Science.gov

Sample records for a1 proteases evidence

  1. Pneumococcal IgA1 protease subverts specific protection by human IgA1.

    PubMed

    Janoff, E N; Rubins, J B; Fasching, C; Charboneau, D; Rahkola, J T; Plaut, A G; Weiser, J N

    2014-03-01

    Bacterial immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) proteases may sabotage the protective effects of IgA. In vitro, both exogenous and endogenously produced IgA1 protease inhibited phagocytic killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae by capsule-specific IgA1 human monoclonal antibodies (hMAbs) but not IgA2. These IgA1 proteases cleaved and reduced binding of the the effector Fcα1 heavy chain but not the antigen-binding F(ab)/light chain to pneumococcal surfaces. In vivo, IgA1 protease-resistant IgA2, but not IgA1 protease-sensitive IgA1, supported 60% survival in mice infected with wild-type S. pneumoniae. IgA1 hMAbs protected mice against IgA1 protease-deficient but not -producing pneumococci. Parallel mouse sera with human IgA2 showed more efficient complement-mediated reductions in pneumococci with neutrophils than did IgA1, particularly with protease-producing organisms. After natural human pneumococcal bacteremia, purified serum IgG inhibited IgA1 protease activity in 7 of 11 patients (64%). These observations provide the first evidence in vivo that IgA1 protease can circumvent killing of S. pneumoniae by human IgA. Acquisition of IgA1 protease-neutralizing IgG after infection directs attention to IgA1 protease both as a determinant of successful colonization and infection and as a potential vaccine candidate.

  2. Evidence of bovine immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) protease activity in partially purified culture supernate of Pasteurella haemolytica A1.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C W; Shewen, P E

    1996-01-01

    In the bovine respiratory tract, IgG1 is a major secretory immunoglobulin (Ig), and both IgG1 and IgG2 are believed to be important in defense against pneumonic pasteurellosis (shipping fever) in calves. Here we provide evidence for hydrolysis of IgG1 in the presence of partially purified culture supernate (ppCS) from the respiratory pathogen Pasteurella haemolytica A1. Bovine IgG1 was hydrolysed sequentially into three distinct bands (approximately 39, 12, and 7 kDa respectively). Furthermore, partial hydrolysis of bovine IgG2 was observed, but neither bovine IgA nor IgM were affected by incubation with ppCS. These findings suggest that the production of an IgG1-specific protease by P. haemolytica A1 may be a virulence mechanism contributing to the pathogenesis of bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:8785718

  3. The S8 serine, C1A cysteine and A1 aspartic protease families in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Beers, Eric P; Jones, Alan M; Dickerman, Allan W

    2004-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana genome has over 550 protease sequences representing all five catalytic types: serine, cysteine, aspartic acid, metallo and threonine (MEROPS peptidase database, http://merops.sanger.ac.uk/), which probably reflect a wide variety of as yet unidentified functions performed by plant proteases. Recent indications that the 26S proteasome, a T1 family-threonine protease, is a regulator of light and hormone responsive signal transduction highlight the potential of proteases to participate in many aspects of plant growth and development. Recent discoveries that proteases are required for stomatal distribution, embryo development and disease resistance point to wider roles for four additional multigene families that include some of the most frequently studied (yet poorly understood) plant proteases: the subtilisin-like, serine proteases (family S8), the papain-like, cysteine proteases (family C1A), the pepsin-like, aspartic proteases (family A1) and the plant matrixin, metalloproteases (family M10A). In this report, 54 subtilisin-like, 30 papain-like and 59 pepsin-like proteases from Arabidopsis, are compared with S8, C1A and A1 proteases known from other plant species at the functional, phylogenetic and gene structure levels. Examples of structural conservation between S8, C1A and A1 genes from rice, barley, tomato and soybean and those from Arabidopsis are noted, indicating that some common, essential plant protease roles were established before the divergence of monocots and eudicots. Numerous examples of tandem duplications of protease genes and evidence for a variety of restricted expression patterns suggest that a high degree of specialization exists among proteases within each family. We propose that comprehensive analysis of the functions of these genes in Arabidopsis will firmly establish serine, cysteine and aspartic proteases as regulators and effectors of a wide range of plant processes.

  4. Pioneer oral streptococci produce immunoglobulin A1 protease.

    PubMed Central

    Cole, M F; Evans, M; Fitzsimmons, S; Johnson, J; Pearce, C; Sheridan, M J; Wientzen, R; Bowden, G

    1994-01-01

    As part of a longitudinal study of the relationship between bacterial colonization and the secretory immune response, 367 isolates of pioneer viridans streptococci collected from 40 breast- and bottle-fed neonates within the first month postpartum were tested for the production of immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) protease and glycosidases. Fifty percent of the streptococci isolated produced IgA1 protease, including all isolates of Streptococcus oralis and S. sanguis, 60.7% of S. mitis biovar 1 isolates, and some isolates that could not be identified. Three cleavage patterns of alpha 1 heavy chains were observed. Six isolates of S. mitis biovar 1 that did not produce IgA1 protease attacked the alpha 1 chain. Incubation of IgA1 protease-negative S. mitis biovar 1 isolates with IgA1, either prior to or together with S. sanguis, rendered the IgA1 paraprotein resistant to cleavage by the IgA1 protease of S. sanguis. The ability of some pioneer streptococci in the human oral cavity to produce IgA1 protease and of others to modify the susceptibility of IgA1 to cleavage by IgA1 protease perhaps enhances their ability to survive in this habitat. Images PMID:8188337

  5. Serological Analysis of Immunogenic Properties of Recombinant Meningococcus IgA1 Protease-Based Proteins.

    PubMed

    Kotelnikova, O V; Zinchenko, A A; Vikhrov, A A; Alliluev, A P; Serova, O V; Gordeeva, E A; Zhigis, L S; Zueva, V S; Razgulyaeva, O A; Melikhova, T D; Nokel, E A; Drozhzhina, E Yu; Rumsh, L D

    2016-07-01

    Using the genome sequence of IgA1 protease of N. meningitidis of serogroup B, four recombinant proteins of different structure and molecular weight were constructed. These proteins were equal in inducing the formation of specific antibodies to IgA1 protease and had protective properties against meningococci. In the sera of immunized mice, anti-IgA1 protease antibodies were detected by whole-cell ELISA, which indicated the presence of IgA1 protease on the surface of these bacteria. We hypothesized that the protective properties of IgA1 protease-based antigens and IgA1 protease analogs could be realized not only via impairment of bacterium adhesion to the mucosa, but also via suppression of this pathogen in the organism. The presented findings seem promising for using these proteins as the basis for anti-meningococcus vaccine.

  6. Degradation of phycobilisomes in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803: evidence for essential formation of an NblA1/NblA2 heterodimer and its codegradation by A Clp protease complex.

    PubMed

    Baier, Antje; Winkler, Wiebke; Korte, Thomas; Lockau, Wolfgang; Karradt, Anne

    2014-04-25

    When cyanobacteria acclimate to nitrogen deficiency, they degrade their large (3-5-MDa), light-harvesting complexes, the phycobilisomes. This massive, yet specific, intracellular degradation of the pigmented phycobiliproteins causes a color change of cyanobacterial cultures from blue-green to yellow-green, a process referred to as chlorosis or bleaching. Phycobilisome degradation is induced by expression of the nblA gene, which encodes a protein of ~7 kDa. NblA most likely acts as an adaptor protein that guides a Clp protease to the phycobiliproteins, thereby initiating the degradation process. Most cyanobacteria and red algae possess just one nblA-homologous gene. As an exception, the widely used "model organism" Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 expresses two such genes, nblA16803 and nblA26803, both of whose products are required for phycobilisome degradation. Here, we demonstrate that the two NblA proteins heterodimerize in vitro and in vivo using pull-down assays and a Förster energy-transfer approach, respectively. We further show that the NblA proteins form a ternary complex with ClpC (the HSP100 chaperone partner of Clp proteases) and phycobiliproteins in vitro. This complex is susceptible to ATP-dependent degradation by a Clp protease, a finding that supports a proposed mechanism of the degradation process. Expression of the single nblA gene encoded by the genome of the N2-fixing, filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC7120 in the nblA1/nblA2 mutant of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 induced phycobilisome degradation, suggesting that the function of the NblA heterodimer of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 is combined in the homodimeric protein of Nostoc sp. PCC7120.

  7. Versatile substrates and probes for IgA1 protease activity.

    PubMed

    Choudary, Santosh K; Qiu, Jiazhou; Plaut, Andrew G; Kritzer, Joshua A

    2013-10-11

    Bacterial meningitis is a severe infectious disease with high mortality. Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria that cause meningitis secrete immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) proteases to assist in mucosal colonization, invasion, and immune evasion. IgA1 proteases have unique selectivity, with few reported substrates other than IgA1 from human tissue. Here we describe the design, characterization, and application of peptide substrates for diverse IgA1 proteases from Neisseria, Haemophilus, and Streptococcus bacteria. IgA1 proteases from diverse strains showed unexpected selectivity profiles among peptide substrates derived from autoproteolytic sites. A fluorescence probe derived from one of these peptides was used to quantitate IgA1 protease activity in buffer and in human cerebrospinal fluid; it was able to detect recombinant Haemophilus influenzae type 1 IgA1 protease at less than 1 μg mL(-1) . We also used the probe to establish the first high-throughput screen for IgA1 protease inhibitors. This work provides tools that will help investigate the roles of IgA1 proteases in bacterial colonization, immune evasion, and infection.

  8. Immunoglobulin A1 protease production by Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Male, C J

    1979-01-01

    Bacterial strains of Haemophilus species and Streptococcus pneumoniae were examined for synthesis of the enzyme immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) protease. Of 36 H. influenzae strains examined, 35 produced IgA1 protease; strains included all six capsular types, unencapsulated variants of types b and d, and untypable H. influenzae. Eight Haemophilus strains (non-H. influenzae) were studied, and two produced IgA1 protease. All 10 strains of S. pneumoniae produced IgA1 protease; these strains included 9 different capsular polysaccharide types and 1 untypable strain. Both IgA1 proteases cleaved myeloma IgA1 and secretory IgA but not myeloma IgA2, IgM, or IgG as determined by immunoelectrophoresis. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that both enzymes cleaved IgA1 myeloma sera, but not IgA2, into two fragments. The apparent molecular weight of the cleaved fragments was dependent both on the apparent molecular weight of the cleaved fragments was dependent both on the specific IgA1 protease assayed and the specific IgA1 substrate utilized. It is postulated that both carbohydrate variation between the IgA1 substrates studied and the ability of S. pneumoniae glycosidases to cleave carbohydrates from glycoprotein offer an explanation for the different fragment sizes observed. Images PMID:40880

  9. A Neisseria gonorrhoeae Immunoglobulin A1 Protease Mutant Is Infectious in the Human Challenge Model of Urethral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Johannsen, Diana B.; Johnston, David M.; Koymen, Hakan O.; Cohen, Myron S.; Cannon, Janne G.

    1999-01-01

    Many mucosal pathogens, including Neisseria gonorrhoeae, produce proteases that cleave immunoglobulin A (IgA), the predominant immunoglobulin class produced at mucosal surfaces. While considerable circumstantial evidence suggests that IgA1 protease contributes to gonococcal virulence, there is no direct evidence that N. gonorrhoeae requires IgA1 protease activity to infect a human host. We constructed a N. gonorrhoeae iga mutant without introducing new antibiotic resistance markers into the final mutant strain and used human experimental infection to test the ability of the mutant to colonize the male urethra and to cause gonococcal urethritis. Four of the five male volunteers inoculated with the Iga− mutant became infected. In every respect—clinical signs and symptoms, incubation period between inoculation and infection, and the proportion of volunteers infected—the outcome of human experimental infection with FA1090iga was indistinguishable from that previously reported for a variant of parent strain FA1090 matching the mutant in expression of Opa proteins, lipooligosaccharide, and pilin. These results indicate that N. gonorrhoeae does not require IgA1 protease production to cause experimental urethritis in males. PMID:10338512

  10. Genetic Evidence Supporting the Association of Protease and Protease Inhibitor Genes with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bekkering, Geertruida E.; Nüesch, Eveline; Mendes, Camila T.; Schmied, Stefanie; Wyder, Stefan; Kellen, Eliane; Villiger, Peter M.; Rutgeerts, Paul; Vermeire, Séverine; Lottaz, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    As part of the European research consortium IBDase, we addressed the role of proteases and protease inhibitors (P/PIs) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), characterized by chronic mucosal inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, which affects 2.2 million people in Europe and 1.4 million people in North America. We systematically reviewed all published genetic studies on populations of European ancestry (67 studies on Crohn's disease [CD] and 37 studies on ulcerative colitis [UC]) to identify critical genomic regions associated with IBD. We developed a computer algorithm to map the 807 P/PI genes with exact genomic locations listed in the MEROPS database of peptidases onto these critical regions and to rank P/PI genes according to the accumulated evidence for their association with CD and UC. 82 P/PI genes (75 coding for proteases and 7 coding for protease inhibitors) were retained for CD based on the accumulated evidence. The cylindromatosis/turban tumor syndrome gene (CYLD) on chromosome 16 ranked highest, followed by acylaminoacyl-peptidase (APEH), dystroglycan (DAG1), macrophage-stimulating protein (MST1) and ubiquitin-specific peptidase 4 (USP4), all located on chromosome 3. For UC, 18 P/PI genes were retained (14 proteases and 4protease inhibitors), with a considerably lower amount of accumulated evidence. The ranking of P/PI genes as established in this systematic review is currently used to guide validation studies of candidate P/PI genes, and their functional characterization in interdisciplinary mechanistic studies in vitro and in vivo as part of IBDase. The approach used here overcomes some of the problems encountered when subjectively selecting genes for further evaluation and could be applied to any complex disease and gene family. PMID:21931648

  11. Evidence for Reduced Drug Susceptibility without Emergence of Major Protease Mutations following Protease Inhibitor Monotherapy Failure in the SARA Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Katherine A.; Parry, Chris M.; McCormick, Adele; Kapaata, Anne; Lyagoba, Fred; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Gilks, Charles F.; Goodall, Ruth; Spyer, Moira; Kityo, Cissy; Pillay, Deenan; Gupta, Ravindra K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Major protease mutations are rarely observed following failure with protease inhibitors (PI), and other viral determinants of failure to PI are poorly understood. We therefore characterized Gag-Protease phenotypic susceptibility in subtype A and D viruses circulating in East Africa following viral rebound on PIs. Methods Samples from baseline and treatment failure in patients enrolled in the second line LPV/r trial SARA underwent phenotypic susceptibility testing. Data were expressed as fold-change in susceptibility relative to a LPV-susceptible reference strain. Results We cloned 48 Gag-Protease containing sequences from seven individuals and performed drug resistance phenotyping from pre-PI and treatment failure timepoints in seven patients. For the six patients where major protease inhibitor resistance mutations did not emerge, mean fold-change EC50 to LPV was 4.07 fold (95% CI, 2.08–6.07) at the pre-PI timepoint. Following viral failure the mean fold-change in EC50 to LPV was 4.25 fold (95% CI, 1.39–7.11, p = 0.91). All viruses remained susceptible to DRV. In our assay system, the major PI resistance mutation I84V, which emerged in one individual, conferred a 10.5-fold reduction in LPV susceptibility. One of the six patients exhibited a significant reduction in susceptibility between pre-PI and failure timepoints (from 4.7 fold to 9.6 fold) in the absence of known major mutations in protease, but associated with changes in Gag: V7I, G49D, R69Q, A120D, Q127K, N375S and I462S. Phylogenetic analysis provided evidence of the emergence of genetically distinct viruses at the time of treatment failure, indicating ongoing viral evolution in Gag-protease under PI pressure. Conclusions Here we observe in one patient the development of significantly reduced susceptibility conferred by changes in Gag which may have contributed to treatment failure on a protease inhibitor containing regimen. Further phenotype-genotype studies are required to elucidate genetic

  12. Modulation of the Bacillus anthracis Secretome by the Immune Inhibitor A1 Protease

    PubMed Central

    Pflughoeft, Kathryn J.; Swick, Michelle C.; Engler, David A.; Yeo, Hye-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    The Bacillus anthracis secretome includes protective antigen, lethal factor, and edema factor, which are the components of anthrax toxin, and other proteins with known or potential roles in anthrax disease. Immune inhibitor A1 (InhA1) is a secreted metalloprotease that is unique to pathogenic members of the Bacillus genus and has been associated with cleavage of host proteins during infection. Here, we report the effect of InhA1 on the B. anthracis secretome. Differential in-gel electrophoresis of proteins present in culture supernatants from a parent strain and an isogenic inhA1-null mutant revealed multiple differences. Of the 1,340 protein spots observed, approximately one-third were less abundant and one-third were more abundant in the inhA1 secretome than in the parent strain secretome. Proteases were strongly represented among those proteins exhibiting a 9-fold or greater change. InhA1 purified from a B. anthracis culture supernatant directly cleaved each of the anthrax toxin proteins as well as an additional secreted protease, Npr599. The conserved zinc binding motif HEXXH of InhA1 (HEYGH) was critical for its proteolytic activity. Our data reveal that InhA1 directly and indirectly modulates the form and/or abundance of over half of all the secreted proteins of B. anthracis. The proteolytic activity of InhA1 on established secreted virulence factors, additional proteases, and other secreted proteins suggests that this major protease plays an important role in virulence not only by cleaving mammalian substrates but also by modulating the B. anthracis secretome itself. PMID:24214942

  13. Sites in the CH3 domain of human IgA1 that influence sensitivity to bacterial IgA1 proteases.

    PubMed

    Senior, Bernard W; Woof, Jenny M

    2006-09-15

    The influence of regions, other than the hinge, on the susceptibility of human IgA1 to cleavage by diverse bacterial IgA1 proteases, was examined using IgA1 mutants bearing amino acid deletions, substitutions, and domain swaps. IgA1 lacking the tailpiece retained its susceptibility to cleavage by all of the IgA1 proteases. The domain swap molecule alpha1alpha2gamma3, in which the CH3 domain of IgA1 was exchanged for that of human IgG1, was resistant to cleavage with the type 1 and 2 serine IgA1 proteases of Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Haemophilus influenzae, but remained sensitive to cleavage with the metallo-IgA1 proteases of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus sanguis, and Streptococcus mitis. Substitution of the IgA1 Calpha3 domain motif Pro440 -Phe443 into the corresponding position in the Cgamma3 domain of alpha1alpha2gamma3 resulted now in sensitivity to the type 2 IgA1 protease of N. meningitidis, indicating the possible requirement of these amino acids for sensitivity to this protease. For the H. influenzae type 2 protease, resistance of an IgA1 mutant in which the CH3 domain residues 399-409 were exchanged with those from IgG1, but sensitivity of mutant HuBovalpha3 in which the Calpha3 domain of bovine IgA replaces that of human IgA1, suggests that CH3 domain residues Glu403, Gln406, and Thr409 influence sensitivity to this enzyme. Hence, unlike the situation with the metallo-IgA1 proteases of Streptococcus spp., the sensitivity of human IgA1 to cleavage with the serine IgA1 proteases of Neisseria and Haemophilus involves their binding to different sites specifically in the CH3 domain.

  14. Evidence for pH-Dependent Protease Activity in the Adeno-Associated Virus Capsid

    PubMed Central

    Salganik, Maxim; Venkatakrishnan, Balasubramanian; Bennett, Antonette; Lins, Bridget; Yarbrough, Joseph; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    2012-01-01

    Incubation of highly purified adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsids in vitro at pH 5.5 induced significant autocleavage of capsid proteins at several amino acid positions. No autocleavage was seen at pH 7.5. Examination of other AAV serotypes showed at least two different pH-induced cleavage patterns, suggesting that different serotypes have evolved alternative protease cleavage sites. In contrast, incubation of AAV serotypes with an external protease substrate showed that purified AAV capsid preparations have robust protease activity at neutral pH but not at pH 5.5, opposite to what is seen with capsid protein autocleavage. Several lines of evidence suggested that protease activity is inherent in AAV capsids and is not due to contaminating proteins. Control virus preparations showed no protease activity on external substrates, and filtrates of AAV virus preparations also showed no protease activity contaminating the capsids. Further, N-terminal Edman sequencing identified unique autocleavage sites in AAV1 and AAV9, and mutagenesis of amino acids adjacent to these sites eliminated cleavage. Finally, mutation of an amino acid in AAV2 (E563A) that is in a conserved pH-sensitive structural region eliminated protease activity on an external substrate but did not seem to affect autocleavage. Taken together, our data suggested that AAV capsids have one or more protease active sites that are sensitive to pH induction. Further, it appears that acidic pHs comparable to those seen in late endosomes induce a structural change in the capsid that induces autolytic protease activity. The pH-dependent protease activity may have a role in viral infection. PMID:22915820

  15. Proteases in cellular slime mold development: evidence for their involvement.

    PubMed Central

    Fong, D; Bonner, J T

    1979-01-01

    Protein degradation appears to be essential for normal differentiation in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Several protease inhibitors block normal differentiation, and in most cases this inhibition can be reversed by addition of amino acids. For example, chloroquine, which inhibits slime mold cathepsin B activity, interferred with development by blocking sorocarp formation, and this inhibition was reversed by the addition of amino acids. Tosyllysyl chloromethyl ketone also blocked development, and this inhibition was reversed by simultaneous additions of amino acids and glutathione. Moreover, the addition of antipain and leupeptin delayed sorocarp formation. These results, together with the finding reported earlier that cathepsin B activity is differentially localized in the prestalk-prespore zones of the migrating slugs, suggest that proteolysis might play a regulatory role in cellular slime mold differentiation. Images PMID:293735

  16. Association of frailty with the serine protease HtrA1 in older adults.

    PubMed

    Lorenzi, Maria; Lorenzi, Teresa; Marzetti, Emanuele; Landi, Francesco; Vetrano, Davide L; Settanni, Silvana; Antocicco, Manuela; Bonassi, Stefano; Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Bernabei, Roberto; Onder, Graziano

    2016-08-01

    Frailty is a geriatric syndrome characterized by multi system dysregulation. It has been suggested that chronic inflammation may be involved in the pathogenesis of frailty. No study so far has identified accurate, specific and sensitive molecular biomarkers for frailty. High-temperature requirement serine protease A1 (HtrA1) is a secreted multidomain serine protease implicated in the inhibition of signaling of active transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)1, a cytokine which has an important anti-inflammation role. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of circulating levels of HtrA1 with frailty in a sample of older adults. The study was performed in 120 older adults aged >65years and admitted to a geriatric outpatient clinic. The frailty status of participants was assessed by both the Fried's criteria (physical frailty, PF) and a modified Rockwood's frailty index (FI). Plasma HtrA1 concentration was measured using commercial ELISA kit. Frailty was identified in 61/120 participants (50.8%) using PF, and in 60/118 subjects (50.8%) using FI. Plasma levels of HtrA1 were significantly higher in individuals classified as frail according to PF (75.9ng/mL, 95% CI 67.4-85.6) as compared with non-frail participants (48.4ng/mL, 95% CI 42.5-54.6, p<0.001). A significant association was also observed between frailty, assessed by FI, and HtrA1 levels (72.2ng/mL, 95% CI 63.4-82.3, vs. 50.4ng/mL, 95% CI 44.3-58.0, p<0.001). These associations were confirmed after adjusting for potential confounders. This study demonstrates for the first time the association of plasma levels of HtrA1 with frailty status. Future investigations are needed to validate the potential value of HtrA1 as possible biomarker for frailty.

  17. Structural Evidence for Regulation and Specificity of Flaviviral Proteases and Evolution of the Flaviviridae Fold

    SciTech Connect

    Aleshin,A.; Shiryaev, S.; Strongin, A.; Liddington, R.

    2007-01-01

    Pathogenic members of the flavivirus family, including West Nile Virus (WNV) and Dengue Virus (DV), are growing global threats for which there are no specific treatments. The two-component flaviviral enzyme NS2B-NS3 cleaves the viral polyprotein precursor within the host cell, a process that is required for viral replication. Here, we report the crystal structure of WNV NS2B-NS3pro both in a substrate-free form and in complex with the trypsin inhibitor aprotinin/BPTI. We show that aprotinin binds in a substrate-mimetic fashion in which the productive conformation of the protease is fully formed, providing evidence for an 'induced fit' mechanism of catalysis and allowing us to rationalize the distinct substrate specificities of WNV and DV proteases. We also show that the NS2B cofactor of WNV can adopt two very distinct conformations and that this is likely to be a general feature of flaviviral proteases, providing further opportunities for regulation. Finally, by comparing the flaviviral proteases with the more distantly related Hepatitis C virus, we provide insights into the evolution of the Flaviviridae fold. Our work should expedite the design of protease inhibitors to treat a range of flaviviral infections.

  18. Evidence of protease in the saliva of the butterfly Heliconius melpomene (L.) (Nymphalidae, Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Eberhard, S H; Hrassnigg, N; Crailsheim, K; Krenn, H W

    2007-02-01

    Butterflies of the genus Heliconius are well known for their peculiar habits of utilizing pollen as a source of amino acids. Saliva plays a major role in the process of extracting amino acids and proteins from the pollen grains. In this investigation, we obtained samples of saliva from adult Heliconius melpomene by placing pumpkin pollen or fine glass-beads on the proboscis, which stimulates the butterflies to release saliva. Proteolytic activity was determined in the saliva by an insoluble protein-dye that turns blue when cleaved by proteases. Its extinction value was measured with a spectrophotometer at 595 nm. Both the saliva sampled with pollen and the saliva obtained from inert glass-beads exhibit proteolytic activity demonstrating that the saliva contains proteases. The proteolytic activity of the pollen/saliva samples was higher than that of the glass-bead/saliva samples, which we attribute to the stimulating effects of pollen, such as taste, smell, and texture, and not to proteases which might have been liberated from the pollen. This is indicated by the fact that pollen samples without saliva showed only a negligible indication for proteolytic activity. In general, females exhibit higher proteolytic activities than males, presumably due to their greater amino acid investment in reproduction. We present here first evidence for the existence of proteases in the saliva of a butterfly species and suggest that these enzymes are crucial for the use of amino acids and proteins from pollen in Heliconius butterflies.

  19. Network Analyses Reveal Pervasive Functional Regulation Between Proteases in the Human Protease Web

    PubMed Central

    Fortelny, Nikolaus; Cox, Jennifer H.; Kappelhoff, Reinhild; Starr, Amanda E.; Lange, Philipp F.; Pavlidis, Paul; Overall, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Proteolytic processing is an irreversible posttranslational modification affecting a large portion of the proteome. Protease-cleaved mediators frequently exhibit altered activity, and biological pathways are often regulated by proteolytic processing. Many of these mechanisms have not been appreciated as being protease-dependent, and the potential in unraveling a complex new dimension of biological control is increasingly recognized. Proteases are currently believed to act individually or in isolated cascades. However, conclusive but scattered biochemical evidence indicates broader regulation of proteases by protease and inhibitor interactions. Therefore, to systematically study such interactions, we assembled curated protease cleavage and inhibition data into a global, computational representation, termed the protease web. This revealed that proteases pervasively influence the activity of other proteases directly or by cleaving intermediate proteases or protease inhibitors. The protease web spans four classes of proteases and inhibitors and so links both recently and classically described protease groups and cascades, which can no longer be viewed as operating in isolation in vivo. We demonstrated that this observation, termed reachability, is robust to alterations in the data and will only increase in the future as additional data are added. We further show how subnetworks of the web are operational in 23 different tissues reflecting different phenotypes. We applied our network to develop novel insights into biologically relevant protease interactions using cell-specific proteases of the polymorphonuclear leukocyte as a system. Predictions from the protease web on the activity of matrix metalloproteinase 8 (MMP8) and neutrophil elastase being linked by an inactivating cleavage of serpinA1 by MMP8 were validated and explain perplexing Mmp8 −/− versus wild-type polymorphonuclear chemokine cleavages in vivo. Our findings supply systematically derived and

  20. The influences of hinge length and composition on the susceptibility of human IgA to cleavage by diverse bacterial IgA1 proteases.

    PubMed

    Senior, Bernard W; Woof, Jenny M

    2005-06-15

    The influences of IgA hinge length and composition on its susceptibility to cleavage by bacterial IgA1 proteases were examined using a panel of IgA hinge mutants. The IgA1 proteases of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus sanguis strains SK4 and SK49, Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Haemophilus influenzae cleaved IgA2-IgA1 half hinge, an Ab featuring half of the IgA1 hinge incorporated into the equivalent site in IgA1 protease-resistant IgA2, whereas those of Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, and S. sanguis strain SK1 did not. Hinge length reduction by removal of two of the four C-terminal proline residues rendered IgA2-IgA1 half hinge resistant to all streptococcal IgA1 metalloproteinases but it remained sensitive to cleavage by the serine-type IgA1 proteases of Neisseria and Haemophilus spp. The four C-terminal proline residues could be substituted by alanine residues or transferred to the N-terminal extremity of the hinge without affect on the susceptibility of the Ab to cleavage by serine-type IgA1 proteases. However, their removal rendered the Ab resistant to cleavage by all the IgA1 proteases. We conclude that the serine-type IgA1 proteases of Neisseria and Haemophilus require the Fab and Fc regions to be separated by at least ten (or in the case of N. gonorrhoeae type I protease, nine) amino acids between Val(222) and Cys(241) (IgA1 numbering) for efficient access and cleavage. By contrast, the streptococcal IgA1 metalloproteinases require 12 or more appropriate amino acids between the Fab and Fc to maintain a minimum critical distance between the scissile bond and the start of the Fc.

  1. IgA1 Protease Treatment Reverses Mesangial Deposits and Hematuria in a Model of IgA Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Lechner, Sebastian M; Abbad, Lilia; Boedec, Erwan; Papista, Christina; Le Stang, Marie-Bénédicte; Moal, Christelle; Maillard, Julien; Jamin, Agnès; Bex-Coudrat, Julie; Wang, Yong; Li, Aiqun; Martini, Paolo G V; Monteiro, Renato C; Berthelot, Laureline

    2016-09-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN), characterized by mesangial IgA1 deposits, is a leading cause of renal failure worldwide. IgAN pathogenesis involves circulating hypogalactosylated IgA1 complexed with soluble IgA Fc receptor I (sCD89) and/or anti-hypogalactosylated-IgA1 autoantibodies, but no specific treatment is available for IgAN. The absence of IgA1 and CD89 homologs in the mouse has precluded in vivo proof-of-concept studies of specific therapies targeting IgA1. However, the α1KI‑CD89Tg mouse model of IgAN, which expresses human IgA1 and human CD89, allows in vivo testing of recombinant IgA1 protease (IgA1‑P), a bacterial protein that selectively cleaves human IgA1. Mice injected with IgA1‑P (1-10 mg/kg) had Fc fragments of IgA1 in both serum and urine, associated with a decrease in IgA1-sCD89 complexes. Levels of mesangial IgA1 deposits and the binding partners of these deposits (sCD89, transferrin receptor, and transglutaminase 2) decreased markedly 1 week after treatment, as did the levels of C3 deposition, CD11b(+) infiltrating cells, and fibronectin. Antiprotease antibodies did not significantly alter IgA1‑P activity. Moreover, hematuria consistently decreased after treatment. In conclusion, IgA1‑P strongly diminishes human IgA1 mesangial deposits and reduces inflammation, fibrosis, and hematuria in a mouse IgAN model, and therefore may be a plausible treatment for patients with IgAN.

  2. IgA1 Protease Treatment Reverses Mesangial Deposits and Hematuria in a Model of IgA Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Lechner, Sebastian M; Abbad, Lilia; Boedec, Erwan; Papista, Christina; Le Stang, Marie-Bénédicte; Moal, Christelle; Maillard, Julien; Jamin, Agnès; Bex-Coudrat, Julie; Wang, Yong; Li, Aiqun; Martini, Paolo G V; Monteiro, Renato C; Berthelot, Laureline

    2016-09-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN), characterized by mesangial IgA1 deposits, is a leading cause of renal failure worldwide. IgAN pathogenesis involves circulating hypogalactosylated IgA1 complexed with soluble IgA Fc receptor I (sCD89) and/or anti-hypogalactosylated-IgA1 autoantibodies, but no specific treatment is available for IgAN. The absence of IgA1 and CD89 homologs in the mouse has precluded in vivo proof-of-concept studies of specific therapies targeting IgA1. However, the α1KI‑CD89Tg mouse model of IgAN, which expresses human IgA1 and human CD89, allows in vivo testing of recombinant IgA1 protease (IgA1‑P), a bacterial protein that selectively cleaves human IgA1. Mice injected with IgA1‑P (1-10 mg/kg) had Fc fragments of IgA1 in both serum and urine, associated with a decrease in IgA1-sCD89 complexes. Levels of mesangial IgA1 deposits and the binding partners of these deposits (sCD89, transferrin receptor, and transglutaminase 2) decreased markedly 1 week after treatment, as did the levels of C3 deposition, CD11b(+) infiltrating cells, and fibronectin. Antiprotease antibodies did not significantly alter IgA1‑P activity. Moreover, hematuria consistently decreased after treatment. In conclusion, IgA1‑P strongly diminishes human IgA1 mesangial deposits and reduces inflammation, fibrosis, and hematuria in a mouse IgAN model, and therefore may be a plausible treatment for patients with IgAN. PMID:26850635

  3. Thermodynamic analysis of unusually thermostable CutA1 protein from human brain and its protease susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Matsuura, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Sawano, Masahide; Ogasahara, Kyoko; Takehira, Michiyo; Kunishima, Naoki; Katoh, Etsuko; Yutani, Katsuhide

    2015-03-01

    Unusually stable proteins are a disadvantage for the metabolic turnover of proteins in cells. The CutA1 proteins from Pyrococcus horikoshii and from Oryza sativa (OsCutA1) have unusually high denaturation temperatures (Td) of nearly 150 and 100 °C, respectively, at pH 7.0. It seemed that the CutA1 protein from the human brain (HsCutA1) also has a remarkably high stability. Therefore, the thermodynamic stabilities of HsCutA1 and its protease susceptibility were examined. The Td was remarkably high, being over 95 °C at pH 7.0. The unfolding Gibbs energy (ΔG(0)H2O) was 174 kJ/mol at 37 °C from the denaturant denaturation. The thermodynamic analysis showed that the unfolding enthalpy and entropy values of HsCutA1 were considerably lower than those of OsCutA1 with a similar stability to HsCutA1, which should be related to flexibility of the unstructured properties in both N- and C-terminals of HsCutA1. HsCutA1 was almost completely digested after 1-day incubation at 37 °C by subtilisin, although OsCutA1 was hardly digested at the same conditions. These results indicate that easily available fragmentation of HsCutA1 with remarkably high thermodynamic stability at the body temperature should be important for its protein catabolism in the human cells.

  4. Protease inhibition by Heterodera glycines cyst content: evidence for effects on the Meloidogyne incognita proteasome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteases from Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita juveniles were inhibited by heat-stable content of H. glycines female cysts (HglCE), and by the plant polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). General protease activities detected using the nematode peptide KSAYMRFa were inhibited by EG...

  5. Crystallographic and kinetic evidence of allostery in a trypsin-like protease.

    PubMed

    Niu, Weiling; Chen, Zhiwei; Gandhi, Prafull S; Vogt, Austin D; Pozzi, Nicola; Pelc, Leslie A; Zapata, Fatima; Di Cera, Enrico

    2011-07-26

    Protein allostery is based on the existence of multiple conformations in equilibrium linked to distinct functional properties. Although evidence of allosteric transitions is relatively easy to identify by functional studies, structural detection of a pre-existing equilibrium between alternative conformations remains challenging even for textbook examples of allosteric proteins. Kinetic studies show that the trypsin-like protease thrombin exists in equilibrium between two conformations where the active site is either collapsed (E*) or accessible to substrate (E). However, structural demonstration that the two conformations exist in the same enzyme construct free of ligands has remained elusive. Here we report the crystal structure of the thrombin mutant N143P in the E form, which complements the recently reported structure in the E* form, and both the E and E* forms of the thrombin mutant Y225P. The side chain of W215 moves 10.9 Å between the two forms, causing a displacement of 6.6 Å of the entire 215-217 segment into the active site that in turn opens or closes access to the primary specificity pocket. Rapid kinetic measurements of p-aminobenzamidine binding to the active site confirm the existence of the E*-E equilibrium in solution for wild-type and the mutants N143P and Y225P. These findings provide unequivocal proof of the allosteric nature of thrombin and lend strong support to the recent proposal that the E*-E equilibrium is a key property of the trypsin fold. PMID:21707111

  6. Bacterial IgA protease-mediated degradation of agIgA1 and agIgA1 immune complexes as a potential therapy for IgA Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Li, Xueying; Shen, Hongchun; Mao, Nan; Wang, Honglian; Cui, Luke; Cheng, Yuan; Fan, Junming

    2016-01-01

    Mesangial deposition of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 (agIgA1) and its immune complexes is a key pathogenic mechanism of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). However, treatment of IgAN remains ineffective. We report here that bacteria-derived IgA proteases are capable of degrading these pathogenic agIgA1 and derived immune complexes in vitro and in vivo. By screening 14 different bacterial strains (6 species), we found that 4 bacterial IgA proteases from H. influenzae, N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis exhibited high cleaving activities on serum agIgA1 and artificial galactose-depleted IgA1 in vitro and the deposited agIgA1-containing immune complexes in the mesangium of renal biopsy from IgAN patients and in a passive mouse model of IgAN in vitro. In the modified mouse model of passive IgAN with abundant in situ mesangial deposition of the agIgA-IgG immune complexes, a single intravenous delivery of IgA protease from H. influenzae was able to effectively degrade the deposited agIgA-IgG immune complexes within the glomerulus, demonstrating a therapeutic potential for IgAN. In conclusion, the bacteria-derived IgA proteases are biologically active enzymes capable of cleaving the circulating agIgA and the deposited agIgA-IgG immune complexes within the kidney of IgAN. Thus, the use of such IgA proteases may represent a novel therapy for IgAN. PMID:27485391

  7. Bacterial IgA protease-mediated degradation of agIgA1 and agIgA1 immune complexes as a potential therapy for IgA Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Li, Xueying; Shen, Hongchun; Mao, Nan; Wang, Honglian; Cui, Luke; Cheng, Yuan; Fan, Junming

    2016-01-01

    Mesangial deposition of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 (agIgA1) and its immune complexes is a key pathogenic mechanism of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). However, treatment of IgAN remains ineffective. We report here that bacteria-derived IgA proteases are capable of degrading these pathogenic agIgA1 and derived immune complexes in vitro and in vivo. By screening 14 different bacterial strains (6 species), we found that 4 bacterial IgA proteases from H. influenzae, N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis exhibited high cleaving activities on serum agIgA1 and artificial galactose-depleted IgA1 in vitro and the deposited agIgA1-containing immune complexes in the mesangium of renal biopsy from IgAN patients and in a passive mouse model of IgAN in vitro. In the modified mouse model of passive IgAN with abundant in situ mesangial deposition of the agIgA-IgG immune complexes, a single intravenous delivery of IgA protease from H. influenzae was able to effectively degrade the deposited agIgA-IgG immune complexes within the glomerulus, demonstrating a therapeutic potential for IgAN. In conclusion, the bacteria-derived IgA proteases are biologically active enzymes capable of cleaving the circulating agIgA and the deposited agIgA-IgG immune complexes within the kidney of IgAN. Thus, the use of such IgA proteases may represent a novel therapy for IgAN. PMID:27485391

  8. Evidence that two ATP-dependent (Lon) proteases in Borrelia burgdorferi serve different functions.

    PubMed

    Coleman, James L; Katona, Laura I; Kuhlow, Christopher; Toledo, Alvaro; Okan, Nihal A; Tokarz, Rafal; Benach, Jorge L

    2009-11-01

    The canonical ATP-dependent protease Lon participates in an assortment of biological processes in bacteria, including the catalysis of damaged or senescent proteins and short-lived regulatory proteins. Borrelia spirochetes are unusual in that they code for two putative ATP-dependent Lon homologs, Lon-1 and Lon-2. Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, is transmitted through the blood feeding of Ixodes ticks. Previous work in our laboratory reported that B. burgdorferi lon-1 is upregulated transcriptionally by exposure to blood in vitro, while lon-2 is not. Because blood induction of Lon-1 may be of importance in the regulation of virulence factors critical for spirochete transmission, the clarification of functional roles for these two proteases in B. burgdorferi was the object of this study. On the chromosome, lon-2 is immediately downstream of ATP-dependent proteases clpP and clpX, an arrangement identical to that of lon of Escherichia coli. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Lon-1 and Lon-2 cluster separately due to differences in the NH(2)-terminal substrate binding domains that may reflect differences in substrate specificity. Recombinant Lon-1 manifested properties of an ATP-dependent chaperone-protease in vitro but did not complement an E. coli Lon mutant, while Lon-2 corrected two characteristic Lon-mutant phenotypes. We conclude that B. burgdorferi Lons -1 and -2 have distinct functional roles. Lon-2 functions in a manner consistent with canonical Lon, engaged in cellular homeostasis. Lon-1, by virtue of its blood induction, and as a unique feature of the Borreliae, may be important in host adaptation from the arthropod to a warm-blooded host.

  9. Chymotrypsin protease inhibitor gene family in rice: Genomic organization and evidence for the presence of a bidirectional promoter shared between two chymotrypsin protease inhibitor genes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amanjot; Sahi, Chandan; Grover, Anil

    2009-01-01

    Protease inhibitors play important roles in stress and developmental responses of plants. Rice genome contains 17 putative members in chymotrypsin protease inhibitor (ranging in size from 7.21 to 11.9 kDa) gene family with different predicted localization sites. Full-length cDNA encoding for a putative subtilisin-chymotrypsin protease inhibitor (OCPI2) was obtained from Pusa basmati 1 (indica) rice seedlings. 620 bp-long OCPI2 cDNA contained 219 bp-long ORF, coding for 72 amino acid-long 7.7 kDa subtilisin-chymotrypsin protease inhibitor (CPI) cytoplasmic protein. Expression analysis by semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that OCPI2 transcript is induced by varied stresses including salt, ABA, low temperature and mechanical injury in both root and shoot tissues of the seedlings. Transgenic rice plants produced with OCPI2 promoter-gus reporter gene showed that this promoter directs high salt- and ABA-regulated expression of the GUS gene. Another CPI gene (OCPI1) upstream to OCPI2 (with 1126 bp distance between the transcription initiation sites of the two genes; transcription in the reverse orientation) was noted in genome sequence of rice genome. A vector that had GFP and GUS reporter genes in opposite orientations driven by 1881 bp intergenic sequence between the OCPI2 and OCPI1 (encompassing the region between the translation initiation sites of the two genes) was constructed and shot in onion epidermal cells by particle bombardment. Expression of both GFP and GUS from the same epidermal cell showed that this sequence represents a bidirectional promoter. Examples illustrating gene pairs showing co-expression of two divergent neighboring genes sharing a bidirectional promoter have recently been extensively worked out in yeast and human systems. We provide an example of a gene pair constituted of two homologous genes showing co-expression governed by a bidirectional promoter in rice. PMID:18952157

  10. Structural Evidence for Effectiveness of Darunavir and Two Related Antiviral Inhibitors against HIV-2 Protease

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalevsky, Andrey Y.; Louis, John M.; Aniana, Annie; Ghosh, Arun K.; Weber, Irene T.

    2008-12-08

    No drug has been targeted specifically for HIV-2 (human immunodeficiency virus type 2) infection despite its increasing prevalence worldwide. The antiviral HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1) protease (PR) inhibitor darunavir and the chemically related GRL98065 and GRL06579A were designed with the same chemical scaffold and different substituents at P2 and P2' to optimize polar interactions for HIV-1 PR (PR1). These inhibitors are also effective antiviral agents for HIV-2-infected cells. Therefore, crystal structures of HIV-2 PR (PR2) complexes with the three inhibitors have been solved at 1.2-{angstrom} resolution to analyze the molecular basis for their antiviral potency. Unusually, the crystals were grown in imidazole and zinc acetate buffer, which formed interactions with the PR2 and the inhibitors. Overall, the structures were very similar to the corresponding inhibitor complexes of PR1 with an RMSD of 1.1 {angstrom} on main-chain atoms. Most hydrogen-bond and weaker C-H...O interactions with inhibitors were conserved in the PR2 and PR1 complexes, except for small changes in interactions with water or disordered side chains. Small differences were observed in the hydrophobic contacts for the darunavir complexes, in agreement with relative inhibition of the two PRs. These near-atomic-resolution crystal structures verify the inhibitor potency for PR1 and PR2 and will provide the basis for the development of antiviral inhibitors targeting PR2.

  11. Occurrence and Evolution of the Paralogous Zinc Metalloproteases IgA1 Protease, ZmpB, ZmpC, and ZmpD in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Related Commensal Species

    PubMed Central

    Bek-Thomsen, Malene; Poulsen, Knud; Kilian, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The distribution, genome location, and evolution of the four paralogous zinc metalloproteases, IgA1 protease, ZmpB, ZmpC, and ZmpD, in Streptococcus pneumoniae and related commensal species were studied by in silico analysis of whole genomes and by activity screening of 154 representatives of 20 species. ZmpB was ubiquitous in the Mitis and Salivarius groups of the genus Streptococcus and in the genera Gemella and Granulicatella, with the exception of a fragmented gene in Streptococcus thermophilus, the only species with a nonhuman habitat. IgA1 protease activity was observed in all members of S. pneumoniae, S. pseudopneumoniae, S. oralis, S. sanguinis, and Gemella haemolysans, was variably present in S. mitis and S. infantis, and absent in S. gordonii, S. parasanguinis, S. cristatus, S. oligofermentans, S. australis, S. peroris, and S. suis. Phylogenetic analysis of 297 zmp sequences and representative housekeeping genes provided evidence for an unprecedented selection for genetic diversification of the iga, zmpB, and zmpD genes in S. pneumoniae and evidence of very frequent intraspecies transfer of entire genes and combination of genes. Presumably due to their adaptation to a commensal lifestyle, largely unaffected by adaptive mucosal immune factors, the corresponding genes in commensal streptococci have remained conserved. The widespread distribution and significant sequence diversity indicate an ancient origin of the zinc metalloproteases predating the emergence of the humanoid species. zmpB, which appears to be the ancestral gene, subsequently duplicated and successfully diversified into distinct functions, is likely to serve an important but yet unknown housekeeping function associated with the human host. PMID:23033471

  12. Competition and protease sensitivity assays provide evidence for the existence of a hydrogenosomal protein import machinery in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Plümper, E; Bradley, P J; Johnson, P J

    2000-02-25

    Hydrogenosomes are double membrane bounded redox organelles found in a number of amitochondriate protists and fungi. They are involved in carbohydrate metabolism and ATP synthesis and thus resemble mitochondria. Molecular analysis of the hydrogenosomal heat shock proteins Hsp70, Hsp60 and Hsp10 in Trichomonas vaginalis, one of the deepest-branching eukaryotes known to date, has revealed that these group exclusively with mitochondrial heat shock proteins. This finding indicates strongly that a progenitor organelle which gave rise to contemporary mitochondria and hydrogenosomes existed early in eukaryotic life. This hypothesis is further supported by similarities of hydrogenosomal and mitochondrial biogenesis. It was shown that T. vaginalis hydrogenosomal proteins are synthesized on free ribosomes in the cytosol with an N-terminal presequence that carries targeting information and is cleaved upon import into the organelle. Furthermore, as in mitochondrial import, hydrogenosomal protein import requires ATP, an electrochemical transmembrane potential and cytosolic protein factor(s). Here we demonstrate that inhibition of hydrogenosomal protein import occurs (i) in the presence of a synthetic presequence peptide and (ii) after pretreatment of hydrogenosomes with the protease trypsin. Trypsin pretreatment affects two hydrogenosomal membrane proteins of 31 and 70 kDa, respectively. Thus, we present evidence that import is saturable and that proteinaceous hydrogenosomal import receptor(s) exist. These results are a first step towards a characterization of the hydrogenosomal import machinery which should provide further insights into the relationship of hydrogenosomes and mitochondria and the evolution of protein targeting into organelles of endosymbiotic origin.

  13. Supermarket Proteases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagar, William G.; Bullerwell, Lornie D.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a laboratory activity on enzymes. Uses common items found in the supermarket that contain protease enzymes, such as contact lens cleaner and meat tenderizer. Demonstrates the digestion of gelatin proteins as part of enzymatic reactions. (Author/SOE)

  14. Characterization and properties of a 1,3-beta-D-glucan pattern recognition protein of Tenebrio molitor larvae that is specifically degraded by serine protease during prophenoloxidase activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong; Cho, Hae Yun; Kim, Hyun Sic; Ma, Young Gerl; Osaki, Tsukasa; Kawabata, Shun-ichiro; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Lee, Bok Luel

    2003-10-24

    Although many different pattern recognition receptors recognizing peptidoglycan and 1,3-beta-D-glucan have been identified in vertebrates and insects, the molecular mechanism of these molecules in the pattern recognition and subsequent signaling is largely unknown. To gain insights into the action mechanism of 1,3-beta-D-glucan pattern recognition protein in the insect prophenoloxidase (proPO) activation system, we purified a 53-kDa 1,3-beta-D-glucan recognition protein (Tm-GRP) to homogeneity from the hemolymph of the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, by using a 1,3-beta-d-glucan affinity column. The purified protein specifically bound to 1,3-beta-D-glucan but not to peptidoglycan. Subsequent molecular cloning revealed that Tm-GRP contains a region with close sequence similarity to bacterial glucanases. Strikingly, two catalytically important residues in glucanases are replaced with other nonhomologous amino acids in Tm-GRP. The finding suggests that Tm-GRP has evolved from an ancestral gene of glucanases but retained only the ability to recognize 1,3-beta-D-glucan. A Western blot analysis of the protein level of endogenous Tm-GRP showed that the protein was specifically degraded following the activation of proPO with 1,3-beta-D-glucan and calcium ion. The degradation was significantly retarded by the addition of serine protease inhibitors but not by cysteine or acidic protease inhibitor. These results suggest that 1,3-beta-D-glucan pattern recognition protein is specifically degraded by serine protease(s) during proPO activation, and we propose that this degradation is an important regulatory mechanism of the activation of the proPO system.

  15. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to an extracellular Pseudomonas cepacia protease.

    PubMed Central

    Kooi, C; Cox, A; Darling, P; Sokol, P A

    1994-01-01

    Pseudomonas cepacia produces at least two extracellular proteases with apparent molecular masses of 36,000 and 40,000 Da. The 36-kDa protease has high proteolytic activity and the 40-kDa protease has low proteolytic activity with hide powder azure as a substrate. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were raised against the purified 36- and 40-kDa proteases. Several MAbs directed against the 36-kDa protease were found to recognize the 40-kDa protease by Western immunoblot analysis. Similarly, a MAb directed against the 40-kDa protease recognized the 36-kDa protease, suggesting that these two proteases may be immunologically related. A MAb directed against the 36-kDa protease, designated 36-6-8, and a MAb directed against the 40-kDa protease (MAb G-11) cross-reacted with other extracellular proteases, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase and alkaline protease, Pseudomonas pseudomallei protease, and the Vibrio cholerae hemagglutinin/protease. MAb 36-6-8 neutralized the P. cepacia 36-kDa protease, P. aeruginosa elastase, P. pseudomallei protease, and V. cholerae hemagglutinin/protease but did not affect P. aeruginosa alkaline protease activity. In contrast, MAb G-11 to the 40-kDa protease neutralized only the P. cepacia 36-kDa protease. This evidence suggests that the neutralizing MAb, 36-6-8, recognizes an epitope conserved among some metalloproteases. This epitope may lie at or near the active site of the P. cepacia 36-kDa protease and P. aeruginosa elastase. Images PMID:7516312

  16. Evidence for the presence of a protease-activated receptor distinct from the thrombin receptor in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Santulli, R J; Derian, C K; Darrow, A L; Tomko, K A; Eckardt, A J; Seiberg, M; Scarborough, R M; Andrade-Gordon, P

    1995-01-01

    Thrombin receptor activation was explored in human epidermal keratinocytes and human dermal fibroblasts, cells that are actively involved in skin tissue repair. The effects of thrombin, trypsin, and the receptor agonist peptides SFLLRN and TFRIFD were assessed in inositolphospholipid hydrolysis and calcium mobilization studies. Thrombin and SFLLRN stimulated fibroblasts in both assays to a similar extent, whereas TFRIFD was less potent. Trypsin demonstrated weak efficacy in these assays in comparison with thrombin. Results in fibroblasts were consistent with human platelet thrombin receptor activation. Keratinocytes, however, exhibited a distinct profile, with trypsin being a far better activator of inositolphospholipid hydrolysis and calcium mobilization than thrombin. Furthermore, SFLLRN was more efficacious than thrombin, whereas no response was observed with TFRIFD. Since our data indicated that keratinocytes possess a trypsin-sensitive receptor, we addressed the possibility that these cells express the human homologue of the newly described murine protease-activated receptor, PAR-2 [Nystedt, S., Emilsson, K., Wahlestedt, C. & Sundelin, J. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 9208-9212]. PAR-2 is activated by nanomolar concentrations of trypsin and possesses the tethered ligand sequence SLIGRL. SLIGRL was found to be equipotent with SFLLRN in activating keratinocyte inositolphospholipid hydrolysis and calcium mobilization. Desensitization studies indicated that SFLLRN, SLIGRL, and trypsin activate a common receptor, PAR-2. Northern blot analyses detected a transcript of PAR-2 in total RNA from keratinocytes but not fibroblasts. Levels of thrombin receptor message were equivalent in the two cell types. Our results indicate that human keratinocytes possess PAR-2, suggesting a potential role for this receptor in tissue repair and/or skin-related disorders. Images Fig. 6 PMID:7568091

  17. Proteases as Insecticidal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Robert L.; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2010-01-01

    Proteases from a variety of sources (viruses, bacteria, fungi, plants, and insects) have toxicity towards insects. Some of these insecticidal proteases evolved as venom components, herbivore resistance factors, or microbial pathogenicity factors, while other proteases play roles in insect development or digestion, but exert an insecticidal effect when over-expressed from genetically engineered plants or microbial pathogens. Many of these proteases are cysteine proteases, although insect-toxic metalloproteases and serine proteases have also been examined. The sites of protease toxic activity range from the insect midgut to the hemocoel (body cavity) to the cuticle. This review discusses these insecticidal proteases along with their evaluation and use as potential pesticides. PMID:22069618

  18. Synthesis and biological evaluation of papain-family cathepsin L-like cysteine protease inhibitors containing a 1,4-benzodiazepine scaffold as antiprotozoal agents.

    PubMed

    Ettari, Roberta; Pinto, Andrea; Tamborini, Lucia; Angelo, Ilenia C; Grasso, Silvana; Zappalà, Maria; Capodicasa, Natale; Yzeiraj, Laura; Gruber, Esther; Aminake, Makoah N; Pradel, Gabriele; Schirmeister, Tanja; De Micheli, Carlo; Conti, Paola

    2014-08-01

    Novel papain-family cathepsin L-like cysteine protease inhibitors endowed with antitrypanosomal and antimalarial activity were developed, through an optimization study of previously developed inhibitors. In the present work, we studied the structure-activity relationships of these derivatives, with the aim to develop new analogues with a simplified and more synthetically accessible structure and with improved antiparasitic activity. The structure of the model compounds was significantly simplified by modifying or even eliminating the side chain appended at the C3 atom of the benzodiazepine scaffold. In addition, a simple methylene spacer of appropriate length was inserted between the benzodiazepine ring and the 3-bromoisoxazoline moiety. Several rhodesain and falcipain-2 inhibitors displaying single-digit micromolar or sub-micromolar antiparasitic activity against one or both parasites were identified, with activities that were one order of magnitude more potent than the model compounds. PMID:24919925

  19. Evidence for charged B meson decays to a1+/-(1260)pi0 and a1(0)(1260)pi+/-.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Lopez, L; Palano, A; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lopes Pegna, D; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo Sanchez, P; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Zhang, L; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Gabareen, A M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Klose, V; Kobel, M J; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Lombardo, V; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Santoro, V; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Panduro Vazquez, W; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Lae, C K; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Béquilleux, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Paramesvaran, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; Zheng, Y; McLachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gagliardi, N; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Biesiada, J; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Baracchini, E; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Hartmann, T; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Castelli, G; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Ricciardi, S; Roethel, W; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Escalier, M; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kaminski, J; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Macfarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ofte, I; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Harrison, P F; Ilic, J; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Neal, H

    2007-12-31

    We present measurements of the branching fractions for the decays B;{+/-}-->a_{1};{+/-}(1260)pi;{0} and B;{+/-}-->a_{1};{0}(1260)pi;{+/-} from a data sample of 232x10;{6} BB[over ] pairs produced in e;{+}e;{-} annihilation through the Upsilon(4S) resonance. We measure the branching fraction B(B;{+/-}-->a_{1};{+/-}(1260)pi;{0})xB(a_{1};{+/-}(1260)-->pi;{-}pi;{+}pi;{+/-})=(13.2+/-2.7+/-2.1)x10;{-6} with a significance of 4.2sigma, and the branching fraction B(B;{+/-}-->a_{1};{0}(1260)pi;{+/-})xB(a_{1};{0}(1260)-->pi;{-}pi;{+}pi;{0})=(20.4+/-4.7+/-3.4)x10;{-6} with a significance of 3.8sigma, where the first error quoted is statistical and the second is systematic. PMID:18233566

  20. Laboratory Detection of IZnCH_{3} (X^{1}A_{1}) : Further Evidence for Zinc Insertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucchino, Matthew P.; Young, Justin P.; Sheridan, Phil M.; Ziurys, Lucy M.

    2013-06-01

    Millimeter-wave direct absorption techniques were used to record the pure rotational spectrum of IZnCH_{3} (X^{1}A_{1}). This species was produced by the reaction of zinc vapor with ICH_{3} in the presence of a DC discharge. Rotational transitions ranging from J = 109 {→} 108 to J = 122 {→} 121 were recorded for I^{64}ZnCH_{3} and I^{66}ZnCH_{3} in the frequency range of 250{-290} GHz. The Ka = 0{-4} components were measured for each transition, with the K-ladder structure and nuclear spin statistics indicative of a symmetric top. As with HZnCH_{3} (X^{1}A_{1}), the detection of IZnCH_{3} provides further evidence for a zinc insertion process.

  1. Investigations with Protease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Din Yan

    1997-01-01

    Presents two simple and reliable ways for measuring protease activity that can be used for a variety of investigations in a range of biology class levels. The investigations use protease from a variety of sources. (DDR)

  2. ITPA and SLC29A1 Genotyping for the Prediction of Ribavirin Dose Reduction in Anti-HCV Triple Therapy with Protease Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Andrea; Landonio, Simona; Magni, Carlo; Cheli, Stefania; Mazzali, Cristina; Mondelli, Mario U; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Clementi, Emilio; Falvella, Felicia Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C is one of the most important causes of liver disease, leading to cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation and hepatocellular carcinoma. Recently some important advances in therapy have been achieved with the introduction of first wave, first generation direct acting antiviral agents (DAAs) such as boceprevir (BOC), in combination with pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV). The superior rate of sustained virological response with this treatment is accompanied by an elevated frequency of anaemia. Several studies have evidenced the importance of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in inosine triphosphatase (ITPA) and solute carrier family 29, member 1 (SLC29A1) genes in the development of this adverse event. Here, we investigated haemoglobin levels and the best-known functional SNPs in ITPA and SLC29A1 genes in 22 patients treated with triple therapy with BOC/Peg-IFN/RBV. The identification of ITPA protective and SLC29A1 risk genotypes still appears to be a current methodology in RBV dosing during hepatitis C virus therapy with DAAs. PMID:26279293

  3. Proteases as therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Craik, Charles S.; Page, Michael J.; Madison, Edwin L.

    2015-01-01

    Proteases are an expanding class of drugs that hold great promise. The U.S. FDA (Food and Drug Administration) has approved 12 protease therapies, and a number of next generation or completely new proteases are in clinical development. Although they are a well-recognized class of targets for inhibitors, proteases themselves have not typically been considered as a drug class despite their application in the clinic over the last several decades; initially as plasma fractions and later as purified products. Although the predominant use of proteases has been in treating cardiovascular disease, they are also emerging as useful agents in the treatment of sepsis, digestive disorders, inflammation, cystic fibrosis, retinal disorders, psoriasis and other diseases. In the present review, we outline the history of proteases as therapeutics, provide an overview of their current clinical application, and describe several approaches to improve and expand their clinical application. Undoubtedly, our ability to harness proteolysis for disease treatment will increase with our understanding of protease biology and the molecular mechanisms responsible. New technologies for rationally engineering proteases, as well as improved delivery options, will expand greatly the potential applications of these enzymes. The recognition that proteases are, in fact, an established class of safe and efficacious drugs will stimulate investigation of additional therapeutic applications for these enzymes. Proteases therefore have a bright future as a distinct therapeutic class with diverse clinical applications. PMID:21406063

  4. Proteolysis of cell adhesion molecules by serine proteases: a role in long term potentiation?

    PubMed

    Hoffman, K B; Martinez, J; Lynch, G

    1998-11-16

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a serine protease endogenous to hippocampal neurons, is shown to recognize a highly conserved sequence in the extracellular domain of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). When added to brain homogenates, tPA generated a CAM fragment similar in size to that produced in hippocampal slices by brief periods of NMDA receptor stimulation. The serine protease inhibitor 4-(2-Aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride blocked the effects of tPA with an approximately 50% suppression at 250 microM. The inhibitor at this concentration had no evident effect on synaptic responses but caused long term potentiation to decay back to baseline over a 1 h period. These results suggest that extracellular breakdown of cell adhesion molecules initiated by NMDA receptors and mediated by serine proteases contributes to the formation of stable potentiation.

  5. Fibrin(ogen)olytic activity of bumblebee venom serine protease

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu Yuling; Choo, Young Moo; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Jia Jingming; Cui Zheng; Wang Dong; Kim, Doh Hoon; Sohn, Hung Dae; Jin, Byung Rae

    2011-09-01

    Bee venom is a rich source of pharmacologically active components; it has been used as an immunotherapy to treat bee venom hypersensitivity, and venom therapy has been applied as an alternative medicine. Here, we present evidence that the serine protease found in bumblebee venom exhibits fibrin(ogen)olytic activity. Compared to honeybee venom, bumblebee venom contains a higher content of serine protease, which is one of its major components. Venom serine proteases from bumblebees did not cross-react with antibodies against the honeybee venom serine protease. We provide functional evidence indicating that bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) venom serine protease (Bt-VSP) acts as a fibrin(ogen)olytic enzyme. Bt-VSP activates prothrombin and directly degrades fibrinogen into fibrin degradation products. However, Bt-VSP is not a plasminogen activator, and its fibrinolytic activity is less than that of plasmin. Taken together, our results define roles for Bt-VSP as a prothrombin activator, a thrombin-like protease, and a plasmin-like protease. These findings offer significant insight into the allergic reaction sequence that is initiated by bee venom serine protease and its potential usefulness as a clinical agent in the field of hemostasis and thrombosis. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Bumblebee venom serine protease (Bt-VSP) is a fibrin(ogen)olytic enzyme. > Bt-VSP activates prothrombin. > Bt-VSP directly degrades fibrinogen into fibrin degradation products. > Bt-VSP is a hemostatically active protein that is a potent clinical agent.

  6. Stickler syndrome: further mutations in COL11A1 and evidence for additional locus heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Martin, S; Richards, A J; Yates, J R; Scott, J D; Pope, M; Snead, M P

    1999-01-01

    Stickler syndrome (hereditary arthro-ophthalmopathy) is a dominantly inherited connective tissue disorder with ocular, oro-facial, auditory and skeletal manifestations. It is genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous with the majority of families having mutations in the gene encoding type II collagen (COL2A1) and exhibiting a characteristic 'membranous' or type 1 vitreous phenotype. More recently a novel mutation in the gene encoding the alpha1 chain of type XI collagen (COL11A1) was reported in a Stickler syndrome pedigree with a different 'beaded' or type 2 vitreous phenotype. In the present study five more families with the type 2 vitreous phenotype were examined for linkage to four candidate genes: COL2A1, COL5A2, COL11A1 and COL11A2. Two families were linked to COL11A1 and sequencing identified mutations resulting in shortened alphal(XI) collagen chains, one via exon skipping and the other via a multiexon deletion. One of the families showed weak linkage to COL5A2 but sequencing the open reading frame failed to identify a mutation. In the remaining two families all four loci were excluded by linkage analysis. These data confirm that mutations in COL11A1 cause Stickler syndrome with the type2 vitreous phenotype and also reveal further locus heterogeneity.

  7. Differences in implementation of HIV/AIDS clinical research in developed versus developing world: an evidence-based review on protease inhibitor use among women and minorities.

    PubMed

    Seminari, E; De Silvestri, A; Scudeller, L; Scotti, V; Tinelli, C

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this revision is to evaluate ethnicity and gender rate of enrolment in registrative clinical trials of the protease inhibitors (Pls) from 1996 to 2009. Company-sponsored, phase II or III registrative clinical trials of PIs were evaluated. Forty-nine clinical trials were included. Clinical trials were conducted in centres in North America (n = 39), Central-South America (n = 22), Europe (n = 22), Africa (n = 8), Asia (n = 5), Australia (n = 10). Overall mean age was 39.6 years; median proportion of women was 16.3%. The most represented ethnic group was Caucasian. A test for trend over time (1996-2009) shows a significant increase in the proportion of women included (P = 0.012), and a decrease in the proportion of Caucasians included, reaching borderline significance (P = 0.061). An inverse correlation was observed between the proportion of Caucasians and that of women enrolled in each study (r = -0.65, P < 0.0001). Women were less likely to be included in double-blind studies (11.2% versus 17%, P = 0.019). Clinical trials for treatment-naive subjects were more likely to enrol ethnicities other than Caucasian compared with Caucasian (44.7% versus 27.1%, respectively, P = 0.04). Rates of enrolment of minorities in registrative clinical trials for Pls show a positive trend since 1996, mirroring the growing number of people of different ethnic groups accessing ART.

  8. Extracellular Bacterial Proteases in Chronic Wounds: A Potential Therapeutic Target?

    PubMed Central

    Suleman, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Significance: Bacterial biofilms are considered to be responsible for over 80% of persistent infections, including chronic lung infections, osteomyelitis, periodontitis, endocarditis, and chronic wounds. Over 60% of chronic wounds are colonized with bacteria that reside within a biofilm. The exaggerated proteolytic environment of chronic wounds, more specifically elevated matrix metalloproteinases, is thought to be one of the possible reasons as to why chronic wounds fail to heal. However, the role of bacterial proteases within chronic wounds is not fully understood. Recent Advances: Recent research has shown that bacterial proteases can enable colonization and facilitate bacterial immune evasion. The inhibition of bacterial proteases such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase B (LasB) has resulted in the disruption of the bacterial biofilm in vitro. P. aeruginosa is thought to be a key pathogen in chronic wound infection, and therefore, the disruption of these biofilms, potentially through the targeting of P. aeruginosa bacterial proteases, is an attractive therapeutic endeavor. Critical Issues: Disrupting biofilm formation through the inhibition of bacterial proteases may lead to the dissemination of bacteria from the biofilm, allowing planktonic cells to colonize new sites within the wound. Future Directions: Despite a plethora of evidence supporting the role of bacterial proteases as virulence factors in infection, there remains a distinct lack of research into the effect of bacterial proteases in chronic wounds. To assess the viability of targeting bacterial proteases, future research should aim to understand the role of these proteases in a variety of chronic wound subtypes. PMID:27785379

  9. Characterization of the immunoglobulin A protease of Ureaplasma urealyticum.

    PubMed Central

    Spooner, R K; Russell, W C; Thirkell, D

    1992-01-01

    Ureaplasma urealyticum strains of all serotypes express a specific human immunoglobulin A1 protease that cleaves immunoglobulin A1 to produce intact Fab and Fc fragments. The use of a variety of inhibitors suggests that the enzyme is a serine protease. N-terminal sequencing of the Fc digestion product showed that the enzyme cleaves between the proline and threonine residues 235 and 236 in the hinge region of the heavy chain of immunoglobulin A1. Images PMID:1587621

  10. The Lon AAA+ protease.

    PubMed

    Gur, Eyal

    2013-01-01

    As the first ATP-dependent protease to be identified, Lon holds a special place in the history of cellular biology. In fact, the concept of ATP-dependent protein degradation was established through the findings that led to the discovery of Lon. Therefore, this chapter begins with a historical perspective, describing the milestones that led to the discovery of Lon and ATP-dependent proteolysis, starting from the early findings in the 1960s until the demonstration of Lon's ATP-dependent proteolytic activity in vitro, in 1981. Most of our knowledge on Lon derives from studies of the Escherichia coli Lon ortholog, and, therefore, most of this chapter relates to this particular enzyme. Nonetheless, Lon is not only found in most bacterial species, it is also found in Archaea and in the mitochondrion and chloroplast of eukaryotic cells. Therefore many of the conclusions gained from studies on the E. coli enzyme are relevant to Lon proteases in other organisms. Lon, more than any other bacterial or organellar protease, is associated with the degradation of misfolded proteins and protein quality control. In addition, Lon also degrades many regulatory proteins that are natively folded, thus it also plays a prominent role in regulation of physiological processes. Throughout the years, many Lon substrates have been identified, confirming its role in the regulation of diverse cellular processes, including cell division, DNA replication, differentiation, and adaptation to stress conditions. Some examples of these functions are described and discussed here, as is the role of Lon in the degradation of misfolded proteins and in protein quality control. Finally, this chapter deals with the exquisite sensitivity of protein degradation inside a cell. How can a protease distinguish so many substrates from cellular proteins that should not be degraded? Can the specificity of a protease be regulated according to the physiological needs of a cell? This chapter thus broadly discusses the

  11. Laundry performance of subtilisin proteases.

    PubMed

    Wolff, A M; Showell, M S; Venegas, M G; Barnett, B L; Wertz, W C

    1996-01-01

    Effective laundry protease performance against susceptible stains depends upon both the enzyme itself and the environment in which it must work. In order to technically design superior laundry proteases, a model for protease's mechanism of action in detergents was developed which has been substantiated through-the-wash. While evaluation of this model and/or a given protease's effectiveness could be judged by a variety of methods, the utility of using visual wash performance comparisons, analytical, and stain characterization studies is described. Finally, data comparing the performance of wild type Subtilisin proteases with mutants designed via the projected model are given, demonstrating possible utility of the system.

  12. Protease inhibition as new therapeutic strategy for GI diseases

    PubMed Central

    Vergnolle, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    The GI tract is the most exposed organ to proteases, both in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. For digestive purposes, the lumen of the upper GI tract contains large amounts of pancreatic proteases, but studies have also demonstrated increased proteolytic activity into mucosal tissues (both in the upper and lower GI tract), associated with pathological conditions. This review aims at outlining the evidences for dysregulated proteolytic homeostasis in GI diseases and the pathogenic mechanisms of increased proteolytic activity. The therapeutic potential of protease inhibition in GI diseases is discussed, with a particular focus on IBDs, functional GI disorders and colorectal cancer. PMID:27196587

  13. Hepatitis C virus NS3 protease is activated by low concentrations of protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Göran; Arenas, Omar Gutiérrez; Danielson, U Helena

    2009-12-01

    The nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a bifunctional enzyme with a protease and a helicase functionality located in each of the two domains of the single peptide chain. There is little experimental evidence for a functional role of this unexpected arrangement since artificial single domain forms of both enzymes are catalytically competent. We have observed that low concentrations of certain protease inhibitors activate the protease of full-length NS3 from HCV genotype 1a with up to 100%, depending on the preincubation time and the inhibitor used. The activation was reduced, but not eliminated, by increased ionic strength, lowered glycerol concentration, or lowered pH. In all cases, it was at the expense of a significant loss of activity. Activation was not seen with the artificial protease domain of genotype 1b NS3 fused with a fragment of the NS4A cofactor. This truncated and covalently modified enzyme form was much less active and exhibited fundamentally different catalytic properties to the full-length NS3 protease without the fused cofactor. The most plausible explanation for the activation was found to involve a slow transition between two enzyme conformations, which differed in their catalytic ability and affinity for inhibitors. Equations derived based on this assumption resulted in better fits to the experimental data than the equation for simple competitive inhibition. The mechanism may involve an inhibitor-induced stabilization of the helicase domain in a conformation that enhances the protease activity, or an improved alignment of the catalytic triad in the protease. The proposed mnemonic mechanism and derived equations are viable for both these explanations and can serve as a basic framework for future studies of enzymes activated by inhibitors or other ligands.

  14. Proteases and Peptidases of Castor Bean Endosperm

    PubMed Central

    Tully, Raymond E.; Beevers, Harry

    1978-01-01

    The endosperm of castor bean seeds (Ricinus communis L.) contains two —SH-dependent aminopeptidases, one hydrolyzing l-leucine-β-naphthylamide optimally at pH 7.0, and the other hydrolyzing l-proline-β-naphthylamide optimally at pH 7.5. After germination the endosperm contains in addition an —SH-dependent hemoglobin protease, a serine-dependent carboxypeptidase, and at least two —SH-dependent enzymes hydrolyzing the model substrate α-N-benzoyl-dl-arginine-β-naphthylamide (BANA). The carboxypeptidase is active on a variety of N-carbobenzoxy dipeptides, especially N-carbobenzoxy-L-phenylalanine-l-alanine and N-carbobenzoxy-l-tyrosine-l-leucine. The pH optima for the protease, carboxypeptidase, and BANAase acivities are 3.5 to 4.0, 5.0 to 5.5, and 6 to 8, respectively. The two aminopeptidases increased about 4-fold in activity during the first 4 days of growth, concurrent with the period of rapid depletion of storage protein. Activities then declined as the endosperm senesced, but were still evident after 6 days. Senescence was complete by day 7 to 8. Hemoglobin protease, carboxypeptidase, and BANAase activities appeared in the endosperm at day 2 to 3, and reached peak activity at day 5 to 6. The data indicate that the aminopeptidases are involved in the early mobilization of endosperm storage protein, whereas protease, carboxypeptidase, and BANAase may take part in later turnover and/or senescence. PMID:16660598

  15. From proteases to proteomics.

    PubMed

    Neurath, H

    2001-04-01

    This personal and professional autobiography covers the 50-yr period of 1950-2000 and includes the following topics: History of the University of Washington School of Medicine and its Department of Biochemistry (Mount Rainier and the University of Washington, recruiting faculty, biology, research programs); scientific editing (publication, Biochemistry, Protein Science, electronic publication); Europe revisited (Heidelberg, approaching retirement, the German Research Center, reunion in Vienna); and 50 yr of research on proteolytic enzymes (trypsin, carboxypeptidases, mast cell proteases, future developments).

  16. From proteases to proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Neurath, Hans

    2001-01-01

    This personal and professional autobiography covers the 50-yr period of 1950–2000 and includes the following topics: History of the University of Washington School of Medicine and its Department of Biochemistry (Mount Rainier and the University of Washington, recruiting faculty, biology, research programs); scientific editing (publication, Biochemistry, Protein Science, electronic publication); Europe revisited (Heidelberg, approaching retirement, the German Research Center, reunion in Vienna); and 50 yr of research on proteolytic enzymes (trypsin, carboxypeptidases, mast cell proteases, future developments). PMID:11274481

  17. Protease signalling: the cutting edge

    PubMed Central

    Turk, Boris; Turk, Dus̆an; Turk, Vito

    2012-01-01

    Protease research has undergone a major expansion in the last decade, largely due to the extremely rapid development of new technologies, such as quantitative proteomics and in-vivo imaging, as well as an extensive use of in-vivo models. These have led to identification of physiological substrates and resulted in a paradigm shift from the concept of proteases as protein-degrading enzymes to proteases as key signalling molecules. However, we are still at the beginning of an understanding of protease signalling pathways. We have only identified a minor subset of true physiological substrates for a limited number of proteases, and their physiological regulation is still not well understood. Similarly, links with other signalling systems are not well established. Herein, we will highlight current challenges in protease research. PMID:22367392

  18. Protease-mediated drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, Eva F.; Goyan, Rebecca L.; Kennedy, James C.; Mackay, M.; Mendes, M. A. K.; Pottier, Roy H.

