Science.gov

Sample records for a1 pulley release

  1. Trigger Finger Release With Stepwise Preservation of the A1 Pulley: A Functional Pulley-Preserving Technique

    PubMed Central

    Niumsawatt, Vachara; Mao, David; Salerno, Stephen; Rozen, Warren M.

    2013-01-01

    The first annular (A1) pulley is an important structure of the hand, providing a biomechanical support to the metacarpophalangeal joint and maintaining joint stability and flexor tendon alignment. Albeit uncommon, disruption of this pulley can result in dislocation or ulnar drift of the digit, particularly pronounced in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Despite this, the A1 pulley is commonly divided without reconstruction in trigger finger. Several annular pulley reconstructive techniques have been developed to preserve its function. However, development of recurrent triggering has been observed due to fibrosis, largely due to inadequate release of the pulley. We have developed a technique to increase the volume within the flexor sheath while preserving the A1 pulley by way of stepwise lengthening. This has enabled an increase in the diameter of the pulley to 4 times its original size. A prospective study was performed comprising 10 trigger finger releases with stepwise lengthening of the A1 pulley. In all patients, there were no complications, and good hand function was achieved with no recurrence of triggering at 6 weeks of follow-up. This technique can thus safely achieve trigger release without sacrifice of the function of the A1 pulley. PMID:24229038

  2. Open versus percutaneous release of the A1-pulley for stenosing tendovaginitis: a prospective randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Dierks, Ulf; Hoffmann, Reimer; Meek, Marcel F

    2008-09-01

    A prospective randomized trial for release of the first annular pulley (A-1 pulley) in trigger fingers with a percutaneous technique versus the open surgical technique is presented. Thirty-six patients were randomized to either open (n = 16) or percutaneous (#15 blade; n = 20) release of the A-1 pulley. All patients were evaluated for grip strength, active range of motion of the proximal interphalangeal joint, and residual pain at 1 and 12 weeks after release. Furthermore, the operation time was assessed, and the costs were calculated. Overall, 100% success in terms of grip strength, active range of motion of the proximal interphalangeal joint, and residual pain was obtained in both groups. Mean operation time was significantly longer with the open technique. Because of lower costs and quicker procedure with equal functional outcome when compared with open surgery, we recommend the percutaneous technique using a #15 blade for trigger finger release. PMID:18776782

  3. Correlation Between Sonographic and In Vivo Measurement of A1 Pulleys in Trigger Fingers.

    PubMed

    Spirig, Andres; Juon, Bettina; Banz, Yara; Rieben, Robert; Vögelin, Esther

    2016-07-01

    The thickness of 210 A1 pulleys of 21 male and female healthy volunteers in two different age groups (20-35 y and 50-70 y) were measured by ultrasound. In a second group, the thickness of 15 diseased A1 pulleys and 15 A1 pulleys of the corresponding other hand of 10 patients with the clinical diagnosis of trigger finger were measured by ultrasound. During open trigger finger release, a strip of A1 pulley was excised and immediately measured using an electronic caliper. The average pulley thickness of healthy volunteers was 0.43-0.47 mm, compared to 0.77-0.79 mm in patients with trigger finger. Based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, a diagnostic cut-off value of the pulley thickness at 0.62 mm was defined in order to differ a trigger finger from a healthy finger (sensitivity and specificity of 85%). The correlation between sonographic and effective intra-operative measurements of pulley thickness was linear and very strong (Pearson coefficient 0.86-0.90). In order to distinguish between healthy and diseased A1 pulleys, 0.62 mm is a simple value to use, which can be applied regardless of age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and height in adults. PMID:27126241

  4. Treating trigger finger in diabetics using excision of the ulnar slip of the flexor digitorum superficialis with or without A1 pulley release.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Alexander M; Culver, James E; Hunt, Thomas R

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of excision of the ulnar slip of the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon, with or without A1 pulley release, for the treatment of trigger finger in diabetic patients. We performed a retrospective review with long-term follow-up examinations. Short-term data was obtained on 18 consecutive patients (37 fingers). Long-term information was collected on 14 of these patients (24 fingers) at an average of 48 months after surgery. Short-term follow-up revealed average proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP) flexion of 81 degrees . One patient had slight residual triggering. At long-term follow-up, 93% of patients were completely or very satisfied with the procedure. Total active finger motion averaged 218 degrees , and PIP extension deficit averaged less than 5 degrees . Pinch strength was equal to the contralateral corresponding finger. There were no significant complications. One finger had minimal residual triggering. In conclusion, this procedure is a safe and effective treatment for the often-difficult problem of stenosing flexor tenosynovitis in the diabetic patient. PMID:18780058

  5. Transverse Carpal Ligament and Forearm Fascia Release for the Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Change the Entrance Angle of Flexor Tendons to the A1 Pulley: The Relationship between Carpal Tunnel Surgery and Trigger Finger Occurence

    PubMed Central

    Karalezli, Nazım; Kütahya, Harun; Güleç, Ali; Toker, Serdar; Karabörk, Hakan; Ogun, Tunc C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The appearance of trigger finger after decompression of the carpal tunnel without a preexisting symptom has been reported in a few articles. Although, the cause is not clear yet, the loss of pulley action of the transverse carpal ligament has been accused mostly. In this study, we planned a biomechanical approach to fresh cadavers. Methods. The study was performed on 10 fresh amputees of the arm. The angles were measured with (1) the transverse carpal ligament and the distal forearm fascia intact, (2) only the transverse carpal ligament incised, (3) the distal forearm fascia incised to the point 3 cm proximal from the most proximal part of the transverse carpal ligament in addition to the transverse carpal ligament. The changes between the angles produced at all three conditions were compared to each other. Results. We saw that the entrance angle increased in all of five fingers in an increasing manner from procedure 1 to 3, and it was seen that the maximal increase is detected in the middle finger from procedure 1 to procedure 2 and the minimal increase is detected in little finger. Discussion. Our results support that transverse carpal ligament and forearm fascia release may be a predisposing factor for the development of trigger finger by the effect of changing the enterance angle to the A1 pulley and consequently increase the friction in this anatomic area. Clinical Relevance. This study is a cadaveric study which is directly investigating the effect of a transverse carpal ligament release on the enterance angle of flexor tendons to A1 pulleys in the hand. PMID:23878529

  6. Isolated A1 Pulley Rupture of Left Fourth Finger in Kendo Players: Two Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Hyung; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Joo, Seung Ho

    2015-10-01

    Annular pulley injury of fingers is usually observed in rock climbers who support their entire body weight with flexed fingers during climbing. But these lesions can also follow trivial trauma, such as lifting heavy objects with the fingertips, or during sports and recreational activities. The A2 and A4 pulleys are most usually involved and reported most frequently. However, traumatic A1 pulley rupture has not been reported yet, to the best of our knowledge. Kendo is a very vigorous martial art with frequent physical contact. Therefore, we reported two cases of repetitive microtraumatic left fourth finger A1 pulley rupture in Kendo players with results from physical examination and imaging studies, such as ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging, together with related literature.

  7. Flexor pulley reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Dy, Christopher J; Daluiski, Aaron

    2013-05-01

    Flexor pulley reconstruction is a challenging surgery. Injuries often occur after traumatic lacerations or forceful extension applied to an acutely flexed finger. Surgical treatment is reserved for patients with multiple closed pulley ruptures, persistent pain, or dysfunction after attempted nonoperative management of a single pulley rupture, or during concurrent or staged flexor tendon repair or reconstruction. If the pulley cannot be repaired primarily, pulley reconstruction can be performed using graft woven into remnant pulley rim or looping graft around the phalanx. Regardless of the reconstructive technique, the surgeon should emulate the length, tension, and glide of the native pulley. PMID:23660059

  8. Effect of pulley excision on flexor tendon biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Peterson, W W; Manske, P R; Bollinger, B A; Lesker, P A; McCarthy, J A

    1986-01-01

    Flexor tendon function following excision of various portions of the fibro-osseous pulley system was measured biomechanically using a tensile testing machine. The biomechanical parameters measured were tendon excursion (the excursion of the tendon required to fully flex the digit) and work of flexion (the area under the force-excursion curve, representing all the forces that resist tendon flexion). In this experiment, work of flexion included the forces necessary to accomplish full digital flexion against a 15-g counter-weight, as well as the frictional forces that resist tendon gliding. The results indicate that the work of flexion was affected to a greater degree by pulley loss than was tendon excursion, suggesting that it is a more sensitive measurement of tendon function. A2 was found to be the single most important pulley for flexor tendon function, followed by A4. However, both A2 and A4 had to be present if near-normal hand function was to be achieved; sacrificing the A1 pulley was not associated with a significant loss of flexion. The "pulley effect" of the skin and soft tissue as a supplement to the fibro-osseous pulleys in reducing tendon bow-stringing was also noted. Although the parameters of tendon excursion and work of flexion were used in this study to determine the effect of pulley loss on tendon function, they can also be used to evaluate other flexor tendon studies, such as pulley reconstruction.

  9. Development of a synthetic replacement for the flexor tendon pulleys--an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Peterson, W W; Manske, P R; Lesker, P A; Kain, C C; Schaefer, R K

    1986-05-01

    A method was developed to reconstruct the fibro-osseous pulleys with Nitex, a synthetic material. Nitex is a closely woven fabric constructed from monofilament nylon fibers. Six adult monkeys (24 digits) had excision of the A1 and A2 pulleys; this was followed by reconstruction of the A2 pulley with the Nitex synthetic material. The animals were killed, two at a time, at 4, 8, and 12 weeks to evaluate the effectiveness of the Nitex pulleys. Flexor tendon function was assessed by biomechanical methods with a tensile testing machine to measure the tendon excursion and the work of flexion (the area under the force-excursion curve) necessary to fully flex each digit; these parameters revealed that the Nitex pulleys were capable of preventing tendon bow-stringing and did not significantly impair tendon gliding. The breaking strength of the Nitex pulleys was comparable to that of normal A2 pulleys (for monkeys weighing less than 10 kg) and it was sufficient to allow immediate mobilization of the digits postoperatively without fear of pulley rupture. Histologic examination showed minimal foreign body reaction around the Nitex, and the gliding surface of a Nitex pulley was found to be covered with a smooth layer of fibrous tissue with minimal adhesions to the underlying flexor tendon. The synthetic Nitex pulley appears to have the potential to function as an effective fibro-osseous pulley replacement.

  10. Flexor pulley system: anatomy, injury, and management.

    PubMed

    Zafonte, Brian; Rendulic, Dora; Szabo, Robert M

    2014-12-01

    Flexor pulley injuries are most commonly seen in avid rock climbers; however, reports of pulley ruptures in nonclimbers are increasing. In addition to traumatic disruption, corticosteroid-induced pulley rupture has been reported as a complication of treating stenosing tenosynovitis. Over the last decade, there have been 2 new developments in the way hand surgeons think about the flexor pulley system. First, the thumb pulley system has been shown to have 4 component constituents, in contrast to the classic teaching of 3 pulleys. Second, in cases of zone II flexor tendon injury, the intentional partial A2 and/or A4 pulley excision or venting is emerging as a component for successful treatment. This is challenging the once-held dogma that preserving the integrity of the entire A2 and A4 pulleys is indispensable for normal digit function. PMID:25459958

  11. 30 CFR 77.407 - Power-driven pulleys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Power-driven pulleys. 77.407 Section 77.407... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.407 Power-driven pulleys. (a) Belts, chains, and ropes shall not be guided onto power-driven moving pulleys, sprockets, or drums with the hands except on slow...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1728 - Power-driven pulleys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Power-driven pulleys. 75.1728 Section 75.1728... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1728 Power-driven pulleys. (a) Belts, chains, and ropes shall not be guided onto power-driven moving pulleys, sprockets, or drums with...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1728 - Power-driven pulleys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Power-driven pulleys. 75.1728 Section 75.1728... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1728 Power-driven pulleys. (a) Belts, chains, and ropes shall not be guided onto power-driven moving pulleys, sprockets, or drums with...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1728 - Power-driven pulleys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Power-driven pulleys. 75.1728 Section 75.1728... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1728 Power-driven pulleys. (a) Belts, chains, and ropes shall not be guided onto power-driven moving pulleys, sprockets, or drums with...

  15. 30 CFR 77.407 - Power-driven pulleys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Power-driven pulleys. 77.407 Section 77.407... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.407 Power-driven pulleys. (a) Belts, chains, and ropes shall not be guided onto power-driven moving pulleys, sprockets, or drums with the hands except on slow...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1728 - Power-driven pulleys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Power-driven pulleys. 75.1728 Section 75.1728... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1728 Power-driven pulleys. (a) Belts, chains, and ropes shall not be guided onto power-driven moving pulleys, sprockets, or drums with...

  17. 30 CFR 77.407 - Power-driven pulleys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Power-driven pulleys. 77.407 Section 77.407... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.407 Power-driven pulleys. (a) Belts, chains, and ropes shall not be guided onto power-driven moving pulleys, sprockets, or drums with the hands except on slow...

  18. 30 CFR 77.407 - Power-driven pulleys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Power-driven pulleys. 77.407 Section 77.407... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.407 Power-driven pulleys. (a) Belts, chains, and ropes shall not be guided onto power-driven moving pulleys, sprockets, or drums with the hands except on slow...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1728 - Power-driven pulleys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Power-driven pulleys. 75.1728 Section 75.1728... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1728 Power-driven pulleys. (a) Belts, chains, and ropes shall not be guided onto power-driven moving pulleys, sprockets, or drums with...

  20. 30 CFR 77.407 - Power-driven pulleys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Power-driven pulleys. 77.407 Section 77.407... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.407 Power-driven pulleys. (a) Belts, chains, and ropes shall not be guided onto power-driven moving pulleys, sprockets, or drums with the hands except on slow...

  1. Can a String's Tension Exert a Torque on a Pulley?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Dennis E.; Sun, Yifei

    2011-01-01

    A typical textbook problem in rotational dynamics involves calculating the angular acceleration of a massive pulley due to a string, such as in the example shown in Fig. 1. The string is assumed to be massless and to move without slipping over the pulley, which is mounted on a frictionless axle. If T[subscript L] and T[subscript R] are the…

  2. Compact pulley-type microring resonator with high quality factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Dong-Po; Lu, Jyun-Hong; Chen, Chii-Chang; Lee, Chien-Chieh; Lin, Chu-En; Yen, Ta-Jen

    2014-11-01

    A pulley-type microring resonator with ultra-small dimensions and ultra-high quality factor on a silicon-on-insulator wafer is fabricated and characterized. Simulation results show that the bending loss of the pulley-type microring resonator can be diminished by wrapping the curved waveguide around the microring, and that the energy loss from the output port can be decreased by tuning the width of the bus waveguide to achieve destructive interference. A quality factor of 1.73 × 105 is obtained in this experiment. The compact size of the pulley-type microring resonator with low bending loss is suitable for an integrated optical circuit.

  3. Measurement of friction between pulley and flexor tendon.

    PubMed

    An, K N; Berglund, L; Uchiyama, S; Coert, J H

    1993-01-01

    When tendon excursion takes place through the pulley, friction and drag are encountered at the interface. Repetitive exposure to such friction and attrition of the tendon has been considered one of the important factors causing cumulative trauma and leading to disorders such as tendinitis and tenosynovitis. In this study, development of an experimental method to evaluate friction and drag between the pulley and tendon under different loading conditions and joint configurations is considered. Verification of the model under an ideal situation of sutures across a mechanical pulley was performed.

  4. 8. DETAIL VIEW NORTHWEST OF SOUTH TURBINE SHAFT AND PULLEY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL VIEW NORTHWEST OF SOUTH TURBINE SHAFT AND PULLEY WHEEL - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 2, South Main Street opposite Durham Street, North bank Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

  5. 27. DETAIL OF PULLEYS, CABLE, AND MOTORIZED WINCH FOR RAISING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. DETAIL OF PULLEYS, CABLE, AND MOTORIZED WINCH FOR RAISING SERVICE PLATFORM ON SLC-3W MST STATION 63 - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. 26. PULLEY SYSTEM FOR ERECTION OF ATLAS H LAUNCH VEHICLES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. PULLEY SYSTEM FOR ERECTION OF ATLAS H LAUNCH VEHICLES AT SOUTH SIDE OF MST, FROM STATION 93 - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. Comparison of the Thickness of Pulley and Flexor Tendon Between in Neutral and in Flexed Positions of Trigger Finger

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Junko; Ishii, Yoshinori; Noguchi, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to compare the morphology of the A1 pulley and flexor tendons in idiopathic trigger finger of digits other than the thumb between in neutral position and in the position with the interphalangeal joints full flexed and with the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint 0° extended (hook grip position). Method: A total of 48 affected digits and 48 contralateral normal digits from 48 patients who initially diagnosed with idiopathic trigger finger were studied sonographically. Sonographic analysis was focused on the A1 pulley and flexor tendons at the level of the MP joint in the transverse plane. We measured the anterior-posterior thickness of A1 pulley and the sum of the flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus tendons, and also measured the maximum radialulnar width of the flexor tendon in neutral and hook grip positions, respectively. Each measurement was compared between in neutral and in hook grip positions, and also between the affected and contralateral normal digits in each position. Results: In all the digits, the anterior-posterior thickness of flexor tendons significantly increased in hook grip position as compared with in neutral position, whereas radial-ulnar width significantly decreased. Both the A1 pulley and flexor tendons were thicker in the affected digits as compared with contralateral normal digits. Conclusion: The thickness of flexor tendons was significantly increased anteroposteriorly in hook grip position as compared with in neutral position. In trigger finger, A1 pulley and flexor tendon were thickened, and mismatch between the volume of the flexor tendon sheath and the tendons, especially in anterior-posterior direction, might be a cause of repetitive triggering. PMID:27099639

  8. The Epidemiology of Reoperation After Flexor Pulley Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Dy, Christopher J.; Lyman, Stephen; Schreiber, Joseph J.; Do, Huong T.; Daluiski, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We used a statewide database to determine the incidence of pulley reconstruction and to evaluate the influence of demographics on reoperation. We hypothesized that age, insurance status, and concomitant nerve or tendon procedure would influence the likelihood of reoperation. Methods We used the Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System ambulatory surgery database from New York, which represents all outpatient surgery in the state. Patients who had flexor pulley reconstruction from 1998 to 2009 were identified using Current Procedural Terminology 4 codes. Subsequent surgery records for these patients were identified through 2010, allowing at least 1 year follow-up. Concomitant nerve procedure and flexor tendon repair/reconstruction were identified. The type and timing of subsequent procedures, including tenolysis and repeat pulley reconstruction, were recorded. Univariate statistics were calculated to compare age, sex, and payer type between patients with and without reoperation. A multivariable, logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association of the demographics with the chances of having reoperation. Results There were 623 patients who had flexor pulley reconstruction from 1998 to 2009. The incidence of pulley reconstruction was 0.27 per 100,000 persons, with an annual frequency of 52 procedures. There were 39 (6%) reoperations. There was no difference in age, concomitant nerve or tendon repair, or workers’ compensation between patients with and without reoperation. Regression modeling showed a higher likelihood among men of having reoperation. Conclusions Flexor pulley reconstructions are rare. One-quarter of surgeons performed only one flexor pulley reconstruction over a 12-year period. The 6% reoperation rate is similar to our previous findings for flexor tendon repair using similar methodology. Our report provides information that may be useful in counseling patients. Type of study/level of evidence Prognostic II. PMID

  9. Fatigue of NiTi SMA-pulley system using Taguchi and ANOVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Jani, Jaronie; Leary, Martin; Subic, Aleksandar

    2016-05-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators can be integrated with a pulley system to provide mechanical advantage and to reduce packaging space; however, there appears to be no formal investigation of the effect of a pulley system on SMA structural or functional fatigue. In this work, cyclic testing was conducted on nickel-titanium (NiTi) SMA actuators on a pulley system and a control experiment (without pulley). Both structural and functional fatigues were monitored until fracture, or a maximum of 1E5 cycles were achieved for each experimental condition. The Taguchi method and analysis of the variance (ANOVA) were used to optimise the SMA-pulley system configurations. In general, one-way ANOVA at the 95% confidence level showed no significant difference between the structural or functional fatigue of SMA-pulley actuators and SMA actuators without pulley. Within the sample of SMA-pulley actuators, the effect of activation duration had the greatest significance for both structural and functional fatigue, and the pulley configuration (angle of wrap and sheave diameter) had a greater statistical significance than load magnitude for functional fatigue. This work identified that structural and functional fatigue performance of SMA-pulley systems is optimised by maximising sheave diameter and using an intermediate wrap-angle, with minimal load and activation duration. However, these parameters may not be compatible with commercial imperatives. A test was completed for a commercially optimal SMA-pulley configuration. This novel observation will be applicable to many areas of SMA-pulley system applications development.

  10. 7. POWERHOUSE, FOREGROUND ON CEILING EXCITER FLATBELT PULLEYS, BACK RIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. POWERHOUSE, FOREGROUND ON CEILING EXCITER FLATBELT PULLEYS, BACK RIGHT, WOODEN PERSONAL FACILITY LOCATED IN POWERHOUSE LOWER LEVEL LOOKING SOUTH - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, Powerhouse, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

  11. 4. PULLEY SYSTEM AND CABLE FOR GATELIFTING MECHANISM, MOUNTED ABOVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PULLEY SYSTEM AND CABLE FOR GATE-LIFTING MECHANISM, MOUNTED ABOVE THE THREE GATE OPENINGS, LOOKING SOUTH/SOUTHEAST. - Washington Water Power Spokane River Upper Falls Hydroelectric Development, Gates & Gate-Lifting Mechanisms, Spokane River, approximately 0.5 mile northeast of intersection of Spokane Falls Boulevard & Post Street, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  12. 30 CFR 56.14202 - Manual cleaning of conveyor pulleys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manual cleaning of conveyor pulleys. 56.14202 Section 56.14202 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14202 Manual cleaning of conveyor...

  13. 30 CFR 57.14202 - Manual cleaning of conveyor pulleys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manual cleaning of conveyor pulleys. 57.14202 Section 57.14202 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14202 Manual cleaning of...

  14. The Pulley Analogy Does Not Work for Every Siphon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Slisko, Josip

    2010-01-01

    How do siphons work? Some see atmospheric pressure, explicitly or implicitly, as a crucial factor in siphon action. Others explain that a siphon works due to a difference of water weights in unequal arms. According to the latter view, siphon action is analogous to the action of a pulley or to the behaviour of a chain that is moving over a tube. In…

  15. The Real Life Application of Pulleys in a Competitive Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekbiyik, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore students' application of theoretical knowledge in real-life situations using pulley systems in a competition designed for primary school students. The study was conducted with 24 primary school students who had completed year seven, and who volunteered to participate in a summer science camp. In groups, the…

  16. 30 CFR 56.14202 - Manual cleaning of conveyor pulleys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Manual cleaning of conveyor pulleys. 56.14202 Section 56.14202 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14202 Manual cleaning of conveyor...

  17. 30 CFR 57.14202 - Manual cleaning of conveyor pulleys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Manual cleaning of conveyor pulleys. 57.14202 Section 57.14202 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14202 Manual cleaning of...

  18. 19. FOURTH FLOOR BLDG. 28, DETAIL BLOCKS, PULLEYS, AND ELECTRIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. FOURTH FLOOR BLDG. 28, DETAIL BLOCKS, PULLEYS, AND ELECTRIC MOTOR LOOKING EAST. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  19. 4. Scale floor detail of rope pulley systemsouth wall looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Scale floor detail of rope pulley system-south wall looking east of Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator. - Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator, Workhouse, South side of first slip, north from outer end of Rice's Point, east of Garfield Avenue, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  20. The Pulley: A Parable of Effort and Reward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gluck, Paul

    2012-11-01

    The Alwood machine and various problems involving pulleys are sta(p)le diets of students when applying Newton's second law of motion. Interest in such problems can be increased and discussion enlivened by couching them in forms that have in them elements of suspense (sic!) or competition. Two didactic papers have suggested versions in this vein.1,2 Here we should like to present a discussion that contrasts models and theoretical constructs with a reallife situation. A mathematician N and a physicist P having identical masses m sit at the same height at the ends of a rope passing over a pulley, as in Fig. 1(a). They decide on a race to climb up the rope, the first one to reach the pulley wins. Which one of them will be the winner? Is it prudent to work hard, or does the indolent get there first by mere force of thought? The following qualitative discussion could be of interest when introducing the class to the Atwood machine.

  1. Considerations in the surgical use of the flexor sheath and pulley system.

    PubMed

    Lowrie, A G; Lees, V C

    2014-01-01

    The use of the digital flexor sheath to reconstruct damaged structures in the fingers is an intriguing but under-investigated subject. The sheath is anchored firmly to the phalanges and palmar plates and has well-vascularized outer and synovial inner layers. The middle layer is strong and fibrous and not all of it is required for its main biomechanical function of maintaining the moment arm of the flexor tendons. These characteristics have led to several descriptions of different reconstructive uses. In sheath reconstruction, flaps can be used to repair damaged A2 and A4 pulleys. As an anchor, the sheath is useful for tenodeses and tendon transfers. It has been used in the correction of ulnar claw and swan neck deformities. In ligament reconstruction, the A1 pulley has been used to reconstruct the transverse intermetacarpal ligament in cleft hand and ray amputations. The sheath has also been used to cover tendon repairs and periosteal defects with the aim of decreasing adhesions. There is potential for further use of the flexor sheath in reconstructive surgery. The digital flexor sheath can be used to restore various finger functions providing its physiological roles are recognized and preserved. This review considers the different techniques described and their potential uses. PMID:24170491

  2. Comparing the development of students' conceptions of pulleys using physical and virtual manipulatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouinfar, Amy; Madsen, Adrian M.; Hoang, Tram Do Ngoc; Puntambekar, Sadhana; Rebello, N. S.

    2012-02-01

    Research has shown that the concept of force in a pulley is learned equally well by students using physical and virtual manipulatives. We report on a study in which students enrolled in a conceptual physics laboratory spent two weeks investigating pulley systems using either physical or virtual manipulatives. Students were given written materials which guided them through a series of activities which scaffolded the construction of their conceptions of pulleys. Students were required to make predictions and then test these predictions by building and comparing different pulley systems. They were presented with a challenge to design the best pulley system to lift a piano at the end of each week. We compare how the students' conceptions of pulleys develop between the physical and virtual treatments as well as investigate the ways in which they use the manipulatives while completing the scaffolding activities.

  3. The Effect of Friction in Pulleys on the Tension in Cables and Strings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martell, Eric C.; Martell, Verda Beth

    2013-01-01

    Atwood's machine is used in countless introductory physics classes as an illustration of Newton's second law. Initially, the analysis is performed assuming the pulley and string are massless and the axle is frictionless. Although the mass of the pulley is often included when the problem is revisited later in the context of rotational dynamics, the…

  4. The Role of Extraocular Muscle Pulleys in Incomitant Non-Paralytic Strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    The rectus extraocular muscles (EOMs) and inferior oblique muscle have paths through the orbit constrained by connective tissue pulleys. These pulleys shift position during contraction and relaxation of the EOMs, dynamically changing the biomechanics of force transfer from the tendon onto the globe. The paths of the EOMs are tightly conserved in normal patients and disorders in the location and/or stability of the pulleys can create patterns of incomitant strabismus that may mimic oblique muscle dysfunction and cranial nerve paresis. Developmental disorders of pulley location can occur in conjunction with large, obvious abnormalities of orbital anatomy (e.g., craniosynostosis syndromes) or subtle, isolated abnormalities in the location of one or more pulleys. Acquired disorders of pulley location can be divided into four broad categories: Connective tissue disorders (e.g., Marfan syndrome), globe size disorders (e.g., high myopia), senile degeneration (e.g., sagging eye syndrome), and trauma (e.g., orbital fracture or postsurgical). Recognition of these disorders is important because abnormalities in pulley location and movement are often resistant to standard surgical approaches that involve strengthening or weakening the oblique muscles or changing the positions of the EOM insertions. Preoperative diagnosis is aided by: (1) Clinical history of predisposing risk factors, (2) observation of malpositioning of the medial canthus, lateral canthus, and globe, and (3) gaze-controlled orbital imaging using direct coronal slices. Finally, surgical correction frequently involves novel techniques that reposition and stabilize the pulley and posterior muscle belly within the orbit using permanent scleral sutures or silicone bands without changing the location of the muscle's insertion. PMID:26180464

  5. Quasi-stationary mechanics of elastic continua with bending stiffness wrapping on a pulley system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczmarczyk, S.; Mirhadizadeh, S.

    2016-05-01

    In many engineering applications elastic continua such as ropes and belts often are subject to bending when they pass over pulleys / sheaves. In this paper the quasi-stationary mechanics of a cable-pulley system is studied. The cable is modelled as a moving Euler- Bernoulli beam. The distribution of tension is non-uniform along its span and due to the bending stiffness the contact points at the pulley-beam boundaries are not unknown. The system is described by a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations with undetermined boundary conditions. The resulting nonlinear Boundary Value Problem (BVP) with unknown boundaries is solved by converting the problem into the ‘standard’ form defined over a fixed interval. Numerical results obtained for a range of typical configurations with relevant boundary conditions applied demonstrate that due to the effects of bending stiffness the angels of wrap are reduced and the span tensions are increased.

  6. Modified flexor digitorum superficialis slip technique for A4 pulley reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Odobescu, A; Radu, A; Brutus, J-P; Gilardino, M S

    2010-07-01

    We describe a variation in the A4 pulley reconstruction technique using one slip of the flexor digitorum superficialis insertion and report the results of a biomechanical analysis of this reconstruction in cadavers. While conserving the distal bony insertion, one slip of flexor digitorum superficialis is transferred over the flexor digitorum profundus tendon and sutured to the contralateral superficialis slip insertion. This creates a new pulley at the base of the original A4 pulley that can be adjusted to accommodate an FDP repair of increased bulk. We found a 57% reduction in excess excursion due to bowstringing when compared with no repair. Furthermore the repairs were sturdy, 94% of specimens maintaining their integrity when a proximally directed force of 50 N was applied. PMID:20427405

  7. The Durability of Conceptual Change in Learning the Concept of Weight in the Case of a Pulley in Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakkarainen, Olavi; Ahtee, Maija

    2007-01-01

    This study concerns the question of how teachers can help pupils to perceive the concept of weight (gravitation). Fifth and ninth graders were asked in a paper-and-pencil test to compare the weight of two objects suspended in a pulley-in-balance half a year after the learning intervention consisting of three successive pulley-in-balance…

  8. Role of muscle pulleys in producing eye position-dependence in the angular vestibuloocular reflex: a model-based study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurtell, M. J.; Kunin, M.; Raphan, T.; Wall, C. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    It is well established that the head and eye velocity axes do not always align during compensatory vestibular slow phases. It has been shown that the eye velocity axis systematically tilts away from the head velocity axis in a manner that is dependent on eye-in-head position. The mechanisms responsible for producing these axis tilts are unclear. In this model-based study, we aimed to determine whether muscle pulleys could be involved in bringing about these phenomena. The model presented incorporates semicircular canals, central vestibular pathways, and an ocular motor plant with pulleys. The pulleys were modeled so that they brought about a rotation of the torque axes of the extraocular muscles that was a fraction of the angle of eye deviation from primary position. The degree to which the pulleys rotated the torque axes was altered by means of a pulley coefficient. Model input was head velocity and initial eye position data from passive and active yaw head impulses with fixation at 0 degrees, 20 degrees up and 20 degrees down, obtained from a previous experiment. The optimal pulley coefficient required to fit the data was determined by calculating the mean square error between data and model predictions of torsional eye velocity. For active head impulses, the optimal pulley coefficient varied considerably between subjects. The median optimal pulley coefficient was found to be 0.5, the pulley coefficient required for producing saccades that perfectly obey Listing's law when using a two-dimensional saccadic pulse signal. The model predicted the direction of the axis tilts observed in response to passive head impulses from 50 ms after onset. During passive head impulses, the median optimal pulley coefficient was found to be 0.21, when roll gain was fixed at 0.7. The model did not accurately predict the alignment of the eye and head velocity axes that was observed early in the response to passive head impulses. We found that this alignment could be well predicted if

  9. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-A1 (CORM-A1) improves clinical signs of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) in rats.

    PubMed

    Fagone, Paolo; Mangano, Katia; Mammana, Santa; Cavalli, Eugenio; Di Marco, Roberto; Barcellona, Maria Luisa; Salvatorelli, Lucia; Magro, Gaetano; Nicoletti, Ferdinando

    2015-04-01

    Uveitis is a sight-threatening inflammatory disease of the eye which represents the third leading cause of blindness in the developed countries. The conventional pharmacological treatment includes corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents, which are limited by their side effects. New therapeutic strategies are thus strongly needed. Exogenously-administered carbon monoxide (CO) may represent an effective treatment for conditions characterized by a dysregulated inflammatory response. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CORMs) are a novel group of compounds capable of carrying and liberating controlled quantities of CO. Among CORMs, CORM-A1 represents the first example of water soluble CO releaser. We show here that CORM-A1 under a late prophylactic regime is able to significantly ameliorate the natural course of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis, a rodent model of immunoinflammatory posterior uveitis. The present study strongly supports the development of CORM-A1 as a potential new drug for treatment of patients with non-infectious posterior uveitis.

  10. Modified-release oral calcifediol corrects vitamin D insufficiency with minimal CYP24A1 upregulation.

    PubMed

    Petkovich, Martin; Melnick, Joel; White, Jay; Tabash, Samir; Strugnell, Stephen; Bishop, Charles W

    2015-04-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) and increased risk of bone and vascular disease. Unfortunately, supplementation of stage 3 or 4 CKD patients with currently recommended vitamin D2 or D3 regimens does not reliably restore serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D to adequacy (≥30ng/mL) or effectively control SHPT. Preclinical and clinical studies were conducted to evaluate whether the effectiveness of vitamin D repletion depends, at least in part, on the rate of repletion. A modified-release (MR) oral formulation of calcifediol (25-hydroxyvitamin D3) was developed which raised serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and calcitriol levels gradually. Single doses of either bolus intravenous (IV) or oral MR calcifediol were administered to vitamin D deficient rats. Bolus IV calcifediol produced rapid increases in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, calcitriol and FGF23, along with significant induction of CYP24A1 in both kidney and parathyroid gland. In contrast, oral MR calcifediol produced gradual increases in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and calcitriol and achieved similar hormonal exposure, yet neither CYP24A1 nor FGF23 were induced. A 10-fold greater exposure to bolus IV than oral MR calcifediol was required to similarly lower intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH). Single doses of oral MR (450 or 900μg) or bolus IV (450μg) calcifediol were administered to patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD, SHPT and vitamin D insufficiency. Changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and calcitriol and in plasma iPTH were determined at multiple time-points over the following 42 days. IV calcifediol produced abrupt and pronounced increases in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and calcitriol, but little change in plasma iPTH. As in animals, these surges triggered increased vitamin D catabolism, as evidenced by elevated production of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. In contrast, MR calcifediol raised serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and calcitriol

  11. The perfect storm: Match-mismatch of bio-physical events drives larval reef fish connectivity between Pulley Ridge mesophotic reef and the Florida Keys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Ana C.; Paris, Claire B.; Olascoaga, M. Josefina; Kourafalou, Villy H.; Kang, Heesook; Reed, John K.

    2016-08-01

    Mesophotic coral reef ecosystems are remote from coastal stressors, but are still vulnerable to over-exploitation, and remain mostly unprotected. They may be the key to coral reefs resilience, yet little is known about the pattern of larval subsidies from deeper to shallower coral reef habitats. Here we use a biophysical modeling approach to test the hypothesis that fishes from mesophotic coral reef ecosystems may replenish shallow reef populations. We aim at identifying the spatio-temporal patterns and underlying mechanisms of larval connections between Pulley Ridge, a mesophotic reef in the Gulf of Mexico hosting of a variety of shallow-water tropical fishes, and the Florida Keys reefs. A new three-dimensional (3D) polygon habitat module is developed for the open-source Connectivity Modeling System to simulate larval movement behavior of the bicolor damselfish, Stegastes partitus, in a realistic 3D representation of the coral reef habitat. Biological traits such as spawning periodicity, mortality, and vertical migration are also incorporated in the model. Virtual damselfish larvae are released daily from the Pulley Ridge at 80 m depth over 60 lunar spawning cycles and tracked until settlement within a fine resolution (~900 m) hydrodynamic model of the region. Such probabilistic simulations reveal mesophotic-shallow connections with large, yet sporadic pulses of larvae settling in the Florida Keys. Modal and spectral analyses on the spawning time of successful larvae, and on the position of the Florida Current front with respect to Pulley Ridge, demonstrate that specific physical-biological interactions modulate these "perfect storm" events. Indeed, the co-occurrence of (1) peak spawning with frontal features, and (2) cyclonic eddies with ontogenetic vertical migration, contribute to high settlement in the Florida Keys. This study demonstrates that mesophotic coral reef ecosystems can also serve as refugia for coral reef fish and suggests that they have a critical

  12. A Mixed Model for Real-Time, Interactive Simulation of a Cable Passing Through Several Pulleys

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Fernandez, Ignacio; Pla-Castells, Marta; Martinez-Dura, Rafael J.

    2007-09-06

    A model of a cable and pulleys is presented that can be used in Real Time Computer Graphics applications. The model is formulated by the coupling of a damped spring and a variable coefficient wave equation, and can be integrated in more complex mechanical models of lift systems, such as cranes, elevators, etc. with a high degree of interactivity.

  13. Design and implementation of fluidic micro-pulleys for flow control on centrifugal microfluidic platforms.

    PubMed

    Soroori, Salar; Kulinsky, Lawrence; Kido, Horacio; Madou, Marc

    2014-06-01

    Microfluidic discs have been employed in a variety of applications for chemical analyses and biological diagnostics. These platforms offer a sophisticated fluidic toolbox, necessary to perform processes that involve sample preparation, purification, analysis, and detection. However, one of the weaknesses of such systems is the uni-directional movement of fluid from the disc center to its periphery due to the uni-directionality of the propelling centrifugal force. Here we demonstrate a mechanism for fluid movement from the periphery of a hydrophobic disc toward its center that does not rely on the energy supplied by any peripheral equipment. This method utilizes a ventless fluidic network that connects a column of working fluid to a sample fluid. As the working fluid is pushed by the centrifugal force to move toward the periphery of the disc, the sample fluid is pulled up toward the center of the disc analogous to a physical pulley where two weights are connected by a rope passed through a block. The ventless network is analogous to the rope in the pulley. As the working fluid descends, it creates a negative pressure that pulls the sample fluid up. The sample and working fluids do not come into direct contact and it allows the freedom to select a working fluid with physical properties markedly different from those of the sample. This article provides a demonstration of the "micro-pulley" on a disc, discusses underlying physical phenomena, provides design guidelines for fabrication of micro-pulleys on discs, and outlines a vision for future micro-pulley applications.

  14. Pulley Reconstruction As Part of the Surgical Treatment for de Quervain Disease: Surgical Technique with Medium-Term Results

    PubMed Central

    van der Wijk, Jacobien; Goubau, Jean F.; Mermuys, Koen; van Hoonacker, Petrus; Vanmierlo, Bert; Kerckhove, Diederick; Berghs, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Background Simple decompression of the first extensor compartment is commonly used for treating de Quervain disease, with the possible complication of subluxation of the tendons of the abductor pollicis longus (APL) and extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) over the radial styloid. To prevent this painful subluxation of the tendons, several methods of reconstructing the pulley have been proposed. Questions/Purposes The purpose of our study was to evaluate a new technique for reconstructing the first extensor compartment following a release for de Quervain disease. Patients and Methods A retrospective study (mean length 40.4 months) was performed in 45 patients. The outcome assessment involved two different questionnaires and ultrasound evaluation of any tendon subluxation. Results None of the patients required reoperation for tendon instability or incomplete decompression of the first extensor compartment. Two patients experienced clicking around the radial styloid after surgery. This was not related to the amount of volar migration of the tendons. Conclusions We believe the reconstruction proposed here is an effective method of preventing painful subluxation of the APL and EPB following a release of the first extensor compartment. PMID:26261747

  15. Double insertions of extraocular rectus muscles in humans and the pulley theory.

    PubMed

    Ruskell, Gordon L; Kjellevold Haugen, Inga-Britt; Bruenech, Jan Richard; van der Werf, Frans

    2005-03-01

    Recent studies have promoted the concept that rectus muscles pass through connective tissue pulleys located near the equator of the eye and act, in effect, as the muscle origins. Orbital muscle fibres (facing bone) terminate in pulleys, permitting adjustment of their position independent of the global fibres responsible for rotating the eye. The structure of pulleys (or muscle sleeves) and the passage taken by their muscle fibre insertions are unclear, and a detailed description is presented here together with a review of the active pulley hypothesis. Segments including the full width of single muscles were removed from the full orbital contents of dissection room cadavers and fresh perfusion-fixed rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys and prepared for light microscopy. Thin longitudinal sections were cut as facets from resin-embedded tissue blocks and montages assembled. Interrupted serial sections of selected regions of both species and ultrathin sections of monkey material were prepared for light and electron microscopy, respectively. Slender tendons leave the orbital surface of rectus muscles at intervals, aggregating and entering sleeves in humans and monkey; less frequently, tendons pass from the global surface to sleeves or insert directly in the posterior fascia bulbi. The orbital sides of sleeve rings are continuous with the fascial canopy of the globe and are 5-6 times as thick as the global sides; sleeve structure differs in the four recti. Medial rectus sleeves are the thickest, and contain smooth muscle, whereas little or none is present in the other rectus sleeves. Superior rectus sleeves are variable in structure and relatively insubstantial. A narrow interval separates muscles from the surrounding connective tissue equatorially in some preparations, consistent with a capacity to slide, but the tissues are contiguous in others, especially in monkey material. The structural organization of sleeves and their tendons, together with other presented factors, is

  16. The Effect of Friction in Pulleys on the Tension in Cables and Strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martell, Eric C.; Martell, Verda Beth

    2013-02-01

    Atwood's machine is used in countless introductory physics classes as an illustration of Newton's second law. Initially, the analysis is performed assuming the pulley and string are massless and the axle is frictionless. Although the mass of the pulley is often included when the problem is revisited later in the context of rotational dynamics, the mass of the string and the friction associated with the axle are less frequently discussed. Two questions then arise: 1) If we are ignoring these effects, how realistic is our model? and 2) How can we determine when or if we need to incorporate these effects in order to make our model match up with reality? These questions are connected to fundamental issues faced by physics teachers, namely the frustration students sometimes feel when they do not see how they can use the results of the problems they have been working on and how we can help our students develop effective models for physical systems.

