a dramatic loss of affinity and inhibition of NE, while mutation of equivalent positions in EapH2 had no effect on NE binding or inhibition. Surprisingly, mutation of residues in an altogether different region of EapH2 severely impacted both the NE binding and inhibitory properties of EapH2. Even though EapH1 and EapH2 bind and inhibit NE and a second NSP, Cathepsin G, equally well, neither of these proteins interacts with the structurally related, but non-proteolytic granule protein, azurocidin. These studies expand our understanding of EAP/NSP interactions and suggest that members of this immune evasion protein family are capable of diverse target recognition modes. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  2. Supermarket Proteases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagar, William G.; Bullerwell, Lornie D.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a laboratory activity on enzymes. Uses common items found in the supermarket that contain protease enzymes, such as contact lens cleaner and meat tenderizer. Demonstrates the digestion of gelatin proteins as part of enzymatic reactions. (Author/SOE)

  3. Protease-activated receptor-1 antagonists in long-term antiplatelet therapy. Current state of evidence and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Moschonas, I C; Goudevenos, J A; Tselepis, A D

    2015-04-15

    Atherothrombosis and its clinical manifestations are among the leading causes of death in the developed world. The current standard-of-care antiplatelet therapy for the treatment of such events comprises aspirin and a thienopyridine or ticagrelor. However, recurrent ischemic events due to residual cardiovascular risk are a common phenomenon in these patients. It is believed that this residual risk is caused, at least in part, by thrombin, which signals through protease-activated receptors (PARs) and especially PAR-1. Thus, PAR-1 antagonism could represent an effective approach in the treatment of atherothrombotic disease. In this context, two potent and selective agents have been developed, vorapaxar and atopaxar. However, only vorapaxar has completed phase 3 clinical trials. In the present review, the main pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of the PAR-1 antagonists are briefly described and the latest clinical data on vorapaxar are presented. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Evidence that the recA441 (tif-1) mutant of Escherichia coli K-12 contains a thermosensitive intragenic suppressor of RecA constitutive protease activity.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, W B; Tessman, E S

    1985-01-01

    The recA441 mutant of Escherichia coli, which has been thought to have thermoinducible constitutive RecA protease activity, is known to have two mutations within recA. We show here that the mutation that alters codon 38 actually confers temperature-independent constitutive protease activity; the second mutation in recA441, which is at codon 298, appears to be acting as a temperature-sensitive suppressor of the protease activity. Images PMID:3891740

  5. Evidence that the recA441 (tif-1) mutant of Escherichia coli K-12 contains a thermosensitive intragenic suppressor of RecA constitutive protease activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, W B; Tessman, E S

    1985-07-01

    The recA441 mutant of Escherichia coli, which has been thought to have thermoinducible constitutive RecA protease activity, is known to have two mutations within recA. We show here that the mutation that alters codon 38 actually confers temperature-independent constitutive protease activity; the second mutation in recA441, which is at codon 298, appears to be acting as a temperature-sensitive suppressor of the protease activity.

  6. In vivo inhibition of cysteine proteases provides evidence for the involvement of 'senescence-associated vacuoles' in chloroplast protein degradation during dark-induced senescence of tobacco leaves.

    PubMed

    Carrión, Cristian A; Costa, María Lorenza; Martínez, Dana E; Mohr, Christina; Humbeck, Klaus; Guiamet, Juan J

    2013-11-01

    Breakdown of leaf proteins, particularly chloroplast proteins, is a massive process in senescing leaves. In spite of its importance in internal N recycling, the mechanism(s) and the enzymes involved are largely unknown. Senescence-associated vacuoles (SAVs) are small, acidic vacuoles with high cysteine peptidase activity. Chloroplast-targeted proteins re-localize to SAVs during senescence, suggesting that SAVs might be involved in chloroplast protein degradation. SAVs were undetectable in mature, non-senescent tobacco leaves. Their abundance, visualized either with the acidotropic marker Lysotracker Red or by green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence in a line expressing the senescence-associated cysteine protease SAG12 fused to GFP, increased during senescence induction in darkness, and peaked after 2-4 d, when chloroplast dismantling was most intense. Increased abundance of SAVs correlated with higher levels of SAG12 mRNA. Activity labelling with a biotinylated derivative of the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 was used to detect active cysteine proteases. The two apparently most abundant cysteine proteases of senescing leaves, of 40kDa and 33kDa were detected in isolated SAVs. Rubisco degradation in isolated SAVs was completely blocked by E-64. Treatment of leaf disks with E-64 in vivo substantially reduced degradation of Rubisco and leaf proteins. Overall, these results indicate that SAVs contain most of the cysteine protease activity of senescing cells, and that SAV cysteine proteases are at least partly responsible for the degradation of stromal proteins of the chloroplast.

  7. Point-of-Care Hemoglobin A1c Testing: An Evidence-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The increasing prevalence of diabetes in Ontario means that there will be growing demand for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) testing to monitor glycemic control for the management of this chronic disease. Testing HbA1c where patients receive their diabetes care may improve system efficiency if the results from point-of-care HbA1c testing are comparable to those from laboratory HbA1c measurements. Objectives To review the correlation between point-of-care HbA1c testing and laboratory HbA1c measurement in patients with diabetes in clinical settings. Data Sources The literature search included studies published between January 2003 and June 2013. Search terms included glycohemoglobin, hemoglobin A1c, point of care, and diabetes. Review Methods Studies were included if participants had diabetes; if they compared point-of-care HbA1c devices (licensed by Health Canada and available in Canada) with laboratory HbA1c measurement (reference method); if they performed point-of-care HbA1c testing using capillary blood samples (finger pricks) and laboratory HbA1c measurement using venous blood samples within 7 days; and if they reported a correlation coefficient between point-of-care HbA1c and laboratory HbA1c results. Results Three point-of-care HbA1c devices were reviewed in this analysis: Bayer's A1cNow+, Bio-Rad's In2it, and Siemens’ DCA Vantage. Five observational studies met the inclusion criteria. The pooled results showed a positive correlation between point-of-care HbA1c testing and laboratory HbA1c measurement (correlation coefficient, 0.967; 95% confidence interval, 0.960–0.973). Limitations Outcomes were limited to the correlation coefficient, as this was a commonly reported measure of analytical performance in the literature. Results should be interpreted with caution due to risk of bias related to selection of participants, reference standards, and the multiple steps involved in POC HbA1c testing. Conclusions Moderate quality evidence showed a positive

  8. Proteases as therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Craik, Charles S.; Page, Michael J.; Madison, Edwin L.

    2015-01-01

    Proteases are an expanding class of drugs that hold great promise. The U.S. FDA (Food and Drug Administration) has approved 12 protease therapies, and a number of next generation or completely new proteases are in clinical development. Although they are a well-recognized class of targets for inhibitors, proteases themselves have not typically been considered as a drug class despite their application in the clinic over the last several decades; initially as plasma fractions and later as purified products. Although the predominant use of proteases has been in treating cardiovascular disease, they are also emerging as useful agents in the treatment of sepsis, digestive disorders, inflammation, cystic fibrosis, retinal disorders, psoriasis and other diseases. In the present review, we outline the history of proteases as therapeutics, provide an overview of their current clinical application, and describe several approaches to improve and expand their clinical application. Undoubtedly, our ability to harness proteolysis for disease treatment will increase with our understanding of protease biology and the molecular mechanisms responsible. New technologies for rationally engineering proteases, as well as improved delivery options, will expand greatly the potential applications of these enzymes. The recognition that proteases are, in fact, an established class of safe and efficacious drugs will stimulate investigation of additional therapeutic applications for these enzymes. Proteases therefore have a bright future as a distinct therapeutic class with diverse clinical applications. PMID:21406063

  9. Peptide selectivity between the PDZ domains of human pregnancy-related serine proteases (HtrA1, HtrA2, HtrA3, and HtrA4) can be reshaped by different halogen probes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mei-Ling; Sun, Li-Mei; Wang, Yong-Qing

    2018-06-01

    The human HtrA family of serine proteases (HtrA1, HtrA2, HtrA3, and HtrA4) are the key enzymes associated with pregnancy and closely related to the development and progression of many pathological events. Previously, it was found that halogen substitution at the indole moiety of peptide Trp-1 residue can form a geometrically satisfactory halogen bond with the Drosophila discs large, zona occludens-1 (PDZ) domain of HtrA proteases. Here, we attempt to systematically investigate the effect of substitution with 4 halogen types and 2 indole positions on the binding affinity and specificity of peptide ligands to the 4 HtrA PDZ domains. The complex structures, interaction energies, halogen-bonding strength, and binding affinity of domain-peptide systems were modeled, analyzed, and measured via computational modeling and fluorescence-based assay. It is revealed that there is a compromise between the local rearrangement of halogen bond involving different halogen atoms and the global optimization of domain-peptide interaction; the substitution position is fundamentally important for peptide-binding affinity, while the halogen type can effectively shift peptide selectivity between the 4 domains. The HtrA1-PDZ and HtrA4-PDZ as well as HtrA2-PDZ and HtrA3-PDZ respond similarly to different halogen substitutions of peptide; -Br substitution at R2-position and -I substitution at R4-position are most effective in improving peptide selectivity for HtrA1-PDZ/HtrA4-PDZ and HtrA2-PDZ/HtrA3-PDZ, respectively; -F substitution would not address substantial effect on peptide selectivity for all the 4 domains. Consequently, the binding affinities of a native peptide ligand DSRIWWV -COOH as well as its 4 R2-halogenated counterparts were determined as 1.9, 1.4, 0.5, 0.27, and 0.92 μM, which are basically consistent with computational analysis. This study would help to rationally design selective peptide inhibitors of HtrA family members by using different halogen substitutions. Copyright

  10. Fibrin(ogen)olytic activity of bumblebee venom serine protease

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu Yuling; Joint Laboratory between Dong-A University and Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang; Choo, Young Moo

    Bee venom is a rich source of pharmacologically active components; it has been used as an immunotherapy to treat bee venom hypersensitivity, and venom therapy has been applied as an alternative medicine. Here, we present evidence that the serine protease found in bumblebee venom exhibits fibrin(ogen)olytic activity. Compared to honeybee venom, bumblebee venom contains a higher content of serine protease, which is one of its major components. Venom serine proteases from bumblebees did not cross-react with antibodies against the honeybee venom serine protease. We provide functional evidence indicating that bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) venom serine protease (Bt-VSP) acts as a fibrin(ogen)olyticmore » enzyme. Bt-VSP activates prothrombin and directly degrades fibrinogen into fibrin degradation products. However, Bt-VSP is not a plasminogen activator, and its fibrinolytic activity is less than that of plasmin. Taken together, our results define roles for Bt-VSP as a prothrombin activator, a thrombin-like protease, and a plasmin-like protease. These findings offer significant insight into the allergic reaction sequence that is initiated by bee venom serine protease and its potential usefulness as a clinical agent in the field of hemostasis and thrombosis. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Bumblebee venom serine protease (Bt-VSP) is a fibrin(ogen)olytic enzyme. > Bt-VSP activates prothrombin. > Bt-VSP directly degrades fibrinogen into fibrin degradation products. > Bt-VSP is a hemostatically active protein that is a potent clinical agent.« less

  11. Intracellular serine protease 1 of Bacillus subtilis is formed in vivo as an unprocessed, active protease in stationary cells.

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, S M; Switzer, R L

    1990-01-01

    Western immunoblots and assays of Bacillus subtilis extracts showed that intracellular serine protease 1 is produced in a form larger than previously reported, appears not to have undergone N-terminal processing, and is active in the presence or absence of calcium. No evidence for an inactive precursor form of the protease was found. Images FIG. 1 PMID:2104610

  12. From proteases to proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Neurath, Hans

    2001-01-01

    This personal and professional autobiography covers the 50-yr period of 1950–2000 and includes the following topics: History of the University of Washington School of Medicine and its Department of Biochemistry (Mount Rainier and the University of Washington, recruiting faculty, biology, research programs); scientific editing (publication, Biochemistry, Protein Science, electronic publication); Europe revisited (Heidelberg, approaching retirement, the German Research Center, reunion in Vienna); and 50 yr of research on proteolytic enzymes (trypsin, carboxypeptidases, mast cell proteases, future developments). PMID:11274481

  13. From proteases to proteomics.

    PubMed

    Neurath, H

    2001-04-01

    This personal and professional autobiography covers the 50-yr period of 1950-2000 and includes the following topics: History of the University of Washington School of Medicine and its Department of Biochemistry (Mount Rainier and the University of Washington, recruiting faculty, biology, research programs); scientific editing (publication, Biochemistry, Protein Science, electronic publication); Europe revisited (Heidelberg, approaching retirement, the German Research Center, reunion in Vienna); and 50 yr of research on proteolytic enzymes (trypsin, carboxypeptidases, mast cell proteases, future developments).

  14. Multifunctional Mitochondrial AAA Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, Steven E.

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria perform numerous functions necessary for the survival of eukaryotic cells. These activities are coordinated by a diverse complement of proteins encoded in both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes that must be properly organized and maintained. Misregulation of mitochondrial proteostasis impairs organellar function and can result in the development of severe human diseases. ATP-driven AAA+ proteins play crucial roles in preserving mitochondrial activity by removing and remodeling protein molecules in accordance with the needs of the cell. Two mitochondrial AAA proteases, i-AAA and m-AAA, are anchored to either face of the mitochondrial inner membrane, where they engage and process an array of substrates to impact protein biogenesis, quality control, and the regulation of key metabolic pathways. The functionality of these proteases is extended through multiple substrate-dependent modes of action, including complete degradation, partial processing, or dislocation from the membrane without proteolysis. This review discusses recent advances made toward elucidating the mechanisms of substrate recognition, handling, and degradation that allow these versatile proteases to control diverse activities in this multifunctional organelle. PMID:28589125

  15. Multifunctional Mitochondrial AAA Proteases.

    PubMed

    Glynn, Steven E

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria perform numerous functions necessary for the survival of eukaryotic cells. These activities are coordinated by a diverse complement of proteins encoded in both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes that must be properly organized and maintained. Misregulation of mitochondrial proteostasis impairs organellar function and can result in the development of severe human diseases. ATP-driven AAA+ proteins play crucial roles in preserving mitochondrial activity by removing and remodeling protein molecules in accordance with the needs of the cell. Two mitochondrial AAA proteases, i-AAA and m-AAA, are anchored to either face of the mitochondrial inner membrane, where they engage and process an array of substrates to impact protein biogenesis, quality control, and the regulation of key metabolic pathways. The functionality of these proteases is extended through multiple substrate-dependent modes of action, including complete degradation, partial processing, or dislocation from the membrane without proteolysis. This review discusses recent advances made toward elucidating the mechanisms of substrate recognition, handling, and degradation that allow these versatile proteases to control diverse activities in this multifunctional organelle.

  16. Protease-mediated drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, Eva F.; Goyan, Rebecca L.; Kennedy, James C.; Mackay, M.; Mendes, M. A. K.; Pottier, Roy H.

    2003-12-01

    Drugs used in disease treatment can cause damage to both malignant and normal tissue. This toxicity limits the maximum therapeutic dose. Drug targeting is of high interest to increase the therapeutic efficacy of the drug without increasing systemic toxicity. Certain tissue abnormalities, disease processes, cancers, and infections are characterized by high levels of activity of specific extracellular and/or intracellular proteases. Abnormally high activity levels of specific proteases are present at sites of physical or chemical trauma, blood clots, malignant tumors, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, gingival disease, glomerulonerphritis, and acute pancreatitis. Abnormal protease activity is suspected in development of liver thrombosis, pulmonary emphysema, atherosclerosis, and muscular dystrophy. Inactiviating disease-associated proteases by the administration of appropriate protease inhibitors has had limited success. Instead, one could use such proteases to target drugs to treat the condition. Protease mediated drug delivery offers such a possibility. Solubilizing groups are attached to insoluble drugs via a polypeptide chain which is specifically cleavable by certian proteases. When the solubilized drug enounters the protease, the solubilizing moieties are cleaved, and the drug precipitates at the disease location. Thus, a smaller systemic dosage could result in a therapeutic drug concentration at the treatment site with less systemic toxicity.

  17. Functional Proteomic Profiling of Secreted Serine Proteases in Health and Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Denadai-Souza, Alexandre; Bonnart, Chrystelle; Tapias, Núria Solà; Marcellin, Marlène; Gilmore, Brendan; Alric, Laurent; Bonnet, Delphine; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Hollenberg, Morley D; Vergnolle, Nathalie; Deraison, Céline

    2018-05-18

    While proteases are essential in gastrointestinal physiology, accumulating evidence indicates that dysregulated proteolysis plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Nonetheless, the identity of overactive proteases released by human colonic mucosa remains largely unknown. Studies of protease abundance have primarily investigated expression profiles, not taking into account their enzymatic activity. Herein we have used serine protease-targeted activity-based probes (ABPs) coupled with mass spectral analysis to identify active forms of proteases secreted by the colonic mucosa of healthy controls and IBD patients. Profiling of (Pro-Lys)-ABP bound proteases revealed that most of hyperactive proteases from IBD secretome are clustered at 28-kDa. We identified seven active proteases: the serine proteases cathepsin G, plasma kallikrein, plasmin, tryptase, chymotrypsin-like elastase 3 A, and thrombin and the aminopeptidase B. Only cathepsin G and thrombin were overactive in supernatants from IBD patient tissues compared to healthy controls. Gene expression analysis highlighted the transcription of genes encoding these proteases into intestinal mucosae. The functional ABP-targeted proteomic approach that we have used to identify active proteases in human colonic samples bears directly on the understanding of the role these enzymes may play in the pathophysiology of IBD.

  18. Protease activity, localization and inhibition in the human hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Bhogal, R K; Mouser, P E; Higgins, C A; Turner, G A

    2014-02-01

    In humans, the process of hair shedding, referred to as exogen, is believed to occur independently of the other hair cycle phases. Although the actual mechanisms involved in hair shedding are not fully known, it has been hypothesized that the processes leading to the final step of hair shedding may be driven by proteases and/or protease inhibitor activity. In this study, we investigated the presence of proteases and protease activity in naturally shed human hairs and assessed enzyme inhibition activity of test materials. We measured enzyme activity using a fluorescence-based assay and protein localization by indirect immunohistochemistry (IHC). We also developed an ex vivo skin model for measuring the force required to pull hair fibres from skin. Our data demonstrate the presence of protease activity in the tissue material surrounding club roots. We also demonstrated the localization of specific serine protease protein expression in human hair follicle by IHC. These data provide evidence demonstrating the presence of proteases around the hair club roots, which may play a role during exogen. We further tested the hypothesis that a novel protease inhibitor system (combination of Trichogen) and climbazole) could inhibit protease activity in hair fibre club root extracts collected from a range of ethnic groups (U.K., Brazil, China, first-generation Mexicans in the U.S.A., Thailand and Turkey) in both males and females. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this combination is capable of increasing the force required to remove hair in an ex vivo skin model system. These studies indicate the presence of proteolytic activity in the tissue surrounding the human hair club root and show that it is possible to inhibit this activity with a combination of Trichogen and climbazole. This technology may have potential to reduce excessive hair shedding. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  19. Proteases in doping control analysis.

    PubMed

    Thevis, M; Maurer, J; Kohler, M; Geyer, H; Schänzer, W

    2007-07-01

    Urine manipulation in sports drug testing has become a serious problem for doping control laboratories, and recent scandals in elite endurance sports have revealed the problem of urine manipulation presumably using proteases, which will impede the detection of drugs such as erythropoietin (EPO) or other peptide hormones. Using commonly accepted analytical strategies, a protocol was developed enabling the determination of elevated protease activities in doping control specimens followed by the visualization of protein degradation and identification of proteases such as chymotrypsin, trypsin and papain. Therefore, protease detection kits based on fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled casein were employed, and protease concentrations greater than 15 microg/mL of urine entailed subsequent 1-dimensional gel electrophoretic visualization of urinary proteins. The presence of 20 microg of proteases per mL of urine caused a complete degradation of proteins usually observed in urinary matrices ("trace of burning"), while respective proteases were still detected in spiked urine samples after 10 days of storage at + 4 and - 20 degrees C. Identification of target proteases at respective molecular weights was accomplished using bottom-up sequencing approaches based on in-gel digestion of separated enzymes followed by capillary liquid chromatography--Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry.

  20. Insecticide resistance and intracellular proteases.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Richard M

    2017-12-01

    Pesticide resistance is an example of evolution in action with mechanisms of resistance arising from mutations or increased expression of intrinsic genes. Intracellular proteases have a key role in maintaining healthy cells and in responding to stressors such as pesticides. Insecticide-resistant insects have constitutively elevated intracellular protease activity compared to corresponding susceptible strains. This increase was shown for some cases originally through biochemical enzyme studies and subsequently putatively by transcriptomics and proteomics methods. Upregulation and expression of proteases have been characterised in resistant strains of some insect species, including mosquitoes. This increase in proteolysis results in more degradation products (amino acids) of intracellular proteins. These may be utilised in the resistant strain to better protect the cell from stress. There are changes in insect intracellular proteases shortly after insecticide exposure, suggesting a role in stress response. The use of protease and proteasome inhibitors or peptide mimetics as synergists with improved application techniques and through protease gene knockdown using RNA interference (possibly expressed in crop plants) may be potential pest management strategies, in situations where elevated intracellular proteases are relevant. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Enteric bacterial proteases in inflammatory bowel disease- pathophysiology and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Ian M; Maharshak, Nitsan

    2013-01-01

    Numerous reports have identified a dysbiosis in the intestinal microbiota in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), yet the mechanism(s) in which this complex microbial community initiates or perpetuates inflammation remains unclear. The purpose of this review is to present evidence for one such mechanism that implicates enteric microbial derived proteases in the pathogenesis of IBD. We highlight and discuss studies demonstrating that proteases and protease receptors are abundant in the digestive system. Additionally, we investigate studies demonstrating an association between increased luminal protease activity and activation of protease receptors, ultimately resulting in increased intestinal permeability and exacerbation of colitis in animal models as well as in human IBD. Proteases are essential for the normal functioning of bacteria and in some cases can serve as virulence factors for pathogenic bacteria. Although not classified as traditional virulence factors, proteases originating from commensal enteric bacteria also have a potential association with intestinal inflammation via increased enteric permeability. Reports of increased protease activity in stools from IBD patients support a possible mechanism for a dysbiotic enteric microbiota in IBD. A better understanding of these pathways and characterization of the enteric bacteria involved, their proteases, and protease receptors may pave the way for new therapeutic approaches for these diseases. PMID:24431894

  2. Multiple Classes of Immune-Related Proteases Associated with the Cell Death Response in Pepper Plants

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Chungyun; Kim, Su-min; Lee, Dong Ju; Choi, Doil

    2013-01-01

    Proteases regulate a large number of biological processes in plants, such as metabolism, physiology, growth, and defense. In this study, we carried out virus-induced gene silencing assays with pepper cDNA clones to elucidate the biological roles of protease superfamilies. A total of 153 representative protease genes from pepper cDNA were selected and cloned into a Tobacco rattle virus-ligation independent cloning vector in a loss-of-function study. Silencing of 61 proteases resulted in altered phenotypes, such as the inhibition of shoot growth, abnormal leaf shape, leaf color change, and lethality. Furthermore, the silencing experiments revealed that multiple proteases play a role in cell death and immune response against avirulent and virulent pathogens. Among these 153 proteases, 34 modulated the hypersensitive cell death response caused by infection with an avirulent pathogen, and 16 proteases affected disease symptom development caused by a virulent pathogen. Specifically, we provide experimental evidence for the roles of multiple protease genes in plant development and immune defense following pathogen infection. With these results, we created a broad sketch of each protease function. This information will provide basic information for further understanding the roles of the protease superfamily in plant growth, development, and defense. PMID:23696830

  3. Regulation of intestinal permeability: The role of proteases

    PubMed Central

    Van Spaendonk, Hanne; Ceuleers, Hannah; Witters, Leonie; Patteet, Eveline; Joossens, Jurgen; Augustyns, Koen; Lambeir, Anne-Marie; De Meester, Ingrid; De Man, Joris G; De Winter, Benedicte Y

    2017-01-01

    The gastrointestinal barrier is - with approximately 400 m2 - the human body’s largest surface separating the external environment from the internal milieu. This barrier serves a dual function: permitting the absorption of nutrients, water and electrolytes on the one hand, while limiting host contact with noxious luminal antigens on the other hand. To maintain this selective barrier, junction protein complexes seal the intercellular space between adjacent epithelial cells and regulate the paracellular transport. Increased intestinal permeability is associated with and suggested as a player in the pathophysiology of various gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease and type 1 diabetes. The gastrointestinal tract is exposed to high levels of endogenous and exogenous proteases, both in the lumen and in the mucosa. There is increasing evidence to suggest that a dysregulation of the protease/antiprotease balance in the gut contributes to epithelial damage and increased permeability. Excessive proteolysis leads to direct cleavage of intercellular junction proteins, or to opening of the junction proteins via activation of protease activated receptors. In addition, proteases regulate the activity and availability of cytokines and growth factors, which are also known modulators of intestinal permeability. This review aims at outlining the mechanisms by which proteases alter the intestinal permeability. More knowledge on the role of proteases in mucosal homeostasis and gastrointestinal barrier function will definitely contribute to the identification of new therapeutic targets for permeability-related diseases. PMID:28405139

  4. Co-evolution of insect proteases and plant protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jongsma, Maarten A; Beekwilder, Jules

    2011-08-01

    Plants are at the basis of the food chain, but there is no such thing as a "free lunch" for herbivores. To promote reproductive success, plants evolved multi-layered defensive tactics to avoid or discourage herbivory. To the detriment of plants, herbivores, in turn, evolved intricate strategies to find, eat, and successfully digest essential plant parts to raise their own offspring. In this battle the digestive tract is the arena determining final victory or defeat as measured by growth or starvation of the herbivore. Earlier, specific molecular opponents were identified as proteases and inhibitors: digestive proteases of herbivores evolved structural motifs to occlude plant protease inhibitors, or alternatively, the insects evolved proteases capable of specifically degrading the host plant inhibitors. In response plant inhibitors evolved hyper-variable and novel protein folds to remain active against potential herbivores. At the level of protease regulation in herbivorous insects, it was shown that inhibition-insensitive digestive proteases are up-regulated when sensitive proteases are inhibited. The way this regulation operates in mammals is known as negative feedback by gut-luminal factors, so-called 'monitor peptides' that are sensitive to the concentration of active enzymes. We propose that regulation of gut enzymes by endogenous luminal factors has been an open invitation to plants to "hijack" this regulation by evolving receptor antagonists, although yet these plant factors have not been identified. In future research the question of the co-evolution of insect proteases and plant inhibitors should, therefore, be better approached from a systems level keeping in mind that evolution is fundamentally opportunistic and that the plant's fitness is primarily improved by lowering the availability of essential amino acids to an herbivore by any available mechanism.

  5. Feces Derived Allergens of Tyrophagus putrescentiae Reared on Dried Dog Food and Evidence of the Strong Nutritional Interaction between the Mite and Bacillus cereus Producing Protease Bacillolysins and Exo-chitinases

    PubMed Central

    Erban, Tomas; Rybanska, Dagmar; Harant, Karel; Hortova, Bronislava; Hubert, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank, 1781) is an emerging source of allergens in stored products and homes. Feces proteases are the major allergens of astigmatid mites (Acari: Acaridida). In addition, the mites are carriers of microorganisms and microbial adjuvant compounds that stimulate innate signaling pathways. We sought to analyze the mite feces proteome, proteolytic activities, and mite-bacterial interaction in dry dog food (DDF). Proteomic methods comprising enzymatic and zymographic analysis of proteases and 2D-E-MS/MS were performed. The highest protease activity was assigned to trypsin-like proteases; lower activity was assigned to chymotrypsin-like proteases, and the cysteine protease cathepsin B-like had very low activity. The 2D-E-MS/MS proteomic analysis identified mite trypsin allergen Tyr p3, fatty acid-binding protein Tyr p13 and putative mite allergens ferritin (Grp 30) and (poly)ubiquitins. Tyr p3 was detected at different positions of the 2D-E. It indicates presence of zymogen at basic pI, and mature-enzyme form and enzyme fragment at acidic pI. Bacillolysins (neutral and alkaline proteases) of Bacillus cereus symbiont can contribute to the protease activity of the mite extract. The bacterial exo-chitinases likely contribute to degradation of mite exuviae, mite bodies or food boluses consisting of chitin, including the peritrophic membrane. Thus, the chitinases disrupt the feces and facilitate release of the allergens. B. cereus was isolated and identified based on amplification and sequencing of 16S rRNA and motB genes. B. cereus was added into high-fat, high-protein (DDF) and low-fat, low-protein (flour) diets to 1 and 5% (w/w), and the diets palatability was evaluated in 21-day population growth test. The supplementation of diet with B. cereus significantly suppressed population growth and the suppressive effect was higher in the high-fat, high-protein diet than in the low-fat, low-protein food. Thus, B. cereus has to coexist with the mite in

  6. Evidence that cytochrome b5 acts as a redox donor in CYP17A1 mediated androgen synthesis.

    PubMed

    Duggal, Ruchia; Liu, Yilin; Gregory, Michael C; Denisov, Ilia G; Kincaid, James R; Sligar, Stephen G

    2016-08-19

    Cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) is an important drug target for castration resistant prostate cancer. It is a bi-functional enzyme, catalyzing production of glucocorticoid precursors by hydroxylation of pregnene-nucleus, and androgen biosynthesis by a second CC lyase step, at the expense of glucocorticoid production. Cytochrome b5 (cyt b5) is known to be a key regulator of the androgen synthesis reaction in vivo, by a mechanism that is not well understood. Two hypotheses have been proposed for the mechanism by which cyt b5 increases androgen biosynthesis. Cyt b5 could act as an allosteric effector, binding to CYP17A1 and either changing its selective substrate affinity or altering the conformation of the P450 to increase the catalytic rate or decrease unproductive uncoupling channels. Alternatively, cyt b5 could act as a redox donor for supply of the second electron in the P450 cycle, reducing the oxyferrous complex to form the reactive peroxo-intermediate. To understand the mechanism of lyase enhancement by cyt b5, we generated a redox-inactive form of cyt b5, in which the heme is replaced with a Manganese-protoporphyrin IX (Mn-b5), and investigated enhancement of androgen producing lyase reaction by CYP17A1. Given the critical significance of a stable membrane anchor for all of the proteins involved and the need for controlled stoichiometric ratios, we employed the Nanodisc system for this study. The redox inactive form was observed to have no effect on the lyase reaction, while reactions with the normal heme-iron containing cyt b5 were enhanced ∼5 fold as compared to reactions in the absence of cyt b5. We also performed resonance Raman measurements on ferric CYP17A1 bound to Mn-b5. Upon addition of Mn-b5 to Nanodisc reconstituted CYP17A1, we observed clear evidence for the formation of a b5-CYP17A1 complex, as noted by changes in the porphyrin modes and alteration in the proximal FeS vibrational frequency. Thus, although Mn-b5 binds to CYP17A1, it is unable to

  7. Evidence that cytochrome b{sub 5} acts as a redox donor in CYP17A1 mediated androgen synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Duggal, Ruchia; Liu, Yilin; Gregory, Michael C.

    2016-08-19

    Cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) is an important drug target for castration resistant prostate cancer. It is a bi-functional enzyme, catalyzing production of glucocorticoid precursors by hydroxylation of pregnene-nucleus, and androgen biosynthesis by a second C−C lyase step, at the expense of glucocorticoid production. Cytochrome b{sub 5} (cyt b{sub 5}) is known to be a key regulator of the androgen synthesis reaction in vivo, by a mechanism that is not well understood. Two hypotheses have been proposed for the mechanism by which cyt b{sub 5} increases androgen biosynthesis. Cyt b{sub 5} could act as an allosteric effector, binding to CYP17A1 and eithermore » changing its selective substrate affinity or altering the conformation of the P450 to increase the catalytic rate or decrease unproductive uncoupling channels. Alternatively, cyt b{sub 5} could act as a redox donor for supply of the second electron in the P450 cycle, reducing the oxyferrous complex to form the reactive peroxo-intermediate. To understand the mechanism of lyase enhancement by cyt b{sub 5}, we generated a redox-inactive form of cyt b{sub 5}, in which the heme is replaced with a Manganese-protoporphyrin IX (Mn-b{sub 5}), and investigated enhancement of androgen producing lyase reaction by CYP17A1. Given the critical significance of a stable membrane anchor for all of the proteins involved and the need for controlled stoichiometric ratios, we employed the Nanodisc system for this study. The redox inactive form was observed to have no effect on the lyase reaction, while reactions with the normal heme-iron containing cyt b{sub 5} were enhanced ∼5 fold as compared to reactions in the absence of cyt b{sub 5}. We also performed resonance Raman measurements on ferric CYP17A1 bound to Mn-b{sub 5}. Upon addition of Mn-b{sub 5} to Nanodisc reconstituted CYP17A1, we observed clear evidence for the formation of a b{sub 5}-CYP17A1 complex, as noted by changes in the porphyrin modes and alteration in the

  8. Serine Proteases of Parasitic Helminths

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yong; Wen, Yun jun; Cai, Ya Nan; Vallée, Isabelle; Boireau, Pascal; Liu, Ming Yuan; Cheng, Shi Peng

    2015-01-01

    Serine proteases form one of the most important families of enzymes and perform significant functions in a broad range of biological processes, such as intra- and extracellular protein metabolism, digestion, blood coagulation, regulation of development, and fertilization. A number of serine proteases have been identified in parasitic helminths that have putative roles in parasite development and nutrition, host tissues and cell invasion, anticoagulation, and immune evasion. In this review, we described the serine proteases that have been identified in parasitic helminths, including nematodes (Trichinella spiralis, T. pseudospiralis, Trichuris muris, Anisakis simplex, Ascaris suum, Onchocerca volvulus, O. lienalis, Brugia malayi, Ancylostoma caninum, and Steinernema carpocapsae), cestodes (Spirometra mansoni, Echinococcus granulosus, and Schistocephalus solidus), and trematodes (Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica, and Schistosoma mansoni). Moreover, the possible biological functions of these serine proteases in the endogenous biological phenomena of these parasites and in the host-parasite interaction were also discussed. PMID:25748703

  9. Exogenous proteases for meat tenderization.

    PubMed

    Bekhit, Alaa A; Hopkins, David L; Geesink, Geert; Bekhit, Adnan A; Franks, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The use of exogenous proteases to improve meat tenderness has attracted much interest recently, with a view to consistent production of tender meat and added value to lower grade meat cuts. This review discusses the sources, characteristics, and use of exogenous proteases in meat tenderization to highlight the specificity of the proteases toward meat proteins and their impact on meat quality. Plant enzymes (such as papain, bromelain, and ficin) have been extensively investigated as meat tenderizers. New plant proteases (actinidin and zingibain) and microbial enzyme preparations have been of recent interest due to controlled meat tenderization and other advantages. Successful use of these enzymes in fresh meat requires their enzymatic kinetics and characteristics to be determined, together with an understanding of the impact of the surrounding environmental conditions of the meat (pH, temperature) on enzyme function. This enables the optimal conditions for tenderizing fresh meat to be established, and the elimination or reduction of any negative impacts on other quality attributes.

  10. Proteases and the gut barrier.

    PubMed

    Biancheri, Paolo; Di Sabatino, Antonio; Corazza, Gino R; MacDonald, Thomas T

    2013-02-01

    Serine proteases, cysteine proteases, aspartic proteases and matrix metalloproteinases play an essential role in extracellular matrix remodeling and turnover through their proteolytic action on collagens, proteoglycans, fibronectin, elastin and laminin. Proteases can also act on chemokines, receptors and anti-microbial peptides, often potentiating their activity. The intestinal mucosa is the largest interface between the external environment and the tissues of the human body and is constantly exposed to proteolytic enzymes from many sources, including bacteria in the intestinal lumen, fibroblasts and immune cells in the lamina propria and enterocytes. Controlled proteolytic activity is crucial for the maintenance of gut immune homeostasis, for normal tissue turnover and for the integrity of the gut barrier. However, in intestinal immune-mediated disorders, pro-inflammatory cytokines induce the up-regulation of proteases, which become the end-stage effectors of mucosal damage by destroying the epithelium and basement membrane integrity and degrading the extracellular matrix of the lamina propria to produce ulcers. Protease-mediated barrier disruption in turn results in increased amounts of antigen crossing into the lamina propria, driving further immune responses and sustaining the inflammatory process.

  11. Evidence of mutualism between two periodontal pathogens: co-operative haem acquisition by the HmuY haemophore of Porphyromonas gingivalis and the cysteine protease interpain A (InpA) of Prevotella intermedia.

    PubMed

    Byrne, D P; Potempa, J; Olczak, T; Smalley, J W

    2013-06-01

    Haem (iron protoporphyrin IX) is both an essential growth factor and a virulence regulator of the periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia, which acquire it through the proteolytic degradation of haemoglobin and other haem-carrying plasma proteins. The haem-binding lipoprotein HmuY haemophore and the gingipain proteases of P. gingivalis form a unique synthrophic system responsible for capture of haem from haemoglobin and methaemalbumin. In this system, methaemoglobin is formed from oxyhaemoglobin by the activities of gingipain proteases and serves as a facile substrate from which HmuY can capture haem. This study examined the possibility of cooperation between HmuY and the cysteine protease interpain A (InpA) of Pr. intermedia in the haem acquisition process. Using UV-visible spectroscopy and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, HmuY was demonstrated to be resistant to proteolysis and so able to cooperate with InpA to extract haem from haemoglobin, which was proteolytically converted to methaemoglobin by the protease. Spectroscopic pH titrations showed that both the iron(II) and iron(III) protoporphyrin IX-HmuY complexes were stable over the pH range 4-10, demonstrating that the haemophore could function over a range of pH that may be encountered in the dental plaque biofilm. This is the first demonstration of a bacterial haemophore working in conjunction with a protease from another bacterial species to acquire haem from haemoglobin and may represent mutualism between P. gingivalis and Pr. intermedia co-inhabiting the periodontal pocket. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Serine protease activity in m-1 cortical collecting duct cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lian; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S; Schiro, Faith R; Hamm, L Lee

    2002-04-01

    An apical serine protease, channel-activating protease 1 (CAP1), augments sodium transport in A6 cells. Prostasin, a novel serine protease originally purified from seminal fluid, has been proposed to be the mammalian ortholog of CAP1. We have recently found functional evidence for a similar protease activity in the M-1 cortical collecting duct cell line. The purposes of the present studies were to determine whether prostasin (or CAP1) is present in collecting duct cells by use of mouse M-1 cells, to sequence mouse prostasin, and to further characterize the identity of the serine protease activity and additional functional features in M-1 cells. Using mouse expressed sequence tag sequences that are highly homologous to the published human prostasin sequence as templates, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) were used to sequence mouse prostasin mRNA, which shows 99% identical to published mouse CAP1 sequence. A single 1800-bp transcript was found by Northern analysis, and this was not altered by aldosterone. Equivalent short-circuit current (I(eq)), which represents sodium transport in these cells, dropped to 59+/-3% of control value within 1 hour of incubation with aprotinin, a serine protease inhibitor. Trypsin increased the I(eq) in aprotinin-treated cells to the value of the control group within 5 minutes. Application of aprotinin not only inhibited amiloride sensitive I(eq) but also reduced transepithelial resistance (R(te)) to 43+/-2%, an effect not expected with simple inhibition of sodium channels. Trypsin partially reversed the effect of aprotinin on R(te). Another serine protease inhibitor, soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI), decreased I(eq) in M-1 cells. STI inhibited I(eq) gradually over 6 hours, and the inhibition of I(eq) by 2 inhibitors was additive. STI decreased transepithelial resistance much less than did aprotinin. Neither aldosterone nor dexamethasone significantly augmented protease activity

  13. Serine proteases in rodent hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Davies, B J; Pickard, B S; Steel, M; Morris, R G; Lathe, R

    1998-09-04

    Brain serine proteases are implicated in developmental processes, synaptic plasticity, and in disorders including Alzheimer's disease. The spectrum of the major enzymes expressed in brain has not been established previously. We now present a systematic study of the serine proteases expressed in adult rat and mouse hippocampus. Using a combination of techniques including polymerase chain reaction amplification and Northern blotting we show that tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) is the major species represented. Unexpectedly, the next most abundant species were RNK-Met-1, a lymphocyte protease not reported previously in brain, and two new family members, BSP1 (brain serine protease 1) and BSP2. We report full-length sequences of the two new proteases; homologies indicate that these are of tryptic specificity. Although BSP2 is expressed in several brain regions, BSP1 expression is strikingly restricted to hippocampus. Other enzymes represented, but at lower levels, included elastase IV, proteinase 3, complement C2, chymotrypsin B, chymotrypsin-like protein, and Hageman factor. Although thrombin and urokinase-type plasminogen activator were not detected in the primary screen, low level expression was confirmed using specific polymerase chain reaction primers. In contrast, and despite robust expression of t-PA, the usual t-PA substrate plasminogen was not expressed at detectable levels.

  14. Plant proteases for bioactive peptides release: A review.

    PubMed

    Mazorra-Manzano, M A; Ramírez-Suarez, J C; Yada, R Y

    2017-04-10

    Proteins are a potential source of health-promoting biomolecules with medical, nutraceutical, and food applications. Nowadays, bioactive peptides production, its isolation, characterization, and strategies for its delivery to target sites are a matter of intensive research. In vitro and in vivo studies regarding the bioactivity of peptides has generated strong evidence of their health benefits. Dairy proteins are considered the richest source of bioactive peptides, however proteins from animal and vegetable origin also have been shown to be important sources. Enzymatic hydrolysis has been the process most commonly used for bioactive peptide production. Most commercial enzymatic preparations frequently used are from animal (e.g., trypsin and pepsin) and microbial (e.g., Alcalase® and Neutrase®) sources. Although the use of plant proteases is still relatively limited to papain and bromelain from papaya and pineapple, respectively, the application of new plant proteases is increasing. This review presents the latest knowledge in the use and diversity of plant proteases for bioactive peptides release from food proteins including both available commercial plant proteases as well as new potential plant sources. Furthermore, the properties of peptides released by plant proteases and health benefits associated in the control of disorders such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and cancer are reviewed.

  15. Amprenavir, new protease inhibitor, approved.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1999-05-07

    A new protease inhibitor, amprenavir (Agenerase), has received FDA marketing approval. The approval was based on two 24-week controlled trials and safety data in more than 1,400 patients under FDA accelerated-approval rules. Amprenavir is approved for patients 4 years of age and older. The drug is taken twice daily, with or without food. Side effects include gastrointestinal disturbances, rashes, and oral paresthesia. Severe or life-threatening rashes have occurred in 1 percent of all patients. Pregnant women should not use the drug unless necessary. The drug was developed by Vertex Pharmaceuticals Inc. and is being marketed by Glaxo Wellcome. Some studies suggest that amprenavir is less likely than other protease inhibitors to be associated with lipid metabolism problems. It may have a resistance profile different from that of other protease inhibitors, and therefore may cause different cross resistance problems. Amprenavir appears to be synergistic with abacavir (Ziagen) in laboratory tests.

  16. Heterocyclic HIV-protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Calugi, C; Guarna, A; Trabocchi, A

    2013-01-01

    In the panorama of HIV protease inhibitors (HIV PIs), many efforts have been devoted to the development of new compounds with reduced peptidic nature in order to improve pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics features. The introduction of cyclic scaffolds in the design of new chemical entities reduces flexibility and affords more rigid inhibitors. Specifically, common dipeptide isosteres are replaced by a central cyclic scaffold designed to address the key interactions with catalytic aspartic acids and residues belonging to the flap region of the active site. The current interest in cyclic chemotypes addressing key interactions of HIV protease is motivated by the different nature of interactions formed with the enzyme, although maintaining key structural resemblance to a peptide substrate, hopefully giving rise to novel HIV-1 PIs displaying an improved profile towards multidrug resistant strains. This approach has been demonstrated for Tipranavir, which is a potent FDA approved HIV-1 PI representing the most famous example of heterocyclic aspartic protease inhibitors.

  17. Plant cysteine proteases that evoke itch activate protease-activated receptors

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, V.B.; Lerner, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bromelain, ficin and papain are cysteine proteases from plants that produce itch upon injection into skin. Their mechanism of action has not been considered previously. Objectives To determine the mechanism by which these proteases function. Methods The ability of these proteases to activate protease-activated receptors was determined by ratiometric calcium imaging. Results We show here that bromelain, ficin and papain activate protease-activated receptors 2 and 4. Conclusions Bromelain, ficin and papain function as signalling molecules and activate protease-activated receptors. Activation of these receptors is the likely mechanism by which these proteases evoke itch. PMID:20491769

  18. Curcumin derivatives as HIV-1 protease inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Sui, Z.; Li, J.; Craik, C.S.

    1993-12-31

    Curcumin, a non-toxic natural compound from Curcuma longa, has been found to be an HIV-1 protease inhibitor. Some of its derivatives were synthesized and their inhibitory activity against the HIV-1 protease was tested. Curcumin analogues containing boron enhanced the inhibitory activity. At least of the the synthesized compounds irreversibly inhibits the HIV-1 protease.

  19. Proteases in Fas-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhivotovsky, B; Burgess, D H; Schlegel, J; Pörn, M I; Vanags, D; Orrenius, S

    1997-01-01

    Involvement of a unique family of cysteine proteases in the multistep apoptotic process has been documented. Cloning of several mammalian genes identifies some components of this cellular response. However, it is currently unclear which protease plays a role as a signal and/or effector of apoptosis. We summarize contributions to the data concerning proteases in Fas-mediated apoptosis.

  20. A cysteine protease encoded by the baculovirus Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Ohkawa, T; Majima, K; Maeda, S

    1994-01-01

    Sequence analysis of the BamHI F fragment of the genome of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) revealed an open reading frame whose deduced amino acid sequence had homology to those of cysteine proteases of the papain superfamily. The putative cysteine protease sequence (BmNPV-CP) was 323 amino acids long and showed 35% identity to a cysteine proteinase precursor from Trypanosoma brucei. Of 36 residues conserved among cathepsins B, H, L, and S and papain, 31 were identical in BmNPV-CP. In order to determine the activity and function of the putative cysteine protease, a BmNPV mutant (BmCysPD) was constructed by homologous recombination of the protease gene with a beta-galactosidase gene cassette. BmCysPD-infected BmN cell extracts were significantly reduced in acid protease activity compared with wild-type virus-infected cell extracts. The cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 [trans-epoxysuccinylleucylamido-(4-guanidino)butane] inhibited wild-type virus-expressed protease activity. Deletion of the cysteine protease gene had no significant effect on viral growth or polyhedron production in BmN cells, indicating that the cysteine protease was not essential for viral replication in vitro. However, B. mori larvae infected with BmCysPD showed symptoms different from those of wild-type BmNPV-infected larvae, e.g., less degradation of the body, including fat body cells, white body surface color due presumably to undegraded epidermal cells, and an increase in the number of polyhedra released into the hemolymph. This is the first report of (i) a virus-encoded protease with activity on general substrates and (ii) evidence that a virus-encoded protease may play a role in degradation of infected larvae to facilitate horizontal transmission of the virus. Images PMID:8083997

  1. Protease inhibitor in scorpion (Mesobuthus eupeus) venom prolongs the biological activities of the crude venom.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hakim; Xiao-Peng, Tang; Yang, Shi-Long; Lu, Qiu-Min; Lai, Ren

    2016-08-01

    It is hypothesized that protease inhibitors play an essential role in survival of venomous animals through protecting peptide/protein toxins from degradation by proteases in their prey or predators. However, the biological function of protease inhibitors in scorpion venoms remains unknown. In the present study, a trypsin inhibitor was purified and characterized from the venom of scorpion Mesobuthus eupeus, which enhanced the biological activities of crude venom components in mice when injected in combination with crude venom. This protease inhibitor, named MeKTT-1, belonged to Kunitz-type toxins subfamily. Native MeKTT-1 selectively inhibited trypsin with a Kivalue of 130 nmol·L(-1). Furthermore, MeKTT-1 was shown to be a thermo-stable peptide. In animal behavioral tests, MeKTT-1 prolonged the pain behavior induced by scorpion crude venom, suggesting that protease inhibitors in scorpion venom inhibited proteases and protect the functionally important peptide/protein toxins from degradation, consequently keeping them active longer. In conclusion, this was the first experimental evidence about the natural existence of serine protease inhibitor in the venom of scorpion Mesobuthus eupeus, which preserved the activity of venom components, suggests that scorpions may use protease inhibitors for survival. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of the protease cleavage site repertoire—The RNase H but not the RT domain is essential for foamy viral protease activity

    SciTech Connect

    Spannaus, Ralf; Bodem, Jochen, E-mail: Jochen.Bodem@vim.uni-wuerzburg.de

    2014-04-15

    In contrast to orthoretroviruses, the foamy virus protease is only active as a protease-reverse transcriptase fusion protein and requires viral RNA for activation. Maturation of foamy viral proteins seems to be restricted to a single cleavage site in Gag and Pol. We provide evidence that unprocessed Gag is required for optimal infectivity, which is unique among retroviruses. Analyses of the cleavage site sequences of the Gag and Pol cleavage sites revealed a high similarity compared to those of Lentiviruses. We show that positions P2' and P2 are invariant and that Gag and Pol cleavage sites are processed with similar efficiencies.more » The RNase H domain is essential for protease activity, but can functionally be substituted by RNase H domains of other retroviruses. Thus, the RNase H domain might be involved in the stabilization of the protease dimer, while the RT domain is essential for RNA dependent protease activation. - Highlights: • Unprocessed Gag is required for optimal infectivity of foamy viruses. • Positions P2 and P2' are invariant in the foamy viral cleavage sites. • The RNaseH domain is essential for protease activity. • The RNaseH domains of other retroviruses support foamy viral protease activity.« less

  3. A1C as a Diagnostic Criteria for Diabetes in Low- and Middle-Income Settings: Evidence from Peru

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, J. Jaime; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Stanojevic, Sanja; Malaga, German; Gilman, Robert H.; Smeeth, Liam

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, in three groups of Peruvian adults, using fasting glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C). Methodology/Principal Findings This study included adults from the PERU MIGRANT Study who had fasted ≥8 h. Fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL and A1C≥6.5% were used, separately, to define diabetes. Subjects with a current diagnosis of diabetes were excluded. 964 of 988 subjects were included in this analysis. Overall, 0.9% (95%CI 0.3–1.5) and 3.5% (95%CI 2.4–4.7) had diabetes using fasting glucose and A1C criteria, respectively. Compared to those classified as having diabetes using fasting glucose, newly classified subjects with diabetes using A1C (n = 25), were older, poorer, thinner and more likely to come from rural areas. Of these, 40% (10/25) had impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Conclusions This study shows that the use of A1C as diagnostic criteria for type 2 diabetes mellitus identifies people of different characteristics than fasting glucose. In the PERU MIGRANT population using A1C to define diabetes tripled the prevalence; the increase was more marked among poorer and rural populations. More than half the newly diagnosed people with diabetes using A1C had normal fasting glucose. PMID:21464957

  4. A1C as a diagnostic criteria for diabetes in low- and middle-income settings: evidence from Peru.

    PubMed

    Miranda, J Jaime; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Stanojevic, Sanja; Malaga, German; Gilman, Robert H; Smeeth, Liam

    2011-03-25

    To determine the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, in three groups of Peruvian adults, using fasting glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C). This study included adults from the PERU MIGRANT Study who had fasted ≥ 8 h. Fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL and A1C ≥ 6.5% were used, separately, to define diabetes. Subjects with a current diagnosis of diabetes were excluded. 964 of 988 subjects were included in this analysis. Overall, 0.9% (95%CI 0.3-1.5) and 3.5% (95%CI 2.4-4.7) had diabetes using fasting glucose and A1C criteria, respectively. Compared to those classified as having diabetes using fasting glucose, newly classified subjects with diabetes using A1C (n = 25), were older, poorer, thinner and more likely to come from rural areas. Of these, 40% (10/25) had impaired fasting glucose (IFG). This study shows that the use of A1C as diagnostic criteria for type 2 diabetes mellitus identifies people of different characteristics than fasting glucose. In the PERU MIGRANT population using A1C to define diabetes tripled the prevalence; the increase was more marked among poorer and rural populations. More than half the newly diagnosed people with diabetes using A1C had normal fasting glucose.

  5. Advances in protease engineering for laundry detergents.

    PubMed

    Vojcic, Ljubica; Pitzler, Christian; Körfer, Georgette; Jakob, Felix; Ronny Martinez; Maurer, Karl-Heinz; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2015-12-25

    Proteases are essential ingredients in modern laundry detergents. Over the past 30 years, subtilisin proteases employed in the laundry detergent industry have been engineered by directed evolution and rational design to tailor their properties towards industrial demands. This comprehensive review discusses recent success stories in subtilisin protease engineering. Advances in protease engineering for laundry detergents comprise simultaneous improvement of thermal resistance and activity at low temperatures, a rational strategy to modulate pH profiles, and a general hypothesis for how to increase promiscuous activity towards the production of peroxycarboxylic acids as mild bleaching agents. The three protease engineering campaigns presented provide in-depth analysis of protease properties and have identified principles that can be applied to improve or generate enzyme variants for industrial applications beyond laundry detergents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Extracellular proteases as targets for drug development

    PubMed Central

    Cudic, Mare

    2015-01-01

    Proteases constitute one of the primary targets in drug discovery. In the present review, we focus on extracellular proteases (ECPs) because of their differential expression in many pathophysiological processes, including cancer, cardiovascular conditions, and inflammatory, pulmonary, and periodontal diseases. Many new ECP inhibitors are currently under clinical investigation and a significant increase in new therapies based on protease inhibition can be expected in the coming years. In addition to directly blocking the activity of a targeted protease, one can take advantage of differential expression in disease states to selectively deliver therapeutic or imaging agents. Recent studies in targeted drug development for the metalloproteases (matrix metalloproteinases, adamalysins, pappalysins, neprilysin, angiotensin-converting enzyme, metallocarboxypeptidases, and glutamate carboxypeptidase II), serine proteases (elastase, coagulation factors, tissue/urokinase plasminogen activator system, kallikreins, tryptase, dipeptidyl peptidase IV), cysteine proteases (cathepsin B), and renin system are discussed herein. PMID:19689354

  7. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David B.; Lao, Guifang

    1998-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium.

  8. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, D.B.; Lao, G.

    1998-01-06

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium. 3 figs.

  9. Proteolytic crosstalk in multi-protease networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogle, Curtis T.; Mather, William H.

    2016-04-01

    Processive proteases, such as ClpXP in E. coli, are conserved enzyme assemblies that can recognize and rapidly degrade proteins. These proteases are used for a number of purposes, including degrading mistranslated proteins and controlling cellular stress response. However, proteolytic machinery within the cell is limited in capacity and can lead to a bottleneck in protein degradation, whereby many proteins compete (‘queue’) for proteolytic resources. Previous work has demonstrated that such queueing can lead to pronounced statistical relationships between different protein counts when proteins compete for a single common protease. However, real cells contain many different proteases, e.g. ClpXP, ClpAP, and Lon in E. coli, and it is not clear how competition between proteins for multiple classes of protease would influence the dynamics of cellular networks. In the present work, we theoretically demonstrate that a multi-protease proteolytic bottleneck can substantially couple the dynamics for both simple and complex (oscillatory) networks, even between substrates with substantially different affinities for protease. For these networks, queueing often leads to strong positive correlations between protein counts, and these correlations are strongest near the queueing theoretic point of balance. Furthermore, we find that the qualitative behavior of these networks depends on the relative size of the absolute affinity of substrate to protease compared to the cross affinity of substrate to protease, leading in certain regimes to priority queue statistics.

  10. [Fish ovarian fluid contains protease inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Minin, A A; Ozerova, S G

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the conditions under which fish egg is activated spontaneously without the sperm showed that the egg retains the ability for fertilization in the ovarian (coelomic) fluid, which surrounds it in the gonad cavity after ovulation. Earlier, we showed that, in artificial media, the spontaneous activation is suppressed by protease inhibitors. In this study, we investigated the presence of natural protease inhibitors in the ovarian fluid and showed that the ovarian fluid of zebrafish and loach contains protease inhibitors, in particular, type I serpin a, a protein inhibitor of trypsin proteases.

  11. Chimeric exchange of coronavirus nsp5 proteases (3CLpro) identifies common and divergent regulatory determinants of protease activity.

    PubMed

    Stobart, Christopher C; Sexton, Nicole R; Munjal, Havisha; Lu, Xiaotao; Molland, Katrina L; Tomar, Sakshi; Mesecar, Andrew D; Denison, Mark R

    2013-12-01

    Human coronaviruses (CoVs) such as severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) cause epidemics of severe human respiratory disease. A conserved step of CoV replication is the translation and processing of replicase polyproteins containing 16 nonstructural protein domains (nsp's 1 to 16). The CoV nsp5 protease (3CLpro; Mpro) processes nsp's at 11 cleavage sites and is essential for virus replication. CoV nsp5 has a conserved 3-domain structure and catalytic residues. However, the intra- and intermolecular determinants of nsp5 activity and their conservation across divergent CoVs are unknown, in part due to challenges in cultivating many human and zoonotic CoVs. To test for conservation of nsp5 structure-function determinants, we engineered chimeric betacoronavirus murine hepatitis virus (MHV) genomes encoding nsp5 proteases of human and bat alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses. Exchange of nsp5 proteases from HCoV-HKU1 and HCoV-OC43, which share the same genogroup, genogroup 2a, with MHV, allowed for immediate viral recovery with efficient replication albeit with impaired fitness in direct competition with wild-type MHV. Introduction of MHV nsp5 temperature-sensitive mutations into chimeric HKU1 and OC43 nsp5 proteases resulted in clear differences in viability and temperature-sensitive phenotypes compared with MHV nsp5. These data indicate tight genetic linkage and coevolution between nsp5 protease and the genomic background and identify differences in intramolecular networks regulating nsp5 function. Our results also provide evidence that chimeric viruses within coronavirus genogroups can be used to test nsp5 determinants of function and inhibition in common isogenic backgrounds and cell types.

  12. Approaches for Analyzing the Roles of Mast Cells and Their Proteases In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Stephen J.; Tsai, Mindy; Marichal, Thomas; Tchougounova, Elena; Reber, Laurent L.; Pejler, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    The roles of mast cells in health and disease remain incompletely understood. While the evidence that mast cells are critical effector cells in IgE-dependent anaphylaxis and other acute IgE-mediated allergic reactions seems unassailable, studies employing various mice deficient in mast cells or mast cell-associated proteases have yielded divergent conclusions about the roles of mast cells or their proteases in certain other immunological responses. Such “controversial” results call into question the relative utility of various older versus newer approaches to ascertain the roles of mast cells and mast cell proteases in vivo. This review discusses how both older and more recent mouse models have been used to investigate the functions of mast cells and their proteases in health and disease. We particularly focus on settings in which divergent conclusions about the importance of mast cells and their proteases have been supported by studies that employed different models of mast cell or mast cell protease deficiency. We think that two major conclusions can be drawn from such findings: (1) no matter which models of mast cell or mast cell protease deficiency one employs, the conclusions drawn from the experiments always should take into account the potential limitations of the models (particularly abnormalities affecting cell types other than mast cells) and (2) even when analyzing a biological response using a single model of mast cell or mast cell protease deficiency, details of experimental design are critical in efforts to define those conditions under which important contributions of mast cells or their proteases can be identified. PMID:25727288

  13. Subfamily-Specific Fluorescent Probes for Cysteine Proteases Display Dynamic Protease Activities during Seed Germination.

    PubMed

    Lu, Haibin; Chandrasekar, Balakumaran; Oeljeklaus, Julian; Misas-Villamil, Johana C; Wang, Zheming; Shindo, Takayuki; Bogyo, Matthew; Kaiser, Markus; van der Hoorn, Renier A L

    2015-08-01

    Cysteine proteases are an important class of enzymes implicated in both developmental and defense-related programmed cell death and other biological processes in plants. Because there are dozens of cysteine proteases that are posttranslationally regulated by processing, environmental conditions, and inhibitors, new methodologies are required to study these pivotal enzymes individually. Here, we introduce fluorescence activity-based probes that specifically target three distinct cysteine protease subfamilies: aleurain-like proteases, cathepsin B-like proteases, and vacuolar processing enzymes. We applied protease activity profiling with these new probes on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) protease knockout lines and agroinfiltrated leaves to identify the probe targets and on other plant species to demonstrate their broad applicability. These probes revealed that most commercially available protease inhibitors target unexpected proteases in plants. When applied on germinating seeds, these probes reveal dynamic activities of aleurain-like proteases, cathepsin B-like proteases, and vacuolar processing enzymes, coinciding with the remobilization of seed storage proteins. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. SF3A1 and pancreatic cancer: new evidence for the association of the spliceosome and cancer.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing; Liu, Yaping; Zhu, Beibei; Tian, Yao; Zhong, Rong; Chen, Wei; Lu, Xinghua; Zou, Li; Shen, Na; Qian, Jiaming; Li, Hui; Miao, Xiaoping; Wang, Li

    2015-11-10

    A two-stage case-control study was conducted to examine the association between six candidate U2-depedent spliceosome genes (SRSF1, SRSF2, SF3A1, SF3B1, SF1 and PRPF40B) and pancreatic cancer (PC). Subjects with one or two T alleles at rs2074733 in SF3A1 had a lower risk of PC compared to those with two C alleles in combined two populations (OR: 0.59, 95% confidence interval: 0.48-0.73, False discovery rate (FDR)-P = 1.5E-05). Moreover, the presence of the higher-risk genotype at rs2074733 plus smoking or drinking had synergic effects on PC risk. These findings illustrate that RNA splicing-related genes appear to be associated with the occurrence of PC, and show synergic interactions with smoking and drinking in the additive model. In the future, our novel findings should be further confirmed by functional studies and independent large-scale population studies.

  15. Evidence for the frequency-shift of the OA A_1g mode in Hg-based superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, In-Sang; Lee, Hye-Gyong

    1996-03-01

    The Hg-based superconductors, HgBa_2Ca_n-1Cu_nO_2n+2+δ (n=1,2,3) have two strong Raman peaks at ~ 570 and 590 cm-1 in the high-frequency region. From the results of Raman measurements of Tl-doped Hg-1223 system, it is concluded that the peak at ~ 570 cm-1 does not arise from the vibration of the interstitial oxygen O_δ in the Hg/Tl-O plane, but from the frequency-shift of the A_1g-type vibration of the apical oxygen O_A. The peak at 570 cm-1 is from the O_As surrounded by the O_δs in the nearest neighbor, while the 590 cm-1 mode is from the O_As without the O_δs in the immediate neighbor. The intensity of the 570 cm-1 mode increases with the O_δ content, but the Raman frequencies of both modes do not change significantly. This suggests that the increase of the frequency of the OA A_1g mode under high pressure (I.-S. Yang et al., Phys. Rev. B 51, 644 (1995)) is independent from the O_δ content, in the Hg-based superconductors.

  16. Activities of Vacuolar Cysteine Proteases in Plant Senescence.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Dana E; Costa, Lorenza; Guiamét, Juan José

    2018-01-01

    Plant senescence is accompanied by a marked increase in proteolytic activities, and cysteine proteases (Cys-protease) represent the prevailing class among the responsible proteases. Cys-proteases predominantly locate to lytic compartments, i.e., to the central vacuole (CV) and to senescence-associated vacuoles (SAVs), the latter being specific to the photosynthetic cells of senescing leaves. Cellular fractionation of vacuolar compartments may facilitate Cys-proteases purification and their concentration for further analysis. Active Cys-proteases may be analyzed by different, albeit complementary approaches: (1) in vivo examination of proteolytic activity by fluorescence microscopy using specific substrates which become fluorescent upon cleavage by Cys-proteases, (2) protease labeling with specific probes that react irreversibly with the active enzymes, and (3) zymography, whereby protease activities are detected in polyacrylamide gels copolymerized with a substrate for proteases. Here we describe the three methods mentioned above for detection of active Cys-proteases and a cellular fractionation technique to isolate SAVs.

  17. Mast cell proteases as pharmacological targets

    PubMed Central

    Caughey, George H.

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells are rich in proteases, which are the major proteins of intracellular granules and are released with histamine and heparin by activated cells. Most of these proteases are active in the granule as well outside of the mast cell when secreted, and can cleave targets near degranulating mast cells and in adjoining tissue compartments. Some proteases released from mast cells reach the bloodstream and may have far-reaching actions. In terms of relative amounts, the major mast cell proteases include the tryptases, chymases, cathepsin G, carboxypeptidase A3, dipeptidylpeptidase I/cathepsin C, and cathepsins L and S. Some mast cells also produce granzyme B, plasminogen activators, and matrix metalloproteinases. Tryptases and chymases are almost entirely mast cell-specific, whereas other proteases, such as cathepsins G, C, and L are expressed by a variety of inflammatory cells. Carboxypeptidase A3 expression is a property shared by basophils and mast cells. Other proteases, such as mastins, are largely basophil-specific, although human basophils are protease-deficient compared with their murine counterparts. The major classes of mast cell proteases have been targeted for development of therapeutic inhibitors. Also, a human β-tryptase has been proposed as a potential drug itself, to inactivate of snake venins. Diseases linked to mast cell proteases include allergic diseases, such as asthma, eczema, and anaphylaxis, but also include non-allergic diseases such inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune arthritis, atherosclerosis, aortic aneurysms, hypertension, myocardial infarction, heart failure, pulmonary hypertension and scarring diseases of lungs and other organs. In some cases, studies performed in mouse models suggest protective or homeostatic roles for specific proteases (or groups of proteases) in infections by bacteria, worms and other parasites, and even in allergic inflammation. At the same time, a clearer picture has emerged of differences in the properties

  18. Structural studies of FIV and HIV-1 proteases complexed with an efficient inhibitor of FIV protease.

    PubMed

    Li, M; Morris, G M; Lee, T; Laco, G S; Wong, C H; Olson, A J; Elder, J H; Wlodawer, A; Gustchina, A

    2000-01-01

    Three forms of feline immunodeficiency virus protease (FIV PR), the wild type (wt) and two single point mutants, V59I and Q99V, as well as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease (HIV-1 PR), were cocrystallized with the C2-symmetric inhibitor, TL-3. The mutants of FIV PR were designed to replace residues involved in enzyme-ligand interactions by the corresponding HIV-1 PR residues at the structurally equivalent position. TL-3 shows decreased (improved) inhibition constants with these FIV PR mutants relative to wt FIV PR. Despite similar modes of binding of the inhibitor to all PRs (from P3 to P3'), small differences are evident in the conformation of the Phe side chains of TL-3 at the P1 and P1' positions in the complexes with the mutated FIV PRs. The differences mimick the observed binding of TL-3 in HIV-1 PR and correlate with a significant improvement in the inhibition constants of TL-3 with the two mutant FIV PRs. Large differences between the HIV-1 and FIV PR complexes are evident in the binding modes of the carboxybenzyl groups of TL-3 at P4 and P4'. In HIV-1 PR:TL-3, these groups bind over the flap region, whereas in the FIV PR complexes, the rings are located along the major axis of the active site. A significant difference in the location of the flaps in this region of the HIV-1 and FIV PRs correlates with the observed conformational changes in the binding mode of the peptidomimetic inhibitor at the P4 and P4' positions. These findings provide a structural explanation of the observed Ki values for TL-3 with the different PRs and will further assist in the development of improved inhibitors.

  19. Purification of extracellular acid protease and analysis of fermentation metabolites by Synergistes sp. utilizing proteinaceous solid waste from tanneries.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A Ganesh; Nagesh, N; Prabhakar, T G; Sekaran, G

    2008-05-01

    The untanned proteinaceous tannery solid waste, animal fleshing (ANFL), was used as a substrate for acid protease production by Synergistes sp. The strain was isolated from an anaerobic digester used for the treatment of tannery solid waste and was selected for its enhanced protease production at activity 350-420 U/ml. The optimum pH was in the acidic range of 5.5-6.5 and optimum temperature was in mesophilic range of 25-35 degrees C. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and the zymogram analyses of the purified protein indicated an estimated molecular mass of 60 kDa. This protease could be classified as aspartic protease based on its inhibition by aspartate type protease inhibitor pepstatin and on non-inhibition by 1,10-phenanthroline, EDTA, EGTA and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride. The degradation of ANFL was confirmed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS), Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (H1 NMR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyses. In this study we found that the activity of acid protease depended on factors such as calcium concentration, pH and temperature. Based on these lines of evidence, we postulate that this protease is a highly catalytic novel protease of its type.