    2003-12-01

    Drugs used in disease treatment can cause damage to both malignant and normal tissue. This toxicity limits the maximum therapeutic dose. Drug targeting is of high interest to increase the therapeutic efficacy of the drug without increasing systemic toxicity. Certain tissue abnormalities, disease processes, cancers, and infections are characterized by high levels of activity of specific extracellular and/or intracellular proteases. Abnormally high activity levels of specific proteases are present at sites of physical or chemical trauma, blood clots, malignant tumors, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, gingival disease, glomerulonerphritis, and acute pancreatitis. Abnormal protease activity is suspected in development of liver thrombosis, pulmonary emphysema, atherosclerosis, and muscular dystrophy. Inactiviating disease-associated proteases by the administration of appropriate protease inhibitors has had limited success. Instead, one could use such proteases to target drugs to treat the condition. Protease mediated drug delivery offers such a possibility. Solubilizing groups are attached to insoluble drugs via a polypeptide chain which is specifically cleavable by certian proteases. When the solubilized drug enounters the protease, the solubilizing moieties are cleaved, and the drug precipitates at the disease location. Thus, a smaller systemic dosage could result in a therapeutic drug concentration at the treatment site with less systemic toxicity.

  19. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency: Beyond the Protease/Antiprotease Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Cosio, Manuel G; Bazzan, Erica; Rigobello, Chiara; Tinè, Mariaenrica; Turato, Graziella; Baraldo, Simonetta; Saetta, Marina

    2016-08-01

    From the discovery that alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) was an effective inhibitor of neutrophil elastase originated the classic paradigm of protease/antiprotease imbalance, linking lung destruction to the unopposed effect of proteases in patients with the deficiency. Notwithstanding its importance as an antiprotease, it has become evident that alpha-1 antitrypsin has important antiinflammatory and immune-regulatory activities, which may be critically involved in lung destruction. We review here recent evidence showing that, indeed, an important adaptive immune reaction is present in lungs with AAT deficiency, similar to the one seen in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with normal AAT. On the basis of recent evidence from epidemiological, clinical, and pathogenetic studies, it is likely time to move on from the original protease/antiprotease hypothesis for the production of emphysema toward a more complex paradigm, involving the antiinflammatory and immune modulating functions of AAT. PMID:27564665

  20. Feces Derived Allergens of Tyrophagus putrescentiae Reared on Dried Dog Food and Evidence of the Strong Nutritional Interaction between the Mite and Bacillus cereus Producing Protease Bacillolysins and Exo-chitinases.

    PubMed

    Erban, Tomas; Rybanska, Dagmar; Harant, Karel; Hortova, Bronislava; Hubert, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank, 1781) is an emerging source of allergens in stored products and homes. Feces proteases are the major allergens of astigmatid mites (Acari: Acaridida). In addition, the mites are carriers of microorganisms and microbial adjuvant compounds that stimulate innate signaling pathways. We sought to analyze the mite feces proteome, proteolytic activities, and mite-bacterial interaction in dry dog food (DDF). Proteomic methods comprising enzymatic and zymographic analysis of proteases and 2D-E-MS/MS were performed. The highest protease activity was assigned to trypsin-like proteases; lower activity was assigned to chymotrypsin-like proteases, and the cysteine protease cathepsin B-like had very low activity. The 2D-E-MS/MS proteomic analysis identified mite trypsin allergen Tyr p3, fatty acid-binding protein Tyr p13 and putative mite allergens ferritin (Grp 30) and (poly)ubiquitins. Tyr p3 was detected at different positions of the 2D-E. It indicates presence of zymogen at basic pI, and mature-enzyme form and enzyme fragment at acidic pI. Bacillolysins (neutral and alkaline proteases) of Bacillus cereus symbiont can contribute to the protease activity of the mite extract. The bacterial exo-chitinases likely contribute to degradation of mite exuviae, mite bodies or food boluses consisting of chitin, including the peritrophic membrane. Thus, the chitinases disrupt the feces and facilitate release of the allergens. B. cereus was isolated and identified based on amplification and sequencing of 16S rRNA and motB genes. B. cereus was added into high-fat, high-protein (DDF) and low-fat, low-protein (flour) diets to 1 and 5% (w/w), and the diets palatability was evaluated in 21-day population growth test. The supplementation of diet with B. cereus significantly suppressed population growth and the suppressive effect was higher in the high-fat, high-protein diet than in the low-fat, low-protein food. Thus, B. cereus has to coexist with the mite in

  1. Feces Derived Allergens of Tyrophagus putrescentiae Reared on Dried Dog Food and Evidence of the Strong Nutritional Interaction between the Mite and Bacillus cereus Producing Protease Bacillolysins and Exo-chitinases.

    PubMed

    Erban, Tomas; Rybanska, Dagmar; Harant, Karel; Hortova, Bronislava; Hubert, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank, 1781) is an emerging source of allergens in stored products and homes. Feces proteases are the major allergens of astigmatid mites (Acari: Acaridida). In addition, the mites are carriers of microorganisms and microbial adjuvant compounds that stimulate innate signaling pathways. We sought to analyze the mite feces proteome, proteolytic activities, and mite-bacterial interaction in dry dog food (DDF). Proteomic methods comprising enzymatic and zymographic analysis of proteases and 2D-E-MS/MS were performed. The highest protease activity was assigned to trypsin-like proteases; lower activity was assigned to chymotrypsin-like proteases, and the cysteine protease cathepsin B-like had very low activity. The 2D-E-MS/MS proteomic analysis identified mite trypsin allergen Tyr p3, fatty acid-binding protein Tyr p13 and putative mite allergens ferritin (Grp 30) and (poly)ubiquitins. Tyr p3 was detected at different positions of the 2D-E. It indicates presence of zymogen at basic pI, and mature-enzyme form and enzyme fragment at acidic pI. Bacillolysins (neutral and alkaline proteases) of Bacillus cereus symbiont can contribute to the protease activity of the mite extract. The bacterial exo-chitinases likely contribute to degradation of mite exuviae, mite bodies or food boluses consisting of chitin, including the peritrophic membrane. Thus, the chitinases disrupt the feces and facilitate release of the allergens. B. cereus was isolated and identified based on amplification and sequencing of 16S rRNA and motB genes. B. cereus was added into high-fat, high-protein (DDF) and low-fat, low-protein (flour) diets to 1 and 5% (w/w), and the diets palatability was evaluated in 21-day population growth test. The supplementation of diet with B. cereus significantly suppressed population growth and the suppressive effect was higher in the high-fat, high-protein diet than in the low-fat, low-protein food. Thus, B. cereus has to coexist with the mite in

  2. Feces Derived Allergens of Tyrophagus putrescentiae Reared on Dried Dog Food and Evidence of the Strong Nutritional Interaction between the Mite and Bacillus cereus Producing Protease Bacillolysins and Exo-chitinases

    PubMed Central

    Erban, Tomas; Rybanska, Dagmar; Harant, Karel; Hortova, Bronislava; Hubert, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank, 1781) is an emerging source of allergens in stored products and homes. Feces proteases are the major allergens of astigmatid mites (Acari: Acaridida). In addition, the mites are carriers of microorganisms and microbial adjuvant compounds that stimulate innate signaling pathways. We sought to analyze the mite feces proteome, proteolytic activities, and mite-bacterial interaction in dry dog food (DDF). Proteomic methods comprising enzymatic and zymographic analysis of proteases and 2D-E-MS/MS were performed. The highest protease activity was assigned to trypsin-like proteases; lower activity was assigned to chymotrypsin-like proteases, and the cysteine protease cathepsin B-like had very low activity. The 2D-E-MS/MS proteomic analysis identified mite trypsin allergen Tyr p3, fatty acid-binding protein Tyr p13 and putative mite allergens ferritin (Grp 30) and (poly)ubiquitins. Tyr p3 was detected at different positions of the 2D-E. It indicates presence of zymogen at basic pI, and mature-enzyme form and enzyme fragment at acidic pI. Bacillolysins (neutral and alkaline proteases) of Bacillus cereus symbiont can contribute to the protease activity of the mite extract. The bacterial exo-chitinases likely contribute to degradation of mite exuviae, mite bodies or food boluses consisting of chitin, including the peritrophic membrane. Thus, the chitinases disrupt the feces and facilitate release of the allergens. B. cereus was isolated and identified based on amplification and sequencing of 16S rRNA and motB genes. B. cereus was added into high-fat, high-protein (DDF) and low-fat, low-protein (flour) diets to 1 and 5% (w/w), and the diets palatability was evaluated in 21-day population growth test. The supplementation of diet with B. cereus significantly suppressed population growth and the suppressive effect was higher in the high-fat, high-protein diet than in the low-fat, low-protein food. Thus, B. cereus has to coexist with the mite in

  3. Protease degradable electrospun fibrous hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Ryan J.; Bassin, Ethan J.; Rodell, Christopher B.; Burdick, Jason A.

    2015-01-01

    Electrospun nanofibers are promising in biomedical applications to replicate features of the natural extracellular matrix (ECM). However, nearly all electrospun scaffolds are either non-degradable or degrade hydrolytically, whereas natural ECM degrades proteolytically, often through matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Here, we synthesize reactive macromers that contain protease-cleavable and fluorescent peptides and are able to form both isotropic hydrogels and electrospun fibrous hydrogels through a photoinitiated polymerization. These biomimetic scaffolds are susceptible to protease-mediated cleavage in vitro in a protease dose dependent manner and in vivo in a subcutaneous mouse model using transdermal fluorescent imaging to monitor degradation. Importantly, materials containing an alternate and non-protease-cleavable peptide sequence are stable in both in vitro and in vivo settings. To illustrate the specificity in degradation, scaffolds with mixed fiber populations support selective fiber degradation based on individual fiber degradability. Overall, this represents a novel biomimetic approach to generate protease-sensitive fibrous scaffolds for biomedical applications. PMID:25799370

  4. A bumblebee (Bombus ignitus) venom serine protease inhibitor that acts as a microbial serine protease inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Wan, Hu; Kim, Bo Yeon; Lee, Kwang Sik; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Lee, Kyung Yong; Jin, Byung Rae

    2014-01-01

    Serine protease inhibitors from bumblebee venom have been shown to block plasmin activity. In this study, we identified the protein BiVSPI from the venom of Bombus ignitus to be a serine protease inhibitor and an antimicrobial factor. BiVSPI is a 55-amino acid mature peptide with ten conserved cysteine residues and a P1 methionine residue. BiVSPI is expressed in the venom gland and also found in the venom as an 8-kDa peptide. Recombinant BiVSPI that was expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells exhibited inhibitory activity against chymotrypsin but not trypsin. BiVSPI also inhibited microbial serine proteases, such as subtilisin A (Ki=6.57nM) and proteinase K (Ki=7.11nM). In addition, BiVSPI was shown to bind directly to Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Beauveria bassiana but not to Escherichia coli. Consistent with these results, BiVSPI exhibited antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. These findings provide evidence for a novel serine protease inhibitor in bumblebee venom that has antimicrobial functions.

  5. Multiple Classes of Immune-Related Proteases Associated with the Cell Death Response in Pepper Plants

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Chungyun; Kim, Su-min; Lee, Dong Ju; Choi, Doil

    2013-01-01

    Proteases regulate a large number of biological processes in plants, such as metabolism, physiology, growth, and defense. In this study, we carried out virus-induced gene silencing assays with pepper cDNA clones to elucidate the biological roles of protease superfamilies. A total of 153 representative protease genes from pepper cDNA were selected and cloned into a Tobacco rattle virus-ligation independent cloning vector in a loss-of-function study. Silencing of 61 proteases resulted in altered phenotypes, such as the inhibition of shoot growth, abnormal leaf shape, leaf color change, and lethality. Furthermore, the silencing experiments revealed that multiple proteases play a role in cell death and immune response against avirulent and virulent pathogens. Among these 153 proteases, 34 modulated the hypersensitive cell death response caused by infection with an avirulent pathogen, and 16 proteases affected disease symptom development caused by a virulent pathogen. Specifically, we provide experimental evidence for the roles of multiple protease genes in plant development and immune defense following pathogen infection. With these results, we created a broad sketch of each protease function. This information will provide basic information for further understanding the roles of the protease superfamily in plant growth, development, and defense. PMID:23696830

  6. A bead-based cleavage method for large-scale identification of protease substrates

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunli; Ye, Mingliang; Wei, Xiaoluan; Bian, Yangyang; Cheng, Kai; Zou, Hanfa

    2016-01-01

    Proteolysis is a major form of post translational modification which occurs when a protease cleaves peptide bonds in a target protein to modify its activity. Tracking protease substrates is indispensable for understanding its cellular functions. However, it is difficult to directly identify protease substrates because the end products of proteolysis, the cleaved protein fragments, must be identified among the pool of cellular proteins. Here we present a bead-based cleavage approach using immobilized proteome as the screening library to identify protease substrates. This method enables efficient separation of proteolyzed proteins from background protein mixture. Using caspase-3 as the model protease, we have identified 1159 high confident substrates, among which, strikingly, 43.9% of substrates undergo degradation during apoptosis. The huge number of substrates and positive support of in vivo evidence indicate that the BBC method is a powerful tool for protease substrates identification. PMID:26935269

  7. A bead-based cleavage method for large-scale identification of protease substrates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunli; Ye, Mingliang; Wei, Xiaoluan; Bian, Yangyang; Cheng, Kai; Zou, Hanfa

    2016-01-01

    Proteolysis is a major form of post translational modification which occurs when a protease cleaves peptide bonds in a target protein to modify its activity. Tracking protease substrates is indispensable for understanding its cellular functions. However, it is difficult to directly identify protease substrates because the end products of proteolysis, the cleaved protein fragments, must be identified among the pool of cellular proteins. Here we present a bead-based cleavage approach using immobilized proteome as the screening library to identify protease substrates. This method enables efficient separation of proteolyzed proteins from background protein mixture. Using caspase-3 as the model protease, we have identified 1159 high confident substrates, among which, strikingly, 43.9% of substrates undergo degradation during apoptosis. The huge number of substrates and positive support of in vivo evidence indicate that the BBC method is a powerful tool for protease substrates identification. PMID:26935269

  8. Serine proteases of parasitic helminths.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Wen, Yun jun; Cai, Ya Nan; Vallée, Isabelle; Boireau, Pascal; Liu, Ming Yuan; Cheng, Shi Peng

    2015-02-01

    Serine proteases form one of the most important families of enzymes and perform significant functions in a broad range of biological processes, such as intra- and extracellular protein metabolism, digestion, blood coagulation, regulation of development, and fertilization. A number of serine proteases have been identified in parasitic helminths that have putative roles in parasite development and nutrition, host tissues and cell invasion, anticoagulation, and immune evasion. In this review, we described the serine proteases that have been identified in parasitic helminths, including nematodes (Trichinella spiralis, T. pseudospiralis, Trichuris muris, Anisakis simplex, Ascaris suum, Onchocerca volvulus, O. lienalis, Brugia malayi, Ancylostoma caninum, and Steinernema carpocapsae), cestodes (Spirometra mansoni, Echinococcus granulosus, and Schistocephalus solidus), and trematodes (Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica, and Schistosoma mansoni). Moreover, the possible biological functions of these serine proteases in the endogenous biological phenomena of these parasites and in the host-parasite interaction were also discussed. PMID:25748703

  9. Serine Proteases of Parasitic Helminths

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yong; Wen, Yun jun; Cai, Ya Nan; Vallée, Isabelle; Boireau, Pascal; Liu, Ming Yuan; Cheng, Shi Peng

    2015-01-01

    Serine proteases form one of the most important families of enzymes and perform significant functions in a broad range of biological processes, such as intra- and extracellular protein metabolism, digestion, blood coagulation, regulation of development, and fertilization. A number of serine proteases have been identified in parasitic helminths that have putative roles in parasite development and nutrition, host tissues and cell invasion, anticoagulation, and immune evasion. In this review, we described the serine proteases that have been identified in parasitic helminths, including nematodes (Trichinella spiralis, T. pseudospiralis, Trichuris muris, Anisakis simplex, Ascaris suum, Onchocerca volvulus, O. lienalis, Brugia malayi, Ancylostoma caninum, and Steinernema carpocapsae), cestodes (Spirometra mansoni, Echinococcus granulosus, and Schistocephalus solidus), and trematodes (Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica, and Schistosoma mansoni). Moreover, the possible biological functions of these serine proteases in the endogenous biological phenomena of these parasites and in the host-parasite interaction were also discussed. PMID:25748703

  10. Comparative genomics of mycobacterial proteases.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Guimarães, Michelle Lopes; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal

    2007-01-01

    Although proteases are recognized as important virulent factors in pathogenic microorganisms, little information is available so far regarding the potential role of these enzymes in diseases caused by mycobacteria. Here we use bioinformatic tools to compare the protease-coding genes present in the genome of Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis. This analysis allowed a review of the nomenclature of the protease family present in mycobacteria. A special attention was devoted to the 'decaying genome' of M. leprae where a relatively high level of conservation of protease-coding genes was observed when compared to other genes families. A total of 39 genes out of the 49 found in M. bovis were identified in M. leprae. Of relevance, a core of well-conserved 38 protease genes shared by the four species was defined. This set of proteases is probably essential for survival in the host and disease outcome and may constitute novel targets for drug development leading to a more effective control of mycobacterial diseases.

  11. The salt-sensitive structure and zinc inhibition of Borrelia burgdorferi protease BbHtrA.

    PubMed

    Russell, Theresa M; Tang, Xiaoling; Goldstein, Jason M; Bagarozzi, Dennis; Johnson, Barbara J B

    2016-02-01

    HtrA serine proteases are highly conserved and essential ATP-independent proteases with chaperone activity. Bacteria express a variable number of HtrA homologues that contribute to the virulence and pathogenicity of bacterial pathogens. Lyme disease spirochetes possess a single HtrA protease homologue, Borrelia burgdorferi HtrA (BbHtrA). Previous studies established that, like the human orthologue HtrA1, BbHtrA is proteolytically active against numerous extracellular proteins in vitro. In this study, we utilized size exclusion chromatography and blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) to demonstrate BbHtrA oligomeric structures that were substrate independent and salt sensitive. Examination of the influence of transition metals on the activity of BbHtrA revealed that this protease is inhibited by Zn(2+) > Cu(2+) > Mn(2+). Extending this analysis to two other HtrA proteases, E. coli DegP and HtrA1, revealed that all three HtrA proteases were reversibly inhibited by ZnCl2 at all micro molar concentrations examined. Commercial inhibitors for HtrA proteases are not available and physiologic HtrA inhibitors are unknown. Our observation of conserved zinc inhibition of HtrA proteases will facilitate structural and functional studies of additional members of this important class of proteases. PMID:26480895

  12. Association between CYP1A1 Ile462Val Polymorphism and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Susceptibility: Evidence from 13 Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao-Lei; Xie, Shang; Jiang, Yi-Yan; Shi, Chang; Cai, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Su-Xiu

    2015-01-01

    CYP1A1 Ile462Val polymorphism might play a key role in pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Many case-control studies have investigated the association between CYP1A1 Ile462Val polymorphism and OSCC susceptibility. However, the conclusions are inconsistent. To aim a convincible conclusion, we carried out a meta-analysis to systematically evaluate the association of CYP1A1 Ile462Val polymorphism with OSCC susceptibility. We searched Pubmed, Web of Science, Ovid and Embase databases for available publications. The odds ratio (OR) with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was carried out to estimate the association. A total of 13 papers including 1468 cases and 2183 controls were included, a significant increased OSCC risk was observed in recessive model (OR=1.64, 95% CI=1.08-2.49), but not other genetic models. Our results suggest that the homozygous variant of CYP1A1 Ile462Val might be a risk factor of OSCC. PMID:25767599

  13. Peptidomimetic inhibitors of HIV protease.

    PubMed

    Randolph, John T; DeGoey, David A

    2004-01-01

    There are currently (July, 2002) six protease inhibitors approved for the treatment of HIV infection, each of which can be classified as peptidomimetic in structure. These agents, when used in combination with other antiretroviral agents, produce a sustained decrease in viral load, often to levels below the limits of quantifiable detection, and a significant reconstitution of the immune system. Therapeutic regimens containing one or more HIV protease inhibitors thus provide a highly effective method for disease management. The important role of protease inhibitors in HIV therapy, combined with numerous challenges remaining in HIV treatment, have resulted in a continued effort both to optimize regimens using the existing agents and to identify new protease inhibitors that may provide unique properties. This review will provide an overview of the discovery and clinical trials of the currently approved HIV protease inhibitors, followed by an examination of important aspects of therapy, such as pharmacokinetic enhancement, resistance and side effects. A description of new peptidomimetic compounds currently being investigated in the clinic and in preclinical discovery will follow. PMID:15193140

  14. Microbial inhibitors of cysteine proteases.

    PubMed

    Kędzior, Mateusz; Seredyński, Rafał; Gutowicz, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Cysteine proteases are one of the major classes of proteolytic enzymes involved in a number of physiological and pathological processes in plants, animals and microorganisms. When their synthesis, activity and localization in mammalian cells are altered, they may contribute to the development of many diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis and cancer. Therefore, cysteine proteases have become promising drug targets for the medical treatment of these disorders. Inhibitors of cysteine proteases are also produced by almost every group of living organisms, being responsible for the control of intracellular proteolytic activity. Microorganisms synthesize cysteine protease inhibitors not only to regulate the activity of endogenous, often virulent enzymes, but also to hinder the host's proteolytic defense system and evade its immune responses against infections. Present work describes known to date microbial inhibitors of cysteine proteases in terms of their structure, enzyme binding mechanism, specificity and pathophysiological roles. The overview of both proteinaceous and small-molecule inhibitors produced by all groups of microorganisms (bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists) and viruses is provided. Subsequently, possible applications of microbial inhibitors in science, medicine and biotechnology are also highlighted. PMID:27048482

  15. Microbial inhibitors of cysteine proteases.

    PubMed

    Kędzior, Mateusz; Seredyński, Rafał; Gutowicz, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Cysteine proteases are one of the major classes of proteolytic enzymes involved in a number of physiological and pathological processes in plants, animals and microorganisms. When their synthesis, activity and localization in mammalian cells are altered, they may contribute to the development of many diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis and cancer. Therefore, cysteine proteases have become promising drug targets for the medical treatment of these disorders. Inhibitors of cysteine proteases are also produced by almost every group of living organisms, being responsible for the control of intracellular proteolytic activity. Microorganisms synthesize cysteine protease inhibitors not only to regulate the activity of endogenous, often virulent enzymes, but also to hinder the host's proteolytic defense system and evade its immune responses against infections. Present work describes known to date microbial inhibitors of cysteine proteases in terms of their structure, enzyme binding mechanism, specificity and pathophysiological roles. The overview of both proteinaceous and small-molecule inhibitors produced by all groups of microorganisms (bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists) and viruses is provided. Subsequently, possible applications of microbial inhibitors in science, medicine and biotechnology are also highlighted.

  16. Subfamily-Specific Fluorescent Probes for Cysteine Proteases Display Dynamic Protease Activities during Seed Germination1

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Haibin; Chandrasekar, Balakumaran; Oeljeklaus, Julian; Misas-Villamil, Johana C.; Wang, Zheming; Shindo, Takayuki; Bogyo, Matthew; Kaiser, Markus; van der Hoorn, Renier A.L.

    2015-01-01

    Cysteine proteases are an important class of enzymes implicated in both developmental and defense-related programmed cell death and other biological processes in plants. Because there are dozens of cysteine proteases that are posttranslationally regulated by processing, environmental conditions, and inhibitors, new methodologies are required to study these pivotal enzymes individually. Here, we introduce fluorescence activity-based probes that specifically target three distinct cysteine protease subfamilies: aleurain-like proteases, cathepsin B-like proteases, and vacuolar processing enzymes. We applied protease activity profiling with these new probes on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) protease knockout lines and agroinfiltrated leaves to identify the probe targets and on other plant species to demonstrate their broad applicability. These probes revealed that most commercially available protease inhibitors target unexpected proteases in plants. When applied on germinating seeds, these probes reveal dynamic activities of aleurain-like proteases, cathepsin B-like proteases, and vacuolar processing enzymes, coinciding with the remobilization of seed storage proteins. PMID:26048883

  17. Gag-Protease Sequence Evolution Following Protease Inhibitor Monotherapy Treatment Failure in HIV-1 Viruses Circulating in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Katherine A; Goodall, Ruth L; McCormick, Adele; Kapaata, Anne; Lyagoba, Fred; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Thiltgen, Geant; Gilks, Charles F; Spyer, Moira; Kityo, Cissy; Pillay, Deenan; Dunn, David; Gupta, Ravindra K

    2015-10-01

    Around 2.5 million HIV-infected individuals failing first-line therapy qualify for boosted protease inhibitor (bPI)-based second-line therapy globally. Major resistance mutations are rarely present at treatment failure in patients receiving bPI and the determinants of failure in these patients remain unknown. There is evidence that Gag can impact PI susceptibility. Here, we have sequenced Gag-Protease before and following failure in 23 patients in the SARA trial infected with subtypes A, C, and D viruses. Before bPI, significant variation in Protease and Gag was observed at positions previously associated with PI exposure and resistance including Gag mutations L449P, S451N, and L453P and Protease K20I and L63P. Following PI failure, previously described mutations in Protease and Gag were observed, including those at the cleavage sites such as R361K and P453L. However, the emergence of clear genetic determinants of therapy failure across patients was not observed. Larger Gag sequence datasets will be required to comprehensively identify mutational correlates of bPI failure across subtypes. PMID:26258548

  18. A cysteine protease encoded by the baculovirus Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Ohkawa, T; Majima, K; Maeda, S

    1994-01-01

    Sequence analysis of the BamHI F fragment of the genome of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) revealed an open reading frame whose deduced amino acid sequence had homology to those of cysteine proteases of the papain superfamily. The putative cysteine protease sequence (BmNPV-CP) was 323 amino acids long and showed 35% identity to a cysteine proteinase precursor from Trypanosoma brucei. Of 36 residues conserved among cathepsins B, H, L, and S and papain, 31 were identical in BmNPV-CP. In order to determine the activity and function of the putative cysteine protease, a BmNPV mutant (BmCysPD) was constructed by homologous recombination of the protease gene with a beta-galactosidase gene cassette. BmCysPD-infected BmN cell extracts were significantly reduced in acid protease activity compared with wild-type virus-infected cell extracts. The cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 [trans-epoxysuccinylleucylamido-(4-guanidino)butane] inhibited wild-type virus-expressed protease activity. Deletion of the cysteine protease gene had no significant effect on viral growth or polyhedron production in BmN cells, indicating that the cysteine protease was not essential for viral replication in vitro. However, B. mori larvae infected with BmCysPD showed symptoms different from those of wild-type BmNPV-infected larvae, e.g., less degradation of the body, including fat body cells, white body surface color due presumably to undegraded epidermal cells, and an increase in the number of polyhedra released into the hemolymph. This is the first report of (i) a virus-encoded protease with activity on general substrates and (ii) evidence that a virus-encoded protease may play a role in degradation of infected larvae to facilitate horizontal transmission of the virus. Images PMID:8083997

  19. Analysis of the immunoglobulin A protease gene of Streptococcus sanguis.

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, J V; Plaut, A G; Wright, A

    1991-01-01

    The amino acid sequence T-P-P-T-P-S-P-S is tandemly duplicated in the heavy chain of human immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1), the major antibody in secretions. The bacterial pathogen Streptococcus sanguis, a precursor to dental caries and a cause of bacterial endocarditis, yields IgA protease that cleaves only the Pro-Thr peptide bond in the left duplication, while the type 2 IgA proteases of the genital pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae and the respiratory pathogen Haemophilus influenzae cleave only the P-T bond in the right half. We have sequenced the entire S. sanguis iga gene cloned into Escherichia coli. A segment consisting of 20 amino acids tandemly repeated 10 times, of unknown function, occurs near the amino-terminal end of the enzyme encoded in E. coli. Identification of a predicted zinc-binding region in the S. sanguis enzyme and the demonstration that mutations in this region result in production of a catalytically inactive protein support the idea that the enzyme is a metalloprotease. The N. gonorrhoeae and H. influenzae enzymes were earlier shown to be serine-type proteases, while the Bacteroides melaninogenicus IgA protease was shown to be a cysteine-type enzyme. The streptococcal IgA protease amino acid sequence has no significant homology with either of the two previously determined IgA protease sequences, that of type 2 N. gonorrhoeae and type 1 H. influenzae. The differences in both structure and mechanism among these functionally analogous enzymes underscore their role in the infectious process and offer some prospect of therapeutic intervention. Images PMID:1987065

  20. Curcumin derivatives as HIV-1 protease inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Sui, Z.; Li, J.; Craik, C.S.; Ortiz de Montellano, P.R.

    1993-12-31

    Curcumin, a non-toxic natural compound from Curcuma longa, has been found to be an HIV-1 protease inhibitor. Some of its derivatives were synthesized and their inhibitory activity against the HIV-1 protease was tested. Curcumin analogues containing boron enhanced the inhibitory activity. At least of the the synthesized compounds irreversibly inhibits the HIV-1 protease.

  1. Proteases in Fas-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhivotovsky, B; Burgess, D H; Schlegel, J; Pörn, M I; Vanags, D; Orrenius, S

    1997-01-01

    Involvement of a unique family of cysteine proteases in the multistep apoptotic process has been documented. Cloning of several mammalian genes identifies some components of this cellular response. However, it is currently unclear which protease plays a role as a signal and/or effector of apoptosis. We summarize contributions to the data concerning proteases in Fas-mediated apoptosis.

  2. Protease inhibitor in scorpion (Mesobuthus eupeus) venom prolongs the biological activities of the crude venom.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hakim; Xiao-Peng, Tang; Yang, Shi-Long; Lu, Qiu-Min; Lai, Ren

    2016-08-01

    It is hypothesized that protease inhibitors play an essential role in survival of venomous animals through protecting peptide/protein toxins from degradation by proteases in their prey or predators. However, the biological function of protease inhibitors in scorpion venoms remains unknown. In the present study, a trypsin inhibitor was purified and characterized from the venom of scorpion Mesobuthus eupeus, which enhanced the biological activities of crude venom components in mice when injected in combination with crude venom. This protease inhibitor, named MeKTT-1, belonged to Kunitz-type toxins subfamily. Native MeKTT-1 selectively inhibited trypsin with a Kivalue of 130 nmol·L(-1). Furthermore, MeKTT-1 was shown to be a thermo-stable peptide. In animal behavioral tests, MeKTT-1 prolonged the pain behavior induced by scorpion crude venom, suggesting that protease inhibitors in scorpion venom inhibited proteases and protect the functionally important peptide/protein toxins from degradation, consequently keeping them active longer. In conclusion, this was the first experimental evidence about the natural existence of serine protease inhibitor in the venom of scorpion Mesobuthus eupeus, which preserved the activity of venom components, suggests that scorpions may use protease inhibitors for survival. PMID:27608950

  3. Laboratory Detection of ClZnCH3 (X1A1): Further Evidence for Zinc Insertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucchino, Matthew; Ziurys, Lucy

    2014-06-01

    The pure rotational spectrum of methylzinc chloride, ClZnCH3 (X1A1), has been recorded in the gas phase using direct absorption spectroscopic techniques. ClZnCH3 was synthesized by the reaction of zinc vapor, generated in a Broida-type oven, with chloromethane in the presence of a DC discharge. Rotational transitions of the main isotopologue, 35Cl64ZnCH3, were measured in the frequency range of 260{-297} GHz. The presence of clear K-ladder structure (K = 0{-6}) indicates that the species is a symmetric top with C3V symmetry. ClZnCH3 appears to be formed by the oxidative addition of atomic zinc to chloromethane. Searches for the 37Cl, 66Zn, 13C, and D substituted isotopologues are currently in progress. The geometries of ClZnCH3 and IZnCH3 will be compared with reactivity trends for halogen-substituted organometallic reagents.

  4. Determination of the protease cleavage site repertoire—The RNase H but not the RT domain is essential for foamy viral protease activity

    SciTech Connect

    Spannaus, Ralf; Bodem, Jochen

    2014-04-15

    In contrast to orthoretroviruses, the foamy virus protease is only active as a protease-reverse transcriptase fusion protein and requires viral RNA for activation. Maturation of foamy viral proteins seems to be restricted to a single cleavage site in Gag and Pol. We provide evidence that unprocessed Gag is required for optimal infectivity, which is unique among retroviruses. Analyses of the cleavage site sequences of the Gag and Pol cleavage sites revealed a high similarity compared to those of Lentiviruses. We show that positions P2' and P2 are invariant and that Gag and Pol cleavage sites are processed with similar efficiencies. The RNase H domain is essential for protease activity, but can functionally be substituted by RNase H domains of other retroviruses. Thus, the RNase H domain might be involved in the stabilization of the protease dimer, while the RT domain is essential for RNA dependent protease activation. - Highlights: • Unprocessed Gag is required for optimal infectivity of foamy viruses. • Positions P2 and P2' are invariant in the foamy viral cleavage sites. • The RNaseH domain is essential for protease activity. • The RNaseH domains of other retroviruses support foamy viral protease activity.

  5. Exogenous proteases for meat tenderization.

    PubMed

    Bekhit, Alaa A; Hopkins, David L; Geesink, Geert; Bekhit, Adnan A; Franks, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The use of exogenous proteases to improve meat tenderness has attracted much interest recently, with a view to consistent production of tender meat and added value to lower grade meat cuts. This review discusses the sources, characteristics, and use of exogenous proteases in meat tenderization to highlight the specificity of the proteases toward meat proteins and their impact on meat quality. Plant enzymes (such as papain, bromelain, and ficin) have been extensively investigated as meat tenderizers. New plant proteases (actinidin and zingibain) and microbial enzyme preparations have been of recent interest due to controlled meat tenderization and other advantages. Successful use of these enzymes in fresh meat requires their enzymatic kinetics and characteristics to be determined, together with an understanding of the impact of the surrounding environmental conditions of the meat (pH, temperature) on enzyme function. This enables the optimal conditions for tenderizing fresh meat to be established, and the elimination or reduction of any negative impacts on other quality attributes. PMID:24499119

  6. Biotechnology of Cold-Active Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Swati; Satyanarayana, Tulasi

    2013-01-01

    The bulk of Earth’s biosphere is cold (<5 °C) and inhabited by psychrophiles. Biocatalysts from psychrophilic organisms (psychrozymes) have attracted attention because of their application in the ongoing efforts to decrease energy consumption. Proteinases as a class represent the largest category of industrial enzymes. There has been an emphasis on employing cold-active proteases in detergents because this allows laundry operations at ambient temperatures. Proteases have been used in environmental bioremediation, food industry and molecular biology. In view of the present limited understanding and availability of cold-active proteases with diverse characteristics, it is essential to explore Earth’s surface more in search of an ideal cold-active protease. The understanding of molecular and mechanistic details of these proteases will open up new avenues to tailor proteases with the desired properties. A detailed account of the developments in the production and applications of cold-active proteases is presented in this review. PMID:24832807

  7. Secretory immunity and the bacterial IgA proteases.

    PubMed

    Kornfeld, S J; Plaut, A G

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics and functions of microbial IgA proteases are reviewed. These enzymes represent a structurally heterogeneous group of proteins that are secreted into the extracellular environment by bacteria capable of causing human disease. The IgA proteases, which vary in their requirements for metal ions, are neutral endopeptidases whose role in the infectious process is not known but whose pronounced substrate specificity for human proteins of the IgA1 subclass has repeatedly been demonstrated. As reagents, the IgA proteases are useful in cleaving IgA molecules to yield intact Fc alpha and Fab alpha fragments that will allow the study of the structure and function of the two large regions of IgA immunoglobulin proteins. The role, if any, of these enzymes in promoting infection by pathogenic members of the genera Neisseria, Hemophilus, and Streptococcus is not known, although the secretory immune system is primarily mediated by antibodies of the IgA isotype, among which are IgA1 subclass proteins, and these proteins are susceptible to cleavage by IgA protease. The determination of the role of these enzymes in the pathogenesis of human infection must await clearer understanding of antigenicity and antibody function at secretory sites and of the relative roles of the two subclasses of human IgA in immune defense.

  8. Type II Transmembrane Serine Proteases*

    PubMed Central

    Bugge, Thomas H.; Antalis, Toni M.; Wu, Qingyu

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of genome and expressed sequence tag data bases at the turn of the millennium unveiled a new protease family named the type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs) in a Journal of Biological Chemistry minireview (Hooper, J. D., Clements, J. A., Quigley, J. P., and Antalis, T. M. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 857–860). Since then, the number of known TTSPs has more than doubled, and more importantly, our understanding of the physiological functions of individual TTSPs and their contribution to human disease has greatly increased. Progress has also been made in identifying molecular substrates and endogenous inhibitors. This minireview summarizes the current knowledge of the rapidly advancing TTSP field. PMID:19487698

  9. Molecular Imaging of Proteases in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yunan; Hong, Hao; Zhang, Yin; Cai, Weibo

    2010-01-01

    Proteases play important roles during tumor angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Various molecular imaging techniques have been employed for protease imaging: optical (both fluorescence and bioluminescence), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET). In this review, we will summarize the current status of imaging proteases in cancer with these techniques. Optical imaging of proteases, in particular with fluorescence, is the most intensively validated and many of the imaging probes are already commercially available. It is generally agreed that the use of activatable probes is the most accurate and appropriate means for measuring protease activity. Molecular imaging of proteases with other techniques (i.e. MRI, SPECT, and PET) has not been well-documented in the literature which certainly deserves much future effort. Optical imaging and molecular MRI of protease activity has very limited potential for clinical investigation. PET/SPECT imaging is suitable for clinical investigation; however the optimal probes for PET/SPECT imaging of proteases in cancer have yet to be developed. Successful development of protease imaging probes with optimal in vivo stability, tumor targeting efficacy, and desirable pharmacokinetics for clinical translation will eventually improve cancer patient management. Not limited to cancer, these protease-targeted imaging probes will also have broad applications in other diseases such as arthritis, atherosclerosis, and myocardial infarction. PMID:20234801

  10. Measurement of branching fraction and first evidence of CP violation in B0→a1±(1260)π∓ decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalseno, J.; Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Asner, D. M.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Bakich, A. M.; Bay, A.; Belous, K.; Bhuyan, B.; Bozek, A.; Bračko, M.; Brovchenko, O.; Browder, T. E.; Chekelian, V.; Chen, A.; Chen, P.; Cheon, B. G.; Chilikin, K.; Chistov, R.; Cho, I.-S.; Cho, K.; Choi, Y.; Doležal, Z.; Drásal, Z.; Eidelman, S.; Fast, J. E.; Gaur, V.; Gabyshev, N.; Garmash, A.; Goh, Y. M.; Hayashii, H.; Horii, Y.; Hoshi, Y.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hyun, H. J.; Iijima, T.; Inami, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Itoh, R.; Iwabuchi, M.; Iwasaki, Y.; Iwashita, T.; Julius, T.; Kang, J. H.; Kiesling, C.; Kim, H. O.; Kim, J. B.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinoshita, K.; Ko, B. R.; Koblitz, S.; Kodyš, P.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Krokovny, P.; Kronenbitter, B.; Kuhr, T.; Kumita, T.; Kwon, Y.-J.; Lee, S.-H.; Li, J.; Libby, J.; Liu, C.; Liu, Z. Q.; Louvot, R.; MacNaughton, J.; Matvienko, D.; McOnie, S.; Miyabayashi, K.; Miyata, H.; Miyazaki, Y.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohapatra, D.; Moll, A.; Muramatsu, N.; Nakao, M.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nedelkovska, E.; Ng, C.; Nishida, S.; Nishimura, K.; Nitoh, O.; Ogawa, S.; Ohshima, T.; Okuno, S.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, G.; Park, C. W.; Park, H. K.; Pedlar, T. K.; Pestotnik, R.; Petrič, M.; Piilonen, L. E.; Prim, M.; Prothmann, K.; Ritter, M.; Röhrken, M.; Sahoo, H.; Sakai, Y.; Sanuki, T.; Schneider, O.; Schwanda, C.; Schwartz, A. J.; Senyo, K.; Seon, O.; Sevior, M. E.; Shapkin, M.; Shebalin, V.; Shen, C. P.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shiu, J.-G.; Sibidanov, A.; Simon, F.; Smerkol, P.; Sohn, Y.-S.; Solovieva, E.; Starič, M.; Sumihama, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tatishvili, G.; Teramoto, Y.; Trabelsi, K.; Uchida, M.; Uehara, S.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Urquijo, P.; Usov, Y.; Vanhoefer, P.; Varner, G.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, P.; Watanabe, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Williams, K. M.; Won, E.; Yabsley, B. D.; Yamashita, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zhulanov, V.; Zupanc, A.

    2012-11-01

    We present a measurement of the branching fraction and time-dependent CP violation parameters in B0→a1±(1260)π∓ decays. The results are obtained from the final data sample containing 772×106 BB¯ pairs collected at the Υ(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+e- collider. We obtain the product branching fraction B(B0→a1±(1260)π∓)×B(a1±(1260)→π±π∓π±)=(11.1±1.0(stat)±1.4(syst))×10-6 and an upper limit on the product branching fraction for a possible decay with the same final state B(B0→a2±(1320)π∓)×B(a2±(1320)→π±π∓π±)<2.2×10-6at90%CL. In a time-dependent measurement to extract CP asymmetries, we obtain the CP violation parameters ACP=-0.06±0.05(stat)±0.07(syst), CCP=-0.01±0.11(stat)±0.09(syst), SCP=-0.51±0.14(stat)±0.08(syst), representing time- and flavor-integrated direct, flavor-dependent direct and mixing-induced CP violation, respectively. Simultaneously, we also extract the CP-conserving parameters ΔC=+0.54±0.11(stat)±0.07(syst), ΔS=-0.09±0.14(stat)±0.06(syst), which, respectively, describe a rate difference and strong phase difference between the decay channels where the a1± does not contain the spectator quark and those where it does. We find first evidence of mixing-induced CP violation in B0→a1±(1260)π∓ decays with 3.1σ significance. The rate where the a1± does not contain the spectator quark from the B meson is found to dominate the rate where it does at the 4.1σ level. However, there is no evidence for either time- and flavor-integrated direct CP violation or flavor-dependent direct CP violation.

  11. Advances in protease engineering for laundry detergents.

    PubMed

    Vojcic, Ljubica; Pitzler, Christian; Körfer, Georgette; Jakob, Felix; Ronny Martinez; Maurer, Karl-Heinz; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2015-12-25

    Proteases are essential ingredients in modern laundry detergents. Over the past 30 years, subtilisin proteases employed in the laundry detergent industry have been engineered by directed evolution and rational design to tailor their properties towards industrial demands. This comprehensive review discusses recent success stories in subtilisin protease engineering. Advances in protease engineering for laundry detergents comprise simultaneous improvement of thermal resistance and activity at low temperatures, a rational strategy to modulate pH profiles, and a general hypothesis for how to increase promiscuous activity towards the production of peroxycarboxylic acids as mild bleaching agents. The three protease engineering campaigns presented provide in-depth analysis of protease properties and have identified principles that can be applied to improve or generate enzyme variants for industrial applications beyond laundry detergents.

  12. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David B.; Lao, Guifang

    1998-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium.

  13. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, D.B.; Lao, G.

    1998-01-06

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium. 3 figs.

  14. Crystal structures of Bacillus subtilis Lon protease.

    PubMed

    Duman, Ramona E; Löwe, Jan

    2010-08-27

    Lon ATP-dependent proteases are key components of the protein quality control systems of bacterial cells and eukaryotic organelles. Eubacterial Lon proteases contain an N-terminal domain, an ATPase domain, and a protease domain, all in one polypeptide chain. The N-terminal domain is thought to be involved in substrate recognition, the ATPase domain in substrate unfolding and translocation into the protease chamber, and the protease domain in the hydrolysis of polypeptides into small peptide fragments. Like other AAA+ ATPases and self-compartmentalising proteases, Lon functions as an oligomeric complex, although the subunit stoichiometry is currently unclear. Here, we present crystal structures of truncated versions of Lon protease from Bacillus subtilis (BsLon), which reveal previously unknown architectural features of Lon complexes. Our analytical ultracentrifugation and electron microscopy show different oligomerisation of Lon proteases from two different bacterial species, Aquifex aeolicus and B. subtilis. The structure of BsLon-AP shows a hexameric complex consisting of a small part of the N-terminal domain, the ATPase, and protease domains. The structure shows the approximate arrangement of the three functional domains of Lon. It also reveals a resemblance between the architecture of Lon proteases and the bacterial proteasome-like protease HslUV. Our second structure, BsLon-N, represents the first 209 amino acids of the N-terminal domain of BsLon and consists of a globular domain, similar in structure to the E. coli Lon N-terminal domain, and an additional four-helix bundle, which is part of a predicted coiled-coil region. An unexpected dimeric interaction between BsLon-N monomers reveals the possibility that Lon complexes may be stabilised by coiled-coil interactions between neighbouring N-terminal domains. Together, BsLon-N and BsLon-AP are 36 amino acids short of offering a complete picture of a full-length Lon protease.

  15. Biased Signaling of Protease-Activated Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Peishen; Metcalf, Matthew; Bunnett, Nigel W.

    2014-01-01

    In addition to their role in protein degradation and digestion, proteases can also function as hormone-like signaling molecules that regulate vital patho-physiological processes, including inflammation, hemostasis, pain, and repair mechanisms. Certain proteases can signal to cells by cleaving protease-activated receptors (PARs), a family of four G protein-coupled receptors. PARs are expressed by almost all cell types, control important physiological and disease-relevant processes, and are an emerging therapeutic target for major diseases. Most information about PAR activation and function derives from studies of a few proteases, for example thrombin in the case of PAR1, PAR3, and PAR4, and trypsin in the case of PAR2 and PAR4. These proteases cleave PARs at established sites with the extracellular N-terminal domains, and expose tethered ligands that stabilize conformations of the cleaved receptors that activate the canonical pathways of G protein- and/or β-arrestin-dependent signaling. However, a growing number of proteases have been identified that cleave PARs at divergent sites to activate distinct patterns of receptor signaling and trafficking. The capacity of these proteases to trigger distinct signaling pathways is referred to as biased signaling, and can lead to unique patho-physiological outcomes. Given that a different repertoire of proteases are activated in various patho-physiological conditions that may activate PARs by different mechanisms, signaling bias may account for the divergent actions of proteases and PARs. Moreover, therapies that target disease-relevant biased signaling pathways may be more effective and selective approaches for the treatment of protease- and PAR-driven diseases. Thus, rather than mediating the actions of a few proteases, PARs may integrate the biological actions of a wide spectrum of proteases in different patho-physiological conditions. PMID:24860547

  16. Developmentally linked changes in proteases and protease inhibitors suggest a role for potato multicystatin in regulating protein content of potato tubers.

    PubMed

    Weeda, Sarah M; Mohan Kumar, G N; Richard Knowles, N

    2009-06-01

    The soluble protein fraction of fully developed potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers is dominated by patatin, a 40 kD storage glycoprotein, and protease inhibitors. Potato multicystatin (PMC) is a multidomain Cys-type protease inhibitor. PMC effectively inhibits degradation of patatin by tuber proteases in vitro. Herein we show that changes in PMC, patatin concentration, activities of various proteases, and their gene expression are temporally linked during tuber development, providing evidence that PMC has a role in regulating tuber protein content in vivo. PMC was barely detectable in non-tuberized stolons. PMC transcript levels increased progressively during tuberization, concomitant with a 40-fold increase in PMC concentration (protein basis) as tubers developed to 10 g fresh wt. Further increases in PMC were comparatively modest (3.7-fold) as tubers developed to full maturity (250 g). Protease activity declined precipitously as PMC levels increased during tuberization. Proteolytic activity was highest in non-tuberized stolons and fell substantially through the 10-g fresh wt stage. Cys-type proteases dominated the pre-tuberization and earliest stages of tuber development. Increases in patatin transcript levels during tuberization were accompanied by a notable lag in patatin accumulation. Patatin did not begin to accumulate substantially on a protein basis until tubers had reached the 10-g stage, wherein protease activity had been inhibited by approximately 60%. These results indicate that a threshold level of PMC (ca. 3 microg tuber(-1), 144 ng mg(-1) protein) is needed to favor patatin accumulation. Collectively, these results are consistent with a role for PMC in facilitating the accumulation of proteins in developing tubers by inhibiting Cys-type proteases.

  17. Proteolytic crosstalk in multi-protease networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogle, Curtis T.; Mather, William H.

    2016-04-01

    Processive proteases, such as ClpXP in E. coli, are conserved enzyme assemblies that can recognize and rapidly degrade proteins. These proteases are used for a number of purposes, including degrading mistranslated proteins and controlling cellular stress response. However, proteolytic machinery within the cell is limited in capacity and can lead to a bottleneck in protein degradation, whereby many proteins compete (‘queue’) for proteolytic resources. Previous work has demonstrated that such queueing can lead to pronounced statistical relationships between different protein counts when proteins compete for a single common protease. However, real cells contain many different proteases, e.g. ClpXP, ClpAP, and Lon in E. coli, and it is not clear how competition between proteins for multiple classes of protease would influence the dynamics of cellular networks. In the present work, we theoretically demonstrate that a multi-protease proteolytic bottleneck can substantially couple the dynamics for both simple and complex (oscillatory) networks, even between substrates with substantially different affinities for protease. For these networks, queueing often leads to strong positive correlations between protein counts, and these correlations are strongest near the queueing theoretic point of balance. Furthermore, we find that the qualitative behavior of these networks depends on the relative size of the absolute affinity of substrate to protease compared to the cross affinity of substrate to protease, leading in certain regimes to priority queue statistics.

  18. Approaches for Analyzing the Roles of Mast Cells and Their Proteases In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Stephen J.; Tsai, Mindy; Marichal, Thomas; Tchougounova, Elena; Reber, Laurent L.; Pejler, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    The roles of mast cells in health and disease remain incompletely understood. While the evidence that mast cells are critical effector cells in IgE-dependent anaphylaxis and other acute IgE-mediated allergic reactions seems unassailable, studies employing various mice deficient in mast cells or mast cell-associated proteases have yielded divergent conclusions about the roles of mast cells or their proteases in certain other immunological responses. Such “controversial” results call into question the relative utility of various older versus newer approaches to ascertain the roles of mast cells and mast cell proteases in vivo. This review discusses how both older and more recent mouse models have been used to investigate the functions of mast cells and their proteases in health and disease. We particularly focus on settings in which divergent conclusions about the importance of mast cells and their proteases have been supported by studies that employed different models of mast cell or mast cell protease deficiency. We think that two major conclusions can be drawn from such findings: (1) no matter which models of mast cell or mast cell protease deficiency one employs, the conclusions drawn from the experiments always should take into account the potential limitations of the models (particularly abnormalities affecting cell types other than mast cells) and (2) even when analyzing a biological response using a single model of mast cell or mast cell protease deficiency, details of experimental design are critical in efforts to define those conditions under which important contributions of mast cells or their proteases can be identified. PMID:25727288

  19. Millimeter-Wave Studies of the Isotopologues of IZnCH3(X1A1): Geometric Parameters and Evidence for Zinc Insertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucchino, Matthew; Young, Justin; Sheridan, Phillip; Ziurys, Lucy

    2014-06-01

    The laboratory detection of gas-phase IZnCH3 (X1A1), using millimeter-wave direct absorption methods, was reported previously. This work has been extended by the measurement of the pure rotational spectrum of several isotopolgues: I64ZnCH3, I66ZnCH3, I64ZnCD3, and I64Zn13CH3. These species were all created by the reaction of zinc vapor with CH3I, CD3I, or 13CH3I in the presence of a DC discharge. The zinc isotopolgues were observed in natural abundance. Rotational transitions in the range 256{-293} GHz (J = 109 {←} 108 to J = 132 {←} 131, for K = 0 to 6) have been recorded for each species. From these measurements, an r0 structure has been determined. This structure was found to be in good agreement with previous DFT calculations. Interestingly, the 110.2° Zn - C - H bond angle of IZnCH3 is identical to that of the hydrogen substituted zinc insertion complex HZnCH3 (X1A1). These data are further evidence that IZnCH3 is not created by the generation of free radical fragments, but by the direct insertion of atomic zinc into the C - I bond of iodomethane.

  20. Dissociation and re-association studies on the interaction domains of mannan-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine proteases, MASP-1 and MASP-2, provide evidence for heterodimer formation.

    PubMed

    Paréj, Katalin; Hermann, Agnes; Donáth, Nóra; Závodszky, Péter; Gál, Péter; Dobó, József

    2014-05-01

    Activation of the lectin pathway of complement begins with the activation of mannan-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine proteases, MASP-1 and MASP-2, which are bound to the recognition molecules, MBL and ficolins. MASPs are Ca(2+)-dependent dimers. Dimerization and Ca(2+)-dependent association with the recognition molecules occurs via the first 3 domains, the CUB1-EGF-CUB2 region. The CUB1-EGF-CUB2 (D1-3) regions of MASP-1 and MASP-2, and also their tagged versions, were expressed in E. coli, refolded and purified. The first three domains of MASP-1 are identical with the respective regions of MASP-3 and MAp44, which are also associated with MBL and ficolins. The functionality of the fragments was checked by inhibition of C3 deposition from human serum. Time-course of the dissociation and re-association was examined by size exclusion chromatography. Both refolded proteins are tight Ca(2+)-dependent dimers, as expected. In buffer containing EDTA MASP-1_D1-3 dissociated to monomers, however it took about 1h to reach an equilibrium. Upon re-calcification dimers were re-formed, but this process was even slower; only after overnight incubation was the dimerization completed. MASP-2_D1-3 showed a somewhat different behavior: dissociation by EDTA was even slower, less complete, and higher MW aggregates also appeared. Heterodimer formation was detected by native PAGE. As modeled by the D1-3 fragments, MASP-1 and MASP-2 can readily form heterodimers after dissociation and re-association, however, in the presence of Ca(2+) exchange of subunits is slow between the homodimers. MASP-1:MASP-3 heterodimer formation was modeled by the tagged and untagged D1-3 fragments, and data indicate that subunits of these proteins are readily exchanged even in the presence of Ca(2+). The existence of heterodimers influences the current view on the composition of lectin pathway complexes and their activation.

  1. Protease-degradable electrospun fibrous hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Ryan J.; Bassin, Ethan J.; Rodell, Christopher B.; Burdick, Jason A.

    2015-03-01

    Electrospun nanofibres are promising in biomedical applications to replicate features of the natural extracellular matrix (ECM). However, nearly all electrospun scaffolds are either non-degradable or degrade hydrolytically, whereas natural ECM degrades proteolytically, often through matrix metalloproteinases. Here we synthesize reactive macromers that contain protease-cleavable and fluorescent peptides and are able to form both isotropic hydrogels and electrospun fibrous hydrogels through a photoinitiated polymerization. These biomimetic scaffolds are susceptible to protease-mediated cleavage in vitro in a protease dose-dependent manner and in vivo in a subcutaneous mouse model using transdermal fluorescent imaging to monitor degradation. Importantly, materials containing an alternate and non-protease-cleavable peptide sequence are stable in both in vitro and in vivo settings. To illustrate the specificity in degradation, scaffolds with mixed fibre populations support selective fibre degradation based on individual fibre degradability. Overall, this represents a novel biomimetic approach to generate protease-sensitive fibrous scaffolds for biomedical applications.

  2. Pyrazinone protease inhibitor metabolites from Photorhabdus luminescens.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Bong; Crawford, Jason M

    2016-08-01

    Photorhabdus luminescens is a bioluminescent entomopathogenic bacterium that undergoes phenotypic variation and lives in mutualistic association with nematodes of the family Heterorhabditidae. The pair infects and kills insects, and during their coordinated lifecycle, the bacteria produce an assortment of specialized metabolites to regulate its mutualistic and pathogenic roles. As part of our search for new specialized metabolites from the Photorhabdus genus, we examined organic extracts from P. luminescens grown in an amino-acid-rich medium based on the free amino-acid levels found in the circulatory fluid of its common insect prey, the Galleria mellonella larva. Reversed-phase HPLC/UV/MS-guided fractionation of the culture extracts led to the identification of two new pyrazinone metabolites, lumizinones A (1) and B (2), together with two N-acetyl dipeptides (3 and 4). The lumizinones were produced only in the phenotypic variant associated with nematode development and insect pathogenesis. Their chemical structures were elucidated by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR and high-resolution ESI-QTOF-MS spectral data. The absolute configurations of the amino acids in 3 and 4 were determined by Marfey's analysis. Compounds 1-4 were evaluated for their calpain protease inhibitory activity, and lumizinone A (1) showed inhibition with an IC50 (half-maximal inhibitory concentration) value of 3.9 μm. PMID:27353165

  3. Mast cell proteases as pharmacological targets.

    PubMed

    Caughey, George H

    2016-05-01

    Mast cells are rich in proteases, which are the major proteins of intracellular granules and are released with histamine and heparin by activated cells. Most of these proteases are active in the granule as well as outside of the mast cell when secreted, and can cleave targets near degranulating mast cells and in adjoining tissue compartments. Some proteases released from mast cells reach the bloodstream and may have far-reaching actions. In terms of relative amounts, the major mast cell proteases include the tryptases, chymases, cathepsin G, carboxypeptidase A3, dipeptidylpeptidase I/cathepsin C, and cathepsins L and S. Some mast cells also produce granzyme B, plasminogen activators, and matrix metalloproteinases. Tryptases and chymases are almost entirely mast cell-specific, whereas other proteases, such as cathepsins G, C, and L are expressed by a variety of inflammatory cells. Carboxypeptidase A3 expression is a property shared by basophils and mast cells. Other proteases, such as mastins, are largely basophil-specific, although human basophils are protease-deficient compared with their murine counterparts. The major classes of mast cell proteases have been targeted for development of therapeutic inhibitors. Also, a human β-tryptase has been proposed as a potential drug itself, to inactivate of snake venins. Diseases linked to mast cell proteases include allergic diseases, such as asthma, eczema, and anaphylaxis, but also include non-allergic diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune arthritis, atherosclerosis, aortic aneurysms, hypertension, myocardial infarction, heart failure, pulmonary hypertension and scarring diseases of lungs and other organs. In some cases, studies performed in mouse models suggest protective or homeostatic roles for specific proteases (or groups of proteases) in infections by bacteria, worms and other parasites, and even in allergic inflammation. At the same time, a clearer picture has emerged of differences in the

  4. Gene expression and activity of digestive proteases in Daphnia: effects of cyanobacterial protease inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The frequency of cyanobacterial blooms has increased worldwide, and these blooms have been claimed to be a major factor leading to the decline of the most important freshwater herbivores, i.e. representatives of the genus Daphnia. This suppression of Daphnia is partly attributed to the presence of biologically active secondary metabolites in cyanobacteria. Among these metabolites, protease inhibitors are found in almost every natural cyanobacterial bloom and have been shown to specifically inhibit Daphnia's digestive proteases in vitro, but to date no physiological responses of these serine proteases to cyanobacterial protease inhibitors in Daphnia have been reported in situ at the protein and genetic levels. Results Nine digestive proteases were detected in D. magna using activity-stained SDS-PAGE. Subsequent analyses by LC-MS/MS and database search led to the identification of respective protease genes. D. magna responded to dietary protease inhibitors by up-regulation of the expression of these respective proteases at the RNA-level and by the induction of new and less sensitive protease isoforms at the protein level. The up-regulation in response to dietary trypsin- and chymotrypsin-inhibitors ranged from 1.4-fold to 25.6-fold. These physiological responses of Daphnia, i.e. up-regulation of protease expression and the induction of isoforms, took place even after feeding on 20% cyanobacterial food for only 24 h. These physiological responses proved to be independent from microcystin effects. Conclusion Here for the first time it was shown in situ that a D. magna clone responds physiologically to dietary cyanobacterial protease inhibitors by phenotypic plasticity of the targets of these specific inhibitors, i.e. Daphnia gut proteases. These regulatory responses are adaptive for D. magna, as they increase the capacity for protein digestion in the presence of dietary protease inhibitors. The type and extent of these responses in protease expression might

  5. Regulation of protease production in Clostridium sporogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Allison, C; Macfarlane, G T

    1990-01-01

    The physiological and nutritional factors that regulate protease synthesis in Clostridium sporogenes C25 were studied in batch and continuous cultures. Formation of extracellular proteases occurred at the end of active growth and during the stationary phase in batch cultures. Protease production was inversely related to growth rate in glucose-excess and glucose-limited chemostats over the range D = 0.05 to 0.70 h-1. In pulse experiments, glucose, ammonia, phosphate, and some amino acids (tryptophan, proline, tyrosine, and isoleucine) strongly repressed protease synthesis. This repression was not relieved by addition of 4 mM cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP, or dibutyryl cyclic AMP. Protease formation was markedly inhibited by 4 mM ATP and ADP, but GTP and GDP had little effect on the process. It is concluded that protease production by C. sporogenes is strongly influenced by the amount of energy available to the cells, with the highest levels of protease synthesis occurring under energy-limiting conditions. PMID:2268158

  6. A biotechnology perspective of fungal proteases

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Paula Monteiro; Bittencourt, Mona Lisa de Assis; Caprara, Carolina Canielles; de Freitas, Marcela; de Almeida, Renata Paula Coppini; Silveira, Dâmaris; Fonseca, Yris Maria; Ferreira, Edivaldo Ximenes; Pessoa, Adalberto; Magalhães, Pérola Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Proteases hydrolyze the peptide bonds of proteins into peptides and amino acids, being found in all living organisms, and are essential for cell growth and differentiation. Proteolytic enzymes have potential application in a wide number of industrial processes such as food, laundry detergent and pharmaceutical. Proteases from microbial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. Fungal proteases are used for hydrolyzing protein and other components of soy beans and wheat in soy sauce production. Proteases can be produced in large quantities in a short time by established methods of fermentation. The parameters such as variation in C/N ratio, presence of some sugars, besides several other physical factors are important in the development of fermentation process. Proteases of fungal origin can be produced cost effectively, have an advantage faster production, the ease with which the enzymes can be modified and mycelium can be easily removed by filtration. The production of proteases has been carried out using submerged fermentation, but conditions in solid state fermentation lead to several potential advantages for the production of fungal enzymes. This review focuses on the production of fungal proteases, their distribution, structural-functional aspects, physical and chemical parameters, and the use of these enzymes in industrial applications. PMID:26273247

  7. Extracellular proteases of Trichoderma species. A review.

    PubMed

    Kredics, L; Antal, Zsuzsanna; Szekeres, A; Hatvani, L; Manczinger, L; Vágvölgyi, Cs; Nagy, Erzsébet

    2005-01-01

    Cellulolytic, xylanolytic, chitinolytic and beta-1,3-glucanolytic enzyme systems of species belonging to the filamentous fungal genus Trichoderma have been investigated in details and are well characterised. The ability of Trichoderma strains to produce extracellular proteases has also been known for a long time, however, the proteolytic enzyme system is relatively unknown in this genus. Fortunately, in the recent years more and more attention is focused on the research in this field. The role of Trichoderma proteases in the biological control of plant pathogenic fungi and nematodes has been demonstrated, and it is also suspected that they may be important for the competitive saprophytic ability of green mould isolates and may represent potential virulence factors of Trichoderma strains as emerging fungal pathogens of clinical importance. The aim of this review is to summarize the information available about the extracellular proteases of Trichoderma. Numerous studies are available about the extracellular proteolytic enzyme profiles of Trichoderma strains and about the effect of abiotic environmental factors on protease activities. A number of protease enzymes have been purified to homogeneity and some protease encoding genes have been cloned and characterized. These results will be reviewed and the role of Trichoderma proteases in biological control as well as their advantages and disadvantages in biotechnology will be discussed. PMID:16003937

  8. A biotechnology perspective of fungal proteases.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Paula Monteiro; Bittencourt, Mona Lisa de Assis; Caprara, Carolina Canielles; de Freitas, Marcela; de Almeida, Renata Paula Coppini; Silveira, Dâmaris; Fonseca, Yris Maria; Ferreira Filho, Edivaldo Ximenes; Pessoa Junior, Adalberto; Magalhães, Pérola Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Proteases hydrolyze the peptide bonds of proteins into peptides and amino acids, being found in all living organisms, and are essential for cell growth and differentiation. Proteolytic enzymes have potential application in a wide number of industrial processes such as food, laundry detergent and pharmaceutical. Proteases from microbial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. Fungal proteases are used for hydrolyzing protein and other components of soy beans and wheat in soy sauce production. Proteases can be produced in large quantities in a short time by established methods of fermentation. The parameters such as variation in C/N ratio, presence of some sugars, besides several other physical factors are important in the development of fermentation process. Proteases of fungal origin can be produced cost effectively, have an advantage faster production, the ease with which the enzymes can be modified and mycelium can be easily removed by filtration. The production of proteases has been carried out using submerged fermentation, but conditions in solid state fermentation lead to several potential advantages for the production of fungal enzymes. This review focuses on the production of fungal proteases, their distribution, structural-functional aspects, physical and chemical parameters, and the use of these enzymes in industrial applications. PMID:26273247

  9. Cysteine Proteases from Bloodfeeding Arthropod Ectoparasites

    PubMed Central

    Sojka, Daniel; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Calvo, Eric; Kotsyfakis, Michalis

    2012-01-01

    Cysteine proteases have been discovered in various bloodfeeding ectoparasites. Here, we assemble the available information about the function of these peptidases and reveal their role in hematophagy and parasite development. While most of the data shed light on key proteolytic events that play a role in arthropod physiology, we also report on the association of cysteine proteases with arthropod vectorial capacity. With emphasis on ticks, specifically Ixodes ricinus, we finally propose a model about the contribution of cysteine peptidases to blood digestion, and how their concerted action with other tick midgut proteases leads to the absorbance of nutrients by the midgut epithelial cells. PMID:21660665

  10. HIV-1 Protease: Structure, Dynamics and Inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Louis, John M.; Ishima, R.; Torchia, D.A.; Weber, Irene T.

    2008-06-03

    The HIV-1 protease is synthesized as part of a large Gag-Pol precursor protein. It is responsible for its own release from the precursor and the processing of the Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins into the mature structural and functional proteins required for virus maturation. Because of its indispensable role, the mature HIV-1 protease dimer has proven to be a successful target for the development of antiviral agents. In the last 5 years, a major emphasis in protease research has been to improve inhibitor design and treatment regimens.

  11. Protease and protease inhibitory activity in pregnant and postpartum involuting uterus

    SciTech Connect

    Milwidsky, A.; Beller, U.; Palti, Z.; Mayer, M.

    1982-08-15

    The presence of two distinct proteolytic activities in the rat uterus was confirmed with /sup 14/C-labeled globin used as a sensitive protein substrate and following release of label into the trichloroacetic acid-soluble supernatant fraction. Protease I is a cytoplasmic acid protease while protease II is associated with the pellet fraction, can be extracted by 0.6 M sodium chloride, and is active at pH 7.0. Protease I activity is low during pregnancy and markedly increases at term achieving maximal activity at day 3 post partum with a subsequent decline to preterm activity values. Lactation did not affect the uterine protease I activity. Protease II activity is not significantly different during pregnancy, at term, and post partum. The presence of an inhibitor of protease I was suggested by a decrease in enzyme activity with an increased cytosolic protein concentration. The inhibitor also lessened bovine trypsin activity but had no effect on protease II. Although its inhibitory potency on trypsin fluctuated during the various uterine physiologic stages, these changes appeared to be statistically insignificant. Human uterine samples were also found to contain the two protease activities with similar changes in protease I post partum. It is suggested that, both in the rat and in man, uterine involution post partum is associated with a marked increase in activity of acid cytosolic protease, while a particulate neutral protease and a soluble inhibitor of trypsin, which are also present in uterine cells, do not appear to play a significant role in the dissolution of uterine tissues after parturition.

  12. Human immunodeficiency virus 1 protease expressed in Escherichia coli behaves as a dimeric aspartic protease.

    PubMed Central

    Meek, T D; Dayton, B D; Metcalf, B W; Dreyer, G B; Strickler, J E; Gorniak, J G; Rosenberg, M; Moore, M L; Magaard, V W; Debouck, C

    1989-01-01

    Recombinant human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) protease, purified from a bacterial expression system, processed a recombinant form of its natural substrate, Pr55gag, into protein fragments that possess molecular weights commensurate with those of the virion gag proteins. Molecular weights of the protease obtained under denaturing and nondenaturing conditions (11,000 and 22,000, respectively) and chemical crosslinking studies were consistent with a dimeric structure for the active enzyme. The protease appropriately cleaved the nonapeptide Ac-Arg-Ala-Ser-Gln-Asn-Tyr-Pro-Val-Val-NH2 between the tyrosine and proline residues. HIV-1 protease was sensitive to inactivators of the aspartic proteases. The aspartic protease inactivator 1,2-epoxy-3-(4-nitrophenoxy)propane produced irreversible, time-dependent inactivation of the protease. The pH-dependent kinetics of this inactivator were consistent with the requirement of an unprotonated carboxyl group in the active site of the enzyme, suggesting that HIV-1 protease is also an aspartic protease. Images PMID:2648384

  13. Secreted fungal aspartic proteases: A review.

    PubMed

    Mandujano-González, Virginia; Villa-Tanaca, Lourdes; Anducho-Reyes, Miguel Angel; Mercado-Flores, Yuridia

    2016-01-01

    The aspartic proteases, also called aspartyl and aspartate proteases or acid proteases (E.C.3.4.23), belong to the endopeptidase family and are characterized by the conserved sequence Asp-Gly-Thr at the active site. These enzymes are found in a wide variety of microorganisms in which they perform important functions related to nutrition and pathogenesis. In addition, their high activity and stability at acid pH make them attractive for industrial application in the food industry; specifically, they are used as milk-coagulating agents in cheese production or serve to improve the taste of some foods. This review presents an analysis of the characteristics and properties of secreted microbial aspartic proteases and their potential for commercial application. PMID:27137097

  14. Secreted fungal aspartic proteases: A review.

    PubMed

    Mandujano-González, Virginia; Villa-Tanaca, Lourdes; Anducho-Reyes, Miguel Angel; Mercado-Flores, Yuridia

    2016-01-01

    The aspartic proteases, also called aspartyl and aspartate proteases or acid proteases (E.C.3.4.23), belong to the endopeptidase family and are characterized by the conserved sequence Asp-Gly-Thr at the active site. These enzymes are found in a wide variety of microorganisms in which they perform important functions related to nutrition and pathogenesis. In addition, their high activity and stability at acid pH make them attractive for industrial application in the food industry; specifically, they are used as milk-coagulating agents in cheese production or serve to improve the taste of some foods. This review presents an analysis of the characteristics and properties of secreted microbial aspartic proteases and their potential for commercial application.

  15. Vanadium inhibition of serine and cysteine proteases.

    PubMed

    Guerrieri, N; Cerletti, P; De Vincentiis, M; Salvati, A; Scippa, S

    1999-03-01

    A study was made on the effect of vanadium, in both the tetravalent state in vanadyl sulphate and in the pentavalent state in sodium meta-vanadate, and ortho-vanadate, on the proteolysis of azocasein by two serine proteases, trypsin and subtilisin and two cysteine proteases bromelain and papain. Also the proteolysis of bovine azoalbumin by serine proteases was considered. An inhibitory effect was present in all cases, except meta-vanadate with subtilisin. The oxidation level of vanadium by itself did not determine the inhibition kinetics, which also depended on the type and composition of the vanadium containing molecule and on the enzyme assayed. The pattern of inhibition was similar for proteases belonging to the same class. The highest inhibition was obtained with meta-vanadate on papain and with vanadyl sulphate on bromelain.

  16. Bioinformatics of proteases in the MEROPS database.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Alan J

    2004-05-01

    Proteolytic enzymes represent approximately approximately 2% of the total number of proteins present in all types of organisms. Many of these enzymes are of medical importance, and those that are of potential interest as drug targets can be divided into the endogenous enzymes encoded in the human genome, and the exogenous proteases encoded in the genomes of disease-causing organisms. There are also naturally occurring inhibitors of proteases, some of which have pharmaceutical relevance. The MEROPS database provides a rich source of information on proteases and their inhibitors. Storage and retrieval of this information is facilitated by the use of a hierarchical classification system (which was pioneered by the compilers of the database) in which homologous proteases and their inhibitors are divided into clans and families. PMID:15216937

  17. Electrically sensing protease activity with nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukwikila, Mikiembo; Howorka, Stefan

    2010-11-01

    The enzymatic activity of a protease was electrically detected using nanopore recordings. A peptide substrate was tethered to microscale beads, and cleavage by the enzyme trypsin released a soluble fragment that was electrophoretically driven through the α-hemolysin protein pore, leading to detectable blockades in the ionic current. Owing to its simplicity, this approach to sense enzymatic activity may be applied to other proteases.

  18. HIV Protease Inhibitors and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Anuurad, Erdembileg; Bremer, Andrew; Berglund, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review To review the current scientific literature and recent clinical trials on HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) and their potential role in the pathogenesis of lipodystrophy and metabolic disorders. Recent findings HIV PI treatment may affect the normal stimulatory effect of insulin on glucose and fat storage. Further, chronic inflammation from HIV infection and PI treatment trigger cellular homeostatic stress responses with adverse effects on intermediary metabolism. The physiologic outcome is such that total adipocyte storage capacity is decreased, and the remaining adipocytes resist further fat storage. This process leads to a pathologic cycle of lipodystrophy and lipotoxicity, a pro-atherogenic lipid profile, and a clinical phenotype of increased central body fat distribution similar to the metabolic syndrome. Summary PIs are a key component of antiretroviral therapy and have dramatically improved the life expectancy of HIV-infected individuals. However, they are also associated with abnormalities in glucose/lipid metabolism and body fat distribution. Further studies are needed to better define the pathogenesis of PI-associated metabolic and body fat changes and their potential treatment. PMID:20717021

  19. ADAM Proteases and Gastrointestinal Function.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jennifer C; Rustagi, Shelly; Dempsey, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) are a family of cell surface proteases that regulate diverse cellular functions, including cell adhesion, migration, cellular signaling, and proteolysis. Proteolytically active ADAMs are responsible for ectodomain shedding of membrane-associated proteins. ADAMs rapidly modulate key cell signaling pathways in response to changes in the extracellular environment (e.g., inflammation) and play a central role in coordinating intercellular communication within the local microenvironment. ADAM10 and ADAM17 are the most studied members of the ADAM family in the gastrointestinal tract. ADAMs regulate many cellular processes associated with intestinal development, cell fate specification, and the maintenance of intestinal stem cell/progenitor populations. Several signaling pathway molecules that undergo ectodomain shedding by ADAMs [e.g., ligands and receptors from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/ErbB and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) receptor (TNFR) families] help drive and control intestinal inflammation and injury/repair responses. Dysregulation of these processes through aberrant ADAM expression or sustained ADAM activity is linked to chronic inflammation, inflammation-associated cancer, and tumorigenesis.