  17. Design and implementation of fluidic micro-pulleys for flow control on centrifugal microfluidic platforms

    PubMed Central

    Soroori, Salar; Kulinsky, Lawrence; Kido, Horacio; Madou, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Microfluidic discs have been employed in a variety of applications for chemical analyses and biological diagnostics. These platforms offer a sophisticated fluidic toolbox, necessary to perform processes that involve sample preparation, purification, analysis, and detection. However, one of the weaknesses of such systems is the uni-directional movement of fluid from the disc center to its periphery due to the uni-directionality of the propelling centrifugal force. Here we demonstrate a mechanism for fluid movement from the periphery of a hydrophobic disc toward its center that does not rely on the energy supplied by any peripheral equipment. This method utilizes a ventless fluidic network that connects a column of working fluid to a sample fluid. As the working fluid is pushed by the centrifugal force to move toward the periphery of the disc, the sample fluid is pulled up toward the center of the disc analogous to a physical pulley where two weights are connected by a rope passed through a block. The ventless network is analogous to the rope in the pulley. As the working fluid descends, it creates a negative pressure that pulls the sample fluid up. The sample and working fluids do not come into direct contact and it allows the freedom to select a working fluid with physical properties markedly different from those of the sample. This article provides a demonstration of the “micro-pulley” on a disc, discusses underlying physical phenomena, provides design guidelines for fabrication of micro-pulleys on discs, and outlines a vision for future micro-pulley applications. PMID:25328508

  18. Elucidation of the CO-Release Kinetics of CORM-A1 by Means of Vibrational Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Klein, Moritz; Neugebauer, Ute; Schmitt, Michael; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) are developed for investigations of the interaction between the signaling molecule carbon monoxide (CO) and cells or tissue. Prior to their application these molecules must be fully characterized with respect to their CO-release mechanism. One widely used CORM for biological application is sodium boranocarbonate (CORM-A1), which shows pH-dependent CO liberation. The complete reaction mechanism of CORM-A1 is not fully understood yet. Therefore, in this contribution time-resolved gas-phase IR spectroscopy is used to monitor the headspace above decaying CORM-A1 solutions at four different pH values (5.8 to 7.4). Borane carbonyl is found as an intermediate in the gas phase, which is formed during CORM degradation and further decays to CO. Concentration profiles of a pseudoconsecutive first-order reaction are successfully fitted to specific band areas of the measured gas-phase spectra, and the rate constants are obtained. The production of borane carbonyl is strongly pH dependent (half-lives between 5 and 106 min), whereas the decay of borane carbonyl in the gas phase is nearly constant with a half-life of about 33 min. The ratio of liberated CO molecules per CORM-A1 is determined to be 0.91±0.09, and boric acid is identified as further end product. PMID:26699153

  19. Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecule-A1 (CORM-A1) Improves Neurogenesis: Increase of Neuronal Differentiation Yield by Preventing Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Ana S; Soares, Nuno L; Vieira, Melissa; Gramsbergen, Jan Bert; Vieira, Helena L A

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative diseases lead to impairment or death of neurons in the central nervous system. Stem cell based therapies are promising strategies currently under investigation. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous product of heme degradation by heme oxygenase (HO) activity. Administration of CO at low concentrations produces several beneficial effects in distinct tissues, namely anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory. Herein the CO role on modulation of neuronal differentiation was assessed. Three different models with increasing complexity were used: human neuroblastoma SH-S5Y5 cell line, human teratocarcinoma NT2 cell line and organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSC). Cell lines were differentiated into post-mitotic neurons by treatment with retinoic acid (RA) supplemented with CO-releasing molecule A1 (CORM-A1). CORM-A1 positively modulated neuronal differentiation, since it increased final neuronal production and enhanced the expression of specific neuronal genes: Nestin, Tuj1 and MAP2. Furthermore, during neuronal differentiation process, there was an increase in proliferative cell number (ki67 mRNA expressing cells) and a decrease in cell death (lower propidium iodide (PI) uptake, limitation of caspase-3 activation and higher Bcl-2 expressing cells). CO supplementation did not increase the expression of RA receptors. In the case of SH-S5Y5 model, small amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation emerges as important signaling molecules during CO-promoted neuronal differentiation. CO's improvement of neuronal differentiation yield was validated using OHSC as ex vivo model. CORM-A1 treatment of OHSC promoted higher levels of cells expressing the neuronal marker Tuj1. Still, CORM-A1 increased cell proliferation assessed by ki67 expression and also prevented cell death, which was followed by increased Bcl-2 expression, decreased levels of active caspase-3 and PI uptake. Likewise, ROS signaling emerged as key factors in CO

  20. Integrated learning in practical machine element design course: a case study of V-pulley design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantrabandit, Manop

    2014-06-01

    To achieve an effective integrated learning in Machine Element Design course, it is of importance to bridge the basic knowledge and skills of element designs. The multiple core learning leads the pathway which consists of two main parts. The first part involves teaching documents of which the contents are number of V-groove formulae, standard of V-grooved pulleys, and parallel key dimension's formulae. The second part relates to the subjects that the students have studied prior to participating in this integrated learning course, namely Material Selection, Manufacturing Process, Applied Engineering Drawing, CAD (Computer Aided Design) animation software. Moreover, an intensive cooperation between a lecturer and students is another key factor to fulfill the success of integrated learning. Last but not least, the students need to share their knowledge within the group and among the other groups aiming to gain knowledge of and skills in 1) the application of CAD-software to build up manufacture part drawings, 2) assembly drawing, 3) simulation to verify the strength of loaded pulley by method of Finite Element Analysis (FEA), 4) the software to create animation of mounting and dismounting of a pulley to a shaft, and 5) an instruction manual. The end product of this integrated learning, as a result of the above 1 to 5 knowledge and skills obtained, the participating students can create an assembly derived from manufacture part drawings and a video presentation with bilingual (English-Thai) audio description of Vpulley with datum diameter of 250 mm, 4 grooves, and type of groove: SPA.

  1. Transdermal anaesthesia for percutaneous trigger finger release.

    PubMed

    Yiannakopoulos, Christos K; Ignatiadis, Ioannis A

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficiency of transdermal anaesthesia using eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine (EMLA) in patients undergoing percutaneous trigger finger release and to compare it with lidocaine infiltration. In this prospective, randomised study percutaneous release of the A1 annular pulley was performed to treat stenosing tenosynovitis (trigger finger syndrome) in 50 patients (50 fingers). The procedure was performed either under transdermal anaesthesia using EMLA applied transcutaneously 120 minutes prior to the operation (Group A, n = 25) or using local infiltration anaesthesia using lidocaine (Group B, n = 25). Pain experienced during administration of anaesthesia and during the operation was assessed using a 10-point Visual Analogue Pain Scale (VAPS), while all patients rated the effectiveness of anaesthesia with a 5-point scale. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the VAPS during the operation (1.33 +/- 0.52 versus 1.59 +/- 0.87) and the satisfaction scores (4.6 +/- 0.2 versus 4.4 +/- 0.3). The VAPS score during the administration of anaesthesia was statistically significantly less in the EMLA group (0 versus 5.96 +/- 2.41). All patients were satisfied with the final result of the operation. Percutaneous trigger finger release can be performed as an office procedure with the use of EMLA avoiding the use of injectable local infiltration anaesthesia. PMID:17405199

  2. Pgc-1α and Nr4a1 Are Target Genes of Circadian Melatonin and Dopamine Release in Murine Retina

    PubMed Central

    Kunst, Stefanie; Wolloscheck, Tanja; Kelleher, Debra K.; Wolfrum, Uwe; Sargsyan, S. Anna; Iuvone, P. Michael; Baba, Kenkichi; Tosini, Gianluca; Spessert, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The neurohormones melatonin and dopamine mediate clock-dependent/circadian regulation of inner retinal neurons and photoreceptor cells and in this way promote their functional adaptation to time of day and their survival. To fulfill this function they act on melatonin receptor type 1 (MT1 receptors) and dopamine D4 receptors (D4 receptors), respectively. The aim of the present study was to screen transcriptional regulators important for retinal physiology and/or pathology (Dbp, Egr-1, Fos, Nr1d1, Nr2e3, Nr4a1, Pgc-1α, Rorβ) for circadian regulation and dependence on melatonin signaling/MT1 receptors or dopamine signaling/D4 receptors. Methods This was done by gene profiling using quantitative polymerase chain reaction in mice deficient in MT1 or D4 receptors. Results The data obtained determined Pgc-1α and Nr4a1 as transcriptional targets of circadian melatonin and dopamine signaling, respectively. Conclusions The results suggest that Pgc-1α and Nr4a1 represent candidate genes for linking circadian neurohormone release with functional adaptation and healthiness of retina and photoreceptor cells. PMID:26393668

  3. Modeling of multiarticular muscles: importance of inclusion of tendon-pulley interactions in the finger.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Wook; Kamper, Derek G

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine force transmission from one of the major multiarticular muscles of the finger, flexor digitorum profundus (FDP), to the index finger. Specifically, we examined whether the popular moment arm (MA)-joint torque technique of modeling muscle force transmission can accurately represent the effects of the FDP on finger movement. A dynamic finger model employing geometric MA values (model I) was compared with another model including realistic tendon force transformation mechanisms via pulley structures and joint reaction forces (model II). Finger flexion movements generated by these models were compared with those obtained from in vivo stimulation experiments. The model with the force transformation mechanisms (model II) resulted in more realistic joint spatial coordination (i.e., proximal interphalangeal > metacarpophalangeal > or = distal interphalangeal) than the MA-based model (model I) in relation to the movement patterns evoked by stimulation. Also, the importance of the pulley structures and passive joint characteristics was confirmed in the model simulation; altering/eliminating these components significantly changed the spatial coordination of the joint angles during the resulting movements. The results of this study emphasize the functional importance of the force transformation through various biomechanical components, and suggest the importance of including these components when investigating finger motor control, such as for examining injury mechanisms or designing rehabilitation protocols.

  4. Analysis of the gliding pattern of the canine flexor digitorum profundus tendon through the A2 pulley.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Shigeharu; Amadio, Peter C; Berglund, Lawrence J; An, Kai-Nan

    2008-01-01

    Friction between a tendon and its pulley was first quantified using the concept of the arc of contact. Studies of human tendons conformed closely to a theoretical nylon cable/nylon rod model. However, we observed differences in measured friction that depended on the direction of motion in the canine model. We hypothesized that fibrocartilaginous nodules in the tendon affected the measurements and attempted to develop a theoretical model to explain the observations we made. Two force transducers were connected to each end of the canine flexor digitorum profundus tendon and the forces were recorded when it was moved through the A2 pulley toward a direction of flexion by an actuator and then reversed a direction toward extension. The changes of a force as a function of tendon excursion were evaluated in 20 canine paws. A bead cable/rod model was developed to simulate the canine tendon-pulley complex. To interpret the results, a free-body diagram was developed. The two prominent fibrocartilaginous nodules in the tendon were found to be responsible for deviation from a theoretical nylon cable gliding around the rod model, in a fashion analogous to the effect of the patella on the quadriceps mechanism. A bead cable/rod model qualitatively reproduced the findings observed in the canine tendon-pulley complex. Frictional coefficient of the canine flexor tendon-pulley was 0.016+/-0.005. After accounting for the effect created by the geometry of two fibrocartilaginous nodules within the tendon, calculation of frictional force in the canine tendon was possible. PMID:18328488

  5. Pulley reef: a deep photosynthetic coral reef on the West Florida Shelf, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Culter, J.K.; Ritchie, K.B.; Earle, S.A.; Guggenheim, D.E.; Halley, R.B.; Ciembronowicz, K.T.; Hine, A.C.; Jarrett, B.D.; Locker, S.D.; Jaap, W.C.

    2006-01-01

    Pulley Reef (24°50′N, 83°40′W) lies on a submerged late Pleistocene shoreline feature that formed during a sea-level stillstand from 13.8 to 14.5 ka (Jarrett et al. 2005). The reef is currently 60–75 m deep, exhibits 10–60% coral cover, and extends over approximately 160 km2 of the sea floor. Zooxanthellate corals are primarily Agaricia lamarcki, A. fragilis, Leptoseris cucullata, and less common Madracis formosa, M. pharensis, M. decactis, Montastraea cavernosa, Porites divaricata, Scolymia cubensis and Oculina tenella. Coralline algae are comparable in abundance to stony corals. Other macroalgae include Halimeda tuna, Dictyota divaricata, Lobophora variegata, Ventricatri ventricosa, Verdigelas pelas, and Kallymenia sp. Anadyomene menziesii is abundant. The reef provides a habitat for organisms typically observed at much shallower depths, and is the deepest known photosynthetic coral reef on the North America continental shelf (Fig. 1).

  6. Investigation of the Forces Acting on Gliders in Automobile-pulley-winch and Airplane Towed Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemperer, W B

    1942-01-01

    The magnitude, the direction, and the fluctuation of towing forces exerted upon gliders by towing them aloft behind an automobile, by means of a winch, and by airplane were measured under a variety of conditions covering a range from gentle to severe types of operation. For these tests the towing forces did not exceed 92 percent of the gross weight of the glider. The results indicate that in pulley and winch towing the towing forces are of about the same magnitude as in automobile towing. Speed increases in the accelerated phases of the towing jerks encountered in airplane towing can readily become critical as speeds in excess of placard speeds can be attained. Passage through the slipstream of the towing airplane can be equivalent to a severe gust that, at high speed, may impose high wing loads and require large control moments.

  7. The Double-Pulley Anatomic Technique for Type II SLAP Lesion Repair.

    PubMed

    Parnes, Nata; Ciani, Mario; Carr, Brian; Carey, Paul

    2015-10-01

    The annual incidence and number of repairs of SLAP lesions in the United States are constantly increasing. Surgical repairs of type II SLAP lesions have overall good success rates. However, a low satisfaction rate and low rate of return to preinjury level of play remain a challenge with elite overhead and throwing athletes. Recent anatomic studies suggest that current surgical techniques over-tension the biceps anchor and the superior labrum. These studies suggest that restoration of the normal anatomy will improve clinical outcomes and sports performance. We present a "double-pulley" technique for arthroscopic fixation of type II SLAP lesions. In this technique the normal anatomy is respected by preserving the mobility of the articular aspect of the superior labrum while reinforcing the biceps anchor and its posterior fibers medially.

  8. Design and simulation of a cable-pulley-based transmission for artificial ankle joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huaxin; Ceccarelli, Marco; Huang, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a mechanical transmission based on cable pulley is proposed for human-like actuation in the artificial ankle joints of human-scale. The anatomy articular characteristics of the human ankle is discussed for proper biomimetic inspiration in designing an accurate, efficient, and robust motion control of artificial ankle joint devices. The design procedure is presented through the inclusion of conceptual considerations and design details for an interactive solution of the transmission system. A mechanical design is elaborated for the ankle joint angular with pitch motion. A multi-body dynamic simulation model is elaborated accordingly and evaluated numerically in the ADAMS environment. Results of the numerical simulations are discussed to evaluate the dynamic performance of the proposed design solution and to investigate the feasibility of the proposed design in future applications for humanoid robots.

  9. Activation of A(1) adenosine or mGlu3 metabotropic glutamate receptors enhances the release of nerve growth factor and S-100beta protein from cultured astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ciccarelli, R; Di Iorio, P; Bruno, V; Battaglia, G; D'Alimonte, I; D'Onofrio, M; Nicoletti, F; Caciagli, F

    1999-09-01

    Pharmacological activation of A(1) adenosine receptor with 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA) or mGlu3 metabotropic glutamate receptors with (2S,2'R,3'R)-2-(2', 3'-dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG-IV) or aminopyrrolidine-2R, 4R-dicarboxylate (2R,4R-APDC) enhanced the release of nerve growth factor (NGF) or S-100beta protein from rat cultured astrocytes. Stimulation of release by CCPA and DCG-IV or 2R,4R-APDC was inhibited by the A(1) adenosine receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1, 3-dipropylxanthine and by the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist (2S,1'S, 2'S,3'R)-2-(2'-carboxy-3'-phenylcyclopropyl)glycine (PCCG-4), respectively. Time-course studies revealed a profound difference between the release of S-100beta protein and the release of NGF in response to extracellular signals. Stimulation of S-100beta protein exhibited rapid kinetics, peaking after 1 h of drug treatment, whereas the enhancement of NGF release was much slower, requiring at least 6 h of A(1) adenosine or mGlu3 receptor activation. In addition, stimulation of NGF but not S-100beta release was substantially reduced in cultures treated with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. In addition, a 6-8 h treatment of cultured astrocytes with A(1) or mGlu3 receptor agonists increased the levels of both NGF mRNA and NGF-like immunoreactive proteins, including NGF prohormone. We conclude that activation of A(1) adenosine or mGlu3 receptors produces pleiotropic effects in astrocytes, stimulating the synthesis and/or the release of protein factors. Astrocytes may therefore become targets for drugs that stimulate the local production of neurotrophic factors in the CNS, and this may provide the basis for a novel therapeutic strategy in chronic neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:10457374

  10. Dynamics of a belt-drive system using a linear complementarity problem for the belt pulley contact description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čepon, Gregor; Boltežar, Miha

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient and realistic numerical model in order to predict the dynamic response of belt drives. The belt was modeled as a planar beam element based on an absolute nodal coordinate formulation. A viscoelastic material was adopted for the belt and the corresponding damping and stiffness matrices were determined. The belt-pulley contact was formulated as a linear complementarity problem together with a penalty method. This made it possible for us to accurately predict the contact forces, including the stick and slip zones between the belt and the pulley. The belt-drive model was verified by comparing it with the available analytical solutions. A good agreement was found. Finally, the applicability of the method was demonstrated by considering non-steady belt-drive operating conditions.

  11. Effects of combined open kinetic chain and closed kinetic chain training using pulley exercise machines on muscle strength and angiogenesis factors.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ki Soeng; Kang, Sunghwun; Woo, Sang Heon; Bae, Ju Yong; Shin, Ki Ok

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of combined open kinetic chain and closed kinetic chain training using pulley exercise machines on muscle strength, anaerobic power, and blood levels of angiogenesis factors. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty male university students were equally divided between control and pulley training groups. The pulley-training group underwent 8 weeks of combined training. Open kinetic chain training consisted of 2 sets of 10 repetitions at 60% of one repetition maximum; closed kinetic chain training consisted of 2 sets of 10 repetitions of resistance exercise using the subject's own body weight. Isokinetic strength (trunk and knee), anaerobic power, vascular endothelial growth factor, angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and follistatin were analyzed. [Results] After 8 weeks, flexor and extensor muscle strength significantly increased in the trunk and knee; average and peak power also increased significantly. Angiopoietin 1 increased 25% in the control group and 48% in the pulley training group; vascular endothelial growth factor and follistatin increased significantly in the pulley-training group after 8 weeks. [Conclusion] Eight weeks of combined training using pulley exercise machines effectively increased biochemical factors related to muscle growth, as well as muscle strength in the trunk and knees.

  12. Effects of combined open kinetic chain and closed kinetic chain training using pulley exercise machines on muscle strength and angiogenesis factors

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ki Soeng; Kang, Sunghwun; Woo, Sang Heon; Bae, Ju Yong; Shin, Ki Ok

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of combined open kinetic chain and closed kinetic chain training using pulley exercise machines on muscle strength, anaerobic power, and blood levels of angiogenesis factors. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty male university students were equally divided between control and pulley training groups. The pulley-training group underwent 8 weeks of combined training. Open kinetic chain training consisted of 2 sets of 10 repetitions at 60% of one repetition maximum; closed kinetic chain training consisted of 2 sets of 10 repetitions of resistance exercise using the subject’s own body weight. Isokinetic strength (trunk and knee), anaerobic power, vascular endothelial growth factor, angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and follistatin were analyzed. [Results] After 8 weeks, flexor and extensor muscle strength significantly increased in the trunk and knee; average and peak power also increased significantly. Angiopoietin 1 increased 25% in the control group and 48% in the pulley training group; vascular endothelial growth factor and follistatin increased significantly in the pulley-training group after 8 weeks. [Conclusion] Eight weeks of combined training using pulley exercise machines effectively increased biochemical factors related to muscle growth, as well as muscle strength in the trunk and knees. PMID:27134393

  13. Effects of combined open kinetic chain and closed kinetic chain training using pulley exercise machines on muscle strength and angiogenesis factors.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ki Soeng; Kang, Sunghwun; Woo, Sang Heon; Bae, Ju Yong; Shin, Ki Ok

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of combined open kinetic chain and closed kinetic chain training using pulley exercise machines on muscle strength, anaerobic power, and blood levels of angiogenesis factors. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty male university students were equally divided between control and pulley training groups. The pulley-training group underwent 8 weeks of combined training. Open kinetic chain training consisted of 2 sets of 10 repetitions at 60% of one repetition maximum; closed kinetic chain training consisted of 2 sets of 10 repetitions of resistance exercise using the subject's own body weight. Isokinetic strength (trunk and knee), anaerobic power, vascular endothelial growth factor, angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and follistatin were analyzed. [Results] After 8 weeks, flexor and extensor muscle strength significantly increased in the trunk and knee; average and peak power also increased significantly. Angiopoietin 1 increased 25% in the control group and 48% in the pulley training group; vascular endothelial growth factor and follistatin increased significantly in the pulley-training group after 8 weeks. [Conclusion] Eight weeks of combined training using pulley exercise machines effectively increased biochemical factors related to muscle growth, as well as muscle strength in the trunk and knees. PMID:27134393

  14. The Effects of Elbow Joint Angle Change on the Elbow Flexor Muscle Activation in Pulley with Weight Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Taewook; Seo, Youngjoon; Park, Jaehoon; Dong, Eunseok; Seo, Byungdo; Han, Dongwook

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This research investigated the effect of angular variation of flexion of the elbow joint on the muscle activation of elbow flexor muscles. [Subjects] The research subjects were 24 male college students with a dominant right hand who had no surgical or neurological disorders and gave their prior written consent to participation with full knowledge of the method and purpose of this study. [Methods] The subjects' shoulder joints stayed in the resting position, and the elbow joint was positioned at angles of 55°, 70°, and 90°. The angle between the pulley with weights and forearm stayed at 90°. Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activities. Three measurements were made at each elbow angle, and every time the angle changed, two minutes rest was given. [Result] The muscle activities of the elbow flexors showed significant changes with change in the elbow joint angle, except for the biceps brachii activities between the angles of 55° and 70° of elbow flexion. The muscle activities of the biceps brachii and brachioradialis showed angle-related changes in the order of 55°, which showed the biggest value, followed by 70° and 90°. [Conclusion] In order to improve muscle strength of the elbow flexor using a pulley system, it seems more effective to have a 90° angle between the pulley with weights and the forearm when the muscle is stretched to a length 20% greater than its resting position. PMID:24259930

  15. Facilitating endoscopic submucosal dissection: the suture-pulley method significantly improves procedure time and minimizes technical difficulty compared with conventional technique: an ex vivo study (with video)

    PubMed Central

    Aihara, Hiroyuki; Kumar, Nitin; Ryou, Marvin; Abidi, Wasif; Ryan, Michele B.; Thompson, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The lack of countertraction in endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) results in increased technical demand and procedure time. Although the suture-pulley method for countertraction has been reported, its effectiveness compared with the traditional ESD technique remains unclear. Objective To objectively analyze efficacy of countertraction using the suture-pulley method for ESD. Design Prospective ex vivo animal study. Setting Animal laboratory. Interventions Twenty simulated gastric lesions were created in porcine stomachs by using a standard circular template 30 mm in diameter. In the control arm (n = 10), ESD was performed by using the standard technique. In the suture-pulley arm (N = 10), a circumferential incision was made, and an endoscopic suturing device was used to place the suture pulley. Main Outcome Measurements The primary outcome of this study was total procedure time. Results The median total procedure time with the suture-pulley method was significantly shorter than the traditional ESD technique (median, 25% to 75%, interquartile range [IQR]: 531 seconds [474.3–549.3 seconds] vs 845 seconds [656.3–1547.5 seconds], P < .001). The median time (IQR) for suture-pulley placement was 160.5 seconds (150.0–168.8 seconds). Although there was a significantly longer procedure time for proximal versus middle/lower stomach lesions with traditional ESD (median, 1601 seconds; IQR, 1547.5–1708.8 seconds vs median, 663 seconds; IQR, 627.5–681.8 seconds; P =.01), there was no significant difference in procedure time for lesions of various locations when using the suture-pulley method. Compared with traditional ESD, the suture-pulley method was less demanding in all categories evaluated by the NASA Task Load Index. Limitations Ex vivo study. Conclusions The suture-pulley method facilitates direct visualization of the submucosal layer during ESD and significantly reduces procedure time and technical difficulty. In addition, the benefit of the suture-pulley

  16. The role of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in the caffeine effect on MDMA-induced DA and 5-HT release in the mouse striatum.

    PubMed

    Górska, A M; Gołembiowska, K

    2015-04-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") popular as a designer drug is often used with caffeine to gain a stronger stimulant effect. MDMA induces 5-HT and DA release by interaction with monoamine transporters. Co-administration of caffeine and MDMA may aggravate MDMA-induced toxic effects on DA and 5-HT terminals. In the present study, we determined whether caffeine influences DA and 5-HT release induced by MDMA. We also tried to find out if adenosine A1 and A2A receptors play a role in the effect of caffeine by investigating the effect of the selective adenosine A1 and A2A receptor antagonists, DPCPX and KW 6002 on DA and 5-HT release induced by MDMA. Mice were treated with caffeine (10 mg/kg) and MDMA (20 or 40 mg/kg) alone or in combination. DA and 5-HT release in the mouse striatum was measured using in vivo microdialysis. Caffeine exacerbated the effect of MDMA on DA and 5-HT release. DPCPX or KW 6002 co-administered with MDMA had similar influence as caffeine, but KW 6002 was more potent than caffeine or DPCPX. To exclude the contribution of MAO inhibition by caffeine in the caffeine effect on MDMA-induced increase in DA and 5-HT, we also tested the effect of the nonxanthine adenosine receptor antagonist CGS 15943A lacking properties of MAO activity modification. Our findings indicate that adenosine A1 and A2A receptor blockade may account for the caffeine-induced exacerbation of the MDMA effect on DA and 5-HT release and may aggravate MDMA toxicity.

  17. Annexin A1 released from apoptotic cells acts through formyl peptide receptors to dampen inflammatory monocyte activation via JAK/STAT/SOCS signalling

    PubMed Central

    Pupjalis, Danute; Goetsch, Julia; Kottas, Diane J; Gerke, Volker; Rescher, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    The immunosuppressive effects of apoptotic cells involve inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine release and establishment of an anti-inflammatory cytokine profile, thus limiting the degree of inflammation and promoting resolution. We report here that this is in part mediated by the release of the anti-inflammatory mediator annexin A1 from apoptotic cells and the functional activation of annexin A1 receptors of the formyl peptide receptor (FPR) family on target cells. Supernatants from apoptotic neutrophils or the annexin A1 peptidomimetic Ac2-26 significantly reduced IL-6 signalling and the release of TNF-α from endotoxin-challenged monocytes. Ac2-26 activated STAT3 in a JAK-dependent manner, resulting in upregulated SOCS3 levels, and depletion of SOCS3 reversed the Ac2-26-mediated inhibition of IL-6 signalling. This identifies annexin A1 as part of the anti-inflammatory pattern of apoptotic cells and links the activation of FPRs to established signalling pathways triggering anti-inflammatory responses. PMID:21254404

  18. Long-Term Outcome of Medial Rectus Recession and Pulley Posterior Fixation in Esotropia With High AC/A Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Wabulembo, Geoffrey; Demer, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Medial rectus (MR) recession with pulley posterior fixation (PF) can be used to treatesotropia (ET) with a high accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratio as effectively in the short term as MR recession with scleral PF. This study provides a novel examination of the long-term results of MR recession with pulley PF (PPF). Methods: In 21 children we performed bilateral MR recession and pulley PF for ET greater at near than distance (high AC/A). Mean follow-up was 3.5 ± 2.5 (standard deviation [SD]) years. Results: Mean age at presentation was 2.7 ± 1.8 and at surgery 4.3 ± 1.6 years. Fourteen (67%) children had amblyopia. Distance and near pre-operative ET averaged 19.6Δ ± 10.5Δ and 36.9Δ ± 18.9Δ, respectively. Mean near-distance (N-D) disparity was 16.4Δ ± 12.3Δ. The MR recession averaged 4.4 ± 0.9 mm. Early mean postoperative ET was 1.3 ± 3.3Δ at distance and 2.8Δ ± 5.2Δ at near. Mean late postoperative ET was 0.1Δ ± 5.8Δ and 1.0Δ ± 6.2Δ at distance and near, respectively. At the final postoperative examination, mean N-D disparity was reduced to 0.9Δ ± 3.6Δ. Discussion: MR recession with PPF has a high long-term effectiveness, even in patients with amblyopia and autism. Since no posterior scleral suturing is required, it minimizes the perforation risk associated with scleral PF. Conclusion: MR recession with PPF is a safe and highly effective long-term treatment for ET with high AC/A ratio. Long-term results may surpass those of alternate procedures. PMID:22906381

  19. Histotopographical study of human periocular elastic fibers using aldehyde-fuchsin staining with special reference to the sleeve and pulley system for extraocular rectus muscles.

    PubMed

    Osanai, Hajime; Murakami, Gen; Ohtsuka, Aiji; Suzuki, Daisuke; Nakagawa, Takashi; Tatsumi, Haruyuki

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the detailed configuration of periocular elastic fibers. Semiserial paraffin sections were made using 40 whole orbital contents from 27 elderly cadavers and stained by the aldehyde-fuchsin method. Periocular tissues were classified into three types according to directions of the elastic fibers, i.e., tissues containing anteroposteriorly running elastic fibers, those with mediolateral fibers, and those with meshwork of fibers. Anteroposterior elastic fiber-dominant tissue was seen in the upper eyelid and newly defined pulley plate for the medial and lateral recti (MR, LR). Mediolateral fibers were predominant in the central part of the inferior rectus pulley. In the pulley plates for the MR and LR, anteroposteriorly running fibers encased the striated muscle. Tenon's capsule and the epimysium of the recti were mediolateral fiber-dominant. However, at the entrance of the muscle terminal where Tenon's capsule reflects and continues to the epimysium, composite elastic fibers provided a meshwork-like skeleton. The elastic mesh was also seen around the lacrimal canaliculi. The pulley for the recti seemed to be composed of two parts--a connective tissue plate encasing the recti and specialized Tenon's capsule at an entrance or porta of the muscle. For both parts, elastic fibers were major functional components. The anteroposterior elastic fibers in the MR and LR pulley plates, especially, seemed to receive anteroposteriorly directed stress and tension from these striated muscles. The elastic interfaces seemed to prevent any concentration of stress that would interfere with periocular striated muscle functions, including hypothetical active pulleys.

  20. Modulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release in skeletal muscle expressing ryanodine receptor impaired in regulation by calmodulin and S100A1

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Naohiro; Prosser, Benjamin L.; Ghassemi, Farshid; Xu, Le; Pasek, Daniel A.; Eu, Jerry P.; Hernández-Ochoa, Erick O.; Cannon, Brian R.; Wilder, Paul T.; Lovering, Richard M.; Weber, David; Melzer, Werner; Schneider, Martin F.

    2011-01-01

    In vitro, calmodulin (CaM) and S100A1 activate the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor ion channel (RyR1) at submicromolar Ca2+ concentrations, whereas at micromolar Ca2+ concentrations, CaM inhibits RyR1. One amino acid substitution (RyR1-L3625D) has previously been demonstrated to impair CaM binding and regulation of RyR1. Here we show that the RyR1-L3625D substitution also abolishes S100A1 binding. To determine the physiological relevance of these findings, mutant mice were generated with the RyR1-L3625D substitution in exon 74, which encodes the CaM and S100A1 binding domain of RyR1. Homozygous mutant mice (Ryr1D/D) were viable and appeared normal. However, single RyR1 channel recordings from Ryr1D/D mice exhibited impaired activation by CaM and S100A1 and impaired CaCaM inhibition. Isolated flexor digitorum brevis muscle fibers from Ryr1D/D mice had depressed Ca2+ transients when stimulated by a single action potential. However, during repetitive stimulation, the mutant fibers demonstrated greater relative summation of the Ca2+ transients. Consistently, in vivo stimulation of tibialis anterior muscles in Ryr1D/D mice demonstrated reduced twitch force in response to a single action potential, but greater summation of force during high-frequency stimulation. During repetitive stimulation, Ryr1D/D fibers exhibited slowed inactivation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release flux, consistent with increased summation of the Ca2+ transient and contractile force. Peak Ca2+ release flux was suppressed at all voltages in voltage-clamped Ryr1D/D fibers. The results suggest that the RyR1-L3625D mutation removes both an early activating effect of S100A1 and CaM and delayed suppressing effect of CaCaM on RyR1 Ca2+ release, providing new insights into CaM and S100A1 regulation of skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling. PMID:21289290

  1. Anti-diabetic actions of carbon monoxide-releasing molecule (CORM)-A1: Immunomodulation and regeneration of islet beta cells.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Ivana; Saksida, Tamara; Vujicic, Milica; Stojanovic, Ivana; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava

    2015-05-01

    We have recently shown that carbon monoxide releasing molecule (CORM)-A1 prevents type 1 diabetes induced in C57BL/6 mice with multiple low doses of streptozotocin (MLDS) by shifting the Th1/Th17/M1 balance towards a Th2/M2 response. In the present work we tested the hypothesis that CORM-A1 might influence regulatory arm of the immune response, as well as beta cell regeneration. CORM-A1 (2 mg/kg/day) was administered for 10 days to mice induced with MLDS and/or depleted of low dose cyclophosphamide (CY)-sensitive FoxP3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells. Besides monitoring hyperglycaemia, ex vivo analysis of spleen, pancreatic lymph nodes (PLN) and pancreas was performed at the end of treatment. In CORM-A1-treated MLDS-induced mice the improvement of hyperglycaemia was observed only without depletion of CY-sensitive FoxP3+ Treg cells. This was accompanied by decreased levels of interleukin (IL)-12, IL-2 and early activation marker CD25 in the spleen and PLN and increased transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, resulting in reduced lymphocyte proliferation in both organs. In parallel, decreased transcript levels of IL-2, but increased mRNA expression of TGF-β, accompanied with up-regulation of Ki-67 protein expression was observed within pancreas. Together, the data suggested that besides the immunomodulatory potential, CORM-A1 probably induces beta cell regeneration.

  2. Trigger Finger: Adult and Pediatric Treatment Strategies.

    PubMed

    Giugale, Juan M; Fowler, John R

    2015-10-01

    Trigger fingers are common tendinopathies representing a stenosing flexor tenosynovitis of the fingers. Adult trigger finger can be treated nonsurgically using activity modification, splinting, and/or corticosteroid injections. Surgical treatment options include percutaneous A1 pulley release and open A1 pulley release. Excision of a slip of the flexor digitorum superficialis is reserved for patients with persistent triggering despite A1 release or patients with persistent flexion contracture. Pediatric trigger thumb is treated with open A1 pulley release. Pediatric trigger finger is treated with release of the A1 pulley with excision of a slip or all of the flexor digitorum superficialis if triggering persists. PMID:26410644

  3. Arthroscopic Transtendinous Double-Pulley Remplissage Technique in the Beach-Chair Position for Large Hill-Sachs Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Parnes, Nata; Carey, Paul A.; Schumacher, Christopher; Price, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Hill-Sachs lesions are a common finding in patients with glenohumeral instability. There have been numerous methods described for addressing Hill-Sachs deformity. One popular method includes transferring a portion of the infraspinatus muscle into the posterior-superior defect (remplissage) to prevent the lesion from engaging and the resultant instability. We present a method of arthroscopic remplissage whereby the lesion is addressed through transtendinous insertion of arthroscopic anchors. Once 2 anchors have been inserted, 1 limb of each suture is tied to the other anchor, the so-called pulley repair technique. This can be performed either under direct visualization in the subacromial space or blindly while the surgeon is viewing from the articular side. Once both limbs have been tied, the infraspinatus tendon nicely spans the defect, and there has been minimal morbidity to the tendon itself. We have found this method to be useful for addressing a large Hill-Sachs deformity. PMID:26759767

  4. Strange bedfellows - A deep-water hermatypic coral reef superimposed on a drowned barrier island; Southern Pulley Ridge, SW Florida platform margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarrett, B.D.; Hine, A.C.; Halley, R.B.; Naar, D.F.; Locker, S.D.; Neumann, A.C.; Twichell, D.; Hu, C.; Donahue, B.T.; Jaap, W.C.; Palandro, D.; Ciembronowicz, K.

    2005-01-01

    The southeastern component of a subtle ridge feature extending over 200 km along the western ramped margin of the south Florida platform, known as Pulley Ridge, is composed largely of a non-reefal, coastal marine deposit. Modern biostromal reef growth caps southern Pulley Ridge (SPR), making it the deepest hermatypic reef known in American waters. Subsurface ridge strata are layered, lithified, and display a barrier island geomorphology. The deep-water reef community is dominated by platy scleractinian corals, leafy green algae, and coralline algae. Up to 60% live coral cover is observed in 60-75 m of water, although only 1-2% of surface light is available to the reef community. Vertical reef accumulation is thin and did not accompany initial ridge submergence during the most recent sea-level rise. The delayed onset of reef growth likely resulted from several factors influencing Gulf waters during early stages of the last deglaciation (???14 kyr B.P.) including; cold, low-salinity waters derived from discrete meltwater pulses, high-frequency sea-level fluctuations, and the absence of modern oceanic circulation patterns. Currently, reef growth is supported by the Loop Current, the prevailing western boundary current that impinges upon the southwest Florida platform, providing warm, clear, low-nutrient waters to SPR. The rare discovery of a preserved non-reefal lowstand shoreline capped by rich hermatypic deep-reef growth on a tectonically stable continental shelf is significant for both accurate identification of late Quaternary sea-level position and in better constraining controls on the depth limits of hermatypic reefs and their capacity for adaptation to extremely low light levels. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A magnetic emergency release system for halo traction.

    PubMed

    Augsburger, Sam; White, Hank; Iwinski, Henry; Tylkowski, Chester M

    2010-01-01

    A magnetic emergency release system was developed for use in halo traction systems. Commercially available rare earth mounting magnets, with selected weight-carrying capacities, along with ferromagnetic receptacles, were used in line between halos and overhead pulleys to both carry the prescribed traction force and provide an emergency release in the event of excessive applied force due to a transportation accident and/or sudden application of full body weight when using overhead walkers equipped with traction systems. The magnet-receptacle pairs were calibrated with an in-line digital scale. Load rate dependencies were noted, indicating that prescribed magnet-receptacle pairs should be chosen to carry at least 110% body weight. This weight capacity is reduced to approximately 88% of body weight during higher loading rates, such as transportation accidents and accidental falls.

  6. The relationship of trigger finger and flexor tendon volar migration after carpal tunnel release.

    PubMed

    Lee, S K; Bae, K W; Choy, W S

    2014-09-01

    It has been suggested that the increased frequency of trigger finger (TF) after carpal tunnel release (CTR) may be caused by the volar migration of the flexor tendons at the wrist altering the tendon biomechanics at the A1 pulley. This hypothesis has not been validated. We performed pre- and post-operative ultrasonography (USG) on the affected wrists of 92 patients who underwent CTR. Pre-operative USG was performed in neutral with no tendon loading; post-operative USG was performed in neutral unloaded and in various positions of wrist flexion whilst loading the flexor tendons with gripping. The mean volar migration of the flexor tendons after CTR was 2.2 (SD 0.4) mm in the unloaded neutral position. It was 1.8 (SD 0.4) mm in patients who did not develop TF and 2.5 (SD 0.5) mm in those who did (p = 0.0067). In loaded wrist flexion, the mean volar migration of flexor tendons after CTR in patients who did not develop TF and those who did was 2.1 and 3.0 mm in 0° flexion; 3.2 and 3.9 mm in 15° flexion; 4.3 and 5.1 mm in 30° flexion; and 4.9 and 5.8 mm in 45° flexion, respectively. There were significant differences between patients with and without TF at each flexion angle. Our data indicate that patients with greater volar migration of the flexor tendons after CTR are more likely to develop TF. This conclusion supports the hypothesis that the occurrence of TF after CTR may be caused by the bowstringing effects of the flexor tendons.