  20. Protease and Protease-Activated Receptor-2 Signaling in the Pathogenesis of Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Eun; Jeong, Se Kyoo

    2010-01-01

    Proteases in the skin are essential to epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis. In addition to their direct proteolytic effects, certain proteases signal to cells by activating protease-activated receptors (PARs), the G-protein-coupled receptors. The expression of functional PAR-2 on human skin and its role in inflammation, pruritus, and skin barrier homeostasis have been demonstrated. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease characterized by genetic barrier defects and allergic inflammation, which is sustained by gene-environmental interactions. Recent studies have revealed aberrant expression and activation of serine proteases and PAR-2 in the lesional skin of AD patients. The imbalance between proteases and protease inhibitors associated with genetic defects in the protease/protease inhibitor encoding genes, increase in skin surface pH, and exposure to proteolytically active allergens contribute to this aberrant protease/PAR-2 signaling in AD. The increased protease activity in AD leads to abnormal desquamation, degradation of lipid-processing enzymes and antimicrobial peptides, and activation of primary cytokines, thereby leading to permeability barrier dysfunction, inflammation, and defects in the antimicrobial barrier. Moreover, up-regulated proteases stimulate PAR-2 in lesional skin of AD and lead to the production of cytokines and chemokines involved in inflammation and immune responses, itching sensation, and sustained epidermal barrier perturbation with easier allergen penetration. In addition, PAR-2 is an important sensor for exogenous danger molecules, such as exogenous proteases from various allergens, and plays an important role in AD pathogenesis. Together, these findings suggest that protease activity or PAR-2 may be a future target for therapeutic intervention for the treatment of AD. PMID:20879045

  1. Extracellular proteases of Trichoderma species. A review.

    PubMed

    Kredics, L; Antal, Zsuzsanna; Szekeres, A; Hatvani, L; Manczinger, L; Vágvölgyi, Cs; Nagy, Erzsébet

    2005-01-01

    Cellulolytic, xylanolytic, chitinolytic and beta-1,3-glucanolytic enzyme systems of species belonging to the filamentous fungal genus Trichoderma have been investigated in details and are well characterised. The ability of Trichoderma strains to produce extracellular proteases has also been known for a long time, however, the proteolytic enzyme system is relatively unknown in this genus. Fortunately, in the recent years more and more attention is focused on the research in this field. The role of Trichoderma proteases in the biological control of plant pathogenic fungi and nematodes has been demonstrated, and it is also suspected that they may be important for the competitive saprophytic ability of green mould isolates and may represent potential virulence factors of Trichoderma strains as emerging fungal pathogens of clinical importance. The aim of this review is to summarize the information available about the extracellular proteases of Trichoderma. Numerous studies are available about the extracellular proteolytic enzyme profiles of Trichoderma strains and about the effect of abiotic environmental factors on protease activities. A number of protease enzymes have been purified to homogeneity and some protease encoding genes have been cloned and characterized. These results will be reviewed and the role of Trichoderma proteases in biological control as well as their advantages and disadvantages in biotechnology will be discussed.

  2. A biotechnology perspective of fungal proteases.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Paula Monteiro; Bittencourt, Mona Lisa de Assis; Caprara, Carolina Canielles; de Freitas, Marcela; de Almeida, Renata Paula Coppini; Silveira, Dâmaris; Fonseca, Yris Maria; Ferreira Filho, Edivaldo Ximenes; Pessoa Junior, Adalberto; Magalhães, Pérola Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Proteases hydrolyze the peptide bonds of proteins into peptides and amino acids, being found in all living organisms, and are essential for cell growth and differentiation. Proteolytic enzymes have potential application in a wide number of industrial processes such as food, laundry detergent and pharmaceutical. Proteases from microbial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. Fungal proteases are used for hydrolyzing protein and other components of soy beans and wheat in soy sauce production. Proteases can be produced in large quantities in a short time by established methods of fermentation. The parameters such as variation in C/N ratio, presence of some sugars, besides several other physical factors are important in the development of fermentation process. Proteases of fungal origin can be produced cost effectively, have an advantage faster production, the ease with which the enzymes can be modified and mycelium can be easily removed by filtration. The production of proteases has been carried out using submerged fermentation, but conditions in solid state fermentation lead to several potential advantages for the production of fungal enzymes. This review focuses on the production of fungal proteases, their distribution, structural-functional aspects, physical and chemical parameters, and the use of these enzymes in industrial applications.

  3. The cysteine-rich domain regulates ADAM protease function in vivo.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine M; Gaultier, Alban; Cousin, Helene; Alfandari, Dominique; White, Judith M; DeSimone, Douglas W

    2002-12-09

    ADAMs are membrane-anchored proteases that regulate cell behavior by proteolytically modifying the cell surface and ECM. Like other membrane-anchored proteases, ADAMs contain candidate "adhesive" domains downstream of their metalloprotease domains. The mechanism by which membrane-anchored cell surface proteases utilize these putative adhesive domains to regulate protease function in vivo is not well understood. We address this important question by analyzing the relative contributions of downstream extracellular domains (disintegrin, cysteine rich, and EGF-like repeat) of the ADAM13 metalloprotease during Xenopus laevis development. When expressed in embryos, ADAM13 induces hyperplasia of the cement gland, whereas ADAM10 does not. Using chimeric constructs, we find that the metalloprotease domain of ADAM10 can substitute for that of ADAM13, but that specificity for cement gland expansion requires a downstream extracellular domain of ADAM13. Analysis of finer resolution chimeras indicates an essential role for the cysteine-rich domain and a supporting role for the disintegrin domain. These and other results reveal that the cysteine-rich domain of ADAM13 cooperates intramolecularly with the ADAM13 metalloprotease domain to regulate its function in vivo. Our findings thus provide the first evidence that a downstream extracellular adhesive domain plays an active role in regulating ADAM protease function in vivo. These findings are likely relevant to other membrane-anchored cell surface proteases.

  4. A serine protease inhibitor attenuates aldosterone-induced kidney injuries via the suppression of plasmin activity.

    PubMed

    Kakizoe, Yutaka; Miyasato, Yoshikazu; Onoue, Tomoaki; Nakagawa, Terumasa; Hayata, Manabu; Uchimura, Kohei; Morinaga, Jun; Mizumoto, Teruhiko; Adachi, Masataka; Miyoshi, Taku; Sakai, Yoshiki; Tomita, Kimio; Mukoyama, Masashi; Kitamura, Kenichiro

    2016-10-01

    Emerging evidence has suggested that aldosterone has direct deleterious effects on the kidney independently of its hemodynamic effects. However, the detailed mechanisms of these direct effects remain to be elucidated. We have previously reported that camostat mesilate (CM), a synthetic serine protease inhibitor, attenuated kidney injuries in Dahl salt-sensitive rats, remnant kidney rats, and unilateral ureteral obstruction rats, suggesting that some serine proteases would be involved in the pathogenesis of kidney injuries. The current study was conducted to investigate the roles of serine proteases and the beneficial effects of CM in aldosterone-related kidney injuries. We observed a serine protease that was activated by aldosterone/salt in rat kidney lysate, and identified it as plasmin with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Plasmin increased pro-fibrotic and inflammatory gene expressions in rat renal fibroblast cells. CM inhibited the protease activity of plasmin and suppressed cell injury markers induced by plasmin in the fibroblast cells. Furthermore, CM ameliorated glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis in the kidney of aldosterone/salt-treated rats. Our findings indicate that plasmin has important roles in kidney injuries that are induced by aldosterone/salt, and that serine protease inhibitor could provide a new strategy for the treatment of aldosterone-associated kidney diseases in humans. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The serine protease inhibitor TLCK attenuates intrinsic death pathways in neurons upstream of mitochondrial demise.

    PubMed

    Reuther, C; Ganjam, G K; Dolga, A M; Culmsee, C

    2014-11-01

    It is well-established that activation of proteases, such as caspases, calpains and cathepsins are essential components in signaling pathways of programmed cell death (PCD). Although these proteases have also been linked to mechanisms of neuronal cell death, they are dispensable in paradigms of intrinsic death pathways, e.g. induced by oxidative stress. However, emerging evidence implicated a particular role for serine proteases in mechanisms of PCD in neurons. Here, we investigated the role of trypsin-like serine proteases in a model of glutamate toxicity in HT-22 cells. In these cells glutamate induces oxytosis, a form of caspase-independent cell death that involves activation of the pro-apoptotic protein BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (Bid), leading to mitochondrial demise and ensuing cell death. In this model system, the trypsin-like serine protease inhibitor Nα-tosyl-l-lysine chloromethyl ketone hydrochloride (TLCK) inhibited mitochondrial damage and cell death. Mitochondrial morphology alterations, the impairment of the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP depletion were prevented and, moreover, lipid peroxidation induced by glutamate was completely abolished. Strikingly, truncated Bid-induced cell death was not affected by TLCK, suggesting a detrimental activity of serine proteases upstream of Bid activation and mitochondrial demise. In summary, this study demonstrates the protective effect of serine protease inhibition by TLCK against oxytosis-induced mitochondrial damage and cell death. These findings indicate that TLCK-sensitive serine proteases play a crucial role in cell death mechanisms upstream of mitochondrial demise and thus, may serve as therapeutic targets in diseases, where oxidative stress and intrinsic pathways of PCD mediate neuronal cell death.

  6. Potential elucidation of a novel CTL epitope in HIV-1 protease by the protease inhibitor resistance mutation L90M.

    PubMed

    Smidt, Werner

    2013-01-01

    The combination of host immune responses and use of antiretrovirals facilitate partial control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and result in delayed progression to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Both treatment and host immunity impose selection pressures on the highly mutable HIV-1 genome resulting in antiretroviral resistance and immune escape. Researchers have shown that antiretroviral resistance mutations can shape cytotoxic T-lymphocyte immunity by altering the epitope repertoire of HIV infected cells. Here it was discovered that an important antiretroviral resistance mutation, L90M in HIV protease, occurs at lower frequencies in hosts that harbor the B*15, B*48 or A*32 human leukocyte antigen subtypes. A likely reason is the elucidation of novel epitopes by L90M. NetMHCPan predictions reveal increased affinity of the peptide spanning the HIV protease region, PR 89-97 and PR 90-99 to HLA-B*15/B*48 and HLA-A*32 respectively due to the L90M substitution. The higher affinity could increase the chance of the epitope being presented and recognized by Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and perhaps provide additional immunological pressures in the presence of antiretroviral attenuating mutations. This evidence supports the notion that knowledge of HLA allotypes in HIV infected individuals could augment antiretroviral treatment by the elucidation of epitopes due to antiretroviral resistance mutations in HIV protease.

  7. LIPID ABNORMALITIES IN SUCCINATE SEMIALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE (Aldh5a1−/−) DEFICIENT MOUSE BRAIN PROVIDE ADDITIONAL EVIDENCE FOR MYELIN ALTERATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Barcelo-Coblijn, G.; Murphy, E. J.; Mills, K.; Winchester, B.; Jakobs, C.; Snead, O.C.; Gibson, KM

    2007-01-01

    Earlier work from our laboratory provided evidence for myelin abnormalities (decreased quantities of proteins associated with myelin compaction, decreased sheath thickness) in cortex and hippocampus of Aldh5a1−/− mice, which have a complete ablation of the succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase protein [1]. In the current report, we have extended these findings via comprehensive analysis of brain phospholipid fractions, including quantitation of fatty acids in individual phospholipid subclasses and estimation of hexose-ceramide in Aldh5a1−/− brain. In comparison to wild-type littermates (Aldh5a1+/+), we detected a 20% reduction in the ethanolamine glycerophospholipid content of Aldh5a1−/− mice, while other brain phospholipids (choline glycerophospholipid, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol) were within normal limits. Analysis of individual fatty acids in each of these fractions revealed consistent alterations in n-3 fatty acids, primarily increased 22:6n-3 levels (docosahexaenoic acid; DHA). In the phosphatidyl serine fraction there were marked increases in the proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids with corresponding decreases of monounsaturated fatty acids. Interestingly, the levels of hexose-ceramide (glucosyl- and galactosylceramide, principal myelin cerebrosides) were decreased in Aldh5a1−/− brain tissue (one-tailed t test, p=0.0449). The current results suggest that lipid and myelin abnormalities in this animal may contribute to the pathophysiology. PMID:17300923

  8. Major Cys protease activities are not essential for senescence in individually darkened Arabidopsis leaves.

    PubMed

    Pružinská, Adriana; Shindo, Takayuki; Niessen, Sherry; Kaschani, Farnusch; Tóth, Réka; Millar, A Harvey; van der Hoorn, Renier A L

    2017-01-06

    Papain-like Cys Proteases (PLCPs) and Vacuolar Processing Enzymes (VPEs) are amongst the most highly expressed proteases during leaf senescence in Arabidopsis. Using activity-based protein profiling (ABPP), a method that enables detection of active enzymes within a complex sample using chemical probes, the activities of PLCPs and VPEs were investigated in individually darkened leaves of Arabidopsis, and their role in senescence was tested in null mutants. ABPP and mass spectrometry revealed an increased activity of several PLCPs, particularly RD21A and AALP. By contrast, despite increased VPE transcript levels, active VPE decreased in individually darkened leaves. Eight protease knock-out lines and two protease over expressing lines were subjected to senescence phenotype analysis to determine the importance of individual protease activities to senescence. Unexpectedly, despite the absence of dominating PLCP activities in these plants, the rubisco and chlorophyll decline in individually darkened leaves and the onset of whole plant senescence were unaltered. However, a significant delay in progression of whole plant senescence was observed in aalp-1 and rd21A-1/aalp-1 mutants, visible in the reduced number of senescent leaves. Major Cys protease activities are not essential for dark-induced and developmental senescence and only a knock out line lacking AALP shows a slight but significant delay in plant senescence.

  9. Secreted fungal aspartic proteases: A review.

    PubMed

    Mandujano-González, Virginia; Villa-Tanaca, Lourdes; Anducho-Reyes, Miguel Angel; Mercado-Flores, Yuridia

    2016-01-01

    The aspartic proteases, also called aspartyl and aspartate proteases or acid proteases (E.C.3.4.23), belong to the endopeptidase family and are characterized by the conserved sequence Asp-Gly-Thr at the active site. These enzymes are found in a wide variety of microorganisms in which they perform important functions related to nutrition and pathogenesis. In addition, their high activity and stability at acid pH make them attractive for industrial application in the food industry; specifically, they are used as milk-coagulating agents in cheese production or serve to improve the taste of some foods. This review presents an analysis of the characteristics and properties of secreted microbial aspartic proteases and their potential for commercial application. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Carbohydrate protease conjugates: Stabilized proteases for peptide synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wartchow, C.A.; Wang, Peng; Bednarski, M.D.

    1995-12-31

    The synthesis of oligopeptides using stable carbohydrate protease conjugates (CPCs) was examined in acetonitrile solvent systems. CPC[{alpha}-chymotrypsin] was used for the preparation of peptides containing histidine, phenylalanine, tryptophan in the P{sub 1} position in 60-93% yield. The CPC[{alpha}-chymotrypsin]-catalyzed synthesis of octamer Z-Gly-Gly-Phe-Gly-Gly-Phe-Gly-Gly-OEt from Z-Gly-Gly-Phe-Gly-Gly-Phe-OMe was achieved in 71% yield demonstrating that synthesis peptides containing both hydrophylic and hydrophobic amino acids. The P{sub 2} specificity of papain for aromatic residues was utilized for the 2 + 3 coupling of Z-Tyr-Gly-OMe to H{sub 2}N-Gly-Phe-Leu-OH to generate the leucine enkephalin derivative in 79% yield. Although papain is nonspecific for the hydrolysis of N-benzyloxycarbonylmore » amino acid methyl esters in aqueous solution, the rates of synthesis for these derivitives with nucleophile leucine tert-butyl ester differed by nearly 2 orders of magnitude. CPC[thermolysin] was used to prepare the aspartame precursor Z-Asp-Phe-OMe in 90% yield. The increased stability of CPCs prepared from periodate-modified poly(2-methacryl- amido-2-deoxy-D-glucose), poly(2-methacrylamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose), and poly(5-methacryl-amido-5-deoxy-D-ribose), carbohydrate materials designed to increase the aldehyde concentration in aqueous solution, suggests that the stability of CPCs is directly related to the aldehyde concentration of the carbohydrate material. Periodate oxidation of poly(2-methacrylamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose) followed by covalent attachment to {alpha}-chymotrypsin gave a CPC with catalytic activity in potassium phosphate buffer at 90{degrees}C for 2 h. 1 fig., 1 tab., 40 refs.« less

  11. Membrane protease degradomics: proteomic identification and quantification of cell surface protease substrates.

    PubMed

    Butler, Georgina S; Dean, Richard A; Smith, Derek; Overall, Christopher M

    2009-01-01

    The modification of cell surface proteins by plasma membrane and soluble proteases is important for physiological and pathological processes. Methods to identify shed and soluble substrates are crucial to further define the substrate repertoire, termed the substrate degradome, of individual proteases. Identifying protease substrates is essential to elucidate protease function and involvement in different homeostatic and disease pathways. This characterisation is also crucial for drug target identification and validation, which would then allow the rational design of specific targeted inhibitors for therapeutic intervention. We describe two methods for identifying and quantifying shed cell surface protease targets in cultured cells utilising Isotope-Coded Affinity Tags (ICAT) and Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification (iTRAQ). As a model system to develop these techniques, we chose a cell-membrane expressed matrix metalloproteinase, MMP-14, but the concepts can be applied to proteases of other classes. By over-expression, or conversely inhibition, of a particular protease with careful selection of control conditions (e.g. vector or inactive protease) and differential labelling, shed proteins can be identified and quantified by mass spectrometry (MS), MS/MS fragmentation and database searching.

  12. Evaluation of proteases and protease inhibitors in Heterodera glycines cysts obtained from laboratory and field populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proteases and proteases inhibitors were evaluated in a number of preparations of Heterodera glycines cysts obtained from glasshouse cultures (GH) and field (LR) populations. Using a FRET-peptide library comprising 512 peptide substrate pools that detect 4 endoprotease types (aspartic, cysteine, meta...

  13. The Dimer Interfaces of Protease and Extra-Protease Domains Influence the Activation of Protease and the Specificity of GagPol Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Pettit, Steven C.; Gulnik, Sergei; Everitt, Lori; Kaplan, Andrew H.

    2003-01-01

    Activation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease is an essential step in viral replication. As is the case for all retroviral proteases, enzyme activation requires the formation of protease homodimers. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which retroviral proteases become active within their precursors. Using an in vitro expression system, we have examined the determinants of activation efficiency and the order of cleavage site processing for the protease of HIV-1 within the full-length GagPol precursor. Following activation, initial cleavage occurs between the viral p2 and nucleocapsid proteins. This is followed by cleavage of a novel site located in the transframe domain. Mutational analysis of the dimer interface of the protease produced differential effects on activation and specificity. A subset of mutations produced enhanced cleavage at the amino terminus of the protease, suggesting that, in the wild-type precursor, cleavages that liberate the protease are a relatively late event. Replacement of the proline residue at position 1 of the protease dimer interface resulted in altered cleavage of distal sites and suggests that this residue functions as a cis-directed specificity determinant. In summary, our studies indicate that interactions within the protease dimer interface help determine the order of precursor cleavage and contribute to the formation of extended-protease intermediates. Assembly domains within GagPol outside the protease domain also influence enzyme activation. PMID:12477841

  14. The dimer interfaces of protease and extra-protease domains influence the activation of protease and the specificity of GagPol cleavage.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Steven C; Gulnik, Sergei; Everitt, Lori; Kaplan, Andrew H

    2003-01-01

    Activation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease is an essential step in viral replication. As is the case for all retroviral proteases, enzyme activation requires the formation of protease homodimers. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which retroviral proteases become active within their precursors. Using an in vitro expression system, we have examined the determinants of activation efficiency and the order of cleavage site processing for the protease of HIV-1 within the full-length GagPol precursor. Following activation, initial cleavage occurs between the viral p2 and nucleocapsid proteins. This is followed by cleavage of a novel site located in the transframe domain. Mutational analysis of the dimer interface of the protease produced differential effects on activation and specificity. A subset of mutations produced enhanced cleavage at the amino terminus of the protease, suggesting that, in the wild-type precursor, cleavages that liberate the protease are a relatively late event. Replacement of the proline residue at position 1 of the protease dimer interface resulted in altered cleavage of distal sites and suggests that this residue functions as a cis-directed specificity determinant. In summary, our studies indicate that interactions within the protease dimer interface help determine the order of precursor cleavage and contribute to the formation of extended-protease intermediates. Assembly domains within GagPol outside the protease domain also influence enzyme activation.

  15. Three Pairs of Protease-Serpin Complexes Cooperatively Regulate the Insect Innate Immune Responses*

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Rui; Kim, Eun-Hye; Gong, Ji-Hee; Kwon, Hyun-Mi; Kim, Chan-Hee; Ryu, Kyoung-Hwa; Park, Ji-Won; Kurokawa, Kenji; Zhang, Jinghai; Gubb, David; Lee, Bok-Luel

    2009-01-01

    Serpins are known to be necessary for the regulation of several serine protease cascades. However, the mechanisms of how serpins regulate the innate immune responses of invertebrates are not well understood due to the uncertainty of the identity of the serine proteases targeted by the serpins. We recently reported the molecular activation mechanisms of three serine protease-mediated Toll and melanin synthesis cascades in a large beetle, Tenebrio molitor. Here, we purified three novel serpins (SPN40, SPN55, and SPN48) from the hemolymph of T. molitor. These serpins made specific serpin-serine protease pairs with three Toll cascade-activating serine proteases, such as modular serine protease, Spätzle-processing enzyme-activating enzyme, and Spätzle-processing enzyme and cooperatively blocked the Toll signaling cascade and β-1,3-glucan-mediated melanin biosynthesis. Also, the levels of SPN40 and SPN55 were dramatically increased in vivo by the injection of a Toll ligand, processed Spätzle, into Tenebrio larvae. This increase in SPN40 and SPN55 levels indicates that these serpins function as inducible negative feedback inhibitors. Unexpectedly, SPN55 and SPN48 were cleaved at Tyr and Glu residues in reactive center loops, respectively, despite being targeted by trypsin-like Spätzle-processing enzyme-activating enzyme and Spätzle-processing enzyme. These cleavage patterns are also highly similar to those of unusual mammalian serpins involved in blood coagulation and blood pressure regulation, and they may contribute to highly specific and timely inactivation of detrimental serine proteases during innate immune responses. Taken together, these results demonstrate the specific regulatory evidences of innate immune responses by three novel serpins. PMID:19858208

  16. Production of alkaline protease from Cellulosimicrobium cellulans

    PubMed Central

    Ferracini-Santos, Luciana; Sato, Hélia H

    2009-01-01

    Cellulosimicrobium cellulans is one of the microorganisms that produces a wide variety of yeast cell wall-degrading enzymes, β-1,3-glucanase, protease and chitinase. Dried cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as carbon and nitrogen source for cell growth and protease production. The medium components KH2PO4, KOH and dried yeast cells showed a significant effect (p<0.05) on the factorial fractional design. A second design was prepared using two factors: pH and percentage of dried yeast cells. The results showed that the culture medium for the maximum production of protease was 0.2 g/l of MgSO4.7H2O, 2.0 g/l of (NH4)2SO4 and 8% of dried yeast cells in 0.15M phosphate buffer at pH 8.0. The maximum alkaline protease production was 7.0 ± 0.27 U/ml over the center point. Crude protease showed best activity at 50ºC and pH 7.0-8.0, and was stable at 50ºC. PMID:24031317

  17. Detergent protease exposure and respiratory disease: case-referent analysis of a retrospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Brant, A; Upchurch, S; van Tongeren, M; Zekveld, C; Helm, J; Barnes, F; Newman Taylor, A J; Cullinan, P

    2009-11-01

    To examine the relationship between protease exposure and respiratory disease in a cohort of detergent enzyme manufacturers. Case-referent analysis of a cohort of employees working in a European detergent factory between 1989 and 2002. Cases with new lower or upper respiratory disease were ascertained by examination of occupational health records and matched to referents on date of first employment. Personal exposures to airborne detergent protease were estimated, using a job exposure matrix, from >12,000 measurements taken in the factory during the period of study. We found clear, monotonic relationships between estimated protease exposure and both lower and upper respiratory disease. After control for age, sex and smoking, the odds ratio of lower respiratory disease was significantly elevated (1.98, 95% CI 1.04 to 3.79) in those employees working in jobs in the highest quartile of protease exposure (geometric mean 7.9 ng x m(-3)). For employees with upper respiratory disease, the risk was significantly elevated at a lower level of estimated protease exposure (geometric mean 2.3 ng x m(-3)). These findings provide strong evidence of an association between detergent enzyme exposure and the development of respiratory disease in an occupational setting. Using the routinely collected information on specific sensitisation and the close attention to workplace exposures that are characteristic of this industry, it should be possible to derive meaningful occupational exposure standards for most detergent enzymes.

  18. Mitochondrial AAA proteases--towards a molecular understanding of membrane-bound proteolytic machines.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, Florian; Tatsuta, Takashi; Langer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial AAA proteases play an important role in the maintenance of mitochondrial proteostasis. They regulate and promote biogenesis of mitochondrial proteins by acting as processing enzymes and ensuring the selective turnover of misfolded proteins. Impairment of AAA proteases causes pleiotropic defects in various organisms including neurodegeneration in humans. AAA proteases comprise ring-like hexameric complexes in the mitochondrial inner membrane and are functionally conserved from yeast to man, but variations are evident in the subunit composition of orthologous enzymes. Recent structural and biochemical studies revealed how AAA proteases degrade their substrates in an ATP dependent manner. Intersubunit coordination of the ATP hydrolysis leads to an ordered ATP hydrolysis within the AAA ring, which ensures efficient substrate dislocation from the membrane and translocation to the proteolytic chamber. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the molecular mechanisms underlying the versatile functions of mitochondrial AAA proteases and their relevance to those of the other AAA+ machines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of a multidisciplinary and integrative weight-of-evidence approach to a 1-year monitoring survey of the Seine River.

    PubMed

    Barjhoux, Iris; Fechner, Lise C; Lebrun, Jérémie D; Anzil, Adriana; Ayrault, Sophie; Budzinski, Hélène; Cachot, Jérôme; Charron, Laetitia; Chaumot, Arnaud; Clérandeau, Christelle; Dedourge-Geffard, Odile; Faburé, Juliette; François, Adeline; Geffard, Olivier; George, Isabelle; Labadie, Pierre; Lévi, Yves; Munoz, Gabriel; Noury, Patrice; Oziol, Lucie; Quéau, Hervé; Servais, Pierre; Uher, Emmanuelle; Urien, Nastassia; Geffard, Alain

    2016-06-08

    Quality assessment of environments under high anthropogenic pressures such as the Seine Basin, subjected to complex and chronic inputs, can only be based on combined chemical and biological analyses. The present study integrates and summarizes a multidisciplinary dataset acquired throughout a 1-year monitoring survey conducted at three workshop sites along the Seine River (PIREN-Seine program), upstream and downstream of the Paris conurbation, during four seasonal campaigns using a weight-of-evidence approach. Sediment and water column chemical analyses, bioaccumulation levels and biomarker responses in caged gammarids, and laboratory (eco)toxicity bioassays were integrated into four lines of evidence (LOEs). Results from each LOE clearly reflected an anthropogenic gradient, with contamination levels and biological effects increasing from upstream to downstream of Paris, in good agreement with the variations in the structure and composition of bacterial communities from the water column. Based on annual average data, the global hazard was summarized as "moderate" at the upstream station and as "major" at the two downstream ones. Seasonal variability was also highlighted; the winter campaign was least impacted. The model was notably improved using previously established reference and threshold values from national-scale studies. It undoubtedly represents a powerful practical tool to facilitate the decision-making processes of environment managers within the framework of an environmental risk assessment strategy.

  20. Cleavage Entropy as Quantitative Measure of Protease Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Julian E.; von Grafenstein, Susanne; Huber, Roland G.; Margreiter, Michael A.; Spitzer, Gudrun M.; Wallnoefer, Hannes G.; Liedl, Klaus R.

    2013-01-01

    A purely information theory-guided approach to quantitatively characterize protease specificity is established. We calculate an entropy value for each protease subpocket based on sequences of cleaved substrates extracted from the MEROPS database. We compare our results with known subpocket specificity profiles for individual proteases and protease groups (e.g. serine proteases, metallo proteases) and reflect them quantitatively. Summation of subpocket-wise cleavage entropy contributions yields a measure for overall protease substrate specificity. This total cleavage entropy allows ranking of different proteases with respect to their specificity, separating unspecific digestive enzymes showing high total cleavage entropy from specific proteases involved in signaling cascades. The development of a quantitative cleavage entropy score allows an unbiased comparison of subpocket-wise and overall protease specificity. Thus, it enables assessment of relative importance of physicochemical and structural descriptors in protease recognition. We present an exemplary application of cleavage entropy in tracing substrate specificity in protease evolution. This highlights the wide range of substrate promiscuity within homologue proteases and hence the heavy impact of a limited number of mutations on individual substrate specificity. PMID:23637583

  1. Gold nanoparticles-based protease assay

    PubMed Central

    Guarise, Cristian; Pasquato, Lucia; De Filippis, Vincenzo; Scrimin, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    We describe here a simple assay that allows the visual detection of a protease. The method takes advantage of the high molar absorptivity of the plasmon band of gold colloids and is based on the color change of their solution when treated with dithiols. We used C- and N-terminal cysteinyl derivatives of a peptide substrate exploiting its selective recognition and cleavage by a specific protease. Contrary to the native ones, cleaved peptides are unable to induce nanoparticles aggregation; hence, the color of the solution does not change. The detection of two proteases is reported: thrombin (involved in blood coagulation and thrombosis) and lethal factor (an enzyme component of the toxin produced by Bacillus anthracis). The sensitivity of this nanoparticle-based assay is in the low nanomolar range. PMID:16537471

  2. Tunable protease-activatable virus nanonodes.

    PubMed

    Judd, Justin; Ho, Michelle L; Tiwari, Abhinav; Gomez, Eric J; Dempsey, Christopher; Van Vliet, Kim; Igoshin, Oleg A; Silberg, Jonathan J; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Suh, Junghae

    2014-05-27

    We explored the unique signal integration properties of the self-assembling 60-mer protein capsid of adeno-associated virus (AAV), a clinically proven human gene therapy vector, by engineering proteolytic regulation of virus-receptor interactions such that processing of the capsid by proteases is required for infection. We find the transfer function of our engineered protease-activatable viruses (PAVs), relating the degree of proteolysis (input) to PAV activity (output), is highly nonlinear, likely due to increased polyvalency. By exploiting this dynamic polyvalency, in combination with the self-assembly properties of the virus capsid, we show that mosaic PAVs can be constructed that operate under a digital AND gate regime, where two different protease inputs are required for virus activation. These results show viruses can be engineered as signal-integrating nanoscale nodes whose functional properties are regulated by multiple proteolytic signals with easily tunable and predictable response surfaces, a promising development toward advanced control of gene delivery.

  3. Insect response to plant defensive protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Zeng, Rensen

    2015-01-07

    Plant protease inhibitors (PIs) are natural plant defense proteins that inhibit proteases of invading insect herbivores. However, their anti-insect efficacy is determined not only by their potency toward a vulnerable insect system but also by the response of the insect to such a challenge. Through the long history of coevolution with their host plants, insects have developed sophisticated mechanisms to circumvent antinutritional effects of dietary challenges. Their response takes the form of changes in gene expression and the protein repertoire in cells lining the alimentary tract, the first line of defense. Research in insect digestive proteases has revealed the crucial roles they play in insect adaptation to plant PIs and has brought about a new appreciation of how phytophagous insects employ this group of molecules in both protein digestion and counterdefense. This review provides researchers in related fields an up-to-date summary of recent advances.

  4. Serine protease inhibitors of parasitic helminths.

    PubMed

    Molehin, Adebayo J; Gobert, Geoffrey N; McManus, Donald P

    2012-05-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (serpins) are a superfamily of structurally conserved proteins that inhibit serine proteases and play key physiological roles in numerous biological systems such as blood coagulation, complement activation and inflammation. A number of serpins have now been identified in parasitic helminths with putative involvement in immune regulation and in parasite survival through interference with the host immune response. This review describes the serpins and smapins (small serine protease inhibitors) that have been identified in Ascaris spp., Brugia malayi, Ancylostoma caninum Onchocerca volvulus, Haemonchus contortus, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus vitrinus, Anisakis simplex, Trichuris suis, Schistosoma spp., Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus westermani and Echinococcus spp. and discusses their possible biological functions, including roles in host-parasite interplay and their evolutionary relationships.

  5. Gold nanoparticles-based protease assay.

    PubMed

    Guarise, Cristian; Pasquato, Lucia; De Filippis, Vincenzo; Scrimin, Paolo

    2006-03-14

    We describe here a simple assay that allows the visual detection of a protease. The method takes advantage of the high molar absorptivity of the plasmon band of gold colloids and is based on the color change of their solution when treated with dithiols. We used C- and N-terminal cysteinyl derivatives of a peptide substrate exploiting its selective recognition and cleavage by a specific protease. Contrary to the native ones, cleaved peptides are unable to induce nanoparticles aggregation; hence, the color of the solution does not change. The detection of two proteases is reported: thrombin (involved in blood coagulation and thrombosis) and lethal factor (an enzyme component of the toxin produced by Bacillus anthracis). The sensitivity of this nanoparticle-based assay is in the low nanomolar range.

  6. Identification of Proteases and Protease Inhibitors in Allergenic and Non-Allergenic Pollen.

    PubMed

    Höllbacher, Barbara; Schmitt, Armin O; Hofer, Heidi; Ferreira, Fatima; Lackner, Peter

    2017-06-05

    Pollen is one of the most common causes of allergy worldwide, making the study of their molecular composition crucial for the advancement of allergy research. Despite substantial efforts in this field, it is not yet clear why some plant pollens strongly provoke allergies while others do not. However, proteases and protease inhibitors from allergen sources are known to play an important role in the development of pollen allergies. In this study, we aim to uncover differences in the transcriptional pattern of proteases and protease inhibitors in Betula verrucosa and Pinus sylvestris pollen as models for high and low allergenic potential, respectively. We applied RNA sequencing to Betula verrucosa and Pinus sylvestris pollen. After de-novo assembly we derived general functional profiles of the protein coding transcripts. By utilization of domain based functional annotation we identified potential proteases and protease inhibitors and compared their expression in the two types of pollen. Functional profiles are highly similar between Betula verrucosa and Pinus sylvestris pollen. Both pollen contain proteases and inhibitors from 53 and 7 Pfam families, respectively. Some of the members comprised within those families are implicated in facilitating allergen entry, while others are known allergens themselves. Our work revealed several candidate proteins which, with further investigation, represent exciting new leads in elucidating the process behind allergic sensitization.

  7. Mosaic serine proteases in the mammalian central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Shinichi; Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Yamaguchi, Tatsuyuki; Yamaguchi, Nozomi

    2008-01-01

    We review the structure and function of three kinds of mosaic serine proteases expressed in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Mosaic serine proteases have several domains in the proenzyme fragment, which modulate proteolytic function, and a protease domain at the C-terminus. Spinesin/TMPRSS5 is a transmembrane serine protease whose presynaptic distribution on motor neurons in the spinal cord suggests that it is significant for neuronal plasticity. Cell type-specific alternative splicing gives this protease diverse functions by modulating its intracellular localization. Motopsin/PRSS12 is a mosaic protease, and loss of its function causes mental retardation. Recent reports indicate the significance of this protease for cognitive function. We mention the fibrinolytic protease, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), which has physiological and pathological functions in the CNS.

  8. Detection of protease and protease activity using a single nanoscrescent SERS probe

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gang L.; Ellman, Jonathan A.; Lee, Luke P.; Chen, Fanqing Frank

    2013-01-29

    This invention pertains to the in vitro detection of proteases using a single peptide-conjugate nanocrescent surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probes with at least nanomolar sensitivity. The probe enables detection of proteolytic activity in extremely small volume and at low concentration. In certain embodiments the probes comprise an indicator for the detection of an active protease, where the indicator comprises a nanocrescent attached to a peptide, where said peptide comprises a recognition site for the protease and a Raman tag attached to the peptide.

  9. Detection of protease and protease activity using a single nanocrescent SERS probe

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gang L.; Ellman, Jonathan A.; Lee, Luke P.; Chen, Fanqing Frank

    2015-09-29

    This invention pertains to the in vitro detection of proteases using a single peptide-conjugate nanocrescent surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probes with at least nanomolar sensitivity. The probe enables detection of proteolytic activity in extremely small volume and at low concentration. In certain embodiments the probes comprise an indicator for the detection of an active protease, where the indicator comprises a nanocrescent attached to a peptide, where said peptide comprises a recognition site for the protease and a Raman tag attached to the peptide.

  10. Characterization of a novel ADAM protease expressed by Pneumocystis carinii.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Cassie C; Kottom, Theodore J; Limper, Andrew H

    2009-08-01

    Pneumocystis species are opportunistic fungal pathogens that cause severe pneumonia in immunocompromised hosts. Recent evidence has suggested that unidentified proteases are involved in Pneumocystis life cycle regulation. Proteolytically active ADAM (named for "a disintegrin and metalloprotease") family molecules have been identified in some fungal organisms, such as Aspergillus fumigatus and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and some have been shown to participate in life cycle regulation. Accordingly, we sought to characterize ADAM-like molecules in the fungal opportunistic pathogen, Pneumocystis carinii (PcADAM). After an in silico search of the P. carinii genomic sequencing project identified a 329-bp partial sequence with homology to known ADAM proteins, the full-length PcADAM sequence was obtained by PCR extension cloning, yielding a final coding sequence of 1,650 bp. Sequence analysis detected the presence of a typical ADAM catalytic active site (HEXXHXXGXXHD). Expression of PcADAM over the Pneumocystis life cycle was analyzed by Northern blot. Southern and contour-clamped homogenous electronic field blot analysis demonstrated its presence in the P. carinii genome. Expression of PcADAM was observed to be increased in Pneumocystis cysts compared to trophic forms. The full-length gene was subsequently cloned and heterologously expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Purified PcADAMp protein was proteolytically active in casein zymography, requiring divalent zinc. Furthermore, native PcADAMp extracted directly from freshly isolated Pneumocystis organisms also exhibited protease activity. This is the first report of protease activity attributable to a specific, characterized protein in the clinically important opportunistic fungal pathogen Pneumocystis.

  11. HIV-1 Protease in the Fission Yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Benko, Zsigmond; Elder, Robert T; Li, Ge; Liang, Dong; Zhao, Richard Y

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 protease (PR) is an essential viral enzyme. Its primary function is to proteolyze the viral Gag-Pol polyprotein for production of viral enzymes and structural proteins and for maturation of infectious viral particles. Increasing evidence suggests that PR cleaves host cellular proteins. However, the nature of PR-host cellular protein interactions is elusive. This study aimed to develop a fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) model system and to examine the possible interaction of HIV-1 PR with cellular proteins and its potential impact on cell proliferation and viability. A fission yeast strain RE294 was created that carried a single integrated copy of the PR gene in its chromosome. The PR gene was expressed using an inducible nmt1 promoter so that PR-specific effects could be measured. HIV-1 PR from this system cleaved the same indigenous viral p6/MA protein substrate as it does in natural HIV-1 infections. HIV-1 PR expression in fission yeast cells prevented cell proliferation and induced cellular oxidative stress and changes in mitochondrial morphology that led to cell death. Both these PR activities can be prevented by a PR-specific enzymatic inhibitor, indinavir, suggesting that PR-mediated proteolytic activities and cytotoxic effects resulted from enzymatic activities of HIV-1 PR. Through genome-wide screening, a serine/threonine kinase, Hhp2, was identified that suppresses HIV-1 PR-induced protease cleavage and cell death in fission yeast and in mammalian cells, where it prevented PR-induced apoptosis and cleavage of caspase-3 and caspase-8. This is the first report to show that HIV-1 protease is functional as an enzyme in fission yeast, and that it behaves in a similar manner as it does in HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 PR-induced cell death in fission yeast could potentially be used as an endpoint for mechanistic studies, and this system could be used for developing a high-throughput system for drug screenings.

  12. Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora extracellular protease: characterization and nucleotide sequence of the gene.

    PubMed Central

    Kyöstiö, S R; Cramer, C L; Lacy, G H

    1991-01-01

    The prt1 gene encoding extracellular protease from Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora EC14 in cosmid pCA7 was subcloned to create plasmid pSK1. The partial nucleotide sequence of the insert in pSK1 (1,878 bp) revealed a 1,041-bp open reading frame (ORF1) that correlated with protease activity in deletion mutants. ORF1 encodes a polypeptide of 347 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 38,826 Da. Escherichia coli transformed with pSK1 or pSK23, a subclone of pSK1, produces a protease (Prt1) intracellularly with a molecular mass of 38 kDa and a pI of 4.8. Prt1 activity was inhibited by phenanthroline, suggesting that it is a metalloprotease. The prt1 promoter was localized between 173 and 1,173 bp upstream of ORF1 by constructing transcriptional lacZ fusions. Primer extension identified the prt1 transcription start site 205 bp upstream of ORF1. The deduced amino acid sequence of ORF1 showed significant sequence identity to metalloproteases from Bacillus thermoproteolyticus (thermolysin), B. subtilis (neutral protease), Legionella pneumophila (metalloprotease), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (elastase). It has less sequence similarity to metalloproteases from Serratia marcescens and Erwinia chrysanthemi. Locations for three zinc ligands and the active site for E. carotovora subsp. carotovora protease were predicted from thermolysin. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 PMID:1917878

  13. Protease-Mediated Suppression of DRG Neuron Excitability by Commensal Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sessenwein, Jessica L; Baker, Corey C; Pradhananga, Sabindra; Maitland, Megan E; Petrof, Elaine O; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Noordhof, Curtis; Reed, David E; Vanner, Stephen J; Lomax, Alan E

    2017-11-29

    Peripheral pain signaling reflects a balance of pronociceptive and antinociceptive influences; the contribution by the gastrointestinal microbiota to this balance has received little attention. Disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome, are associated with exaggerated visceral nociceptive actions that may involve altered microbial signaling, particularly given the evidence for bacterial dysbiosis. Thus, we tested whether a community of commensal gastrointestinal bacteria derived from a healthy human donor (microbial ecosystem therapeutics; MET-1) can affect the excitability of male mouse DRG neurons. MET-1 reduced the excitability of DRG neurons by significantly increasing rheobase, decreasing responses to capsaicin (2 μm) and reducing action potential discharge from colonic afferent nerves. The increase in rheobase was accompanied by an increase in the amplitude of voltage-gated K + currents. A mixture of bacterial protease inhibitors abrogated the effect of MET-1 effects on DRG neuron rheobase. A serine protease inhibitor but not inhibitors of cysteine proteases, acid proteases, metalloproteases, or aminopeptidases abolished the effects of MET-1. The serine protease cathepsin G recapitulated the effects of MET-1 on DRG neurons. Inhibition of protease-activated receptor-4 (PAR-4), but not PAR-2, blocked the effects of MET-1. Furthermore, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii recapitulated the effects of MET-1 on excitability of DRG neurons. We conclude that serine proteases derived from commensal bacteria can directly impact the excitability of DRG neurons, through PAR-4 activation. The ability of microbiota-neuronal interactions to modulate afferent signaling suggests that therapies that induce or correct microbial dysbiosis may impact visceral pain. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Commercially available probiotics have the potential to modify visceral pain. Here we show that secretory products from gastrointestinal microbiota derived from a human

  14. Enzyme-triggered Gelation: Targeting Proteases with Internal Cleavage Sites

    PubMed Central

    Bremmer, Steven C.

    2014-01-01

    A generalizable method for detecting protease activity via gelation is described. A recognition sequence is used to target the protease of interest while a second protease is used to remove the residual residues from the gelator scaffold. Using this approach, selective assays for both MMP-9 and PSA are demonstrated. PMID:24394494

  15. Discovery and characterization of a novel plant pathogen protease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chitinase modifying proteins are fungal proteases that attack specific plant defense chitinases. At least three unrelated types of proteases have evolved to have this function. They all truncate the targeted chitinases by cleaving near their amino termini, but each protease type targets a different ...

  16. Zika Virus Protease: An Antiviral Drug Target.

    PubMed

    Kang, CongBao; Keller, Thomas H; Luo, Dahai

    2017-10-01

    The recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has caused global concern due to its link to severe damage to the brain development of foetuses and neuronal complications in adult patients. A worldwide research effort has been undertaken to identify effective and safe treatment and vaccination options. Among the proposed viral and host components, the viral NS2B-NS3 protease represents an attractive drug target due to its essential role in the virus life cycle. Here, we outline recent progress in studies on the Zika protease. Biochemical, biophysical, and structural studies on different protease constructs provide new insight into the structure and activity of the protease. The unlinked construct displays higher enzymatic activity and better mimics the native state of the enzyme and therefore is better suited for drug discovery. Furthermore, the structure of the free enzyme adopts a closed conformation and a preformed active site. The availability of a lead fragment hit and peptide inhibitors, as well as the attainability of soakable crystals, suggest that the unlinked construct is a promising tool for drug discovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Proteases and protease inhibitors of urinary extracellular vesicles in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Musante, Luca; Tataruch, Dorota; Gu, Dongfeng; Liu, Xinyu; Forsblom, Carol; Groop, Per-Henrik; Holthofer, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the major complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), leads to chronic kidney disease (CKD), and, ultimately, is the main cause for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Beyond urinary albumin, no reliable biomarkers are available for accurate early diagnostics. Urinary extracellular vesicles (UEVs) have recently emerged as an interesting source of diagnostic and prognostic disease biomarkers. Here we used a protease and respective protease inhibitor array to profile urines of type 1 diabetes patients at different stages of kidney involvement. Urine samples were divided into groups based on the level of albuminuria and UEVs isolated by hydrostatic dialysis and screened for relative changes of 34 different proteases and 32 protease inhibitors, respectively. Interestingly, myeloblastin and its natural inhibitor elafin showed an increase in the normo- and microalbuminuric groups. Similarly, a characteristic pattern was observed in the array of protease inhibitors, with a marked increase of cystatin B, natural inhibitor of cathepsins L, H, and B as well as of neutrophil gelatinase-associated Lipocalin (NGAL) in the normoalbuminuric group. This study shows for the first time the distinctive alterations in comprehensive protease profiles of UEVs in diabetic nephropathy and uncovers intriguing mechanistic, prognostic, and diagnostic features of kidney damage in diabetes.

  18. Proteases and Protease Inhibitors of Urinary Extracellular Vesicles in Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Tataruch, Dorota; Gu, Dongfeng; Liu, Xinyu; Forsblom, Carol; Groop, Per-Henrik; Holthofer, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the major complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), leads to chronic kidney disease (CKD), and, ultimately, is the main cause for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Beyond urinary albumin, no reliable biomarkers are available for accurate early diagnostics. Urinary extracellular vesicles (UEVs) have recently emerged as an interesting source of diagnostic and prognostic disease biomarkers. Here we used a protease and respective protease inhibitor array to profile urines of type 1 diabetes patients at different stages of kidney involvement. Urine samples were divided into groups based on the level of albuminuria and UEVs isolated by hydrostatic dialysis and screened for relative changes of 34 different proteases and 32 protease inhibitors, respectively. Interestingly, myeloblastin and its natural inhibitor elafin showed an increase in the normo- and microalbuminuric groups. Similarly, a characteristic pattern was observed in the array of protease inhibitors, with a marked increase of cystatin B, natural inhibitor of cathepsins L, H, and B as well as of neutrophil gelatinase-associated Lipocalin (NGAL) in the normoalbuminuric group. This study shows for the first time the distinctive alterations in comprehensive protease profiles of UEVs in diabetic nephropathy and uncovers intriguing mechanistic, prognostic, and diagnostic features of kidney damage in diabetes. PMID:25874235

  19. HIV protease drug resistance and its impact on inhibitor design.

    PubMed

    Ala, P J; Rodgers, J D; Chang, C H

    1999-07-01

    The primary cause of resistance to the currently available HIV protease inhibitors is the accumulation of multiple mutations in the viral protease. So far more than 20 substitutions have been observed in the active site, dimer interface, surface loops and flaps of the homodimer. While many mutations reduce the protease's affinity for inhibitors, others appear to enhance its catalytic efficiency. This high degree of genetic flexibility has made the protease an elusive drug target. The design of the next generation of HIV protease inhibitors will be discussed in light of the current structural information.

  20. An Aspartic Protease of the Scabies Mite Sarcoptes scabiei Is Involved in the Digestion of Host Skin and Blood Macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Wajahat; Viberg, Linda T.; Fischer, Katja; Walton, Shelley F.; Holt, Deborah C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Scabies is a disease of worldwide significance, causing considerable morbidity in both humans and other animals. The scabies mite Sarcoptes scabiei burrows into the skin of its host, obtaining nutrition from host skin and blood. Aspartic proteases mediate a range of diverse and essential physiological functions such as tissue invasion and migration, digestion, moulting and reproduction in a number of parasitic organisms. We investigated whether aspartic proteases may play role in scabies mite digestive processes. Methodology/Principle Findings We demonstrated the presence of aspartic protease activity in whole scabies mite extract. We then identified a scabies mite aspartic protease gene sequence and produced recombinant active enzyme. The recombinant scabies mite aspartic protease was capable of digesting human haemoglobin, serum albumin, fibrinogen and fibronectin, but not collagen III or laminin. This is consistent with the location of the scabies mites in the upper epidermis of human skin. Conclusions/Significance The development of novel therapeutics for scabies is of increasing importance given the evidence of emerging resistance to current treatments. We have shown that a scabies mite aspartic protease plays a role in the digestion of host skin and serum molecules, raising the possibility that interference with the function of the enzyme may impact on mite survival. PMID:24244770

  1. Pathophysiological significance and therapeutic applications of snake venom protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Rupamoni; Mukherjee, Ashis K

    2017-06-01

    Protease inhibitors are important constituents of snake venom and play important roles in the pathophysiology of snakebite. Recently, research on snake venom protease inhibitors has provided valuable information to decipher the molecular details of various biological processes and offer insight for the development of some therapeutically important molecules from snake venom. The process of blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, in addition to affecting platelet function, are well known as the major targets of several snake venom protease inhibitors. This review summarizes the structure-functional aspects of snake venom protease inhibitors that have been described to date. Because diverse biological functions have been demonstrated by protease inhibitors, a comparative overview of their pharmacological and pathophysiological properties is also highlighted. In addition, since most snake venom protease inhibitors are non-toxic on their own, this review evaluates the different roles of individual protease inhibitors that could lead to the identification of drug candidates and diagnostic molecules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Potential Roles of Protease Inhibitors in Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Li, Zhuo-Yu; Li, Han-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Proteases are important molecules that are involved in many key physiological processes. Protease signaling pathways are strictly controlled, and disorders in protease activity can result in pathological changes such as cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, cancer and neurological disorders. Many proteases have been associated with increasing tumor metastasis in various human cancers, suggesting important functional roles in the metastatic process because of their ability to degrade the extracellular matrix barrier. Proteases are also capable of cleaving non-extracellular matrix molecules. Inhibitors of proteases to some extent can reduce invasion and metastasis of cancer cells, and slow down cancer progression. In this review, we focus on the role of a few proteases and their inhibitors in tumors as a basis for cancer prognostication and therapy.

  3. Emerging principles in protease-based drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Drag, Marcin; Salvesen, Guy S.

    2010-01-01

    Proteases have an important role in many signalling pathways, and represent potential drug targets for diseases ranging from cardiovascular disorders to cancer, as well as for combating many parasites and viruses. Although inhibitors of well-established protease targets such as angiotensin-converting enzyme and HIV protease have shown substantial therapeutic success, developing drugs for new protease targets has proved challenging in recent years. This in part could be due to issues such as the difficulty of achieving selectivity when targeting protease active sites. This Perspective discusses the general principles in protease-based drug discovery, highlighting the lessons learned and the emerging strategies, such as targeting allosteric sites, which could help harness the therapeutic potential of new protease targets. PMID:20811381

  4. Protease activity, localization and inhibition in the human hair follicle

    PubMed Central

    Bhogal, R K; Mouser, P E; Higgins, C A; Turner, G A

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Objective In humans, the process of hair shedding, referred to as exogen, is believed to occur independently of the other hair cycle phases. Although the actual mechanisms involved in hair shedding are not fully known, it has been hypothesized that the processes leading to the final step of hair shedding may be driven by proteases and/or protease inhibitor activity. In this study, we investigated the presence of proteases and protease activity in naturally shed human hairs and assessed enzyme inhibition activity of test materials. Methods We measured enzyme activity using a fluorescence-based assay and protein localization by indirect immunohistochemistry (IHC). We also developed an ex vivo skin model for measuring the force required to pull hair fibres from skin. Results Our data demonstrate the presence of protease activity in the tissue material surrounding club roots. We also demonstrated the localization of specific serine protease protein expression in human hair follicle by IHC. These data provide evidence demonstrating the presence of proteases around the hair club roots, which may play a role during exogen. We further tested the hypothesis that a novel protease inhibitor system (combination of Trichogen® and climbazole) could inhibit protease activity in hair fibre club root extracts collected from a range of ethnic groups (UK, Brazil, China, first-generation Mexicans in the USA, Thailand and Turkey) in both males and females. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this combination is capable of increasing the force required to remove hair in an ex vivo skin model system. Conclusion These studies indicate the presence of proteolytic activity in the tissue surrounding the human hair club root and show that it is possible to inhibit this activity with a combination of Trichogen® and climbazole. This technology may have potential to reduce excessive hair shedding. Résumé Objectif Chez l'homme, le processus de perte de cheveux, désigné comme exog

  5. HIV protease inhibitor-related lipodystrophy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carr, A

    2000-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor (PI) therapy is frequently associated with a syndrome increasingly referred to as lipodystrophy syndrome, which is characterized by peripheral lipoatrophy, fat accumulation within the abdomen, in the breasts of women, and over the cervical vertebrae ("buffalo hump"), hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance. In the largest study to date, peripheral lipoatrophy (an estimated 0.35-kg fat loss per month overall from the face, limbs, and upper trunk) was observed in association with all licensed PIs after a median 10 months of PI therapy. Diabetes mellitus type II appears to be a related, but less common, adverse effect. The lipodystrophy syndrome may be a result of the inhibition of 2 proteins involved in lipid metabolism that have significant homology to the catalytic site of HIV protease-namely, cytoplasmic retinoic acid binding protein type 1 and low density lipoprotein-receptor-related protein.

  6. Dysregulation of Protease and Protease Inhibitors in a Mouse Model of Human Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Budatha, Madhusudhan; Silva, Simone; Montoya, Teodoro Ignacio; Suzuki, Ayako; Shah-Simpson, Sheena; Wieslander, Cecilia Karin; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Word, Ruth Ann; Yanagisawa, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    Mice deficient for the fibulin-5 gene (Fbln5−/−) develop pelvic organ prolapse (POP) due to compromised elastic fibers and upregulation of matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-9. Here, we used casein zymography, inhibitor profiling, affinity pull-down, and mass spectrometry to discover additional protease upregulated in the vaginal wall of Fbln5−/− mice, herein named V1 (25 kDa). V1 was a serine protease with trypsin-like activity similar to protease, serine (PRSS) 3, a major extrapancreatic trypsinogen, was optimum at pH 8.0, and predominantly detected in estrogenized vaginal epithelium of Fbln5−/− mice. PRSS3 was (a) localized in epithelial secretions, (b) detected in media of vaginal organ culture from both Fbln5−/− and wild type mice, and (c) cleaved fibulin-5 in vitro. Expression of two serine protease inhibitors [Serpina1a (α1-antitrypsin) and Elafin] was dysregulated in Fbln5−/− epithelium. Finally, we confirmed that PRSS3 was expressed in human vaginal epithelium and that SERPINA1 and Elafin were downregulated in vaginal tissues from women with POP. These data collectively suggest that the balance between proteases and their inhibitors contributes to support of the pelvic organs in humans and mice. PMID:23437119

  7. Understanding serine proteases implications on Leishmania spp lifecycle.

    PubMed

    Alves, Carlos Roberto; Souza, Raquel Santos de; Charret, Karen Dos Santos; Côrtes, Luzia Monteiro de Castro; Sá-Silva, Matheus Pereira de; Barral-Veloso, Laura; Oliveira, Luiz Filipe Gonçalves; da Silva, Franklin Souza

    2018-01-01

    Serine proteases have significant functions over a broad range of relevant biological processes to the Leishmania spp lifecycle. Data gathered here present an update on the Leishmania spp serine proteases and the status of these enzymes as part of the parasite degradome. The serine protease genes (n = 26 to 28) in Leishmania spp, which encode proteins with a wide range of molecular masses (35 kDa-115 kDa), are described along with their degrees of chromosomal and allelic synteny. Amid 17 putative Leishmania spp serine proteases, only ∼18% were experimentally demonstrated, as: signal peptidases that remove the signal peptide from secretory pre-proteins, maturases of other proteins and with metacaspase-like activity. These enzymes include those of clans SB, SC and SF. Classical inhibitors of serine proteases are used as tools for the characterization and investigation of Leishmania spp. Endogenous serine protease inhibitors, which are ecotin-like, can act modulating host actions. However, crude or synthetic based-natural serine protease inhibitors, such as potato tuber extract, Stichodactyla helianthus protease inhibitor I, fukugetin and epoxy-α-lapachone act on parasitic serine proteases and are promising leishmanicidal agents. The functional interrelationship between serine proteases and other Leishmania spp proteins demonstrate essential functions of these enzymes in parasite physiology and therefore their value as targets for leishmaniasis treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Tunable Protease-Activatable Virus Nanonodes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We explored the unique signal integration properties of the self-assembling 60-mer protein capsid of adeno-associated virus (AAV), a clinically proven human gene therapy vector, by engineering proteolytic regulation of virus–receptor interactions such that processing of the capsid by proteases is required for infection. We find the transfer function of our engineered protease-activatable viruses (PAVs), relating the degree of proteolysis (input) to PAV activity (output), is highly nonlinear, likely due to increased polyvalency. By exploiting this dynamic polyvalency, in combination with the self-assembly properties of the virus capsid, we show that mosaic PAVs can be constructed that operate under a digital AND gate regime, where two different protease inputs are required for virus activation. These results show viruses can be engineered as signal-integrating nanoscale nodes whose functional properties are regulated by multiple proteolytic signals with easily tunable and predictable response surfaces, a promising development toward advanced control of gene delivery. PMID:24796495

  9. Viral proteases: an emerging therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Korant, B D

    1988-01-01

    Only a few viral diseases are presently treatable because of our limited knowledge of specific viral target molecules. An attractive class of viral molecules toward which chemotherapeutic agents could be aimed are proteases coded by some virus groups such as retro- or picornaviruses (poliomyelitis, common cold virus). The picornavirus enzymes were discovered first, and they have now been characterized by a combination of molecular-genetic and biochemical approaches. Several laboratories have expressed the picornaviral enzymes in heterologous systems and have reported proteolytic activity, as well as the high cleavage fidelity diagnostic of the viral proteases. After dealing with several technical difficulties often encountered in standard genetic engineering approaches, one viral protease is now available to us in quantity and is amendable to mutagenic procedures. The initial outcome of the mutagenesis studies has been the confirmation of our earlier work with inhibitors, which suggested a cysteine active-site class. There is a clustering of active-site residues which may be unique to these viruses. The requirement for an active-site cysteine-histidine pair in combination with detailed information on the viral cleavage sites has permitted design of selective inhibitors with attractive antiviral properties. Future goals include investigation of the structural basis for selective processing and application of the cleavage specificity to general problems in genetic engineering.

  10. Structural determinants of tobacco vein mottling virus protease substrate specificity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ping; Austin, Brian P; Tözsér, József; Waugh, David S

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco vein mottling virus (TVMV) is a member of the Potyviridae, one of the largest families of plant viruses. The TVMV genome is translated into a single large polyprotein that is subsequently processed by three virally encoded proteases. Seven of the nine cleavage events are carried out by the NIa protease. Its homolog from the tobacco etch virus (TEV) is a widely used reagent for the removal of affinity tags from recombinant proteins. Although TVMV protease is a close relative of TEV protease, they exhibit distinct sequence specificities. We report here the crystal structure of a catalytically inactive mutant TVMV protease (K65A/K67A/C151A) in complex with a canonical peptide substrate (Ac-RETVRFQSD) at 1.7-Å resolution. As observed in several crystal structures of TEV protease, the C-terminus (∼20 residues) of TVMV protease is disordered. Unexpectedly, although deleting the disordered residues from TEV protease reduces its catalytic activity by ∼10-fold, an analogous truncation mutant of TVMV protease is significantly more active. Comparison of the structures of TEV and TVMV protease in complex with their respective canonical substrate peptides reveals that the S3 and S4 pockets are mainly responsible for the differing substrate specificities. The structure of TVMV protease suggests that it is less tolerant of variation at the P1′ position than TEV protease. This conjecture was confirmed experimentally by determining kinetic parameters kcat and Km for a series of oligopeptide substrates. Also, as predicted by the cocrystal structure, we confirm that substitutions in the P6 position are more readily tolerated by TVMV than TEV protease. PMID:20862670

  11. Structural determinants of tobacco vein mottling virus protease substrate specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Ping; Austin, Brian P.; Tozer, Jozsef

    2010-10-28

    Tobacco vein mottling virus (TVMV) is a member of the Potyviridae, one of the largest families of plant viruses. The TVMV genome is translated into a single large polyprotein that is subsequently processed by three virally encoded proteases. Seven of the nine cleavage events are carried out by the NIa protease. Its homolog from the tobacco etch virus (TEV) is a widely used reagent for the removal of affinity tags from recombinant proteins. Although TVMV protease is a close relative of TEV protease, they exhibit distinct sequence specificities. We report here the crystal structure of a catalytically inactive mutant TVMVmore » protease (K65A/K67A/C151A) in complex with a canonical peptide substrate (Ac-RETVRFQSD) at 1.7-{angstrom} resolution. As observed in several crystal structures of TEV protease, the C-terminus ({approx}20 residues) of TVMV protease is disordered. Unexpectedly, although deleting the disordered residues from TEV protease reduces its catalytic activity by {approx}10-fold, an analogous truncation mutant of TVMV protease is significantly more active. Comparison of the structures of TEV and TVMV protease in complex with their respective canonical substrate peptides reveals that the S3 and S4 pockets are mainly responsible for the differing substrate specificities. The structure of TVMV protease suggests that it is less tolerant of variation at the P1{prime} position than TEV protease. This conjecture was confirmed experimentally by determining kinetic parameters k{sub cat} and K{sub m} for a series of oligopeptide substrates. Also, as predicted by the cocrystal structure, we confirm that substitutions in the P6 position are more readily tolerated by TVMV than TEV protease.« less

  12. Neutrophil-Derived Proteases Escalate Inflammation through Activation of IL-36 Family Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Henry, Conor M; Sullivan, Graeme P; Clancy, Danielle M; Afonina, Inna S; Kulms, Dagmar; Martin, Seamus J

    2016-02-02

    Recent evidence has strongly implicated the IL-1 family cytokines IL-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ as key initiators of skin inflammation. Similar to the other members of the IL-1 family, IL-36 cytokines are expressed as inactive precursors and require proteolytic processing for activation; however, the responsible proteases are unknown. Here, we show that IL-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ are activated differentially by the neutrophil granule-derived proteases cathepsin G, elastase, and proteinase-3, increasing their biological activity ~500-fold. Active IL-36 promoted a strong pro-inflammatory signature in primary keratinocytes and was sufficient to perturb skin differentiation in a reconstituted 3D human skin model, producing features resembling psoriasis. Furthermore, skin eluates from psoriasis patients displayed significantly elevated cathepsin G-like activity that was sufficient to activate IL-36β. These data identify neutrophil granule proteases as potent IL-36-activating enzymes, adding to our understanding of how neutrophils escalate inflammatory reactions. Inhibition of neutrophil-derived proteases may therefore have therapeutic benefits in psoriasis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Structural Insights into the Allosteric Operation of the Lon AAA+ Protease.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Chu; Su, Shih-Chieh; Su, Ming-Yuan; Liang, Pi-Hui; Feng, Chia-Cheng; Wu, Shih-Hsiung; Chang, Chung-I

    2016-05-03

    The Lon AAA+ protease (LonA) is an evolutionarily conserved protease that couples the ATPase cycle into motion to drive substrate translocation and degradation. A hallmark feature shared by AAA+ proteases is the stimulation of ATPase activity by substrates. Here we report the structure of LonA bound to three ADPs, revealing the first AAA+ protease assembly where the six protomers are arranged alternately in nucleotide-free and bound states. Nucleotide binding induces large coordinated movements of conserved pore loops from two pairs of three non-adjacent protomers and shuttling of the proteolytic groove between the ATPase site and a previously unknown Arg paddle. Structural and biochemical evidence supports the roles of the substrate-bound proteolytic groove in allosteric stimulation of ATPase activity and the conserved Arg paddle in driving substrate degradation. Altogether, this work provides a molecular framework for understanding how ATP-dependent chemomechanical movements drive allosteric processes for substrate degradation in a major protein-destruction machine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Regulation of the production of extracellular pectinase, cellulase, and protease in the soft rot bacterium Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora: evidence that aepH of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora 71 activates gene expression in E. carotovora subsp. carotovora, E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica, and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Murata, H; Chatterjee, A; Liu, Y; Chatterjee, A K

    1994-01-01

    The production of pectolytic enzymes (pectate lyase [Pel] and polygalacturonase [Peh]), cellulase (Cel), and protease (Prt) is activated in the soft rot bacterium Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora by aepA (activator of extracellular protein production) and celery extract (Y. Liu, H. Murata, A. Chatterjee, and A. K. Chatterjee, Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 6:299-308, 1993). We recently isolated a new class of mutants of strain E. carotovora subsp. carotovora 71 which overproduces Pel, Peh, Cel, and Prt. From the overproducing strain AC5034, we identified an activator locus, designated aepH*, which stimulated Pel, Peh, Cel, and Prt production in E. carotovora subsp. carotovora 71 or its derivatives. The nucleotide sequence of the aepH* DNA segment revealed an open reading frame of 141 bp that could encode a small (5.45-kDa) highly basic (pI 11.7) protein of 47 amino acid residues. Analyses of deletions and MudI insertions indicated that the activator function required the 508-bp DNA segment which contains this open reading frame. The wild-type locus, aepH+, is localized within a DNA segment upstream of aepA. An AepH- strain constructed by exchanging aepH+ with aepH*::MudI was deficient in Pel, Peh, Cel, and Prt production; exoenzyme production was restored upon the introduction of a plasmid carrying aepH+ or aepH*. Plasmids carrying either aepH+ or aepH* activated the production of Pel-1, Peh-1, and Cel in Escherichia coli HB101 carrying the cognate genes. The aepH effect in E. coli was due to the activation of transcription, as indicated by assays of pel-1 and peh-1 mRNAs. The aepH+ and aepH* plasmids also stimulated Pel, Peh, Cel, and Prt production in other wild-type E. carotovora subsp. carotovora strains as well as in E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica. Although the stimulatory effect was generally more pronounced with aepH* than with aepH+, the extent of activation in the wild-type strains depended upon the bacterial strain and the growth medium. Southern blot

  15. Diversity of Both the Cultivable Protease-Producing Bacteria and Bacterial Extracellular Proteases in the Coastal Sediments of King George Island, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ming-Yang; Wang, Guang-Long; Li, Dan; Zhao, Dian-Li; Qin, Qi-Long; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Chen, Bo; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Protease-producing bacteria play a vital role in degrading sedimentary organic nitrogen. However, the diversity of these bacteria and their extracellular proteases in most regions remain unknown. In this paper, the diversity of the cultivable protease-producing bacteria and of bacterial extracellular proteases in the sediments of Maxwell Bay, King George Island, Antarctica was investigated. The cultivable protease-producing bacteria reached 105 cells/g in all 8 sediment samples. The cultivated protease-producing bacteria were mainly affiliated with the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria, and the predominant genera were Bacillus (22.9%), Flavobacterium (21.0%) and Lacinutrix (16.2%). Among these strains, Pseudoalteromonas and Flavobacteria showed relatively high protease production. Inhibitor analysis showed that nearly all the extracellular proteases from the bacteria were serine proteases or metalloproteases. These results begin to address the diversity of protease-producing bacteria and bacterial extracellular proteases in the sediments of the Antarctic Sea. PMID:24223990

  16. Inflammatory effect of environmental proteases on airway mucosa.

    PubMed

    Reed, Charles E

    2007-09-01

    Proteases--both endogenous proteases from the coagulation cascade, mast cells, and respiratory epithelial trypsin, and exogenous proteases from parasites, insects, mites, molds, pollens, and other aeroallergens--stimulate a tissue response that includes attraction and activation of eosinophils and neutrophils, degranulation of eosinophils and mast cells, increased response of afferent neurons, smooth muscle contraction, angiogenesis, fibrosis, and production of immunoglobulin E. This response to exogenous proteases can be considered a form of innate immunity directed against multicellular organisms. The response of the airways to environmental proteases very closely resembles the response to airborne allergens. Although clinical research in this area is just beginning, the response to environmental proteases appears to be important in the pathogenesis of rhinitis and asthma developing from damp, water-damaged buildings, and intrinsic asthma with its associated rhinosinusitis and polyps.