  20. Neutral serine proteases of neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Kettritz, Ralph

    2016-09-01

    Neutrophil serine proteases (NSPs) exercise tissue-degrading and microbial-killing effects. The spectrum of NSP-mediated functions grows continuously, not least because of methodological progress. Sensitive and specific FRET substrates were developed to study the proteolytic activity of each NSP member. Advanced biochemical methods are beginning to characterize common and specific NSP substrates. The resulting novel information indicates that NSPs contribute not only to genuine inflammatory neutrophil functions but also to autoimmunity, metabolic conditions, and cancer. Tight regulatory mechanisms control the proteolytic potential of NSPs. However, not all NSP functions depend on their enzymatic activity. Proteinase-3 (PR3) is somewhat unique among the NSPs for PR3 functions as an autoantigen. Patients with small-vessel vasculitis develop autoantibodies to PR3 that bind their target antigens on the neutrophil surface and trigger neutrophil activation. These activated cells subsequently contribute to vascular necrosis with life-threatening multiorgan failure. This article discusses various aspects of NSP biology and highlights translational aspects with strong clinical implications. PMID:27558338

  1. ADAM Proteases and Gastrointestinal Function

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jennifer C.; Rustagi, Shelly; Dempsey, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) are a family of cell surface proteases that regulate diverse cellular functions, including cell adhesion, migration, cellular signaling, and proteolysis. Proteolytically active ADAMs are responsible for ectodomain shedding of membrane-associated proteins. ADAMs rapidly modulate key cell signaling pathways in response to changes in the extracellular environment (e.g., inflammation) and play a central role in coordinating intercellular communication within the local microenvironment. ADAM10 and ADAM17 are the most studied members of the ADAM family in the gastrointestinal tract. ADAMs regulate many cellular processes associated with intestinal development, cell fate specification, and the maintenance of intestinal stem cell/progenitor populations. Several signaling pathway molecules that undergo ectodomain shedding by ADAMs [e.g., ligands and receptors from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/ErbB and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) receptor (TNFR) families] help drive and control intestinal inflammation and injury/repair responses. Dysregulation of these processes through aberrant ADAM expression or sustained ADAM activity is linked to chronic inflammation, inflammation-associated cancer, and tumorigenesis. PMID:26667078

  2. Carbohydrate protease conjugates: Stabilized proteases for peptide synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wartchow, C.A.; Wang, Peng; Bednarski, M.D.; Callstrom, M.R. |

    1995-12-31

    The synthesis of oligopeptides using stable carbohydrate protease conjugates (CPCs) was examined in acetonitrile solvent systems. CPC[{alpha}-chymotrypsin] was used for the preparation of peptides containing histidine, phenylalanine, tryptophan in the P{sub 1} position in 60-93% yield. The CPC[{alpha}-chymotrypsin]-catalyzed synthesis of octamer Z-Gly-Gly-Phe-Gly-Gly-Phe-Gly-Gly-OEt from Z-Gly-Gly-Phe-Gly-Gly-Phe-OMe was achieved in 71% yield demonstrating that synthesis peptides containing both hydrophylic and hydrophobic amino acids. The P{sub 2} specificity of papain for aromatic residues was utilized for the 2 + 3 coupling of Z-Tyr-Gly-OMe to H{sub 2}N-Gly-Phe-Leu-OH to generate the leucine enkephalin derivative in 79% yield. Although papain is nonspecific for the hydrolysis of N-benzyloxycarbonyl amino acid methyl esters in aqueous solution, the rates of synthesis for these derivitives with nucleophile leucine tert-butyl ester differed by nearly 2 orders of magnitude. CPC[thermolysin] was used to prepare the aspartame precursor Z-Asp-Phe-OMe in 90% yield. The increased stability of CPCs prepared from periodate-modified poly(2-methacryl- amido-2-deoxy-D-glucose), poly(2-methacrylamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose), and poly(5-methacryl-amido-5-deoxy-D-ribose), carbohydrate materials designed to increase the aldehyde concentration in aqueous solution, suggests that the stability of CPCs is directly related to the aldehyde concentration of the carbohydrate material. Periodate oxidation of poly(2-methacrylamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose) followed by covalent attachment to {alpha}-chymotrypsin gave a CPC with catalytic activity in potassium phosphate buffer at 90{degrees}C for 2 h. 1 fig., 1 tab., 40 refs.

  3. Protease Inhibitors Targeting Coronavirus and Filovirus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yanchen; Vedantham, Punitha; Lu, Kai; Agudelo, Juliet; Carrion, Ricardo; Nunneley, Jerritt W.; Barnard, Dale; Pöhlmann, Stefan; McKerrow, James H.; Renslo, Adam R.; Simmons, Graham

    2016-01-01

    In order to gain entry into cells, diverse viruses, including Ebola virus, SARS-coronavirus and the emerging MERS-coronavirus, depend on activation of their envelope glycoproteins by host cell proteases. The respective enzymes are thus excellent targets for antiviral intervention. In cell culture, activation of Ebola virus, as well as SARS- and MERS-coronavirus can be accomplished by the endosomal cysteine proteases, cathepsin L (CTSL) and cathepsin B (CTSB). In addition, SARS- and MERS-coronavirus can use serine proteases localized at the cell surface, for their activation. However, it is currently unclear which protease(s) facilitate viral spread in the infected host. We report here that the cysteine protease inhibitor K11777, ((2S)-N-[(1E,3S)-1-(benzenesulfonyl)-5-phenylpent-1-en-3-yl]-2-{[(E)-4-methylpiperazine-1-carbonyl]amino}-3-phenylpropanamide) and closely-related vinylsulfones act as broad-spectrum antivirals by targeting cathepsin-mediated cell entry. K11777 is already in advanced stages of development for a number of parasitic diseases, such as Chagas disease, and has proven to be safe and effective in a range of animal models. K11777 inhibition of SARS-CoV and Ebola virus entry was observed in the sub-nanomolar range. In order to assess, whether cysteine or serine proteases promote viral spread in the host, we compared the antiviral activity of an optimized K11777-derivative with that of camostat, an inhibitor of TMPRSS2 and related serine proteases. Employing a pathogenic animal model of SARS-CoV infection, we demonstrated that viral spread and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV is driven by serine rather than cysteine proteases and can be effectively prevented by camostat. Camostat has been clinically used to treat chronic pancreatitis, and thus represents an exciting potential therapeutic for respiratory coronavirus infections. Our results indicate that camostat, or similar serine protease inhibitors, might be an effective option for treatment of SARS and

  4. New soluble ATP-dependent protease, Ti, in Escherichia coli that is distinct from protease La

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, C.H.; Hwang, B.J.; Park, W.J.; Goldberg, A.L.

    1987-05-01

    E. coli must contain other ATP-requiring proteolytic systems in addition to protease La (the lon gene product). A new ATP-dependent protease was purified from lon cells which lack protease La, as shown by immuno-blotting. This enzyme hydrolyzes (TH)casein to acid-soluble products in the presence of ATP (or dATP) and MgS . Nonhydrolyzable ATP analogs, other nucleoside triphosphates and AMP can not replace ATP. Therefore, ATP hydrolysis appears necessary for proteolysis. The enzyme appears to be a serine protease, but also contains essential thiol residues. Unlike protease La, it is not inhibited by vanadate, heparin, or the defective R9 subunit of protease La. On gel filtration, this enzyme has an apparent Mr of 340,000 and is comprised of two components of 190,000D and 130,000D, which can be separated by phosphocellulose chromatography. By themselves, these components do not show ATP-dependent proteolysis, but when mixed, full activity is restored. These finding and similar ones of Maurizi and Gottesman indicate that E. coli contain two soluble ATP-dependent proteases, which function by different mechanisms. This new enzyme may contribute to the rapid breakdown of abnormal polypeptides or of normal proteins during starvation. The authors propose to name it protease Ti.

  5. Escherichia coli contains a soluble ATP-dependent protease (Ti) distinct from protease La

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, B.J.; Park, W.J.; Chung, C.H.; Goldberg, A.L.

    1987-08-01

    The energy requirement for protein breakdown in Escherichia coli has generally been attributed to the ATP-dependence of protease La, the lon gene product. The authors have partially purified another ATP-dependent protease from lon/sup -/ cells that lack protease La (as shown by immunoblotting). This enzyme hydrolyzes (/sup 3/H)methyl-casein to acid-soluble products in the presence of ATP and Mg/sup 2 +/. ATP hydrolysis appears necessary for proteolytic activity. Since this enzyme is inhibited by diisopropyl fluorophosphate, it appears to be a serine protease, but it also contains essential thiol residues. They propose to name this enzyme protease Ti. It differs from protease La in nucleotide specificity, inhibitor sensitivity, and subunit composition. On gel filtration, protease Ti has an apparent molecular weight of 370,000. It can be fractionated by phosphocellulose chromatography or by DEAE chromatography into two components with apparent molecular weights of 260,000 and 140,000. When separated, they do not show preteolytic activity. One of these components, by itself, has ATPase activity and is labile in the absence of ATP. The other contains the diisopropyl fluorophosphate-sensitive proteolytic site. These results and the similar findings of Katayama-Fujimura et al. indicate that E. coli contains two ATP-hydrolyzing proteases, which differ in many biochemical features and probably in their physiological roles.

  6. An enzymatic method for the determination of hemoglobinA(1C).

    PubMed

    Hirokawa, Kozo; Shimoji, Kazuhiko; Kajiyama, Naoki

    2005-07-01

    Fructosyl peptide oxidase is a flavoenzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deglycation of N-(1-deoxyfructosyl)-Val-His, a model compound of hemoglobin (Hb)A(1C). To develop an enzymatic method for the measurement of HbA(1C), we screened for a proper protease using N-(1-deoxyfructosyl)-hexapeptide as a substrate. Several proteases, including Neutral protease from Bacillus polymyxa, were found to release N-(1-deoxyfructosyl)-Val-His efficiently, however no protease was found to release N-(1-deoxyfructosyl)-Val. Neutral protease also digested HbA(1C) to release N-(1-deoxyfructosyl)-Val-His, and then the fructosyl peptide was detected using fructosyl peptide oxidase. The linear relationship was observed between the concentration of HbA(1C) and the absorbancy of fructosyl peptide oxidase reaction, hence this new method is a practical means for measuring HbA(1C.).

  7. Mutations affecting extracellular protease production in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Katz, M E; Flynn, P K; vanKuyk, P A; Cheetham, B F

    1996-04-10

    The extracellular proteases of Aspergillus nidulans are known to be regulated by carbon, nitrogen and sulphur metabolite repression. In this study, a mutant with reduced levels of extracellular protease was isolated by screening for loss of halo production on milk plates. Genetic analysis of the mutant showed that it contains a single, recessive mutation, in a gene which we have designated xprE, located on chromosome VI. The xprE1 mutation affected the production of extracellular proteases in response to carbon, nitrogen and, to a lesser extent, sulphur limitation. Three reversion mutations, xprF1, xprF2 and xprG1, which suppress xprE1, were characterised. Both xprF and xprG map to chromosome VII but the two genes are unlinked. The xprF1, xprF2 and xprG1 mutants showed high levels of milk-clearing activity on medium containing milk as a carbon source but reduced growth on a number of nitrogen sources. Evidence is presented that the xprE1 and xprG1 mutations alter expression of more than one protease and affect levels of alkaline protease gene mRNA.

  8. The Hypervariable Amino-Terminus of P1 Protease Modulates Potyviral Replication and Host Defense Responses

    PubMed Central

    Pasin, Fabio; Simón-Mateo, Carmen; García, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The replication of many RNA viruses involves the translation of polyproteins, whose processing by endopeptidases is a critical step for the release of functional subunits. P1 is the first protease encoded in plant potyvirus genomes; once activated by an as-yet-unknown host factor, it acts in cis on its own C-terminal end, hydrolyzing the P1-HCPro junction. Earlier research suggests that P1 cooperates with HCPro to inhibit host RNA silencing defenses. Using Plum pox virus as a model, we show that although P1 does not have a major direct role in RNA silencing suppression, it can indeed modulate HCPro function by its self-cleavage activity. To study P1 protease regulation, we used bioinformatic analysis and in vitro activity experiments to map the core C-terminal catalytic domain. We present evidence that the hypervariable region that precedes the protease domain is predicted as intrinsically disordered, and that it behaves as a negative regulator of P1 proteolytic activity in in vitro cleavage assays. In viral infections, removal of the P1 protease antagonistic regulator is associated with greater symptom severity, induction of salicylate-dependent pathogenesis-related proteins, and reduced viral loads. We suggest that fine modulation of a viral protease activity has evolved to keep viral amplification below host-detrimental levels, and thus to maintain higher long-term replicative capacity. PMID:24603811

  9. Serine Protease Catalysis: A Computational Study of Tetrahedral Intermediates and Inhibitory Adducts.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Phong D; Mansoorabadi, Steven O; Frey, Perry A

    2016-08-01

    Peptide boronic acids and peptidyl trifluoromethyl ketones (TFKs) inhibit serine proteases by forming monoanionic, tetrahedral adducts to serine in the active sites. Investigators regard these adducts as analogs of monoanionic, tetrahedral intermediates. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations and fractional charge analysis show that tetrahedral adducts of model peptidyl TFKs are structurally and electrostatically very similar to corresponding tetrahedral intermediates. In contrast, the DFT calculations show the structures and electrostatic properties of analogous peptide boronate adducts to be significantly different. The peptide boronates display highly electrostatically positive boron, with correspondingly negative ligands in the tetrahedra. In addition, the computed boron-oxygen and boron-carbon bond lengths in peptide boronates (which are identical or very similar to the corresponding bonds in a peptide boronate adduct of α-lytic protease determined by X-ray crystallography at subangstrom resolution) are significantly longer than the corresponding bond lengths in model tetrahedral intermediates. Since protease-peptidyl TFKs incorporate low-barrier hydrogen bonds (LBHBs) between an active site histidine and aspartate, while the protease-peptide boronates do not, these data complement the spectroscopic and chemical evidence for the participation of LBHBs in catalysis by serine proteases. Moreover, while the potency of these classes of inhibitors can be correlated to the structures of the peptide moieties, the present results indicate that the strength of their bonds to serine contribute significantly to their inhibitory properties. PMID:27387593

  10. Primary structure of human pancreatic protease E determined by sequence analysis of the cloned mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, W.; Fletcher, T.S.; Largman, C.

    1987-06-16

    Although protease E was isolated from human pancreas over 10 years ago, its amino acid sequence and relationship to the elastases have not been established. The authors report the isolation of a cDNA clone for human pancreatic protease E and determination of the nucleic acid sequence coding for the protein. The deduced amino acid sequence contains all of the features common to serine proteases. The substrate binding region is highly homologous to those of porcine and rat elastases 1, explaining the similar specificity for alanine reported for protease E and these elastases. However, the amino acid sequence outside the substrate binding region is less than 50% conserved, and there is a striking difference in the overall net charge for protease E (6-) and elastases 1 (8+). These findings confirm that protease E is a new member of the serine protease family. They have attempted to identify amino acid residues important for the interaction between elastases and elastin by examining the amino acid sequence differences between elastases and protease E. In addition to the large number of surface charge changes which are outside the substrate binding region, there are several changes which might be crucial for elastolysis: Leu-73/Arg-73; Arg-217A/Ala-217A; Arg-65A/Gln-65A; and the presence of two new cysteine residues (Cys-98 and Cys-99B) which computer modeling studies predict could form a new disulfide bond, not previously observed for serine proteases. They also present evidence which suggests that human pancreas does not synthesize a basic, alanine-specific elastase similar to porcine elastase 1.

  11. Production of alkaline protease from Cellulosimicrobium cellulans

    PubMed Central

    Ferracini-Santos, Luciana; Sato, Hélia H

    2009-01-01

    Cellulosimicrobium cellulans is one of the microorganisms that produces a wide variety of yeast cell wall-degrading enzymes, β-1,3-glucanase, protease and chitinase. Dried cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as carbon and nitrogen source for cell growth and protease production. The medium components KH2PO4, KOH and dried yeast cells showed a significant effect (p<0.05) on the factorial fractional design. A second design was prepared using two factors: pH and percentage of dried yeast cells. The results showed that the culture medium for the maximum production of protease was 0.2 g/l of MgSO4.7H2O, 2.0 g/l of (NH4)2SO4 and 8% of dried yeast cells in 0.15M phosphate buffer at pH 8.0. The maximum alkaline protease production was 7.0 ± 0.27 U/ml over the center point. Crude protease showed best activity at 50ºC and pH 7.0-8.0, and was stable at 50ºC. PMID:24031317

  12. Protease Inhibitors from Plants with Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Young; Park, Seong-Cheol; Hwang, Indeok; Cheong, Hyeonsook; Nah, Jae-Woon; Hahm, Kyung-Soo; Park, Yoonkyung

    2009-01-01

    Antimicrobial proteins (peptides) are known to play important roles in the innate host defense mechanisms of most living organisms, including plants, insects, amphibians and mammals. They are also known to possess potent antibiotic activity against bacteria, fungi, and even certain viruses. Recently, the rapid emergence of microbial pathogens that are resistant to currently available antibiotics has triggered considerable interest in the isolation and investigation of the mode of action of antimicrobial proteins (peptides). Plants produce a variety of proteins (peptides) that are involved in the defense against pathogens and invading organisms, including ribosome-inactivating proteins, lectins, protease inhibitors and antifungal peptides (proteins). Specially, the protease inhibitors can inhibit aspartic, serine and cysteine proteinases. Increased levels of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors correlated with the plants resistance to the pathogen. Usually, the purification of antimicrobial proteins (peptides) with protease inhibitor activity was accomplished by salt-extraction, ultrafiltration and C18 reverse phase chromatography, successfully. We discuss the relation between antimicrobial and anti-protease activity in this review. Protease inhibitors from plants potently inhibited the growth of a variety of pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains and are therefore excellent candidates for use as the lead compounds for the development of novel antimicrobial agents. PMID:19582234

  13. A mutation in the zebrafish Na,K-ATPase subunit atp1a1a.1 provides genetic evidence that the sodium potassium pump contributes to left-right asymmetry downstream or in parallel to nodal flow.

    PubMed

    Ellertsdottir, Elin; Ganz, Julia; Dürr, Katrin; Loges, Niki; Biemar, Frederic; Seifert, Franziska; Ettl, Anne-Katrin; Kramer-Zucker, Albrecht K; Nitschke, Roland; Driever, Wolfgang

    2006-07-01

    While there is a good conceptual framework of dorsoventral and anterioposterior axes formation in most vertebrate groups, understanding of left-right axis initiation is fragmentary. Diverse mechanisms have been implied to contribute to the earliest steps of left-right asymmetry, including small molecule signals, gap junctional communication, membrane potential, and directional flow of extracellular liquid generated by monocilia in the node region. Here we demonstrate that a mutation in the zebrafish Na,K-ATPase subunit atp1a1a causes left-right defects including isomerism of internal organs at the anatomical level. The normally left-sided Nodal signal spaw as well as its inhibitor lefty are expressed bilaterally, while pitx2 may appear random or bilateral. Monocilia movement and fluid circulation in Kupffer's vesicle are normal in atp1a1a(m883) mutant embryos. Therefore, the Na,K-ATPase is required downstream or in parallel to monocilia function during initiation of left-right asymmetry in zebrafish. PMID:16628609

  14. Serine protease inhibitors of parasitic helminths.

    PubMed

    Molehin, Adebayo J; Gobert, Geoffrey N; McManus, Donald P

    2012-05-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (serpins) are a superfamily of structurally conserved proteins that inhibit serine proteases and play key physiological roles in numerous biological systems such as blood coagulation, complement activation and inflammation. A number of serpins have now been identified in parasitic helminths with putative involvement in immune regulation and in parasite survival through interference with the host immune response. This review describes the serpins and smapins (small serine protease inhibitors) that have been identified in Ascaris spp., Brugia malayi, Ancylostoma caninum Onchocerca volvulus, Haemonchus contortus, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus vitrinus, Anisakis simplex, Trichuris suis, Schistosoma spp., Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus westermani and Echinococcus spp. and discusses their possible biological functions, including roles in host-parasite interplay and their evolutionary relationships. PMID:22310379

  15. Coagulation, Protease Activated Receptors and Viral Myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Antoniak, Silvio; Mackman, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    The coagulation protease cascade plays an essential role in hemostasis. In addition, a clot contributes to host defense by limiting the spread of pathogens. Coagulation proteases induce intracellular signaling by cleavage of cell surface receptors called protease-activated receptors (PARs). These receptors allow cells to sense changes in the extracellular environment, such as infection. Viruses activate the coagulation cascade by inducing tissue factor expression and by disrupting the endothelium. Virus infection of the heart can cause myocarditis, cardiac remodeling and heart failure. Recent studies using a mouse model have shown that tissue factor, thrombin and PAR-1 signaling all positively regulate the innate immune during viral myocarditis. In contrast, PAR-2 signaling was found to inhibit interferon-β expression and the innate immune response. These observations suggest that anticoagulants may impair the innate immune response to viral infection and that inhibition of PAR-2 may be a new target to reduce viral myocarditis.. PMID:24203054

  16. Subtilisin-like proteases in nematodes.

    PubMed

    Poole, Catherine B; Jin, Jingmin; McReynolds, Larry A

    2007-09-01

    Cleavage by subtilisin-like proteases (subtilases) is an essential step in post-translational processing of proteins found in organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. Our knowledge of the diversity of this protease family in nematodes is aided by the rapid increase in sequence information, especially from the Brugia malayi genome project. Genetic studies of the subtilases in Caenorhabitis elegans give valuable insight into the biological function of these proteases in other nematode species. In this review, we focus on the subtilases in filarial nematodes as well as other parasitic and free-living nematodes in comparison to what is known in C. elegans. Topics to be addressed include expansion and diversity of the subtilase gene family during evolution, enhanced complexity created by alternative RNA splicing, molecular and biochemical characterization of the different subtilases and the challenges of designing subtilase-specific inhibitors for parasitic nematodes. PMID:17570539

  17. Conformational selection in trypsin-like proteases

    PubMed Central

    Pozzi, Nicola; Vogt, Austin D.; Gohara, David W.; Di Cera, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    For over four decades, two competing mechanisms of ligand recognition – conformational selection and induced-fit - have dominated our interpretation of protein allostery. Defining the mechanism broadens our understanding of the system and impacts our ability to design effective drugs and new therapeutics. Recent kinetics studies demonstrate that trypsin-like proteases exist in equilibrium between two forms: one fully accessible to substrate (E) and the other with the active site occluded (E*). Analysis of the structural database confirms existence of the E* and E forms and vouches for the allosteric nature of the trypsin fold. Allostery in terms of conformational selection establishes an important paradigm in the protease field and enables protein engineers to expand the repertoire of proteases as therapeutics. PMID:22664096

  18. Dataset of cocoa aspartic protease cleavage sites.

    PubMed

    Janek, Katharina; Niewienda, Agathe; Wöstemeyer, Johannes; Voigt, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    The data provide information in support of the research article, "The cleavage specificity of the aspartic protease of cocoa beans involved in the generation of the cocoa-specific aroma precursors" (Janek et al., 2016) [1]. Three different protein substrates were partially digested with the aspartic protease isolated from cocoa beans and commercial pepsin, respectively. The obtained peptide fragments were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS) and identified using the MASCOT server. The N- and C-terminal ends of the peptide fragments were used to identify the corresponding in-vitro cleavage sites by comparison with the amino acid sequences of the substrate proteins. The same procedure was applied to identify the cleavage sites used by the cocoa aspartic protease during cocoa fermentation starting from the published amino acid sequences of oligopeptides isolated from fermented cocoa beans. PMID:27508221

  19. Nidovirus papain-like proteases: multifunctional enzymes with protease, deubiquitinating and deISGylating activities

    PubMed Central

    Mielech, Anna M.; Chen, Yafang; Mesecar, Andrew D.; Baker, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    Coronaviruses and arteriviruses, members of the order Nidovirales, are positive strand RNA viruses that encode large replicase polyproteins that are processed by viral proteases to generate the nonstructural proteins which mediate viral RNA synthesis. The viral papain-like proteases (PLPs) are critical for processing the amino-terminal end of the replicase and are attractive targets for antiviral therapies. With the analysis of the papain-like protease of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), came the realization of the multifunctional nature of these enzymes. Structural and enzymatic studies revealed that SARS-CoV PLpro can act as both a protease to cleave peptide bonds and also as a deubiquitinating (DUB) enzyme to cleave the isopeptide bonds found in polyubiquitin chains. Furthermore, viral DUBs can also remove the protective effect of conjugated ubiquitin-like molecules such as interferon stimulated gene 15 (ISG15). Extension of these studies to other coronaviruses and arteriviruses led to the realization that viral protease/DUB activity is conserved in many family members. Overexpression studies revealed that viral protease/DUB activity can modulate or block activation of the innate immune response pathway. Importantly, mutations that alter DUB activity but not viral protease activity have been identified and arteriviruses expressing DUB mutants stimulated higher levels of acute inflammatory cytokines after infection. Further understanding of the multifunctional nature of the Nidovirus PLP/DUBs may facilitate vaccine development. Here, we review studies describing the PLPs’ enzymatic activity and their role in virus pathogenesis. PMID:24512893

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Cyanobacteria) Strain ITEP-A1 Isolated from a Brazilian Semiarid Freshwater Body: Evidence of Saxitoxin and Cylindrospermopsin Synthetase Genes

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzi, Adriana Sturion; Silva, Genivaldo Gueiros Z.; Lopes, Fabyano Alvares Cardoso; Chia, Mathias Ahii; Edwards, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii ITEP-A1 is a saxitoxin-producing cyanobacterium. We report the draft genome sequence of ITEP-A1, which comprised 195 contigs that were assembled with SPAdes and annotated with Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology. The identified genome sequence had 3,605,836 bp, 40.1% G+C, and predicted 3,553 coding sequences (including the synthetase genes). PMID:27151783

  1. Serine Protease(s) Secreted by the Nematode Trichuris muris Degrade the Mucus Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Hasnain, Sumaira Z.; McGuckin, Michael A.; Grencis, Richard K.; Thornton, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The polymeric mucin component of the intestinal mucus barrier changes during nematode infection to provide not only physical protection but also to directly affect pathogenic nematodes and aid expulsion. Despite this, the direct interaction of the nematodes with the mucins and the mucus barrier has not previously been addressed. We used the well-established Trichuris muris nematode model to investigate the effect on mucins of the complex mixture of immunogenic proteins secreted by the nematode called excretory/secretory products (ESPs). Different regimes of T. muris infection were used to simulate chronic (low dose) or acute (high dose) infection. Mucus/mucins isolated from mice and from the human intestinal cell line, LS174T, were treated with ESPs. We demonstrate that serine protease(s) secreted by the nematode have the ability to change the properties of the mucus barrier, making it more porous by degrading the mucin component of the mucus gel. Specifically, the serine protease(s) acted on the N-terminal polymerising domain of the major intestinal mucin Muc2, resulting in depolymerisation of Muc2 polymers. Importantly, the respiratory/gastric mucin Muc5ac, which is induced in the intestine and is critical for worm expulsion, was protected from the depolymerising effect exerted by ESPs. Furthermore, serine protease inhibitors (Serpins) which may protect the mucins, in particular Muc2, from depolymerisation, were highly expressed in mice resistant to chronic infection. Thus, we demonstrate that nematodes secrete serine protease(s) to degrade mucins within the mucus barrier, which may modify the niche of the parasite to prevent clearance from the host or facilitate efficient mating and egg laying from the posterior end of the parasite that is in intimate contact with the mucus barrier. However, during a TH2-mediated worm expulsion response, serpins, Muc5ac and increased levels of Muc2 protect the barrier from degradation by the nematode secreted protease(s). PMID

  2. NMR analysis of a novel enzymatically active unlinked dengue NS2B-NS3 protease complex.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Mee; Gayen, Shovanlal; Kang, CongBao; Joy, Joma; Huang, Qiwei; Chen, Angela Shuyi; Wee, John Liang Kuan; Ang, Melgious Jin Yan; Lim, Huichang Annie; Hung, Alvin W; Li, Rong; Noble, Christian G; Lee, Le Tian; Yip, Andy; Wang, Qing-Yin; Chia, Cheng San Brian; Hill, Jeffrey; Shi, Pei-Yong; Keller, Thomas H

    2013-05-01

    The dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen responsible for an estimated 100 million human infections annually. The viral genome encodes a two-component trypsin-like protease that contains the cofactor region from the nonstructural protein NS2B and the protease domain from NS3 (NS3pro). The NS2B-NS3pro complex plays a crucial role in viral maturation and has been identified as a potential drug target. Using a DENV protease construct containing NS2B covalently linked to NS3pro via a Gly4-Ser-Gly4 linker ("linked protease"), previous x-ray crystal structures show that the C-terminal fragment of NS2B is remote from NS3pro and exists in an open state in the absence of an inhibitor; however, in the presence of an inhibitor, NS2B complexes with NS3pro to form a closed state. This linked enzyme produced NMR spectra with severe signal overlap and line broadening. To obtain a protease construct with a resolved NMR spectrum, we expressed and purified an unlinked protease complex containing a 50-residue segment of the NS2B cofactor region and NS3pro without the glycine linker using a coexpression system. This unlinked protease complex was catalytically active at neutral pH in the absence of glycerol and produced dispersed cross-peaks in a (1)H-(15)N heteronuclear single quantum correlation spectrum that enabled us to conduct backbone assignments using conventional techniques. In addition, titration with an active-site peptide aldehyde inhibitor and paramagnetic relaxation enhancement studies demonstrated that the unlinked DENV protease exists predominantly in a closed conformation in solution. This protease complex can serve as a useful tool for drug discovery against DENV.

  3. Current and Novel Inhibitors of HIV Protease

    PubMed Central

    Pokorná, Jana; Machala, Ladislav; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Konvalinka, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The design, development and clinical success of HIV protease inhibitors represent one of the most remarkable achievements of molecular medicine. This review describes all nine currently available FDA-approved protease inhibitors, discusses their pharmacokinetic properties, off-target activities, side-effects, and resistance profiles. The compounds in the various stages of clinical development are also introduced, as well as alternative approaches, aiming at other functional domains of HIV PR. The potential of these novel compounds to open new way to the rational drug design of human viruses is critically assessed. PMID:21994591

  4. Using specificity to strategically target proteases

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Mark D.; Craik, Charles S.

    2009-01-01

    Proteases are a family of naturally occurring enzymes in the body whose dysregulation has been implicated in numerous diseases and cancers. Their ability to selectively and catalytically turnover substrate adds both signal amplification and functionality as parameters for the detection of disease. This review will focus on the development of activity-based methodologies to characterize proteases, and in particular, the use of positional scanning, synthetic combinatorial libraries (PS-SCL’s), and substrate activity screening (SAS) assays. The use of these approaches to better understand a protease’s natural substrate will be discussed as well as the technologies that emerged. PMID:18434168

  5. Detection of protease and protease activity using a single nanoscrescent SERS probe

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gang L.; Ellman, Jonathan A.; Lee, Luke P.; Chen, Fanqing Frank

    2013-01-29

    This invention pertains to the in vitro detection of proteases using a single peptide-conjugate nanocrescent surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probes with at least nanomolar sensitivity. The probe enables detection of proteolytic activity in extremely small volume and at low concentration. In certain embodiments the probes comprise an indicator for the detection of an active protease, where the indicator comprises a nanocrescent attached to a peptide, where said peptide comprises a recognition site for the protease and a Raman tag attached to the peptide.

  6. Irreversible aggregation of the Fc fragment derived from polymeric but not monomeric serum IgA1--implications in IgA-mediated disease.

    PubMed

    Almogren, Adel; Kerr, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    IgA is by far the most abundant immunoglobulin in humans. It is found in serum and in secretions (SIgA). Unlike any other class of immunoglobulin, each form of IgA occurs naturally in different polymerisation states. In serum, the predominant form of IgA is IgA1 of which around 90% is monomeric and 10% is dimeric or polymeric. The proportion of dimeric/polymeric IgA increases in a number of important diseases, such as IgA nephropathy and in chronic liver disease. In both, there is evidence that further aggregation of dimeric/polymeric IgA is the cause of the characteristic tissue deposition. To investigate the effect of role of IgA polymerisation on the structure and function of IgA, we purified different molecular forms of IgA1 from myeloma serum (monomer, dimer and trimer) and SIgA1 from colostrum. Structural features of these different IgA1 forms were examined following proteolysis using Neisseria gonorrhoeae IgA1 type 2 protease and Streptococcus pneumoniae IgA1 protease. These IgA1 proteases cleave IgA1 at the hinge region and produce Fcalpha and Fab fragments. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the Fcalpha fragments of serum dimeric and trimeric but not monomeric IgA1 aggregated to form multimers resistant to disruption in SDS-PAGE under non-reducing conditions. Size exclusion chromatography under native conditions of cleaved serum dimeric IgA1 demonstrated that aggregation occurs because of structural changes in the IgA per se and was not an effect of the SDS-PAGE system. In the same assay, SIgA1 (dimeric) did not aggregate after digestion. The results suggest an important, previously unrecognised, property of dimeric/polymeric serum IgA1, which might explain its propensity to aggregate and deposit in tissues.

  7. cDNA cloning and chromosomal mapping of the mouse type VII collagen gene (Col7a1): Evidence for rapid evolutionary divergence of the gene

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Kehua; Christiano, A.M.; Chu, Mon Li; Uitto, J. Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA ); Copeland, N.G.; Gilbert, D.J. )

    1993-06-01

    Type VII collagen is the major component of anchoring fibrils, critical attachment structures at the dermal-epidermal basement membrane zone. Genetic linkage analyses with recently cloned human type VII collagen cDNAs have indicated that the corresponding gene, COL7A1, is the candidate gene in the dystrophic forms of epidermolysis bullosa. To gain insight into the evolutionary conservation of COL7A1, in this study the authors have isolated mouse type VII collagen cDNAs by screening a mouse epidermal keratinocyte cDNA library with a human COL7A1 cDNA. Two overlapping mouse cDNAs were isolated, and Northern hybridization of mouse epidermal keratinocyte RNA with one of them revealed the presence of a mRNA transcript of [approximately]9.5 kb, the approximate size of the human COL7A1 mRNA. Nucleotide sequencing of the mouse cDNAs revealed a 2760-bp open reading frame that encodes the 5[prime] half of the collagenous domain and a segment of the NC-1, the noncollagenous amino-terminal domain of type VII collagen. Comparison of the mouse amino acid sequences with the corresponding human sequences deduced from cDNAs revealed 82.5% identity. The evolutionary divergence of the gene was relatively rapid in comparison to other collagen genes. Despite the high degree of sequence variation, several sequences, including the size and the position of noncollagenous imperfections and interruptions within the Gly-X-Y repeat sequence, were precisely conserved. Finally, the mouse Col7a1 gene was located by interspecific backcross mapping to mouse Chromosome 9, a region that corresponds to human chromosome 3p21, the position of human COL7Al. This assignment confirms and extends the relationship between the mouse and the human chromosomes in this region of the genome. 33 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Transient ECM protease activity promotes synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Magnowska, Marta; Gorkiewicz, Tomasz; Suska, Anna; Wawrzyniak, Marcin; Rutkowska-Wlodarczyk, Izabela; Kaczmarek, Leszek; Wlodarczyk, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Activity-dependent proteolysis at a synapse has been recognized as a pivotal factor in controlling dynamic changes in dendritic spine shape and function; however, excessive proteolytic activity is detrimental to the cells. The exact mechanism of control of these seemingly contradictory outcomes of protease activity remains unknown. Here, we reveal that dendritic spine maturation is strictly controlled by the proteolytic activity, and its inhibition by the endogenous inhibitor (Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 – TIMP-1). Excessive proteolytic activity impairs long-term potentiation of the synaptic efficacy (LTP), and this impairment could be rescued by inhibition of protease activity. Moreover LTP is altered persistently when the ability of TIMP-1 to inhibit protease activity is abrogated, further demonstrating the role of such inhibition in the promotion of synaptic plasticity under well-defined conditions. We also show that dendritic spine maturation involves an intermediate formation of elongated spines, followed by their conversion into mushroom shape. The formation of mushroom-shaped spines is accompanied by increase in AMPA/NMDA ratio of glutamate receptors. Altogether, our results identify inhibition of protease activity as a critical regulatory mechanism for dendritic spines maturation. PMID:27282248

  9. Purification, characterization, and N-terminal amino acid sequence of the adenylyl cyclase-activating protease from bovine sperm.

    PubMed

    Adeniran, A J; Shoshani, I; Minuth, M; Awad, J A; Elce, J S; Johnson, R A

    1995-03-01

    We previously reported the extraction of a factor from bovine sperm that activated adenylyl cyclases of rat brain and human platelets, and identified it as a trypsin-like protease that was referred to as "ninhibin." This proteolytic activity was purified to near homogeneity from an alkaline extract of washed sperm particles by sequential chromatography on p-aminobenzamidine agarose and CM-Sephadex. Purification was greater than 100-fold with nearly 30% recovery of protease activity exhibiting a major band of approximately 40 kDa. An approximately 45-kDa form of the protease was also evident in crude extracts and was preferentially isolated when the enzyme was prepared in the presence of a mixture of protease inhibitors. The larger form of the protease was substantially less effective in stimulating adenylyl cyclase than was the smaller form; it is likely to be a zymogen form from which the smaller, more active form is derived. Purified forms of acrosin and ninhibin exhibited similar mobilities on PAGE, similar capacities for activating adenylyl cyclase, similar patterns of proteolytic fragmentation, and similar immunoblot patterns obtained with an antibody against purified bovine acrosin. More importantly, the N-terminal amino acid sequence of bovine ninhibin was found to be identical with that of bovine acrosin and caprine acrosin and more than 75% identical with porcine acrosin. The data support the conclusion that the adenylyl cyclase-activating protease previously referred to as ninhibin is, in fact, acrosin. PMID:7756444

  10. An Aspartic Protease of the Scabies Mite Sarcoptes scabiei Is Involved in the Digestion of Host Skin and Blood Macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Wajahat; Viberg, Linda T.; Fischer, Katja; Walton, Shelley F.; Holt, Deborah C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Scabies is a disease of worldwide significance, causing considerable morbidity in both humans and other animals. The scabies mite Sarcoptes scabiei burrows into the skin of its host, obtaining nutrition from host skin and blood. Aspartic proteases mediate a range of diverse and essential physiological functions such as tissue invasion and migration, digestion, moulting and reproduction in a number of parasitic organisms. We investigated whether aspartic proteases may play role in scabies mite digestive processes. Methodology/Principle Findings We demonstrated the presence of aspartic protease activity in whole scabies mite extract. We then identified a scabies mite aspartic protease gene sequence and produced recombinant active enzyme. The recombinant scabies mite aspartic protease was capable of digesting human haemoglobin, serum albumin, fibrinogen and fibronectin, but not collagen III or laminin. This is consistent with the location of the scabies mites in the upper epidermis of human skin. Conclusions/Significance The development of novel therapeutics for scabies is of increasing importance given the evidence of emerging resistance to current treatments. We have shown that a scabies mite aspartic protease plays a role in the digestion of host skin and serum molecules, raising the possibility that interference with the function of the enzyme may impact on mite survival. PMID:24244770

  11. Proteases and Protease Inhibitors of Urinary Extracellular Vesicles in Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Tataruch, Dorota; Gu, Dongfeng; Liu, Xinyu; Forsblom, Carol; Groop, Per-Henrik; Holthofer, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the major complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), leads to chronic kidney disease (CKD), and, ultimately, is the main cause for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Beyond urinary albumin, no reliable biomarkers are available for accurate early diagnostics. Urinary extracellular vesicles (UEVs) have recently emerged as an interesting source of diagnostic and prognostic disease biomarkers. Here we used a protease and respective protease inhibitor array to profile urines of type 1 diabetes patients at different stages of kidney involvement. Urine samples were divided into groups based on the level of albuminuria and UEVs isolated by hydrostatic dialysis and screened for relative changes of 34 different proteases and 32 protease inhibitors, respectively. Interestingly, myeloblastin and its natural inhibitor elafin showed an increase in the normo- and microalbuminuric groups. Similarly, a characteristic pattern was observed in the array of protease inhibitors, with a marked increase of cystatin B, natural inhibitor of cathepsins L, H, and B as well as of neutrophil gelatinase-associated Lipocalin (NGAL) in the normoalbuminuric group. This study shows for the first time the distinctive alterations in comprehensive protease profiles of UEVs in diabetic nephropathy and uncovers intriguing mechanistic, prognostic, and diagnostic features of kidney damage in diabetes. PMID:25874235

  12. Protease IV, a quorum sensing-dependent protease of Pseudomonas aeruginosa modulates insect innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Park, Su-Jin; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; So, Yong-In; Park, Ha-Young; Li, Xi-Hui; Yeom, Doo Hwan; Lee, Mi-Nan; Lee, Bok-Luel; Lee, Joon-Hee

    2014-12-01

    In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, quorum sensing (QS) plays an essential role in pathogenesis and the QS response controls many virulence factors. Using a mealworm, Tenebrio molitor as a host model, we found that Protease IV, a QS-regulated exoprotease of P. aeruginosa functions as a key virulence effector causing the melanization and death of T. molitor larvae. Protease IV was able to degrade zymogens of spätzle processing enzyme (SPE) and SPE-activating enzyme (SAE) without the activation of the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) production. Since SPE and SAE function to activate spätzle, a ligand of Toll receptor in the innate immune system of T. molitor, we suggest that Protease IV may interfere with the activation of the Toll signaling. Independently of the Toll pathway, the melanization response, another innate immunity was still generated, since Protease IV directly converted Tenebrio prophenoloxidase into active phenoloxidase. Protease IV also worked as an important factor in the virulence to brine shrimp and nematode. These results suggest that Protease IV provides P. aeruginosa with a sophisticated way to escape the immune attack of host by interfering with the production of AMPs. PMID:25315216

  13. A novel protease activity assay using a protease-responsive chaperone protein

    SciTech Connect

    Sao, Kentaro; Murata, Masaharu; Fujisaki, Yuri; Umezaki, Kaori; Mori, Takeshi; Niidome, Takuro; Katayama, Yoshiki; Hashizume, Makoto

    2009-06-05

    Protease activity assays are important for elucidating protease function and for developing new therapeutic agents. In this study, a novel turbidimetric method for determining the protease activity using a protease-responsive chaperone protein is described. For this purpose, a recombinant small heat-shock protein (sHSP) with an introduced Factor Xa protease recognition site was synthesized in bacteria. This recombinant mutant, FXa-HSP, exhibited chaperone-like activity at high temperatures in cell lysates. However, the chaperone-like activity of FXa-HSP decreased dramatically following treatment with Factor Xa. Protein precipitation was subsequently observed in the cell lysates. The reaction was Factor Xa concentration-dependent and was quantitatively suppressed by a specific inhibitor for Factor Xa. Protein aggregation was detected by a simple method based on turbidimetry. The results clearly demonstrate that this assay is an effective, easy-to-use method for determining protease activities without the requirement of labeling procedures and the use of radioisotopes.

  14. Coagulation factor XII protease domain crystal structure

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, M; Wilmann, P; Awford, J; Li, C; Hamad, BK; Fischer, PM; Dreveny, I; Dekker, LV; Emsley, J

    2015-01-01

    Background Coagulation factor XII is a serine protease that is important for kinin generation and blood coagulation, cleaving the substrates plasma kallikrein and FXI. Objective To investigate FXII zymogen activation and substrate recognition by determining the crystal structure of the FXII protease domain. Methods and results A series of recombinant FXII protease constructs were characterized by measurement of cleavage of chromogenic peptide and plasma kallikrein protein substrates. This revealed that the FXII protease construct spanning the light chain has unexpectedly weak proteolytic activity compared to β-FXIIa, which has an additional nine amino acid remnant of the heavy chain present. Consistent with these data, the crystal structure of the light chain protease reveals a zymogen conformation for active site residues Gly193 and Ser195, where the oxyanion hole is absent. The Asp194 side chain salt bridge to Arg73 constitutes an atypical conformation of the 70-loop. In one crystal form, the S1 pocket loops are partially flexible, which is typical of a zymogen. In a second crystal form of the deglycosylated light chain, the S1 pocket loops are ordered, and a short α-helix in the 180-loop of the structure results in an enlarged and distorted S1 pocket with a buried conformation of Asp189, which is critical for P1 Arg substrate recognition. The FXII structures define patches of negative charge surrounding the active site cleft that may be critical for interactions with inhibitors and substrates. Conclusions These data provide the first structural basis for understanding FXII substrate recognition and zymogen activation. PMID:25604127

  15. Caffeine prevents antihyperalgesic effect of gabapentin in an animal model of CRPS-I: evidence for the involvement of spinal adenosine A1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Martins, Daniel F; Prado, Marcos R B; Daruge-Neto, Eduardo; Batisti, Ana P; Emer, Aline A; Mazzardo-Martins, Leidiane; Santos, Adair R S; Piovezan, Anna P

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to determine whether 3 weeks of gabapentin treatment is effective in alleviating neuropathic pain-like behavior in animal models of complex regional pain syndrome type-I and partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL). We investigated the contribution of adenosine subtypes to the antihyperalgesic effect of gabapentin by examining the effect of caffeine, a non-selective adenosine A1 and A2 receptor antagonist or 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX), a selective adenosine A1 subtype receptor antagonist on this effect. Neuropathic pain was produced by unilateral prolonged hind paw ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) or PSNL procedures which resulted in stimulus-evoked mechanical hyperalgesia. After procedures, animals received gabapentin (10, 30, or 100 mg/kg intraperitoneal, respectively), caffeine (10 mg/kg intraperitoneal or 150 nmol intrathecally) or DPCPX (3 µg intrathecally) alone or in combination. Mice were tested for tactile mechanical hyperalgesia at 1, 2, and 3 weeks following procedures. Gabapentin produced dose-related inhibition of mechanical hyperalgesia over a 3-week period, and this effect was blocked by concomitant caffeine or DPCPX administration 1 week after injuries. The results of this study demonstrated that the mechanism through which gabapentin produces its effect may involve the activation of adenosine A1 subtype receptor.

  16. Serine Protease Autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs): Biogenesis and Function

    PubMed Central

    Dautin, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    Serine Protease Autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs) constitute a large family of proteases secreted by Escherichia coli and Shigella. SPATEs exhibit two distinct proteolytic activities. First, a C-terminal catalytic site triggers an intra-molecular cleavage that releases the N-terminal portion of these proteins in the extracellular medium. Second, the secreted N-terminal domains of SPATEs are themselves proteases; each contains a canonical serine-protease catalytic site. Some of these secreted proteases are toxins, eliciting various effects on mammalian cells. Here, we discuss the biogenesis of SPATEs and their function as toxins. PMID:22069633

  17. Protease activity, localization and inhibition in the human hair follicle

    PubMed Central

    Bhogal, R K; Mouser, P E; Higgins, C A; Turner, G A

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Objective In humans, the process of hair shedding, referred to as exogen, is believed to occur independently of the other hair cycle phases. Although the actual mechanisms involved in hair shedding are not fully known, it has been hypothesized that the processes leading to the final step of hair shedding may be driven by proteases and/or protease inhibitor activity. In this study, we investigated the presence of proteases and protease activity in naturally shed human hairs and assessed enzyme inhibition activity of test materials. Methods We measured enzyme activity using a fluorescence-based assay and protein localization by indirect immunohistochemistry (IHC). We also developed an ex vivo skin model for measuring the force required to pull hair fibres from skin. Results Our data demonstrate the presence of protease activity in the tissue material surrounding club roots. We also demonstrated the localization of specific serine protease protein expression in human hair follicle by IHC. These data provide evidence demonstrating the presence of proteases around the hair club roots, which may play a role during exogen. We further tested the hypothesis that a novel protease inhibitor system (combination of Trichogen® and climbazole) could inhibit protease activity in hair fibre club root extracts collected from a range of ethnic groups (UK, Brazil, China, first-generation Mexicans in the USA, Thailand and Turkey) in both males and females. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this combination is capable of increasing the force required to remove hair in an ex vivo skin model system. Conclusion These studies indicate the presence of proteolytic activity in the tissue surrounding the human hair club root and show that it is possible to inhibit this activity with a combination of Trichogen® and climbazole. This technology may have potential to reduce excessive hair shedding. Résumé Objectif Chez l'homme, le processus de perte de cheveux, désigné comme exog

  18. The association of the CYP1A1 Ile462Val polymorphism with head and neck cancer risk: evidence based on a cumulative meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yadong; Yang, Haiyan; Duan, Guangcai; Wang, Haiyu

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to address the association between the Ile462Val polymorphism in the gene encoding cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC). Materials and methods The Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases were searched. The strength of the association was evaluated by calculating the odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Results Overall, we observed an increased risk of HNC in patients with the Ile/Val+Val/Val genotype compared to those with the Ile/Ile genotype among the 6,367 cases and 6,395 controls evaluated in the 34 eligible studies, with a pooled OR of 1.284 (95% CI: 1.119–1.473). In addition, we observed an increased risk of HNC in patients with the Ile/Val+Val/Val genotype compared to those with the Ile/Ile genotype in the subgroup analyses (OR =1.362, 95% CI: 1.102–1.685 for laryngeal cancer; OR =1.519, 95% CI: 1.253–1.843 for pharyngeal cancer; OR =1.371, 95% CI: 1.111–1.693 for Asians; and OR =1.329, 95% CI: 1.138–1.551 for patients in studies using hospital-based controls). Conclusion This cumulative meta-analysis suggests that the CYP1A1 Ile462Val polymorphism might contribute to the risk of HNC, particularly for pharyngeal cancer and laryngeal cancer. PMID:27274286

  19. Proteases from the Regenerating Gut of the Holothurian Eupentacta fraudatrix

    PubMed Central

    Lamash, Nina E.; Dolmatov, Igor Yu

    2013-01-01

    Four proteases with molecular masses of 132, 58, 53, and 47 kDa were detected in the digestive system of the holothurian Eupentacta fraudatrix. These proteases displayed the gelatinase activity and characteristics of zinc metalloproteinases. The 58 kDa protease had similar protease inhibitor sensitivity to that of mammalian matrix metalloproteinases. Zymographic assay revealed different lytic activities of all four proteases during intestine regeneration in the holothurian. The 132 kDa protease showed the highest activity at the first stage. During morphogenesis (stages 2–4 of regeneration), the highest activity was measured for the 53 and 58 kDa proteases. Inhibition of protease activity exerts a marked effect on regeneration, which was dependent on the time when 1,10-phenanthroline injections commenced. When metalloproteinases were inhibited at the second stage of regeneration, the restoration rates were decreased. However, such an effect proved to be reversible, and when inhibition ceased, the previous rate of regeneration was recovered. When protease activity is inhibited at the first stage, regeneration is completely abolished, and the animals die, suggesting that early activation of the proteases is crucial for triggering the regenerative process in holothurians. The role of the detected proteases in the regeneration processes of holothurians is discussed. PMID:23505505

  20. Detection of protease-resistant cervid prion protein in water from a CWD-endemic area

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, TA; Pulford, Bruce; Wyckoff, A Christy; Meyerett, Crystal; Michel, Brady; Gertig, Kevin; Hoover, Edward A; Jewell, Jean E; Telling, Glenn C

    2009-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is the only known transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting free-ranging wildlife. Although the exact mode of natural transmission remains unknown, substantial evidence suggests that prions can persist in the environment, implicating components thereof as potential prion reservoirs and transmission vehicles.1–4 CWD-positive animals may contribute to environmental prion load via decomposing carcasses and biological materials including saliva, blood, urine and feces.5–7 Sensitivity limitations of conventional assays hamper evaluation of environmental prion loads in soil and water. Here we show the ability of serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) to amplify a 1.3 × 10−7 dilution of CWD-infected brain homogenate spiked into water samples, equivalent to approximately 5 × 107 protease resistant cervid prion protein (PrPCWD) monomers. We also detected PrPCWD in one of two environmental water samples from a CWD endemic area collected at a time of increased water runoff from melting winter snow pack, as well as in water samples obtained concurrently from the flocculation stage of water processing by the municipal water treatment facility. Bioassays indicated that the PrPCWD detected was below infectious levels. These data demonstrate detection of very low levels of PrPCWD in the environment by sPMCA and suggest persistence and accumulation of prions in the environment that may promote CWD transmission. PMID:19823039

  1. New directions for protease inhibitors directed drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Yoshio; Kiso, Yoshiaki

    2016-11-01

    Proteases play crucial roles in various biological processes, and their activities are essential for all living organisms-from viruses to humans. Since their functions are closely associated with many pathogenic mechanisms, their inhibitors or activators are important molecular targets for developing treatments for various diseases. Here, we describe drugs/drug candidates that target proteases, such as malarial plasmepsins, β-secretase, virus proteases, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4. Previously, we reported inhibitors of aspartic proteases, such as renin, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease, human T-lymphotropic virus type I protease, plasmepsins, and β-secretase, as drug candidates for hypertension, adult T-cell leukaemia, human T-lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy, malaria, and Alzheimer's disease. Our inhibitors are also described in this review article as examples of drugs that target proteases. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 563-579, 2016. PMID:26584340

  2. Adenosine administration produces an antidepressant-like effect in mice: evidence for the involvement of A1 and A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Kaster, Manuella P; Rosa, Angelo Oscar; Rosso, Matheus M; Goulart, Eduardo C; Santos, Adair R S; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2004-01-23

    This study investigated the effect of adenosine in the forced swimming test (FST) and the tail suspension test (TST) in mice, and the contribution of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors to adenosine's antidepressant-like effect. The immobility time in the FST was reduced by adenosine given either by i.p. (5-10 mg/kg) or i.c.v. (0.01-10 microg/site) route. Adenosine (1-10 mg/kg, i.p.) also produced an antidepressant-like effect in the TST. No treatment affected locomotion in an open-field. The anti-immobility effect of adenosine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in the FST was prevented by i.p. pretreatment of mice with caffeine (3 mg/kg), DPCPX (2 mg/kg) and ZM241385 (1 mg/kg). CHA (0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) and DPMA (1-5 mg/kg, i.p.) also produced an antidepressant-like effect in the FST. This is the first report of an antidepressant-like effect of adenosine in mice, apparently mediated through an interaction with A1 and A2A receptors.

  3. Electron Momentum Distributions for 4a1 Orbitals of CFxCl4-x in Low Momentum Region: a Possible Evidence of Molecular Geometry Distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Xu; Xu, Chun-kai; Yin, Xiao-feng; Zhou, Li-xia; Xu, Ke-zun; Chen, Xiang-jun

    2009-12-01

    Electron momentum distributions for 4a1 orbitals of serial freon molecules CF3Cl, CF2Cl2, and CFCl3 (CFxCl4-x, x = 1-3) have been reanalyzed due to the severe discrepancies between theory and experiment in low momentum region. The tentative calculations using equilibrium geometries of molecular ions have exhibited a great improvement in agreement with the experimental data, which suggests that the molecular geometry distortion may be responsible for the observed high intensities at p < 0.5 a.u. Further analyses show that the severe discrepancies at low momentum region mainly arise from the influence of molecular geometry distortion on C-Cl bonding electron density distributions.

  4. Three monoclonal antibodies against the serpin protease nexin-1 prevent protease translocation.

    PubMed

    Kousted, Tina M; Skjoedt, Karsten; Petersen, Steen V; Koch, Claus; Vitved, Lars; Sochalska, Maja; Lacroix, Céline; Andersen, Lisbeth M; Wind, Troels; Andreasen, Peter A; Jensen, Jan K

    2014-01-01

    Protease nexin-1 (PN-1) belongs to the serpin family and is an inhibitor of thrombin, plasmin, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, and matriptase. Recent studies have suggested PN-1 to play important roles in vascular-, neuro-, and tumour-biology. The serpin inhibitory mechanism consists of the serpin presenting its so-called reactive centre loop as a substrate to its target protease, resulting in a covalent complex with the inactivated enzyme. Previously, three mechanisms have been proposed for the inactivation of serpins by monoclonal antibodies: steric blockage of protease recognition, conversion to an inactive conformation or induction of serpin substrate behaviour. Until now, no inhibitory antibodies against PN-1 have been thoroughly characterised. Here we report the development of three monoclonal antibodies binding specifically and with high affinity to human PN-1. The antibodies all abolish the protease inhibitory activity of PN-1. In the presence of the antibodies, PN-1 does not form a complex with its target proteases, but is recovered in a reactive centre cleaved form. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we mapped the three overlapping epitopes to an area spanning the gap between the loop connecting α-helix F with β-strand 3A and the loop connecting α-helix A with β-strand 1B. We conclude that antibody binding causes a direct blockage of the final critical step of protease translocation, resulting in abortive inhibition and premature release of reactive centre cleaved PN-1. These new antibodies will provide a powerful tool to study the in vivo role of PN-1's protease inhibitory activity.

  5. Structure of protease-cleaved Escherichia coli α-2-macroglobulin reveals a putative mechanism of conformational activation for protease entrapment.

    PubMed

    Fyfe, Cameron D; Grinter, Rhys; Josts, Inokentijs; Mosbahi, Khedidja; Roszak, Aleksander W; Cogdell, Richard J; Wall, Daniel M; Burchmore, Richard J S; Byron, Olwyn; Walker, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Bacterial α-2-macroglobulins have been suggested to function in defence as broad-spectrum inhibitors of host proteases that breach the outer membrane. Here, the X-ray structure of protease-cleaved Escherichia coli α-2-macroglobulin is described, which reveals a putative mechanism of activation and conformational change essential for protease inhibition. In this competitive mechanism, protease cleavage of the bait-region domain results in the untethering of an intrinsically disordered region of this domain which disrupts native interdomain interactions that maintain E. coli α-2-macroglobulin in the inactivated form. The resulting global conformational change results in entrapment of the protease and activation of the thioester bond that covalently links to the attacking protease. Owing to the similarity in structure and domain architecture of Escherichia coli α-2-macroglobulin and human α-2-macroglobulin, this protease-activation mechanism is likely to operate across the diverse members of this group.

  6. Structure of protease-cleaved Escherichia coli α-2-macroglobulin reveals a putative mechanism of conformational activation for protease entrapment

    PubMed Central

    Fyfe, Cameron D.; Grinter, Rhys; Josts, Inokentijs; Mosbahi, Khedidja; Roszak, Aleksander W.; Cogdell, Richard J.; Wall, Daniel M.; Burchmore, Richard J. S.; Byron, Olwyn; Walker, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial α-2-macroglobulins have been suggested to function in defence as broad-spectrum inhibitors of host proteases that breach the outer membrane. Here, the X-ray structure of protease-cleaved Escherichia coli α-2-macroglobulin is described, which reveals a putative mechanism of activation and conformational change essential for protease inhibition. In this competitive mechanism, protease cleavage of the bait-region domain results in the untethering of an intrinsically disordered region of this domain which disrupts native interdomain interactions that maintain E. coli α-2-macroglobulin in the inactivated form. The resulting global conformational change results in entrapment of the protease and activation of the thioester bond that covalently links to the attacking protease. Owing to the similarity in structure and domain architecture of Escherichia coli α-2-macroglobulin and human α-2-macro­globulin, this protease-activation mechanism is likely to operate across the diverse members of this group. PMID:26143919

  7. Development of a rapid phenotypic test for HCV protease inhibitors with potential use in clinical decisions

    PubMed Central

    Pessoa, Luciana Santos; Vidal, Luãnna Liebscher; da Costa, Emmerson C.B.; Abreu, Celina Monteiro; da Cunha, Rodrigo Delvecchio; Valadão, Ana Luiza Chaves; dos Santos, André Felipe; Tanuri, Amilcar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Approximately 185 million people worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). The first-wave of approved NS3 protease inhibitors (PIs) were Telaprevir and Boceprevir, which are currently discontinued. Simeprevir is a second-wave PI incorporated into the Brazilian hepatitis C treatment protocol. Drug resistance plays a key role in patients' treatment regimen. Here, we developed a simple phenotypic assay to evaluate the impact of resistance mutations in HCV NS3 protease to PIs, using a protein expression vector containing wild type NS3 protease domain and NS4A co-factor. We analyzed the impact of five resistance mutations (T54A, V36M, V158I, V170I and T54S+V170I) against Telaprevir, Boceprevir and Simeprevir. Protein purifications were performed with low cost methodology, and enzymatic inhibition assays were measured by FRET. We obtained recombinant proteases with detectable activity, and IC50 and fold change values for the evaluated PIs were determined. The variant T54A showed the highest reduction of susceptibility for the PIs, while the other four variants exhibited lower levels of reduced susceptibility. Interestingly, V170I showed 3.2-fold change for Simeprevir, a new evidence about this variant. These results emphasize the importance of enzymatic assays in phenotypic tests to determine which therapeutic regimen should be implemented. PMID:27575432

  8. Neutrophil-Derived Proteases Escalate Inflammation through Activation of IL-36 Family Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Henry, Conor M; Sullivan, Graeme P; Clancy, Danielle M; Afonina, Inna S; Kulms, Dagmar; Martin, Seamus J

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence has strongly implicated the IL-1 family cytokines IL-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ as key initiators of skin inflammation. Similar to the other members of the IL-1 family, IL-36 cytokines are expressed as inactive precursors and require proteolytic processing for activation; however, the responsible proteases are unknown. Here, we show that IL-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ are activated differentially by the neutrophil granule-derived proteases cathepsin G, elastase, and proteinase-3, increasing their biological activity ~500-fold. Active IL-36 promoted a strong pro-inflammatory signature in primary keratinocytes and was sufficient to perturb skin differentiation in a reconstituted 3D human skin model, producing features resembling psoriasis. Furthermore, skin eluates from psoriasis patients displayed significantly elevated cathepsin G-like activity that was sufficient to activate IL-36β. These data identify neutrophil granule proteases as potent IL-36-activating enzymes, adding to our understanding of how neutrophils escalate inflammatory reactions. Inhibition of neutrophil-derived proteases may therefore have therapeutic benefits in psoriasis. PMID:26776523

  9. Development of a rapid phenotypic test for HCV protease inhibitors with potential use in clinical decisions.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, Luciana Santos; Vidal, Luãnna Liebscher; Costa, Emmerson C B da; Abreu, Celina Monteiro; Cunha, Rodrigo Delvecchio da; Valadão, Ana Luiza Chaves; Santos, André Felipe Dos; Tanuri, Amilcar

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 185 million people worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). The first-wave of approved NS3 protease inhibitors (PIs) were Telaprevir and Boceprevir, which are currently discontinued. Simeprevir is a second-wave PI incorporated into the Brazilian hepatitis C treatment protocol. Drug resistance plays a key role in patients' treatment regimen. Here, we developed a simple phenotypic assay to evaluate the impact of resistance mutations in HCV NS3 protease to PIs, using a protein expression vector containing wild type NS3 protease domain and NS4A co-factor. We analyzed the impact of five resistance mutations (T54A, V36M, V158I, V170I and T54S+V170I) against Telaprevir, Boceprevir and Simeprevir. Protein purifications were performed with low cost methodology, and enzymatic inhibition assays were measured by FRET. We obtained recombinant proteases with detectable activity, and IC50 and fold change values for the evaluated PIs were determined. The variant T54A showed the highest reduction of susceptibility for the PIs, while the other four variants exhibited lower levels of reduced susceptibility. Interestingly, V170I showed 3.2-fold change for Simeprevir, a new evidence about this variant. These results emphasize the importance of enzymatic assays in phenotypic tests to determine which therapeutic regimen should be implemented. PMID:27575432

  10. Haemoprotein b-590 (Escherichia coli), a reducible catalase and peroxidase: evidence for its close relationship to hydroperoxidase I and a 'cytochrome a1b' preparation.

    PubMed

    Poole, R K; Baines, B S; Appleby, C A

    1986-06-01

    A reducible hydroperoxidase, haemoprotein b-590, has been purified 16-fold from a soluble fraction of Escherichia coli K12, grown anaerobically with glycerol and fumarate. The Mr of the native protein, determined by gel filtration, was 331,000 although a minor, smaller species with a Mr of 188,000 was also detected; both had catalase activities. Based on the subunit Mr, determined from SDS gel electrophoresis to be 75,000, the above species are tentatively identified as tetramers and dimers, respectively. The isoelectric point of both species was 4.4. The absorption spectrum of the isolated haemoprotein is typical of ferric, high-spin haem. The A405/A280 ratio never exceeded 0.27, a value half of that obtained for E. coli hydroperoxidase I. On reduction with dithionite, the gamma, beta, and alpha bands were at 441, 559 and 590 nm respectively, the alpha-band being unusually distinct. Treatment of the reduced form with CO gave a sharp prominent gamma-band at 426 nm and caused significant shifts of the alpha and beta bands to shorter (574 and 545 nm) wavelengths. The pyridine haemochrome spectra showed the haem to be protohaem IX; the spectra were featureless between 580 and 630 nm, thus excluding the presence of haem a. However, some features of the difference spectra of the haemoprotein were reminiscent of cytochrome a1, notably the maxima in reduced minus oxidized spectra at 444 and 593 nm and the peaks and troughs in CO difference spectra at 426 and 446 nm respectively. The haemoprotein had high catalase activity: Vmax was 2.3 X 10(6) mol H2O2 (mol haem)-1 min-1 and the Km was 11 mM. At 10 mM-H2O2 the first order rate constant was 0.3 X 10(7) M-1 s-1. The haemoprotein was also a peroxidase with o-dianisidine or 2,3',6-trichloroindophenol as substrates; for the latter substrate, the Km was 0.18 mM. It is concluded that haemoprotein b-590 strongly resembles the hydroperoxidase I purified by Claiborne & Fridovich (Journal of Biological Chemistry 254, 4245-4252, 1979

  11. Dysregulation of protease and protease inhibitors in a mouse model of human pelvic organ prolapse.

    PubMed

    Budatha, Madhusudhan; Silva, Simone; Montoya, Teodoro Ignacio; Suzuki, Ayako; Shah-Simpson, Sheena; Wieslander, Cecilia Karin; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Word, Ruth Ann; Yanagisawa, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    Mice deficient for the fibulin-5 gene (Fbln5(-/-)) develop pelvic organ prolapse (POP) due to compromised elastic fibers and upregulation of matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-9. Here, we used casein zymography, inhibitor profiling, affinity pull-down, and mass spectrometry to discover additional protease upregulated in the vaginal wall of Fbln5(-/-) mice, herein named V1 (25 kDa). V1 was a serine protease with trypsin-like activity similar to protease, serine (PRSS) 3, a major extrapancreatic trypsinogen, was optimum at pH 8.0, and predominantly detected in estrogenized vaginal epithelium of Fbln5(-/-) mice. PRSS3 was (a) localized in epithelial secretions, (b) detected in media of vaginal organ culture from both Fbln5(-/-) and wild type mice, and (c) cleaved fibulin-5 in vitro. Expression of two serine protease inhibitors [Serpina1a (α1-antitrypsin) and Elafin] was dysregulated in Fbln5(-/-) epithelium. Finally, we confirmed that PRSS3 was expressed in human vaginal epithelium and that SERPINA1 and Elafin were downregulated in vaginal tissues from women with POP. These data collectively suggest that the balance between proteases and their inhibitors contributes to support of the pelvic organs in humans and mice. PMID:23437119

  12. Evidence that WapB Is a 1,2-Glucosyltransferase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Involved in Lipopolysaccharide Outer Core Biosynthesis▿†

    PubMed Central

    Kocíncová, Dana; Hao, Youai; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Lam, Joseph S.

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen infecting debilitated individuals. One of the major virulence factors expressed by P. aeruginosa is lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is composed of lipid A, core oligosaccharide (OS), and O-antigen polysaccharide. The core OS is divided into inner and outer regions. Although the structure of the outer core OS has been elucidated, the functions and mechanisms of the glycosyltransferases involved in core OS biogenesis are currently unknown. Here, we show that a previously uncharacterized gene, pa1014, is involved in outer core biosynthesis, and we propose to rename this gene wapB. We constructed a chromosomal mutant, wapB::Gm, in a PAO1 (O5 serotype) strain background. Characterization of the LPS from the mutant by Western immunoblotting showed a lack of reactivity to PAO1 outer core-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb) 5c-101. The chemical structure of the core OS of the wapB mutant was elucidated using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry techniques and revealed that the core OS of the wapB mutant lacked the terminal β-1,2-linked-d-glucose residue. Complementation of the mutant with wapB in trans restored the core structure to one that is identical to that of the wild type. Eleven of the 20 P. aeruginosa International Antigenic Typing Scheme (IATS) serotypes produce LPSs that lack the terminal d-glucose residue (GlcIV). Interestingly, expressing wapB in each of these 11 serotypes modifies each of their outer core OS structures, which became reactive to MAb 5c-101 in Western immunoblotting, suggesting the presence of a terminal d-glucose in these core OS structures. Our results strongly suggested that wapB encodes a 1,2-glucosyltransferase. PMID:21441506

  13. Structural determinants of tobacco vein mottling virus protease substrate specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Ping; Austin, Brian P.; Tozer, Jozsef; Waugh, David

    2010-10-28

    Tobacco vein mottling virus (TVMV) is a member of the Potyviridae, one of the largest families of plant viruses. The TVMV genome is translated into a single large polyprotein that is subsequently processed by three virally encoded proteases. Seven of the nine cleavage events are carried out by the NIa protease. Its homolog from the tobacco etch virus (TEV) is a widely used reagent for the removal of affinity tags from recombinant proteins. Although TVMV protease is a close relative of TEV protease, they exhibit distinct sequence specificities. We report here the crystal structure of a catalytically inactive mutant TVMV protease (K65A/K67A/C151A) in complex with a canonical peptide substrate (Ac-RETVRFQSD) at 1.7-{angstrom} resolution. As observed in several crystal structures of TEV protease, the C-terminus ({approx}20 residues) of TVMV protease is disordered. Unexpectedly, although deleting the disordered residues from TEV protease reduces its catalytic activity by {approx}10-fold, an analogous truncation mutant of TVMV protease is significantly more active. Comparison of the structures of TEV and TVMV protease in complex with their respective canonical substrate peptides reveals that the S3 and S4 pockets are mainly responsible for the differing substrate specificities. The structure of TVMV protease suggests that it is less tolerant of variation at the P1{prime} position than TEV protease. This conjecture was confirmed experimentally by determining kinetic parameters k{sub cat} and K{sub m} for a series of oligopeptide substrates. Also, as predicted by the cocrystal structure, we confirm that substitutions in the P6 position are more readily tolerated by TVMV than TEV protease.

  14. Mitochondrial Proteases as Emerging Pharmacological Targets.

    PubMed

    Gibellini, Lara; De Biasi, Sara; Nasi, Milena; Iannone, Anna; Cossarizza, Andrea; Pinti, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    The preservation of mitochondrial function and integrity is critical for cell viability. Under stress conditions, unfolded, misfolded or damaged proteins accumulate in a certain compartment of the organelle, interfering with oxidative phosphorylation and normal mitochondrial functions. In stress conditions, several mechanisms, including mitochondrial unfolded protease response (UPRmt), fusion and fission, and mitophagy are engaged to restore normal proteostasis of the organelle. Mitochondrial proteases are a family of more than 20 enzymes that not only are involved in the UPRmt, but actively participate at multiple levels in the stress-response system. Alterations in their expression levels, or mutations that determine loss or gain of function of these proteases deeply impair mitochondrial functionality and can be associated with the onset of inherited diseases, with the development of neurodegenerative disorders and with the process of carcinogenesis. In this review, we focus our attention on six of them, namely CLPP, HTRA2 and LONP1, by analysing the current knowledge about their functions, their involvement in the pathogenesis of human diseases, and the compounds currently available for inhibiting their functions. PMID:26831646

  15. Proteases of human rhinovirus: role in infection.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Lora M; Walker, Erin J; Jans, David A; Ghildyal, Reena

    2015-01-01

    Human rhinoviruses (HRV) are the major etiological agents of the common cold and asthma exacerbations, with significant worldwide health and economic impact. Although large-scale population vaccination has proved successful in limiting or even eradicating many viruses, the more than 100 distinct serotypes mean that conventional vaccination is not a feasible strategy to combat HRV. An alternative strategy is to target conserved viral proteins such as the HRV proteases, 2A(pro) and 3C(pro), the focus of this review. Necessary for host cell shutoff, virus replication, and pathogenesis, 2A(pro) and 3C(pro) are clearly viable drug targets, and indeed, 3C(pro) has been successfully targeted for treating the common cold in experimental infection. 2A(pro) and 3C(pro) are crucial for virus replication due to their role in polyprotein processing as well as cleavage of key cellular proteins to inhibit cellular transcription and translation. Intriguingly, the action of the HRV proteases also disrupts nucleocytoplasmic trafficking, contributing to HRV cytopathic effects. Improved understanding of the protease-cell interactions should enable new therapeutic approaches to be identified for drug development. PMID:25261311

  16. Oligomeric state study of prokaryotic rhomboid proteases.

    PubMed

    Sampathkumar, Padmapriya; Mak, Michelle W; Fischer-Witholt, Sarah J; Guigard, Emmanuel; Kay, Cyril M; Lemieux, M Joanne

    2012-12-01

    Rhomboid peptidases (proteases) play key roles in signaling events at the membrane bilayer. Understanding the regulation of rhomboid function is crucial for insight into its mechanism of action. Here we examine the oligomeric state of three different rhomboid proteases. We subjected Haemophilus influenzae, (hiGlpG), Escherichia coli GlpG (ecGlpG) and Bacillus subtilis (YqgP) to sedimentation equilibrium analysis in detergent-solubilized dodecylmaltoside (DDM) solution. For hiGlpG and ecGlpG, rhomboids consisting of the core 6 transmembrane domains without and with soluble domains respectively, and YqgP, predicted to have 7 transmembrane domains with larger soluble domains at the termini, the predominant species was dimeric with low amounts of monomer and tetramers observed. To examine the effect of the membrane domain alone on oligomeric state of rhomboid, hiGlpG, the simplest form from the rhomboid class of intramembrane proteases representing the canonical rhomboid core of six transmembrane domains, was studied further. Using gel filtration and crosslinking we demonstrate that hiGlpG is dimeric and functional in DDM detergent solution. More importantly co-immunoprecipitation studies demonstrate that the dimer is present in the lipid bilayer suggesting a physiological dimer. Overall these results indicate that rhomboids form oligomers which are facilitated by the membrane domain. For hiGlpG we have shown that these oligomers exist in the lipid bilayer. This is the first detailed oligomeric state characterization of the rhomboid family of peptidases. PMID:22921757

  17. Proteases of human rhinovirus: role in infection.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Lora M; Walker, Erin J; Jans, David A; Ghildyal, Reena

    2015-01-01

    Human rhinoviruses (HRV) are the major etiological agents of the common cold and asthma exacerbations, with significant worldwide health and economic impact. Although large-scale population vaccination has proved successful in limiting or even eradicating many viruses, the more than 100 distinct serotypes mean that conventional vaccination is not a feasible strategy to combat HRV. An alternative strategy is to target conserved viral proteins such as the HRV proteases, 2A(pro) and 3C(pro), the focus of this review. Necessary for host cell shutoff, virus replication, and pathogenesis, 2A(pro) and 3C(pro) are clearly viable drug targets, and indeed, 3C(pro) has been successfully targeted for treating the common cold in experimental infection. 2A(pro) and 3C(pro) are crucial for virus replication due to their role in polyprotein processing as well as cleavage of key cellular proteins to inhibit cellular transcription and translation. Intriguingly, the action of the HRV proteases also disrupts nucleocytoplasmic trafficking, contributing to HRV cytopathic effects. Improved understanding of the protease-cell interactions should enable new therapeutic approaches to be identified for drug development.