  7. A Novel Loading Method for Doxycycline Liposomes for Intracellular Drug Delivery: Characterization of In Vitro and In Vivo Release Kinetics and Efficacy in a J774A.1 Cell Line Model of Mycobacterium smegmatis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Sarah A.; Talaat, Adel M.; KuKanich, Butch K.; Sullivan, Ruth; Krugner-Higby, Lisa A.; Heath, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    Doxycycline (doxy) is used in treating intracellular and extracellular infections. Liposomal (LE) antibiotics allow low-frequency dosing and extended efficacy compared with standard (STD) formulations. We developed a novel sulfuric acid–loading method for doxycycline liposomes (LE-doxy). We hypothesized that a single s.c. injection of LE-doxy would be detectable in serum for at least 2 weeks at concentrations equal to or better than STD-doxy and would be bactericidal in an in vitro Mycobacterium smegmatis infection of J774A.1 macrophage cells. Liposomes were encapsulated by sulfuric acid gradient loading, and release kinetics were performed in vitro and in vivo. LE-doxy made using 8.25 mg/ml doxycycline loaded for 24 hours achieved 97.77% capture in 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and 43.87% in sphingomyelin (sphing). Rats were injected s.c. with 50 mg/kg LE-doxy or 5 mg/kg STD-doxy, and serial blood samples were collected. Pharmacokinetics were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Liver and injection site skin samples were collected at euthanasia (4 weeks postinjection). Minimal histologic tissue reactions occurred after injection of STD (nonliposomal), DPPC, or sphing-doxy. DPPC-doxy had slightly faster in vitro leakage than sphing liposomes, although both were detectable at 264 hours. The mean residence time for DPPC was the highest (111.78 hours), followed by sphing (56.00 hours) and STD (6.86 hours). DPPC and sphing-doxy were detectable at 0.2 μg/ml in serum at 336 hours postadministration. LE-doxy was not toxic to J774A.1 cells in vitro and produced inhibition of viable Mycobacterium smegmatis at 24 and 48 hours. LE-doxy will require further testing in in vivo infection models. PMID:26033620

  8. Risk stratification for the recurrence of trigger thumb after surgical release in the paediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Edwards, D S; Richards, R H

    2016-08-01

    Trigger thumb, or stenosing tenovaginitis, is a relatively uncommon condition affecting the flexor pollicis longus tendon of children. The condition is characterized by the formation of a nodule within the tendon and thickening of the tendon sheath as it passes through the flexor pulley of the thumb at the level of the metacarpo-phalangeal joint. The optimum age for surgical intervention continues to be discussed. The aim of this study is to establish the temporal relationship and surgical variables to determine factors that may contribute to recurrence of the condition. A retrospective analysis of the entire surgical logbook and patient notes of a stand-alone consultant paediatric orthopaedic practice was scrutinized. 94 patients, 107 thumbs, over a 13-year period were operated on for trigger thumb. The recurrence rate was found to be 5.61 %. The average age of patients at primary release who went on to recurrence was 2.8 years, which is significantly younger than those that did not recur (p = 0.044). Sensitivity analysis revealed that the primary procedure at an age of less than 2.5 years confers a higher risk of recurrence. The data presented here advocate surgical release of trigger thumb after 2½ years of age, a senior surgeon as lead operator and a transverse skin incision at the level of the nodule or a more extensive "zig-zag" one to clearly see the structures to be released. We recommend that the surgeon ensures the stenosing pulley and sheath are released in their entirety. PMID:27352865

  9. Delayed Case of Congenital Bilateral Trigger Thumb: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Rekha, Y Bhanu

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Congenital trigger thumb is an uncommon anomaly of children. Its management is controversial, ranging from observation to extensive surgical release. We report a case of delayed presentation of bilateral trigger thumb along with a brief review of past literature. Case Report: A six year old girl presented with fixed flexion deformity of interphalangeal joints of both thumbs and Notta’s nodules. It is diagnosed as trigger thumb and release of bilateral A1pulleys is done. But we found another constricting annular pulley just distal to A1. Only after splitting the distal pulley, we could get complete extension of interphalangeal joints. At two years follow-up, the child is free of complications. Conclusion: Splitting of A1 pulley alone may not be sufficient in few cases of trigger thumb which may require distal release too PMID:27298940

  10. [Research on minimally invasive release treatment of stenosing tenosynovitis of flexor digitorum].

    PubMed

    Luo, Tao; Liu, Jing

    2013-05-01

    The minimally invasive release treatment of TCM Small Needle-Knife for the stenosing tenosynovitis of flexor digtorum-"trigger finger" has a more satisfied efficacy. In recent years, many clinicians use self-made small sharp scalpels, iris knives, small sickles, push shear knives, and other improved alternatives to instead of the traditional small needle-knives. Changing the original small needle-knife vertical stabbed cutting method, take a mini-incision, along the traveling direction of flexor tendon make a vertical hook cut, pick cut, straight push cut and any other cuts, completely cut the stenosis of the tendon sheath pulley, to achieve the release therapeutic purposes. The experience of most scholars is: Detailed and thorough understanding refers to the anatomical level of the flexor tendon and surrounding tissue, the structural relationship; Strictly adhere to the indications of minimally invasive release therapy; Proficiency in a dedicated minimally invasive release needle-knives, scalpels, and standardized methods of operation; Accurate positioning before surgery, in surgery traveling direction along flexor tendon, continuous incision to release the middle along the tendon. It can achieve the same or even higher incision release efficacy than the traditional treatment, at the same time also avoids common adverse complications. PMID:23937042

  11. Toggle release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Thomas Joseph (Inventor); Yang, Robert Alexander (Inventor); Brown, Christopher William (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    The invention relates to a pyrotechnic actuated release mechanism which is mechanically two fault tolerant for effecting release. It is particularly well suited for releasably connecting structures to be used in the space environment or in other aerospace applications. The device comprises a fastener plate and fastener body, each attachable to either one of a pair of structures to be joined. The fastener plate and the body are fastenable by a toggle supported at one end on the fastener plate and mounted for universal pivotal movement thereon. At its other end, which is received in a central opening in the fastener body and adapted for limited pivotal movement therein, the toggle is restrained by three retractable latching pins. Each pin is individually retractable by combustion of a pyrotechnic charge. While retraction of all three pins releases the toggle, the fastener is mechanically two fault tolerant since the failure of any single or pair of the latch pins to retract results in an asymmetrical loading on the toggle and its pivotal movement to effect a release. An annular bolt is mounted on the fastener plate as a support for the socket mounting of the toggle whereby its selective axial movement provides a means for pre-loading the toggle.

  12. Toggle release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Thomas J. (Inventor); Yang, Robert A. (Inventor); Brown, Christopher W. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A pyrotechnic actuated structural release device 10 which is mechanically two fault tolerant for release. The device 10 comprises a fastener plate 11 and fastener body 12, each attachable to a different one of a pair of structures to be joined. The fastener plate 11 and body 12 are fastenable by a toggle 13 supported at one end on the fastener plate and mounted for universal pivotal movement thereon. At its other end which is received in a central opening in the fastener body 12 and adapted for limited pivotal movement therein the toggle 13 is restrained by three retractable latching pins 61 symmetrically disposed in equiangular spacing about the axis of the toggle 13 and positionable in latching engagement with an end fitting on the toggle. Each pin 61 is individually retractable by combustion of a pyrotechnic charge 77, the expanding gases of which are applied to a pressure receiving face 67 on the latch pin 61 to effect its retraction from the toggle. While retraction of all three pins 62 releases the toggle, the fastener is mechanically two fault tolerant since the failure of any single one or pair of the latch pins to retract results in an asymmetrical loading on the toggle and its pivotal movement to effect a release. An annular bolt 18 is mounted on the fastener plate 11 as a support for the socket mounting 30, 37 of the toggle whereby its selective axial movement provides a means for preloading the toggle.

  13. Release Fraction Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Glissmeyer, John A.

    2004-01-01

    This document presents results of experiments conducted to measure release fractions during certain tank retrieval processes. The tests were performed in a 1/4 scale model of a waste storage tank. The retrieval processes simulated were: (1) Discharging liquid or slurry from the mouth of a vertically oriented two-in. Schedule 40 pipe. The discharging material was in free-fall from the mouth of the pipe near the top of the tank into a liquid or slurry pool at the bottom of the tank. (2) The jet from a 9/16-in.-diameter nozzle transferring liquid or slurry waste from one side of the tank to the other. The discharging liquid was aimed at the opposite side of the tank from the nozzle and either impacted the tank wall or fell into a liquid or slurry pool in the bottom of the tank. (3) A high pressure fan jet of liquid striking a steel plate or simulated waste from a stand-off distance of a few inches. For each process, a water-soluble fluorescent dye was added to the liquid fraction as a tracer. Kaolin clay was used to represent the solids. The tank was covered and there was no forced ventilation in the tank during the tests. Six air samples were collected during each test. The air samples were collected at fixed positions in the tank. The air sample filters were dried and weighed to determine the solids collection. The fluorescent dye was then leached from each filter and quantified with a fluorometer to determine the collection of liquid. Samples of the slurry and liquid simulants were also collected to determine the quantities of simulant used in each test. To calculate the release fraction, the quantity collected on each air sample was adjusted for the fraction of the tank volume sampled and divided by the quantity of material exposed in the simulation. The method was not as sensitive for the solids content as it was for the liquid content, but in those instances where a solids release fraction was determined, it was in relatively good agreement with that of the

  14. Reusable Release Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunker, J. W.; Ritchie, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Slider release mechanism reusable. Bears heavy loads while latched, yet gives smooth release motion. Release effected by explosively driving perpendicular slider out of engagement with load-bearing shank. Device has potential industrial applications such as emergency release of lifting cables from helicopters, cranes and hoists.

  15. Pulley With Active Antifriction Actuator And Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ih, Che-Hang C.; Vivian, Howard C.

    1994-01-01

    Torque actuator and associated control system minimizes effective friction of rotary bearing. Motor exerts compensating torque in response to feedback from external optical sensor. Compensation torque nearly cancels frictional torque of shaft bearings. Also useful in reducing bearing friction in gyro-scopes, galvanometers, torquemeters, accelerometers, earth-motion detectors, and balances.

  16. A1C test

    MedlinePlus

    HbA1C test; Glycated hemoglobin test; Glycosylated hemoglobin test; Hemoglobin glycosylated test; Glycohemoglobin test ... have recently eaten does not affect the A1C test, so you do not need to fast to ...

  17. ELECTROMAGNETIC RELEASE MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Michelson, C.

    1960-09-13

    An electromagnetic release mechanism is offered that may be used, for example, for supporting a safety rod for a nuclear reactor. The release mechanism is designed to have a large excess holding force and a rapid, uniform, and dependable release. The fast release is accomplished by providing the electromagnet with slotttd polts separated by an insulating potting resin, and by constructing the poles with a ferro-nickel alloy. The combination of these two features materially reduces the eddy current power density whenever the magnetic field changes during a release operation. In addition to these features, the design of the armature is such as to provide ready entrance of fluid into any void that might tend to form during release of the armature. This also improves the release time for the mechanism. The large holding force for the mechanism is accomplished by providing a small, selected, uniform air gap between the inner pole piece and the armature.

  18. Multicomponent Implant Releasing Dexamethasone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkola, L.; Vapalahti, K.; Ashammakhi, N.

    2008-02-01

    Several inflammatory conditions are usually treated with corticosteroids. There are various problems like side effects with traditional applications of steroids, e.g. topical, or systemic routes. Local drug delivery systems have been studied and developed to gain more efficient administration with fewer side effects. Earlier, we reported on developing Dexamethasone (DX) releasing biodegradable fibers. However, their drug release properties were not satisfactory in terms of onset of drug release. Thus, we assessed the development of multicomponent (MC) implant to enhance earlier drug release from such biodegradable fibers. Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and 2 wt-% and 8 wt-% DX were compounded and extruded with twin-screw extruder to form of fibers. Some of the fibers were sterilized to obtain a change in drug release properties. Four different fiber classes were studied: 2 wt-%, 8 wt-%, sterilized 2 wt-%, and sterilized 8 wt-%. 3×4 different DX-releasing fibers were then heat-pressed to form one multicomponent rod. Half of the rods where sterilized. Drug release was measured from initial fibers and multicomponent rods using a UV/VIS spectrometer. Shear strength and changes in viscosity were also measured. Drug release studies showed that drug release commenced earlier from multicomponent rods than from component fibers. Drug release from multicomponent rods lasted from day 30 to day 70. The release period of sterilized rods extended from day 23 to day 57. When compared to the original component fibers, the drug release from MC rods commenced earlier. The initial shear strength of MC rods was 135 MPa and decreased to 105 MPa during four weeks of immersion in phosphate buffer solution. Accordingly, heat pressing has a positive effect on drug release. After four weeks in hydrolysis, no disintegration was observed.

  19. Partial tendon tear as unusual cause of trigger finger: a case report.

    PubMed

    Calderaro, Cosma; Guzzini, Matteo; Pagnottelli, Marco; Fabbri, Mattia; Perugia, Dario

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of post-traumatic trigger finger due to a partial longitudinal tear of the flexor digitorum superficialis. The suspect came from the clinical history and the young age of the patient. It was successfully treated with tendon flap suture and pulley A1 release. PMID:27583273

  20. Partial tendon tear as unusual cause of trigger finger: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Calderaro, Cosma; Guzzini, Matteo; Pagnottelli, Marco; Fabbri, Mattia; Perugia, Dario

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report a case of post-traumatic trigger finger due to a partial longitudinal tear of the flexor digitorum superficialis. The suspect came from the clinical history and the young age of the patient. It was successfully treated with tendon flap suture and pulley A1 release. PMID:27583273

  1. A1C

    MedlinePlus

    A1C is a blood test for type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. It measures your average blood glucose, or blood sugar, level over the past 3 ... A1C alone or in combination with other diabetes tests to make a diagnosis. They also use the ...

  2. Large scientific releases

    SciTech Connect

    Pongratz, M.B.

    1981-01-01

    The motivation for active experiments in space is considered, taking into account the use of active techniques to obtain a better understanding of the natural space environment, the utilization of the advantages of space as a laboratory to study fundamental plasma physics, and the employment of active techniques to determine the magnitude, degree, and consequences of artificial modification of the space environment. It is pointed out that mass-injection experiments in space plasmas began about twenty years ago with the Project Firefly releases. Attention is given to mass-release techniques and diagnostics, operational aspects of mass release active experiments, the active observation of mass release experiments, active perturbation mass release experiments, simulating an artificial modification of the space environment, and active experiments to study fundamental plasma physics.

  3. Morphology of Gas Release in Physical Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Richard C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Crawford, Amanda D.; Hylden, Laura R.; Bryan, Samuel A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.

    2014-07-03

    This report documents testing activities conducted as part of the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Project (DSGREP). The testing described in this report focused on evaluating the potential retention and release mechanisms of hydrogen bubbles in underground radioactive waste storage tanks at Hanford. The goal of the testing was to evaluate the rate, extent, and morphology of gas release events in simulant materials. Previous, undocumented scoping tests have evidenced dramatically different gas release behavior from simulants with similar physical properties. Specifically, previous gas release tests have evaluated the extent of release of 30 Pa kaolin and 30 Pa bentonite clay slurries. While both materials are clays and both have equivalent material shear strength using a shear vane, it was found that upon stirring, gas was released immediately and completely from bentonite clay slurry while little if any gas was released from the kaolin slurry. The motivation for the current work is to replicate these tests in a controlled quality test environment and to evaluate the release behavior for another simulant used in DSGREP testing. Three simulant materials were evaluated: 1) a 30 Pa kaolin clay slurry, 2) a 30 Pa bentonite clay slurry, and 3) Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) Simulant (a simulant designed to support DSGREP RT instability testing. Entrained gas was generated in these simulant materials using two methods: 1) application of vacuum over about a 1-minute period to nucleate dissolved gas within the simulant and 2) addition of hydrogen peroxide to generate gas by peroxide decomposition in the simulants over about a 16-hour period. Bubble release was effected by vibrating the test material using an external vibrating table. When testing with hydrogen peroxide, gas release was also accomplished by stirring of the simulant.

  4. A1C Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... to minimize the complications caused by chronically elevated glucose levels, such as progressive damage to body organs like the kidneys, eyes, cardiovascular system, and nerves. The A1c test result ...

  5. Rad-Release

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The R&D 100 Award winning Rad-Release Chemical Decontamination Technology is a highly effective (up to 99% removal rate), affordable, patented chemical-foam-clay decontamination process tailored to specific radiological and metal contaminants, which is applicable to a wide variety of substrates. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/rad-release/

  6. Rad-Release

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The R&D 100 Award winning Rad-Release Chemical Decontamination Technology is a highly effective (up to 99% removal rate), affordable, patented chemical-foam-clay decontamination process tailored to specific radiological and metal contaminants, which is applicable to a wide variety of substrates. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/rad-release/

  7. Advanced release technologies program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purdy, Bill

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the ARTS program was to develop lighter and less expensive spacecraft ordnance and release systems that answer to the requirements of a wide variety of spacecraft applications. These improvements were to be evaluated at the spacecraft system level, as it was determined that there were substantial system-level costs associated with the present ordnance and release subsystems. New, better devices were to be developed, then flight qualified, then integrated into a flight experiment in order to prove the reliability required for their subsequent use on high-reliability spacecraft. The secondary goal of the program was to quantify the system-level benefits of these new subsystems based upon the development program results. Three non-explosive release mechanisms and one laser-diode-based ordnance system were qualified under the program. The release devices being developed were required to release high preloads because it is easier to scale down a release mechanism than to scale it up. The laser initiator developed was required to be a direct replacement for NASA Standard Initiators, since these are the most common initiator in use presently. The program began in October, 1991, with completion of the flight experiment scheduled for February, 1994. This paper provides an overview of the ARTS program, discusses the benefits of using the ARTS components, introduces the new components, compares them with conventional systems and each other, and provides recommendations on how best to implement them.

  8. Guar gum, xanthan gum, and HPMC can define release mechanisms and sustain release of propranolol hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Mughal, Muhammad Akhlaq; Iqbal, Zafar; Neau, Steven Henry

    2011-03-01

    The objectives were to characterize propranolol hydrochloride-loaded matrix tablets using guar gum, xanthan gum, and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) as rate-retarding polymers. Tablets were prepared by wet granulation using these polymers alone and in combination, and physical properties of the granules and tablets were studied. Drug release was evaluated in simulated gastric and intestinal media. Rugged tablets with appropriate physical properties were obtained. Empirical and semi-empirical models were fit to release data to elucidate release mechanisms. Guar gum alone was unable to control drug release until a 1:3 drug/gum ratio, where the release pattern matched a Higuchi profile. Matrix tablets incorporating HPMC provided near zero-order release over 12 h and erosion was a contributing mechanism. Combinations of HPMC with guar or xanthan gum resulted in a Higuchi release profile, revealing the dominance of the high viscosity gel formed by HPMC. As the single rate-retarding polymer, xanthan gum retarded release over 24 h and the Higuchi model best fit the data. When mixed with guar gum, at 10% or 20% xanthan levels, xanthan gum was unable to control release. However, tablets containing 30% guar gum and 30% xanthan gum behaved as if xanthan gum was the sole rate-retarding gum and drug was released by Fickian diffusion. Release profiles from certain tablets match 12-h literature profiles and the 24-h profile of Inderal(®) LA. The results confirm that guar gum, xanthan gum, and HPMC can be used for the successful preparation of sustained release oral propranolol hydrochoride tablets. PMID:21174179

  9. Fluid operated quick release mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Gas operated release mechanism releases load by fluid pressure to provide positive action quick release. Method can be used with large loads and is useful in repetitive cycling functions where shear pins and similar devices would be cumbersome.

  10. Altitude release mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Kulhanek, Frank C.

    1977-01-01

    An altitude release mechanism for releasing a radiosonde or other measuring instrument from a balloon carrying it up into the atmosphere includes a bottle partially filled with water, a tube sealed into the bottle having one end submerged in the water in the bottle and the free end extending above the top of the bottle and a strip of water-disintegrable paper held within the free end of the tube linking the balloon to the remainder of the package. As the balloon ascends, the lowered atmospheric air pressure causes the air in the bottle to expand, forcing the water in the bottle up the tubing to wet and disintegrate the paper, releasing the package from the balloon.

  11. Controlled-release microchips.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sadhana; Nijdam, A Jasper; Sinha, Piyush M; Walczak, Robbie J; Liu, Xuewu; Cheng, Mark M-C; Ferrari, Mauro

    2006-05-01

    Efficient drug delivery remains an important challenge in medicine: continuous release of therapeutic agents over extended time periods in accordance with a predetermined temporal profile; local delivery at a constant rate to the tumour microenvironment to overcome much of the systemic toxicity and to improve antitumour efficacy; improved ease of administration, and increasing patient compliance required are some of the unmet needs of the present drug delivery technology. Microfabrication technology has enabled the development of novel controlled-release microchips with capabilities not present in the current treatment modalities. In this review, the current status and future prospects of different types of controlled-release microchips are summarised and analysed with reference to microneedle-based microchips, as well as providing an in-depth focus on microreservoir-based and nanoporous microchips.

  12. Benzene release. status report

    SciTech Connect

    Dworjanyn, L.O.; Rappe, K.G.; Gauglitz, P.A.

    1997-11-04

    Scoping benzene release measurements were conducted on 4 wt percent KTPB `DEMO` formulation slurry using a round, flat bottomed 100-mL flask containing 75 mL slurry. The slurry was agitated with a magnetic stirrer bar to keep the surface refreshed without creating a vortex. Benzene release measurements were made by purging the vapor space at a constant rate and analyzing for benzene by gas chromatography with automatic data acquisition. Some of the data have been rounded or simplified in view of the scoping nature of this study.

  13. DSCOVR Public Release Statement

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-04

    ... Book .    NOAA will release data from the space weather instruments on July 27 th . The data, as well as space weather forecasts with a 30-45 minute lead-time will be available via the Space ...

  14. Release of OLe peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OLe is a high oleic Spanish-type peanut that has excellent yield and enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot resistance when compared to other high oleic Spanish cultivars. The purpose for releasing OLe is to provide peanut producers with a true Spanish peanut that is high oleic and has enhanced yi...

  15. Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos aerosolization (or releasability) is the potential for fibrous asbestos structures that are present in a material or on a solid surface to become airborne when the source is disturbed by human activities or natural forces. In turn, the magnitude of the airborne concentra...

  16. DSCOVR Public Release Statement

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-09-26

    ... Data and Information Wednesday, July 20, 2016 The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) is a NOAA/NASA mission located near the ... Format Control Book. NOAA will release data from the space weather instruments on July 27th. The data, as well as space weather ...

  17. Release the Prisoners Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hecke, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the mathematical approach of the optimal strategy to win the "Release the prisoners" game and the integration of this analysis in a math class. Outline lesson plans at three different levels are given, where simulations are suggested as well as theoretical findings about the probability distribution function and its mean…

  18. Renal epithelial cells can release ATP by vesicular fusion

    PubMed Central

    Bjaelde, Randi G.; Arnadottir, Sigrid S.; Overgaard, Morten T.; Leipziger, Jens; Praetorius, Helle A.

    2013-01-01

    Renal epithelial cells have the ability to release nucleotides as paracrine factors. In the intercalated cells of the collecting duct, ATP is released by connexin30 (cx30), which is selectively expressed in this cell type. However, ATP is released by virtually all renal epithelia and the aim of the present study was to identify possible alternative nucleotide release pathways in a renal epithelial cell model. We used MDCK (type1) cells to screen for various potential ATP release pathways. In these cells, inhibition of the vesicular H+-ATPases (bafilomycin) reduced both the spontaneous and hypotonically (80%)-induced nucleotide release. Interference with vesicular fusion using N-ethylamide markedly reduced the spontaneous nucleotide release, as did interference with trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus (brefeldin A1) and vesicular transport (nocodazole). These findings were substantiated using a siRNA directed against SNAP-23, which significantly reduced spontaneous ATP release. Inhibition of pannexin and connexins did not affect the spontaneous ATP release in this cell type, which consists of ~90% principal cells. TIRF-microscopy of either fluorescently-labeled ATP (MANT-ATP) or quinacrine-loaded vesicles, revealed that spontaneous release of single vesicles could be promoted by either hypoosmolality (50%) or ionomycin. This vesicular release decreased the overall cellular fluorescence by 5.8 and 7.6% respectively. In summary, this study supports the notion that spontaneous and induced ATP release can occur via exocytosis in renal epithelial cells. PMID:24065923

  19. Releasable locking mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, Rafiq (Inventor); Wingate, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    In the aerospace field spacecraft components are held together by separation systems until a specific time when they must be separated or deployed. Customarily a threaded joining bolt engages one of the components to be joined, and a threaded nut is placed on that bolt against the other component so they can be drawn together by a releasable locking assembly. The releasable locking assembly herein includes a plunger having one end coupled to one end of a plunger bolt. The other end is flanged to abut and compress a coil spring when the plunger is advanced toward the interface plane between the two components. When the plunger is so advanced toward the interface plane, the end of the plunger bolt can be connected to the joining bolt. Thus during retraction the joining bolt is drawn to one side of the interface plane by the force of the expanding spring.

  20. Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1983-02-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project is a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored real-time emergency response service available for use by both federal and state agencies in case of a potential or actual atmospheric release of nuclear material. The project, initiated in 1972, is currently evolving from the research and development phase to full operation. Plans are underway to expand the existing capability to continuous operation by 1984 and to establish a National ARAC Center (NARAC) by 1988. This report describes the ARAC system, its utilization during the past two years, and plans for its expansion during the next five to six years. An integral part of this expansion is due to a very important and crucial effort sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency to extend the ARAC service to approximately 45 Department of Defense (DOD) sites throughout the continental US over the next three years.

  1. Releasable Locking Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, Rafiq (Inventor); Wingate, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    In the aerospace field spacecraft components are held together by separation systems until a specific time when they must be separated or deployed. Customarily a threaded joining bolt engages one of the components to be joined, and a threaded nut is placed on that bolt against the other component so they can be drawn together by a releasable locking assembly. The releasable locking assembly herein includes a plunger having one end coupled to one end of a plunger bolt. The other end is flanged to abut and compress a coil spring when the plunger is advanced toward the interface plane between the two components. When the plunger is so advanced toward the interface plane, the end of the plunger bolt can be connected to the joining bolt. Thus during retraction the joining bolt is drawn to one side of the interface plane by the force of the expanding spring.

  2. Slow-release fertilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W. (Inventor); Golden, D. C. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A synthetic apatite containing agronutrients and a method for making the apatite are disclosed. The apatite comprises crystalline calcium phosphate having agronutrients dispersed in the crystalline structure. The agronutrients can comprise potassium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chlorine, boron, copper and zinc in amounts suited for plant growth. The apatite can optionally comprise a carbonate and/or silicon solubility control agent. The agronutrients are released slowly as the apatite dissolves.

  3. Slow-release fertilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W. (Inventor); Golden, Dadigamuwage C. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A synthetic apatite containing agronutrients and a method for making the apatite are disclosed. The apatite comprises crystalline calcium phosphate having agronutrients dispersed in the crystalline structure. The agronutrients can comprise potassium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chlorine, boron, copper and zinc in amounts suited for plant growth. The apatite can optionally comprise a carbonate and/or silicon solubility control agent. The agronutrients are released slowly as the apatite dissolves.

  4. Cryogenic hydrogen release research.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFleur, Angela Christine

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this project was to devolop a plan for modifying the Turbulent Combustion Laboratory (TCL) with the necessary infrastructure to produce a cold (near liquid temperature) hydrogen jet. The necessary infrastructure has been specified and laboratory modifications are currently underway. Once complete, experiments from this platform will be used to develop and validate models that inform codes and standards which specify protection criteria for unintended releases from liquid hydrogen storage, transport, and delivery infrastructure.

  5. Clinton releases oceans report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    U.S. President Bill Clinton is trying to beat the clock on the January 20 close of his administration by maintaining a flurry of activity on resource and conservation issues.During a December 4 speech in Washington, D.C., he released a broad-ranging report by the Presidents Panel on Ocean Exploration, entitled “Discovering Earth's Final Frontier: A U.S. Strategy for Ocean Exploration.”

  6. EIA new releases

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration. It contains news releases on items of interest to the petroleum, coal, nuclear, electric and alternate fuels industries ranging from economic outlooks to environmental concerns. There is also a listing of reports by industry and an energy education resource listing containing sources for free or low-cost energy-related educational materials for educators and primary and secondary students.

  7. Slow-release fertilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Golden, D. C.

    1992-10-01

    A synthetic apatite containing agronutrients and a method for making the apatite are disclosed. The apatite comprises crystalline calcium phosphate having agronutrients dispersed in the crystalline structure. The agronutrients can comprise potassium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chlorine, boron, copper and zinc in amounts suited for plant growth. The apatite can optionally comprise a carbonate and/or silicon solubility control agent. The agronutrients are released slowly as the apatite dissolves.

  8. Preload release mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generoli, Robert M. (Inventor); Young, Harry J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to a preload release mechanism comprising a preload spring assembly adapted to apply a preload to a first connector member which is mounted on a support structure and adapted for connection with a second connector member on an object. The assembly comprises telescoped bushings and a preload spring. A tubular shaft extends through the spring assembly and openings in the first connector member and support structure, on which it is clamped. A plunger rod in the shaft is provided with a tip end and a recess in the rod near the other end thereof. A retainer precludes passage of the rod through the shaft in one direction and an end cap closes the bore of the shaft at the other end and provides a shoulder which extends radially of the shaft. A plunger return spring biases the plunger rod against the plunger retainer with the plunger tip protruding from the shaft and a spring assembly return spring engages at its ends the shoulder of the end cap and one end of the spring assembly. Detents received in lateral openings in the tubular shaft are held captive by the plunger rod and one end of the spring assembly to lock the spring assembly on the tubular shaft and apply a preload to the first connector member. Upon completion of the connection, detents and spring assembly are released by plunger contact with the object to be connected, thereby releasing the preload while the connection is maintained.

  9. Contact: Releasing the news

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinotti, Roberto

    The problem of mass behavior after man's future contacts with other intelligences in the universe is not only a challenge for social scientists and political leaders all over the world, but also a cultural time bomb as well. In fact, since the impact of CETI (Contact with Extraterrestrial Intelligence) on human civilization, with its different cultures, might cause a serious socio-anthropological shock, a common and predetermined worldwide strategy is necessary in releasing the news after the contact, in order to keep possible manifestations of fear, panic and hysteria under control. An analysis of past studies in this field and of parallel historical situations as analogs suggests a definite "authority crisis" in the public as a direct consequence of an unexpected release of the news, involving a devastating "chain reaction" process (from both the psychological and sociological viewpoints) of anomie and maybe the collapse of today's society. The only way to prevent all this is to prepare the world's public opinion concerning contact before releasing the news, and to develop a long-term strategy through the combined efforts of scientists, political leaders, intelligence agencies and the mass media, in order to create the cultural conditions in which a confrontation with ETI won't affect mankind in a traumatic way. Definite roles and tasks in this multi-level model are suggested.

  10. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P.; Odom, Susan A.; Sottos, Nancy R.; White, Scott R.; Moore, Jeffrey S.

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  11. Mechanism of oligonucleotide release from cationic liposomes.

    PubMed Central

    Zelphati, O; Szoka, F C

    1996-01-01

    We propose a mechanism for oligonucleotide (ODN) release from cationic lipid complexes in cells that accounts for various observations on cationic lipid-nucleic acid-cell interactions. Fluorescent confocal microscopy of cells treated with rhodamine-labeled cationic liposome/ fluorescein-labeled ODN (F-ODN) complexes show the F-ODN separates from the lipid after internalization and enters the nucleus leaving the fluorescent lipid in cytoplasmic structures. ODN displacement from the complex was studied by fluorescent resonance energy transfer. Anionic liposome compositions (e.g., phosphatidylserine) that mimic the cytoplasmic facing monolayer of the cell membrane released ODN from the complex at about a 1:1 (-/+) charge ratio. Release was independent of ionic strength and pH. Physical separation of the F-ODN from monovalent and multivalent cationic lipids was confirmed by gel electrophoresis. Fluid but not solid phase anionic liposomes are required, whereas the physical state of the cationic lipids does not effect the release. Water soluble molecules with a high negative linear charge density, dextran sulfate, or heparin also release ODN. However, ATP, spermidine, spermine, tRNA, DNA, polyglutamic acid, polylysine, bovine serum albumin, or histone did not release ODN, even at 100-fold charge excess (-/+). Based upon these results, we propose that the complex, after internalization by endocytosis, induces flip-flop of anionic lipids from the cytoplasmic facing monolayer. Anionic lipids laterally diffuse into the complex and form a charged neutralized ion-pair with the cationic lipids. This leads to displacement of the ODN from the cationic lipid and its release into the cytoplasm. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:8876163

  12. Sustained-release, extended-release, and other time-release formulations in neuropsychiatry.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2015-08-01

    Pills and capsules may release their contents within minutes of ingestion; these are immediate-release formulations. Pills and capsules may also release their contents after a time lag, or a little at a time, or in some other predetermined way; these are time-release formulations. Many drugs in psychiatry have been time-release formulated to reduce their local adverse effects in the gastrointestinal tract, to reduce adverse effects associated with peak blood levels, or to artificially extend their half-life. Time-release formulations are associated with the added advantages of convenience of dosing, improved compliance, and less fluctuation in blood levels across the course of the day. A disadvantage of time-release formulations is that they may be incompletely absorbed; this is a serious issue in patients with acute or chronic intestinal hurry disorders, such as gastroenteritis or irritable bowel syndrome. Time-release formulations may also be more expensive than immediate-release formulations.

  13. Gas releases from salt

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, B.; Neal, J.; Hinkebein, T.

    1998-06-01

    The occurrence of gas in salt mines and caverns has presented some serious problems to facility operators. Salt mines have long experienced sudden, usually unexpected expulsions of gas and salt from a production face, commonly known as outbursts. Outbursts can release over one million cubic feet of methane and fractured salt, and are responsible for the lives of numerous miners and explosions. Equipment, production time, and even entire mines have been lost due to outbursts. An outburst creates a cornucopian shaped hole that can reach heights of several hundred feet. The potential occurrence of outbursts must be factored into mine design and mining methods. In caverns, the occurrence of outbursts and steady infiltration of gas into stored product can effect the quality of the product, particularly over the long-term, and in some cases renders the product unusable as is or difficult to transport. Gas has also been known to collect in the roof traps of caverns resulting in safety and operational concerns. The intent of this paper is to summarize the existing knowledge on gas releases from salt. The compiled information can provide a better understanding of the phenomena and gain insight into the causative mechanisms that, once established, can help mitigate the variety of problems associated with gas releases from salt. Outbursts, as documented in mines, are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion of the relatively slow gas infiltration into stored crude oil, as observed and modeled in the caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A model that predicts outburst pressure kicks in caverns is also discussed.

  14. Riola release report

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, E.C.

    1983-08-04

    Eleven hours after execution of the Riola Event (at 0826 PDT on 25 September 1980) in hole U2eq of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a release of radioactivity began. When the seepage stopped at about noon the following day, up to some 3200 Ci of activity had been dispersed by light variable winds. On 26 September, examination of the geophone records showed six hours of low-level, but fairly continuous, activity before the release. Electrical measurements indicated that most cables were still intact to a depth below the stemming platform. A survey of the ground zero area showed that the seepage came through cracks between the surface conductor and the pad, through cracks in the pad, and through a crack adjacent to the pad around the mousehole (a small hole adjacent to the emplacement hole). To preclude undue radiation exposure or injury from a surprise subsidence, safety measures were instituted. Tritium seepage was suffucient to postpone site activities until a box and pipeline were emplaced to contain and remove the gas. Radiation release modeling and calculations were generally consistent with observations. Plug-hole interaction calculations showed that the alluvium near the bottom of the plug may have been overstressed and that improvements in the design of the plug-medium interface can be made. Experimental studies verified that the surface appearance of the plug core was caused by erosion, but, assuming a normal strength for the plug material, that erosion alone could not account for the disappearance of such a large portion of the stemming platform. Samples from downhole plug experiments show that the plug may have been considerably weaker than had been indicted by quality assurance (QA) samples. 19 references, 32 figures, 10 tables.

  15. Birth control - slow release methods

    MedlinePlus

    ... ovaries from releasing an egg. Releasing egg during menstrual cycle is called ovulation. They do this by changing ... implants are likely to get pregnant. Your regular menstrual cycles should return within 3 to 4 weeks after ...

  16. A controlled-release microchip.

    PubMed

    Santini, J T; Cima, M J; Langer, R

    1999-01-28

    Much previous work in methods of achieving complex drug-release patterns has focused on pulsatile release from polymeric materials in response to specific stimuli, such as electric or magnetic fields, exposure to ultrasound, light or enzymes, and changes in pH or temperature. An alternative method for achieving pulsatile release involves using microfabrication technology to develop active devices that incorporate micrometre-scale pumps, valves and flow channels to deliver liquid solutions. Here we report a solid-state silicon microchip that can provide controlled release of single or multiple chemical substances on demand. The release mechanism is based on the electrochemical dissolution of thin anode membranes covering microreservoirs filled with chemicals in solid, liquid or gel form. We have conducted proof-of-principle release studies with a prototype microchip using gold and saline solution as a model electrode material and release medium, and we have demonstrated controlled, pulsatile release of chemical substances with this device.

  17. Hydrogen release behavior.

    SciTech Connect

    LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Keller, Jay O.; Evans, Gregory Herbert; Houf, William G.; Winters, William Stanley, Jr.; Ruggles, A.; Zhang, J.

    2010-04-01

    The summary of this presentation is: (1) Barrier walls are used to reduce setbacks by factor of 2; (2) We found no ignition-timing vs. over-pressure sensitivities for jet flow obstructed by barrier walls; (3) Cryogenic vapor cloud model indicates hazard length scales exceed the room-temperature release; validation experiments are required to confirm; (4) Light-up maps developed for lean limit ignition; flammability factor model provides good indication of ignition probability; and (5) Auto-ignition is enhanced by blunt-body obstructions - increases gas temperature and promotes fuel/air mixing.

  18. Arthroscopic Posteromedial Capsular Release.

    PubMed

    Dean, Chase S; Chahla, Jorge; Mikula, Jacob D; Mitchell, Justin J; LaPrade, Robert F

    2016-06-01

    Post-traumatic or postsurgical flexion contractures of the knee can significantly limit function and lead to gait abnormalities. In this setting, interventions to regain full extension may include bracing, physical therapy, and open or arthroscopic surgery. Open surgical approaches to restore full motion often demand extensive recovery and promote further adhesions and loss of motion, which has led to the advent of arthroscopic techniques to address these pathologies. We present a safe, effective, and reproducible arthroscopic technique for posteromedial capsular release to address knee flexion contractures. PMID:27656368

  19. Source of released carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, V. L.

    1979-01-01

    The potential for the release of carbon fibers from aircraft crashes/fires is addressed. Simulation of the conditions of aircraft crash fires in order to predict the quantities and forms of fibrous materials which might be released from civilian aircraft crashes/fires is considered. Figures are presented which describe some typical fiber release test activities together with some very preliminary results of those activities. The state of the art of carbon fiber release is summarized as well as some of the uncertainties concerning accidental fiber release.

  20. Draft Wetlands Rule Released

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers released on 28 March a draft of a new rule to guide compensatory mitigation for when wetlands are unavoidably lost due to development. However, whether the rule is successful in preventing a net loss in wetlands will depend largely on its implementation, according to two wetlands scientists who evaluated the issue for the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) in 2001. Under the federal Clean Water Act, developers who seek to build on wetlands must compensate for any wetlands loss if they are unable to avoid or minimize the loss. Such compensation is covered under the newly proposed compensatory mitigation rule. Benjamin Grumbles, EPA assistant administrator for water, called the rule an ``innovative new standard that will accelerate the pace of wetlands conservation and restoration.''

  1. Quick release engine cylinder

    DOEpatents

    Sunnarborg, Duane A.

    2000-01-01

    A quick release engine cylinder allows optical access to an essentially unaltered combustion chamber, is suitable for use with actual combustion processes, and is amenable to rapid and repeated disassembly and cleaning. A cylinder member, adapted to constrain a piston to a defined path through the cylinder member, sealingly engages a cylinder head to provide a production-like combustion chamber. A support member mounts with the cylinder member. The support-to-cylinder mounting allows two relationships therebetween. In the first mounting relationship, the support engages the cylinder member and restrains the cylinder against the head. In the second mounting relationship, the cylinder member can pass through the support member, moving away from the head and providing access to the piston-top and head.

  2. Attentional priming releases crowding.

    PubMed

    Kristjánsson, Arni; Heimisson, Pétur Rúnar; Róbertsson, Gunnar Freyr; Whitney, David

    2013-10-01

    Views of natural scenes unfold over time, and objects of interest that were present a moment ago tend to remain present. While visual crowding places a fundamental limit on object recognition in cluttered scenes, most studies of crowding have suffered from the limitation that they typically involved static scenes. The role of temporal continuity in crowding has therefore been unaddressed. We investigated intertrial effects upon crowding in visual scenes, showing that crowding is considerably diminished when objects remain constant on consecutive visual search trials. Repetition of both the target and distractors decreases the critical distance for crowding from flankers. More generally, our results show how object continuity through between-trial priming releases objects that would otherwise be unidentifiable due to crowding. Crowding, although it is a significant bottleneck on object recognition, can be mitigated by statistically likely temporal continuity of the objects. Crowding therefore depends not only on what is momentarily present, but also on what was previously attended.

  3. QUICK RELEASABLE DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Dickson, J.J.

    1958-07-01

    A quick releasable mechanical drive system suitable for use in a nuclear reactor is described. A small reversible motor positions a control rod by means of a worm and gear speed reducer, a magnetic torque clutch, and a bell crank. As the control rod is raised to the operating position, a heavy coil spring is compressed. In the event of an emergency indicated by either a''scram'' signal or a power failure, the current to the magnetic clutch is cut off, thereby freeing the coil spring and the bell crank positioner from the motor and speed reduction gearing. The coil spring will immediately act upon the bell crank to cause the insertion of the control rod. This arrangement will allow the slow, accurate positioning of the control rod during reactor operation, while providing an independent force to rapidly insert the rod in the event of an emergency.