  17. A Look Inside HIV Resistance through Retroviral Protease Interaction Maps

    PubMed Central

    Kontijevskis, Aleksejs; Prusis, Peteris; Petrovska, Ramona; Yahorava, Sviatlana; Mutulis, Felikss; Mutule, Ilze; Komorowski, Jan; Wikberg, Jarl E. S

    2007-01-01

    Retroviruses affect a large number of species, from fish and birds to mammals and humans, with global socioeconomic negative impacts. Here the authors report and experimentally validate a novel approach for the analysis of the molecular networks that are involved in the recognition of substrates by retroviral proteases. Using multivariate analysis of the sequence-based physiochemical descriptions of 61 retroviral proteases comprising wild-type proteases, natural mutants, and drug-resistant forms of proteases from nine different viral species in relation to their ability to cleave 299 substrates, the authors mapped the physicochemical properties and cross-dependencies of the amino acids of the proteases and their substrates, which revealed a complex molecular interaction network of substrate recognition and cleavage. The approach allowed a detailed analysis of the molecular–chemical mechanisms involved in substrate cleavage by retroviral proteases. PMID:17352531

  18. Proteases Revisited: Roles and Therapeutic Implications in Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kryczka, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Proteases target many substrates, triggering changes in distinct biological processes correlated with cell migration, EMT/EndMT and fibrosis. Extracellular protease activity, demonstrated by secreted and membrane-bound protease forms, leads to ECM degradation, activation of other proteases (i.e., proteolysis of nonactive zymogens), decomposition of cell-cell junctions, release of sequestered growth factors (TGF-β and VEGF), activation of signal proteins and receptors, degradation of inflammatory inhibitors or inflammation-related proteins, and changes in cell mechanosensing and motility. Intracellular proteases, mainly caspases and cathepsins, modulate lysosome activity and signal transduction pathways. Herein, we discuss the current knowledge on the multidimensional impact of proteases on the development of fibrosis. PMID:28642633

  19. The herpesvirus proteases as targets for antiviral chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Waxman, L; Darke, P L

    2000-01-01

    Viruses of the family Herpesviridae are responsible for a diverse set of human diseases. The available treatments are largely ineffective, with the exception of a few drugs for treatment of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections. For several members of this DNA virus family, advances have been made recently in the biochemistry and structural biology of the essential viral protease, revealing common features that may be possible to exploit in the development of a new class of anti-herpesvirus agents. The herpesvirus proteases have been identified as belonging to a unique class of serine protease, with a Ser-His-His catalytic triad. A new, single domain protein fold has been determined by X-ray crystallography for the proteases of at least three different herpesviruses. Also unique for serine proteases, dimerization has been shown to be required for activity of the cytomegalovirus and HSV proteases. The dimerization requirement seriously impacts methods needed for productive, functional analysis and inhibitor discovery. The conserved functional and catalytic properties of the herpesvirus proteases lead to common considerations for this group of proteases in the early phases of inhibitor discovery. In general, classical serine protease inhibitors that react with active site residues do not readily inactivate the herpesvirus proteases. There has been progress however, with activated carbonyls that exploit the selective nucleophilicity of the active site serine. In addition, screening of chemical libraries has yielded novel structures as starting points for drug development. Recent crystal structures of the herpesvirus proteases now allow more direct interpretation of ligand structure-activity relationships. This review first describes basic functional aspects of herpesvirus protease biology and enzymology. Then we discuss inhibitors identified to date and the prospects for their future development.

  20. Economic Methods of Ginger Protease'sextraction and Purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Yuanyuan; Tong, Junfeng; Wei, Siqing; Du, Xinyong; Tang, Xiaozhen

    This article reports the ginger protease extraction and purification methods from fresh ginger rhizome. As to ginger protease extraction, we adapt the steps of organic solvent dissolving, ammonium sulfate depositing and freeze-drying, and this method can attain crude enzyme powder 0.6% weight of fresh ginger rhizome. The purification part in this study includes two steps: cellulose ion exchange (DEAE-52) and SP-Sephadex 50 chromatography, which can purify crude ginger protease through ion and molecular weight differences respectively.

  1. Indispensable Role of Proteases in Plant Innate Immunity.

    PubMed

    Balakireva, Anastasia V; Zamyatnin, Andrey A

    2018-02-23

    Plant defense is achieved mainly through the induction of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMP)-triggered immunity (MTI), effector-triggered immunity (ETI), systemic acquired resistance (SAR), induced systemic resistance (ISR), and RNA silencing. Plant immunity is a highly complex phenomenon with its own unique features that have emerged as a result of the arms race between plants and pathogens. However, the regulation of these processes is the same for all living organisms, including plants, and is controlled by proteases. Different families of plant proteases are involved in every type of immunity: some of the proteases that are covered in this review participate in MTI, affecting stomatal closure and callose deposition. A large number of proteases act in the apoplast, contributing to ETI by managing extracellular defense. A vast majority of the endogenous proteases discussed in this review are associated with the programmed cell death (PCD) of the infected cells and exhibit caspase-like activities. The synthesis of signal molecules, such as salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene, and their signaling pathways, are regulated by endogenous proteases that affect the induction of pathogenesis-related genes and SAR or ISR establishment. A number of proteases are associated with herbivore defense. In this review, we summarize the data concerning identified plant endogenous proteases, their effect on plant-pathogen interactions, their subcellular localization, and their functional properties, if available, and we attribute a role in the different types and stages of innate immunity for each of the proteases covered.

  2. Detergent alkaline proteases: enzymatic properties, genes, and crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Katsuhisa; Ozaki, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Tohru; Ito, Susumu

    2007-06-01

    Subtilisin-like serine proteases from bacilli have been used in various industrial fields worldwide, particularly in the production of laundry and automatic dishwashing detergents. They belong to family A of the subtilase superfamily, which is composed of three clans, namely, true subtilisins, high-alkaline proteases, and intracellular proteases. We succeeded in the large-scale production of a high-alkaline protease (M-protease) from alkaliphilic Bacillus clausii KSM-K16, and the enzyme has been introduced into compact heavy-duty laundry detergents. We have also succeeded in the industrial-scale production of a new alkaline protease, KP-43, which was originally resistant to chemical oxidants and to surfactants, produced by alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. strain KSM-KP43 and have incorporated it into laundry detergents. KP-43 and related proteases form a new clan, oxidatively stable proteases, in subtilase family A. In this review, we describe the enzymatic properties, gene sequences, and crystal structures of M-protease, KP-43, and related enzymes.

  3. Evaluation of cysteine proteases of Plasmodium vivax as antimalarial drug targets: sequence analysis and sensitivity to cysteine protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Na, Byoung-Kuk; Kim, Tong-Soo; Rosenthal, Philip J; Lee, Jong-Koo; Kong, Yoon

    2004-10-01

    Cysteine proteases perform critical roles in the life cycles of malaria parasites. In Plasmodium falciparum, treatment of cysteine protease inhibitors inhibits hemoglobin hydrolysis and blocks the parasite development in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that plasmodial cysteine proteases may be interesting targets for new chemotherapeutics. To determine whether sequence diversity may limit chemotherapy against Plasmodium vivax, we analyzed sequence variations in the genes encoding three cysteine proteases, vivapain-1, -2 and -3, in 22 wild isolates of P. vivax. The sequences were highly conserved among wild isolates. A small number of substitutions leading to amino acid changes were found, while they did not modify essential residues for the function or structure of the enzymes. The substrate specificities and sensitivities to synthetic cysteine protease inhibitors of vivapain-2 and -3 from wild isolates were also very similar. These results support the suggestion that cysteine proteases of P. vivax are promising antimalarial chemotherapeutic targets.

  4. StAR Enhances Transcription of Genes Encoding the Mitochondrial Proteases Involved in Its Own Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Bahat, Assaf; Perlberg, Shira; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Lauria, Ines; Langer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is essential for steroid hormone synthesis in the adrenal cortex and the gonads. StAR activity facilitates the supply of cholesterol substrate into the inner mitochondrial membranes where conversion of the sterol to a steroid is catalyzed. Mitochondrial import terminates the cholesterol mobilization activity of StAR and leads to mounting accumulation of StAR in the mitochondrial matrix. Our studies suggest that to prevent mitochondrial impairment, StAR proteolysis is executed by at least 2 mitochondrial proteases, ie, the matrix LON protease and the inner membrane complexes of the metalloproteases AFG3L2 and AFG3L2:SPG7/paraplegin. Gonadotropin administration to prepubertal rats stimulated ovarian follicular development associated with increased expression of the mitochondrial protein quality control system. In addition, enrichment of LON and AFG3L2 is evident in StAR-expressing ovarian cells examined by confocal microscopy. Furthermore, reporter studies of the protease promoters examined in the heterologous cell model suggest that StAR expression stimulates up to a 3.5-fold increase in the protease gene transcription. Such effects are StAR-specific, are independent of StAR activity, and failed to occur upon expression of StAR mutants that do not enter the matrix. Taken together, the results of this study suggest the presence of a novel regulatory loop, whereby acute accumulation of an apparent nuisance protein in the matrix provokes a mitochondria to nucleus signaling that, in turn, activates selected transcription of genes encoding the enrichment of mitochondrial proteases relevant for enhanced clearance of StAR. PMID:24422629

  5. A study on trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. protease inhibitory activity in Cassia tora (L.) syn Senna tora (L.) Roxb. seed extract.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Vinayak R; Kumar, Shailendra; Garg, Satyendra K

    2011-07-12

    inhibitory activity was evident in gelatin SDS-PAGE where a major band (~17-19 kD) of protease inhibitor (PI) was detected in dialyzed and SEC elute. The conidial germination of Aspergillus flavus was moderately inhibited (30%) by the dialyzed seed extract. Cassia tora seed extract has strong protease inhibitory activity against trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. proteases. The inhibitor in Cassia tora may attenuate microbial proteases and also might be used as phytoprotecting agent. © 2011 Tripathi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  6. Reversible Unfolding of Rhomboid Intramembrane Proteases.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Rashmi; Arutyunova, Elena; Panwar, Pankaj; Gimpl, Katharina; Keller, Sandro; Lemieux, M Joanne

    2016-03-29

    Denaturant-induced unfolding of helical membrane proteins provides insights into their mechanism of folding and domain organization, which take place in the chemically heterogeneous, anisotropic environment of a lipid membrane. Rhomboid proteases are intramembrane proteases that play key roles in various diseases. Crystal structures have revealed a compact helical bundle with a buried active site, which requires conformational changes for the cleavage of transmembrane substrates. A dimeric form of the rhomboid protease has been shown to be important for activity. In this study, we examine the mechanism of refolding for two distinct rhomboids to gain insight into their secondary structure-activity relationships. Although helicity is largely abolished in the unfolded states of both proteins, unfolding is completely reversible for HiGlpG but only partially reversible for PsAarA. Refolding of both proteins results in reassociation of the dimer, with a 90% regain of catalytic activity for HiGlpG but only a 70% regain for PsAarA. For both proteins, a broad, gradual transition from the native, folded state to the denatured, partly unfolded state was revealed with the aid of circular dichroism spectroscopy as a function of denaturant concentration, thus arguing against a classical two-state model as found for many globular soluble proteins. Thermal denaturation has irreversible destabilizing effects on both proteins, yet reveals important functional details regarding substrate accessibility to the buried active site. This concerted biophysical and functional analysis demonstrates that HiGlpG, with a simple six-transmembrane-segment organization, is more robust than PsAarA, which has seven predicted transmembrane segments, thus rendering HiGlpG amenable to in vitro studies of membrane-protein folding. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Protease activity of microflora in the oral cavity of patients with periodontitis].

    PubMed

    Voropaeva, E A; Baĭrakova, A L; Bichucher, A M; D'iakov, V L; Kozlov, L V

    2008-01-01

    Microbial spectrum and non-specific as well as specific IgA1 protease activity of isolated microorganisms were investigated in gingival liquid of patients with periodontitis. Microorganisms from the gingival liqud of these patients belonged to conditional-pathogenic obligate and facultatively anaerobic bacteria. 24 strains of microorganisms have been identified. Nonspecific proteolytic activity was found in the following microorganisms: Actinomyces israelii, Actinomyces naeslundii, Aerococcus viridans, Bifidobacterium longum, Neisseria subflave, Streptococcus parvulus, Eubacterium alactolyticum, Lactobaccilus catenoforme, Bacillus spp. Specific IgA1-protease activity and lack of proteolytic activity towards IgG was found in Streptococcus acidominimus, Streptococcus hansenii, Streptococcus salivarius, Leptotrychia buccalis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Neisseria sicca. No proteolytic activity was found in cultivation medium of Eubacterium alactolyticum (1 strain), Prevotella buccalis, Aerococcus viridans and Streptococcus sanguis.

  8. Structure of protease-cleaved Escherichia coli α-2-macroglobulin reveals a putative mechanism of conformational activation for protease entrapment

    SciTech Connect

    Fyfe, Cameron D.; Grinter, Rhys; Josts, Inokentijs

    The X-ray structure of protease-cleaved E. coli α-2-macroglobulin is described, which reveals a putative mechanism of activation and conformational change essential for protease inhibition. Bacterial α-2-macroglobulins have been suggested to function in defence as broad-spectrum inhibitors of host proteases that breach the outer membrane. Here, the X-ray structure of protease-cleaved Escherichia coli α-2-macroglobulin is described, which reveals a putative mechanism of activation and conformational change essential for protease inhibition. In this competitive mechanism, protease cleavage of the bait-region domain results in the untethering of an intrinsically disordered region of this domain which disrupts native interdomain interactions that maintain E. colimore » α-2-macroglobulin in the inactivated form. The resulting global conformational change results in entrapment of the protease and activation of the thioester bond that covalently links to the attacking protease. Owing to the similarity in structure and domain architecture of Escherichia coli α-2-macroglobulin and human α-2-macroglobulin, this protease-activation mechanism is likely to operate across the diverse members of this group.« less

  9. Protease sensing using nontoxic silicon quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaoyu; McVey, Benjamin F P; Robinson, Andrew B; Longatte, Guillaume; O'Mara, Peter B; Tan, Vincent T G; Thordarson, Pall; Tilley, Richard D; Gaus, Katharina; Justin Gooding, John

    2017-08-01

    Herein is presented a proof-of-concept study of protease sensing that combines nontoxic silicon quantum dots (SiQDs) with Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). The SiQDs serve as the donor and an organic dye as the acceptor. The dye is covalently attached to the SiQDs using a peptide linker. Enzymatic cleavage of the peptide leads to changes in FRET efficiency. The combination of interfacial design and optical imaging presented in this work opens opportunities for use of nontoxic SiQDs relevant to intracellular sensing and imaging. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  10. Frequency and patterns of protease gene resistance mutations in HIV-infected patients treated with lopinavir/ritonavir as their first protease inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Barber, Tristan J; Harrison, Linda; Asboe, David; Williams, Ian; Kirk, Stuart; Gilson, Richard; Bansi, Loveleen; Pillay, Deenan; Dunn, David

    2012-04-01

    Selection of protease mutations on antiretroviral therapy (ART) including a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI) has been reported infrequently. Scarce data exist from long-term cohorts on resistance incidence or mutational patterns emerging to different PIs. We studied UK patients receiving lopinavir/ritonavir as their first PI, either while naive to ART or having previously received non-PI-based ART. Virological failure was defined as viral load ≥ 400 copies/mL after previous suppression <400 copies/mL, or failure to achieve <400 copies/mL during the first 6 months. pol sequences whilst failing lopinavir or within 30 days after stopping were analysed. Major and minor mutations (IAS-USA 2008-after exclusion of polymorphisms) were considered. Predicted susceptibility was determined using the Stanford HIVdb algorithm. Three thousand and fifty-six patients were followed for a median (IQR) of 14 (6-30) months, of whom 811 (27%) experienced virological failure. Of these, resistance test results were available on 291 (36%). One or more protease mutations were detected in 32 (11%) patients; the most frequent were I54V (n = 12), M46I (n = 11), V82A (n = 7) and L76V (n = 3). No association with viral subtype was evident. Many patients retained virus predicted to be susceptible to lopinavir (14, 44%), tipranavir (26, 81%) and darunavir (27, 84%). This study reflects the experience of patients in routine care. Selection of protease gene mutations by lopinavir/ritonavir occurred at a much higher rate than in clinical trials. The mutations observed showed only partial overlap with those previously identified by structural chemistry models, serial cell culture passage and genotype-phenotype analyses. There remained a low degree of predicted cross-resistance to other widely used PIs.

  11. Production and characterization of thermostable alkaline protease of Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633) from optimized solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Joyee; Giri, Sudipta; Maity, Sujan; Sinha, Ankan; Ranjan, Ashish; Rajshekhar; Gupta, Suvroma

    2015-01-01

    Proteases are the most important group of enzymes utilized commercially in various arenas of industries, such as food, detergent, leather, dairy, pharmaceutical, diagnostics, and waste management, accounting for nearly 20% of the world enzyme market. Microorganisms of specially Bacillus genera serve as a vast repository of diverse set of industrially important enzymes and utilized for the large-scale enzyme production using a fermentation technology. Approximately 30%-40% of the cost of industrial enzymes originates from the cost of the growth medium. This study is attempted to produce protease from Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633) after optimization of various process parameters with the aid of solid-state fermentation using a cheap nutrient source such as wheat bran. B. subtilis (ATCC 6633) produces proteases of molecular weight 36 and 20 kDa, respectively, in the fermented medium as evident from SDS zymogram. Alkaline protease activity has been detected with optimum temperature at 50 °C and is insensitive to ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. This thermostable alkaline protease exhibits dual pH optimum at 7 and 10 with moderate pH stability at alkaline pH range. It preserves its activity in the presence of detergent such as SDS, Tween 20, and Triton X-100 and may be considered as an effective additive to detergent formulation with some industrial importance. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Secretion of Proteases by an Opportunistic Fungal Pathogen Scedosporium aurantiacum

    PubMed Central

    Kautto, Liisa; Nevalainen, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Scedosporium aurantiacum is an opportunistic filamentous fungus increasingly isolated from the sputum of cystic fibrosis patients, and is especially prevalent in Australia. At the moment, very little is known about the infection mechanism of this fungus. Secreted proteases have been shown to contribute to fungal virulence in several studies with other fungi. Here we have compared the profiles of proteases secreted by a clinical isolate Scedosporium aurantiacum (WM 06.482) and an environmental strain (WM 10.136) grown on a synthetic cystic fibrosis sputum medium supplemented with casein or mucin. Protease activity was assessed using class-specific substrates and inhibitors. Subtilisin-like and trypsin-like serine protease activity was detected in all cultures. The greatest difference in the secretion of proteases between the two strains occurred in mucin-supplemented medium, where the activities of the elastase-like, trypsin-like and aspartic proteases were, overall, 2.5–75 fold higher in the clinical strain compared to the environmental strain. Proteases secreted by the two strains in the mucin-supplemented medium were further analyzed by mass spectrometry. Six homologs of fungal proteases were identified from the clinical strain and five from the environmental strain. Of these, three were common for both strains including a subtilisin peptidase, a putative leucine aminopeptidase and a PA-SaNapH-like protease. Trypsin-like protease was identified by mass spectrometry only in the clinical isolate even though trypsin-like activity was present in all cultures. In contrast, high elastase-like activity was measured in the culture supernatant of the clinical strain but could not be identified by mass spectrometry searching against other fungi in the NCBI database. Future availability of an annotated genome will help finalise identification of the S. aurantiacum proteases. PMID:28060882

  13. Secretion of Proteases by an Opportunistic Fungal Pathogen Scedosporium aurantiacum.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhiping; Kautto, Liisa; Nevalainen, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Scedosporium aurantiacum is an opportunistic filamentous fungus increasingly isolated from the sputum of cystic fibrosis patients, and is especially prevalent in Australia. At the moment, very little is known about the infection mechanism of this fungus. Secreted proteases have been shown to contribute to fungal virulence in several studies with other fungi. Here we have compared the profiles of proteases secreted by a clinical isolate Scedosporium aurantiacum (WM 06.482) and an environmental strain (WM 10.136) grown on a synthetic cystic fibrosis sputum medium supplemented with casein or mucin. Protease activity was assessed using class-specific substrates and inhibitors. Subtilisin-like and trypsin-like serine protease activity was detected in all cultures. The greatest difference in the secretion of proteases between the two strains occurred in mucin-supplemented medium, where the activities of the elastase-like, trypsin-like and aspartic proteases were, overall, 2.5-75 fold higher in the clinical strain compared to the environmental strain. Proteases secreted by the two strains in the mucin-supplemented medium were further analyzed by mass spectrometry. Six homologs of fungal proteases were identified from the clinical strain and five from the environmental strain. Of these, three were common for both strains including a subtilisin peptidase, a putative leucine aminopeptidase and a PA-SaNapH-like protease. Trypsin-like protease was identified by mass spectrometry only in the clinical isolate even though trypsin-like activity was present in all cultures. In contrast, high elastase-like activity was measured in the culture supernatant of the clinical strain but could not be identified by mass spectrometry searching against other fungi in the NCBI database. Future availability of an annotated genome will help finalise identification of the S. aurantiacum proteases.

  14. HIV-1 protease-substrate coevolution in nelfinavir resistance.

    PubMed

    Kolli, Madhavi; Ozen, Ayşegül; Kurt-Yilmaz, Nese; Schiffer, Celia A

    2014-07-01

    Resistance to various human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors (PIs) challenges the effectiveness of therapies in treating HIV-1-infected individuals and AIDS patients. The virus accumulates mutations within the protease (PR) that render the PIs less potent. Occasionally, Gag sequences also coevolve with mutations at PR cleavage sites contributing to drug resistance. In this study, we investigated the structural basis of coevolution of the p1-p6 cleavage site with the nelfinavir (NFV) resistance D30N/N88D protease mutations by determining crystal structures of wild-type and NFV-resistant HIV-1 protease in complex with p1-p6 substrate peptide variants with L449F and/or S451N. Alterations of residue 30's interaction with the substrate are compensated by the coevolving L449F and S451N cleavage site mutations. This interdependency in the PR-p1-p6 interactions enhances intermolecular contacts and reinforces the overall fit of the substrate within the substrate envelope, likely enabling coevolution to sustain substrate recognition and cleavage in the presence of PR resistance mutations. Resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors challenges the effectiveness of therapies in treating HIV-1-infected individuals and AIDS patients. Mutations in HIV-1 protease selected under the pressure of protease inhibitors render the inhibitors less potent. Occasionally, Gag sequences also mutate and coevolve with protease, contributing to maintenance of viral fitness and to drug resistance. In this study, we investigated the structural basis of coevolution at the Gag p1-p6 cleavage site with the nelfinavir (NFV) resistance D30N/N88D protease mutations. Our structural analysis reveals the interdependency of protease-substrate interactions and how coevolution may restore substrate recognition and cleavage in the presence of protease drug resistance mutations. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Molecular characterization of protease activity in Serratia sp. strain SCBI and its importance in cytotoxicity and virulence.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Lauren M; Tisa, Louis S

    2014-11-01

    A newly recognized Serratia species, termed South African Caenorhabditis briggsae isolate (SCBI), is both a mutualist of the nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae KT0001 and a pathogen of lepidopteran insects. Serratia sp. strain SCBI displays high proteolytic activity, and because secreted proteases are known virulence factors for many pathogens, the purpose of this study was to identify genes essential for extracellular protease activity in Serratia sp. strain SCBI and to determine what role proteases play in insect pathogenesis and cytotoxicity. A bank of 2,100 transposon mutants was generated, and six SCBI mutants with defective proteolytic activity were identified. These mutants were also defective in cytotoxicity. The mutants were found defective in genes encoding the following proteins: alkaline metalloprotease secretion protein AprE, a BglB family transcriptional antiterminator, an inosine/xanthosine triphosphatase, GidA, a methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein, and a PIN domain protein. Gene expression analysis on these six mutants showed significant downregulation in mRNA levels of several different types of predicted protease genes. In addition, transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis provided insight into how inactivation of AprE, GidA, and a PIN domain protein influences motility and virulence, as well as protease activity. Using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) to further characterize expression of predicted protease genes in wild-type Serratia sp. SCBI, the highest mRNA levels for the alkaline metalloprotease genes (termed prtA1 to prtA4) occurred following the death of an insect host, while two serine protease and two metalloprotease genes had their highest mRNA levels during active infection. Overall, these results indicate that proteolytic activity is essential for cytotoxicity in Serratia sp. SCBI and that its regulation appears to be highly complex. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Molecular Characterization of Protease Activity in Serratia sp. Strain SCBI and Its Importance in Cytotoxicity and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Lauren M.

    2014-01-01

    A newly recognized Serratia species, termed South African Caenorhabditis briggsae isolate (SCBI), is both a mutualist of the nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae KT0001 and a pathogen of lepidopteran insects. Serratia sp. strain SCBI displays high proteolytic activity, and because secreted proteases are known virulence factors for many pathogens, the purpose of this study was to identify genes essential for extracellular protease activity in Serratia sp. strain SCBI and to determine what role proteases play in insect pathogenesis and cytotoxicity. A bank of 2,100 transposon mutants was generated, and six SCBI mutants with defective proteolytic activity were identified. These mutants were also defective in cytotoxicity. The mutants were found defective in genes encoding the following proteins: alkaline metalloprotease secretion protein AprE, a BglB family transcriptional antiterminator, an inosine/xanthosine triphosphatase, GidA, a methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein, and a PIN domain protein. Gene expression analysis on these six mutants showed significant downregulation in mRNA levels of several different types of predicted protease genes. In addition, transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis provided insight into how inactivation of AprE, GidA, and a PIN domain protein influences motility and virulence, as well as protease activity. Using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) to further characterize expression of predicted protease genes in wild-type Serratia sp. SCBI, the highest mRNA levels for the alkaline metalloprotease genes (termed prtA1 to prtA4) occurred following the death of an insect host, while two serine protease and two metalloprotease genes had their highest mRNA levels during active infection. Overall, these results indicate that proteolytic activity is essential for cytotoxicity in Serratia sp. SCBI and that its regulation appears to be highly complex. PMID:25182493

  17. A study of proteases and protease-inhibitor complexes in biological fluids

    PubMed Central

    Granelli-Piperno, A; Reich, E

    1978-01-01

    We have (a) screened a variety of cell lines and body fluids for plasminogen activators and (b) studied the activity of proteases bound to α2- macroglobulin after exposing the complexes to partial degradation and/or denaturing procedures to unmask proteolytic activity. The respective results show (a) that the plasminogen activators in urine and cell culture media are generally of lower molecular weight than those in plasma; and (b) that proteases bound to α2-macroglobulin recover the ability to attack macromolecular substrates after exposure to sodium dodecyl sulfate while retaining the electrophoretic mobility of the protease inhibitor complex. This indicates that the protease and inhibitor are probably linked by covalent bonds. In contrast, other complexes formed between proteases and inhibitors of lower molecular weight (such as soybean or Kunitz inhibitors) are fully dissociated by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The experiments described were based on a new procedure for detecting proteolytic enzyme activity in SDS-polyacrylamide gels. The method relies on solutions of nonionic detergents for extracting SDS, after which the electrophoretic gel is applied to an indicator gel consisting of a fibrin- agar mixture. The method is sensitive, permitting the detection of proteinases in less than 1 μl of fresh plasma, and it is effective for resolving small differences in molecular weight. The procedure can be quantitated and, with minor modifications appropriate to each particular system, it has been applied to a broad spectrum of serine enzymes and proenzymes, including some that function in the pathways of fibrinolysis, coagulation and kinin-generation. Other potential applications appear likely. PMID:78958

  18. Influencing Pathways to Quality of Life and HbA1c in Patients With Diabetes: A Longitudinal Study That Inform Evidence-Based Practice.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hui-Chun; Lee, Yau-Jiunn; Wang, Ruey-Hsia

    2018-04-01

    Determining possible associated factors and the influencing pathways to hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) levels and quality of life (QoL) will facilitate the development of effective interventions to improve the physical and psychosocial health of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To test a hypothesized model that addressed the pathways among personal characteristics, social support, diabetes distress, and self-care behaviors to HbA1C and QoL. A total of 382 adults with T2DM were recruited. Self-reported questionnaires and medical records were used to collect data regarding personal characteristics, diabetes distress, and social support at baseline. The self-care behaviors characters were collected 6 months later, as well as QoL and HbA1C levels 1 year later. The 12-month QoL directly affected 12-month HbA1C levels. The 6-month self-care behaviors directly affected 12-month QoL, and indirectly affected 12-month HbA1C levels through 12-month QoL. Baseline diabetes distress directly affected 12-month QoL. Moreover, baseline diabetes distress indirectly affected 12-month HbA1C levels through 12-month QoL. Baseline social support directly affected baseline diabetes distress and 6-month self-care behaviors. In addition, baseline social support indirectly affected 12-month QoL through baseline diabetes distress. Baseline social support also indirectly affected 12-month QoL through 6-month self-care behaviors. Enhancing QoL is important to improve HbA1C levels. Enhancing self-care behaviors is essential to improve subsequent HbA1C control and QoL. Reducing diabetes distress is crucial to improve subsequent QoL. Improving social support is suggested a favorable strategy to reduce diabetes distress and enhance subsequent self-care behaviors in patients with T2DM. © 2018 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  19. Structural and functional analysis of human HtrA3 protease and its subdomains

    DOE PAGES

    Glaza, Przemyslaw; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Wenta, Tomasz; ...

    2015-06-25

    Human HtrA3 protease, which induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, can be a tumor suppressor and a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of cancer. However, there is little information about its structure and biochemical properties. HtrA3 is composed of an N-terminal domain not required for proteolytic activity, a central serine protease domain and a C-terminal PDZ domain. HtrA3S, its short natural isoform, lacks the PDZ domain which is substituted by a stretch of 7 C-terminal amino acid residues, unique for this isoform. This paper presents the crystal structure of the HtrA3 protease domain together with the PDZ domain (ΔN-HtrA3), showing that themore » protein forms a trimer whose protease domains are similar to those of human HtrA1 and HtrA2. The ΔN-HtrA3 PDZ domains are placed in a position intermediate between that in the flat saucer-like HtrA1 SAXS structure and the compact pyramidal HtrA2 X-ray structure. The PDZ domain interacts closely with the LB loop of the protease domain in a way not found in other human HtrAs. ΔN-HtrA3 with the PDZ removed (ΔN-HtrA3-ΔPDZ) and an N-terminally truncated HtrA3S (ΔN-HtrA3S) were fully active at a wide range of temperatures and their substrate affinity was not impaired. This indicates that the PDZ domain is dispensable for HtrA3 activity. As determined by size exclusion chromatography, ΔN-HtrA3 formed stable trimers while both ΔN-HtrA3-ΔPDZ and ΔN-HtrA3S were monomeric. This suggests that the presence of the PDZ domain, unlike in HtrA1 and HtrA2, influences HtrA3 trimer formation. The unique C-terminal sequence of ΔN-HtrA3S appeared to have little effect on activity and oligomerization. Additionally, we examined the cleavage specificity of ΔN-HtrA3. Results reported in this paper provide new insights into the structure and function of ΔN-HtrA3, which seems to have a unique combination of features among human HtrA proteases.« less

  20. Structural and Functional Analysis of Human HtrA3 Protease and Its Subdomains

    PubMed Central

    Glaza, Przemyslaw; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Wenta, Tomasz; Zurawa-Janicka, Dorota; Jarzab, Miroslaw; Lesner, Adam; Banecki, Bogdan; Skorko-Glonek, Joanna; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Lipinska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Human HtrA3 protease, which induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, can be a tumor suppressor and a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of cancer. However, there is little information about its structure and biochemical properties. HtrA3 is composed of an N-terminal domain not required for proteolytic activity, a central serine protease domain and a C-terminal PDZ domain. HtrA3S, its short natural isoform, lacks the PDZ domain which is substituted by a stretch of 7 C-terminal amino acid residues, unique for this isoform. This paper presents the crystal structure of the HtrA3 protease domain together with the PDZ domain (ΔN-HtrA3), showing that the protein forms a trimer whose protease domains are similar to those of human HtrA1 and HtrA2. The ΔN-HtrA3 PDZ domains are placed in a position intermediate between that in the flat saucer-like HtrA1 SAXS structure and the compact pyramidal HtrA2 X-ray structure. The PDZ domain interacts closely with the LB loop of the protease domain in a way not found in other human HtrAs. ΔN-HtrA3 with the PDZ removed (ΔN-HtrA3-ΔPDZ) and an N-terminally truncated HtrA3S (ΔN-HtrA3S) were fully active at a wide range of temperatures and their substrate affinity was not impaired. This indicates that the PDZ domain is dispensable for HtrA3 activity. As determined by size exclusion chromatography, ΔN-HtrA3 formed stable trimers while both ΔN-HtrA3-ΔPDZ and ΔN-HtrA3S were monomeric. This suggests that the presence of the PDZ domain, unlike in HtrA1 and HtrA2, influences HtrA3 trimer formation. The unique C-terminal sequence of ΔN-HtrA3S appeared to have little effect on activity and oligomerization. Additionally, we examined the cleavage specificity of ΔN-HtrA3. Results reported in this paper provide new insights into the structure and function of ΔN-HtrA3, which seems to have a unique combination of features among human HtrA proteases. PMID:26110759

  1. Structural and Functional Analysis of Human HtrA3 Protease and Its Subdomains.

    PubMed

    Glaza, Przemyslaw; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Wenta, Tomasz; Zurawa-Janicka, Dorota; Jarzab, Miroslaw; Lesner, Adam; Banecki, Bogdan; Skorko-Glonek, Joanna; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Lipinska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Human HtrA3 protease, which induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, can be a tumor suppressor and a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of cancer. However, there is little information about its structure and biochemical properties. HtrA3 is composed of an N-terminal domain not required for proteolytic activity, a central serine protease domain and a C-terminal PDZ domain. HtrA3S, its short natural isoform, lacks the PDZ domain which is substituted by a stretch of 7 C-terminal amino acid residues, unique for this isoform. This paper presents the crystal structure of the HtrA3 protease domain together with the PDZ domain (ΔN-HtrA3), showing that the protein forms a trimer whose protease domains are similar to those of human HtrA1 and HtrA2. The ΔN-HtrA3 PDZ domains are placed in a position intermediate between that in the flat saucer-like HtrA1 SAXS structure and the compact pyramidal HtrA2 X-ray structure. The PDZ domain interacts closely with the LB loop of the protease domain in a way not found in other human HtrAs. ΔN-HtrA3 with the PDZ removed (ΔN-HtrA3-ΔPDZ) and an N-terminally truncated HtrA3S (ΔN-HtrA3S) were fully active at a wide range of temperatures and their substrate affinity was not impaired. This indicates that the PDZ domain is dispensable for HtrA3 activity. As determined by size exclusion chromatography, ΔN-HtrA3 formed stable trimers while both ΔN-HtrA3-ΔPDZ and ΔN-HtrA3S were monomeric. This suggests that the presence of the PDZ domain, unlike in HtrA1 and HtrA2, influences HtrA3 trimer formation. The unique C-terminal sequence of ΔN-HtrA3S appeared to have little effect on activity and oligomerization. Additionally, we examined the cleavage specificity of ΔN-HtrA3. Results reported in this paper provide new insights into the structure and function of ΔN-HtrA3, which seems to have a unique combination of features among human HtrA proteases.

  2. Aspartic proteases involved in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Boris

    2003-05-09

    Alzheimer's disease afflicts every tenth human aged over 65. Despite the dramatic progress that has been made in understanding the disease, the exact cause of Alzheimer's disease is still unknown. Most gene mutations associated with Alzheimer's disease point at the same culprits: amyloid precursor protein and ultimately amyloid beta. The enigmatic proteases alpha-,beta-, and gamma-secretase are the three executioners of amyloid precursor protein processing, and disruption of their delicate balance is suspected to result in Alzheimer's disease. Significant progress has been made in the selective control of these proteases, regardless of the availability of structural information. Not even the absence of a robust cell-free assay for gamma-secretase could hamper the identification of nonpeptidic inhibitors of this enzyme for long. Within five years, four distinctly different structural moieties were developed and the first drug candidates are in clinical trials. Unfortunately, selective inhibition of amyloid beta formation remains a crucial issue because fundamental fragments of the gamma-secretase complex are important for other signaling events. This problem makes beta-secretase inhibition and alpha-secretase induction even more appealing.

  3. Effectiveness of commercial inhibitors against subtype F HIV-1 protease.

    PubMed

    Krauchenco, Sandra; Martins, Nadia H; Sanches, Mario; Polikarpov, Igor

    2009-06-01

    Subtype F wild type HIV protease has been kinetically characterized using six commercial inhibitors (amprenavir, indinavir, lopinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir and saquinavir) commonly used for HIV/AIDS treatment, as well as inhibitor TL-3 and acetyl-pepstatin. We also obtained kinetic parameters for two multi-resistant proteases (one of subtype B and one of subtype F) harboring primary and secondary mutations selected by intensive treatment with ritonavir/nelfinavir. This newly obtained biochemical data shows that all six studied commercially available protease inhibitors are significantly less effective against subtype F HIV proteases than against HIV proteases of subtype B, as judged by increased K(i) and biochemical fitness (vitality) values. Comparison with previously reported kinetic values for subtype A and C HIV proteases show that subtype F wild type proteases are significantly less susceptible to inhibition. These results demonstrate that the accumulation of natural polymorphisms in subtype F proteases yields catalytically more active enzymes with a large degree of cross-resistance, which thus results in strong virus viability.

  4. Expression and characterization of Coprothermobacter proteolyticus alkaline serine protease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    TECHNICAL ABSTRACT A putative protease gene (aprE) from the thermophilic bacterium Coprothermobacter proteolyticus was cloned and expressed in Bacillus subtilis. The enzyme was determined to be a serine protease based on inhibition by PMSF. Biochemical characterization demonstrated the enzyme had...

  5. The Degradome database: mammalian proteases and diseases of proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Quesada, Víctor; Ordóñez, Gonzalo R.; Sánchez, Luis M.; Puente, Xose S.; López-Otín, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    The degradome is defined as the complete set of proteases present in an organism. The recent availability of whole genomic sequences from multiple organisms has led us to predict the contents of the degradomes of several mammalian species. To ensure the fidelity of these predictions, our methods have included manual curation of individual sequences and, when necessary, direct cloning and sequencing experiments. The results of these studies in human, chimpanzee, mouse and rat have been incorporated into the Degradome database, which can be accessed through a web interface at http://degradome.uniovi.es. The annotations about each individual protease can be retrieved by browsing catalytic classes and families or by searching specific terms. This web site also provides detailed information about genetic diseases of proteolysis, a growing field of great importance for multiple users. Finally, the user can find additional information about protease structures, protease inhibitors, ancillary domains of proteases and differences between mammalian degradomes. PMID:18776217

  6. The Degradome database: mammalian proteases and diseases of proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Quesada, Víctor; Ordóñez, Gonzalo R; Sánchez, Luis M; Puente, Xose S; López-Otín, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    The degradome is defined as the complete set of proteases present in an organism. The recent availability of whole genomic sequences from multiple organisms has led us to predict the contents of the degradomes of several mammalian species. To ensure the fidelity of these predictions, our methods have included manual curation of individual sequences and, when necessary, direct cloning and sequencing experiments. The results of these studies in human, chimpanzee, mouse and rat have been incorporated into the Degradome database, which can be accessed through a web interface at http://degradome.uniovi.es. The annotations about each individual protease can be retrieved by browsing catalytic classes and families or by searching specific terms. This web site also provides detailed information about genetic diseases of proteolysis, a growing field of great importance for multiple users. Finally, the user can find additional information about protease structures, protease inhibitors, ancillary domains of proteases and differences between mammalian degradomes.

  7. Functional Implications of Domain Organization Within Prokaryotic Rhomboid Proteases.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Rashmi; Lemieux, M Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Intramembrane proteases are membrane embedded enzymes that cleave transmembrane substrates. This interesting class of enzyme and its water mediated substrate cleavage mechanism occurring within the hydrophobic lipid bilayer has drawn the attention of researchers. Rhomboids are a family of ubiquitous serine intramembrane proteases. Bacterial forms of rhomboid proteases are mainly composed of six transmembrane helices that are preceded by a soluble N-terminal domain. Several crystal structures of the membrane domain of the E. coli rhomboid protease ecGlpG have been solved. Independently, the ecGlpG N-terminal cytoplasmic domain structure was solved using both NMR and protein crystallography. Despite these structures, we still do not know the structure of the full-length protein, nor do we know the functional role of these domains in the cell. This chapter will review the structural and functional roles of the different domains associated with prokaryotic rhomboid proteases. Lastly, we will address questions remaining in the field.

  8. Isolation and characterization of a cysteine protease of freesia corms.

    PubMed

    Uchikoba, Tetsuya; Okubo, Michiko; Arima, Kazunari; Yonezawa, Hiroo

    2002-02-01

    A protease, freesia protease (FP)-A, was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from regular freesia (Freesia reflacta) corms in harvest time. The Mr of FP-A was estimated to be 24 k by SDS-PAGE. The optimum pH of the enzyme was 8.0 using a casein substrate. These enzymes were strongly inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoic acid but not by phenylmethane-sulfonylfluoride and EDTA. These results indicate that FP-A belongs to the cysteine proteases. The amino terminal sequence of FP-A was similar to that of papain, and the sequences was regarded to the conservative residues of cysteine protease. From the hydrolysis of peptidyl-p-NAs, the specificity of FP-A was found to be broad. It was thought that FP-A was a new protease from freesia corms.

  9. Effects of exogenous proteases without or with carbohydrases on nutrient digestibility and disappearance of non-starch polysaccharides in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Olukosi, O. A.; Beeson, L. A.; Englyst, K.; Romero, L. F.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of a subtilisin protease, without or with inclusion of carbohydrases, on digestibility and retention of energy and protein, as well as the solubilization and disappearance of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) from corn-soybean meal based diets fed to broiler chickens. Two hundred eighty-eight Ross 308 male broiler chickens were used for the experiment. On d 14, the birds were weighed and allocated to 6 treatments and 8 replicates per treatment with 6 birds per replicate. Treatments were: 1) corn-soybean meal based control diet; 2) control diet plus supplemental protease at 5,000 (P5000) protease units (PU)/kg); 3) control plus 10,000 PU/kg protease (P10000); or control plus an enzyme combination containing xylanase, amylase, and protease (XAP) added to achieve protease activity of: 4) 2,500 PU/kg (XAP2500); 5) 5,000 PU/kg (XAP5000); or 6) 10,000 PU/kg (XAP10000). The enzymes in XAP were combined at fixed ratios of 10:1:25 of xylanase:amylase:protease. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and specific orthogonal contrasts between treatments were performed. Addition of xylanase and amylase increased (P < 0.05) the ileal digestibility of protein by 4.2% and 2.1% at XAP5000 and XAP10000, respectively (relative to P5000 and P10000, respectively), exhibiting a plateau after the XAP5000 dose. Increment (P < 0.05) in AME due to protease was evident, particularly in P10000. At the ileal level, XAP reduced (P < 0.05) the flow of insoluble xylose and arabinose, which indicates an increase in the solubilization of arabinoxylan polymers in the small intestine. Protease on its own reduced (P < 0.05) the flow of insoluble arabinose but did not affect the flow of insoluble xylose. XAP reduced (P < 0.05) the pre-cecal flow of insoluble and total glucose and galactose. It was concluded that whereas protease by itself improved nutrient utilization and increased solubilization of NSP components, at the lower dose, a

  10. Positive selection of digestive Cys proteases in herbivorous Coleoptera.

    PubMed

    Vorster, Juan; Rasoolizadeh, Asieh; Goulet, Marie-Claire; Cloutier, Conrad; Sainsbury, Frank; Michaud, Dominique

    2015-10-01

    Positive selection is thought to contribute to the functional diversification of insect-inducible protease inhibitors in plants in response to selective pressures exerted by the digestive proteases of their herbivorous enemies. Here we assessed whether a reciprocal evolutionary process takes place on the insect side, and whether ingestion of a positively selected plant inhibitor may translate into a measurable rebalancing of midgut proteases in vivo. Midgut Cys proteases of herbivorous Coleoptera, including the major pest Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), were first compared using a codon-based evolutionary model to look for the occurrence of hypervariable, positively selected amino acid sites among the tested sequences. Hypervariable sites were found, distributed within -or close to- amino acid regions interacting with Cys-type inhibitors of the plant cystatin protein family. A close examination of L. decemlineata sequences indicated a link between their assignment to protease functional families and amino acid identity at positively selected sites. A function-diversifying role for positive selection was further suggested empirically by in vitro protease assays and a shotgun proteomic analysis of L. decemlineata Cys proteases showing a differential rebalancing of protease functional family complements in larvae fed single variants of a model cystatin mutated at positively selected amino acid sites. These data confirm overall the occurrence of hypervariable, positively selected amino acid sites in herbivorous Coleoptera digestive Cys proteases. They also support the idea of an adaptive role for positive selection, useful to generate functionally diverse proteases in insect herbivores ingesting functionally diverse, rapidly evolving dietary cystatins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. UC/MALDI-MS analysis of HDL; evidence for density-dependent post-translational modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jeffery D.; Henriquez, Ronald R.; Tichy, Shane E.; Russell, David H.; McNeal, Catherine J.; Macfarlane, Ronald D.

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether the nature of the post-translational modifications of the major apolipoproteins of HDL is different for density-distinct subclasses. These subclasses were separated by ultracentrifugation using a novel density-forming solute to yield a high-resolution separation. The serum of two subjects, a control with a normolipidemic profile and a subject with diagnosed cardiovascular disease, was studied. Aliquots of three HDL subclasses were analyzed by MALDI and considerable differences were seen when comparing density-distinct subclasses and also when comparing the two subjects. A detailed analysis of the post-translational modification pattern of apoA-1 shows evidence of considerable protease activity, particularly in the more dense fractions. We conclude that part of the heterogeneity of the population of HDL particles is due to density-dependent protease activity.

  12. Active Site Characterization of Proteases Sequences from Different Species of Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Morya, V K; Yadav, Virendra K; Yadav, Sangeeta; Yadav, Dinesh

    2016-09-01

    A total of 129 proteases sequences comprising 43 serine proteases, 36 aspartic proteases, 24 cysteine protease, 21 metalloproteases, and 05 neutral proteases from different Aspergillus species were analyzed for the catalytically active site residues using MEROPS database and various bioinformatics tools. Different proteases have predominance of variable active site residues. In case of 24 cysteine proteases of Aspergilli, the predominant active site residues observed were Gln193, Cys199, His364, Asn384 while for 43 serine proteases, the active site residues namely Asp164, His193, Asn284, Ser349 and Asp325, His357, Asn454, Ser519 were frequently observed. The analysis of 21 metalloproteases of Aspergilli revealed Glu298 and Glu388, Tyr476 as predominant active site residues. In general, Aspergilli species-specific active site residues were observed for different types of protease sequences analyzed. The phylogenetic analysis of these 129 proteases sequences revealed 14 different clans representing different types of proteases with diverse active site residues.

  13. Synthetic, structural mimetics of the β-hairpin flap of HIV-1 protease inhibit enzyme function.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Jay; Chen, Shen-En; Fenstermacher, Katherine J; Naser-Tavakolian, Aurash; Reingewertz, Tali; Salmo, Rosene; Lee, Christian; Williams, Emori; Raje, Mithun; Sundberg, Eric; DeStefano, Jeffrey J; Freire, Ernesto; Fletcher, Steven

    2015-11-01

    Small-molecule mimetics of the β-hairpin flap of HIV-1 protease (HIV-1 PR) were designed based on a 1,4-benzodiazepine scaffold as a strategy to interfere with the flap-flap protein-protein interaction, which functions as a gated mechanism to control access to the active site. Michaelis-Menten kinetics suggested our small-molecules are competitive inhibitors, which indicates the mode of inhibition is through binding the active site or sterically blocking access to the active site and preventing flap closure, as designed. More generally, a new bioactive scaffold for HIV-1PR inhibition has been discovered, with the most potent compound inhibiting the protease with a modest K(i) of 11 μM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. PEGylated substrates of NSP4 protease: A tool to study protease specificity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysocka, Magdalena; Gruba, Natalia; Grzywa, Renata; Giełdoń, Artur; Bąchor, Remigiusz; Brzozowski, Krzysztof; Sieńczyk, Marcin; Dieter, Jenne; Szewczuk, Zbigniew; Rolka, Krzysztof; Lesner, Adam

    2016-03-01

    Herein we present the synthesis of a novel type of peptidomimetics composed of repeating diaminopropionic acid residues modified with structurally diverse heterobifunctional polyethylene glycol chains (abbreviated as DAPEG). Based on the developed compounds, a library of fluorogenic substrates was synthesized. Further library deconvolution towards human neutrophil serine protease 4 (NSP4) yielded highly sensitive and selective internally quenched peptidomimetic substrates. In silico analysis of the obtained peptidomimetics revealed the presence of an interaction network with distant subsites located on the enzyme surface.

  15. Highly potent fibrinolytic serine protease from Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Uesugi, Yoshiko; Usuki, Hirokazu; Iwabuchi, Masaki; Hatanaka, Tadashi

    2011-01-05

    We introduce a highly potent fibrinolytic serine protease from Streptomyces omiyaensis (SOT), which belongs to the trypsin family. The fibrinolytic activity of SOT was examined using in vitro assays and was compared with those of known fibrinolytic enzymes such as plasmin, tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), urokinase, and nattokinase. Compared to other enzymes, SOT showed remarkably higher hydrolytic activity toward mimic peptides of fibrin and plasminogen. The fibrinolytic activity of SOT is about 18-fold higher than that of plasmin, and is comparable to that of t-PA by fibrin plate assays. Furthermore, SOT had some plasminogen activator-like activity. Results show that SOT and nattokinase have very different fibrinolytic and fibrinogenolytic modes, engendering significant synergetic effects of SOT and nattokinase on fibrinolysis. These results suggest that SOT presents important possibilities for application in the therapy of thrombosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Protease-Mediated Maturation of HIV: Inhibitors of Protease and the Maturation Process.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Catherine S

    2012-01-01

    Protease-mediated maturation of HIV-1 virus particles is essential for virus infectivity. Maturation occurs concomitant with immature virus particle release and is mediated by the viral protease (PR), which sequentially cleaves the Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins into mature protein domains. Maturation triggers a second assembly event that generates a condensed conical capsid core. The capsid core organizes the viral RNA genome and viral proteins to facilitate viral replication in the next round of infection. The fundamental role of proteolytic maturation in the generation of mature infectious particles has made it an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. Development of small molecules that target the PR active site has been highly successful and nine protease inhibitors (PIs) have been approved for clinical use. This paper provides an overview of their development and clinical use together with a discussion of problems associated with drug resistance. The second-half of the paper discusses a novel class of antiretroviral drug termed maturation inhibitors, which target cleavage sites in Gag not PR itself. The paper focuses on bevirimat (BVM) the first-in-class maturation inhibitor: its mechanism of action and the implications of naturally occurring polymorphisms that confer reduced susceptibility to BVM in phase II clinical trials.

  17. Cysteine Protease Inhibitors as Chemotherapy: Lessons from a Parasite Target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selzer, Paul M.; Pingel, Sabine; Hsieh, Ivy; Ugele, Bernhard; Chan, Victor J.; Engel, Juan C.; Bogyo, Matthew; Russell, David G.; Sakanari, Judy A.; McKerrow, James H.

    1999-09-01

    Papain family cysteine proteases are key factors in the pathogenesis of cancer invasion, arthritis, osteoporosis, and microbial infections. Targeting this enzyme family is therefore one strategy in the development of new chemotherapy for a number of diseases. Little is known, however, about the efficacy, selectivity, and safety of cysteine protease inhibitors in cell culture or in vivo. We now report that specific cysteine protease inhibitors kill Leishmania parasites in vitro, at concentrations that do not overtly affect mammalian host cells. Inhibition of Leishmania cysteine protease activity was accompanied by defects in the parasite's lysosome/endosome compartment resembling those seen in lysosomal storage diseases. Colocalization of anti-protease antibodies with biotinylated surface proteins and accumulation of undigested debris and protease in the flagellar pocket of treated parasites were consistent with a pathway of protease trafficking from flagellar pocket to the lysosome/endosome compartment. The inhibitors were sufficiently absorbed and stable in vivo to ameliorate the pathology associated with a mouse model of Leishmania infection.

  18. Antibacterial serine protease from Wrightia tinctoria: Purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Muthu, Sakthivel; Gopal, Venkatesh Babu; Soundararajan, Selvakumar; Nattarayan, Karthikeyan; S Narayan, Karthik; Lakshmikanthan, Mythileeswari; Malairaj, Sathuvan; Perumal, Palani

    2017-03-01

    A serine protease was purified from the leaves of Wrightia tinctoria by sequential flow through method comprising screening, optimization, ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration and ion exchange column chromatography. The yield and purification fold obtained were 11.58% and 9.56 respectively. A single band of serine protease was visualized on SDS-PAGE and 2-D gel electrophoretic analyses were revealed with the molecular mass of 38.5 kDa. Serine protease had an optimum pH of 8.0 and was stable at 45°C with high relative protease activity. The addition of metal ions such as Mg2+ and Mn2+ exhibits a high relative activity. Serine protease had a potent antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. A 10 μg/ml of serine protease was tested against S. aureus, M. luteus, P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae which had 21, 20, 18 and 17 mm of zone of inhibition respectively. Serine protease from W. tinctoria degrades the peptidoglycan layer of bacteria which was visualized by transmission electron microscopic analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. A Comparative Study: Taxonomic Grouping of Alkaline Protease Producing Bacilli.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Nilgun; Cihan, Arzu Coleri; Karaca, Basar; Cokmus, Cumhur

    2017-03-30

    Alkaline proteases have biotechnological importance due to their activity and stability at alkaline pH. 56 bacteria, capable of growing under alkaline conditions were isolated and their alkaline protease activities were carried out at different parameters to determine their optimum alkaline protease production conditions. Seven isolates were showed higher alkaline protease production capacity than the reference strains. The highest alkaline protease producing isolates (103125 U/g), E114 and C265, were identified as Bacillus licheniformis with 99.4% and Bacillus mojavensis 99.8% based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, respectively. Interestingly, the isolates identified as Bacillus safensis were also found to be high alkaline protease producing strains. Genotypic characterizations of the isolates were also determined by using a wide range of molecular techniques (ARDRA, ITS-PCR, (GTG)5-PCR, BOX-PCR). These different techniques allowed us to differentiate the alkaliphilic isolates and the results were in concurrence with phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA genes. While ITS-PCR provided the highest correlation with 16S rRNA groups, (GTG)5-PCR showed the highest differentiation at species and intra-species level. In this study, each of the biotechnologically valuable alkaline protease producing isolates was grouped into their taxonomic positions with multi-genotypic analyses.

  20. Recombinant protease inhibitors for herbivore pest control: a multitrophic perspective.

    PubMed

    Schlüter, Urte; Benchabane, Meriem; Munger, Aurélie; Kiggundu, Andrew; Vorster, Juan; Goulet, Marie-Claire; Cloutier, Conrad; Michaud, Dominique

    2010-10-01

    Protease inhibitors are a promising complement to Bt toxins for the development of insect-resistant transgenic crops, but their limited specificity against proteolytic enzymes and the ubiquity of protease-dependent processes in living organisms raise questions about their eventual non-target effects in agroecosystems. After a brief overview of the main factors driving the impacts of insect-resistant transgenic crops on non-target organisms, the possible effects of protease inhibitors are discussed from a multitrophic perspective, taking into account not only the target herbivore proteases but also the proteases of other organisms found along the trophic chain, including the plant itself. Major progress has been achieved in recent years towards the design of highly potent broad-spectrum inhibitors and the field deployment of protease inhibitor-expressing transgenic plants resistant to major herbivore pests. A thorough assessment of the current literature suggests that, whereas the non-specific inhibitory effects of recombinant protease inhibitors in plant food webs could often be negligible and their 'unintended' pleiotropic effects in planta of potential agronomic value, the innocuity of these proteins might always remain an issue to be assessed empirically, on a case-by-case basis.

  1. A cyanobacterial serine protease of Plasmodium falciparum is targeted to the apicoplast and plays an important role in its growth and development.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Sumit; Sinha, Dipto; Asad, Mohd; Böttcher, Thomas; Afrin, Farhat; Chauhan, Virander S; Gupta, Dinesh; Sieber, Stephan A; Mohmmed, Asif

    2010-08-01

    The prokaryotic ATP-dependent protease machineries such as ClpQY and ClpAP in the malaria parasite may represent potential drug targets. In the present study, we show that the orthologue of cyanobacterial ClpP protease in Plasmodium falciparum (PfClpP) is expressed in the asexual blood stages and possesses serine protease activity. The PfClpP was localized in the apicoplast using a GFP-targeting approach, immunoelectron microscopy and by immunofluorescence assays. A set of cell permeable β-lactones, which specifically bind with the active site of prokaryotic ClpP, were screened using an in vitro protease assay of PfClpP. A PfClpP-specific protease inhibitor was identified in the screen, labelled as U1-lactone. In vitro growth of the asexual stage parasites was significantly inhibited by U1-lactone treatment. The U1-treated parasites showed developmental arrest at the late-schizont stage. We further show that the U1-lactone treatment resulted in formation of abnormal apicoplasts which were not able to grow and segregate in the parasite progeny; these effects were also evident by blockage in the replication of the apicoplast genome. Overall, our data show that the PfClpP protease has confirmed localization in the apicoplast and it plays important role in development of functional apicoplasts. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. [The extracellular proteases of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris].

    PubMed

    Kalashnikova, E E; Chernyshova, M P; Ignatov, V V

    2003-01-01

    The culture liquids of three Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris strains were found to possess proteolytic activity. The culture liquid of strain B-611 with the highest proteolytic activity was fractionated by salting-out with ammonium sulfate, gel filtration, and ion-exchange chromatography. The electrophoretic analysis of active fractions showed the presence of two proteases in the culture liquid of strain B-611, the major of which being serine protease. The treatment of cabbage seedlings with the proteases augmented the activity of peroxidase in the cabbage roots by 28%.

  3. Rhomboid protease inhibitors: Emerging tools and future therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Strisovsky, Kvido

    2016-12-01

    Rhomboid-family intramembrane serine proteases are evolutionarily widespread. Their functions in different organisms are gradually being uncovered and already suggest medical relevance for infectious diseases and cancer. In contrast to these advances, selective inhibitors that could serve as efficient tools for investigation of physiological functions of rhomboids, validation of their disease relevance or as templates for drug development are lacking. In this review I extract what is known about rhomboid protease mechanism and specificity, examine the currently used inhibitors, their mechanism of action and limitations, and conclude by proposing routes for future development of rhomboid protease inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus counteracts dietary protease inhibitors by modulating propeptides of major digestive enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ahn, J-E; Lovingshimer, M R; Salzman, R A; Presnail, J K; Lu, A L; Koiwa, H; Zhu-Salzman, K

    2007-06-01

    Cowpea bruchids, when challenged by consumption of the soybean cysteine protease inhibitor scN, reconfigure expression of their major CmCP digestive proteases and resume normal feeding and development. Previous evidence indicated that insects selectively induced CmCPs from subfamily B, that were more efficient in autoprocessing and possessed not only higher proteolytic, but also scN-degrading activities. In contrast, dietary scN only marginally up-regulated genes from the more predominant CmCP subfamily A that were inferior to subfamily B. To gain further molecular insight into this adaptive adjustment, we performed domain swapping between the two respective subfamily members B1 and A16, the latter unable to autoprocess or degrade scN even after intermolecular processing. Swapping the propeptides did not qualitatively alter autoprocessing in either protease isoform. Incorporation of either the N- (pAmBA) or C-terminal (pAmAB) mature B1 segment into A16, however, was sufficient to prime autoprocessing of A16 to its mature form. Further, the swap at the N-terminal mature A16 protein region (pAmBA) resulted in four amino acid changes. Replacement of these amino acid residues by the corresponding B1 residues, singly and pair-wise, revealed that autoprocessing activation in pAmBA resulted from cumulative and/or coordinated individual effects. Bacterially expressed isolated propeptides (pA16 and pB1) differed in their ability to inhibit mature B1 enzyme. Lower inhibitory activity in pB1 is likely attributable to its lack of protein stability. This instability in the cleaved propeptide is necessary, although insufficient by itself, for scN-degradation by the mature B1 enzyme. Taken together, cowpea bruchids modulate proteolysis of their digestive enzymes by controlling proCmCP cleavage and propeptide stability, which explains at least in part the plasticity cowpea bruchids demonstrate in response to protease inhibitors.

  5. Detection of Legume Protease Inhibitors by the Gel-X-ray Film Contact Print Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulimani, Veerappa H.; Sudheendra, Kulkarni; Giri, Ashok P.

    2002-01-01

    Redgram (Cajanus cajan L.) extracts have been analyzed for the protease inhibitors using a new, sensitive, simple, and rapid method for detection of electrophoretically separated protease inhibitors. The detection involves equilibrating the gel successively in the protease assay buffer and protease solution, rinsing the gel in assay buffer, and…

  6. Characterization of the protease activity of detergents: laboratory practicals for studying the protease profile and activity of various commercial detergents.

    PubMed

    Valls, Cristina; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallve, Santi; Mulero, Miquel

    2011-07-01

    Detergent enzymes account for about 30% of the total worldwide production of enzymes and are one of the largest and most successful applications of modern industrial biotechnology. Proteases can improve the wash performance of household, industrial, and institutional laundry detergents used to remove protein-based stains such as blood, grass, body fluids, and food soils. This article describes two easy and cheap laboratory exercises to study the presence, profile, and basic enzymology of detergent proteases. These laboratory practicals are based on the determination of the detergent protease activity of various commercial detergents using the N-succinyl-L-alanyl-L-alanyl-L-prolyl-L-phenylalanine p-nitroanilide method and the bovine serum albumin degradation capacity. Students are also required to elucidate the enzymatic subtype of detergent proteases by studying the inhibitory potential of several types of protease inhibitors revealed by the same experimental methodology. Additionally, the results of the exercises can be used to provide additional insights on elementary enzymology by studying the influence of several important parameters on protease activity such as temperature (in this article) and the influence of pH and effects of surfactants and oxidizers (proposed). Students also develop laboratory skills, problem-solving capacities, and the ability to write a laboratory report. The exercises are mainly designed for an advanced undergraduate project in the biochemistry and biotechnology sciences. Globally, these laboratory practicals show students the biotechnological applications of proteases in the detergent industry and also reinforce important enzymology concepts. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR(2)) in human periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Holzhausen, M; Cortelli, J R; da Silva, V Araújo; Franco, G C Nobre; Cortelli, S Cavalca; Vergnolle, N

    2010-09-01

    No evidence for the role of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR(2)) in human periodontal disease has been demonstrated so far. Thus, we sought to investigate the expression of PAR(2) mRNA in chronic periodontitis, and to examine whether its expression is related to the presence of PAR(2) potential activators. Microbiological and gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected from individuals with chronic periodontitis and control individuals, and the presence of neutrophil serine proteinase 3 (P3) and Porphyromonas gingivalis was evaluated. PAR(2) mRNA expression was higher (p < 0.001) in those with chronic periodontitis compared with control individuals, and it was statistically decreased (p = 0.0006) after periodontal treatment. Furthermore, those with chronic periodontitis presented higher (p < 0.05) levels of IL-1alpha, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha, total proteolytic activity, P. gingivalis prevalence, and P3mRNA expression compared with control individuals. We conclude that PAR(2) mRNA expression and its potential activators are elevated in human chronic periodontitis, therefore suggesting that PAR(2) may play a role in periodontal inflammation.

  8. Zebra chip disease decreases tuber (Solanum tuberosum L.) protein content by attenuating protease inhibitor levels and increasing protease activities.

    PubMed

    Kumar, G N Mohan; Knowles, Lisa O; Knowles, N Richard

    2015-11-01

    Zebra chip disease of potato decreases protease inhibitor levels resulting in enhanced serine-type protease activity, decreased protein content and altered protein profiles of fully mature tubers. Zebra-chip (ZC), caused by Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (CLso), is a relatively new disease of potato that negatively affects growth, yield, propagation potential, and fresh and process qualities of tubers. Diseased plants produce tubers with characteristic brown discoloration of vascular tissue accompanied by elevated levels of free amino acids and reducing sugars. Here we demonstrate that ZC disease induces selective protein catabolism in tubers through modulating protease inhibitor levels. Soluble protein content of tubers from CLso-infected plants was 33% lower than from non-infected plants and electrophoretic analyses revealed substantial reductions in major tuber proteins. Patatin (~40 kDa) and ser-, asp- (22 kDa) and cys-type (85 kDa) protease inhibitors were either absent or greatly reduced in ZC-afflicted tubers. In contrast to healthy (non-infected) tubers, the proteolytic activity in CLso infected tubers was high and the ability of extracts from infected tubers to inhibit trypsin (ser-type) and papain (cys-type) proteases greatly attenuated. Moreover, extracts from CLso-infected tubers rapidly catabolized proteins purified from healthy tubers (40 kDa patatin, 22 kDa protease inhibitors, 85 kDa potato multicystatin) when subjected to proteolysis individually. In contrast, crude extracts from non-infected tubers effectively inhibited the proteolytic activity from ZC-afflicted tubers. These results suggest that the altered protein profile of ZC afflicted tubers is largely due to loss of ser- and cys-type protease inhibitors. Further analysis revealed a novel PMSF-sensitive (ser) protease (ca. 80-120 kDa) in CLso infected tubers. PMSF abolished the proteolytic activities responsible for degrading patatin, the 22 kDa protease inhibitor(s) and potato

  9. Identification of cysteine protease inhibitors that belong to cystatin family 1 in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    El-Halawany, Medhat S; Ohkouchi, Susumu; Shibata, Hideki; Hitomi, Kiyotaka; Maki, Masatoshi

    2004-06-01

    Family 1 cystatins are cytosolic inhibitors of cysteine proteases, and they are conserved in higher eukaryotes. We characterized two newly identified family 1 cystatins of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, cystatin A1 and A2. Their recombinant proteins showed specific inhibitory activity against papain and cathepsin B, respectively. Using specific polyclonal antibodies, we found that cystatin A1 is stably expressed throughout the life cycle of Dictyostelium, whereas cystatin A2 expression is up-regulated during the course of development.

  10. Variable context Markov chains for HIV protease cleavage site prediction.

    PubMed

    Oğul, Hasan

    2009-06-01

    Deciphering the knowledge of HIV protease specificity and developing computational tools for detecting its cleavage sites in protein polypeptide chain are very desirable for designing efficient and specific chemical inhibitors to prevent acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In this study, we developed a generative model based on a generalization of variable order Markov chains (VOMC) for peptide sequences and adapted the model for prediction of their cleavability by certain proteases. The new method, called variable context Markov chains (VCMC), attempts to identify the context equivalence based on the evolutionary similarities between individual amino acids. It was applied for HIV-1 protease cleavage site prediction problem and shown to outperform existing methods in terms of prediction accuracy on a common dataset. In general, the method is a promising tool for prediction of cleavage sites of all proteases and encouraged to be used for any kind of peptide classification problem as well.

  11. The Flavivirus Protease As a Target for Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Brecher, Matthew; Zhang, Jing; Li, Hongmin

    2014-01-01

    Many flaviviruses are significant human pathogens causing considerable disease burdens, including encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever, in the regions in which they are endemic. A paucity of treatments for flaviviral infections has driven interest in drug development targeting proteins essential to flavivirus replication, such as the viral protease. During viral replication, the flavivirus genome is translated as a single polyprotein precursor, which must be cleaved into individual proteins by a complex of the viral protease, NS3, and its cofactor, NS2B. Because this cleavage is an obligate step of the viral life-cycle, the flavivirus protease is an attractive target for antiviral drug development. In this review, we will survey recent drug development studies targeting the NS3 active site, as well as studies targeting an NS2B/NS3 interaction site determined from flavivirus protease crystal structures. PMID:24242363

  12. The flavivirus protease as a target for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Brecher, Matthew; Zhang, Jing; Li, Hongmin

    2013-12-01

    Many flaviviruses are significant human pathogens causing considerable disease burdens, including encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever, in the regions in which they are endemic. A paucity of treatments for flaviviral infections has driven interest in drug development targeting proteins essential to flavivirus replication, such as the viral protease. During viral replication, the flavivirus genome is translated as a single polyprotein precursor, which must be cleaved into individual proteins by a complex of the viral protease, NS3, and its cofactor, NS2B. Because this cleavage is an obligate step of the viral life-cycle, the flavivirus protease is an attractive target for antiviral drug development. In this review, we will survey recent drug development studies targeting the NS3 active site, as well as studies targeting an NS2B/NS3 interaction site determined from flavivirus protease crystal structures.

  13. Comprehensive mutagenesis of HIV-1 protease: a computational geometry approach.

    PubMed

    Masso, Majid; Vaisman, Iosif I

    2003-05-30

    A computational geometry technique based on Delaunay tessellation of protein structure, represented by C(alpha) atoms, is used to study effects of single residue mutations on sequence-structure compatibility in HIV-1 protease. Profiles of residue scores derived from the four-body statistical potential are constructed for all 1881 mutants of the HIV-1 protease monomer and compared with the profile of the wild-type protein. The profiles for an isolated monomer of HIV-1 protease and the identical monomer in a dimeric state with an inhibitor are analyzed to elucidate changes to structural stability. Protease residues shown to undergo the greatest impact are those forming the dimer interface and flap region, as well as those known to be involved in inhibitor binding.

  14. Evaluation of trypanocidal activity of combinations of anti-sleeping sickness drugs with cysteine protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Steverding, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is unsatisfactory because only a few drugs, with serious side effects and poor efficacy, are available. As drug combination regimes often achieve greater therapeutic efficacy than monotherapies, here the trypanocidal activity of the cysteine protease inhibitor K11777 in combination with current anti-HAT drugs using bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei was investigated. Isobolographic analysis was used to determine the interaction between cysteine protease inhibitors (K11777, CA-074Me and CAA0225) and anti-HAT drugs (suramin, pentamidine, melarsoprol and eflornithine). Bloodstream forms of T. brucei were incubated in culture medium containing cysteine protease inhibitors or anti-HAT drugs alone or in combination at a 1:1 fixed-dose ratio. After 48 h incubation, live cells were counted, the 50% growth inhibition values determined and combination indices calculated. The general cytotoxicity of drug combinations was evaluated with human leukaemia HL-60 cells. Combinations of K11777 with suramin, pentamidine and melarsoprol showed antagonistic effects while with eflornithine a synergistic effect was observed. Whereas eflornithine antagonises with CA-074Me, an inhibitor inactivating the targeted TbCATL only under reducing conditions, it synergises with CAA0255, an inhibitor structurally related to CA-074Me which inactivates TbCATL independently of thiols. These findings indicate an essential role of thiols for the synergistic interaction between K11777 and eflornithine. Encouragingly, the K11777/eflornithine combination displayed higher trypanocidal than cytotoxic activity. The results of this study suggest that the combination of the cysteine protease inhibitor K11777 and eflornithine display promising synergistic trypanocidal activity that warrants further investigation of the drug combination as possible alternative treatment of HAT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Functional protease profiling for diagnosis of malignant disease.