  18. Corruption of innate immunity by bacterial proteases.

    PubMed

    Potempa, Jan; Pike, Robert N

    2009-01-01

    The innate immune system of the human body has developed numerous mechanisms to control endogenous and exogenous bacteria and thus prevent infections by these microorganisms. These mechanisms range from physical barriers such as the skin or mucosal epithelium to a sophisticated array of molecules and cells that function to suppress or prevent bacterial infection. Many bacteria express a variety of proteases, ranging from non-specific and powerful enzymes that degrade many proteins involved in innate immunity to proteases that are extremely precise and specific in their mode of action. Here we have assembled a comprehensive picture of how bacterial proteases affect the host's innate immune system to gain advantage and cause infection. This picture is far from being complete since the numbers of mechanisms utilized are as astonishing as they are diverse, ranging from degradation of molecules vital to innate immune mechanisms to subversion of the mechanisms to allow the bacterium to hide from the system or take advantage of it. It is vital that such mechanisms are elucidated to allow strategies to be developed to aid the innate immune system in controlling bacterial infections.

  19. Primary structural analysis of sulfhydryl protease inhibitors from pineapple stem.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M N; Keim, P S; Heinrikson, R L; Kezdy, F J

    1975-03-10

    Pineapple stem acetone powder provides a rich source of the sulfhydryl protease bromelain and of a family of compositionally similar but chromatographically distinct polypeptide inihibtors of this enzyme. The isoinhibitors have molecular weights of 5600, and they contain five disulfide bonds and about 50 amino acids each (Perlstein, S. H., AND Kezdy, F.J. (1973) J. Supramol. Struct. 1, 249-254). Primary structural analysis of one of the seven inhibitor fractions (VII) revealed extensive microheterogeneity. Each of the inhibitor molecules in Fraction VII was shown to be composed of two peptide chains joined by disulfide bonds. These chains, designated A and B on the basis of size, comprise 41 and 10-11 residues, respectively, and the amino acid sequence of one of each are given below: (see article for formular). On the basis of ionization properties and yields of the A and B chains, it would appear that one of the major inhibitor species in Fraction VII is the covalently linked complex of the two chains shown, namely [A-1, B-2]. The second major inhibitor component of Fraction VII is identical in structure with [A-1, B-2i1 except that residues 1 and 8 in the A chain are pyroglutamate and threonine, respectively, and in the B chain glutamine 11 is replaced by arginine. The third inhibitor in Fraction VII is a minor constituent identical with the second, except that residue 1 in the A chain is glutamate rather than pyroglutamate. This microheterogeneity in the inhibitors of Fraction VII is further increased by the fact that B chains may lack threonine 1, in which case they are decapeptides beginning with alanine. On the basis of the striking homology of the cysteine residues with those of other protease inhibitors, it is proposed that the bromelain inhibitors are generated enzymatically from single chain precursors by excision of a "bridge" paptide which links the NH-2 termal A chain to the COOH-terminal B chain.

  20. Four Amino Acid Changes in HIV-2 Protease Confer Class-Wide Sensitivity to Protease Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Robert A.; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Protease is essential for retroviral replication, and protease inhibitors (PI) are important for treating HIV infection. HIV-2 exhibits intrinsic resistance to most FDA-approved HIV-1 PI, retaining clinically useful susceptibility only to lopinavir, darunavir, and saquinavir. The mechanisms for this resistance are unclear; although HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteases share just 38 to 49% sequence identity, all critical structural features of proteases are conserved. Structural studies have implicated four amino acids in the ligand-binding pocket (positions 32, 47, 76, and 82). We constructed HIV-2ROD9 molecular clones encoding the corresponding wild-type HIV-1 amino acids (I32V, V47I, M76L, and I82V) either individually or together (clone PRΔ4) and compared the phenotypic sensitivities (50% effective concentration [EC50]) of mutant and wild-type viruses to nine FDA-approved PI. Single amino acid replacements I32V, V47I, and M76L increased the susceptibility of HIV-2 to multiple PI, but no single change conferred class-wide sensitivity. In contrast, clone PRΔ4 showed PI susceptibility equivalent to or greater than that of HIV-1 for all PI. We also compared crystallographic structures of wild-type HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteases complexed with amprenavir and darunavir to models of the PRΔ4 enzyme. These models suggest that the amprenavir sensitivity of PRΔ4 is attributable to stabilizing enzyme-inhibitor interactions in the P2 and P2′ pockets of the protease dimer. Together, our results show that the combination of four amino acid changes in HIV-2 protease confer a pattern of PI susceptibility comparable to that of HIV-1, providing a structural rationale for intrinsic HIV-2 PI resistance and resolving long-standing questions regarding the determinants of differential PI susceptibility in HIV-1 and HIV-2. IMPORTANCE Proteases are essential for retroviral replication, and HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteases share a great deal of structural similarity. However, only three of nine

  1. Purification and Characterization of Serine Proteases That Exhibit Caspase-Like Activity and Are Associated with Programmed Cell Death in Avena sativa

    PubMed Central

    Coffeen, Warren C.; Wolpert, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    Victoria blight of Avena sativa (oat) is caused by the fungus Cochliobolus victoriae, which is pathogenic because of the production of the toxin victorin. The victorin-induced response in sensitive A. sativa has been characterized as a form of programmed cell death (PCD) and displays morphological and biochemical features similar to apoptosis, including chromatin condensation, DNA laddering, cell shrinkage, altered mitochondrial function, and ordered, substrate-specific proteolytic events. Victorin-induced proteolysis of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is shown to be prevented by caspase-specific and general protease inhibitors. Evidence is presented for a signaling cascade leading to Rubisco proteolysis that involves multiple proteases. Furthermore, two proteases that are apparently involved in the Rubisco proteolytic cascade were purified and characterized. These proteases exhibit caspase specificity and display amino acid sequences homologous to plant subtilisin-like Ser proteases. The proteases are constitutively present in an active form and are relocalized to the extracellular fluid after induction of PCD by either victorin or heat shock. The role of the enzymes as processive proteases involved in a signal cascade during the PCD response is discussed. PMID:15020745

  2. Diversity of Both the Cultivable Protease-Producing Bacteria and Bacterial Extracellular Proteases in the Coastal Sediments of King George Island, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ming-Yang; Wang, Guang-Long; Li, Dan; Zhao, Dian-Li; Qin, Qi-Long; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Chen, Bo; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Protease-producing bacteria play a vital role in degrading sedimentary organic nitrogen. However, the diversity of these bacteria and their extracellular proteases in most regions remain unknown. In this paper, the diversity of the cultivable protease-producing bacteria and of bacterial extracellular proteases in the sediments of Maxwell Bay, King George Island, Antarctica was investigated. The cultivable protease-producing bacteria reached 105 cells/g in all 8 sediment samples. The cultivated protease-producing bacteria were mainly affiliated with the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria, and the predominant genera were Bacillus (22.9%), Flavobacterium (21.0%) and Lacinutrix (16.2%). Among these strains, Pseudoalteromonas and Flavobacteria showed relatively high protease production. Inhibitor analysis showed that nearly all the extracellular proteases from the bacteria were serine proteases or metalloproteases. These results begin to address the diversity of protease-producing bacteria and bacterial extracellular proteases in the sediments of the Antarctic Sea. PMID:24223990

  3. Initiating protease with modular domains interacts with β-glucan recognition protein to trigger innate immune response in insects.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Daisuke; Garcia, Brandon L; Kanost, Michael R

    2015-11-10

    The autoactivation of an initiating serine protease upon binding of pattern recognition proteins to pathogen surfaces is a crucial step in eliciting insect immune responses such as the activation of Toll and prophenoloxidase pathways. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for autoactivation of the initiating protease remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the molecular basis for the autoactivation of hemolymph protease 14 (HP14), an initiating protease in hemolymph of Manduca sexta, upon the binding of β-1,3-glucan by its recognition protein, βGRP2. Biochemical analysis using HP14 zymogen (proHP14), βGRP2, and the recombinant proteins as truncated forms showed that the amino-terminal modular low-density lipoprotein receptor class A (LA) domains within HP14 are required for proHP14 autoactivation that is stimulated by its interaction with βGRP2. Consistent with this result, recombinant LA domains inhibit the activation of proHP14 and prophenoloxidase, likely by competing with the interaction between βGRP2 and LA domains within proHP14. Using surface plasmon resonance, we demonstrated that immobilized LA domains directly interact with βGRP2 in a calcium-dependent manner and that high-affinity interaction requires the C-terminal glucanase-like domain of βGRP2. Importantly, the affinity of LA domains for βGRP2 increases nearly 100-fold in the presence of β-1,3-glucan. Taken together, these results present the first experimental evidence to our knowledge that LA domains of an insect modular protease and glucanase-like domains of a βGRP mediate their interaction, and that this binding is essential for the protease autoactivation. Thus, our study provides important insight into the molecular basis underlying the initiation of protease cascade in insect immune responses. PMID:26504233

  4. Initiating protease with modular domains interacts with β-glucan recognition protein to trigger innate immune response in insects

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Daisuke; Garcia, Brandon L.; Kanost, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    The autoactivation of an initiating serine protease upon binding of pattern recognition proteins to pathogen surfaces is a crucial step in eliciting insect immune responses such as the activation of Toll and prophenoloxidase pathways. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for autoactivation of the initiating protease remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the molecular basis for the autoactivation of hemolymph protease 14 (HP14), an initiating protease in hemolymph of Manduca sexta, upon the binding of β-1,3-glucan by its recognition protein, βGRP2. Biochemical analysis using HP14 zymogen (proHP14), βGRP2, and the recombinant proteins as truncated forms showed that the amino-terminal modular low-density lipoprotein receptor class A (LA) domains within HP14 are required for proHP14 autoactivation that is stimulated by its interaction with βGRP2. Consistent with this result, recombinant LA domains inhibit the activation of proHP14 and prophenoloxidase, likely by competing with the interaction between βGRP2 and LA domains within proHP14. Using surface plasmon resonance, we demonstrated that immobilized LA domains directly interact with βGRP2 in a calcium-dependent manner and that high-affinity interaction requires the C-terminal glucanase-like domain of βGRP2. Importantly, the affinity of LA domains for βGRP2 increases nearly 100-fold in the presence of β-1,3-glucan. Taken together, these results present the first experimental evidence to our knowledge that LA domains of an insect modular protease and glucanase-like domains of a βGRP mediate their interaction, and that this binding is essential for the protease autoactivation. Thus, our study provides important insight into the molecular basis underlying the initiation of protease cascade in insect immune responses. PMID:26504233

  5. Cysteine Protease Profiles of the Medicinal Plant Calotropis procera R. Br. revealed by de novo transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Chang Woo; Park, Kyung-Min; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl; Kweon, Dae-Hyuk; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Shin, Sang Woon; Je, Yeon Ho; Chang, Pahn-Shick

    2015-01-01

    Calotropis procera R. Br., a traditional medicinal plant in India, is a promising source of commercial proteases, because the cysteine proteases from the plant exhibit high thermo-stability, broad pH optima, and plasma-clotting activity. Though several proteases such as Procerain, Procerain B, CpCp-1, CpCp-2, and CpCp-3 have been isolated and characterized, the information of their transcripts is limited to cDNAs encoding their mature peptides. Due to this limitation, in this study, to determine the cDNA sequences encoding full open reading frame of these cysteine proteases, transcripts were sequenced with an Illumina Hiseq2000 sequencer. A total of 171,253,393 clean reads were assembled into 106,093 contigs with an average length of 1,614 bp and an N50 of 2,703 bp, and 70,797 contigs with an average length of 1,565 bp and N50 of 2,082 bp using Trinity and Velvet-Oases software, respectively. Among these contigs, we found 20 unigenes related to papain-like cysteine proteases by BLASTX analysis against a non-redundant NCBI protein database. Our expression analysis revealed that the cysteine protease contains an N-terminal pro-peptide domain (inhibitor region), which is necessary for correct folding and proteolytic activity. It was evident that expression yields using an inducible T7 expression system in Escherichia coli were considerably higher with the pro-peptide domain than without the domain, which could contribute to molecular cloning of the Calotropis procera protease as an active form with correct folding. PMID:25786229

  6. StAR enhances transcription of genes encoding the mitochondrial proteases involved in its own degradation.

    PubMed

    Bahat, Assaf; Perlberg, Shira; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Lauria, Ines; Langer, Thomas; Orly, Joseph

    2014-02-01

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is essential for steroid hormone synthesis in the adrenal cortex and the gonads. StAR activity facilitates the supply of cholesterol substrate into the inner mitochondrial membranes where conversion of the sterol to a steroid is catalyzed. Mitochondrial import terminates the cholesterol mobilization activity of StAR and leads to mounting accumulation of StAR in the mitochondrial matrix. Our studies suggest that to prevent mitochondrial impairment, StAR proteolysis is executed by at least 2 mitochondrial proteases, ie, the matrix LON protease and the inner membrane complexes of the metalloproteases AFG3L2 and AFG3L2:SPG7/paraplegin. Gonadotropin administration to prepubertal rats stimulated ovarian follicular development associated with increased expression of the mitochondrial protein quality control system. In addition, enrichment of LON and AFG3L2 is evident in StAR-expressing ovarian cells examined by confocal microscopy. Furthermore, reporter studies of the protease promoters examined in the heterologous cell model suggest that StAR expression stimulates up to a 3.5-fold increase in the protease gene transcription. Such effects are StAR-specific, are independent of StAR activity, and failed to occur upon expression of StAR mutants that do not enter the matrix. Taken together, the results of this study suggest the presence of a novel regulatory loop, whereby acute accumulation of an apparent nuisance protein in the matrix provokes a mitochondria to nucleus signaling that, in turn, activates selected transcription of genes encoding the enrichment of mitochondrial proteases relevant for enhanced clearance of StAR.

  7. A study on trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. protease inhibitory activity in Cassia tora (L.) syn Senna tora (L.) Roxb. seed extract

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    extract for 60 min. The inhibitory activity was evident in gelatin SDS-PAGE where a major band (~17-19 kD) of protease inhibitor (PI) was detected in dialyzed and SEC elute. The conidial germination of Aspergillus flavus was moderately inhibited (30%) by the dialyzed seed extract. Conclusions Cassia tora seed extract has strong protease inhibitory activity against trypsin, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus sp. proteases. The inhibitor in Cassia tora may attenuate microbial proteases and also might be used as phytoprotecting agent. PMID:21749682

  8. Expression, purification and identification of a thermolysin-like protease, neutral protease I, from Aspergillus oryzae with the Pichia pastoris expression system.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaojian; Liu, Yunyun; Li, Qingqing; Liu, Lu; Yi, Li; Ma, Lixin; Zhai, Chao

    2016-12-01

    Neutral proteases are widely used in the textile, food and medical industries. This study was designed to obtain high expression levels of neutral protease I from Aspergillus oryzae 3.042 by using Pichia pastoris GS115 as the host strain for industrial purposes. The coding sequence of the target gene was modified, synthesized, and then cloned into the expression vector pHBM905BDM, which harbored the d1+2 × 201 AOX1 promoter and the MF4I leader sequence. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into Pichia pastoris GS115. The recombinant strain was used for high-density fermentation in a 4-L fermenter. The yield of the target protein reached 12.87 mg/mL, and the enzyme activity was approximately 49370 U/mL, which indicated that this enzyme was expressed in Pichia pastoris at a high level. The target protein was purified and characterized. Its optimum temperature and pH were 55 °C and 8.0, respectively. This enzyme was extremely sensitive to EDTA, which is consistent with the previous reports that it is a zinc-dependent metalloprotease. Our results indicated that low concentrations of zinc, calcium and magnesium ions stimulated the enzyme activity, whereas high concentrations inhibited its activity. In addition, calcium and magnesium ions increased the thermostability of the enzyme. All of the evidence indicated that this protease is a thermolysin-like peptidase. PMID:27539551

  9. Economic Methods of Ginger Protease'sextraction and Purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Yuanyuan; Tong, Junfeng; Wei, Siqing; Du, Xinyong; Tang, Xiaozhen

    This article reports the ginger protease extraction and purification methods from fresh ginger rhizome. As to ginger protease extraction, we adapt the steps of organic solvent dissolving, ammonium sulfate depositing and freeze-drying, and this method can attain crude enzyme powder 0.6% weight of fresh ginger rhizome. The purification part in this study includes two steps: cellulose ion exchange (DEAE-52) and SP-Sephadex 50 chromatography, which can purify crude ginger protease through ion and molecular weight differences respectively.

  10. A preliminary neutron diffraction analysis of Achromobacter protease I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Yuki; Masaki, Takeharu; Yamada, Taro; Kurihara, Kazuo; Tanaka, Ichiro; Niimura, Nobuo

    2010-11-01

    Achromobacter protease I (API, E.C. 3.4.21.50) is one of the serine proteases produced by Achromobacter lyticus M497-1. API is distinct from the other tripsin type protease in its lysine specificity. The neutron structure analysis of catalytic triad with Trp169 and His210 was presented. His57 was double protonated and formed hydrogen bonds to Ser194Oγ and Asp113Oδ1, Oδ2.

  11. Role of Protease-Inhibitors in Ocular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Pescosolido, Nicola; Barbato, Andrea; Pascarella, Antonia; Giannotti, Rossella; Genzano, Martina; Nebbioso, Marcella

    2014-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the balance between proteases and protease-inhibitors system plays a key role in maintaining cellular and tissue homeostasis. Indeed, its alteration has been involved in many ocular and systemic diseases. In particular, research has focused on keratoconus, corneal wounds and ulcers, keratitis, endophthalmitis, age-related macular degeneration, Sorsby fundus dystrophy, loss of nerve cells and photoreceptors during optic neuritis both in vivo and in vitro models. Protease-inhibitors have been extensively studied, rather than proteases, because they may represent a therapeutic approach for some ocular diseases. The protease-inhibitors mainly involved in the onset of the above-mentioned ocular pathologies are: α2-macroglobulin, α1-proteinase inhibitor (α1-PI), metalloproteinase inhibitor (TIMP), maspin, SERPINA3K, SERPINB13, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and calpeptin. This review is focused on the several characteristics of dysregulation of this system and, particularly, on a possible role of proteases and protease-inhibitors in molecular remodeling that may lead to some ocular diseases. Recently, researchers have even hypothesized a possible therapeutic effect of the protease-inhibitors in the treatment of injured eye in animal models. PMID:25493637

  12. Role of Protease-Inhibitors in Ocular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Pescosolido, Nicola; Barbato, Andrea; Pascarella, Antonia; Giannotti, Rossella; Genzano, Martina; Nebbioso, Marcella

    2014-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the balance between proteases and protease-inhibitors system plays a key role in maintaining cellular and tissue homeostasis. Indeed, its alteration has been involved in many ocular and systemic diseases. In particular, research has focused on keratoconus, corneal wounds and ulcers, keratitis, endophthalmitis, age-related macular degeneration, Sorsby fundus dystrophy, loss of nerve cells and photoreceptors during optic neuritis both in vivo and in vitro models. Protease-inhibitors have been extensively studied, rather than proteases, because they may represent a therapeutic approach for some ocular diseases. The protease-inhibitors mainly involved in the onset of the above-mentioned ocular pathologies are: α2-macroglobulin, α1-proteinase inhibitor (α1-PI), metalloproteinase inhibitor (TIMP), maspin, SERPINA3K, SERPINB13, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and calpeptin. This review is focused on the several characteristics of dysregulation of this system and, particularly, on a possible role of proteases and protease-inhibitors in molecular remodeling that may lead to some ocular diseases. Recently, researchers have even hypothesized a possible therapeutic effect of the protease-inhibitors in the treatment of injured eye in animal models.

  13. Detergent alkaline proteases: enzymatic properties, genes, and crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Katsuhisa; Ozaki, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Tohru; Ito, Susumu

    2007-06-01

    Subtilisin-like serine proteases from bacilli have been used in various industrial fields worldwide, particularly in the production of laundry and automatic dishwashing detergents. They belong to family A of the subtilase superfamily, which is composed of three clans, namely, true subtilisins, high-alkaline proteases, and intracellular proteases. We succeeded in the large-scale production of a high-alkaline protease (M-protease) from alkaliphilic Bacillus clausii KSM-K16, and the enzyme has been introduced into compact heavy-duty laundry detergents. We have also succeeded in the industrial-scale production of a new alkaline protease, KP-43, which was originally resistant to chemical oxidants and to surfactants, produced by alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. strain KSM-KP43 and have incorporated it into laundry detergents. KP-43 and related proteases form a new clan, oxidatively stable proteases, in subtilase family A. In this review, we describe the enzymatic properties, gene sequences, and crystal structures of M-protease, KP-43, and related enzymes. PMID:17630120

  14. Intracellular alkaline proteases produced by thermoacidophiles: detection of protease heterogeneity by gelatin zymography and polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    PubMed

    Kocabiyik, Semra; Erdem, Bilge

    2002-08-01

    In this study 24 thermoacidophilic archeal and bacterial strains isolated from hot-springs and hot-soils were screened for their ability to produce intracellular alkaline proteases. The protease activities of the strains, based on azocasein hydrolysis, showed a variation from 0.6 to 5.1 U. The cell extracts of three most potent producers were further examined and it was found that their proteases exhibited maximum activity at 60-70 degrees C and showed a pH optimum over a range of pH 7.0-8.5. Gelatin zymography revealed that two of the selected archeal strains produced multiple active SDS-resistant proteases. On the other hand, PCR amplification of alkaline serine protease gene sequences of total DNA from all isolates yielded four distinct amplification fragments of 650, 450, 400 and 300 bp, which might have been derived from different serine protease genes.

  15. HvPap-1 C1A protease actively participates in barley proteolysis mediated by abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Arroyo, Blanca; Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Gandullo, Jacinto; Gonzalez-Melendi, Pablo; Santamaria, M Estrella; Dominguez-Figueroa, Jose D; Hensel, Goetz; Martinez, Manuel; Kumlehn, Jochen; Diaz, Isabel

    2016-07-01

    Protein breakdown and mobilization from old or stressed tissues to growing and sink organs are some of the metabolic features associated with abiotic/biotic stresses, essential for nutrient recycling. The massive degradation of proteins implies numerous proteolytic events in which cysteine-proteases are the most abundant key players. Analysing the role of barley C1A proteases in response to abiotic stresses is crucial due to their impact on plant growth and grain yield and quality. In this study, dark and nitrogen starvation treatments were selected to induce stress in barley. Results show that C1A proteases participate in the proteolytic processes triggered in leaves by both abiotic treatments, which strongly induce the expression of the HvPap-1 gene encoding a cathepsin F-like protease. Differences in biochemical parameters and C1A gene expression were found when comparing transgenic barley plants overexpressing or silencing the HvPap-1 gene and wild-type dark-treated leaves. These findings associated with morphological changes evidence a lifespan-delayed phenotype of HvPap-1 silenced lines. All these data elucidate on the role of this protease family in response to abiotic stresses and the potential of their biotechnological manipulation to control the timing of plant growth. PMID:27217548

  16. Production and characterization of thermostable alkaline protease of Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633) from optimized solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Joyee; Giri, Sudipta; Maity, Sujan; Sinha, Ankan; Ranjan, Ashish; Rajshekhar; Gupta, Suvroma

    2015-01-01

    Proteases are the most important group of enzymes utilized commercially in various arenas of industries, such as food, detergent, leather, dairy, pharmaceutical, diagnostics, and waste management, accounting for nearly 20% of the world enzyme market. Microorganisms of specially Bacillus genera serve as a vast repository of diverse set of industrially important enzymes and utilized for the large-scale enzyme production using a fermentation technology. Approximately 30%-40% of the cost of industrial enzymes originates from the cost of the growth medium. This study is attempted to produce protease from Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633) after optimization of various process parameters with the aid of solid-state fermentation using a cheap nutrient source such as wheat bran. B. subtilis (ATCC 6633) produces proteases of molecular weight 36 and 20 kDa, respectively, in the fermented medium as evident from SDS zymogram. Alkaline protease activity has been detected with optimum temperature at 50 °C and is insensitive to ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. This thermostable alkaline protease exhibits dual pH optimum at 7 and 10 with moderate pH stability at alkaline pH range. It preserves its activity in the presence of detergent such as SDS, Tween 20, and Triton X-100 and may be considered as an effective additive to detergent formulation with some industrial importance.

  17. Molecular characterization of protease activity in Serratia sp. strain SCBI and its importance in cytotoxicity and virulence.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Lauren M; Tisa, Louis S

    2014-11-01

    A newly recognized Serratia species, termed South African Caenorhabditis briggsae isolate (SCBI), is both a mutualist of the nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae KT0001 and a pathogen of lepidopteran insects. Serratia sp. strain SCBI displays high proteolytic activity, and because secreted proteases are known virulence factors for many pathogens, the purpose of this study was to identify genes essential for extracellular protease activity in Serratia sp. strain SCBI and to determine what role proteases play in insect pathogenesis and cytotoxicity. A bank of 2,100 transposon mutants was generated, and six SCBI mutants with defective proteolytic activity were identified. These mutants were also defective in cytotoxicity. The mutants were found defective in genes encoding the following proteins: alkaline metalloprotease secretion protein AprE, a BglB family transcriptional antiterminator, an inosine/xanthosine triphosphatase, GidA, a methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein, and a PIN domain protein. Gene expression analysis on these six mutants showed significant downregulation in mRNA levels of several different types of predicted protease genes. In addition, transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis provided insight into how inactivation of AprE, GidA, and a PIN domain protein influences motility and virulence, as well as protease activity. Using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) to further characterize expression of predicted protease genes in wild-type Serratia sp. SCBI, the highest mRNA levels for the alkaline metalloprotease genes (termed prtA1 to prtA4) occurred following the death of an insect host, while two serine protease and two metalloprotease genes had their highest mRNA levels during active infection. Overall, these results indicate that proteolytic activity is essential for cytotoxicity in Serratia sp. SCBI and that its regulation appears to be highly complex.

  18. Molecular Characterization of Protease Activity in Serratia sp. Strain SCBI and Its Importance in Cytotoxicity and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Lauren M.

    2014-01-01

    A newly recognized Serratia species, termed South African Caenorhabditis briggsae isolate (SCBI), is both a mutualist of the nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae KT0001 and a pathogen of lepidopteran insects. Serratia sp. strain SCBI displays high proteolytic activity, and because secreted proteases are known virulence factors for many pathogens, the purpose of this study was to identify genes essential for extracellular protease activity in Serratia sp. strain SCBI and to determine what role proteases play in insect pathogenesis and cytotoxicity. A bank of 2,100 transposon mutants was generated, and six SCBI mutants with defective proteolytic activity were identified. These mutants were also defective in cytotoxicity. The mutants were found defective in genes encoding the following proteins: alkaline metalloprotease secretion protein AprE, a BglB family transcriptional antiterminator, an inosine/xanthosine triphosphatase, GidA, a methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein, and a PIN domain protein. Gene expression analysis on these six mutants showed significant downregulation in mRNA levels of several different types of predicted protease genes. In addition, transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis provided insight into how inactivation of AprE, GidA, and a PIN domain protein influences motility and virulence, as well as protease activity. Using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) to further characterize expression of predicted protease genes in wild-type Serratia sp. SCBI, the highest mRNA levels for the alkaline metalloprotease genes (termed prtA1 to prtA4) occurred following the death of an insect host, while two serine protease and two metalloprotease genes had their highest mRNA levels during active infection. Overall, these results indicate that proteolytic activity is essential for cytotoxicity in Serratia sp. SCBI and that its regulation appears to be highly complex. PMID:25182493

  19. Origin and Diversification of Meprin Proteases.

    PubMed

    Marín, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Meprins are astacin metalloproteases with a characteristic, easily recognizable structure, given that they are the only proteases with both MAM and MATH domains plus a transmembrane region. So far assumed to be vertebrate-specific, it is shown here, using a combination of evolutionary and genomic analyses, that meprins originated before the urochordates/vertebrates split. In particular, three genes encoding structurally typical meprin proteins are arranged in tandem in the genome of the urochordate Ciona intestinalis. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the protease and MATH domains present in the meprin-like proteins encoded by the Ciona genes are very similar in sequence to the domains found in vertebrate meprins, which supports them having a common origin. While many vertebrates have the two canonical meprin-encoding genes orthologous to human MEP1A and MEP1B (which respectively encode for the proteins known as meprin α and meprin β), a single gene has been found so far in the genome of the chondrichthyan fish Callorhinchus milii, and additional meprin-encoding genes are present in some species. Particularly, a group of bony fish species have genes encoding highly divergent meprins, here named meprin-F. Genes encoding meprin-F proteins, derived from MEP1B genes, are abundant in some species, as the Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa, which has 7 of them. Finally, it is confirmed that the MATH domains of meprins are very similar to the ones in TRAF ubiquitin ligases, which suggests that meprins originated when protease and TRAF E3-encoding sequences were combined. PMID:26288188

  20. Purification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteases and microscopic characterization of pseudomonal protease-induced rabbit corneal damage.

    PubMed Central

    Kreger, A S; Gray, L D

    1978-01-01

    Extracellular proteases of three cornea-virulent strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated by sequential ammonium sulfate precipitation, Ultrogel AcA 54 gel filtration, and flat-bed isoelectric focusing. The purity of the preparations was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis , thin-layer isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gel, immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoretic procedures, and tests for the presence of other known pseudomonal products. Light and electron microscopic examination of rabbit corneal lesions observed 4 to 6 h after the intracorneal injection of submicrogram amounts of the proteases revealed: (i) degeneration and necrosis of epithelium, endothelium, and keratocytes, (ii) infiltration, degeneration, and necrosis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, (iii) loss of the characteristic weblike pattern, colloidal iron staining, and ruthenium red staining of the stromal proteoglycan ground substance, (iv) dispersal of strucutrally normal appearing collagen fibrils, ground substance, (iv) dispersal of structurally normal appearing collagen fibrils, and (v) accumulation of plasma proteins and fibrin in the necrotic corneas. These structural alterations are very similar to those observed previously during experimental P. aeruginosa keratitis, and this similarity supports the idea that pseudomonal proteases are responsible, at least in part, for the rapid and extensive liquefaction necrosis characteristic of pseudomonal-induced keratitis. In addition, the results support the idea that pseudomonal proteases elicit severe corneal damage by causing the loss of the corneal proteoglycan ground substance, thus resulting in dispersal of undamaged collagen fibrils, weakening of the corneal stroma, and subsequent descemetocele formation and corneal perforation by the anterior chamber pressure. Images PMID:415981

  1. Structure of protease-cleaved Escherichia coli α-2-macroglobulin reveals a putative mechanism of conformational activation for protease entrapment

    SciTech Connect

    Fyfe, Cameron D.; Grinter, Rhys; Josts, Inokentijs; Mosbahi, Khedidja; Roszak, Aleksander W.; Cogdell, Richard J.; Wall, Daniel M.; Burchmore, Richard J. S.; Byron, Olwyn; Walker, Daniel

    2015-06-30

    The X-ray structure of protease-cleaved E. coli α-2-macroglobulin is described, which reveals a putative mechanism of activation and conformational change essential for protease inhibition. Bacterial α-2-macroglobulins have been suggested to function in defence as broad-spectrum inhibitors of host proteases that breach the outer membrane. Here, the X-ray structure of protease-cleaved Escherichia coli α-2-macroglobulin is described, which reveals a putative mechanism of activation and conformational change essential for protease inhibition. In this competitive mechanism, protease cleavage of the bait-region domain results in the untethering of an intrinsically disordered region of this domain which disrupts native interdomain interactions that maintain E. coli α-2-macroglobulin in the inactivated form. The resulting global conformational change results in entrapment of the protease and activation of the thioester bond that covalently links to the attacking protease. Owing to the similarity in structure and domain architecture of Escherichia coli α-2-macroglobulin and human α-2-macroglobulin, this protease-activation mechanism is likely to operate across the diverse members of this group.

  2. Comparative genomic analysis of aspartic proteases in eight parasitic platyhelminths: insights into functions and evolution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Wei, Wei; Luo, Xuenong; Wang, Sen; Hu, Songnian; Cai, Xuepeng

    2015-03-15

    We performed genome-wide identifications and comparative genomic analyses of the predicted aspartic proteases (APs) from eight parasitic flatworms, focusing on their evolution, potentials as drug targets and expression patterns. The results revealed that: i) More members of family A01 were identified from the schistosomes than from the cestodes; some evidence implied gene loss events along the class Cestoda, which may be related to the different ways to ingest host nutrition; ii) members in family A22 were evolutionarily highly conserved among all the parasites; iii) one retroviral-like AP in family A28 shared a highly similar predicted 3D structure with the HIV protease, implying its potential to be inhibited by HIV inhibitor-like molecules; and iiii) retrotransposon-associated APs were extensively expanded among these parasites. These results implied that the evolutionary histories of some APs in these parasites might relate to adaptations to their parasitism and some APs might have potential serving as intervention targets.

  3. Rigidity analysis of HIV-1 protease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heal, J. W.; Wells, S. A.; Jimenez-Roldan, E.; Freedman, R. F.; Römer, R. A.

    2011-03-01

    We present a rigidity analysis on a large number of X-ray crystal structures of the enzyme HIV-1 protease using the 'pebble game' algorithm of the software FIRST. We find that although the rigidity profile remains similar across a comprehensive set of high resolution structures, the profile changes significantly in the presence of an inhibitor. Our study shows that the action of the inhibitors is to restrict the flexibility of the β-hairpin flaps which allow access to the active site. The results are discussed in the context of full molecular dynamics simulations as well as data from NMR experiments.

  4. Endogenous Protease Activation of ENaC

    PubMed Central

    Adebamiro, Adedotun; Cheng, Yi; Johnson, John P.; Bridges, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Endogenous serine proteases have been reported to control the reabsorption of Na+ by kidney- and lung-derived epithelial cells via stimulation of electrogenic Na+ transport mediated by the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC). In this study we investigated the effects of aprotinin on ENaC single channel properties using transepithelial fluctuation analysis in the amphibian kidney epithelium, A6. Aprotinin caused a time- and concentration-dependent inhibition (84 ± 10.5%) in the amiloride-sensitive sodium transport (INa) with a time constant of 18 min and half maximal inhibition constant of 1 μM. Analysis of amiloride analogue blocker–induced fluctuations in INa showed linear rate–concentration plots with identical blocker on and off rates in control and aprotinin-inhibited conditions. Verification of open-block kinetics allowed for the use of a pulse protocol method (Helman, S.I., X. Liu, K. Baldwin, B.L. Blazer-Yost, and W.J. Els. 1998. Am. J. Physiol. 274:C947–C957) to study the same cells under different conditions as well as the reversibility of the aprotinin effect on single channel properties. Aprotinin caused reversible changes in all three single channel properties but only the change in the number of open channels was consistent with the inhibition of INa. A 50% decrease in INa was accompanied by 50% increases in the single channel current and open probability but an 80% decrease in the number of open channels. Washout of aprotinin led to a time-dependent restoration of INa as well as the single channel properties to the control, pre-aprotinin, values. We conclude that protease regulation of INa is mediated by changes in the number of open channels in the apical membrane. The increase in the single channel current caused by protease inhibition can be explained by a hyperpolarization of the apical membrane potential as active Na+ channels are retrieved. The paradoxical increase in channel open probability caused by protease inhibition will require further

  5. Construction of dengue virus protease expression plasmid and in vitro protease assay for screening antiviral inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lai, Huiguo; Teramoto, Tadahisa; Padmanabhan, Radhakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus serotypes 1-4 (DENV1-4) are mosquito-borne human pathogens of global significance causing ~390 million cases annually worldwide. The virus infections cause in general a self-limiting disease, known as dengue fever, but occasionally also more severe forms, especially during secondary infections, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome causing ~25,000 deaths annually. The DENV genome contains a single-strand positive sense RNA, approximately 11 kb in length. The 5'-end has a type I cap structure. The 3'-end has no poly(A) tail. The viral RNA has a single long open reading frame that is translated by the host translational machinery to yield a polyprotein precursor. Processing of the polyprotein precursor occurs co-translationally by cellular proteases and posttranslationally by the viral serine protease in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to yield three structural proteins (capsid (C), precursor membrane (prM), and envelope (E) and seven nonstructural (NS) proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, and NS5). The active viral protease consists of both NS2B, an integral membrane protein in the ER, and the N-terminal part of NS3 (180 amino acid residues) that contains the trypsin-like serine protease domain having a catalytic triad of H51, D75, and S135. The C-terminal part of NS3, ~170-618 amino acid residues, encodes an NTPase/RNA helicase and 5'-RNA triphosphatase activities; the latter enzyme is required for the first step in 5'-capping. The cleavage sites of the polyprotein by the viral protease consist of two basic amino acid residues such as KR, RR, or QR, followed by short chain amino acid residues, G, S, or T. Since the cleavage of the polyprotein by the viral protease is absolutely required for assembly of the viral replicase, blockage of NS2B/NS3pro activity provides an effective means for designing dengue virus (DENV) small-molecule therapeutics. Here we describe the screening of small-molecule inhibitors against DENV2 protease. PMID

  6. Structural and functional analysis of human HtrA3 protease and its subdomains

    SciTech Connect

    Glaza, Przemyslaw; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Wenta, Tomasz; Zurawa-Janicka, Dorota; Jarzab, Miroslaw; Lesner, Adam; Banecki, Bogdan; Skorko-Glonek, Joanna; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Lipinska, Barbara; van Raaij, Mark J.

    2015-06-25

    Human HtrA3 protease, which induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, can be a tumor suppressor and a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of cancer. However, there is little information about its structure and biochemical properties. HtrA3 is composed of an N-terminal domain not required for proteolytic activity, a central serine protease domain and a C-terminal PDZ domain. HtrA3S, its short natural isoform, lacks the PDZ domain which is substituted by a stretch of 7 C-terminal amino acid residues, unique for this isoform. This paper presents the crystal structure of the HtrA3 protease domain together with the PDZ domain (ΔN-HtrA3), showing that the protein forms a trimer whose protease domains are similar to those of human HtrA1 and HtrA2. The ΔN-HtrA3 PDZ domains are placed in a position intermediate between that in the flat saucer-like HtrA1 SAXS structure and the compact pyramidal HtrA2 X-ray structure. The PDZ domain interacts closely with the LB loop of the protease domain in a way not found in other human HtrAs. ΔN-HtrA3 with the PDZ removed (ΔN-HtrA3-ΔPDZ) and an N-terminally truncated HtrA3S (ΔN-HtrA3S) were fully active at a wide range of temperatures and their substrate affinity was not impaired. This indicates that the PDZ domain is dispensable for HtrA3 activity. As determined by size exclusion chromatography, ΔN-HtrA3 formed stable trimers while both ΔN-HtrA3-ΔPDZ and ΔN-HtrA3S were monomeric. This suggests that the presence of the PDZ domain, unlike in HtrA1 and HtrA2, influences HtrA3 trimer formation. The unique C-terminal sequence of ΔN-HtrA3S appeared to have little effect on activity and oligomerization. Additionally, we examined the cleavage specificity of ΔN-HtrA3. Results reported in this paper provide new insights into the structure and function of ΔN-HtrA3, which seems to have a unique combination of features among human HtrA proteases.

  7. Structural and Functional Analysis of Human HtrA3 Protease and Its Subdomains

    PubMed Central

    Glaza, Przemyslaw; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Wenta, Tomasz; Zurawa-Janicka, Dorota; Jarzab, Miroslaw; Lesner, Adam; Banecki, Bogdan; Skorko-Glonek, Joanna; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Lipinska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Human HtrA3 protease, which induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, can be a tumor suppressor and a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of cancer. However, there is little information about its structure and biochemical properties. HtrA3 is composed of an N-terminal domain not required for proteolytic activity, a central serine protease domain and a C-terminal PDZ domain. HtrA3S, its short natural isoform, lacks the PDZ domain which is substituted by a stretch of 7 C-terminal amino acid residues, unique for this isoform. This paper presents the crystal structure of the HtrA3 protease domain together with the PDZ domain (ΔN-HtrA3), showing that the protein forms a trimer whose protease domains are similar to those of human HtrA1 and HtrA2. The ΔN-HtrA3 PDZ domains are placed in a position intermediate between that in the flat saucer-like HtrA1 SAXS structure and the compact pyramidal HtrA2 X-ray structure. The PDZ domain interacts closely with the LB loop of the protease domain in a way not found in other human HtrAs. ΔN-HtrA3 with the PDZ removed (ΔN-HtrA3-ΔPDZ) and an N-terminally truncated HtrA3S (ΔN-HtrA3S) were fully active at a wide range of temperatures and their substrate affinity was not impaired. This indicates that the PDZ domain is dispensable for HtrA3 activity. As determined by size exclusion chromatography, ΔN-HtrA3 formed stable trimers while both ΔN-HtrA3-ΔPDZ and ΔN-HtrA3S were monomeric. This suggests that the presence of the PDZ domain, unlike in HtrA1 and HtrA2, influences HtrA3 trimer formation. The unique C-terminal sequence of ΔN-HtrA3S appeared to have little effect on activity and oligomerization. Additionally, we examined the cleavage specificity of ΔN-HtrA3. Results reported in this paper provide new insights into the structure and function of ΔN-HtrA3, which seems to have a unique combination of features among human HtrA proteases. PMID:26110759

  8. Structural and functional analysis of human HtrA3 protease and its subdomains

    DOE PAGES

    Glaza, Przemyslaw; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Wenta, Tomasz; Zurawa-Janicka, Dorota; Jarzab, Miroslaw; Lesner, Adam; Banecki, Bogdan; Skorko-Glonek, Joanna; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Lipinska, Barbara; et al

    2015-06-25

    Human HtrA3 protease, which induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, can be a tumor suppressor and a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of cancer. However, there is little information about its structure and biochemical properties. HtrA3 is composed of an N-terminal domain not required for proteolytic activity, a central serine protease domain and a C-terminal PDZ domain. HtrA3S, its short natural isoform, lacks the PDZ domain which is substituted by a stretch of 7 C-terminal amino acid residues, unique for this isoform. This paper presents the crystal structure of the HtrA3 protease domain together with the PDZ domain (ΔN-HtrA3), showing that themore » protein forms a trimer whose protease domains are similar to those of human HtrA1 and HtrA2. The ΔN-HtrA3 PDZ domains are placed in a position intermediate between that in the flat saucer-like HtrA1 SAXS structure and the compact pyramidal HtrA2 X-ray structure. The PDZ domain interacts closely with the LB loop of the protease domain in a way not found in other human HtrAs. ΔN-HtrA3 with the PDZ removed (ΔN-HtrA3-ΔPDZ) and an N-terminally truncated HtrA3S (ΔN-HtrA3S) were fully active at a wide range of temperatures and their substrate affinity was not impaired. This indicates that the PDZ domain is dispensable for HtrA3 activity. As determined by size exclusion chromatography, ΔN-HtrA3 formed stable trimers while both ΔN-HtrA3-ΔPDZ and ΔN-HtrA3S were monomeric. This suggests that the presence of the PDZ domain, unlike in HtrA1 and HtrA2, influences HtrA3 trimer formation. The unique C-terminal sequence of ΔN-HtrA3S appeared to have little effect on activity and oligomerization. Additionally, we examined the cleavage specificity of ΔN-HtrA3. Results reported in this paper provide new insights into the structure and function of ΔN-HtrA3, which seems to have a unique combination of features among human HtrA proteases.« less

  9. Evidence for a novel mechanism for gene amplification in multiple myeloma: 1q12 pericentromeric heterochromatin mediates breakage-fusion-bridge cycles of a 1q12 approximately 23 amplicon.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Jeffrey R; Tian, Erming; Thomas, Edward; Koller, Mark; Stangeby, Colin; Sammartino, Gael; Goosen, Linda; Swanson, Charles; Binz, Regina L; Barlogie, Bart; Shaughnessy, John

    2009-11-01

    Gene amplification is defined as a copy number (CN) increase in a restricted region of a chromosome arm, and is a mechanism for acquired drug resistance and oncogene activation. In multiple myeloma (MM), high CNs of genes in a 1q12 approximately 23 amplicon have been associated with disease progression and poor prognosis. To investigate the mechanisms for gene amplification in this region in MM, we performed a comprehensive metaphase analysis combining G-banding, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and spectral karyotyping in 67 patients with gain of 1q. In six patients (9%), evidence for at least one breakage-fusion-bridge (BFB) cycle was found. In three patients (4%), extended ladders of 1q12 approximately 23 amplicons were identified. Several key structures that are predicted intermediates in BFB cycles were observed, including: equal-spaced organization of amplicons, inverted repeat organization of amplicons along the same chromosome arm, and deletion of sequences distal to the amplified region. The 1q12 pericentromeric heterochromatin region served as both a recurrent breakpoint as well as a fusion point for sister chromatids, and ultimately bracketed both the proximal and distal boundaries of the amplicon. Our findings provide evidence for a novel BFB mechanism involving 1q12 pericentromeric breakage in the amplification of a large number of genes within a 1q12 approximately 23 amplicon.

  10. Burden of Diabetes and First Evidence for the Utility of HbA1c for Diagnosis and Detection of Diabetes in Urban Black South Africans: The Durban Diabetes Study

    PubMed Central

    Hird, Thomas R.; Pirie, Fraser J.; Esterhuizen, Tonya M.; O’Leary, Brian; McCarthy, Mark I.; Young, Elizabeth H.; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Motala, Ayesha A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is recommended as an additional tool to glucose-based measures (fasting plasma glucose [FPG] and 2-hour plasma glucose [2PG] during oral glucose tolerance test [OGTT]) for the diagnosis of diabetes; however, its use in sub-Saharan African populations is not established. We assessed prevalence estimates and the diagnosis and detection of diabetes based on OGTT, FPG, and HbA1c in an urban black South African population. Research Design and Methods We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey using multistage cluster sampling of adults aged ≥18 years in Durban (eThekwini municipality), KwaZulu-Natal. All participants had a 75-g OGTT and HbA1c measurements. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the overall diagnostic accuracy of HbA1c, using OGTT as the reference, and to determine optimal HbA1c cut-offs. Results Among 1190 participants (851 women, 92.6% response rate), the age-standardised prevalence of diabetes was 12.9% based on OGTT, 11.9% based on FPG, and 13.1% based on HbA1c. In participants without a previous history of diabetes (n = 1077), using OGTT as the reference, an HbA1c ≥48 mmol/mol (6.5%) detected diabetes with 70.3% sensitivity (95%CI 52.7–87.8) and 98.7% specificity (95%CI 97.9–99.4) (AUC 0.94 [95%CI 0.89–1.00]). Additional analyses suggested the optimal HbA1c cut-off for detection of diabetes in this population was 42 mmol/mol (6.0%) (sensitivity 89.2% [95%CI 78.6–99.8], specificity 92.0% [95%CI: 90.3–93.7]). Conclusions In an urban black South African population, we found a high prevalence of diabetes and provide the first evidence for the utility of HbA1c for the diagnosis and detection of diabetes in black Africans in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27560687

  11. The metal binding site of the hepatitis C virus NS3 protease. A spectroscopic investigation.

    PubMed

    Urbani, A; Bazzo, R; Nardi, M C; Cicero, D O; De Francesco, R; Steinkühler, C; Barbato, G

    1998-07-24

    The NS3 region of the hepatitis C virus encodes for a serine protease activity, which is necessary for the processing of the nonstructural region of the viral polyprotein. The minimal domain with proteolytic activity resides in the N terminus, where a structural tetradentate zinc binding site is located. The ligands being been identified by x-ray crystallography as being three cysteines (Cys97, Cys99, and Cys145) and one histidine residue (His149), which is postulated to coordinate the metal through a water molecule. In this article, we present an analysis of the role of metal coordination with respect to enzyme activity and folding. Using NMR spectroscopy, the resonances of His149 were assigned based on their isotropic shift in a Co(II)-substituted protein. Data obtained with 15N-labeled NS3 protease were compatible with the involvement of the delta-N of His149 in metal coordination. pH titration experiments showed that the cooperative association of at least two protons is required in the protonation process of His149. Changes in the NMR signals of this residue between pH 7 and 5 are interpreted as evidence for a structural change at the metal binding site, which switches from a "closed" to an "open" conformation. Site-directed mutagenesis of His149 has shown the importance of this residue in the metal incorporation pathway and for achieving an active fold. The metal coordination of the protease was also investigated by circular dichroism and electronic absorption spectroscopies using a Co(II)-substituted enzyme. We show evidence for rearrangements of the metal coordination geometry induced by complex formation with an NS4A peptide cofactor. No such changes were observed upon binding to a substrate peptide. Also, CN- and N3- induced Co(II) ligand field perturbations, which went along with an 1.5-fold enhancement of protease activity.

  12. A comparison of the binding of secretory component to immunoglobulin A (IgA) in human colostral S-IgA1 and S-IgA2.

    PubMed

    Almogren, Adel; Senior, Bernard W; Kerr, Michael A

    2007-02-01

    A detailed investigation of the binding of secretory component to immunoglobulin A (IgA) in human secretory IgA2 (S-IgA2) was made possible by the development of a new method of purifying S-IgA1, S-IgA2 and free secretory component from human colostrum using thiophilic gel chromatography and chromatography on Jacalin-agarose. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of unreduced pure S-IgA2 revealed that, unlike in S-IgA1, a significant proportion of the secretory component was bound non-covalently in S-IgA2. When S-IgA1 was incubated with a protease purified from Proteus mirabilis the secretory component, but not the alpha-chain, was cleaved. This is in contrast to serum IgA1, in which the alpha-chain was cleaved under the same conditions - direct evidence that secretory component does protect the alpha-chain from proteolytic cleavage in S-IgA. Comparisons between the products of cleavage with P. mirabilis protease of free secretory component and bound secretory component in S-IgA1 and S-IgA2 also indicated that, contrary to the general assumption, the binding of secretory component to IgA is different in S-IgA2 from that in S-IgA1.

  13. Sequence conservation, phylogenetic relationships, and expression profiles of nondigestive serine proteases and serine protease homologs in Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaolong; He, Yan; Hu, Yingxia; Zhang, Xiufeng; Wang, Yang; Zou, Zhen; Chen, Yunru; Blissard, Gary W; Kanost, Michael R; Jiang, Haobo

    2015-07-01

    Serine protease (SP) and serine protease homolog (SPH) genes in insects encode a large family of proteins involved in digestion, development, immunity, and other processes. While 68 digestive SPs and their close homologs are reported in a companion paper (Kuwar et al., in preparation), we have identified 125 other SPs/SPHs in Manduca sexta and studied their structure, evolution, and expression. Fifty-two of them contain cystine-stabilized structures for molecular recognition, including clip, LDLa, Sushi, Wonton, TSP, CUB, Frizzle, and SR domains. There are nineteen groups of genes evolved from relatively recent gene duplication and sequence divergence. Thirty-five SPs and seven SPHs contain 1, 2 or 5 clip domains. Multiple sequence alignment and molecular modeling of the 54 clip domains have revealed structural diversity of these regulatory modules. Sequence comparison with their homologs in Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae and Tribolium castaneum allows us to classify them into five subfamilies: A are SPHs with 1 or 5 group-3 clip domains, B are SPs with 1 or 2 group-2 clip domains, C, D1 and D2 are SPs with a single clip domain in group-1a, 1b and 1c, respectively. We have classified into six categories the 125 expression profiles of SP-related proteins in fat body, brain, midgut, Malpighian tubule, testis, and ovary at different stages, suggesting that they participate in various physiological processes. Through RNA-Seq-based gene annotation and expression profiling, as well as intragenomic sequence comparisons, we have established a framework of information for future biochemical research of nondigestive SPs and SPHs in this model species. PMID:25530503

  14. Construction, expression, and characterization of a novel fully activated recombinant single-chain hepatitis C virus protease.

    PubMed Central

    Taremi, S. S.; Beyer, B.; Maher, M.; Yao, N.; Prosise, W.; Weber, P. C.; Malcolm, B. A.

    1998-01-01

    Efficient proteolytic processing of essential junctions of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) polyprotein requires a heterodimeric complex of the NS3 bifunctional protease/helicase and the NS4A accessory protein. A single-chain recombinant form of the protease has been constructed in which NS4A residues 21-32 (GSVVIVGRIILS) were fused in frame to the amino terminus of the NS3 protease domain (residues 3-181) through a tetrapeptide linker. The single-chain recombinant protease has been overexpressed as a soluble protein in E. coli and purified to homogeneity by a combination of metal chelate and size-exclusion chromatography. The single-chain recombinant protease domain shows full proteolytic activity cleaving the NS5A-5B synthetic peptide substrate, DTEDVVCCSMSYTWTGK with a Km and k(cat) of 20.0 +/- 2.0 microM and 9.6 +/- 2.0 min(-1), respectively; parameters identical to those of the authentic NS3(1-631)/NS4A(1-54) protein complex generated in eukaryotic cells (Sali DL et al., 1998, Biochemistry 37:3392-3401). PMID:9792101

  15. Effects of exogenous proteases without or with carbohydrases on nutrient digestibility and disappearance of non-starch polysaccharides in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Olukosi, O. A.; Beeson, L. A.; Englyst, K.; Romero, L. F.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of a subtilisin protease, without or with inclusion of carbohydrases, on digestibility and retention of energy and protein, as well as the solubilization and disappearance of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) from corn-soybean meal based diets fed to broiler chickens. Two hundred eighty-eight Ross 308 male broiler chickens were used for the experiment. On d 14, the birds were weighed and allocated to 6 treatments and 8 replicates per treatment with 6 birds per replicate. Treatments were: 1) corn-soybean meal based control diet; 2) control diet plus supplemental protease at 5,000 (P5000) protease units (PU)/kg); 3) control plus 10,000 PU/kg protease (P10000); or control plus an enzyme combination containing xylanase, amylase, and protease (XAP) added to achieve protease activity of: 4) 2,500 PU/kg (XAP2500); 5) 5,000 PU/kg (XAP5000); or 6) 10,000 PU/kg (XAP10000). The enzymes in XAP were combined at fixed ratios of 10:1:25 of xylanase:amylase:protease. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and specific orthogonal contrasts between treatments were performed. Addition of xylanase and amylase increased (P < 0.05) the ileal digestibility of protein by 4.2% and 2.1% at XAP5000 and XAP10000, respectively (relative to P5000 and P10000, respectively), exhibiting a plateau after the XAP5000 dose. Increment (P < 0.05) in AME due to protease was evident, particularly in P10000. At the ileal level, XAP reduced (P < 0.05) the flow of insoluble xylose and arabinose, which indicates an increase in the solubilization of arabinoxylan polymers in the small intestine. Protease on its own reduced (P < 0.05) the flow of insoluble arabinose but did not affect the flow of insoluble xylose. XAP reduced (P < 0.05) the pre-cecal flow of insoluble and total glucose and galactose. It was concluded that whereas protease by itself improved nutrient utilization and increased solubilization of NSP components, at the lower dose, a

  16. Viral proteases as targets for drug design.

    PubMed

    Skoreński, Marcin; Sieńczyk, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    In order to productively infect a host, viruses must enter the cell and force host cell replication mechanisms to produce new infectious virus particles. The success of this process unfortunately results in disease progression and, in the case of infection with many viral species, may cause mortality. The discoveries of Louis Pasteur and Edward Jenner led to one of the greatest advances in modern medicine - the development of vaccines that generate long-lasting memory immune responses to combat viral infection. Widespread use of vaccines has reduced mortality and morbidity associated with viral infection and, in some cases, has completely eradicated virus from the human population. Unfortunately, several viral species maintain a significant ability to mutate and "escape" vaccine-induced immune responses. Thus, novel anti-viral agents are required for treatment and prevention of viral disease. Targeting proteases that are crucial in the viral life cycle has proven to be an effective method to control viral infection, and this avenue of investigation continues to generate anti-viral treatments. Herein, we provide the reader with a brief history as well as a comprehensive review of the most recent advances in the design and synthesis of viral protease inhibitors. PMID:23016690

  17. Broad-Spectrum Allosteric Inhibition of Herpesvirus Proteases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Herpesviruses rely on a homodimeric protease for viral capsid maturation. A small molecule, DD2, previously shown to disrupt dimerization of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus protease (KSHV Pr) by trapping an inactive monomeric conformation and two analogues generated through carboxylate bioisosteric replacement (compounds 2 and 3) were shown to inhibit the associated proteases of all three human herpesvirus (HHV) subfamilies (α, β, and γ). Inhibition data reveal that compound 2 has potency comparable to or better than that of DD2 against the tested proteases. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and a new application of the kinetic analysis developed by Zhang and Poorman [Zhang, Z. Y., Poorman, R. A., et al. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 15591–15594] show DD2, compound 2, and compound 3 inhibit HHV proteases by dimer disruption. All three compounds bind the dimer interface of other HHV proteases in a manner analogous to binding of DD2 to KSHV protease. The determination and analysis of cocrystal structures of both analogues with the KSHV Pr monomer verify and elaborate on the mode of binding for this chemical scaffold, explaining a newly observed critical structure–activity relationship. These results reveal a prototypical chemical scaffold for broad-spectrum allosteric inhibition of human herpesvirus proteases and an approach for the identification of small molecules that allosterically regulate protein activity by targeting protein–protein interactions. PMID:24977643

  18. Effect of proteases on the. beta. -thromboglobulin radioimmunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Donlon, J.A.; Helgeson, E.A.; Donlon, M.A.

    1985-02-11

    Rat peritoneal mast cells and mast cell granules were evaluated by radioimmunoassay for the presence of ..beta..-thromboglobulin and platelet factor 4. The initial assays indicated that a ..beta..-thromboglobulin cross reacting material was released from mast cells by compound 48/80 in a similar dose-dependent manner as histamine release. The material was also found to be associated with purified granules. However, the use of protease inhibitors in the buffers completely abolished the positive assays. Further evaluation of the effects of various proteases on the ..beta..-thromboglobulin assay indicated that elastase would also generate a false positive assay which could then be neutralized by the use of ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antitrypsin as a protease inhibitor. There was no protease effect on the platelet factor 4 radioimmunoassay which always showed no detectable amounts with mast cells, granules or proteases. These results clearly indicate the artifactual positive assays which can arise when using certain radioimmunoassay tests in the presence of cell proteases. The use of protease inhibitors is a necessary control when applying a radioimmunoassay to a system with potentially active proteases. 24 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  19. Expression and characterization of Coprothermobacter proteolyticus alkaline serine protease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TECHNICAL ABSTRACT A putative protease gene (aprE) from the thermophilic bacterium Coprothermobacter proteolyticus was cloned and expressed in Bacillus subtilis. The enzyme was determined to be a serine protease based on inhibition by PMSF. Biochemical characterization demonstrated the enzyme had...

  20. Alkaline protease production by a strain of marine yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Wang; Zhenming, Chi; Chunling, Ma

    2006-07-01

    Yeast strain 10 with high yield of protease was isolated from sediments of saltern near Qingdao, China. The protease had the highest activity at pH 9.0 and 45°C. The optimal medium for the maximum alkaline protease production of strain 10 was 2.5g soluble starch and 2.0g NaNO3 in 100mL seawater with initial pH 6.0. The optimal cultivation conditions for the maximum protease production were temperature 24.5°C, aeration rate 8.0L min-1 and agitation speed 150r min-1 Under the optimal conditions, 623.1 U mg-1 protein of alkaline protease was reached in the culture within 30h of fermentation.

  1. Purification and characterization of an alkaline protease from Acetes chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiachao; Liu, Xin; Li, Zhaojie; Xu, Jie; Xue, Changhu; Gao, Xin

    2005-07-01

    An alkaline protease from Acetes chinensis was purified and characterized in this study. The steps of purification include ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography with Q-sepharose Fast Flow, gel filtration chromatography with S300 and the second ion-exchange chromatography with Q-sepharose Fast Flow. The protease was isolated and purified, which was present and active on protein substrates (azocasein and casein). The specific protease activity was 17.15 folds and the recovery was 4.67. The molecular weight of the protease was estimated at 23.2 kD by SDS-PAGE. With azocasein as the susbstrate, the optimal temperature was 55°C and the optimal pH value was 5.5. Ion Ca2+ could enhance the proteolytic activity of the protease, while Cu2+, EDTA and PMSF could inhibit its activity.

  2. The maize cystatin CC9 interacts with apoplastic cysteine proteases.

    PubMed

    van der Linde, Karina; Mueller, André N; Hemetsberger, Christoph; Kashani, Farnusch; van der Hoorn, Renier A L; Doehlemann, Gunther

    2012-11-01

    In a recent study we identified corn cystain9 (CC9) as a novel compatibility factor for the interaction of the biotrophic smut fungus Ustilago maydis with its host plant maize. CC9 is transcriptionally induced during the compatible interaction with U. maydis and localizes in the maize apoplast where it inhibits apoplastic papain-like cysteine proteases. The proteases are activated during incompatible interaction and salicylic acid (SA) treatment and, in turn, are sufficient to induce SA signaling including PR-gene expression. Therefore the inhibition of apoplastic papain-like cysteine proteases by CC9 is essential to suppress host immunity during U. maydis infection. Here were present new experimental data on the cysteine protease-cystatin interaction and provide an in silco analysis of plant cystatins and the identified apoplastic cysteine proteases.

  3. Poliovirus protease 3C(pro) kills cells by apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Barco, A; Feduchi, E; Carrasco, L

    2000-01-20

    The tetracycline-based Tet-Off expression system has been used to analyze the effects of poliovirus protease 3C(pro) on human cells. Stable HeLa cell clones that express this poliovirus protease under the control of an inducible, tightly regulated promoter were obtained. Tetracycline removal induces synthesis of 3C protease, followed by drastic morphological alterations and cellular death. Degradation of cellular DNA in nucleosomes and generation of apoptotic bodies are observed from the second day after 3C(pro) induction. The cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, an enzyme involved in DNA repair, occurs after induction of 3C(pro), indicating caspase activation by this poliovirus protease. The 3C(pro)-induced apoptosis is blocked by the caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Our findings suggest that the protease 3C is responsible for triggering apoptosis in poliovirus-infected cells by a mechanism that involves caspase activation.

  4. Positive selection of digestive Cys proteases in herbivorous Coleoptera.

    PubMed

    Vorster, Juan; Rasoolizadeh, Asieh; Goulet, Marie-Claire; Cloutier, Conrad; Sainsbury, Frank; Michaud, Dominique

    2015-10-01

    Positive selection is thought to contribute to the functional diversification of insect-inducible protease inhibitors in plants in response to selective pressures exerted by the digestive proteases of their herbivorous enemies. Here we assessed whether a reciprocal evolutionary process takes place on the insect side, and whether ingestion of a positively selected plant inhibitor may translate into a measurable rebalancing of midgut proteases in vivo. Midgut Cys proteases of herbivorous Coleoptera, including the major pest Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), were first compared using a codon-based evolutionary model to look for the occurrence of hypervariable, positively selected amino acid sites among the tested sequences. Hypervariable sites were found, distributed within -or close to- amino acid regions interacting with Cys-type inhibitors of the plant cystatin protein family. A close examination of L. decemlineata sequences indicated a link between their assignment to protease functional families and amino acid identity at positively selected sites. A function-diversifying role for positive selection was further suggested empirically by in vitro protease assays and a shotgun proteomic analysis of L. decemlineata Cys proteases showing a differential rebalancing of protease functional family complements in larvae fed single variants of a model cystatin mutated at positively selected amino acid sites. These data confirm overall the occurrence of hypervariable, positively selected amino acid sites in herbivorous Coleoptera digestive Cys proteases. They also support the idea of an adaptive role for positive selection, useful to generate functionally diverse proteases in insect herbivores ingesting functionally diverse, rapidly evolving dietary cystatins. PMID:26264818

  5. Viral cysteine proteases are homologous to the trypsin-like family of serine proteases: structural and functional implications.

    PubMed Central

    Bazan, J F; Fletterick, R J

    1988-01-01

    Proteases that are encoded by animal picornaviruses and plant como- and potyviruses form a related group of cysteine-active-center enzymes that are essential for virus maturation. We show that these proteins are homologous to the family of trypsin-like serine proteases. In our model, the active-site nucleophile of the trypsin catalytic triad, Ser-195, is changed to a Cys residue in these viral proteases. The other two residues of the triad, His-57 and Asp-102, are otherwise absolutely conserved in all the viral protease sequences. Secondary structure analysis of aligned sequences suggests the location of the component strands of the twin beta-barrel trypsin fold in the viral proteases. Unexpectedly, the 2a and 3c subclasses of viral cysteine proteases are, respectively, homologous to the small and large structural subclasses of trypsin-like serine proteases. This classification allows the molecular mapping of residues from viral sequences onto related tertiary structures; we precisely identify amino acids that are strong determinants of specificity for both small and large viral cysteine proteases. Images PMID:3186696

  6. Active Site Characterization of Proteases Sequences from Different Species of Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Morya, V K; Yadav, Virendra K; Yadav, Sangeeta; Yadav, Dinesh

    2016-09-01

    A total of 129 proteases sequences comprising 43 serine proteases, 36 aspartic proteases, 24 cysteine protease, 21 metalloproteases, and 05 neutral proteases from different Aspergillus species were analyzed for the catalytically active site residues using MEROPS database and various bioinformatics tools. Different proteases have predominance of variable active site residues. In case of 24 cysteine proteases of Aspergilli, the predominant active site residues observed were Gln193, Cys199, His364, Asn384 while for 43 serine proteases, the active site residues namely Asp164, His193, Asn284, Ser349 and Asp325, His357, Asn454, Ser519 were frequently observed. The analysis of 21 metalloproteases of Aspergilli revealed Glu298 and Glu388, Tyr476 as predominant active site residues. In general, Aspergilli species-specific active site residues were observed for different types of protease sequences analyzed. The phylogenetic analysis of these 129 proteases sequences revealed 14 different clans representing different types of proteases with diverse active site residues.

  7. Unexpected Activity of a Novel Kunitz-type Inhibitor: INHIBITION OF CYSTEINE PROTEASES BUT NOT SERINE PROTEASES.

    PubMed

    Smith, David; Tikhonova, Irina G; Jewhurst, Heather L; Drysdale, Orla C; Dvořák, Jan; Robinson, Mark W; Cwiklinski, Krystyna; Dalton, John P

    2016-09-01

    Kunitz-type (KT) protease inhibitors are low molecular weight proteins classically defined as serine protease inhibitors. We identified a novel secreted KT inhibitor associated with the gut and parenchymal tissues of the infective juvenile stage of Fasciola hepatica, a helminth parasite of medical and veterinary importance. Unexpectedly, recombinant KT inhibitor (rFhKT1) exhibited no inhibitory activity toward serine proteases but was a potent inhibitor of the major secreted cathepsin L cysteine proteases of F. hepatica, FhCL1 and FhCL2, and of human cathepsins L and K (Ki = 0.4-27 nm). FhKT1 prevented the auto-catalytic activation of FhCL1 and FhCL2 and formed stable complexes with the mature enzymes. Pulldown experiments from adult parasite culture medium showed that rFhKT1 interacts specifically with native secreted FhCL1, FhCL2, and FhCL5. Substitution of the unusual P1 Leu(15) within the exposed reactive loop of FhKT1 for the more commonly found Arg (FhKT1Leu(15)/Arg(15)) had modest adverse effects on the cysteine protease inhibition but conferred potent activity against the serine protease trypsin (Ki = 1.5 nm). Computational docking and sequence analysis provided hypotheses for the exclusive binding of FhKT1 to cysteine proteases, the importance of the Leu(15) in anchoring the inhibitor into the S2 active site pocket, and the inhibitor's selectivity toward FhCL1, FhCL2, and human cathepsins L and K. FhKT1 represents a novel evolutionary adaptation of KT protease inhibitors by F. hepatica, with its prime purpose likely in the regulation of the major parasite-secreted proteases and/or cathepsin L-like proteases of its host.

  8. Molecular modeling studies suggest that zinc ions inhibit HIV-1 protease by binding at catalytic aspartates.

    PubMed Central

    York, D M; Darden, T A; Pedersen, L G; Anderson, M W

    1993-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease is inhibited in vitro by zinc ions at neutral pH. The binding site of these ions is not known; however, experimental data suggest that binding may occur in the active site. To examine the possibility of zinc binding in the active site, molecular dynamics simulations in the presence and absence of zinc have been carried out to 200 psec. The results are compared with the 2.8-A crystallographic structures of a synthetic HIV-1 protease, and a zinc binding site at the catalytic aspartate residues (Asp-25, Asp-25') is proposed. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the zinc ion remains stably bound in this region, coordinating the carboxylate side chains of both aspartate residues. Interaction with zinc does not disrupt the dimeric structure of the protein or significantly alter the structure of the active site. These data are consistent with experimental studies of HIV-1 protease inhibition by zinc and give strong evidence that this is the binding site that leads to inactivation. Images p246-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:8404763

  9. Distinct protease pathways control cell shape and apoptosis in v-src-transformed quail neuroretina cells

    SciTech Connect

    Neel, Benjamin D.; Gillet, Germain . E-mail: g.gillet@ibcp.fr

    2005-11-15

    Intracellular proteases play key roles in cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. In nerve cells, little is known about their relative contribution to the pathways which control cell physiology, including cell death. Neoplastic transformation of avian neuroretina cells by p60 {sup v-src} tyrosine kinase results in dramatic morphological changes and deregulation of apoptosis. To identify the proteases involved in the cellular response to p60 {sup v-src}, we evaluated the effect of specific inhibitors of caspases, calpains and the proteasome on cell shape changes and apoptosis induced by p60 {sup v-src} inactivation in quail neuroretina cells transformed by tsNY68, a thermosensitive strain of Rous sarcoma virus. We found that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is recruited early after p60 {sup v-src} inactivation and is critical for morphological changes, whereas caspases are essential for cell death. This study provides evidence that distinct intracellular proteases are involved in the control of the morphology and fate of v-src-transformed cells.

  10. PEGylated substrates of NSP4 protease: A tool to study protease specificity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysocka, Magdalena; Gruba, Natalia; Grzywa, Renata; Giełdoń, Artur; Bąchor, Remigiusz; Brzozowski, Krzysztof; Sieńczyk, Marcin; Dieter, Jenne; Szewczuk, Zbigniew; Rolka, Krzysztof; Lesner, Adam

    2016-03-01

    Herein we present the synthesis of a novel type of peptidomimetics composed of repeating diaminopropionic acid residues modified with structurally diverse heterobifunctional polyethylene glycol chains (abbreviated as DAPEG). Based on the developed compounds, a library of fluorogenic substrates was synthesized. Further library deconvolution towards human neutrophil serine protease 4 (NSP4) yielded highly sensitive and selective internally quenched peptidomimetic substrates. In silico analysis of the obtained peptidomimetics revealed the presence of an interaction network with distant subsites located on the enzyme surface.

  11. Highly potent fibrinolytic serine protease from Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Uesugi, Yoshiko; Usuki, Hirokazu; Iwabuchi, Masaki; Hatanaka, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a highly potent fibrinolytic serine protease from Streptomyces omiyaensis (SOT), which belongs to the trypsin family. The fibrinolytic activity of SOT was examined using in vitro assays and was compared with those of known fibrinolytic enzymes such as plasmin, tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), urokinase, and nattokinase. Compared to other enzymes, SOT showed remarkably higher hydrolytic activity toward mimic peptides of fibrin and plasminogen. The fibrinolytic activity of SOT is about 18-fold higher than that of plasmin, and is comparable to that of t-PA by fibrin plate assays. Furthermore, SOT had some plasminogen activator-like activity. Results show that SOT and nattokinase have very different fibrinolytic and fibrinogenolytic modes, engendering significant synergetic effects of SOT and nattokinase on fibrinolysis. These results suggest that SOT presents important possibilities for application in the therapy of thrombosis.

  12. Cleavage and activation of human factor IX by serine proteases

    SciTech Connect

    Enfield, D.L.; Thompson, A.R.

    1984-10-01

    Human factor IX circulates as a single-chain glycoprotein. Upon activation in vitro, it is cleaved into disulfide-linked light and heavy chains and an activation peptide. After reduction of activated /sup 125/I-factor IX, the heavy and light chains are readily identified by gel electrophoresis. A direct, immunoradiometric assay for factor IXa was developed to assess activation of factor IX for proteases that cleaved it. The assay utilized radiolabeled antithrombin III with heparin to identify the active site and antibodies to distinguish factor IX. After cleavage of factor IX by factor XIa, factor VIIa-tissue thromboplastin complex, or the factor X-activating enzyme from Russell's viper venom, antithrombin III bound readily to factor IXa. Cleavage of /sup 125/I-factor IX by trypsin, chymotrypsin, and granulocyte elastase in the presence of calcium yielded major polypeptide fragments of the sizes of the factor XIa-generated light and heavy chains. When the immunoradiometric assay was used to assess trypsin-cleaved factor IX, the product bound antithrombin III, but not maximally. After digesting with insolubilized trypsin, clotting activity confirmed activation. In evaluating activation of factor IX, physical evidence of activation cleavages does not necessarily correlate with generation of an active site.

  13. The yeast autophagy protease Atg4 is regulated by thioredoxin

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Pérez, María Esther; Zaffagnini, Mirko; Marchand, Christophe H; Crespo, José L; Lemaire, Stéphane D

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a membrane-trafficking process whereby double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes engulf and deliver intracellular material to the vacuole for degradation. Atg4 is a cysteine protease with an essential function in autophagosome formation. Mounting evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species may play a role in the control of autophagy and could regulate Atg4 activity but the precise mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we showed that reactive oxygen species activate autophagy in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and unraveled the molecular mechanism by which redox balance controls Atg4 activity. A combination of biochemical assays, redox titrations, and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that Atg4 is regulated by oxidoreduction of a single disulfide bond between Cys338 and Cys394. This disulfide has a low redox potential and is very efficiently reduced by thioredoxin, suggesting that this oxidoreductase plays an important role in Atg4 regulation. Accordingly, we found that autophagy activation by rapamycin was more pronounced in a thioredoxin mutant compared with wild-type cells. Moreover, in vivo studies indicated that Cys338 and Cys394 are required for the proper regulation of autophagosome biogenesis, since mutation of these cysteines resulted in increased recruitment of Atg8 to the phagophore assembly site. Thus, we propose that the fine-tuning of Atg4 activity depending on the intracellular redox state may regulate autophagosome formation. PMID:25483965

  14. Positioning of HIV-protease inhibitors in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Andreoni, M; Perno, C F

    2012-01-01

    The availability of more than 20 drugs for the treatment of HIV infection, and the success of the current antiretroviral regimens, should not overlook the difficulty of long-term maintaining the control of viral replication. The therapy needs to be continued for decades, if not for lifetime, and there are clear evidences that, even in patients fully suppressed for many years, HIV starts again its replication cycles in case antiviral pressure is removed. The development of resistance is a natural event at the time of virological failure, that needs to be taken into account in the global strategy against HIV in each particular patient. Taking all together, therapeutic regiments must be embedded, since the beginning, in a long-term strategy whose main task is the stable control of the replication of HIV. To do so, the choice of the first antiviral regimen has to be highly appropriate to keep the virus in check, and at the same time maintain future therapeutic options. Change of therapy at the time of failure has to be also appropriate, in term of timing, diagnostic strategy, and selection of drugs. Under these circumstances, the use of protease inhibitors in the first line acquires a strong rationale, that balances the greater pure potency of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI), and makes them a valuable options for many patients that need to start antiviral therapy.