  4. Controlled release formulations of acephate: water and soil release kinetics.

    PubMed

    Nisar, Keyath; Kumar, Jitendra; Shakil, Najam A; Walia, Suresh; Parmar, Balraj S

    2009-08-01

    Controlled release formulations of insecticide acephate (O,S-dimethyl acetylphosphoramidothioate) have been prepared using commercially available polyvinyl chloride, carboxy methyl cellulose and carboxy methyl cellulose with kaolinite. Kinetics of acephate release in soil and water from the different formulations was studied in comparison with the commercially available formulation 75 DF. Release from the commercial formulation was faster than the new controlled pesticide release (CR) formulations. Addition of clay in the carboxy methyl cellulose matrix reduced the rate of release. The diffusion exponent (n value) of acephate in water and soil ranged from 0.462 to 0.875 and 0.420 to 0.547 respectively in the tested formulations. The release was diffusion controlled with a half release time (T(1/2)) of 2.97 to 52.41 days in water and 2.98 to 76.38 days in soil from different matrices. The maximum release of acephate in water and soil from controlled released formulations occurred between 6.33 to 36.34 and 12.49 to 29.09 days respectively. The results suggest that depending upon the polymer matrix used, the application rate of acephate can be optimized to achieve insect control at the desired level and period. PMID:20183059

  5. Optogenetic control of ATP release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Matthew A.; Joshi, Bipin; Gu, Ling; Feranchak, Andrew; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

    2013-03-01

    Controlled release of ATP can be used for understanding extracellular purinergic signaling. While coarse mechanical forces and hypotonic stimulation have been utilized in the past to initiate ATP release from cells, these methods are neither spatially accurate nor temporally precise. Further, these methods cannot be utilized in a highly effective cell-specific manner. To mitigate the uncertainties regarding cellular-specificity and spatio-temporal release of ATP, we herein demonstrate use of optogenetics for ATP release. ATP release in response to optogenetic stimulation was monitored by Luciferin-Luciferase assay (North American firefly, photinus pyralis) using luminometer as well as mesoscopic bioluminescence imaging. Our result demonstrates repetitive release of ATP subsequent to optogenetic stimulation. It is thus feasible that purinergic signaling can be directly detected via imaging if the stimulus can be confined to single cell or in a spatially-defined group of cells. This study opens up new avenue to interrogate the mechanisms of purinergic signaling.

  6. Controlled Release Applications of Organometals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, John S.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews two classes of controlled release organometals: (1) distributional, to distribute bioactive materials to control a certain target organism; and (2) protective, to protect surface or interior of some structure from attach by organisms. Specific examples are given including a discussion of controlled release for schistosomiasis. (SK)

  7. Analysis of Peptidoglycan Fragment Release.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Ryan E; Lenz, Jonathan D; Dillard, Joseph P

    2016-01-01

    Most bacteria break down a significant portion of their cell wall peptidoglycan during each round of growth and cell division. This process generates peptidoglycan fragments of various sizes that can either be imported back into the cytoplasm for recycling or released from the cell. Released fragments have been shown to act as microbe-associated molecular patterns for the initiation of immune responses, as triggers for the initiation of mutualistic host-microbe relationships, and as signals for cell-cell communication in bacteria. Characterizing these released peptidoglycan fragments can, therefore, be considered an important step in understanding how microbes communicate with other organisms in their environments. In this chapter, we describe methods for labeling cell wall peptidoglycan, calculating the rate at which peptidoglycan is turned over, and collecting released peptidoglycan to determine the abundance and species of released fragments. Methods are described for both the separation of peptidoglycan fragments by size-exclusion chromatography and further detailed analysis by HPLC.

  8. Sucrose release from polysaccharide gels.

    PubMed

    Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Fang, Yapeng

    2016-05-18

    Sucrose release from polysaccharide gels has been studied extensively because it is expected to be useful in understanding flavour release from solid foods and to find a new processing method which produces more palatable and healthier foods. We provide an overview of the release of sucrose and other sugars from gels of agar and related polysaccharides. The addition of sucrose to agar solutions leads to the increase in transparency of the resulting gels and the decrease in syneresis, which is attributed to the decrease in mesh size in gels. The syneresis occurring in the quiescent condition and fluid release induced by compression is discussed. The relationship between the sugar release and the structural, rheological and thermal properties of gels is also discussed. Finally, the future research direction is proposed.

  9. Sucrose release from polysaccharide gels.

    PubMed

    Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Fang, Yapeng

    2016-05-18

    Sucrose release from polysaccharide gels has been studied extensively because it is expected to be useful in understanding flavour release from solid foods and to find a new processing method which produces more palatable and healthier foods. We provide an overview of the release of sucrose and other sugars from gels of agar and related polysaccharides. The addition of sucrose to agar solutions leads to the increase in transparency of the resulting gels and the decrease in syneresis, which is attributed to the decrease in mesh size in gels. The syneresis occurring in the quiescent condition and fluid release induced by compression is discussed. The relationship between the sugar release and the structural, rheological and thermal properties of gels is also discussed. Finally, the future research direction is proposed. PMID:26952168

  10. Kepler Data Release 4 Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Cleve, Jeffrey (Editor); Jenkins, Jon; Caldwell, Doug; Allen, Christopher L.; Batalha, Natalie; Bryson, Stephen T.; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Clarke, Bruce D.; Cote, Miles T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Gilliland, Ron; Girouard, Forrest; Haas, Michael R.; Hall, Jennifer; Ibrahim, Khadeejah; Klaus, Todd; Kolodziejczak, Jeff; Li, Jie; McCauliff, Sean D.; Middour, Christopher K.; Pletcher, David L.; Quintana, Elisa V.; Tenenbaum, Peter G.; Twicken, Joe; Uddin, Akm Kamal

    2010-01-01

    The Data Analysis Working Group have released long and short cadence materials, including FFIs and Dropped Targets for the Public. The Kepler Science Office considers Data Release 4 to provide "browse quality" data. These notes have been prepared to give Kepler users of the Multimission Archive at STScl (MAST) a summary of how the data were collected and prepared, and how well the data processing pipeline is functioning on flight data. They will be updated for each release of data to the public archive and placed on MAST along with other Kepler documentation, at http://archive.stsci.edu/kepler/documents.html. Data release 3 is meant to give users the opportunity to examine the data for possibly interesting science and to involve the users in improving the pipeline for future data releases. To perform the latter service, users are encouraged to notice and document artifacts, either in the raw or processed data, and report them to the Science Office.

  11. Nitrogen release during coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.L.; Mitchell, R.E.; Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.

    1995-02-01

    Experiments in entrained flow reactors at combustion temperatures are performed to resolve the rank dependence of nitrogen release on an elemental basis for a suite of 15 U.S. coals ranging from lignite to low-volatile bituminous. Data were obtained as a function of particle conversion, with overall mass loss up to 99% on a dry, ash-free basis. Nitrogen release rates are presented relative to both carbon loss and overall mass loss. During devolatilization, fractional nitrogen release from low-rank coals is much slower than fractional mass release and noticeably slower than fractional carbon release. As coal rank increases, fractional nitrogen release rate relative to that of carbon and mass increases, with fractional nitrogen release rates exceeding fractional mass and fractional carbon release rates during devolatilization for high-rank (low-volatile bituminous) coals. At the onset of combustion, nitrogen release rates increase significantly. For all coals investigated, cumulative fractional nitrogen loss rates relative to those of mass and carbon passes through a maximum during the earliest stages of oxidation. The mechanism for generating this maximum is postulated to involve nascent thermal rupture of nitrogen-containing compounds and possible preferential oxidation of nitrogen sites. During later stages of oxidation, the cumulative fractional loss of nitrogen approaches that of carbon for all coals. Changes in the relative release rates of nitrogen compared to those of both overall mass and carbon during all stages of combustion are attributed to a combination of the chemical structure of coals, temperature histories during combustion, and char chemistry.

  12. Toxics Release Inventory indicates big increases in releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-01-01

    Nearly 4 billion pounds of tracked toxic chemicals were released into the environment throughout the United States during 2010, according to an analysis by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI), the agency announced on 5 January. This is a 16% increase above 2009. The agency said the increase is mainly due to changes in the metal-mining sector, where differences in the chemical composition of ore being mined can result in significant changes in the amount of toxic chemicals. The chemical and primary metals industries were other sectors with increases in toxic releases in 2010, the latest year for which data collection is complete. EPA also noted that although releases in 2010 were higher than during the previous 2 years, they were lower than in 2007 and in prior years.

  13. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    SciTech Connect

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  14. Controlled release liquid dosage formulation

    DOEpatents

    Benton, Ben F.; Gardner, David L.

    1989-01-01

    A liquid dual coated dosage formulation sustained release pharmaceutic having substantial shelf life prior to ingestion is disclosed. A dual coating is applied over controlled release cores to form dosage forms and the coatings comprise fats melting at less than approximately 101.degree. F. overcoated with cellulose acetate phthalate or zein. The dual coated dosage forms are dispersed in a sugar based acidic liquid carrier such as high fructose corn syrup and display a shelf life of up to approximately at least 45 days while still retaining their release profiles following ingestion. Cellulose acetate phthalate coated dosage form cores can in addition be dispersed in aqueous liquids of pH <5.

  15. Estimating emissions from accidental releases

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, D.B.

    1996-12-31

    The Clean Air Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 have an objective sources of air emissions through programs such as Title III, which is aimed at reducing hazardous air pollutant emissions. However, under Section 112(r) of the CAAA of 1990, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has also developed requirements for owners and operators of facilities regulated for hazardous substances to implement accidental release prevention programs for non-continuous emissions. Provisions of 112(r) include programs for release prevention, emergency planning and risk management. This paper examines methodologies available to regulated facilities for estimating accidental release emissions and determining off-site impacts.

  16. SELF-RELEASING GRAPPLING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Hoover, D.A. Sr.

    1963-11-01

    >A self-releasing grappling device that lifts by virtue of engagement between clamping jaws and the undercut lower side of a conical head of a lifting lug attached to the object to be lifted and employs a releasing sleeve on the lug to free the jaws from the lug is presented. When the jaws are to be released, they are dropped over the releasing sleeve, which is located well below lug head. When the jaws are lifted, they engage a conical surface on the sleeve and lift it up to the head of the lifting lug. In this position of the sleeve, the lower side of the lug head is covered by the sleeve and so cannot be engaged by the jaws, which move past before clearing the sleeve. (AEC)

  17. Best practices for code release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berriman, G. Bruce

    2016-01-01

    In this talk, I want to describe what I think are the best practices for releasing code and having it adopted by end users. Make sure your code is licensed, so users will know how the software can be used and modified, and place your code in a public repository that (and make sure that you follow institutional policies in doing this). Yet licensing and releasing code are not enough: the code must be organized and documented so users can understand what it does, what its limitations are, and how to build and use it. I will describe what I think are best practices in developing the content to support release, including tutorials, design documents, specifications of interfaces and so on. Much of what I have learned on based on ten years of experience in supporting releases of the Montage Image Mosaic Engine.

  18. Tyrosine - Effects on catecholamine release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acworth, Ian N.; During, Matthew J.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    Tyrosine administration elevates striatal levels of dopamine metabolites in animals given treatments that accelerate nigrostriatal firing, but not in untreated rats. We examined the possibility that the amino acid might actually enhance dopamine release in untreated animals, but that the technique of measuring striatal dopamine metabolism was too insensitive to demonstrate such an effect. Dopamine release was assessed directly, using brain microdialysis of striatal extracellular fluid. Tyrosine administration (50-200 mg/kg IP) did indeed cause a dose related increase in extracellular fluid dopamine levels with minor elevations in levels of DOPAC and HVA, its major metabolites, which were not dose-related. The rise in dopamine was short-lived, suggesting that receptor-mediated feedback mechanisms responded to the increased dopamine release by diminishing neuronal firing or sensitivity to tyrosine. These observations indicate that measurement of changes in striatal DOPAC and HVA, if negative, need not rule out increases in nigrostriatal dopamine release.

  19. Energy release in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, John C.; Correia, Emilia; Farnik, Frantisek; Garcia, Howard; Henoux, Jean-Claude; La Rosa, Ted N.; Machado, Marcos E. (Compiler); Nakajima, Hiroshi; Priest, Eric R.

    1994-01-01

    Team 2 of the Ottawa Flares 22 Workshop dealt with observational and theoretical aspects of the characteristics and processes of energy release in flares. Main results summarized in this article stress the global character of the flaring phenomenon in active regions, the importance of discontinuities in magnetic connectivity, the role of field-aligned currents in free energy storage, and the fragmentation of energy release in time and space.

  20. 19 CFR 142.41 - Line Release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Line Release. 142.41 Section 142.41 Customs Duties... (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Line Release § 142.41 Line Release. Line Release is an automated system designed to... importers of merchandise which CBP deems to be repetitive and high volume. Line Release may be used only...

  1. 19 CFR 142.41 - Line Release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Line Release. 142.41 Section 142.41 Customs Duties... (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Line Release § 142.41 Line Release. Line Release is an automated system designed to... importers of merchandise which Customs deems to be repetitive and high volume. Line Release may be used...

  2. Overview of extended release tacrolimus in solid organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neha; Cook, Abigail; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth; Rech, Megan A; Rusinak, Joshua; Heinrich, Lynley

    2016-01-01

    Tacrolimus (Prograf©, Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd, Staines, United Kingdom; referred to as tacrolimus-BID) is an immunosuppressive agent to prevent and treat allograft rejection in kidney transplant recipients in combination with mycophenolate mofetil, corticosteroids, with or without basiliximab induction. The drug has also been studied in liver, heart and lung transplant; however, these are currently off-label indications. An extended release tacrolimus formulation (Advagraf©, Astagraf XL©) allows for once-daily dosing, with the potential to improve adherence. Extended release tacrolimus has similar absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion to tacrolimus-BID. Phase I pharmacokinetic trials comparing extended release tacrolimus and tacrolimus-BID have demonstrated a decreased maximum concentration (Cmax) and delayed time to maximum concentration (tmax) with the extended release formulation; however, AUC0-24 was comparable between formulations. Overall extended release tacrolimus has a very similar safety and efficacy profile to tacrolimus-BID. It is not recommended in the use of liver transplant patient’s due to the increased risk of mortality in female recipients. There has been minimal data regarding the use of extended release tacrolimus in heart and lung transplant recipients. With the current data available for all organ groups the extended release tacrolimus should be dosed in a 1:1 fashion, the exception may be the cystic fibrosis population where their initial dose may need to be higher. PMID:27011912

  3. Overview of extended release tacrolimus in solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Neha; Cook, Abigail; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth; Rech, Megan A; Rusinak, Joshua; Heinrich, Lynley

    2016-03-24

    Tacrolimus (Prograf(©), Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd, Staines, United Kingdom; referred to as tacrolimus-BID) is an immunosuppressive agent to prevent and treat allograft rejection in kidney transplant recipients in combination with mycophenolate mofetil, corticosteroids, with or without basiliximab induction. The drug has also been studied in liver, heart and lung transplant; however, these are currently off-label indications. An extended release tacrolimus formulation (Advagraf(©), Astagraf XL(©)) allows for once-daily dosing, with the potential to improve adherence. Extended release tacrolimus has similar absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion to tacrolimus-BID. Phase I pharmacokinetic trials comparing extended release tacrolimus and tacrolimus-BID have demonstrated a decreased maximum concentration (Cmax) and delayed time to maximum concentration (tmax) with the extended release formulation; however, AUC0-24 was comparable between formulations. Overall extended release tacrolimus has a very similar safety and efficacy profile to tacrolimus-BID. It is not recommended in the use of liver transplant patient's due to the increased risk of mortality in female recipients. There has been minimal data regarding the use of extended release tacrolimus in heart and lung transplant recipients. With the current data available for all organ groups the extended release tacrolimus should be dosed in a 1:1 fashion, the exception may be the cystic fibrosis population where their initial dose may need to be higher.

  4. Optimization of release from magnetically controlled polymeric drug release devices.

    PubMed

    Edelman, E R; Langer, R

    1993-07-01

    Release rates from drug:polymer matrices embedded with small magnets increase in the presence of oscillating magnetic fields. Previous studies of these systems have defined those parameters that determine the extent of the increase in release, and implied that not only was the force generated within the matrix an important determinant of the extent of modulation but also that the greater the amount of matrix actually displaced, the greater the observed modulation. We investigated this possibility in the magnetic system and developed a model taking into account the intersection of the volume of a cylindrical polymer-drug magnet embedded matrix with an imaginary sphere representing the upper limit of matrix deformation by the magnet. The intersection correlated in a linear fashion with the increase in release (slope = 1.16 +/- 0.26, R = 0.864, P = 0.003, s.e.e. = 1.38). Magnet orientation alone was insufficient to explain the data. It appears that a modulated system is optimized when the modulating force overlaps precisely with the maximum amount of matrix drug that can be released. If the size of the matrix, position of the magnet, force generated on the matrix by the magnet, viscoelastic properties of the matrix, etc. are not matched then modulation is inefficient. These results should provide further insight into and a means of optimization for externally regulated controlled release systems.

  5. Added release time in diffusion/dissolution coupled release.

    PubMed

    Nuxoll, Eric

    2015-10-15

    While increasingly sophisticated models have been developed to more accurately predict dispersed solute release from complex systems, distillation of their results into quantitative trends has been difficult. Here, the numerically calculated release profiles of coupled diffusion/dissolution systems are quantified by their cumulative release time (CRT) and compared against corresponding diffusion-controlled limits. The increase in CRT due to a finite dissolution rate was found to vary inversely with the second Damköhler number across several orders of magnitude, and also vary linearly with the amount of solid drug loaded in the system. The analytical nature of the relationship provides new physical insights into the system and appears to be indifferent to the form of the secondary rate-limiting step. This work provides a simple analytical expression with which one can not only predict the mean release time for a given set of parameter values, but understand precisely how each parameter value will affect it. The simplicity of the correlation and the lack of apparent limits to its validity also suggest the existence of an analytical pathway for its derivation, which may yield additional insights into the effect of secondary rate processes on controlled release. PMID:26276252

  6. Added release time in diffusion/dissolution coupled release.

    PubMed

    Nuxoll, Eric

    2015-10-15

    While increasingly sophisticated models have been developed to more accurately predict dispersed solute release from complex systems, distillation of their results into quantitative trends has been difficult. Here, the numerically calculated release profiles of coupled diffusion/dissolution systems are quantified by their cumulative release time (CRT) and compared against corresponding diffusion-controlled limits. The increase in CRT due to a finite dissolution rate was found to vary inversely with the second Damköhler number across several orders of magnitude, and also vary linearly with the amount of solid drug loaded in the system. The analytical nature of the relationship provides new physical insights into the system and appears to be indifferent to the form of the secondary rate-limiting step. This work provides a simple analytical expression with which one can not only predict the mean release time for a given set of parameter values, but understand precisely how each parameter value will affect it. The simplicity of the correlation and the lack of apparent limits to its validity also suggest the existence of an analytical pathway for its derivation, which may yield additional insights into the effect of secondary rate processes on controlled release.

  7. Effect of in vitro inorganic lead on dopamine release from superfused rat striatal synaptosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Minnema, D.J.; Greenland, R.D.; Michaelson, I.A.

    1986-06-30

    The effect of inorganic lead in vitro in several aspects of (/sup 3/H)dopamine release from superfused rat striatal synaptosomes was examined. Under conditions of spontaneous release, lead (1-30 microM) induced dopamine release in a concentration-dependent manner. The onset of the lead-induced release was delayed by approximately 15-30 sec. The magnitude of dopamine release induced by lead was increased when calcium was removed from the superfusing buffer. Lead-induced release was unaffected in the presence of putative calcium, sodium, and/or potassium channel blockers (nickel, tetrodotoxin, tetraethylammonium, respectively). Depolarization-evoked dopamine release, produced by a 1-sec exposure to 61 mM potassium, was diminished at calcium concentrations below 0.254 mM. The onset of depolarization-evoked release was essentially immediate following exposure of the synaptosomes to high potassium. The combination of lead (3 or 10 microM) with high potassium reduced the magnitude of depolarization-evoked dopamine release. This depression of depolarization-evoked release by lead was greater in the presence of 0.25 mM than 2.54 mM calcium in the superfusing buffer. These findings demonstrate multiple actions of lead on synaptosomal dopamine release. Lead can induce dopamine release by yet unidentified neuronal mechanisms independent of external calcium. Lead can also reduce depolarization-evoked dopamine release by apparent competition with calcium influx at the neuronal membrane calcium channel.

  8. 26 CFR 301.6343-1 - Requirement to release levy and notice of release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... conditions in paragraph (b) of this section (conditions requiring release) exist. The director must make a determination whether any of the conditions requiring release exist if a taxpayer submits a request for release... release exists. (b) Conditions requiring release. The director must release the levy upon all or a part...

  9. Sand release apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.D.

    1991-05-28

    This patent describes a sand release apparatus for enabling the release of a pump. It comprises first and second telescoped tubular sleeves; a first restricting means; sleeve located drain opening means and means for enabling controlled separation of the pump from the apparatus at a specified joint. This patent also describes a method for releasing a pump determined to be sand locked. It comprises applying an upward force on the sucker rod string to break a shear pin restricting relative axial extension of telescoped sleeve members connected in the well below the pump; extending the telescoped sleeve members to expose drain openings to permit sand to flow away from the annular space; and disconnecting from the tubing string below the pump to pull the pump free of the sand locked condition.

  10. Controlled release from recombinant polymers.

    PubMed

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2014-09-28

    Recombinant polymers provide a high degree of molecular definition for correlating structure with function in controlled release. The wide array of amino acids available as building blocks for these materials lend many advantages including biorecognition, biodegradability, potential biocompatibility, and control over mechanical properties among other attributes. Genetic engineering and DNA manipulation techniques enable the optimization of structure for precise control over spatial and temporal release. Unlike the majority of chemical synthetic strategies used, recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of monodisperse polymers with specifically defined sequences. Several classes of recombinant polymers have been used for controlled drug delivery. These include, but are not limited to, elastin-like, silk-like, and silk-elastinlike proteins, as well as emerging cationic polymers for gene delivery. In this article, progress and prospects of recombinant polymers used in controlled release will be reviewed.

  11. Controlled Release from Recombinant Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant polymers provide a high degree of molecular definition for correlating structure with function in controlled release. The wide array of amino acids available as building blocks for these materials lend many advantages including biorecognition, biodegradability, potential biocompatibility, and control over mechanical properties among other attributes. Genetic engineering and DNA manipulation techniques enable the optimization of structure for precise control over spatial and temporal release. Unlike the majority of chemical synthetic strategies used, recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of monodisperse polymers with specifically defined sequences. Several classes of recombinant polymers have been used for controlled drug delivery. These include, but are not limited to, elastin-like, silk-like, and silk-elastinlike proteins, as well as emerging cationic polymers for gene delivery. In this article, progress and prospects of recombinant polymers used in controlled release will be reviewed. PMID:24956486

  12. Payload holddown and release mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaput, Dale; Visconti, Mark; Edwards, Michael; Moran, Tom

    1994-01-01

    A payload holddown and release mechanism, designated the Model 1172, was designed and built at G&H Technology during the winter of 1992/1993. The mechanism is able to restrain and release a 45-pound payload with minimal tipoff. The payload is held in place by a stainless steel band and released using electrically triggered non-explosive actuators. These actuators provide reliable operation with negligible shock and no special handling requirements. The performance of the mechanism was demonstrated in two flight tests. Data showed pitch and yaw tipoff rates of less than 0.07 radian (4 degree) per second. The Model 1172 design is an efficient replacement for conventional payload deployment devices, especially where low transmitted shock is required.

  13. Nanostructured Diclofenac Sodium Releasing Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkola, L.; Vapalahti, K.; Harlin, A.; Seppälä, J.; Ashammakhi, N.

    2008-02-01

    Various techniques have been developed to produce second generation biomaterials for tissue repair. These include extrusion, molding, salt leaching, spinning etc, but success in regenerating tissues has been limited. It is important to develop porous material, yet with a fibrous structure for it to be biomimetic. To mimic biological tissues, the extra-cellular matrix usually contains fibers in nano scale. To produce nanostructures, self-assembly or electrospinning can be used. Adding a drug release function to such a material may advance applications further for use in controlled tissue repair. This turns the resulting device into a multifunctional porous, fibrous structure to support cells and drug releasing properties in order to control tissue reactions. A bioabsorbable poly(ɛ-caprolactone-co-D,L lactide) 95/5 (PCL) was made into diluted solution using a solvent, to which was added 2w-% of diclofenac sodium (DS). Nano-fibers were made by electrospinning onto substrate. Microstructure of the resulting nanomat was studied using SEM and drug release profiles with UV/VIS spectroscopy. Thickness of the electrospun nanomat was about 2 mm. SEM analysis showed that polymeric nano-fibers containing drug particles form a highly interconnected porous nano structure. Average diameter of the nano-fibers was 130 nm. There was a high burst peak in drug release, which decreased to low levels after one day. The used polymer has slow a degradation rate and though the nanomat was highly porous with a large surface area, drug release rate is slow. It is feasible to develop a nano-fibrous porous structure of bioabsorbable polymer, which is loaded with test drug. Drug release is targeted at improving the properties of biomaterial for use in controlled tissue repair and regeneration.

  14. Hydrocarbon release investigations in Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Fels, J.B.

    1996-09-01

    Hydrocarbon releases are among the most common environmental problems in Missouri, as well as across the country. Old, unprotected underground storage tanks and buried piping from the tanks to pumps are notorious sources of petroleum contamination at LUST (leaking underground storage tank) sites. Missouri has an estimated 5000 LUST sites across the state with the majority being simple spills into clay-rich soils or into a shallow perched water system. However, in the southern half of the state, where residual soils and karst bedrock are not conducive to trapping such releases, significant groundwater supplies are at risk. This article discusses the process used to identify the source of contamination.

  15. An enzymatic method for the determination of hemoglobinA(1C).

    PubMed

    Hirokawa, Kozo; Shimoji, Kazuhiko; Kajiyama, Naoki

    2005-07-01

    Fructosyl peptide oxidase is a flavoenzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deglycation of N-(1-deoxyfructosyl)-Val-His, a model compound of hemoglobin (Hb)A(1C). To develop an enzymatic method for the measurement of HbA(1C), we screened for a proper protease using N-(1-deoxyfructosyl)-hexapeptide as a substrate. Several proteases, including Neutral protease from Bacillus polymyxa, were found to release N-(1-deoxyfructosyl)-Val-His efficiently, however no protease was found to release N-(1-deoxyfructosyl)-Val. Neutral protease also digested HbA(1C) to release N-(1-deoxyfructosyl)-Val-His, and then the fructosyl peptide was detected using fructosyl peptide oxidase. The linear relationship was observed between the concentration of HbA(1C) and the absorbancy of fructosyl peptide oxidase reaction, hence this new method is a practical means for measuring HbA(1C.).

  16. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a1 mediates a GABA synthesis pathway in midbrain dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Ick; Ganesan, Subhashree; Luo, Sarah X; Wu, Yu-Wei; Park, Esther; Huang, Eric J; Chen, Lu; Ding, Jun B

    2015-10-01

    Midbrain dopamine neurons are an essential component of the basal ganglia circuitry, playing key roles in the control of fine movement and reward. Recently, it has been demonstrated that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter, is co-released by dopamine neurons. Here, we show that GABA co-release in dopamine neurons does not use the conventional GABA-synthesizing enzymes, glutamate decarboxylases GAD65 and GAD67. Our experiments reveal an evolutionarily conserved GABA synthesis pathway mediated by aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a1 (ALDH1a1). Moreover, GABA co-release is modulated by ethanol (EtOH) at concentrations seen in blood alcohol after binge drinking, and diminished ALDH1a1 leads to enhanced alcohol consumption and preference. These findings provide insights into the functional role of GABA co-release in midbrain dopamine neurons, which may be essential for reward-based behavior and addiction.

  17. Bioinspired, releasable quorum sensing modulators.

    PubMed

    Gomes, José; Grunau, Alexander; Lawrence, Adrien K; Eberl, Leo; Gademann, Karl

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the synthesis and immobilization of natural product hybrids featuring an acyl-homoserine lactone and a nitrodopamine onto biocompatible TiO(2) surfaces through an operationally simple dip-and-rinse procedure. The resulting immobilized hybrids were shown to be powerful quorum sensing (QS) activators in Pseudomonas strains acting by slow release from the surface. PMID:23169441

  18. 2014 Pee Dee germplasm releases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PD 05035, PD 05041, PD 05064, PD 05069, PD 05070, PD 05071, PD 06001, and PD 06078 are noncommercial breeding lines of cotton jointly released by the Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Clemson University Experiment Station, and Cotton Incorporated in 2014. These ...

  19. Photodegradable Polyesters for Triggered Release

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Cong; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Peng; Tang, Xinjing

    2012-01-01

    Photodegradable polyesters were synthesized with a photolabile monomer 2-nitrophenylethylene glycol and dioyl chlorides with different lengths. These polymers can be assembled to form polymeric particles with encapsulation of target substances. Light activation can degrade these particles and release payloads in both aqueous solutions and RAW 264.7 cells. PMID:23208376

  20. 7 CFR 550.29 - Press releases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Press releases. 550.29 Section 550.29 Agriculture... Program Management § 550.29 Press releases. Press releases or other forms of public notification will be... opportunity to review, in advance, all written press releases and any other written information to be...

  1. 7 CFR 550.29 - Press releases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Press releases. 550.29 Section 550.29 Agriculture... Program Management § 550.29 Press releases. Press releases or other forms of public notification will be... opportunity to review, in advance, all written press releases and any other written information to be...

  2. 7 CFR 550.29 - Press releases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Press releases. 550.29 Section 550.29 Agriculture... Program Management § 550.29 Press releases. Press releases or other forms of public notification will be... opportunity to review, in advance, all written press releases and any other written information to be...

  3. 7 CFR 550.29 - Press releases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Press releases. 550.29 Section 550.29 Agriculture... Program Management § 550.29 Press releases. Press releases or other forms of public notification will be... opportunity to review, in advance, all written press releases and any other written information to be...

  4. 7 CFR 550.29 - Press releases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Press releases. 550.29 Section 550.29 Agriculture... Program Management § 550.29 Press releases. Press releases or other forms of public notification will be... opportunity to review, in advance, all written press releases and any other written information to be...

  5. Index to NASA News Releases 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This issue of the index to NASA News Releases contains a listing of news releases distributed by the Office of Public Affairs, NASA Headquarters, during 1995. The index is arranged in six sections: Subject index, Personal name index, News release number index, Accession number index, Speeches, and News releases.

  6. Kepler Data Release 3 Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleve, Jeffrey E.

    2010-01-01

    This describes the collection of data and the processing done on it so when researchers around the world get the Kepler data sets (which are a set of pixels from the telescope of a particular target (star, galaxy or whatever) over a 3 month period) they can adjust their algorithms fro things that were done (like subtracting all of one particular wavelength for example). This is used to calibrate their own algorithms so that they know what it is they are starting with. It is posted so that whoever is accessing the publicly available data (not all of it is made public) can understand it .. (most of the Kepler data is under restriction for 1 - 4 years and is not available, but the handbook is for everyone (public and restricted) The Data Analysis Working Group have released long and short cadence materials, including FFls and Dropped Targets for the Public. The Kepler Science Office considers Data Release 3 to provide "browse quality" data. These notes have been prepared to give Kepler users of the Multimission Archive at STScl (MAST) a summary of how the data were collected and prepared, and how well the data processing pipeline is functioning on flight data. They will be updated for each release of data to the public archive and placed on MAST along with other Kepler documentation, at http:// archive.stsci.edu/kepler/documents.html .Data release 3 is meant to give users the opportunity to examine the data for possibly interesting science and to involve the users in improving the pipeline for future data releases. To perform the latter service, users are encouraged to notice and document artifacts, either in the raw or processed data, and report them to the Science Office.

  7. 7 CFR 1434.16 - Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan... MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.16 Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan. (a)(1) A producer shall not move or dispose of any honey pledged as collateral for a...

  8. 7 CFR 1434.16 - Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan... MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.16 Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan. (a)(1) A producer shall not move or dispose of any honey pledged as collateral for a...

  9. 7 CFR 1434.16 - Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan... MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.16 Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan. (a)(1) A producer shall not move or dispose of any honey pledged as collateral for a...

  10. 7 CFR 1434.16 - Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan... MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.16 Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan. (a)(1) A producer shall not move or dispose of any honey pledged as collateral for a...

  11. 7 CFR 1434.16 - Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan... MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.16 Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan. (a)(1) A producer shall not move or dispose of any honey pledged as collateral for a...

  12. Public Release of Pan-STARRS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flewelling, Heather; Consortium, panstarrs

    2015-08-01

    Pan-STARRS 1 is a 1.8 meter survey telescope, located on Haleakala, Hawaii, with a 1.4 Gigapixel camera, a 7 square degree field of view, and 5 filters (g,r,i,z,y). The public release of data, which is available to everyone, consists of 4 years of data taken between May 2010 and April 2014. Two of the surveys available in the public release are the 3pi survey and the Medium Deep (MD) survey. The 3pi survey has roughly 60 epochs (12 per filter) covering 3/4 of the sky and everything north of -30 degrees declination. The MD survey consists of 10 fields, observed in a couple of filters each night, usually 8 exposures per filter per field, for about 4000 epochs per MD field. The available data product are accessed through the “Postage Stamp Server” and through the Published Science Products Subsystem (PSPS), both of these are available through the Pan-STARRS Science Interface (PSI). The Postage Stamp Server provides images and catalogs for different stages of processing on single exposures, stack images, difference images, and forced photometry. The PSPS is a SQLServer database that can be queried via script or web interface, with a database for each MD field and a large database for the 3pi survey. This database has relative photometry and astrometry and object associations, making it easy to do searches across the entire sky as well as tools to generate lightcurves of individual objects as a function of time.

  13. Neutron-absorber release device

    DOEpatents

    VAN Erp, Jan B.; Kimont, Edward L.

    1976-01-01

    A resettable device is provided for supporting an object, sensing when an environment reaches a critical temperature and releasing the object when the critical temperature is reached. It includes a flexible container having a material inside with a melting point at the critical temperature. The object's weight is supported by the solid material which gives rigidity to the container until the critical temperature is reached at which point the material in the container melts. The flexible container with the now fluid material inside has insufficient strength to support the object which is thereby released. Biasing means forces the container back to its original shape so that when the temperature falls below the melting temperature the material again solidifies, and the object may again be supported by the device.

  14. Neural control of renin release.

    PubMed

    Stella, A; Golin, R; Zanchetti, A

    1989-02-01

    Among the major mechanisms controlling the renal release of renin, renal nerves are known to exert a direct stimulating action on juxtaglomerular cells that is mediated by beta-adrenoceptors. Activation of the renal nerves also exerts an important permissive role in order to amplify and possibly accelerate responses to stimuli affecting the vascular and macula densa mechanisms. Reduction of renal perfusion pressure, intravenous infusion of furosemide, and captopril administration cause a greater increase in renin release from innervated kidneys than from denervated kidneys. A complex interaction between neural and non-neural mechanisms in the control of renin secretion is suggested. Efferent renal nerve activity controlling the renin secretion rate is mainly under the inhibitory influence of vagal afferent fibers originating from the cardiopulmonary region. Recent experiments have demonstrated that a similar reflex tonic inhibition of renin secretion is also exerted by renal afferent fibers.

  15. 14 CFR 125.373 - Original flight release or amendment of flight release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Original flight release or amendment of flight release. 125.373 Section 125.373 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Flight Release Rules § 125.373 Original flight release or amendment of flight release. (a) A...

  16. Nucleotide release by airway epithelia.

    PubMed

    Lazarowski, Eduardo R; Sesma, Juliana I; Seminario, Lucia; Esther, Charles R; Kreda, Silvia M

    2011-01-01

    The purinergic events regulating the airways' innate defenses are initiated by the release of purines from the epithelium, which occurs constitutively and is enhanced by chemical or mechanical stimulation. While the external triggers have been reviewed exhaustively, this chapter focuses on current knowledge of the receptors and signaling cascades mediating nucleotide release. The list of secreted purines now includes ATP, ADP, AMP and nucleotide sugars, and involves at least three distinct mechanisms reflecting the complexity of airway epithelia. First, the constitutive mechanism involves ATP translocation to the ER/Golgi complex as energy source for protein folding, and fusion of Golgi-derived vesicles with the plasma membrane. Second, goblet cells package ATP with mucins into granules, which are discharged in response to P2Y(2)R activation and Ca(2+)-dependent signaling pathways. Finally, non-mucous cells support a regulated mechanism of ATP release involving protease activated receptor (PAR)-elicited G(12/13) activation, leading to the RhoGEF-mediated exchange of GDP for GTP on RhoA, and cytoskeleton rearrangement. Together, these pathways provide fine tuning of epithelial responses regulated by purinergic signaling events. PMID:21560042

  17. Nanoparticle release from dental composites.

    PubMed

    Van Landuyt, K L; Hellack, B; Van Meerbeek, B; Peumans, M; Hoet, P; Wiemann, M; Kuhlbusch, T A J; Asbach, C

    2014-01-01

    Dental composites typically contain high amounts (up to 60 vol.%) of nanosized filler particles. There is a current concern that dental personnel (and patients) may inhale nanosized dust particles (<100 nm) during abrasive procedures to shape, finish or remove restorations but, so far, whether airborne nanoparticles are released has never been investigated. In this study, composite dust was analyzed in real work conditions. Exposure measurements of dust in a dental clinic revealed high peak concentrations of nanoparticles in the breathing zone of both dentist and patient, especially during aesthetic treatments or treatments of worn teeth with composite build-ups. Further laboratory assessment confirmed that all tested composites released very high concentrations of airborne particles in the nanorange (>10(6)cm(-3)). The median diameter of airborne composite dust varied between 38 and 70 nm. Electron microscopic and energy dispersive X-ray analysis confirmed that the airborne particles originated from the composite, and revealed that the dust particles consisted of filler particles or resin or both. Though composite dust exhibited no significant oxidative reactivity, more toxicological research is needed. To conclude, on manipulation with the bur, dental composites release high concentrations of nanoparticles that may enter deeply into the lungs.

  18. Ultrasound-Assisted Endoscopic Carpal Tunnel Release.

    PubMed

    Ohuchi, Hiroshi; Hattori, Soichi; Shinga, Kotaro; Ichikawa, Ken; Yamada, Shin

    2016-06-01

    Various surgical procedures for carpal tunnel syndrome exist, such as open release, ultrasound-guided percutaneous release, and endoscopic release. Postoperative pain, scarring, and slow recovery to normal function are reported complications of open release. Damage to vessels and the median nerve and its branches underlying the transverse carpal ligament is a reported complication of ultrasound-guided percutaneous release. Damage to the superficial palmar arch and incomplete release are reported complications of endoscopic release. By performing endoscopic carpal tunnel release with ultrasound assistance, we could visualize neurovascular structures directly with the endoscope and also indirectly with ultrasound to minimize complications. We could also evaluate the morphologic changes of the median nerve dynamically before and after the release. We discuss the technique for this procedure and outline pearls and pitfalls for success. PMID:27656366

  19. Prion protein facilitates synaptic vesicle release by enhancing release probability.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Susan W; Nugent, Marie L; Dinsdale, David; Steinert, Joern R

    2014-09-01

    The cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) has been implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases as a result of protein misfolding. In humans, prion disease occurs typically with a sporadic origin where uncharacterized mechanisms induce spontaneous PrP(C) misfolding leading to neurotoxic PrP-scrapie formation (PrP(SC)). The consequences of misfolded PrP(C) signalling are well characterized but little is known about the physiological roles of PrP(C) and its involvement in disease. Here we investigated wild-type PrP(C) signalling in synaptic function as well as the effects of a disease-relevant mutation within PrP(C) (proline-to-leucine mutation at codon 101). Expression of wild-type PrP(C) at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction leads to enhanced synaptic responses as detected in larger miniature synaptic currents which are caused by enlarged presynaptic vesicles. The expression of the mutated PrP(C) leads to reduction of both parameters compared with wild-type PrP(C). Wild-type PrP(C) enhances synaptic release probability and quantal content but reduces the size of the ready-releasable vesicle pool. Partially, these changes are not detectable following expression of the mutant PrP(C). A behavioural test revealed that expression of either protein caused an increase in locomotor activities consistent with enhanced synaptic release and stronger muscle contractions. Both proteins were sensitive to proteinase digestion. These data uncover new functions of wild-type PrP(C) at the synapse with a disease-relevant mutation in PrP(C) leading to diminished functional phenotypes. Thus, our data present essential new information possibly related to prion pathogenesis in which a functional synaptic role of PrP(C) is compromised due to its advanced conversion into PrP(SC) thereby creating a lack-of-function scenario.

  20. Synapsins differentially control dopamine and serotonin release.

    PubMed

    Kile, Brian M; Guillot, Thomas S; Venton, B Jill; Wetsel, William C; Augustine, George J; Wightman, R Mark

    2010-07-21

    Synapsins are a family of synaptic vesicle proteins that are important for neurotransmitter release. Here we have used triple knock-out (TKO) mice lacking all three synapsin genes to determine the roles of synapsins in the release of two monoamine neurotransmitters, dopamine and serotonin. Serotonin release evoked by electrical stimulation was identical in substantia nigra pars reticulata slices prepared from TKO and wild-type mice. In contrast, release of dopamine in response to electrical stimulation was approximately doubled in striatum of TKO mice, both in vivo and in striatal slices, in comparison to wild-type controls. This was due to loss of synapsin III, because deletion of synapsin III alone was sufficient to increase dopamine release. Deletion of synapsins also increased the sensitivity of dopamine release to extracellular calcium ions. Although cocaine did not affect the release of serotonin from nigral tissue, this drug did enhance dopamine release. Cocaine-induced facilitation of dopamine release was a function of external calcium, an effect that was reduced in TKO mice. We conclude that synapsins play different roles in the control of release of dopamine and serotonin, with release of dopamine being negatively regulated by synapsins, specifically synapsin III, while serotonin release appears to be relatively independent of synapsins. These results provide further support for the concept that synapsin function in presynaptic terminals varies according to the neurotransmitter being released. PMID:20660258

  1. Highly Loaded, Sustained-Release Microparticles of Curcumin for Chemoprevention

    PubMed Central

    SHAHANI, KOMAL; PANYAM, JAYANTH

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin, a dietary polyphenol, has preventive and therapeutic potential against several diseases. Because of the chronic nature of many of these diseases, sustained-release dosage forms of curcumin could be of significant clinical value. However, extreme lipophilicity and instability of curcumin are significant challenges in its formulation development. The objectives of this study were to fabricate an injectable microparticle formulation that can sustain curcumin release over a 1-month period and to determine its chemopreventive activity in a mouse model. Microparticles were fabricated using poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) polymer. Conventional emulsion solvent evaporation method of preparing microparticles resulted in crystallization of curcumin outside of microparticles and poor entrapment (~1%, w/w loading). Rapid solvent removal using vacuum dramatically increased drug entrapment (~38%, w/w loading; 76% encapsulation efficiency). Microparticles sustained curcumin release over 4 weeks in vitro, and drug release rate could be modulated by varying the polymer molecular weight and/or composition. A single subcutaneous dose of microparticles sustained curcumin liver concentration for nearly a month in mice. Hepatic glutathione-s-transferase and cyclooxygenase-2 activities, biomarkers for chemoprevention, were altered following treatment with curcumin microparticles. The results of these studies suggest that sustained-release microparticles of curcumin could be a novel and effective approach for cancer chemoprevention. PMID:21547911

  2. Gastrin-releasing peptide stimulates glycoconjugate release from feline trachea

    SciTech Connect

    Lundgren, J.D.; Baraniuk, J.N.; Ostrowski, N.L.; Kaliner, M.A.; Shelhamer, J.H. )

    1990-02-01

    The effect of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) on respiratory glycoconjugate (RGC) secretion was investigated in a feline tracheal organ culture model. RGC secretion was stimulated by GRP in a dose-dependent fashion at concentrations from 10(-8) to 10(-5) M (range 15-38% increase above control) with a peak effect within 0.5-1 h of incubation. GRP-(14-27), the receptor binding portion of GRP, and the related molecule, bombesin, also stimulated RGC secretion by approximately 20% above control. Acetyl-GRP-(20-27) stimulated RGC release by 10%, whereas GRP-(1-16) was inactive. Autoradiographic studies with 125I-GRP revealed that specific binding was restricted to the submucosal glands and the surface epithelium. A specific radioimmunoassay showed the content of GRP in feline trachea after extraction with ethanol-acetic acid to be 156 +/- 91 fmol/g wet wt. Indirect immunohistochemistry indicated that ganglion cells located just outside the cartilage contained GRP-immunoreactive materials. GRP is a novel mucus secretagogue that may participate in regulating airway mucosal gland secretion.