    PubMed

    Findeisen, Peter; Neumaier, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Clinical proteomic profiling by mass spectrometry (MS) aims at uncovering specific alterations within mass profiles of clinical specimens that are of diagnostic value for the detection and classification of various diseases including cancer. However, despite substantial progress in the field, the clinical proteomic profiling approaches have not matured into routine diagnostic applications so far. Their limitations are mainly related to high-abundance proteins and their complex processing by a multitude of endogenous proteases thus making rigorous standardization difficult. MS is biased towards the detection of low-molecular-weight peptides. Specifically, in serum specimens, the particular fragments of proteolytically degraded proteins are amenable to MS analysis. Proteases are known to be involved in tumour progression and tumour-specific proteases are released into the blood stream presumably as a result of invasive progression and metastasis. Thus, the determination of protease activity in clinical specimens from patients with malignant disease can offer diagnostic and also therapeutic options. The identification of specific substrates for tumour proteases in complex biological samples is challenging, but proteomic screens for proteases/substrate interactions are currently experiencing impressive progress. Such proteomic screens include peptide-based libraries, differential isotope labelling in combination with MS, quantitative degradomic analysis of proteolytically generated neo-N-termini, monitoring the degradation of exogenous reporter peptides with MS, and activity-based protein profiling. In the present article, we summarize and discuss the current status of proteomic techniques to identify tumour-specific protease-substrate interactions for functional protease profiling. Thereby, we focus on the potential diagnostic use of the respective approaches. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Proteases in cardiometabolic diseases: Pathophysiology, molecular mechanisms and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yinan; Nair, Sreejayan

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the U.S. and other developed country. Metabolic syndrome, including obesity, diabetes/insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia is major threat for public health in the modern society. It is well established that metabolic syndrome contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease collective called as cardiometabolic disease. Despite documented studies in the research field of cardiometabolic disease, the underlying mechanisms are far from clear. Proteases are enzymes that break down proteins, many of which have been implicated in various diseases including cardiac disease. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), calpain, cathepsin and caspase are among the major proteases involved in cardiac remodeling. Recent studies have also implicated proteases in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic disease. Elevated expression and activities of proteases in atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, obesity/insulin-associated heart disease as well as hypertensive heart disease have been documented. Furthermore, transgenic animals that are deficient in or overexpress proteases allow scientists to understand the causal relationship between proteases and cardiometabolic disease. Mechanistically, MMPs and cathepsins exert their effect on cardiometabolic diseases mainly through modifying the extracellular matrix. However, MMP and cathepsin are also reported to affect intracellular proteins, by which they contribute to the development of cardiometabolic diseases. On the other hand, activation of calpain and caspases has been shown to influence intracellular signaling cascade including the NF-κB and apoptosis pathways. Clinically, proteases are reported to function as biomarkers of cardiometabolic diseases. More importantly, the inhibitors of proteases are credited with beneficial cardiometabolic profile, although the exact molecular mechanisms underlying these salutary effects are still under investigation. A better

  17. Protease inhibitors from several classes work synergistically against Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Amirhusin, Bahagiawati; Shade, Richard E; Koiwa, Hisashi; Hasegawa, Paul M; Bressan, Ray A; Murdock, Larry L; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2007-07-01

    Targeting multiple digestive proteases may be more effective in insect pest control than inhibition of a single enzyme class. We therefore explored possible interactions of three antimetabolic protease inhibitors fed to cowpea bruchids in artificial diets, using a recombinant soybean cysteine protease inhibitor scN, an aspartic protease inhibitor pepstatin A, and soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor KI. scN and pepstatin, inhibiting major digestive cysteine and aspartic proteases, respectively, significantly prolonged the developmental time of cowpea bruchids individually. When combined, the anti-insect effect was synergistic, i.e., the toxicity of the mixture was markedly greater than that of scN or pepstatin alone. KI alone did not impact insect development even at relatively high concentrations, but its anti-insect properties became apparent when acting jointly with scN or scN plus pepstatin. Incubating KI with bruchid midgut extract showed that it was partially degraded. This instability may explain its lack of anti-insect activity. However, this proteolytic degradation was inhibited by scN and/or pepstatin. Protection of KI from proteolysis in the insect digestive tract thus could be the basis for the synergistic effect. These observations support the concept that cowpea bruchid gut proteases play a dual role; digesting protein for nutrient needs and protecting insects by inactivating dietary proteins that may otherwise be toxic. Our results also suggest that transgenic resistance strategies that involve multigene products are likely to have enhanced efficacy and durability.

  18. In vivo imaging of protease activity by Probody therapeutic activation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kenneth R.; Menendez, Elizabeth; Craik, Charles S.; Kavanaugh, W. Michael; Vasiljeva, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Probody™ therapeutics are recombinant, proteolytically-activated antibody prodrugs, engineered to remain inert until activated locally by tumor-associated proteases. Probody therapeutics exploit the fundamental dysregulation of extracellular protease activity that exists in tumors relative to healthy tissue. Leveraging the ability of a Probody therapeutic to bind its target at the site of disease after proteolytic cleavage, we developed a novel method for profiling protease activity in living animals. Using NIR optical imaging, we demonstrated that a non-labeled anti-EGFR Probody therapeutic can become activated and compete for binding to tumor cells in vivo with a labeled anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody. Furthermore, by inhibiting matriptase activity in vivo with a blocking-matriptase antibody, we show that the ability of the Probody therapeutic to bind EGFR in vivo was dependent on protease activity. These results demonstrate that in vivo imaging of Probody therapeutic activation can be used for screening and characterization of protease activity in living animals, and provide a method that avoids some of the limitations of prior methods. This approach can improve our understanding of the activity of proteases in disease models and help to develop efficient strategies for cancer diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26546838

  19. Characterizing Protease Specificity: How Many Substrates Do We Need?

    PubMed Central

    Schauperl, Michael; Fuchs, Julian E.; Waldner, Birgit J.; Huber, Roland G.; Kramer, Christian; Liedl, Klaus R.

    2015-01-01

    Calculation of cleavage entropies allows to quantify, map and compare protease substrate specificity by an information entropy based approach. The metric intrinsically depends on the number of experimentally determined substrates (data points). Thus a statistical analysis of its numerical stability is crucial to estimate the systematic error made by estimating specificity based on a limited number of substrates. In this contribution, we show the mathematical basis for estimating the uncertainty in cleavage entropies. Sets of cleavage entropies are calculated using experimental cleavage data and modeled extreme cases. By analyzing the underlying mathematics and applying statistical tools, a linear dependence of the metric in respect to 1/n was found. This allows us to extrapolate the values to an infinite number of samples and to estimate the errors. Analyzing the errors, a minimum number of 30 substrates was found to be necessary to characterize substrate specificity, in terms of amino acid variability, for a protease (S4-S4’) with an uncertainty of 5 percent. Therefore, we encourage experimental researchers in the protease field to record specificity profiles of novel proteases aiming to identify at least 30 peptide substrates of maximum sequence diversity. We expect a full characterization of protease specificity helpful to rationalize biological functions of proteases and to assist rational drug design. PMID:26559682

  20. Proteases induce secretion of collagenase and plasminogen activator by fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Werb, Z.; Aggeler, J.

    1978-04-01

    We have observed that treatment of rabbit synovial fibroblasts with proteolytic enzymes can induce secretion of collagenase (EC 3.4.24.7) and plasminogen activator (EC 3.4.21.-). Cells treated for 2 to 24 hr with plasmin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, pancreatic elastase, papain, bromelain, thermolysin, or ..cap alpha..-protease but not with thrombin or neuraminidase secreted detectable amounts of collagenase within 16 to 48 hr. Treatment of fibroblasts with trypsin also induced secretion of plasminogen activator. Proteases initiated secretion of collagenase (up to 20 units per 10/sup 6/ cells per 24 hr) only when treatment produced decreased cell adhesion. Collagenase production did not depend on continuedmore » presence of proteolytic activity or on subsequent cell adhesion, spreading, or proliferation. Routine subculturing with crude trypsin also induced collagenase secretion by cells. Secretion of collagenase was prevented and normal spreading was obtained if the trypsinized cells were placed into medium containing fetal calf serum. Soybean trypsin inhibitor, ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antitrypsin, bovine serum albumin, collagen, and fibronectin did not inhibit collagenase production. Although proteases that induced collagenase secretion also removed surface glycoprotein, the kinetics of induction of cell protease secretion were different from those for removal of fibronectin. Physiological inducers of secretion of collagenase and plasminogen activator by cells have not been identified. These results suggest that extracellular proteases in conjunction with plasma proteins may govern protease secretion by cells.« less

  1. The Crystal Structure of GXGD Membrane Protease FlaK

    SciTech Connect

    J Hu; Y Xue; S Lee

    2011-12-31

    The GXGD proteases are polytopic membrane proteins with catalytic activities against membrane-spanning substrates that require a pair of aspartyl residues. Representative members of the family include preflagellin peptidase, type 4 prepilin peptidase, presenilin and signal peptide peptidase. Many GXGD proteases are important in medicine. For example, type 4 prepilin peptidase may contribute to bacterial pathogenesis, and mutations in presenilin are associated with Alzheimer's disease. As yet, there is no atomic-resolution structure in this protease family. Here we report the crystal structure of FlaK, a preflagellin peptidase from Methanococcus maripaludis, solved at 3.6 {angstrom} resolution. The structure contains six transmembrane helices.more » The GXGD motif and a short transmembrane helix, helix 4, are positioned at the centre, surrounded by other transmembrane helices. The crystal structure indicates that the protease must undergo conformational changes to bring the GXGD motif and a second essential aspartyl residue from transmembrane helix 1 into close proximity for catalysis. A comparison of the crystal structure with models of presenilin derived from biochemical analysis reveals three common transmembrane segments that are similarly arranged around the active site. This observation reinforces the idea that the prokaryotic and human proteases are evolutionarily related. The crystal structure presented here provides a framework for understanding the mechanism of the GXGD proteases, and may facilitate the rational design of inhibitors that target specific members of the family.« less

  2. The crystal structure of GXGD membrane protease FlaK

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jian; Xue, Yi; Lee, Sangwon

    2011-09-20

    The GXGD proteases are polytopic membrane proteins with catalytic activities against membrane-spanning substrates that require a pair of aspartyl residues. Representative members of the family include preflagellin peptidase, type 4 prepilin peptidase, presenilin and signal peptide peptidase. Many GXGD proteases are important in medicine. For example, type 4 prepilin peptidase may contribute to bacterial pathogenesis, and mutations in presenilin are associated with Alzheimer's disease. As yet, there is no atomic-resolution structure in this protease family. Here we report the crystal structure of FlaK, a preflagellin peptidase from Methanococcus maripaludis, solved at 3.6 {angstrom} resolution. The structure contains six transmembrane helices.more » The GXGD motif and a short transmembrane helix, helix 4, are positioned at the centre, surrounded by other transmembrane helices. The crystal structure indicates that the protease must undergo conformational changes to bring the GXGD motif and a second essential aspartyl residue from transmembrane helix 1 into close proximity for catalysis. A comparison of the crystal structure with models of presenilin derived from biochemical analysis reveals three common transmembrane segments that are similarly arranged around the active site. This observation reinforces the idea that the prokaryotic and human proteases are evolutionarily related. The crystal structure presented here provides a framework for understanding the mechanism of the GXGD proteases, and may facilitate the rational design of inhibitors that target specific members of the family.« less

  3. Dual origin of gut proteases in Formosan subterranean termites (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Sethi, Amit; Xue, Qing-Gang; La Peyre, Jerome F; Delatte, Jennifer; Husseneder, Claudia

    2011-07-01

    Cellulose digestion in lower termites, mediated by carbohydrases originating from both termite and endosymbionts, is well characterized. In contrast, limited information exists on gut proteases of lower termites, their origins and roles in termite nutrition. The objective of this study was to characterize gut proteases of the Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). The protease activity of extracts from gut tissues (fore-, mid- and hindgut) and protozoa isolated from hindguts of termite workers was quantified using hide powder azure as a substrate and further characterized by zymography with gelatin SDS-PAGE. Midgut extracts showed the highest protease activity followed by the protozoa extracts. High level of protease activity was also detected in protozoa culture supernatants after 24 h incubation. Incubation of gut and protozoa extracts with class-specific protease inhibitors revealed that most of the proteases were serine proteases. All proteolytic bands identified after gelatin SDS-PAGE were also inhibited by serine protease inhibitors. Finally, incubation with chromogenic substrates indicated that extracts from fore- and hindgut tissues possessed proteases with almost exclusively trypsin-like activity while both midgut and protozoa extracts possessed proteases with trypsin-like and subtilisin/chymotrypsin-like activities. However, protozoa proteases were distinct from midgut proteases (with different molecular mass). Our results suggest that the Formosan subterranean termite not only produces endogenous proteases in its gut tissues, but also possesses proteases originating from its protozoan symbionts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A comparison of the binding of secretory component to immunoglobulin A (IgA) in human colostral S-IgA1 and S-IgA2

    PubMed Central

    Almogren, Adel; Senior, Bernard W; Kerr, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the binding of secretory component to immunoglobulin A (IgA) in human secretory IgA2 (S-IgA2) was made possible by the development of a new method of purifying S-IgA1, S-IgA2 and free secretory component from human colostrum using thiophilic gel chromatography and chromatography on Jacalin-agarose. Sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of unreduced pure S-IgA2 revealed that, unlike in S-IgA1, a significant proportion of the secretory component was bound non-covalently in S-IgA2. When S-IgA1 was incubated with a protease purified from Proteus mirabilis the secretory component, but not the α-chain, was cleaved. This is in contrast to serum IgA1, in which the α-chain was cleaved under the same conditions – direct evidence that secretory component does protect the α-chain from proteolytic cleavage in S-IgA. Comparisons between the products of cleavage with P. mirabilis protease of free secretory component and bound secretory component in S-IgA1 and S-IgA2 also indicated that, contrary to the general assumption, the binding of secretory component to IgA is different in S-IgA2 from that in S-IgA1. PMID:17156102

  5. Fragment-based screen against HIV protease.

    PubMed

    Perryman, Alexander L; Zhang, Qing; Soutter, Holly H; Rosenfeld, Robin; McRee, Duncan E; Olson, Arthur J; Elder, John E; Stout, C David

    2010-03-01

    We have employed a fragment-based screen against wild-type (NL4-3) HIV protease (PR) using the Active Sight fragment library and X-ray crystallography. The experiments reveal two new binding sites for small molecules. PR was co-crystallized with fragments, or crystals were soaked in fragment solutions, using five crystal forms, and 378 data sets were collected to 2.3-1.3 A resolution. Fragment binding induces a distinct conformation and specific crystal form of TL-3 inhibited PR during co-crystallization. One fragment, 2-methylcyclohexanol, binds in the 'exo site' adjacent to the Gly(16)Gly(17)Gln(18)loop where the amide of Gly(17)is a specific hydrogen bond donor, and hydrophobic contacts occur with the side chains of Lys(14)and Leu(63). Another fragment, indole-6-carboxylic acid, binds on the 'outside/top of the flap' via hydrophobic contacts with Trp(42), Pro(44), Met(46), and Lys(55), a hydrogen bond with Val(56), and a salt-bridge with Arg(57). 2-acetyl-benzothiophene also binds at this site. This study is the first fragment-based crystallographic screen against HIV PR, and the first time that fragments were screened against an inhibitor-bound drug target to search for compounds that both bind to novel sites and stabilize the inhibited conformation of the target.

  6. Fragment-Based Screen against HIV Protease

    PubMed Central

    Perryman, A. L.; Zhang, Q.; Soutter, H. H.; Rosenfeld, R.; McRee, D. E.; Olson, A. J.; Elder, J. E.; Stout, C. D.

    2009-01-01

    We have employed a fragment-based screen against wild-type (NL4-3) HIV protease (PR) using the Active Sight fragment library and X-ray crystallography. The experiments reveal two new binding sites for small molecules. PR was co-crystallized with fragments, or crystals were soaked in fragment solutions, using five crystal forms, and 378 data sets were collected to 2.3-1.3 Å resolution. Fragment binding induces a distinct conformation and specific crystal form of TL-3 inhibited PR during co-crystallization. One fragment, 2-methylcyclohexanol, binds in the ‘exo site’ adjacent to the Gly16Gly17Gln18 loop where the amide of Gly17 is a specific hydrogen bond donor, and hydrophobic contacts occur with the side chains of Lys14 and Leu63. Another fragment, indole-6-carboxylic acid, binds on the ‘outside/top of the flap’ via hydrophobic contacts with Trp42, Pro44, Met46, and Lys55, a hydrogen bond with Val56, and a salt-bridge with Arg57. 2-acetyl-benzothiophene also binds at this site. This study is the first fragment-based crystallographic screen against HIV PR, and the first time that fragments were screened against an inhibitor-bound drug target to search for compounds that both bind to novel sites and stabilize the inhibited conformation of the target. PMID:20659109

  7. Protease Production by Different Thermophilic Fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macchione, Mariana M.; Merheb, Carolina W.; Gomes, Eleni; da Silva, Roberto

    A comparative study was carried out to evaluate protease production in solid-state fermentation (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF) by nine different thermophilic fungi — Thermoascus aurantiacus Miehe, Thermomyces lanuginosus, T. lanuginosus TO.03, Aspergillus flavus 1.2, Aspergillus sp. 13.33, Aspergillus sp. 13.34, Aspergillus sp. 13.35, Rhizomucor pusillus 13.36 and Rhizomucor sp. 13.37 — using substrates containing proteins to induce enzyme secretion. Soybean extract (soybean milk), soybean flour, milk powder, rice, and wheat bran were tested. The most satisfactory results were obtained when using wheat bran in SSF. The fungi that stood out in SSF were T. lanuginosus, T. lanuginosus TO.03, Aspergillus sp. 13.34, Aspergillus sp. 13.35, and Rhizomucor sp. 13.37, and those in SmF were T. aurantiacus, T. lanuginosus TO.03, and 13.37. In both fermentation systems, A. flavus 1.2 and R. pusillus 13.36 presented the lowest levels of proteolytic activity.

  8. Identification of cysteine protease inhibitors as new drug leads against Naegleria fowleri.

    PubMed

    Zyserman, Ingrid; Mondal, Deboprosad; Sarabia, Francisco; McKerrow, James H; Roush, William R; Debnath, Anjan

    2018-05-01

    Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rapidly fatal infection caused by the free-living ameba Naegleria fowleri. PAM occurs principally in healthy children of less than 13 years old with a history of recent exposure to warm fresh water. While as yet not a reportable disease, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) documents a total of 143 cases in the United States. Only four patients have survived. Infection results from water containing N. fowleri entering the nose, followed by migration of the amebae to the brain. Within the brain, N. fowleri infection results in extensive necrosis, leading to death in 3-7 days. Mortality among patients with PAM is greater than 95%. The drugs of choice in treating PAM are the antifungal amphotericin B, and the antileishmanial, miltefosine. However neither drug is FDA-approved for this indication and the use of amphotericin B is associated with severe adverse effects. Moreover, very few patients treated with amphotericin B have survived PAM. Therefore, development of new, safe and effective drugs is a critical unmet need to avert future deaths of children. The molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of PAM are poorly understood but it is known that cysteine proteases of N. fowleri play a role in the progression of PAM. We therefore assessed the in vitro activity of the synthetic vinyl sulfone cysteine protease inhibitor, K11777, and 33 analogs with valine, phenylalanine or pyridylalanine at P2 position, against cysteine protease activity in the lysate of N. fowleri. Inhibitors with phenylalanine or pyridylalanine at P2 position were particularly effective in inhibiting the cysteine protease activity of N. fowleri cell lysate with IC 50 ranging between 3 nM and 6.6 μM. Three of the 34 inhibitors also showed inhibitory activity against N. fowleri in a cell viability assay and were 1.6- to 2.5-fold more potent than the standard of care drug miltefosine. Our study provides the first evidence

  9. Nematode sperm maturation triggered by protease involves sperm-secreted serine protease inhibitor (Serpin)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanmei; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Pan; Chi, Hao; Zhang, Mei-Jun; Song, Chun-Qing; Ma, Xuan; Shang, Yunlong; Wang, Bin; Hu, Youqiao; Hao, Zhiqi; Hühmer, Andreas F.; Meng, Fanxia; L'Hernault, Steven W.; He, Si-Min; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Miao, Long

    2012-01-01

    Spermiogenesis is a series of poorly understood morphological, physiological and biochemical processes that occur during the transition of immotile spermatids into motile, fertilization-competent spermatozoa. Here, we identified a Serpin (serine protease inhibitor) family protein (As_SRP-1) that is secreted from spermatids during nematode Ascaris suum spermiogenesis (also called sperm activation) and we showed that As_SRP-1 has two major functions. First, As_SRP-1 functions in cis to support major sperm protein (MSP)-based cytoskeletal assembly in the spermatid that releases it, thereby facilitating sperm motility acquisition. Second, As_SRP-1 released from an activated sperm inhibits, in trans, the activation of surrounding spermatids by inhibiting vas deferens-derived As_TRY-5, a trypsin-like serine protease necessary for sperm activation. Because vesicular exocytosis is necessary to create fertilization-competent sperm in many animal species, components released during this process might be more important modulators of the physiology and behavior of surrounding sperm than was previously appreciated. PMID:22307610

  10. Protease inhibitor from Moringa oleifera with potential for use as therapeutic drug and as seafood preservative

    PubMed Central

    Bijina, B.; Chellappan, Sreeja; Krishna, Jissa G.; Basheer, Soorej M.; Elyas, K.K.; Bahkali, Ali H.; Chandrasekaran, M.

    2011-01-01

    Protease inhibitors are well known to have several applications in medicine and biotechnology. Several plant sources are known to return potential protease inhibitors. In this study plants belonging to different families of Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Rutaceae, Graminae and Moringaceae were screened for the protease inhibitor. Among them Moringa oleifera, belonging to the family Moringaceae, recorded high level of protease inhibitor activity after ammonium sulfate fractionation. M. oleifera, which grows throughout most of the tropics and having several industrial and medicinal uses, was selected as a source of protease inhibitor since so far no reports were made on isolation of the protease inhibitor. Among the different parts of M. oleifera tested, the crude extract isolated from the mature leaves and seeds showed the highest level of inhibition against trypsin. Among the various extraction media evaluated, the crude extract prepared in phosphate buffer showed maximum recovery of the protease inhibitor. The protease inhibitor recorded high inhibitory activity toward the serine proteases thrombin, elastase, chymotrypsin and the cysteine proteases cathepsin B and papain which have more importance in pharmaceutical industry. The protease inhibitor also showed complete inhibition of activities of the commercially available proteases of Bacillus licheniformis and Aspergillus oryzae. However, inhibitory activities toward subtilisin, esperase, pronase E and proteinase K were negligible. Further, it was found that the protease inhibitor could prevent proteolysis in a commercially valuable shrimp Penaeus monodon during storage indicating the scope for its application as a seafood preservative. This is the first report on isolation of a protease inhibitor from M. oleifera. PMID:23961135

  11. Tripeptidyl peptidase II. An oligomeric protease complex from Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Book, Adam J; Yang, Peizhen; Scalf, Mark; Smith, Lloyd M; Vierstra, Richard D

    2005-06-01

    The breakdown of most nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins involves their partial cleavage by the 26S proteasome followed by further disassembly to free amino acids by the combined action of endo- and exopeptidases. In animals, one important intermediate exopeptidase is tripeptidyl peptidase (TPP)II, which digests peptide products of the 26S proteasome and other endopeptidases into tripeptides. Here, we describe the purification and characterization of TPPII from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Like its animal counterparts, Arabidopsis TPPII exists as a soluble, approximately 5- to 9-MD complex. Two related species of 153 and 142 kD are present in the purified preparations that are derived from a single TPP2 gene. Sequencing by Edman degradation of the intact polypeptides and mass spectrometry of proteolytic fragments demonstrated that the 142-kD form mainly differs from the 153-kD form by a truncation at the C-terminal end. This serine protease is a member of the subtilisin superfamily and is sensitive to the inhibitors alanine-alanine-phenylalanine-chloromethylketone and butabindide, which are diagnostic for the TPPII subfamily. The Arabidopsis TPP2 gene is widely expressed in many tissue types with related genes evident in other plant genomes. Whereas the 26S proteasome is essential, TPPII appears not as important for plant physiology. An Arabidopsis T-DNA mutant defective in TPP2 expression displays no phenotypic abnormalities and is not hypersensitive to either amino acid analogs or the 26S proteasome inhibitor MG132. As a consequence, plants likely contain other intermediate exopeptidases that assist in amino acid recycling.

  12. Tripeptidyl Peptidase II. An Oligomeric Protease Complex from Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Book, Adam J.; Yang, Peizhen; Scalf, Mark; Smith, Lloyd M.; Vierstra, Richard D.

    2005-01-01

    The breakdown of most nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins involves their partial cleavage by the 26S proteasome followed by further disassembly to free amino acids by the combined action of endo- and exopeptidases. In animals, one important intermediate exopeptidase is tripeptidyl peptidase (TPP)II, which digests peptide products of the 26S proteasome and other endopeptidases into tripeptides. Here, we describe the purification and characterization of TPPII from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Like its animal counterparts, Arabidopsis TPPII exists as a soluble, approximately 5- to 9-MD complex. Two related species of 153 and 142 kD are present in the purified preparations that are derived from a single TPP2 gene. Sequencing by Edman degradation of the intact polypeptides and mass spectrometry of proteolytic fragments demonstrated that the 142-kD form mainly differs from the 153-kD form by a truncation at the C-terminal end. This serine protease is a member of the subtilisin superfamily and is sensitive to the inhibitors alanine-alanine-phenylalanine-chloromethylketone and butabindide, which are diagnostic for the TPPII subfamily. The Arabidopsis TPP2 gene is widely expressed in many tissue types with related genes evident in other plant genomes. Whereas the 26S proteasome is essential, TPPII appears not as important for plant physiology. An Arabidopsis T-DNA mutant defective in TPP2 expression displays no phenotypic abnormalities and is not hypersensitive to either amino acid analogs or the 26S proteasome inhibitor MG132. As a consequence, plants likely contain other intermediate exopeptidases that assist in amino acid recycling. PMID:15908606

  13. Proteolytic Activation of the Protease-activated Receptor (PAR)-2 by the Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored Serine Protease Testisin*

    PubMed Central

    Driesbaugh, Kathryn H.; Buzza, Marguerite S.; Martin, Erik W.; Conway, Gregory D.; Kao, Joseph P. Y.; Antalis, Toni M.

    2015-01-01

    Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are a family of seven-transmembrane, G-protein-coupled receptors that are activated by multiple serine proteases through specific N-terminal proteolytic cleavage and the unmasking of a tethered ligand. The majority of PAR-activating proteases described to date are soluble proteases that are active during injury, coagulation, and inflammation. Less investigation, however, has focused on the potential for membrane-anchored serine proteases to regulate PAR activation. Testisin is a unique trypsin-like serine protease that is tethered to the extracellular membrane of cells through a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. Here, we show that the N-terminal domain of PAR-2 is a substrate for testisin and that proteolytic cleavage of PAR-2 by recombinant testisin activates downstream signaling pathways, including intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. When testisin and PAR-2 are co-expressed in HeLa cells, GPI-anchored testisin specifically releases the PAR-2 tethered ligand. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous testisin in NCI/ADR-Res ovarian tumor cells reduces PAR-2 N-terminal proteolytic cleavage. The cleavage of PAR-2 by testisin induces activation of the intracellular serum-response element and NFκB signaling pathways and the induction of IL-8 and IL-6 cytokine gene expression. Furthermore, the activation of PAR-2 by testisin results in the loss and internalization of PAR-2 from the cell surface. This study reveals a new biological substrate for testisin and is the first demonstration of the activation of a PAR by a serine protease GPI-linked to the cell surface. PMID:25519908

  14. Proteolytic activation of the protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 by the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored serine protease testisin.

    PubMed

    Driesbaugh, Kathryn H; Buzza, Marguerite S; Martin, Erik W; Conway, Gregory D; Kao, Joseph P Y; Antalis, Toni M

    2015-02-06

    Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are a family of seven-transmembrane, G-protein-coupled receptors that are activated by multiple serine proteases through specific N-terminal proteolytic cleavage and the unmasking of a tethered ligand. The majority of PAR-activating proteases described to date are soluble proteases that are active during injury, coagulation, and inflammation. Less investigation, however, has focused on the potential for membrane-anchored serine proteases to regulate PAR activation. Testisin is a unique trypsin-like serine protease that is tethered to the extracellular membrane of cells through a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. Here, we show that the N-terminal domain of PAR-2 is a substrate for testisin and that proteolytic cleavage of PAR-2 by recombinant testisin activates downstream signaling pathways, including intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. When testisin and PAR-2 are co-expressed in HeLa cells, GPI-anchored testisin specifically releases the PAR-2 tethered ligand. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous testisin in NCI/ADR-Res ovarian tumor cells reduces PAR-2 N-terminal proteolytic cleavage. The cleavage of PAR-2 by testisin induces activation of the intracellular serum-response element and NFκB signaling pathways and the induction of IL-8 and IL-6 cytokine gene expression. Furthermore, the activation of PAR-2 by testisin results in the loss and internalization of PAR-2 from the cell surface. This study reveals a new biological substrate for testisin and is the first demonstration of the activation of a PAR by a serine protease GPI-linked to the cell surface. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Detection of protease activity in cells and animals.

    PubMed

    Verdoes, Martijn; Verhelst, Steven H L

    2016-01-01

    Proteases are involved in a wide variety of biologically and medically important events. They are entangled in a complex network of processes that regulate their activity, which makes their study intriguing, but challenging. For comprehensive understanding of protease biology and effective drug discovery, it is therefore essential to study proteases in models that are close to their complex native environments such as live cells or whole organisms. Protease activity can be detected by reporter substrates and activity-based probes, but not all of these reagents are suitable for intracellular or in vivo use. This review focuses on the detection of proteases in cells and in vivo. We summarize the use of probes and substrates as molecular tools, discuss strategies to deliver these tools inside cells, and describe sophisticated read-out techniques such as mass spectrometry and various imaging applications. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Physiological Enzymology and Protein Functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Emerging roles for diverse intramembrane proteases in plant biology.

    PubMed

    Adam, Zach

    2013-12-01

    Progress in the field of regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) in recent years has made its impact on plant biology as well. Although this field within plant research is still in its infancy, some interesting observations have started to emerge. Gene encoding orthologs of rhomboid proteases, site-2 proteases (S2P), presenilin/γ-secretases, and signal peptide peptidases are found in plant genomes and some of these gene products were identified in different plant cell membranes. The lack of chloroplast-located rhomboid proteases was associated with reduced fertility and aberrations in flower morphology. Mutations in homologues of S2P resulted in chlorophyll deficiency and impaired chloroplast development. An S2P was also implicated in the response to ER stress through cleavage of ER-membrane bZIP transcription factors, allowing their migration to the nucleus and activation of the transcription of BiP chaperones. Other membrane-bound transcription factors of the NAC and PHD families were also demonstrated to undergo RIP and relocalization to the nucleus. These and other new data are expected to shed more light on the roles of intramembrane proteases in plant biology in the future. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Intramembrane Proteases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization and milk coagulating properties of Cynanchum otophyllum Schneid. proteases.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Xiao, Chen; Zhang, Hao; Ren, Fazheng; Lei, Xingen; Yang, Zibiao; Yu, Zhengquan

    2018-04-01

    The herbaceous plant Cynanchum otophyllum Schneid. is widely used as a milk coagulant to make a Chinese traditional milk product, milk cake. However, the milk-clotting compounds and their mechanism remain unclear. In this study, crude proteases were extracted from the dried leaves of Cynanchum otophyllum Schneid. using citric acid-phosphate buffer and then partially purified by weak anion exchange chromatography. Two proteases, QA and QC, with molecular weights of 14 and 27 kDa, respectively, were shown to exhibit milk-clotting activity. A study of the effects of pH and temperature on the milk-clotting activity and proteolytic activity of the proteases showed that they exhibited good pH stability from pH 5.5 to 7.5 and good thermal stability at temperatures from 50 to 70°C. The QA and QC were the cysteine proteases, able to hydrolyze β-casein and κ-casein completely, and α-casein partially. The cleavage site on κ-casein determined by Orbitrap (Thermo Fisher Scientific, San Jose, CA) analysis showed that QA and QC could cleave κ-casein at Ser132-Thr133. Overall, the results suggest that the Cynanchum otophyllum Schneid. proteases are a promising milk-clotting enzyme that could be used for manufacturing milk cake and cheese. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Analysis of salivary protease spectrum in chronic periodontitis].

    PubMed

    Qian, Li; Xuedong, Zhou; Yaping, Fan; Tengyu, Yang; Songtao, Wu; Yu, Yu; Jiao, Chen; Ping, Zhang; Yun, Feng

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the difference in salivary protease expression in patients with chronic periodontitis and normal individuals. The stimulating saliva in patients with chronic periodontitis and normal individuals were collected. Protein chip technology was adapted to analyze salivary protease spectrum. Among the 34 proteases in the chip, disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)8, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8, MMP-12, neprilysin/CD10, and uridylyl phosphate adenosine/urokinase showed a significantly increased concentration in the saliva of chronic periodontitis patients compared with those in the saliva of normal individuals (P<0.01). By contrast, the concentrations of ADAM9, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS)1, ADAMTS13, cathepsin B, E, L, V, X/Z/P, kallikrein 6, 7, 11, 13, MMP-9, proteinase 3, presenilin-1, and proprotein convertase 9 sharply decreased (P<0.05). The results demonstrated that protease spectrum in the saliva of chronic periodontitis patients and normal individuals significantly differed. Analysis of salivary protease spectrum is a potential clinical method to examine, diagnose, and monitor chronic periodontitis.

  19. Limited proteolysis in proteomics using protease-immobilized microreactors.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Masaya; Maeda, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    Proteolysis is the key step for proteomic studies integrated with MS analysis. Compared with the conventional method of in-solution digestion, proteolysis by a protease-immobilized microreactor has a number of advantages for proteomic analysis; i.e., rapid and efficient digestion, elimination of a purification step of the digests prior to MS, and high stability against a chemical or thermal denaturant. This chapter describes the preparation of the protease-immobilized microreactors and proteolysis performance of these microreactors. Immobilization of proteases by the formation of a polymeric membrane consisting solely of protease-proteins on the inner wall of the microchannel is performed. This was realized either by a cross-linking reaction in a laminar flow between lysine residues sufficiently present on the protein surfaces themselves or in the case of acidic proteins by mixing them with poly-lysine prior to the crosslink-reaction. The present procedure is simple and widely useful not only for proteases but also for several other enzymes.

  20. Cleavage of Poly(A)-Binding Protein by Enterovirus Proteases Concurrent with Inhibition of Translation In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Joachims, Michelle; Van Breugel, Pieter C.; Lloyd, Richard E.

    1999-01-01

    Many enteroviruses, members of the family Picornaviridae, cause a rapid and drastic inhibition of host cell protein synthesis during infection, a process referred to as host cell shutoff. Poliovirus, one of the best-studied enteroviruses, causes marked inhibition of host cell translation while preferentially allowing translation of its own genomic mRNA. An abundance of experimental evidence has accumulated to indicate that cleavage of an essential translation initiation factor, eIF4G, during infection is responsible at least in part for this shutoff. However, evidence from inhibitors of viral replication suggests that an additional event is necessary for the complete translational shutoff observed during productive infection. This report examines the effect of poliovirus infection on a recently characterized 3′ end translational stimulatory protein, poly(A)-binding protein (PABP). PABP is involved in stimulating translation initiation in lower eukaryotes by its interaction with the poly(A) tail on mRNAs and has been proposed to facilitate 5′-end–3′-end interactions in the context of the closed-loop translational model. Here, we show that PABP is specifically degraded during poliovirus infection and that it is cleaved in vitro by both poliovirus 2A and 3C proteases and coxsackievirus B3 2A protease. Further, PABP cleavage by 2A protease is accompanied by concurrent loss of translational activity in an in vitro-translation assay. Similar loss of translational activity also occurs simultaneously with partial 3C protease-mediated cleavage of PABP in translation assays. Further, PABP is not degraded during infections in the presence of guanidine-HCl, which blocks the complete development of host translation shutoff. These results provide preliminary evidence that cleavage of PABP may contribute to inhibition of host translation in infected HeLa cells, and they are consistent with the hypothesis that PABP plays a role in facilitating translation initiation in

  1. Production of protease and lipase by solvent tolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa PseA in solid-state fermentation using Jatropha curcas seed cake as substrate.

    PubMed

    Mahanta, Nilkamal; Gupta, Anshu; Khare, S K

    2008-04-01

    Deoiled Jatropha seed cake was assessed for its suitability as substrate for enzyme production by solid-state fermentation (SSF). Solvent tolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa PseA strain previously reported by us was used for fermentation. The seed cake supported good bacterial growth and enzyme production (protease, 1818 U/g of substrate and lipase, 625 U/g of substrate) as evident by its chemical composition. Maximum protease and lipase production was observed at 50% substrate moisture, a growth period of 72 and 120 h, and a substrate pH of 6.0 and 7.0, respectively. Enrichment with maltose as carbon source increased protease and lipase production by 6.3- and 1.6-fold, respectively. Nitrogen supplementation with peptone for protease and NaNO(3) for lipase production also enhanced the enzyme yield reaching 11,376 U protease activity and 1084 U lipase activity per gram of Jatropha seed cake. These results demonstrated viable approach for utilization of this huge biomass by solid-state fermentation for the production of industrial enzymes. This offers significant benefit due to low cost and abundant availability of cake during biodiesel production.

  2. Characterization and identification of proteases secreted by Aspergillus fumigatus using free flow electrophoresis and MS.

    PubMed

    Neustadt, Madlen; Costina, Victor; Kupfahl, Claudio; Buchheidt, Dieter; Eckerskorn, Christoph; Neumaier, Michael; Findeisen, Peter

    2009-06-01

    Early diagnosis of life-threatening invasive aspergillosis in neutropenic patients remains challenging because current laboratory methods have limited diagnostic sensitivity and/or specificity. Aspergillus species are known to secrete various pathogenetically relevant proteases and the monitoring of their protease activity in serum specimens might serve as a new diagnostic approach.For the characterization and identification of secreted proteases, the culture supernatant of Aspergillus fumigatus was fractionated using free flow electrophoresis (Becton Dickinson). Protease activity of separated fractions was measured using fluorescently labeled reporter peptides. Fractions were also co-incubated in parallel with various protease inhibitors that specifically inhibit a distinct class of proteases e.g. metallo- or cysteine-proteases. Those fractions with high protease activity were further subjected to LC-MS/MS analysis for protease identification. The highest protease activity was measured in fractions with an acidic pH range. The results of the 'inhibitor-panel' gave a clear indication that it is mainly metallo- and serine-proteases that are involved in the degradation of reporter peptides. Furthermore, several proteases were identified that facilitate the optimization of reporter peptides for functional protease profiling as a diagnostic tool for invasive aspergillosis.

  3. From nonpeptide toward noncarbon protease inhibitors: Metallacarboranes as specific and potent inhibitors of HIV protease

    PubMed Central

    Cígler, Petr; Kožíšek, Milan; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Brynda, Jíří; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Pokorná, Jana; Plešek, Jaromír; Grüner, Bohumír; Dolečková-Marešová, Lucie; Máša, Martin; Sedláček, Juraj; Bodem, Jochen; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Král, Vladimír; Konvalinka, Jan

    2005-01-01

    HIV protease (PR) represents a prime target for rational drug design, and protease inhibitors (PI) are powerful antiviral drugs. Most of the current PIs are pseudopeptide compounds with limited bioavailability and stability, and their use is compromised by high costs, side effects, and development of resistant strains. In our search for novel PI structures, we have identified a group of inorganic compounds, icosahedral metallacarboranes, as candidates for a novel class of nonpeptidic PIs. Here, we report the potent, specific, and selective competitive inhibition of HIV PR by substituted metallacarboranes. The most active compound, sodium hydrogen butylimino bis-8,8-[5-(3-oxa-pentoxy)-3-cobalt bis(1,2-dicarbollide)]di-ate, exhibited a Ki value of 2.2 nM and a submicromolar EC50 in antiviral tests, showed no toxicity in tissue culture, weakly inhibited human cathepsin D and pepsin, and was inactive against trypsin, papain, and amylase. The structure of the parent cobalt bis(1,2-dicarbollide) in complex with HIV PR was determined at 2.15 Å resolution by protein crystallography and represents the first carborane-protein complex structure determined. It shows the following mode of PR inhibition: two molecules of the parent compound bind to the hydrophobic pockets in the flap-proximal region of the S3 and S3′ subsites of PR. We suggest, therefore, that these compounds block flap closure in addition to filling the corresponding binding pockets as conventional PIs. This type of binding and inhibition, chemical and biological stability, low toxicity, and the possibility to introduce various modifications make boron clusters attractive pharmacophores for potent and specific enzyme inhibition. PMID:16227435

  4. Protease-Activated Receptor 2, Dipeptidyl Peptidase I, and Proteases Mediate Clostridium difficile Toxin A Enteritis

    PubMed Central

    COTTRELL, GRAEME S.; AMADESI, SILVIA; PIKIOS, STELLA; CAMERER, ERIC; WILLARDSEN, J. ADAM; MURPHY, BRETT R.; CAUGHEY, GEORGE H.; WOLTERS, PAUL J.; COUGHLIN, SHAUN R.; PETERSON, ANDERS; KNECHT, WOLFGANG; POTHOULAKIS, CHARALABOS; BUNNETT, NIGEL W.; GRADY, EILEEN F.

    2008-01-01

    Background & Aims We studied the role of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) and its activating enzymes, trypsins and tryptase, in Clostridium difficile toxin A (TxA)-induced enteritis. Methods We injected TxA into ileal loops in PAR2 or dipeptidyl peptidase I (DPPI) knockout mice or in wild-type mice pretreated with tryptase inhibitors (FUT-175 or MPI-0442352) or soybean trypsin inhibitor. We examined the effect of TxA on expression and activity of PAR2 and trypsin IV messenger RNA in the ileum and cultured colonocytes. We injected activating peptide (AP), trypsins, tryptase, and p23 in wild-type mice, some pretreated with the neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist SR140333. Results TxA increased fluid secretion, myeloperoxidase activity in fluid and tissue, and histologic damage. PAR2 deletion decreased TxA-induced ileitis, reduced luminal fluid secretion by 20%, decreased tissue and fluid myeloperoxidase by 50%, and diminished epithelial damage, edema, and neutrophil infiltration. DPPI deletion reduced secretion by 20% and fluid myeloperoxidase by 55%. In wild-type mice, FUT-175 or MPI-0442352 inhibited secretion by 24%−28% and tissue and fluid myeloperoxidase by 31%−71%. Soybean trypsin inhibitor reduced secretion to background levels and tissue myeloperoxidase by up to 50%. TxA increased expression of PAR2 and trypsin IV in enterocytes and colonocytes and caused a 2-fold increase in Ca2+ responses to PAR2 AP. AP, tryptase, and trypsin isozymes (trypsin I/II, trypsin IV, p23) caused ileitis. SR140333 prevented AP-induced ileitis. Conclusions PAR2 and its activators are proinflammatory in TxA-induced enteritis. TxA stimulates existing PAR2 and up-regulates PAR2 and activating proteases, and PAR2 causes inflammation by neurogenic mechanisms. PMID:17570216

  5. Substrate specificity of the ubiquitin and Ubl proteases

    PubMed Central

    Ronau, Judith A; Beckmann, John F; Hochstrasser, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Conjugation and deconjugation of ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins (Ubls) to cellular proteins are highly regulated processes integral to cellular homeostasis. Most often, the C-termini of these small polypeptides are attached to lysine side chains of target proteins by an amide (isopeptide) linkage. Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) and Ubl-specific proteases (ULPs) comprise a diverse group of proteases that recognize and remove ubiquitin and Ubls from their substrates. How DUBs and ULPs distinguish among different modifiers, or different polymeric forms of these modifiers, remains poorly understood. The specificity of ubiquitin/Ubl-deconjugating enzymes for particular substrates depends on multiple factors, ranging from the topography of specific substrate features, as in different polyubiquitin chain types, to structural elements unique to each enzyme. Here we summarize recent structural and biochemical studies that provide insights into mechanisms of substrate specificity among various DUBs and ULPs. We also discuss the unexpected specificities of non-eukaryotic proteases in these families. PMID:27012468

  6. m-AAA proteases, mitochondrial calcium homeostasis and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Patron, Maria; Sprenger, Hans-Georg; Langer, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    The function of mitochondria depends on ubiquitously expressed and evolutionary conserved m-AAA proteases in the inner membrane. These ATP-dependent peptidases form hexameric complexes built up of homologous subunits. AFG3L2 subunits assemble either into homo-oligomeric isoenzymes or with SPG7 (paraplegin) subunits into hetero-oligomeric proteolytic complexes. Mutations in AFG3L2 are associated with dominant spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA28) characterized by the loss of Purkinje cells, whereas mutations in SPG7 cause a recessive form of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP7) with motor neurons of the cortico-spinal tract being predominantly affected. Pleiotropic functions have been assigned to m-AAA proteases, which act as quality control and regulatory enzymes in mitochondria. Loss of m-AAA proteases affects mitochondrial protein synthesis and respiration and leads to mitochondrial fragmentation and deficiencies in the axonal transport of mitochondria. Moreover m-AAA proteases regulate the assembly of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) complex. Impaired degradation of the MCU subunit EMRE in AFG3L2-deficient mitochondria results in the formation of deregulated MCU complexes, increased mitochondrial calcium uptake and increased vulnerability of neurons for calcium-induced cell death. A reduction of calcium influx into the cytosol of Purkinje cells rescues ataxia in an AFG3L2-deficient mouse model. In this review, we discuss the relationship between the m-AAA protease and mitochondrial calcium homeostasis and its relevance for neurodegeneration and describe a novel mouse model lacking MCU specifically in Purkinje cells. Our results pledge for a novel view on m-AAA proteases that integrates their pleiotropic functions in mitochondria to explain the pathogenesis of associated neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:29451229

  7. m-AAA proteases, mitochondrial calcium homeostasis and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Patron, Maria; Sprenger, Hans-Georg; Langer, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    The function of mitochondria depends on ubiquitously expressed and evolutionary conserved m-AAA proteases in the inner membrane. These ATP-dependent peptidases form hexameric complexes built up of homologous subunits. AFG3L2 subunits assemble either into homo-oligomeric isoenzymes or with SPG7 (paraplegin) subunits into hetero-oligomeric proteolytic complexes. Mutations in AFG3L2 are associated with dominant spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA28) characterized by the loss of Purkinje cells, whereas mutations in SPG7 cause a recessive form of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP7) with motor neurons of the cortico-spinal tract being predominantly affected. Pleiotropic functions have been assigned to m-AAA proteases, which act as quality control and regulatory enzymes in mitochondria. Loss of m-AAA proteases affects mitochondrial protein synthesis and respiration and leads to mitochondrial fragmentation and deficiencies in the axonal transport of mitochondria. Moreover m-AAA proteases regulate the assembly of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) complex. Impaired degradation of the MCU subunit EMRE in AFG3L2-deficient mitochondria results in the formation of deregulated MCU complexes, increased mitochondrial calcium uptake and increased vulnerability of neurons for calcium-induced cell death. A reduction of calcium influx into the cytosol of Purkinje cells rescues ataxia in an AFG3L2-deficient mouse model. In this review, we discuss the relationship between the m-AAA protease and mitochondrial calcium homeostasis and its relevance for neurodegeneration and describe a novel mouse model lacking MCU specifically in Purkinje cells. Our results pledge for a novel view on m-AAA proteases that integrates their pleiotropic functions in mitochondria to explain the pathogenesis of associated neurodegenerative disorders.

  8. Human eosinophils constitutively express a unique serine protease, PRSS33.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Sumika; Okada, Naoko; Matsuda, Akio; Morita, Hideaki; Saito, Hirohisa; Fujisawa, Takao; Nakae, Susumu; Karasuyama, Hajime; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2017-07-01

    Eosinophils play important roles in asthma, especially airway remodeling, by producing various granule proteins, chemical mediators, cytokines, chemokines and proteases. However, protease production by eosinophils is not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the production of eosinophil-specific proteases/proteinases by transcriptome analysis. Human eosinophils and other cells were purified from peripheral blood by density gradient sedimentation and negative/positive selections using immunomagnetic beads. Protease/proteinase expression in eosinophils and release into the supernatant were evaluated by microarray analysis, qPCR, ELISA, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence staining before and after stimulation with eosinophil-activating cytokines and secretagogues. mRNAs for extracellular matrix proteins in human normal fibroblasts were measured by qPCR after exposure to recombinant protease serine 33 (PRSS33) protein (rPRSS33), created with a baculovirus system. Human eosinophils expressed relatively high levels of mRNA for metalloproteinase 25 (MMP25), a disintegrin and metalloprotease 8 (ADAM8), ADAM10, ADAM19 and PRSS33. Expression of PRSS33 was the highest and eosinophil-specific. PRSS33 mRNA expression was not affected by eosinophil-activating cytokines. Immunofluorescence staining showed that PRSS33 was co-localized with an eosinophil granule protein. PRSS33 was not detected in the culture supernatant of eosinophils even after stimulation with secretagogues, but its cell surface expression was increased. rPRSS33 stimulation of human fibroblasts increased expression of collagen and fibronectin mRNAs, at least in part via protease-activated receptor-2 activation. Activated eosinophils may induce fibroblast extracellular matrix protein synthesis via cell surface expression of PRSS33, which would at least partly explain eosinophils' role(s) in airway remodeling. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier

  9. The chlamydial protease CPAF: important or not, important for what?

    PubMed

    Häcker, Georg

    2014-05-01

    The protease CPAF is only found in Chlamydiales and in at least most bacteria that share with Chlamydia the biphasic life-style in a cytosolic inclusion. CPAF is intriguing: it appears to be secreted from the inclusion across the inclusion membrane into the cytosol. A bacterial protease ravaging in the cytosol of a human cell may cause a plethora of effects. Curiously, very few are known. The current discussion is bogged down by a focus on experimental artifact, while proposed functions of CPAF remain speculative. I here make the attempt to summarize what we know about CPAF. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. An association between Schistosoma mansoni worms and an enzymatically-active protease/peptidase in mouse blood.

    PubMed

    Darani, H Y; Doenhoff, M J

    2008-04-01

    An enzyme found previously in extracts of adult Schistosoma mansoni worms, that hydrolysed the chromogenic substrate N-acetyl-DL-phenylalanine beta-naphthyl-ester, has here been further investigated and characterized. Evidence that the molecule found in the parasite was antigenically and enzymatically homologous with a constituent of normal mouse plasma has been consolidated using a monospecific serum in immunoelectrophoresis and Western immunoblotting. The molecular size of the enzyme was found to be approximately 70 kDa and it was inhibited by a serine protease inhibitor, but not by inhibitors of other classes of protease. The enzymatic activity found in normal mouse serum was also found in normal rat serum, but not in sera from several other mammalian species.

  11. Massive accumulation of luminal protease-deficient axonal lysosomes at Alzheimer’s disease amyloid plaques

    PubMed Central

    Gowrishankar, Swetha; Yuan, Peng; Wu, Yumei; Schrag, Matthew; Paradise, Summer; Grutzendler, Jaime; De Camilli, Pietro; Ferguson, Shawn M.

    2015-01-01

    Through a comprehensive analysis of organellar markers in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease, we document a massive accumulation of lysosome-like organelles at amyloid plaques and establish that the majority of these organelles reside within swollen axons that contact the amyloid deposits. This close spatial relationship between axonal lysosome accumulation and extracellular amyloid aggregates was observed from the earliest stages of β-amyloid deposition. Notably, we discovered that lysosomes that accumulate in such axons are lacking in multiple soluble luminal proteases and thus are predicted to be unable to efficiently degrade proteinaceous cargos. Of relevance to Alzheimer’s disease, β-secretase (BACE1), the protein that initiates amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein and which is a substrate for these proteases, builds up at these sites. Furthermore, through a comparison between the axonal lysosome accumulations at amyloid plaques and neuronal lysosomes of the wild-type brain, we identified a similar, naturally occurring population of lysosome-like organelles in neuronal processes that is also defined by its low luminal protease content. In conjunction with emerging evidence that the lysosomal maturation of endosomes and autophagosomes is coupled to their retrograde transport, our results suggest that extracellular β-amyloid deposits cause a local impairment in the retrograde axonal transport of lysosome precursors, leading to their accumulation and a blockade in their further maturation. This study both advances understanding of Alzheimer’s disease brain pathology and provides new insights into the subcellular organization of neuronal lysosomes that may have broader relevance to other neurodegenerative diseases with a lysosomal component to their pathology. PMID:26124111

  12. Massive accumulation of luminal protease-deficient axonal lysosomes at Alzheimer's disease amyloid plaques.

    PubMed

    Gowrishankar, Swetha; Yuan, Peng; Wu, Yumei; Schrag, Matthew; Paradise, Summer; Grutzendler, Jaime; De Camilli, Pietro; Ferguson, Shawn M

    2015-07-14

    Through a comprehensive analysis of organellar markers in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, we document a massive accumulation of lysosome-like organelles at amyloid plaques and establish that the majority of these organelles reside within swollen axons that contact the amyloid deposits. This close spatial relationship between axonal lysosome accumulation and extracellular amyloid aggregates was observed from the earliest stages of β-amyloid deposition. Notably, we discovered that lysosomes that accumulate in such axons are lacking in multiple soluble luminal proteases and thus are predicted to be unable to efficiently degrade proteinaceous cargos. Of relevance to Alzheimer's disease, β-secretase (BACE1), the protein that initiates amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein and which is a substrate for these proteases, builds up at these sites. Furthermore, through a comparison between the axonal lysosome accumulations at amyloid plaques and neuronal lysosomes of the wild-type brain, we identified a similar, naturally occurring population of lysosome-like organelles in neuronal processes that is also defined by its low luminal protease content. In conjunction with emerging evidence that the lysosomal maturation of endosomes and autophagosomes is coupled to their retrograde transport, our results suggest that extracellular β-amyloid deposits cause a local impairment in the retrograde axonal transport of lysosome precursors, leading to their accumulation and a blockade in their further maturation. This study both advances understanding of Alzheimer's disease brain pathology and provides new insights into the subcellular organization of neuronal lysosomes that may have broader relevance to other neurodegenerative diseases with a lysosomal component to their pathology.

  13. Characterisation of a detergent-stable alkaline protease from a novel thermophilic strain Paenibacillus tezpurensis sp. nov. AS-S24-II.

    PubMed

    Rai, Sudhir K; Roy, Jetendra K; Mukherjee, Ashis K

    2010-02-01

    An alkaline-protease-producing bacterial strain (AS-S24-II) isolated from a soil sample in Assam is a Gram-stain-positive, catalase-positive, endospore-forming rod and grows at temperatures ranging from 30 degrees C to 60 degrees C and salinity ranging from 0% to 7% (w/v) NaCl. Phenotypic characterisation, chemotaxonomic properties, presence of Paenibacillus-specific signature sequences, and ribotyping data suggested that the strain AS-S24-II represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus tezpurensis sp. nov. (MTCC 8959) is proposed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that P. lentimorbus strain DNG-14 and P. lentimorbus strain DNG-16 represent the closest phylogenetic neighbour of this novel strain. Alkaline protease production (598 x 10(3) U l(-1)) by P. tezpurensis sp. nov. in SmF was optimised by response surface method. A laundry-detergent-stable, Ca(2+)-independent, 43-kDa molecular weight alkaline serine protease from this strain was purified with a 1.7-fold increase in specific activity. The purified protease displayed optimum activity at pH 9.5 and 45-50 degrees C temperature range and exhibited a significant stability and compatibility with surfactants and most of the tested commercial laundry detergents at room temperature. Further, the protease improved the wash performance of detergents, thus demonstrating its feasibility for inclusion in laundry detergent formulations.

  14. Effects of eye rubbing on the levels of protease, protease activity and cytokines in tears: relevance in keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Sivaraman A; Pye, David C; Willcox, Mark D P

    2013-03-01

    Proteases, protease activity and inflammatory molecules in tears have been found to be relevant in the pathogenesis of keratoconus. We sought to determine the influence of eye rubbing on protease expression, protease activity and concentration of inflammatory molecules in tears. Basal tears were collected from normal volunteers before and after 60 seconds of experimental eye rubbing. The total amount of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and inflammatory molecules interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the tear samples were measured using specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Tear collagenase activity was investigated using a specific activity assay. The concentrations of MMP-13 (51.9 ± 34.3 versus 63 ± 36.8 pg/ml, p = 0.006), IL-6 (1.24 ± 0.98 versus 2.02 ± 1.52 pg/ml, p = 0.004) and TNF-α (1.16 ± 0.74 versus 1.44 ± 0.66 pg/ml, p = 0.003) were significantly increased in normal subjects after eye rubbing. The experimental eye rub did not alter significantly the collagenase activity (5.02 ± 3 versus 7.50 ± 3.90 fluorescent intensity units, p = 0.14) of tears. Eye rubbing for 60 seconds increased the level of tear MMP-13, IL-6 and TNF-α in normal study subjects. This increase in protease, protease activity and inflammatory mediators in tears after eye rubbing may be exacerbated even further during persistent and forceful eye rubbing seen in people with keratoconus and this in turn may contribute to the progression of the disease. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2013 Optometrists Association Australia.

  15. A New Subtilase-Like Protease Deriving from Fusarium equiseti with High Potential for Industrial Applications.

    PubMed

    Juntunen, Kari; Mäkinen, Susanna; Isoniemi, Sari; Valtakari, Leena; Pelzer, Alexander; Jänis, Janne; Paloheimo, Marja

    2015-09-01

    A gene encoding a novel extracellular subtilisin-like protease was cloned from the ascomycete Fusarium equiseti and expressed in Trichoderma reesei. The F. equiseti protease (Fe protease) showed excellent performance in stain removal and good compatibility with several commercial laundry detergent formulations, suggesting that it has high potential for use in various industrial applications. The recombinant enzyme was purified and characterized. The temperature optimum of the Fe protease was 60 °C and it showed high activity in the pH range of 6-10, with a sharp decline in activity at pH above 10. The amino acid specificity of the Fe protease was studied using casein, cytochrome c, and ubiquitin as substrates. The Fe protease had broad substrate specificity: almost all amino acid residues were accepted at position P1, even though it showed some preference for cleavage at the C-terminal side of asparagine and histidine residues. The S4 subsite of Fe protease favors aspartic acid and threonine. The other well-characterized proteases from filamentous fungi, Proteinase K from Engyodontium album, Thermomycolin from Malbranchea sulfurea, and alkaline subtilisins from Bacillus species prefer hydrophobic amino acids in both the S1 and S4 subsites. Due to its different specificity compared to the members of the S8 family of clan SB of proteases, we consider that the Fe protease is a new protease. It does not belong to any previously defined IUBMB groups of proteases.

  16. Teaching Foundational Topics and Scientific Skills in Biochemistry within the Conceptual Framework of HIV Protease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    HIV protease has served as a model protein for understanding protein structure, enzyme kinetics, structure-based drug design, and protein evolution. Inhibitors of HIV protease are also an essential part of effective HIV/AIDS treatment and have provided great societal benefits. The broad applications for HIV protease and its inhibitors make it a…

  17. Design, synthesis, and activity of nanocellulosic protease sensors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Here we contrast the molecular assembly, and biochemical utility of nanocellulosic materials prepared from cotton and wood as protease sensors. The cotton-based nanocellulosic substrates were prepared in a variety of ways to produce nanocrystals, films and aerogels, which were derivatized with eithe...

  18. The protease-activated receptor-2 upregulates keratinocyte phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Sharlow, E R; Paine, C S; Babiarz, L; Eisinger, M; Shapiro, S; Seiberg, M

    2000-09-01

    The protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) belongs to the family of seven transmembrane domain receptors, which are activated by the specific enzymatic cleavage of their extracellular amino termini. Synthetic peptides corresponding to the tethered ligand domain (SLIGRL in mouse, SLIGKV in human) can activate PAR-2 without the need for receptor cleavage. PAR-2 activation is involved in cell growth, differentiation and inflammatory processes, and was shown to affect melanin and melanosome ingestion by human keratinocytes. Data presented here suggest that PAR-2 activation may regulate human keratinocyte phagocytosis. PAR-2 activation by trypsin, SLIGRL or SLIGKV increased the ability of keratinocytes to ingest fluorescently labeled microspheres or E. coli K-12 bioparticles. This PAR-2 mediated increase in keratinocyte phagocytic capability correlated with an increase in actin polymerization and *-actinin reorganization, cell surface morphological changes and increased soluble protease activity. Moreover, addition of serine protease inhibitors downmodulated both the constitutive and the PAR-2 mediated increases in phagocytosis, suggesting that serine proteases mediate this functional activity in keratinocytes. PAR-2 involvement in keratinocyte phagocytosis is a novel function for this receptor.

  19. Proteases for Processing Proneuropeptides into Peptide Neurotransmitters and Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Hook, Vivian; Funkelstein, Lydiane; Lu, Douglas; Bark, Steven; Wegrzyn, Jill; Hwang, Shin-Rong

    2009-01-01

    Peptide neurotransmitters and peptide hormones, collectively known as neuropeptides, are required for cell-cell communication in neurotransmission and for regulation of endocrine functions. Neuropeptides are synthesized from protein precursors (termed proneuropeptides or prohormones) that require proteolytic processing primarily within secretory vesicles that store and secrete the mature neuropeptides to control target cellular and organ systems. This review describes interdisciplinary strategies that have elucidated two primary protease pathways for prohormone processing consisting of the cysteine protease pathway mediated by secretory vesicle cathepsin L and the well-known subtilisin-like proprotein convertase pathway that together support neuropeptide biosynthesis. Importantly, this review discusses important areas of current and future biomedical neuropeptide research with respect to biological regulation, inhibitors, structural features of proneuropeptide and protease interactions, and peptidomics combined with proteomics for systems biological approaches. Future studies that gain in-depth understanding of protease mechanisms for generating active neuropeptides will be instrumental for translational research to develop pharmacological strategies for regulation of neuropeptide functions. Pharmacological applications for neuropeptide research may provide valuable therapeutics in health and disease. PMID:18184105

  20. Generic protease detection technology for monitoring periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xinwei; Cook, Joseph P; Watkinson, Michael; Yang, Shoufeng; Douglas, Ian; Rawlinson, Andrew; Krause, Steffi

    2011-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are inflammatory conditions that affect the supporting tissues of teeth and can lead to destruction of the bone support and ultimately tooth loss if untreated. Progression of periodontitis is usually site specific but not uniform, and currently there are no accurate clinical methods for distinguishing sites where there is active disease progression from sites that are quiescent. Consequently, unnecessary and costly treatment of periodontal sites that are not progressing may occur. Three proteases have been identified as suitable markers for distinguishing sites with active disease progression and quiescent sites: human neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G and MMP8. Generic sensor materials for the detection of these three proteases have been developed based on thin dextran hydrogel films cross-linked with peptides. Degradation of the hydrogel films was monitored using impedance measurements. The target proteases were detected in the clinically relevant range within a time frame of 3 min. Good specificity for different proteases was achieved by choosing appropriate peptide cross-linkers.

  1. Protease inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents for AIDS.

    PubMed

    Jamjoom, G A

    1991-09-01

    A decade since the epidemic of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was first recognized, a wealth of information has accumulated on the molecular biology of the causative agents, the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV). Of particular interest is knowledge of the viral enzymes involved in the formation of new virus particles. Such enzymes constitute attractive targets for efforts aimed at selecting agents that interfere with virus multiplication and subsequent spread and pathogenesis. Already, several agents that inhibit the viral reverse transcriptase (e.g., nucleoside analogs such as Zidovudine) have proved to have a beneficial effect on the course off the disease, but their prolonged use has been associated with significant toxicity and the emergence of resistant mutants. A second enzyme that has recently attracted attention is the virus-coded protease. This enzyme is involved in the cleavage of viral precursor polyproteins into the final products that constitute the mature virus particle. Protease inhibitors interfere with the process of virus maturation which is required for the formation of infective virus particles. Several custom-made inhibitors with a high selective action against HIV protease have been produced recently. They are nonhydrolyzable peptide analogs that mimic the cleavage sequences of the natural substrate of the enzyme during the transition state of the cleavage reaction. It is hoped that a similar selectivity in vivo may make protease inhibitors a promising new category of AIDS therapeutics.

  2. Mast cell proteases as protective and inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed

    Caughey, George H

    2011-01-01

    Proteases are the most abundant class of proteins produced by mast cells. Many of these are stored in membrane-enclosed intracellular granules until liberated by degranulating stimuli, which include cross-linking of high affinity IgE receptor F(c)εRI by IgE bound to multivalent allergen. Understanding and separating the functions of the proteases is important because expression differs among mast cells in different tissue locations. Differences between laboratory animals and humans in protease expression also influence the degree of confidence with which results obtained in animal models of mast cell function can be extrapolated to humans. The inflammatory potential of mast cell proteases was the first aspect of their biology to be explored and has received the most attention, in part because some of them, notably tryptases and chymases, are biomarkers of local and systemic mast cell degranulation and anaphylaxis. Although some of the proteases indeed augment allergic inflammation and are potential targets for inhibition to treat asthma and related allergic disorders, they are protective and even anti-inflammatory in some settings. For example, mast cell tryptases may protect from serious bacterial lung infections and may limit the "rubor" component of inflammation caused by vasodilating neuropeptides in the skin. Chymases help to maintain intestinal barrier function and to expel parasitic worms and may support blood pressure during anaphylaxis by generating angiotensin II. In other life-or-death examples, carboxypeptidase A3 and other mast cell peptidases limit systemic toxicity of endogenous peptideslike endothelin and neurotensin during septic peritonitis and inactivate venom-associated peptides. On the other hand, mast cell peptidase-mediated destruction of protective cytokines, like IL-6, can enhance mortality from sepsis. Peptidases released from mast cells also influence nonmast cell proteases, such as by activating matrix metalloproteinase cascades, which

  3. Mast Cell Proteases as Protective and Inflammatory Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Caughey, George H.

    2014-01-01

    Proteases are the most abundant class of proteins produced by mast cells. Many of these are stored in membrane-enclosed intracellular granules until liberated by degranulating stimuli, which include cross-linking of high affinity IgE receptor FcεRI by IgE bound to multivalent allergen. Understanding and separating the functions of the proteases is important because expression differs among mast cells in different tissue locations. Differences between laboratory animals and humans in protease expression also influence the degree of confidence with which results obtained in animal models of mast cell function can be extrapolated to humans. The inflammatory potential of mast cell proteases was the first aspect of their biology to be explored and has received the most attention, in part because some of them—notably tryptases and chymases—are biomarkers of local and systemic mast cell degranulation and anaphylaxis. Although some of the proteases indeed augment allergic inflammation and are potential targets for inhibition to treat asthma and related allergic disorders, they are protective and even anti-inflammatory in some settings. For example, mast cell tryptases may protect from serious bacterial lung infections and may limit the “rubor” component of inflammation caused by vasodilating neuropeptides in the skin. Chymases help to maintain intestinal barrier function and to expel parasitic worms, and may support blood pressure during anaphylaxis by generating angiotensin II. In other life-or-death examples, carboxypeptidase A3 and other mast cell peptidases limit systemic toxicity of endogenous peptides like endothelin and neurotensin during septic peritonitis, and inactivate venom-associated peptides. On the other hand, mast cell peptidase-mediated destruction of protective cytokines, like IL-6, can enhance mortality from sepsis. Peptidases released from mast cells also influence non-mast cell proteases, such as by activating matrix metalloproteinase cascades

  4. H1-A, a compound isolated from Fusarium oxysporum inhibits hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 serine protease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Yuan; Lin, Jun; Zhou, Bin; Liu, Yan-Gang; Zhu, Bao-Quan

    2016-04-01

    The present study was aimed to isolate the active compounds from the fermentation products of Fusarium oxysporum, which had hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protease inhibitory activity. A bioactive compound was isolated by reverse-phase silica-gel column chromatography, silica-gel column chromatography, semi-preparative reverse-phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and then its molecular structure was elucidated based on the spectrosopic analysis. As a result, the compound (H1-A, 1) Ergosta-5, 8 (14), 22-trien-7-one, 3-hydroxy-,(3β, 22E) was isolated and identified. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first report on the isolation of H1-A from microorganisms with the inhibitory activity of NS3 protease. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The protease-activated receptor 2 regulates pigmentation via keratinocyte-melanocyte interactions.