  15. Design of translactam HCMV protease inhibitors as potent antivirals.

    PubMed

    Borthwick, Alan D

    2005-07-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an important pathogen for which there is a significant unmet medical need. New HCMV antivirals, active against novel molecular targets, are undoubtedly needed as the currently available drugs ganciclovir, cidofovir, and foscarnet, which are all viral DNA inhibitors, suffer from limited effectiveness, mainly due to the development of drug resistance, poor bioavailability, and toxicity. One of the newer molecular targets that has been exploited in the search for better drug candidates is HCMV protease. Our deltaAla HCMV protease (wild type variant with the internal cleavage site deleted) was cloned and expressed in E. coli. This viral enzyme was used to develop HCMV protease assays to evaluate potential inhibitors. The chirally pure (SRS)-alpha-methyl pyrrolidine-5,5-trans-lactam template was synthesized, which together with the natural substrate requirements of HCMV protease and detailed SAR, was used to design potent and selective mechanism based inhibitors of HCMV protease. The mechanism of action of these inhibitors of HCMV protease was investigated by ESI/MS, and the X-ray crystal structure of the HCMV protease was used to refine our selective viral enzyme inhibitors to obtain plasma stable antivirals. A novel ELISA antiviral assay was developed which, together with a cytotoxicity assay, enabled us to discover anti-HCMV drug candidates equivalent in potency to ganciclovir that had good pharmacokinetics in the dog and good brain and ocular penetration in the guinea pig.

  16. Cold-adapted proteases as an emerging class of therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Fornbacke, Marcus; Clarsund, Mats

    2013-06-01

    Proteases have been used in medicine for several decades and are an established and well tolerated class of therapeutic agent. These proteases were sourced from mammals or bacteria that exist or have adapted to moderate temperatures (mesophilic organisms); however, proteases derived from organisms from cold environments-cold-adapted or psychrophilic proteases-generally have high specific activity, low substrate affinity, and high catalytic rates at low and moderate temperatures. Made possible by greater flexibility, psychrophilic enzymes interact with and transform the substrate at lower energy costs. Cold-adapted proteases have been used in a wide range of applications, including industrial functions, textiles, cleaning/hygiene products, molecular biology, environmental bioremediations, consumer food products, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical production. In addition to these applications, they have also shown promise as therapeutic modalities for cosmeceutical applications (by reducing glabellar [frown] lines) and a number of disease conditions, including bacterial infections (by disrupting biofilms to prevent bacterial infection), topical wound management (when used as a debridement agent to remove necrotic tissue and fibrin clots), oral/dental health management (by removing plaque and preventing periodontal disease), and in viral infections (by reducing the infectivity of viruses, such as human rhinovirus 16 and herpes simplex virus). Psychrophilic proteases with greater activity and stability (than the original organism-derived variant) have been developed; this coupled with available manufacturing recombinant production techniques suggests that cold-adapted proteases have a promising future as a distinct therapeutic class with diverse clinical applications.

  17. Laundry detergent compatibility of the alkaline protease from Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Banik, Rathindra Mohan; Prakash, Monika

    2004-01-01

    The endogenous protease activity in various commercially available laundry detergents of international companies was studied. The maximum protease activity was found at 50 degrees C in pH range 10.5-11.0 in all the tested laundry detergents. The endogenous protease activity in the tested detergents retained up to 70% on incubation at 40 degrees C for 1 h, whereas less than 30% activity was only found on incubation at 50 degrees C for 1 h. The alkaline protease from an alkalophilic strain of Bacillus cereus was studied for its compatibility in commercial detergents. The cell free fermented broth from shake flask culture of the organism showed maximum activity at pH 10.5 and 50 degrees C. The protease from B. cereus showed much higher residual activity (more than 80%) on incubation with laundry detergents at 50 degrees C for 1 h or longer. The protease enzyme from B. cereus was found to be superior over the endogenous proteases present in the tested commercial laundry detergents in comparison to the enzyme stability during the washing at higher temperature, e.g., 40-50 degrees C.

  18. Salt stress represses production of extracellular proteases in Bacillus pumilus.

    PubMed

    Liu, R F; Huang, C L; Feng, H

    2015-05-11

    Bacillus pumilus is able to secrete subtilisin-like prote-ases, one of which has been purified and characterized biochemically, demonstrating great potential for use in industrial applications. In the current study, the biosynthesis and transcription of extracellular pro-teases in B. pumilus (BA06) under salt stress were investigated using various methods, including a proteolytic assay, zymogram analysis, and real-time PCR. Our results showed that total extracellular proteolytic activity, both in fermentation broth and on milk-containing agar plates, was considerably repressed by salt in a dosage-dependent manner. As Bacillus species usually secret multiple extracellular proteases, a vari-ety of individual extracellular protease encoding genes were selected for real-time PCR analysis. It was shown that proteases encoded by the aprE and aprX genes were the major proteases in the fermentation broth in terms of their transcripts in B. pumilus. Further, transcription of aprE, aprX, and epr genes was indeed repressed by salt stress. In con-trast, transcription of other genes (e.g., vpr and wprA) was not repressed or significantly affected by the salt. Conclusively, salt stress represses total extracellular proteolytic activity in B. pumilus, which can largely be ascribed to suppression of the major protease-encoding genes (aprE, aprX) at the transcriptional level. In contrast, transcription of other pro-tease-encoding genes (e.g., vpr, wprA) was not repressed by salt stress.

  19. Cold-adapted proteases as an emerging class of therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Fornbacke, Marcus; Clarsund, Mats

    2013-06-01

    Proteases have been used in medicine for several decades and are an established and well tolerated class of therapeutic agent. These proteases were sourced from mammals or bacteria that exist or have adapted to moderate temperatures (mesophilic organisms); however, proteases derived from organisms from cold environments-cold-adapted or psychrophilic proteases-generally have high specific activity, low substrate affinity, and high catalytic rates at low and moderate temperatures. Made possible by greater flexibility, psychrophilic enzymes interact with and transform the substrate at lower energy costs. Cold-adapted proteases have been used in a wide range of applications, including industrial functions, textiles, cleaning/hygiene products, molecular biology, environmental bioremediations, consumer food products, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical production. In addition to these applications, they have also shown promise as therapeutic modalities for cosmeceutical applications (by reducing glabellar [frown] lines) and a number of disease conditions, including bacterial infections (by disrupting biofilms to prevent bacterial infection), topical wound management (when used as a debridement agent to remove necrotic tissue and fibrin clots), oral/dental health management (by removing plaque and preventing periodontal disease), and in viral infections (by reducing the infectivity of viruses, such as human rhinovirus 16 and herpes simplex virus). Psychrophilic proteases with greater activity and stability (than the original organism-derived variant) have been developed; this coupled with available manufacturing recombinant production techniques suggests that cold-adapted proteases have a promising future as a distinct therapeutic class with diverse clinical applications. PMID:25135820

  20. Exploring a new serine protease from Cucumis sativus L.

    PubMed

    Nafeesa, Zohara; Shivalingu, B R; Vivek, H K; Priya, B S; Swamy, S Nanjunda

    2015-03-01

    Coagulation is an important physiological process in hemostasis which is activated by sequential action of proteases. This study aims to understand the involvement of aqueous fruit extract of Cucumis sativus L. (AqFEC) European burp less variety in blood coagulation cascade. AqFEC hydrolyzed casein in a dose-dependent manner. The presence of protease activity was further confirmed by casein zymography which revealed the possible presence of two high molecular weight protease(s). The proteolytic activity was inhibited only by phenyl methyl sulphonyl fluoride suggesting the presence of serine protease(s). In a dose-dependent manner, AqFEC also hydrolysed Aα and Bβ subunits of fibrinogen, whereas it failed to degrade the γ subunit of fibrinogen even at a concentration as high as 100 μg and incubation time up to 4 h. AqFEC reduced the clotting time of citrated plasma by 87.65%. The protease and fibrinogenolytic activity of AqFEC suggests its possible role in stopping the bleeding and ensuing wound healing process.

  1. Cysteine Protease Inhibitors as Chemotherapy: Lessons from a Parasite Target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selzer, Paul M.; Pingel, Sabine; Hsieh, Ivy; Ugele, Bernhard; Chan, Victor J.; Engel, Juan C.; Bogyo, Matthew; Russell, David G.; Sakanari, Judy A.; McKerrow, James H.

    1999-09-01

    Papain family cysteine proteases are key factors in the pathogenesis of cancer invasion, arthritis, osteoporosis, and microbial infections. Targeting this enzyme family is therefore one strategy in the development of new chemotherapy for a number of diseases. Little is known, however, about the efficacy, selectivity, and safety of cysteine protease inhibitors in cell culture or in vivo. We now report that specific cysteine protease inhibitors kill Leishmania parasites in vitro, at concentrations that do not overtly affect mammalian host cells. Inhibition of Leishmania cysteine protease activity was accompanied by defects in the parasite's lysosome/endosome compartment resembling those seen in lysosomal storage diseases. Colocalization of anti-protease antibodies with biotinylated surface proteins and accumulation of undigested debris and protease in the flagellar pocket of treated parasites were consistent with a pathway of protease trafficking from flagellar pocket to the lysosome/endosome compartment. The inhibitors were sufficiently absorbed and stable in vivo to ameliorate the pathology associated with a mouse model of Leishmania infection.

  2. Staphylococcal proteases aid in evasion of the human complement system.

    PubMed

    Jusko, Monika; Potempa, Jan; Kantyka, Tomasz; Bielecka, Ewa; Miller, Halie K; Kalinska, Magdalena; Dubin, Grzegorz; Garred, Peter; Shaw, Lindsey N; Blom, Anna M

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that presents severe health care concerns due to the prevalence of multiple antibiotic-resistant strains. New treatment strategies are urgently needed, which requires an understanding of disease causation mechanisms. Complement is one of the first lines of defense against bacterial pathogens, and S. aureus expresses several specific complement inhibitors. The effect of extracellular proteases from this bacterium on complement, however, has been the subject of limited investigation, except for a recent report regarding cleavage of the C3 component by aureolysin (Aur). We demonstrate here that four major extracellular proteases of S. aureus are potent complement inhibitors. Incubation of human serum with the cysteine proteases staphopain A and staphopain B, the serine protease V8 and the metalloproteinase Aur resulted in a drastic decrease in the hemolytic activity of serum, whereas two staphylococcal serine proteases D and E, had no effect. These four proteases were found to inhibit all pathways of complement due to the efficient degradation of several crucial components. Furthermore, S. aureus mutants lacking proteolytic enzymes were found to be more efficiently killed in human blood. Taken together, the major proteases of S. aureus appear to be important for pathogen-mediated evasion of the human complement system.

  3. Extracellular proteases modify cell wall turnover in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Jolliffe, L K; Doyle, R J; Streips, U N

    1980-01-01

    The rate of turnover of peptidoglycan in exponentially growing cultures of Bacillus subtilis was observed to be sensitive to extracellular protease. In protease-deficient mutants the rates of cell wall turnover were greater than that of wild-type strain 168, whereas hyperprotease-producing strains exhibited decreased rates of peptidoglycan turnover. The rate of peptidogylcan turnover in a protease-deficient strain was decreased when the mutant was grown in the presence of a hyperprotease-producing strain. The addition of phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, a serine protease inhibitor, to cultures of hyperprotease-producing strains increased their rates of cell wall turnover. Isolated cell walls of all protease mutants contained autolysin levels equal to or greater than that of wild-type strain 168. The presence of filaments, or cells with incomplete septa, was observed in hyperprotease-producing strains or when a protease-deficient strain was grown in the presence of subtilisin. The results suggest that the turnover of cell walls in B. subtilis may be regulated by extracellular proteases. Images PMID:6102558

  4. Membrane Proteases and Aminoglycoside Antibiotic Resistance ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Hinz, Aaron; Lee, Samuel; Jacoby, Kyle; Manoil, Colin

    2011-01-01

    We present genetic studies that help define the functional network underlying intrinsic aminoglycoside resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our analysis shows that proteolysis, particularly that controlled by the membrane protease FtsH, is a major determinant of resistance. First, we examined the consequences of inactivating genes controlled by AmgRS, a two-component regulator required for intrinsic tobramycin resistance. Three of the gene products account for resistance: a modulator of FtsH protease (YccA), a membrane protease (HtpX), and a membrane protein of unknown function (PA5528). Second, we screened mutations inactivating 66 predicted proteases and related functions. Insertions inactivating two FtsH protease accessory factors (HflK and HflC) and a cytoplasmic protease (HslUV) increased tobramycin sensitivity. Finally, we generated an ftsH deletion mutation. The mutation dramatically increased aminoglycoside sensitivity. Many of the functions whose inactivation increased sensitivity appeared to act independently, since multiple mutations led to additive or synergistic effects. Up to 500-fold increases in tobramycin sensitivity were observed. Most of the mutations also were highly pleiotropic, increasing sensitivity to a membrane protein hybrid, several classes of antibiotics, alkaline pH, NaCl, and other compounds. We propose that the network of proteases provides robust protection from aminoglycosides and other substances through the elimination of membrane-disruptive mistranslation products. PMID:21764915

  5. Fluorometric CCHFV OTU protease assay with potent inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kocabas, Fatih; Aslan, Galip S

    2015-10-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a deadly virus that has been listed in the Category C as a potential bioterror agent. There are no specific therapies against CCHFV, which urges identification of potential therapeutic targets and development of CCHFV therapies. CCHFV OTU protease takes an important role in viral invasion through antagonizing NF-κB signaling. Inhibition of CCHFV OTU protease by small molecules warrants an exciting potential as antiviral therapeutics. Here we report the expression and purification of a C-His-tagged recombinant CCHFV OTU protease in E. coli BL21 (DE3) host strain. Activity of the refolded purified recombinant viral OTU protease has been validated with a UB-AMC fluorescent assay. In addition, we show a dose-dependent inhibition of the viral OTU protease by two small molecules. This study provides a reliable approach for recombinant expression and purification of CCHFV OTU protease, and demonstrates validation of OTU protease activity and its inhibition based on a UB-AMC florescent assay.

  6. Sweet potato cysteine proteases SPAE and SPCP2 participate in sporamin degradation during storage root sprouting.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsien-Jung; Liang, Shu-Hao; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Lin, Yaw-Huei

    2015-08-15

    Sweet potato sporamins are trypsin inhibitors and exhibit strong resistance to digestion by pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. In addition, they constitute the major storage proteins in the sweet potato and, after degradation, provide nitrogen as a nutrient for seedling regrowth in sprouting storage roots. In this report, four cysteine proteases-one asparaginyl endopeptidase (SPAE), two papain-like cysteine proteases (SPCP1 and SPCP2), and one granulin-containing cysteine protease (SPCP3)-were studied to determine their association with sporamin degradation in sprouting storage roots. Sporamin degradation became significant in the flesh of storage roots starting from week 4 after sprouting and this correlated with expression levels of SPAE and SPCP2, but not of SPCP1 and SPCP3. In the outer flesh near the skin, sporamin degradation was more evident and occurred earlier than in the inner flesh of storage roots. Degradation of sporamins in the outer flesh was inversely correlated with the distance of the storage root from the sprout. Exogenous application of SPAE and SPCP2, but not SPCP3, fusion proteins to crude extracts of the outer flesh (i.e., extracted from a depth of 0.3cm and within 2cm of one-week-old sprouts) promoted in vitro sporamin degradation in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatment of SPAE and SPCP2 fusion proteins at 95°C for 5min prior to their application to the crude extracts reduced sporamin degradation. These data show that sweet potato asparaginyl endopeptidase SPAE and papain-like cysteine protease SPCP2 participate in sporamin degradation during storage root sprouting.

  7. Sweet potato cysteine proteases SPAE and SPCP2 participate in sporamin degradation during storage root sprouting.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsien-Jung; Liang, Shu-Hao; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Lin, Yaw-Huei

    2015-08-15

    Sweet potato sporamins are trypsin inhibitors and exhibit strong resistance to digestion by pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. In addition, they constitute the major storage proteins in the sweet potato and, after degradation, provide nitrogen as a nutrient for seedling regrowth in sprouting storage roots. In this report, four cysteine proteases-one asparaginyl endopeptidase (SPAE), two papain-like cysteine proteases (SPCP1 and SPCP2), and one granulin-containing cysteine protease (SPCP3)-were studied to determine their association with sporamin degradation in sprouting storage roots. Sporamin degradation became significant in the flesh of storage roots starting from week 4 after sprouting and this correlated with expression levels of SPAE and SPCP2, but not of SPCP1 and SPCP3. In the outer flesh near the skin, sporamin degradation was more evident and occurred earlier than in the inner flesh of storage roots. Degradation of sporamins in the outer flesh was inversely correlated with the distance of the storage root from the sprout. Exogenous application of SPAE and SPCP2, but not SPCP3, fusion proteins to crude extracts of the outer flesh (i.e., extracted from a depth of 0.3cm and within 2cm of one-week-old sprouts) promoted in vitro sporamin degradation in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatment of SPAE and SPCP2 fusion proteins at 95°C for 5min prior to their application to the crude extracts reduced sporamin degradation. These data show that sweet potato asparaginyl endopeptidase SPAE and papain-like cysteine protease SPCP2 participate in sporamin degradation during storage root sprouting. PMID:26363719

  8. Synergistic Defensive Function of Raphides and Protease through the Needle Effect

    PubMed Central

    Konno, Kotaro; Inoue, Takashi A.; Nakamura, Masatoshi

    2014-01-01

    Raphides, needle-shaped calcium oxalate crystals in tissues of many plants, have been thought to play defensive roles against herbivores without detailed bioassays for their defensive roles and modes of function using purified raphides. In order to examine the defensive roles and modes of function of raphides in a clear experimental system, we performed bioassays giving the larvae of the Eri silkmoth, Samia ricini (Saturniidae), leaves of their host plant, the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae), painted with the raphides purified from kiwifruits, Actinidia deliciosa (Actinidiaceae), in presence or absence of cysteine protease, which often coincide with raphides in plant tissues. Raphides alone or cysteine protease alone showed only weak defensive activities around experimental concentrations. However, when raphides and cysteine protease coexisted, they synergistically showed very strong growth-reducing activities, and the mortality of caterpillars was very high. In contrast, amorphous calcium oxalate did not show synergism with cysteine protease on defensive activities, indicating that the needle-shape of raphides is essential for the synergism. The present study provides the first clear experimental evidence for the synergism between raphides and other defensive factors. Further, the study suggests that “the needle effect”, which intensify the bioactivities of other bioactive factors by making holes to the barriers (cell membrane, cuticle, epithelium, the nuclear membrane, etc.) and facilitate the bioactive factors to go through them and reach the targets, is important in the defensive activities of raphides, and possibly in the allergy caused by raphides, and in the carcinogenic activities of other needle-shaped components including asbestos and plant derived silica needles. PMID:24621613

  9. Determinants of Affinity and Proteolytic Stability in Interactions of Kunitz Family Protease Inhibitors with Mesotrypsin

    SciTech Connect

    Salameh, M.A.; Soares, A.; Navaneetham, D.; Sinha, D.; Walsh, P. N.; Radisky, E. S.

    2010-11-19

    An important functional property of protein protease inhibitors is their stability to proteolysis. Mesotrypsin is a human trypsin that has been implicated in the proteolytic inactivation of several protein protease inhibitors. We have found that bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), a Kunitz protease inhibitor, inhibits mesotrypsin very weakly and is slowly proteolyzed, whereas, despite close sequence and structural homology, the Kunitz protease inhibitor domain of the amyloid precursor protein (APPI) binds to mesotrypsin 100 times more tightly and is cleaved 300 times more rapidly. To define features responsible for these differences, we have assessed the binding and cleavage by mesotrypsin of APPI and BPTI reciprocally mutated at two nonidentical residues that make direct contact with the enzyme. We find that Arg at P{sub 1} (versus Lys) favors both tighter binding and more rapid cleavage, whereas Met (versus Arg) at P'{sub 2} favors tighter binding but has minimal effect on cleavage. Surprisingly, we find that the APPI scaffold greatly enhances proteolytic cleavage rates, independently of the binding loop. We draw thermodynamic additivity cycles analyzing the interdependence of P1 and P'{sub 2} substitutions and scaffold differences, finding multiple instances in which the contributions of these features are nonadditive. We also report the crystal structure of the mesotrypsin {center_dot} APPI complex, in which we find that the binding loop of APPI displays evidence of increased mobility compared with BPTI. Our data suggest that the enhanced vulnerability of APPI to mesotrypsin cleavage may derive from sequence differences in the scaffold that propagate increased flexibility and mobility to the binding loop.

  10. Determinants of Affinity and Proteolytic Stability in Interactions of Kunitz Family Protease Inhibitors with Mesotrypsin

    SciTech Connect

    M Salameh; A Soares; D Navaneetham; D Sinha; P Walsh; E Radisky

    2011-12-31

    An important functional property of protein protease inhibitors is their stability to proteolysis. Mesotrypsin is a human trypsin that has been implicated in the proteolytic inactivation of several protein protease inhibitors. We have found that bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), a Kunitz protease inhibitor, inhibits mesotrypsin very weakly and is slowly proteolyzed, whereas, despite close sequence and structural homology, the Kunitz protease inhibitor domain of the amyloid precursor protein (APPI) binds to mesotrypsin 100 times more tightly and is cleaved 300 times more rapidly. To define features responsible for these differences, we have assessed the binding and cleavage by mesotrypsin of APPI and BPTI reciprocally mutated at two nonidentical residues that make direct contact with the enzyme. We find that Arg at P{sub 1} (versus Lys) favors both tighter binding and more rapid cleavage, whereas Met (versus Arg) at P'{sub 2} favors tighter binding but has minimal effect on cleavage. Surprisingly, we find that the APPI scaffold greatly enhances proteolytic cleavage rates, independently of the binding loop. We draw thermodynamic additivity cycles analyzing the interdependence of P{sub 1} and P'{sub 2} substitutions and scaffold differences, finding multiple instances in which the contributions of these features are nonadditive. We also report the crystal structure of the mesotrypsin-APPI complex, in which we find that the binding loop of APPI displays evidence of increased mobility compared with BPTI. Our data suggest that the enhanced vulnerability of APPI to mesotrypsin cleavage may derive from sequence differences in the scaffold that propagate increased flexibility and mobility to the binding loop.

  11. In vitro digestion with proteases producing MHC class II ligands.

    PubMed

    Tohmé, Mira; Maschalidi, Sophia; Manoury, Bénédicte

    2013-01-01

    Proteases generate peptides that bind to MHC class II molecules to interact with a wide diversity of CD4(+) T cells. They are expressed in dedicated organelles: endosomes and lysosomes of professional antigen presenting cells (pAPCs) such as B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. The identification of endosomal proteases which produce antigenic peptides is important, for example, for better vaccination and to prevent autoimmune diseases. Here, we describe a panel of technics (in vitro digestion assays of protein with recombinant proteases or purified endosomes/lysosomes, T cell stimulation) to monitor the production of MHC class II ligands. PMID:23329510

  12. Inferring selection in the Anopheles gambiae species complex: an example from immune-related serine protease inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Obbard, Darren J; Welch, John J; Little, Tom J

    2009-01-01

    Background Mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae species complex are the primary vectors of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Many host genes have been shown to affect Plasmodium development in the mosquito, and so are expected to engage in an evolutionary arms race with the pathogen. However, there is little conclusive evidence that any of these mosquito genes evolve rapidly, or show other signatures of adaptive evolution. Methods Three serine protease inhibitors have previously been identified as candidate immune system genes mediating mosquito-Plasmodium interaction, and serine protease inhibitors have been identified as hot-spots of adaptive evolution in other taxa. Population-genetic tests for selection, including a recent multi-gene extension of the McDonald-Kreitman test, were applied to 16 serine protease inhibitors and 16 other genes sampled from the An. gambiae species complex in both East and West Africa. Results Serine protease inhibitors were found to show a marginally significant trend towards higher levels of amino acid diversity than other genes, and display extensive genetic structuring associated with the 2La chromosomal inversion. However, although serpins are candidate targets for strong parasite-mediated selection, no evidence was found for rapid adaptive evolution in these genes. Conclusion It is well known that phylogenetic and population history in the An. gambiae complex can present special problems for the application of standard population-genetic tests for selection, and this may explain the failure of this study to detect selection acting on serine protease inhibitors. The pitfalls of uncritically applying these tests in this species complex are highlighted, and the future prospects for detecting selection acting on the An. gambiae genome are discussed. PMID:19497100

  13. 21 CFR 184.1027 - Mixed carbohydrase and protease enzyme product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mixed carbohydrase and protease enzyme product... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1027 Mixed carbohydrase and protease enzyme product. (a) Mixed carbohydrase and protease enzyme product is an enzyme preparation that includes carbohydrase and protease...

  14. Detection of Legume Protease Inhibitors by the Gel-X-ray Film Contact Print Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulimani, Veerappa H.; Sudheendra, Kulkarni; Giri, Ashok P.

    2002-01-01

    Redgram (Cajanus cajan L.) extracts have been analyzed for the protease inhibitors using a new, sensitive, simple, and rapid method for detection of electrophoretically separated protease inhibitors. The detection involves equilibrating the gel successively in the protease assay buffer and protease solution, rinsing the gel in assay buffer, and…

  15. Characterization of the protease activity of detergents: laboratory practicals for studying the protease profile and activity of various commercial detergents.

    PubMed

    Valls, Cristina; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallve, Santi; Mulero, Miquel

    2011-07-01

    Detergent enzymes account for about 30% of the total worldwide production of enzymes and are one of the largest and most successful applications of modern industrial biotechnology. Proteases can improve the wash performance of household, industrial, and institutional laundry detergents used to remove protein-based stains such as blood, grass, body fluids, and food soils. This article describes two easy and cheap laboratory exercises to study the presence, profile, and basic enzymology of detergent proteases. These laboratory practicals are based on the determination of the detergent protease activity of various commercial detergents using the N-succinyl-L-alanyl-L-alanyl-L-prolyl-L-phenylalanine p-nitroanilide method and the bovine serum albumin degradation capacity. Students are also required to elucidate the enzymatic subtype of detergent proteases by studying the inhibitory potential of several types of protease inhibitors revealed by the same experimental methodology. Additionally, the results of the exercises can be used to provide additional insights on elementary enzymology by studying the influence of several important parameters on protease activity such as temperature (in this article) and the influence of pH and effects of surfactants and oxidizers (proposed). Students also develop laboratory skills, problem-solving capacities, and the ability to write a laboratory report. The exercises are mainly designed for an advanced undergraduate project in the biochemistry and biotechnology sciences. Globally, these laboratory practicals show students the biotechnological applications of proteases in the detergent industry and also reinforce important enzymology concepts.

  16. Effect of protease mutations on the production of xylanases in Streptomyces lividans.

    PubMed

    Arias, Eliana; Li, Haiming; Morosoli, Rolf

    2007-06-01

    Three protease mutants--7 (tap-), 12 (tap-, ssp-), and 17 (multiple mutations)--of Streptomyces lividans were tested for their influence on protein secretion. Streptomyces lividans grown in xylan secretes 3 xylanases (A, B, and C). Xylanases A (XlnA) and B (XlnB) are secreted by the Sec pathway, whereas xylanase C (XlnC) is secreted by the Tat pathway. The production of XlnA and XlnC was affected in the mutants, suggesting that the mutations interfered with both Sec- and Tat-secretion systems. However, the processing rate for the Sec and Tat precursor was similar to the wild-type strain, indicating that the mutations had no direct effect on secretion. Streptomyces lividans naturally produced 2 forms of XlnB: XlnB1, which contains the catalytic and the xylan-binding domains, and XlnB2, which contains the catalytic domain only. There was no change from the wild-type strain in the ratio of XlnB1/XlnB2 produced by the mutants, indicating that these proteases are not involved in this process. Although XlnA1, partially truncated in its xylan-binding domain, was rapidly degraded to its catalytic domain (XlnA2) in the wild-type strain, the rate of conversion was reduced in the 3 mutants, indicating that the proteases participated to some extent in this proteolytic process.

  17. Heat resistant proteases produced in milk by psychrotrophic bacteria of dairy origin.

    PubMed

    Adams, D M; Barach, J T; Speck, M L

    1975-06-01

    Production of heat resistant proteases by psychrotrophs growing in milk, resistance of such proteases to ultrahigh temperature treatments and action of these enzymes on milk were studied. All of the psychrotrophs obtained from raw milk produced proteases that survived 149 C for 10s. Seventy to ninety percent of the raw milk samples contained psychrotrophs capable of producing heat resistant proteases. The protease chosen as a model was resistant to heat treatments at 110 to 150 C, and the inactivation parameters suggested that thermal destruction of heat resistant proteases would damage the milk severely. The casein content and pH of normal milk were suitable for protease action, and the protease was quite active at normal and elevated room temperatures. The protease rapidly spoiled sterile milk with the development of bitter flavor, clearing, or coagulation; and the susceptibility of sterile milk to protease increased during storage of the milk.

  18. Expression and secretion of heterologous proteases by Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed Central

    Billman-Jacobe, H; Wang, L; Kortt, A; Stewart, D; Radford, A

    1995-01-01

    Genes encoding the basic protease of Dichelobacter nodosus (bprV) and the subtilisin of Bacillus subtilis (aprE) were cloned and expressed in Corynebacterium glutamicum. In each case, enzymatically active protein was detected in the supernatants of liquid cultures. While the secretion of subtilisin was directed by its own signal peptide, the natural signal peptide of the bprV basic protease did not facilitate secretion. A hybrid aprE-bprV gene in which the promoter and signal peptide coding sequences of subtilisin replaced those of bprV could be expressed, and basic protease was secreted by C. glutamicum. Expression of these proteases in C. glutamicum provides an opportunity to compare protein secretion from this gram-positive host with that from other gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. PMID:7747974

  19. Genotype dependent QSAR for HIV-1 protease inhibition.

    PubMed

    Boutton, Carlo W; De Bondt, Hendrik L; De Jonge, Marc R

    2005-03-24

    The development of drug-resistant viruses limits the therapeutic success of anti-HIV therapies. Some of these genetic HIV-variants display complex mutational patterns in their pol gene that codes for protease and reverse transcriptase, the most investigated molecular targets for antiretroviral therapy. In this paper, we present a computational structure-based approach to predict the resistance of a HIV-1 protease strain to amprenavir by calculating the interaction energy of the drug with HIV-1 protease. By considering the interaction energy per residue, we can identify what residue mutations contribute to drug-resistance. This approach is presented here as a structure-based tool for the prediction of resistance of HIV-1 protease toward amprenavir, with a view to use the drug-protein interaction-energy pattern in a lead-optimization procedure for the discovery of new anti-HIV drugs. PMID:15771454

  20. Improving Viral Protease Inhibitors to Counter Drug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Kurt Yilmaz, Nese; Swanstrom, Ronald; Schiffer, Celia A

    2016-07-01

    Drug resistance is a major problem in health care, undermining therapy outcomes and necessitating novel approaches to drug design. Extensive studies on resistance to viral protease inhibitors, particularly those of HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease, revealed a plethora of information on the structural and molecular mechanisms underlying resistance. These insights led to several strategies to improve viral protease inhibitors to counter resistance, such as exploiting the essential biological function and leveraging evolutionary constraints. Incorporation of these strategies into structure-based drug design can minimize vulnerability to resistance, not only for viral proteases but for other quickly evolving drug targets as well, toward designing inhibitors one step ahead of evolution to counter resistance with more intelligent and rational design. PMID:27090931

  1. Toxoplasma gondii aspartic protease 1 is not essential in tachyzoites.

    PubMed

    Polonais, Valerie; Shea, Michael; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2011-08-01

    Aspartic proteases are important virulence factors for pathogens and are recognized as attractive drug targets. Seven aspartic proteases (ASPs) have been identified in Toxoplasma gondii genome. Bioinformatics and phylogenetic analyses regroup them into five monophyletic groups. Among them, TgASP1, a coccidian specific aspartic protease related to the food vacuole plasmepsins, is associated with the secretory pathway in non-dividing cells and relocalizes in close proximity to the nascent inner membrane complex (IMC) of daughter cells during replication. Despite a potential role for TgASP1 in IMC formation, the generation of a conventional knockout of the TgASP1 gene revealed that this protease is not required for T. gondii tachyzoite survival or for proper IMC biogenesis.

  2. Proteomic Substrate Identification for Membrane Proteases in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Stephan A.; Scilabra, Simone D.; Lichtenthaler, Stefan F.

    2016-01-01

    Cell-cell communication in the brain is controlled by multiple mechanisms, including proteolysis. Membrane-bound proteases generate signaling molecules from membrane-bound precursor proteins and control the length and function of cell surface membrane proteins. These proteases belong to different families, including members of the “a disintegrin and metalloprotease” (ADAM), the beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzymes (BACE), membrane-type matrix metalloproteases (MT-MMP) and rhomboids. Some of these proteases, in particular ADAM10 and BACE1 have been shown to be essential not only for the correct development of the mammalian brain, but also for myelination and maintaining neuronal connections in the adult nervous system. Additionally, these proteases are considered as drug targets for brain diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), schizophrenia and cancer. Despite their biomedical relevance, the molecular functions of these proteases in the brain have not been explored in much detail, as little was known about their substrates. This has changed with the recent development of novel proteomic methods which allow to identify substrates of membrane-bound proteases from cultured cells, primary neurons and other primary brain cells and even in vivo from minute amounts of mouse cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This review summarizes the recent advances and highlights the strengths of the individual proteomic methods. Finally, using the example of the Alzheimer-related proteases BACE1, ADAM10 and γ-secretase, as well as ADAM17 and signal peptide peptidase like 3 (SPPL3), we illustrate how substrate identification with novel methods is instrumental in elucidating broad physiological functions of these proteases in the brain and other organs. PMID:27790089

  3. Amplified detection of protease activity using porous silicon nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orosco, Manuel

    This dissertation will focus on harnessing the optical properties of porous silicon to sense protease activity. Electrochemical etching of polished silicon wafers produces porous silicon with unique optical properties such as Fabry-Perot fringes or a dielectric mirror reflecting specific wavelengths. Porous silicon optical transducers are coupled to a biochemical reaction (protease activity) and optically measured in a label-free manner. The first chapter is an introductory chapter discussing the current methods of detecting protease activity. Also discussed is the use of porous silicon for label-free sensing. The second chapter discusses the use of thin protein layers that are spin coated on the surface of a porous silicon film and excluded from the porous matrix based on size. When active proteases are introduced to the protein layer, small peptide fragments are generated, causing a change in refractive index from low to high. This can be used as a tool to monitor protease activity and amplify the signal to the naked eye. To extend on the second chapter, a double layered porous silicon film with the first layer have large pores and the second layer etched below having small pores was used for sensing protease activity. Proteases are adsorbed into the first layer and introduction of whole protein substrate produces small peptide fragments that can enter the second layer (changing the effective optical thickness). The fourth chapter describes a method of using luminescent transducers coupled to protein films. An "on-off" sensor using protein coated luminescent porous silicon was used to detect a decrease in the intensity of luminescence due to degradation of the protein film. An "off-on" sensor involved a fluorescent dye housed in the porous film and capped with a protein coating. The release of the dye is caused by the action of a protease causing an increase in fluorescent intensity from the dye.

  4. 2-D zymographic analysis of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) florets proteases: follow up of cysteine protease isotypes in the course of post-harvest senescence.

    PubMed

    Rossano, Rocco; Larocca, Marilena; Riccio, Paolo

    2011-09-01

    Zymographic analysis of Broccoli florets (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) revealed the presence of acidic metallo-proteases, serine proteases and cysteine proteases. Under conditions which were denaturing for the other proteases, the study was restricted to cysteine proteases. 2-D zymography, a technique that combines IEF and zymography was used to show the presence of 11 different cysteine protease spots with molecular mass of 44 and 47-48kDa and pIs ranging between 4.1 and 4.7. pI differences could be ascribed to different degrees of phosphorylation that partly disappeared in the presence of alkaline phosphatase. Post-harvest senescence of Broccoli florets was characterized by decrease in protein and chlorophyll contents and increase of protease activity. In particular, as determined by 2-D zymography, the presence of cysteine protease clearly increased during senescence, a finding that may represent a useful tool for the control of the aging process.

  5. Dual origin of gut proteases in Formosan subterranean termites (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Sethi, Amit; Xue, Qing-Gang; La Peyre, Jerome F; Delatte, Jennifer; Husseneder, Claudia

    2011-07-01

    Cellulose digestion in lower termites, mediated by carbohydrases originating from both termite and endosymbionts, is well characterized. In contrast, limited information exists on gut proteases of lower termites, their origins and roles in termite nutrition. The objective of this study was to characterize gut proteases of the Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). The protease activity of extracts from gut tissues (fore-, mid- and hindgut) and protozoa isolated from hindguts of termite workers was quantified using hide powder azure as a substrate and further characterized by zymography with gelatin SDS-PAGE. Midgut extracts showed the highest protease activity followed by the protozoa extracts. High level of protease activity was also detected in protozoa culture supernatants after 24 h incubation. Incubation of gut and protozoa extracts with class-specific protease inhibitors revealed that most of the proteases were serine proteases. All proteolytic bands identified after gelatin SDS-PAGE were also inhibited by serine protease inhibitors. Finally, incubation with chromogenic substrates indicated that extracts from fore- and hindgut tissues possessed proteases with almost exclusively trypsin-like activity while both midgut and protozoa extracts possessed proteases with trypsin-like and subtilisin/chymotrypsin-like activities. However, protozoa proteases were distinct from midgut proteases (with different molecular mass). Our results suggest that the Formosan subterranean termite not only produces endogenous proteases in its gut tissues, but also possesses proteases originating from its protozoan symbionts.

  6. Proteases of germinating winged-bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) seeds: purification and characterization of an acidic protease.

    PubMed

    Usha, R; Singh, M

    1996-01-15

    Two major classes of protease are shown to occur in germinating winged-bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) seeds, by assaying extracts at pH 8.0 and pH 5.1 with [14C]gelatin as substrate. At pH 8.0, the activity profile of the enzyme shows a steady rise throughout the period of germination, whereas the activity at the acidic pH is very low up to day 5 and then increases sharply reaching a peak on day 11, followed by an equally sharp decline. The winged-bean acidic protease (WbAP) has been purified to apparent homogeneity, as attested by a single protein band on both PAGE and SDS/PAGE. WbAP is a monomeric enzyme with a molecular mass of 35 kDa and a pH optimum of 6.0. It is a thiol protease that does not belong to the papain family and it has tightly bound Ca2+ as shown by 45Ca(2+)-exchange studies. Besides gelatin and casein, it hydrolyses a 29 kDa winged-bean protein, indicating a prospective physiological role for it in storage-protein mobilization. Immunoblot analysis shows that it occurs only in the seeds and sprouting tubers of this plant and also that it is synthesized in developing seeds just before desiccation. It appears that the newly synthesized enzyme is inactive, and activation takes place around day 6 of germination. However, neither the mechanism of activation nor the signal that triggers it is clearly understood.

  7. The crystal structure of GXGD membrane protease FlaK

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jian; Xue, Yi; Lee, Sangwon; Ha, Ya

    2011-09-20

    The GXGD proteases are polytopic membrane proteins with catalytic activities against membrane-spanning substrates that require a pair of aspartyl residues. Representative members of the family include preflagellin peptidase, type 4 prepilin peptidase, presenilin and signal peptide peptidase. Many GXGD proteases are important in medicine. For example, type 4 prepilin peptidase may contribute to bacterial pathogenesis, and mutations in presenilin are associated with Alzheimer's disease. As yet, there is no atomic-resolution structure in this protease family. Here we report the crystal structure of FlaK, a preflagellin peptidase from Methanococcus maripaludis, solved at 3.6 {angstrom} resolution. The structure contains six transmembrane helices. The GXGD motif and a short transmembrane helix, helix 4, are positioned at the centre, surrounded by other transmembrane helices. The crystal structure indicates that the protease must undergo conformational changes to bring the GXGD motif and a second essential aspartyl residue from transmembrane helix 1 into close proximity for catalysis. A comparison of the crystal structure with models of presenilin derived from biochemical analysis reveals three common transmembrane segments that are similarly arranged around the active site. This observation reinforces the idea that the prokaryotic and human proteases are evolutionarily related. The crystal structure presented here provides a framework for understanding the mechanism of the GXGD proteases, and may facilitate the rational design of inhibitors that target specific members of the family.

  8. The Crystal Structure of GXGD Membrane Protease FlaK

    SciTech Connect

    J Hu; Y Xue; S Lee; Y Ha

    2011-12-31

    The GXGD proteases are polytopic membrane proteins with catalytic activities against membrane-spanning substrates that require a pair of aspartyl residues. Representative members of the family include preflagellin peptidase, type 4 prepilin peptidase, presenilin and signal peptide peptidase. Many GXGD proteases are important in medicine. For example, type 4 prepilin peptidase may contribute to bacterial pathogenesis, and mutations in presenilin are associated with Alzheimer's disease. As yet, there is no atomic-resolution structure in this protease family. Here we report the crystal structure of FlaK, a preflagellin peptidase from Methanococcus maripaludis, solved at 3.6 {angstrom} resolution. The structure contains six transmembrane helices. The GXGD motif and a short transmembrane helix, helix 4, are positioned at the centre, surrounded by other transmembrane helices. The crystal structure indicates that the protease must undergo conformational changes to bring the GXGD motif and a second essential aspartyl residue from transmembrane helix 1 into close proximity for catalysis. A comparison of the crystal structure with models of presenilin derived from biochemical analysis reveals three common transmembrane segments that are similarly arranged around the active site. This observation reinforces the idea that the prokaryotic and human proteases are evolutionarily related. The crystal structure presented here provides a framework for understanding the mechanism of the GXGD proteases, and may facilitate the rational design of inhibitors that target specific members of the family.

  9. The roles of intramembrane proteases in protozoan parasites.

    PubMed

    Sibley, L David

    2013-12-01

    Intramembrane proteolysis is widely conserved throughout different forms of life, with three major types of proteases being known for their ability to cleave peptide bonds directly within the transmembrane domains of their substrates. Although intramembrane proteases have been extensively studied in humans and model organisms, they have only more recently been investigated in protozoan parasites, where they turn out to play important and sometimes unexpected roles. Signal peptide peptidases are involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control and signal peptide degradation from exported proteins. Recent studies suggest that repurposing inhibitors developed for blocking presenilins may be useful for inhibiting the growth of Plasmodium, and possibly other protozoan parasites, by blocking signal peptide peptidases. Rhomboid proteases, originally described in the fly, are also widespread in parasites, and are especially expanded in apicomplexans. Their study in parasites has revealed novel roles that expand our understanding of how these proteases function. Within this diverse group of parasites, rhomboid proteases contribute to processing of adhesins involved in attachment, invasion, intracellular replication, phagocytosis, and immune evasion, placing them at the vertex of host-parasite interactions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Intramembrane Proteases.

  10. Insights into the Cyanobacterial Deg/HtrA Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Cheregi, Otilia; Wagner, Raik; Funk, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are the main machinery for all living processes in a cell; they provide structural elements, regulate biochemical reactions as enzymes, and are the interface to the outside as receptors and transporters. Like any other machinery proteins have to be assembled correctly and need maintenance after damage, e.g., caused by changes in environmental conditions, genetic mutations, and limitations in the availability of cofactors. Proteases and chaperones help in repair, assembly, and folding of damaged and misfolded protein complexes cost-effective, with low energy investment compared with neo-synthesis. Despite their importance for viability, the specific biological role of most proteases in vivo is largely unknown. Deg/HtrA proteases, a family of serine-type ATP-independent proteases, have been shown in higher plants to be involved in the degradation of the Photosystem II reaction center protein D1. The objective of this review is to highlight the structure and function of their cyanobacterial orthologs. Homology modeling was used to find specific features of the SynDeg/HtrA proteases of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Based on the available data concerning their location and their physiological substrates we conclude that these Deg proteases not only have important housekeeping and chaperone functions within the cell, but also are needed for remodeling the cell exterior. PMID:27252714

  11. Characterizing Protease Specificity: How Many Substrates Do We Need?

    PubMed

    Schauperl, Michael; Fuchs, Julian E; Waldner, Birgit J; Huber, Roland G; Kramer, Christian; Liedl, Klaus R

    2015-01-01

    Calculation of cleavage entropies allows to quantify, map and compare protease substrate specificity by an information entropy based approach. The metric intrinsically depends on the number of experimentally determined substrates (data points). Thus a statistical analysis of its numerical stability is crucial to estimate the systematic error made by estimating specificity based on a limited number of substrates. In this contribution, we show the mathematical basis for estimating the uncertainty in cleavage entropies. Sets of cleavage entropies are calculated using experimental cleavage data and modeled extreme cases. By analyzing the underlying mathematics and applying statistical tools, a linear dependence of the metric in respect to 1/n was found. This allows us to extrapolate the values to an infinite number of samples and to estimate the errors. Analyzing the errors, a minimum number of 30 substrates was found to be necessary to characterize substrate specificity, in terms of amino acid variability, for a protease (S4-S4') with an uncertainty of 5 percent. Therefore, we encourage experimental researchers in the protease field to record specificity profiles of novel proteases aiming to identify at least 30 peptide substrates of maximum sequence diversity. We expect a full characterization of protease specificity helpful to rationalize biological functions of proteases and to assist rational drug design. PMID:26559682

  12. Signaling pathways activated by a protease allergen in basophils

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstein, Rachel K.; Bezbradica, Jelena S.; Yu, Shuang; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2014-01-01

    Allergic diseases represent a significant burden in industrialized countries, but why and how the immune system responds to allergens remain largely unknown. Because many clinically significant allergens have proteolytic activity, and many helminths express proteases that are necessary for their life cycles, host mechanisms likely have evolved to detect the proteolytic activity of helminth proteases, which may be incidentally activated by protease allergens. A cysteine protease, papain, is a prototypic protease allergen that can directly activate basophils and mast cells, leading to the production of cytokines, including IL-4, characteristic of the type 2 immune response. The mechanism of papain’s immunogenic activity remains unknown. Here we have characterized the cellular response activated by papain in basophils. We find that papain-induced IL-4 production requires calcium flux and activation of PI3K and nuclear factor of activated T cells. Interestingly, papain-induced IL-4 production was dependent on the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) adaptor protein Fc receptor γ-chain, even though the canonical ITAM signaling was not activated by papain. Collectively, these data characterize the downstream signaling pathway activated by a protease allergen in basophils. PMID:25369937

  13. PEGylated substrates of NSP4 protease: A tool to study protease specificity

    PubMed Central

    Wysocka, Magdalena; Gruba, Natalia; Grzywa, Renata; Giełdoń, Artur; Bąchor, Remigiusz; Brzozowski, Krzysztof; Sieńczyk, Marcin; Dieter, Jenne; Szewczuk, Zbigniew; Rolka, Krzysztof; Lesner, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Herein we present the synthesis of a novel type of peptidomimetics composed of repeating diaminopropionic acid residues modified with structurally diverse heterobifunctional polyethylene glycol chains (abbreviated as DAPEG). Based on the developed compounds, a library of fluorogenic substrates was synthesized. Further library deconvolution towards human neutrophil serine protease 4 (NSP4) yielded highly sensitive and selective internally quenched peptidomimetic substrates. In silico analysis of the obtained peptidomimetics revealed the presence of an interaction network with distant subsites located on the enzyme surface. PMID:26955973

  14. Protease Production by Different Thermophilic Fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macchione, Mariana M.; Merheb, Carolina W.; Gomes, Eleni; da Silva, Roberto

    A comparative study was carried out to evaluate protease production in solid-state fermentation (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF) by nine different thermophilic fungi — Thermoascus aurantiacus Miehe, Thermomyces lanuginosus, T. lanuginosus TO.03, Aspergillus flavus 1.2, Aspergillus sp. 13.33, Aspergillus sp. 13.34, Aspergillus sp. 13.35, Rhizomucor pusillus 13.36 and Rhizomucor sp. 13.37 — using substrates containing proteins to induce enzyme secretion. Soybean extract (soybean milk), soybean flour, milk powder, rice, and wheat bran were tested. The most satisfactory results were obtained when using wheat bran in SSF. The fungi that stood out in SSF were T. lanuginosus, T. lanuginosus TO.03, Aspergillus sp. 13.34, Aspergillus sp. 13.35, and Rhizomucor sp. 13.37, and those in SmF were T. aurantiacus, T. lanuginosus TO.03, and 13.37. In both fermentation systems, A. flavus 1.2 and R. pusillus 13.36 presented the lowest levels of proteolytic activity.

  15. Cystatin protease inhibitors and immune functions.

    PubMed

    Zavasnik-Bergant, Tina

    2008-05-01

    Cystatins are natural tight-binding reversible inhibitors of cysteine proteases. They are wide spread in all living organisms (mammals, nematodes, arthropods etc.) and are involved in various biological processes where they regulate normal proteolysis and also take part in disease pathology. Many cystatins show changes in expression and/or localization, as well as changes in secretion, following certain stimuli acting on immune cells. In immune cells, cystatins interfere with antigen processing and presentation, phagocytosis, expression of cytokines and nitric oxide and these ways modify the immune response. Further, it has been suggested that cystatin-type molecules secreted from parasites down-modulate the host immune response. Precise understanding of the regulatory roles on proteolytic enzymes of endogenous and exogenous cystatins, such as those from parasites, will provide us with valuable insight into how immune response could be modulated to treat a specific disease. This review covers some specific functions of individual cystatins, with a particular focus on the relevance of cystatins to the immune response.

  16. Fragment-Based Screen against HIV Protease

    PubMed Central

    Perryman, A. L.; Zhang, Q.; Soutter, H. H.; Rosenfeld, R.; McRee, D. E.; Olson, A. J.; Elder, J. E.; Stout, C. D.

    2009-01-01

    We have employed a fragment-based screen against wild-type (NL4-3) HIV protease (PR) using the Active Sight fragment library and X-ray crystallography. The experiments reveal two new binding sites for small molecules. PR was co-crystallized with fragments, or crystals were soaked in fragment solutions, using five crystal forms, and 378 data sets were collected to 2.3-1.3 Å resolution. Fragment binding induces a distinct conformation and specific crystal form of TL-3 inhibited PR during co-crystallization. One fragment, 2-methylcyclohexanol, binds in the ‘exo site’ adjacent to the Gly16Gly17Gln18 loop where the amide of Gly17 is a specific hydrogen bond donor, and hydrophobic contacts occur with the side chains of Lys14 and Leu63. Another fragment, indole-6-carboxylic acid, binds on the ‘outside/top of the flap’ via hydrophobic contacts with Trp42, Pro44, Met46, and Lys55, a hydrogen bond with Val56, and a salt-bridge with Arg57. 2-acetyl-benzothiophene also binds at this site. This study is the first fragment-based crystallographic screen against HIV PR, and the first time that fragments were screened against an inhibitor-bound drug target to search for compounds that both bind to novel sites and stabilize the inhibited conformation of the target. PMID:20659109

  17. Fragment-based screen against HIV protease.

    PubMed

    Perryman, Alexander L; Zhang, Qing; Soutter, Holly H; Rosenfeld, Robin; McRee, Duncan E; Olson, Arthur J; Elder, John E; Stout, C David

    2010-03-01

    We have employed a fragment-based screen against wild-type (NL4-3) HIV protease (PR) using the Active Sight fragment library and X-ray crystallography. The experiments reveal two new binding sites for small molecules. PR was co-crystallized with fragments, or crystals were soaked in fragment solutions, using five crystal forms, and 378 data sets were collected to 2.3-1.3 A resolution. Fragment binding induces a distinct conformation and specific crystal form of TL-3 inhibited PR during co-crystallization. One fragment, 2-methylcyclohexanol, binds in the 'exo site' adjacent to the Gly(16)Gly(17)Gln(18)loop where the amide of Gly(17)is a specific hydrogen bond donor, and hydrophobic contacts occur with the side chains of Lys(14)and Leu(63). Another fragment, indole-6-carboxylic acid, binds on the 'outside/top of the flap' via hydrophobic contacts with Trp(42), Pro(44), Met(46), and Lys(55), a hydrogen bond with Val(56), and a salt-bridge with Arg(57). 2-acetyl-benzothiophene also binds at this site. This study is the first fragment-based crystallographic screen against HIV PR, and the first time that fragments were screened against an inhibitor-bound drug target to search for compounds that both bind to novel sites and stabilize the inhibited conformation of the target.

  18. Gene identification and molecular characterization of solvent stable protease from a moderately haloalkaliphilic bacterium, Geomicrobium sp. EMB2.

    PubMed

    Karan, Ram; Singh, Raj Kumar Mohan; Kapoor, Sanjay; Khare, S K

    2011-02-01

    Cloning and characterization of the gene encoding a solvent-tolerant protease from the haloalkaliphilic bacterium Geomicrobium sp. EMB2 are described. Primers designed based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified EMB2 protease helped in the amplification of a 1,505-bp open reading frame that had a coding potential of a 42.7-kDa polypeptide. The deduced EMB2 protein contained a 35.4-kDa mature protein of 311 residues, with a high proportion of acidic amino acid residues. Phylogenetic analysis placed the EMB2 gene close to a known serine protease from Bacillus clausii KSM-K16. Primary sequence analysis indicated a hydrophobic inclination of the protein; and the 3D structure modeling elucidated a relatively higher percentage of small (glycine, alanine, and valine) and borderline (serine and threonine) hydrophobic residues on its surface. The structure analysis also highlighted enrichment of acidic residues at the cost of basic residues. The study indicated that solvent and salt stabilities in Geomicrobium sp. protease may be accorded to different structural features; that is, the presence of a number of small hydrophobic amino acid residues on the surface and a higher content of acidic amino acid residues, respectively. PMID:21364294

  19. Protease induced plasticity: matrix metalloproteinase-1 promotes neurostructural changes through activation of protease activated receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Megan; Ghosh, Suhasini; Ahern, Gerard P.; Villapol, Sonia; Maguire-Zeiss, Kathleen A.; Conant, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of secreted endopeptidases expressed by neurons and glia. Regulated MMP activity contributes to physiological synaptic plasticity, while dysregulated activity can stimulate injury. Disentangling the role individual MMPs play in synaptic plasticity is difficult due to overlapping structure and function as well as cell-type specific expression. Here, we develop a novel system to investigate the selective overexpression of a single MMP driven by GFAP expressing cells in vivo. We show that MMP-1 induces cellular and behavioral phenotypes consistent with enhanced signaling through the G-protein coupled protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1). Application of exogenous MMP-1, in vitro, stimulates PAR1 dependent increases in intracellular Ca2+ concentration and dendritic arborization. Overexpression of MMP-1, in vivo, increases dendritic complexity and induces biochemical and behavioral endpoints consistent with increased GPCR signaling. These data are exciting because we demonstrate that an astrocyte-derived protease can influence neuronal plasticity through an extracellular matrix independent mechanism. PMID:27762280

  20. Stress Conditions Increase Vimentin Cleavage by Omi/HtrA2 Protease in Human Primary Neurons and Differentiated Neuroblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Lucotte, Bérangère; Tajhizi, Mehdi; Alkhatib, Dareen; Samuelsson, Eva-Britt; Wiehager, Birgitta; Schedin-Weiss, Sophia; Sundström, Erik; Winblad, Bengt; Tjernberg, Lars O; Behbahani, Homira

    2015-12-01

    Dysfunctional Omi/HtrA2, a mitochondrial serine protease, has been implicated in various neurodegenerative disorders. Despite the wealth of evidence on the roles of Omi/HtrA2 in apoptosis, little is known about its cytosolic targets, the cleavage of which could account for the observed morphological changes such as cytoskeletal reorganizations in axons. By proteomic analysis, vimentin was identified as a substrate for Omi/HtrA2 and we have reported increased Omi/HtrA2 protease activity in Alzheimer disease (AD) brain. Here, we investigated a possible link between Omi/HtrA2 and vimentin cleavage, and consequence of this cleavage on mitochondrial distribution in neurons. In vitro protease assays showed vimentin to be cleaved by Omi/HtrA2 protease, and proximity ligation assay demonstrated an increased interaction between Omi/HtrA2 and vimentin in human primary neurons upon stress stimuli. Using differentiated neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, we showed that Omi/HtrA2 under several different stress conditions induces cleavage of vimentin in wild-type as well as SH-SY5Y cells transfected with amyloid precursor protein with the Alzheimer disease-associated Swedish mutation. After stress treatment, inhibition of Omi/HtrA2 protease activity by the Omi/HtrA2 specific inhibitor, Ucf-101, reduced the cleavage of vimentin in wild-type cells. Following altered vimentin filaments integrity by stress stimuli, mitochondria was redistributed in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells and human primary neurons. In summary, the findings outlined in this paper suggest a role of Omi/HtrA2 in modulation of vimentin filamentous structure in neurons. Our results provide important findings for understanding the biological role of Omi/HtrA2 activity during stress conditions, and give knowledge of interplay between Omi/HtrA2 and vimentin which might affect mitochondrial distribution in neurons.

  1. Protease increases fermentation rate and ethanol yield in dry-grind ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Johnston, David B; McAloon, Andrew J

    2014-02-01

    The effects of acid protease and urea addition during the fermentation step were evaluated. The fermentations were also tested with and without the addition of urea to determine if protease altered the nitrogen requirements of the yeast. Results show that the addition of the protease had a statistically significant effect on the fermentation rate and yield. Fermentation rates and yields were improved with the addition of the protease over the corresponding controls without protease. Protease addition either with or with added urea resulted in a higher final ethanol yield than without the protease addition. Urea addition levels >1200 ppm of supplemental nitrogen inhibited ethanol production. The economic effects of the protease addition were evaluated by using process engineering and economic models developed at the Eastern Regional Research Center. The decrease in overall processing costs from protease addition was as high as $0.01/L (4 ¢/gal) of denatured ethanol produced.

  2. Expression, purification and molecular modeling of the NIa protease of Cardamom mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Jebasingh, T; Pandaranayaka, Eswari P J; Mahalakshmi, A; Kasin Yadunandam, A; Krishnaswamy, S; Usha, R

    2013-01-01

    The NIa protease of Potyviridae is the major viral protease that processes potyviral polyproteins. The NIa protease coding region of Cardamom mosaic virus (CdMV) is amplified from the viral cDNA, cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. NIa protease forms inclusion bodies in E.coli. The inclusion bodies are solubilized with 8 M urea, refolded and purified by Nickel-Nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. Three-dimensional modeling of the CdMV NIa protease is achieved by threading approach using the homologous X-ray crystallographic structure of Tobacco etch mosaic virus NIa protease. The model gave an insight in to the substrate specificities of the NIa proteases and predicted the complementation of nearby residues in the catalytic triad (H42, D74 and C141) mutants in the cis protease activity of CdMV NIa protease. PMID:22888800

  3. The structure of a universally employed enzyme: V8 protease from Staphylococcus aureus

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Lata; Leduc, Yvonne; Hayakawa, Koto; Delbaere, Louis T.J.

    2008-06-27

    V8 protease, an extracellular protease of Staphylococcus aureus, is related to the pancreatic serine proteases. The enzyme cleaves peptide bonds exclusively on the carbonyl side of aspartate and glutamate residues. Unlike the pancreatic serine proteases, V8 protease possesses no disulfide bridges. This is a major evolutionary difference, as all pancreatic proteases have at least two disulfide bridges. The structure of V8 protease shows structural similarity with several other serine proteases, specifically the epidermolytic toxins A and B from S. aureus and trypsin, in which the conformation of the active site is almost identical. V8 protease is also unique in that the positively charged N-terminus is involved in determining the substrate-specificity of the enzyme.

  4. Expression, purification and molecular modeling of the NIa protease of Cardamom mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Jebasingh, T; Pandaranayaka, Eswari P J; Mahalakshmi, A; Kasin Yadunandam, A; Krishnaswamy, S; Usha, R

    2013-01-01

    The NIa protease of Potyviridae is the major viral protease that processes potyviral polyproteins. The NIa protease coding region of Cardamom mosaic virus (CdMV) is amplified from the viral cDNA, cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. NIa protease forms inclusion bodies in E.coli. The inclusion bodies are solubilized with 8 M urea, refolded and purified by Nickel-Nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. Three-dimensional modeling of the CdMV NIa protease is achieved by threading approach using the homologous X-ray crystallographic structure of Tobacco etch mosaic virus NIa protease. The model gave an insight in to the substrate specificities of the NIa proteases and predicted the complementation of nearby residues in the catalytic triad (H42, D74 and C141) mutants in the cis protease activity of CdMV NIa protease.

  5. Protease inhibitor from Moringa oleifera with potential for use as therapeutic drug and as seafood preservative.

    PubMed

    Bijina, B; Chellappan, Sreeja; Krishna, Jissa G; Basheer, Soorej M; Elyas, K K; Bahkali, Ali H; Chandrasekaran, M

    2011-07-01

    Protease inhibitors are well known to have several applications in medicine and biotechnology. Several plant sources are known to return potential protease inhibitors. In this study plants belonging to different families of Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Rutaceae, Graminae and Moringaceae were screened for the protease inhibitor. Among them Moringa oleifera, belonging to the family Moringaceae, recorded high level of protease inhibitor activity after ammonium sulfate fractionation. M. oleifera, which grows throughout most of the tropics and having several industrial and medicinal uses, was selected as a source of protease inhibitor since so far no reports were made on isolation of the protease inhibitor. Among the different parts of M. oleifera tested, the crude extract isolated from the mature leaves and seeds showed the highest level of inhibition against trypsin. Among the various extraction media evaluated, the crude extract prepared in phosphate buffer showed maximum recovery of the protease inhibitor. The protease inhibitor recorded high inhibitory activity toward the serine proteases thrombin, elastase, chymotrypsin and the cysteine proteases cathepsin B and papain which have more importance in pharmaceutical industry. The protease inhibitor also showed complete inhibition of activities of the commercially available proteases of Bacillus licheniformis and Aspergillus oryzae. However, inhibitory activities toward subtilisin, esperase, pronase E and proteinase K were negligible. Further, it was found that the protease inhibitor could prevent proteolysis in a commercially valuable shrimp Penaeus monodon during storage indicating the scope for its application as a seafood preservative. This is the first report on isolation of a protease inhibitor from M. oleifera. PMID:23961135

  6. Protease inhibitor from Moringa oleifera with potential for use as therapeutic drug and as seafood preservative

    PubMed Central

    Bijina, B.; Chellappan, Sreeja; Krishna, Jissa G.; Basheer, Soorej M.; Elyas, K.K.; Bahkali, Ali H.; Chandrasekaran, M.

    2011-01-01

    Protease inhibitors are well known to have several applications in medicine and biotechnology. Several plant sources are known to return potential protease inhibitors. In this study plants belonging to different families of Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Rutaceae, Graminae and Moringaceae were screened for the protease inhibitor. Among them Moringa oleifera, belonging to the family Moringaceae, recorded high level of protease inhibitor activity after ammonium sulfate fractionation. M. oleifera, which grows throughout most of the tropics and having several industrial and medicinal uses, was selected as a source of protease inhibitor since so far no reports were made on isolation of the protease inhibitor. Among the different parts of M. oleifera tested, the crude extract isolated from the mature leaves and seeds showed the highest level of inhibition against trypsin. Among the various extraction media evaluated, the crude extract prepared in phosphate buffer showed maximum recovery of the protease inhibitor. The protease inhibitor recorded high inhibitory activity toward the serine proteases thrombin, elastase, chymotrypsin and the cysteine proteases cathepsin B and papain which have more importance in pharmaceutical industry. The protease inhibitor also showed complete inhibition of activities of the commercially available proteases of Bacillus licheniformis and Aspergillus oryzae. However, inhibitory activities toward subtilisin, esperase, pronase E and proteinase K were negligible. Further, it was found that the protease inhibitor could prevent proteolysis in a commercially valuable shrimp Penaeus monodon during storage indicating the scope for its application as a seafood preservative. This is the first report on isolation of a protease inhibitor from M. oleifera. PMID:23961135

  7. Kinetics of alkaline protease production by Streptomyces griseoflavus PTCC1130

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Seyed Vesal; Saffari, Zahra; Farhanghi, Ali; Atyabi, Seyed Mohammad; Norouzian, Dariush

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Proteases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the degradation of proteins resulting in the production of their amino acid constituents. They are the most important group of industrial enzymes which account for about 60% of total enzymes in the market and produced mainly by microorganisms. The attempts were made to study the kinetic parameters of protease produced by Streptomyces griseoflavus PTCC1130. Materials and Methods: Streptomyces griseoflavus PTCC1130 was grown on casein agar. Different media such as BM1, BM2, BM3 and BM4 were prepared. Data obtained from growth and protease production were subjected to kinetics evaluation. Casein was used as substrate for protease activity and the released soluble peptide bearing aromatic amino acid were quantified by Folin Cioclateaue reagent. Protein content of the enzyme and the sugar utilized by the organism were estimated by Bradford and Miller’s methods respectively. Results: Basal Medium named as BM1, BM2, BM3 and BM4(50 mL in 250 mL Erlen Meyer flasks) were screened out to evaluate protease production by Streptomyces griseoflavus PTCC1130. They were inoculated with known amount of seed culture and kept on rotary shaker. To obtain the specific growth rate, wet weight of biomass was plotted against the time. The clarified supernatant was used for the analysis of protease by measuring the soluble peptide containing aromatic amino acid residues employing Folin Cioclateaue reagent. Our results showed that maximum level of enzyme production (14035 U/L) was occurred at late exponential phase using Basal Medium supplemented with zinc sulfate (0.5g/L), casein (10g/L) at pH 6.5. Conclusions: A kinetic study of protease production by Streptomyces griseoflavus PTCC1130 provided highly quantitative information regarding the behavior of a system, which is essential to study the fermentation process. Exploitation of such kinetics analysis would be useful in commercialization of microbial enzyme

  8. Characterization of a chemostable serine alkaline protease from Periplaneta americana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Proteases are important enzymes involved in numerous essential physiological processes and hold a strong potential for industrial applications. The proteolytic activity of insects’ gut is endowed by many isoforms with diverse properties and specificities. Thus, insect proteases can act as a tool in industrial processes. Results In the present study, purification and properties of a serine alkaline protease from Periplaneta americana and its potential application as an additive in various bio-formulations are reported. The enzyme was purified near to homogeneity by using acetone precipitation and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography. Enzyme activity was increased up to 4.2 fold after gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme appeared as single protein-band with a molecular mass of ~ 27.8 kDa in SDS-PAGE. The optimum pH and temperature for the proteolytic activity for purified protein were found around pH 8.0 and 60°C respectively. Complete inhibition of the purified enzyme by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride confirmed that the protease was of serine-type. The purified enzyme revealed high stability and compatibility towards detergents, oxidizing, reducing, and bleaching agents. In addition, enzyme also showed stability towards organic solvents and commercial detergents. Conclusion Several important properties of a serine protease from P. Americana were revealed. Moreover, insects can serve as excellent and alternative source of industrially important proteases with unique properties, which can be utilized as additives in detergents, stain removers and other bio-formulations. Properties of the P. americana protease accounted in the present investigation can be exploited further in various industrial processes. As an industrial prospective, identification of enzymes with varying essential properties from different insect species might be good approach and bioresource. PMID:24229392

  9. Proteases in egg, miracidium and adult of Fasciola gigantica. Characterization of serine and cysteine proteases from adult.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Saleh A; Fahmy, Afaf S; Mohamed, Tarek M; Hamdy, Soha M

    2005-10-01

    Proteolytic activity of 0-12 day old eggs, miracidium and adult worm of Fasciola gigantica was assessed and proteases were partially purified by DEAE-Sepharose and CM-cellulose columns. Four forms of protease were separated, PIa, PIb, PIc and PII. Purifications were completed for PIc and PII using Sephacryl S-200 chromatography. A number of natural and synthetic proteins were tested as substrates for F. gigantica PIc and PII. The two proteases had moderate activity levels toward azoalbumin and casein compared to azocasein, while gelatin, hemoglobin, albumin and fibrin had very low affinity toward the two enzymes. Amidolytic substrates are more specific to protease activity. PIc had higher affinity toward BAPNA-HCl (N-benzoyl-arginine-p-nitroanilide-HCl) and BTPNA-HCl (N-benzoyl-tyrosine-p-nitroanilide-HCl) at pH 8.0 indicating that the enzyme was a serine protease. However, PII had higher affinity toward BAPNA at pH 6.5 in the presence of sulfhydryl groups (beta-mercaptoethanol) indicating that the enzyme was a cysteine protease. The effect of specific protease inhibitors on these enzymes was studied. The results confirmed that proteases PIc and PII could be serine and cysteine proteases, respectively. The molecular weights of F. gigantica PIc and PII were 60,000 and 25,000, respectively. F. gigantica PIc and PII had pH optima at 7.5 and 5.5 and K(M) of 2 and 5 mg azocasein/mL, respectively. For amidolytic substrates, PIc had K(M) of 0.3 mM BAPNA/mL and 0.5 mM BTPNA/mL at pH 8.0 and PII had K(M) of 0.6 mM BAPNA/mL at pH 6.5 with reducing agent. F. gigantica PIc and PII had the same optimum temperature at 50 degrees C and were stable up to 40 degrees C. All examined metal cations tested had inhibitory effects toward the two enzymes. From substrate specificity and protease inhibitor studies, PIc and PII could be designated as serine PIc and cysteine PII, respectively. PMID:16102991

  10. Protease nexin-1 regulates retinal vascular development.

    PubMed

    Selbonne, Sonia; Francois, Deborah; Raoul, William; Boulaftali, Yacine; Sennlaub, Florian; Jandrot-Perrus, Martine; Bouton, Marie-Christine; Arocas, Véronique

    2015-10-01

    We recently identified protease nexin-1 (PN-1) or serpinE2, as a possibly underestimated player in maintaining angiogenic balance. Here, we used the well-characterized postnatal vascular development of newborn mouse retina to further investigate the role and the mechanism of action of PN-1 in physiological angiogenesis. The development of retinal vasculature was analysed by endothelial cell staining with isolectin B4. PN-1-deficient (PN-1(-/-)) retina displayed increased vascularization in the postnatal period, with elevated capillary thickness and density, compared to their wild-type littermate (WT). Moreover, PN-1(-/-) retina presented more veins/arteries than WT retina. The kinetics of retinal vasculature development, retinal VEGF expression and overall retinal structure were similar in WT and PN-1(-/-) mice, but we observed a hyperproliferation of vascular cells in PN-1(-/-) retina. Expression of PN-1 was analysed by immunoblotting and X-Gal staining of retinas from mice expressing beta-galactosidase under a PN-1 promoter. PN-1 was highly expressed in the first week following birth and then progressively decreased to a low level in adult retina where it localized on the retinal arteries. PCR arrays performed on mouse retinal RNA identified two angiogenesis-related factors, midkine and Smad5, that were overexpressed in PN-1(-/-) newborn mice and this was confirmed by RT-PCR. Both the higher vascularization and the overexpression of midkine and Smad5 mRNA were also observed in gastrocnemius muscle of PN-1(-/-) mice, suggesting that PN-1 interferes with these pathways. Together, our results demonstrate that PN-1 strongly limits physiological angiogenesis and suggest that modulation of PN-1 expression could represent a new way to regulate angiogenesis.

  11. Contribution of Gag and Protease to HIV-1 Phenotypic Drug Resistance in Pediatric Patients Failing Protease Inhibitor-Based Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Giandhari, Jennifer; Basson, Adriaan E.; Sutherland, Katherine; Parry, Chris M.; Cane, Patricia A.; Coovadia, Ashraf; Kuhn, Louise; Hunt, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Protease inhibitors (PIs) are used as a first-line regimen in HIV-1-infected children. Here we investigated the phenotypic consequences of amino acid changes in Gag and protease on lopinavir (LPV) and ritonavir (RTV) susceptibility among pediatric patients failing PI therapy. The Gag-protease from isolates from 20 HIV-1 subtype C-infected pediatric patients failing an LPV and/or RTV-based regimen was phenotyped using a nonreplicative in vitro assay. Changes in sensitivity to LPV and RTV relative to that of the matched baseline (pretherapy) sample were calculated. Gag and protease amino acid substitutions associated with PI failure were created in a reference clone by site-directed mutagenesis and assessed. Predicted phenotypes were determined using the Stanford drug resistance algorithm. Phenotypic resistance or reduced susceptibility to RTV and/or LPV was observed in isolates from 10 (50%) patients, all of whom had been treated with RTV. In most cases, this was associated with protease resistance mutations, but substitutions at Gag cleavage and noncleavage sites were also detected. Gag amino acid substitutions were also found in isolates from three patients with reduced drug susceptibilities who had wild-type protease. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that some amino acid changes in Gag contributed to PI resistance but only in the presence of major protease resistance-associated substitutions. The isolates from all patients who received LPV exclusively were phenotypically susceptible. Baseline isolates from the 20 patients showed a large (47-fold) range in the 50% effective concentration of LPV, which accounted for most of the discordance seen between the experimentally determined and the predicted phenotypes. Overall, the inclusion of the gag gene and the use of matched baseline samples provided a more comprehensive assessment of the effect of PI-induced amino acid changes on PI resistance. The lack of phenotypic resistance to LPV supports the continued use of

  12. Regulation of Extracellular Protease Production in Bacillus cereus T: Characterization of Mutants Producing Altered Amounts of Protease

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, A. I.; Angelo, N.; Holt, S. C.

    1971-01-01

    Twenty-nine mutants of Bacillus cereus T were selected on casein agar for their inability to produce large amounts of extracellular protease. They all formed spores, and 27 were also auxotrophs for purines or pyrimidines. Upon reversion to prototrophy, a large fraction regained the capacity to produce protease. Conversely, reversion to normal protease production resulted in loss of the purine or pyrimidine requirement in a large fraction of the revertants. One spontaneous low-protease-producing pyrimidine auxotroph studied in detail grew as well as the wild type and produced spores which were identical to those produced by the wild type on the basis of heat resistance, dipicolinic acid content, density, and appearance in the electron microscope. The rate of protein turnover in the mutant was the same as the wild type. The mutant did grow poorly, however, when casein was the principal carbon source. A mutant excreting 5 to 10 times as much protease as the wild type was isolated as a secondary mutation from the hypoproducer discussed above. Loss of the pyrimidine requirement in this case did not alter the regulation of protease production. Although the secondary mutant grew somewhat faster in most media than the wild type, the final cell yield was lower. The spores of this mutant appeared to have excess coat on the basis of both electron microscopic and chemical studies. There appear to be closely related but distinct catabolic controls for both extracellular protease and spore formation. These controls can be dissociated as for the hypoproducers but can also appear integrated as for the hyperprotease producer. Images PMID:4104235

  13. Proteolytic Activation of the Protease-activated Receptor (PAR)-2 by the Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored Serine Protease Testisin*

    PubMed Central

    Driesbaugh, Kathryn H.; Buzza, Marguerite S.; Martin, Erik W.; Conway, Gregory D.; Kao, Joseph P. Y.; Antalis, Toni M.