  3. 46 CFR 108.457 - Pressure release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure release. 108.457 Section 108.457 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.457 Pressure release... have a means for releasing pressure that accumulates within the space if CO2 is discharged into...

  4. 46 CFR 108.457 - Pressure release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure release. 108.457 Section 108.457 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.457 Pressure release... have a means for releasing pressure that accumulates within the space if CO2 is discharged into...

  5. 46 CFR 108.457 - Pressure release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure release. 108.457 Section 108.457 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.457 Pressure release... have a means for releasing pressure that accumulates within the space if CO2 is discharged into...

  6. 46 CFR 108.457 - Pressure release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure release. 108.457 Section 108.457 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.457 Pressure release... have a means for releasing pressure that accumulates within the space if CO2 is discharged into...

  7. 46 CFR 108.457 - Pressure release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure release. 108.457 Section 108.457 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.457 Pressure release... have a means for releasing pressure that accumulates within the space if CO2 is discharged into...

  8. 28 CFR 2.33 - Release plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS... of parole is conditioned upon the approval of release plans by the Regional Commissioner. In general... reasonable plan for payment shall, where feasible, be included in the parole release plan....

  9. 28 CFR 2.33 - Release plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Release plans. 2.33 Section 2.33 Judicial..., AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.33 Release plans. (a) A grant of parole is conditioned upon the approval of release plans by the Regional Commissioner. In...

  10. 28 CFR 2.33 - Release plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Release plans. 2.33 Section 2.33 Judicial..., AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.33 Release plans. (a) A grant of parole is conditioned upon the approval of release plans by the Regional Commissioner. In...

  11. 40 CFR 302.8 - Continuous releases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR part 355, which require initial telephone and written notifications of continuous releases to be... schools, hospitals, retirement communities, or wetlands). (iv) For each hazardous substance release...) The environmental medium(a) affected by the release: (1) If surface water, the name of the...

  12. CHANGING RELEASE CRITERIA FROM PAST TO PRESENT

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, A.; Valencia, L.

    2003-02-27

    Beginning with the decommissioning of nuclear power plants the release, criteria for radioactive materials has gained importance significantly. After decommissioning and dismantling, most of the residues need not be treated as radioactive waste, since they contain only small amounts of radioactivity. The Karlsruhe Research Center already dismantled two research reactors completely (the Karlstein Super Heated Steam Reactor and the Niederaichbach Nuclear Power Plant), while several additional decommissioning projects are currently in progress. About 70 % of the total waste mass within each project can be released from the area of atomic regulations and licenses. At the Niederaichbach and Karlstein sites the release procedures and the release criteria were determined in the decommissioning license, where issues such as controlling and release values were fixed. Additionally, each step of the release process has to be coordinated with the regulator. Today the general release criteria are contained in the atomic act. Depending on the nature of the material to be released (e.g. building structures or metallic waste), and depending on the further use of the material, such as unrestricted reuse or waste disposal, release values for each nuclide are established. To prepare the release of materials, a release plan including the release measurement results is sent to the regulator, who has to officially approve the concept.

  13. 40 CFR 302.8 - Continuous releases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR part 355, which require initial telephone and written notifications of continuous releases to be... release data, engineering estimates, knowledge of operating procedures, or best professional judgment to... requirements of this section, the person in charge may rely on recent release data, engineering estimates,...

  14. Individualized optimal release angles in discus throwing.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Steve; Liu, Hui; Hubbard, Mont; Yu, Bing

    2010-02-10

    The purpose of this study was to determine individualized optimal release angles for elite discus throwers. Three-dimensional coordinate data were obtained for at least 10 competitive trials for each subject. Regression relationships between release speed and release angle, and between aerodynamic distance and release angle were determined for each subject. These relationships were linear with subject-specific characteristics. The subject-specific relationships between release speed and release angle may be due to subjects' technical and physical characteristics. The subject-specific relationships between aerodynamic distance and release angle may be due to interactions between the release angle, the angle of attack, and the aerodynamic distance. Optimal release angles were estimated for each subject using the regression relationships and equations of projectile motion. The estimated optimal release angle was different for different subjects, and ranged from 35 degrees to 44 degrees . The results of this study demonstrate that the optimal release angle for discus throwing is thrower-specific. The release angles used by elite discus throwers in competition are not necessarily optimal for all discus throwers, or even themselves. The results of this study provide significant information for understanding the biomechanics of discus throwing techniques.

  15. 28 CFR 2.33 - Release plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release plans. 2.33 Section 2.33 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.33 Release plans. (a) A...

  16. Fully redundant mechanical release actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucy, Melvin H. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A system is described for performing a mechanical release function exhibiting low shock. This system includes two pyrotechnic detents fixed mounted in opposing axial alignment within a cylindrical housing having two mechanical bellows. Two mechanical bellow assemblies, each having one end hermetically bonded to the housing and the other to the respective actuator pin extending from either end of the housing, ensure that all outgassing and contamination from the operation of the pyrotechnic devices will be contained within the housing and bellows. The pin on one end of the assembly is fixed mounted and supported, via a bolt or ball-and-socket joint so that when the charge corresponding to that pin ignites, the entire assembly will exhibit rectilinear movement, including the opposing pin providing the unlatching motion. The release detent pin is supported by a linear bearing and when its corresponding pyrotechnic charge ignites the pin is retracted within the housing producing the same unlatching motion without movement of the entire assembly, thus providing complete mechanical, electrical and pyrotechnic redundancy for the unlatching pin.

  17. ATP release through pannexon channels.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Gerhard

    2015-07-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) serves as a signal for diverse physiological functions, including spread of calcium waves between astrocytes, control of vascular oxygen supply and control of ciliary beat in the airways. ATP can be released from cells by various mechanisms. This review focuses on channel-mediated ATP release and its main enabler, Pannexin1 (Panx1). Six subunits of Panx1 form a plasma membrane channel termed 'pannexon'. Depending on the mode of stimulation, the pannexon has large conductance (500 pS) and unselective permeability to molecules less than 1.5 kD or is a small (50 pS), chloride-selective channel. Most physiological and pathological stimuli induce the large channel conformation, whereas the small conformation so far has only been observed with exclusive voltage activation of the channel. The interaction between pannexons and ATP is intimate. The pannexon is not only the conduit for ATP, permitting ATP efflux from cells down its concentration gradient, but the pannexon is also modulated by ATP. The channel can be activated by ATP through both ionotropic P2X as well as metabotropic P2Y purinergic receptors. In the absence of a control mechanism, this positive feedback loop would lead to cell death owing to the linkage of purinergic receptors with apoptotic processes. A control mechanism preventing excessive activation of the purinergic receptors is provided by ATP binding (with low affinity) to the Panx1 protein and gating the channel shut. PMID:26009770

  18. Diffusion rates for elevated releases

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1983-11-01

    A search of the literature related to diffusion from elevated sources has determined that an adequate data base exists for use in developing parameterizations for estimating diffusion rates for material released from free standing stacks at nuclear power plants. A review of published data analyses indicates that a new parameterization of horizontal diffusion rates specifically for elevated releases is not likely to significantly change the magnitudes of horizontal diffusion coefficients on the average. However, the uncertainties associated with horizontal diffusion coefficient estimates under any given set of atmospheric conditions could be reduced by a new parameterization. Similarly, a new parameterization of vertical diffusion rates would be unlikely to significantly alter the magnitudes of diffusion coefficients for unstable atmospheric conditons. However, for neutral and stable atmospheric conditions, a new parameterization of vertical diffusion rates might increase vertical diffusion coefficients significantly. The increase would move ground-level time-integrated concentration maxima closer to the plant and would increase the maxima. 55 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  19. Nuclear energy release from fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng; Souza, S. R.; Tsang, M. B.; Zhang, Feng-Shou

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that binary fission occurs with positive energy gain. In this article we examine the energetics of splitting uranium and thorium isotopes into various numbers of fragments (from two to eight) with nearly equal size. We find that the energy released by splitting 230,232Th and 235,238U into three equal size fragments is largest. The statistical multifragmentation model (SMM) is applied to calculate the probability of different breakup channels for excited nuclei. By weighing the probability distributions of fragment multiplicity at different excitation energies, we find the peaks of energy release for 230,232Th and 235,238U are around 0.7-0.75 MeV/u at excitation energy between 1.2 and 2 MeV/u in the primary breakup process. Taking into account the secondary de-excitation processes of primary fragments with the GEMINI code, these energy peaks fall to about 0.45 MeV/u.

  20. Nitric oxide releasing acetaminophen (nitroacetaminophen).

    PubMed

    Moore, P K; Marshall, M

    2003-05-01

    The nitric oxide releasing derivative of acetaminophen (nitroacetaminophen) exhibits potent anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity in a variety of animal models. On a mol for mol basis nitroacetaminophen is some 3-20 times more potent than acetaminophen. Nitroacetaminophen exhibits little or no hepatotoxicity following administration in rat or mouse and indeed protects against the hepatotoxic activity of acetaminophen. Nitroacetaminophen does not affect blood pressure or heart rate of anaesthetised rats but has similar potency to acetaminophen as an anti-pyretic agent. The enhanced anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity of nitroacetaminophen and the reduced hepatotoxicity in these animal models is likely to be secondary to the slow release of nitric oxide from the molecule. As yet the precise molecular mechanism(s) underlying these actions of nitroacetaminophen are not clear. Evidence for inhibition of cytokine-directed formation of pro-inflammatory molecule production (e.g. COX-2, iNOS) by an effect on the NF-kappaB transduction system and/or nitrosylation (and thence inhibition) of caspase enzyme activity has been reported. Data described in this review indicate that the profile of pharmacological activity of nitroacetaminophen and acetaminophen are markedly different. The possibility that nitroacetaminophen could be an attractive alternative to acetaminophen in the clinic is discussed. PMID:12846444

  1. Foamy Virus Budding and Release

    PubMed Central

    Hütter, Sylvia; Zurnic, Irena; Lindemann, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Like all other viruses, a successful egress of functional particles from infected cells is a prerequisite for foamy virus (FV) spread within the host. The budding process of FVs involves steps, which are shared by other retroviruses, such as interaction of the capsid protein with components of cellular vacuolar protein sorting (Vps) machinery via late domains identified in some FV capsid proteins. Additionally, there are features of the FV budding strategy quite unique to the spumaretroviruses. This includes secretion of non-infectious subviral particles and a strict dependence on capsid-glycoprotein interaction for release of infectious virions from the cells. Virus-like particle release is not possible since FV capsid proteins lack a membrane-targeting signal. It is noteworthy that in experimental systems, the important capsid-glycoprotein interaction could be bypassed by fusing heterologous membrane-targeting signals to the capsid protein, thus enabling glycoprotein-independent egress. Aside from that, other systems have been developed to enable envelopment of FV capsids by heterologous Env proteins. In this review article, we will summarize the current knowledge on FV budding, the viral components and their domains involved as well as alternative and artificial ways to promote budding of FV particle structures, a feature important for alteration of target tissue tropism of FV-based gene transfer systems. PMID:23575110

  2. Release of canine parvovirus from endocytic vesicles.

    PubMed

    Suikkanen, Sanna; Antila, Mia; Jaatinen, Anne; Vihinen-Ranta, Maija; Vuento, Matti

    2003-11-25

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a small nonenveloped virus with a single-stranded DNA genome. CPV enters cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and requires an acidic endosomal step for productive infection. Virion contains a potential nuclear localization signal as well as a phospholipase A(2) like domain in N-terminus of VP1. In this study we characterized the role of PLA(2) activity on CPV entry process. PLA(2) activity of CPV capsids was triggered in vitro by heat or acidic pH. PLA(2) inhibitors inhibited the viral proliferation suggesting that PLA(2) activity is needed for productive infection. The N-terminus of VP1 was exposed during the entry, suggesting that PLA(2) activity might have a role during endocytic entry. The presence of drugs modifying endocytosis (amiloride, bafilomycin A(1), brefeldin A, and monensin) caused viral proteins to remain in endosomal/lysosomal vesicles, even though the drugs were not able to inhibit the exposure of VP1 N-terminal end. These results indicate that the exposure of N-terminus of VP1 alone is not sufficient to allow CPV to proliferate. Some other pH-dependent changes are needed for productive infection. In addition to blocking endocytic entry, amiloride was able to block some postendocytic steps. The ability of CPV to permeabilize endosomal membranes was demonstrated by feeding cells with differently sized rhodamine-conjugated dextrans together with the CPV in the presence or in the absence of amiloride, bafilomycin A(1), brefeldin A, or monensin. Dextran with a molecular weight of 3000 was released from vesicles after 8 h of infection, while dextran with a molecular weight of 10,000 was mainly retained in vesicles. The results suggest that CPV infection does not cause disruption of endosomal vesicles. However, the permeability of endosomal membranes apparently changes during CPV infection, probably due to the PLA(2) activity of the virus. These results suggest that parvoviral PLA(2) activity is essential for productive

  3. Controlled Drug Release from Pharmaceutical Nanocarriers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jinhyun Hannah; Yeo, Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Nanocarriers providing spatiotemporal control of drug release contribute to reducing toxicity and improving therapeutic efficacy of a drug. On the other hand, nanocarriers face unique challenges in controlling drug release kinetics, due to the large surface area per volume ratio and the short diffusion distance. To develop nanocarriers with desirable release kinetics for target applications, it is important to understand the mechanisms by which a carrier retains and releases a drug, the effects of composition and morphology of the carrier on the drug release kinetics, and current techniques for preparation and modification of nanocarriers. This review provides an overview of drug release mechanisms and various nanocarriers with a specific emphasis on approaches to control the drug release kinetics. PMID:25684779

  4. A rapid technique for prediction of nutrient release from controlled release fertilizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient release from soluble granular fertilizers can be modified by polymer coating to extend the total duration nutrient release up to 3 to 9 months and rate of release to match the nutrient requirement of the plant during the growing period. Hence these products are termed as “Controlled Release...

  5. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    DOEpatents

    Goldstein, Alan H.; Rogers, Robert D.

    1999-01-01

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed.

  6. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    DOEpatents

    Goldstein, A.H.; Rogers, R.D.

    1999-06-15

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed. 13 figs.

  7. Screw-released roller brake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A screw-released roller brake including an input drive assembly, an output drive assembly, a plurality of locking sprags, a mechanical tripper nut for unlocking the sprags, and a casing therefor. The sprags consist of three dimensional (3-D) sprag members having pairs of contact surface regions which engage respective pairs of contact surface regions included in angular grooves or slots formed in the casing and the output drive assembly. The sprags operate to lock the output drive assembly to the casing to prevent rotation thereof in an idle mode of operation. In a drive mode of operation, the tripper is either self actuated or motor driven and is translated linearly up and down against a spline and at the limit of its travel rotates the sprags which unlock while coupling the input drive assembly to the output drive assembly so as to impart a turning motion thereto in either a clockwise or counterclockwise direction.

  8. A1C Test and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... laboratory tests. How does the A1C relate to estimated average glucose? Estimated average glucose (eAG) is calculated from the A1C. ... levels have the A1C test twice a year. Estimated average glucose (eAG) is calculated from the A1C ...

  9. Release Data Package for Hanford Site Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Robert G.; Lopresti, Charles A.; Engel, David W.

    2006-07-01

    Beginning in fiscal year (FY) 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office initiated activities, including the development of data packages, to support a Hanford assessment. This report describes the data compiled in FY 2003 through 2005 to support the Release Module of the System Assessment Capability (SAC) for the updated composite analysis. This work was completed as part of the Characterization of Systems Project, part of the Remediation and Closure Science Project, the Hanford Assessments Project, and the Characterization of Systems Project managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Related characterization activities and data packages for the vadose zone and groundwater are being developed under the remediation Decision Support Task of the Groundwater Remediation Project managed by Fluor Hanford, Inc. The Release Module applies release models to waste inventory data from the Inventory Module and accounts for site remediation activities as a function of time. The resulting releases to the vadose zone, expressed as time profiles of annual rates, become source terms for the Vadose Zone Module. Radioactive decay is accounted for in all inputs and outputs of the Release Module. The Release Module is implemented as the VADER (Vadose zone Environmental Release) computer code. Key components of the Release Module are numerical models (i.e., liquid, soil-debris, cement, saltcake, and reactor block) that simulate contaminant release from the different waste source types found at the Hanford Site. The Release Module also handles remediation transfers to onsite and offsite repositories.

  10. Drug release kinetic analysis and prediction of release data via polymer molecular weight in sustained release diltiazem matrices.

    PubMed

    Adibkia, K; Ghanbarzadeh, S; Mohammadi, G; Khiavi, H Z; Sabzevari, A; Barzegar-Jalali, M

    2014-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of HPMC (K4M and K100M) as well as tragacanth on the drug release rate of diltiazem (DLTZ) from matrix tablets prepared by direct compression method.Mechanism of drug transport through the matrices was studied by fitting the release data to the 10 kinetic models. 3 model independent parameters; i. e., mean dissolution time (MDT), mean release rate (MRR) and release rate efficacy (RE) as well as 5 time point approaches were established to compare the dissolution profiles. To find correlation between fraction of drug released and polymer's molecular weight, dissolution data were fitted into two proposed equations.All polymers could sustain drug release up to 10 h. The release data were fitted best to Peppas and Higuchi square root kinetic models considering squared correlation coefficient and mean percent error (MPE). RE and MRR were decreased when polymer to drug ratio was increased. Conversely, t60% was increased with raising polymer /drug ratio. The fractions of drug released from the formulations prepared with tragacanth were more than those formulated using the same amount of HPMC K4M and HPMC K100M.Preparation of DLTZ matrices applying HPMCK4M, HPMC K100M and tragacanth could effectively extend the drug release. PMID:23986307

  11. Characterisation of a flavonoid ligand of the fungal protein Alt a 1

    PubMed Central

    Garrido-Arandia, María; Silva-Navas, Javier; Ramírez-Castillejo, Carmen; Cubells-Baeza, Nuria; Gómez-Casado, Cristina; Barber, Domingo; Pozo, Juan C.; Melendi, Pablo G.; Pacios, Luis F.; Díaz-Perales, Araceli

    2016-01-01

    Spores of pathogenic fungi are virtually ubiquitous and cause human disease and severe losses in crops. The endophytic fungi Alternaria species produce host-selective phytotoxins. Alt a 1 is a strongly allergenic protein found in A. alternata that causes severe asthma. Despite the well-established pathogenicity of Alt a 1, the molecular mechanisms underlying its action and physiological function remain largely unknown. To gain insight into the role played by this protein in the pathogenicity of the fungus, we studied production of Alt a 1 and its activity in spores. We found that Alt a 1 accumulates inside spores and that its release with a ligand is pH-dependent, with optimum production in the 5.0–6.5 interval. The Alt a 1 ligand was identified as a methylated flavonoid that inhibits plant root growth and detoxifies reactive oxygen species. We also found that Alt a 1 changes its oligomerization state depending on the pH of the surrounding medium and that these changes facilitate the release of the ligand. Based on these results, we propose that release of Alt a 1 should be a pathogenic target in approaches used to block plant defenses and consequently to favor fungal entry into the plant. PMID:27633190

  12. Characterisation of a flavonoid ligand of the fungal protein Alt a 1.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Arandia, María; Silva-Navas, Javier; Ramírez-Castillejo, Carmen; Cubells-Baeza, Nuria; Gómez-Casado, Cristina; Barber, Domingo; Pozo, Juan C; Melendi, Pablo G; Pacios, Luis F; Díaz-Perales, Araceli

    2016-01-01

    Spores of pathogenic fungi are virtually ubiquitous and cause human disease and severe losses in crops. The endophytic fungi Alternaria species produce host-selective phytotoxins. Alt a 1 is a strongly allergenic protein found in A. alternata that causes severe asthma. Despite the well-established pathogenicity of Alt a 1, the molecular mechanisms underlying its action and physiological function remain largely unknown. To gain insight into the role played by this protein in the pathogenicity of the fungus, we studied production of Alt a 1 and its activity in spores. We found that Alt a 1 accumulates inside spores and that its release with a ligand is pH-dependent, with optimum production in the 5.0-6.5 interval. The Alt a 1 ligand was identified as a methylated flavonoid that inhibits plant root growth and detoxifies reactive oxygen species. We also found that Alt a 1 changes its oligomerization state depending on the pH of the surrounding medium and that these changes facilitate the release of the ligand. Based on these results, we propose that release of Alt a 1 should be a pathogenic target in approaches used to block plant defenses and consequently to favor fungal entry into the plant. PMID:27633190

  13. Helium release during shale deformation: Experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Stephen J.; Gardner, W. Payton; Heath, Jason E.

    2016-07-01

    This work describes initial experimental results of helium tracer release monitoring during deformation of shale. Naturally occurring radiogenic 4He is present in high concentration in most shales. During rock deformation, accumulated helium could be released as fractures are created and new transport pathways are created. We present the results of an experimental study in which confined reservoir shale samples, cored parallel and perpendicular to bedding, which were initially saturated with helium to simulate reservoir conditions, are subjected to triaxial compressive deformation. During the deformation experiment, differential stress, axial, and radial strains are systematically tracked. Release of helium is dynamically measured using a helium mass spectrometer leak detector. Helium released during deformation is observable at the laboratory scale and the release is tightly coupled to the shale deformation. These first measurements of dynamic helium release from rocks undergoing deformation show that helium provides information on the evolution of microstructure as a function of changes in stress and strain.

  14. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Benkovitz, C.

    1981-11-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1979 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1979 release data are compared with previous year's releases in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  15. Environmental releases for calendar year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Greager, E.M.

    1997-07-31

    This report presents data on radioactive and nonradioactive materials released into the environment during calendar year 1996 from facilities and activities managed by the Fluor Daniel Hanford, Incorporated (formerly the Westinghouse Hanford Company) and Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated. Fluor Daniel Hanford, Incorporated provides effluent monitoring services for Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated, which includes release reporting. Both summary and detailed presentations of the environmental releases are provided. When appropriate, comparisons to data from previous years are made.

  16. Environmental releases for calendar year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Diediker, L.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-30

    This report presents data on radioactive and nonradioactive materials released into the environment during calendar year 1995 from facilities managed by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and monitored by Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated (BHI). WHC provides effluent monitoring services for BHI, which includes release reporting. Both summary and detailed presentations of the environmental releases are provided. When appropriate,comparisons to data from previous years are made.

  17. Quick-release medical tape

    PubMed Central

    Laulicht, Bryan; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Medical tape that provides secure fixation of life-sustaining and -monitoring devices with quick, easy, damage-free removal represents a longstanding unmet medical need in neonatal care. During removal of current medical tapes, crack propagation occurs at the adhesive–skin interface, which is also the interface responsible for device fixation. By designing quick-release medical tape to undergo crack propagation between the backing and adhesive layers, we decouple removal and device fixation, enabling dual functionality. We created an ordered adhesive/antiadhesive composite intermediary layer between the medical tape backing and adhesive for which we achieve tunable peel removal force, while maintaining high shear adhesion to secure medical devices. We elucidate the relationship between the spatial ordering of adhesive and antiadhesive regions to create a fully tunable system that achieves strong device fixation and quick, easy, damage-free device removal. We also described ways of neutralizing the residual adhesive on the skin and have observed that thick continuous films of adhesive are easier to remove than the thin islands associated with residual adhesive left by current medical tapes. PMID:23112196

  18. Somatodendritic dopamine release: recent mechanistic insights

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Margaret E.; Patel, Jyoti C.

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is a key transmitter in motor, reward and cogitative pathways, with DA dysfunction implicated in disorders including Parkinson's disease and addiction. Located in midbrain, DA neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta project via the medial forebrain bundle to the dorsal striatum (caudate putamen), and DA neurons in the adjacent ventral tegmental area project to the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) and prefrontal cortex. In addition to classical vesicular release from axons, midbrain DA neurons exhibit DA release from their cell bodies and dendrites. Somatodendritic DA release leads to activation of D2 DA autoreceptors on DA neurons that inhibit their firing via G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K+ channels. This helps determine patterns of DA signalling at distant axonal release sites. Somatodendritically released DA also acts via volume transmission to extrasynaptic receptors that modulate local transmitter release and neuronal activity in the midbrain. Thus, somatodendritic release is a pivotal intrinsic feature of DA neurons that must be well defined in order to fully understand the physiology and pathophysiology of DA pathways. Here, we review recent mechanistic aspects of somatodendritic DA release, with particular emphasis on the Ca2+ dependence of release and the potential role of exocytotic proteins. PMID:26009764

  19. 32 CFR 169a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 169a.1(a). 3 Copies may be obtained if needed, from the Office of Management and Budget, Executive... and Industrial Activities Cost Comparison Handbook.” 4 See footnote 1 to § 169a.1(a)....

  20. Controlled release of thyrotropin releasing hormone from microspheres: evaluation of release profiles and pharmacokinetics after subcutaneous administration.

    PubMed

    Heya, T; Mikura, Y; Nagai, A; Miura, Y; Futo, T; Tomida, Y; Shimizu, H; Toguchi, H

    1994-06-01

    The drug-release kinetics of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) containing copoly(dl-lactic/glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. The drug was encapsulated in PLGA using an in-water drying method through a water in oil in water emulsion. The drug release from the PLGA microspheres in vitro correlated well with that in vivo, and pseudo-zero-order release kinetics were observed. The pharmacokinetics of TRH following administration of this controlled-release parenteral dosage form have been also examined in rats. Following a transient increase in the plasma level due to an initial burst, steady-state plasma levels were observed. The duration of drug release estimated from the plasma level was comparable with the results in the in vitro and in vivo release studies. The steady-state plasma levels correlated well with the levels predicted from the pharmacokinetic parameters following a single subcutaneous or intravenous injection of TRH solution. The results of this study confirm the previously reported in vivo sustained release of TRH achieved with this drug-delivery system. PMID:9120809

  1. 32 CFR 169a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROCEDURES General § 169a.1 Purpose. This part: (a) Reissues DoD Instruction 4100.33 1 to update policy... § 169a.1(a). 3 Copies may be obtained if needed, from the Office of Management and Budget, Executive... and Industrial Activities Cost Comparison Handbook.” 4 See footnote 1 to § 169a.1(a)....

  2. 22 CFR 3a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 3a.1 Section 3a.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL ACCEPTANCE OF EMPLOYMENT FROM FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS BY MEMBERS OF THE UNIFORMED SERVICES § 3a.1 Definitions. For purposes of this part— (a) Applicant means any person...

  3. 8 CFR 213a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions. 213a.1 Section 213a.1 Aliens... BEHALF OF IMMIGRANTS § 213a.1 Definitions. As used in this part, the term: Domicile means the place where... intention to maintain that residence for the foreseeable future. Federal poverty line means the level...

  4. 8 CFR 213a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definitions. 213a.1 Section 213a.1 Aliens... BEHALF OF IMMIGRANTS § 213a.1 Definitions. As used in this part, the term: Domicile means the place where... intention to maintain that residence for the foreseeable future. Federal poverty line means the level...

  5. 18 CFR 3a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 3a.1 Section 3a.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.1 Purpose. This part 3a describes...

  6. 18 CFR 3a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Purpose. 3a.1 Section 3a.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.1 Purpose. This part 3a describes...

  7. 18 CFR 3a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Purpose. 3a.1 Section 3a.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.1 Purpose. This part 3a describes...

  8. 18 CFR 3a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Purpose. 3a.1 Section 3a.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.1 Purpose. This part 3a describes...

  9. 14 CFR 374a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Purpose. 374a.1 Section 374a.1 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS EXTENSION OF CREDIT BY AIRLINES TO FEDERAL POLITICAL CANDIDATES § 374a.1 Purpose. Section 401...

  10. 14 CFR 374a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Purpose. 374a.1 Section 374a.1 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS EXTENSION OF CREDIT BY AIRLINES TO FEDERAL POLITICAL CANDIDATES § 374a.1 Purpose. Section 401...

  11. 14 CFR 374a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Purpose. 374a.1 Section 374a.1 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS EXTENSION OF CREDIT BY AIRLINES TO FEDERAL POLITICAL CANDIDATES § 374a.1 Purpose. Section 401...

  12. 14 CFR 374a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose. 374a.1 Section 374a.1 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS EXTENSION OF CREDIT BY AIRLINES TO FEDERAL POLITICAL CANDIDATES § 374a.1 Purpose. Section 401...

  13. 14 CFR 374a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Purpose. 374a.1 Section 374a.1 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS EXTENSION OF CREDIT BY AIRLINES TO FEDERAL POLITICAL CANDIDATES § 374a.1 Purpose. Section 401...

  14. 18 CFR 3a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purpose. 3a.1 Section 3a.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.1 Purpose. This part 3a describes...

  15. Summary Profiles of Hanford Effluent Release Data

    SciTech Connect

    KM Tominey; MK White

    1999-01-07

    Hanford publishes extensive estimates of their offsite releases of various chemical and radiological species annuaIly. In this report we examine using these estimates to develop additional insight into how effectively such releases of hazardous materials are being controlled at Hanford. Historical estimates of airborne and surface water releases of selected contaminants are compared with estimates of the overall Site inventory of those contaminants and with the corresponding release limits and background levels. These comparisons are also examined over a five-year period (1993 to 1997) to determine how these releases have changed during that time. Most of the waste management and environmental restoration activities under way at Hanford are intended to provide final, permanent disposition of the Site's inventory of hazardous materials, with the ultimate objective of ensuring that risks to the public and the environment are controlled to an acceptable level. An important consideration during the conduct of these activities is prott%ting the public and the environment while accomplishing the longer-term ~~ objectives. The amounts of hazardous materials that are being released to the air or surface water while waste management and environmental activities are being conducted is one important measure of their overall effectiveness. The comparisons described in this report indicate that measures to control the release of the selected contaminants from the Hanford Site are, and have been, veryeffective. The amounts of these materials released to surface water and air are very small compared with background and regulatory limits and smaller still considering the inventories" under management. Comparisons of annual releases ranged from slightly over background to five orders of magnitude below background levels (e.g., l/10,000* of background levels), and up to 14 orders of magnitude less than estimates of Site inventories. Annual releases for these contaminants

  16. 28 CFR 571.22 - Release clothing and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Release clothing and transportation. 571... AND RELEASE RELEASE FROM CUSTODY Release Gratuities, Transportation, and Clothing § 571.22 Release clothing and transportation. (a) Staff shall provide release clothing appropriate for the time of year...

  17. 28 CFR 571.22 - Release clothing and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Release clothing and transportation. 571... AND RELEASE RELEASE FROM CUSTODY Release Gratuities, Transportation, and Clothing § 571.22 Release clothing and transportation. (a) Staff shall provide release clothing appropriate for the time of year...

  18. 28 CFR 571.22 - Release clothing and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release clothing and transportation. 571... AND RELEASE RELEASE FROM CUSTODY Release Gratuities, Transportation, and Clothing § 571.22 Release clothing and transportation. (a) Staff shall provide release clothing appropriate for the time of year...

  19. 28 CFR 571.22 - Release clothing and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Release clothing and transportation. 571... AND RELEASE RELEASE FROM CUSTODY Release Gratuities, Transportation, and Clothing § 571.22 Release clothing and transportation. (a) Staff shall provide release clothing appropriate for the time of year...

  20. 28 CFR 571.22 - Release clothing and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Release clothing and transportation. 571... AND RELEASE RELEASE FROM CUSTODY Release Gratuities, Transportation, and Clothing § 571.22 Release clothing and transportation. (a) Staff shall provide release clothing appropriate for the time of year...

  1. Ten Ways to Get Attention with Your Press Releases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Kooten, Valerie

    1994-01-01

    Recommends 10 steps that can increase chances of having press release published. Advises readers to use required format; determine what constitutes news; keep release short; include contact person in release; incorporate good quotes; send releases to right person; understand that release will be edited; time arrival of release; follow up with…

  2. Teach with Databases: Toxics Release Inventory. [Multimedia].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barracato, Jay; Spooner, Barbara

    This curriculum unit provides students with real world applications of science as it pertains to toxic releases into the environment. This boxed package contains the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Teacher's Guide, TRI Database Basics guide, comprehensive TRI compact disk with user's guide, "Getting Started: A Guide to Bringing Environmental…

  3. 10 CFR 850.31 - Release criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Release criteria. 850.31 Section 850.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.31 Release criteria. (a) The responsible employer must clean beryllium-contaminated equipment and other items to...

  4. 10 CFR 850.31 - Release criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Release criteria. 850.31 Section 850.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.31 Release criteria. (a) The responsible employer must clean beryllium-contaminated equipment and other items to...

  5. 27 CFR 27.185 - Customs release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs release. 27.185... Distilled Spirits From Customs Custody Free of Tax for Use of the United States § 27.185 Customs release. (a) Upon receipt of appropriate customs entry and a photocopy of a permit, Form 5150.33 or...

  6. Contamination surveys for release of material

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, J.S.; Johnson, M.L.; Gardner, D.L.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes, and presents the technical basis for, a methodology for performing instrument surveys to release material from radiological control, including release to controlled areas and release from radiological control. The methodology is based on a fast scan survey, a large-area wipe survey, and a series of statistical, fixed measurements. The methodology meets the requirements of the US Department of Energy Radiological Control Manual (RadCon Manual) (DOE 1994) and DOE Order 5400.5 (DOE 1990) for release of material in less time than is required by a conventional scan survey. Implementation of the proposed methodology with a confidence interval of 67% will meet the material release requirements. The material evaluation process will allow material that has not been exposed to contamination to be released from radiological control without a survey. For potential radioactive contaminants that are not reserved in DOE Order 5400.5, the methodology will allow material to be released from radiological control. For other radionuclides, with the exception of some difficult-to-detect radionuclides, material may be released for controlled use. Compared with current techniques, the proposed methodology will reduce the amount of time required to perform surveys.

  7. 48 CFR 2905.404 - Release procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... release long-range acquisition estimates under the conditions in FAR 5.404-1. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Release procedures. 2905.404 Section 2905.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ACQUISITION...

  8. Method for releasing hydrogen from ammonia borane

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, Arvind; Diwan, Moiz; Shafirovich, Evgeny; Hwang, Hyun-Tae; Al-Kukhun, Ahmad

    2013-02-19

    A method of releasing hydrogen from ammonia borane is disclosed. The method comprises heating an aqueous ammonia borane solution to between about 80-135.degree. C. at between about 14.7 and 200 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) to release hydrogen by hydrothermolysis.

  9. In the Stocks: Perilous Press Releases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Linda P.; Loving, Bill

    1994-01-01

    Reviews some of the legal responsibilities of public relations practitioners in the preparation of press releases. Discusses legal criteria for judging the fraudulence of press releases and discusses the timeframe for fraudulent action. Concludes with lessons that practitioners need to understand. (SR)

  10. 21 CFR 181.28 - Release agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Release agents. 181.28 Section 181.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PRIOR-SANCTIONED FOOD INGREDIENTS Specific Prior-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.28 Release agents....

  11. 49 CFR 236.790 - Release, time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Release, time. 236.790 Section 236.790... Release, time. A device used to prevent the operation of an operative unit until after the expiration of a predetermined time interval after the device has been actuated....

  12. BLOOD TRIGGERED RAPID RELEASE POROUS NANOCAPSULES

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Tiffany P.; Dergunov, Sergey A.; Akers, Walter J.; Cao, Qian; Magalotti, Selena; Achilefu, Samuel; Pinkhassik, Eugene; Berezin, Mikhail Y.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid-release drug delivery systems present a new paradigm in emergency care treatments. Such systems combine a long shelf life with the ability to provide a significant dose of the drug to the bloodstream in the shortest period of time. Until now, development of delivery formulations has concentrated on slow release systems to ensure a steady concentration of the drug. To address the need for quick release system, we created hollow polyacrylate nanocapsules with nanometer-thin porous walls. Burst release occurs upon interaction with blood components that leads to escape of the cargo. The likely mechanism of release involves a conformational change of the polymer shell caused by binding albumin. To demonstrate this concept, a near-infrared fluorescent dye indocyanine green (ICG) was incorporated inside the nanocapsules. ICG-loaded nanocapsules demonstrated remarkable shelf life in aqueous buffers with no release of ICG for twelve months. Rapid release of the dye was demonstrated first in vitro using albumin solution and serum. SEM and light scattering analysis demonstrated the retention of the nanocapsule architecture after the release of the dye upon contact with albumin. In vivo studies using fluorescence lifetime imaging confirmed quick discharge of ICG from the nanocapsules following intravenous injection. PMID:23606942

  13. Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) Operation Manual

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) is a field instrument that provides an in-situ measurement of asbestos releasability from consistent and reproducible mechanical agitation of the source material such as soil. The RAFS was designed to measure concentration (asbestos st...

  14. Controlled drug release from hydrogel nanoparticle networks.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gang; Gao, Jun; Hu, Zhibing; St John, John V; Ponder, Bill C; Moro, Dan

    2004-02-10

    Monodisperse nanoparticles of poly-N-isopropylacrylamide-co-allylamine (PNIPAM-co-allylamine) and PNIPAM-co-acrylic acid (PNIPAM-co-AA) were synthesized. The close-packed PNIPAM-co-allylamine and PNIPAM-co-AA nanoparticles were converted to three-dimensional gel networks by covalently crosslinking neighboring particles at room temperature and neutral pH using glutaric dialdehyde and adipic acid dihydrazide, respectively. Controlled release studies were conducted using dextran markers of various molecular weights as model macromolecular drugs. Release was quantified under various physical conditions, including a range of temperatures and dextran molecular weights. Dextran, entrapped in cavities in the nanoparticle network, was released with a rate regulated by their molecular weights and cavity size. No release from a conventional bulk PNIPAM gel, with high crosslinking density, was observed. The rate of release from the PNIPAM-co-allylamine network was temperature-dependent, being much faster at room temperature than that at human body temperature. In contrast, release of low molecular weight dextrans from the PNIPAM-co-AA network showed a temperature-independent release profile. These nanoparticle networks have several advantages over conventional bulk gels for controlling the release of high molecular weight biomolecules. PMID:14744482

  15. Serotonin release varies with brain tryptophan levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaechter, Judith D.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    This study examines directly the effects on serotonin release of varying brain tryptophan levels within the physiologic range. It also addresses possible interactions between tryptophan availability and the frequency of membrane depolarization in controlling serotonin release. We demonstrate that reducing tryptophan levels in rat hypothalamic slices (by superfusing them with medium supplemented with 100 microM leucine) decreases tissue serotonin levels as well as both the spontaneous and the electrically-evoked serotonin release. Conversely, elevating tissue tryptophan levels (by superfusing slices with medium supplemented with 2 microM tryptophan) increases both the tissue serotonin levels and the serotonin release. Serotonin release was found to be affected independently by the tryptophan availability and the frequency of electrical field-stimulation (1-5 Hz), since increasing both variables produced nearly additive increases in release. These observations demonstrate for the first time that both precursor-dependent elevations and reductions in brain serotonin levels produce proportionate changes in serotonin release, and that the magnitude of the tryptophan effect is unrelated to neuronal firing frequency. The data support the hypothesis that serotonin release is proportionate to intracellular serotonin levels.

  16. 40 CFR 227.28 - Release zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Release zone. 227.28 Section 227.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Definitions § 227.28 Release zone....

  17. 40 CFR 227.28 - Release zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Release zone. 227.28 Section 227.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Definitions § 227.28 Release zone....

  18. 40 CFR 227.28 - Release zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Release zone. 227.28 Section 227.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Definitions § 227.28 Release zone....

  19. 40 CFR 227.28 - Release zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Release zone. 227.28 Section 227.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Definitions § 227.28 Release zone....

  20. Extended-release methylphenidate (Ritalin LA).

    PubMed

    Lyseng-Williamson, Katherine A; Keating, Gillian M

    2002-01-01

    An extended-release formulation of methylphenidate (Ritalin LA), a CNS stimulant that inhibits dopamine and noradrenaline (norepinephrine) reuptake into presynaptic neurons, has been developed for use in patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In children with ADHD and healthy male adults, extended-release methylphenidate 20mg was rapidly absorbed and demonstrated two distinct peak plasma concentrations approximately 4 hours apart. The absorption pharmacokinetics of extended-release methylphenidate 20mg, which closely mimics those of immediate-release methylphenidate 10mg given in two doses 4 hours apart, permits once-daily administration. In a 2-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 134 evaluable children aged 6 to 12 years with ADHD, symptoms improved to a significantly greater extent with extended-release methylphenidate 10 to 40mg once daily than with placebo. Extended-release methylphenidate improved both inattention and hyperactivity symptoms and was effective in children with combined- (inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive) type or predominantly inattentive-type ADHD. In clinical trials, the safety and tolerability profiles of extended-release methylphenidate were consistent with that of the immediate-release formulation.