    PubMed

    Seiberg, M; Paine, C; Sharlow, E; Andrade-Gordon, P; Costanzo, M; Eisinger, M; Shapiro, S S

    2000-01-10

    Close association exists between melanocytes, the pigment melanin-producing cells in the body, and their neighboring keratinocytes. Keratinocytes are the pigment recipients and skin pigmentation is the result of this interaction. While the chemical basis of melanin production (melanogenesis) is well documented, the molecular mechanism of melanosome transfer needs to be elucidated. We are now providing first evidence that the protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) expressed on keratinocytes, but not on melanocytes, is involved in melanosome transfer and therefore may regulate pigmentation. Activation of PAR-2 with trypsin or with the peptide agonist SLIGRL induced pigmentation in both two- and three-dimensional cocultures of keratinocytes and melanocytes, but not in cocultures that were spatially separated, indicating the need for intimate cell-cell contact. Topical application of SLIGRL on human skin transplanted on SCID mice resulted in a visible skin darkening. Histological examination revealed increased deposits of melanin in the keratinocytes. Inhibition of PAR-2 activation by RWJ-50353, a serine protease inhibitor, resulted in depigmentation and changes in expression of melanogenic-specific genes. Keratinocyte-melanocyte contact was essential for this depigmenting effect. Topical application of this inhibitor induced lightening of the dark skin Yucatan swine, which was confirmed by histochemical analysis. The results presented here suggest a novel mechanism for the regulation of pigmentation, mediated by the activation or inhibition of the keratinocyte receptor PAR-2. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  6. The Spl Serine Proteases Modulate Staphylococcus aureus Protein Production and Virulence in a Rabbit Model of Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Salgado-Pabon, Wilmara; Meyerholz, David K.; White, Mark J.; Schlievert, Patrick M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Spl proteases are a group of six serine proteases that are encoded on the νSaβ pathogenicity island and are unique to Staphylococcus aureus. Despite their interesting biochemistry, their biological substrates and functions in virulence have been difficult to elucidate. We found that an spl operon mutant of the community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus USA300 strain LAC induced localized lung damage in a rabbit model of pneumonia, characterized by bronchopneumonia observed histologically. Disease in the mutant-infected rabbits was restricted in distribution compared to that in wild-type USA300-infected rabbits. We also found that SplA is able to cleave the mucin 16 glycoprotein from the surface of the CalU-3 lung cell line, suggesting a possible mechanism for wild-type USA300 spreading pneumonia to both lungs. Investigation of the secreted and surface proteomes of wild-type USA300 and the spl mutant revealed multiple alterations in metabolic proteins and virulence factors. This study demonstrates that the Spls modulate S. aureus physiology and virulence, identifies a human target of SplA, and suggests potential S. aureus targets of the Spl proteases. IMPORTANCE Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile human pathogen that produces an array of virulence factors, including several proteases. Of these, six proteases called the Spls are the least characterized. Previous evidence suggests that the Spls are expressed during human infection; however, their function is unknown. Our study shows that the Spls are required for S. aureus to cause disseminated lung damage during pneumonia. Further, we present the first example of a human protein cut by an Spl protease. Although the Spls were predicted not to cut staphylococcal proteins, we also show that an spl mutant has altered abundance of both secreted and surface-associated proteins. This work provides novel insight into the function of Spls during infection and their potential ability to degrade

  7. Crystal Structures of Yellowtail Ascites Virus VP4 Protease

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Ivy Yeuk Wah; Paetzel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Yellowtail ascites virus (YAV) is an aquabirnavirus that causes ascites in yellowtail, a fish often used in sushi. Segment A of the YAV genome codes for a polyprotein (pVP2-VP4-VP3), where processing by its own VP4 protease yields the capsid protein precursor pVP2, the ribonucleoprotein-forming VP3, and free VP4. VP4 protease utilizes the rarely observed serine-lysine catalytic dyad mechanism. Here we have confirmed the existence of an internal cleavage site, preceding the VP4/VP3 cleavage site. The resulting C-terminally truncated enzyme (ending at Ala716) is active, as shown by a trans full-length VP4 cleavage assay and a fluorometric peptide cleavage assay. We present a crystal structure of a native active site YAV VP4 with the internal cleavage site trapped as trans product complexes and trans acyl-enzyme complexes. The acyl-enzyme complexes confirm directly the role of Ser633 as the nucleophile. A crystal structure of the lysine general base mutant (K674A) reveals the acyl-enzyme and empty binding site states of VP4, which allows for the observation of structural changes upon substrate or product binding. These snapshots of three different stages in the VP4 protease reaction mechanism will aid in the design of anti-birnavirus compounds, provide insight into previous site-directed mutagenesis results, and contribute to understanding of the serine-lysine dyad protease mechanism. In addition, we have discovered that this protease contains a channel that leads from the enzyme surface (adjacent to the substrate binding groove) to the active site and the deacylating water. PMID:23511637

  8. Structural Mechanisms of Inactivation in Scabies Mite Serine Protease Paralogues

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Katja; Langendorf, Christopher G.; Irving, James A.

    2009-08-07

    The scabies mite (Sarcoptes scabiei) is a parasite responsible for major morbidity in disadvantaged communities and immuno-compromised patients worldwide. In addition to the physical discomfort caused by the disease, scabies infestations facilitate infection by Streptococcal species via skin lesions, resulting in a high prevalence of rheumatic fever/heart disease in affected communities. The scabies mite produces 33 proteins that are closely related to those in the dust mite group 3 allergen and belong to the S1-like protease family (chymotrypsin-like). However, all but one of these molecules contain mutations in the conserved active-site catalytic triad that are predicted to render them catalyticallymore » inactive. These molecules are thus termed scabies mite inactivated protease paralogues (SMIPPs). The precise function of SMIPPs is unclear; however, it has been suggested that these proteins might function by binding and protecting target substrates from cleavage by host immune proteases, thus preventing the host from mounting an effective immune challenge. In order to begin to understand the structural basis for SMIPP function, we solved the crystal structures of SMIPP-S-I1 and SMIPP-S-D1 at 1.85 {angstrom} and 2.0 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Both structures adopt the characteristic serine protease fold, albeit with large structural variations over much of the molecule. In both structures, mutations in the catalytic triad together with occlusion of the S1 subsite by a conserved Tyr200 residue is predicted to block substrate ingress. Accordingly, we show that both proteases lack catalytic function. Attempts to restore function (via site-directed mutagenesis of catalytic residues as well as Tyr200) were unsuccessful. Taken together, these data suggest that SMIPPs have lost the ability to bind substrates in a classical 'canonical' fashion, and instead have evolved alternative functions in the lifecycle of the scabies mite.« less

  9. Interdependence of Inhibitor Recognition in HIV-1 Protease

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Molecular recognition is a highly interdependent process. Subsite couplings within the active site of proteases are most often revealed through conditional amino acid preferences in substrate recognition. However, the potential effect of these couplings on inhibition and thus inhibitor design is largely unexplored. The present study examines the interdependency of subsites in HIV-1 protease using a focused library of protease inhibitors, to aid in future inhibitor design. Previously a series of darunavir (DRV) analogs was designed to systematically probe the S1′ and S2′ subsites. Co-crystal structures of these analogs with HIV-1 protease provide the ideal opportunity to probe subsite interdependency. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations starting from these structures were performed and systematically analyzed in terms of atomic fluctuations, intermolecular interactions, and water structure. These analyses reveal that the S1′ subsite highly influences other subsites: the extension of the hydrophobic P1′ moiety results in 1) reduced van der Waals contacts in the P2′ subsite, 2) more variability in the hydrogen bond frequencies with catalytic residues and the flap water, and 3) changes in the occupancy of conserved water sites both proximal and distal to the active site. In addition, one of the monomers in this homodimeric enzyme has atomic fluctuations more highly correlated with DRV than the other monomer. These relationships intricately link the HIV-1 protease subsites and are critical to understanding molecular recognition and inhibitor binding. More broadly, the interdependency of subsite recognition within an active site requires consideration in the selection of chemical moieties in drug design; this strategy is in contrast to what is traditionally done with independent optimization of chemical moieties of an inhibitor. PMID:28358514

  10. Interdependence of Inhibitor Recognition in HIV-1 Protease.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Janet L; Leidner, Florian; Ragland, Debra A; Kurt Yilmaz, Nese; Schiffer, Celia A

    2017-05-09

    Molecular recognition is a highly interdependent process. Subsite couplings within the active site of proteases are most often revealed through conditional amino acid preferences in substrate recognition. However, the potential effect of these couplings on inhibition and thus inhibitor design is largely unexplored. The present study examines the interdependency of subsites in HIV-1 protease using a focused library of protease inhibitors, to aid in future inhibitor design. Previously a series of darunavir (DRV) analogs was designed to systematically probe the S1' and S2' subsites. Co-crystal structures of these analogs with HIV-1 protease provide the ideal opportunity to probe subsite interdependency. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations starting from these structures were performed and systematically analyzed in terms of atomic fluctuations, intermolecular interactions, and water structure. These analyses reveal that the S1' subsite highly influences other subsites: the extension of the hydrophobic P1' moiety results in 1) reduced van der Waals contacts in the P2' subsite, 2) more variability in the hydrogen bond frequencies with catalytic residues and the flap water, and 3) changes in the occupancy of conserved water sites both proximal and distal to the active site. In addition, one of the monomers in this homodimeric enzyme has atomic fluctuations more highly correlated with DRV than the other monomer. These relationships intricately link the HIV-1 protease subsites and are critical to understanding molecular recognition and inhibitor binding. More broadly, the interdependency of subsite recognition within an active site requires consideration in the selection of chemical moieties in drug design; this strategy is in contrast to what is traditionally done with independent optimization of chemical moieties of an inhibitor.

  11. HIV protease inhibitors in pregnancy : pharmacology and clinical use.

    PubMed

    Andany, Nisha; Loutfy, Mona R

    2013-03-01

    The impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the natural history of HIV-1 infection has resulted in dramatic reductions in disease-associated morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the epidemiology of HIV-1 infection worldwide is changing, as women now represent a substantial proportion of infected adults. As more highly effective and tolerable antiretroviral regimens become available, and as the prevention of mother-to-child transmission becomes an attainable goal in the management of HIV-infected individuals, more and more HIV-positive women are choosing to become pregnant and have children. Consequently, it is important to consider the efficacy and safety of antiretroviral agents in pregnancy. Protease inhibitors are a common class of medication used in the treatment of HIV-1 infection and are increasingly being used in pregnancy. However, several studies have raised concerns regarding pharmacokinetic alterations in pregnancy, particularly in the third trimester, which results in suboptimal drug concentrations and a theoretically higher risk of virologic failure and perinatal transmission. Drug level reductions have been observed with each individual protease inhibitor and dose adjustments in pregnancy are suggested for certain agents. Furthermore, studies have also raised concerns regarding the safety of protease inhibitors in pregnancy, particularly as they may increase the risk of pre-term birth and metabolic disturbances. Overall, protease inhibitors are safe and effective for the treatment of HIV-infected pregnant women. Specifically, ritonavir-boosted lopinavir- and atazanavir-based regimens are preferred in pregnancy, while ritonavir-boosted darunavir- and saquinavir-based therapies are reasonable alternatives. This paper reviews the use of protease inhibitors in pregnancy, focusing on pharmacokinetic and safety considerations, and outlines the recommendations for use of this class of medication in the HIV-1-infected pregnant woman.

  12. The relationship between protease/anti-protease profile, angiogenesis and re-epithelialisation in acute burn wounds.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Robert H; Tyler, Michael P H; Austyn, Jon M; Dziewulski, Peter; McGrouther, Duncan A

    2008-06-01

    In the management of partial thickness burns, it is difficult to balance between conservative management and surgical intervention. Our hypothesis was that a triangular relationship exists between protease/anti-protease profile at the burn wound surface, angiogenesis and re-epithelialisation. By manipulation of the biochemical profile at the wound level, we determined to affect the nature and extent of angiogenesis and resulting re-epithelialisation. We performed a randomised longitudinal observational study on partial thickness burns in adult patients presenting to two regional burns units. Our results demonstrated that a high-protease wound environment is associated with lower levels of the angiogenic factor VEGF, a lower more uniform change in wound bloodflow and a uniform well healed wound with an architecturally normal epidermis. In addition, we found that a low protease wound environment is associated with higher levels of the angiogenic factor VEGF, a higher wound bloodflow throughout the wound healing period and a more chaotic, hypercellular, overkeratinised, and chaotic thickened epidermis.

  13. Characterization of the Protease Activity of Detergents: Laboratory Practicals for Studying the Protease Profile and Activity of Various Commercial Detergents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valls, Cristina; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallve, Santi; Mulero, Miquel

    2011-01-01

    Detergent enzymes account for about 30% of the total worldwide production of enzymes and are one of the largest and most successful applications of modern industrial biotechnology. Proteases can improve the wash performance of household, industrial, and institutional laundry detergents used to remove protein-based stains such as blood, grass, body…

  14. Nma111p, the pro-apoptotic HtrA-like nuclear serine protease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a short survey.

    PubMed

    Fahrenkrog, Birthe

    2011-10-01

    The baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is also capable of undergoing programmed cell death or apoptosis, for example in response to viral infection as well as during chronological and replicative aging. Intrinsically, programmed cell death in yeast can be induced by, for example, H2O2, acetic acid or the mating-type pheromone. A number of evolutionarily conserved apoptosis-regulatory proteins have been identified in yeast, one of which is the HtrA (high-temperature requirement A)-like serine protease Nma111p (Nma is nuclear mediator of apoptosis). Nma111p is a nuclear serine protease of the HtrA family, which targets Bir1p, the only known inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein in yeast. Nma111p mediates apoptosis in a serine-protease-dependent manner and exhibits its activity exclusively in the nucleus. How the activity of Nma111p is regulated has remained largely elusive, but some evidence points to a control by phosphorylation. Current knowledge of Nma111p's function in apoptosis will be discussed in the present review.

  15. Intrinsic flexibility of West Nile virus protease in solution characterized using small-angle X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Garces, Andrea P; Watowich, Stanley J

    2013-10-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus with a rapidly expanding global distribution. Infection can cause severe neurological disease and fatality in humans. Efforts are ongoing to develop antiviral drugs that inhibit the WNV protease, a viral enzyme required for polyprotein processing. Unfortunately, little is known about the solution structure of recombinant WNV protease (NS2B-NS3pro) used for antiviral drug discovery and development, although X-ray crystal structures and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies have provided valuable insights into the interactions between NS2B-NS3pro and peptide-based inhibitors. We completed small-angle X-ray scattering and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy experiments to determine the solution structure and dynamics of WNV NS2B-NS3pro in the absence of a bound substrate or inhibitor. Importantly, these solution studies suggested that all or most of the NS2B cofactor was highly flexible and formed an ensemble of structures, in contrast to the NS2B tertiary structures observed in crystallographic and NMR studies. The secondary structure of NS2B-NS3pro in solution had high β-content, similar to the secondary structure observed in crystallographic studies. This work provided evidence of the intrinsic flexibility and conformational heterogeneity of the NS2B chain of the WNV protease in the absence of substratelike ligands, which should be considered during antiviral drug discovery and development efforts.

  16. Viral evolution in response to the broad-based retroviral protease inhibitor TL-3.

    PubMed

    Bühler, B; Lin, Y C; Morris, G; Olson, A J; Wong, C H; Richman, D D; Elder, J H; Torbett, B E

    2001-10-01

    TL-3 is a protease inhibitor developed using the feline immunodeficiency virus protease as a model. It has been shown to efficiently inhibit replication of human, simian, and feline immunodeficiency viruses and therefore has broad-based activity. We now demonstrate that TL-3 efficiently inhibits the replication of 6 of 12 isolates with confirmed resistance mutations to known protease inhibitors. To dissect the spectrum of molecular changes in protease and viral properties associated with resistance to TL-3, a panel of chronological in vitro escape variants was generated. We have virologically and biochemically characterized mutants with one (V82A), three (M46I/F53L/V82A), or six (L24I/M46I/F53L/L63P/V77I/V82A) changes in the protease and structurally modeled the protease mutant containing six changes. Virus containing six changes was found to be 17-fold more resistant to TL-3 in cell culture than was wild-type virus but maintained similar in vitro replication kinetics compared to the wild-type virus. Analyses of enzyme activity of protease variants with one, three, and six changes indicated that these enzymes, compared to wild-type protease, retained 40, 47, and 61% activity, respectively. These results suggest that deficient protease enzymatic activity is sufficient for function, and the observed protease restoration might imply a selective advantage, at least in vitro, for increased protease activity.

  17. Viral Evolution in Response to the Broad-Based Retroviral Protease Inhibitor TL-3†

    PubMed Central

    Bühler, Bernd; Lin, Ying-Chuan; Morris, Garrett; Olson, Arthur J.; Wong, Chi-Huey; Richman, Douglas D.; Elder, John H.; Torbett, Bruce E.

    2001-01-01

    TL-3 is a protease inhibitor developed using the feline immunodeficiency virus protease as a model. It has been shown to efficiently inhibit replication of human, simian, and feline immunodeficiency viruses and therefore has broad-based activity. We now demonstrate that TL-3 efficiently inhibits the replication of 6 of 12 isolates with confirmed resistance mutations to known protease inhibitors. To dissect the spectrum of molecular changes in protease and viral properties associated with resistance to TL-3, a panel of chronological in vitro escape variants was generated. We have virologically and biochemically characterized mutants with one (V82A), three (M46I/F53L/V82A), or six (L24I/M46I/F53L/L63P/V77I/V82A) changes in the protease and structurally modeled the protease mutant containing six changes. Virus containing six changes was found to be 17-fold more resistant to TL-3 in cell culture than was wild-type virus but maintained similar in vitro replication kinetics compared to the wild-type virus. Analyses of enzyme activity of protease variants with one, three, and six changes indicated that these enzymes, compared to wild-type protease, retained 40, 47, and 61% activity, respectively. These results suggest that deficient protease enzymatic activity is sufficient for function, and the observed protease restoration might imply a selective advantage, at least in vitro, for increased protease activity. PMID:11533212

  18. Proteases of Wood Rot Fungi with Emphasis on the Genus Pleurotus

    PubMed Central

    Inácio, Fabíola Dorneles; Ferreira, Roselene Oliveira; de Araujo, Caroline Aparecida Vaz; Peralta, Rosane Marina; de Souza, Cristina Giatti Marques

    2015-01-01

    Proteases are present in all living organisms and they play an important role in physiological conditions. Cell growth and death, blood clotting, and immune defense are all examples of the importance of proteases in maintaining homeostasis. There is growing interest in proteases due to their use for industrial purposes. The search for proteases with specific characteristics is designed to reduce production costs and to find suitable properties for certain industrial sectors, as well as good producing organisms. Ninety percent of commercialized proteases are obtained from microbial sources and proteases from macromycetes have recently gained prominence in the search for new enzymes with specific characteristics. The production of proteases from saprophytic basidiomycetes has led to the identification of various classes of proteases. The genus Pleurotus has been extensively studied because of its ligninolytic enzymes. The characteristics of this genus are easy cultivation techniques, high yield, low nutrient requirements, and excellent adaptation. There are few studies in the literature about proteases of Pleurotus spp. This review gathers together information about proteases, especially those derived from basidiomycetes, and aims at stimulating further research about fungal proteases because of their physiological importance and their application in various industries such as biotechnology and medicine. PMID:26180792

  19. Cloning, expression and activity analysis of a novel fibrinolytic serine protease from Arenicola cristata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chunling; Ju, Jiyu

    2015-06-01

    The full-length cDNA of a protease gene from a marine annelid Arenicola cristata was amplified through rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique and sequenced. The size of the cDNA was 936 bp in length, including an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 270 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequnce consisted of pro- and mature sequences. The protease belonged to the serine protease family because it contained the highly conserved sequence GDSGGP. This protease was novel as it showed a low amino acid sequence similarity (< 40%) to other serine proteases. The gene encoding the active form of A. cristata serine protease was cloned and expressed in E. coli. Purified recombinant protease in a supernatant could dissolve an artificial fibrin plate with plasminogen-rich fibrin, whereas the plasminogen-free fibrin showed no clear zone caused by hydrolysis. This result suggested that the recombinant protease showed an indirect fibrinolytic activity of dissolving fibrin, and was probably a plasminogen activator. A rat model with venous thrombosis was established to demonstrate that the recombinant protease could also hydrolyze blood clot in vivo. Therefore, this recombinant protease may be used as a thrombolytic agent for thrombosis treatment. To our knowledge, this study is the first of reporting the fibrinolytic serine protease gene in A. cristata.

  20. Proteases of Wood Rot Fungi with Emphasis on the Genus Pleurotus.

    PubMed

    Inácio, Fabíola Dorneles; Ferreira, Roselene Oliveira; de Araujo, Caroline Aparecida Vaz; Brugnari, Tatiane; Castoldi, Rafael; Peralta, Rosane Marina; de Souza, Cristina Giatti Marques

    2015-01-01

    Proteases are present in all living organisms and they play an important role in physiological conditions. Cell growth and death, blood clotting, and immune defense are all examples of the importance of proteases in maintaining homeostasis. There is growing interest in proteases due to their use for industrial purposes. The search for proteases with specific characteristics is designed to reduce production costs and to find suitable properties for certain industrial sectors, as well as good producing organisms. Ninety percent of commercialized proteases are obtained from microbial sources and proteases from macromycetes have recently gained prominence in the search for new enzymes with specific characteristics. The production of proteases from saprophytic basidiomycetes has led to the identification of various classes of proteases. The genus Pleurotus has been extensively studied because of its ligninolytic enzymes. The characteristics of this genus are easy cultivation techniques, high yield, low nutrient requirements, and excellent adaptation. There are few studies in the literature about proteases of Pleurotus spp. This review gathers together information about proteases, especially those derived from basidiomycetes, and aims at stimulating further research about fungal proteases because of their physiological importance and their application in various industries such as biotechnology and medicine.

  1. Physical characterization of the cloned protease III gene from Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Dykstra, C C; Kushner, S R

    1985-09-01

    Analysis of the cloned protease III gene (ptr) from Escherichia coli K-12 has demonstrated that in addition to the previously characterized 110,000-Mr protease III protein, a second 50,000-Mr polypeptide (p50) is derived from the amino-terminal end of the coding sequence. The p50 polypeptide is found predominantly in the periplasmic space along with protease III, but does not proteolytically degrade insulin, a substrate for protease III. p50 does not appear to originate from autolysis of the larger protein. Protease III is not essential for normal cell growth since deletion of the structural gene causes no observed alterations in the phenotypic properties of the bacteria. A 30-fold overproduction of protease III does not affect cell viability. A simple new purification method for protease III is described.

  2. Factors affecting the protease activity of venom from jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye.

    PubMed

    Li, Cuiping; Yu, Huahua; Liu, Song; Xing, Ronge; Guo, Zhanyong; Li, Pengcheng

    2005-12-15

    In this paper, the effects of some chemical and physical factors such as temperature, pH values, glycerol, and divalent metal cations on the protease activity of venom from jellyfish, Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye, were assayed. Protease activity was dependent on temperature and pH values. Zn(2+), Mg(2+), and Mn(2+) in sodium phosphate buffer (0.02M, pH 8.0) could increase protease activity. Mn(2+) had the best effects among the three metal cations and the effect was about 20 times of that of Zn(2+) or Mg(2+) and its maximal protease activity was 2.3x10(5)U/mL. EDTA could increase protease activity. PMSF had hardly affected protease activity. O-Phenanthroline and glycerol played an important part in inhibiting protease activity and their maximal inhibiting rates were 87.5% and 82.1%, respectively.

  3. Development of marine biotechnology as a resource for novel proteases and their role in modern biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Homaei, Ahmad; Lavajoo, Fatemeh; Sariri, Reyhaneh

    2016-07-01

    Marine environment consists of the largest sources diversified genetic pool of material with an enormous potential for a wide variety of enzymes including proteases. A protease hydrolyzes the peptide bond and most of proteases possess many industrial applications. Marine proteases differ considerably from those found in internal or external organs of invertebrates and vertebrates. In common with all enzymes, external factors such as temperature, pH and type of media are important for the activity, catalytic efficiency, stability and proper functioning of proteases. In this review valuable characteristics of proteases in marine organisms and their applications are gathered from a wide literature survey. Considering their biochemical significance and their increasing importance in biotechnology, a thorough understanding of marine proteases functioning could be of prime importance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Proteases in Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus confer reduced susceptibility to lactoferricin B.

    PubMed

    Ulvatne, Hilde; Haukland, Hanne Husom; Samuelsen, Ørjan; Krämer, Manuela; Vorland, Lars H

    2002-10-01

    Lactoferricin B is a cationic antimicrobial peptide derived from the N-terminal part of bovine lactoferrin. The effect of bacterial proteases on the antibacterial activity of lactoferricin B towards Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was investigated using various protease inhibitors and protease-deficient E. coli mutants. Sodium-EDTA, a metalloprotease inhibitor, was the most efficient inhibitors in both species, but combinations of sodium-EDTA with other types of protease inhibitor gave a synergic effect. The results indicate that several groups of proteases are involved in resistance to lactoferricin B in both E. coli and S. aureus. We also report that genetic inactivation of the heat shock-induced serine protease DegP increased the susceptibility to lactoferricin B in E. coli, suggesting that this protease, at least, is involved in reduced susceptibility to lactoferricin B.

  5. Chiral-catalyst-based convergent synthesis of HIV protease inhibitor GRL-06579A.

    PubMed

    Mihara, Hisashi; Sohtome, Yoshihiro; Matsunaga, Shigeki; Shibasaki, Masakatsu

    2008-02-01

    Catalytic asymmetric synthesis of GRL-06579A (1), an HIV-1 protease inhibitor effective against multi-protease-inhibitor-resistant viruses, is described. A convergent strategy that utilizes heterobimetallic multifunctional catalysts developed in our group is a key feature of the synthesis. The chirality of the bicyclic tetrahydrofuran unit of 1 was introduced through Al-Li-bis(binaphthoxide) (ALB) catalyst-controlled Michael addition of dimethyl malonate to racemic 4-O-protected cyclopentenone. ALB afforded not only the trans adduct with up to 96% ee from a matched substrate through kinetic resolution, but also the cis adduct with 99% ee through a catalyst-controlled Michael addition to a mismatched substrate. The Michael addition to produce the unusual cis adduct is described in detail. The framework of the bicyclic tetrahydrofuran was constructed by an intramolecular oxy-Michael reaction. The amino alcohol unit was constructed by an La-Li3-tris(binaphthoxide) (LLB)-catalyzed diastereoselective nitroaldol reaction of N-Boc aldehyde (Boc = tert-butoxycarbonyl) derived from L-phenylalanine. LLB promoted the nitroaldol reaction without racemization of the chiral aldehyde to give the nitroaldol adduct in 85% yield and with 93:7 diastereoselectivity and over 99% ee.

  6. Lesson from the stoichiometry determination of the cohesin complex: a short protease mediated elution increases the recovery from cross-linked antibody-conjugated beads.

    PubMed

    Holzmann, Johann; Fuchs, Johannes; Pichler, Peter; Peters, Jan-Michael; Mechtler, Karl

    2011-02-04

    Affinity purification of proteins using antibodies coupled to beads and subsequent mass spectrometric analysis has become a standard technique for the identification of protein complexes. With the recent transfer of the isotope dilution mass spectrometry principle (IDMS) to the field of proteomics, quantitative analyses-such as the stoichiometry determination of protein complexes-have become achievable. Traditionally proteins were eluted from antibody-conjugated beads using glycine at low pH or using diluted acids such as HCl, TFA, or FA, but elution was often found to be incomplete. Using the cohesin complex and the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) as examples, we show that a short 15-60 min predigestion with a protease such as LysC (modified on-bead digest termed protease elution) increases the elution efficiency 2- to 3-fold compared to standard acid elution protocols. While longer incubation periods-as performed in standard on-bead digestion-led to partial proteolysis of the cross-linked antibodies, no or only insignificant cleavage was observed after 15-60 min protease mediated elution. Using the protease elution method, we successfully determined the stoichiometry of the cohesin complex by absolute quantification of the four core subunits using LC-SRM analysis and 19 reference peptides generated with the EtEP strategy. Protease elution was 3-fold more efficient compared to HCl elution, but measurements using both elution techniques are in agreement with a 1:1:1:1 stoichiometry. Furthermore, using isoform specific reference peptides, we determined the exact STAG1:STAG2 stoichiometry within the population of cohesin complexes. In summary, we show that the protease elution protocol increases the recovery from affinity beads and is compatible with quantitative measurements such as the stoichiometry determination of protein complexes.

  7. Role of mitochondrial processing peptidase and AAA proteases in processing of the yeast acetohydroxyacid synthase precursor.

    PubMed

    Dasari, Suvarna; Kölling, Ralf

    2016-07-01

    We studied presequence processing of the mitochondrial-matrix targeted acetohydroxyacid synthase (Ilv2). C-terminal 3HA-tagging altered the cleavage pattern from a single step to sequential two-step cleavage, giving rise to two Ilv2-3HA forms (A and B). Both cleavage events were dependent on the mitochondrial processing peptidase (MPP). We present evidence for the involvement of three AAA ATPases, m- and i-AAA proteases, and Mcx1, in Ilv2-3HA processing. Both, precursor to A-form and A-form to B-form cleavage were strongly affected in a ∆yme1 mutant. These defects could be suppressed by overexpression of MPP, suggesting that MPP activity is limiting in the ∆yme1 mutant. Our data suggest that for some substrates AAA ATPases could play an active role in the translocation of matrix-targeted proteins.

  8. Keratinolytic protease: a green biocatalyst for leather industry.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhen; Yong, Yang-Chun; Zhang, Juan; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2017-11-01

    Depilation/unhairing is the crucial but heavy pollution process in leather industry. Traditional inorganic sulfide treatment was the most widely used depilation technique in the past decades, which was usually detrimental to leather quality and resulted in serious environmental pollution. Using biocatalysts to substitute inorganic sulfide showed great advantages in environment protection and unhairing efficiency. Keratinolytic protease is one of the excellent biocatalysts to hydrolyze disulfide bond-rich proteins of hair and has little damage to leather. Biological treatment with keratinolytic proteases could largely reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastewater effluent from the leather industry. But low thermostability and substrate specificity or specific activity of these enzymes limited their practical application. Therefore, recent progresses on protein engineering strategies (site-directed mutagenesis, protein fusion, N/C-terminus truncation, and domain swapping) used to enhance the keratinolytic enzyme performance were presented.

  9. Plant Viral Proteases: Beyond the Role of Peptide Cutters

    PubMed Central

    Rodamilans, Bernardo; Shan, Hongying; Pasin, Fabio; García, Juan Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Almost half of known plant viral species rely on proteolytic cleavages as key co- and post-translational modifications throughout their infection cycle. Most of these viruses encode their own endopeptidases, proteases with high substrate specificity that internally cleave large polyprotein precursors for the release of functional sub-units. Processing of the polyprotein, however, is not an all-or-nothing process in which endopeptidases act as simple peptide cutters. On the contrary, spatial-temporal modulation of these polyprotein cleavage events is crucial for a successful viral infection. In this way, the processing of the polyprotein coordinates viral replication, assembly and movement, and has significant impact on pathogen fitness and virulence. In this mini-review, we give an overview of plant viral proteases emphasizing their importance during viral infections and the varied functionalities that result from their proteolytic activities.

  10. Effects of Mucuna pruriens protease inhibitors on Echis carinatus venom.

    PubMed

    Hope-Onyekwere, Nnadozie Stanley; Ogueli, Godwin Ifeanyi; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Cerutti, Helena; Cito, Annarita; Aguiyi, John C; Guerranti, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    The medicinal plant Mucuna pruriens, with reputed anti-snake venom properties has been reported to contain a kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor. This study was undertaken to further evaluate the protease inhibitory potential of gpMuc, a multiform glycoprotein, and other protein fractions from M. pruriens seeds against trypsin, chymotrypsin, Echis carinatus snake venom, ecarin and thrombin. The results showed that gpMuc inhibited both trypsin and chymotrypsin activities and was thermally stable, maintaining its trypsin inhibitory activity at temperatures of up to 50°C. Its structural conformation was also maintained at pH ranges of 4-7. Immunoreactivity study confirms that it contains protease-recognizing epitope on one of its isoforms. The whole protein extract of M. pruriens seeds inhibited prothrombin activation by ecarin and whole E. carinatus venom, and also thrombin-like activity using chromogenic assay. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Neural ECM proteases in learning and synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Tsilibary, Effie; Tzinia, Athina; Radenovic, Lidija; Stamenkovic, Vera; Lebitko, Tomasz; Mucha, Mariusz; Pawlak, Robert; Frischknecht, Renato; Kaczmarek, Leszek

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies implicate extracellular proteases in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. The data are especially strong for such serine proteases as thrombin, tissue plasminogen activator, neurotrypsin, and neuropsin as well as matrix metalloproteinases, MMP-9 in particular. The role of those enzymes in the aforementioned phenomena is supported by the experimental results on the expression patterns (at the gene expression and protein and enzymatic activity levels) and functional studies, including knockout mice, specific inhibitors, etc. Counterintuitively, the studies have shown that the extracellular proteolysis is not responsible mainly for an overall degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and loosening perisynaptic structures, but rather allows for releasing signaling molecules from the ECM, transsynaptic proteins, and latent form of growth factors. Notably, there are also indications implying those enzymes in the major neuropsychiatric disorders, probably by contributing to synaptic aberrations underlying such diseases as schizophrenia, bipolar, autism spectrum disorders, and drug addiction.

  12. Ligand Binding Pathways and Conformational Transitions of the HIV Protease.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yinglong; Huang, Yu-Ming M; Walker, Ross C; McCammon, J Andrew; Chang, Chia-En A

    2018-03-06

    It is important to determine the binding pathways and mechanisms of ligand molecules to target proteins to effectively design therapeutic drugs. Molecular dynamics (MD) is a promising computational tool that allows us to simulate protein-drug binding at an atomistic level. However, the gap between the time scales of current simulations and those of many drug binding processes has limited the usage of conventional MD, which has been reflected in studies of the HIV protease. Here, we have applied a robust enhanced simulation method, Gaussian accelerated molecular dynamics (GaMD), to sample binding pathways of the XK263 ligand and associated protein conformational changes in the HIV protease. During two of 10 independent GaMD simulations performed over 500-2500 ns, the ligand was observed to successfully bind to the protein active site. Although GaMD-derived free energy profiles were not fully converged because of insufficient sampling of the complex system, the simulations still allowed us to identify relatively low-energy intermediate conformational states during binding of the ligand to the HIV protease. Relative to the X-ray crystal structure, the XK263 ligand reached a minimum root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) of 2.26 Å during 2.5 μs of GaMD simulation. In comparison, the ligand RMSD reached a minimum of only ∼5.73 Å during an earlier 14 μs conventional MD simulation. This work highlights the enhanced sampling power of the GaMD approach and demonstrates its wide applicability to studies of drug-receptor interactions for the HIV protease and by extension many other target proteins.

  13. Allicin and derivates are cysteine protease inhibitors with antiparasitic activity.

    PubMed

    Waag, Thilo; Gelhaus, Christoph; Rath, Jennifer; Stich, August; Leippe, Matthias; Schirmeister, Tanja

    2010-09-15

    Allicin and derivatives thereof inhibit the CAC1 cysteine proteases falcipain 2, rhodesain, cathepsin B and L in the low micromolar range. The structure-activity relationship revealed that only derivatives with primary carbon atom in vicinity to the thiosulfinate sulfur atom attacked by the active-site Cys residue are active against the target enzymes. Some compounds also show potent antiparasitic activity against Plasmodium falciparum and Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A novel serine protease predominately expressed in macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cailin; Darrow, Andrew L; Qi, Jian-Shen; D'Andrea, Michael R; Andrade-Gordon, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    We have identified a novel serine protease designated EOS by sequence identity searches. The deduced protein contains 284 amino acids with an active form containing 248 amino acids starting from an Ile-Val-Gly-Gly motif. The active form comprises a catalytic triad of conserved amino acids: His77, Asp126 and Ser231. It shares 44% identity with beta-tryptase and belongs to the S1 trypsin-like serine-protease family. Interestingly, this gene also maps to human chromosome 16p13.3. The purified protease showed amidolytic activity, cleaving its substrates before arginine residues. Tissue distribution by immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated that EOS is highly expressed in spleen and moderately expressed in intestine, colon, lung and brain. We confirmed this expression pattern at the mRNA level by performing in situ hybridization. The results from both immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization indicate that EOS is associated with macrophages. We corroborated this observation by double immunofluorescence using the anti-EOS antibody and an anti-CD68 antibody, a macrophage specific marker. Furthermore, we have detected a dramatic increase in immune staining of EOS in cultured U937 cells treated with PMA, which represent activated macrophages. This up-regulation is also reflected by elevated EOS mRNA in the PMA-treated U937 cells detected by Northern blotting. Since macrophages have important roles in various pathological conditions, such as wound healing, atherosclerosis and numerous inflammatory diseases, the localization of this novel serine protease to active macrophages may help to further the elucidation of the roles of this gene product in modulating these disorders. PMID:12795636

  15. Viagra warning re "poppers" and notice re protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1998-05-01

    Pfizer, Inc., manufacturer of Viagra (sildenafil), is warning patients that Viagra is contraindicated with nitrate inhalers (poppers). Nitrates in any form or nitric oxide donors can potentially cause hypotension. Pfizer also recommends that patients using protease inhibitors, particularly ritonavir, use a lower dose of Viagra (25 mg) because they interfere with the elimination of Viagra. This interaction does not pose a significant risk to the patient.

  16. Metabolic complications associated with HIV protease inhibitor therapy.

    PubMed

    Nolan, David

    2003-01-01

    HIV protease inhibitors were introduced into clinical practice over 7 years ago as an important component of combination antiretroviral drug regimens which in many ways revolutionised the treatment of HIV infection. The significant improvements in prognosis that have resulted from the use of these regimens, combined with the need for lifelong treatment, have increasingly focused attention on the adverse effects of antiretroviral drugs and on the metabolic complications of HIV protease inhibitors in particular. In this review, the cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterised by triglyceride-rich dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance associated with HIV protease inhibitor therapy are considered, along with implications for cardiovascular risk in patients affected by these complications. Toxicity profiles of individual drugs within the HIV protease inhibitor class are examined, as there is an increased recognition of significant intra-class differences both in terms of absolute risk of metabolic complications as well as the particular metabolic phenotype associated with these drugs. Guidelines for clinical assessment and treatment are emphasised, along with pathophysiological mechanisms that may provide a rational basis for the treatment of metabolic complications. Finally, these drug-specific effects are considered within the context of HIV-specific effects on lipid metabolism as well as lifestyle factors that have contributed to a rapidly increasing incidence of similar metabolic syndromes in the general population. These data highlight the importance of individualising patient management in terms of choice of antiretroviral regimen, assessment of metabolic outcomes and use of therapeutic interventions, based on the assessment of baseline (pre-treatment) metabolic status as well as the presence of potentially modifiable cardiovascular risk factors.

  17. Protease-catalysed Direct Asymmetric Mannich Reaction in Organic Solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yang; Li, Ling-Po; He, Yan-Hong; Guan, Zhi

    2012-10-01

    We reported the first enzyme-catalysed, direct, three-component asymmetric Mannich reaction using protease type XIV from Streptomyces griseus (SGP) in acetonitrile. Yields of up to 92% with enantioselectivities of up to 88% e.e. and diastereoselectivities of up to 92:8 (syn:anti) were achieved under the optimised conditions. This enzyme's catalytic promiscuity expands the application of this biocatalyst and provides a potential alternative method for asymmetric Mannich reactions.

  18. Optimization of protease-inhibitor interactions by randomizing adventitious contacts

    PubMed Central

    Komiyama, Tomoko; VanderLugt, Bryan; Fugère, Martin; Day, Robert; Kaufman, Randal J.; Fuller, Robert S.

    2003-01-01

    Polypeptide protease inhibitors are often found to inhibit targets with which they did not coevolve, as in the case of high-affinity inhibition of bacterial subtilisin by the leech inhibitor eglin c. Two kinds of contacts exist in such complexes: (i) reactive site loop-active site contacts and (ii) interactions outside of these that form the broader enzyme-inhibitor interface. We hypothesized that the second class of “adventitious” contacts could be optimized to generate significant increases in affinity for a target enzyme or discrimination of an inhibitor for closely related target proteases. We began with a modified eglin c, Arg-42–Arg-45–eglin, in which the reactive site loop had been optimized for subtilisin-related processing proteases of the Kex2/furin family. We randomized 10 potential adventitious contact residues and screened for inhibition of soluble human furin. Substitutions at one of these sites, Y49, were also screened against yeast Kex2 and human PC7. These screens identified not only variants that exhibited increased affinity (up to 20-fold), but also species that exhibited enhanced selectivity, that is, increased discrimination between the target enzymes (up to 41-fold for furin versus PC7 and 20-fold for PC7 versus furin). One variant, Asp-49–Arg-42–Arg-45–eglin, exhibited a Ki of 310 pM for furin and blocked furin-dependent processing of von Willebrand factor in COS-1 cells when added to the culture medium of the cells. The exploitation of adventitious contact sites may provide a versatile technique for developing potent, selective inhibitors for newly discovered proteases and could in principle be applied to optimize numerous protein–protein interactions. PMID:12832612

  19. 2-D zymographic analysis of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) florets proteases: follow up of cysteine protease isotypes in the course of post-harvest senescence.

    PubMed

    Rossano, Rocco; Larocca, Marilena; Riccio, Paolo

    2011-09-01

    Zymographic analysis of Broccoli florets (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) revealed the presence of acidic metallo-proteases, serine proteases and cysteine proteases. Under conditions which were denaturing for the other proteases, the study was restricted to cysteine proteases. 2-D zymography, a technique that combines IEF and zymography was used to show the presence of 11 different cysteine protease spots with molecular mass of 44 and 47-48kDa and pIs ranging between 4.1 and 4.7. pI differences could be ascribed to different degrees of phosphorylation that partly disappeared in the presence of alkaline phosphatase. Post-harvest senescence of Broccoli florets was characterized by decrease in protein and chlorophyll contents and increase of protease activity. In particular, as determined by 2-D zymography, the presence of cysteine protease clearly increased during senescence, a finding that may represent a useful tool for the control of the aging process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Detergent-compatible proteases: microbial production, properties, and stain removal analysis.

    PubMed

    Niyonzima, Francois Niyongabo; More, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Proteases are one of the most important commercial enzymes used in various industrial domains such as detergent and leather industries. The alkaline proteases as well as other detergent-compatible enzymes such as lipases and amylases serve now as the key components in detergent formulations. They break down various stains during fabric washing. The search for detergent-compatible proteases with better properties is a continuous exercise. The current trend is to use detergent-compatible proteases that are stable over a wide temperature range. Although the proteases showing stability at elevated pH have the capacity to be used in detergent formulations, their usage can be significant if they are also stable and compatible with detergent and detergent ingredients, and also able to remove protein stains. Despite the existence of some reviews on alkaline proteases, there is no specification for the use of alkaline proteases as detergent additives. The present review describes the detergent-compatible proteases tested as detergent additives. An overview was provided for screening, optimization, purification, and properties of detergent compatible proteases, with an emphasis on the stability and compatibility of the alkaline proteases with the detergent and detergent compounds, as well as stain removal examination methods.

  1. Protease production by fermentation of fish solubles from salmon canning processes.

    PubMed

    Wah-On, H C; Branion, R M; Strasdine, G A

    1980-09-01

    Production of protease by fermentation, using Sorangium 495, of a substrate based on condensed fish solubles is demonstrated. The effects of carbohydrate addition, pH, fish solubles concentration, scale-up, agitation, and air flow rate on protease yields are described. While the fish solubles medium alone could give rise to measurable yields of protease, these were, at worst, doubled when 1% glucose was added to the medium. pH 7 was optimal for protease yield. Although the concentration of fish solubles in the basic medium showed no significant effect on cell yield, maximum protease yield was observed at a protein concentration equivalent to 3.85 mg/mL of bovine serum albumin. Protease production rates decreased as medium protein fermentor showed no significant effect on maximum protease yields. The effects of agitator speed and air flow rate on protease yield suggested that the rate of O2 transfer from air to medium could limit the rate of protease production. It was also noted that protease production is not growth associated.

  2. Optimum production and characterization of an acid protease from marine yeast Metschnikowia reukaufii W6b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Peng, Ying; Wang, Xianghong; Chi, Zhenming

    2010-12-01

    The marine yeast strain W6b isolated from sediment of the South China Sea was found to produce a cell-bound acid protease. The crude acid protease produced by this marine yeast showed the highest activity at pH 3.5 and 40 °C. The optimal pH and temperature for the crude acid protease were in agreement with those for acid protease produced by the terrestrial yeasts. The optimal medium of the acid protease production was seawater containing 1.0% glucose, 1.5% casein, and 0.5% yeast extract, and the optimal cultivation conditions of the acid protease production were pH 4.0, a temperature of 25 °C and a shaking speed of 140 rmin-1. Under the optimal conditions, 72.5 UmL-1 of acid protease activity could be obtained in cell suspension within 48 h of fermentation at shake flask level. The acid protease production was induced by high-molecular-weight nitrogen sources and repressed by low-molecular-weight nitrogen sources. Skimmed-milk-clotting test showed that the crude acid protease from the cell suspension of the yeast W6b had high skimmed milk coagulability. The acid protease produced by M. reukaufii W6b may have highly potential applications in cheese, food and fermentation industries.

  3. SUMO proteases as potential targets for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Bialik, Piotr; Woźniak, Katarzyna

    2017-12-08

    Sumoylation is one of the post-translational modifications of proteins, responsible for the regulation of many cellular processes, such as DNA replication and repair, transcription, signal transduction and nuclear transport. During sumoylation, SUMO proteins are covalently attached to the ε-amino group of lysine in target proteins via an enzymatic cascade that requires the sequential action of E1, E2 and E3 enzymes. An important aspect of sumoylation is its reversibility, which involves SUMO-specific proteases called SENPs. SENPs (sentrin/SUMO-specific proteases) catalyze the deconjugation of SUMO proteins using their isopeptidase activity. These enzymes participate through hydrolase activity in the reaction of SUMO protein maturation, which involves the removal of a short fragment on the C-terminus of SUMO inactive form and exposure two glycine residues. SENPs are important for maintaining the balance between sumoylated and desumoylated proteins required for normal cellular physiology. Six SENP isoforms (SENP1, SENP2, SENP3, SENP5, SENP6 and SENP7) have been identified in mammals. These SENPs can be divided into three subfamilies based on their sequence homology, substrate specificity and subcellular localization. Results of studies indicate the role of SUMO proteases in the development of human diseases including cancer, suggesting that these proteins may be attractive targets for new drugs.

  4. Targeting cysteine proteases in trypanosomatid disease drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Leonardo G; Andricopulo, Adriano D

    2017-12-01

    Chagas disease and human African trypanosomiasis are endemic conditions in Latin America and Africa, respectively, for which no effective and safe therapy is available. Efforts in drug discovery have focused on several enzymes from these protozoans, among which cysteine proteases have been validated as molecular targets for pharmacological intervention. These enzymes are expressed during the entire life cycle of trypanosomatid parasites and are essential to many biological processes, including infectivity to the human host. As a result of advances in the knowledge of the structural aspects of cysteine proteases and their role in disease physiopathology, inhibition of these enzymes by small molecules has been demonstrated to be a worthwhile approach to trypanosomatid drug research. This review provides an update on drug discovery strategies targeting the cysteine peptidases cruzain from Trypanosoma cruzi and rhodesain and cathepsin B from Trypanosoma brucei. Given that current chemotherapy for Chagas disease and human African trypanosomiasis has several drawbacks, cysteine proteases will continue to be actively pursued as valuable molecular targets in trypanosomatid disease drug discovery efforts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Alteration of Substrate and Inhibitor Specificity of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Protease

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ying-Chuan; Beck, Zachary; Lee, Taekyu; Le, Van-Duc; Morris, Garrett M.; Olson, Arthur J.; Wong, Chi-Huey; Elder, John H.

    2000-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) protease is structurally very similar to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease but exhibits distinct substrate and inhibitor specificities. We performed mutagenesis of subsite residues of FIV protease in order to define interactions that dictate this specificity. The I37V, N55M, M56I, V59I, and Q99V mutants yielded full activity. The I37V, N55M, V59I, and Q99V mutants showed a significant increase in activity against the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase/integrase and P2/nucleocapsid junction peptides compared with wild-type (wt) FIV protease. The I37V, V59I, and Q99V mutants also showed an increase in activity against two rapidly cleaved peptides selected by cleavage of a phage display library with HIV-1 protease. Mutations at Q54K, I98P, and L101I dramatically reduced activity. Mutants containing a I35D or I57G substitution showed no activity against either FIV or HIV substrates. FIV proteases all failed to cut HIV-1 matrix/capsid, P1/P6, P6/protease, and protease/reverse transcriptase junctions, indicating that none of the substitutions were sufficient to change the specificity completely. The I37V, N55M, M56I, V59I, and Q99V mutants, compared with wt FIV protease, all showed inhibitor specificity more similar to that of HIV-1 protease. The data also suggest that FIV protease prefers a hydrophobic P2/P2′ residue like Val over Asn or Glu, which are utilized by HIV-1 protease, and that S2/S2′ might play a critical role in distinguishing FIV and HIV-1 protease by specificity. The findings extend our observations regarding the interactions involved in substrate binding and aid in the development of broad-based inhibitors. PMID:10775609

  6. Studies on detection and analysis of proteases in leaf extract of medicinally important plants.

    PubMed

    Chinnadurai, Gandhi Shree; Krishnan, Sivakumar; Perumal, Palani

    2018-02-01

    The whole plant or the extracts obtained from them have long been used as medicine to treat various human diseases and disorders. Notably, those plants endowed with protease activity have been traditionally used as the agents for treating tumors, digestion disorders, swelling, blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and also for immune-modulation. Proteases occupy a pivotal position in enzyme based industries. Plant proteases have been increasingly exploited for pharmaceutical, food, leather and textile processing industries. Earlier investigations have focused on the occurrence of proteases in medicinally unimportant plants. Therefore it has been aimed to study the occurrence of proteolytic enzymes from medicinally important plants establish any correlation exists between protease activity and medicinal use of individual plants. Crude extract were obtained from the leaves of 80 different medicinal plants. Tris-HCl buffer was used as the extraction buffer and the supernatants obtained were used for determination of total protein and protease activity using spectrophotometric methods. Qualitative screening for the presence of protease was carried out with agar diffusion method by incorporating the substrate. SDS-PAGE was used to analyse the isoforms of protease and for determination of relative molecular mass. Relatively higher protease activities were observed in the extracts of leaves of Pongamia pinnata (Fabaceae), Wrightia tinctoria (Apocyanaceae) Acalypha indica (Euphorbiaceae), Adhatoda vasica (Acanthaceae) and Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae). No correlation was found between the total protein content and protease activity in individual plant species. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated the presence of multiple forms of protease of higher molecular weight range in several plant species. We found a strong correlation between the protease activity and medicinal application of the plant CONCLUSION: The present study has unequivocally revealed that the leaves of medicinal plants

  7. Cow dung: a potential biomass substrate for the production of detergent-stable dehairing protease by alkaliphilic Bacillus subtilis strain VV.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, Ponnuswamy; Vijayan, Aija; Arun, Arumugaperumal; Jenisha, John Kennady; Vincent, Samuel Gnana Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Cow dung, a cheap and easily available source of energy, was used as the substrate for the production of alkaline protease by solid-state fermentation using the Bacillus subtilis strain VV. In order to achieve the maximum yield of this enzyme, the following optimum process parameters are needed: fermentation period (72 h), pH (10.0), moisture content (140%), inoculum (25%), temperature (30-40°C), carbon source (2% (w/w) maltose) and nitrogen source (1% (w/w) urea). The protease was stable over a broad temperature range (30-50°C) and pH (8.0-10.0), with maximum activity at 50°C and pH 10.0. Among the divalent ions tested, Ca(2+) (0.01 M) increased enzyme activity. The purified protease, after being subjected to sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was found to have a molecular mass of 38.5 kDa. The enzyme was solvent-and surfactant-stable and showed activity even after 24 h incubation along with various commercially available detergents. This enzyme possessed dehairing properties for animal hide after 16 h of incubation at room temperature. From these results it is evident that cow dung is a potential substrate for the production of a detergent-stable, dehairing protease by B. subtilis. This enzyme has a lot of potential applications in the detergent and leather-processing industries.

  8. Bacillus subtilis Intramembrane Protease RasP Activity in Escherichia coli and In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Parrell, Daniel; Zhang, Yang; Olenic, Sandra; Kroos, Lee

    2017-10-01

    RasP is a predicted intramembrane metalloprotease of Bacillus subtilis that has been proposed to cleave the stress response anti-sigma factors RsiW and RsiV, the cell division protein FtsL, and remnant signal peptides within their transmembrane segments. To provide evidence for direct effects of RasP on putative substrates, we developed a heterologous coexpression system. Since expression of catalytically inactive RasP E21A inhibited expression of other membrane proteins in Escherichia coli , we added extra transmembrane segments to RasP E21A, which allowed accumulation of most other membrane proteins. A corresponding active version of RasP appeared to promiscuously cleave coexpressed membrane proteins, except those with a large periplasmic domain. However, stable cleavage products were not observed, even in clpP mutant E. coli Fusions of transmembrane segment-containing parts of FtsL and RsiW to E. coli maltose-binding protein (MBP) also resulted in proteins that appeared to be RasP substrates upon coexpression in E. coli , including FtsL with a full-length C-terminal domain (suggesting that prior cleavage by a site 1 protease is unnecessary) and RsiW designed to mimic the PrsW site 1 cleavage product (suggesting that further trimming by extracytoplasmic protease is unnecessary). Purified RasP cleaved His 6 -MBP-RsiW(73-118) in vitro within the RsiW transmembrane segment based on mass spectrometry analysis, demonstrating that RasP is an intramembrane protease. Surprisingly, purified RasP failed to cleave His 6 -MBP-FtsL(23-117). We propose that the lack of α-helix-breaking residues in the FtsL transmembrane segment creates a requirement for the membrane environment and/or an additional protein(s) in order for RasP to cleave FtsL. IMPORTANCE Intramembrane proteases govern important signaling pathways in nearly all organisms. In bacteria, they function in stress responses, cell division, pathogenesis, and other processes. Their membrane-associated substrates are

  9. Protease signaling through protease activated receptor 1 mediate nerve activation by mucosal supernatants from irritable bowel syndrome but not from ulcerative colitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Buhner, Sabine; Hahne, Hannes; Hartwig, Kerstin; Li, Qin; Vignali, Sheila; Ostertag, Daniela; Meng, Chen; Hörmannsperger, Gabriele; Braak, Breg; Pehl, Christian; Frieling, Thomas; Barbara, Giovanni; De Giorgio, Roberto; Demir, Ihsan Ekin; Ceyhan, Güralp Onur; Zeller, Florian; Boeckxstaens, Guy; Haller, Dirk; Kuster, Bernhard

    2018-01-01

    Background & aims The causes of gastrointestinal complaints in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remain poorly understood. Altered nerve function has emerged as an important pathogenic factor as IBS mucosal biopsy supernatants consistently activate enteric and sensory neurons. We investigated the neurally active molecular components of such supernatants from patients with IBS and quiescent ulcerative colitis (UC). Method Effects of supernatants from 7 healthy controls (HC), 20 IBS and 12 UC patients on human and guinea pig submucous neurons were studied with neuroimaging techniques. We identify differentially expressed proteins with proteome analysis. Results Nerve activation by IBS supernatants was prevented by the protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) antagonist SCHE79797. UC supernatants also activated enteric neurons through protease dependent mechanisms but without PAR1 involvement. Proteome analysis of the supernatants identified 204 proteins, among them 17 proteases as differentially expressed between IBS, UC and HC. Of those the four proteases elastase 3a, chymotrypsin C, proteasome subunit type beta-2 and an unspecified isoform of complement C3 were significantly more abundant in IBS compared to HC and UC supernatants. Of eight proteases, which were upregulated in IBS, the combination of elastase 3a, cathepsin L and proteasome alpha subunit-4 showed the highest prediction accuracy of 98% to discriminate between IBS and HC groups. Elastase synergistically potentiated the effects of histamine and serotonin–the two other main neuroactive substances in the IBS supernatants. A serine protease inhibitor isolated from the probiotic Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705 (SERPINBL), known to inhibit elastase-like proteases, prevented nerve activation by IBS supernatants. Conclusion Proteases in IBS and UC supernatants were responsible for nerve activation. Our data demonstrate that proteases, particularly those signalling through neuronal PAR1, are biomarker candidates for

  10. Identification of novel malarial cysteine protease inhibitors using structure-based virtual screening of a focused cysteine protease inhibitor library.

    PubMed

    Shah, Falgun; Mukherjee, Prasenjit; Gut, Jiri; Legac, Jennifer; Rosenthal, Philip J; Tekwani, Babu L; Avery, Mitchell A

    2011-04-25

    Malaria, in particular that caused by Plasmodium falciparum , is prevalent across the tropics, and its medicinal control is limited by widespread drug resistance. Cysteine proteases of P. falciparum , falcipain-2 (FP-2) and falcipain-3 (FP-3), are major hemoglobinases, validated as potential antimalarial drug targets. Structure-based virtual screening of a focused cysteine protease inhibitor library built with soft rather than hard electrophiles was performed against an X-ray crystal structure of FP-2 using the Glide docking program. An enrichment study was performed to select a suitable scoring function and to retrieve potential candidates against FP-2 from a large chemical database. Biological evaluation of 50 selected compounds identified 21 diverse nonpeptidic inhibitors of FP-2 with a hit rate of 42%. Atomic Fukui indices were used to predict the most electrophilic center and its electrophilicity in the identified hits. Comparison of predicted electrophilicity of electrophiles in identified hits with those in known irreversible inhibitors suggested the soft-nature of electrophiles in the selected target compounds. The present study highlights the importance of focused libraries and enrichment studies in structure-based virtual screening. In addition, few compounds were screened against homologous human cysteine proteases for selectivity analysis. Further evaluation of structure-activity relationships around these nonpeptidic scaffolds could help in the development of selective leads for antimalarial chemotherapy.

  11. Assessment of FIV-C infection of cats as a function of treatment with the protease inhibitor, TL-3

    PubMed Central

    de Rozières, Sohela; Swan, Christina H; Sheeter, Dennis A; Clingerman, Karen J; Lin, Ying-Chuan; Huitron-Resendiz, Salvador; Henriksen, Steven; Torbett, Bruce E; Elder, John H

    2004-01-01

    Background The protease inhibitor, TL-3, demonstrated broad efficacy in vitro against FIV, HIV and SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus), and exhibited very strong protective effects on early neurologic alterations in the CNS of FIV-PPR infected cats. In this study, we analyzed TL-3 efficacy using a highly pathogenic FIV-C isolate, which causes a severe acute phase immunodeficiency syndrome, with high early mortality rates. Results Twenty cats were infected with uncloned FIV-C and half were treated with TL-3 while the other half were left untreated. Two uninfected cats were used as controls. The general health and the immunological and virological status of the animals was monitored for eight weeks following infection. All infected animals became viremic independent of TL-3 treatment and seven of 20 FIV-C infected animals developed severe immunodepletive disease in conjunction with significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher viral RNA loads as compared to asymptomatic animals. A marked and progressive increase in CD8+ T lymphocytes in animals surviving acute phase infection was noted, which was not evident in symptomatic animals (p ≤ 0.05). Average viral loads were lower in TL-3 treated animals and of the 6 animals requiring euthanasia, four were from the untreated cohort. At eight weeks post infection, half of the TL-3 treated animals and only one of six untreated animals had viral loads below detection limits. Analysis of protease genes in TL-3 treated animals with higher than average viral loads revealed sequence variations relative to wild type protease. In particular, one mutant, D105G, imparted 5-fold resistance against TL-3 relative to wild type protease. Conclusions The findings indicate that the protease inhibitor, TL-3, when administered orally as a monotherapy, did not prevent viremia in cats infected with high dose FIV-C. However, the modest lowering of viral loads with TL-3 treatment, the greater survival rate in symptomatic animals of the treated cohort, and

  12. Assessment of FIV-C infection of cats as a function of treatment with the protease inhibitor, TL-3.

    PubMed

    de Rozières, Sohela; Swan, Christina H; Sheeter, Dennis A; Clingerman, Karen J; Lin, Ying-Chuan; Huitron-Resendiz, Salvador; Henriksen, Steven; Torbett, Bruce E; Elder, John H

    2004-11-19

    The protease inhibitor, TL-3, demonstrated broad efficacy in vitro against FIV, HIV and SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus), and exhibited very strong protective effects on early neurologic alterations in the CNS of FIV-PPR infected cats. In this study, we analyzed TL-3 efficacy using a highly pathogenic FIV-C isolate, which causes a severe acute phase immunodeficiency syndrome, with high early mortality rates. Twenty cats were infected with uncloned FIV-C and half were treated with TL-3 while the other half were left untreated. Two uninfected cats were used as controls. The general health and the immunological and virological status of the animals was monitored for eight weeks following infection. All infected animals became viremic independent of TL-3 treatment and seven of 20 FIV-C infected animals developed severe immunodepletive disease in conjunction with significantly (p < or = 0.05) higher viral RNA loads as compared to asymptomatic animals. A marked and progressive increase in CD8+ T lymphocytes in animals surviving acute phase infection was noted, which was not evident in symptomatic animals (p < or = 0.05). Average viral loads were lower in TL-3 treated animals and of the 6 animals requiring euthanasia, four were from the untreated cohort. At eight weeks post infection, half of the TL-3 treated animals and only one of six untreated animals had viral loads below detection limits. Analysis of protease genes in TL-3 treated animals with higher than average viral loads revealed sequence variations relative to wild type protease. In particular, one mutant, D105G, imparted 5-fold resistance against TL-3 relative to wild type protease. The findings indicate that the protease inhibitor, TL-3, when administered orally as a monotherapy, did not prevent viremia in cats infected with high dose FIV-C. However, the modest lowering of viral loads with TL-3 treatment, the greater survival rate in symptomatic animals of the treated cohort, and the lower average viral

  13. Systematic identification of substrates for profiling of secreted proteases from Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Schaal, René; Kupfahl, Claudio; Buchheidt, Dieter; Neumaier, Michael; Findeisen, Peter

    2007-11-01

    Reliable and early diagnosis of life-threatening invasive mycoses in neutropenic patients caused by fungi of the Aspergillus species remains challenging because current clinical diagnostic tools lack in sensitivity and/or specificity. During invasive growth a variety of fungal proteases are secreted into the bloodstream and protease profiling with reporter peptides might improve diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in serum specimens. To characterise the specific protease activity of Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger we analyzed Aspergillus culture supernatants, human serum and the mixture of both. A systematic screening for optimised protease substrates was performed using a random peptide library consisting of 360 synthetic peptides featuring fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). We could identify numerous peptides that are selectively cleaved by fungus-specific proteases. These reporter peptides might be feasible for future protease profiling of serum specimens to improve diagnosis and monitoring of invasive aspergillosis.

  14. Nanoplatforms for highly sensitive fluorescence detection of cancer-related proteases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongwang; Udukala, Dinusha N; Samarakoon, Thilani N; Basel, Matthew T; Kalita, Mausam; Abayaweera, Gayani; Manawadu, Harshi; Malalasekera, Aruni; Robinson, Colette; Villanueva, David; Maynez, Pamela; Bossmann, Leonie; Riedy, Elizabeth; Barriga, Jenny; Wang, Ni; Li, Ping; Higgins, Daniel A; Zhu, Gaohong; Troyer, Deryl L; Bossmann, Stefan H

    2014-02-01

    Numerous proteases are known to be necessary for cancer development and progression including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue serine proteases, and cathepsins. The goal of this research is to develop an Fe/Fe3O4 nanoparticle-based system for clinical diagnostics, which has the potential to measure the activity of cancer-associated proteases in biospecimens. Nanoparticle-based "light switches" for measuring protease activity consist of fluorescent cyanine dyes and porphyrins that are attached to Fe/Fe3O4 nanoparticles via consensus sequences. These consensus sequences can be cleaved in the presence of the correct protease, thus releasing a fluorescent dye from the Fe/Fe3O4 nanoparticle, resulting in highly sensitive (down to 1 × 10(-16) mol l(-1) for 12 proteases), selective, and fast nanoplatforms (required time: 60 min).

  15. Interplay of PDZ and protease domain of DegP ensures efficient elimination of misfolded proteins

    PubMed Central

    Krojer, Tobias; Pangerl, Karen; Kurt, Juliane; Sawa, Justyna; Stingl, Christoph; Mechtler, Karl; Huber, Robert; Ehrmann, Michael; Clausen, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Aberrant proteins represent an extreme hazard to cells. Therefore, molecular chaperones and proteases have to carry out protein quality control in each cellular compartment. In contrast to the ATP-dependent cytosolic proteases and chaperones, the molecular mechanisms of extracytosolic factors are largely unknown. To address this question, we studied the protease function of DegP, the central housekeeping protein in the bacterial envelope. Our data reveal that DegP processively degrades misfolded proteins into peptides of defined size by employing a molecular ruler comprised of the PDZ1 domain and the proteolytic site. Furthermore, peptide binding to the PDZ domain transforms the resting protease into its active state. This allosteric activation mechanism ensures the regulated and rapid elimination of misfolded proteins upon folding stress. In comparison to the cytosolic proteases, the regulatory features of DegP are established by entirely different mechanisms reflecting the convergent evolution of an extracytosolic housekeeping protease. PMID:18505836

  16. Purification, Characterization, and Cloning of a Cold-Adapted Protease from Antarctic Janthinobacterium lividum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Do; Kim, Su-Mi; Choi, Jong-Il

    2018-03-28

    In this study, a 107 kDa protease from psychrophilic Janthinobacterium lividum PAMC 26541 was purified by anion-exchange chromatography. The specific activity of the purified protease was 264 U/mg, and the overall yield was 12.5%. The J. lividum PAMC 25641 protease showed optimal activity at pH 7.0-7.5 and 40°C. Protease activity was inhibited by PMSF, but not by DTT. On the basis of the N-terminal sequence of the purified protease, the gene encoding the cold-adapted protease from J. lividum PAMC 25641 was cloned into the pET-28a(+) vector and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) as an intracellular soluble protein.

  17. Analysis of Milk from Mothers Who Delivered Prematurely Reveals Few Changes in Proteases and Protease Inhibitors across Gestational Age at Birth and Infant Postnatal Age123

    PubMed Central

    Demers-Mathieu, Veronique; Nielsen, Søren Drud; Underwood, Mark A; Borghese, Robyn

    2017-01-01

    Background: Peptidomics research has demonstrated that protease activity is higher in breast milk from preterm-delivering mothers than from term-delivering mothers. However, to our knowledge, the effect of the degree of prematurity and postnatal age on proteases and protease inhibitors in human milk remains unknown. Objective: We aimed to determine the change of proteases and protease inhibitors in milk from mothers who delivered prematurely across gestational age (GA) and postnatal age. Methods: Milk samples were collected from 18 mothers aged 26–40 y who delivered preterm infants and who lacked mastitis. For analysis, samples were separated into 2 groups: 9 from early GA (EGA) (24–26 wk GA)-delivering mothers and 9 from late GA (LGA) (27–32 wk GA)-delivering mothers. Within the 9 samples in each group, the collection time ranged from postnatal days 2 to 47. The activity and predicted activity of proteases in preterm milk were determined with the use of fluorometric and spectrophotometric assays and peptidomics, respectively. Protease and protease inhibitor concentrations were determined with the use of ELISA. Linear mixed models were applied to compare enzymes across GA and postnatal age. Results: Carboxypeptidase B2, kallikrein, plasmin, elastase, thrombin, and cytosol aminopeptidase were present and active in the milk of preterm-delivering mothers. Most milk protease and antiprotease concentrations did not change with GA or postnatal age. However, the concentration and activity of kallikrein, the most abundant and active protease in preterm milk, increased by 25.4 ng · mL−1 · d−1 and 0.454 μg · mL−1 · d−1 postnatally, respectively, in EGA milk samples while remaining stable in LGA milk samples. Conclusions: This research demonstrates that proteases are active in human milk and begin to degrade milk protein within the mammary gland before consumption by infants. Proteases and protease inhibitors in milk from mothers of premature infants mostly

  18. Analysis of Milk from Mothers Who Delivered Prematurely Reveals Few Changes in Proteases and Protease Inhibitors across Gestational Age at Birth and Infant Postnatal Age.

    PubMed

    Demers-Mathieu, Veronique; Nielsen, Søren Drud; Underwood, Mark A; Borghese, Robyn; Dallas, David C

    2017-06-01

    Background: Peptidomics research has demonstrated that protease activity is higher in breast milk from preterm-delivering mothers than from term-delivering mothers. However, to our knowledge, the effect of the degree of prematurity and postnatal age on proteases and protease inhibitors in human milk remains unknown. Objective: We aimed to determine the change of proteases and protease inhibitors in milk from mothers who delivered prematurely across gestational age (GA) and postnatal age. Methods: Milk samples were collected from 18 mothers aged 26-40 y who delivered preterm infants and who lacked mastitis. For analysis, samples were separated into 2 groups: 9 from early GA (EGA) (24-26 wk GA)-delivering mothers and 9 from late GA (LGA) (27-32 wk GA)-delivering mothers. Within the 9 samples in each group, the collection time ranged from postnatal days 2 to 47. The activity and predicted activity of proteases in preterm milk were determined with the use of fluorometric and spectrophotometric assays and peptidomics, respectively. Protease and protease inhibitor concentrations were determined with the use of ELISA. Linear mixed models were applied to compare enzymes across GA and postnatal age. Results: Carboxypeptidase B2, kallikrein, plasmin, elastase, thrombin, and cytosol aminopeptidase were present and active in the milk of preterm-delivering mothers. Most milk protease and antiprotease concentrations did not change with GA or postnatal age. However, the concentration and activity of kallikrein, the most abundant and active protease in preterm milk, increased by 25.4 ng · mL -1 · d -1 and 0.454 μg · mL -1 · d -1 postnatally, respectively, in EGA milk samples while remaining stable in LGA milk samples. Conclusions: This research demonstrates that proteases are active in human milk and begin to degrade milk protein within the mammary gland before consumption by infants. Proteases and protease inhibitors in milk from mothers of premature infants mostly did not

  19. Lipid and cationic polymer based transduction of botulinum holotoxin, or toxin protease alone, extends the target cell range and improves the efficiency of intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chueh-Ling; Oyler, George; Shoemaker, Charles B.