    2015-01-01

    Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are a family of seven-transmembrane, G-protein-coupled receptors that are activated by multiple serine proteases through specific N-terminal proteolytic cleavage and the unmasking of a tethered ligand. The majority of PAR-activating proteases described to date are soluble proteases that are active during injury, coagulation, and inflammation. Less investigation, however, has focused on the potential for membrane-anchored serine proteases to regulate PAR activation. Testisin is a unique trypsin-like serine protease that is tethered to the extracellular membrane of cells through a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. Here, we show that the N-terminal domain of PAR-2 is a substrate for testisin and that proteolytic cleavage of PAR-2 by recombinant testisin activates downstream signaling pathways, including intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. When testisin and PAR-2 are co-expressed in HeLa cells, GPI-anchored testisin specifically releases the PAR-2 tethered ligand. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous testisin in NCI/ADR-Res ovarian tumor cells reduces PAR-2 N-terminal proteolytic cleavage. The cleavage of PAR-2 by testisin induces activation of the intracellular serum-response element and NFκB signaling pathways and the induction of IL-8 and IL-6 cytokine gene expression. Furthermore, the activation of PAR-2 by testisin results in the loss and internalization of PAR-2 from the cell surface. This study reveals a new biological substrate for testisin and is the first demonstration of the activation of a PAR by a serine protease GPI-linked to the cell surface. PMID:25519908

  14. Diversity of both the cultivable protease-producing bacteria and their extracellular proteases in the sediments of the South China sea.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ming-Yang; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhao, Hui-Lin; Dang, Hong-Yue; Luan, Xi-Wu; Zhang, Xi-Ying; He, Hai-Lun; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2009-10-01

    Protease-producing bacteria are known to play an important role in degrading sedimentary particular organic nitrogen, and yet, their diversity and extracellular proteases remain largely unknown. In this paper, the diversity of the cultivable protease-producing bacteria and their extracellular proteases in the sediments of the South China Sea was investigated. The richness of the cultivable protease-producing bacteria reached 10(6) cells/g in all sediment samples. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the predominant cultivated protease-producing bacteria are Gammaproteobacteria affiliated with the genera Pseudoalteromonas, Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Idiomarina, Halomonas, Vibrio, Shewanella, Pseudomonas, and Rheinheimera, with Alteromonas (34.6%) and Pseudoalteromonas (28.2%) as the predominant groups. Inhibitor analysis showed that nearly all the extracellular proteases from the bacteria are serine proteases or metalloproteases. Moreover, these proteases have different hydrolytic ability to different proteins, reflecting they may belong to different kinds of serine proteases or metalloproteases. To our knowledge, this study represents the first report of the diversity of bacterial proteases in deep-sea sediments.

  15. Protease Inhibitors in View of Peptide Substrate Databases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Protease substrate profiling has nowadays almost become a routine task for experimentalists, and the knowledge on protease peptide substrates is easily accessible via the MEROPS database. We present a shape-based virtual screening workflow using vROCS that applies the information about the specificity of the proteases to find new small-molecule inhibitors. Peptide substrate sequences for three to four substrate positions of each substrate from the MEROPS database were used to build the training set. Two-dimensional substrate sequences were converted to three-dimensional conformations through mutation of a template peptide substrate. The vROCS query was built from single amino acid queries for each substrate position considering the relative frequencies of the amino acids. The peptide-substrate-based shape-based virtual screening approach gives good performance for the four proteases thrombin, factor Xa, factor VIIa, and caspase-3 with the DUD-E data set. The results show that the method works for protease targets with different specificity profiles as well as for targets with different active-site mechanisms. As no structure of the target and no information on small-molecule inhibitors are required to use our approach, the method has significant advantages in comparison with conventional structure- and ligand-based methods. PMID:27247997

  16. Characterization, biomedical and agricultural applications of protease inhibitors: A review.

    PubMed

    Shamsi, Tooba Naz; Parveen, Romana; Fatima, Sadaf

    2016-10-01

    This review describes Protease Inhibitors (PIs) which target or inhibit proteases, protein digesting enzymes. These proteases play a crucial task in many biological events including digestion, blood coagulation, apoptosis etc. Regardless of their crucial roles, they need to be checked regularly by PIs as their excess may possibly damage host organism. On basis of amino acid composition of PIs where Protease-PI enzymatic reactions occur i.e. serine, cysteine, and aspartic acid, they are classified. Nowadays, various PIs are being worked upon to fight various parasitic or viral diseases including malaria, schistosomiasis, colds, flu', dengue etc. They prevent an ongoing process begun by carcinogen exposure by keeping a check on metastasis. They also possess potential to reduce carcinogen-induced, increased levels of gene amplification to almost normal levels. Some PIs can principally be used for treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure by blocking conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II for example Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs). Also PIs target amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) level in brain which is prime responsible for development of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Also, PIs inhibit enzymatic activity of HIV-1 Protease Receptor (PR) by preventing cleavage events in Gag and Gag-Pol that result in production of non-virulent virus particles.

  17. Mitochondrial cereblon functions as a Lon-type protease.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Kosuke; Nakamura, China; Asahi, Toru; Sawamura, Naoya

    2016-07-15

    Lon protease plays a major role in the protein quality control system in mammalian cell mitochondria. It is present in the mitochondrial matrix, and degrades oxidized and misfolded proteins, thereby protecting the cell from various extracellular stresses, including oxidative stress. The intellectual disability-associated and thalidomide-binding protein cereblon (CRBN) contains a large, highly conserved Lon domain. However, whether CRBN has Lon protease-like function remains unknown. Here, we determined if CRBN has a protective function against oxidative stress, similar to Lon protease. We report that CRBN partially distributes in mitochondria, suggesting it has a mitochondrial function. To specify the mitochondrial role of CRBN, we mitochondrially expressed CRBN in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. The resulting stable SH-SY5Y cell line showed no apparent effect on the mitochondrial functions of fusion, fission, and membrane potential. However, mitochondrially expressed CRBN exhibited protease activity, and was induced by oxidative stress. In addition, stably expressed cells exhibited suppressed neuronal cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide. These results suggest that CRBN functions specifically as a Lon-type protease in mitochondria.

  18. Emerging roles for diverse intramembrane proteases in plant biology.

    PubMed

    Adam, Zach

    2013-12-01

    Progress in the field of regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) in recent years has made its impact on plant biology as well. Although this field within plant research is still in its infancy, some interesting observations have started to emerge. Gene encoding orthologs of rhomboid proteases, site-2 proteases (S2P), presenilin/γ-secretases, and signal peptide peptidases are found in plant genomes and some of these gene products were identified in different plant cell membranes. The lack of chloroplast-located rhomboid proteases was associated with reduced fertility and aberrations in flower morphology. Mutations in homologues of S2P resulted in chlorophyll deficiency and impaired chloroplast development. An S2P was also implicated in the response to ER stress through cleavage of ER-membrane bZIP transcription factors, allowing their migration to the nucleus and activation of the transcription of BiP chaperones. Other membrane-bound transcription factors of the NAC and PHD families were also demonstrated to undergo RIP and relocalization to the nucleus. These and other new data are expected to shed more light on the roles of intramembrane proteases in plant biology in the future. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Intramembrane Proteases.

  19. Alkaline protease from Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 mitigates industrial pollution.

    PubMed

    Verma, Amit; Ansari, Mohammad W; Anwar, Mohmmad S; Agrawal, Ruchi; Agrawal, Sanjeev

    2014-05-01

    Proteases have found a wide application in the several industrial processes, such as laundry detergents, protein recovery or solubilization, prion degradation, meat tenderizations, and in bating of hides and skins in leather industries. But the main hurdle in industrial application of proteases is their economical production on a large scale. The present investigation aimed to exploit the locally available inexpensive agricultural and household wastes for alkaline protease production using Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 via solid-state fermentation (SSF) technique. The alkaline enzyme is potentially useful as an additive in commercial detergents to mitigate pollution load due to extensive use of caustic soda-based detergents. Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 showed good protease production under SSF conditions of 55 °C, pH 9, and 50 % moisture content with potato peels as solid substrate. The presented findings revealed that crude alkaline protease produced by Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 via SSF is of potential application in silver recovery from used X-ray films.

  20. Extracellular proteases are released by ciliates in defined seawater microcosms.

    PubMed

    Thao, Ngo Vy; Nozawa, Akino; Obayashi, Yumiko; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Yokokawa, Taichi; Suzuki, Satoru

    2015-08-01

    The biodegradation of proteins in seawater requires various proteases which are commonly thought to be mainly derived from heterotrophic bacteria. We, however, found that protists showed a high protease activity and continuously produced trypsin-type enzymes. The free-living marine heterotrophic ciliate Paranophrys marina together with an associated bacterium was isolated and used for microcosm incubation with different concentrations of killed bacteria as food for 10 days. The results showed that the co-existence of the ciliate with its associated bacterium produced a significant protease activity in both cell-associated and cell-free fractions while that in the associated bacterium only microcosm was negligible. The protease profiles are different between cell-associated and cell-free fractions, and a trypsin-type enzyme hydrolyzing Boc-Val-Leu-Lys-MCA was detected throughout the period in the presence of ciliates. This suggests that ciliates release proteases into the surrounding environment which could play a role in protein digestion outside cells. It has been previously suggested that bacteria are the major transformers in seawater. We here present additional data which indicates that protists, or at least ciliates with their specific enzymes, are a potential player in organic matter degradation in water columns.

  1. Plant collagenase: unique collagenolytic activity of cysteine proteases from ginger.

    PubMed

    Kim, Misook; Hamilton, Susan E; Guddat, Luke W; Overall, Christopher M

    2007-12-01

    Two cysteine proteases, GP2 and GP3, have been isolated from ginger rhizomes (Zingiber officinale). GP2 is virtually identical to a previously identified ginger protease GPII [K.H. Choi, and R.A. Laursen, Amino-acid sequence and glycan structures of cysteine proteases with proline specificity from ginger rhizome Zingiber officinale, Eur. J. Biochem. 267 (2000) 1516-1526.], and cleaves native type I collagen at multiple discrete sites, which are in the interior of the triple helical region of this molecule. In reaction with proline-containing peptides GP2 shows preference for Pro in the P2 position, and at least 10-fold higher efficiency of hydrolysis than papain. Comparison of models of GP2 and GP3 with the crystal structure of papain shows that the three enzymes have different S2 pocket structures. The S2 pocket in GP2 and GP3 is half the size of that of papain. GP2 is the only reported plant cysteine protease with a demonstrated ability to hydrolyse native collagen. The results support a role for ginger proteases as an alternative to papain, in commercial applications such as meat tenderization, where collagen is the target substrate. PMID:17920199

  2. Characterization, biomedical and agricultural applications of protease inhibitors: A review.

    PubMed

    Shamsi, Tooba Naz; Parveen, Romana; Fatima, Sadaf

    2016-10-01

    This review describes Protease Inhibitors (PIs) which target or inhibit proteases, protein digesting enzymes. These proteases play a crucial task in many biological events including digestion, blood coagulation, apoptosis etc. Regardless of their crucial roles, they need to be checked regularly by PIs as their excess may possibly damage host organism. On basis of amino acid composition of PIs where Protease-PI enzymatic reactions occur i.e. serine, cysteine, and aspartic acid, they are classified. Nowadays, various PIs are being worked upon to fight various parasitic or viral diseases including malaria, schistosomiasis, colds, flu', dengue etc. They prevent an ongoing process begun by carcinogen exposure by keeping a check on metastasis. They also possess potential to reduce carcinogen-induced, increased levels of gene amplification to almost normal levels. Some PIs can principally be used for treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure by blocking conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II for example Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs). Also PIs target amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) level in brain which is prime responsible for development of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Also, PIs inhibit enzymatic activity of HIV-1 Protease Receptor (PR) by preventing cleavage events in Gag and Gag-Pol that result in production of non-virulent virus particles. PMID:26955746

  3. Predictors of virologic response to ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Marcelin, Anne-Genevieve; Flandre, Philippe; Peytavin, Gilles; Calvez, Vincent

    2005-01-01

    The primary mechanism of resistance to protease inhibitors involves the stepwise accumulation of mutations that alter and block the substrate binding site of HIV protease. The large degree of cross-resistance among the different protease inhibitors is a source of considerable concern for the management of patients after treatment failure. Although the output of HIV-resistance tests has been based on therapeutically arbitrary criteria, there is now an ongoing move towards correlating test interpretation with virologic outcomes on treatment. This approach is undeniably superior, in principle, for tests intended to guide drug choices. However, the predictive accuracy of a given stratagem that links genotype or phenotype to drug response is strongly influenced by the study design, data capture and the analytical methodology used to derive it. There is no definitively superior methodology for generating a genotype-response association for use in interpreting a resistance test, and the various approaches used to date all have their strengths and weaknesses. Combining the information of therapeutic drug monitoring and resistance tests is likely to be of greatest clinical utility in antiretroviral-experienced patients harboring HIV strains with reduced susceptibility. The combination of pharmacologic and virologic parameters as a predictor of the virologic response has been merged into the parameter known as "inhibitory quotient". This article discusses the potential interest of the use of inhibitory quotients as an approach for enhancing the potency and durability of boosted protease inhibitors against protease inhibitor-resistant viruses. PMID:16425962

  4. Extracellular proteases are released by ciliates in defined seawater microcosms.

    PubMed

    Thao, Ngo Vy; Nozawa, Akino; Obayashi, Yumiko; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Yokokawa, Taichi; Suzuki, Satoru

    2015-08-01

    The biodegradation of proteins in seawater requires various proteases which are commonly thought to be mainly derived from heterotrophic bacteria. We, however, found that protists showed a high protease activity and continuously produced trypsin-type enzymes. The free-living marine heterotrophic ciliate Paranophrys marina together with an associated bacterium was isolated and used for microcosm incubation with different concentrations of killed bacteria as food for 10 days. The results showed that the co-existence of the ciliate with its associated bacterium produced a significant protease activity in both cell-associated and cell-free fractions while that in the associated bacterium only microcosm was negligible. The protease profiles are different between cell-associated and cell-free fractions, and a trypsin-type enzyme hydrolyzing Boc-Val-Leu-Lys-MCA was detected throughout the period in the presence of ciliates. This suggests that ciliates release proteases into the surrounding environment which could play a role in protein digestion outside cells. It has been previously suggested that bacteria are the major transformers in seawater. We here present additional data which indicates that protists, or at least ciliates with their specific enzymes, are a potential player in organic matter degradation in water columns. PMID:26115436

  5. Three Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with different protease profiles.

    PubMed

    Andrejko, Mariola; Zdybicka-Barabas, Agnieszka; Janczarek, Monika; Cytryńska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    The proteolytic activity of three Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, ATCC 27853 - a reference strain, and two clinical isolates was tested. The activity was examined after culturing the bacteria in two different growth media: the minimal M9 medium and rich Luria-Bertani broth (LB). Based on zymograms and protease activity specific assays, it was concluded that the reference strain produced three proteolytic enzymes in the LB medium: protease IV, elastase B and elastase A, while alkaline protease was only produced in the M9 medium. The clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa produced elastase B and alkaline protease when grown in the LB medium and the minimal M9 medium, respectively. PCR analysis confirmed the presence of both the lasB gene encoding elastase B and aprA coding for alkaline protease in the genomes of the three P. aeruginosa strains analyzed. The expression of these genes coding for two important P. aeruginosa virulence factors was dependent on the growth conditions in all the strains studied. The contribution of the extracellular proteinases to the virulence of P. aeruginosa strains used in this study was investigated using an insect model, the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella.

  6. A tunable, modular approach to fluorescent protease-activated reporters.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peng; Nicholls, Samantha B; Hardy, Jeanne A

    2013-04-01

    Proteases are one of the most important and historically utilized classes of drug targets. To effectively interrogate this class of proteins, which encodes nearly 2% of the human proteome, it is necessary to develop effective and cost-efficient methods that report on their activity both in vitro and in vivo. We have developed a robust reporter of caspase proteolytic activity, called caspase-activatable green fluorescent protein (CA-GFP). The caspases play central roles in homeostatic regulation, as they execute programmed cell death, and in drug design, as caspases are involved in diseases ranging from cancer to neurodegeneration. CA-GFP is a genetically encoded dark-to-bright fluorescent reporter of caspase activity in in vitro, cell-based, and animal systems. Based on the CA-GFP platform, we developed reporters that can discriminate the activities of caspase-6 and -7, two highly related proteases. A second series of reporters, activated by human rhinovirus 3C protease, demonstrated that we could alter the specificity of the reporter by reengineering the protease recognition sequence. Finally, we took advantage of the spectrum of known fluorescent proteins to generate green, yellow, cyan, and red reporters, paving the way for multiplex protease monitoring. PMID:23561537

  7. Hydrophobic Core Flexibility Modulates Enzyme Activity in HIV-1 Protease

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Seema; Cai, Yufeng; Nalam, Madhavi N.L.; Bolon, Daniel N.A.; Schiffer, Celia A.

    2012-09-11

    Human immunodeficiency virus Type-1 (HIV-1) protease is crucial for viral maturation and infectivity. Studies of protease dynamics suggest that the rearrangement of the hydrophobic core is essential for enzyme activity. Many mutations in the hydrophobic core are also associated with drug resistance and may modulate the core flexibility. To test the role of flexibility in protease activity, pairs of cysteines were introduced at the interfaces of flexible regions remote from the active site. Disulfide bond formation was confirmed by crystal structures and by alkylation of free cysteines and mass spectrometry. Oxidized and reduced crystal structures of these variants show the overall structure of the protease is retained. However, cross-linking the cysteines led to drastic loss in enzyme activity, which was regained upon reducing the disulfide cross-links. Molecular dynamics simulations showed that altered dynamics propagated throughout the enzyme from the engineered disulfide. Thus, altered flexibility within the hydrophobic core can modulate HIV-1 protease activity, supporting the hypothesis that drug resistant mutations distal from the active site can alter the balance between substrate turnover and inhibitor binding by modulating enzyme activity.

  8. Mitochondrial cereblon functions as a Lon-type protease

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Kosuke; Nakamura, China; Asahi, Toru; Sawamura, Naoya

    2016-01-01

    Lon protease plays a major role in the protein quality control system in mammalian cell mitochondria. It is present in the mitochondrial matrix, and degrades oxidized and misfolded proteins, thereby protecting the cell from various extracellular stresses, including oxidative stress. The intellectual disability-associated and thalidomide-binding protein cereblon (CRBN) contains a large, highly conserved Lon domain. However, whether CRBN has Lon protease-like function remains unknown. Here, we determined if CRBN has a protective function against oxidative stress, similar to Lon protease. We report that CRBN partially distributes in mitochondria, suggesting it has a mitochondrial function. To specify the mitochondrial role of CRBN, we mitochondrially expressed CRBN in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. The resulting stable SH-SY5Y cell line showed no apparent effect on the mitochondrial functions of fusion, fission, and membrane potential. However, mitochondrially expressed CRBN exhibited protease activity, and was induced by oxidative stress. In addition, stably expressed cells exhibited suppressed neuronal cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide. These results suggest that CRBN functions specifically as a Lon-type protease in mitochondria. PMID:27417535

  9. Selection of multiple human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants that encode viral proteases with decreased sensitivity to an inhibitor of the viral protease.

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, A H; Michael, S F; Wehbie, R S; Knigge, M F; Paul, D A; Everitt, L; Kempf, D J; Norbeck, D W; Erickson, J W; Swanstrom, R

    1994-01-01

    Inhibitors of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease represent a promising addition to the available agents used to inhibit virus replication in a therapeutic setting. HIV-1 is capable of generating phenotypic variants in the face of a variety of selective pressures. The potential to generate variants with reduced sensitivity to a protease inhibitor was examined by selecting for virus growth in cell culture in the presence of the protease inhibitor A-77003. Virus variants grew out in the presence of the inhibitor, and these variants encoded proteases with reduced sensitivity to the inhibitor. Variants were identified that encoded changes in each of the three subsites of the protease that interact with the inhibitor. HIV-1 displays significant potential for altering its interaction with this protease inhibitor, suggesting the need for multiple protease inhibitors with varying specificities. Images PMID:8202533

  10. Diversity of cultivable protease-producing bacteria in sediments of Jiaozhou Bay, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi-Ying; Han, Xiao-Xu; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Dang, Hong-Yue; Xie, Bin-Bin; Qin, Qi-Long; Shi, Mei; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Although protease-producing bacteria are key players in the degradation of organic nitrogen and essential for the nitrogen recycling in marine sediments, diversity of both these bacteria and their extracellular proteases is still largely unknown. This study investigated the diversity of the cultivable protease-producing bacteria and their extracellular proteases in the sediments of the eutrophied Jiaozhou Bay, China through phylogenetic analysis and protease inhibitor tests. The abundance of the cultivable protease-producing bacteria was up to 104 cells/g in all six sediment samples. The cultivated protease-producing bacteria mostly belonged to the phyla Proteobacteria and Firmicutes with the predominant genera being Photobacterium (39.4%), Bacillus (25.8%), and Vibrio (19.7%). Protease inhibitor tests revealed that extracellular proteases secreted by the bacteria were mainly serine proteases and/or metalloproteases with relatively low proportions of cysteine proteases. This study represents the first comprehensive analysis on the diversity of protease-producing bacteria and their extracellular proteases in sediments of a eutrophic bay. PMID:26441943

  11. Human mast cell tryptase: Multiple cDNAs and genes reveal a multigene serine protease family

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderslice, P.; Ballinger, S.M., Tam, E.K.; Goldstein, S.M.; Craik, C.S.; Caughey, G.H. )

    1990-05-01

    Three different cDNAs and a gene encoding human skin mast cell tryptase have been cloned and sequenced in their entirety. The deduced amino acid sequences reveal a 30-amino acid prepropeptide followed by a 245-amino acid catalytic domain. The C-terminal undecapeptide of the human preprosequence is identical in dog tryptase and appears to be part of a prosequence unique among serine proteases. The differences among the three human tryptase catalytic domains include the loss of a consensus N-glycosylation site in one cDNA, which may explain some of the heterogeneity in size and susceptibility to deglycosylation seen in tryptase preparations. All three tryptase cDNAs are distinct from a recently reported cDNA obtained from a human lung mast cell library. A skin tryptase cDNA was used to isolate a human tryptase gene, the exons of which match one of the skin-derived cDNAs. The organization of the {approx}1.8-kilobase-pair tryptase gene is unique and is not closely related to that of any other mast cell or leukocyte serine protease. The 5{prime} regulatory regions of the gene share features with those of other serine proteases, including mast cell chymase, but are unusual in being separated from the protein-coding sequence by an intron. High-stringency hybridization of a human genomic DNA blot with a fragment of the tryptase gene confirms the presence of multiple tryptase genes. These findings provide genetic evidence that human mast cell tryptases are the products of a multigene family.

  12. Characterization of two uterine proteases and their actions on the estrogen receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, M.R.; Notides, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    We have characterized two previously undetected proteases from the calf uterine cytosol and measured their actions on the estrogen receptor. One is an exopeptidase, purified 60-fold, that hydrolyzed amino acid (lysine-, and alanine-, or leucine-) p-nitroanilide substrates and leucyl-glycylglycine, did not hydrolyze (/sup 14/C)methemoglobin, was completely inhibited by 1 mM bestatin or puromycin (specific inhibitors of leucine aminopeptidase like enzymes), and was unable to influence the sedimentation of the 8S form of the estrogen receptor in sucrose gradients containing dilute Tris buffer. A commercial porcine leucine aminopeptidase, like the calf uterine aminopeptidase, did not convert the 8S estrogen receptor to a 4S form. Evidently, removal of the N-terminal amino acid(s) from the estrogen receptor by exopeptidase action cannot alter the sedimentation of the 8S form of the receptor, or the N-terminal amino acid(s) of the receptor is (are) unaccessible or resistant to exopeptidase activity. The second, a receptor-active protease, is an endopeptidase that did not hydrolyze any of the synthetic amide or peptide substrates tested but did possess (/sup 14/C)methemoglobin-degrading activity and the ability to convert the 8S estrogen receptor to a modified 4S form in sucrose gradients containing dilute Tris buffer. The modified 4S receptor was separable from the native receptor by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The endopeptidase did not require Ca/sup 2 +/ for activity, and its chromatographic properties were distinctly different from a previously isolated Ca/sup 2 +/-activated protease. It was inhibited by leupeptin or dipyridyl disulfide, suggesting the presence of a thiol group that is essential for its activity.

  13. REASSESSING THE ROLE OF THE SECRETED PROTEASE CPAF IN CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS INFECTION THROUGH GENETIC APPROACHES

    PubMed Central

    Snavely, Emily A.; Kokes, Marcela; Dunn, Joe D.; Saka, Hector A.; Nguyen, Bidong D.; Bastidas, Robert J.; McCafferty, Dewey G.; Valdivia, Raphael H.

    2014-01-01

    The secreted Chlamydia protease CPAF cleaves a defined set of mammalian and Chlamydia proteins in vitro. As a result, this protease has been proposed to modulate a range of bacterial and host cellular functions. However, it has recently come into question the extent to which many of its identified substrates constitute bona fide targets of proteolysis in infected host cell rather than artifacts of post lysis degradation. Here we clarify the role played by CPAF in cellular models of infection by analyzing Chlamydia trachomatis mutants deficient for CPAF activity. Using reverse genetic approaches, we identified two C. trachomatis strains possessing nonsense, loss-of-function mutations in cpa (CT858), and a third strain containing a mutation in Type II secretion (T2S) machinery that inhibited CPAF activity by blocking zymogen secretion and subsequent proteolytic maturation into the active hydrolase. HeLa cells infected with T2S− or CPAF− C. trachomatis mutants lacked detectable in vitro CPAF proteolytic activity, and were not defective for cellular traits that have been previously attributed to CPAF activity, including resistance to staurosporine-induced apoptosis, Golgi fragmentation, altered NFκB-dependent gene expression, and resistance to reinfection. However, CPAF-deficient mutants did display impaired generation of infectious elementary bodies (EBs), indicating an important role for this protease in the full replicative potential of C. trachomatis. In addition, we provide compelling evidence in live cells that CPAF-mediated protein processing of at least two host protein targets, vimentin filaments and the nuclear envelope protein Lamin-associated protein 1 (LAP1), occurs rapidly after the loss of the inclusion membrane integrity, but before loss of plasma membrane permeability and cell lysis. CPAF-dependent processing of host proteins correlates with a loss of inclusion membrane integrity, and so we propose that CPAF plays a role late in infection

  14. Tobacco Etch Virus protease: A shortcut across biotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Cesaratto, Francesca; Burrone, Oscar R; Petris, Gianluca

    2016-08-10

    About thirty years ago, studies on the RNA genome of Tobacco Etch Virus revealed the presence of an efficient and specific protease, called Tobacco Etch Virus protease (TEVp), that was part of the Nuclear Inclusion a (NIa) enzyme. TEVp is an efficient and specific protease of 27kDa that has become a valuable biotechnological tool. Nowadays TEVp is a unique endopeptidase largely exploited in biotechnology from industrial applications to in vitro and in vivo cellular studies. A number of TEVp mutants with different rate of cleavage, stability and specificity have been reported. Similarly, a panel of different target cleavage sites, derived from the canonical ENLYFQ-G/S site, has been established. In this review we describe these aspects of TEVp and some of its multiple applications. A particular focus is on the use and molecular biology of TEVp in living cells and organisms. PMID:27312702

  15. Tobacco Etch Virus protease: A shortcut across biotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Cesaratto, Francesca; Burrone, Oscar R; Petris, Gianluca

    2016-08-10

    About thirty years ago, studies on the RNA genome of Tobacco Etch Virus revealed the presence of an efficient and specific protease, called Tobacco Etch Virus protease (TEVp), that was part of the Nuclear Inclusion a (NIa) enzyme. TEVp is an efficient and specific protease of 27kDa that has become a valuable biotechnological tool. Nowadays TEVp is a unique endopeptidase largely exploited in biotechnology from industrial applications to in vitro and in vivo cellular studies. A number of TEVp mutants with different rate of cleavage, stability and specificity have been reported. Similarly, a panel of different target cleavage sites, derived from the canonical ENLYFQ-G/S site, has been established. In this review we describe these aspects of TEVp and some of its multiple applications. A particular focus is on the use and molecular biology of TEVp in living cells and organisms.

  16. Allostery in trypsin-like proteases suggests new therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Gohara, David W; Di Cera, Enrico

    2011-11-01

    Trypsin-like proteases (TLPs) are a large family of enzymes responsible for digestion, blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, development, fertilization, apoptosis and immunity. A current paradigm posits that the irreversible transition from an inactive zymogen to the active protease form enables productive interaction with substrate and catalysis. Analysis of the entire structural database reveals two distinct conformations of the active site: one fully accessible to substrate (E) and the other occluded by the collapse of a specific segment (E*). The allosteric E*-E equilibrium provides a reversible mechanism for activity and regulation in addition to the irreversible zymogen to protease conversion and points to new therapeutic strategies aimed at inhibiting or activating the enzyme. In this review, we discuss relevant examples, with emphasis on the rational engineering of anticoagulant thrombin mutants.

  17. Alkaline protease from Neurospora crassa. Purification and partial characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, R.A.; Eirich, L.D.; Price, J.S.; Wolfinbarger, L. Jr.; Drucker, H.

    1981-01-25

    A simple purification procedure was developed for the extracellular alkaline protease from Neurospora crassa. Key steps in the purification were: (1) the choice of gelatin as the protein inducer, which induces optimally at a much lower concentration than other commonly employed protein inducers; (2) heat treatment, during which the inducer is digested by the protease; and (3) a concentration step that eliminates the usual precipitation procedures and removes much of the digested protein inducer. The preparation was homogeneous and had a molecular weight of approx. 30,500. The protease has 100% activity from pH 6.0 to 10.0, is heat labile above 45/sup 0/C, and susceptible to autodigestion. Hydrolysis of the ..beta.. chain from insulin indicates a preferential cleavage on the carboxyl group side of neutral and aromatic amino acids.

  18. An Augmented Multiple-Protease-Based Human Phosphopeptide Atlas.

    PubMed

    Giansanti, Piero; Aye, Thin Thin; van den Toorn, Henk; Peng, Mao; van Breukelen, Bas; Heck, Albert J R

    2015-06-23

    Although mass-spectrometry-based screens enable thousands of protein phosphorylation sites to be monitored simultaneously, they often do not cover important regulatory sites. Here, we hypothesized that this is due to the fact that nearly all large-scale phosphoproteome studies are initiated by trypsin digestion. We tested this hypothesis using multiple proteases for protein digestion prior to Ti(4+)-IMAC-based enrichment. This approach increases the size of the detectable phosphoproteome substantially and confirms the considerable tryptic bias in public repositories. We define and make available a less biased human phosphopeptide atlas of 37,771 unique phosphopeptides, correlating to 18,430 unique phosphosites, of which fewer than 1/3 were identified in more than one protease data set. We demonstrate that each protein phosphorylation site can be linked to a preferred protease, enhancing its detection by mass spectrometry (MS). For specific sites, this approach increases their detectability by more than 1,000-fold. PMID:26074081

  19. Substrate specificity of the ubiquitin and Ubl proteases

    PubMed Central

    Ronau, Judith A; Beckmann, John F; Hochstrasser, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Conjugation and deconjugation of ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins (Ubls) to cellular proteins are highly regulated processes integral to cellular homeostasis. Most often, the C-termini of these small polypeptides are attached to lysine side chains of target proteins by an amide (isopeptide) linkage. Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) and Ubl-specific proteases (ULPs) comprise a diverse group of proteases that recognize and remove ubiquitin and Ubls from their substrates. How DUBs and ULPs distinguish among different modifiers, or different polymeric forms of these modifiers, remains poorly understood. The specificity of ubiquitin/Ubl-deconjugating enzymes for particular substrates depends on multiple factors, ranging from the topography of specific substrate features, as in different polyubiquitin chain types, to structural elements unique to each enzyme. Here we summarize recent structural and biochemical studies that provide insights into mechanisms of substrate specificity among various DUBs and ULPs. We also discuss the unexpected specificities of non-eukaryotic proteases in these families. PMID:27012468

  20. Peptide synthesis in neat organic solvents with novel thermostable proteases.

    PubMed

    Toplak, Ana; Nuijens, Timo; Quaedflieg, Peter J L M; Wu, Bian; Janssen, Dick B

    2015-06-01

    Biocatalytic peptide synthesis will benefit from enzymes that are active at low water levels in organic solvent compositions that allow good substrate and product solubility. To explore the use of proteases from thermophiles for peptide synthesis under such conditions, putative protease genes of the subtilase class were cloned from Thermus aquaticus and Deinococcus geothermalis and expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified enzymes were highly thermostable and catalyzed efficient peptide bond synthesis at 80°C and 60°C in neat acetonitrile with excellent conversion (>90%). The enzymes tolerated high levels of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as a cosolvent (40-50% v/v), which improved substrate solubility and gave good conversion in 5+3 peptide condensation reactions. The results suggest that proteases from thermophiles can be used for peptide synthesis under harsh reaction conditions.

  1. Protease-triggered siRNA delivery vehicles.

    PubMed

    Rozema, David B; Blokhin, Andrei V; Wakefield, Darren H; Benson, Jonathan D; Carlson, Jeffrey C; Klein, Jason J; Almeida, Lauren J; Nicholas, Anthony L; Hamilton, Holly L; Chu, Qili; Hegge, Julia O; Wong, So C; Trubetskoy, Vladimir S; Hagen, Collin M; Kitas, Eric; Wolff, Jon A; Lewis, David L

    2015-07-10

    The safe and efficacious delivery of membrane impermeable therapeutics requires cytoplasmic access without the toxicity of nonspecific cytoplasmic membrane lysis. We have developed a mechanism for control of cytoplasmic release which utilizes endogenous proteases as a trigger and results in functional delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA). The delivery approach is based on reversible inhibition of membrane disruptive polymers with protease-sensitive substrates. Proteolytic hydrolysis upon endocytosis restores the membrane destabilizing activity of the polymers thereby allowing cytoplasmic access of the co-delivered siRNA. Protease-sensitive polymer masking reagents derived from polyethylene glycol (PEG), which inhibit membrane interactions, and N-acetylgalactosamine, which targets asialoglycoprotein receptors on hepatocytes, were synthesized and used to formulate masked polymer-siRNA delivery vehicles. The size, charge and stability of the vehicles enable functional delivery of siRNA after subcutaneous administration and, with modification of the targeting ligand, have the potential for extrahepatic targeting.

  2. Membrane-anchored serine proteases in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Bugge, Thomas; Wu, Qingyu

    2013-01-01

    Serine proteases of the trypsin-like family have long been recognized to be critical effectors of biological processes as diverse as digestion, blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and immunity. In recent years, a subgroup of these enzymes has been identified that are anchored directly to plasma membranes, either by a carboxy-terminal transmembrane domain (Type I), an amino-terminal transmembrane domain with a cytoplasmic extension (Type II or TTSP), or through a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) linkage. Recent biochemical, cellular, and in vivo analyses have now established that membrane-anchored serine proteases are key pericellular contributors to processes vital for development and the maintenance of homeostasis. This chapter will review our current knowledge of the biological and physiological functions of these proteases, their molecular substrates, and their contributions to disease. PMID:21238933

  3. Acid phosphatase and protease activities in immobilized rat skeletal muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witzmann, F. A.; Troup, J. P.; Fitts, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of hind-limb immobilization on selected Iysosomal enzyme activities was studied in rat hing-limb muscles composed primarily of type 1. 2A, or 2B fibers. Following immobilization, acid protease and acid phosphatase both exhibited signifcant increases in their activity per unit weight in all three fiber types. Acid phosphatase activity increased at day 14 of immobilization in the three muscles and returned to control levels by day 21. Acid protease activity also changed biphasically, displaying a higher and earlier rise than acid phosphatase. The pattern of change in acid protease, but not acid phosphatase, closely parallels observed muscle wasting. The present data therefore demonstrate enhanced proteolytic capacity of all three fiber types early during muscular atrophy. In addition, the data suggest a dependence of basal hydrolytic and proteolytic activities and their adaptive response to immobilization on muscle fiber composition.

  4. (Processing and targeting of the thiol protease aleurain)

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Our goal for work during the past two years under this Grant was to characterize the barley thiol protease, aleurain, to determine if it is secreted or retained intracellularly in aleurone cells, and to begin to elucidate structural features that might control targeting of the protein to its final destination. We have shown that aleurain is synthesized as a proenzyme with two N-linked oligosaccharide chains, one high mannose-type and one complex-type. Aleurain undergoes processing to mature form by removal of an Nterminal prosegment, and is retained intracellularly; it cannot be detected among proteins secreted from aleurone cells. Treatment of aleurone cells with tunicamycin to prevent glycosylation of aleurain does not prevent processing of the unglycosylated form. The N-terminal portion of aleurain's prosegment is homologous to the comparable region in two yeast vacuolar proteases, where that region is known to contain the signal necessary for targeting the proteases to the vacuole. 18 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Genetic Changes in HIV-1 Gag-Protease Associated with Protease Inhibitor-Based Therapy Failure in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Giandhari, Jennifer; Basson, Adriaan E.; Coovadia, Ashraf; Kuhn, Louise; Abrams, Elaine J.; Strehlau, Renate; Morris, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Studies have shown a low frequency of HIV-1 protease drug resistance mutations in patients failing protease inhibitor (PI)-based therapy. Recent studies have identified mutations in Gag as an alternate pathway for PI drug resistance in subtype B viruses. We therefore genotyped the Gag and protease genes from 20 HIV-1 subtype C-infected pediatric patients failing a PI-based regimen. Major protease resistance mutations (M46I, I54V, and V82A) were identified in eight (40%) patients, as well as Gag cleavage site (CS) mutations (at codons 373, 374, 378, 428, 431, 449, 451, and 453) in nine (45%) patients. Four of these Gag CS mutations occurred in the absence of major protease mutations at PI failure. In addition, amino acid changes were noted at Gag non-CS with some predicted to be under HLA/KIR immune-mediated pressure and/or drug selection pressure. Changes in Gag during PI failure therefore warrant further investigation of the Gag gene and its role in PI failure in HIV-1 subtype C infection. PMID:25919760

  6. Alkyl hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives that inhibit HIV-1 protease dimerization.

    PubMed

    Flausino, O A; Dufau, L; Regasini, L O; Petrônio, M S; Silva, D H S; Rose, T; Bolzani, V S; Reboud-Ravaux, M

    2012-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of gallic acid and its derivatives as anti-cancer, antimicrobial and antiviral agents is well known. We have examined the mechanism by which natural gallic acid and newly synthesized gallic acid alkyl esters and related protocatechuic acid alkyl esters inhibit HIV-1 protease to compare the influence of the aromatic ring substitutions on inhibition. We used Zhang-Poorman's kinetic analysis and fluorescent probe binding to demonstrate that several gallic and protecatechuic acid alkyl esters inhibited HIV-1 protease by preventing the dimerization of this obligate homodimeric aspartic protease rather than targeting the active site. The tri-hydroxy substituted benzoic moiety in gallates was more favorable than the di-substituted one in protocatechuates. In both series, the type of inhibition, its mechanism and the inhibitory efficiency dramatically depended on the length of the alkyl chain: no inhibition with alkyl chains less than 8 carbon atoms long. Molecular dynamics simulations corroborated the kinetic data and propose that gallic esters are intercalated between the two N- and C-monomer ends. They complete the β-sheet and disrupt the dimeric enzyme. The best gallic ester (14 carbon atoms, K(id) of 320 nM) also inhibited the multi-mutated protease MDR-HM. These results will aid the rational design of future generations of non-peptide inhibitors of HIV-1 protease dimerization that inhibit multi-mutated proteases. Finally, our work suggests the wide use of gallic and protocatechuic alkyl esters to dissociate intermolecular β-sheets involved in protein-protein interactions.

  7. Characterisation of a detergent-stable alkaline protease from a novel thermophilic strain Paenibacillus tezpurensis sp. nov. AS-S24-II.

    PubMed

    Rai, Sudhir K; Roy, Jetendra K; Mukherjee, Ashis K

    2010-02-01

    An alkaline-protease-producing bacterial strain (AS-S24-II) isolated from a soil sample in Assam is a Gram-stain-positive, catalase-positive, endospore-forming rod and grows at temperatures ranging from 30 degrees C to 60 degrees C and salinity ranging from 0% to 7% (w/v) NaCl. Phenotypic characterisation, chemotaxonomic properties, presence of Paenibacillus-specific signature sequences, and ribotyping data suggested that the strain AS-S24-II represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus tezpurensis sp. nov. (MTCC 8959) is proposed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that P. lentimorbus strain DNG-14 and P. lentimorbus strain DNG-16 represent the closest phylogenetic neighbour of this novel strain. Alkaline protease production (598 x 10(3) U l(-1)) by P. tezpurensis sp. nov. in SmF was optimised by response surface method. A laundry-detergent-stable, Ca(2+)-independent, 43-kDa molecular weight alkaline serine protease from this strain was purified with a 1.7-fold increase in specific activity. The purified protease displayed optimum activity at pH 9.5 and 45-50 degrees C temperature range and exhibited a significant stability and compatibility with surfactants and most of the tested commercial laundry detergents at room temperature. Further, the protease improved the wash performance of detergents, thus demonstrating its feasibility for inclusion in laundry detergent formulations.

  8. [Isolation of Actinomycetes synthesizing proteases with thrombolytic activity].

    PubMed

    Lysenko, S V; Salivonik, S M

    1988-01-01

    Proteases with the thrombolytic activity were studied in 212 strains of actinomycetes isolated from different soils of the Soviet Union. The cultures belonged to the genera Micromonospora, Nocardia and Streptomyces. Proteases were synthesized by 41% of the studied actinomycetes and some of their strains completely dissolved in vitro artificially obtained blood thrombi within 120-240 min. In the Streptomyces genus, more active strains were found in the groups Flavus, Fradia and Globisporus. The groups Olivaceus, Violaceus and Viridis had less active strains. PMID:3062331

  9. The chlamydial protease CPAF: important or not, important for what?

    PubMed

    Häcker, Georg

    2014-05-01

    The protease CPAF is only found in Chlamydiales and in at least most bacteria that share with Chlamydia the biphasic life-style in a cytosolic inclusion. CPAF is intriguing: it appears to be secreted from the inclusion across the inclusion membrane into the cytosol. A bacterial protease ravaging in the cytosol of a human cell may cause a plethora of effects. Curiously, very few are known. The current discussion is bogged down by a focus on experimental artifact, while proposed functions of CPAF remain speculative. I here make the attempt to summarize what we know about CPAF.

  10. Rhomboid proteases in mitochondria and plastids: keeping organelles in shape.

    PubMed

    Jeyaraju, Danny V; Sood, Aditi; Laforce-Lavoie, Audrey; Pellegrini, Luca

    2013-02-01

    Rhomboids constitute the most widespread and conserved family of intramembrane cleaving proteases. They are key regulators of critical cellular processes in bacteria and animals, and are poised to play an equally important role also in plants. Among eukaryotes, a distinct subfamily of rhomboids, prototyped by the mammalian mitochondrial protein Parl, ensures the maintenance of the structural and functional integrity of mitochondria and plastids. Here, we discuss the studies that in the past decade have unveiled the role, regulation, and structure of this unique group of rhomboid proteases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein Import and Quality Control in Mitochondria and Plastids.

  11. Gastrointestinal absorption and biological activities of serine and cysteine proteases of animal and plant origin: review on absorption of serine and cysteine proteases.

    PubMed

    Lorkowski, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Research has confirmed that peptides and larger protein molecules pass through the mucosal barrier of the gastrointestinal tract. Orally administered serine and cysteine proteases of plant and animal origin also reach blood and lymph as intact, high molecular weight and physiologically active protein molecules. Their absorption may be supported by a self-enhanced paracellular transport mechanism resulting in sub-nanomolar concentration of transiently free protease molecules or, in a complex with anti-proteases, at higher concentrations. Data from pharmacokinetic investigations reveals dose linearity for maximum plasma levels of free proteases not unusual for body proteases and a high inter-individual variability. There is no interference with each other after oral administration of protease combinations, and absorption follows an unusual invasion and elimination kinetic due to slow velocity of absorption and a fast 100% protein binding to anti-proteases. Oral application of proteases leads to increased proteolytic serum activity and increased plasma concentrations of the corresponding anti-proteases. Their biological activity is determined by their proteolytic activity as free proteases on soluble peptides/proteins or cell surface receptors (e.g. protease activated receptors) and their activity in the complex formed with their specific and/or unspecific anti-proteases. The anti-protease-complexes, during immune reaction and injuries often loaded with different cytokines, are cleared from body fluids and tissue by receptor mediated endocytosis on hepatocytes and/or blood cells. Oral administration of enteric coated tablets containing proteolytic enzymes of plant and animal origin may be a safe method to stabilize, positively influence or enhance physiological and immunological processes during disease processes and in healthy consumers.

  12. Gastrointestinal absorption and biological activities of serine and cysteine proteases of animal and plant origin: review on absorption of serine and cysteine proteases

    PubMed Central

    Lorkowski, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Research has confirmed that peptides and larger protein molecules pass through the mucosal barrier of the gastrointestinal tract. Orally administered serine and cysteine proteases of plant and animal origin also reach blood and lymph as intact, high molecular weight and physiologically active protein molecules. Their absorption may be supported by a self-enhanced paracellular transport mechanism resulting in sub-nanomolar concentration of transiently free protease molecules or, in a complex with anti-proteases, at higher concentrations. Data from pharmacokinetic investigations reveals dose linearity for maximum plasma levels of free proteases not unusual for body proteases and a high inter-individual variability. There is no interference with each other after oral administration of protease combinations, and absorption follows an unusual invasion and elimination kinetic due to slow velocity of absorption and a fast 100% protein binding to anti-proteases. Oral application of proteases leads to increased proteolytic serum activity and increased plasma concentrations of the corresponding anti-proteases. Their biological activity is determined by their proteolytic activity as free proteases on soluble peptides/proteins or cell surface receptors (e.g. protease activated receptors) and their activity in the complex formed with their specific and/or unspecific anti-proteases. The anti-protease-complexes, during immune reaction and injuries often loaded with different cytokines, are cleared from body fluids and tissue by receptor mediated endocytosis on hepatocytes and/or blood cells. Oral administration of enteric coated tablets containing proteolytic enzymes of plant and animal origin may be a safe method to stabilize, positively influence or enhance physiological and immunological processes during disease processes and in healthy consumers. PMID:22461953

  13. Structural basis for DNA-mediated allosteric regulation facilitated by the AAA+ module of Lon protease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alan Yueh-Luen; Chen, Yu-Da; Chang, Yu-Yung; Lin, Yu-Ching; Chang, Chi-Fon; Huang, Shing-Jong; Wu, Shih-Hsiung; Hsu, Chun-Hua

    2014-02-01

    Lon belongs to a unique group of AAA+ proteases that bind DNA. However, the DNA-mediated regulation of Lon remains elusive. Here, the crystal structure of the α subdomain of the Lon protease from Brevibacillus thermoruber (Bt-Lon) is presented, together with biochemical data, and the DNA-binding mode is delineated, showing that Arg518, Arg557 and Arg566 play a crucial role in DNA binding. Electrostatic interactions contributed by arginine residues in the AAA+ module are suggested to be important to DNA binding and allosteric regulation of enzymatic activities. Intriguingly, Arg557, which directly binds DNA in the α subdomain, has a dual role in the negative regulation of ATPase stimulation by DNA and in the domain-domain communication in allosteric regulation of Bt-Lon by substrate. In conclusion, structural and biochemical evidence is provided to show that electrostatic interaction in the AAA+ module is important for DNA binding by Lon and allosteric regulation of its enzymatic activities by DNA and substrate.

  14. Myoglobin inhibition of most protease activities measured with fluorescent substrates is an artifact!

    PubMed

    Volle, B; Dutaud, D; Ouali, A

    1999-05-01

    Myoglobin has been suggested to be a potential inhibitor of endogenous muscle proteases as different as cathepsin B, cathepsin L, cathepsin H and calpains all being supposed to be important in post-mortem muscle. The present work aimed at verifying the ability of myoglobin and its prosthetic group, hemin, to inhibit a series of endopeptidases including papain, cathepsin B, trypsin, calpains as well as two activities of the 20S proteasome. The conclusion of the present work was that inhibition of proteolytic activities of endopeptidases by myoglobin is an artifact. This was based on the following evidences: (1) a similar extent of inhibition was observed for all proteases tested whether myoglobin or hemin were added before starting the reaction or after having stopped it; (2) a quenching of the probes fluorescence by myoglobin and hemin; (3) no inhibition of calpains were found when assayed with non labeled casein as substrate and the activity expressed as the increase in the absorbency at 280 nm of the TCA soluble protein fragments.(1). PMID:22062146

  15. A Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Predicted Serine Protease Is Associated with Acid Stress and Intraphagosomal Survival

    PubMed Central

    Kugadas, Abirami; Lamont, Elise A.; Bannantine, John P.; Shoyama, Fernanda M.; Brenner, Evan; Janagama, Harish K.; Sreevatsan, Srinand

    2016-01-01

    The ability to maintain intra-cellular pH is crucial for bacteria and other microbes to survive in diverse environments, particularly those that undergo fluctuations in pH. Mechanisms of acid resistance remain poorly understood in mycobacteria. Although, studies investigating acid stress in M. tuberculosis are gaining traction, few center on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the etiological agent of chronic enteritis in ruminants. We identified a MAP acid stress response network involved in macrophage infection. The central node of this network was MAP0403, a predicted serine protease that shared an 86% amino acid identity with MarP in M. tuberculosis. Previous studies confirmed MarP as a serine protease integral to maintaining intra-bacterial pH and survival in acid in vitro and in vivo. We show that MAP0403 is upregulated in infected macrophages and MAC-T cells that coincided with phagosome acidification. Treatment of mammalian cells with bafilomcyin A1, a potent inhibitor of phagosomal vATPases, diminished MAP0403 transcription. MAP0403 expression was also noted in acidic medium. A surrogate host, M. smegmatis mc2 155, was designed to express MAP0403 and when exposed to either macrophages or in vitro acid stress had increased bacterial cell viability, which corresponds to maintenance of intra-bacterial pH in acidic (pH = 5) conditions, compared to the parent strain. These data suggest that MAP0403 may be the equivalent of MarP in MAP. Future studies confirming MAP0403 as a serine protease and exploring its structure and possible substrates are warranted. PMID:27597934

  16. A Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Predicted Serine Protease Is Associated with Acid Stress and Intraphagosomal Survival

    PubMed Central

    Kugadas, Abirami; Lamont, Elise A.; Bannantine, John P.; Shoyama, Fernanda M.; Brenner, Evan; Janagama, Harish K.; Sreevatsan, Srinand

    2016-01-01

    The ability to maintain intra-cellular pH is crucial for bacteria and other microbes to survive in diverse environments, particularly those that undergo fluctuations in pH. Mechanisms of acid resistance remain poorly understood in mycobacteria. Although, studies investigating acid stress in M. tuberculosis are gaining traction, few center on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the etiological agent of chronic enteritis in ruminants. We identified a MAP acid stress response network involved in macrophage infection. The central node of this network was MAP0403, a predicted serine protease that shared an 86% amino acid identity with MarP in M. tuberculosis. Previous studies confirmed MarP as a serine protease integral to maintaining intra-bacterial pH and survival in acid in vitro and in vivo. We show that MAP0403 is upregulated in infected macrophages and MAC-T cells that coincided with phagosome acidification. Treatment of mammalian cells with bafilomcyin A1, a potent inhibitor of phagosomal vATPases, diminished MAP0403 transcription. MAP0403 expression was also noted in acidic medium. A surrogate host, M. smegmatis mc2 155, was designed to express MAP0403 and when exposed to either macrophages or in vitro acid stress had increased bacterial cell viability, which corresponds to maintenance of intra-bacterial pH in acidic (pH = 5) conditions, compared to the parent strain. These data suggest that MAP0403 may be the equivalent of MarP in MAP. Future studies confirming MAP0403 as a serine protease and exploring its structure and possible substrates are warranted.

  17. A Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Predicted Serine Protease Is Associated with Acid Stress and Intraphagosomal Survival.

    PubMed

    Kugadas, Abirami; Lamont, Elise A; Bannantine, John P; Shoyama, Fernanda M; Brenner, Evan; Janagama, Harish K; Sreevatsan, Srinand

    2016-01-01

    The ability to maintain intra-cellular pH is crucial for bacteria and other microbes to survive in diverse environments, particularly those that undergo fluctuations in pH. Mechanisms of acid resistance remain poorly understood in mycobacteria. Although, studies investigating acid stress in M. tuberculosis are gaining traction, few center on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the etiological agent of chronic enteritis in ruminants. We identified a MAP acid stress response network involved in macrophage infection. The central node of this network was MAP0403, a predicted serine protease that shared an 86% amino acid identity with MarP in M. tuberculosis. Previous studies confirmed MarP as a serine protease integral to maintaining intra-bacterial pH and survival in acid in vitro and in vivo. We show that MAP0403 is upregulated in infected macrophages and MAC-T cells that coincided with phagosome acidification. Treatment of mammalian cells with bafilomcyin A1, a potent inhibitor of phagosomal vATPases, diminished MAP0403 transcription. MAP0403 expression was also noted in acidic medium. A surrogate host, M. smegmatis mc(2) 155, was designed to express MAP0403 and when exposed to either macrophages or in vitro acid stress had increased bacterial cell viability, which corresponds to maintenance of intra-bacterial pH in acidic (pH = 5) conditions, compared to the parent strain. These data suggest that MAP0403 may be the equivalent of MarP in MAP. Future studies confirming MAP0403 as a serine protease and exploring its structure and possible substrates are warranted. PMID:27597934

  18. Teaching Foundational Topics and Scientific Skills in Biochemistry within the Conceptual Framework of HIV Protease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    HIV protease has served as a model protein for understanding protein structure, enzyme kinetics, structure-based drug design, and protein evolution. Inhibitors of HIV protease are also an essential part of effective HIV/AIDS treatment and have provided great societal benefits. The broad applications for HIV protease and its inhibitors make it a…

  19. A New Subtilase-Like Protease Deriving from Fusarium equiseti with High Potential for Industrial Applications.

    PubMed

    Juntunen, Kari; Mäkinen, Susanna; Isoniemi, Sari; Valtakari, Leena; Pelzer, Alexander; Jänis, Janne; Paloheimo, Marja

    2015-09-01

    A gene encoding a novel extracellular subtilisin-like protease was cloned from the ascomycete Fusarium equiseti and expressed in Trichoderma reesei. The F. equiseti protease (Fe protease) showed excellent performance in stain removal and good compatibility with several commercial laundry detergent formulations, suggesting that it has high potential for use in various industrial applications. The recombinant enzyme was purified and characterized. The temperature optimum of the Fe protease was 60 °C and it showed high activity in the pH range of 6-10, with a sharp decline in activity at pH above 10. The amino acid specificity of the Fe protease was studied using casein, cytochrome c, and ubiquitin as substrates. The Fe protease had broad substrate specificity: almost all amino acid residues were accepted at position P1, even though it showed some preference for cleavage at the C-terminal side of asparagine and histidine residues. The S4 subsite of Fe protease favors aspartic acid and threonine. The other well-characterized proteases from filamentous fungi, Proteinase K from Engyodontium album, Thermomycolin from Malbranchea sulfurea, and alkaline subtilisins from Bacillus species prefer hydrophobic amino acids in both the S1 and S4 subsites. Due to its different specificity compared to the members of the S8 family of clan SB of proteases, we consider that the Fe protease is a new protease. It does not belong to any previously defined IUBMB groups of proteases.

  20. Role of Ced-3/ICE-family proteases in staurosporine-induced programmed cell death

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    In the accompanying paper by Weil et al. (1996) we show that staurosporine (STS), in the presence of cycloheximide (CHX) to inhibit protein synthesis, induces apoptotic cell death in a large variety of nucleated mammalian cell types, suggesting that all nucleated mammalian cells constitutively express all of the proteins required to undergo programmed cell death (PCD). The reliability of that conclusion depends on the evidence that STS-induced, and (STS + CHS)-induced, cell deaths are bona fide examples of PCD. There is rapidly accumulating evidence that some members of the Ced-3/Interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE) family of cysteine proteases are part of the basic machinery of PCD. Here we show that Z-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (zVAD-fmk), a cell-permeable, irreversible, tripeptide inhibitor of some of these proteases, suppresses STS-induced and (STS + CHX)-induced cell death in a wide variety of mammalian cell types, including anucleate cytoplasts, providing strong evidence that these are all bona fide examples of PCD. We show that the Ced-3/ICE family member CPP32 becomes activated in STS- induced PCD, and that Bcl-2 inhibits this activation. Most important, we show that, in some cells at least, one or more CPP32-family members, but not ICE itself, is required for STS-induced PCD. Finally, we show that zVAD-fmk suppresses PCD in the interdigital webs in developing mouse paws and blocks the removal of web tissue during digit development, suggesting that this inhibition will be a useful tool for investigating the roles of PCD in various developmental processes. PMID:8655577

  1. The Spl Serine Proteases Modulate Staphylococcus aureus Protein Production and Virulence in a Rabbit Model of Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Salgado-Pabon, Wilmara; Meyerholz, David K.; White, Mark J.; Schlievert, Patrick M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Spl proteases are a group of six serine proteases that are encoded on the νSaβ pathogenicity island and are unique to Staphylococcus aureus. Despite their interesting biochemistry, their biological substrates and functions in virulence have been difficult to elucidate. We found that an spl operon mutant of the community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus USA300 strain LAC induced localized lung damage in a rabbit model of pneumonia, characterized by bronchopneumonia observed histologically. Disease in the mutant-infected rabbits was restricted in distribution compared to that in wild-type USA300-infected rabbits. We also found that SplA is able to cleave the mucin 16 glycoprotein from the surface of the CalU-3 lung cell line, suggesting a possible mechanism for wild-type USA300 spreading pneumonia to both lungs. Investigation of the secreted and surface proteomes of wild-type USA300 and the spl mutant revealed multiple alterations in metabolic proteins and virulence factors. This study demonstrates that the Spls modulate S. aureus physiology and virulence, identifies a human target of SplA, and suggests potential S. aureus targets of the Spl proteases. IMPORTANCE Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile human pathogen that produces an array of virulence factors, including several proteases. Of these, six proteases called the Spls are the least characterized. Previous evidence suggests that the Spls are expressed during human infection; however, their function is unknown. Our study shows that the Spls are required for S. aureus to cause disseminated lung damage during pneumonia. Further, we present the first example of a human protein cut by an Spl protease. Although the Spls were predicted not to cut staphylococcal proteins, we also show that an spl mutant has altered abundance of both secreted and surface-associated proteins. This work provides novel insight into the function of Spls during infection and their potential ability to degrade

  2. The Serine Protease Motif of EspC from Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Produces Epithelial Damage by a Mechanism Different from That of Pet Toxin from Enteroaggregative E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-García, Fernando; Canizalez-Roman, Adrián; Sui, Bao Quan; Nataro, James P.; Azamar, Yenia

    2004-01-01

    EspC (Escherichia coli secreted protein C) of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) shows the three classical domains of the autotransporter proteins and has a conserved serine protease motif belonging to the SPATE (serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae) subfamily. EspC and its homolog Pet in enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) bear the same sequence within the serine protease motif, and both proteins produce enterotoxic effects, suggesting that like Pet, EspC could be internalized to reach and cleave the calmodulin-binding domain of fodrin, causing actin cytoskeleton disruption. Even though both proteins cause cytoskeleton damage by virtue of their serine protease motifs, the following evidence supports the hypothesis that the mechanisms are different. (i) To obtain similar cytotoxic and cytoskeletal effects, a threefold-higher EspC concentration and a twofold-higher exposure time are needed. (ii) EspC internalization into epithelial cells takes more time (6 h) than Pet internalization (30 min), and the distributions of the two proteins inside the cells are also different. (iii) Both proteins have affinity for fodrin and cleave it, but the cleavage sites are different; EspC produces two cleavages, while Pet produces just one. (iv) EspC does not cause fodrin redistribution within epithelial cells. (v) An EspC serine protease motif mutant, but not a Pet serine protease mutant, competes with EspC by blocking cytoskeletal damage. All these data suggest that the protein conformational structure is very important for the activity of the catalytic site, influencing its interaction with the target protein and its internalization. The differences between these proteins may explain the reduced ability of EspC to cause cytopathic effects. However, these differences may confer a specialized role on EspC in the pathogenesis of EPEC, which is different from that of Pet in EAEC pathogenesis. PMID:15155671

  3. Protease production by immobilized mycelia of Streptomyces fradiae

    SciTech Connect

    Kokubu, T.; Karube, I.; Suzuki, S.

    1981-01-01

    Streptomyces fradiae was immobilized in polyacrylamide gel prepared from 5% total acrylamide (90% acrylamide and 10% N,N-methylenebisacrylamide). Production of protease by the immobilized mycelia was attempted in a batch system. A dilute medium containing 0.5% starch, 0.5% meat extract, and 0.5% yeast extract was employed. The reusability of the immobilized and washed mycelia was examined. The activity of protease production by washed mycelia was rapidly decreased with increasing use cycles. The activity of the immobilized mycelia increased gradually, and reached a maximum after ten use cycles. Then, the activity gradually decreased with increasing reaction cycles. This might be caused by destruction of the gels. On the other hand, the sterilization of the surface of the immobilized mycelia was effective for elongation of the lifetime. As a result, the half-life of protease production by the sterilized immobilized mycelia was about 30 days. The rate of protease production by immobilized mycelia was 12,000 U/ml/hr. This value was four times higher than that by submerged culture.

  4. Purification and characterization of a pineapple crown leaf thiol protease.

    PubMed

    Singh, L Rupachandra; Devi, Th Premila; Devi, S Kunjeshwori

    2004-02-01

    A thiol protease was isolated and purified from the crown leaf of pineapple, Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. cv. Queen, by an immunoaffinity procedure. After the purification to electrophoretic homogeneity, the enzyme was characterized with respect to some of its physico-chemical and kinetic properties. The molecular weight of the protease (22.4-22.9 kDa), Km (97 microM) and kcat (8.8 s(-1)) for its esterolytic cleavage of the synthetic protease substrate N(alpha)-CBZ-L-lysine p-nitrophenyl ester, the concentration of its thiol activator L-cysteine required for half maximal activation A0.5 (9.9 microM), optimum pH (6.5) for its proteolytic action on azocasein, T(1/2) (60 degrees C) for inactivation by heating the enzyme (35.5 microg protein/mL) in citrate buffer pH 6.0 for 15 min, and SH-group content (0.98 mol/mol enzyme) were determined. Most of these physicochemical and kinetic properties were found to be similar to those of the already well-characterized stem bromelain (EC 3.4.22.32). Thus, the immunoaffinity purified crown leaf protease appeared to be closely related to stem bromelain.

  5. Processing and targeting of the thiol protease aleurain: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    This study addresses the processing and targeting of the thiol protease aleurain in monocots. A probe derived from the aleurain cDNA specific for the 5'-most 400 bp (a region encoding the first 140 amino acids of the preprotein hybridized to at least 3 separate elements in the barley genome; only one represented the aleurain gene. In contrast, a probe specific for the remaining 2/23 of the cDNA (representing the protease domain) hybridized to only a single copy sequence. To know if this pattern pertained in other, closely related, monocots, we probed Southern blots of genomic DNA from maize, rye, oats, sorghum, and pearl millet with each probe. In each instance except for maize DNA, the 5' domain probe hybridizes to several fragments in addition to those identified by the protease domain probe. Presumable the darkest hybridization in each represents the fragment carrying the sequences homologous to barley aleurain. The fragments from a given restriction enzyme identified by the protease domain probe in sorghum, millet, and maize, were indistinguishable in size indicating that the gene sequences, as well as flanking DNA, are so well conserved among the group that the location of the hexanucleotide sequences have not diverged. (3 refs., 3 figs.)

  6. Post-translational control of genetic circuits using Potyvirus proteases.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Rodriguez, Jesus; Voigt, Christopher A

    2016-07-27

    Genetic engineering projects often require control over when a protein is degraded. To this end, we use a fusion between a degron and an inactivating peptide that can be added to the N-terminus of a protein. When the corresponding protease is expressed, it cleaves the peptide and the protein is degraded. Three protease:cleavage site pairs from Potyvirus are shown to be orthogonal and active in exposing degrons, releasing inhibitory domains and cleaving polyproteins. This toolbox is applied to the design of genetic circuits as a means to control regulator activity and degradation. First, we demonstrate that a gate can be constructed by constitutively expressing an inactivated repressor and having an input promoter drive the expression of the protease. It is also shown that the proteolytic release of an inhibitory domain can improve the dynamic range of a transcriptional gate (200-fold repression). Next, we design polyproteins containing multiple repressors and show that their cleavage can be used to control multiple outputs. Finally, we demonstrate that the dynamic range of an output can be improved (8-fold to 190-fold) with the addition of a protease-cleaved degron. Thus, controllable proteolysis offers a powerful tool for modulating and expanding the function of synthetic gene circuits. PMID:27298256

  7. Generic protease detection technology for monitoring periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xinwei; Cook, Joseph P; Watkinson, Michael; Yang, Shoufeng; Douglas, Ian; Rawlinson, Andrew; Krause, Steffi

    2011-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are inflammatory conditions that affect the supporting tissues of teeth and can lead to destruction of the bone support and ultimately tooth loss if untreated. Progression of periodontitis is usually site specific but not uniform, and currently there are no accurate clinical methods for distinguishing sites where there is active disease progression from sites that are quiescent. Consequently, unnecessary and costly treatment of periodontal sites that are not progressing may occur. Three proteases have been identified as suitable markers for distinguishing sites with active disease progression and quiescent sites: human neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G and MMP8. Generic sensor materials for the detection of these three proteases have been developed based on thin dextran hydrogel films cross-linked with peptides. Degradation of the hydrogel films was monitored using impedance measurements. The target proteases were detected in the clinically relevant range within a time frame of 3 min. Good specificity for different proteases was achieved by choosing appropriate peptide cross-linkers.

  8. THE ROLE OF CYSTEINE PROTEASE IN ALZHEIMER DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Hasanbasic, Samra; Jahic, Alma; Karahmet, Emina; Sejranic, Asja; Prnjavorac, Besim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cysteine protease are biological catalysts which play a pivotal role in numerous biological reactions in organism. Much of the literature is inscribed to their biochemical significance, distribution and mechanism of action. Many diseases, e.g. Alzheimer’s disease, develop due to enzyme balance disruption. Understanding of cysteine protease’s disbalance is therefor a key to unravel the new possibilities of treatment. Cysteine protease are one of the most important enzymes for protein disruption during programmed cell death. Whether protein disruption is part of cell deaths is not enough clear in any cases. Thereafter, any tissue disruption, including proteolysis, generate more or less inflammation appearance. Review: This review briefly summarizes the current knowledge about pathological mechanism’s that results in AD, with significant reference to the role of cysteine protease in it. Based on the summary, new pharmacological approach and development of novel potent drugs with selective toxicity targeting cysteine protease will be a major challenge in years to come. PMID:27482169

  9. Design, synthesis, and activity of nanocellulosic protease sensors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we contrast the molecular assembly, and biochemical utility of nanocellulosic materials prepared from cotton and wood as protease sensors. The cotton-based nanocellulosic substrates were prepared in a variety of ways to produce nanocrystals, films and aerogels, which were derivatized with eithe...

  10. graal: a Drosophila gene coding for several mosaic serine proteases.

    PubMed

    Munier, Anne Isabelle; Medzhitov, Ruslan; Janeway, Charles A; Doucet, Daniel; Capovilla, Maria; Lagueux, Marie

    2004-10-01

    Serine proteases play vital roles in several biological processes such as development and immunity. We have characterized Graal, a large multi-domain serine protease from Drosophila. Graal is spliced in at least three transcripts that are present throughout development. The domains found in Graal proteins are: chitin-binding domains (CBD), scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domains, low density lipoprotein receptor cysteine-rich (LDLR-CR) domains, histidine and proline-rich domains, a NGGYQPP-repeat domain and a serine protease domain. The last 2370 nucleotides of these RNAs are identical and encode a His-rich domain, two SRCR domains, two LDLR-CR domains and a protease domain. The transcription of graal is upregulated after fungal or bacterial infection. Analysis of the Iso1 (y;cn,sp,bw) strain shows that graal transcription is impaired in this fly line due to the insertion of a retrotransposon in the sixth exon. However, no phenotype could be observed consecutive to the absence of graal full length transcripts, particularly in the context of an immune challenge.

  11. Differential protease activity augments polyphagy in Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Chikate, Y R; Tamhane, V A; Joshi, R S; Gupta, V S; Giri, A P

    2013-06-01

    Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and other polyphagous agricultural pests are extending their plant host range and emerging as serious agents in restraining crop productivity. Dynamic regulation, coupled with a diversity of digestive and detoxifying enzymes, play a crucial role in the adaptation of polyphagous insects. To investigate the functional intricacy of serine proteases in the development and polyphagy of H. armigera, we profiled the expression of eight trypsin-like and four chymotrypsin-like phylogenetically diverse mRNAs from different life stages of H. armigera reared on nutritionally distinct host plants. These analyses revealed diet- and stage-specific protease expression patterns. The trypsins expressed showed structural variations, which might result in differential substrate specificity and interaction with inhibitors. Protease profiles in the presence of inhibitors and their mass spectrometric analyses revealed insight into their differential activity. These findings emphasize the differential expression of serine proteases and their consequences for digestive physiology in promoting polyphagy in H. armigera. PMID:23432026

  12. Recent trends in protease-catalyzed peptide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Lombard, C; Saulnier, J; Wallach, J M

    2005-10-01

    Enzymatic peptide syntheses may be either thermodynamically- or kinetically-controlled. The former may be catalyzed by any proteases; the latter is limited to serine and cysteine proteases. This methodology is quite stereospecific and avoids side chain protection but is suffering of some drawbacks. Thus, only two industrial processes are by now developed: the production of aspartame and the conversion of porcine into human insulin. However, recent improvements have been carried out in different directions: 1-Search for proteases with high and/or new P'1 and P1 specificities. 2-Protease engineering to promote synthesis towards hydrolysis and to enlarge specificity. 3-Development of mimetic or "inverse" substrates to limit further hydrolysis of synthesized peptide. 4-Change of the physical state of reactants. Three axes have mainly be explored: solid-solid conversion, use of cross-linked enzyme crystals (CLEC) and enzyme immobilization. 5-Modification of experimental conditions. The principal and recent developments deal with: heterogeneous catalysis, synthesis in low water-containing organic solvents, in ionic liquids or at subzero temperatures. This review will illustrate these new orientations with examples described in the recent literature.

  13. Botulinum neurotoxin: a deadly protease with applications to human medicine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are some of the most potent biological toxins to humans. They are synthesized by the gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium Clostridium botulinum. BoNT is secreted from the bacterium as a ~150 kDa polypeptide which is cleaved by bacterial or host proteases into a ~50 kD...

  14. Protease-activated-receptor-2 affects protease-activated-receptor-1-driven breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jaber, Mohammad; Maoz, Miriam; Kancharla, Arun; Agranovich, Daniel; Peretz, Tamar; Grisaru-Granovsky, Sorina; Uziely, Beatrice; Bar-Shavit, Rachel

    2014-07-01

    Mammalian protease-activated-receptor-1 and -2 (PAR1 and PAR2) are activated by proteases found in the flexible microenvironment of a tumor and play a central role in breast cancer. We propose in the present study that PAR1 and PAR2 act together as a functional unit during malignant and physiological invasion processes. This notion is supported by assessing pro-tumor functions in the presence of short hairpin; shRNA knocked-down hPar2 or by the use of a truncated PAR2 devoid of the entire cytoplasmic tail. Silencing of hPar2 by shRNA-attenuated thrombin induced PAR1 signaling as recapitulated by inhibiting the assembly of Etk/Bmx or Akt onto PAR1-C-tail, by thrombin-instigated colony formation and invasion. Strikingly, shRNA-hPar2 also inhibited the TFLLRN selective PAR1 pro-tumor functions. In addition, while evaluating the physiological invasion process of placenta extravillous trophoblast (EVT) organ culture, we observed inhibition of both thrombin or the selective PAR1 ligand; TFLLRNPNDK induced EVT invasion by shRNA-hPar2 but not by scrambled shRNA-hPar2. In parallel, when a truncated PAR2 was utilized in a xenograft mouse model, it inhibited PAR1-PAR2-driven tumor growth in vivo. Similarly, it also attenuated the interaction of Etk/Bmx with the PAR1-C-tail in vitro and decreased markedly selective PAR1-induced Matrigel invasion. Confocal images demonstrated co-localization of PAR1 and PAR2 in HEK293T cells over-expressing YFP-hPar2 and HA-hPar1. Co-immuno-precipitation analyses revealed PAR1-PAR2 complex formation but no PAR1-CXCR4 complex was formed. Taken together, our observations show that PAR1 and PAR2 act as a functional unit in tumor development and placenta-uterus interactions. This conclusion may have significant consequences on future breast cancer therapeutic modalities and improved late pregnancy outcome. PMID:24177339

  15. Proteases and oxidants in experimental pulmonary inflammatory injury.

    PubMed

    Schraufstätter, I U; Revak, S D; Cochrane, C G

    1984-04-01

    We have examined various biochemical parameters of pulmonary inflammation in experimental animals. Intrabronchial instillation of glucose oxidase-glucose (GO/G) to produce oxidants or formylated norleu-leu-phe (FNLP) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) as leukocytic stimuli induced severe acute pulmonary injury in New Zealand white rabbits. PMA also induced inflammation when administered intravenously. Each stimulus induced transudation of protein from the vascular space into the pulmonary tissues, and an influx of leukocytes during the 4-6 h period of the experiment. Pathophysiologic changes were measured by edema formation (transudation of 125I-bovine serum albumin), and histologic examination. Biochemical analysis was performed by measuring concentrations of potentially injurious agents in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Increased acid protease and myeloperoxidase levels were found in the BAL fluid after administration of either of the stimuli. Evidence of oxidant generation in vivo was obtained in two different ways. In the first, specific activities for catalase were measured in the BAL fluid in the presence or absence of 3-amino, 1,2,4 triazole (AT), injected at intervals before obtaining BAL fluid. In the presence of AT, specific activities for catalase dropped to 0.22 after a double instillation of FNLP and to 0.15 in the presence of GO/G. In neutrophil-depleted FNLP animals, catalase was not greatly inhibited by AT (sp act 0.90). In the second, intracellular levels of total glutathione (GSH + GSSG) in whole lung tissue and alveolar macrophages decreased when stimuli of neutrophils were administered. Intrabronchially instilled PMA, e.g., caused a drop of glutathione in whole lung tissue from the control value of 2.3 mumol GSH equivalent/100 mg dry wt to 0.54 mumol GSH equivalent/100 mg dry wt at 4 h. Neutrophil depletion and superoxide dismutase protected from this effect. From these results, we conclude that O-2 or its metabolites can initiate severe

  16. In-cell protease assay systems based on trans-localizing molecular beacon proteins using HCV protease as a model system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Hee; Lee, Min Jun; Hwang, Inhwan; Hwang, Hyun Jin

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a sensitive in-cell protease detection system that enables direct fluorescence detection of a target protease and its inhibition inside living cells. This live-cell imaging system provides a fluorescent molecular beacon protein comprised of an intracellular translocation signal sequence, a protease-specific cleavage sequence, and a fluorescent tag sequence(s). The molecular beacon protein is designed to change its intracellular localization upon cleavage by a target protease, i.e., from the cytosol to a subcellular organelle or from a subcellular organelle to the cytosol. Protease activity can be monitored at the single cell level, and accordingly the entire cell population expressing the protease can be accurately enumerated. The clear cellular change in fluorescence pattern makes this system an ideal tool for various life science and drug discovery research, including high throughput and high content screening applications.