  1. Automated code compilation via the Release Manager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golpayegani, N.

    2006-07-01

    GLAST performs automated builds of its C++ code base. These builds reflect a three-tiered approach to code development, allowing us to test and create releases, as well as get a view of new code submissions that will eventually make it into releases. The program responsible for these automated builds is called the Release Manager. It is based on code originally written by Alex Schlessinger. Its main purpose is to provide rapid feedback for developers when code changes occur. It consists of three loosely connected pieces: The batch submission interface, the Workflow manager, and the Release Manager scripts. The batch submission interface is responsible for keeping track of submitted batch jobs and notifying users/programs using various methods when jobs change status. The Release Manager relies heavily on this interface to allow code builds to happen on demand and in parallel. The workflow manager is a generic program responsible for moving from one state to another based on criteria defined. These states are executed using the batch submission program. Finally the Release Manager consists of scripts that are registered as different states in the Workflow Manager. The Release Manager is currently able to run on Linux and Windows. It uses a MySQL database to record its information. It is currently tightly tied to GLAST's build tool, CMT. Other purposes of the Release Manager are to create source packages for developers and binary packages for end users.

  2. 28 CFR 2.83 - Release planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release planning. 2.83 Section 2.83 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS District of Columbia Code: Prisoners and Parolees §...

  3. 19 CFR 142.48 - Release procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... measure, and the C-4 Code will be printed on the invoice and the manifest document and, when other agency documentation is presented, may be printed on that documentation. The invoice shall be returned to the entry.... The returned invoice with the release data shall be the release notification to non-ABI...

  4. 19 CFR 142.48 - Release procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... measure, and the C-4 Code will be printed on the invoice and the manifest document and, when other agency documentation is presented, may be printed on that documentation. The invoice shall be returned to the entry.... The returned invoice with the release data shall be the release notification to non-ABI...

  5. 10 CFR 850.31 - Release criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Release criteria. 850.31 Section 850.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.31 Release... the equipment or item and its future use and the nature of the beryllium contamination. (c)...

  6. 10 CFR 850.31 - Release criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Release criteria. 850.31 Section 850.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.31 Release... the equipment or item and its future use and the nature of the beryllium contamination. (c)...

  7. 10 CFR 850.31 - Release criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Release criteria. 850.31 Section 850.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.31 Release... the equipment or item and its future use and the nature of the beryllium contamination. (c)...

  8. Nitric Oxide Release Part I. Macromolecular Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Riccio, Daniel A.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The roles of nitric oxide (NO) in physiology and pathophysiology merit the use of NO as a therapeutic for certain biomedical applications. Unfortunately, limited NO payloads, too rapid NO release, and the lack of targeted NO delivery have hindered the clinical utility of NO gas and low molecular weight NO donor compounds. A wide-variety of NO-releasing macromolecular scaffolds has thus been developed to improve NO’s pharmacological potential. In this tutorial review, we provide an overview of the most promising NO release scaffolds including protein, organic, inorganic, and hybrid organic-inorganic systems. The NO release vehicles selected for discussion were chosen based on their enhanced NO storage, tunable NO release characteristics, and potential as therapeutics. PMID:22362355

  9. Ecological release in White Sands lizards

    PubMed Central

    Roches, S Des; Robertson, J M; Harmon, L J; Rosenblum, E B

    2011-01-01

    Ecological opportunity is any change that allows populations to escape selection from competition and predation. After encountering ecological opportunity, populations may experience ecological release: enlarged population size, broadened resource use, and/or increased morphological variation. We identified ecological opportunity and tested for ecological release in three lizard colonists of White Sands, New Mexico (Sceloporus undulatus, Holbrookia maculata, and Aspidoscelis inornata). First, we provide evidence for ecological opportunity by demonstrating reduced species richness and abundance of potential competitors and predators at White Sands relative to nearby dark soils habitats. Second, we characterize ecological release at White Sands by demonstrating density compensation in the three White Sands lizard species and expanded resource use in White Sands S. undulatus. Contrary to predictions from ecological release models, we observed directional trait change but not increased trait variation in S. undulatus. Our results suggest that ecological opportunity and ecological release can be identified in natural populations, especially those that have recently colonized isolated ecosystems. PMID:22393523

  10. Accidental release prevention: Recent EPA actions

    SciTech Connect

    Mester, Z.C.

    1995-05-01

    Industry should expect a resurgence in EPA accidental release prevention mandates. Among recent federal rulemakings, a list of substances and their thresholds for accidental releases were addressed in a final rule March 1994. Risk management of accidental releases was addressed in a related, proposed rule. The rules will affect an estimated 118,000 facilities nationwide. The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 are the driving force. CAAA Title 3 Section 112 (r) requires EPA to formulate and implement requirements for accidental release prevention. Section 112 (r) provisions can be viewed as the culmination of federal legislative efforts to prevent accidental releases and protect the public. Federal interest was fanned by a number of serious accidents in the US and worldwide in the past 20 years.

  11. Dust release from surfaces exposed to plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, T. M.; Goree, J.

    2006-12-15

    Micrometer-sized particles adhered to a surface can be released when exposed to plasma. In an experiment with a glass surface coated with lunar-simulant dust, it was found that particle release requires exposure to both plasma and an electron beam. The dust release rate diminishes almost exponentially in time, which is consistent with a random process. As proposed here, charges of particles adhered to the surface fluctuate. These charges experience a fluctuating electric force that occasionally overcomes the adhesive van der Waals force, causing particle release. The release rate increases with plasma density, so that plasma cleaning is feasible at high plasma densities. Applications of this cleaning include controlling particulate contamination in semiconductor manufacturing, dust mitigation in the exploration of the moon and Mars, and dusty plasmas.

  12. Quantification of Energy Release in Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnetyan, Levon; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Energy release rate is usually suggested as a quantifier for assessing structural damage tolerance. Computational prediction of energy release rate is based on composite mechanics with micro-stress level damage assessment, finite element structural analysis and damage progression tracking modules. This report examines several issues associated with energy release rates in composite structures as follows: Chapter I demonstrates computational simulation of an adhesively bonded composite joint and validates the computed energy release rates by comparison with acoustic emission signals in the overall sense. Chapter II investigates the effect of crack plane orientation with respect to fiber direction on the energy release rates. Chapter III quantifies the effects of contiguous constraint plies on the residual stiffness of a 90 deg ply subjected to transverse tensile fractures. Chapter IV compares ICAN and ICAN/JAVA solutions of composites. Chapter V examines the effects of composite structural geometry and boundary conditions on damage progression characteristics.

  13. Quantification of Energy Release in Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnetyan, Levon

    2003-01-01

    Energy release rate is usually suggested as a quantifier for assessing structural damage tolerance. Computational prediction of energy release rate is based on composite mechanics with micro-stress level damage assessment, finite element structural analysis and damage progression tracking modules. This report examines several issues associated with energy release rates in composite structures as follows: Chapter I demonstrates computational simulation of an adhesively bonded composite joint and validates the computed energy release rates by comparison with acoustic emission signals in the overall sense. Chapter II investigates the effect of crack plane orientation with respect to fiber direction on the energy release rates. Chapter III quantifies the effects of contiguous constraint plies on the residual stiffness of a 90 ply subjected to transverse tensile fractures. Chapter IV compares ICAN and ICAN/JAVA solutions of composites. Chapter V examines the effects of composite structural geometry and boundary conditions on damage progression characteristics.

  14. Intracellular sphingosine releases calcium from lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Höglinger, Doris; Haberkant, Per; Aguilera-Romero, Auxiliadora; Riezman, Howard; Porter, Forbes D; Platt, Frances M; Galione, Antony; Schultz, Carsten

    2015-11-27

    To elucidate new functions of sphingosine (Sph), we demonstrate that the spontaneous elevation of intracellular Sph levels via caged Sph leads to a significant and transient calcium release from acidic stores that is independent of sphingosine 1-phosphate, extracellular and ER calcium levels. This photo-induced Sph-driven calcium release requires the two-pore channel 1 (TPC1) residing on endosomes and lysosomes. Further, uncaging of Sph leads to the translocation of the autophagy-relevant transcription factor EB (TFEB) to the nucleus specifically after lysosomal calcium release. We confirm that Sph accumulates in late endosomes and lysosomes of cells derived from Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) patients and demonstrate a greatly reduced calcium release upon Sph uncaging. We conclude that sphingosine is a positive regulator of calcium release from acidic stores and that understanding the interplay between Sph homeostasis, calcium signaling and autophagy will be crucial in developing new therapies for lipid storage disorders such as NPC.

  15. Environmental release summary (ERS) database CY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1998-07-01

    This report discusses the Environmental Release Summary (ERS) database. The current needs of the Effluent and Environmental database is continually modified to fulfill monitoring (EEM) program (managed by Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Incorporated, Air and Water Services Organization). Changes are made to accurately calculate current releases, to affect how past releases are calculated. This document serves as a snap-shot of the database and software for the CY-1997 data and releases. This document contains all of the relevant data for calculating radioactive-airborne and liquid effluent. The ERS database is the official repository for the CY-1997 ERS release reports and the settings used to generate those reports. As part of the Tri-Party Agreement, FDH is committed to provide a hard copy of the ERS database for Washington State Department of Ecology, upon request. This document also serves as that hard copy for the last complete calendar year.

  16. Gas release and conductivity modification studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linson, L. M.; Baxter, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    The behavior of gas clouds produced by releases from orbital velocity in either a point release or venting mode is described by the modification of snowplow equations valid in an intermediate altitude regime. Quantitative estimates are produced for the time dependence of the radius of the cloud, the average internal energy, the translational velocity, and the distance traveled. The dependence of these quantities on the assumed density profile, the internal energy of the gas, and the ratio of specific heats is examined. The new feature is the inclusion of the effect of the large orbital velocity. The resulting gas cloud models are used to calculate the characteristics of the field line integrated Pedersen conductivity enhancements that would be produced by the release of barium thermite at orbital velocity in either the point release or venting modes as a function of release altitude and chemical payload weight.

  17. Locking and releasing system in space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yijian; Dong, Jihong; Li, Wei; Zhao, Weiguo

    2014-09-01

    Space telescope locking and releasing system is one of the most important part in aerospace. It can provide the part in the spacecraft from being under attack. In this letter, the developing status and primary characteristics of several locking and releasing system in recent years were summarized. The main locking and releasing system can be part with pyrotechnic device and un-pyrotechnic device. The paper introduces the system and the way that the device released by compared the pyrotechnic and the un-pyrotechnic device. In the way of comparing the different device, the letter made the point that each of these device had its advantages that should been developed, and the disadvantages that should been improved. These analyses will provide references for the design of the locking and releasing system in the future of telescope research.

  18. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of once-daily controlled-release oxybutynin and immediate-release oxybutynin.

    PubMed

    Reiz, Joseph L; Salem, Paulette; Darke, Andrew C

    2007-03-01

    Oxybutynin is used to treat patients with urinary urgency, frequency, and urge incontinence. In this 2-way, multiple-dose, crossover study, the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of once-daily controlled-release oxybutynin were compared with immediate-release oxybutynin. Eighteen healthy male volunteers received one 15-mg controlled-release oxybutynin tablet once daily for 5 days or one 5-mg immediate-release oxybutynin tablet every 8 hours for 5 days. The washout period between treatments was > or =7 days. The mean steady-state AUC for oxybutynin following controlled-release oxybutynin treatment was higher (73.0 ng.h/mL) than following immediate-release oxybutynin treatment (53.6 ng.h/mL) (P = .0001). The mean C(max) was lower for controlled-release oxybutynin (5.7 ng/mL) than for immediate-release oxybutynin (7.5 ng/mL) (P = .0051), with a smaller fluctuation in oxybutynin plasma concentration for controlled-release oxybutynin (135.6%) than for immediate-release oxybutynin (319.3%) (P = .0001). Mean stimulated saliva output was greater for controlled-release oxybutynin, and mean dry mouth severity was less than immediate-release oxybutynin.

  19. Measure your septa release ratios: pheromone release ratio variability affected by rubber septa and solvent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The type of solvent and volume of the solvent used to load pheromone/volatile components onto rubber septa had significant effects on release ratios, the variability of those release ratios, and the recoverability of the volatile components during subsequent extraction with hexane. Volatile release ...

  20. 14 CFR 125.373 - Original flight release or amendment of flight release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... airport at the time the airplane would arrive at the alternate airport. However, the flight release may be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Original flight release or amendment of flight release. 125.373 Section 125.373 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION,...

  1. 14 CFR 125.373 - Original flight release or amendment of flight release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... airport at the time the airplane would arrive at the alternate airport. However, the flight release may be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Original flight release or amendment of flight release. 125.373 Section 125.373 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION,...

  2. 14 CFR 125.373 - Original flight release or amendment of flight release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... airport at the time the airplane would arrive at the alternate airport. However, the flight release may be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Original flight release or amendment of flight release. 125.373 Section 125.373 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION,...

  3. A Rapid Test for Prediction of Nutrient Release from Controlled Release Fertilizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient release from soluble granular fertilizers can be modified by polymer coating. The coating technology can be fine-tuned to change the duration (3 to 9 months) and rate of nutrient release, hence these products are termed as controlled release fertilizers (CRF). There is a need to develop a r...

  4. [Preparation and release mechanism of gestodene reservoir-type intravaginal rings].

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Xiao; Wang, Yan-Kun; Ning, Mei-Ying

    2014-03-01

    This study taking gestodene (GEST) as a model, investigated the factors affecting reservoir-type intravaginal ring (IVR)'s drug release. This paper reported a gestodene intravaginal ring of reservoir design, comprising a gestodene silicone elastomer core encased in a non-medicated silicone sheath, separately manufactured by reaction injection moulding at 80 degrees C and heating vulcanization at 130 degrees C is reported. The test investigated the factors affecting drug release through a single variable method, taking the drug release rates of 21 days as standards. When changing the thickness of the controlling sheath outside, the ratio of the first day of drug release and mean daily release (MDR), named the relatively burst effect, is closing to 1 with the thickness of controlling sheath increasing, while the 1.25 mm sheath corresponding to 1.04 controlled the burst release effectively; a positive correlation (r = 0.992 2) existed between the average drug release (Q/t) and drug loading (A) within a certain range. The C6-165 controlling sheath with high solubility of GEST is easier to achieve controlled release of the drug; GEST crystalline power is more effective to implement controlled release of drugs among difficent states of the drug. A 1/4 fractional segment core gives a relatively burst effect of 1.76, while the 1/1 and 1/2 are 1.93 and 1.87 separately, at the same drug loading, concluding that use of a fractional segment core would allow development of a suitable GEST reservoir IVR. In summary, GEST reservoir-type IVR could be adjusted by the thickness of controlling sheath, the loading of drug, the material properties of controlling sheath, the dispersion state of drug, the additive composition and structure of intravaginal ring, to control the drug release behavior and achieve the desired drug release rate. PMID:24961114

  5. Reversibility of Intersystem Crossing in the {a}1A1(000) and {a}1A1(010) States of Methylene, CH_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Anh T.; Sears, Trevor; Hall, Gregory

    2015-06-01

    The lowest energy singlet ( {a}1A1) and triplet ( {X}3B1) electronic states of methylene, CH_2, are only separated by 3150 wn, but differ greatly in chemical reactivity. Overall methylene reaction rates and chemical behavior are therefore strongly dependent on collisionally-mediated singlet-triplet interconversion. Collisions with inert partners tend to depopulate the excited singlet state and populate vibrationally excited triplet levels in CH_2. This process is generally considered as irreversible for large molecules, however, this is not the case for small molecules such as CH_2. An investigation of the decay kinetics of CH_2 in the presence of argon and various amounts of oxygen has been carried out using transient frequency modulation (FM) absorption spectroscopy, to monitor ortho and para rotational levels in both the {a}1A1(000) and {a}1A1(010) states. In the {a}1A1(000) state, all observed rotational levels follow double exponential decay kinetics, a direct consequence of reversible intersystem crossing. The relative amplitude of the slower decay component is an indicator of how quickly the reverse crossing from excited triplet levels becomes significant during the reaction and relaxation of singlet methylene. The para rotational levels show more obvious signs of reversibility than ortho rotational levels. Adding oxygen enhances the visibility of reversibility for both ortho and para levels. However, in the {a}1A1(010) state where the FM signal is 5-10 times smaller than the {a}1A1(000) state, there is no evidence of double exponential decay kinetics. Acknowledgments: Work at Brookhaven National Laboratory was carried out under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 and DE-SC0012704 with the U.S. Department of Energy and supported by its Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences.

  6. Dynamic compression and volatile release of carbonates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyburczy, J. A.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    Particle velocity profiles upon shock compression and isentropic releases were measured for polycrystalline calcite. The Solenhofen limestone release paths lie, close to the Hugoniot. Calcite 3 to 2 transition, upon release, was observed, but rarefaction shocks were not detected. The equation of state is used to predict the fraction of material devolatilized upon isentropic release as a function of shock pressure. The effect of ambient partial pressure of CO2 on the calculations is demonstrated and considered in models of atmospheric evolution by impact induced mineral devolatilization. The radiative characteristics of shocked calcite indicate that localization of thermal energy occurs under shock compression. Shock entropy calculations result in a minimum estimate of 90% devolatilization upon complete release from 10 GPa. Isentropic release paths from calculated continuum Hugoniot temperatures cross into the CaO (solid) + CO2 (vapor) field at improbably low pressures. It is found that release paths from measured shock temperatures cross into the melt plus vapor field at pressures greater than .5 GPa, which suggests that devolatilization is initiated at the shear banding sites.

  7. Release of alien populations in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Laikre, Linda; Palme, Anna; Josefsson, Melanie; Utter, Fred; Ryman, Nils

    2006-08-01

    Introduction of alien species is a major threat to biological diversity. Although public attention typically focuses on the species level, guidelines from the Convention of Biological Diversity define alien species to include entities below species level. This inclusion recognizes that release of nonlocal populations of native species may also result in negative effects on biodiversity. In practice, little is known about the extent, degree of establishment, or the effects on natural gene pools of such releases. Existing information on the releases in Sweden shows that alien populations are spread to a great extent. The most commonly released species include brown trout, Atlantic salmon, Arctic char, common whitefish, Scots pine, Norway spruce, mallard duck, gray partridge, and pheasant. Although millions of forest trees, fish, and birds are released annually, poor documentation makes the geographic and genetic origin of these populations, as well as the sites where they have been released, largely unclear. We provide recommendations for urgently needed first steps relating to the risks and problems associated with release of alien populations.

  8. Dynamic compression and volatile release of carbonates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyburczy, J. A.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1986-01-01

    Particle velocity profiles upon shock compression and isentropic releases were measured for polycrystalline calcite. The Solenhofen limestone release paths lie close to the Hugoniot. Calcite 3 to 2 transition, upon release was observed, but rarefaction shocks were not detected. The equation of state is used to predict the fraction of material devolatilized upon isentropic release as a function of shock pressure. The effect of ambient partial pressure of CO2 on the calculations is demonstrated and considered in models of atmospheric evolution by impact induced mineral devolatilization. The radiative characteristics of shocked calcite indicate that localization of thermal energy occurs under shock compression. Shock entropy calculations result in a minimum estimate of 90 percent devolatilization upon complete release from 10 GPa. Isentropic release paths from calculated continuum Hugoniot temperatures cross into the CaO (solid) + CO2 (vapor) field at improbably low pressures. It is found that release paths from measured shock temperatures cross into the melt plus vapor field at pressures greater than .5 GPa, which suggests that devolatilization is initiated at the shear banding sites.

  9. Bioavailability of sustained-release theophylline formulations.

    PubMed

    Bonora Regazzi, M; Rondanelli, R; Vidale, E; Cristiani, D

    1983-05-01

    Sustained-release formulations of theophylline as well as of other drugs are designed to effect a delayed but constant release of the active principle in the gastrointestinal tract, thus ensuring more prolonged blood level curves. This study was made to assess the bioavailability of two sustained-release microencapsulated formulations and one sustained-release Diffucaps formulation, in comparison with an equivalent dose of theophylline solution. As regards bioavailability, none of the three formulations differed significantly from the reference formulation. The blood levels at steady state were estimated on the basis of data obtained after a single-dose study. All three sustained release formulations showed good results after prolonged administration in terms of peaks and troughs. The time duration at which the theophylline plasma levels remain higher than 75% of the maximum steady-state levels, following 12-h dosing interval, was evaluated: for the sustained-release microencapsulated formulations this time duration reaches 100% of the dosing interval. A multiple-dose administration of the sustained-release formulations used in this study should guarantee almost complete time coverage, with blood levels sharply exceeding the minimum threshold level of the theophylline therapeutic range.

  10. Peptidoglycan fragment release from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Woodhams, Katelynn L; Chan, Jia Mun; Lenz, Jonathan D; Hackett, Kathleen T; Dillard, Joseph P

    2013-09-01

    Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) is a symbiont of the human nasopharynx. On occasion, meningococci disseminate from the nasopharynx to cause invasive disease. Previous work showed that purified meningococcal peptidoglycan (PG) stimulates human Nod1, which leads to activation of NF-κB and production of inflammatory cytokines. No studies have determined if meningococci release PG or activate Nod1 during infection. The closely related pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae releases PG fragments during normal growth. These fragments induce inflammatory cytokine production and ciliated cell death in human fallopian tubes. We determined that meningococci also release PG fragments during growth, including fragments known to induce inflammation. We found that N. meningitidis recycles PG fragments via the selective permease AmpG and that meningococcal PG recycling is more efficient than gonococcal PG recycling. Comparison of PG fragment release from N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae showed that meningococci release less of the proinflammatory PG monomers than gonococci and degrade PG to smaller fragments. The decreased release of PG monomers by N. meningitidis relative to N. gonorrhoeae is partly due to ampG, since replacement of gonococcal ampG with the meningococcal allele reduced PG monomer release. Released PG fragments in meningococcal supernatants induced significantly less Nod1-dependent NF-κB activity than released fragments in gonococcal supernatants and tended to induce less interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion in primary human fallopian tube explants. These results support a model in which efficient PG recycling and extensive degradation of PG fragments lessen inflammatory responses and may be advantageous for maintaining meningococcal carriage in the nasopharynx.

  11. [Nutrient release characteristics and use efficiency of slow- and controlled release fertilizers].

    PubMed

    Duan, Lu-Lu; Zhang, Min; Liu, Gang; Shang, Zhao-Cong; Yang, Yi

    2009-05-01

    Water extraction method and soil incubation method were used to study the nutrient release characteristics of four slow- and controlled release fertilizers (CRF1, CRF2, SCU, and IBDU), and pot experiment was conducted to assess the effects of the release characteristics on the nutrient requirements of canola (Brassica napus L.). The nutrient release curves of test fertilizers in water were S pattern for CRF1 and CRF2, burst pattern for SCU, and reverse L pattern for IBDU. The nutrient release characteristics of the four fertilizers in water and in soil all fitted binomial equations, suggesting that there existed some similarities in the nutrient release in the two media. The nutrient uptake and biomass of canola plants treated with CRF1 and CRF2 were significantly higher than those treated with SCU and IBDU, and CRF2 had the greatest effect. The nutrient release curves of CRF1 and CRF2 accorded more closely with the nutrient requirements of canola.

  12. Selection of Hydrological Model for Waterborne Release

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-04-21

    Following a request from the States of South Carolina and Georgia, downstream radiological consequences from postulated accidental aqueous releases at the three Savannah River Site nonreactor nuclear facilities will be examined. This evaluation will aid in determining the potential impacts of liquid releases to downstream populations on the Savannah River. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the two available models and determine the appropriate model for use in following waterborne release analyses. Additionally, this report will document the accidents to be used in the future study.

  13. 12 CFR 269a.1 - Party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Party. 269a.1 Section 269a.1 Banks and Banking... Party. The term Party means any person, employee, group of employees, labor organization, or bank as... rules and regulations, (b) named as a party in a charge, complaint, petition, application, or...

  14. 12 CFR 269a.1 - Party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Party. 269a.1 Section 269a.1 Banks and Banking... Party. The term Party means any person, employee, group of employees, labor organization, or bank as... rules and regulations, (b) named as a party in a charge, complaint, petition, application, or...

  15. 32 CFR 169a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Purpose. 169a.1 Section 169a.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM... Department of Defense (DoD) to determine whether needed commercial activities (CAs) should be accomplished...

  16. 32 CFR 169a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Purpose. 169a.1 Section 169a.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM... Department of Defense (DoD) to determine whether needed commercial activities (CAs) should be accomplished...

  17. 32 CFR 168a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Purpose. 168a.1 Section 168a.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND... National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Fellowships, as required by 10 U.S.C. 2191....

  18. 8 CFR 245a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the term such alien actually served. Under this exception, for purposes of 8 CFR part 245a, the crime... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions. 245a.1 Section 245a.1 Aliens...). (c)(1) Resided continuously as used in section 245A(a)(2) of the Act, means that the alien shall...

  19. 8 CFR 245a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the term such alien actually served. Under this exception, for purposes of 8 CFR part 245a, the crime... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definitions. 245a.1 Section 245a.1 Aliens...). (c)(1) Resided continuously as used in section 245A(a)(2) of the Act, means that the alien shall...

  20. 8 CFR 245a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions. 245a.1 Section 245a.1 Aliens... the alien shall be regarded as having resided continuously in the United States if, at the time of filing of the application for temporary resident status: An alien who after appearing for a...

  1. 38 CFR 8a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Insurance (VMLI) means the mortgage protection life insurance authorized for veterans under 38 U.S.C. 2106... 8a.1 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.1 Definitions. (a) The term housing unit means a family dwelling or unit, together with...

  2. 32 CFR 383a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 383a.1 Section 383a.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTERS... the Defense Commissary Board (DCB), with responsibilities, functions, and authorities as...

  3. 42 CFR 2a.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...(a)) provides that “ he Secretary may authorize persons engaged in research on mental health... regulations in this part establish procedures under which any person engaged in research on mental health... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability. 2a.1 Section 2a.1 Public...

  4. 42 CFR 2a.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...(a)) provides that “ he Secretary may authorize persons engaged in research on mental health... regulations in this part establish procedures under which any person engaged in research on mental health... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability. 2a.1 Section 2a.1 Public...

  5. 42 CFR 54a.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... 290aa, et seq., which are administered by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. This part does not apply to direct funding under any such authorities for only mental health services... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scope. 54a.1 Section 54a.1 Public Health...

  6. 42 CFR 54a.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... 290aa, et seq., which are administered by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. This part does not apply to direct funding under any such authorities for only mental health services... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scope. 54a.1 Section 54a.1 Public Health...

  7. 42 CFR 54a.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... 290aa, et seq., which are administered by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. This part does not apply to direct funding under any such authorities for only mental health services... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 54a.1 Section 54a.1 Public Health...

  8. 42 CFR 54a.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... 290aa, et seq., which are administered by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. This part does not apply to direct funding under any such authorities for only mental health services... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scope. 54a.1 Section 54a.1 Public Health...

  9. 42 CFR 54a.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... 290aa, et seq., which are administered by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. This part does not apply to direct funding under any such authorities for only mental health services... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scope. 54a.1 Section 54a.1 Public Health...

  10. Norepinephrine release in the amygdala in response to footshock stimulation.

    PubMed

    Galvez, R; Mesches, M H; McGaugh, J L

    1996-11-01

    Extensive evidence suggests that many drugs and hormones influence memory storage by modulating training-induced release of norepinephrine (NE) within the amygdala. This experiment used in vivo microdialysis and high-performance liquid chromatography to examine norepinephrine NE release in the amygdala induced by footshock stimulation typically used in inhibitory avoidance training. Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted bilaterally with cannulae aimed at the amygdala. One to two weeks later, microdialysis probes were inserted (unilaterally) and the animals were placed in a box with a stainless-steel grid floor through which a single footshock (0.55 mA, 1.0 s) was administered either 45.5 (N = 5) or 180.5 (N = 4) min later. Samples were collected and analyzed at 15-min intervals. In both groups, the footshock stimulation increased NE levels to approximately 75% above basal levels in the first sample collected after the footshock and the levels returned to baseline within 30 min. The findings are consistent with pharmacological evidence suggesting that NE released by arousing stimulation is involved in regulating memory storage. PMID:8946419

  11. Dragon Released for Departure, Prepares for Splashdown

    NASA Video Gallery

    The SpaceX Dragon's release from Canadarm2 occurred at Tuesday 6:56 a.m. EDT. Now the Expedition 35 crew will command the spacecraft to slowly depart from the International Space Station. Ground co...

  12. 7 CFR 356.5 - Bonded release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... section does not allow the release of terrestrial plants that are without documentation required under 50 CFR chapter I. (b) Any request for the return of property based on the acceptance of a bond or...

  13. 21 CFR 178.3860 - Release agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... be safely used as release agents in petroleum wax complying with § 178.3710 and in polymeric resins... bran wax For use only in plastics intended for contact with dry foods identified as Type VIII in...

  14. 21 CFR 178.3860 - Release agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... be safely used as release agents in petroleum wax complying with § 178.3710 and in polymeric resins... bran wax For use only in plastics intended for contact with dry foods identified as Type VIII in...

  15. 19 CFR 142.48 - Release procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... documentation is presented, may be printed on that documentation. The invoice shall be returned to the entry.... (c) Notification to ABI participants. If the Line Release entry filer is an operational...

  16. GABA release from mouse axonal growth cones

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiao-Bing; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2000-01-01

    Using developing hypothalamic neurons from transgenic mice that express high levels of green fluorescent protein in growing axons, and an outside-out patch from mature neuronal membranes that contain neurotransmitter receptors as a sensitive detector, we found that GABA is released by a vesicular mechanism from the growth cones of developing axons prior to synapse formation. A low level of GABA release occurs spontaneously from the growth cone, and this is substantially increased by evoked action potentials. Neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine can enhance protein kinase C (PKC) activity even prior to synapse formation; PKC activation caused a substantial increase in spontaneous GABA release from the growth cone, probably acting at the axon terminal. These data indicate that GABA is secreted from axons during a stage of neuronal development when GABA is excitatory, and that neuromodulators could alter GABA release from the growing axon, potentially enabling other developing neurons of different transmitter phenotype to modulate the early actions of GABA. PMID:10718743

  17. [Prisons and release of elderly prisoners].

    PubMed

    Kammerer, K; Spohr, J

    2013-06-01

    The proportion of older prisoners increases with demographic change. The situation in prison and the release from prison are related with particular risks especially for elderly people. Systematically evaluated experiences and findings of the specific needs and requirements of elderly prisoners are rare. The Institute for Gerontological Research investigated the situation of older prisoners in the project AIBA--Older Prisoners: Particular Requirements--Special Offers? (funded by the Federal Ministry of Justice, August-December 2012). Their situation in everyday life, the preparation for and the experience of release were studied. The results show that the meaning of age in prison varies. Offers that focused on the individual needs were evaluated positively and a further need of special offers was apparent. Release is complicated by administrative barriers and improved preparation for release is needed. PMID:23483350

  18. Risk analysis approach. [of carbon fiber release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The assessment of the carbon fiber hazard is outlined. Program objectives, requirements of the risk analysis, and elements associated with the physical phenomena of the accidental release are described.

  19. Radioactivity released from burning gas lantern mantles.

    PubMed

    Luetzelschwab, J W; Googins, S W

    1984-04-01

    Gas lantern mantles contain thorium to produce incandescence when lantern fuel is burned on the mantle. Although only thorium is initially present on the mantle, the thorium daughters build up, some over a period of weeks and some over a period of years, and significant quantities of these daughters are present when the mantle is used. Some of these daughters are released when the lantern fuel is burned on the mantle. The amounts of radioactivity released during burning is studied by measuring the gamma radiation emitted by the daughters. Results of this study show that some of the radium (224Ra and 228Ra) and more than half the 212Pb and 212Bi is released during the first hour of a burn. The actual amounts release depend on the age of the mantle.

  20. Environmentally friendly slow-release nitrogen fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Ni, Boli; Liu, Mingzhu; Lü, Shaoyu; Xie, Lihua; Wang, Yanfang

    2011-09-28

    To sustain the further world population, more fertilizers are required, which may become an environmental hazard, unless adequate technical and socioeconomic impacts are addressed. In the current study, slow-release formulations of nitrogen fertilizer were developed on the basis of natural attapulgite (APT) clay, ethylcellulose (EC) film, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose/hydroxyethylcellulose (CMC/HEC) hydrogel. The structural and chemical characteristics of the product were examined. The release profiles of urea, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium chloride as nitrogen fertilizer substrates were determined in soil. To further compare the release profiles of nitrogen from different fertilizer substrates, a mathematical model for nutrient release from the coated fertilizer was applied to calculate the diffusion coefficient D. The influence of the product on water-holding and water-retention capacities of soil was determined. The experimental data indicated that the product can effectively reduce nutrient loss, improve use efficiency of water, and prolong irrigation cycles in drought-prone environments. PMID:21848295

  1. PCCs Release First Data Set - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    A component of the TCGA Research Network, the Protein Characterization Centers (PCCs), also part of NCI’s Clinical Proteome Tumor Analysis Consortium, has released the proteomic data generated from TCGA’s colorectal cancer samples.

  2. Aspirin and Extended-Release Dipyridamole

    MedlinePlus

    ... It is used to reduce the risk of stroke in patients who have had or are at risk of stroke. ... release dipyridamole decreases the risk of having a stroke but does not eliminate that risk. Continue to ...

  3. Zolpidem modified-release in insomnia.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, Cynthia; Neill, Jason; Breden, Ericka

    2007-01-01

    Zolpidem modified-release (MR) is the first hypnotic agent to be marketed in an extended-release formulation. Zolpidem MR is a two-layered, biphasic release tablet indicated for the management of induction of sleep and sleep maintenance. The pharmacokinetics of the drug are similar to those of immediate-release zolpidem. Two double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trials demonstrated efficacy in adults and elderly patients treated with zolpidem MR for 3 weeks without significant impairment in next-day psychomotor functioning. The most common adverse effects with zolpidem MR were dizziness, somnolence, and headache. A starting dose of zolpidem MR 12.5 mg is recommended for adults and 6.25 mg for elderly patients. PMID:19300582

  4. VAP Development: Initiation, Development, Evaluation, and Release

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, M; Collis, Fast, J; Flynn, C; Mather, J; McFarlane, S; Monroe, J; Sivaraman, C; Xie, S

    2011-02-23

    This white paper provides a plan to formalize the evaluation of newly developed VAPs and a framework for the development of value-added products through four different stages: Initiation, Development, Evaluation, and Release.

  5. Member end releases in framed structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stallings, J. M.

    1993-02-01

    Discontinuities such as internal hinges are commonly encountered in framed structures. A general method of including discontinuities in stiffness method analyses of planar frames by the release of member end forces is developed. Modifications are made to the member stiffness matrix and equivalent joint load vector to account for the released end forces. A FORTRAN algorithm is given that makes the necessary modifications to the member stiffness matrix and equivalent joint load vector for the standard planar frame member. The algorithm allows combinations of up to three member end forces to be released (specified at zero or nonzero values). An algorithm is also given that calculates the unknown member end displacements at the released member end forces. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the uses and capabilities of the algorithms.

  6. Seismic energy release of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goins, N. R.; Dainty, A. M.; Toksoz, M. N.

    1981-01-01

    Lunar seismicity is investigated by calculating various source parameters for a number of shallow and deep-focus moonquakes. The seismic moment, seismic energy release, annual seismic energy release, stress drop, and body-wave magnitude are determined for the largest shallow moonquakes and for large deep-focus events. It is found that the shallow events dominate the lunar seismic energy release, that tidal dissipation may account for the energy release by the deep-focus events, and that the stress drops for the deep-focus events are comparable to or smaller than the calculated tidal stresses. A comparison of the results with terrestrial data indicates that the seismic characteristics of a planet are controlled more by tectonic style and state than by the relative magnitude of the driving forces.

  7. Material Release at High-Energy Densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilson, P. M.; Betti, R.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Shvydky, A.; Solodov, A. A.; Jaanimagi, P. A.; Froula, D. H.

    2013-10-01

    High-energy-density matter releases after an inertial time, creating nonideal plasmas with unique thermodynamic properties. Picosecond-resolution x-ray radiography and flash (100-ps) x-ray penumbral imaging were used to measure the release of metal targets heated by a powerful flux of energetic electrons or protons generated by the OMEGA EP Laser System. The data show target decompression over a nanosecond period after the initial target-heating phase. The measured plasma density profiles and target-release speeds were used to infer the pressure-density release isentropes. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  8. The ubiquitous nature of multivesicular release

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Stephanie; Tsai, Ming-Chi; von Gersdorff, Henrique; Wadiche, Jacques I.

    2015-01-01

    “Simplicity is prerequisite for reliability.”EW Dijkstra [1] Presynaptic action potentials trigger the fusion of vesicles to release neurotransmitter onto postsynaptic neurons. Each release site was originally thought to liberate at most one vesicle per action potential in a probabilistic fashion, rendering synaptic transmission unreliable. However, the simultaneous release of several vesicles, or multivesicular release (MVR), represents a simple mechanism to overcome the intrinsic unreliability of synaptic transmission. MVR was initially identified at specialized synapses but is now known to be common throughout the brain. MVR determines the temporal and spatial dispersion of transmitter, controls the extent of receptor activation, and contributes to adapting synaptic strength during plasticity and neuromodulation. MVR consequently represents a widespread mechanism that extends the dynamic range of synaptic processing. PMID:26100141

  9. Environmentally friendly slow-release nitrogen fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Ni, Boli; Liu, Mingzhu; Lü, Shaoyu; Xie, Lihua; Wang, Yanfang

    2011-09-28

    To sustain the further world population, more fertilizers are required, which may become an environmental hazard, unless adequate technical and socioeconomic impacts are addressed. In the current study, slow-release formulations of nitrogen fertilizer were developed on the basis of natural attapulgite (APT) clay, ethylcellulose (EC) film, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose/hydroxyethylcellulose (CMC/HEC) hydrogel. The structural and chemical characteristics of the product were examined. The release profiles of urea, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium chloride as nitrogen fertilizer substrates were determined in soil. To further compare the release profiles of nitrogen from different fertilizer substrates, a mathematical model for nutrient release from the coated fertilizer was applied to calculate the diffusion coefficient D. The influence of the product on water-holding and water-retention capacities of soil was determined. The experimental data indicated that the product can effectively reduce nutrient loss, improve use efficiency of water, and prolong irrigation cycles in drought-prone environments.

  10. Corrosion Tests of LWR Fuels - Nuclide Release

    SciTech Connect

    P.A. Finn; Y. Tsai; J.C. Cunnane

    2001-12-14

    Two BWR fuels [64 and 71 (MWd)/kgU], one of which contained 2% Gd, and two PWR fuels [30 and 45 (MWd)/kgU], are tested by dripping groundwater on the fuels under oxidizing and hydrologically unsaturated conditions for times ranging from 2.4 to 8.2 yr at 90 C. The {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 97}Mo, and {sup 90}Sr releases are presented to show the effects of long reaction times and of gadolinium on nuclide release. This investigation showed that the five nuclides at long reaction times have similar fractional release rates and that the presence of 2% Gd reduced the {sup 99}Tc cumulative release fraction by about an order of magnitude over that of a fuel with a similar burnup.

  11. Release and purification of fimbriae from Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed

    Irons, L I; Ashworth, L A; Robinson, A

    1985-01-01

    A competitive ELISA has been used to monitor the release of fimbriae from 1.2.3 serotype of B. pertussis after treatment by different methods and fimbriae have been purified from homogenates or KSCN extracts by chromatography. Fimbriae purified from different serotypes have been studied by inhibition of bacterial agglutination, immunodiffusion and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Fimbriae purified from a 1.2 serotype have been labelled in immunoelectron microscopy with a IgM monoclonal antibody to agglutinogen 2 and evidence is presented that fimbriae purified from a 1.3 serotype also carry the agglutinogen 3 specificity. A difference in subunit molecular weight has been found between fimbriae purified from 1.2 and 1.3 serotypes. PMID:2872101

  12. Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC) Technology Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelland, Shawn A.; Capps, Richard; Day, Kevin; Robinson, Corissia; Null, Jody R.

    2013-01-01

    After takeoff, aircraft must merge into en route (Center) airspace traffic flows which may be subject to constraints that create localized demand-capacity imbalances. When demand exceeds capacity, Traffic Management Coordinators (TMCs) often use tactical departure scheduling to manage the flow of departures into the constrained Center traffic flow. Tactical departure scheduling usually involves use of a Call for Release (CFR) procedure wherein the Tower must call the Center TMC to coordinate a release time prior to allowing the flight to depart. In present-day operations release times are computed by the Center Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) decision support tool based upon manual estimates of aircraft ready time verbally communicated from the Tower to the Center. The TMA-computed release is verbally communicated from the Center back to the Tower where it is relayed to the Local controller as a release window that is typically three minutes wide. The Local controller will manage the departure to meet the coordinated release time window. Manual ready time prediction and verbal release time coordination are labor intensive and prone to inaccuracy. Also, use of release time windows adds uncertainty to the tactical departure process. Analysis of more than one million flights from January 2011 indicates that a significant number of tactically scheduled aircraft missed their en route slot due to ready time prediction uncertainty. Uncertainty in ready time estimates may result in missed opportunities to merge into constrained en route flows and lead to lost throughput. Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) plans call for development of Tower automation systems capable of computing surface trajectory-based ready time estimates. NASA has developed the Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC) concept that uses this technology to improve tactical departure scheduling by automatically communicating surface trajectory-based ready time predictions to the

  13. Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC) Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelland, Shawn A.; Capps, Richard; Day, Kevin Brian; Kistler, Matthew Stephen; Gaither, Frank; Juro, Greg

    2013-01-01

    After takeoff, aircraft must merge into en route (Center) airspace traffic flows that may be subject to constraints that create localized demand/capacity imbalances. When demand exceeds capacity, Traffic Management Coordinators (TMCs) and Frontline Managers (FLMs) often use tactical departure scheduling to manage the flow of departures into the constrained Center traffic flow. Tactical departure scheduling usually involves a Call for Release (CFR) procedure wherein the Tower must call the Center to coordinate a release time prior to allowing the flight to depart. In present-day operations release times are computed by the Center Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) decision support tool, based upon manual estimates of aircraft ready time verbally communicated from the Tower to the Center. The TMA-computed release time is verbally communicated from the Center back to the Tower where it is relayed to the Local controller as a release window that is typically three minutes wide. The Local controller will manage the departure to meet the coordinated release time window. Manual ready time prediction and verbal release time coordination are labor intensive and prone to inaccuracy. Also, use of release time windows adds uncertainty to the tactical departure process. Analysis of more than one million flights from January 2011 indicates that a significant number of tactically scheduled aircraft missed their en route slot due to ready time prediction uncertainty. Uncertainty in ready time estimates may result in missed opportunities to merge into constrained en route flows and lead to lost throughput. Next Generation Air Transportation System plans call for development of Tower automation systems capable of computing surface trajectory-based ready time estimates. NASA has developed the Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC) concept that improves tactical departure scheduling by automatically communicating surface trajectory-based ready time predictions and departure

  14. Petroleum fingerprinting: Dating a gasoline release

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.D.; Morrison, R.D.