    2009-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) heavy chain (Hc) facilitates receptor-mediated endocytosis into neuronal cells and transport of the light chain (Lc) protease to the cytosol where neurotransmission is inhibited as a result of SNARE protein cleavage. Here we show that the role of BoNT Hc in cell intoxication can be replaced by commercial lipid-based and polycationic polymer DNA transfection reagents. BoNT “transduction” by these reagents permits efficient intoxication of neuronal cells as well as some non-neuronal cell lines normally refractory to BoNT. Surprisingly, the reagents facilitate delivery of recombinant BoNT Lc protease to the cytosol of both neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the absence of BoNT Hc, and with sensitivities approaching that of BoNT holotoxin. Transduction of BoNT, as with natural intoxication, is inhibited by bafilomycin A1, methylamine and ammonium chloride indicating that both pathways require endosome acidification. DNA transfection reagents facilitate intoxication by holotoxins, or isolated Lc proteases, of all three BoNT serotypes tested (A, B, E). These results suggest that lipid and cationic polymer transfection reagents facilitate cytosolic delivery of BoNT holotoxins and isolated Lc proteases by an endosomal uptake pathway. PMID:19852976

  20. Lipid and cationic polymer based transduction of botulinum holotoxin, or toxin protease alone, extends the target cell range and improves the efficiency of intoxication.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chueh-Ling; Oyler, George; Shoemaker, Charles B

    2010-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) heavy chain (Hc) facilitates receptor-mediated endocytosis into neuronal cells and transport of the light chain (Lc) protease to the cytosol where neurotransmission is inhibited as a result of SNARE protein cleavage. Here we show that the role of BoNT Hc in cell intoxication can be replaced by commercial lipid-based and polycationic polymer DNA transfection reagents. BoNT "transduction" by these reagents permits efficient intoxication of neuronal cells as well as some non-neuronal cell lines normally refractory to BoNT. Surprisingly, the reagents facilitate delivery of recombinant BoNT Lc protease to the cytosol of both neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the absence of BoNT Hc, and with sensitivities approaching that of BoNT holotoxin. Transduction of BoNT, as with natural intoxication, is inhibited by bafilomycin A1, methylamine and ammonium chloride indicating that both pathways require endosome acidification. DNA transfection reagents facilitate intoxication by holotoxins, or isolated Lc proteases, of all three BoNT serotypes tested (A, B, E). These results suggest that lipid and cationic polymer transfection reagents facilitate cytosolic delivery of BoNT holotoxins and isolated Lc proteases by an endosomal uptake pathway.

  1. Purification and characterisation of a salt-stable protease from the halophilic archaeon Halogranum rubrum.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ruichang; Shi, Tong; Liu, Xiangdong; Zhao, Mengqin; Cui, Henglin; Yuan, Li

    2017-03-01

    Because proteases play an important role in the fermentation of fish sauce, the purification and characterisation of an extracellular protease from the halophilic archaeon Halogranum rubrum was investigated. The molecular mass of the protease was estimated to be approximately 47 kDa based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electropheresis (SDS-PAGE) and native-PAGE analysis. The optimum conditions for catalytic activity were pH 8.0 and 50°C. The protease showed alkaline stability (pH 7.0-10.0). The protease also exhibited novel catalytic ability over a broad range of salinity (NaCl 0-3 mol L -1 ). Calcium ion enhanced the proteolytic activity of the enzyme. The K m and V max values of the purified protease for casein were calculated to be 4.89 mg mL -1 and 1111.11 U mL -1 , respectively. The protease was strongly inhibited by ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF). Meanwhile, the protease was stable in the presence of Triton X-100, isopropanol, ethanol or dithio-bis-nitrobenzoic (DTNB), but was inhibited by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or methanol. MALDI -TOF/TOF MS analysis revealed that the protease shared some functional traits with protease produced by Halogranum salarium. Furthermore, it exhibited high hydrolytic activity on silver carp myosin protein. The protease is an alkaline and salt-tolerant enzyme that hydrolyses silver carp myosin with high efficiency. These excellent characteristics make this protease an attractive candidate for industrial use in low-salt fish sauce fermentation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Evolutionarily Acquires Two Proteins, Vif and Protease, Capable of Antagonizing Feline APOBEC3.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Takeuchi, Junko S; Yamada, Eri; Nakano, Yusuke; Misawa, Naoko; Kimura, Yuichi; Ren, Fengrong; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Koyanagi, Yoshio; Sato, Kei

    2017-06-01

    The interplay between viral and host proteins has been well studied to elucidate virus-host interactions and their relevance to virulence. Mammalian genes encode apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) proteins, which act as intrinsic restriction factors against lentiviruses. To overcome APOBEC3-mediated antiviral actions, lentiviruses have evolutionarily acquired an accessory protein, viral infectivity factor (Vif), and Vif degrades host APOBEC3 proteins via a ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent pathway. Although the Vif-APOBEC3 interaction and its evolutionary significance, particularly those of primate lentiviruses (including HIV) and primates (including humans), have been well investigated, those of nonprimate lentiviruses and nonprimates are poorly understood. Moreover, the factors that determine lentiviral pathogenicity remain unclear. Here, we focus on feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a pathogenic lentivirus in domestic cats, and the interaction between FIV Vif and feline APOBEC3 in terms of viral virulence and evolution. We reveal the significantly reduced diversity of FIV subtype B compared to that of other subtypes, which may associate with the low pathogenicity of this subtype. We also demonstrate that FIV subtype B Vif is less active with regard to feline APOBEC3 degradation. More intriguingly, we further reveal that FIV protease cleaves feline APOBEC3 in released virions. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that a lentivirus encodes two types of anti-APOBEC3 factors, Vif and viral protease. IMPORTANCE During the history of mammalian evolution, mammals coevolved with retroviruses, including lentiviruses. All pathogenic lentiviruses, excluding equine infectious anemia virus, have acquired the vif gene via evolution to combat APOBEC3 proteins, which are intrinsic restriction factors against exogenous lentiviruses. Here we demonstrate that FIV, a pathogenic lentivirus in domestic cats, antagonizes feline APOBEC3

  3. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Evolutionarily Acquires Two Proteins, Vif and Protease, Capable of Antagonizing Feline APOBEC3

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Takeuchi, Junko S.; Yamada, Eri; Nakano, Yusuke; Misawa, Naoko; Kimura, Yuichi; Ren, Fengrong; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Koyanagi, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The interplay between viral and host proteins has been well studied to elucidate virus-host interactions and their relevance to virulence. Mammalian genes encode apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) proteins, which act as intrinsic restriction factors against lentiviruses. To overcome APOBEC3-mediated antiviral actions, lentiviruses have evolutionarily acquired an accessory protein, viral infectivity factor (Vif), and Vif degrades host APOBEC3 proteins via a ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent pathway. Although the Vif-APOBEC3 interaction and its evolutionary significance, particularly those of primate lentiviruses (including HIV) and primates (including humans), have been well investigated, those of nonprimate lentiviruses and nonprimates are poorly understood. Moreover, the factors that determine lentiviral pathogenicity remain unclear. Here, we focus on feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a pathogenic lentivirus in domestic cats, and the interaction between FIV Vif and feline APOBEC3 in terms of viral virulence and evolution. We reveal the significantly reduced diversity of FIV subtype B compared to that of other subtypes, which may associate with the low pathogenicity of this subtype. We also demonstrate that FIV subtype B Vif is less active with regard to feline APOBEC3 degradation. More intriguingly, we further reveal that FIV protease cleaves feline APOBEC3 in released virions. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that a lentivirus encodes two types of anti-APOBEC3 factors, Vif and viral protease. IMPORTANCE During the history of mammalian evolution, mammals coevolved with retroviruses, including lentiviruses. All pathogenic lentiviruses, excluding equine infectious anemia virus, have acquired the vif gene via evolution to combat APOBEC3 proteins, which are intrinsic restriction factors against exogenous lentiviruses. Here we demonstrate that FIV, a pathogenic lentivirus in domestic cats, antagonizes

  4. Proteases, proteolysis and inflammatory molecules in the tears of people with keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Sivaraman Arumugam; Mohan, Sujatha; Pye, David Cecil; Willcox, Mark Duncan Perry

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the expression of proteases, proteolytic activity and cytokines in the tear film of people with keratoconus. Basal tears from people with keratoconus, from individuals who had undergone corneal collagen cross-linking for the treatment of keratoconus, and from normal controls were collected using a capillary tube. Corneal curvature of each subject was mapped. The total protein in tears was estimated. Levels and activity of proteases in the tears were analysed using specific antibody arrays and activity assays. The total tear protein level was significantly reduced in keratoconus (4.1 ± 0.9 mg/ml) compared with normals (6.7 ± 1.4 mg/ml) (p < 0.0001) or subjects who had undergone corneal collagen cross-linking (5.7 ± 2.3 mg/ml) (p < 0.005). Significantly (p < 0.05) increased tear expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) -1, -3, -7, -13, interleukins (IL) -4, -5, -6, -8 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) -α, -β were evident in keratoconus. Tear IL-6 was the only cytokine significantly (p < 0.05) increased in tears of keratoconus subjects compared with the collagen cross-linked group. No significant difference in tear proteases were observed between the normal and the cross-linked groups, although the expression of TNF-α was significantly (p < 0.05) increased in the cross-linked group compared with the controls. Elevated gelatinolytic (87.5 ± 33.6 versus 45.8 ± 24.6 FIU, p < 0.0001) and collagenolytic (6.1 ± 3.2 versus 3.6 ± 2.0 FIU, p < 0.05) activities were observed in tears from keratoconus compared with normal subjects. The activity of tear gelatinases (69.6 ± 22.2 FIU) and collagenases (5.7 ± 3.3 FIU) in the collagen cross-linked group was not significantly different compared with either keratoconus or normals. Tears of people with keratoconus had 1.9 times higher levels of proteolytic activity and over expression of several MMPs and cytokines compared with tears from controls. Further investigations are required to study the possible

  5. Potent Inhibition of Feline Coronaviruses with Peptidyl Compounds Targeting Coronavirus 3C-like Protease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yunjeong; Mandadapu, Sivakoteswara Rao; Groutas, William C.; Chang, Kyeong-Ok

    2012-01-01

    Feline coronavirus infection is common among domestic and exotic felid species and usually associated with mild or asymptomatic enteritis; however, feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal disease of cats that is caused by systemic infection with a feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), a variant of feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). Currently, there is no specific treatment approved for FIP despite the importance of FIP as the leading infectious cause of death in young cats. During the replication process, coronavirus produces viral polyproteins that are processed into mature proteins by viral proteases, the main protease (3C-like [3CL] protease) and the papain-like protease. Since the cleavages of viral polyproteins are an essential step for virus replication, blockage of viral protease is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. Previously, we reported the generation of broad-spectrum peptidyl inhibitors against viruses that possess a 3C or 3CL protease. In this study, we further evaluated the antiviral effects of the peptidyl inhibitors against feline coronaviruses, and investigated the interaction between our protease inhibitor and a cathepsin B inhibitor, an entry blocker, against feline coronaviruses in cell culture. Herein we report that our compounds behave as reversible, competitive inhibitors of 3CL protease, potently inhibited the replication of feline coronaviruses (EC50 in a nanomolar range) and, furthermore, the combination of cathepsin B and 3CL protease inhibitors led to a strong synergistic interaction against feline coronaviruses in cell culture systems. PMID:23219425

  6. Visceral hypersensitivity in inflammatory bowel diseases and irritable bowel syndrome: The role of proteases.

    PubMed

    Ceuleers, Hannah; Van Spaendonk, Hanne; Hanning, Nikita; Heirbaut, Jelena; Lambeir, Anne-Marie; Joossens, Jurgen; Augustyns, Koen; De Man, Joris G; De Meester, Ingrid; De Winter, Benedicte Y

    2016-12-21

    Proteases, enzymes catalyzing the hydrolysis of peptide bonds, are present at high concentrations in the gastrointestinal tract. Besides their well-known role in the digestive process, they also function as signaling molecules through the activation of protease-activated receptors (PARs). Based on their chemical mechanism for catalysis, proteases can be classified into several classes: serine, cysteine, aspartic, metallo- and threonine proteases represent the mammalian protease families. In particular, the class of serine proteases will play a significant role in this review. In the last decades, proteases have been suggested to play a key role in the pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity, which is a major factor contributing to abdominal pain in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and/or irritable bowel syndrome. So far, only a few preclinical animal studies have investigated the effect of protease inhibitors specifically on visceral sensitivity while their effect on inflammation is described in more detail. In our accompanying review we describe their effect on gastrointestinal permeability. On account of their promising results in the field of visceral hypersensitivity, further research is warranted. The aim of this review is to give an overview on the concept of visceral hypersensitivity as well as on the physiological and pathophysiological functions of proteases herein.

  7. Visceral hypersensitivity in inflammatory bowel diseases and irritable bowel syndrome: The role of proteases

    PubMed Central

    Ceuleers, Hannah; Van Spaendonk, Hanne; Hanning, Nikita; Heirbaut, Jelena; Lambeir, Anne-Marie; Joossens, Jurgen; Augustyns, Koen; De Man, Joris G; De Meester, Ingrid; De Winter, Benedicte Y

    2016-01-01

    Proteases, enzymes catalyzing the hydrolysis of peptide bonds, are present at high concentrations in the gastrointestinal tract. Besides their well-known role in the digestive process, they also function as signaling molecules through the activation of protease-activated receptors (PARs). Based on their chemical mechanism for catalysis, proteases can be classified into several classes: serine, cysteine, aspartic, metallo- and threonine proteases represent the mammalian protease families. In particular, the class of serine proteases will play a significant role in this review. In the last decades, proteases have been suggested to play a key role in the pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity, which is a major factor contributing to abdominal pain in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and/or irritable bowel syndrome. So far, only a few preclinical animal studies have investigated the effect of protease inhibitors specifically on visceral sensitivity while their effect on inflammation is described in more detail. In our accompanying review we describe their effect on gastrointestinal permeability. On account of their promising results in the field of visceral hypersensitivity, further research is warranted. The aim of this review is to give an overview on the concept of visceral hypersensitivity as well as on the physiological and pathophysiological functions of proteases herein. PMID:28058009

  8. Multi-Approach Analysis for the Identification of Proteases within Birch Pollen.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Olivia E; Posselt, Gernot; Briza, Peter; Lackner, Peter; Schmitt, Armin O; Gadermaier, Gabriele; Wessler, Silja; Ferreira, Fatima

    2017-07-04

    Birch pollen allergy is highly prevalent, with up to 100 million reported cases worldwide. Proteases in such allergen sources have been suggested to contribute to primary sensitisation and exacerbation of allergic disorders. Until now the protease content of Betula verrucosa , a birch species endemic to the northern hemisphere has not been studied in detail. Hence, we aim to identify and characterise pollen and bacteria-derived proteases found within birch pollen. The pollen transcriptome was constructed via de novo transcriptome sequencing and analysis of the proteome was achieved via mass spectrometry; a cross-comparison of the two databases was then performed. A total of 42 individual proteases were identified at the proteomic level. Further clustering of proteases into their distinct catalytic classes revealed serine, cysteine, aspartic, threonine, and metallo-proteases. Further to this, protease activity of the pollen was quantified using a fluorescently-labelled casein substrate protease assay, as 0.61 ng/mg of pollen. A large number of bacterial strains were isolated from freshly collected birch pollen and zymographic gels with gelatinase and casein, enabled visualisation of proteolytic activity of the pollen and the collected bacterial strains. We report the successful discovery of pollen and bacteria-derived proteases of Betula verrucosa .

  9. Purification and characterization of a cysteine protease from corms of freesia, Freesia reflacta.

    PubMed

    Kaneda, M; Yonezawa, H; Uchikoba, T

    1997-09-01

    A protease (freesia protease B) has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from corms of freesia, Freesia reflacta by five steps of chromatography. Its M(r) was estimated to be about 26,000 by SDS-PAGE. The optimum pH of the enzyme was 6.0-7.0 at 30 degrees C using casein as a substrate. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoic acid but not by phenylmethanesulphonylfluoride and EDTA. These results indicate that freesia protease B is a cysteine protease. Nine sites of oxidized insulin B-chain were cleaved by freesia protease B in 24 h of hydrolysis. The four cleavage sites among them resembled those of papain. From the digestion of five peptidyl substrates the specificity of freesia protease B was found to be approximately broad, but the preferential cleavage sites were negatively charged residues at P1 positions. Freesia protease B preferred also the large hydrophobic amino acid residues at the P2 position, in a similar manner to papain. The amino terminal sequence of freesia protease B was identical with those of papain in regard to the conservative residues of cysteine protease.

  10. Characterization of detergent compatible protease from halophilic Virgibacillus sp. CD6.

    PubMed

    Lam, Ming Quan; Nik Mut, Nik Nurhidayu; Thevarajoo, Suganthi; Chen, Sye Jinn; Selvaratnam, Chitra; Hussin, Huszalina; Jamaluddin, Haryati; Chong, Chun Shiong

    2018-02-01

    A halophilic bacterium, Virgibacillus sp. strain CD6, was isolated from salted fish and its extracellular protease was characterized. Protease production was found to be highest when yeast extract was used as nitrogen source for growth. The protease exhibited stability at wide range of salt concentration (0-12.5%, w/v), temperatures (20-60 °C), and pH (4-10) with maximum activity at 10.0% (w/v) NaCl, 60 °C, pH 7 and 10, indicating its polyextremophilicity. The protease activity was enhanced in the presence of Mg 2+ , Mn 2+ , Cd 2+ , and Al 3+ (107-122% relative activity), and with retention of activity > 80% for all of other metal ions examined (K + , Ca 2+ , Cu 2+ , Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , Zn 2+ , and Fe 3+ ). Both PMSF and EDTA inhibited protease activity, denoting serine protease and metalloprotease properties, respectively. High stability (> 70%) was demonstrated in the presence of organic solvents and detergent constituents, and the extracellular protease from strain CD6 was also found to be compatible in commercial detergents. Proteinaceous stain removal efficacy revealed that crude protease of strain CD6 could significantly enhance the performance of commercial detergent. The protease from Virgibacillus sp. strain CD6 could serve as a promising alternative for various applications, especially in detergent industry.

  11. A novel serine protease from strawberry (Fragaria ananassa): Purification and biochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Alici, Esma Hande; Arabaci, Gulnur

    2018-03-27

    In this study, a protease enzyme was purified from strawberry by using Sepharose-4B-l-tyrosine-p-amino benzoic acid affinity chromatography. The molecular weight of pure protease was determined 65.8 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The single band observed on the gel showed that the enzyme had a single polypeptide chain and was successfully purified. Purification of the protease by the chromatographic method resulted in a 395.6-fold increase in specific activity (3600 U/mg). Optimum pH and temperature for the enzyme were 6 and 40 °C, respectively. The protease was stable at a wide temperature range of 40 to 70 °C and a pH range of 3.0 to 9.0. Co 2+ ions stimulated protease activity very strongly. Cu 2+ , Hg 2+ , Cd 2+ and Mn 2+ ions significantly inhibited protease activity. While 2-propanol completely inhibited the enzyme, the enzyme maintained its activity better in the presence of ethanol and methanol. The strawberry protease showed the highest specificity towards hemoglobin among all the natural substrates tested. The specificity of the enzyme towards synthetic substrates was also investigated and it was concluded that it has broad substrate specificity. The obtained results indicated that this purified protease was highly-likely a serine protease and its activity was significantly affected by the presence of metal ions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Tripeptide inhibitors of dengue and West Nile virus NS2B-NS3 protease.

    PubMed

    Schüller, Andreas; Yin, Zheng; Brian Chia, C S; Doan, Danny N P; Kim, Hyeong-Kyu; Shang, Luqing; Loh, Teck Peng; Hill, Jeffery; Vasudevan, Subhash G

    2011-10-01

    A series of tripeptide aldehyde inhibitors were synthesized and their inhibitory effect against dengue virus type 2 (DENV2) and West Nile virus (WNV) NS3 protease was evaluated side by side with the aim to discover potent flaviviral protease inhibitors and to examine differences in specificity of the two proteases. The synthesized inhibitors feature a varied N-terminal cap group and side chain modifications of a P2-lysine residue. In general a much stronger inhibitory effect of the tripeptide inhibitors was observed toward WNV protease. The inhibitory concentrations against DENV2 protease were in the micromolar range while they were submicromolar against WNV. The data suggest that a P2-arginine shifts the specificity toward DENV2 protease while WNV protease favors a lysine in the P2 position. Peptides with an extended P2-lysine failed to inhibit DENV2 protease suggesting a size-constrained S2 pocket. Our results generally encourage the investigation of di- and tripeptide aldehydes as inhibitors of DENV and WNV protease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Purification and characterization of an alkaline protease from Micrococcus sp. isolated from the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Enling; Xia, Tao; Zhang, Zhaohui; Mao, Xiangzhao

    2017-04-01

    Protease is wildly used in various fields, such as food, medicine, washing, leather, cosmetics and other industrial fields. In this study, an alkaline protease secreted by Micrococcus NH54PC02 isolated from the South China Sea was purified and characterized. The growth curve and enzyme activity curve indicated that the cell reached a maximum concentration at the 30th hour and the enzyme activity reached the maximum value at the 36th hour. The protease was purified with 3 steps involving ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography and hydrophobic chromatography with 8.22-fold increase in specific activity and 23.68% increase in the recovery. The molecular mass of the protease was estimated to be 25 kDa by SDS-PAGE analysis. The optimum temperature and pH for the protease activity were 50°C and pH 10.0, respectively. The protease showed a strong stability in a wide range of pH values ranging from 6.0-11.0, and maintained 90% enzyme activity in strong alkaline environment with pH 11.0. Inhibitor trials indicated that the protease might be serine protease. But it also possessed the characteristic of metalloprotease as it could be strongly inhibited by EDTA and strongly stimulated by Mn2+. Evaluation of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight MS (MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS) showed that the protease might belong to the peptidase S8 family.

  14. Protein Breakdown and Formation of Protease in Attached and Detached Cotyledons of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Yomo, H; Srinivasan, K

    1973-12-01

    In contrast to earlier reported results of similar experiments in peas, in which almost no increase in protease activity occurred in incubated detached cotyledons, we report here an increase in protease activity in both attached and detached bean cotyledons. Detached bean cotyledons showed continually increasing protease activity up to the 12th day, while that in attached cotyledons declined after 6 days. The free amino acid level in detached cotyledons reached a maximum at the 11th day; protease formation leveled off after 50% of the original seed protein was digested. These data suggest that high free amino acid levels may inhibit protease formation.The activity of partially purified protease in aqueous extracts was enhanced by 10 mm 2-mercaptoethanol or cysteine, indicating a sulfhydryl requirement for activation. Protease formation in detached cotyledons was inhibited 30% by 10 mug/ml cycloheximide and 50% by 100 mum abscisic acid. In contrast, alpha-amylase formation was inhibited 90% by 10 mug/ml cycloheximide and 95% by 20 mum abscisic acid. The cycloheximide data suggest that only a part of the protease, but all of the alpha-amylase, is synthesized de novo; the similar pattern of inhibition by abscisic acid emphasizes the concept that protease may exist in two forms.

  15. Protein Breakdown and Formation of Protease in Attached and Detached Cotyledons of Phaseolus vulgaris L. 12

    PubMed Central

    Yomo, Harugoro; Srinivasan, Komala

    1973-01-01

    In contrast to earlier reported results of similar experiments in peas, in which almost no increase in protease activity occurred in incubated detached cotyledons, we report here an increase in protease activity in both attached and detached bean cotyledons. Detached bean cotyledons showed continually increasing protease activity up to the 12th day, while that in attached cotyledons declined after 6 days. The free amino acid level in detached cotyledons reached a maximum at the 11th day; protease formation leveled off after 50% of the original seed protein was digested. These data suggest that high free amino acid levels may inhibit protease formation. The activity of partially purified protease in aqueous extracts was enhanced by 10 mm 2-mercaptoethanol or cysteine, indicating a sulfhydryl requirement for activation. Protease formation in detached cotyledons was inhibited 30% by 10 μg/ml cycloheximide and 50% by 100 μm abscisic acid. In contrast, α-amylase formation was inhibited 90% by 10 μg/ml cycloheximide and 95% by 20 μm abscisic acid. The cycloheximide data suggest that only a part of the protease, but all of the α-amylase, is synthesized de novo; the similar pattern of inhibition by abscisic acid emphasizes the concept that protease may exist in two forms. PMID:16658628

  16. Cloning, characterization, expression and antifungal activity of an alkaline serine protease of Aureobasidium pullulans PL5 involved in the biological control of postharvest pathogens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dianpeng; Spadaro, Davide; Valente, Silvia; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2012-02-15

    An alkaline protease gene was amplified from genomic DNA and cDNA of the antagonistic yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans PL5, a biocontrol agent effective against Monilinia laxa on stone fruit and Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum on pome fruits. An open reading frame of 1248 bp encoding a 415-amino acid (aa) protein with a calculated molecular weight (M(r)) of 42.9 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 4.5 was characterized. The cDNAALP5 gene had an 18-amino acid signal peptide, one N-gylcosylation, one histidine active site, and one serine active site. The ALP5 gene with a M(r) of 1351 bp contained two introns. One intron was of 54 bp, while the other was of 50 bp. Protein BLAST and phylogenetic tree analysis of the deduced amino sequences from the cDNAALP5 gene showed that the encoded protein had 100% homology to a protease enzyme (ALP2) of a sea strain of A. pullulans, suggesting that the protein ALP5 was an alkaline serine protease. Expression of ALP5 in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), followed by identification with Western-blotting, purification with Ni-NTA and analysis of enzymatic activity, yielded an homogeneous recombinant ALP5 which hydrolysed the substrate casein and inhibited the mycelial growth of the pathogens. At its optimal pH of 10.0 and reaction temperature of 50°C, the recombinant protease exhibited the highest activity towards the substrate casein, though the highest stability was at lower temperatures and pH between 7.0 and 9.0. This study provided the direct evidence that extracellular proteases secreted by the antagonist A. pullulans PL5 played a role in the biocontrol activities against some postharvest pathogens of apple and peach. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Primary genotypic resistance of HIV-1 to the maturation inhibitor PA-457 in protease inhibitor-experienced patients.

    PubMed

    Malet, Isabelle; Wirden, Marc; Derache, Anne; Simon, Anne; Katlama, Christine; Calvez, Vincent; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève

    2007-04-23

    Sequences from 82 protease inhibitors (PI)-experienced patients were analysed for the presence of previously described in-vitro resistance mutations to PA-457 located in the C-terminal capside (H226Y, L231F, L231M) and in the N-terminal SP1 (A1V, A3T, A3V) within the CA-SP1 boundary domain. Overall, the CA-SP1 cleavage site was highly conserved in PI pre-treated patients and only one patient showed an L231M mutation. The impact of this mutation should be further addressed in vivo.

  18. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 is required for PAR-1 signalling in pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cong; von der Thüsen, Jan; Daalhuisen, Joost; ten Brink, Marieke; Crestani, Bruno; van der Poll, Tom; Borensztajn, Keren; Spek, C Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most devastating diffuse fibrosing lung disease of unknown aetiology. Compelling evidence suggests that both protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 and PAR-2 participate in the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Previous studies have shown that bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis is diminished in both PAR-1 and PAR-2 deficient mice. We thus have been suggested that combined inactivation of PAR-1 and PAR-2 would be more effective in blocking pulmonary fibrosis. Human and murine fibroblasts were stimulated with PAR-1 and PAR-2 agonists in the absence or presence of specific PAR-1 or PAR-2 antagonists after which fibrotic markers like collagen and smooth muscle actin were analysed by Western blot. Pulmonary fibrosis was induced by intranasal instillation of bleomycin into wild-type and PAR-2 deficient mice with or without a specific PAR-1 antagonist (P1pal-12). Fibrosis was assessed by hydroxyproline quantification and (immuno)histochemical analysis. We show that specific PAR-1 and/or PAR-2 activating proteases induce fibroblast migration, differentiation and extracellular matrix production. Interestingly, however, combined activation of PAR-1 and PAR-2 did not show any additive effects on these pro-fibrotic responses. Strikingly, PAR-2 deficiency as well as pharmacological PAR-1 inhibition reduced bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis to a similar extent. PAR-1 inhibition in PAR-2 deficient mice did not further diminish bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Finally, we show that the PAR-1-dependent pro-fibrotic responses are inhibited by the PAR-2 specific antagonist. Targeting PAR-1 and PAR-2 simultaneously is not superior to targeting either receptor alone in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. We postulate that the pro-fibrotic effects of PAR-1 require the presence of PAR-2. PMID:25689283

  19. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 is required for PAR-1 signalling in pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cong; von der Thüsen, Jan; Daalhuisen, Joost; ten Brink, Marieke; Crestani, Bruno; van der Poll, Tom; Borensztajn, Keren; Spek, C Arnold

    2015-06-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most devastating diffuse fibrosing lung disease of unknown aetiology. Compelling evidence suggests that both protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 and PAR-2 participate in the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Previous studies have shown that bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis is diminished in both PAR-1 and PAR-2 deficient mice. We thus have been suggested that combined inactivation of PAR-1 and PAR-2 would be more effective in blocking pulmonary fibrosis. Human and murine fibroblasts were stimulated with PAR-1 and PAR-2 agonists in the absence or presence of specific PAR-1 or PAR-2 antagonists after which fibrotic markers like collagen and smooth muscle actin were analysed by Western blot. Pulmonary fibrosis was induced by intranasal instillation of bleomycin into wild-type and PAR-2 deficient mice with or without a specific PAR-1 antagonist (P1pal-12). Fibrosis was assessed by hydroxyproline quantification and (immuno)histochemical analysis. We show that specific PAR-1 and/or PAR-2 activating proteases induce fibroblast migration, differentiation and extracellular matrix production. Interestingly, however, combined activation of PAR-1 and PAR-2 did not show any additive effects on these pro-fibrotic responses. Strikingly, PAR-2 deficiency as well as pharmacological PAR-1 inhibition reduced bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis to a similar extent. PAR-1 inhibition in PAR-2 deficient mice did not further diminish bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Finally, we show that the PAR-1-dependent pro-fibrotic responses are inhibited by the PAR-2 specific antagonist. Targeting PAR-1 and PAR-2 simultaneously is not superior to targeting either receptor alone in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. We postulate that the pro-fibrotic effects of PAR-1 require the presence of PAR-2. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  20. Aspartyl proteases in Candida glabrata are required for suppression of the host innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Mubashshir; Battu, Anamika; Kaur, Rupinder

    2018-04-27

    A family of 11 cell surface-associated aspartyl proteases (CgYps1-11), also referred as yapsins, is a key virulence factor in the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata However, the mechanism by which CgYapsins modulate immune response and facilitate survival in the mammalian host remains to be identified. Here, using RNA-Seq analysis, we report that genes involved in cell wall metabolism are differentially regulated in the Cgyps1-11 Δ mutant. Consistently, the mutant contained lower β-glucan and mannan levels and exhibited increased chitin content in the cell wall. As cell wall components are known to regulate the innate immune response, we next determined the macrophage transcriptional response to C. glabrata infection and observed differential expression of genes implicated in inflammation, chemotaxis, ion transport, and the tumor necrosis factor signaling cascade. Importantly, the Cgyps1-11 Δ mutant evoked a different immune response, resulting in an enhanced release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β in THP-1 macrophages. Further, Cgyps1-11 Δ-induced IL-1β production adversely affected intracellular proliferation of co-infected WT cells and depended on activation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) signaling in the host cells. Accordingly, the Syk inhibitor R406 augmented intracellular survival of the Cgyps1-11 Δ mutant. Finally, we demonstrate that C. glabrata infection triggers elevated IL-1β production in mouse organs and that the CgYPS genes are required for organ colonization and dissemination in the murine model of systemic infection. Altogether, our results uncover the basis for macrophage-mediated killing of Cgyps1-11 Δ cells and provide the first evidence that aspartyl proteases in C. glabrata are required for suppression of IL-1β production in macrophages. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Aspartyl proteases in Candida glabrata are required for suppression of the host innate immune response

    PubMed Central

    Rasheed, Mubashshir; Battu, Anamika; Kaur, Rupinder

    2018-01-01

    A family of 11 cell surface-associated aspartyl proteases (CgYps1–11), also referred as yapsins, is a key virulence factor in the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata. However, the mechanism by which CgYapsins modulate immune response and facilitate survival in the mammalian host remains to be identified. Here, using RNA-Seq analysis, we report that genes involved in cell wall metabolism are differentially regulated in the Cgyps1–11Δ mutant. Consistently, the mutant contained lower β-glucan and mannan levels and exhibited increased chitin content in the cell wall. As cell wall components are known to regulate the innate immune response, we next determined the macrophage transcriptional response to C. glabrata infection and observed differential expression of genes implicated in inflammation, chemotaxis, ion transport, and the tumor necrosis factor signaling cascade. Importantly, the Cgyps1–11Δ mutant evoked a different immune response, resulting in an enhanced release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β in THP-1 macrophages. Further, Cgyps1–11Δ–induced IL-1β production adversely affected intracellular proliferation of co-infected WT cells and depended on activation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) signaling in the host cells. Accordingly, the Syk inhibitor R406 augmented intracellular survival of the Cgyps1–11Δ mutant. Finally, we demonstrate that C. glabrata infection triggers elevated IL-1β production in mouse organs and that the CgYPS genes are required for organ colonization and dissemination in the murine model of systemic infection. Altogether, our results uncover the basis for macrophage-mediated killing of Cgyps1–11Δ cells and provide the first evidence that aspartyl proteases in C. glabrata are required for suppression of IL-1β production in macrophages. PMID:29491142

  2. MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF CYSTEINE AND TRYPSIN PROTEASE, EFFECT OF DIFFERENT HOSTS ON PROTEASE EXPRESSION, AND RNAI MEDIATED SILENCING OF CYSTEINE PROTEASE GENE IN THE SUNN PEST.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Azam; Bandani, Ali Reza; Alizadeh, Houshang

    2016-04-01

    Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps, is a serious pest of cereals in the wide area of the globe from Near and Middle East to East and South Europe and North Africa. This study described for the first time, identification of E. integriceps trypsin serine protease and cathepsin-L cysteine, transcripts involved in digestion, which might serve as targets for pest control management. A total of 478 and 500 base pair long putative trypsin and cysteine gene sequences were characterized and named Tryp and Cys, respectively. In addition, the tissue-specific relative gene expression levels of these genes as well as gluten hydrolase (Gl) were determined under different host kernels feeding conditions. Result showed that mRNA expression of Cys, Tryp, and Gl was significantly affected after feeding on various host plant species. Transcript levels of these genes were most abundant in the wheat-fed E. integriceps larvae compared to other hosts. The Cys transcript was detected exclusively in the gut, whereas the Gl and Tryp transcripts were detectable in both salivary glands and gut. Also possibility of Sunn pest gene silencing was studied by topical application of cysteine double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). The results indicated that topically applied dsRNA on fifth nymphal stage can penetrate the cuticle of the insect and induce RNA interference. The Cys gene mRNA transcript in the gut was reduced to 83.8% 2 days posttreatment. Also, it was found that dsRNA of Cys gene affected fifth nymphal stage development suggesting the involvement of this protease in the insect growth, development, and molting. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Functional protease profiling for laboratory based diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Sabbagh, Bassel; Costina, Victor; Buchheidt, Dieter; Reinwald, Mark; Neumaier, Michael; Findeisen, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) remains difficult to diagnose in immunocompromised patients, because diagnostic criteria according to EORTC/MSG guidelines are often not met and have low sensitivity. Hence there is an urgent need to improve diagnostic procedures by developing novel approaches. In the present study, we present a proof of concept experiment for the monitoring of Aspergillus associated protease activity in serum specimens for diagnostic purpose. Synthetic peptides that are selectively cleaved by proteases secreted from Aspergillus species were selected from our own experiments and published data. These so called reporter peptides (RP, n=5) were added to serum specimens from healthy controls (HC, n=101) and patients with proven (IA, n=9) and possible (PIA, n=144) invasive aspergillosis. Spiked samples were incubated ex vivo under strictly standardized conditions. Proteolytic fragments were analyzed using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Spiked specimens of IA patients had highest concentrations of RP-fragments followed by PIA and HC. The median signal intensity was 116.546 (SD, 53.063) for IA and 5.009 (SD, 8.432) for HC. A cut-off >36.910 was chosen that performed with 100% specificity and sensitivity. Patients with PIA had either values above [53% (76/144)] or below [47% (67/144)] this chosen cut-off. The detection of respective reporter peptide fragments can easily be performed by MALDI TOF mass spectrometry. In this proof of concept study we were able to demonstrate that serum specimens of patients with IA have increased proteolytic activity towards selected reporter peptides. However, the diagnostic value of functional protease profiling has to be validated in further prospective studies. It is likely that a combination of existing and new methods will be required to achieve optimal performance for diagnosis of IA in the future.

  4. Plant Protease Inhibitors in Therapeutics-Focus on Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Srikanth, Sandhya; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Plants are known to have many secondary metabolites and phytochemical compounds which are highly explored at biochemical and molecular genetics level and exploited enormously in the human health care sector. However, there are other less explored small molecular weight proteins, which inhibit proteases/proteinases. Plants are good sources of protease inhibitors (PIs) which protect them against diseases, insects, pests, and herbivores. In the past, proteinaceous PIs were considered primarily as protein-degrading enzymes. Nevertheless, this view has significantly changed and PIs are now treated as very important signaling molecules in many biological activities such as inflammation, apoptosis, blood clotting and hormone processing. In recent years, PIs have been examined extensively as therapeutic agents, primarily to deal with various human cancers. Interestingly, many plant-based PIs are also found to be effective against cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, inflammatory diseases and neurological disorders. Several plant PIs are under further evaluation in in vitro clinical trials. Among all types of PIs, Bowman-Birk inhibitors (BBI) have been studied extensively in the treatment of many diseases, especially in the field of cancer prevention. So far, crops such as beans, potatoes, barley, squash, millet, wheat, buckwheat, groundnut, chickpea, pigeonpea, corn, and pineapple have been identified as good sources of PIs. The PI content of such foods has a significant influence on human health disorders, particularly in the regions where people mostly depend on these kind of foods. These natural PIs vary in concentration, protease specificity, heat stability, and sometimes several PIs may be present in the same species or tissue. However, it is important to carry out individual studies to identify the potential effects of each PI on human health. PIs in plants make them incredible sources to determine novel PIs with specific pharmacological and therapeutic effects due

  5. Antiacanthain A: New proteases isolated from Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. (Bromeliaceae).

    PubMed

    Vallés, Diego; Cantera, Ana M B

    2018-07-01

    Crude extract (CE) from pulp of Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. mature fruit, contains at least 3 cysteine proteases with proteolytic activity. By single step cation exchange chromatography (Hi-trap SP-HP) of partially purified CE, the protease with the lowest pI, Antiacanthain A (AntA), was isolated. It showed maximum activity at pH9, and 75% of remaining activity was maintained over a wide pH range (pH6-10). The AntA activity exhibits a constant increase up to 70°C. Maintains almost 100% of its activity at 45 at pH6 and 9. A 60% of AntA was active by titration with specific inhibitor, E64. Amidasic activity was studied with pyroglutamyl-phenyl-leucyl-paranitroaniline (PFLNA) substrate having higher AntA catalytic efficiency of (k cat /K m =470s -1 M -1 ) relative to stem bromelain (k cat /K m =305s -1 M -1 ). Esterase activity using p-nitrophenyl esters of N-α-CBZ-l-Lysine (z-L-LysONp) showed a 10-fold higher catalytic efficiency for AntA (k cat /K m =6376s -1 M -1 ) relative to stem bromelain (k cat /K m =688s -1 M -1 ). Incubation with 8M Urea did not affect AntA activity and remained unchanged for 18h, with 6M GndHCl resulted in a 41% decrease in activity after 30min incubation, maintained this activity 18h. AntA exhibits high sequence identity with proteases of the Bromeliaceae family. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Serine Proteases Enhance Immunogenic Antigen Presentation on Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Peters, Haley L; Tripathi, Satyendra C; Kerros, Celine; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Garber, Haven R; St John, Lisa S; Federico, Lorenzo; Meraz, Ismail M; Roth, Jack A; Sepesi, Boris; Majidi, Mourad; Ruisaard, Kathryn; Clise-Dwyer, Karen; Roszik, Jason; Gibbons, Don L; Heymach, John V; Swisher, Stephen G; Bernatchez, Chantale; Alatrash, Gheath; Hanash, Samir; Molldrem, Jeffrey J

    2017-04-01

    Immunotherapies targeting immune checkpoints have proven efficacious in reducing the burden of lung cancer in patients; however, the antigenic targets of these reinvigorated T cells remain poorly defined. Lung cancer tumors contain tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) and neutrophils, which release the serine proteases neutrophil elastase (NE) and proteinase 3 (P3) into the tumor microenvironment. NE and P3 shape the antitumor adaptive immune response in breast cancer and melanoma. In this report, we demonstrate that lung cancer cells cross-presented the tumor-associated antigen PR1, derived from NE and P3. Additionally, NE and P3 enhanced the expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules on lung cancer cells and induced unique, endogenous peptides in the immunopeptidome, as detected with mass spectrometry sequencing. Lung cancer patient tissues with high intratumoral TAMs were enriched for MHC class I genes and T-cell markers, and patients with high TAM and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) infiltration had improved overall survival. We confirmed the immunogenicity of unique, endogenous peptides with cytotoxicity assays against lung cancer cell lines, using CTLs from healthy donors that had been expanded against select peptides. Finally, CTLs specific for serine proteases-induced endogenous peptides were detected in lung cancer patients using peptide/HLA-A2 tetramers and were elevated in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Thus, serine proteases in the tumor microenvironment of lung cancers promote the presentation of HLA class I immunogenic peptides that are expressed by lung cancer cells, thereby increasing the antigen repertoire that can be targeted in lung cancer. Cancer Immunol Res; 5(4); 319-29. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Structural and Biophysical Characterization of Cajanus cajan Protease Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Shamsi, Tooba Naz; Parveen, Romana; Ahamad, Shahzaib; Fatima, Sadaf

    2017-01-01

    Context: A large number of studies have proven that Protease inhibitors (PIs), specifically serine protease inhibitors, show immense divergence in regulation of proteolysis by targeting their specific proteases and hence, they play a key role in healthcare. Objective: We aimed to access in-vitro anticancer potential of PI from Cajanus cajan (CCPI). Also, crystallization of CCPI was targetted alongwith structure determination and its structure-function relationship. Materials and Methods: CCPI was purified from Cajanus cajan seeds by chromatographic techniques. The purity and molecular mass was determined by SDS-PAGE. Anticancer potential of CCPI was determined by MTT assay in normal HEK and cancerous A549 cells. The crystallization screening of CCPI was performed by commercially available screens. CCPI sequence was subject to BLASTp with homologous PIs. Progressive multiple alignment was performed using clustalw2 and was modelled using ab initio protocol of I-TASSER. Results: The results showed ~14kDa CCPI was purified in homogeneity. Also, CCPI showed low cytotoxic effects of in HEK i.e., 27% as compared with 51% cytotoxicity in A549 cells. CCPI crystallized at 16°C using 15% PEG 6000 in 0.1M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 6.0) in 2-3weeks as rod or needles visualized as clusters under the microscope. The molecular modelling revealed that it contains 3 beta sheets, 3 beta hairpins, 2 β-bulges, 6 strands, 3 helices, 1helix-helix interaction, 41 β-turns and 27 γ-turns. Discussion and Conclusion: The results indicate that CCPI may help to treat cancer in vivo aswell. Also, this is the first report on preliminary crystallization and structural studies of CCPI. PMID:28781485

  8. Structural and Biophysical Characterization of Cajanus cajan Protease Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Shamsi, Tooba Naz; Parveen, Romana; Ahamad, Shahzaib; Fatima, Sadaf

    2017-01-01

    A large number of studies have proven that Protease inhibitors (PIs), specifically serine protease inhibitors, show immense divergence in regulation of proteolysis by targeting their specific proteases and hence, they play a key role in healthcare. We aimed to access in-vitro anticancer potential of PI from Cajanus cajan (CCPI). Also, crystallization of CCPI was targetted alongwith structure determination and its structure-function relationship. CCPI was purified from Cajanus cajan seeds by chromatographic techniques. The purity and molecular mass was determined by SDS-PAGE. Anticancer potential of CCPI was determined by MTT assay in normal HEK and cancerous A549 cells. The crystallization screening of CCPI was performed by commercially available screens. CCPI sequence was subject to BLASTp with homologous PIs. Progressive multiple alignment was performed using clustalw2 and was modelled using ab initio protocol of I-TASSER. The results showed ~14kDa CCPI was purified in homogeneity. Also, CCPI showed low cytotoxic effects of in HEK i.e., 27% as compared with 51% cytotoxicity in A549 cells. CCPI crystallized at 16°C using 15% PEG 6000 in 0.1M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 6.0) in 2-3weeks as rod or needles visualized as clusters under the microscope. The molecular modelling revealed that it contains 3 beta sheets, 3 beta hairpins, 2 β-bulges, 6 strands, 3 helices, 1helix-helix interaction, 41 β-turns and 27 γ-turns. The results indicate that CCPI may help to treat cancer in vivo aswell. Also, this is the first report on preliminary crystallization and structural studies of CCPI.

  9. Plant Protease Inhibitors in Therapeutics-Focus on Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Srikanth, Sandhya; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Plants are known to have many secondary metabolites and phytochemical compounds which are highly explored at biochemical and molecular genetics level and exploited enormously in the human health care sector. However, there are other less explored small molecular weight proteins, which inhibit proteases/proteinases. Plants are good sources of protease inhibitors (PIs) which protect them against diseases, insects, pests, and herbivores. In the past, proteinaceous PIs were considered primarily as protein-degrading enzymes. Nevertheless, this view has significantly changed and PIs are now treated as very important signaling molecules in many biological activities such as inflammation, apoptosis, blood clotting and hormone processing. In recent years, PIs have been examined extensively as therapeutic agents, primarily to deal with various human cancers. Interestingly, many plant-based PIs are also found to be effective against cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, inflammatory diseases and neurological disorders. Several plant PIs are under further evaluation in in vitro clinical trials. Among all types of PIs, Bowman-Birk inhibitors (BBI) have been studied extensively in the treatment of many diseases, especially in the field of cancer prevention. So far, crops such as beans, potatoes, barley, squash, millet, wheat, buckwheat, groundnut, chickpea, pigeonpea, corn, and pineapple have been identified as good sources of PIs. The PI content of such foods has a significant influence on human health disorders, particularly in the regions where people mostly depend on these kind of foods. These natural PIs vary in concentration, protease specificity, heat stability, and sometimes several PIs may be present in the same species or tissue. However, it is important to carry out individual studies to identify the potential effects of each PI on human health. PIs in plants make them incredible sources to determine novel PIs with specific pharmacological and therapeutic effects due

  10. Antimicrobial activity of an aspartic protease from Salpichroa origanifolia fruits.

    PubMed

    Díaz, M E; Rocha, G F; Kise, F; Rosso, A M; Guevara, M G; Parisi, M G

    2018-05-08

    Plant proteases play a fundamental role in several processes like growth, development and in response to biotic and abiotic stress. In particular, aspartic proteases (AP) are expressed in different plant organs and have antimicrobial activity. Previously, we purified an AP from Salpichroa origanifolia fruits called salpichroin. The aim of this work was to determine the cytotoxic activity of this enzyme on selected plant and human pathogens. For this purpose, the growth of the selected pathogens was analysed after exposure to different concentrations of salpichroin. The results showed that the enzyme was capable of inhibiting Fusarium solani and Staphylococcus aureus in a dose-dependent manner. It was determined that 1·2 μmol l -1 of salpichroin was necessary to inhibit 50% of conidial germination, and the minimal bactericidal concentration was between 1·9 and 2·5 μmol l -1 . Using SYTOX Green dye we were able to demonstrate that salpichroin cause membrane permeabilization. Moreover, the enzyme treated with its specific inhibitor pepstatin A did not lose its antibacterial activity. This finding demonstrates that the cytotoxic activity of salpichroin is due to the alteration of the cell plasma membrane barrier but not due to its proteolytic activity. Antimicrobial activity of the AP could represent a potential alternative for the control of pathogens that affect humans or crops of economic interest. This study provides insights into the antimicrobial activity of an aspartic protease isolated from Salpichroa origanifolia fruits on plant and human pathogens. The proteinase inhibited Fusarium solani and Staphylococcus aureus in a dose-dependent manner due to the alteration of the cell plasma membrane barrier but not due to its proteolytic activity. Antimicrobial activity of salpichroin suggests its potential applications as an important tool for the control of pathogenic micro-organisms affecting humans and crops of economic interest. Therefore, it would

  11. Flavonoid from Carica papaya inhibits NS2B-NS3 protease and prevents Dengue 2 viral assembly.

    PubMed

    Senthilvel, Padmanaban; Lavanya, Pandian; Kumar, Kalavathi Murugan; Swetha, Rayapadi; Anitha, Parimelzaghan; Bag, Susmita; Sarveswari, Sundaramoorthy; Vijayakumar, Vijayaparthasarathi; Ramaiah, Sudha; Anbarasu, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Dengue virus belongs to the virus family Flaviviridae. Dengue hemorrhagic disease caused by dengue virus is a public health problem worldwide. The viral non structural 2B and 3 (NS2B-NS3) protease complex is crucial for virus replication and hence, it is considered to be a good anti-viral target. Leaf extracts from Carica papaya is generally prescribed for patients with dengue fever, but there are no scientific evidences for its anti-dengue activity; hence we intended to investigate the anti-viral activity of compounds present in the leaves of Carica papaya against dengue 2 virus (DENV-2). We analysed the anti-dengue activities of the extracts from Carica papaya by using bioinformatics tools. Interestingly, we find the flavonoid quercetin with highest binding energy against NS2B-NS3 protease which is evident by the formation of six hydrogen bonds with the amino acid residues at the binding site of the receptor. Our results suggest that the flavonoids from Carica papaya have significant anti-dengue activities. ADME - Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, BBB - Blood brain barrier, CYP - Cytochrome P450, DENV - - Dengue virus, DHF - Dengue hemorrhagic fever, DSS - Dengue shock syndrome, GCMS - - Gas chromatography- Mass spectrometry, MOLCAD - Molecular Computer Aided Design, NS - Non structural, PDB - Protein data bank, PMF - Potential Mean Force.

  12. Structural basis of substrate specificity in the serine proteases.

    PubMed Central

    Perona, J. J.; Craik, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    Structure-based mutational analysis of serine protease specificity has produced a large database of information useful in addressing biological function and in establishing a basis for targeted design efforts. Critical issues examined include the function of water molecules in providing strength and specificity of binding, the extent to which binding subsites are interdependent, and the roles of polypeptide chain flexibility and distal structural elements in contributing to specificity profiles. The studies also provide a foundation for exploring why specificity modification can be either straightforward or complex, depending on the particular system. PMID:7795518

  13. Functional Diversity of AAA+ Protease Complexes in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Elsholz, Alexander K. W.; Birk, Marlene S.; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Turgay, Kürşad

    2017-01-01

    Here, we review the diverse roles and functions of AAA+ protease complexes in protein homeostasis, control of stress response and cellular development pathways by regulatory and general proteolysis in the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis. We discuss in detail the intricate involvement of AAA+ protein complexes in controlling sporulation, the heat shock response and the role of adaptor proteins in these processes. The investigation of these protein complexes and their adaptor proteins has revealed their relevance for Gram-positive pathogens and their potential as targets for new antibiotics. PMID:28748186

  14. Functional Diversity of AAA+ Protease Complexes in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Elsholz, Alexander K W; Birk, Marlene S; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Turgay, Kürşad

    2017-01-01

    Here, we review the diverse roles and functions of AAA+ protease complexes in protein homeostasis, control of stress response and cellular development pathways by regulatory and general proteolysis in the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis . We discuss in detail the intricate involvement of AAA+ protein complexes in controlling sporulation, the heat shock response and the role of adaptor proteins in these processes. The investigation of these protein complexes and their adaptor proteins has revealed their relevance for Gram-positive pathogens and their potential as targets for new antibiotics.

  15. Functional analysis of rhomboid proteases during Toxoplasma invasion.

    PubMed

    Shen, Bang; Buguliskis, Jeffrey S; Lee, Tobie D; Sibley, L David

    2014-10-21

    Host cell invasion by Toxoplasma gondii and other apicomplexan parasites requires transmembrane adhesins that mediate binding to receptors on the substrate and host cell to facilitate motility and invasion. Rhomboid proteases (ROMs) are thought to cleave adhesins within their transmembrane segments, thus allowing the parasite to disengage from receptors and completely enter the host cell. To examine the specific roles of individual ROMs during invasion, we generated single, double, and triple knockouts for the three ROMs expressed in T. gondii tachyzoites. Analysis of these mutants demonstrated that ROM4 is the primary protease involved in adhesin processing and host cell invasion, whereas ROM1 or ROM5 plays negligible roles in these processes. Deletion of ROM4 blocked the shedding of adhesins such as MIC2 (microneme protein 2), causing them to accumulate on the surface of extracellular parasites. Increased surface adhesins led to nonproductive attachment, altered gliding motility, impaired moving junction formation, and reduced invasion efficiency. Despite the importance of ROM4 for efficient invasion, mutants lacking all three ROMs were viable and MIC2 was still efficiently removed from the surface of invaded mutant parasites, implying the existence of ROM-independent mechanisms for adhesin removal during invasion. Collectively, these results suggest that although ROM processing of adhesins is not absolutely essential, it is important for efficient host cell invasion by T. gondii. Importance: Apicomplexan parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii express surface proteins that bind host cell receptors to aid invasion. Many of these adhesins are subject to cleavage by rhomboid proteases (ROMs) within their transmembrane segments during invasion. Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of adhesin cleavage for parasite invasion and proposed that the ROMs responsible for processing would be essential for parasite survival. In T. gondii, ROM5 was thought to be the

  16. Boceprevir: a protease inhibitor for the treatment of hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei H; Gordon, Lori A; Fung, Horatio B

    2012-10-01

    Boceprevir is a protease inhibitor indicated for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection in combination with peginterferon and ribavirin for treatment-naive patients and those who previously failed to improve with interferon and ribavirin treatment. This article provides an overview of the mechanism of action, pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties, clinical efficacy, and tolerability of boceprevir. Relevant information was identified through a search of PubMed (1990-July 2012), EMBASE (1990-July 2012), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-July 2012), and Google Scholar using the key words boceprevir, SCH 503034, non-structural protein 3 (NS3) serine protease inhibitor, and direct-acting antiviral agent (DAA). Additional information was obtained from the US Food and Drug Administration's Web site, review of the reference lists of identified articles, and posters and abstracts from scientific meetings. Clinical efficacy of boceprevir was assessed in 2 Phase III trials, Serine Protease Inhibitor Therapy-2 (SPRINT-2) for treatment-naive patients and Retreatment with HCV Serine Protease Inhibitor Boceprevir and PegIntron/Rebetol 2 (RESPOND-2) for treatment-experienced patients. In SPRINT-2, patients were randomized to receive peginterferon + ribavirin (PR) or peginterferon + ribavirin + boceprevir (PRB); duration of boceprevir therapy varied from 24, 32, to 44 weeks on the basis of HCV RNA results. The primary endpoint was achievement of sustained virologic response (SVR; lower limit of detection, 9.3 IU/mL). The addition of boceprevir was shown to be superior, with overall SVR rates ranging from 63% to 66% compared with 38% with PR (P < 0.001). Results of SVR in SPRINT-2 were also reorganized to monitor SVRs in black and non-black patients. Treatment-experienced patients were assessed in RESPOND-2; however, null responders were excluded. Patients were again randomized to PR or PRB; duration of boceprevir therapy varied from

  17. Structures of a bi-functional Kunitz-type STI family inhibitor of serine and aspartic proteases: Could the aspartic protease inhibition have evolved from a canonical serine protease-binding loop?

    PubMed

    Guerra, Yasel; Valiente, Pedro A; Pons, Tirso; Berry, Colin; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique

    2016-08-01

    Bi-functional inhibitors from the Kunitz-type soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI) family are glycosylated proteins able to inhibit serine and aspartic proteases. Here we report six crystal structures of the wild-type and a non-glycosylated mutant of the bifunctional inhibitor E3Ad obtained at different pH values and space groups. The crystal structures show that E3Ad adopts the typical β-trefoil fold of the STI family exhibiting some conformational changes due to pH variations and crystal packing. Despite the high sequence identity with a recently reported potato cathepsin D inhibitor (PDI), three-dimensional structures obtained in this work show a significant conformational change in the protease-binding loop proposed for aspartic protease inhibition. The E3Ad binding loop for serine protease inhibition is also proposed, based on structural similarity with a novel non-canonical conformation described for the double-headed inhibitor API-A from the Kunitz-type STI family. In addition, structural and sequence analyses suggest that bifunctional inhibitors of serine and aspartic proteases from the Kunitz-type STI family are more similar to double-headed inhibitor API-A than other inhibitors with a canonical protease-binding loop. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. HIV-1 protease inhibitor mutations affect the development of HIV-1 resistance to the maturation inhibitor bevirimat.

    PubMed

    Fun, Axel; van Maarseveen, Noortje M; Pokorná, Jana; Maas, Renée Em; Schipper, Pauline J; Konvalinka, Jan; Nijhuis, Monique

    2011-08-24

    Maturation inhibitors are an experimental class of antiretrovirals that inhibit Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) particle maturation, the structural rearrangement required to form infectious virus particles. This rearrangement is triggered by the ordered cleavage of the precursor Gag polyproteins into their functional counterparts by the viral enzyme protease. In contrast to protease inhibitors, maturation inhibitors impede particle maturation by targeting the substrate of protease (Gag) instead of the protease enzyme itself. Direct cross-resistance between protease and maturation inhibitors may seem unlikely, but the co-evolution of protease and its substrate, Gag, during protease inhibitor therapy, could potentially affect future maturation inhibitor therapy. Previous studies showed that there might also be an effect of protease inhibitor resistance mutations on the development of maturation inhibitor resistance, but the exact mechanism remains unclear. We used wild-type and protease inhibitor resistant viruses to determine the impact of protease inhibitor resistance mutations on the development of maturation inhibitor resistance. Our resistance selection studies demonstrated that the resistance profiles for the maturation inhibitor bevirimat are more diverse for viruses with a mutated protease compared to viruses with a wild-type protease. Viral replication did not appear to be a major factor during emergence of bevirimat resistance. In all in vitro selections, one of four mutations was selected: Gag V362I, A364V, S368N or V370A. The impact of these mutations on maturation inhibitor resistance and viral replication was analyzed in different protease backgrounds. The data suggest that the protease background affects development of HIV-1 resistance to bevirimat and the replication profiles of bevirimat-selected HIV-1. The protease-dependent bevirimat resistance and replication levels can be explained by differences in CA/p2 cleavage processing by the different

  19. Prevalence, mutation patterns, and effects on protease inhibitor susceptibility of the L76V mutation in HIV-1 protease.

    PubMed

    Young, Thomas P; Parkin, Neil T; Stawiski, Eric; Pilot-Matias, Tami; Trinh, Roger; Kempf, Dale J; Norton, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Patterns of HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI) resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) and effects on PI susceptibility associated with the L76V mutation were studied in a large database. Of 20,501 sequences with ≥1 PI RAM, 3.2% contained L76V; L76V was alone in 0.04%. Common partner mutations included M46I, I54V, V82A, I84V, and L90M. L76V was associated with a 2- to 6-fold decrease in susceptibility to lopinavir, darunavir, amprenavir, and indinavir and a 7- to 8-fold increase in susceptibility to atazanavir and saquinavir.

  20. Enhanced Long-Term and Impaired Short-Term Spatial Memory in GluA1 AMPA Receptor Subunit Knockout Mice: Evidence for a Dual-Process Memory Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, David J.; Good, Mark A.; Skelton, Kathryn; Sprengel, Rolf; Seeburg, Peter H.; Rawlins, J. Nicholas P.; Bannerman, David M.

    2009-01-01

    The GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit is a key mediator of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and is especially important for a rapidly-induced, short-lasting form of potentiation. GluA1 gene deletion impairs hippocampus-dependent, spatial working memory, but spares hippocampus-dependent spatial reference memory. These findings may reflect the necessity of…

  1. Kunitz-type protease inhibitors group B from Solanum palustre.

    PubMed

    Speransky, Anna S; Cimaglia, Fabio; Krinitsina, Anastasya A; Poltronieri, Palmiro; Fasano, Pasqua; Bogacheva, Anna M; Valueva, Tatiana A; Halterman, Dennis; Shevelev, Alexei B; Santino, Angelo

    2007-11-01

    Five Kunitz protease inhibitor group B genes were isolated from the genome of the diploid non-tuber-forming potato species Solanum palustre. Three of five new genes share 99% identity to the published KPI-B genes from various cultivated potato accessions, while others exhibit 96% identity. Spls-KPI-B2 and Spls-KPI-B4 proteins contain unique substitutions of the most conserved residues usually involved to trypsin and chymotrypsin-specific binding sites of Kunitz-type protease inhibitor (KPI)-B, respectively. To test the inhibition of trypsin and chymotrypsin by Spls-KPI proteins, five of them were produced in E. coli purified using a Ni-sepharose resin and ion-exchange chromatography. All recombinant Spls-KPI-B inhibited trypsin; K(i) values ranged from 84.8 (Spls-KPI-B4), 345.5 (Spls-KPI-B1), and 1310.6 nM (Spls-KPI-B2) to 3883.5 (Spls-KPI-B5) and 8370 nM (Spls-KPI-B3). In addition, Spls-KPI-B1 and Spls-KPI-B4 inhibited chymotrypsin. These data suggest that regardless of substitutions of key active-center residues both Spls-KPI-B4 and Spls-KPI-B1 are functional trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitors.

  2. Heterogeneity of heat-resistant proteases from milk Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Sophie; Vandriesche, Gonzalez; Coorevits, An; Coudijzer, Katleen; De Jonghe, Valerie; Dewettinck, Koen; De Vos, Paul; Devreese, Bart; Heyndrickx, Marc; De Block, Jan

    2009-07-31

    Pseudomonas fragi, Pseudomonas lundensis and members of the Pseudomonas fluorescens group may spoil Ultra High Temperature (UHT) treated milk and dairy products, due to the production of heat-stable proteases in the cold chain of raw milk. Since the aprX gene codes for a heat-resistant protease in P. fluorescens, the presence of this gene has also been investigated in other members of the genus. For this purpose an aprX-screening PCR test has been developed. Twenty-nine representatives of important milk Pseudomonas species and thirty-five reference strains were screened. In 42 out of 55 investigated Pseudomonas strains, the aprX gene was detected, which proves the potential of the aprX-PCR test as a screening tool for potentially proteolytic Pseudomonas strains in milk samples. An extensive study of the obtained aprX-sequences on the DNA and the amino acid level, however, revealed a large heterogeneity within the investigated milk isolates. Although this heterogeneity sets limitations to a general detection method for all proteolytic Pseudomonas strains in milk, it offers a great potential for the development of a multiplex PCR screening test targeting individual aprX-genes. Furthermore, our data illustrated the potential use of the aprX gene as a taxonomic marker, which may help in resolving the current taxonomic deadlock in the P. fluorescens group.

  3. Multiple roles of the coagulation protease cascade during virus infection.

    PubMed

    Antoniak, Silvio; Mackman, Nigel

    2014-04-24

    The coagulation cascade is activated during viral infections. This response may be part of the host defense system to limit spread of the pathogen. However, excessive activation of the coagulation cascade can be deleterious. In fact, inhibition of the tissue factor/factor VIIa complex reduced mortality in a monkey model of Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Other studies showed that incorporation of tissue factor into the envelope of herpes simplex virus increases infection of endothelial cells and mice. Furthermore, binding of factor X to adenovirus serotype 5 enhances infection of hepatocytes but also increases the activation of the innate immune response to the virus. Coagulation proteases activate protease-activated receptors (PARs). Interestingly, we and others found that PAR1 and PAR2 modulate the immune response to viral infection. For instance, PAR1 positively regulates TLR3-dependent expression of the antiviral protein interferon β, whereas PAR2 negatively regulates expression during coxsackievirus group B infection. These studies indicate that the coagulation cascade plays multiple roles during viral infections.

  4. Targeting of a chlamydial protease impedes intracellular bacterial growth.

    PubMed

    Christian, Jan G; Heymann, Julia; Paschen, Stefan A; Vier, Juliane; Schauenburg, Linda; Rupp, Jan; Meyer, Thomas F; Häcker, Georg; Heuer, Dagmar

    2011-09-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that propagate in a cytosolic vacuole. Recent work has shown that growth of Chlamydia induces the fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus (GA) into ministacks, which facilitates the acquisition of host lipids into the growing inclusion. GA fragmentation results from infection-associated cleavage of the integral GA protein, golgin-84. Golgin-84-cleavage, GA fragmentation and growth of Chlamydia trachomatis can be blocked by the peptide inhibitor WEHD-fmk. Here we identify the bacterial protease chlamydial protease-like activity factor (CPAF) as the factor mediating cleavage of golgin-84 and as the target of WEHD-fmk-inhibition. WEHD-fmk blocked cleavage of golgin-84 as well as cleavage of known CPAF targets during infection with C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae. The same effect was seen when active CPAF was expressed in non-infected cells and in a cell-free system. Ectopic expression of active CPAF in non-infected cells was sufficient for GA fragmentation. GA fragmentation required the small GTPases Rab6 and Rab11 downstream of CPAF-activity. These results define CPAF as the first protein that is essential for replication of Chlamydia. We suggest that this role makes CPAF a potential anti-infective therapeutic target.

  5. Protease activation in glycerol-based deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hua; Baker, Gary A; Holmes, Shaletha

    2011-11-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) consisting of mixtures of a choline salt (chloride or acetate form) and glycerol are prepared as easily accessible, biodegradable, and inexpensive alternatives to conventional aprotic cation-anion paired ionic liquids. These DES systems display excellent fluidity coupled with thermal stability to nearly 200 °C. In this work, the transesterification activities of cross-linked proteases (subtilisin and α-chymotrypsin), immobilized on chitosan, were individually examined in these novel DESs. In the 1:2 molar ratio mixture of choline chloride/glycerol containing 3% (v/v) water, cross-linked subtilisin exhibited an excellent activity (2.9 μmo l min(-1) g(-1)) in conjunction with a selectivity of 98% in the transesterification reaction of N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester with 1-propanol. These highly encouraging results advocate more extensive exploration of DESs in protease-mediated biotransformations of additional polar substrates and use of DESs in biocatalysis more generally.

  6. Factor V activation and inactivation by venom proteases.

    PubMed

    Rosing, J; Govers-Riemslag, J W; Yukelson, L; Tans, G

    2001-01-01

    Blood coagulation factor V is a single-chain glycoprotein with M(r) = 330,000 which plays an important role in the procoagulant and anticoagulant pathways. Thrombin activates factor V into factor Va, a two-chain molecule which is composed of a heavy (M(r) = 105,000) and a light chain (M(r) = 71,000/74,000). Factor Va accelerates factor Xa-catalysed prothrombin activation more than 1,000-fold and under physiological conditions the cofactor activity of factor Va in prothrombin activation is down-regulated by activated protein C. Factor V can also be activated by a wide variety of snake venoms (e.g. from Vipera species, Naja naja oxiana, Bothrops atrox) and by proteases present in the bristles of a South American caterpillar (Lonomia achelous). Some venoms, notably of Vipera lebetina turanica and Lonomia achelous, contain proteases that are able to inactivate factor V or factor Va. Venom factor V activators are excellent tools in studying the structure-function relationship of factor V(a) and they are also used in diagnostic tests for quantification of plasma factor V levels and for the screening of defects in the protein C pathway. In this review, the structural and functional properties of animal venom factor V activators and inactivators is described. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Protease-Resistant Peptide Ligands from a Knottin Scaffold Library

    PubMed Central

    Getz, Jennifer A.; Rice, Jeffrey J.; Daugherty, Patrick S.