  17. SUMO proteases ULP1c and ULP1d are required for development and osmotic stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Castro, Pedro Humberto; Couto, Daniel; Freitas, Sara; Verde, Nuno; Macho, Alberto P; Huguet, Stéphanie; Botella, Miguel Angel; Ruiz-Albert, Javier; Tavares, Rui Manuel; Bejarano, Eduardo Rodríguez; Azevedo, Herlânder

    2016-09-01

    Sumoylation is an essential post-translational regulator of plant development and the response to environmental stimuli. SUMO conjugation occurs via an E1-E2-E3 cascade, and can be removed by SUMO proteases (ULPs). ULPs are numerous and likely to function as sources of specificity within the pathway, yet most ULPs remain functionally unresolved. In this report we used loss-of-function reverse genetics and transcriptomics to functionally characterize Arabidopsis thaliana ULP1c and ULP1d SUMO proteases. GUS reporter assays implicated ULP1c/d in various developmental stages, and subsequent defects in growth and germination were uncovered using loss-of-function mutants. Microarray analysis evidenced not only a deregulation of genes involved in development, but also in genes controlled by various drought-associated transcriptional regulators. We demonstrated that ulp1c ulp1d displayed diminished in vitro root growth under low water potential and higher stomatal aperture, yet leaf transpirational water loss and whole drought tolerance were not significantly altered. Generation of a triple siz1 ulp1c ulp1d mutant suggests that ULP1c/d and the SUMO E3 ligase SIZ1 may display separate functions in development yet operate epistatically in response to water deficit. We provide experimental evidence that Arabidopsis ULP1c and ULP1d proteases act redundantly as positive regulators of growth, and operate mainly as isopeptidases downstream of SIZ1 in the control of water deficit responses. PMID:27325215

  18. Inhibitors of HGFA, Matriptase, and Hepsin Serine Proteases: A Nonkinase Strategy to Block Cell Signaling in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhenfu; Harris, Peter K W; Jones, Darin E; Chugani, Ryan; Kim, Tommy; Agarwal, Manjula; Shen, Wei; Wildman, Scott A; Janetka, James W

    2014-11-13

    Hepatocyte growth factor activators (HGFA), matriptase, and hepsin are S1 family trypsin-like serine proteases. These proteases proteolytically cleave the single-chain zymogen precursors, pro-HGF (hepatocyte growth factor), and pro-MSP (macrophage stimulating protein) into active heterodimeric forms. HGF and MSP are activating ligands for the oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), c-MET and RON, respectively. We have discovered the first substrate-based ketothiazole inhibitors of HGFA, matriptase and hepsin. The compounds were synthesized using a combination of solution and solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). Compounds were tested for protease inhibition using a kinetic enzyme assay employing fluorogenic peptide substrates. Highlighted HGFA inhibitors are Ac-KRLR-kt (5g), Ac-SKFR-kt (6c), and Ac-SWLR-kt (6g) with K is = 12, 57, and 63 nM, respectively. We demonstrated that inhibitors block the conversion of native pro-HGF and pro-MSP by HGFA with equivalent potency. Finally, we show that inhibition causes a dose-dependent decrease of c-MET signaling in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. This preliminary investigation provides evidence that HGFA is a promising therapeutic target in breast cancer and other tumor types driven by c-MET and RON. PMID:25408834

  19. Inhibitors of HGFA, Matriptase, and Hepsin Serine Proteases: A Nonkinase Strategy to Block Cell Signaling in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor activators (HGFA), matriptase, and hepsin are S1 family trypsin-like serine proteases. These proteases proteolytically cleave the single-chain zymogen precursors, pro-HGF (hepatocyte growth factor), and pro-MSP (macrophage stimulating protein) into active heterodimeric forms. HGF and MSP are activating ligands for the oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), c-MET and RON, respectively. We have discovered the first substrate-based ketothiazole inhibitors of HGFA, matriptase and hepsin. The compounds were synthesized using a combination of solution and solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). Compounds were tested for protease inhibition using a kinetic enzyme assay employing fluorogenic peptide substrates. Highlighted HGFA inhibitors are Ac-KRLR-kt (5g), Ac-SKFR-kt (6c), and Ac-SWLR-kt (6g) with Kis = 12, 57, and 63 nM, respectively. We demonstrated that inhibitors block the conversion of native pro-HGF and pro-MSP by HGFA with equivalent potency. Finally, we show that inhibition causes a dose-dependent decrease of c-MET signaling in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. This preliminary investigation provides evidence that HGFA is a promising therapeutic target in breast cancer and other tumor types driven by c-MET and RON. PMID:25408834

  20. The stromal cell-surface protease fibroblast activation protein-α localizes to lipid rafts and is recruited to invadopodia.

    PubMed

    Knopf, Julia D; Tholen, Stefan; Koczorowska, Maria M; De Wever, Olivier; Biniossek, Martin L; Schilling, Oliver

    2015-10-01

    Fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAPα) is a cell surface protease expressed by cancer-associated fibroblasts in the microenvironment of most solid tumors. As there is increasing evidence for proteases having non-catalytic functions, we determined the FAPα interactome in cancer-associated fibroblasts using the quantitative immunoprecipitation combined with knockdown (QUICK) method. Complex formation with adenosin deaminase, erlin-2, stomatin, prohibitin, Thy-1 membrane glycoprotein, and caveolin-1 was further validated by immunoblotting. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) of the known stoichiometric FAPα binding partner dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPPIV) corroborated the proteomic strategy. Reverse co-IPs validated the FAPα interaction with caveolin-1, erlin-2, and stomatin while co-IP upon RNA-interference mediated knock-down of DPPIV excluded adenosin deaminase as a direct FAPα interaction partner. Many newly identified FAPα interaction partners localize to lipid rafts, including caveolin-1, a widely-used marker for lipid raft localization. We hypothesized that this indicates a recruitment of FAPα to lipid raft structures. In density gradient centrifugation, FAPα co-fractionates with caveolin-1. Immunofluorescence optical sectioning microscopy of FAPα and lipid raft markers further corroborates recruitment of FAPα to lipid rafts and invadopodia. FAPα is therefore an integral component of stromal lipid rafts in solid tumors. In essence, we provide one of the first interactome analyses of a cell surface protease and translate these results into novel biological aspects of a marker protein for cancer-associated fibroblasts.

  1. Enhanced Long-Term and Impaired Short-Term Spatial Memory in GluA1 AMPA Receptor Subunit Knockout Mice: Evidence for a Dual-Process Memory Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, David J.; Good, Mark A.; Skelton, Kathryn; Sprengel, Rolf; Seeburg, Peter H.; Rawlins, J. Nicholas P.; Bannerman, David M.

    2009-01-01

    The GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit is a key mediator of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and is especially important for a rapidly-induced, short-lasting form of potentiation. GluA1 gene deletion impairs hippocampus-dependent, spatial working memory, but spares hippocampus-dependent spatial reference memory. These findings may reflect the necessity of…

  2. Structural Mechanisms of Inactivation in Scabies Mite Serine Protease Paralogues

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Katja; Langendorf, Christopher G.; Irving, James A.; Reynolds, Simone; Willis, Charlene; Beckham, Simone; Law, Ruby H.P.; Yang, Sundy; Bashtannyk-Puhalovich, Tanya A.; McGowan, Sheena; Whisstock, James C.; Pike, Robert N.; Kemp, David J.; Buckle, Ashley M.

    2009-08-07

    The scabies mite (Sarcoptes scabiei) is a parasite responsible for major morbidity in disadvantaged communities and immuno-compromised patients worldwide. In addition to the physical discomfort caused by the disease, scabies infestations facilitate infection by Streptococcal species via skin lesions, resulting in a high prevalence of rheumatic fever/heart disease in affected communities. The scabies mite produces 33 proteins that are closely related to those in the dust mite group 3 allergen and belong to the S1-like protease family (chymotrypsin-like). However, all but one of these molecules contain mutations in the conserved active-site catalytic triad that are predicted to render them catalytically inactive. These molecules are thus termed scabies mite inactivated protease paralogues (SMIPPs). The precise function of SMIPPs is unclear; however, it has been suggested that these proteins might function by binding and protecting target substrates from cleavage by host immune proteases, thus preventing the host from mounting an effective immune challenge. In order to begin to understand the structural basis for SMIPP function, we solved the crystal structures of SMIPP-S-I1 and SMIPP-S-D1 at 1.85 {angstrom} and 2.0 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Both structures adopt the characteristic serine protease fold, albeit with large structural variations over much of the molecule. In both structures, mutations in the catalytic triad together with occlusion of the S1 subsite by a conserved Tyr200 residue is predicted to block substrate ingress. Accordingly, we show that both proteases lack catalytic function. Attempts to restore function (via site-directed mutagenesis of catalytic residues as well as Tyr200) were unsuccessful. Taken together, these data suggest that SMIPPs have lost the ability to bind substrates in a classical 'canonical' fashion, and instead have evolved alternative functions in the lifecycle of the scabies mite.

  3. Nematicidal Bacteria Associated to Pinewood Nematode Produce Extracellular Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Romeu; Verissimo, Paula; Santos, Susana S.; Fonseca, Luís; Abrantes, Isabel M. O.; Morais, Paula V.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria associated with the nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, a pathogen of trees and the causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD) may play a role in the disease. In order to evaluate their role (positive or negative to the tree), strains isolated from the track of nematodes from infected Pinus pinaster trees were screened, in vitro, for their nematicidal potential. The bacterial products, from strains more active in killing nematodes, were screened in order to identify and characterize the nematicidal agent. Forty-seven strains were tested and, of these, 21 strains showed capacity to produce extracellular products with nematicidal activity. All Burkholderia strains were non-toxic. In contrast, all Serratia strains except one exhibited high toxicity. Nematodes incubated with Serratia strains showed, by SEM observation, deposits of bacteria on the nematode cuticle. The most nematicidal strain, Serratia sp. A88copa13, produced proteases in the supernatant. The use of selective inhibitors revealed that a serine protease with 70 kDa was majorly responsible for the toxicity of the supernatant. This extracellular serine protease is different phylogenetically, in size and biochemically from previously described proteases. Nematicidal assays revealed differences in nematicidal activity of the proteases to different species of Bursaphelenchus, suggesting its usefulness in a primary screen of the nematodes. This study offers the basis for further investigation of PWD and brings new insights on the role bacteria play in the defense of pine trees against B. xylophilus. Understanding all the factors involved is important in order to develop strategies to control B. xylophilus dispersion. PMID:24244546

  4. Serine protease activation of near-silent epithelial Na+ channels.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Ray A; Boucher, Richard C; Stutts, M Jackson

    2004-01-01

    The regulation of epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) function is critical for normal salt and water balance. This regulation is achieved through cell surface insertion/retrieval of channels, by changes in channel open probability (Po), or through a combination of these processes. Epithelium-derived serine proteases, including channel activating protease (CAP) and prostasin, regulate epithelial Na+ transport, but the molecular mechanism is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that extracellular serine proteases activate a near-silent ENaC population resident in the plasma membrane. Single-channel events were recorded in outside-out patches from fibroblasts (NIH/3T3) stably expressing rat alpha-, beta-, and gamma-subunits (rENaC), before and during exposure to trypsin, a serine protease homologous to CAP and prostasin. Under baseline conditions, near-silent patches were defined as having rENaC activity (NPo) < 0.03, where N is the number of channels. Within 1-5 min of 3 microg/ml bath trypsin superfusion, NPo increased approximately 66-fold (n = 7). In patches observed to contain a single functional channel, trypsin increased Po from 0.02 +/- 0.01 to 0.57 +/- 0.03 (n = 3, mean +/- SE), resulting from the combination of an increased channel open time and decreased channel closed time. Catalytic activity was required for activation of near-silent ENaC. Channel conductance and the Na+/Li+ current ratio with trypsin were similar to control values. Modulation of ENaC Po by endogenous epithelial serine proteases is a potentially important regulator of epithelial Na+ transport, distinct from the regulation achieved by hormone-induced plasma membrane insertion of channels. PMID:12967915

  5. Genome-wide survey of prokaryotic serine proteases: Analysis of distribution and domain architectures of five serine protease families in prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Lokesh P; Sowdhamini, R

    2008-01-01

    Background Serine proteases are one of the most abundant groups of proteolytic enzymes found in all the kingdoms of life. While studies have established significant roles for many prokaryotic serine proteases in several physiological processes, such as those associated with metabolism, cell signalling, defense response and development, functional associations for a large number of prokaryotic serine proteases are relatively unknown. Current analysis is aimed at understanding the distribution and probable biological functions of the select serine proteases encoded in representative prokaryotic organisms. Results A total of 966 putative serine proteases, belonging to five families, were identified in the 91 prokaryotic genomes using various sensitive sequence search techniques. Phylogenetic analysis reveals several species-specific clusters of serine proteases suggesting their possible involvement in organism-specific functions. Atypical phylogenetic associations suggest an important role for lateral gene transfer events in facilitating the widespread distribution of the serine proteases in the prokaryotes. Domain organisations of the gene products were analysed, employing sensitive sequence search methods, to infer their probable biological functions. Trypsin, subtilisin and Lon protease families account for a significant proportion of the multi-domain representatives, while the D-Ala-D-Ala carboxypeptidase and the Clp protease families are mostly single-domain polypeptides in prokaryotes. Regulatory domains for protein interaction, signalling, pathogenesis, cell adhesion etc. were found tethered to the serine protease domains. Some domain combinations (such as S1-PDZ; LON-AAA-S16 etc.) were found to be widespread in the prokaryotic lineages suggesting a critical role in prokaryotes. Conclusion Domain architectures of many serine proteases and their homologues identified in prokaryotes are very different from those observed in eukaryotes, suggesting distinct roles

  6. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitors irreversibly block infectivity of purified virions from chronically infected cells.

    PubMed

    Lambert, D M; Petteway, S R; McDanal, C E; Hart, T K; Leary, J J; Dreyer, G B; Meek, T D; Bugelski, P J; Bolognesi, D P; Metcalf, B W

    1992-05-01

    Synthetic peptide analog inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease were used to study the effects of inhibition of polyprotein processing on the assembly, structure, and infectivity of virions released from a T-cell line chronically infected with HIV-1. Inhibition of proteolytic processing of both Pr55gag and Pr160gag-pol was observed in purified virions from infected T cells after treatment. Protease inhibition was evident by the accumulation of precursors and processing intermediates of Pr55gag and by corresponding decreases in mature protein products. Electron microscopy revealed that the majority of the virion particles released from inhibitor-treated cells after a 24-h treatment had an immature or aberrant capsid morphology. This morphological change correlated with the inhibition of polyprotein processing and a loss of infectivity. The infectivity of virion particles purified from these chronically infected cell cultures was assessed following treatment with the inhibitor for 1 to 3 days. Virions purified from cultures treated with inhibitor for 1 or 2 days demonstrated a 95- to 100-fold reduction in virus titers, and treatment for 3 days resulted in complete loss of detectable infectivity. The fact that virions from treated cultures were unable to establish infection over the 7- to 10-day incubation period in the titration experiments strongly suggests that particles produced by inhibitor-treated cells were unable to reactivate to an infectious form when they were purified away from exogenous protease inhibitor. Thus, a block of HIV-1 protease processing of viral polyproteins by specific inhibitors results in a potent antiviral effect characterized by the production of noninfectious virions with altered protein structures and immature morphologies.

  7. A New Pepstatin-Insensitive Thermopsin-Like Protease Overproduced in Peptide-Rich Cultures of Sulfolobus solfataricus

    PubMed Central

    Gogliettino, Marta; Riccio, Alessia; Cocca, Ennio; Rossi, Mosè; Palmieri, Gianna; Balestrieri, Marco

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we gain insight into the extracellular proteolytic system of Sulfolobus solfataricus grown on proteinaceous substrates, providing further evidence that acidic proteases were specifically produced in response to peptide-rich media. The main proteolytic component was the previously isolated SsMTP (Sulfolobus solfataricus multi-domain thermopsin-like protease), while the less abundant (named SsMTP-1) one was purified, characterized and identified as the sso1175 gene-product. The protein revealed a multi-domain organization shared with the cognate SsMTP with a catalytic domain followed by several tandemly-repeated motifs. Moreover, both enzymes were found spread across the Crenarchaeota phylum and belonging to the thermopsin family, although segregated into diverse phylogenetic clusters. SsMTP-1 showed a 75-kDa molecular mass and was stable in the temperature range 50–90 °C, with optimal activity at 70 °C and pH 2.0. Serine, metallo and aspartic protease inhibitors did not affect the enzyme activity, designating SsMTP-1 as a new member of the pepstatin-insensitive aspartic protease family. The peptide-bond-specificity of SsMTP-1 in the cleavage of the oxidized insulin B chain was uncommon amongst thermopsins, suggesting that it could play a distinct, but cooperative role in the protein degradation machinery. Interestingly, predictions of the transmembrane protein topology of SsMTP and SsMTP-1 strongly suggest a possible contribution in signal-transduction pathways. PMID:24566144

  8. A Spider-Derived Kunitz-Type Serine Protease Inhibitor That Acts as a Plasmin Inhibitor and an Elastase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Hu; Lee, Kwang Sik; Kim, Bo Yeon; Zou, Feng Ming; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Je, Yeon Ho; Li, Jianhong; Jin, Byung Rae

    2013-01-01

    Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors are involved in various physiological processes, such as ion channel blocking, blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and inflammation. While spider-derived Kunitz-type proteins show activity in trypsin or chymotrypsin inhibition and K+ channel blocking, no additional role for these proteins has been elucidated. In this study, we identified the first spider (Araneus ventricosus) Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor (AvKTI) that acts as a plasmin inhibitor and an elastase inhibitor. AvKTI possesses a Kunitz domain consisting of a 57-amino-acid mature peptide that displays features consistent with Kunitz-type inhibitors, including six conserved cysteine residues and a P1 lysine residue. Recombinant AvKTI, expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells, showed a dual inhibitory activity against trypsin (Ki 7.34 nM) and chymotrypsin (Ki 37.75 nM), defining a role for AvKTI as a spider-derived Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor. Additionally, AvKTI showed no detectable inhibitory effects on factor Xa, thrombin, or tissue plasminogen activator; however, AvKTI inhibited plasmin (Ki 4.89 nM) and neutrophil elastase (Ki 169.07 nM), indicating that it acts as an antifibrinolytic factor and an antielastolytic factor. These findings constitute molecular evidence that AvKTI acts as a plasmin inhibitor and an elastase inhibitor and also provide a novel view of the functions of a spider-derived Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor. PMID:23308198

  9. Crystal structure of an intracellular protease from Pyrococcus horikoshii at 2-Å resolution

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xinlin; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Rosalind; Wang, Weiru; Jancarik, Jaru; Yokota, Hisao; Kim, Sung-Hou

    2000-01-01

    The intracellular protease from Pyrococcus horikoshii (PH1704) and PfpI from Pyrococcus furiosus are members of a class of intracellular proteases that have no sequence homology to any other known protease family. We report the crystal structure of PH1704 at 2.0-Å resolution. The protease is tentatively identified as a cysteine protease based on the presence of cysteine (residue 100) in a nucleophile elbow motif. In the crystal, PH1704 forms a hexameric ring structure, and the active sites are formed at the interfaces between three pairs of monomers. PMID:11114201

  10. Characterization of the Protease Activity of Detergents: Laboratory Practicals for Studying the Protease Profile and Activity of Various Commercial Detergents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valls, Cristina; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallve, Santi; Mulero, Miquel

    2011-01-01

    Detergent enzymes account for about 30% of the total worldwide production of enzymes and are one of the largest and most successful applications of modern industrial biotechnology. Proteases can improve the wash performance of household, industrial, and institutional laundry detergents used to remove protein-based stains such as blood, grass, body…

  11. Protease inhibition by oleic acid transfer from chronic wound dressings to albumin.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J Vincent; Howley, Phyllis; Davis, Rachel; Mashchak, Andrew; Goheen, Steven C

    2007-08-01

    High elastase and cathepsin G activities have been observed in chronic wounds to inhibit healing through degradation of growth factors, cytokines, and extracellular matrix proteins. Oleic acid is a non-toxic elastase inhibitor. Cotton wound dressing material was characterized as a transfer carrier for affinity uptake of oleic acid by albumin under conditions mimicking chronic wounds. The mechanism of oleic acid uptake from cotton and binding by albumin was examined with both intact dressings and cotton fiber-designed chromatography. Raman spectra of the albumin-oleic acid complexes under liquid equilibrium conditions revealed fully saturated albumin-oleic acid complexes with a 1:1 weight ratio of albumin:oleic acid. Liquid-solid equilibrium conditions revealed oleic acid transfer from cotton to albumin at 27 mole equivalents of oleic acid per mole albumin. Comparing oleic acid formulated wound dressings for dose dependent ability to lower elastase activity, we found cotton gauze>hydrogel>hydrocolloid. In contrast, the cationic serine protease cathepsin G was inhibited by oleic acid within a narrow range of oleic acid-cotton formulations. 2% albumin was sufficient to transfer quantities of oleic acid necessary to achieve a significant elastase-lowering effect. Oleic acid bound to cotton wound dressings may have promise in the selective lowering of cationic serine protease activity useful in topical application for chronic inflammatory pathogenesis.

  12. Cloning, expression and activity analysis of a novel fibrinolytic serine protease from Arenicola cristata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chunling; Ju, Jiyu

    2015-06-01

    The full-length cDNA of a protease gene from a marine annelid Arenicola cristata was amplified through rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique and sequenced. The size of the cDNA was 936 bp in length, including an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 270 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequnce consisted of pro- and mature sequences. The protease belonged to the serine protease family because it contained the highly conserved sequence GDSGGP. This protease was novel as it showed a low amino acid sequence similarity (< 40%) to other serine proteases. The gene encoding the active form of A. cristata serine protease was cloned and expressed in E. coli. Purified recombinant protease in a supernatant could dissolve an artificial fibrin plate with plasminogen-rich fibrin, whereas the plasminogen-free fibrin showed no clear zone caused by hydrolysis. This result suggested that the recombinant protease showed an indirect fibrinolytic activity of dissolving fibrin, and was probably a plasminogen activator. A rat model with venous thrombosis was established to demonstrate that the recombinant protease could also hydrolyze blood clot in vivo. Therefore, this recombinant protease may be used as a thrombolytic agent for thrombosis treatment. To our knowledge, this study is the first of reporting the fibrinolytic serine protease gene in A. cristata.

  13. Proteases of Wood Rot Fungi with Emphasis on the Genus Pleurotus

    PubMed Central

    Inácio, Fabíola Dorneles; Ferreira, Roselene Oliveira; de Araujo, Caroline Aparecida Vaz; Brugnari, Tatiane; Castoldi, Rafael; Peralta, Rosane Marina; de Souza, Cristina Giatti Marques

    2015-01-01

    Proteases are present in all living organisms and they play an important role in physiological conditions. Cell growth and death, blood clotting, and immune defense are all examples of the importance of proteases in maintaining homeostasis. There is growing interest in proteases due to their use for industrial purposes. The search for proteases with specific characteristics is designed to reduce production costs and to find suitable properties for certain industrial sectors, as well as good producing organisms. Ninety percent of commercialized proteases are obtained from microbial sources and proteases from macromycetes have recently gained prominence in the search for new enzymes with specific characteristics. The production of proteases from saprophytic basidiomycetes has led to the identification of various classes of proteases. The genus Pleurotus has been extensively studied because of its ligninolytic enzymes. The characteristics of this genus are easy cultivation techniques, high yield, low nutrient requirements, and excellent adaptation. There are few studies in the literature about proteases of Pleurotus spp. This review gathers together information about proteases, especially those derived from basidiomycetes, and aims at stimulating further research about fungal proteases because of their physiological importance and their application in various industries such as biotechnology and medicine. PMID:26180792

  14. Ubiquitin-specific protease 14 regulates cardiac hypertrophy progression by increasing GSK-3β phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ningning; Chai, Renjie; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Zhenhui; Zhang, Shuangwei; Zhang, Jingzhi; Liao, Yuning; Cai, Jianyu; Xia, Xiaohong; Li, Aiqun; Liu, Jinbao; Huang, Hongbiao; Liu, Shiming

    2016-09-23

    Cardiac hypertrophy, a compensatory response to various stimuli in the heart, independently predicts cardiovascular ailments and related deaths. Increasing evidence indicates ubiquitin-proteasome signaling contributes to cardiac hypertrophy regulation. Here, we identified ubiquitin-specific protease 14 (USP14), a 19S proteasome associated deubiquitinase (DUB), as a novel target for cardiac hypertrophy therapy via inhibition of the GSK-3β pathway. Indeed, USP14 expression was increased in an animal model of abdominal aorta constriction. In an angiotensin II (AngII) induced primary neonatal rat cardiomyocyte hypertrophy model, USP14 expression was increased in a time-dependent manner, and reduced USP14 deubiquitinase activity or USP14 knockdown resulted in lower expression levels of the myocardial hypertrophy specific marker β-MHC, and subsequent decreased GSK-3β phosphorylation. In conclusion, USP14 mediates the development of cardiac hypertrophy by promoting GSK-3β phosphorylation, suggesting that USP14 might represent a novel therapeutic target for cardiac hypertrophy treatment.

  15. The Role of Calcium Activated Protease Calpain in Experimental Retinal Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, M.; Shearer, T.R.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present the recent evidence linking the family of ubiquitous proteases called calpains (EC 3.4.22.17) to neuropathologies of the retina. The hypothesis being tested in such studies is that over-activation of calpains by elevated intracellular calcium contributes to retinal cell death produced by conditions such as elevated intraocular pressure and hypoxia. Recent x-ray diffraction studies have provided insight into the molecular events causing calpain activation. Further, x-ray diffraction data has provided details on how side chains on calpain inhibitors affect docking into the active site of calpain 1. This opens the possibility of testing calpain-specific inhibitors, such as SJA6017 and SNJ1945, for human safety and as a site-directed form of treatment for retinal pathologies. PMID:18348880

  16. The possible role of NS3 protease activity of hepatitis C virus on fibrogenesis and miR-122 expression in hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Khanizadeh, S; Ravanshad, M; Hosseini, S Y; Davoodian, P; Zadeh, A N; Sabahi, F; Sarvari, J; Khanlari, Z; Hasani-Azad, M

    2016-01-01

    The various roles of hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protein in viral pathogenesis are emphasized, especially in the progression of fibrosis and tumors. The levels of miR-122 have been widely accepted as a critical factor in viral pathogenesis and disease progression. However, the possible correlation between miR-122 levels and fibrosis state has been less investigated. Therefore, in this study, plasmids expressing protease competent and protease mutated non-structural proteins 3 (NS3) were transfected into LX-2 cell line. Subsequently, the total RNA was extracted and real-time PCR was performed to measure the expression level of miR-122, collagen type 1 alpha 1 (COL1A1), alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and tissue inhibitor of metaloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1). Moreover, the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) levels in the supernatants of transfected cells were evaluated by ELISA. The gene expression analysis of fibrotic genes and TGF-β cytokine in LX-2 cells showed that protease competent NS3 had a significant fibrogenic impact when compared to protease defective NS3 or GFP control plasmids (P <0.001). The results also demonstrated that the expression of miR-122 was downregulated in both versions of the cells transfected with NS3 plasmids (P <0.01) irrespective of protease function. These results suggested that the protease function of NS3 protein is a crucial factor for the induction of hepatic fibrosis but it doesn't play a complete role in the expression of miR-122. PMID:27640434

  17. Yeast Endoplasmic Reticulum Sequestration Screening for the Engineering of Proteases from Libraries Expressed in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Yi, Li; Taft, Joseph M; Li, Qing; Gebhard, Mark C; Georgiou, George; Iverson, Brent L

    2015-01-01

    There is significant interest in engineering proteases with desired proteolytic properties. We describe a high-throughput fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) assay for detecting altered proteolytic activity of protease in yeast, at the single cell level. This assay relies on coupling yeast endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention, yeast surface display, and FACS analysis. The method described here allows facile screening of large libraries, and of either protease or substrate variants, including the screening of protease libraries against substrate libraries. We demonstrate the application of this technique in the screening of libraries of Tobacco Etch Virus protease (TEV-P) for altered proteolytic activities. In addition, the generality of this method is also validated by other proteases such as human granzyme K and the hepatitis C virus protease, and the human Abelson tyrosine kinase. PMID:26060071

  18. Production of plant proteases in vivo and in vitro--a review.

    PubMed

    González-Rábade, Nuria; Badillo-Corona, Jesús Agustín; Aranda-Barradas, Juan Silvestre; Oliver-Salvador, María Del Carmen

    2011-01-01

    In the latest two decades, the interest received by plant proteases has increased significantly. Plant enzymes such as proteases are widely used in medicine and the food industry. Some proteases, like papain, bromelain and ficin are used in various processes such as brewing, meat softening, milk-clotting, cancer treatment, digestion and viral disorders. These enzymes can be obtained from their natural source or through in vitro cultures, in order to ensure a continuous source of plant enzymes. The focus of this review will be the production of plant proteases both in vivo and in vitro, with particular emphasis on the different types of commercially important plant proteases that have been isolated and characterized from naturally grown plants. In vitro approaches for the production of these proteases is also explored, focusing on the techniques that do not involve genetic transformation of the plants and the attempts that have been made in order to enhance the yield of the desired proteases. PMID:21889977

  19. Redefining the concept of protease-activated receptors: cathepsin S evokes itch via activation of Mrgprs

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Vemuri B.; Sun, Shuohao; Azimi, Ehsan; Elmariah, Sarina B.; Dong, Xinzhong; Lerner, Ethan A.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory neurons expressing Mas-related G protein coupled receptors (Mrgprs) mediate histamine-independent itch. We show that the cysteine protease cathepsin S activates MrgprC11 and evokes receptor-dependent scratching in mice. In contrast to its activation of conventional protease-activated receptors, cathepsin S mediated activation of MrgprC11 did not involve the generation of a tethered ligand. We demonstrate further that different cysteine proteases selectively activate specific mouse and human Mrgpr family members. This expansion of our understanding by which proteases interact with GPCRs redefines the concept of what constitutes a protease-activated receptor. The findings also implicate proteases as ligands to members of this orphan receptor family while providing new insights into how cysteine proteases contribute to itch. PMID:26216096

  20. Purification and characterization of a serine protease from Cucumis trigonus Roxburghi.

    PubMed

    Asif-Ullah, Mufti; Kim, Key-Sun; Yu, Yeon Gyu

    2006-05-01

    Kachri fruit, Cucumis trigonus Roxburghi, contains high protease activity and has been used as meat tenderizer in the Indian subcontinent. A 67 kDa serine protease from Kachri fruit was purified by DEAE-Sepharose and CM-Sepharose chromatography, whose optimum activity was at pH 11 and 70 degrees C. Its activity was strongly inhibited by PMSF, but not by EDTA, pepstatin, or cysteine protease inhibitors. The substrate specificity of the purified protease towards synthetic peptides was comparable to cucumisin, the first characterized subtilisin class plant protease from the sarcocarp of melon fruit (Cucumis melo). These characteristics, along with the N-terminal amino acid sequence, indicated that the isolated protease from Cucumis trigonus Roxburghi is a cucumisin homologue, which belongs to the serine protease family. PMID:16603211

  1. Development of marine biotechnology as a resource for novel proteases and their role in modern biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Homaei, Ahmad; Lavajoo, Fatemeh; Sariri, Reyhaneh

    2016-07-01

    Marine environment consists of the largest sources diversified genetic pool of material with an enormous potential for a wide variety of enzymes including proteases. A protease hydrolyzes the peptide bond and most of proteases possess many industrial applications. Marine proteases differ considerably from those found in internal or external organs of invertebrates and vertebrates. In common with all enzymes, external factors such as temperature, pH and type of media are important for the activity, catalytic efficiency, stability and proper functioning of proteases. In this review valuable characteristics of proteases in marine organisms and their applications are gathered from a wide literature survey. Considering their biochemical significance and their increasing importance in biotechnology, a thorough understanding of marine proteases functioning could be of prime importance.

  2. Evolution of soldier-specific venomous protease in social aphids.

    PubMed

    Kutsukake, Mayako; Nikoh, Naruo; Shibao, Harunobu; Rispe, Claude; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Fukatsu, Takema

    2008-12-01

    In social aphids of the genus Tuberaphis a cysteine protease gene of the family cathepsin B exhibits soldier-specific expression and intestinal protease production. The product is orally excreted and injected by soldier nymphs into natural enemies, thereby exerting an insecticidal activity. In an attempt to gain insights into when and how the novel venomous protease for the altruistic caste has evolved, we investigated the soldier-specific type (S-type) and nonspecific type (N-type) cathepsin B genes from social and nonsocial aphids. All the social aphids examined, representing the genera Tuberaphis, Astegopteryx, and Cerataphis, possessed both the S-type and N-type genes. Phylogenetically distant nonsocial aphids also possessed cathepsin B genes allied to the S-type and the N-type, indicating the evolutionary origin of these genes in the common ancestor of extant aphids. In Tuberaphis species the S-type genes exhibited significant soldier-specific expression and accelerated molecular evolution whereas the N-type genes did not. In Astegopteryx and Cerataphis species, meanwhile, both the S-type and N-type genes exhibited neither remarkable soldier-specific expression nor accelerated molecular evolution. These results suggest that the S-type gene acquired the soldier-specific expression and the venom function after divergence of the genus Tuberaphis. On the structural model of the S-type protease of Tuberaphis styraci the accelerated molecular evolution was associated with the molecular surface rather than the catalytic cleft, suggesting that the venom activity was probably acquired by relatively minor modifications on the molecular surface rather than by generation of a novel active site. In Cerataphis jamuritsu the S-type gene was, although containing a stop codon, structurally almost intact and still transcribed, suggesting recent pseudogenization of the gene copy and possible relevance to relaxed functional constraint in the highly multiplied protease gene family

  3. Elimination of protease-inhibitor complexes from the arthritic joint.

    PubMed

    Ekerot, L; Ohlsson, K; Necking, L

    1985-01-01

    In the rheumatic joint, destructive proteolytic enzymes are released and counteracted by complexation to the predominant inhibitors alpha 2-macroglobulin and alpha 1-antitrypsin. The articular elimination of these complexes is thought to be of decisive importance in the protease-inhibitor interplay influencing the inhibitory capacity of the synovial fluid. Protease-alpha 2-macroglobulin complexes showed an intraarticular half-life shorter than 2 hours in arthritis and were eliminated by various routes including phagocytosis in cells of the synovial membrane and in regional lymph nodes, in addition to haematogenous resorption and uptake in the liver. The phagocytosed complexes were degraded to low-molecular-weight metabolites excretable in the urine. The articular elimination of elastase-alpha 1-antitrypsin complexes seemed to be an equivalent process, but an additional intrasynovial dissociation of the complexes was also indicated. Thus the intraarticularly released elastase seemed to be bound and eliminated in complex with alpha 2-macroglobulin. PMID:2414244

  4. Quality control of a molybdoenzyme by the Lon protease.

    PubMed

    Redelberger, David; Genest, Olivier; Arabet, Dallel; Méjean, Vincent; Ilbert, Marianne; Iobbi-Nivol, Chantal

    2013-12-11

    Molybdoenzymes contain a molybdenum cofactor in their active site to catalyze various redox reactions in all domains of life. To decipher crucial steps during their biogenesis, the TorA molybdoenzyme of Escherichia coli had played a major role to understand molybdoenzyme maturation process driven by specific chaperones. TorD, the specific chaperone of TorA, is also involved in TorA protection. Here, we show that immature TorA (apoTorA) is degraded in vivo and in vitro by the Lon protease. Lon interacts with apoTorA but not with holoTorA. Lon and TorD compete for apoTorA binding but TorD binding protects apoTorA against degradation. Lon is the first protease shown to eliminate an immature or misfolded molybdoenzyme probably by targeting its inactive catalytic site.

  5. Protease-dependent mechanisms of complement evasion by bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Potempa, Michal; Potempa, Jan

    2012-09-01

    The human immune system has evolved a variety of mechanisms for the primary task of neutralizing and eliminating microbial intruders. As the first line of defense, the complement system is responsible for rapid recognition and opsonization of bacteria, presentation to phagocytes and bacterial cell killing by direct lysis. All successful human pathogens have mechanisms of circumventing the antibacterial activity of the complement system and escaping this stage of the immune response. One of the ways in which pathogens achieve this is the deployment of proteases. Based on the increasing number of recent publications in this area, it appears that proteolytic inactivation of the antibacterial activities of the complement system is a common strategy of avoiding targeting by this arm of host innate immune defense. In this review, we focus on those bacteria that deploy proteases capable of degrading complement system components into non-functional fragments, thus impairing complement-dependent antibacterial activity and facilitating pathogen survival inside the host.

  6. Occurrence of aspartyl proteases in brine after herring marinating.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Mariusz; Lepczyński, Adam

    2016-03-01

    Herrings are marinated in a brine consisting of salt and acetic acid. During marinating, various nitrogen fractions diffuse from fish flesh to the brine, causing significant nutritional quality losses of the raw material. In this study, it has been demonstrated for the first time that proteases diffuse from the fish to the marinating brine. Using ammonium sulphate precipitation and affinity chromatography on pepstatin-A agarose bed the aspartyl proteases were purified and concentrated over 2600-fold from a marinating brine. Pepstatin-A completely inhibited the activity of the purified preparation. The preparation was active against fluorogenic substrates specific for cathepsin D and E and inactive against substrates specific for cysteine cathepsins. Depending on incubation time, the preparation showed pH-optimum at 2.0 or 4.5. The 2D SDS-PAGE separation demonstrated the presence of a few proteins with molecular weights and pI values typical of cathepsin D, E and pepsin.

  7. Intestinal proteases of free-living and parasitic astigmatid mites.

    PubMed

    Holt, Deborah C; Burgess, Stewart T G; Reynolds, Simone L; Mahmood, Wajahat; Fischer, Katja

    2013-02-01

    Among arthropod pests, mites are responsible for considerable damage to crops, humans and other animals. However, detailed physiological data on these organisms remain sparse, mainly because of their small size but possibly also because of their extreme diversity. Focusing on intestinal proteases, we draw together information from three distinct mite species that all feed on skin but have separately adapted to a free-living, a strictly ecto-parasitic and a parasitic lifestyle. A wide range of studies involving immunohistology, molecular biology, X-ray crystallography and enzyme biochemistry of mite gut proteases suggests that these creatures have diverged considerably as house dust mites, sheep scab mites and scabies mites. Each species has evolved a particular variation of a presumably ancestral repertoire of digestive enzymes that have become specifically adapted to their individual environmental requirements.

  8. Effects of Mucuna pruriens protease inhibitors on Echis carinatus venom.

    PubMed

    Hope-Onyekwere, Nnadozie Stanley; Ogueli, Godwin Ifeanyi; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Cerutti, Helena; Cito, Annarita; Aguiyi, John C; Guerranti, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    The medicinal plant Mucuna pruriens, with reputed anti-snake venom properties has been reported to contain a kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor. This study was undertaken to further evaluate the protease inhibitory potential of gpMuc, a multiform glycoprotein, and other protein fractions from M. pruriens seeds against trypsin, chymotrypsin, Echis carinatus snake venom, ecarin and thrombin. The results showed that gpMuc inhibited both trypsin and chymotrypsin activities and was thermally stable, maintaining its trypsin inhibitory activity at temperatures of up to 50°C. Its structural conformation was also maintained at pH ranges of 4-7. Immunoreactivity study confirms that it contains protease-recognizing epitope on one of its isoforms. The whole protein extract of M. pruriens seeds inhibited prothrombin activation by ecarin and whole E. carinatus venom, and also thrombin-like activity using chromogenic assay. PMID:22447581

  9. Additivity in the Analysis and Design of HIV Protease Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Jorissen, Robert N.; Kiran Kumar Reddy, G. S.; Ali, Akbar; Altman, Michael D.; Chellappan, Sripriya; Anjum, Saima G.; Tidor, Bruce; Schiffer, Celia A.; Rana, Tariq M.; Gilson, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    We explore the applicability of an additive treatment of substituent effects to the analysis and design of HIV protease inhibitors. Affinity data for a set of inhibitors with a common chemical framework were analyzed to provide estimates of the free energy contribution of each chemical substituent. These estimates were then used to design new inhibitors, whose high affinities were confirmed by synthesis and experimental testing. Derivations of additive models by least-squares and ridge-regression methods were found to yield statistically similar results. The additivity approach was also compared with standard molecular descriptor-based QSAR; the latter was not found to provide superior predictions. Crystallographic studies of HIV protease-inhibitor complexes help explain the perhaps surprisingly high degree of substituent additivity in this system, and allow some of the additivity coefficients to be rationalized on a structural basis. PMID:19193159

  10. Protease-dependent mechanisms of complement evasion by bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Potempa, Michal; Potempa, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The human immune system has evolved a variety of mechanisms for the primary task of neutralizing and eliminating microbial intruders. As the first line of defense, the complement system is responsible for rapid recognition and opsonisation of bacteria, presentation to phagocytes and bacterial cell killing by direct lysis. All successful human pathogens have mechanisms of circumventing the antibacterial activity of the complement system and escaping this stage of the immune response. One of the ways in which pathogens achieve this is the deployment of proteases. Based on the increasing number of recent publications in this area, it appears that proteolytic inactivation of the antibacterial activities of the complement system is a common strategy of avoiding targeting by this arm of host innate immune defense. In this review, we focus on those bacteria that deploy proteases capable of degrading complement system components into non-functional fragments, thus impairing complement-dependent antibacterial activity and facilitating pathogen survival inside the host. PMID:22944688

  11. Host cell proteases: critical determinants of coronavirus tropism and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Jean Kaoru; Whittaker, Gary R.

    2015-01-01

    Coronaviruses are a large group of enveloped, single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses that infect a wide range of avian and mammalian species, including humans. The emergence of deadly human coronaviruses, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) have bolstered research in these viral and often zoonotic pathogens. While coronavirus cell and tissue tropism, host range, and pathogenesis are initially controlled by interactions between the spike envelope glycoprotein and host cell receptor, it is becoming increasingly apparent that proteolytic activation of spike by host cell proteases also plays a critical role. Coronavirus spike proteins are the main determinant of entry as they possess both receptor binding and fusion functions. Whereas binding to the host cell receptor is an essential first step in establishing infection, the proteolytic activation step is often critical for the fusion function of spike, as it allows for controlled release of the fusion peptide into target cellular membranes. Coronaviruses have evolved multiple strategies for proteolytic activation of spike, and a large number of host proteases have been shown to proteolytically process the spike protein. These include, but are not limited to, endosomal cathepsins, cell surface transmembrane protease/serine (TMPRSS) proteases, furin, and trypsin. This review focuses on the diversity of strategies coronaviruses have evolved to proteolytically activate their fusion protein during spike protein biosynthesis and the critical entry step of their life cycle, and highlights important findings on how proteolytic activation of coronavirus spike influences tissue and cell tropism, host range and pathogenicity. PMID:25445340

  12. Interaction of proteases with legume seed inhibitors. Molecular features.

    PubMed

    de Seidl, D S

    1996-12-01

    After having found that raw black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were toxic, while the cooked ones constitute the basic diet of the underdeveloped peoples of the world, in the sixties, our research directed by Dr. Jaffé, concentrated mainly around the detection and identification of the heat labile toxic factors in legume seeds. A micromethod for the detection of protease inhibitors (PI) in individual seeds was developed, for the purpose of establishing that the multiple trypsin inhibitors (TI) found in the Cubagua variety were expressions of single seeds and not a mixture of a non homogenous bean lot. Six isoinhibitors were isolated and purified, all of which were "double-headed" and interacted with trypsin (T) and chymotrypsin (CHT) independently and simultaneously, as shown by electrophoresis of their binary and ternary complexes with each and both enzymes. However, their affinity for the enzymes, including elastases, was rather variable, as well as their amino acid composition which consisted of 51 units for inhibitor V, the smallest, and 83 amino acids for inhibitor I, the largest. A low molecular weight protein fraction that inhibited subtilisin (S), but recognized neither T, CHT nor pancreatic elastase was detected in 63 varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris as well as in broad beans (Vicia faba), chick peas (Cicer arietinum), jack beans (Canavalia ensiformis), kidney beans (Vigna aureus), etc., It was absent though, in soybeans (Glycine max), lentils (Lens culinaris), green peas (Pisum sativum), cowpea (Vigna sinensis) and lupine seeds (Lupinus sp). Subtilisin inhibitors (SI) were isolated from black beans, broad beans, chick peas and jack beans. Their Mr is between 8-9KD and they show a rather high stability in the presence of denaturing agents. They are specific toward microbial proteases, in addition to subtilisins, Carlsberg and BPN', they inhibit the alkaline protease from Tritirachium album (Protease K), from Aspergillus oryzae and one isolated from

  13. Proteases of Treponema denticola outer sheath and extracellular vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, G; Naor, R; Rahamim, E; Yishai, R; Sela, M N

    1995-01-01

    Electron microscopical observations of the oral periodontopathogen Treponema denticola show the presence of extracellular vesicles bound to the bacterial surface or free in the surrounding medium. Extracellular vesicles from T. denticola ATCC 35404, 50 to 100 nm in diameter, were isolated and further characterized. Protein and proteolytic patterns of the vesicles were found to be very similar to those of isolated T. denticola outer sheaths. They were enriched with the major outer sheath polypeptides (molecular sizes, 113 to 234 kDa) and with outer sheath proteases of 91, 153, 173, and 228 kDa. These findings indicate that treponemal outer sheath vesicles contain the necessary adhesins and proteolytic arsenal for adherence to and damage of eucaryotic cells and mammalian matrix proteins. The major outer sheath- and vesicle-associated protease of T. denticola ATCC 35404 was purified and characterized. The purified enzyme had a molecular size of 91 kDa, and it dissociated into three polypeptides of 72, 38, and 35 kDa upon heating in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate with or without a reducing agent. The activity of the enzyme could be inhibited by diisopropylfluorophosphate, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, and phenylboronic acid. The value of the second-order rate constant of the protease inactivation by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride was 0.48 x 10(4) M(-1) min-1. Inhibition of the enzyme by phenylboronic acid was rapid (< 1 min) and pH dependent. These data strongly suggest that this major surface proteolytic activity belongs to a family of serine proteases. PMID:7558307

  14. Detergent-compatible proteases: microbial production, properties, and stain removal analysis.

    PubMed

    Niyonzima, Francois Niyongabo; More, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Proteases are one of the most important commercial enzymes used in various industrial domains such as detergent and leather industries. The alkaline proteases as well as other detergent-compatible enzymes such as lipases and amylases serve now as the key components in detergent formulations. They break down various stains during fabric washing. The search for detergent-compatible proteases with better properties is a continuous exercise. The current trend is to use detergent-compatible proteases that are stable over a wide temperature range. Although the proteases showing stability at elevated pH have the capacity to be used in detergent formulations, their usage can be significant if they are also stable and compatible with detergent and detergent ingredients, and also able to remove protein stains. Despite the existence of some reviews on alkaline proteases, there is no specification for the use of alkaline proteases as detergent additives. The present review describes the detergent-compatible proteases tested as detergent additives. An overview was provided for screening, optimization, purification, and properties of detergent compatible proteases, with an emphasis on the stability and compatibility of the alkaline proteases with the detergent and detergent compounds, as well as stain removal examination methods.

  15. Optimum production and characterization of an acid protease from marine yeast Metschnikowia reukaufii W6b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Peng, Ying; Wang, Xianghong; Chi, Zhenming

    2010-12-01

    The marine yeast strain W6b isolated from sediment of the South China Sea was found to produce a cell-bound acid protease. The crude acid protease produced by this marine yeast showed the highest activity at pH 3.5 and 40 °C. The optimal pH and temperature for the crude acid protease were in agreement with those for acid protease produced by the terrestrial yeasts. The optimal medium of the acid protease production was seawater containing 1.0% glucose, 1.5% casein, and 0.5% yeast extract, and the optimal cultivation conditions of the acid protease production were pH 4.0, a temperature of 25 °C and a shaking speed of 140 rmin-1. Under the optimal conditions, 72.5 UmL-1 of acid protease activity could be obtained in cell suspension within 48 h of fermentation at shake flask level. The acid protease production was induced by high-molecular-weight nitrogen sources and repressed by low-molecular-weight nitrogen sources. Skimmed-milk-clotting test showed that the crude acid protease from the cell suspension of the yeast W6b had high skimmed milk coagulability. The acid protease produced by M. reukaufii W6b may have highly potential applications in cheese, food and fermentation industries.

  16. Effects on the Qualities of Proteolysis to Beef by Non-coating and Coating Protease Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jung-Kue; Cho, Hyung-Yong

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to improve the techniques used for tenderizing red meat as elderly food. Beef meat was immersed in liposome encapsulated enzyme solution and the effect of protease encapsulation on the beef properties was analyzed. The protease encapsulation properties were analyzed according to the size distribution and enzymatic activity. After enzyme reaction on the beef, the chemical properties of the meat such as pH, water holding capacity, shear rate, lipid oxidation and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) were analyzed. The pH of the beef increased during the reaction and coating protease (CP) was higher than non-coating protease (NCP). Total color differences were increased remarkably after 36 h and generally, the difference in CP was relatively lower than in NCP. WHC was significantly decreased within 24 h, and no effect from the protease coating was observed. Protease activity was significantly increased within 48 h and no differences in the enzyme coating were observed. The TVB-N value of NCP was increased within 24 h while CP was sustained for up to 36 h. The TVB-N value of protease treated meat increased after 36 h and no effect from the protease coating was detected. Consequently, liposome encapsulated protease was found to have similar properties as non-coated protease. Application of liposome seems to be an interesting option for injecting various functional materials without changing the properties of meat. PMID:27499672

  17. Effects on the Qualities of Proteolysis to Beef by Non-coating and Coating Protease Treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang-Il; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Soo-Jin; Seo, Jae-Hee; Lee, Joong-Kyu; Shin, Jung-Kue; Cho, Hyung-Yong; Choi, Mi-Jung

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to improve the techniques used for tenderizing red meat as elderly food. Beef meat was immersed in liposome encapsulated enzyme solution and the effect of protease encapsulation on the beef properties was analyzed. The protease encapsulation properties were analyzed according to the size distribution and enzymatic activity. After enzyme reaction on the beef, the chemical properties of the meat such as pH, water holding capacity, shear rate, lipid oxidation and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) were analyzed. The pH of the beef increased during the reaction and coating protease (CP) was higher than non-coating protease (NCP). Total color differences were increased remarkably after 36 h and generally, the difference in CP was relatively lower than in NCP. WHC was significantly decreased within 24 h, and no effect from the protease coating was observed. Protease activity was significantly increased within 48 h and no differences in the enzyme coating were observed. The TVB-N value of NCP was increased within 24 h while CP was sustained for up to 36 h. The TVB-N value of protease treated meat increased after 36 h and no effect from the protease coating was detected. Consequently, liposome encapsulated protease was found to have similar properties as non-coated protease. Application of liposome seems to be an interesting option for injecting various functional materials without changing the properties of meat. PMID:27499672

  18. [Extracellular proteases of mycelial fungi as participants of pathogenic processes].

    PubMed

    Dunaevskiĭ, Ia E; Matveeva, A R; Fatkhullina, G N; Beliakova, G A; Kolomiets, T M; Kovalenko, E D; Belozerskiĭ, M A

    2008-01-01

    The interest in proteases secreted by mycelial fungi is due to several reasons of which one of the most important is their involvement in the initiation and development of the pathogenic process. A comparison of saprophytic and phytopathogenic mycelial fungi revealed one characteristic feature, namely, the appearance of a new trypsin-like activity in phytopathogens that is absent in saprophytes. To clear up the question of whether the degree of pathogenicity of a fungus is related to the activity of secreted trypsin-like protease, several species of Fusarium of various pathogenicity were compared. In two species, F. sporotrichioides (which causes ear fusa-riosis of rye) and F. heterosporum (the causative agent of root rot in wheat), a clear correlation between the activity and pathogenicity was revealed: the more pathogenetic F. sporotrichioides exhibited a higher extracellular trypsin-like activity than the less pathogenetic species F. heterosporum. Thus, the presence of trypsin-like activity in a saprotroph-pathogen pair may be an indicator of the pathogenicity of a fungus; in some cases, the value of this activity may indicate the degree of its pathogenicity. This suggests that trypsin-like proteases specific to phytopathogens are directly involved in the pathogenetic process, probably, through interaction with the "sentry" protein or the product of the resistance gene. PMID:18672678

  19. Peptide-modified optical filters for detecting protease activity.

    PubMed

    Kilian, Kristopher A; Böcking, Till; Gaus, Katharina; Gal, Michael; Gooding, J Justin

    2007-11-01

    The organic derivatization of silicon-based nanoporous photonic crystals is presented as a method to immobilize peptides for the detection of protease enzymes in solution. A narrow-line-width rugate filter, a one-dimensional photonic crystal, is fabricated that exhibits a high-reflectivity optical resonance that is sensitive to small changes in the refractive index at the pore walls. To immobilize peptide in the pore of the photonic crystal, the hydrogen-terminated silicon surface was first modified with the alkene 10-succinimidyl undecenoate via hydrosilylation. The monolayer with the succinimide ester moiety at the distal end served the dual function of protecting the underlying silicon from oxidation as well as providing a surface suitable for subsequent derivatization with amines. The surface was further modified with 1-aminohexa(ethylene glycol) (EG(6)) to resist nonspecific adsorption of proteins common in complex biological samples. The distal hydroxyl of the EG(6) is activated using the solid-phase coupling reagent disuccinimidyl carbonate for selective immobilization of peptides as protease recognition elements. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis reveals high activation and coupling efficiency at each stage of the functionalization. Exposure of the peptide-modified crystals to the protease subtilisin in solution causes a change in the refractive index, resulting in a shift of the resonance to shorter wavelengths, indicating cleavage of organic material within the pores. The lowest detected concentration of enzyme was 37 nM (7.4 pmol in 200 microL).

  20. Milk-clotting mechanism of Dregea sinensis Hemsl. protease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yali; Wang, Hongyan; Tao, Liang; Huang, Ai-xiang

    2015-12-01

    Dregea sinensis Hemsl. is used as a milk coagulant to produce goat milk cakes in Yunnan, China. However, the composition of milk-clotting compounds and the related mechanism have not been reported. Crude protease was extracted from the stem, purified, and then separated with a Millipore ultrafiltration centrifuge tube. Cysteine protease (procerain B) was identified as the main milk-clotting protein through electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and its molecular weight was 23.8 kDa. The protease can partially degrade α-casein (CN) and completely degrade β- and κ-CN, and κ-CN degradation resulted in milk clotting. The molecular weight and AA sequence of the peptide fractions were determined through matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and a peptide sequencer, respectively. The enzyme cleaved κ-CN at Ala90-Gln91 and produced deputy κ-CN and caseinomacropeptide with molecular weights of 12 and 6.9 kDa, respectively. This cleavage site differed from the majority of chymosins cleaved at Phe105-Met106. PMID:26506540

  1. Evolution of the protease-activated receptor family in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    JIN, MIN; YANG, HAI-WEI; TAO, AI-LIN; WEI, JI-FU

    2016-01-01

    Belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPcr) family, the protease-activated receptors (Pars) consist of 4 members, PAR1-4. PARs mediate the activation of cells via thrombin, serine and other proteases. Such protease-triggered signaling events are thought to be critical for hemostasis, thrombosis and other normal pathological processes. In the present study, we examined the evolution of PARs by analyzing phylogenetic trees, chromosome location, selective pressure and functional divergence based on the 169 functional gene alignment sequences from 57 vertebrate gene sequences. We found that the 4 PARs originated from 4 invertebrate ancestors by phylogenetic trees analysis. The selective pressure results revealed that only PAR1 appeared by positive selection during its evolution, while the other PAR members did not. In addition, we noticed that although these PARs evolved separately, the results of functional divergence indicated that their evolutional rates were similar and their functions did not significantly diverge. The findings of our study provide valuable insight into the evolutionary history of the vertebrate PAR family. PMID:26820116

  2. Separation of proteases from yellowfin tuna spleen by ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenyu; Youravong, Wirote; H-Kittikun, Aran

    2006-12-01

    Separation of protease, trypsin and chymotrypsin from yellowfin tuna spleen extract by ultrafiltration (UF) using regenerated cellulose membranes with molecular weight cut off (MWCO) 30 and 100 kDa was studied. The 100 kDa membrane had a higher transmission of enzymes than that of the 30 kDa membrane. The enzyme transmission varied from 0.01 to 0.18 and from 0.6 to 0.8 for the 30 kDa membrane and 100 kDa membrane, respectively. The protein transmission was about 0.8 for both membranes. Increasing cross-flow rate and transmembrane pressure (TMP) increased permeate flux. The limiting fluxes at cross-flow rate 120, 240 and 360 L/h for the 30 kDa membrane were 17.3, 43.9 and 54.7 L/m2h, respectively and the limiting fluxes at the same flow rate for 100 kDa membrane were 34.1, 51.1 and 68.4 L/m2h, respectively. The separation of these proteases was achieved using the 30 kDa membrane. The purities of proteases were increased more than ten times at TMP 1.5 bar and cross-flow rate 360 L/h by diafiltration using 30 kDa membrane. PMID:16314093

  3. [Extracellular proteases of mycelial fungi as participants of pathogenic processes].

    PubMed

    Dunaevskiĭ, Ia E; Matveeva, A R; Fatkhullina, G N; Beliakova, G A; Kolomiets, T M; Kovalenko, E D; Belozerskiĭ, M A

    2008-01-01

    The interest in proteases secreted by mycelial fungi is due to several reasons of which one of the most important is their involvement in the initiation and development of the pathogenic process. A comparison of saprophytic and phytopathogenic mycelial fungi revealed one characteristic feature, namely, the appearance of a new trypsin-like activity in phytopathogens that is absent in saprophytes. To clear up the question of whether the degree of pathogenicity of a fungus is related to the activity of secreted trypsin-like protease, several species of Fusarium of various pathogenicity were compared. In two species, F. sporotrichioides (which causes ear fusa-riosis of rye) and F. heterosporum (the causative agent of root rot in wheat), a clear correlation between the activity and pathogenicity was revealed: the more pathogenetic F. sporotrichioides exhibited a higher extracellular trypsin-like activity than the less pathogenetic species F. heterosporum. Thus, the presence of trypsin-like activity in a saprotroph-pathogen pair may be an indicator of the pathogenicity of a fungus; in some cases, the value of this activity may indicate the degree of its pathogenicity. This suggests that trypsin-like proteases specific to phytopathogens are directly involved in the pathogenetic process, probably, through interaction with the "sentry" protein or the product of the resistance gene.

  4. Pathogen-Secreted Proteases Activate a Novel Plant Immune Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zhenyu; Li, Jian-Feng; Niu, Yajie; Zhang, Xue-Cheng; Woody, Owen Z.; Xiong, Yan; Djonović, Slavica; Millet, Yves; Bush, Jenifer; McConkey, Brendan J.; Sheen, Jen; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    2015-01-01

    Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) cascades play central roles in innate immune signaling networks in plants and animals1,2. In plants, however, the molecular mechanisms of how signal perception is transduced to MAPK activation remain elusive1. We report that pathogen-secreted proteases activate a previously unknown signaling pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana involving the Gα, Gβ and Gγ subunits of heterotrimeric G-protein complexes, which function upstream of a MAPK cascade. In this pathway, Receptor for Activated C Kinase 1 (RACK1) functions as a novel scaffold that binds to the Gβ subunit as well as to all three tiers of the MAPK cascade, thereby linking upstream G protein signaling to downstream activation of a MAPK cascade. The protease-G protein-RACK1-MAPK cascade modules identified in these studies are distinct from previously described plant immune signaling pathways such as the one elicited by bacterial flagellin, in which G proteins function downstream of or in parallel to a MAPK cascade without the involvement of the RACK1 scaffolding protein. The discovery of the novel protease-mediated immune signaling pathway described here was facilitated by the use of the broad host range, opportunistic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The ability of P. aeruginosa to infect both plants and animals makes it an excellent model to identify novel types of immunoregulatory strategies that account for its niche adaptation to diverse host tissues and immune systems. PMID:25731164

  5. Humanized-VHH Transbodies that Inhibit HCV Protease and Replication

    PubMed Central

    Jittavisutthikul, Surasak; Thanongsaksrikul, Jeeraphong; Thueng-in, Kanyarat; Chulanetra, Monrat; Srimanote, Potjanee; Seesuay, Watee; Malik, Aijaz Ahmad; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for safe and broadly effective anti-HCV agents that can cope with genetic multiplicity and mutations of the virus. In this study, humanized-camel VHHs to genotype 3a HCV serine protease were produced and were linked molecularly to a cell penetrating peptide, penetratin (PEN). Human hepatic (Huh7) cells transfected with the JFH-1 RNA of HCV genotype 2a and treated with the cell penetrable nanobodies (transbodies) had a marked reduction of the HCV RNA intracellularly and in their culture fluids, less HCV foci inside the cells and less amounts of HCV core antigen in culture supernatants compared with the infected cells cultured in the medium alone. The PEN-VHH-treated-transfected cells also had up-regulation of the genes coding for the host innate immune response (TRIF, TRAF3, IRF3, IL-28B and IFN-β), indicating that the cell penetrable nanobodies rescued the host innate immune response from the HCV mediated-suppression. Computerized intermolecular docking revealed that the VHHs bound to residues of the protease catalytic triad, oxyanion loop and/or the NS3 N-terminal portion important for non-covalent binding of the NS4A protease cofactor protein. The so-produced transbodies have high potential for testing further as a candidate for safe, broadly effective and virus mutation tolerable anti-HCV agents. PMID:25903832

  6. Enzyme histochemical studies of membrane proteases in rat subfornical organ.

    PubMed

    De Bault, L E; Mitro, A

    1994-12-01

    Localization of membrane proteases glutamyl aminopeptidase (EAP), microsomal alanyl aminopeptidase (mAAP), dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GTP) were studied in vessels of the rat subfornical organ (SFO), ependyma which cover the surface of the SFO, and adjacent brain structures. Results of enzyme histochemical reactions showed strong activity for EAP, mAAP, and gamma-GTP, but absence of DPP IV in microvessels of SFO. The ependyma which cover the SFO was positive for gamma-GTP, but negative for other studied proteases. Our results showed that the spectrum of enzymes in the majority of the vessels of SFO is similar to that of the microvessels of the adjacent brain tissue which were positive for EAP, mAAP, and gamma-GTP, but negative for DPP IV. The relative intensity of the enzyme reactions in vessels varied from central to lateral locations in the SFO and the adjacent brain tissue. There was also a difference in the relative reaction intensity from one enzyme to the other. The presence and heterogeneous distribution of the enzymes are consistent with the hypothesis that membrane proteases of the microvascular endothelium constitute an enzyme-barrier between blood and parenchyma of the SFO and between blood and brain tissue, and may be involved in metabolism or modulation of various peptides when they contact the plasma membrane of the endothelial cells of the vessels.

  7. The functional and pathologic relevance of autophagy proteases

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Álvaro F.; López-Otín, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a well-conserved catabolic process essential for cellular homeostasis. First described in yeast as an adaptive response to starvation, this pathway is also present in higher eukaryotes, where it is triggered by stress signals such as damaged organelles or pathogen infection. Autophagy is characterized at the cellular level by the engulfment of portions of the cytoplasm in double-membrane structures called autophagosomes. Autophagosomes fuse with lysosomes, resulting in degradation of the inner autophagosomal membrane and luminal content. This process is coordinated by complex molecular systems, including the ATG8 ubiquitin–like conjugation system and the ATG4 cysteine proteases, which are implicated in the formation, elongation, and fusion of these autophagic vesicles. In this Review, we focus on the diverse functional roles of the autophagins, a protease family formed by the four mammalian orthologs of yeast Atg4. We also address the dysfunctional expression of these proteases in several pathologic conditions such as cancer and inflammation and discuss potential therapies based on their modulation. PMID:25654548

  8. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of Achromobacter protease I gene.

    PubMed

    Ohara, T; Makino, K; Shinagawa, H; Nakata, A; Norioka, S; Sakiyama, F

    1989-12-01

    Achromobacter protease I (API) is a lysine-specific serine protease which hydrolyzes specifically the lysyl peptide bond. A gene coding for API was cloned from Achromobacter lyticus M497-1. Nucleotide sequence of the cloned DNA fragment revealed that the gene coded for a single polypeptide chain of 653 amino acids. The N-terminal 205 amino acids, including signal peptide and the threonine/serine-rich C-terminal 180 amino acids are flanking the 268 amino acid-mature protein which was identified by protein sequencing. Escherichia coli carrying a plasmid containing the cloned API gene overproduced and secreted a protein of Mr 50,000 (API') into the periplasm. This protein exhibited a distinct endopeptidase activity specific for lysyl bonds as well. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of API' was the same as mature API, suggesting that the enzyme retained the C-terminal extended peptide chain. The present experiments indicate that API, an extracellular protease produced by gram-negative bacteria, is synthesized in vivo as a precursor protein bearing long extended peptide chains at both N and C termini. PMID:2684982

  9. Enhanced Thermostability of a Fungal Alkaline Protease by Different Additives

    PubMed Central

    Nirmal, Nilesh P.; Laxman, R. Seeta

    2014-01-01

    A fungal strain (Conidiobolus brefeldianus MTCC 5184) isolated from plant detritus secreted a high activity alkaline protease. Thermostability studies of the fungal alkaline protease (FAP) revealed that the protease is stable up to 50°C with 40% residual activity after one hour. Effect of various additives such as sugars, sugar alcohols, polyols, and salts, on the thermostability of FAP was evaluated. Among the additives tested, glycerol, mannitol, xylitol, sorbitol, and trehalose were found to be very effective in increasing the stability of FAP, which was found to be concentration dependent. Fivefold increase in residual activity of FAP was observed in the presence of trehalose (50%) and sorbitol (50%) at 50°C for 4 h, compared to FAP without additive. Other additives like calcium at 20 mM and 10–15% ammonium sulphate showed lower stability improvement than trehalose and sorbitol. NaCl, MgCl2, K2HPO4, and glycine were found to be poor stabilizers and showed only a marginal improvement. PEG 6000 did not show any increase in stability but was found to be slightly inhibitory. PMID:25105022

  10. Identification of papain-like cysteine proteases from the bovine piroplasm Babesia bigemina and evolutionary relationship of piroplasms C1 family of cysteine proteases.

    PubMed

    Martins, Tiago M; do Rosário, Virgílio E; Domingos, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Papain-like cysteine proteases have been shown to have essential roles in parasitic protozoa and are under study as promising drug targets. Five genes were identified by sequence similarity search to be homologous to the cysteine protease family in the ongoing Babesia bigemina genome sequencing project database and were compared with the annotated genes from the complete bovine piroplasm genomes of Babesia bovis, Theileria annulata, and Theileria parva. Multiple genome alignments and sequence analysis were used to evaluate the molecular evolution events that occurred in the C1 family of cysteine proteases in these piroplasms of veterinary importance. BbiCPL1, one of the newly identified cysteine protease genes in the B. bigemina genome was expressed in Escherichia coli and shows activity against peptide substrates. Considerable differences were observed in the cysteine protease family between Babesia and Theileria genera, and this may partially explain the diverse infection mechanisms of these tick-borne diseases. PMID:20655912

  11. Cardiometabolic Risk Profiles in Patients With Impaired Fasting Glucose and/or Hemoglobin A1c 5.7% to 6.4%: Evidence for a Gradient According to Diagnostic Criteria: The PREDAPS Study.

    PubMed

    Giráldez-García, Carolina; Sangrós, F Javier; Díaz-Redondo, Alicia; Franch-Nadal, Josep; Serrano, Rosario; Díez, Javier; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; García-Soidán, F Javier; Artola, Sara; Ezkurra, Patxi; Carrillo, Lourdes; Millaruelo, J Manuel; Seguí, Mateu; Martínez-Candela, Juan; Muñoz, Pedro; Goday, Albert; Regidor, Enrique

    2015-11-01

    It has been suggested that the early detection of individuals with prediabetes can help prevent cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of the current study was to examine the cardiometabolic risk profile in patients with prediabetes according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and/or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) criteria.Cross-sectional analysis from the 2022 patients in the Cohort study in Primary Health Care on the Evolution of Patients with Prediabetes (PREDAPS Study) was developed. Four glycemic status groups were defined based on American Diabetes Association criteria. Information about cardiovascular risk factors-body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, gamma-glutamyltransferase, glomerular filtration-and metabolic syndrome components were analyzed. Mean values of clinical and biochemical characteristics and frequencies of metabolic syndrome were estimated adjusting by age, sex, educational level, and family history of diabetes.A linear trend (P < 0.001) was observed in most of the cardiovascular risk factors and in all components of metabolic syndrome. Normoglycemic individuals had the best values, individuals with both criteria of prediabetes had the worst, and individuals with only one-HbA1c or FPG-criterion had an intermediate position. Metabolic syndrome was present in 15.0% (95% confidence interval: 12.6-17.4), 59.5% (54.0-64.9), 62.0% (56.0-68.0), and 76.2% (72.8-79.6) of individuals classified in normoglycemia, isolated HbA1c, isolated FPG, and both criteria groups, respectively.In conclusion, individuals with prediabetes, especially those with both criteria, have worse cardiometabolic risk profile than normoglycemic individuals. These results suggest the need to use both criteria in the clinical practice to identify those individuals with the highest cardiovascular risk, in order to offer them special attention with intensive lifestyle intervention programs. PMID:26554799

  12. Cardiometabolic Risk Profiles in Patients With Impaired Fasting Glucose and/or Hemoglobin A1c 5.7% to 6.4%: Evidence for a Gradient According to Diagnostic Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Giráldez-García, Carolina; Sangrós, F. Javier; Díaz-Redondo, Alicia; Franch-Nadal, Josep; Serrano, Rosario; Díez, Javier; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; García-Soidán, F. Javier; Artola, Sara; Ezkurra, Patxi; Carrillo, Lourdes; Millaruelo, J. Manuel; Seguí, Mateu; Martínez-Candela, Juan; Muñoz, Pedro; Goday, Albert; Regidor, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Abstract It has been suggested that the early detection of individuals with prediabetes can help prevent cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of the current study was to examine the cardiometabolic risk profile in patients with prediabetes according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and/or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) criteria. Cross-sectional analysis from the 2022 patients in the Cohort study in Primary Health Care on the Evolution of Patients with Prediabetes (PREDAPS Study) was developed. Four glycemic status groups were defined based on American Diabetes Association criteria. Information about cardiovascular risk factors–body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, gamma-glutamyltransferase, glomerular filtration–and metabolic syndrome components were analyzed. Mean values of clinical and biochemical characteristics and frequencies of metabolic syndrome were estimated adjusting by age, sex, educational level, and family history of diabetes. A linear trend (P < 0.001) was observed in most of the cardiovascular risk factors and in all components of metabolic syndrome. Normoglycemic individuals had the best values, individuals with both criteria of prediabetes had the worst, and individuals with only one–HbA1c or FPG–criterion had an intermediate position. Metabolic syndrome was present in 15.0% (95% confidence interval: 12.6–17.4), 59.5% (54.0–64.9), 62.0% (56.0–68.0), and 76.2% (72.8–79.6) of individuals classified in normoglycemia, isolated HbA1c, isolated FPG, and both criteria groups, respectively. In conclusion, individuals with prediabetes, especially those with both criteria, have worse cardiometabolic risk profile than normoglycemic individuals. These results suggest the need to use both criteria in the clinical practice to identify those individuals with the highest cardiovascular risk, in order to offer them special attention with intensive lifestyle intervention programs. PMID:26554799

  13. Cardiometabolic Risk Profiles in Patients With Impaired Fasting Glucose and/or Hemoglobin A1c 5.7% to 6.4%: Evidence for a Gradient According to Diagnostic Criteria: The PREDAPS Study.

    PubMed

    Giráldez-García, Carolina; Sangrós, F Javier; Díaz-Redondo, Alicia; Franch-Nadal, Josep; Serrano, Rosario; Díez, Javier; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; García-Soidán, F Javier; Artola, Sara; Ezkurra, Patxi; Carrillo, Lourdes; Millaruelo, J Manuel; Seguí, Mateu; Martínez-Candela, Juan; Muñoz, Pedro; Goday, Albert; Regidor, Enrique

    2015-11-01

    It has been suggested that the early detection of individuals with prediabetes can help prevent cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of the current study was to examine the cardiometabolic risk profile in patients with prediabetes according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and/or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) criteria.Cross-sectional analysis from the 2022 patients in the Cohort study in Primary Health Care on the Evolution of Patients with Prediabetes (PREDAPS Study) was developed. Four glycemic status groups were defined based on American Diabetes Association criteria. Information about cardiovascular risk factors-body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, gamma-glutamyltransferase, glomerular filtration-and metabolic syndrome components were analyzed. Mean values of clinical and biochemical characteristics and frequencies of metabolic syndrome were estimated adjusting by age, sex, educational level, and family history of diabetes.A linear trend (P < 0.001) was observed in most of the cardiovascular risk factors and in all components of metabolic syndrome. Normoglycemic individuals had the best values, individuals with both criteria of prediabetes had the worst, and individuals with only one-HbA1c or FPG-criterion had an intermediate position. Metabolic syndrome was present in 15.0% (95% confidence interval: 12.6-17.4), 59.5% (54.0-64.9), 62.0% (56.0-68.0), and 76.2% (72.8-79.6) of individuals classified in normoglycemia, isolated HbA1c, isolated FPG, and both criteria groups, respectively.In conclusion, individuals with prediabetes, especially those with both criteria, have worse cardiometabolic risk profile than normoglycemic individuals. These results suggest the need to use both criteria in the clinical practice to identify those individuals with the highest cardiovascular risk, in order to offer them special attention with intensive lifestyle intervention programs.

  14. Degradation of human secretory IgA1 and IgA2 by Entamoeba histolytica surface-associated proteolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Nieto, Rosa Maria; Rico-Mata, Rosa; Arias-Negrete, Sergio; Avila, Eva E

    2008-12-01

    The protozoan Entamoeba histolytica is the etiological agent of amebiasis, an infection with high prevalence worldwide. The host-ameba relationship outcome depends on parasite and host factors, and among these is secretory IgA. These antibodies reduce mucosal colonization by pathogens and neutralize a variety of toxins and enzymes. The functionality of secretory IgA depends on its integrity. Some bacteria produce IgA proteases that cleave mainly the IgA1 subclass; live E. histolytica trophozoites, and other ameba fractions are also able to degrade human IgA. The aim of this study was to determine if serum and secretory IgA, its subclasses and secretory component, are degraded by cysteine proteases, which are present and active on the surface of glutaraldehyde-fixed amebas. It was observed that secretory IgA1, IgA2, free and IgA-bound secretory component were degraded by E. histolytica surface-associated cysteine proteinases. Secretory IgA2, although it was degraded, conserved its ability to agglutinate live amebas better than IgA1. Therefore, while specificity of known ameba cysteine proteases is cathepsin B-like and is different from bacterial IgA proteases, IgA2 was functionally more resistant than IgA1 to ameba surface-associated cysteine protease degradation, similar to the greater resistance of IgA2 to bacterial IgA-specific proteases.