    1996-09-01

    Dating a gasoline releases is particularly important in situations involving a contaminated gasoline service station. Often the station begins under the control of a major oil company, and as it ages and deteriorates it may be operated by a series of smaller operators. When facing a claim for contamination, often operators blame former operators. Fingerprinting is one of several successful methods used to date petroleum releases on contaminated sites. The topics covered in this article are inventory reconciliation; reverse groundwater modeling; hydrocarbon fingerprinting.

  15. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J. )

    1989-10-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1987 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1987 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs.

  16. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J. )

    1991-05-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1988 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1988 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs.

  17. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Eileen Olejarski (left), manager of Florida Wildlife Hospital, holds a great horned owl before releasing it at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owl is one of two found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release.

  18. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Eileen Olejarski (left), manager of Florida Wildlife Hospital, and Susan Small, director of the hospital, remove two great horned owls from the vehicle before releasing them at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owls were found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release..

  19. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Eileen Olejarski (left), manager of Florida Wildlife Hospital, and Susan Small, director of the hospital, get ready to release two great horned owls at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owls were found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release.

  20. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Susan Small, director of the Florida Wildlife Hospital, holds a great horned owl before releasing it at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owl is one of two found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release.

  1. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A great horned owl flies to freedom after its release at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owl is one of two found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release.

  2. Knowledge Based Estimation of Material Release Transients

    1998-07-29

    KBERT is an easy to use desktop decision support tool for estimating public and in-facility worker doses and consequences of radioactive material releases in non-reactort nuclear facilities. It automatically calculates release and respirable fractions based on published handbook data, and calculates material transport concurrently with personnel evacuation simulations. Any facility layout can be modeled easily using the intuitive graphical user interface.

  3. Expansion of ARAC for chemical releases

    SciTech Connect

    Baskett, R.L.; Blair, M.D.; Foster, C.S.; Taylor, A.G.

    1997-07-01

    In 1996 the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) completed an effort to expand its national emergency response modeling system for chemical releases. Key components of the new capability include the integration of (1) an extensive chemical property database, (2) source modeling for tanks and evaporating pools, (3) denser-than-air dispersion, (4) public exposure guidelines, and (5) an interactive graphical user interface (GUI). Recent use and the future of the new capability are also discussed.

  4. An osprey is released at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Angy Chambers, senior wildlife biologist for Environmental Support Contract/Dynamac, holds a juvenile osprey before releasing it at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. As a nestling, the osprey fell twice from its nest, located on a light pole in the ITL area of CCAFS. Chambers determined the bird might have a broken leg and gave it to the Florida Wildlife Hospital for treatment. The osprey was released the same day as the two great horned owls.

  5. Study on novel galantaminehydrobromide sustained-release capsules and itsin vitro releasing property.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Yang, Shuoye

    2014-09-01

    In present study, we prepared a novel galantamine hydro bromide sustained-release capsules with the new manufacturing technology, extrusion-spheronization method, and the optimized preparative formulation. A simple, rapid and accurate high performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC) was developed and validated for the quantification and release evaluation of galantamine hydro bromide. Experimental results showed that the method was specific, sensitive and reliable, could be effectively applied to the in vitro release study of galantamine hydro bromide sustained-release capsules. Our resulting samples had superior properties, worked better as sustained-release carriers and lasted longer hours to release drugs compared with the marketed control, Razadyne ER. The in vitro releasing characteristics of different batches of preparations are quite similar with each other, the total release proportions of galantamine hydro bromide from sustained-release capsules reached higher than 90 % within 12 h. The testing sustained-release preparation may be a promising new product for curing the related diseases. PMID:25262508

  6. Correlation of recent fission product release data

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, T.S.; Lorenz, R.A.; Nakamura, T.; Osborne, M.F.

    1989-01-01

    For the calculation of source terms associated with severe accidents, it is necessary to model the release of fission products from fuel as it heats and melts. Perhaps the most definitive model for fission product release is that of the FASTGRASS computer code developed at Argonne National Laboratory. There is persuasive evidence that these processes, as well as additional chemical and gas phase mass transport processes, are important in the release of fission products from fuel. Nevertheless, it has been found convenient to have simplified fission product release correlations that may not be as definitive as models like FASTGRASS but which attempt in some simple way to capture the essence of the mechanisms. One of the most widely used such correlation is called CORSOR-M which is the present fission product/aerosol release model used in the NRC Source Term Code Package. CORSOR has been criticized as having too much uncertainty in the calculated releases and as not accurately reproducing some experimental data. It is currently believed that these discrepancies between CORSOR and the more recent data have resulted because of the better time resolution of the more recent data compared to the data base that went into the CORSOR correlation. This document discusses a simple correlational model for use in connection with NUREG risk uncertainty exercises. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Effect of Food Emulsifiers on Aroma Release.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Jia; Dong, Man; Liu, Yan-Long; Zhang, Lu-Lu; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Zi-Yu; Ren, Jing-Nan; Pan, Si-Yi; Fan, Gang

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of different emulsifiers or xanthan-emulsifier systems on the release of aroma compounds. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and GC-MS were used to study the effects of varying concentrations of xanthan gum, sucrose fatty acid ester, Tween 80 and soybean lecithin on the release of seven aroma compounds. The effects of the emulsifier systems supplemented with xanthan gum on aroma release were also studied in the same way. The results showed varying degrees of influence of sucrose fatty acid ester, soybean lecithin, Tween 80 and xanthan gum on the release of aroma compounds. Compared with other aroma compounds, ethyl acetate was more likely to be conserved in the solution system, while the amount of limonene released was the highest among these seven aroma compounds. In conclusion, different emulsifiers and complexes showed different surface properties that tend to interact with different aroma molecules. The present studies showed that the composition and structure of emulsifiers and specific interactions between emulsifiers and aroma molecules have significant effects on aroma release. PMID:27110762

  8. Tritium behavior intentionally released in the room

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, K.; Hayashi, T.; Iwai, Y.; Yamanishi, T.; Willms, R. S.; Carlson, R. V.

    2008-07-15

    To construct a fusion reactor with high safety and acceptability, it is necessary to establish and to ensure tritium safe handling technology. Tritium should be well-controlled not to be released to the environment excessively and to prevent workers from excess exposure. It is especially important to grasp tritium behavior in the final confinement area, such as the room and/or building. In order to obtain data for actual tritium behavior in a room and/or building, a series of intentional Tritium Release Experiments (TREs) were planned and carried out within a radiologically controlled area (main cell) at Tritium System Test Assembly (TSTA) in Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) under US-JAPAN collaboration program. These experiments were carried out three times. In these experiments, influence of a difference in the tritium release point and the amount of hydrogen isotope for the initial tritium behavior in the room were suggested. Tritium was released into the main cell at TSTA/LANL. The released tritium reached a uniform concentration about 30 - 40 minutes in all the experiments. The influence of the release point and the amount of hydrogen isotope were not found to be important in these experiments. The experimental results for the initial tritium behavior in the room were also simulated well by the modified three-dimensional eddy flow analysis code FLOW-3D. (authors)

  9. Controlling protein release using biodegradable microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kline, Benjamin Patrick

    Research in the field of protein therapeutics has exploded over the past decade and continues to grow in both academia and in industry. Protein drugs have advantages of being highly specific and highly active making them coveted targets for high profile disease states like cancer and multiple sclerosis. Unfortunately, their many advantages are complemented by their obstacles. Because proteins are highly active and highly specific, the window between efficacy and toxicity is very narrow and drug development can be long and arduous. In addition, protein activity is dependent on its specific folding conformation that is easily disrupted by a variety of development processes. This research aimed to identify microparticle formulations to control protein release and also to determine which formulation parameters affected burst release, encapsulation, and steady-state release the most. It was found that polymer type and composition were two of the most important factors. Long-term controlled release of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was achieved as well as a wide variety of release profiles. A method was identified for micronizing protein at low cost to retain activity and coacervation was evaluated as a method for preparing protein loaded microspheres. This research provides a basis from which researchers can create better controlled release formulations for future protein therapeutics.

  10. Controlled drug release from bifunctionalized mesoporous silica

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Wujun; Gao Qiang; Xu Yao Wu Dong; Sun Yuhan; Shen Wanling; Deng Feng

    2008-10-15

    Serial of trimethylsilyl-carboxyl bifunctionalized SBA-15 (TMS/COOH/SBA-15) have been studied as carriers for controlled release of drug famotidine (Famo). To load Famo with large capacity, SBA-15 with high content of carboxyl groups was successfully synthesized by one-pot synthesis under the assistance of KCl. The mesostructure of carboxyl functionalized SBA-15 (COOH/SBA-15) could still be kept even though the content of carboxyl groups was up to 57.2%. Increasing carboxyl content could effectively enhance the loading capacity of Famo. Compared with pure SBA-15, into which Famo could be hardly adsorbed, the largest drug loading capacity of COOH/SBA-15 could achieve 396.9 mg/g. The release of Famo from mesoporous silica was studied in simulated intestine fluid (SIF, pH=7.4). For COOH/SBA-15, the release rate of Famo decreased with narrowing pore size. After grafting TMS groups on the surface of COOH/SBA-15 with hexamethyldisilazane, the release of Famo was greatly delayed with the increasing content of TMS groups. - Graphical abstract: Trimethylsilyl-carboxyl bifunctionalized SBA-15 has been studied as carrier for controlled release of drug famotidine. To load drug with large capacity, SBA-15 with high content of carboxyl groups was successfully synthesized. After grafting trimethylsilyl groups on the surface of carboxyl functionalized SBA-15, the release of Famo was greatly delayed with the increasing content of TMS groups.

  11. Calcium in the control of renin release.

    PubMed

    Park, C S; Malvin, R L

    1978-07-01

    The effect of Ca concentrations in the incubation medium and of estimated intracellular Ca concentrations on renin release was examined with use of pig renal cortical slices. In addition, the Ca requirement for the epinephrine stimulatory effect and for the ouabain inhibitory action on renin release was also tested. In mediums containing 5.9 mM K, variations in Ca concentration had no effect on renin release. In contrast, when the K concentration was 59 mM, a significant inhibition of renin release was attained with all concentrations of calcium. The inhibition of renin release in high K mediums by Ca was attributed to an increase in the intracellular Ca concentration. In addition, both the stimulatory effect of epinephrine and the inhibitory effect of ouabain on renin release required Ca in the medium. These results support the hypothesis that the control of renin secretion is mediated, in part, by changes in the intracellular concentration of Ca, most likely in the juxtaglomerular cells.

  12. Validation of software releases for CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Gutsche, Oliver; /Fermilab

    2009-03-01

    The CMS software stack currently consists of more than 2 Million lines of code developed by over 250 authors with a new version being released every week. CMS has setup a release validation process for quality assurance which enables the developers to compare to previous releases and references. This process provides the developers with reconstructed datasets of real data and MC samples. The samples span the whole range of detector effects and important physics signatures to benchmark the performance of the software. They are used to investigate interdependency effects of software packages and to find and fix bugs. The samples have to be available in a very short time after a release is published to fit into the streamlined CMS development cycle. The standard CMS processing infrastructure and dedicated resources at CERN and FNAL are used to achieve a very short turnaround of 24 hours. The here described release validation process is an integral part of CMS software development and contributes significantly to ensure stable production and analysis. It's success emphasizes the importance of a streamlined release validation process for projects with a large code basis and significant number of developers and can function as an example for future projects.

  13. Characteristics of GABA release induced by free radicals in mouse hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Saransaari, Pirjo; Oja, Simo S

    2008-03-01

    The release of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA is generally enhanced under potentially cell-damaging conditions. The properties and regulation of preloaded [3H]GABA release from mouse hippocampal slices were now studied in free radical-containing medium in a superfusion system. Free radical production was induced by 0.01% of H2O2 in the medium. H2O2 markedly potentiated GABA release, which was further enhanced about 1.5-fold by K+ stimulation (50 mM). In Ca2+-free media this stimulation was not altered, indicating that the release was mostly Ca2+-independent. Moreover, omission of Na+ increased the release, suggesting that it is mediated by Na+-dependent transporters operating outwards, a conception confirmed by the enhancement with GABA homoexchange. Inhibition of the release with the ion channel inhibitors diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonate and 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonate indicates that Cl(-) channels also participate in the process. This release was not modified by the adenosine receptor (A1 and A2a) agonists and ionotropic glutamate receptor agonists kainate, N-methy-D: -aspartate and 2-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate, whereas the agonists of metabotropic glutamate receptors of group I [(S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine] and of group II [(2R,4R)-4-aminopyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate] enhanced it by receptor-mediated mechanisms, the effects being abolished by their respective antagonists. The group III agonist L+-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate reduced the evoked GABA release, but this was not affected by the antagonist. Furthermore, the release was reduced by activation of protein kinase C by 4 beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and by inhibition of tyrosine kinase by genistein and of phoshoplipase by quinacrine. On the other hand, increasing cGMP levels with the phosphodiesterase inhibitor zaprinast, selective for PDE5, 6 and 9, and NO production with the NO-generating compounds hydroxylamine, sodium nitroprusside

  14. Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1C

    MedlinePlus

    ... the person's average blood sugar levels over that time. Why It's Done Doctors use the hemoglobin A1c test to determine if your child's diabetes management plan needs to be adjusted. Typically the test ...

  15. A-1 modification work under way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Phil Schemanski of Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne removes equipment inside the thrust drum on the A-1 Test Stand as part of a comprehensive modification project to prepare for testing the new J-2X engine.

  16. TMS installation at A-1 Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Stennis Space Center employees maneuver a new thrust measurement system in preparation for its installation on the A-1 Test Stand on March 3. The system was fabricated by Thrust Measurement Systems in Illinois and represents a state-of-the-art upgrade from the equipment used on the stand for more than 40 years. The A-1 Test Stand is being upgraded to provide testing for the next generation of rocket engines for America's space program.

  17. Buserelin acetate microparticle dispersion effects drug release and plasma E(1) levels.

    PubMed

    Usami, Makiko; Misawa, Kazumasa; Yagi, Naomi; Sekikawa, Hitoshi; Nabeshima, Toshitaka

    2007-07-18

    We investigated the effect of different dispersion methods on release behavior and efficacy onset following microparticle administration of buserelin acetate (BA) sustained-release injection. In this in vitro release study, the initial dispersion of BA increased with increased stirring speed (p<0.01). Stability of BA was studied over 7 days after BA release. The initial BA release rate was higher (p<0.01) after a 1-min vibration dispersion method (VDM) using a test tube mixer (2000 rpm) compared with the standard dispersion method (SDM) by hand. Without shaking, powder aggregation was observed, and BA release was lower than in either the SDM or VDM methods. In this study using 4-week-old Sprague-Dawley female rats, the initial plasma estrone (E(1)) concentrations were lower (p<0.05) in the VDM method than in the SDM method. Observations by optical microscope and scanning microscope showed no change in microparticle shape or distribution of size induced by SDM, VDM or the ultrasonication dispersion method. These results suggest that different dispersion methods do not change the shape and distribution of microparticle size, but clearly change the BA release rate and the transition in plasma E(1) concentrations that can affect drug efficacy. PMID:17398044

  18. The solubility-modulated osmotic pump: in vitro/in vivo release of diltiazem hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    McClelland, G A; Sutton, S C; Engle, K; Zentner, G M

    1991-01-01

    A generalized method was investigated for conversion of controlled-porosity osmotic pump release profiles from first-order to zero-order kinetics using diltiazem.HCl as a model drug. Diltiazem.HCl has an aqueous solubility greater than 590 mg/ml (37 degrees C) and was released from controlled-porosity osmotic pump devices with first-order kinetics. This high solubility was markedly reduced (155 mg/ml; 37 degrees C) in the presence of NaCl (1 M). Based on theory for osmotically actuated drug release, this reduced solubility would be expected to result in a zero-order release profile of greater than 80% of an initial diltiazem.HCl load. Devices were prepared with cores that contained diltiazem.HCl and sufficient NaCl granules coated with a microporous cellulose acetate butyrate 381-20 film to maintain a 1 M NaCl concentration within the drug compartment over a 16-hr period. This resulted in release of approximately 75% of the initial diltiazem.HCl load with zero-order kinetics over a 14- to 16-hr period. The in vivo performance of these devices in beagle dogs was analyzed. The in vivo percentage diltiazem absorbed profiles were superimposable with the in vitro release profile. These results suggest that diltiazem release and absorption from the solubility modulated osmotic pump occur throughout the GI tract in a fashion predictable from in vitro dissolution data.

  19. Acacia-gelatin microencapsulated liposomes: preparation, stability, and release of acetylsalicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Dong, C; Rogers, J A

    1993-01-01

    Liposomes of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) containing acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) have been microencapsulated by acacia-gelatin using the complex coacervation technique as a potential oral drug delivery system. The encapsulation efficiency of ASA was unaltered by the microencapsulation process. The stability of the microencapsulated liposomes in sodium cholate solutions at pH 5.6 was much greater than the corresponding liposomes. The optimum composition and conditions for stability and ASA release were 3.0% acacia-gelatin and a 1- to 2-hr formaldehyde hardening time. Approximately 25% ASA was released in the first 6 hr from microencapsulated liposomes at 23 degrees C and the kinetics followed matrix-controlled release (Q varies; is directly proportional to t1/2). At 37 degrees C, this increased to 75% released in 30 min followed by a slow constant release, likely due to lowering of the phase transition temperature of DPPC by the acacia-gelatin to near 37 degrees C. At both temperatures, the release from control liposomes was even more rapid. Hardening times of 4 hr and an acacia-gelatin concentration of 5% resulted in a lower stability of liposomes and a faster release of ASA. It is concluded that under appropriate conditions the microencapsulation of liposomes by acacia-gelatin may increase their potential as an oral drug delivery system. PMID:8430052

  20. Platelet-activating factor induces eosinophil peroxidase release from purified human eosinophils.

    PubMed Central

    Kroegel, C; Yukawa, T; Dent, G; Chanez, P; Chung, K F; Barnes, P J

    1988-01-01

    The degranulation response of purified human eosinophils to platelet-activating factor (PAF) has been studied. PAF induced release of eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and beta-glucuronidase from highly purified human eosinophils with an EC50 of 0.9 nM. The order of release was comparable with that induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). The new specific PAF antagonist 3-[4-(2-chlorophenyl)-9-methyl-H-thieno[3,2-f] [1,2,4]triazolo-[4,3a][1,4]-diazepin-2-yl](4-morpholinyl)- 1-propane-one (WEB 2086) inhibited the PAF-induced enzyme release by human eosinophils in a dose-dependent manner. The viability of eosinophils were unaffected both by PAF and WEB 2086. The results suggest that PAF may amplify allergic and inflammatory reactions by release of preformed proteins from eosinophil granules. PMID:3410498

  1. The illustris simulation: Public data release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, D.; Pillepich, A.; Genel, S.; Vogelsberger, M.; Springel, V.; Torrey, P.; Rodriguez-Gomez, V.; Sijacki, D.; Snyder, G. F.; Griffen, B.; Marinacci, F.; Blecha, L.; Sales, L.; Xu, D.; Hernquist, L.

    2015-11-01

    We present the full public release of all data from the Illustris simulation project. Illustris is a suite of large volume, cosmological hydrodynamical simulations run with the moving-mesh code AREPO and including a comprehensive set of physical models critical for following the formation and evolution of galaxies across cosmic time. Each simulates a volume of (106.5 Mpc)3 and self-consistently evolves five different types of resolution elements from a starting redshift of z = 127 to the present day, z = 0. These components are: dark matter particles, gas cells, passive gas tracers, stars and stellar wind particles, and supermassive black holes. This data release includes the snapshots at all 136 available redshifts, halo and subhalo catalogs at each snapshot, and two distinct merger trees. Six primary realizations of the Illustris volume are released, including the flagship Illustris-1 run. These include three resolution levels with the fiducial "full" baryonic physics model, and a dark matter only analog for each. In addition, we provide four distinct, high time resolution, smaller volume "subboxes". The total data volume is ∼265 TB, including ∼800 full volume snapshots and ∼30,000 subbox snapshots. We describe the released data products as well as tools we have developed for their analysis. All data may be directly downloaded in its native HDF5 format. Additionally, we release a comprehensive, web-based API which allows programmatic access to search and data processing tasks. In both cases we provide example scripts and a getting-started guide in several languages: currently, IDL, Python, and Matlab. This paper addresses scientific issues relevant for the interpretation of the simulations, serves as a pointer to published and on-line documentation of the project, describes planned future additional data releases, and discusses technical aspects of the release.

  2. Corticotropin-releasing factor administered centrally, but not peripherally, stimulates hippocampal acetylcholine release.

    PubMed

    Day, J C; Koehl, M; Le Moal, M; Maccari, S

    1998-08-01

    In addition to corticotropin-releasing factor's well-known role in mediating hormonal and behavioral responses to stress, this peptide also reportedly affects arousal and cognition, processes that classically have been associated with forebrain cholinergic systems. Corticotropin-releasing factor stimulation of cholinergic neurons might thus provide a mechanism for this peptide's cognitive effects. To examine this possibility, the present experiments characterize the effect of corticotropin-releasing factor on cholinergic neurotransmission, using in vivo microdialysis to measure hippocampal acetylcholine release. Corticotropin-releasing factor (0.5-5.0 microg/rat intracerebroventricularly) was found to increase dialysate concentrations of acetylcholine in a dose-dependent manner in comparison with a control injection, the ovine peptide having a greater effect than the same dose of the human/rat peptide. This effect was found to be centrally mediated, independent of the peripheral effects of an exogenous corticotropin-releasing factor injection; subcutaneous injections of the peptide increased plasma concentrations of corticosterone, the adrenal hormone ultimately secreted in the rat's stress response, to the same level as did the central injections, without affecting hippocampal acetylcholine release. These results demonstrate that corticotropin-releasing factor, acting centrally, regulates hippocampal cholinergic activity, and suggest that corticotropin-releasing factor/acetylcholine interactions may underlie some of the previously identified roles of these neurotransmitters in arousal, cognition, and stress.

  3. A miniaturized in vitro release method for investigating drug-release mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ahnfelt, E; Sjögren, E; Axén, N; Lennernäs, H

    2015-01-01

    We have evaluated a miniaturized in vitro method, based on the μDISS Profiler™ technique that enables on-line monitoring of drug release from a 21 μl sample with 10 ml of release medium. Four model drugs in eight clinically used formulations, including both solid and non-solid drug delivery systems, were investigated. The acquired data were compared with historical in vitro release data from the same formulations. Use of the Weibull function to describe the in vitro drug-release profiles allowed discrimination between the selected formulations with respect to the drug-release mechanisms. Comparison of the release data from the same formulation in different in vitro set-ups showed that the methodology used can affect the mechanism of in vitro release. We also evaluated the ability of the in vitro methods to predict in vivo activity by comparing simulated plasma concentration-time profiles acquired from the application of the biopharmaceutical software GI-Sim to the in vitro observations. In summary, the simulations based on the miniaturized-method release data predicted the plasma profiles as well as or more accurately than simulations based on the historical release data in 71% of the cases and this miniaturized in vitro method appears to be applicable for both solid and non-solid formulations.

  4. Corticotropin-releasing factor administered centrally, but not peripherally, stimulates hippocampal acetylcholine release.

    PubMed

    Day, J C; Koehl, M; Le Moal, M; Maccari, S

    1998-08-01

    In addition to corticotropin-releasing factor's well-known role in mediating hormonal and behavioral responses to stress, this peptide also reportedly affects arousal and cognition, processes that classically have been associated with forebrain cholinergic systems. Corticotropin-releasing factor stimulation of cholinergic neurons might thus provide a mechanism for this peptide's cognitive effects. To examine this possibility, the present experiments characterize the effect of corticotropin-releasing factor on cholinergic neurotransmission, using in vivo microdialysis to measure hippocampal acetylcholine release. Corticotropin-releasing factor (0.5-5.0 microg/rat intracerebroventricularly) was found to increase dialysate concentrations of acetylcholine in a dose-dependent manner in comparison with a control injection, the ovine peptide having a greater effect than the same dose of the human/rat peptide. This effect was found to be centrally mediated, independent of the peripheral effects of an exogenous corticotropin-releasing factor injection; subcutaneous injections of the peptide increased plasma concentrations of corticosterone, the adrenal hormone ultimately secreted in the rat's stress response, to the same level as did the central injections, without affecting hippocampal acetylcholine release. These results demonstrate that corticotropin-releasing factor, acting centrally, regulates hippocampal cholinergic activity, and suggest that corticotropin-releasing factor/acetylcholine interactions may underlie some of the previously identified roles of these neurotransmitters in arousal, cognition, and stress. PMID:9681452

  5. Composition and method for storing and releasing hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Thorn, David L.; Tumas, William; Ott, Kevin C.; Burrell, Anthony K.

    2010-06-15

    A chemical system for storing and releasing hydrogen utilizes an endothermic reaction that releases hydrogen coupled to an exothermic reaction to drive the process thermodynamically, or an exothermic reaction that releases hydrogen coupled to an endothermic reaction.

  6. 48 CFR 1305.404-1 - Release procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION PLANNING PUBLICIZING CONTRACT ACTIONS Release of Information 1305.404-1 Release procedures. The designee authorized to release long-range acquisition estimates is set forth in CAM 1301.70....

  7. Heat release rate properties of wood-based materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlain, D.L.

    1983-07-01

    A background to the present heat release rate calorimetry is presented. Heat release rates and cumulative heat release were measured for 16 different lumber and wood products, using three different heat release rate instruments. The effects of moisture content, exposure heat flux, density of product, and fire retardant on rate of heat release were measured. The three small-scale heat release rate calorimeters were compared, and equations relating the data from each were developed.

  8. Representative Atmospheric Plume Development for Elevated Releases

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Prichard, Andrew W.

    2014-02-01

    An atmospheric explosion of a low-yield nuclear device will produce a large number of radioactive isotopes, some of which can be measured with airborne detection systems. However, properly equipped aircraft may not arrive in the region where an explosion occurred for a number of hours after the event. Atmospheric conditions will have caused the radioactive plume to move and diffuse before the aircraft arrives. The science behind predicting atmospheric plume movement has advanced enough that the location of the maximum concentrations in the plume can be determined reasonably accurately in real time, or near real time. Given the assumption that an aircraft can follow a plume, this study addresses the amount of atmospheric dilution expected to occur in a representative plume as a function of time past the release event. The approach models atmospheric transport of hypothetical releases from a single location for every day in a year using the publically available HYSPLIT code. The effective dilution factors for the point of maximum concentration in an elevated plume based on a release of a non-decaying, non-depositing tracer can vary by orders of magnitude depending on the day of the release, even for the same number of hours after the release event. However, the median of the dilution factors based on releases for 365 consecutive days at one site follows a power law relationship in time, as shown in Figure S-1. The relationship is good enough to provide a general rule of thumb for estimating typical future dilution factors in a plume starting at the same point. However, the coefficients of the power law function may vary for different release point locations. Radioactive decay causes the effective dilution factors to decrease more quickly with the time past the release event than the dilution factors based on a non-decaying tracer. An analytical expression for the dilution factors of isotopes with different half-lives can be developed given the power law expression

  9. Nature of the a1(1420 )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhasenko, M.; Ketzer, B.; Sarantsev, A.

    2015-05-01

    The resonancelike signal with axial-vector quantum numbers JP C=1++ at a mass of 1420 MeV and a width of 140 MeV, recently observed by the COMPASS and VES experiments in the f0(980 )π final state and tentatively called a1(1420 ), is discussed. Instead of a genuine new meson, we interpret this signal as a dynamical effect due to a singularity (branching point) in the triangle diagram formed by the processes a1(1260 )→K⋆K ¯, K⋆→K π , and K K ¯→f0(980 ) (+c .c ). The amplitude for this diagram is calculated. The result exhibits a peak in the intensity with a sharp phase motion with respect to the dominant a1(1260 )→ρ π S -wave decay, in good agreement with the data. The branching ratio of a1(1260 )→f0(980 )π via the triangle diagram is estimated and compared to the dominant decay a1(1260 )→ρ π .

  10. Cathepsin G-regulated Release of Formyl Peptide Receptor Agonists Modulate Neutrophil Effector Functions*

    PubMed Central

    Woloszynek, Josh C.; Hu, Ying; Pham, Christine T. N.

    2012-01-01

    Neutrophil serine proteases play an important role in inflammation by modulating neutrophil effector functions. We have previously shown that neutrophils deficient in the serine proteases cathepsin G and neutrophil elastase (CG/NE neutrophils) exhibit severe defects in chemokine CXCL2 release and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production when activated on immobilized immune complex. Exogenously added active CG rescues these defects, but the mechanism remains undefined. Using a protease-based proteomic approach, we found that, in vitro, the addition of exogenous CG to immune complex-stimulated CG/NE neutrophils led to a decrease in the level of cell-associated annexin A1 (AnxA1) and cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP), both known inflammatory mediators. We further confirmed that, in vivo, CG was required for the extracellular release of AnxA1 and CRAMP in a subcutaneous air pouch model. In vitro, CG efficiently cleaved AnxA1, releasing the active N-terminal peptide Ac2-26, and processed CRAMP in limited fashion. Ac2-26 and CRAMP peptides enhanced the release of CXCL2 by CG/NE neutrophils in a dose-dependent manner via formyl peptide receptor (FPR) stimulation. Blockade of FPRs by an antagonist, Boc2 (t-Boc-Phe-d-Leu-Phe-d-Leu-Phe), abrogates CXCL2 release, whereas addition of FPR agonists, fMLF and F2L, relieves Boc2 inhibition. Furthermore, the addition of active CG, but not inactive CG, also relieves Boc2 inhibition. These findings suggest that CG modulates neutrophil effector functions partly by controlling the release (and proteolysis) of FPR agonists. Unexpectedly, we found that mature CRAMP, but not Ac2-26, induced ROS production through an FPR-independent pathway. PMID:22879591

  11. Hemichannel-mediated release of lactate

    PubMed Central

    Karagiannis, Anastassios; Sylantyev, Sergiy; Hadjihambi, Anna; Hosford, Patrick S; Kasparov, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    In the central nervous system lactate contributes to the extracellular pool of readily available energy substrates and may also function as a signaling molecule which mediates communication between glial cells and neurons. Monocarboxylate transporters are believed to provide the main pathway for lactate transport across the membranes. Here we tested the hypothesis that lactate could also be released via opening of pannexin and/or functional connexin hemichannels. In acute slices prepared from the brainstem, hippocampus, hypothalamus and cortex of adult rats, enzymatic amperometric biosensors detected significant tonic lactate release inhibited by compounds, which block pannexin/connexin hemichannels and facilitated by lowering extracellular [Ca2+] or increased PCO2. Enhanced lactate release triggered by hypoxia was reduced by ∼50% by either connexin or monocarboxylate transporter blockers. Stimulation of Schaffer collateral fibers triggered lactate release in CA1 area of the hippocampus, which was facilitated in conditions of low extracellular [Ca2+], markedly reduced by blockade of connexin hemichannels and abolished by lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor oxamate. These results indicate that lactate transport across the membranes may occur via mechanisms other than monocarboxylate transporters. In the central nervous system, hemichannels may function as a conduit of lactate release, and this mechanism is recruited during hypoxia and periods of enhanced neuronal activity. PMID:26661210

  12. SkyMapper Early Data Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Christian; Onken, Christopher; Schmidt, Brian; Bessell, Michael; Da Costa, Gary; Luvaul, Lance; Mackey, Dougal; Murphy, Simon; White, Marc; SkyMapper Team

    2016-05-01

    The SkyMapper Early Data Release (EDR) is the initial data release from the SkyMapper Southern Survey, which aims to create a deep, multi-epoch, multi-band photometric data set for the entire southern sky. EDR covers approximately 6700 sq. deg. (one-third) of the southern sky as obtained by the Short Survey component of the project. All included fields have at least two visits in good conditions in all six SkyMapper filters (uvgriz). Object catalogues are complete to magnitude 17-18, depending on filter. IVOA-complaint table access protocol (TAP), cone search and simple image access protocol (SIAP) services are available from the SkyMapper website (http://skymapper.anu.edu.au/), as well as through tools such as TOPCAT. Data are restricted to Australian astronomers and their collaborators for twelve months from the release date. Further details on the reduction of SkyMapper data, along with data quality improvements, will be released in late 2016 as part of SkyMapper Data Release 1 (DR1).

  13. Kinesin ATPase: Rate-limiting ADP release

    SciTech Connect

    Hackney, D.D.

    1988-09-01

    The ATPase rate of kinesin isolated from bovine brain by the method of S.A. Kuznetsov and V.I. Gelfand is stimulated 1000-fold by interaction with tubulin. The tubulin-stimulated reaction exhibits no extra incorporation of water-derived oxygens over a wide range of ATP and tubulin concentrations, indicating that P/sub i/ release is faster than the reversal of hydrolysis. ADP release, however, is slow for the basal reaction and its release is rate limiting as indicated by the very tight ADP binding (K/sub i/ < 5 nM), the retention of a stoichiometric level of bound ADP through ion-exchange chromatography and dialysis, and the reversible labeling of a bound ADP by (/sup 14/C)ATP at the steady-state ATPase rate as shown by centrifuge gel filtration and inaccessibility to pyruvate kinase. Tubulin accelerates the release of the bound ADP consistent with its activation of the net ATPase reaction. The detailed kinetics of ADP release in the presence of tubulin are biphasic indicating apparent heterogeneity with a fraction of the kinesin active sites being unaffected by tubulin.

  14. Evaluation of three approaches to meniscal release.

    PubMed

    Austin, B; Montgomery, R D; Wright, J; Bellah, J R; Tonks, C

    2007-01-01

    Three approaches to medial meniscal release (MMR) were compared using 48 canine cadaver stifles. The approaches included a caudomedial arthrotomy approach, a blind stab incision based on anatomic landmarks, and an arthroscopic guided approach. The cranial cruciate ligament was intact in all specimens. The time required to perform the meniscal release and joint capsule closure was recorded, as well as completeness and location of the meniscal transection. Damage to the caudal cruciate ligament, femoral cartilage, and medial collateral ligament were recorded. The mini-arthrotomy was 81% successful in accomplishment of MMR with a 4% rate of iatrogenic damage. The blind technique was 56% successful in the accomplishment of MMR with a 4% rate of iatrogenic damage. The arthroscopic guided approach was 62.5% successful in accomplishment of MMR, with a 10% rate of iatrogenic damage. Accomplishment and iatrogenic damage rates were not significantly different among procedures (p > 0.05). Significantly less time was required to perform the blind technique, and significantly greater time was required to perform the arthroscopic guided technique (p > 0.05). Significant differences were not noted among the procedures regarding the ability to accomplish the meniscal release or damage surrounding structures. None of the evaluated approaches for meniscal release resulted in a complete and accurate meniscal release for over 81% of the time.

  15. Designing conditional release systems for insanity acquittees.

    PubMed

    Griffin, P A; Steadman, H J; Heilbrun, K

    1991-01-01

    Monitored treatment in the community, also known as conditional release, has been described as the most important advance in the treatment of insanity acquittees in the last decade. Despite the importance of the development of conditional release, however, there has been relatively little written about relevant issues and planning principles important in designing and implementing conditional release systems. The present paper discusses important considerations relevant to conditional release that are associated with key decision points within systems for persons found not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI). Four planning principles, generalizable to all NGRI systems, are then presented in a way that integrates the previous discussion. It is concluded that conditional release plays a crucial role in the treatment of insanity acquittees and that mental health administrators may either proactively modify their systems, in a way that balances public safety with individual rights and treatment needs, or wait for the modification mandate to be forced upon them in the wake of a highly publicized, heinous offense.

  16. Helium release from radioisotope heat sources

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.E.; Early, J.W.; Starzynski, J.S.; Land, C.C.

    1984-05-01

    Diffusion of helium in /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ fuel was characterized as a function of the heating rate and the fuel microstructure. The samples were thermally ramped in an induction furnace and the helium release rates measured with an automated mass spectrometer. The diffusion constants and activation energies were obtained from the data using a simple diffusion model. The release rates of helium were correlated with the fuel microstructure by metallographic examination of fuel samples. The release mechanism consists of four regimes, which are dependent upon the temperature. Initially, the release is controlled by movement of point defects combined with trapping along grain boundaries. This regime is followed by a process dominated by formation and growth of helium bubbles along grain boundaries. The third regime involves volume diffusion controlled by movement of oxygen vacancies. Finally, the release at the highest temperatures follows the diffusion rate of intragranular bubbles. The tendency for helium to be trapped within the grain boundaries diminishes with small grain sizes, slow thermal pulses, and older fuel.

  17. Kinesin ATPase: Rate-Limiting ADP Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackney, David D.

    1988-09-01

    The ATPase rate of kinesin isolated from bovine brain by the method of S. A. Kuznetsov and V. I. Gelfand [(1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83, 8530-8534)] is stimulated 1000-fold by interaction with tubulin (turnover rate per 120-kDa peptide increases from ≈ 0.009 sec-1 to 9 sec-1). The tubulin-stimulated reaction exhibits no extra incorporation of water-derived oxygens over a wide range of ATP and tubulin concentrations, indicating that Pi release is faster than the reversal of hydrolysis. ADP release, however, is slow for the basal reaction and its release is rate limiting as indicated by the very tight ADP binding (Ki < 5 nM), the retention of a stoichiometric level of bound ADP through ion-exchange chromatography and dialysis, and the reversible labeling of a bound ADP by [14C]ATP at the steady-state ATPase rate as shown by centrifuge gel filtration and inaccessibility to pyruvate kinase. Tubulin accelerates the release of the bound ADP consistent with its activation of the net ATPase reaction. The detailed kinetics of ADP release in the presence of tubulin are biphasic indicating apparent heterogeneity with a fraction of the kinesin active sites being unaffected by tubulin.

  18. Nonequivalent release sites govern synaptic depression.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hua; McGinley, Matthew J; Mandel, Gail; Brehm, Paul

    2016-01-19

    Synaptic depression is prominent among synapses, but the underlying mechanisms remain uncertain. Here, we use paired patch clamp recording to study neuromuscular transmission between the caudal primary motor neuron and target skeletal muscle in zebrafish. This synapse has an unusually low number of release sites, all with high probabilities of release in response to low-frequency stimulation. During high-frequency stimulation, the synapse undergoes short-term depression and reaches steady-state levels of transmission that sustain the swimming behavior. To determine the release parameters underlying this steady state, we applied variance analysis. Our analysis revealed two functionally distinct subclasses of release sites differing by over 60-fold in rates of vesicle reloading. A slow reloading class requires seconds to recover and contributes to depression onset but not the steady-state transmission. By contrast, a fast reloading class recovers within tens of milliseconds and is solely responsible for steady-state transmission. Thus, in contrast to most current models that assign levels of steady-state depression to vesicle availability, our findings instead assign this function to nonuniform release site kinetics. The duality of active-site properties accounts for the highly nonlinear dependence of steady-state depression levels on frequency.