    2011-01-01

    Peptides within the knottin family have been shown to possess inherent stability, making them attractive scaffolds for the development of therapeutic and diagnostic agents. Given its remarkable stability to proteases, the cyclic peptide kalata B1 was employed as a scaffold to create a large knottin library displayed on the surface of E. coli. A library exceeding 109 variants was constructed by randomizing seven amino acids within a loop of the kalata B1 scaffold and screened using fluorescence-activated cell sorting to identify peptide ligands specific for the active site of human thrombin. Refolded thrombin binders exhibited high nanomolar affinities in solution, slow dissociation rates, and were able to inhibit thrombin’s enzymatic activity. Importantly, 80% of a knottin-based thrombin inhibitor remained intact after a two hour incubation both with trypsin and with chymotrypsin, demonstrating that modifying the kalata B1 sequence did not compromise its stability properties. In addition, the knottin variant mediated 20-fold enhanced affinity for thrombin, when compared to the same seven residue binding epitope constrained by a single disulfide bond. Our results indicate that peptide libraries derived from the kalata B1 scaffold can yield high affinity protein ligands that retain the remarkable protease resistance associated with the parent scaffold. More generally, this strategy may prove useful in the development of stable peptide ligands suitable for in vivo applications. PMID:21615106

  8. The multiple functions of plant serine protease inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Ashok P; Kaur, Harleen; Baldwin, Ian T

    2011-01-01

    Plant protease inhibitors (PIs) are a diverse group of proteins which have been intensely investigated due to their potential function in protecting plants against herbivorous insects by inhibiting digestive proteases. Although this mechanism has been well documented for a number of single PIs and their target enzymes, whether this mechanism protects plants in nature remains unclear. Moreover, many plants express a number of different PIs and it was unknown if these proteins work synergistically as defenses or if they also have other functions. We recently identified four serine PIs (SPI) of Solanum nigrum and demonstrated that they differ substantially in substrate specificity, accumulation patterns, and their effect against different natural herbivorous insects in field- and glasshouse experiments. These differences suggest that SPIs have at least partially diversified to provide protection against different attackers. Although we could not detect effects on plant development or growth when silencing SPIs, gene- and tissue-specific expression patterns suggest multiple functions in generative tissues, including a possible involvement in development. PMID:22004998

  9. Moringa oleifera Lam.: Protease activity against blood coagulation cascade

    PubMed Central

    Satish, A; Sairam, Sudha; Ahmed, Faiyaz; Urooj, Asna

    2012-01-01

    Background: The present study evaluated the protease activity of aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) leaf (MOL) and root (MOR). Materials and Methods: Protease activity was assayed using casein, human plasma clot and human fibrinogen as substrates. Results: Caseinolytic activity of MOL was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than that of MOR. Similar observations were found in case of human plasma clot hydrolyzing activity, wherein MOL caused significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) plasma clot hydrolysis than MOR. Zymographic techniques were used to detect proteolytic enzymes following electrophoretic separation in gels. Further, both the extracts exhibited significant procoagulant activity as reflected by a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in recalcification time, accompanied by fibrinogenolytic and fibrinolytic activities; clotting time was decreased from 180 ± 10 sec to 119 ± 8 sec and 143 ± 10 sec by MOL and MOR, respectively, at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL. Fibrinogenolytic (human fibrinogen) and fibrinolytic activity (human plasma clot) was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), plate method and colorimetric method. Zymographic profile indicated that both the extracts exerted their procoagulant activity by selectively hydrolyzing Aα and Bβ subunits of fibrinogen to form fibrin clot, thereby exhibiting fibrinogenolytic activity. However, prolonged incubation resulted in degradation of the formed fibrin clot, suggesting fibrinolytic like activity. Conclusions: These findings support the traditional usage of M. oleifera extracts for wound healing. PMID:22224061

  10. Moringa oleifera Lam.: Protease activity against blood coagulation cascade.

    PubMed

    Satish, A; Sairam, Sudha; Ahmed, Faiyaz; Urooj, Asna

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated the protease activity of aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) leaf (MOL) and root (MOR). Protease activity was assayed using casein, human plasma clot and human fibrinogen as substrates. Caseinolytic activity of MOL was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than that of MOR. Similar observations were found in case of human plasma clot hydrolyzing activity, wherein MOL caused significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) plasma clot hydrolysis than MOR. Zymographic techniques were used to detect proteolytic enzymes following electrophoretic separation in gels. Further, both the extracts exhibited significant procoagulant activity as reflected by a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in recalcification time, accompanied by fibrinogenolytic and fibrinolytic activities; clotting time was decreased from 180 ± 10 sec to 119 ± 8 sec and 143 ± 10 sec by MOL and MOR, respectively, at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL. Fibrinogenolytic (human fibrinogen) and fibrinolytic activity (human plasma clot) was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), plate method and colorimetric method. Zymographic profile indicated that both the extracts exerted their procoagulant activity by selectively hydrolyzing Aα and Bβ subunits of fibrinogen to form fibrin clot, thereby exhibiting fibrinogenolytic activity. However, prolonged incubation resulted in degradation of the formed fibrin clot, suggesting fibrinolytic like activity. These findings support the traditional usage of M. oleifera extracts for wound healing.

  11. MOFzyme: Intrinsic protease-like activity of Cu-MOF.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Chen, Daomei; Wang, Jiaqiang; Yan, Zhiying; Jiang, Liang; Deliang Duan; He, Jiao; Luo, Zhongrui; Zhang, Jinping; Yuan, Fagui

    2014-10-24

    The construction of efficient enzyme mimetics for the hydrolysis of peptide bonds in proteins is challenging due to the high stability of peptide bonds and the importance of proteases in biology and industry. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) consisting of infinite crystalline lattices with metal clusters and organic linkers may provide opportunities for protease mimic which has remained unknown. Herein, we report that Cu₂(C₉H₃O₆)₄/₃ MOF (which is well known as HKUST-1 and denoted as Cu-MOF here), possesses an intrinsic enzyme mimicking activity similar to that found in natural trypsin to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and casein. The Michaelis constant (Km) of Cu-MOF is about 26,000-fold smaller than that of free trypsin indicating a much higher affinity of BSA for Cu-MOF surface. Cu-MOF also exhibited significantly higher catalytic efficiency than homogeneous artificial metalloprotease Cu(II) complexes and could be reused for ten times without losing in its activity. Moreover, Cu-MOF was successfully used to simulate trypsinization in cell culture since it dissociated cells in culture even without EDTA.

  12. MOFzyme: Intrinsic protease-like activity of Cu-MOF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Chen, Daomei; Wang, Jiaqiang; Yan, Zhiying; Jiang, Liang; Deliang Duan; He, Jiao; Luo, Zhongrui; Zhang, Jinping; Yuan, Fagui

    2014-10-01

    The construction of efficient enzyme mimetics for the hydrolysis of peptide bonds in proteins is challenging due to the high stability of peptide bonds and the importance of proteases in biology and industry. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) consisting of infinite crystalline lattices with metal clusters and organic linkers may provide opportunities for protease mimic which has remained unknown. Herein, we report that Cu2(C9H3O6)4/3 MOF (which is well known as HKUST-1 and denoted as Cu-MOF here), possesses an intrinsic enzyme mimicking activity similar to that found in natural trypsin to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and casein. The Michaelis constant (Km) of Cu-MOF is about 26,000-fold smaller than that of free trypsin indicating a much higher affinity of BSA for Cu-MOF surface. Cu-MOF also exhibited significantly higher catalytic efficiency than homogeneous artificial metalloprotease Cu(II) complexes and could be reused for ten times without losing in its activity. Moreover, Cu-MOF was successfully used to simulate trypsinization in cell culture since it dissociated cells in culture even without EDTA.

  13. MOFzyme: Intrinsic protease-like activity of Cu-MOF

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Chen, Daomei; Wang, Jiaqiang; Yan, Zhiying; Jiang, Liang; Deliang Duan; He, Jiao; Luo, Zhongrui; Zhang, Jinping; Yuan, Fagui

    2014-01-01

    The construction of efficient enzyme mimetics for the hydrolysis of peptide bonds in proteins is challenging due to the high stability of peptide bonds and the importance of proteases in biology and industry. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) consisting of infinite crystalline lattices with metal clusters and organic linkers may provide opportunities for protease mimic which has remained unknown. Herein, we report that Cu2(C9H3O6)4/3 MOF (which is well known as HKUST-1 and denoted as Cu-MOF here), possesses an intrinsic enzyme mimicking activity similar to that found in natural trypsin to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and casein. The Michaelis constant (Km) of Cu-MOF is about 26,000-fold smaller than that of free trypsin indicating a much higher affinity of BSA for Cu-MOF surface. Cu-MOF also exhibited significantly higher catalytic efficiency than homogeneous artificial metalloprotease Cu(II) complexes and could be reused for ten times without losing in its activity. Moreover, Cu-MOF was successfully used to simulate trypsinization in cell culture since it dissociated cells in culture even without EDTA. PMID:25342169

  14. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of avian infectious bronchitis virus main protease

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jun; Shen, Wei; Liao, Ming, E-mail: mliao@scau.edu.cn

    The avian infectious bronchitis virus main protease has been crystallized; crystals diffract to 2.7 Å resolution. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the prototype of the genus Coronavirus. It causes a highly contagious disease which affects the respiratory, reproductive, neurological and renal systems of chickens, resulting great economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. The coronavirus (CoV) main protease (M{sup pro}), which plays a pivotal role in viral gene expression and replication through a highly complex cascade involving the proteolytic processing of replicase polyproteins, is an attractive target for antiviral drug design. In this study, IBV M{sup pro} was overexpressed inmore » Escherichia coli. Crystals suitable for X-ray crystallography have been obtained using microseeding techniques and belong to space group P6{sub 1}22. X-ray diffraction data were collected in-house to 2.7 Å resolution from a single crystal. The unit-cell parameters were a = b = 119.1, c = 270.7 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. Three molecules were predicted to be present in the asymmetric unit from a calculated self-rotation function.« less

  15. Recent patents on microbial proteases for the dairy industry.

    PubMed

    Feijoo-Siota, Lucía; Blasco, Lucía; Rodríguez-Rama, José Luis; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge; Miguel, Trinidad de; Sánchez-Pérez, Angeles; Villa, Tomás G

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the general characteristics of exo and endopeptidases of microbial origin currently used in the milk industry. It also includes recent patents developed either to potentiate the enzymatic activity or to improve the resulting milk derivatives. The main application of these proteases is in the cheese-making industry. Although this industry preferentially uses animal rennets, and in particular genetically engineered chymosins, it also utilizes milk coagulants of microbial origin. Enzymes derived from Rhizomucor miehei, Rhizomucor pusillus and Cryphonectria parasitica are currently used to replace the conventional milk-clotting enzymes. In addition, the dairy industry uses microbial endo and exoproteases for relatively new applications, such as debittering and flavor generation in cheese, accelerated cheese ripening, manufacture of protein hydrolysates with improved functional properties, and production of enzyme-modified cheeses. Lactic acid bacteria play an essential role in these processes, hence these bacteria and the proteases they produce are currently being investigated by the dairy industry and are the subject of many of their patent applications.

  16. Antimalarial activity of HIV-1 protease inhibitor in chromone series.

    PubMed

    Lerdsirisuk, Pradith; Maicheen, Chirattikan; Ungwitayatorn, Jiraporn

    2014-12-01

    Increasing parasite resistance to nearly all available antimalarial drugs becomes a serious problem to human health and necessitates the need to continue the search for new effective drugs. Recent studies have shown that clinically utilized HIV-1 protease (HIV-1 PR) inhibitors can inhibit the in vitro and in vivo growth of Plasmodium falciparum. In this study, a series of chromone derivatives possessing HIV-1 PR inhibitory activity has been tested for antimalarial activity against P. falciparum (K1 multi-drug resistant strain). Chromone 15, the potent HIV-1 PR inhibitor (IC50=0.65μM), was found to be the most potent antimalarial compound with IC50=0.95μM while primaquine and tafenoquine showed IC50=2.41 and 1.95μM, respectively. Molecular docking study of chromone compounds against plasmepsin II, an aspartic protease enzyme important in hemoglobin degradation, revealed that chromone 15 exhibited the higher binding affinity (binding energy=-13.24kcal/mol) than the known PM II inhibitors. Thus, HIV-1 PR inhibitor in chromone series has the potential to be a new class of antimalarial agent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Purification and characterization of Bacillus cereus protease suitable for detergent industry.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Monika; Banik, Rathindra Mohan; Koch-Brandt, Claudia

    2005-12-01

    An extracellular alkaline protease from an alkalophilic bacterium, Bacillus cereus, was produced in a large amount by the method of extractive fermentation. The protease is thermostable, pH tolerant, and compatible with commercial laundry detergents. The protease purified and characterized in this study was found to be superior to endogenous protease already present in commercial laundry detergents. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, concentration by ultrafiltration, anion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration. The purified enzyme had a specific activity of 3256.05 U/mg and was found to be a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 28 and 31 kDa, as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and nondenaturing PAGE, respectively. Its maximum protease activity against casein was found to be at pH 10.5 and 50 degrees C. Proteolytic activity of the enzyme was detected by casein and gelatin zymography, which gave a very clear protease activity zone on gel that corresponded to the band obtained on SDS-PAGE and nondenaturing PAGE with a molecular mass of nearly 31 kDa. The purified enzyme was analyzed through matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and identified as a subtilisin class of protease. Specific serine protease inhibitors, suggesting the presence of serine residues at the active site, inhibited the enzyme significantly.

  18. Design and Synthesis of Piperazine Sulfonamide Cores Leading to Highly Potent HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bungard, Christopher J; Williams, Peter D; Schulz, Jurgen; Wiscount, Catherine M; Holloway, M Katharine; Loughran, H Marie; Manikowski, Jesse J; Su, Hua-Poo; Bennett, David J; Chang, Lehua; Chu, Xin-Jie; Crespo, Alejandro; Dwyer, Michael P; Keertikar, Kartik; Morriello, Gregori J; Stamford, Andrew W; Waddell, Sherman T; Zhong, Bin; Hu, Bin; Ji, Tao; Diamond, Tracy L; Bahnck-Teets, Carolyn; Carroll, Steven S; Fay, John F; Min, Xu; Morris, William; Ballard, Jeanine E; Miller, Michael D; McCauley, John A

    2017-12-14

    Using the HIV-1 protease binding mode of MK-8718 and PL-100 as inspiration, a novel aspartate binding bicyclic piperazine sulfonamide core was designed and synthesized. The resulting HIV-1 protease inhibitor containing this core showed an 60-fold increase in enzyme binding affinity and a 10-fold increase in antiviral activity relative to MK-8718 .

  19. Activity-based mass spectrometric characterization of proteases and inhibitors in human saliva

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiuli; Salih, Erdjan; Oppenheim, Frank G.; Helmerhorst, Eva J.

    2009-01-01

    Proteases present in oral fluid effectively modulate the structure and function of some salivary proteins and have been implicated in tissue destruction in oral disease. To identify the proteases operating in the oral environment, proteins in pooled whole saliva supernatant were separated by anion-exchange chromatography and individual fractions were analyzed for proteolytic activity by zymography using salivary histatins as the enzyme substrates. Protein bands displaying proteolytic activity were particularly prominent in the 50–75 kDa region. Individual bands were excised, in-gel trypsinized and subjected to LC/ESI-MS/MS. The data obtained were searched against human, oral microbial and protease databases. A total of 13 proteases were identified all of which were of mammalian origin. Proteases detected in multiple fractions with cleavage specificities toward arginine and lysine residues, were lactotransferrin, kallikrein-1, and human airway trypsin-like protease. Unexpectedly, ten protease inhibitors were co-identified suggesting they were associated with the proteases in the same fractions. The inhibitors found most frequently were alpha-2-macroglobulin-like protein 1, alpha-1-antitrypsin, and leukocyte elastase inhibitor. Regulation of oral fluid proteolysis is highly important given that an inbalance in such activities has been correlated to a variety of pathological conditions including oral cancer. PMID:20011683

  20. The higher barrier of darunavir and tipranavir resistance for HIV-1 protease

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yong; Liu, Zhigang; Brunzelle, Joseph S.

    2011-11-17

    Darunavir and tipranavir are two inhibitors that are active against multi-drug resistant (MDR) HIV-1 protease variants. In this study, the invitro inhibitory efficacy was tested against a MDR HIV-1 protease variant, MDR 769 82T, containing the drug resistance mutations of 46L/54V/82T/84V/90M. Crystallographic and enzymatic studies were performed to examine the mechanism of resistance and the relative maintenance of potency. The key findings are as follows: (i) The MDR protease exhibits decreased susceptibility to all nine HIV-1 protease inhibitors approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), among which darunavir and tipranavir are the most potent; (ii) the threonine 82more » mutation on the protease greatly enhances drug resistance by altering the hydrophobicity of the binding pocket; (iii) darunavir or tipranavir binding facilitates closure of the wide-open flaps of the MDR protease; and (iv) the remaining potency of tipranavir may be preserved by stabilizing the flaps in the inhibitor-protease complex while darunavir maintains its potency by preserving protein main chain hydrogen bonds with the flexible P2 group. These results could provide new insights into drug design strategies to overcome multi-drug resistance of HIV-1 protease variants.« less

  1. Identification of inhibitors using a cell-based assay for monitoring Golgi-resident protease activity.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Julia M; Hamilton, Christin A; Bhojani, Mahaveer S; Larsen, Martha J; Ross, Brian D; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz

    2007-05-01

    Noninvasive real-time quantification of cellular protease activity allows monitoring of enzymatic activity and identification of activity modulators within the protease's natural milieu. We developed a protease activity assay based on differential localization of a recombinant reporter consisting of a Golgi retention signal and a protease cleavage sequence fused to alkaline phosphatase (AP). When expressed in mammalian cells, this protein localizes to Golgi bodies and, on protease-mediated cleavage, AP translocates to the extracellular medium where its activity is measured. We used this system to monitor the Golgi-associated protease furin, a pluripotent enzyme with a key role in tumorigenesis, viral propagation of avian influenza, ebola, and HIV as well as in activation of anthrax, pseudomonas, and diphtheria toxins. This technology was adapted for high-throughput screening of 39,000-compound small molecule libraries, leading to identification of furin inhibitors. Furthermore, this strategy was used to identify inhibitors of another Golgi protease, the beta-site amyloid precursor protein (APP)-cleaving enzyme (BACE). BACE cleavage of the APP leads to formation of the Abeta peptide, a key event that leads to Alzheimer's disease. In conclusion, we describe a customizable noninvasive technology for real-time assessment of Golgi protease activity used to identify inhibitors of furin and BACE.

  2. Mast cells limit extracellular levels of IL-13 via a serglycin proteoglycan-serine protease axis.

    PubMed

    Waern, Ida; Karlsson, Iulia; Thorpe, Michael; Schlenner, Susan M; Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Åbrink, Magnus; Hellman, Lars; Pejler, Gunnar; Wernersson, Sara

    2012-12-01

    Mast cell (MC) granules contain large amounts of proteases of the chymase, tryptase and carboxypeptidase A (MC-CPA) type that are stored in complex with serglycin,a proteoglycan with heparin side chains. Hence, serglycinprotease complexes are released upon MC degranulation and may influence local inflammation. Here we explored the possibility that a serglycin-protease axis may regulate levels of IL-13, a cytokine involved in allergic asthma. Indeed, we found that wild-type MCs efficiently degraded exogenous or endogenously produced IL-13 upon degranulation,whereas serglycin −/− MCs completely lacked this ability.Moreover, MC-mediated IL-13 degradation was blocked both by a serine protease inhibitor and by a heparin antagonist,which suggests that IL-13 degradation is catalyzed by serglycin-dependent serine proteases and that optimal IL-13 degradation is dependent on both the serglycin and the protease component of the serglycin-protease complex.Moreover, IL-13 degradation was abrogated in MC-CPA −/−MC cultures, but was normal in cultures of MCs with an inactivating mutation of MC-CPA, which suggests that the IL-13-degrading serine proteases rely on MC-CPA protein.Together, our data implicate a serglycin-serine protease axis in the regulation of extracellular levels of IL-13. Reduction of IL-13 levels through this mechanism possibly can provide a protective function in the context of allergic inflammation.

  3. The Effect of the Protease Inhibitor Ritonavir on the Rate of Metabolism of Midazolam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-03

    regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington... depression in the clinical setting. Key Words: midazolam protease inhibitor ritonavir HIV AIDS metabolism THE EFFECT OF THE PROTEASE INHIBITORS...system as a depressant and is prescribed for preoperative sedation and amnesia of preoperative events (Omoigui, 1995). It is also used for

  4. Discovery of MK-8718, an HIV Protease Inhibitor Containing a Novel Morpholine Aspartate Binding Group

    SciTech Connect

    Bungard, Christopher J.; Williams, Peter D.; Ballard, Jeanine E.

    A novel HIV protease inhibitor was designed using a morpholine core as the aspartate binding group. Analysis of the crystal structure of the initial lead bound to HIV protease enabled optimization of enzyme potency and antiviral activity. This afforded a series of potent orally bioavailable inhibitors of which MK-8718 was identified as a compound with a favorable overall profile.

  5. Differential Response of Extracellular Proteases of Trichoderma Harzianum Against Fungal Phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vivek; Salwan, Richa; Sharma, Prem N

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, production of extracellular proteases by Trichoderma harzianum was evaluated based on the relative gene expression and spectrophotometric assay. The fungal isolates were grown in Czapek Dox Broth medium supplemented with deactivated mycelium of plant fungal pathogens such as Fusarium oxysporum, Colletotrichum capsici, Gloeocercospora sorghi, and Colletotrichum truncatum. The maximum protease activity was detected after 48 h of incubation against Colletotrichum spp. Similarly in qRT-PCR, the relative gene expression of four proteases varied from 48 to 96 h against host pathogens in a time-independent manner. Among proteases, statistically significant upregulation of asp, asp, and srp was observed against Colletotrichum spp., followed by F. oxysporum. But in the case of pepM22, maximum upregulation was observed against F. oxysporum. The variation in enzyme assay and qRT-PCR of proteases at different time intervals against various fungal phytopathogens could be due to the limitation of using casein as a substrate for all types of proteases or protease-encoding transcripts selected for qRT-PCR, which may not be true representative of total protease activity.

  6. Development of a protease activity assay using heat-sensitive Tus-GFP fusion protein substrates.

    PubMed

    Askin, Samuel P; Morin, Isabelle; Schaeffer, Patrick M

    2011-08-15

    Proteases are implicated in various diseases and several have been identified as potential drug targets or biomarkers. As a result, protease activity assays that can be performed in high throughput are essential for the screening of inhibitors in drug discovery programs. Here we describe the development of a simple, general method for the characterization of protease activity and its use for inhibitor screening. GFP was genetically fused to a comparatively unstable Tus protein through an interdomain linker containing a specially designed protease site, which can be proteolyzed. When this Tus-GFP fusion protein substrate is proteolyzed it releases GFP, which remains in solution after a short heat denaturation and centrifugation step used to eliminate uncleaved Tus-GFP. Thus, the increase in GFP fluorescence is directly proportional to protease activity. We validated the protease activity assay with three different proteases, i.e., trypsin, caspase 3, and neutrophil elastase, and demonstrated that it can be used to determine protease activity and the effect of inhibitors with small sample volumes in just a few simple steps using a fluorescence plate reader. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A computational module assembled from different protease family motifs identifies PI PLC from Bacillus cereus as a putative prolyl peptidase with a serine protease scaffold.

    PubMed

    Rendón-Ramírez, Adela; Shukla, Manish; Oda, Masataka; Chakraborty, Sandeep; Minda, Renu; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Ásgeirsson, Bjarni; Goñi, Félix M; Rao, Basuthkar J

    2013-01-01

    Proteolytic enzymes have evolved several mechanisms to cleave peptide bonds. These distinct types have been systematically categorized in the MEROPS database. While a BLAST search on these proteases identifies homologous proteins, sequence alignment methods often fail to identify relationships arising from convergent evolution, exon shuffling, and modular reuse of catalytic units. We have previously established a computational method to detect functions in proteins based on the spatial and electrostatic properties of the catalytic residues (CLASP). CLASP identified a promiscuous serine protease scaffold in alkaline phosphatases (AP) and a scaffold recognizing a β-lactam (imipenem) in a cold-active Vibrio AP. Subsequently, we defined a methodology to quantify promiscuous activities in a wide range of proteins. Here, we assemble a module which encapsulates the multifarious motifs used by protease families listed in the MEROPS database. Since APs and proteases are an integral component of outer membrane vesicles (OMV), we sought to query other OMV proteins, like phospholipase C (PLC), using this search module. Our analysis indicated that phosphoinositide-specific PLC from Bacillus cereus is a serine protease. This was validated by protease assays, mass spectrometry and by inhibition of the native phospholipase activity of PI-PLC by the well-known serine protease inhibitor AEBSF (IC50 = 0.018 mM). Edman degradation analysis linked the specificity of the protease activity to a proline in the amino terminal, suggesting that the PI-PLC is a prolyl peptidase. Thus, we propose a computational method of extending protein families based on the spatial and electrostatic congruence of active site residues.

  8. Characterization of the Mamestra configurata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larval midgut protease complement and adaptation to feeding on artificial diet, Brassica species, and protease inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Erlandson, Martin A; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Baldwin, Douglas; Noakes, Amy; Toprak, Umut

    2010-10-01

    The midgut protease profiles from 5th instar Mamestra configurata larvae fed various diets (standard artificial diet, low protein diet, low protein diet with soybean trypsin inhibitor [SBTI], or Brassica napus) were characterized by one-dimensional enzymography in gelatin gels. The gut protease profile of larvae fed B. napus possessed protease activities of molecular masses of approximately 33 and 55 kDa, which were not present in the guts of larvae fed artificial diet. Similarly, larvae fed artificial diet had protease activities of molecular masses of approximately 21, 30, and 100 kDa that were absent in larvae fed B. napus. Protease profiles changed within 12 to 24 h after switching larvae from artificial diet to plant diet and vice versa. The gut protease profiles from larvae fed various other brassicaceous species and lines having different secondary metabolite profiles did not differ despite significant differences in larval growth rates on the different host plants. Genes encoding putative digestive proteolytic enzymes, including four carboxypeptidases, five aminopeptidases, and 48 serine proteases, were identified in cDNA libraries from 4th instar M. configurata midgut tissue. Many of the protease-encoding genes were expressed at similar levels on all diets; however, three chymoptrypsin-like genes (McSP23, McSP27, and McSP37) were expressed at much higher levels on standard artificial diet and diet containing SBTI as was the trypsin-like gene McSP34. The expression of the trypsin-like gene McSP50 was highest on B. napus. The adaptation of M. configurata digestive biochemistry to different diets is discussed in the context of the flexibility of polyphagous insects to changing diet sources.

  9. Pharmacological Targeting of Protease-Activated Receptor 2 Affords Protection from Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cong; von der Thüsen, Jan; Daalhuisen, Joost; ten Brink, Marieke; Crestani, Bruno; van der Poll, Tom; Borensztajn, Keren; Spek, C Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most devastating diffuse fibrosing lung disease that remains refractory to therapy. Despite increasing evidence that protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) contributes to fibrosis, its importance in pulmonary fibrosis is under debate. We addressed whether PAR-2 deficiency persistently reduces bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis or merely delays disease progression and whether pharmacological PAR-2 inhibition limits experimental pulmonary fibrosis. Bleomycin was instilled intranasally into wild-type or PAR-2–deficient mice in the presence/absence of a specific PAR-2 antagonist (P2pal-18S). Pulmonary fibrosis was consistently reduced in PAR-2–deficient mice throughout the fibrotic phase, as evident from reduced Ashcroft scores (29%) and hydroxyproline levels (26%) at d 28. Moreover, P2pal-18S inhibited PAR-2–induced profibrotic responses in both murine and primary human pulmonary fibroblasts (p < 0.05). Once daily treatment with P2pal-18S reduced the severity and extent of fibrotic lesions in lungs of bleomycin-treated wild-type mice but did not further reduce fibrosis in PAR-2–deficient mice. Importantly, P2pal-18S treatment starting even 7 d after the onset of fibrosis limits pulmonary fibrosis as effectively as when treatment was started together with bleomycin instillation. Overall, PAR-2 contributes to the progression of pulmonary fibrosis, and targeting PAR-2 may be a promising therapeutic strategy for treating pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:26147947

  10. An efficient method to eliminate the protease activity contaminating commercial bovine pancreatic DNase I.

    PubMed

    Le, Tien; Lee, Hak Jin; Jin, Hyung Jong

    2015-08-15

    A method was developed to eliminate the proteases contaminating commercial DNase I, which can cause degradation of target protein during the purification process. Bio Basic DNase stock solution (in Tris-HCl buffer [pH 8.0] containing 5mM CaCl2) was first incubated at 50 °C to generate autolysis of proteases and zymogens, leading to a significant reduction in protease activity while preserving DNase activity. The residual protease activity was completely inhibited by further incubation with 2mM PMSF (phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride) or 2× S8830 inhibitor cocktail. This approach could be readily applicable to eliminate the protease activity in any DNase products or during the preparation of commercial DNase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The variable detergent sensitivity of proteases that are utilized for recombinant protein affinity tag removal

    PubMed Central

    Vergis, James M.; Wiener, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Recombinant proteins typically include one or more affinity tags to facilitate purification and/or detection. Expression constructs with affinity tags often include an engineered protease site for tag removal. Like other enzymes, the activities of proteases can be affected by buffer conditions. The buffers used for integral membrane proteins contain detergents, which are required to maintain protein solubility. We examined the detergent sensitivity of six commonly-used proteases (Enterokinase, Factor Xa, Human Rhinovirus 3C Protease, SUMOstar, Tobacco Etch Virus Protease, and Thrombin) by use of a panel of ninety-four individual detergents. Thrombin activity was insensitive to the entire panel of detergents, thus suggesting it as the optimal choice for use with membrane proteins. Enterokinase and Factor Xa were only affected by a small number of detergents, making them good choices as well. PMID:21539919

  12. Phenylalanine and Phenylglycine Analogues as Arginine Mimetics in Dengue Protease Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Weigel, Lena F; Nitsche, Christoph; Graf, Dominik; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Klein, Christian D

    2015-10-08

    Dengue virus is an increasingly global pathogen. One of the promising targets for antiviral drug discovery against dengue and related flaviviruses such as West Nile virus is the viral serine protease NS2B-NS3. We here report the synthesis and in vitro characterization of potent peptidic inhibitors of dengue virus protease that incorporate phenylalanine and phenylglycine derivatives as arginine-mimicking groups with modulated basicity. The most promising compounds were (4-amidino)-L-phenylalanine-containing inhibitors, which reached nanomolar affinities against dengue virus protease. The type and position of the substituents on the phenylglycine and phenylalanine side chains has a significant effect on the inhibitory activity against dengue virus protease and selectivity against other proteases. In addition, the non-natural, basic amino acids described here may have relevance for the development of other peptidic and peptidomimetic drugs such as inhibitors of the blood clotting cascade.

  13. Histochemical studies on protease formation in the cotyledons of germinating bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Yomo, H; Taylor, M P

    1973-03-01

    Protease formation in Phaseolus vulgaris L. cotyledons during seed germination was studied histochemically using a gelatin-film-substrate method. Protease activity can be detected by this method on the 5th day of germination, at approximately the same time that a rapid increase of activity was observed by a test-tube assay with casein as a substrate. At the early stage of germination, protease activity was observed throughout the cotyledon except in two or three cell layers below the cotyledon surface and in several cell layers around the vascular bundles. A highly active cell layer surrounding the protease-inactive cells near the vascular bundles is suggested to be a source of the protease.

  14. Target-Based Screen Against a Periplasmic Serine Protease That Regulates Intrabacterial pH Homeostasis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) maintains its intrabacterial pH (pHIB) near neutrality in the acidic environment of phagosomes within activated macrophages. A previously reported genetic screen revealed that Mtb loses this ability when the mycobacterial acid resistance protease (marP) gene is disrupted. In the present study, a high throughput screen (HTS) of compounds against the protease domain of MarP identified benzoxazinones as inhibitors of MarP. A potent benzoxazinone, BO43 (6-chloro-2-(2′-methylphenyl)-4H-1,3-benzoxazin-4-one), acylated MarP and lowered Mtb’s pHIB and survival during incubation at pH 4.5. BO43 had similar effects on MarP-deficient Mtb, suggesting the existence of additional target(s). Reaction of an alkynyl-benzoxazinone, BO43T, with Mycobacterium bovis variant bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) followed by click chemistry with azido-biotin identified both the MarP homologue and the high temperature requirement A1 (HtrA1) homologue, an essential protein. Thus, the chemical probe identified through a target-based screen not only reacted with its intended target in the intact cells but also implicated an additional enzyme that had eluded a genetic screen biased against essential genes. PMID:25457457

  15. Uncoupling of Protease trans-Cleavage and Helicase Activities in Pestivirus NS3

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fengwei; Lu, Guoliang; Li, Ling

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The nonstructural protein NS3 from the Flaviviridae family is a multifunctional protein that contains an N-terminal protease and a C-terminal helicase, playing essential roles in viral polyprotein processing and genome replication. Here we report a full-length crystal structure of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV) NS3 in complex with its NS4A protease cofactor segment (PCS) at a 2.35-Å resolution. The structure reveals a previously unidentified ∼2,200-Å2 intramolecular protease-helicase interface comprising three clusters of interactions, representing a “closed” global conformation related to the NS3-NS4A cis-cleavage event. Although this conformation is incompatible with protease trans-cleavage, it appears to be functionally important and beneficial to the helicase activity, as the mutations designed to perturb this conformation impaired both the helicase activities in vitro and virus production in vivo. Our work reveals important features of protease-helicase coordination in pestivirus NS3 and provides a key basis for how different conformational states may explicitly contribute to certain functions of this natural protease-helicase fusion protein. IMPORTANCE Many RNA viruses encode helicases to aid their RNA genome replication and transcription by unwinding structured RNA. Being naturally fused to a protease participating in viral polyprotein processing, the NS3 helicases encoded by the Flaviviridae family viruses are unique. Therefore, how these two enzyme modules coordinate in a single polypeptide is of particular interest. Here we report a previously unidentified conformation of pestivirus NS3 in complex with its NS4A protease cofactor segment (PCS). This conformational state is related to the protease cis-cleavage event and is optimal for the function of helicase. This work provides an important basis to understand how different enzymatic activities of NS3 may be achieved by the coordination between the protease and helicase through

  16. Purification and characterization of an alkaline protease Prot 1 from Botrytis cinerea : biodetergent catalyst assay.

    PubMed

    Abidi, Ferid; Limam, Ferid; Marzouki, M Nejib

    2007-01-01

    Alkaline thiol protease named Prot 1 was isolated from a culture filtrate of Botrytis cinerea. The enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, gel filtration, and ion-exchange chromatography. Thus, the enzyme was purified to homogeneity with specific activity of 30-fold higher than that of the crude broth. The purified alkaline protease has an apparent molecular mass of 43 kDa under denaturing conditions as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The native molecular mass (45 kDa), determined by gel filtration, indicated that the alkaline protease has a monomeric form. The purified protease was biochemically characterized. The enzyme is active at alkaline pH and has a suitable and high thermostability. The optimal pH and temperature for activity were 9.0-10.0 and 60 degrees C, respectively. This protease was stable between pH 5.0 and 12.0. The enzyme retained 85% of its activity by treatment at 50 degrees C over 120 min; it maintained 50% of activity after 60 min of heating at 60 degrees C. Furthermore, the protease retained almost complete activity after 4 wk storage at 25 degrees C. The activity was significantly affected by thiol protease inhibitors, suggesting that the enzyme belongs to the alkaline thiol protease family. With the aim on industrial applications, we focused on studying the stability of the protease in several conditions. Prot 1 activity was not affected by ionic strength and different detergent additives, and, thus, the protease shows remarkable properties as a biodetergent catalyst.

  17. Structural, kinetic, and thermodynamic studies of specificity designed HIV-1 protease.

    PubMed

    Alvizo, Oscar; Mittal, Seema; Mayo, Stephen L; Schiffer, Celia A

    2012-07-01

    HIV-1 protease recognizes and cleaves more than 12 different substrates leading to viral maturation. While these substrates share no conserved motif, they are specifically selected for and cleaved by protease during viral life cycle. Drug resistant mutations evolve within the protease that compromise inhibitor binding but allow the continued recognition of all these substrates. While the substrate envelope defines a general shape for substrate recognition, successfully predicting the determinants of substrate binding specificity would provide additional insights into the mechanism of altered molecular recognition in resistant proteases. We designed a variant of HIV protease with altered specificity using positive computational design methods and validated the design using X-ray crystallography and enzyme biochemistry. The engineered variant, Pr3 (A28S/D30F/G48R), was designed to preferentially bind to one out of three of HIV protease's natural substrates; RT-RH over p2-NC and CA-p2. In kinetic assays, RT-RH binding specificity for Pr3 increased threefold compared to the wild-type (WT), which was further confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry. Crystal structures of WT protease and the designed variant in complex with RT-RH, CA-p2, and p2-NC were determined. Structural analysis of the designed complexes revealed that one of the engineered substitutions (G48R) potentially stabilized heterogeneous flap conformations, thereby facilitating alternate modes of substrate binding. Our results demonstrate that while substrate specificity could be engineered in HIV protease, the structural pliability of protease restricted the propagation of interactions as predicted. These results offer new insights into the plasticity and structural determinants of substrate binding specificity of the HIV-1 protease. Copyright © 2012 The Protein Society.

  18. The Rubella Virus Nonstructural Protease Requires Divalent Cations for Activity and Functions in trans

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Ropp, Susan L.; Jackson, Richard J.; Frey, Teryl K.

    1998-01-01

    The rubella virus (RUB) nonstructural (NS) protease is a papain-like cysteine protease (PCP) located in the NS-protein open reading frame (NSP-ORF) that cleaves the NSP-ORF translation product at a single site to produce two products, P150 (the N-terminal product) and P90 (the C-terminal product). The RUB NS protease was found not to function following translation in vitro in a standard rabbit reticulocyte lysate system, although all of the other viral PCPs do so. However, in the presence of divalent cations such as Zn2+, Cd2+, and Co2+, the RUB NS protease functioned efficiently, indicating that these cations are required either as direct cofactors in catalytic activity or for correct acquisition of three-dimensional conformation of the protease. Since other viral and cell PCPs do not require cations for activity and the RUB NS protease contains a putative zinc binding motif, the latter possibility is more likely. Previous in vivo expression studies of the RUB NS protease failed to demonstrate trans cleavage activity (J.-P. Chen et al., J. Virol. 70:4707–4713, 1996). To study whether trans cleavage could be detected in vitro, a protease catalytic site mutant and a mutant in which the C-terminal 31 amino acids of P90 were deleted were independently introduced into plasmid constructs that express the complete NSP-ORF. Cotranslation of these mutants in vitro yielded both the native and the mutated forms of P90, indicating that the protease present in the mutated construct cleaved the catalytic-site mutant precursor. Thus, RUB NS protease can function in trans. PMID:9557742

  19. Identification of SlpB, a Cytotoxic Protease from Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Robert M Q; Stella, Nicholas A; Hunt, Kristin M; Brothers, Kimberly M; Zhang, Liang; Thibodeau, Patrick H

    2015-07-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium and opportunistic pathogen Serratia marcescens causes ocular infections in healthy individuals. Secreted protease activity was characterized from 44 ocular clinical isolates, and a higher frequency of protease-positive strains was observed among keratitis isolates than among conjunctivitis isolates. A positive correlation between protease activity and cytotoxicity to human corneal epithelial cells in vitro was determined. Deletion of prtS in clinical keratitis isolate K904 reduced, but did not eliminate, cytotoxicity and secreted protease production. This indicated that PrtS is necessary for full cytotoxicity to ocular cells and implied the existence of another secreted protease(s) and cytotoxic factors. Bioinformatic analysis of the S. marcescens Db11 genome revealed three additional open reading frames predicted to code for serralysin-like proteases noted here as slpB, slpC, and slpD. Induced expression of prtS and slpB, but not slpC and slpD, in strain PIC3611 rendered the strain cytotoxic to a lung carcinoma cell line; however, only prtS induction was sufficient for cytotoxicity to a corneal cell line. Strain K904 with deletion of both prtS and slpB genes was defective in secreted protease activity and cytotoxicity to human cell lines. PAGE analysis suggests that SlpB is produced at lower levels than PrtS. Purified SlpB demonstrated calcium-dependent and AprI-inhibited protease activity and cytotoxicity to airway and ocular cell lines in vitro. Lastly, genetic analysis indicated that the type I secretion system gene, lipD, is required for SlpB secretion. These genetic data introduce SlpB as a new cytotoxic protease from S. marcescens. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Identification of SlpB, a Cytotoxic Protease from Serratia marcescens

    PubMed Central

    Stella, Nicholas A.; Hunt, Kristin M.; Brothers, Kimberly M.; Zhang, Liang; Thibodeau, Patrick H.

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium and opportunistic pathogen Serratia marcescens causes ocular infections in healthy individuals. Secreted protease activity was characterized from 44 ocular clinical isolates, and a higher frequency of protease-positive strains was observed among keratitis isolates than among conjunctivitis isolates. A positive correlation between protease activity and cytotoxicity to human corneal epithelial cells in vitro was determined. Deletion of prtS in clinical keratitis isolate K904 reduced, but did not eliminate, cytotoxicity and secreted protease production. This indicated that PrtS is necessary for full cytotoxicity to ocular cells and implied the existence of another secreted protease(s) and cytotoxic factors. Bioinformatic analysis of the S. marcescens Db11 genome revealed three additional open reading frames predicted to code for serralysin-like proteases noted here as slpB, slpC, and slpD. Induced expression of prtS and slpB, but not slpC and slpD, in strain PIC3611 rendered the strain cytotoxic to a lung carcinoma cell line; however, only prtS induction was sufficient for cytotoxicity to a corneal cell line. Strain K904 with deletion of both prtS and slpB genes was defective in secreted protease activity and cytotoxicity to human cell lines. PAGE analysis suggests that SlpB is produced at lower levels than PrtS. Purified SlpB demonstrated calcium-dependent and AprI-inhibited protease activity and cytotoxicity to airway and ocular cell lines in vitro. Lastly, genetic analysis indicated that the type I secretion system gene, lipD, is required for SlpB secretion. These genetic data introduce SlpB as a new cytotoxic protease from S. marcescens. PMID:25939509

  1. A lead discovery strategy driven by a comprehensive analysis of proteases in the peptide substrate space

    PubMed Central

    Sukuru, Sai Chetan K; Nigsch, Florian; Quancard, Jean; Renatus, Martin; Chopra, Rajiv; Brooijmans, Natasja; Mikhailov, Dmitri; Deng, Zhan; Cornett, Allen; Jenkins, Jeremy L; Hommel, Ulrich; Davies, John W; Glick, Meir

    2010-01-01

    We present here a comprehensive analysis of proteases in the peptide substrate space and demonstrate its applicability for lead discovery. Aligned octapeptide substrates of 498 proteases taken from the MEROPS peptidase database were used for the in silico analysis. A multiple-category naïve Bayes model, trained on the two-dimensional chemical features of the substrates, was able to classify the substrates of 365 (73%) proteases and elucidate statistically significant chemical features for each of their specific substrate positions. The positional awareness of the method allows us to identify the most similar substrate positions between proteases. Our analysis reveals that proteases from different families, based on the traditional classification (aspartic, cysteine, serine, and metallo), could have substrates that differ at the cleavage site (P1–P1′) but are similar away from it. Caspase-3 (cysteine protease) and granzyme B (serine protease) are previously known examples of cross-family neighbors identified by this method. To assess whether peptide substrate similarity between unrelated proteases could reliably translate into the discovery of low molecular weight synthetic inhibitors, a lead discovery strategy was tested on two other cross-family neighbors—namely cathepsin L2 and matrix metallo proteinase 9, and calpain 1 and pepsin A. For both these pairs, a naïve Bayes classifier model trained on inhibitors of one protease could successfully enrich those of its neighbor from a different family and vice versa, indicating that this approach could be prospectively applied to lead discovery for a novel protease target with no known synthetic inhibitors. PMID:20799349

  2. The Inflammasome Drives GSDMD-Independent Secondary Pyroptosis and IL-1 Release in the Absence of Caspase-1 Protease Activity.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Katharina S; Groß, Christina J; Dreier, Roland F; Saller, Benedikt S; Mishra, Ritu; Gorka, Oliver; Heilig, Rosalie; Meunier, Etienne; Dick, Mathias S; Ćiković, Tamara; Sodenkamp, Jan; Médard, Guillaume; Naumann, Ronald; Ruland, Jürgen; Kuster, Bernhard; Broz, Petr; Groß, Olaf

    2017-12-26

    Inflammasomes activate the protease caspase-1, which cleaves interleukin-1β and interleukin-18 to generate the mature cytokines and controls their secretion and a form of inflammatory cell death called pyroptosis. By generating mice expressing enzymatically inactive caspase-1 C284A , we provide genetic evidence that caspase-1 protease activity is required for canonical IL-1 secretion, pyroptosis, and inflammasome-mediated immunity. In caspase-1-deficient cells, caspase-8 can be activated at the inflammasome. Using mice either lacking the pyroptosis effector gasdermin D (GSDMD) or expressing caspase-1 C284A , we found that GSDMD-dependent pyroptosis prevented caspase-8 activation at the inflammasome. In the absence of GSDMD-dependent pyroptosis, the inflammasome engaged a delayed, alternative form of lytic cell death that was accompanied by the release of large amounts of mature IL-1 and contributed to host protection. Features of this cell death modality distinguished it from apoptosis, suggesting it may represent a distinct form of pro-inflammatory regulated necrosis. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhanced long-term and impaired short-term spatial memory in GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit knockout mice: evidence for a dual-process memory model.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, David J; Good, Mark A; Skelton, Kathryn; Sprengel, Rolf; Seeburg, Peter H; Rawlins, J Nicholas P; Bannerman, David M

    2009-06-01

    The GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit is a key mediator of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and is especially important for a rapidly-induced, short-lasting form of potentiation. GluA1 gene deletion impairs hippocampus-dependent, spatial working memory, but spares hippocampus-dependent spatial reference memory. These findings may reflect the necessity of GluA1-dependent synaptic plasticity for short-term memory of recently visited places, but not for the ability to form long-term associations between a particular spatial location and an outcome. This hypothesis is in concordance with the theory that short-term and long-term memory depend on dissociable psychological processes. In this study we tested GluA1-/- mice on both short-term and long-term spatial memory using a simple novelty preference task. Mice were given a series of repeated exposures to a particular spatial location (the arm of a Y-maze) before their preference for a novel spatial location (the unvisited arm of the maze) over the familiar spatial location was assessed. GluA1-/- mice were impaired if the interval between the trials was short (1 min), but showed enhanced spatial memory if the interval between the trials was long (24 h). This enhancement was caused by the interval between the exposure trials rather than the interval prior to the test, thus demonstrating enhanced learning and not simply enhanced performance or expression of memory. This seemingly paradoxical enhancement of hippocampus-dependent spatial learning may be caused by GluA1 gene deletion reducing the detrimental effects of short-term memory on subsequent long-term learning. Thus, these results support a dual-process model of memory in which short-term and long-term memory are separate and sometimes competitive processes.

  4. Monitoring single protease activities on triple-helical collagen molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harzar, Raj; Froberg, James; Srivastava, D. K.; Choi, Yongki

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a particular family of proteases, play a pivotal role in degrading the extracellular matrix (ECM). It has been known for more than 40 years that MMPs are closely involved in multiple human cancers during cell growth, invasion, and metastasis. However, the mechanisms of MMP activity are far from being understood. Here, we monitored enzymatic processing of MMPs with two complementary approaches, atomic force microscopy and nanocircuits measurements. AFM measurements demonstrated that incubation of collagen monomers with MMPs resulted in a single position cleavage, producing 3/4 and 1/4 collagen fragments. From electronic monitoring of single MMP nanocircuit measurements, we were able to capture a single cleavage event with a rate of 0.012 Hz, which were in good agreement with fluorescence assay measurements. This work was supported financially by the NIGMS/NIH (P30GM103332-02) and ND NASA EPSCoR RID Grant.

  5. Retroviral proteases and their roles in virion maturation.

    PubMed

    Konvalinka, Jan; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Müller, Barbara

    2015-05-01

    Proteolytic processing of viral polyproteins is essential for retrovirus infectivity. Retroviral proteases (PR) become activated during or after assembly of the immature, non-infectious virion. They cleave viral polyproteins at specific sites, inducing major structural rearrangements termed maturation. Maturation converts retroviral enzymes into their functional form, transforms the immature shell into a metastable state primed for early replication events, and enhances viral entry competence. Not only cleavage at all PR recognition sites, but also an ordered sequence of cleavages is crucial. Proteolysis is tightly regulated, but the triggering mechanisms and kinetics and pathway of morphological transitions remain enigmatic. Here, we outline PR structures and substrate specificities focusing on HIV PR as a therapeutic target. We discuss design and clinical success of HIV PR inhibitors, as well as resistance development towards these drugs. Finally, we summarize data elucidating the role of proteolysis in maturation and highlight unsolved questions regarding retroviral maturation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficient expression systems for cysteine proteases of malaria parasites

    PubMed Central

    Sarduy, Emir Salas; de los A. Chávez Planes, María

    2013-01-01

    Papain-like cysteine proteases of malaria parasites are considered important chemotherapeutic targets or valuable models for the evaluation of drug candidates. Consequently, many of these enzymes have been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli for their biochemical characterization. However, their expression has been problematic, showing low yield and leading to the formation of insoluble aggregates. Given that highly-productive expression systems are required for the high-throughput evaluation of inhibitors, we analyzed the existing expression systems to identify the causes of such apparent issues. We found that significant divergences in codon and nucleotide composition from host genes are the most probable cause of expression failure, and propose several strategies to overcome these limitations. Finally we predict that yeast hosts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris may be better suited than E. coli for the efficient expression of plasmodial genes, presumably leading to soluble and active products reproducing structural and functional characteristics of the natural enzymes. PMID:23018863

  7. Tetrahedral aminopeptidase: a novel large protease complex from archaea

    PubMed Central

    Franzetti, B.; Schoehn, G.; Hernandez, J.-F.; Jaquinod, M.; Ruigrok, R.W.H.; Zaccai, G.

    2002-01-01

    A dodecameric protease complex with a tetrahedral shape (TET) was isolated from Haloarcula marismortui, a salt-loving archaeon. The 42 kDa monomers in the complex are homologous to metal-binding, bacterial aminopeptidases. TET has a broad aminopeptidase activity and can process peptides of up to 30–35 amino acids in length. TET has a central cavity that is accessible through four narrow channels (<17 Å wide) and through four wider channels (21 Å wide). This architecture is different from that of all the proteolytic complexes described to date that are made up by rings or barrels with a single central channel and only two openings. PMID:11980710

  8. Protease inhibitors: changing the way AIDS case management does business.

    PubMed

    Merithew, M A; Davis-Satterla, L

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of the qualitative evaluation study discussed in this article was to examine the AIDS case management model under which five nonprofit AIDS service organizations (ASOs) in Midcity were operating. The study was organized around 40 qualitative interviews with executive directors, directors, and case managers. The finding was that AIDS case management is evolving to accommodate the changing environmental/contextual conditions that have resulted from combination drug therapies (protease inhibitors) introduced in 1996. The agencies are responding to the changes individually rather than as a network, and responses vary among the agencies. Institutional theory, an examination of the interconnectedness of clients, the ASOs, and their environmental context guided the analysis of the findings.

  9. Hybrid Molecular Structure of the Giant Protease Tripeptidyl Peptidase II

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Crystal K.; Rockel, Beate; Seyit, Gönül; Walian, Peter J.; Schönegge, Anne–Marie; Peters, Jürgen; Zwart, Petrus H.; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Jap, Bing K.

    2010-01-01

    Tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPP II) is the largest known eukaryotic protease (6MDa). It is believed to act downstream of the 26S proteasome cleaving tripeptides from the N– termini of longer peptides and it is implicated in numerous cellular processes. Here we report the structure of Drosophila TPP II determined by a hybrid approach: The structure of the dimer was solved by x–ray crystallography and docked into the three– dimensional map of the holocomplex obtained by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. The resulting structure reveals the compartmentalization of the active sites inside a system of chambers and suggests the existence of a molecular ruler determining the size of the cleavage products. Furthermore, the structure suggests a model for activation of TPP II involving the relocation of a flexible loop and a repositioning of the active–site serine, coupling it to holocomplex assembly and active site sequestration. PMID:20676100

  10. Mapping protease substrates using a biotinylated phage substrate library.

    SciTech Connect

    Scholle, M. D.; Kriplani, U.; Pabon, A.

    We describe a bacteriophage M13 substrate library encoding the AviTag (BirA substrate) and combinatorial heptamer peptides displayed at the N terminus of the mature form of capsid protein III. Phages are biotinylated efficiently (> or = 50%) when grown in E. coli cells coexpressing BirA, and such viral particles can be immobilized on a streptavidin-coated support and released by protease cleavage within the combinatorial peptide. We have used this library to map the specificity of human Factor Xa and a neuropeptidase, neurolysin (EC3.4.24.16). Validation by analysis of isolated peptide substrates has revealed that neurolysin recognizes the motif hydrophobic-X-Pro-Arg-hydrophobic, where Arg-hydrophobicmore » is the scissile bond.« less

  11. Protease activated receptor-2 (PAR2): possible target of phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Kakarala, Kavita Kumari; Jamil, Kaiser

    2015-09-01

    The use of phytochemicals either singly or in combination with other anticancer drugs comes with an advantage of less toxicity and minimal side effects. Signaling pathways play central role in cell cycle, cell growth, metabolism, etc. Thus, the identification of phytochemicals with promising antagonistic effect on the receptor/s playing key role in single transduction may have better therapeutic application. With this background, phytochemicals were screened against protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2). PAR2 belongs to the superfamily of GPCRs and is an important target for breast cancer. Using in silico methods, this study was able to identify the phytochemicals with promising binding affinity suggesting their therapeutic potential in the treatment of breast cancer. The findings from this study acquires importance as the information on the possible agonists and antagonists of PAR2 is limited due its unique mechanism of activation.

  12. Serine Proteases Enhance Immunogenic Antigen Presentation on Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Haley L.; Tripathi, Satyendra C.; Kerros, Celine; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Garber, Haven R.; St. John, Lisa S.; Federico, Lorenzo; Meraz, Ismail M.; Roth, Jack A.; Sepesi, Boris; Majidi, Mourad; Ruisaard, Kathryn; Clise-Dwyer, Karen; Roszik, Jason; Gibbons, Don L.; Heymach, John V.; Swisher, Stephen G.; Bernantchez, Chantale; Alatrash, Gheath; Hanash, Samir; Molldrem, Jeffrey J.

    2017-01-01

    Immunotherapies targeting immune checkpoints have proven efficacious in reducing the burden of lung cancer in patients; however, the antigenic targets of these re-invigorated T cells remain poorly defined. Lung cancer tumors contain tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) and neutrophils, which release the serine proteases neutrophil elastase (NE) and proteinase 3 (P3) into the tumor microenvironment. NE and P3 shape the antitumor adaptive immune response in breast cancer and melanoma. In this report, we demonstrate that lung cancer cells cross-presented the tumor-associated antigen PR1, derived from NE and P3. Additionally, NE and P3 enhanced the expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules on lung cancer cells and induced unique, endogenous peptides in the immunopeptidome, as detected with mass spectrometry sequencing. Lung cancer patient tissues with high intratumoral TAM were enriched for MHC class I genes and T-cell markers, and patients with high TAM and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) infiltration had improved overall survival. We confirmed the immunogenicity of unique, endogenous peptides with cytotoxicity assays against lung cancer cell lines, using CTL from healthy donors that had been expanded against select peptides. Finally, CTL specific for serine proteases–induced endogenous peptides were detected in lung cancer patients using peptide/HLA-A2 tetramers and were elevated in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Thus, serine proteases in the tumor microenvironment of lung cancers promote the presentation of HLA class I immunogenic peptides that are expressed by lung cancer cells, thereby increasing the antigen repertoire that can be targeted in lung cancer. PMID:28254787

  13. The early years of retroviral protease crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Miller, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Soon after its discovery, the attempts to develop anti-AIDS therapeutics focused on the retroviral protease (PR)-an enzyme used by lentiviruses to process the precursor polypeptide into mature viral proteins. An urgent need for the three-dimensional structure of PR to guide rational drug design prompted efforts to produce milligram quantities of this enzyme. However, only minute amounts of PR were present in the HIV-1 and HIV-2 viruses, and initial attempts to express this protein in bacteria were not successful. This review describes X-ray crystallographic studies of the retroviral proteases carried out at NCI-Frederick in the late 1980s and early 1990s and puts into perspective the crucial role that the total protein chemical synthesis played in unraveling the structure, mechanism of action, and inhibition of HIV-1 PR. Notably, the first fully correct structure of HIV-1 PR and the first cocrystal structure of its complex with an inhibitor (a substrate-derived, reduced isostere hexapeptide MVT-101) were determined using chemically synthesized protein. Most importantly, these sets of coordinates were made freely available to the research community and were used worldwide to solve X-ray structures of HIV-1 PR complexes with an array of inhibitors and set in motion a variety of theoretical studies. Publication of the structure of chemically synthesized HIV-1 PR complexed with MVT-101 preceded only by six years the approval of the first PR inhibitor as an anti-AIDS drug. Copyright (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Serine proteases, inhibitors and receptors in renal fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Allison A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is estimated to affect one in eight adults. Their kidney function progressively deteriorates as inflammatory and fibrotic processes damage nephrons. New therapies to prevent renal functional decline must build on basic research studies that identify critical cellular and molecular mediators. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a potent fibrosis-promoting glycoprotein, is one promising candidate. Absent from normal kidneys, PAI-1 is frequently expressed in injured kidneys. Studies in genetically engineered mice have demonstrated its potency as a pro-fibrotic molecule. Somewhat surprising, its ability to inhibit serine protease activity does not appear to be its primary pro-fibrotic effect in CKD. Both tissue-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen deficiency significantly reduced renal fibrosis severity after ureteral obstruction, while genetic urokinase (uPA) deficiency had no effect. PAI-1 expression is associated with enhanced recruitment of key cellular effectors of renal fibrosis – interstitial macrophages and myofibroblasts. The ability of PAI-1 to promote cell migration involves interactions with the low-density lipoprotein receptor-associate protein-1 and also complex interactions with uPA bound to its receptor (uPAR) and several leukocyte and matrix integrins that associate with uPAR as co-receptors. uPAR is expressed by several cell types in damaged kidneys, and studies in uPAR-deficient mice have shown that its serves a protective role. uPAR mediates additional anti-fibrotic effects - it interacts with specific co-receptors to degrade PAI-1 and extracellular collagens, and soluble uPAR has leukocyte chemoattractant properties. Molecular pathways activated by serine proteases and their inhibitor, PAI-1, are promising targets for future anti-fibrotic therapeutic agents. PMID:19350108

  15. Do alterations in follicular fluid proteases contribute to human infertility?

    PubMed

    Cookingham, Lisa Marii; Van Voorhis, Bradley J; Ascoli, Mario

    2015-05-01

    Cathepsin L and ADAMTS-1 are known to play critical roles in follicular rupture, ovulation, and fertility in mice. Similar studies in humans are limited; however, both are known to increase during the periovulatory period. No studies have examined either protease in the follicular fluid of women with unexplained infertility or infertility related to advanced maternal age (AMA). We sought to determine if alterations in cathepsin L and/or ADAMTS-1 existed in these infertile populations. Patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) for unexplained infertility or AMA-related infertility were prospectively recruited for the study; patients with tubal or male factor infertility were recruited as controls. Follicular fluid was collected to determine gene expression (via quantitative polymerase chain reaction), enzyme concentrations (via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays), and enzymatic activities (via fluorogenic enzyme cleavage assay or Western blot analysis) of cathepsin L and ADAMTS-1. The analysis included a total of 42 patients (14 per group). We found no statistically significant difference in gene expression, enzyme concentration, or enzymatic activity of cathepsin L or ADAMTS-1 in unexplained infertility or AMA-related infertility as compared to controls. We also found no statistically significant difference in expression or concentration with advancing age. Cathepsin L and ADAMTS-1 are not altered in women with unexplained infertility or AMA-related infertility undergoing IVF, and they do not decline with advancing age. It is possible that differences exist in natural cycles, contributing to infertility; however, our findings do not support a role for protease alterations as a common cause of infertility.

  16. Role of Proteases in Extra-Oral Digestion of a Predatory Bug, Andrallus spinidens

    PubMed Central

    Zibaee, Arash; Hoda, Hassan; Mahmoud, Fazeli-Dinan

    2012-01-01

    Roles of salivary proteases in the extra-oral digestion of the predatory bug, Andrallus spinidens Fabricius (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) were studied by using 2% azocasein as a general substrate and specific protease substrates, as well as synthetic and endogenous inhibitors. It was found that salivary glands of A. spinidens have two anterior, two lateral, and two posterior lobes. Azocasein was used to measure the activity of general proteases in the salivary glands using different buffer solutions. The enzyme had the highest activity at pH 8. General protease activity was highest at 40 °C and was stable for 6–16 hours. The use of specific substrates showed that trypsin-like, chymotrypsin-like, aminopeptidase, and carboxypeptidase are the active proteases present in salivary glands, by the maximum activity of trypsin-like protease in addition to their optimal pH between 8–9. Ca2+ and Mg2+ increased proteolytic activity about 216%, while other ions decreased it. Specific inhibitors including SBTI, PMSF, TLCK, and TPCK significantly decreased enzyme activity, as well as the specific inhibitors of methalloproteases including phenanthroline, EGTA, and TTHA. Extracted endogenous trypsin inhibitors extracted from potential prey, Chilo suppressalis, Naranga aenescens, Pieris brassicae, Hyphantria cunea, and Ephestia kuhniella, had different effects on trypsin-like protease activity of A. spinidens salivary glands. With the exception of C. suppressalis, the endogenous inhibitors significantly decreased enzyme activity in A. spinidens. PMID:22954419

  17. Restricting detergent protease action to surface of protein fibres by chemical modification.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, M; Lenting, H B M; Kandelbauer, A; Silva, C J S M; Cavaco-Paulo, A; Gübitz, G M

    2006-10-01

    Due to their excellent properties, such as thermostability, activity over a broad range of pH and efficient stain removal, proteases from Bacillus sp. are commonly used in the textile industry including industrial processes and laundry and represent one of the most important groups of enzymes. However, due to the action of proteases, severe damage on natural protein fibres such as silk and wool result after washing with detergents containing proteases. To include the benefits of proteases in a wool fibre friendly detergent formulation, the soluble polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG) was covalently attached to a protease from Bacillus licheniformis. In contrast to activation of PEG with cyanuric chloride (50%) activation with 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) lead to activity recovery above 90%. With these modified enzymes, hydrolytic attack on wool fibres could be successfully prevented up to 95% compared to the native enzymes. Colour difference (DeltaE) measured in the three dimensional colour space showed good stain removal properties for the modified enzymes. Furthermore, half-life of the modified enzymes in buffers and commercial detergents solutions was nearly twice as high as those of the non-modified enzymes with values of up to 63 min. Out of the different modified proteases especially the B. licheniformis protease with the 2.0-kDa polymer attached both retained stain removal properties and did not hydrolyse/damage wool fibres.

  18. Substrate inhibition kinetic model for West Nile virus NS2B-NS3 protease.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Suzanne M; Watowich, Stanley J

    2008-11-11

    West Nile virus (WNV) has recently emerged in North America as a significant disease threat to humans and animals. Unfortunately, no approved antiviral drugs exist to combat WNV or other members of the genus Flavivirus in humans. The WNV NS2B-NS3 protease has been one of the primary targets for anti-WNV drug discovery and design since it is required for virus replication. As part of our efforts to develop effective WNV inhibitors, we reexamined the reaction kinetics of the NS2B-NS3 protease and the inhibition mechanisms of newly discovered inhibitors. The WNV protease showed substrate inhibition in assays utilizing fluorophore-linked peptide substrates GRR, GKR, and DFASGKR. Moreover, a substrate inhibition reaction step was required to accurately model kinetic data generated from protease assays with a peptide inhibitor. The substrate inhibition model suggested that peptide substrates could bind to two binding sites on the protease. Reaction product analogues also showed inhibition of the protease, demonstrating product inhibition in addition to and distinct from substrate inhibition. We propose that small peptide substrates and inhibitors may interact with protease residues that form either the P3-P1 binding surface (i.e., the S3-S1 sites) or the P1'-P3' interaction surface (i.e., the S1'-S3' sites). Optimization of substrate analogue inhibitors that target these two independent sites may lead to novel anti-WNV drugs.

  19. The roles of cysteine proteases and phytocystatins in development and germination of cereal seeds.

    PubMed

    Szewińska, Joanna; Simińska, Joanna; Bielawski, Wiesław

    2016-12-01

    Proteolysis is an important process for development and germination of cereal seeds. Among the many types of proteases identified in plants are the cysteine proteases (CPs) of the papain and legumain families, which play a crucial role in hydrolysing storage proteins during seed germination as well as in processing the precursors of these proteins and the inactive forms of other proteases. Moreover, all of the tissues of cereal seeds undergo progressive degradation via programed cell death, which is integral to their growth. In view of the important roles played by proteases, their uncontrolled activity could be harmful to the development of seeds and young seedlings. Thus, the activities of these enzymes are regulated by intracellular inhibitors called phytocystatins (PhyCys). The phytocystatins inhibit the activity of proteases of the papain family, and the presence of an additional motif in their C-termini allows them to also regulate the activity of members of the legumain family. A balance between the levels of cysteine proteases and phytocystatins is necessary for proper cereal seed development, and this is maintained through the antagonistic activities of gibberellins (GAs) and abscisic acid (ABA), which regulate the expression of the corresponding genes. Transcriptional regulation of cysteine proteases and phytocystatins is determined by cis-acting elements located in the promoters of these genes and by the expression of their corresponding transcription factors (TFs) and the interactions between different TFs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Fluorescent diphenylphosphonate-based probes for detection of serine protease activity during inflammation.

    PubMed

    Edgington-Mitchell, Laura E; Barlow, Nicholas; Aurelio, Luigi; Samha, Aminath; Szabo, Monika; Graham, Bim; Bunnett, Nigel

    2017-01-15

    Activity-based probes are small molecules that covalently bind to the active site of a protease in an activity-dependent manner. We synthesized and characterized two fluorescent activity-based probes that target serine proteases with trypsin-like or elastase-like activity. We assessed the selectivity and potency of these probes against recombinant enzymes and demonstrated that while they are efficacious at labeling active proteases in complex protein mixtures in vitro, they are less valuable for in vivo studies. We used these probes to evaluate serine protease activity in two mouse models of acute inflammation, including pancreatitis and colitis. As anticipated, the activity of trypsin-like proteases was increased during pancreatitis. Levels of elastase-like proteases were low in pancreatic lysates and colonic luminal fluids, whether healthy or inflamed. Exogenously added recombinant neutrophil elastase was inhibited upon incubation with these samples, an effect that was augmented in inflamed samples compared to controls. These data suggest that endogenous inhibitors and elastase-degrading proteases are upregulated during inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Functional dissection of the alphavirus capsid protease: sequence requirements for activity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Saijo; Rai, Jagdish; John, Lijo; Günther, Stephan; Drosten, Christian; Pützer, Brigitte M; Schaefer, Stephan

    2010-11-18

    The alphavirus capsid is multifunctional and plays a key role in the viral life cycle. The nucleocapsid domain is released by the self-cleavage activity of the serine protease domain within the capsid. All alphaviruses analyzed to date show this autocatalytic cleavage. Here we have analyzed the sequence requirements for the cleavage activity of Chikungunya virus capsid protease of genus alphavirus. Amongst alphaviruses, the C-terminal amino acid tryptophan (W261) is conserved and found to be important for the cleavage. Mutating tryptophan to alanine (W261A) completely inactivated the protease. Other amino acids near W261 were not having any effect on the activity of this protease. However, serine protease inhibitor AEBSF did not inhibit the activity. Through error-prone PCR we found that isoleucine 227 is important for the effective activity. The loss of activity was analyzed further by molecular modelling and comparison of WT and mutant structures. It was found that lysine introduced at position 227 is spatially very close to the catalytic triad and may disrupt electrostatic interactions in the catalytic site and thus inactivate the enzyme. We are also examining other sequence requirements for this protease activity. We analyzed various amino acid sequence requirements for the activity of ChikV capsid protease and found that amino acids outside the catalytic triads are important for the activity.

  2. Structural insights into the mechanisms of drug resistance in HIV-1 protease NL4-3.

    PubMed

    Heaslet, Holly; Kutilek, Victoria; Morris, Garrett M; Lin, Ying-Chuan; Elder, John H; Torbett, Bruce E; Stout, C David

    2006-03-03

    The development of resistance to anti-retroviral drugs targeted against HIV is an increasing clinical problem in the treatment of HIV-1-infected individuals. Many patients develop drug-resistant strains of the virus after treatment with inhibitor cocktails (HAART therapy), which include multiple protease inhibitors. Therefore, it is imperative that we understand the mechanisms by which the viral proteins, in particular HIV-1 protease, develop resistance. We have determined the three-dimensional structure of HIV-1 protease NL4-3 in complex with the potent protease inhibitor TL-3 at 2.0 A resolution. We have also obtained the crystal structures of three mutant forms of NL4-3 protease containing one (V82A), three (V82A, M46I, F53L) and six (V82A, M46I, F53L, V77I, L24I, L63P) point mutations in complex with TL-3. The three protease mutants arose sequentially under ex vivo selective pressure in the presence of TL-3, and exhibit fourfold, 11-fold, and 30-fold resistance to TL-3, respectively. This series of protease crystal structures offers insights into the biochemical and structural mechanisms by which the enzyme can overcome inhibition by TL-3 while recovering some of its native catalytic activity.