  15. Structure and function of the serine-protease subcomponents of C1: protein engineering studies.

    PubMed

    Gál, P; Závodszky, P

    1998-08-01

    Our protein engineering studies on human C1r and C1s revealed important characteristics of the individual domains of these multidomain serine-proteases, and supplied evidence about the cooperation of the domains to create binding sites, and to control the activation process. We expressed the recombinant subcomponents in the baculovirus-insect cell system and checked the biological activity. Deletions and point mutants of C1r were constructed and C1r-C1s chimeras were also produced. Our deletion mutants demonstrated that the N-terminal CUB domain and the EGF-like domain of C1r together are responsible for the calcium dependent C1r-C1s interaction. It seems very likely that these two modules form the calcium-binding site of the C1r alpha-fragment and participate in the tetramer formation. The deletion mutants also demonstrated that the N-terminal region of the C1r molecule contains essential elements involved in the control of activation of the serine-protease module. The substrate specificity of the serine-protease is also determined by the five N-terminal noncatalytic domain of C1r/C1s chimera, which contains the catalytic domain of C1s preceded by the N-terminal region of C1r, could replace the C1r in the hemolytically active C1 complex. The C1s/C1r chimera, in which the alpha-fragment of the C1r was replaced for that of the C1s exibits both C1r- and C1s-like characteristics. We stabilized the zymogen form of human C1r by mutating the Arg(463)-Ile(464) bond. Using our stable zymogen C1r we showed that one active C1r in the C1 complex is sufficient for the full activity of the entire complex. Further experiment with this mutant could provide us with important information about the structure of the C1 complex. PMID:9777415

  16. Reassessing the role of the secreted protease CPAF in Chlamydia trachomatis infection through genetic approaches.

    PubMed

    Snavely, Emily A; Kokes, Marcela; Dunn, Joe Dan; Saka, Hector A; Nguyen, Bidong D; Bastidas, Robert J; McCafferty, Dewey G; Valdivia, Raphael H

    2014-08-01

    The secreted Chlamydia protease CPAF cleaves a defined set of mammalian and Chlamydia proteins in vitro. As a result, this protease has been proposed to modulate a range of bacterial and host cellular functions. However, it has recently come into question the extent to which many of its identified substrates constitute bona fide targets of proteolysis in infected host cell rather than artifacts of postlysis degradation. Here, we clarify the role played by CPAF in cellular models of infection by analyzing Chlamydia trachomatis mutants deficient for CPAF activity. Using reverse genetic approaches, we identified two C. trachomatis strains possessing nonsense, loss-of-function mutations in cpa (CT858) and a third strain containing a mutation in type II secretion (T2S) machinery that inhibited CPAF activity by blocking zymogen secretion and subsequent proteolytic maturation into the active hydrolase. HeLa cells infected with T2S(-) or CPAF(-) C. trachomatis mutants lacked detectable in vitro CPAF proteolytic activity and were not defective for cellular traits that have been previously attributed to CPAF activity, including resistance to staurosporine-induced apoptosis, Golgi fragmentation, altered NFκB-dependent gene expression, and resistance to reinfection. However, CPAF-deficient mutants did display impaired generation of infectious elementary bodies (EBs), indicating an important role for this protease in the full replicative potential of C. trachomatis. In addition, we provide compelling evidence in live cells that CPAF-mediated protein processing of at least two host protein targets, vimentin filaments and the nuclear envelope protein lamin-associated protein-1 (LAP1), occurs rapidly after the loss of the inclusion membrane integrity, but before loss of plasma membrane permeability and cell lysis. CPAF-dependent processing of host proteins correlates with a loss of inclusion membrane integrity, and so we propose that CPAF plays a role late in infection

  17. Variability and resistance mutations in the hepatitis C virus NS3 protease in patients not treated with protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zeminian, Luciana Bonome; Padovani, Juliana Lara; Corvino, Sílvia Maria; Silva, Giovanni Faria; Pardini, Maria Inês de Moura Campos; Grotto, Rejane Maria Tommasini

    2013-02-01

    The goal of treatment of chronic hepatitis C is to achieve a sustained virological response, which is defined as exhibiting undetectable hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels in serum following therapy for at least six months. However, the current treatment is only effective in 50% of patients infected with HCV genotype 1, the most prevalent genotype in Brazil. Inhibitors of the serine protease non-structural protein 3 (NS3) have therefore been developed to improve the responses of HCV-infected patients. However, the emergence of drug-resistant variants has been the major obstacle to therapeutic success. The goal of this study was to evaluate the presence of resistance mutations and genetic polymorphisms in the NS3 genomic region of HCV from 37 patients infected with HCV genotype 1 had not been treated with protease inhibitors. Plasma viral RNA was used to amplify and sequence the HCV NS3 gene. The results indicate that the catalytic triad is conserved. A large number of substitutions were observed in codons 153, 40 and 91; the resistant variants T54A, T54S, V55A, R155K and A156T were also detected. This study shows that resistance mutations and genetic polymorphisms are present in the NS3 region of HCV in patients who have not been treated with protease inhibitors, data that are important in determining the efficiency of this new class of drugs in Brazil.

  18. Anatomical localization of protease-activated receptor-1 and protease-mediated neuroglial crosstalk on peri-synaptic astrocytic endfeet.

    PubMed

    Shavit, Efrat; Michaelson, Daniel M; Chapman, Joab

    2011-11-01

    We studied the localization, activation and function of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) at the CNS synapse utilizing rat brain synaptosomes and slices. Confocal immunofluoresence and transmission electron microscopy in brain slices with pre-embedding diaminobenzidine (DAB) immunostaining found PAR-1 predominantly localized to the peri-synaptic astrocytic endfeet. Structural confocal immunofluorescence microscopy studies of isolated synaptosomes revealed spherical structures stained with anti-PAR-1 antibody which co-stained mainly for glial-filament acidic protein compared with the neuronal markers synaptophysin and PSD-95. Immunoblot studies of synaptosomes demonstrated an appropriate major band corresponding to PAR-1 and activation of the receptor by a specific agonist peptide (SFLLRN) significantly modulated phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase. A significant membrane potential depolarization was produced by thrombin (1 U/mL) and the PAR-1 agonist (100 μM) and depolarization by high K(+) elevated extracellular thrombin-like activity in the synaptosomes preparation. The results indicate PAR-1 localized to the peri-synaptic astrocytic endfeet is most likely activated by synaptic proteases and induces cellular signaling and modulation of synaptic electrophysiology. A protease mediated neuron-glia pathway may be important in both physiological and pathological regulation of the synapse. PMID:21854391

  19. Serine proteases of the human immune system in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Heutinck, Kirstin M; ten Berge, Ineke J M; Hack, C Erik; Hamann, Jörg; Rowshani, Ajda T

    2010-07-01

    Serine proteases form a large family of protein-cleaving enzymes that play an essential role in processes like blood coagulation, apoptosis and inflammation. Immune cells express a wide variety of serine proteases such as granzymes in cytotoxic lymphocytes, neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G and proteinase 3 in neutrophils and chymase and tryptase in mast cells. Regulation of proteolysis induced by these serine proteases is essential to prevent self-induced damage. Hence, there are specialized serine protease inhibitors, serpins, which are broadly distributed. Here, we discuss the function of human serine proteases in inflammation, apoptosis and tissue remodeling. Furthermore, we address their impact on development and progression of immune mediated-diseases. Understanding the mode of action of serine proteases will help to unravel molecular processes involved in immunological disorders and will facilitate the identification of new therapeutic targets.

  20. Protease activities of Candida spp. isolated from otitis externa: preliminary result.

    PubMed

    Arsović, N A; Banko, A V; Dimitrijević, M V; Djordjević, V Z; Milovanović, J P; Arsenijević, V A

    2009-01-01

    Otomycosis is a fungal infection of the ear predominantly caused by Candida and Aspergillus spp. The possible virulence factors of Candida spp. are enzymes, such as proteases, phospholipases, phosphatases and esterase. According to our knowledge, protease production in Candida strains isolated from patients with otomycosis has not been investigated. The present study was aimed at determining in vitro protease activity in 8 strains of Candida spp. (C. parapsilosis, C. famata, C. guilliermondii and C. albicans) isolated from children with otomycosis. A majority of isolated strains 7/8 (87.5%) were protease positive. The protease activity ranged from Pz 0.61 to 0.78. Further investigation is necessary to clarify the contribution of protease production to Candida virulence associated with otomycosis.

  1. Using C. elegans to Identify the Protease Targets of Serpins In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Sangeeta R.; Miedel, Mark T.; Chotoo, Cavita K.; Graf, Nathan J.; Hood, Brian L.; Conrads, Thomas P.; Silverman, Gary A.; Luke, Cliff J.

    2015-01-01

    Most serpins inhibit serine and/or cysteine proteases, and their inhibitory activities are usually defined in vitro. However, the physiological protease targets of most serpins are unknown despite many years of research. This may be due to the rapid degradation of the inactive serpin:protease complexes and/or the conditions under which the serpin inhibits the protease. The model organism Caenorhabditis elegans is an ideal system for identifying protease targets due to powerful forward and reverse genetics, as well as the ease of creating transgenic animals. Using combinatorial approaches of genetics and biochemistry in C. elegans, the true in vivo protease targets of the endogenous serpins can be elucidated. PMID:21683259

  2. The Plasticity of the β-Trefoil Fold Constitutes an Evolutionary Platform for Protease Inhibition*

    PubMed Central

    Azarkan, Mohamed; Martinez-Rodriguez, Sergio; Buts, Lieven; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle; Garcia-Pino, Abel

    2011-01-01

    Proteases carry out a number of crucial functions inside and outside the cell. To protect the cells against the potentially lethal activities of these enzymes, specific inhibitors are produced to tightly regulate the protease activity. Independent reports suggest that the Kunitz-soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI) family has the potential to inhibit proteases with different specificities. In this study, we use a combination of biophysical methods to define the structural basis of the interaction of papaya protease inhibitor (PPI) with serine proteases. We show that PPI is a multiple-headed inhibitor; a single PPI molecule can bind two trypsin units at the same time. Based on sequence and structural analysis, we hypothesize that the inherent plasticity of the β-trefoil fold is paramount in the functional evolution of this family toward multiple protease inhibition. PMID:22027836

  3. Cloning, characterization, expression and antifungal activity of an alkaline serine protease of Aureobasidium pullulans PL5 involved in the biological control of postharvest pathogens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dianpeng; Spadaro, Davide; Valente, Silvia; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2012-02-15

    An alkaline protease gene was amplified from genomic DNA and cDNA of the antagonistic yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans PL5, a biocontrol agent effective against Monilinia laxa on stone fruit and Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum on pome fruits. An open reading frame of 1248 bp encoding a 415-amino acid (aa) protein with a calculated molecular weight (M(r)) of 42.9 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 4.5 was characterized. The cDNAALP5 gene had an 18-amino acid signal peptide, one N-gylcosylation, one histidine active site, and one serine active site. The ALP5 gene with a M(r) of 1351 bp contained two introns. One intron was of 54 bp, while the other was of 50 bp. Protein BLAST and phylogenetic tree analysis of the deduced amino sequences from the cDNAALP5 gene showed that the encoded protein had 100% homology to a protease enzyme (ALP2) of a sea strain of A. pullulans, suggesting that the protein ALP5 was an alkaline serine protease. Expression of ALP5 in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), followed by identification with Western-blotting, purification with Ni-NTA and analysis of enzymatic activity, yielded an homogeneous recombinant ALP5 which hydrolysed the substrate casein and inhibited the mycelial growth of the pathogens. At its optimal pH of 10.0 and reaction temperature of 50°C, the recombinant protease exhibited the highest activity towards the substrate casein, though the highest stability was at lower temperatures and pH between 7.0 and 9.0. This study provided the direct evidence that extracellular proteases secreted by the antagonist A. pullulans PL5 played a role in the biocontrol activities against some postharvest pathogens of apple and peach.

  4. Cell-specific and developmental expression of lectican-cleaving proteases in mouse hippocampus and neocortex.

    PubMed

    Levy, C; Brooks, J M; Chen, J; Su, J; Fox, M A

    2015-03-01

    Mounting evidence has demonstrated that a specialized extracellular matrix exists in the mammalian brain and that this glycoprotein-rich matrix contributes to many aspects of brain development and function. The most prominent supramolecular assemblies of these extracellular matrix glycoproteins are perineuronal nets, specialized lattice-like structures that surround the cell bodies and proximal neurites of select classes of interneurons. Perineuronal nets are composed of lecticans, a family of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans that includes aggrecan, brevican, neurocan, and versican. These lattice-like structures emerge late in postnatal brain development, coinciding with the ending of critical periods of brain development. Despite our knowledge of the presence of lecticans in perineuronal nets and their importance in regulating synaptic plasticity, we know little about the development or distribution of the extracellular proteases that are responsible for their cleavage and turnover. A subset of a large family of extracellular proteases (called a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs [ADAMTS]) is responsible for endogenously cleaving lecticans. We therefore explored the expression pattern of two aggrecan-degrading ADAMTS family members, ADAMTS15 and ADAMTS4, in the hippocampus and neocortex. Here, we show that both lectican-degrading metalloproteases are present in these brain regions and that each exhibits a distinct temporal and spatial expression pattern. Adamts15 mRNA is expressed exclusively by parvalbumin-expressing interneurons during synaptogenesis, whereas Adamts4 mRNA is exclusively generated by telencephalic oligodendrocytes during myelination. Thus, ADAMTS15 and ADAMTS4 not only exhibit unique cellular expression patterns but their developmental upregulation by these cell types coincides with critical aspects of neural development.

  5. Characterization of the StcE Protease Activity of Escherichia coli O157:H7

    PubMed Central

    Grys, Thomas E.; Walters, Laura L.; Welch, Rodney A.

    2006-01-01

    The StcE zinc metalloprotease is secreted by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 and contributes to intimate adherence of this bacterium to host cells, a process essential for mammalian colonization. StcE has also been shown to localize the inflammatory regulator C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) to cell membranes. We tried to more fully characterize StcE activity to better understand its role in EHEC pathogenesis. StcE was active at pH 6.1 to 9.0, in the presence of NaCl concentrations ranging from 0 to 600 mM, and at 4°C to 55°C. Interestingly, antisera against StcE or C1-INH did not eliminate StcE cleavage of C1-INH. Treatment of StcE with the proteases trypsin, chymotrypsin, human neutrophil elastase, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase did not eliminate StcE activity against C1-INH. After StcE was kept at 23°C for 65 days, it exhibited full proteolytic activity, and it retained 30% of its original activity after incubation for 8 days at 37°C. Together, these results show the StcE protease is a stable enzyme that is probably active in the environment of the colon. Additionally, kcat/Km data showed that StcE proteolytic activity was 2.5-fold more efficient with the secreted mucin MUC7 than with the complement regulator C1-INH. This evidence supports a model which includes two roles for StcE during infection, in which StcE acts first as a mucinase and then as an anti-inflammatory agent by localizing C1-INH to cell membranes. PMID:16788173

  6. MALT1 Protease Activity Is Required for Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jong W.; Hoffman, Sandy; Beal, Allison M.; Dykon, Angela; Ringenberg, Michael A.; Hughes, Anna C.; Dare, Lauren; Anderson, Amber D.; Finger, Joshua; Kasparcova, Viera; Rickard, David; Berger, Scott B.; Ramanjulu, Joshi; Emery, John G.; Gough, Peter J.; Bertin, John; Foley, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    CARMA-BCL10-MALT1 signalosomes play important roles in antigen receptor signaling and other pathways. Previous studies have suggested that as part of this complex, MALT1 functions as both a scaffolding protein to activate NF-κB through recruitment of ubiquitin ligases, and as a protease to cleave and inactivate downstream inhibitory signaling proteins. However, our understanding of the relative importance of these two distinct MALT1 activities has been hampered by a lack of selective MALT1 protease inhibitors with suitable pharmacologic properties. To fully investigate the role of MALT1 protease activity, we generated mice homozygous for a protease-dead mutation in MALT1. We found that some, but not all, MALT1 functions in immune cells were dependent upon its protease activity. Protease-dead mice had defects in the generation of splenic marginal zone and peritoneal B1 B cells. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells displayed decreased T cell receptor-stimulated proliferation and IL-2 production while B cell receptor-stimulated proliferation was partially dependent on protease activity. In dendritic cells, stimulation of cytokine production through the Dectin-1, Dectin-2, and Mincle C-type lectin receptors was also found to be partially dependent upon protease activity. In vivo, protease-dead mice had reduced basal immunoglobulin levels, and showed defective responses to immunization with T-dependent and T-independent antigens. Surprisingly, despite these decreased responses, MALT1 protease-dead mice, but not MALT1 null mice, developed mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates in multiple organs, suggesting MALT1 protease activity plays a role in immune homeostasis. These findings highlight the importance of MALT1 protease activity in multiple immune cell types, and in integrating immune responses in vivo. PMID:25965667

  7. Involvement of serine proteases in the excystation and metacystic development of Entamoeba invadens.

    PubMed

    Makioka, Asao; Kumagai, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Seiki; Takeuchi, Tsutomu

    2009-10-01

    Although the functions of cysteine proteases involved in the pathogenicity and differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica have been demonstrated, little is known about the functions of serine proteases. We examined the involvement of serine proteases in amoebic excystation and metacystic development using inhibitors specific for serine proteases. Entamoeba invadens IP-1 strain was used as the model of excystation and metacystic development of E. histolytica. Four serine protease inhibitors, phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), 4-(2-aminoethyl) bezensulfonylfluoride hydrochloride, 3, 4-dichloroisocoumarin, and N-tosyl-phe-chloromethylketone, decreased the number of metacystic amoebae in a dose-dependent manner, without showing cytotoxicity to cysts. PMSF inhibited not only the increase but also the development of metacystic amoebae as determined by the change of nucleus number from four- to one-nucleate amoebae. The protease activity in cyst lysates was also inhibited by PMSF and the band of protease on gelatin sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was weaker than controls when treated with PMSF. Three serine protease families, S28 (three types), S9 (two), and S26 (one) were retrieved from the database of E. invadens. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that amebic enzymes from the serine protease families formed different clades from those from other organisms. The expression levels of these serine proteases in cysts 5 h after the induction of excystation as assessed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were higher than those observed prior to induction assayed by real-time RT-PCR; the increase in one type of S9 (named S9-3) expression was the highest. The expression of S9 enzymes also increased from cysts to trophozoites higher than the other family serine proteases. Thus, the results show that Entamoeba uses their serine proteases in the excystation and metacystic development, which leads to successful infection.

  8. Chaperone-protease systems in regulation and protein quality control in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Molière, Noël; Turgay, Kürşad

    2009-11-01

    The Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis is extremely well adapted to changing environmental conditions. The chaperone-protease ClpCP and other AAA+ proteases constitute an important component of the B. subtilis protein quality control system that is essential for survival during stress. In this review, we discuss recent discoveries concerning the molecular mechanism, regulation and localization of proteases and chaperones in B. subtilis.

  9. Nine Crystal Structures Determine the Substrate Envelope of the MDR HIV-1 Protease

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Yong; Brunzelle, Joseph; Kovari, Iulia A.; Kovari, Ladislau C.

    2012-03-27

    Under drug selection pressure, emerging mutations render HIV-1 protease drug resistant, leading to the therapy failure in anti-HIV treatment. It is known that nine substrate cleavage site peptides bind to wild type (WT) HIV-1 protease in a conserved pattern. However, how the multidrug-resistant (MDR) HIV-1 protease binds to the substrate cleavage site peptides is yet to be determined. MDR769 HIV-1 protease (resistant mutations at residues 10, 36, 46, 54, 62, 63, 71, 82, 84, and 90) was selected for present study to understand the binding to its natural substrates. MDR769 HIV-1 protease was co-crystallized with nine substrate cleavage site hepta-peptides. Crystallographic studies show that MDR769 HIV-1 protease has an expanded substrate envelope with wide open flaps. Furthermore, ligand binding energy calculations indicate weaker binding in MDR769 HIV-1 protease-substrate complexes. These results help in designing the next generation of HIV-1 protease inhibitors by targeting the MDR HIV-1 protease.

  10. Cysteine Proteases: Modes of Activation and Future Prospects as Pharmacological Targets

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Sonia; Dixit, Rajnikant; Pandey, Kailash C.

    2016-01-01

    Proteolytic enzymes are crucial for a variety of biological processes in organisms ranging from lower (virus, bacteria, and parasite) to the higher organisms (mammals). Proteases cleave proteins into smaller fragments by catalyzing peptide bonds hydrolysis. Proteases are classified according to their catalytic site, and distributed into four major classes: cysteine proteases, serine proteases, aspartic proteases, and metalloproteases. This review will cover only cysteine proteases, papain family enzymes which are involved in multiple functions such as extracellular matrix turnover, antigen presentation, processing events, digestion, immune invasion, hemoglobin hydrolysis, parasite invasion, parasite egress, and processing surface proteins. Therefore, they are promising drug targets for various diseases. For preventing unwanted digestion, cysteine proteases are synthesized as zymogens, and contain a prodomain (regulatory) and a mature domain (catalytic). The prodomain acts as an endogenous inhibitor of the mature enzyme. For activation of the mature enzyme, removal of the prodomain is necessary and achieved by different modes. The pro-mature domain interaction can be categorized as protein–protein interactions (PPIs) and may be targeted in a range of diseases. Cysteine protease inhibitors are available that can block the active site but no such inhibitor available yet that can be targeted to block the pro-mature domain interactions and prevent it activation. This review specifically highlights the modes of activation (processing) of papain family enzymes, which involve auto-activation, trans-activation and also clarifies the future aspects of targeting PPIs to prevent the activation of cysteine proteases. PMID:27199750

  11. Cysteine Proteases: Modes of Activation and Future Prospects as Pharmacological Targets.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sonia; Dixit, Rajnikant; Pandey, Kailash C

    2016-01-01

    Proteolytic enzymes are crucial for a variety of biological processes in organisms ranging from lower (virus, bacteria, and parasite) to the higher organisms (mammals). Proteases cleave proteins into smaller fragments by catalyzing peptide bonds hydrolysis. Proteases are classified according to their catalytic site, and distributed into four major classes: cysteine proteases, serine proteases, aspartic proteases, and metalloproteases. This review will cover only cysteine proteases, papain family enzymes which are involved in multiple functions such as extracellular matrix turnover, antigen presentation, processing events, digestion, immune invasion, hemoglobin hydrolysis, parasite invasion, parasite egress, and processing surface proteins. Therefore, they are promising drug targets for various diseases. For preventing unwanted digestion, cysteine proteases are synthesized as zymogens, and contain a prodomain (regulatory) and a mature domain (catalytic). The prodomain acts as an endogenous inhibitor of the mature enzyme. For activation of the mature enzyme, removal of the prodomain is necessary and achieved by different modes. The pro-mature domain interaction can be categorized as protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and may be targeted in a range of diseases. Cysteine protease inhibitors are available that can block the active site but no such inhibitor available yet that can be targeted to block the pro-mature domain interactions and prevent it activation. This review specifically highlights the modes of activation (processing) of papain family enzymes, which involve auto-activation, trans-activation and also clarifies the future aspects of targeting PPIs to prevent the activation of cysteine proteases. PMID:27199750

  12. Comparative analysis on the distribution of protease activities among fruits and vegetable resources.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qian; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Qiao-Juan; Jiang, Zheng-Qiang

    2016-12-15

    In this study, a comparative analysis on the distribution of protease activities among 90 plant resources, including fruits and vegetables, has been performed. Protease activities of plant extracts were assayed at different pH values (pH 3.0, pH 7.5 and pH 10.5) using casein as a substrate. Ten fruits and thirteen vegetables show protease activities above 10U/g. Pineapple, fig and papaya, which are used for commercial protease production, exhibited high protease activities. Additionally, high protease activities were detected in kiwifruit (28.8U/g), broccoli (16.9U/g), ginger (16.6U/g), leek (32.7U/g) and red pepper (15.8U/g) at different pH values. SDS-PAGE and zymograms confirmed that various types of proteases existed in the five plant extracts and might be explored. Furthermore, five plant extracts were treated by different protease inhibitors. These results show that there are still many plant resources unexplored, which may be promising candidates for plant-derived protease production.

  13. Comparative analysis on the distribution of protease activities among fruits and vegetable resources.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qian; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Qiao-Juan; Jiang, Zheng-Qiang

    2016-12-15

    In this study, a comparative analysis on the distribution of protease activities among 90 plant resources, including fruits and vegetables, has been performed. Protease activities of plant extracts were assayed at different pH values (pH 3.0, pH 7.5 and pH 10.5) using casein as a substrate. Ten fruits and thirteen vegetables show protease activities above 10U/g. Pineapple, fig and papaya, which are used for commercial protease production, exhibited high protease activities. Additionally, high protease activities were detected in kiwifruit (28.8U/g), broccoli (16.9U/g), ginger (16.6U/g), leek (32.7U/g) and red pepper (15.8U/g) at different pH values. SDS-PAGE and zymograms confirmed that various types of proteases existed in the five plant extracts and might be explored. Furthermore, five plant extracts were treated by different protease inhibitors. These results show that there are still many plant resources unexplored, which may be promising candidates for plant-derived protease production. PMID:27451238

  14. Synthesis and herbicidal evaluation of novel benzothiazole derivatives as potential inhibitors of D1 protease.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tonghui; Sun, Jie; An, Lin; Zhang, Lixian; Han, Cuiping

    2016-04-01

    D1 protease is a C-terminal processing protease that has been predicted to be an ideal herbicidal target. Three novel series of benzothiazole derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their herbicidal activities against Brassica napus (rape) and Echinochloa crusgalli (barnyard grass). The preliminary bioassay indicated that most of the synthesized compounds possess promising D1 protease inhibitory activities and considerable herbicidal activities. Molecular docking was performed to position representative compounds into the active site of D1 protease to determine a probable binding model. PMID:26905829

  15. Structural and thermodynamic basis of resistance to HIV-1 protease inhibition: implications for inhibitor design.

    PubMed

    Velazquez-Campoy, Adrian; Muzammil, Salman; Ohtaka, Hiroyasu; Schön, Arne; Vega, Sonia; Freire, Ernesto

    2003-12-01

    One of the most serious side effects associated with the therapy of HIV-1 infection is the appearance of viral strains that exhibit resistance to protease inhibitors. At the molecular level, resistance to protease inhibition predominantly takes the form of mutations within the protease molecule that preferentially lower the affinity of protease inhibitors with respect to protease substrates, while still maintaining a viable catalytic activity. Mutations associated with drug resistance occur within the active site cavity as well as distal sites. Active site mutations affect directly inhibitor/protease interactions while non-active site mutations affect inhibitor binding through long range cooperative perturbations. The effects of mutations associated with drug resistance are compounded by the presence of naturally occurring polymorphisms, especially those observed in non-B subtypes of HIV-1. The binding thermodynamics of all clinical inhibitors against the wild type protease, drug resistant mutations and non-B subtype HIV-1 proteases has been determined by high sensitivity isothermal titration calorimetry. In conjunction with structural information, these data have provided a precise characterization of the binding mechanism of different inhibitors and their response to mutations. Inhibitors that exhibit extremely high affinity and low susceptibility to the effects of mutations share common features and binding determinants even if they belong to different chemical scaffolds. These binding determinants define a set of rules and constraints for the design of better HIV-1 protease inhibitors.

  16. Potent inhibition of feline coronaviruses with peptidyl compounds targeting coronavirus 3C-like protease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yunjeong; Mandadapu, Sivakoteswara Rao; Groutas, William C; Chang, Kyeong-Ok

    2013-02-01

    Feline coronavirus infection is common among domestic and exotic felid species and usually associated with mild or asymptomatic enteritis; however, feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal disease of cats that is caused by systemic infection with a feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), a variant of feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). Currently, there is no specific treatment approved for FIP despite the importance of FIP as the leading infectious cause of death in young cats. During the replication process, coronavirus produces viral polyproteins that are processed into mature proteins by viral proteases, the main protease (3C-like [3CL] protease) and the papain-like protease. Since the cleavages of viral polyproteins are an essential step for virus replication, blockage of viral protease is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. Previously, we reported the generation of broad-spectrum peptidyl inhibitors against viruses that possess a 3C or 3CL protease. In this study, we further evaluated the antiviral effects of the peptidyl inhibitors against feline coronaviruses, and investigated the interaction between our protease inhibitor and a cathepsin B inhibitor, an entry blocker, against a feline coronavirus in cell culture. Herein we report that our compounds behave as reversible, competitive inhibitors of 3CL protease, potently inhibited the replication of feline coronaviruses (EC(50) in a nanomolar range) and, furthermore, combination of cathepsin B and 3CL protease inhibitors led to a strong synergistic interaction against feline coronaviruses in a cell culture system.

  17. Immobilized protease on the magnetic nanoparticles used for the hydrolysis of rapeseed meals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xin; Li, Ju-Fang; Huang, Ping-Ying; Dong, Xu-Yan; Guo, Lu-Lu; Yang, Liang; Cao, Yuan-Cheng; Wei, Fang; Zhao, Yuan-Di; Chen, Hong

    2010-07-01

    (3-aminopropl) triethoxysilaneand modified magnetic nanoparticles with the average diameter of 25.4 nm were synthesized in water-phase co-precipitation method. And then these nanoparticles were covalently coupled with alkaline protease as enzyme carrier by using 1,4-phenylene diisothlocyanate as coupling agent. Experiments showed that the immobilized protease can keep the catalytic bioactivity, which can reach to 47.8% when casein was served as substrate. Results showed that the catalytic activity of immobilized protease on these magnetic nanoparticles could retain 98.63±2.37% after 60 days. And it is more stable than the free protease during the shelf-life test. The enzyme reaction conditions such as optimum reaction temperature and pH are the same as free protease. Furthermore, mix-and-separate experiments showed that the immobilized protease could be recycled through the magnetic nanoparticles after the biocatalysis process. When the rapeseed meals were used as substrate, the degree of hydrolysis of immobilized alkaline protease achieved 9.86%, while it was 10.41% for the free protease. The macromolecular proteins of rapeseed meals were hydrolyzed by immobilized protease into small molecules such as polypeptides or amino acids. Thus, a novel efficient and economic way for the recycling of enzymes in the application of continuous production of active peptides was provided based on these magnetic nanoparticles.

  18. A biochemical comparison of proteases from pathogenic naegleria fowleri and non-pathogenic Naegleria gruberi.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Luna, Jesús; Cervantes-Sandoval, Isaac; Tsutsumi, Victor; Shibayama, Mineko

    2007-01-01

    Naegleria fowleri is the etiologic agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). Proteases have been suggested to be involved in tissue invasion and destruction during infection. We analyzed and compared the complete protease profiles of total crude extract and conditioned medium of both pathogenic N. fowleri and non-pathogenic Naegleria gruberi trophozoites. Using SDS-PAGE, we found differences in the number and molecular weight of proteolytic bands between the two strains. The proteases showed optimal activity at pH 7.0 and 35 degrees C for both strains. Inhibition assays showed that the main proteolytic activity in both strains is due to cysteine proteases although serine proteases were also detected. Both N. fowleri and N. gruberi have a variety of different protease activities at different pH levels and temperatures. These proteases may allow the amoebae to acquire nutrients from different sources, including those from the host. Although, the role of the amoebic proteases in the pathogenesis of PAM is not clearly defined, it seems that proteases and other molecules of the parasite as well as those from the host, could be participating in the damage to the human central nervous system.

  19. Scouring Potential of Mesophile Acidic Proteases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa for Grey Cotton Fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, D.

    2013-04-01

    Mesophile, acidic proteases were produced using the microbial source, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with wider thermal tolerances. Process conditions of scouring treatment were optimized using Taguchi method for optimum temperature, time, pH and concentration of protease. Treatment with the protease lower weight loss values compared to the alkali scouring, however, significant improvement in the absorbency compared to the grey samples was observed. Large amounts of pectin left out in the samples resulted in higher extractable impurities, substantiated by the FTIR results. Relatively, lower reduction in the tear strengths was observed in both warp and weft directions after protease treatment of the cotton fabrics.

  20. HreP, an In Vivo-Expressed Protease of Yersinia enterocolitica, Is a New Member of the Family of Subtilisin/Kexin-Like Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Heusipp, Gerhard; Young, Glenn M.; Miller, Virginia L.

    2001-01-01

    The role of proteases in pathogenesis is well established for several microorganisms but has not been described for Yersinia enterocolitica. Previously, we identified a gene, hreP, which showed significant similarity to proteases in a screen for chromosomal genes of Y. enterocolitica that were exclusively expressed during an infection of mice. We cloned this gene by chromosome capture and subsequently determined its nucleotide sequence. Like inv, the gene encoding the invasin protein of Y. enterocolitica, hreP is located in a cluster of flagellum biosynthesis and chemotaxis genes. The genomic organization of this chromosomal region is different in Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Yersinia pestis than in Y. enterocolitica. Analysis of the distribution of hreP between different Yersinia isolates and the relatively low G+C content of the gene suggests acquisition by horizontal gene transfer. Sequence analysis also revealed that HreP belongs to a family of eukaryotic subtilisin/kexin-like proteases. Together with the calcium-dependent protease PrcA of Anabaena variabilis, HreP forms a new subfamily of bacterial subtilisin/kexin-like proteases which might have originated from a common eukaryotic ancestor. Like other proteases of this family, HreP is expressed with an N-terminal prosequence. Expression of an HreP-His6 tag fusion protein in E. coli revealed that HreP undergoes autocatalytic processing at a consensus cleavage site of subtilisin/kexin-like proteases, thereby releasing the proprotein. PMID:11371518

  1. Decomposing the energetic impact of drug-resistant mutations: the example of HIV-1 protease-DRV binding.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yufeng; Schiffer, Celia

    2012-01-01

    HIV-1 protease is a major drug target for AIDS therapy. With the appearance of drug-resistant HIV-1 protease variants, understanding the mechanism of drug resistance becomes critical for rational drug design. Computational methods can provide more details about inhibitor-protease binding than crystallography and isothermal titration calorimetry. The latest FDA-approved HIV-1 protease inhibitor is Darunavir (DRV). Herein, each DRV atom is evaluated by free energy component analysis for its contribution to the binding affinity with wild-type protease and ACT, a drug-resistant variant. This information can contribute to the rational design of new HIV-1 protease inhibitors.

  2. A1C test

    MedlinePlus

    HbA1C test; Glycated hemoglobin test; Glycosylated hemoglobin test; Hemoglobin glycosylated test; Glycohemoglobin test ... have recently eaten does not affect the A1C test, so you do not need to fast to ...

  3. Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Sprouting Angiogenesis: Proteases Pave the Way.

    PubMed

    Laurenzana, A; Fibbi, G; Margheri, F; Biagioni, A; Luciani, C; Del Rosso, M; Chillà, A

    2015-01-01

    Sprouting angiogenesis consists of the expansion and remodelling of existing vessels, where the vascular sprouts connect each other to form new vascular loops. Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs) are a subtype of stem cells, with high proliferative potential, able to differentiate into mature Endothelial Cells (ECs) during the neovascularization process. In addition to this direct structural role EPCs improve neovascularization, also secreting numerous pro-angiogenic factors able to enhance the proliferation, survival and function of mature ECs, and other surrounding progenitor cells. While sprouting angiogenesis by mature ECs involves resident ECs, the vasculogenic contribution of EPCs is a high hurdle race. Bone marrowmobilized EPCs have to detach from the stem cell niche, intravasate into bone marrow vessels, reach the hypoxic area or tumour site, extravasate and incorporate into the new vessel lumen, thus complementing the resident mature ECs in sprouting angiogenesis. The goal of this review is to highlight the role of the main protease systems able to control each of these steps. The pivotal protease systems here described, involved in vascular patterning in sprouting angiogenesis, are the matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs), the serineproteinases urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) associated with its receptor (uPAR) and receptorassociated plasminogen/plasmin, the neutrophil elastase and the cathepsins. Since angiogenesis plays a critical role not only in physiological but also in pathological processes, such as in tumours, controlling the contribution of EPCs to the angiogenic process, through the regulation of the protease systems involved, could yield new opportunities for the therapeutic prospect of efficient control of pathological angiogenesis. PMID:26321757

  4. Phytochelatin synthase: of a protease a peptide polymerase made.

    PubMed

    Rea, Philip A

    2012-05-01

    Of the mechanisms known to protect vascular plants and some algae, fungi and invertebrates from the toxic effects of non-essential heavy metals such as As, Cd or Hg, one of the most sophisticated is the enzyme-catalyzed synthesis of phytochelatins (PCs). PCs, (γ-Glu-Cys)(n) Gly polymers, which serve as high-affinity, thiol-rich cellular chelators and contribute to the detoxification of heavy metal ions, are derived from glutathione (GSH; γ-Glu-Cys-Gly) and related thiols in a reaction catalyzed by phytochelatin synthases (PC synthases, EC 2.3.2.15). Using the enzyme from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPCS1) as a model, the reasoning and experiments behind the conclusion that PC synthases are novel papain-like Cys protease superfamily members are presented. The status of S-substituted GSH derivatives as generic PC synthase substrates and the sufficiency of the N-terminal domain of the enzyme from eukaryotic and its half-size equivalents from prokaryotic sources, for net PC synthesis and deglycylation of GSH and its derivatives, respectively, are emphasized. The question of the common need or needs met by PC synthases and their homologs is discussed. Of the schemes proposed to account for the combined protease and peptide polymerase capabilities of the eukaryotic enzymes vs the limited protease capabilities of the prokaryotic enzymes, two that will be considered are the storage and homeostasis of essential heavy metals in eukaryotes and the metabolism of S-substituted GSH derivatives in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes.

  5. Activity based chemical proteomics: profiling proteases as drug targets.

    PubMed

    Heal, William Percy; Wickramasinghe, Sasala Roshinie; Tate, Edward William

    2008-09-01

    The pivotal role of proteases in many diseases has generated considerable interest in their basic biology, and in the potential to target them for chemotherapy. Although fundamental to the initiation and progression of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, arthritis and malaria, in many cases their precise role remains unknown. Activity-based chemical proteomics-an emerging field involving a combination of organic synthesis, biochemistry, cell biology, biophysics and bioinformatics-allows the detection, visualisation and activity quantification of whole families or selected sub-sets of proteases based upon their substrate specificity. This approach can be applied for drug target/lead identification and validation, the fundamentals of drug discovery. The activity-based probes discussed in this review contain three key features; a 'warhead' (binds irreversibly but selectively to the active site), a 'tag' (allowing enzyme 'handling', with a combination of fluorescent, affinity and/or radio labels), and a linker region between warhead and tag. From the design and synthesis of the linker arise some of the latest developments discussed here; not only can the physical properties (e.g., solubility, localisation) of the probe be tuned, but the inclusion of a cleavable moiety allows selective removal of tagged enzyme from affinity beads etc. The design and synthesis of recently reported probes is discussed, including modular assembly of highly versatile probes via solid phase synthesis. Recent applications of activity-based protein profiling to specific proteases (serine, threonine, cysteine and metalloproteases) are reviewed as are demonstrations of their use in the study of disease function in cancer and malaria.

  6. Binding to the Open Conformation of HIV-1 Protease

    PubMed Central

    Lexa, Katrina W.; Carlson, Heather A.

    2011-01-01

    A recent crystal structure of HIV-1 protease (HIVp) was the first to experimentally observe a ligand targeting an open-flap conformation. Researchers studying a symmetric pyrrolidine inhibitor found that two ligands co-crystallized with the protease, forcing an unusual configuration and unique crystallographic contacts. One molecule is centered in the traditional binding site (α pose), and the other binds between the flaps (β pose). The ligands stack against each other in a region termed the “eye” site. Ligands bound to the eye site should prevent flap closure, but it is unclear if the pyrrolidine inhibitors or the crystal packing are causing the open state. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to examine the solution-state behavior of three possible binding modes: the ternary complex of HIVp+αβ and the binary complexes, HIVp+α and HIVp+β. We show that HIVp+α is the most stable of the three states. During conformational sampling, α takes an asymmetric binding pose, with one naphthyl ring occupying the eye site and the other reoriented down to occupy positions seen with traditional inhibitors. This finding supports previous studies that reveal a requirement for asymmetric binding at the eye site. In fact, if the α pose is modified to splay both naphthyl rings across the binding site like traditional inhibitors, one ring consistently flips to occupy the eye site. Our simulations reveal that interactions to the eye site encourage a conformationally-restrained state, and understanding those contacts may aid the design of ligands to specifically target alternate conformations of the protease. PMID:21604303

  7. Diversity-enhancing selection acts on a female reproductive protease family in four subspecies of Drosophila mojavensis.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, Erin S; Clark, Nathaniel L; Markow, Therese A

    2011-03-01

    Protein components of the Drosophila male ejaculate are critical modulators of reproductive success, several of which are known to evolve rapidly. Recent evidence of adaptive evolution in female reproductive tract proteins suggests this pattern may reflect sexual selection at the molecular level. Here we explore the evolutionary dynamics of a five-paralog gene family of female reproductive proteases within geographically isolated subspecies of Drosophila mojavensis. Remarkably, four of five paralogs show exceptionally low differentiation between subspecies and unusually structured haplotypes that suggest the retention of old polymorphisms. These gene genealogies are accompanied by deviations from neutrality consistent with diversifying selection. While diversifying selection has been observed among the reproductive molecules of mammals and marine invertebrates, our study provides the first evidence of this selective regime in any Drosophila reproductive protein, male or female.

  8. Cloning and chromosomal assignment of a human cDNA encoding a T cell- and natural killer cell-specific trypsin-like serine protease.

    PubMed Central

    Gershenfeld, H K; Hershberger, R J; Shows, T B; Weissman, I L

    1988-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding a human T cell- and natural killer cell-specific serine protease was obtained by screening a phage lambda gt10 cDNA library from phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes with the mouse Hanukah factor cDNA clone. In an RNA blot-hybridization analysis, this human Hanukah factor cDNA hybridized with a 1.3-kilobase band in allogeneic-stimulated cytotoxic T cells and the Jurkat cell line, but this transcript was not detectable in normal muscle, liver, tonsil, or thymus. By dot-blot hybridization, this cDNA hybridized with RNA from three cytolytic T-cell clones and three noncytolytic T-cell clones grown in vitro as well as with purified CD16+ natural killer cells and CD3+, CD16- T-cell large granular lymphocytes from peripheral blood lymphocytes (CD = cluster designation). The nucleotide sequence of this cDNA clone encodes a predicted serine protease of 262 amino acids. The predicted protein has a 22-amino acid presegment, a 6-amino acid prosegment, and an active enzyme of 234 amino acids with a calculated unglycosylated molecular weight of 25,820. The active enzyme is 71% and 77% similar to the mouse sequence at the amino acid and DNA level, respectively. The human and mouse sequences conserve the active site residues of serine proteases--the trypsin-specific Asp-189 and all 10 cysteine residues. The gene for the human Hanukah factor serine protease is located on human chromosome 5. We propose that this trypsin-like serine protease may function as a common component necessary for lysis of target cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Images PMID:3257574

  9. Structural basis of substrate specificity in the serine proteases.

    PubMed Central

    Perona, J. J.; Craik, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    Structure-based mutational analysis of serine protease specificity has produced a large database of information useful in addressing biological function and in establishing a basis for targeted design efforts. Critical issues examined include the function of water molecules in providing strength and specificity of binding, the extent to which binding subsites are interdependent, and the roles of polypeptide chain flexibility and distal structural elements in contributing to specificity profiles. The studies also provide a foundation for exploring why specificity modification can be either straightforward or complex, depending on the particular system. PMID:7795518

  10. Lung vascular injury with protease infusion. Relationship to plasma fibronectin.

    PubMed Central

    Cohler, L F; Saba, T M; Lewis, E P

    1985-01-01

    Fibronectin exists in a soluble form in plasma and in an insoluble form in tissues. Plasma fibronectin can modulate phagocytic function as well as incorporate into the tissue matrix where it is believed to influence microvascular integrity and tissue repair. The temporal alterations in plasma and lung lymph fibronectin were studied in relation to increased pulmonary vascular permeability induced by protease infusion. The acute sheep lung lymph fistula model was used. A 39% decrease in plasma fibronectin (control = 421 +/- 67 micrograms/ml) was observed 2.5 hours (255 +/- 43 micrograms/ml) after protease infusion. There was an elevation of lymph fibronectin early after protease infusion, followed by a progressive decline. Concomitant with the decrease in plasma fibronectin, an increase in lymph flow (QL) of greater than 200% (from a control of 6.7 +/- 1.0 ml/hr to 13.9 +/- 1.4 ml/hr) was observed within 2.5 hours. Also, there was a sustained elevation in the total protein lymph/plasma concentration (L/P) ratio, which was maximal at 2.5 hours. The transvascular protein clearance (TVPC = QL X L/P) was 4.5 +/- 0.7 ml/hr at the control period and 13.1 +/- 2.0 ml/hr by 2.5 hours. This was indicative of increased flux of protein-rich fluid across the pulmonary endothelial barrier. Lung vascular permeability stabilized after 2.5 hours as manifested by a slowly declining L/P ratio. Thus, plasma fibronectin deficiency may contribute to the etiology of increased lung vascular permeability with protease infusion. Since the progressive decline in plasma fibronectin was not reflected in a proportional increase in lymph fibronectin, plasma fibronectin may have sequestered in tissues such as the lung, or perhaps in reticuloendothelial cells during the injury phase. Whether the progressive decrease in plasma fibronectin reflects its incorporation into the endothelial barrier matrix where it may mediate stabilization of the pulmonary microvascular barrier remains to be determined

  11. Expression and activation of proteases in co-cultures.

    PubMed

    Paduch, Roman; Kandefer-Szerszeń, Martyna

    2011-01-01

    The present study concerned the expression and activation of metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and the urokinase plasminogen activator/urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPA/uPAR) system in co-cultures of human colon carcinoma cell spheroids (HT29, LS180, SW948) with human normal colon epithelium (CCD 841 CoTr), myofibroblasts (CCD-18Co) and endothelial cells (HUVEC). Additionally, the influence of monensin on the production and function of the proteases was tested. Tumor cells expressed small amounts of MMP-2, MMP-9 and uPA. Normal cells generally produced proportionally higher concentrations of these proteases (especially MMP-2, compared with significantly smaller yields of MMP-9 and significantly lower amounts of uPAR than tumors. In co-cultures of tumor spheroids with normal cell monolayers, the concentration of the proteases was equal to the sum of the enzymes produced in monocultures of both types of cells. The highest activity of uPA, measured as the reduction of the chromogenic substrate (S-2444), was detected in supernatants and lysates of endothelial cells. Interestingly, in normal cells, the higher expression of proteases, mainly uPA, measured as the level of protein concentration, was closely linked with their lower activity and inversely, in tumor cells, the low level of the expression of the enzymes correlated with their high enzymatic activity. In zymography analysis, mainly pro-MMPs were detected both in culture supernatants and cell lysates. The highest amounts of active forms of the MMPs were detected in tumor spheroids co-cultured with endothelial cells. Monensin inhibited MMPs and uPA secretion but significantly increased uPAR release, mainly from normal cells. In conclusion, during direct interactions of tumor cells with normal cells, MMPs and the uPA/uPAR system play an important role in the degradation of ECM and tumor development, but as we found, there is a reverse relationship between the concentration and the

  12. An acidic amino acid-specific protease from germinating soybeans.

    PubMed

    Tan-Wilson, A L; Liu, X; Chen, R; Qi, X; Wilson, K A

    1996-05-01

    The degradation of the beta-conglycinin protein reserves in soybean seeds during germination and early growth begins with the proteolysis of its alpha and alpha' subunits by an enzyme called Protease C1. In the pathway, a number of proteolytic intermediates are produced and subsequently degraded. Determination of the N-terminal sequences of these intermediates provides insight regarding the requirements of the cleavage sites. The N-terminal sequence of three such proteolytic intermediates has been determined. The sequence has been located in the published sequences of the beta-conglycinin subunits. Comparing these cleavage sites, plus those of two others previously delineated, shows that the P1' and P4' positions always bear either a Glu or an Asp residue while the P1 position always bears either a Glu or a Gln residue. In addition, other sites from P3 to P7' are also rich in either Glu or Asp, and the whole region is predicted to be in a alpha-helix. Consistent with the observation, synthetic poly-L-Glu inhibits the Protease C1-catalysed degradation of the alpha and alpha' subunits of beta-conglycinin. Poly-L-Glu (av. M(r) = 1000) at 12.5 mM was more effective at inhibiting the reaction than poly-L-Glu (av. M(r) = 600) or poly-L-Glu (av. M(r) = 14,300) at the same concentration. Comparing large synthetic polypeptides at 12.5mM, inhibition by poly-L-Asp (av. M(r) = 15,000) is as effective as poly-L-Glu (av. M(r) = 14,300), while poly-L-Ser (av. M(r) = 15,000) had no effect at all. Poly-D-Glu (av. M(r) = 15,000) is a better inhibitor than poly-L-Glu of the same size. A serine protease of similar molecular weight as Protease C1 and also capable of catalysing the proteolysis of the alpha and alpha' subunits of beta-conglycinin to generate proteolytic intermediates of the same size has been found in mung bean.

  13. Structures of a bi-functional Kunitz-type STI family inhibitor of serine and aspartic proteases: Could the aspartic protease inhibition have evolved from a canonical serine protease-binding loop?

    PubMed

    Guerra, Yasel; Valiente, Pedro A; Pons, Tirso; Berry, Colin; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique

    2016-08-01

    Bi-functional inhibitors from the Kunitz-type soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI) family are glycosylated proteins able to inhibit serine and aspartic proteases. Here we report six crystal structures of the wild-type and a non-glycosylated mutant of the bifunctional inhibitor E3Ad obtained at different pH values and space groups. The crystal structures show that E3Ad adopts the typical β-trefoil fold of the STI family exhibiting some conformational changes due to pH variations and crystal packing. Despite the high sequence identity with a recently reported potato cathepsin D inhibitor (PDI), three-dimensional structures obtained in this work show a significant conformational change in the protease-binding loop proposed for aspartic protease inhibition. The E3Ad binding loop for serine protease inhibition is also proposed, based on structural similarity with a novel non-canonical conformation described for the double-headed inhibitor API-A from the Kunitz-type STI family. In addition, structural and sequence analyses suggest that bifunctional inhibitors of serine and aspartic proteases from the Kunitz-type STI family are more similar to double-headed inhibitor API-A than other inhibitors with a canonical protease-binding loop.

  14. Structures of a bi-functional Kunitz-type STI family inhibitor of serine and aspartic proteases: Could the aspartic protease inhibition have evolved from a canonical serine protease-binding loop?

    PubMed

    Guerra, Yasel; Valiente, Pedro A; Pons, Tirso; Berry, Colin; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique

    2016-08-01

    Bi-functional inhibitors from the Kunitz-type soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI) family are glycosylated proteins able to inhibit serine and aspartic proteases. Here we report six crystal structures of the wild-type and a non-glycosylated mutant of the bifunctional inhibitor E3Ad obtained at different pH values and space groups. The crystal structures show that E3Ad adopts the typical β-trefoil fold of the STI family exhibiting some conformational changes due to pH variations and crystal packing. Despite the high sequence identity with a recently reported potato cathepsin D inhibitor (PDI), three-dimensional structures obtained in this work show a significant conformational change in the protease-binding loop proposed for aspartic protease inhibition. The E3Ad binding loop for serine protease inhibition is also proposed, based on structural similarity with a novel non-canonical conformation described for the double-headed inhibitor API-A from the Kunitz-type STI family. In addition, structural and sequence analyses suggest that bifunctional inhibitors of serine and aspartic proteases from the Kunitz-type STI family are more similar to double-headed inhibitor API-A than other inhibitors with a canonical protease-binding loop. PMID:27329566

  15. Increasing activity and thermal resistance of Bacillus gibsonii alkaline protease (BgAP) by directed evolution.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Ronny; Jakob, Felix; Tu, Ran; Siegert, Petra; Maurer, Karl-Heinz; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2013-03-01

    Bacillus gibsonii Alkaline Protease (BgAP) is a recently reported subtilisin protease exhibiting activity and stability properties suitable for applications in laundry and dish washing detergents. However, BgAP suffers from a significant decrease of activity at low temperatures. In order to increase BgAP activity at 15°C, a directed evolution campaign based on the SeSaM random mutagenesis method was performed. An optimized microtiter plate expression system in B. subtilis was established and classical proteolytic detection methods were adapted for high throughput screening. In parallel, the libraries were screened for increased residual proteolytic activity after incubation at 58°C. Three iterative rounds of directed BgAP evolution yielded a set of BgAP variants with increased specific activity (K(cat)) at 15°C and increased thermal resistance. Recombination of both sets of amino acid substitutions resulted finally in variant MF1 with a 1.5-fold increased specific activity (15°C) and over 100 times prolonged half-life at 60°C (224 min compared to 2 min of the WT BgAP). None of the introduced amino acid substitutions were close to the active site of BgAP. Activity-altering amino acid substitutions were from non-charged to non-charged or from sterically demanding to less demanding. Thermal stability improvements were achieved by substitutions to negatively charged amino acids in loop areas of the BgAP surface which probably fostered ionic and hydrogen bonds interactions.

  16. Kinetic Intermediates en Route to the Final Serpin-Protease Complex

    PubMed Central

    Maddur, Ashoka A.; Swanson, Richard; Izaguirre, Gonzalo; Gettins, Peter G. W.; Olson, Steven T.

    2013-01-01

    Serpin protein protease inhibitors inactivate their target proteases through a unique mechanism in which a major serpin conformational change, resulting in a 70-Å translocation of the protease from its initial reactive center loop docking site to the opposite pole of the serpin, kinetically traps the acyl-intermediate complex. Although the initial Michaelis and final trapped acyl-intermediate complexes have been well characterized structurally, the intermediate stages involved in this remarkable transformation are not well understood. To better characterize such intermediate steps, we undertook rapid kinetic studies of the FRET and fluorescence perturbation changes of site-specific fluorophore-labeled derivatives of the serpin, α1-protease inhibitor (α1PI), which report the serpin and protease conformational changes involved in transforming the Michaelis complex to the trapped acyl-intermediate complex in reactions with trypsin. Two kinetically resolvable conformational changes were observed in the reactions, ascribable to (i) serpin reactive center loop insertion into sheet A with full protease translocation but incomplete protease distortion followed by, (ii) full conformational distortion and movement of the protease and coupled serpin conformational changes involving the F helix-sheet A interface. Kinetic studies of calcium effects on the labeled α1PI-trypsin reactions demonstrated both inactive and low activity states of the distorted protease in the final complex that were distinct from the intermediate distorted state. These studies provide new insights into the nature of the serpin and protease conformational changes involved in trapping the acyl-intermediate complex in serpin-protease reactions and support a previously proposed role for helix F in the trapping mechanism. PMID:24047901

  17. Optimisation of the detection of bacterial proteases using adsorbed immunoglobulins as universal substrates.

    PubMed

    Abuknesha, Ram A; Jeganathan, Fiona; Wildeboer, Dirk; Price, Robert G

    2010-06-15

    Bacterial proteases, Type XXIV from Bacillus licheniformens and Type XIV from Streptomyces griseus, were used to investigate the utility and optimisation of a solid phase assay for proteases, using immunoglobulin proteins as substrates. Immunoglobulins IgA and IgG were adsorbed on to surfaces of ELISA plates and exposed to various levels of the bacterial proteases which led to digestion and desorption of proportional amounts of the immunoglobulins. The assay signal was developed by measuring the remaining proteins on the polystyrene surface with appropriate enzyme-labelled anti-immunoglobulin reagents. The assay was fully optimised in terms of substrate levels employing ELISA techniques to titrate levels of adsorbed substrates and protease analytes. The critical factor which influences assay sensitivity was found to be the substrate concentration, the levels of adsorbed immunoglobulins. The estimated detection limits for protease XXIV and XIV were 10micro units/test and 9micro units/test using IgA as a substrate. EC(50) values were calculated as 213 and 48micro units/test for each protease respectively. Using IgG as a substrate, the estimated detection limits were 104micro units/test for protease XXIV and 9micro units/test for protease XIV. EC(50) values were calculated at 529micro units/test and 28micro units/test for protease XXIV and XIV respectively. The solid phase protease assay required no modification of the substrates and the adsorption step is merely simple addition of immunoglobulins to ELISA plates. Adsorption of the immunoglobulins to polystyrene enabled straightforward separation of reaction mixtures prior to development of assay signal. The assay exploits the advantages of the technical facilities of ELISA technology and commercially available reagents enabling the detection and measurement of a wide range of proteases. However, the key issue was found to be that in order to achieve the potential performance of the simple assay, optimisation of the

  18. Antiparasitic effect of a fraction enriched in tight-binding protease inhibitors isolated from the Caribbean coral Plexaura homomalla.

    PubMed

    Salas-Sarduy, Emir; Cabrera-Muñoz, Aymara; Cauerhff, Ana; González-González, Yamile; Trejo, Sebastián A; Chidichimo, Agustina; Chávez-Planes, Maria de Los Angeles; Cazzulo, Juan José

    2013-11-01

    Malaria and American Trypanosomiasis constitute major global health problems. The continued emergence and spreading of resistant strains and the limited efficacy and/or safety of currently available therapeutic agents require a constant search for new sources of antiparasitic compounds. In the present study, a fraction enriched in tight-binding protease inhibitors was isolated from the Caribbean coral Plexaura homomalla (Esper, 1792), functionally characterized and tested for their antiparasitic activity against Trypanosoma cruzi and Plasmodium falciparum. The resultant fraction was chromatographically enriched in tight-binding inhibitors active against Papain-like cysteine peptidases (92%) and Pepsin-like aspartyl peptidases (8%). Globally, the inhibitors present in the enriched fraction showed no competition with substrates and apparent Ki values of 1.99 and 4.81nM for Falcipain 2 and Cruzipain, the major cysteine peptidases from P. falciparum and T. cruzi, respectively. The inhibitor-enriched fraction showed promising antiparasitic activity in cultures. It reduced the growth of the chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum strain Dd2 (IC50=0.46μM) and promoted the apparent accumulation of trophozoites, both consistent with a blockade in the hemoglobin degradation pathway. At sub-micromolar concentrations, the inhibitor-enriched fraction reduced the infection of VERO cells by T. cruzi (CL Brener clone) trypomastigotes and interfered with intracellular differentiation and/or replication of the parasites. This study provides new scientific evidence that confirms P. homomalla as an excellent source of tight-biding protease inhibitors for different proteases with biomedical relevance, and suggests that either the individual inhibitors or the enriched fraction itself could be valuable as antiparasitic compounds. PMID:24090569

  19. PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR-C (PDGF-C) ACTIVATION BY SERINE PROTEASES: IMPLICATIONS FOR BREAST CANCER PROGRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Newton J.; Najy, Abdo J.; Ustach, Carolyn V.; Movilla, Lisa; Kim, Hyeong-Reh Choi

    2012-01-01

    The PDGF family members are potent mitogens for cells of mesenchymal origin and serve as important regulators of cell migration, survival, apoptosis, and transformation. Tumor-derived PDGF ligands are thought to function in both autocrine and paracrine manners, activating receptors on tumor and surrounding stromal cells. PDGF-C and -D are secreted as latent dimers, unlike PDGF-A and -B. Cleavage of the CUB domain from the PDGF-C and -D dimers is required for their biological activity. At present, little is known about the proteolytic processing of PDGF-C, the rate-limiting step in the regulation of PDGF-C activity. Here we show that the breast carcinoma cell line, MCF7, engineered to overexpress PDGF-C, produces proteases capable of cleaving PDGF-C to its active form. Increased PDGF-C expression enhances cell proliferation, anchorage independent cell growth, and tumor cell motility by autocrine signaling. In addition, MCF7-produced PDGF-C induces fibroblast cell migration in a paracrine manner. Interestingly, PDGF-C enhances tumor cell invasion in the presence of fibroblast, suggesting a role of tumor-derived PDGF-C in tumor-stromal interactions. In the present study, we identify tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and matriptase as major proteases for processing of PDGF-C in MCF7 cells. In in vitro studies, we also show that urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) is able to process PDGF-C. Furthermore, by site-directed mutagenesis, we identify the cleavage site for these proteases in PDGF-C. Lastly, we provide evidence suggesting a 2-step proteolytic processing of PDGF-C involving creation of a hemidimer, followed by growth factor domain dimer (GFD-D) generation. PMID:22035541

  20. Antiparasitic effect of a fraction enriched in tight-binding protease inhibitors isolated from the Caribbean coral Plexaura homomalla.

    PubMed

    Salas-Sarduy, Emir; Cabrera-Muñoz, Aymara; Cauerhff, Ana; González-González, Yamile; Trejo, Sebastián A; Chidichimo, Agustina; Chávez-Planes, Maria de Los Angeles; Cazzulo, Juan José

    2013-11-01

    Malaria and American Trypanosomiasis constitute major global health problems. The continued emergence and spreading of resistant strains and the limited efficacy and/or safety of currently available therapeutic agents require a constant search for new sources of antiparasitic compounds. In the present study, a fraction enriched in tight-binding protease inhibitors was isolated from the Caribbean coral Plexaura homomalla (Esper, 1792), functionally characterized and tested for their antiparasitic activity against Trypanosoma cruzi and Plasmodium falciparum. The resultant fraction was chromatographically enriched in tight-binding inhibitors active against Papain-like cysteine peptidases (92%) and Pepsin-like aspartyl peptidases (8%). Globally, the inhibitors present in the enriched fraction showed no competition with substrates and apparent Ki values of 1.99 and 4.81nM for Falcipain 2 and Cruzipain, the major cysteine peptidases from P. falciparum and T. cruzi, respectively. The inhibitor-enriched fraction showed promising antiparasitic activity in cultures. It reduced the growth of the chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum strain Dd2 (IC50=0.46μM) and promoted the apparent accumulation of trophozoites, both consistent with a blockade in the hemoglobin degradation pathway. At sub-micromolar concentrations, the inhibitor-enriched fraction reduced the infection of VERO cells by T. cruzi (CL Brener clone) trypomastigotes and interfered with intracellular differentiation and/or replication of the parasites. This study provides new scientific evidence that confirms P. homomalla as an excellent source of tight-biding protease inhibitors for different proteases with biomedical relevance, and suggests that either the individual inhibitors or the enriched fraction itself could be valuable as antiparasitic compounds.

  1. Intramolecular Interactions between the Protease and Structural Domains Are Important for the Functions of Serine Protease Autotransporters▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Casey; Malik, Huma; Nassman, Deana; Huang, Antony; Tariq, Fayha; Oelschlaeger, Peter; Stathopoulos, Christos

    2010-01-01

    Autotransporter (AT) is a protein secretion pathway found in Gram-negative bacteria featuring a multidomain polypeptide with a signal sequence, a passenger domain, and a translocator domain. An AT subfamily named serine protease ATs of the family Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs) is characterized by the presence of a conserved serine protease motif in the passenger domain which contributes to bacterial pathogenesis. The goal of the current study is to determine the importance of the passenger domain conserved residues in the SPATE proteolytic and adhesive functions using the temperature-sensitive hemagglutinin (Tsh) protein as our model. To begin, mutations of 21 fully conserved residues in the four passenger domain conserved motifs were constructed by PCR-based site-directed mutagenesis. Seventeen mutants exhibited a wild-type secretion level; among these mutants, eight displayed reduced proteolytic activities in Tsh-specific oligopeptide and mucin cleavage assays. These eight mutants also demonstrated lower affinities to extracellular matrix proteins, collagen IV, and fibronectin. These eight conserved residues were analyzed by molecular graphics modeling to demonstrate their intramolecular interactions with the catalytic triad and other key residues. Additional mutations were made to confirm the above interactions in order to demonstrate their significance to the SPATE functions. Altogether our data suggest that certain conserved residues in the SPATE passenger domain are important for both the proteolytic and adhesive activities of SPATE by maintaining the proper protein structure via intramolecular interactions between the protease and β-helical domains. Here, we provide new insight into the structure-function relationship of the SPATEs and the functional roles of their conserved residues. PMID:20479079

  2. Characterization of an Alphamesonivirus 3C-Like Protease Defines a Special Group of Nidovirus Main Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Blanck, Sandra; Stinn, Anne; Tsiklauri, Lali; Zirkel, Florian; Junglen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cavally virus (CavV) and related viruses in the family Mesoniviridae diverged profoundly from other nidovirus lineages but largely retained the characteristic set of replicative enzymes conserved in the Coronaviridae and Roniviridae. The expression of these enzymes in virus-infected cells requires the extensive proteolytic processing of two large replicase polyproteins, pp1a and pp1ab, by the viral 3C-like protease (3CLpro). Here, we show that CavV 3CLpro autoproteolytic cleavage occurs at two N-terminal (N1 and N2) and one C-terminal (C1) processing site(s). The mature form of 3CLpro was revealed to be a 314-residue protein produced by cleavage at FKNK1386|SAAS (N2) and YYNQ1700|SATI (C1). Site-directed mutagenesis data suggest that the mesonivirus 3CLpro employs a catalytic Cys-His dyad comprised of CavV pp1a/pp1ab residues Cys-1539 and His-1434. The study further suggests that mesonivirus 3CLpro substrate specificities differ from those of related nidovirus proteases. The presence of Gln (or Glu) at the P1 position was not required for cleavage, although residues that control Gln/Glu specificity in related viral proteases are retained in the CavV 3CLpro sequence. Asn at the P2 position was identified as a key determinant for mesonivirus 3CLpro substrate specificity. Other positions, including P4 and P1′, each are occupied by structurally related amino acids, indicating a supportive role in substrate binding. Together, the data identify a new subgroup of nidovirus main proteases and support previous conclusions on phylogenetic relationships between the main nidovirus lineages. IMPORTANCE Mesoniviruses have been suggested to provide an evolutionary link between nidovirus lineages with small (13 to 16 kb) and large (26 to 32 kb) RNA genome sizes, and it has been proposed that a specific set of enzymes, including a proofreading exoribonuclease and other replicase gene-encoded proteins, play a key role in the major genome expansion leading to the currently

  3. Prevalence, mutation patterns, and effects on protease inhibitor susceptibility of the L76V mutation in HIV-1 protease.

    PubMed

    Young, Thomas P; Parkin, Neil T; Stawiski, Eric; Pilot-Matias, Tami; Trinh, Roger; Kempf, Dale J; Norton, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Patterns of HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI) resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) and effects on PI susceptibility associated with the L76V mutation were studied in a large database. Of 20,501 sequences with ≥1 PI RAM, 3.2% contained L76V; L76V was alone in 0.04%. Common partner mutations included M46I, I54V, V82A, I84V, and L90M. L76V was associated with a 2- to 6-fold decrease in susceptibility to lopinavir, darunavir, amprenavir, and indinavir and a 7- to 8-fold increase in susceptibility to atazanavir and saquinavir. PMID:20805393

  4. Moringa oleifera Lam.: Protease activity against blood coagulation cascade

    PubMed Central

    Satish, A; Sairam, Sudha; Ahmed, Faiyaz; Urooj, Asna

    2012-01-01

    Background: The present study evaluated the protease activity of aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) leaf (MOL) and root (MOR). Materials and Methods: Protease activity was assayed using casein, human plasma clot and human fibrinogen as substrates. Results: Caseinolytic activity of MOL was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than that of MOR. Similar observations were found in case of human plasma clot hydrolyzing activity, wherein MOL caused significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) plasma clot hydrolysis than MOR. Zymographic techniques were used to detect proteolytic enzymes following electrophoretic separation in gels. Further, both the extracts exhibited significant procoagulant activity as reflected by a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in recalcification time, accompanied by fibrinogenolytic and fibrinolytic activities; clotting time was decreased from 180 ± 10 sec to 119 ± 8 sec and 143 ± 10 sec by MOL and MOR, respectively, at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL. Fibrinogenolytic (human fibrinogen) and fibrinolytic activity (human plasma clot) was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), plate method and colorimetric method. Zymographic profile indicated that both the extracts exerted their procoagulant activity by selectively hydrolyzing Aα and Bβ subunits of fibrinogen to form fibrin clot, thereby exhibiting fibrinogenolytic activity. However, prolonged incubation resulted in degradation of the formed fibrin clot, suggesting fibrinolytic like activity. Conclusions: These findings support the traditional usage of M. oleifera extracts for wound healing. PMID:22224061

  5. Design of HIV Protease Inhibitors Based on Inorganic Polyhedral Metallacarboranes

    SciTech Connect

    Rezacova, Pavlina; Pokorna, Jana; Brynda, Ji; Kozisek, Milan; Cigler, Petr; Lesik, Martin; Fanfrlik, Jindrich; Rezac, Jan; Saskova, Klara Grantz; Sieglova, Irena; Plesek, Jaromir; Sicha, Vaclav; Gruner, Bohumir; Oberwinkler, Heike; Sedlacek, Juraj; Krausslich, Hans-Georg; Hobza, Pavel; Kral, Vladimir; Konvalinka, Jan

    2010-04-19

    HIV protease (HIV PR) is a primary target for anti-HIV drug design. We have previously identified and characterized substituted metallacarboranes as a new class of HIV protease inhibitors. In a structure-guided drug design effort, we connected the two cobalt bis(dicarbollide) clusters with a linker to substituted ammonium group and obtained a set of compounds based on a lead formula [H{sub 2}N-(8-(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}O){sub 2}-1,2-C{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 10})(1',2'-C{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 11})-3,3'-Co){sub 2}]Na. We explored inhibition properties of these compounds with various substitutions, determined the HIV PR:inhibitor crystal structure, and computationally explored the conformational space of the linker. Our results prove the capacity of linker-substituted dual-cage cobalt bis(dicarbollides) as lead compounds for design of more potent inhibitors of HIV PR.

  6. Fullerene-based inhibitors of HIV-1 protease.

    PubMed

    Strom, T Amanda; Durdagi, Serdar; Ersoz, Suha Salih; Salmas, Ramin Ekhteiari; Supuran, Claudiu T; Barron, Andrew R

    2015-12-01

    A series of Fmoc-Phe(4-aza-C60)-OH of fullerene amino acid derived peptides have been prepared by solid phase peptide synthesis, in which the terminal amino acid, Phe(4-aza-C60)-OH, is derived from the dipolar addition to C60 of the Fmoc-Nα-protected azido amino acids derived from phenylalanine: Fmoc-Phe(4-aza-C60)-Lys3-OH (1), Fmoc-Phe(4-aza-C60)-Pro-Hyp-Lys-OH (2), and Fmoc-Phe(4-aza-C60)-Hyp-Hyp-Lys-OH (3). The inhibition constant of our fullerene aspartic protease PRIs utilized FRET-based assay to evaluate the enzyme kinetics of HIV-1 PR at various concentrations of inhibitors. Simulation of the docking of the peptide Fmoc-Phe-Pro-Hyp-Lys-OH overestimated the inhibition, while the amino acid PRIs were well estimated. The experimental results show that C60-based amino acids are a good base structure in the design of protease inhibitors and that their inhibition can be improved upon by the addition of designer peptide sequences.

  7. Dynamic properties of extremophilic subtilisin-like serine-proteases.

    PubMed

    Tiberti, Matteo; Papaleo, Elena

    2011-04-01

    The investigation of the structural determinants of enzymatic temperature adaptation is a crucial pre-requisite both in terms of fundamental research and industrial applications to develop new biocatalysts active at different temperature ranges. In several cases, the differences related to cold- or warm-adaptation are related to subtle structural and aminoacidic differences at the molecular level, often hard to detect. In this context, we present a comparative study of psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic subtilisin-like serine proteases by all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in explicit solvent using a multiple-replica approach. Our results strongly enforce the current view on localized flexibility in crucial functional regions for cold-adapted serine proteases and point out a different optimization and usage of salt-bridge interactions and networks in cold- and warm-adapted enzymes. The analyses allow to identify a subset of structural and dynamic features strictly associated to cold adaptation and which change from cold- to heat-active subtilisins. In particular, the thermophilic subtilisin presents a high affinity calcium binding site which is not structurally conserved in the mesophilic and psychrophilic counterparts, which, as it turns out from the MD analyses, at the same position show a stable salt bridge network and no stabilizing intra-molecular interactions, respectively. These aspects, along with differential flexibility in regions close to the active site or substrate binding pocket, can be an indication of evolution at this protein site toward a lower stability moving from high to low temperature conditions.

  8. Protease activation in glycerol-based deep eutectic solvents

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hua; Baker, Gary A.; Holmes, Shaletha

    2011-01-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) consisting of mixtures of a choline salt (chloride or acetate form) and glycerol are prepared as easily accessible, biodegradable, and inexpensive alternatives to conventional aprotic cation-anion paired ionic liquids. These DES systems display excellent fluidity coupled with thermal stability to nearly 200 °C. In this work, the transesterification activities of cross-linked proteases (subtilisin and α-chymotrypsin), immobilized on chitosan, were individually examined in these novel DESs. In the 1:2 molar ratio mixture of choline chloride/glycerol containing 3% (v/v) water, cross-linked subtilisin exhibited an excellent activity (2.9 μmo l min−1 g−1) in conjunction with a selectivity of 98% in the transesterification reaction of N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester with 1-propanol. These highly encouraging results advocate more extensive exploration of DESs in protease-mediated biotransformations of additional polar substrates and use of DESs in biocatalysis more generally. PMID:21909232

  9. Targeting the AKT pathway: Repositioning HIV protease inhibitors as radiosensitizers

    PubMed Central

    Goda, Jayant S.; Pachpor, Tejaswini; Basu, Trinanjan; Chopra, Supriya; Gota, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Cellular resistance in tumour cells to different therapeutic approaches has been a limiting factor in the curative treatment of cancer. Resistance to therapeutic radiation is a common phenomenon which significantly reduces treatment options and impacts survival. One of the mechanisms of acquiring resistance to ionizing radiation is the overexpression or activation of various oncogenes like the EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), RAS (rat sarcoma) oncogene or loss of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue) which in turn activates the phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3-K)/AKT pathway responsible for radiation resistance in various tumours. Blocking the pathway enhances the radiation response both in vitro and in vivo. Due to the differential activation of this pathway (constitutively activated in tumour cells and not in the normal host cells), it is an excellent candidate target for molecular targeted therapy to enhance radiation sensitivity. In this regard, HIV protease inhibitors (HPIs) known to interfere with PI3-K/AKT signaling in tumour cells, have been shown to sensitize various tumour cells to radiation both in vitro and in vivo. As a result, HPIs are now being investigated as possible radiosensitizers along with various chemotherapeutic drugs. This review describes the mechanisms by which PI3-K/AKT pathway causes radioresistance and the role of HIV protease inhibitors especially nelfinavir as a potential candidate drug to target the AKT pathway for overcoming radioresistance and its use in various clinical trials for different malignancies. PMID:27121513

  10. Targeting the AKT pathway: Repositioning HIV protease inhibitors as radiosensitizers.

    PubMed

    Goda, Jayant S; Pachpor, Tejaswini; Basu, Trinanjan; Chopra, Supriya; Gota, Vikram

    2016-02-01

    Cellular resistance in tumour cells to different therapeutic approaches has been a limiting factor in the curative treatment of cancer. Resistance to therapeutic radiation is a common phenomenon which significantly reduces treatment options and impacts survival. One of the mechanisms of acquiring resistance to ionizing radiation is the overexpression or activation of various oncogenes like the EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), RAS (rat sarcoma) oncogene or loss of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue) which in turn activates the phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3-K)/AKT pathway responsible for radiation resistance in various tumours. Blocking the pathway enhances the radiation response both in vitro and in vivo. Due to the differential activation of this pathway (constitutively activated in tumour cells and not in the normal host cells), it is an excellent candidate target for molecular targeted therapy to enhance radiation sensitivity. In this regard, HIV protease inhibitors (HPIs) known to interfere with PI3-K/AKT signaling in tumour cells, have been shown to sensitize various tumour cells to radiation both in vitro and in vivo. As a result, HPIs are now being investigated as possible radiosensitizers along with various chemotherapeutic drugs. This review describes the mechanisms by which PI3-K/AKT pathway causes radioresistance and the role of HIV protease inhibitors especially nelfinavir as a potential candidate drug to target the AKT pathway for overcoming radioresistance and its use in various clinical trials for different malignancies.

  11. Site-1 protease is required for cartilage development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Schlombs, Kornelia; Wagner, Thomas; Scheel, Jochen

    2003-11-25

    gonzo (goz) is a zebrafish mutant with defects in cartilage formation. The goz phenotype comprises cartilage matrix defects and irregular chondrocyte morphology. Expression of endoderm, mesoderm, and cartilage marker genes is, however, normal, indicating a defect in chondrocyte morphogenesis. The mutated gene responsible for the goz phenotype, identified by positional cloning and confirmed by phosphomorpholino knockdown, encodes zebrafish site-1 protease (s1p). S1P has been shown to process and activate sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), which regulate expression of key enzymes of lipid biosynthesis or transport. This finding is consistent with the abnormal distribution of lipids in goz embryos. Knockdown of site-2 protease, which is also involved in activation of SREBPs, results in similar lipid and cartilage phen