  3. Partial characterisation of digestive proteases of the Mayan cichlid Cichlasoma urophthalmus.

    PubMed

    Cuenca-Soria, C A; Álvarez-González, C A; Ortiz-Galindo, J L; Nolasco-Soria, H; Tovar-Ramírez, D; Guerrero-Zárate, R; Castillo-Domínguez, A; Perera-García, M A; Hernández-Gómez, R; Gisbert, E

    2014-06-01

    The characterisation of digestive proteases in native freshwater fish such as the Mayan cichlid Cichlasoma urophthalmus provides scientific elements that may be used to design balanced feed that matches with the digestive capacity of the fish. The purpose of this study was to characterise the digestive proteases, including the effect of the pH and the temperature on enzyme activity and stability, as well as the effect of inhibitors using multienzymatic extracts of the stomach and intestine of C. urophthalmus juveniles. Results showed that the optimum activities of the acid and alkaline proteases occurred at pH values of 3 and 9, respectively, whereas their optimum temperatures were 55 and 65 °C, respectively. The acid proteases were most stable at pH values of 2–3 and at temperatures of 35–45 °C, whereas the alkaline proteases were most stable at pH values of 6–9 and at 25–55 °C. The inhibition assays recorded a residual activity of 4% with pepstatin A for the acid proteases. The inhibition of the alkaline proteases was greater than 80% with TPCK, TLCK, EDTA and ovalbumin, and of 60 and 43.8% with PMSF and SBT1, respectively. The results obtained in this study make it possible to state that C. urophthalmus has a sufficiently complete digestive enzyme machinery to degrade food items characteristic of an omnivorous fish species, although specimens showed a tendency to carnivory.

  4. A recombinant fusion protein-based, fluorescent protease assay for high throughput-compatible substrate screening.

    PubMed

    Bozóki, Beáta; Gazda, Lívia; Tóth, Ferenc; Miczi, Márió; Mótyán, János András; Tőzsér, József

    2018-01-01

    In connection with the intensive investigation of proteases, several methods have been developed for analysis of the substrate specificity. Due to the great number of proteases and the expected target molecules to be analyzed, time- and cost-efficient high-throughput screening (HTS) methods are preferred. Here we describe the development and application of a separation-based HTS-compatible fluorescent protease assay, which is based on the use of recombinant fusion proteins as substrates of proteases. The protein substrates used in this assay consists of N-terminal (hexahistidine and maltose binding protein) fusion tags, cleavage sequences of the tobacco etch virus (TEV) and HIV-1 proteases, and a C-terminal fluorescent protein (mApple or mTurquoise2). The assay is based on the fluorimetric detection of the fluorescent proteins, which are released from the magnetic bead-attached substrates by the proteolytic cleavage. The protease assay has been applied for activity measurements of TEV and HIV-1 proteases to test the suitability of the system for enzyme kinetic measurements, inhibition studies, and determination of pH optimum. We also found that denatured fluorescent proteins can be renatured after SDS-PAGE of denaturing conditions, but showed differences in their renaturation abilities. After in-gel renaturation both substrates and cleavage products can be identified by in-gel UV detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular characterization of alkaline protease of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SP1 involved in biocontrol of Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Guleria, Shiwani; Walia, Abhishek; Chauhan, Anjali; Shirkot, C K

    2016-09-02

    An alkaline protease gene was amplified from genomic DNA of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SP1 which was involved in effective biocontrol of Fusarium oxysporum. We investigated the antagonistic capacity of protease of B. amyloliquifaciens SP1, under in vitro conditions. The 5.62 fold purified enzyme with specific activity of 607.69U/mg reported 24.14% growth inhibition of F. oxysporum. However, no antagonistic activity was found after addition of protease inhibitor i.e. PMSF (15mM) to purified enzyme. An 1149bp nucleotide sequence of protease gene encoded 382 amino acids of 43kDa and calculated isoelectric point of 9.29. Analysis of deduced amino acid sequence revealed high homology (86%) with subtilisin E of Bacillus subtilis. The B. amyloliquefaciens SP1 protease gene was expressed in Escherichiax coli BL21. The expressed protease was secreted into culture medium by E. coli and exhibited optimum activity at pH8.0 and 60°C. The most reliable three dimensional structure of alkaline protease was determined using Phyre 2 server which was validated on the basis of Ramachandran plot and ERRAT value. The expression and structure prediction of the enzyme offers potential value for commercial application in agriculture and industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of inhibitors using a cell based assay for monitoring golgi-resident protease activity

    PubMed Central

    Coppola, Julia M.; Hamilton, Christin A.; Bhojani, Mahaveer S.; Larsen, Martha J.; Ross, Brian D.; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz

    2007-01-01

    Non-invasive real time quantification of cellular protease activity allows monitoring of enzymatic activity and identification of activity modulators within the protease’s natural milieu. We developed a protease-activity assay based on differential localization of a recombinant reporter consisting of a Golgi retention signal and a protease cleavage sequence fused to alkaline phosphatase (AP). When expressed in mammalian cells, this protein localizes to Golgi bodies and, upon protease mediated cleavage, AP translocates to the extracellular medium where its activity is measured. We used this system to monitor the Golgi-associated protease furin, a pluripotent enzyme with a key role in tumorigenesis, viral propagation of avian influenza, ebola, and HIV, and in activation of anthrax, pseudomonas, and diphtheria toxins. This technology was adapted for high throughput screening of 30,000 compound small molecule libraries, leading to identification of furin inhibitors. Further, this strategy was utilized to identify inhibitors of another Golgi protease, the β-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE). BACE cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein leads to formation of the Aβ peptide, a key event that leads to Alzheimer’s disease. In conclusion, we describe a customizable, non-invasive technology for real time assessment of Golgi protease activity used to identify inhibitors of furin and BACE. PMID:17316541

  7. Galectin-3 Is a Target for Proteases Involved in the Virulence of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Elmwall, Jonas; Kwiecinski, Jakub; Na, Manli; Ali, Abukar Ahmed; Osla, Veronica; Shaw, Lindsey N; Wang, Wanzhong; Sävman, Karin; Josefsson, Elisabet; Bylund, Johan; Jin, Tao; Welin, Amanda; Karlsson, Anna

    2017-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of skin and soft tissue infection. The bacterium expresses four major proteases that are emerging as virulence factors: aureolysin (Aur), V8 protease (SspA), staphopain A (ScpA), and staphopain B (SspB). We hypothesized that human galectin-3, a β-galactoside-binding lectin involved in immune regulation and antimicrobial defense, is a target for these proteases and that proteolysis of galectin-3 is a novel immune evasion mechanism. Indeed, supernatants from laboratory strains and clinical isolates of S. aureus caused galectin-3 degradation. Similar proteolytic capacities were found in Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates but not in Staphylococcus saprophyticus Galectin-3-induced activation of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase was abrogated by bacterium-derived proteolysis of galectin-3, and SspB was identified as the major protease responsible. The impact of galectin-3 and protease expression on S. aureus virulence was studied in a murine skin infection model. In galectin-3 +/+ mice, SspB-expressing S. aureus caused larger lesions and resulted in higher bacterial loads than protease-lacking bacteria. No such difference in bacterial load or lesion size was detected in galectin-3 -/- mice, which overall showed smaller lesion sizes than the galectin-3 +/+ animals. In conclusion, the staphylococcal protease SspB inactivates galectin-3, abrogating its stimulation of oxygen radical production in human neutrophils and increasing tissue damage during skin infection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Phage-protease-peptide: a novel trifecta enabling multiplex detection of viable bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Alcaine, S D; Tilton, L; Serrano, M A C; Wang, M; Vachet, R W; Nugen, S R

    2015-10-01

    Bacteriophages represent rapid, readily targeted, and easily produced molecular probes for the detection of bacterial pathogens. Molecular biology techniques have allowed researchers to make significant advances in the bioengineering of bacteriophage to further improve speed and sensitivity of detection. Despite their host specificity, bacteriophages have not been meaningfully leveraged in multiplex detection of bacterial pathogens. We propose a proof-of-principal phage-based scheme to enable multiplex detection. Our scheme involves bioengineering bacteriophage to carry a gene for a specific protease, which is expressed during infection of the target cell. Upon lysis, the protease is released to cleave a reporter peptide, and the signal detected. Here we demonstrate the successful (i) modification of T7 bacteriophage to carry tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease; (ii) expression of TEV protease by Escherichia coli following infection by our modified T7, an average of 2000 units of protease per phage are produced during infection; and (iii) proof-of-principle detection of E. coli in 3 h after a primary enrichment via TEV protease activity using a fluorescent peptide and using a designed target peptide for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis. This proof-of-principle can be translated to other phage-protease-peptide combinations to enable multiplex bacterial detection and readily adopted on multiple platforms, like MALDI-TOF MS or fluorescent readers, commonly found in labs.

  9. Saccharomyces boulardii protease inhibits Clostridium difficile toxin A effects in the rat ileum.

    PubMed Central

    Castagliuolo, I; LaMont, J T; Nikulasson, S T; Pothoulakis, C

    1996-01-01

    Saccharomyces boulardii, a nonpathogenic yeast, is effective in treating some patients with Clostridium difficile diarrhea and colitis. We have previously reported that S. boulardii inhibits rat ileal secretion in response to C. difficile toxin A possibly by releasing a protease that digests the intestinal receptor for this toxin (C. Pothoulakis, C. P. Kelly, M. A. Joshi, N. Gao, C. J. O'Keane, I. Castagliuolo, and J. T. LaMont, Gastroenterology 104: 1108-1115, 1993). The aim of this study was to purify and characterize this protease. S. boulardii protease was partially purified by gel filtration on Sephadex G-50 and octyl-Sepharose. The effect of S. boulardii protease on rat ileal secretion, epithelial permeability, and morphology in response to toxin A was examined in rat ileal loops in vivo. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified S. boulardii protease revealed a major band at 54 kDa. Pretreatment of rat ileal brush border (BB) membranes with partially purified protease reduced specific toxin A receptor binding (by 26%). Partially purified protease digested the toxin A molecule and significantly reduced its binding to BB membranes in vitro (by 42%). Preincubation of toxin A with S. boulardii protease inhibited ileal secretion (46% inhibition, P < 0.01), mannitol permeability (74% inhibition, P < 0.01), and histologic damage caused by toxin A. Thus, S. boulardii protease inhibits the intestinal effects of C. difficile toxin A by proteolysis of the toxin and inhibition of toxin A binding to its BB receptor. Our results may be relevant to the mechanism by which S. boulardii exerts its protective effects in C. difficile infection in humans. PMID:8945570

  10. Proteases in agricultural dust induce lung inflammation through PAR-1 and PAR-2 activation.

    PubMed

    Romberger, Debra J; Heires, Art J; Nordgren, Tara M; Souder, Chelsea P; West, William; Liu, Xiang-de; Poole, Jill A; Toews, Myron L; Wyatt, Todd A

    2015-08-15

    Workers exposed to aerosolized dust present in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are susceptible to inflammatory lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Extracts of dust collected from hog CAFOs [hog dust extract (HDE)] are potent stimulators of lung inflammatory responses in several model systems. The observation that HDE contains active proteases prompted the present study, which evaluated the role of CAFO dust proteases in lung inflammatory processes and tested whether protease-activated receptors (PARs) are involved in the signaling pathway for these events. We hypothesized that the damaging proinflammatory effect of HDE is due, in part, to the proteolytic activation of PARs, and inhibiting the proteases in HDE or disrupting PAR activation would attenuate HDE-mediated inflammatory indexes in bronchial epithelial cells (BECs), in mouse lung slices in vitro, and in a murine in vivo exposure model. Human BECs and mouse lung slice cultures stimulated with 5% HDE released significantly more of each of the cytokines measured (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, keratinocyte-derived chemokine/CXC chemokine ligand 1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2/CXC chemokine ligand 2) than controls, and these effects were markedly diminished by protease inhibition. Inhibition of PARs also blunted the HDE-induced cytokine release from BECs. In addition, protease depletion inhibited HDE-induced BEC intracellular PKCα and PKCε activation. C57BL/6J mice administered 12.5% HDE intranasally, either once or daily for 3 wk, exhibited increased total cellular and neutrophil influx, bronchial alveolar fluid inflammatory cytokines, lung histopathology, and inflammatory scores compared with mice receiving protease-depleted HDE. These data suggest that proteases in dust from CAFOs are important mediators of lung inflammation, and these proteases and their receptors may provide novel targets for therapeutic intervention in CAFO dust-induced airways disease.

  11. Biochemical characterization of a halophilic, alkalithermophilic protease from Alkalibacillus sp. NM-Da2.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hamed, Asmaa R; Abo-Elmatty, Dina M; Wiegel, Juergen; Mesbah, Noha M

    2016-11-01

    An extracellular, halophilic, alkalithermophilic serine protease from the halo-alkaliphilic Alkalibacillus sp. NM-Da2 was purified to homogeneity by ethanol precipitation and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified protease was a monomeric enzyme with an approximate molecular mass of 35 kDa and exhibited maximal activity at 2.7 M NaCl, pH 55 °C 9 and 56 °C. The protease showed great temperature stability, retaining greater than 80 % of initial activity after 2 h incubation at 55 °C. The protease was also extremely pH tolerant, retaining 80 % of initial activity at pH 55 °C 10.5 after 30 min incubation. Protease hydrolyzed complex substrates, displaying activity on yeast extract, tryptone, casein, gelatin and peptone. Protease activity was inhibited at casein concentrations greater than 1.2 mg/mL. The enzyme was stable and active in 40 % (v/v) solutions of isopropanol, ethanol and benzene and was stable in the presence of the polysorbate surfactant Tween 80. Activity was stimulated with the oxidizing agent hydrogen peroxide. Inhibition with phenyl methylsulfonylfluoride indicates it is a serine protease. Synthetic saline wastewater treated with the protease showed 50 % protein removal after 5 h. Being halophilic, alkaliphilic and thermophilic, in addition to being resistant to organic solvents, this protease has potential for various applications in biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries.

  12. Ubiquitin-specific protease 14 regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangyun; Wu, Jingjing; Chen, Yitian; Ye, Dongxia; Lei, Hu; Xu, Hanzhang; Yang, Li; Wu, Yingli; Gu, Wenli

    2016-10-01

    Ubiquitin-specific protease 14, a deubiquitinating enzyme, has been implicated in the tumorigenesis and progression of several cancers, but its role in oral squamous cell carcinoma remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to explore the expression pattern and roles of Ubiquitin-specific protease 14 in the occurrence and development of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Interestingly, Ubiquitin-specific protease 14 was overexpressed in oral cancer tissues and cell lines at both mRNA and protein levels. b-AP15, a specific inhibitor of Ubiquitin-specific protease 14, significantly inhibited the growth of cancer cells and increased cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, knockdown of Ubiquitin-specific protease 14 by shRNA significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration of cancer cells in vitro. Finally, using a xenograft mouse model of oral squamous cell carcinoma, knockdown of Ubiquitin-specific protease 14 markedly inhibited tumor growth and triggered the cancer cell apoptosis in vivo, supporting previous results. In conclusion, for the first time we have demonstrated the expression pattern of Ubiquitin-specific protease 14 in oral squamous cell carcinoma and verified a relationship with tumor growth and metastasis. These results may highlight new therapeutic strategies for tumor treatment, application of Ubiquitin-specific protease 14 selective inhibitor, such as b-AP15, or knockdown by shRNA. Collectively, Ubiquitin-specific protease 14 could be a potential therapeutic target for oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A parametric study ot protease production in batch and fed-batch cultures of Bacillus firmus.

    PubMed

    Moon, S H; Parulekar, S J

    1991-03-05

    Proteolytic enzymes produced by Bacillus species find a wide variety of applications in brewing, detergent, food, and leather industries. Owing to significant differences normally observed in culture conditions promoting cell growth and those promoting production of metabolites such as enzymes, for increased efficacy of bioreactor operations it is essential to identify these sets of conditions (including medium formulation). This study is focused on formulation of a semidefined medium that substantially enhances synthesis and secretion of an alkaline protease in batch cultures of Bacillus firmus NRS 783, a known superior producer of this enzyme. The series of experiments conducted to identify culture conditions that lead to improved protease production also enables investigation of the regulatory effects of important culture parameters including pH, dissolved oxygen, and concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorous sources and yeast extract in the medium on cell growth, synthesis and secretion of protease, and production of two major nonbiomass products, viz., acetic acid and ethanol. Cell growth and formation of the three nonbiomass products are hampered significantly under nitrogen, phosphorous, or oxygen limitation, with the cells being unable to grow in an oxygen-free environment. Improvement in protease production is achieved with respect to each culture parameter, leading in the process to 80% enhancement in protease activity over that attained using media reported in the literature. Results of a few fed-batch experiments with constant feed rate, conducted to examine possible enhancement in protease production and to further investigate repression of protease synthesis by excess of the principal carbon and nitrogen sources, are also discussed. The detailed investigation of stimulatory and repressory effects of simple and complex nutrients on protease production and metabolism of Bacillus firmus conducted in this study will provide useful guidelines for design

  14. Why do proteases mess up with antigen presentation by re-shuffling antigen sequences?

    PubMed

    Liepe, Juliane; Ovaa, Huib; Mishto, Michele

    2018-04-30

    The sequence of a large number of MHC-presented epitopes is not present as such in the original antigen because it has been re-shuffled by the proteasome or other proteases. Why do proteases throw a spanner in the works of our model of antigen tagging and immune recognition? We describe in this review what we know about the immunological relevance of post-translationally spliced epitopes and why proteases seem to have a second (dark) personality, which is keen to create new peptide bonds. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Alkaline Protease on the Antigenic Nature of Wiseana Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus Polyhedron Protein

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, A. M.; Kalmakoff, J.

    1977-01-01

    Polyhedron protein from Wiseana spp. nuclear polyhedrosis virus was found to be degraded by an alkali protease when polyhedra are dissolved in alkali. The protease activity did not occur at high pH (0.1 M NaOH) and was inactivated by heating polyhedra to 70°C for 3 h. The products from the protease degradation of Wiseana spp. nuclear polyhedrosis virus polyhedron protein retain the antigenicity of undegraded polyhedron protein as measured by the direct solid-phase radioimmunoassay and immunoadsorption. Degradation products below 27,000 daltons could not be detected by the sandwich radioimmunoassay, indicating that they are probably monovalent. PMID:16789167

  16. Pavlovian Conditioning of Rat Mucosal Mast Cells to Secrete Rat Mast Cell Protease II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacQueen, Glenda; Marshall, Jean; Perdue, Mary; Siegel, Shepard; Bienenstock, John

    1989-01-01

    Antigen (egg albumin) injections, which stimulate mucosal mast cells to secrete mediators, were paired with an audiovisual cue. After reexposure to the audiovisual cue, a mediator (rat mast cell protease II) was measured with a sensitive and specific assay. Animals reexposed to only the audiovisual cue released a quantity of protease not significantly different from animals reexposed to both the cue and the antigen; these groups released significantly more protease than animals that had received the cue and antigen in a noncontingent manner. The results support a role for the central nervous system as a functional effector of mast cell function in the allergic state.

  17. A New Method for the Characterization of Strain-Specific Conformational Stability of Protease-Sensitive and Protease-Resistant PrPSc

    PubMed Central

    Pirisinu, Laura; Di Bari, Michele; Marcon, Stefano; Vaccari, Gabriele; D'Agostino, Claudia; Fazzi, Paola; Esposito, Elena; Galeno, Roberta; Langeveld, Jan; Agrimi, Umberto; Nonno, Romolo

    2010-01-01

    Although proteinacious in nature, prions exist as strains with specific self-perpetuating biological properties. Prion strains are thought to be associated with different conformers of PrPSc, a disease-associated isoform of the host-encoded cellular protein (PrPC). Molecular strain typing approaches have been developed which rely on the characterization of protease-resistant PrPSc. However, PrPSc is composed not only of protease-resistant but also of protease-sensitive isoforms. The aim of this work was to develop a protocol for the molecular characterization of both, protease-resistant and protease-sensitive PrPSc aggregates. We first set up experimental conditions which allowed the most advantageous separation of PrPC and PrPSc by means of differential centrifugation. The conformational solubility and stability assay (CSSA) was then developed by measuring PrPSc solubility as a function of increased exposure to GdnHCl. Brain homogenates from voles infected with human and sheep prion isolates were analysed by CSSA and showed strain-specific conformational stabilities, with mean [GdnHCl]1/2 values ranging from 1.6 M for MM2 sCJD to 2.1 for scrapie and to 2.8 M for MM1/MV1 sCJD and E200K gCJD. Interestingly, the rank order of [GdnHCl]1/2 values observed in the human and sheep isolates used as inocula closely matched those found following transmission in voles, being MM1 sCJD the most resistant (3.3 M), followed by sheep scrapie (2.2 M) and by MM2 sCJD (1.6 M). In order to test the ability of CSSA to characterise protease-sensitive PrPSc, we analysed sheep isolates of Nor98 and compared them to classical scrapie isolates. In Nor98, insoluble PrPSc aggregates were mainly protease-sensitive and showed a conformational stability much lower than in classical scrapie. Our results show that CSSA is able to reveal strain-specified PrPSc conformational stabilities of protease-resistant and protease-sensitive PrPSc and that it is a valuable tool for strain typing in natural

  18. Simultaneous production of detergent stable keratinolytic protease, amylase and biosurfactant by Bacillus subtilis PF1 using agro industrial waste.

    PubMed

    Bhange, Khushboo; Chaturvedi, Venkatesh; Bhatt, Renu

    2016-06-01

    The present study is an attempt to optimize simultaneous production of keratinolytic protease, amylase and biosurfactant from feather meal, potato peel and rape seed cake in a single media by response surface methodology to evaluate their biochemical properties for detergent additive. The optimization was carried out using 20 run, 3 factor and 5-level of central composite design on design expert software which resulted in a 1.2, 0.84 and 2.28 fold increase in protease, amylase and biosurfactant production. The proteolytic activity was found to be optimum at pH 9.0 and 60 °C while optimum amylolytic activity was recorded at pH 6.0 and 70 °C respectively. Both enzymes were found to be stable in the presence of organic solvents, ionic and commercial detergent and oxidizing agents. The biosurfactant was extracted with chloroform and was found to be stable at varying pH and temperature; however a reduction in the activity was observed at temperature higher than 70 °C. The isolated enzymes and biosurfactants may find applications in the effective removal of stains.

  19. Plasmodium subtilisin-like protease 1 (SUB1): insights into the active-site structure, specificity and function of a pan-malaria drug target.

    PubMed

    Withers-Martinez, Chrislaine; Suarez, Catherine; Fulle, Simone; Kher, Samir; Penzo, Maria; Ebejer, Jean-Paul; Koussis, Kostas; Hackett, Fiona; Jirgensons, Aigars; Finn, Paul; Blackman, Michael J

    2012-05-15

    Release of the malaria merozoite from its host erythrocyte (egress) and invasion of a fresh cell are crucial steps in the life cycle of the malaria pathogen. Subtilisin-like protease 1 (SUB1) is a parasite serine protease implicated in both processes. In the most dangerous human malarial species, Plasmodium falciparum, SUB1 has previously been shown to have several parasite-derived substrates, proteolytic cleavage of which is important both for egress and maturation of the merozoite surface to enable invasion. Here we have used molecular modelling, existing knowledge of SUB1 substrates, and recombinant expression and characterisation of additional Plasmodium SUB1 orthologues, to examine the active site architecture and substrate specificity of P. falciparum SUB1 and its orthologues from the two other major human malaria pathogens Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi, as well as from the rodent malaria species, Plasmodium berghei. Our results reveal a number of unusual features of the SUB1 substrate binding cleft, including a requirement to interact with both prime and non-prime side residues of the substrate recognition motif. Cleavage of conserved parasite substrates is mediated by SUB1 in all parasite species examined, and the importance of this is supported by evidence for species-specific co-evolution of protease and substrates. Two peptidyl alpha-ketoamides based on an authentic PfSUB1 substrate inhibit all SUB1 orthologues examined, with inhibitory potency enhanced by the presence of a carboxyl moiety designed to introduce prime side interactions with the protease. Our findings demonstrate that it should be possible to develop 'pan-reactive' drug-like compounds that inhibit SUB1 in all three major human malaria pathogens, enabling production of broad-spectrum antimalarial drugs targeting SUB1. Copyright © 2012 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Protease activated receptor 2 in diabetic nephropathy: a double edged sword

    PubMed Central

    Waasdorp, Maaike; Duitman, JanWillem; Florquin, Sandrine; Spek, Arnold C

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a major microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus, and the leading cause of end stage renal disease worldwide. The pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy is complex, making the development of novel treatments that stop or reverse the progression of microalbuminuria into end stage renal disease a challenge. Protease activated receptor (PAR)-2 has recently been shown to aggravate disease progression in diabetic nephropathy based upon which it was suggested that PAR-2 would be a potential target for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. To fully appreciate the translational potential of PAR-2 in diabetic nephropathy, we evaluated the effect of PAR-2 deficiency on the development of diabetic nephropathy in a streptozotocin-induced diabetes model characteristic of type 1 diabetes. Although diabetic PAR-2 deficient mice showed reduced albuminuria compared to diabetic wild type mice, an increase in mesangial expansion was evident in the PAR-2 deficient mice. No differences were observed in blood glucose levels, podocyte numbers or in glomerular vascular density. These results show that PAR-2 plays a dual role in the development of streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy and may thus not be the eagerly awaited novel target to combat diabetic nephropathy. Targeting PAR-2 should consequently only be pursued with great care in a clinical setting. PMID:29118913

  1. Cytoprotective signaling by activated protein C requires protease-activated receptor-3 in podocytes

    PubMed Central

    Madhusudhan, Thati; Wang, Hongjie; Straub, Beate K.; Gröne, Elisabeth; Zhou, Qianxing; Shahzad, Khurrum; Müller-Krebs, Sandra; Schwenger, Vedat; Gerlitz, Bruce; Grinnell, Brian W.; Griffin, John H.; Reiser, Jochen; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Esmon, Charles T.; Nawroth, Peter P.

    2012-01-01

    The cytoprotective effects of activated protein C (aPC) are well established. In contrast, the receptors and signaling mechanism through which aPC conveys cytoprotection in various cell types remain incompletely defined. Thus, within the renal glomeruli, aPC preserves endothelial cells via a protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and endothelial protein C receptor-dependent mechanism. Conversely, the signaling mechanism through which aPC protects podocytes remains unknown. While exploring the latter, we identified a novel aPC/PAR-dependent cytoprotective signaling mechanism. In podocytes, aPC inhibits apoptosis through proteolytic activation of PAR-3 independent of endothelial protein C receptor. PAR-3 is not signaling competent itself as it requires aPCinduced heterodimerization with PAR-2 (human podocytes) or PAR-1 (mouse podocytes). This cytoprotective signaling mechanism depends on caveolin-1 dephosphorylation. In vivo aPC protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced podocyte injury and proteinuria. Genetic deletion of PAR-3 impairs the nephroprotective effect of aPC, demonstrating the crucial role of PAR-3 for aPC-dependent podocyte protection. This novel, aPC-mediated interaction of PARs demonstrates the plasticity and cell-specificity of cytoprotective aPC signaling. The evidence of specific, dynamic signaling complexes underlying aPC-mediated cytoprotection may allow the design of cell type specific targeted therapies. PMID:22117049

  2. Acidic mammalian chitinase is a proteases-resistant glycosidase in mouse digestive system.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Misa; Kimura, Masahiro; Miyazaki, Haruko; Okawa, Kazuaki; Onuki, Riho; Nemoto, Chiyuki; Tabata, Eri; Wakita, Satoshi; Kashimura, Akinori; Sakaguchi, Masayoshi; Sugahara, Yasusato; Nukina, Nobuyuki; Bauer, Peter O; Oyama, Fumitaka

    2016-11-24

    Chitinases are enzymes that hydrolyze chitin, a polymer of β-1, 4-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc). Chitin has long been considered as a source of dietary fiber that is not digested in the mammalian digestive system. Here, we provide evidence that acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) can function as a major digestive enzyme that constitutively degrades chitin substrates and produces (GlcNAc) 2 fragments in the mouse gastrointestinal environment. AMCase was resistant to endogenous pepsin C digestion and remained active in the mouse stomach extract at pH 2.0. The AMCase mRNA levels were much higher than those of four major gastric proteins and two housekeeping genes and comparable to the level of pepsinogen C in the mouse stomach tissues. Furthermore, AMCase was expressed in the gastric pepsinogen-synthesizing chief cells. The enzyme was also stable and active in the presence of trypsin and chymotrypsin at pH 7.6, where pepsin C was completely degraded. Mouse AMCase degraded polymeric colloidal and crystalline chitin substrates in the gastrointestinal environments in presence of the proteolytic enzymes. Thus, AMCase can function as a protease-resistant major glycosidase under the conditions of stomach and intestine and degrade chitin substrates to produce (GlcNAc) 2 , a source of carbon, nitrogen and energy.

  3. Acidic mammalian chitinase is a proteases-resistant glycosidase in mouse digestive system

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Misa; Kimura, Masahiro; Miyazaki, Haruko; Okawa, Kazuaki; Onuki, Riho; Nemoto, Chiyuki; Tabata, Eri; Wakita, Satoshi; Kashimura, Akinori; Sakaguchi, Masayoshi; Sugahara, Yasusato; Nukina, Nobuyuki; Bauer, Peter O.; Oyama, Fumitaka

    2016-01-01

    Chitinases are enzymes that hydrolyze chitin, a polymer of β-1, 4-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc). Chitin has long been considered as a source of dietary fiber that is not digested in the mammalian digestive system. Here, we provide evidence that acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) can function as a major digestive enzyme that constitutively degrades chitin substrates and produces (GlcNAc)2 fragments in the mouse gastrointestinal environment. AMCase was resistant to endogenous pepsin C digestion and remained active in the mouse stomach extract at pH 2.0. The AMCase mRNA levels were much higher than those of four major gastric proteins and two housekeeping genes and comparable to the level of pepsinogen C in the mouse stomach tissues. Furthermore, AMCase was expressed in the gastric pepsinogen-synthesizing chief cells. The enzyme was also stable and active in the presence of trypsin and chymotrypsin at pH 7.6, where pepsin C was completely degraded. Mouse AMCase degraded polymeric colloidal and crystalline chitin substrates in the gastrointestinal environments in presence of the proteolytic enzymes. Thus, AMCase can function as a protease-resistant major glycosidase under the conditions of stomach and intestine and degrade chitin substrates to produce (GlcNAc)2, a source of carbon, nitrogen and energy. PMID:27883045

  4. Thrombin Receptors and Protease-Activated Receptor-2 in Human Placentation

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Peter J.; Koi, Hideki; Parry, Samuel; Brass, Lawrence F.; Strauss, Jerome F.; Wang, Li-Peng; Tomaszewski, John E.; Christenson, Lane K.

    2003-01-01

    Proteolysis of the thrombin receptor, protease activated receptor-1 (PAR1), may enhance normal and pathological cellular invasion, and indirect evidence suggests that activation of PAR1 expressed by invasive extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) influences human placentation. Here we describe PAR1, PAR2, and PAR3 protein distribution in the developing human placenta and implicate PAR1 and PAR2 activation in functions central to EVT invasion. PAR1, PAR2, and PAR3 are expressed in cultured 8- to 13-week-old EVTs, and in situ in 18- to 20-week-old placental syncytiotrophoblasts and invasive trophoblasts. Thrombin, but not the PAR2 agonist peptide SLIGKV, inhibited proliferation in cultured EVTs, although both agonists stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis and EVT invasion through Matrigel barriers. Thrombin-induced phosphoinositide hydrolysis was completely inhibited and the thrombin effect on proliferation was prevented when PAR1 cleavage was first blocked with specific monoclonal antibodies, indicating that PAR1 is the predominant thrombin receptor on EVTs. Together these results support a role for PAR1, and potentially PAR2 and PAR3 in the invasive phase of human placentation. PMID:14507634

  5. Protease-Activated Receptor 4 (PAR4): A Promising Target for Antiplatelet Therapy.

    PubMed

    Rwibasira Rudinga, Gamariel; Khan, Ghulam Jilany; Kong, Yi

    2018-02-14

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are currently among the leading causes of death worldwide. Platelet aggregation is a key cellular component of arterial thrombi and major cause of CVDs. Protease-activated receptors (PARs), including PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, fall within a subfamily of seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Human platelets express PAR1 and PAR4, which contribute to the signaling transduction processes. In association with CVDs, PAR4 not only contributes to platelet activation but also is a modulator of cellular responses that serve as hallmarks of inflammation. Although several antiplatelet drugs are available on the market, they have many side effects that limit their use. Emerging evidence shows that PAR4 targeting is a safer strategy for preventing thrombosis and consequently may improve the overall cardiac safety profile. Our present review summarizes the PAR4 structural characteristics, activation mechanism, role in the pathophysiology of diseases and understanding the association of PAR4 targeting for improved cardiac protection. Conclusively, this review highlights the importance of PAR4 antagonists and its potential utility in different CVDs.

  6. High Temperature Requirement A1, Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1, phosphoSmad2 and Ki67 in Eutopic and Ectopic Endometrium of Women With Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Goteri, G.; Altobelli, E.; Tossetta, G.; Zizzi, A.; Avellini, C.; Licini, C.; Lorenzi, T.; Castellucci, M.; Ciavattini, A.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that TGFβ1 signalling may be mediated by high temperature requirement A1 (HtrA1) serine protease, acting on important regulatory mechanisms such as cell proliferation and mobility. Evidence is now accumulating to suggest that HtrA1 is involved in the development and progression of several pathologies. The aim of this study was to evaluate: i) if HtrA1 and TGFβ1 expressions differ in eutopic and ectopic endometrium in women with endometriosis; ii) if HtrA1 correlates to TGFβ1, pSmad and Ki67. This study was carried out including 10 women with ovarian endometriosis (cases) and 10 women with non endometriotic diseases (controls). Endometrial tissue underwent immunohistochemical H-score analysis for HtrA1, TGFβ1, pSmad and Ki67 molecules. Data evaluation was performed by a nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman correlation was applied to evaluate the relationship among the molecules investigated in the epithelial and in the stromal compartment. The HtrA1 was significantly decreased in ectopic and eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis when compared with control endometrium in epithelial compartment. TGFβ1was significantly increased in eutopic endometrium and decreased in ectopic endometrium in epithelial and stromal compartment. In addition, Ki67 was significantly increased and an increase, but not significant, was detected for pSMAd2 in eutopic and ectopic endometrium compared to control one. In summary, the significant direct correlation between TGFβ1 and pSmad2 as well as between HtrA1 and TGFβ1 and the very significant increase of Ki67 in stromal compartment of eutopic endometrium suggest a possible involvement of HtrA1 in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. PMID:26708185

  7. Cysteine protease 30 (CP30) contributes to adhesion and cytopathogenicity in feline Tritrichomonas foetus.

    PubMed

    Gould, Emily N; Giannone, Richard; Kania, Stephen A; Tolbert, M Katherine

    2017-09-15

    Tritrichomonas foetus (T. foetus) is a flagellated protozoan parasite that is recognized as a significant cause of diarrhea in domestic cats with a prevalence rate as high as 30%. No drugs have been shown to consistently eliminate T. foetus infection in all cats. Cysteine proteases (CPs) have been identified as mediators of T. foetus-induced adhesion-dependent cytotoxicity to the intestinal epithelium. These CPs represent novel targets for the treatment of feline trichomonosis. However, cats also produce CPs that are part of life-critical systems. Thus, parasitic CPs need to be selectively targeted to reduce the potential for host toxicity. Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of a specific CP, CP30, in mediating bovine and human trichomonad cytopathogenicity. This CP has also recently been identified in feline T. foetus, although the function of this protease in the feline genotype remains unknown. Therefore, the study objectives were to characterize the presence of CP30 in feline T. foetus isolates and to evaluate the effect of targeted inhibition of CP30 on feline T. foetus-induced adhesion dependent cytotoxicity. The presence of CP30 in feline T. foetus isolates was identified by In gel zymography and proteomic analysis, indirect immunofluorescence (IF), and flow cytometry using a rabbit polyclonal antibody that targets bovine T. foetus CP30 (α-CP30). The effect of inhibition of CP30 activity on T. foetus adhesion and cytotoxicity was determined using CFSE-labeled feline T. foetus and crystal violet spectrophotometric assays in a previously validated co-culture model. CP30 expression was confirmed in all feline T. foetus isolates tested by all assays. Targeted inhibition of feline T. foetus CP30 resulted in decreased T. foetus adhesion to and cytotoxicity towards IPEC-J2 monolayers compared to rabbit IgG-treated T. foetus isolates. These studies establish that CP30 is expressed by feline T. foetus isolates and may be an important virulence factor

  8. Association of HaeIII single nucleotide polymorphisms in the SLC2A1 gene with risk of diabetic nephropathy; evidence from Kurdish patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Amini, Sabrieh; Javanmardi, Mitra; Mokarizadeh, Aram; Maroofi, Farzad; Jalali, Chiya; Azadi, Namam-Ali; Mohammadi, Hamid; Abdi, Mohammad

    2016-06-01

    Given the growing rate of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, uncovering the effects of gene polymorphism on diabetes pathogenesis has attracted a lot of attention. Because glucose transporter 1 is involved in glucose uptake, the polymorphism of this gene may be an important risk factor in type 2 diabetes mellitus or in the progression of diabetes complications such as diabetic nephropathy. As far as the authors are concerned, this study is the first one aiming at evaluating the probable effects of solute carrier family 2 facilitated glucose transporter member 1 (SLC2A1) HaeIII polymorphism on clinical and laboratory outcomes of Kurdish patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study was conducted involving 126 diabetic nephropathy patients and 150 diabetic patients without renal involvement. Serum levels of Cystatin C, fasting blood glucose, creatinine and urinary albumin; levels of glycated hemoglobin and estimated glomerular filtration rate were measured. Moreover, the Hae III polymorphism of SLC2A1 gene was determined by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The rate of CC genotype was higher (37%) in patients with diabetic nephropathy compared with controls. There were a significant correlation between the CC genotype and risk of diabetic nephropathy. There were significant correlations between genotypes, serum Cystatin C and estimated glomerular filtration rate in patients with diabetic nephropathy. The results demonstrated the high frequency of C allele of SLC2A1 HaeIII in Kurdish patients with diabetic nephropathy. It was also found that this polymorphism is a significant risk factor for diabetic nephropathy. The effect of this polymorphism on clinical and laboratory characteristics of diabetic nephropathy patients was significant. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Short communication: Increased expression of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor in oral mucosa of Colombian HIV type 1-exposed seronegative individuals.

    PubMed

    Taborda, Natalia; Zapata-Builes, Wildeman; Montoya, Carlos; Rugeles, María Teresa

    2012-09-01

    The exposure to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) does not always result in infection. Indeed, there are individuals who have been repeatedly exposed to HIV-1 but do not exhibit clinical or serological evidence of infection; they are known as HIV-exposed seronegative individuals (HESN). To determine if secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), a soluble factor secreted by epithelial cells lining mucosal surfaces that showed anti-HIV activity in vitro, was associated with natural resistance to HIV infection, we measured by real time RT-PCR the expression of SLPI in oral mucosa of a cohort of Colombian HESN, in chronically HIV-1-infected individuals and in healthy controls. The HESN expressed significantly higher levels of SLPI mRNA than healthy controls (p=0.033) and chronically infected subjects (p=0.011). These findings suggest an association between SLPI expression and the natural resistance to HIV-1 infection exhibited by our HESN cohort.

  10. Protease-dependent hemagglutinin cleavage contributes to alteration in chicken hemagglutination by the H3N2 influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Masaoki; Makino, Akiko; Sasahara, Kenji; Nastri, Aldise Mareta; Krisna, Luh Ade Wilan; Purhito, Edith Frederika; Poetranto, Emmanuel Djoko; Wulandari, Laksmi; Yudhawati, Resti; Setiawati, Landia; Setyoningrum, Retno Asih; Shinya, Kyoko

    2013-01-01

    The human influenza A virus (H3N2) has been the predominant influenza strain since 1992, and one property of this virus is non-agglutination of chicken erythrocytes [Ch(-) virus]. The Ch(-) virus in our study was able to acquire chicken hemagglutination [Ch(+)] by trypsin passage but not by chymotrypsin passage. Moreover, the trypsin-passaged Ch(+) viruses reacquired the Ch(-) property after a further chymotrypsin passage. In particular, genetic analysis showed no evidence of mutations in the hemagglutinin (HA) gene during either trypsin or chymotrypsin passages: the only differences found were in the HA cleavage sites between the trypsin-passaged virus and the chymotrypsin-passaged virus as determined by the N-terminal amino acid sequence. These results suggested that protease-dependent differences at the viral HA cleavage site, rather than genetic mutations, are likely to have a significant effect on the viral ability to produce chicken hemagglutination.

  11. Protease Inhibitors of Parasitic Flukes: Emerging Roles in Parasite Survival and Immune Defence.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Shiwanthi L; McManus, Donald P

    2017-05-01

    Protease inhibitors play crucial roles in parasite development and survival, counteracting the potentially damaging immune responses of their vertebrate hosts. However, limited information is currently available on protease inhibitors from schistosomes and food-borne trematodes. Future characterization of these molecules is important not only to expand knowledge on parasitic fluke biology but also to determine whether they represent novel vaccine and/or drug targets. Moreover, protease inhibitors from flukes may represent lead compounds for the development of a new range of therapeutic agents against inflammatory disorders and cancer. This review discusses already identified protease inhibitors of fluke origin, emphasizing their biological function and their possible future development as new intervention targets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis of the 2-methylene analogue of the HRV 3C protease inhibitor thysanone (2-carbathysanone).

    PubMed

    Schünemann, Katrin; Furkert, Daniel P; Choi, Eun Cho; Connelly, Stephen; Fraser, John D; Sperry, Jonathan; Brimble, Margaret A

    2014-02-14

    The Human Rhinovirus (HRV) is the major aetiological agent for the common cold, for which only symptomatic treatment is available. HRV maturation and replication is entirely dependent on the activity of a virally encoded 3C protease that represents an attractive target for the development of therapeutics to treat the common cold. Herein we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of the 2-methylene analogue of the HRV 3C protease inhibitor (-)-thysanone (1) namely 2-carbathysanone (2), in an attempt to decipher the structural features in the natural product that are responsible for the 3C protease activity. 2-Carbathysanone (2) (and related analogues (±)-cis-23, (±)-cis-30, (±)-31) did not inhibit HRV 3C protease, indicating that the lactol functionality present in (-)-thysanone (1) is a critical structural feature required for inhibition.

  13. Identification of Broad-Based HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors From Combinatorial Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Max W.; Giffin, Michael J.; Muller, Rolf; Savage, Jeremiah; Lin, Ying C.; Hong, Sukwon; Jin, Wei; Whitby, Landon R.; Elder, John H.; Boger, Dale L.; Torbett, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    Clinically approved inhibitors of HIV-1 protease function via a competitive mechanism. A particular vulnerability of competitive inhibitors is their sensitivity to increases in substrate concentration, as may occur during virion assembly, budding and processing into a mature, infectious viral particle. Advances in chemical synthesis have led to the development of new chemical libraries with high diversity using rapid in-solution syntheses. These libraries have been previously shown to be effective at disrupting protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interfaces. We have screened 44,000 compounds from such a library to identify inhibitors of HIV-1 protease. One compound was identified that inhibits wild type protease, as well as a drug-resistant protease with 6 mutations. Moreover, analysis of this compound suggests an allosteric, non-competitive mechanism of inhibition and may represent a starting point for an additional strategy for anti-retroviral therapy. PMID:20507280

  14. Structural insights into the unique inhibitory mechanism of the silkworm protease inhibitor serpin18

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Peng-Chao; Dong, Zhaoming; Zhao, Ping; Zhang, Yan; He, Huawei; Tan, Xiang; Zhang, Weiwei; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-01-01

    Serpins generally serve as inhibitors that utilize a mobile reactive center loop (RCL) as bait to trap protease targets. Here, we present the crystal structure of serpin18 from Bombyx mori at 1.65 Å resolution, which has a very short and stable RCL. Activity analysis showed that the inhibitory target of serpin18 is a cysteine protease rather than a serine protease. Notably, this inhibitiory reaction results from the formation of an intermediate complex, which then follows for the digestion of protease and inhibitor into small fragments. This activity differs from previously reported modes of inhibition for serpins. Our findings have thus provided novel structural insights into the unique inhibitory mechanism of serpin18. Furthermore, one physiological target of serpin18, fibroinase, was identified, which enables us to better define the potential role for serpin18 in regulating fibroinase activity during B. mori development. PMID:26148664

  15. Hyaluronidase and protease activities from Indian snake venoms: neutralization by Mimosa pudica root extract.

    PubMed

    Girish, K S; Mohanakumari, H P; Nagaraju, S; Vishwanath, B S; Kemparaju, K

    2004-06-01

    The aqueous root extract of Mimosa pudica dose dependently inhibited the hyaluronidase and protease activities of Indian snakes (Naja naja, Vipera russelii and Echis carinatus) venom. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Efficient expression and purification of a protease from the common cold virus, human rhinovirus type 14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, L. E.-C.; Walker, P. A.; Porter, A. G.

    1992-08-01

    The protease (3C pro) from human rhinovirus serotype-14 (HRV-14) has been cloned and efficiently expressed in E. coli. A straightforward single-step purification of the recombinant 3C pro has been achieved by fusing the protein to the car☐y-terminus of the glutathione-S-transferase from Schistosoma japonicum. Modifications made to the 5' end of the PCR fragment coding for the 3C pro have allowed the specific cleavage of the fusion protein using thrombin to yield mature 3C pro with the correct amino-terminal amino acid. This protease has been shown to be active when assayed using synthetic peptides corresponding to the natural cleavage recognition sequences within the polyprotein. Other substrates are being developed for this protease for possible use in the screening of inhibitors of 3C pro. Sufficient protease 3C pro has been purified for initial attempts at crystallization.

  17. Staphylococcus aureus Manipulates Innate Immunity through Own and Host-Expressed Proteases.

    PubMed

    Pietrocola, Giampiero; Nobile, Giulia; Rindi, Simonetta; Speziale, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils, complement system and skin collectively represent the main elements of the innate immune system, the first line of defense of the host against many common microorganisms. Bacterial pathogens have evolved strategies to counteract all these defense activities. Specifically, Staphylococcus aureus , a major human pathogen, secretes a variety of immune evasion molecules including proteases, which cleave components of the innate immune system or disrupt the integrity of extracellular matrix and intercellular connections of tissues. Additionally, S. aureus secretes proteins that can activate host zymogens which, in turn, target specific defense components. Secreted proteins can also inhibit the anti-bacterial function of neutrophils or complement system proteases, potentiating S. aureus chances of survival. Here, we review the current understanding of these proteases and modulators of host proteases in the functioning of innate immunity and describe the importance of these mechanisms in the pathology of staphylococcal diseases.

  18. Staphylococcus aureus Manipulates Innate Immunity through Own and Host-Expressed Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Pietrocola, Giampiero; Nobile, Giulia; Rindi, Simonetta; Speziale, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils, complement system and skin collectively represent the main elements of the innate immune system, the first line of defense of the host against many common microorganisms. Bacterial pathogens have evolved strategies to counteract all these defense activities. Specifically, Staphylococcus aureus, a major human pathogen, secretes a variety of immune evasion molecules including proteases, which cleave components of the innate immune system or disrupt the integrity of extracellular matrix and intercellular connections of tissues. Additionally, S. aureus secretes proteins that can activate host zymogens which, in turn, target specific defense components. Secreted proteins can also inhibit the anti-bacterial function of neutrophils or complement system proteases, potentiating S. aureus chances of survival. Here, we review the current understanding of these proteases and modulators of host proteases in the functioning of innate immunity and describe the importance of these mechanisms in the pathology of staphylococcal diseases. PMID:28529927

  19. Structural and Functional Characterization of Cleavage and Inactivation of Human Serine Protease Inhibitors by the Bacterial SPATE Protease EspPα from Enterohemorrhagic E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, André; Joerss, Hanna; Brockmeyer, Jens

    2014-01-01

    EspPα and EspI are serine protease autotransporters found in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. They both belong to the SPATE autotransporter family and are believed to contribute to pathogenicity via proteolytic cleavage and inactivation of different key host proteins during infection. Here, we describe the specific cleavage and functional inactivation of serine protease inhibitors (serpins) by EspPα and compare this activity with the related SPATE EspI. Serpins are structurally related proteins that regulate vital protease cascades, such as blood coagulation and inflammatory host response. For the rapid determination of serpin cleavage sites, we applied direct MALDI-TOF-MS or ESI-FTMS analysis of coincubations of serpins and SPATE proteases and confirmed observed cleavage positions using in-gel-digest of SDS-PAGE-separated degradation products. Activities of both serpin and SPATE protease were assessed in a newly developed photometrical assay using chromogenic peptide substrates. EspPα cleaved the serpins α1-protease inhibitor (α1-PI), α1-antichymotrypsin, angiotensinogen, and α2-antiplasmin. Serpin cleavage led to loss of inhibitory function as demonstrated for α1-PI while EspPα activity was not affected. Notably, EspPα showed pronounced specificity and cleaved procoagulatory serpins such as α2-antiplasmin while the anticoagulatory antithrombin III was not affected. Together with recently published research, this underlines the interference of EspPα with hemostasis or inflammatory responses during infection, while the observed interaction of EspI with serpins is likely to be not physiologically relevant. EspPα-mediated serpin cleavage occurred always in flexible loops, indicating that this structural motif might be required for substrate recognition. PMID:25347319

  20. Designing cellulosic and nanocellulosic sensors for interface with a protease sequestrant wound-dressing prototype: Implications of material selection for dressing and protease sensor design.

    PubMed

    Fontenot, Krystal R; Edwards, J Vincent; Haldane, David; Pircher, Nicole; Liebner, Falk; Condon, Brian D; Qureshi, Huzaifah; Yager, Dorne

    2017-11-01

    Interfacing nanocellulosic-based biosensors with chronic wound dressings for protease point of care diagnostics combines functional material properties of high specific surface area, appropriate surface charge, and hydrophilicity with biocompatibility to the wound environment. Combining a protease sensor with a dressing is consistent with the concept of an intelligent dressing, which has been a goal of wound-dressing design for more than a quarter century. We present here biosensors with a nanocellulosic transducer surface (nanocrystals, nanocellulose composites, and nanocellulosic aerogels) immobilized with a fluorescent elastase tripeptide or tetrapeptide biomolecule, which has selectivity and affinity for human neutrophil elastase present in chronic wound fluid. The specific surface area of the materials correlates with a greater loading of the elastase peptide substrate. Nitrogen adsorption and mercury intrusion studies revealed gas permeable systems with different porosities (28-98%) and pore sizes (2-50 nm, 210 µm) respectively, which influence water vapor transmission rates. A correlation between zeta potential values and the degree of protease sequestration imply that the greater the negative surface charge of the nanomaterials, the greater the sequestration of positively charged neutrophil proteases. The biosensors gave detection sensitivities of 0.015-0.13 units/ml, which are at detectable human neutrophil elastase levels present in chronic wound fluid. Thus, the physical and interactive biochemical properties of the nano-based biosensors are suitable for interfacing with protease sequestrant prototype wound dressings. A discussion of the relevance of protease sensors and cellulose nanomaterials to current chronic wound dressing design and technology is included.

  1. Genome-wide analysis of regulatory proteases sequences identified through bioinformatics data mining in Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong-Bin; Lou, Zhong-Zi; Li, Li; Brindley, Paul J; Zheng, Yadong; Luo, Xuenong; Hou, Junling; Guo, Aijiang; Jia, Wan-Zhong; Cai, Xuepeng

    2014-06-04

    Cysticercosis remains a major neglected tropical disease of humanity in many regions, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, Central America and elsewhere. Owing to the emerging drug resistance and the inability of current drugs to prevent re-infection, identification of novel vaccines and chemotherapeutic agents against Taenia solium and related helminth pathogens is a public health priority. The T. solium genome and the predicted proteome were reported recently, providing a wealth of information from which new interventional targets might be identified. In order to characterize and classify the entire repertoire of protease-encoding genes of T. solium, which act fundamental biological roles in all life processes, we analyzed the predicted proteins of this cestode through a combination of bioinformatics tools. Functional annotation was performed to yield insights into the signaling processes relevant to the complex developmental cycle of this tapeworm and to highlight a suite of the proteases as potential intervention targets. Within the genome of this helminth parasite, we identified 200 open reading frames encoding proteases from five clans, which correspond to 1.68% of the 11,902 protein-encoding genes predicted to be present in its genome. These proteases include calpains, cytosolic, mitochondrial signal peptidases, ubiquitylation related proteins, and others. Many not only show significant similarity to proteases in the Conserved Domain Database but have conserved active sites and catalytic domains. KEGG Automatic Annotation Server (KAAS) analysis indicated that ~60% of these proteases share strong sequence identities with proteins of the KEGG database, which are involved in human disease, metabolic pathways, genetic information processes, cellular processes, environmental information processes and organismal systems. Also, we identified signal peptides and transmembrane helices through comparative analysis with classes of important regulatory proteases

  2. The role of protease activation of inflammation in allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Reed, Charles E; Kita, Hirohito

    2004-11-01

    Extracellular endogenous proteases, as well as exogenous proteases from mites and molds, react with cell-surface receptors in the airways to generate leukocyte infiltration and to amplify the response to allergens. Stimulation leads to increased intracellular Ca ++ and gene transcription. The most thoroughly investigated receptors, protease-activated receptors (PARs), are 7-transmembrane proteins coupled to G proteins. PARs are widely distributed on the cells of the airways, where they contribute to the inflammation characteristic of allergic diseases. PAR stimulation of epithelial cells opens tight junctions, causes desquamation, and produces cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. They degranulate eosinophils and mast cells. Proteases contract bronchial smooth muscle and cause it to proliferate. PARs also promote maturation, proliferation, and collagen production of fibroblast precursors and mature fibroblasts. PAR-2, apparently the most important of the 4 PARs that have been characterized, is increased on the epithelium of patients with asthma. Trypsin, a product of injured epithelial cells, and mast cell tryptase are potent activators of PAR-2. Mast cell chymase activates PAR-1. Proteases from mites and molds appear to act through similar receptors. They amplify IgE production to allergens, degranulate eosinophils, and can generate inflammation, even in the absence of IgE. Proteases produced by Aspergillus species to support its growth are presumably responsible for the exuberant IgE, IgG, and granulomatous response of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Similar proteases from molds germinating on the respiratory mucosa have been recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic hyperplastic rhinitis and polyps and, by extension, of intrinsic asthma. Finally, proteases from mites and fungi growing in damp, water-damaged buildings might be the basis for the increased prevalence in these buildings of rhinitis, asthma, and other respiratory diseases

  3. Evaluation of retro-inverso modifications of HTLV-1 protease inhibitors containing a hydroxyethylamine isoster.

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, Tadashi; Awahara, Chiyuki; Naka, Hiromi; Aimoto, Saburo; Konno, Hiroyuki; Nosaka, Kazuto; Akaji, Kenichi

    2010-04-01

    Effects of retro-inverso (RI) modifications of HTLV-1 protease inhibitors containing a hydroxyethylamine isoster backbone were clarified. Construction of the isoster backbone was achieved by a stereoselective aldol reaction. Four diastereomers with different configurations at the isoster hydroxyl site and the scissile site substituent were synthesized. Inhibitory activities of the new inhibitors suggest that partially modified RI inhibitors would interact with HTLV-1 protease in the same manner as the parent hydroxyethylamine inhibitor. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Structure-guided fragment-based in silico drug design of dengue protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Knehans, Tim; Schüller, Andreas; Doan, Danny N; Nacro, Kassoum; Hill, Jeffrey; Güntert, Peter; Madhusudhan, M S; Weil, Tanja; Vasudevan, Subhash G

    2011-03-01

    An in silico fragment-based drug design approach was devised and applied towards the identification of small molecule inhibitors of the dengue virus (DENV) NS2B-NS3 protease. Currently, no DENV protease co-crystal structure with bound inhibitor and fully formed substrate binding site is available. Therefore a homology model of DENV NS2B-NS3 protease was generated employing a multiple template spatial restraints method and used for structure-based design. A library of molecular fragments was derived from the ZINC screening database with help of the retrosynthetic combinatorial analysis procedure (RECAP). 150,000 molecular fragments were docked to the DENV protease homology model and the docking poses were rescored using a target-specific scoring function. High scoring fragments were assembled to small molecule candidates by an implicit linking cascade. The cascade included substructure searching and structural filters focusing on interactions with the S1 and S2 pockets of the protease. The chemical space adjacent to the promising candidates was further explored by neighborhood searching. A total of 23 compounds were tested experimentally and two compounds were discovered to inhibit dengue protease (IC(50) = 7.7 μM and 37.9 μM, respectively) and the related West Nile virus protease (IC(50) = 6.3 μM and 39.0 μM, respectively). This study demonstrates the successful application of a structure-guided fragment-based in silico drug design approach for dengue protease inhibitors providing straightforward hit generation using a combination of homology modeling, fragment docking, chemical similarity and structural filters.

  5. Microbial Biosensor for the Detection of Protease-Virulent Factors from Pathogens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-28

    cleavage in the extracellular space. The cleavage of TCS receptor protein would abolish the kinase activity responsible for the phosphorylation of the...cytoplasmic response regulator, AgrA, which functions as a transcriptional activator . As the cell-based protease biosensor response requires over...to AIP; AgrC is a AIP receptor that phosphorylates AgrA, an activator for P2 and P3. Protein-based protease biosensor construction To facilitate

  6. Interspecific differences between D. pulex and D. magna in tolerance to cyanobacteria with protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kuster, Christian J; Von Elert, Eric

    2013-01-01

    It is known that cyanobacteria negatively affect herbivores due to their production of toxins such as protease inhibitors. In the present study we investigated potential interspecific differences between two major herbivores, Daphnia magna and Daphnia pulex, in terms of their tolerance to cyanobacteria with protease inhibitors. Seven clones each of D. magna and of D. pulex were isolated from different habitats in Europe and North America. To test for interspecific differences in the daphnids' tolerance to cyanobacteria, their somatic and population growth rates were determined for each D. magna and D. pulex clone after exposure to varying concentrations of two Microcystis aeruginosa strains. The M. aeruginosa strains NIVA and PCC(-) contained either chymotrypsin or trypsin inhibitors, but no microcystins. Mean somatic and population growth rates on a diet with 20% NIVA were significantly more reduced in D. pulex than in D. magna. On a diet with 10% PCC(-), the population growth of D. pulex was significantly more reduced than that of D. magna. This indicates that D. magna is more tolerant to cyanobacteria with protease inhibitors than D. pulex. The reduction of growth rates was possibly caused by an interference of cyanobacterial inhibitors with proteases in the gut of Daphnia, as many other conceivable factors, which might have been able to explain the reduced growth, could be excluded as causal factors. Protease assays revealed that the sensitivities of chymotrypsins and trypsins to cyanobacterial protease inhibitors did not differ between D. magna and D. pulex. However, D. magna exhibited a 2.3-fold higher specific chymotrypsin activity than D. pulex, which explains the observed higher tolerance to cyanobacterial protease inhibitors of D. magna. The present study suggests that D. magna may control the development of cyanobacterial blooms more efficiently than D. pulex due to differences in their tolerance to cyanobacteria with protease inhibitors.

  7. Identification of a serine protease as a major allergen (Per a 10) of Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Sudha, V T; Arora, N; Gaur, S N; Pasha, S; Singh, B P

    2008-06-01

    Cockroach allergens are associated with the development of asthma, but none of these has been characterized for proteolytic activity. This study was undertaken to isolate and characterize a protease from Periplaneta americana and determine its allergenicity. A serine protease was isolated from P. americana extract using benzamidine sepharose column and characterized by immunobiochemical methods. Allergenicity of the protease was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblot, intradermal testing, histamine release and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) proliferation. Affinity purified protein of approximately 28 kDa (Per a 10) showed a single band of activity in gelatin zymogram and agarose plate assay. N-terminal sequence (IVGGRPAQI) revealed similarity with mite serine protease allergens and insect trypsins. It demonstrated proteolytic activity with azocollagen > gelatin > defatted-milk > casein including serine protease specific substrate, N-benzoyl-arginine-ethyl-ester-hydrochloride. It was inhibited by serine protease inhibitors, namely aprotinin > pefabloc > AEBSF > PMSF > benzamidine > antipain > leupeptin and trypsin-specific inhibitor (tosyl-lysyl-chloromethyl-ketone) suggesting it to be a trypsin-like serine protease. Per a 10 was recognized as a major allergen, showing IgE reactivity with >80% of cockroach sensitized patients by skin tests and immunoblot. It could induce significant histamine release (P < 0.05) in blood and secretion of interleukin-4 (IL-4) (P < 0.05) and IL-5 (P < 0.05) in culture supernatant of PBMCs from cockroach hypersensitive patients, suggesting a strong allergenic potency. A serine protease isolated from P. americana was demonstrated to be a major allergen (Per a 10). It has a potential for component-based diagnosis of allergy and will be useful in elucidating the mechanism of allergy.

  8. Structure-guided fragment-based in silico drug design of dengue protease inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knehans, Tim; Schüller, Andreas; Doan, Danny N.; Nacro, Kassoum; Hill, Jeffrey; Güntert, Peter; Madhusudhan, M. S.; Weil, Tanja; Vasudevan, Subhash G.

    2011-03-01

    An in silico fragment-based drug design approach was devised and applied towards the identification of small molecule inhibitors of the dengue virus (DENV) NS2B-NS3 protease. Currently, no DENV protease co-crystal structure with bound inhibitor and fully formed substrate binding site is available. Therefore a homology model of DENV NS2B-NS3 protease was generated employing a multiple template spatial restraints method and used for structure-based design. A library of molecular fragments was derived from the ZINC screening database with help of the retrosynthetic combinatorial analysis procedure (RECAP). 150,000 molecular fragments were docked to the DENV protease homology model and the docking poses were rescored using a target-specific scoring function. High scoring fragments were assembled to small molecule candidates by an implicit linking cascade. The cascade included substructure searching and structural filters focusing on interactions with the S1 and S2 pockets of the protease. The chemical space adjacent to the promising candidates was further explored by neighborhood searching. A total of 23 compounds were tested experimentally and two compounds were discovered to inhibit dengue protease (IC50 = 7.7 μM and 37.9 μM, respectively) and the related West Nile virus protease (IC50 = 6.3 μM and 39.0 μM, respectively). This study demonstrates the successful application of a structure-guided fragment-based in silico drug design approach for dengue protease inhibitors providing straightforward hit generation using a combination of homology modeling, fragment docking, chemical similarity and structural filters.

  9. Nematicidal activity of three novel extracellular proteases of the nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium sinense.

    PubMed

    Soares, Filippe E F; Braga, Fabio R; Araújo, Jackson V; Geniêr, Hugo L A; Gouveia, Angélica S; Queiroz, José H

    2013-04-01

    Extracellular proteases are an important virulence factor for the nematophagous fungi Monacrosporium. The objective of this study was to optimize, purify, partially characterize, and to evaluate the nematicidal activity of the proteases produced by the nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium sinense (SF53) by solid-state fermentation. Wheat bran was used as substrate for protease production. The variables moisture, pH, incubation time, temperature, glucose, yeast extract, and the number of conidia were tested for their influences on protease production by SF53. To determine the optimal level of the selected variables the central composite design was applied. The crude extract obtained was purified in two steps, an ion exchange chromatography and a gel excision. SDS-PAGE and zymogram were performed for analysis of the purification process. Proteolytic activity was also tested at different pHs and temperatures. In the in vitro assay, the nematicidal activity of the three proteases was evaluated. pH and incubation time showed a significant effect (p<0.05) on production of protease. The highest value of activity was 38.0 (U/ml) under the conditions of pH 5.0 and incubation time of 211 h. SF53 produced three different proteases (Ms1, Ms2, and Ms3) which were directly purified from the zymogram. Ms1, Ms2, and Ms3 showed the following percentage of reduction (p<0.05) on the number of Panagrellus redivivus compared to control after 24 h: 76.8, 68.1, and 92.1%. This is the first report of the use of proteases of the isolate SF53 on a phytonematode, which may be a research tool in future works.

  10. Distorted secretory granule composition in mast cells with multiple protease deficiency.

    PubMed

    Grujic, Mirjana; Calounova, Gabriela; Eriksson, Inger; Feyerabend, Thorsten; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Tchougounova, Elena; Kjellén, Lena; Pejler, Gunnar

    2013-10-01

    Mast cells are characterized by an abundance of secretory granules densely packed with inflammatory mediators such as bioactive amines, cytokines, serglycin proteoglycans with negatively charged glycosaminoglycan side chains of either heparin or chondroitin sulfate type, and large amounts of positively charged proteases. Despite the large biological impact of mast cell granules and their contents on various pathologies, the mechanisms that regulate granule composition are incompletely understood. In this study, we hypothesized that granule composition is dependent on a dynamic electrostatic interrelationship between different granule compounds. As a tool to evaluate this possibility, we generated mice in which mast cells are multideficient in a panel of positively charged proteases: the chymase mouse mast cell protease-4, the tryptase mouse mast cell protease-6, and carboxypeptidase A3. Through a posttranslational effect, mast cells from these mice additionally lack mouse mast cell protease-5 protein. Mast cells from mice deficient in individual proteases showed normal morphology. In contrast, mast cells with combined protease deficiency displayed a profound distortion of granule integrity, as seen both by conventional morphological criteria and by transmission electron microscopy. An assessment of granule content revealed that the distorted granule integrity in multiprotease-deficient mast cells was associated with a profound reduction of highly negatively charged heparin, whereas no reduction in chondroitin sulfate storage was observed. Taken together with previous findings showing that the storage of basic proteases conversely is regulated by anionic proteoglycans, these data suggest that secretory granule composition in mast cells is dependent on a dynamic interrelationship between granule compounds of opposite electrical charge.

  11. Distinctive Roles for Periplasmic Proteases in the Maintenance of Essential Outer Membrane Protein Assembly.

    PubMed

    Soltes, Garner R; Martin, Nicholas R; Park, Eunhae; Sutterlin, Holly A; Silhavy, Thomas J

    2017-10-15

    Outer membrane protein (OMP) biogenesis in Escherichia coli is a robust process essential to the life of the organism. It is catalyzed by the β-barrel assembly machine (Bam) complex, and a number of quality control factors, including periplasmic chaperones and proteases, maintain the integrity of this trafficking pathway. Little is known, however, about how periplasmic proteases recognize and degrade OMP substrates when assembly is compromised or whether different proteases recognize the same substrate at distinct points in the assembly pathway. In this work, we use well-defined assembly-defective mutants of LptD, the essential lipopolysaccharide assembly translocon, to show that the periplasmic protease DegP degrades substrates with assembly defects that prevent or impair initial contact with Bam, causing the mutant protein to accumulate in the periplasm. In contrast, another periplasmic protease, BepA, degrades a LptD mutant substrate that has engaged the Bam complex and formed a nearly complete barrel. Furthermore, we describe the role of the outer membrane lipoprotein YcaL, a protease of heretofore unknown function, in the degradation of a LptD substrate that has engaged the Bam complex but is stalled at an earlier step in the assembly process that is not accessible to BepA. Our results demonstrate that multiple periplasmic proteases monitor OMPs at distinct points in the assembly process. IMPORTANCE OMP assembly is catalyzed by the essential Bam complex and occurs in a cellular environment devoid of energy sources. Assembly intermediates that misfold can compromise this essential molecular machine. Here we demonstrate distinctive roles for three different periplasmic proteases that can clear OMP substrates with folding defects that compromise assembly at three different stages. These quality control factors help ensure the integrity of the permeability barrier that contributes to the intrinsic resistance of Gram-negative organisms to many antibiotics

  12. Synthesis and evaluation of phenylisoserine derivatives for the SARS-CoV 3CL protease inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Konno, Hiroyuki; Onuma, Takumi; Nitanai, Ikumi; Wakabayashi, Masaki; Yano, Shigekazu; Teruya, Kenta; Akaji, Kenichi

    2017-06-15

    Synthesis and evaluation of new scaffold phenylisoserine derivatives connected with the essential functional groups against SARS CoV 3CL protease are described. The phenylisoserine backbone was found by simulation on GOLD software and the structure activity relationship study of phenylisoserine derivatives gave SK80 with an IC 50 value of 43μM against SARS CoV 3CL R188I mutant protease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fifteen years of HIV Protease Inhibitors: raising the barrier to resistance.

    PubMed

    Wensing, Annemarie M J; van Maarseveen, Noortje M; Nijhuis, Monique

    2010-01-01

    HIV protease plays a crucial role in the viral life cycle and is essential for the generation of mature infectious virus particles. Detailed knowledge of the structure of HIV protease and its substrate has led to the design of specific HIV protease inhibitors. Unfortunately, resistance to all protease inhibitors (PIs) has been observed and the genetic basis of resistance has been well documented over the past 15 years. The arrival of the early PIs was a pivotal moment in the development of antiretroviral therapy. They made possible the dual class triple combination therapy that became known as HAART. However, the clinical utility of the first generation of PIs was limited by low bioavailability and high pill burdens, which ultimately reduced adherence and limited long-term viral inhibition. When therapy failure occurred multiple protease resistance mutations were observed, often resulting in broad class resistance. To combat PI-resistance development, second-generation approaches have been developed. The first advance was to increase the level of existing PIs in the plasma by boosting with ritonavir. The second was to develop novel PIs with high potency against the known PI-resistant HIV protease