  19. Nonequivalent release sites govern synaptic depression.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hua; McGinley, Matthew J; Mandel, Gail; Brehm, Paul

    2016-01-19

    Synaptic depression is prominent among synapses, but the underlying mechanisms remain uncertain. Here, we use paired patch clamp recording to study neuromuscular transmission between the caudal primary motor neuron and target skeletal muscle in zebrafish. This synapse has an unusually low number of release sites, all with high probabilities of release in response to low-frequency stimulation. During high-frequency stimulation, the synapse undergoes short-term depression and reaches steady-state levels of transmission that sustain the swimming behavior. To determine the release parameters underlying this steady state, we applied variance analysis. Our analysis revealed two functionally distinct subclasses of release sites differing by over 60-fold in rates of vesicle reloading. A slow reloading class requires seconds to recover and contributes to depression onset but not the steady-state transmission. By contrast, a fast reloading class recovers within tens of milliseconds and is solely responsible for steady-state transmission. Thus, in contrast to most current models that assign levels of steady-state depression to vesicle availability, our findings instead assign this function to nonuniform release site kinetics. The duality of active-site properties accounts for the highly nonlinear dependence of steady-state depression levels on frequency. PMID:26715759

  20. Nonequivalent release sites govern synaptic depression

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Hua; McGinley, Matthew J.; Mandel, Gail; Brehm, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic depression is prominent among synapses, but the underlying mechanisms remain uncertain. Here, we use paired patch clamp recording to study neuromuscular transmission between the caudal primary motor neuron and target skeletal muscle in zebrafish. This synapse has an unusually low number of release sites, all with high probabilities of release in response to low-frequency stimulation. During high-frequency stimulation, the synapse undergoes short-term depression and reaches steady-state levels of transmission that sustain the swimming behavior. To determine the release parameters underlying this steady state, we applied variance analysis. Our analysis revealed two functionally distinct subclasses of release sites differing by over 60-fold in rates of vesicle reloading. A slow reloading class requires seconds to recover and contributes to depression onset but not the steady-state transmission. By contrast, a fast reloading class recovers within tens of milliseconds and is solely responsible for steady-state transmission. Thus, in contrast to most current models that assign levels of steady-state depression to vesicle availability, our findings instead assign this function to nonuniform release site kinetics. The duality of active-site properties accounts for the highly nonlinear dependence of steady-state depression levels on frequency. PMID:26715759

  1. Intracellular sphingosine releases calcium from lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Höglinger, Doris; Haberkant, Per; Aguilera-Romero, Auxiliadora; Riezman, Howard; Porter, Forbes D; Platt, Frances M; Galione, Antony; Schultz, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate new functions of sphingosine (Sph), we demonstrate that the spontaneous elevation of intracellular Sph levels via caged Sph leads to a significant and transient calcium release from acidic stores that is independent of sphingosine 1-phosphate, extracellular and ER calcium levels. This photo-induced Sph-driven calcium release requires the two-pore channel 1 (TPC1) residing on endosomes and lysosomes. Further, uncaging of Sph leads to the translocation of the autophagy-relevant transcription factor EB (TFEB) to the nucleus specifically after lysosomal calcium release. We confirm that Sph accumulates in late endosomes and lysosomes of cells derived from Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) patients and demonstrate a greatly reduced calcium release upon Sph uncaging. We conclude that sphingosine is a positive regulator of calcium release from acidic stores and that understanding the interplay between Sph homeostasis, calcium signaling and autophagy will be crucial in developing new therapies for lipid storage disorders such as NPC. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10616.001 PMID:26613410

  2. Intracellular sphingosine releases calcium from lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Höglinger, Doris; Haberkant, Per; Aguilera-Romero, Auxiliadora; Riezman, Howard; Porter, Forbes D; Platt, Frances M; Galione, Antony; Schultz, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate new functions of sphingosine (Sph), we demonstrate that the spontaneous elevation of intracellular Sph levels via caged Sph leads to a significant and transient calcium release from acidic stores that is independent of sphingosine 1-phosphate, extracellular and ER calcium levels. This photo-induced Sph-driven calcium release requires the two-pore channel 1 (TPC1) residing on endosomes and lysosomes. Further, uncaging of Sph leads to the translocation of the autophagy-relevant transcription factor EB (TFEB) to the nucleus specifically after lysosomal calcium release. We confirm that Sph accumulates in late endosomes and lysosomes of cells derived from Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) patients and demonstrate a greatly reduced calcium release upon Sph uncaging. We conclude that sphingosine is a positive regulator of calcium release from acidic stores and that understanding the interplay between Sph homeostasis, calcium signaling and autophagy will be crucial in developing new therapies for lipid storage disorders such as NPC. PMID:26613410

  3. Methamphetamine Regulation of Sulfotransferase 1A1 and 2A1 Expression in Rat Brain Sections

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tianyan; Huang, Chaoqun; Chen, Yue; Xu, Jiaojiao; Shanbhag, Preeti Devaraya; Chen, Guangping

    2012-01-01

    Sulfotransferase catalyzed sulfation regulates the biological activities of various neurotransmitters/hormones and detoxifies xenobiotics. Rat sulfotransferase rSULT1A1 catalyzes the sulfation of neurotransmitters and xenobiotic phenolic compounds. rSULT2A1 catalyzes the sulfation of hydroxysteroids and xenobiotic alcoholic compounds. In this work, Western blot and real-time RT-PCR were used to investigate the effect of methamphetamine on rSULT1A1 and rSULT2A1 protein and mRNA expression in rat cerebellum, frontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. After 1-day treatment, significant induction of rSULT1A1 was observed only in the cerebellum; rSULT2A1 was induced significantly in the cerebellum, frontal cortex, and hippocampus. After 7-days of exposure, rSULT1A1 was induced in the cerebellum, frontal cortex, and hippocampus, while rSULT2A1 was induced significantly in all four regions. Western blot results agreed with the real-time RT-PCR results, suggesting that the induction occurred at the gene transcriptional level. Results indicate that rSULT1A1 and rSULT2A1 are expressed in rat frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, and hippocampus. rSULT1A1 and rSULT2A1are inducible by methamphetamine in rat brain sections in a time dependable manner. rSULT2A1 is more inducible than rSULT1A1 by methamphetamine in rat brain sections. Induction activity of methamphetamine is in the order of cerebellum > frontal cortex, hippocampus > striatum. These results suggest that the physiological functions of rSULT1A1 and rSULT2A1 in different brain regions can be affected by methamphetamine. PMID:23026138

  4. Xyce release and distribution management : version 1.2.

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, Scott Alan; Williamson, Charles Michael

    2003-10-01

    This document presents a high-level description of the Xyce {trademark} Parallel Electronic Simulator Release and Distribution Management Process. The purpose of this process is to standardize the manner in which all Xyce software products progress toward release and how releases are made available to customers. Rigorous Release Management will assure that Xyce releases are created in such a way that the elements comprising the release are traceable and the release itself is reproducible. Distribution Management describes what is to be done with a Xyce release that is eligible for distribution.

  5. 21 CFR 864.7040 - Adenosine triphosphate release assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... device that measures the release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from platelets following aggregation.... Simultaneous measurements of platelet aggregation and ATP release are used to evaluate platelet...

  6. Vapor deposited release layers for nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tong; Kobrin, Boris; Wanebo, Mike; Nowak, Romek; Yi, Richard; Chinn, Jeff; Bender, Markus; Fuchs, Andreas; Otto, Martin

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents the advantages of using a vapor deposited self-assembled monolayer (SAM) as a mold release layer for nano-imprint lithography. The release SAM was formed from a perfluorinated organo-silane precursor at room temperature in the gaseous state by a technique called Molecular Vapor Deposition (MVD TM). In contrast to a conventional coating from a liquid immersion sequence, the vapor deposition process forms a particulate free film resulting in a substantial reduction of surface defects. Another advantage of the vapor process is its excellent conformity onto the nanoscale topography of the mold. The self-assembling and self-limiting characteristics of the MVD process enables excellent CD control of the mold pattern. Pattern replication as small as 38nm features was achieved. Various other quantitative metrics of the MVD release layer are presented in this paper.

  7. Imaging neurotransmitter release kinetics in living cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Weihong; Yeung, E.S.; Haydon, P.G.

    1996-12-31

    A new UV-laser based optical microscope and CCD detection system has been developed to image neurotransmitter in living biological cells. We demonstrate the detection of serotonin that has been taken up into and released from individual living glial cells (astrocytes) based on its native fluorescence. The detection methodology has high sensitivity, low limit of detection and does not require coupling to fluorescence dyes. We have studied serotonin uptake kinetics and its release dynamics in single glial cells. Different regions of a glial cell have taken up different amounts of serotonin with a variety of kinetics. Similarly, different serotonin release mechanisms have been observed in different astrocyte cell regions. The temporal resolution of this detection system is as fast as 50 ms, and the spatial resolution is diffraction limited. We will also report on single enzyme molecule reaction studies and single metal ion detection based on CCD imaging of pL reaction vials formed by micromachining on fused silica.

  8. Nitric Oxide Release Part II. Therapeutic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Alexis W.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    Summary A wide range of nitric oxide (NO)-releasing materials have emerged as potential therapeutics that exploit NO’s vast biological roles. Macromolecular NO-releasing scaffolds are particularly promising due to their ability to store and deliver larger NO payloads in a more controlled and effective manner compared to low molecular weight NO donors. While a variety of scaffolds (e.g., particles, dendrimers, and polymers/films) have been cleverly designed, the ultimate clinical utility of most NO-releasing macromolecules remains unrealized. Although not wholly predictive of clinical success, in vitro and in vivo investigations have enabled a preliminary evaluation of the therapeutic potential of such materials. Herein, we review the application of macromolecular NO therapies for cardiovascular disease, cancer, bacterial infections, and wound healing. PMID:22362384

  9. MEASUREMENT OF AMMONIA RELEASE FROM SALTSTONE

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J; Alex Cozzi, A

    2009-01-15

    SRNL was requested by WSRC Waste Solidification Engineering to characterize the release of ammonia from saltstone curing at 95 C by performing experimental testing. These tests were performed with an MCU-type Tank 50H salt simulant containing 0, 50, and 200 mg/L ammonia. The testing program showed that above saltstone made from the 200 mg/L ammonia simulant, the vapor space ammonia concentration was about 2.7 mg/L vapor at 95 C. An upper 95% confidence value for this concentration was found to be 3.9 mg/L. Testing also showed that ammonia was chemically generated from curing saltstone at 95 C; the amount of ammonia generated was estimated to be equivalent to 121 mg/L additional ammonia in the salt solution feed. Even with chemical generation, the ammonia release from saltstone was found to be lower than its release from salt solution only with 200 mg/L ammonia.

  10. Quick release latch for reactor scram

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, M.L.; Shawver, B.M.

    1975-09-16

    A simple, reliable, and fast-acting means for releasing a control element and allowing it to be inserted rapidly into the core region of a nuclear reactor for scram purposes is described. A latch mechanism grips a coupling head on a nuclear control element to connect the control element to the control drive assembly. The latch mechanism is closed by tensioning a cable or rod with an actuator. The control element is released by de-energizing the actuator, providing fail-safe, rapid release of the control element to effect reactor shutdown. A sensing rod provides indication that the control element is properly positioned in the latch. Two embodiments are illustrated, one involving a collet- type latch mechanism, the other a pliers-type latch mechanism with the actuator located inside the reactor vessel. (auth)

  11. Drug release from ordered mesoporous silicas.

    PubMed

    Doadrio, Antonio L; Salinas, Antonio J; Sánchez-Montero, José M; Vallet-Regí, M

    2015-01-01

    The state-of-the-art in the investigation of drugs release from Silica-based ordered Mesoporous Materials (SMMs) is reviewed. First, the SMM systems used like host matrixes are described. Then, the model drugs studied until now, including their pharmacological action, structure and the mesoporous matrix employed for each drug, are comprehensively listed. Next, the factors influencing the release of drugs from SMMs and the strategies used to control the drug delivery, specially the chemical functionalization of the silica surface, are discussed. In addition, how all these factors were gathered in a kinetic equation that describes the drug release from the mesoporous matrixes is explained. The new application of molecular modeling and docking in the investigation of the drug delivery mechanisms from SMMs is also presented. Finally, the new approaches under investigation in this field are mentioned including the design of smart stimuli-responsive materials and other recent proposals for a future investigation. PMID:26549760

  12. Release Resistant Electrical Interconnections For Mems Devices

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Garrett, Stephen E.; Reber, Cathleen A.

    2005-02-22

    A release resistant electrical interconnection comprising a gold-based electrical conductor compression bonded directly to a highly-doped polysilicon bonding pad in a MEMS, IMEMS, or MOEMS device, without using any intermediate layers of aluminum, titanium, solder, or conductive adhesive disposed in-between the conductor and polysilicon pad. After the initial compression bond has been formed, subsequent heat treatment of the joint above 363 C creates a liquid eutectic phase at the bondline comprising gold plus approximately 3 wt % silicon, which, upon re-solidification, significantly improves the bond strength by reforming and enhancing the initial bond. This type of electrical interconnection is resistant to chemical attack from acids used for releasing MEMS elements (HF, HCL), thereby enabling the use of a "package-first, release-second" sequence for fabricating MEMS devices. Likewise, the bond strength of an Au--Ge compression bond may be increased by forming a transient liquid eutectic phase comprising Au-12 wt % Ge.

  13. Environmental Release Prevention and Control Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Mamatey, A.; Arnett, M.

    1997-10-01

    During the history of SRS, continual improvements in facilities, process, and operations, and changes in the site`s mission have reduced the amount of radioactive liquid releases. In the early years of SRS (1958 to 1965), the amount of tritium discharged to the Savannah River averaged approximately 61,000 curies a year. During the mid-1980`s (1983 to 1988), liquid releases of tritium averaged 27,000 curies a year. By 1996, liquid releases of tritium are projected to be just 3000 curies for the year. This large projected decrease is the result of the planned shut-down of all reactors and the anticipated significant decline in the amount of tritium migrating from the site seepage basins and the Solid Waste Disposal Facility.

  14. Quick release latch for reactor scram

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Melvin L.; Shawver, Bruce M.

    1976-01-01

    A simple, reliable, and fast-acting means for releasing a control element and allowing it to be inserted rapidly into the core region of a nuclear reactor for scram purposes. A latch mechanism grips a coupling head on a nuclear control element to connect the control element to the control drive assembly. The latch mechanism is closed by tensioning a cable or rod with an actuator. The control element is released by de-energizing the actuator, providing fail-safe, rapid release of the control element to effect reactor shutdown. A sensing rod provides indication that the control element is properly positioned in the latch. Two embodiments are illustrated, one involving a collet-type latch mechanism, the other a pliers-type latch mechanism with the actuator located inside the reactor vessel.

  15. Multiplexed programmable release of captured DNA.

    PubMed

    Kennedy-Darling, Julia; Holden, Matthew T; Shortreed, Michael R; Smith, Lloyd M

    2014-11-01

    Nucleic-acid hybridization is widely used for the specific capture of complementary sequences from complex samples. It is useful for both analytical methodologies, such as array hybridization (e.g. transcriptome analysis, genetic-variation analysis), and preparative strategies such as exome sequencing and sequence-specific proteome capture and analysis (PICh, HyCCAPP). It has not generally been possible to selectively elute particular captured subsequences, however, as the conditions employed for disruption of a duplex can lack the specificity needed to discriminate between different sequences. We show here that it is possible to bind and selectively release multiple sets of sequences by using toehold-mediated DNA branch migration. The strategy is illustrated for simple mixtures of oligonucleotides, for the sequence-specific capture and specific release of crosslinked yeast chromatin, and for the specific release of oligonucleotides hybridized to DNA microarrays. PMID:25157426

  16. Environmental releases for calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-07-01

    This report fulfills the annual environmental release reporting requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. This report provides supplemental information to the Hanford Site Environmental Report. The Hanford Site Environmental Report provides an update on the environmental status of the entire Hanford Site. The sitewide annual report summarizes the degree of compliance of the Hanford Site with applicable environmental regulations and informs the public about the impact of Hanford operations on the surrounding environment. Like the Hanford Site Environmental Report, this annual report presents a summary of the environmental releases from facilities managed by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and monitored by Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated (BHI). In addition to the summary data, this report also includes detailed data on air emissions, liquid effluents, and hazardous substances released to the environment during calendar year 1994 from these facilities.

  17. Pneumococcal IgA1 protease subverts specific protection by human IgA1.

    PubMed

    Janoff, E N; Rubins, J B; Fasching, C; Charboneau, D; Rahkola, J T; Plaut, A G; Weiser, J N

    2014-03-01

    Bacterial immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) proteases may sabotage the protective effects of IgA. In vitro, both exogenous and endogenously produced IgA1 protease inhibited phagocytic killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae by capsule-specific IgA1 human monoclonal antibodies (hMAbs) but not IgA2. These IgA1 proteases cleaved and reduced binding of the the effector Fcα1 heavy chain but not the antigen-binding F(ab)/light chain to pneumococcal surfaces. In vivo, IgA1 protease-resistant IgA2, but not IgA1 protease-sensitive IgA1, supported 60% survival in mice infected with wild-type S. pneumoniae. IgA1 hMAbs protected mice against IgA1 protease-deficient but not -producing pneumococci. Parallel mouse sera with human IgA2 showed more efficient complement-mediated reductions in pneumococci with neutrophils than did IgA1, particularly with protease-producing organisms. After natural human pneumococcal bacteremia, purified serum IgG inhibited IgA1 protease activity in 7 of 11 patients (64%). These observations provide the first evidence in vivo that IgA1 protease can circumvent killing of S. pneumoniae by human IgA. Acquisition of IgA1 protease-neutralizing IgG after infection directs attention to IgA1 protease both as a determinant of successful colonization and infection and as a potential vaccine candidate.

  18. Pharmacology of neurotransmitter release: measuring exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Khvotchev, Mikhail; Kavalali, Ege T

    2008-01-01

    Neurotransmission in the nervous system is initiated at presynaptic terminals by fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane and subsequent exocytic release of chemical transmitters. Currently, there are multiple methods to detect neurotransmitter release from nerve terminals, each with their own particular advantages and disadvantages. For instance, most commonly employed methods monitor actions of released chemical substances on postsynaptic receptors or artificial substrates such as carbon fibers. These methods are closest to the physiological setting because they have a rapid time resolution and they measure the action of the endogenous neurotransmitters rather than the signals emitted by exogenous probes. However, postsynaptic receptors only indirectly report neurotransmitter release in a form modified by the properties of receptors themselves, which are often nonlinear detectors of released substances. Alternatively, released chemical substances can be detected biochemically, albeit on a time scale slower than electrophysiological methods. In addition, in certain preparations, where presynaptic terminals are accessible to whole cell recording electrodes, fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane can be monitored using capacitance measurements. In the last decade, in addition to electrophysiological and biochemical methods, several fluorescence imaging modalities have been introduced which report synaptic vesicle fusion, endocytosis, and recycling. These methods either take advantage of styryl dyes that can be loaded into recycling vesicles or exogenous expression of synaptic vesicle proteins tagged with a pH-sensitive GFP variant at regions facing the vesicle lumen. In this chapter, we will provide an overview of these methods with particular emphasis on their relative strengths and weaknesses and discuss the types of information one can obtain from them. PMID:18064410

  19. Pharmacology of neurotransmitter release: measuring exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Khvotchev, Mikhail; Kavalali, Ege T

    2008-01-01

    Neurotransmission in the nervous system is initiated at presynaptic terminals by fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane and subsequent exocytic release of chemical transmitters. Currently, there are multiple methods to detect neurotransmitter release from nerve terminals, each with their own particular advantages and disadvantages. For instance, most commonly employed methods monitor actions of released chemical substances on postsynaptic receptors or artificial substrates such as carbon fibers. These methods are closest to the physiological setting because they have a rapid time resolution and they measure the action of the endogenous neurotransmitters rather than the signals emitted by exogenous probes. However, postsynaptic receptors only indirectly report neurotransmitter release in a form modified by the properties of receptors themselves, which are often nonlinear detectors of released substances. Alternatively, released chemical substances can be detected biochemically, albeit on a time scale slower than electrophysiological methods. In addition, in certain preparations, where presynaptic terminals are accessible to whole cell recording electrodes, fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane can be monitored using capacitance measurements. In the last decade, in addition to electrophysiological and biochemical methods, several fluorescence imaging modalities have been introduced which report synaptic vesicle fusion, endocytosis, and recycling. These methods either take advantage of styryl dyes that can be loaded into recycling vesicles or exogenous expression of synaptic vesicle proteins tagged with a pH-sensitive GFP variant at regions facing the vesicle lumen. In this chapter, we will provide an overview of these methods with particular emphasis on their relative strengths and weaknesses and discuss the types of information one can obtain from them.

  20. New insight into modified release pellets - Internal structure and drug release mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ensslin, Simon; Moll, Klaus Peter; Paulus, Kurt; Mäder, Karsten

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the drug release mechanism from pellets, coated with blends of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) and polyvinyl alcohol-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer (PVA-PEG). Water influx and drug solubilization inside the pellets were investigated in correlation to drug release. The highly soluble drug Chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) was used as a model compound. Modified release pellets were manufactured by fluid bed drug layering and film coating of starter beads. The pellets were characterized using cross section EDX mapping, confirming location and homogeneity of the different layers. A film coat of 23%, containing PVAc/PVA-PEG in 9:1 ratio, resulted in a sigmoid shaped release curve with 2 h lag-time, followed by 3 h of continuous drug release. Using NMR analysis, water influx and drug solubilization inside the pellets were detected within 20 min. Additionally, dissolution of PVA-PEG after several minutes and drug release after the lag-time were measurable. A fast water influx into PVAc/PVA-PEG film coated pellets did not result in a fast drug release. Despite a fast drug solubilization within the pellets, drug release was initiated after 2 h, suggesting a one way stream of water during the observed lag-time. PMID:18433911

  1. Stimulatory effects of neuronally released norepinephrine on renin release in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumura, Yasuo; Kawazoe, Shinka; Ichihara, Toshio; Shinyama, Hiroshi; Kageyama, Masaaki; Morimoto, Shiro )

    1988-10-01

    Extracellular high potassium inhibits renin release in vitro by increasing calcium concentrations in the juxtaglomerular cells. The authors found that the decreased response of renin release from rat kidney cortical slices in high potassium solution changed to a strikingly increased one in the presence of nifedipine at doses over 10{sup {minus}6} M. They then examined the stimulatory effect of extracellular high potassium in the presence of nifedipine on renin release. The enhancement of release was significantly suppressed either by propranolol or by metoprolol but not by prazosin. High potassium plus nifedipine-induced increase in renin release was markedly attenuated by renal denervation. The enhancing effect was not observed when the slices were incubated in calcium-free medium. Divalent cations such as Cd{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, and Mn{sup 2+} blocked this enhancement in a concentration-dependent manner. High potassium elicited an increase in {sup 3}H efflux from the slices preloaded with ({sup 3}H)-norepinephrine. The increasing effect was not influenced by nifedipine but was abolished by the removal of extracellular calcium or by the addition of divalent cations. These observations suggest to us that the high potassium plus nifedipine-induced increase in renin release from the slices is mediated by norepinephrine derived from renal sympathetic nerves and that this neuronally released norepinephrine stimulates renin release via activation of {beta}-adrenoceptors.

  2. New insight into modified release pellets - Internal structure and drug release mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ensslin, Simon; Moll, Klaus Peter; Paulus, Kurt; Mäder, Karsten

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the drug release mechanism from pellets, coated with blends of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) and polyvinyl alcohol-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer (PVA-PEG). Water influx and drug solubilization inside the pellets were investigated in correlation to drug release. The highly soluble drug Chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) was used as a model compound. Modified release pellets were manufactured by fluid bed drug layering and film coating of starter beads. The pellets were characterized using cross section EDX mapping, confirming location and homogeneity of the different layers. A film coat of 23%, containing PVAc/PVA-PEG in 9:1 ratio, resulted in a sigmoid shaped release curve with 2 h lag-time, followed by 3 h of continuous drug release. Using NMR analysis, water influx and drug solubilization inside the pellets were detected within 20 min. Additionally, dissolution of PVA-PEG after several minutes and drug release after the lag-time were measurable. A fast water influx into PVAc/PVA-PEG film coated pellets did not result in a fast drug release. Despite a fast drug solubilization within the pellets, drug release was initiated after 2 h, suggesting a one way stream of water during the observed lag-time.

  3. Temperature actuated automatic safety rod release

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, Ernest; Pardini, John A.; Walker, David E.

    1987-01-01

    A temperature-actuated apparatus is disclosed for releasably supporting a safety rod in a nuclear reactor, comprising a safety rod upper adapter having a retention means, a drive shaft which houses the upper adapter, and a bimetallic means supported within the drive shaft and having at least one ledge which engages a retention means of the safety rod upper adapter. A pre-determined increase in temperature causes the bimetallic means to deform so that the ledge disengages from the retention means, whereby the bimetallic means releases the safety rod into the core of the reactor.

  4. Temperature actuated automatic safety rod release

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, E.; Pardini, J.A.; Walker, D.E.

    1984-03-13

    A temperature-actuated apparatus is disclosed for releasably supporting a safety rod in a nuclear reactor, comprising a safety rod upper adapter having a retention means, a drive shaft which houses the upper adapter, and a bimetallic means supported within the drive shaft and having at least one ledge which engages a retention means of the safety rod upper adapter. A pre-determined increase in temperature causes the bimetallic means to deform so that the ledge disengages from the retention means, whereby the bimetallic means releases the safety rod into the core of the reactor.

  5. Carpal tunnel release complicated by necrotizing fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Greco, R J; Curtsinger, L J

    1993-06-01

    We report a 31-year-old diabetic woman who underwent carpal tunnel release for median nerve compression followed by a laparoscopic tubal ligation. The procedure was complicated by a severe postoperative necrotizing fasciitis infection of the carpal tunnel release incision. This has not been previously reported. The wound was poorly responsive to antibiotic therapy and serial wound debridements. Control of the woman's infection required total excision of the palmar skin and fascia. Complicating factors in this case included the woman's long history of insulin-dependent diabetes and a concomitant clean-contaminated procedure.

  6. Helium Release Behavior of Aged Titanium Tritides

    SciTech Connect

    SHANAHAN, KIRKL.

    2004-07-27

    One sample of bulk Ti has been loaded with a 50 per cent / 50 per cent deuterium/tritium mixture and statically aged for 6.5 years. Thermal desorption of the sample shows an initial release of hydrogen isotopes followed by 3He release. Subsequent D2 loading/desorption was used to quantify the trapped tritium heel. The sample shows an excess hydrogen capacity as a second thermal desorption peak that partially disappears and shifts with annealing at 923-973K. The main hydrogen desorption peak also shifts to higher temperature, indicating a partial reversal of the tritium-decay induced damage by annealing.

  7. Xyce parallel electronic simulator release notes.

    SciTech Connect

    Keiter, Eric R; Hoekstra, Robert John; Mei, Ting; Russo, Thomas V.; Schiek, Richard Louis; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Rankin, Eric Lamont; Coffey, Todd S; Pawlowski, Roger P; Santarelli, Keith R.

    2010-05-01

    The Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator has been written to support, in a rigorous manner, the simulation needs of the Sandia National Laboratories electrical designers. Specific requirements include, among others, the ability to solve extremely large circuit problems by supporting large-scale parallel computing platforms, improved numerical performance and object-oriented code design and implementation. The Xyce release notes describe: Hardware and software requirements New features and enhancements Any defects fixed since the last release Current known defects and defect workarounds For up-to-date information not available at the time these notes were produced, please visit the Xyce web page at http://www.cs.sandia.gov/xyce.

  8. Myofascial release of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sucher, B M

    1993-01-01

    Current treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome may be ineffective or associated with complications or recurrence. In the case reported here, a myofascial release by the physician combined with the patient's self-stretch reduced pain and numbness and improved electromyographic results. The manipulative approach releases the transverse carpal ligament,-and "opens" or dilates the canal. The patient stretches the wrist, digits, and thumb, including myofascial components. An aggressive, conservative approach lessens the need for surgery in mild to moderate cases. Studies with magnetic resonance imaging may be helpful to document canal size before and after treatment.

  9. Fluorescence imaging of glutamate release in neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ziqiang; Yeung, Edward S.

    1999-12-01

    A noninvasive detection scheme based on glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) enzymatic assay combined with microscopy was developed to measure the glutamate release in cultured cells from the central nervous system (CNS). The enzyme reaction is very specific and sensitive. The detection limit with charge-coupled device (CCD) imaging is down to {mu}M levels of glutamate with reasonable response time ({approx}30 s). The standard glutamate test shows a linear response over 3 orders of magnitude, from {mu}M to 0.1 mM range. The in vitro monitoring of glutamate release from cultured neuron cells demonstrated excellent spatial and temporal resolution. (c) 1999 Society for Applied Spectroscopy.

  10. 8 CFR 245a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., if any, or (2) a crime treated as a misdemeanor under 8 CFR 245a.1(p). For purposes of this... CFR part 245a, the crime shall be treated as a misdemeanor. (q) Subject of an Order to Show Cause... English language competency, and attainment of these skills is measured either by successful completion...

  11. 38 CFR 8a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 8a.1 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE... necessary land therefor, that has been or will be purchased, constructed, or remodeled with a grant to meet... eligible veteran as his or her home, or a family dwelling or unit, including the necessary land...

  12. 32 CFR 168a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... which will be codified at 32 CFR part 168b. ... ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.1 Purpose. This part: (a) Establishes guidelines for the award of National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Fellowships, as required by 10 U.S.C. 2191....

  13. EPICS release 3.11 specific documentation -- EPICS release notes for 3.11

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-19

    EPICS release 3.11 is now ready for user testing. A person who wants to set up a simplified application environment to boot an IOC and create databases using R3.11 should follow the directions in Appendix B, page 27, of the EPICS Source/Release Control Manual, Sept. 20, 1993. The R3.11 EPICS path at ANL/APS is /net/phebos/epics/R3.11 so the command to get the new release is /net/phebos/epics/R3.11/Unix/share/bin/getrel /net/phebos/epics/R3.11. An existing R3.8 short form report can be copied to this new directory and used to create a database. ANL/APS is currently testing an Application Developers Source/Release control system. It is not yet ready for general distribution. Attached are the EPICS R3.11 release notes.

  14. IN VITRO ORGANIC NITRATE BIOACTIVATION TO NITRIC OXIDE BY RECOMBINANT ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE 3A1

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shunxin; Page, Nathaniel A.; Fung, Sun Mi; Fung, Ho-Leung

    2013-01-01

    Organic nitrates (ORNs) are commonly used anti-ischemic and anti-anginal agents, which serve as an exogenous source of the potent vasodilator nitric oxide (NO). Recently, both mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) and cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase-1a1 (ALDH1A1) have been shown to exhibit the ability to selectively bioactivate various ORNs in vitro. The objective of the present research was to examine the potential role of ALDH3A1, another major cytosolic isoform of ALDH, in the in vitro bioactivation of various ORNs, and to estimate the enzyme kinetic parameters toward ORNs through mechanistic modeling. The extent of bioactivation was assayed by exposing recombinant ALDH3A1 to various concentrations of ORNs, and measuring the concentration-time profiles of released NO via a NO-specific electrode. Metabolite formation kinetics was monitored for nitroglycerin (NTG) using LC/MS/MS. Our results showed that ALDH3A1 mRNA and protein were highly expressed in C57BL/6 mouse aortic, cardiac, and hepatic tissues, and it was able to release NO from several ORNs, including NTG, isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), isosorbide-2-mononitrate (IS-2-MN), and nicorandil with similar Vmax (0.175 – 0.503 nmol/min/mg of ALDH3A1), and Km values of 4.01, 46.5, 818 and 5.75 × 103 μM respectively. However, activation of isosorbide-5-mononitrate (IS-5-MN) by ALDH3A1 was undetectable in vitro. ALDH3A1 was also shown to denitrate NTG, producing primarily glyceryl 1, 2-dinitrate (1, 2-GDN) in preference to glyceryl 1, 3-dinitrate (1, 3-GDN). Therefore, ALDH3A1 may contribute to the bioactivation of ORNs in vivo. PMID:24126018

  15. Calcium released by photolysis of DM-nitrophen stimulates transmitter release at squid giant synapse.

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, K R; Zucker, R S

    1990-01-01

    1. Transmitter release at the squid giant synapse was stimulated by photolytic release of Ca2+ from the 'caged' Ca2+ compound DM-nitrophen (Kaplan & Ellis-Davies, 1988) inserted into presynaptic terminals. 2. Competing binding reactions cause the amount of Ca2+ released by DM-nitrophen photolysis to depend on the concentrations of DM-nitrophen, total Ca2+, Mg+, ATP and native cytoplasmic Ca2+ buffer. Measurements of presynaptic [Ca2+] changes by co-injection of the fluorescent indicator dye Fura-2 show that DM-nitrophen photolysis causes a transient rise in Ca2+ followed by decay within about 150 ms to an increased steady-state level. 3. Rapid photolysis of Ca2(+)-loaded nitrophen within the presynaptic terminal was followed in less than a millisecond by depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane. As with action potential-evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs), the light-evoked response was partially and reversibly blocked by 1-3 mM-kainic acid which desensitizes postsynaptic glutamate receptors. 4. Release was similar in magnitude and rate to normal action potential-mediated EPSPs. 5. The release of transmitter by photolysis of Ca2(+)-loaded DM-nitrophen was not affected by removal of Ca2+ from the saline or addition of tetrodotoxin. Photolysis of DM-nitrophen injected into presynaptic terminals without added Ca2+ did not stimulate release of transmitter nor did it interfere with normal action potential-mediated release. 6. Stimulation of presynaptic action potentials in Ca2(+)-free saline during the light-evoked response did not elicit increased release of transmitter if the ganglion was bathed in Ca2(+)-free saline, i.e. in the absence of Ca2+ influx. Increasing the intensity of the light or stimulating presynaptic action potentials in Ca2(+)-containing saline increased the release of transmitter. Therefore the failure of presynaptic voltage change to increase transmitter release resulting from release of caged Ca2+ was not due to saturation or

  16. Complement selectively elicits glutamate release from nerve endings in different regions of mammal central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Merega, Elisa; Di Prisco, Silvia; Lanfranco, Massimiliano; Severi, Paolo; Pittaluga, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Our study was aimed at investigating whether complement, a complex of soluble and membrane-associated serum proteins, could, in addition to its well-documented post-synaptic activity, also pre-synaptically affect the release of classic neurotransmitters in central nervous system (CNS). Complement (dilution 1 : 10 to 1 : 10000) elicited the release of preloaded [(3) H]-d-aspartate ([(3) H]d-ASP) and endogenous glutamate from mouse cortical synaptosomes in a dilution-dependent manner. It also evoked [(3) H]d-ASP release from mouse hippocampal, cerebellar, and spinal cord synaptosomes, as well as from rat and human cortical nerve endings, but left unaltered the release of GABA, [(3) H]noradrenaline or [(3) H]acetylcholine. Lowering external Na(+) (from 140 to 40 mM) or Ca(2+) (from 1.2 to 0.1 mM) ions prevented the 1 : 300 complement-evoked [(3) H]d-ASP release from mouse cortical synaptosomes. Complement-induced releasing effect was unaltered in synaptosomes entrapped with the Ca(2+) ions chelator 1,2-bis-(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N', tetra-acetic acid or with pertussis toxin. Nifedipine,/ω-conotoxin GVIA/ω-conotoxin MVIIC mixture as well as the vesicular ATPase blocker bafilomycin A1 were also inefficacious. The excitatory amino acid transporter blocker DL-threo-ß-benzyloxyaspartic acid, on the contrary, reduced the complement-evoked releasing effect in a concentration-dependent manner. We concluded that complement-induced releasing activity is restricted to glutamatergic nerve endings, where it was accounted for by carrier-mediated release. Our observations afford new insights into the molecular events accounting for immune and CNS crosstalk. We investigated whether complement, a complex of soluble and membrane-associated serum proteins, could pre-synaptically affect the release of classic neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS). Our data provide evidence that complement-induced releasing activity is restricted to glutamatergic nerve endings

  17. Antibiotic release from impregnated pellets and beads.

    PubMed

    Bowyer, G W; Cumberland, N

    1994-03-01

    Antibiotic impregnated beads are being used increasingly in the initial treatment of open fracture wounds, producing high antibiotic levels locally, over the first few days. Pellets were prepared to assess the release of the following antibiotics: benzylpenicillin, flucloxacillin, amoxycillin, amoxycillin-clavulanate (Co-Amoxiclav), ciprofloxacin, imipenem, or gentamicin; the carrier material was either polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) or plaster of Paris (PoP). Elution of antibiotic over 72 hours from the pellets in vitro was determined using an agar-diffusion microbiologic assay. The initial rapid release of antibiotic lasted 12-24 hours, with release from PoP pellets at least four-fold greater than that from corresponding PMMA pellets. A second phase consisted of a sustained but gradually diminishing elution. The release of antibiotics from PoP pellets compared favorably with that from the PMMA beads currently used. We conclude that PoP pellets may be particularly suitable for short-term applications such as infection prophylaxis in open fractures.

  18. Primary Frozen Shoulder Syndrome: Arthroscopic Capsular Release

    PubMed Central

    Arce, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic adhesive capsulitis, or primary frozen shoulder syndrome, is a fairly common orthopaedic problem characterized by shoulder pain and loss of motion. In most cases, conservative treatment (6-month physical therapy program and intra-articular steroid injections) improves symptoms and restores shoulder motion. In refractory cases, arthroscopic capsular release is indicated. This surgical procedure carries several advantages over other treatment modalities. First, it provides precise and controlled release of the capsule and ligaments, reducing the risk of traumatic complications observed after forceful shoulder manipulation. Second, release of the capsule and the involved structures with a radiofrequency device delays healing, which prevents adhesion formation. Third, the technique is straightforward, and an oral postoperative steroid program decreases pain and allows for a pleasant early rehabilitation program. Fourth, the procedure is performed with the patient fully awake under an interscalene block, which boosts the patient's confidence and adherence to the physical therapy protocol. In patients with refractory primary frozen shoulder syndrome, arthroscopic capsular release emerges as a suitable option that leads to a faster and long-lasting recovery. PMID:26870652

  19. Sustained release Curcumin loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Jourghanian, Parisa; Ghaffari, Solmaz; Ardjmand, Mehdi; Haghighat, Setareh; Mohammadnejad, Mahdieh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: curcumin is poorly water soluble drug with low bioavailability. Use of lipid systems in lipophilic substances increases solubility and bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. The aim of this study was to prepare curcumin loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs) with high loading efficiency, small particle size and prolonged release profile with enhanced antibacterial efficacy. Methods: to synthesize stable SLNs, freeze- Drying was done using mannitol as cryoprotectant. Cholesterol was used as carrier because of good tolerability and biocompatibility. SLNs were prepared using high pressure homogenization method. Results: optimized SLNs had 112 and 163 nm particle size before and after freeze drying, respectively. The prepared SLNs had 71% loading efficiency. 90% of loaded curcumin was released after 48 hours. Morphologic study for formulation was done by taking SEM pictures of curcumin SLNs. Results show the spherical shape of curcumin SLNs. DSC studies were performed to determine prolonged release mechanism. Antimicrobial studies were done to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of curcumin SLNs with free curcumin. DSC studies showed probability of formation of hydrogen bonds between cholesterol and curcumin which resulted in prolonged release of curcumin. Lipid structure of cholesterol could cause enhanced permeability in studied bacteria to increase antibacterial characteristics of curcumin. Conclusion: the designed curcumin SLNs could be candidate for formulation of different dosage forms or cosmeceutical products. PMID:27123413

  20. Environmental Releases in the Fuel Ethanol Industry

    EPA Science Inventory

    Corn ethanol is the largest produced alternate biofuel in the United States. More than 13 billion gallons of ethanol were produced in 2010. The projected corn ethanol production is 15 billion gallons by 2015. With increased production of ethanol, the environmental releases from e...

  1. 14 CFR 1240.111 - Release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Release. 1240.111 Section 1240.111 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INVENTIONS AND CONTRIBUTIONS Awards for... Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, as amended, no award will be made to an applicant unless the...

  2. 75 FR 74146 - Release of Waybill Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Release of Waybill Data The Surface Transportation Board has received a request from McCarthy, Sweeney & Harkaway, P.C. on behalf of the State of Montana (WB10-069(1)),...

  3. Hydrogen Release from Simulated Sludge and Saltcake

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, R.A.

    1999-01-05

    This report describes the results of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) program to address bubble gas release potential as requested by Concentration, Storage and Transfer Engineering. Researchers from the Waste Processing Technology Section (WPTS) and Immobilization Technology Section (ITS) contributed to the results presented.

  4. The Financial Resources of Released Prisoners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenihan, Kenneth J.

    This report examines the financial condition of men when they are released from state prisons. To what extent are they any better off than when they went in? With few exceptions, the author finds very little difference: they leave prison as they entered, still poor, with few employable skills and little work experience. The little money men do…

  5. Risk methodology overview. [for carbon fiber release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, K. R.

    1979-01-01

    Some considerations of risk estimation, how risk is measured, and how risk analysis decisions are made are discussed. Specific problems of carbon fiber release are discussed by reviewing the objective, describing the main elements, and giving an example of the risk logic and outputs.

  6. Passive ice freezing-releasing heat pipe

    DOEpatents

    Gorski, Anthony J.; Schertz, William W.

    1982-01-01

    A heat pipe device has been developed which permits completely passive ice formation and periodic release of ice without requiring the ambient temperature to rise above the melting point of water. This passive design enables the maximum amount of cooling capacity to be stored in the tank.

  7. 40 CFR 227.28 - Release zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Definitions § 227.28 Release zone. The... conveyance engaged in dumping activities, beginning at the first moment in which dumping is scheduled...

  8. Quick release storage battery closure assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Braswell, R.R.

    1984-10-16

    A quick release storage battery closure assembly for removably engaging the inspection opening defining bosses on a storage battery, the one that replaces the individual caps that normally are used for closing the inspection openings. The closure assembly is particularly adapted for use where the storage batteries are arranged as a group, such as on a golf cart or industrial vehicle.

  9. Gas cylinder release rate testing and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despres, Joseph; Sweeney, Joseph; Yedave, Sharad; Chambers, Barry

    2012-11-01

    There are varying cylinder technologies employed for the storage of gases, each resulting in a potentially different hazard level to the surroundings in the event of a gas release. Subatmospheric Gas delivery Systems Type I (SAGS I) store and deliver gases subatmospherically, while Subatmospheric Gas delivery Systems Type II (SAGS II) deliver gases subatmospherically, but store them at high pressure. Standard high pressure gas cylinders store and deliver their contents at high pressure. Due to the differences in these cylinder technologies, release rates in the event of a leak or internal component failure, can vary significantly. This paper details the experimental and theoretical results of different Arsine (AsH3) gas cylinder release scenarios. For the SAGS II experimental analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to determine the spatial concentration profiles when a surrogate gas, CF4, was released via a simulated leak within an ion implanter. Various SAGS I and SAGS II cylinder types and failure modes were tested. Additionally, theoretical analysis was performed to support an understanding of the different potential AsH3 leak rates. The results of this work show that the effects of a leak from the various cylinder types can be quite different, with the concentrations resulting from cylinders containing high pressure gas often being in excess of IDLH levels.

  10. 14 CFR 1240.111 - Release

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... foreign government pursuant to any existing or future treaty or agreement with the United States, within... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Release 1240.111 Section 1240.111 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INVENTIONS AND CONTRIBUTIONS Awards...

  11. 14 CFR § 1240.111 - Release

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... foreign government pursuant to any existing or future treaty or agreement with the United States, within... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Release § 1240.111 Section § 1240.111 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INVENTIONS AND CONTRIBUTIONS Awards...

  12. 14 CFR 1240.111 - Release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., or by or on behalf of any foreign government pursuant to any existing or future treaty or agreement... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Release. 1240.111 Section 1240.111 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INVENTIONS AND CONTRIBUTIONS Awards...

  13. 14 CFR 1240.111 - Release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., or by or on behalf of any foreign government pursuant to any existing or future treaty or agreement... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Release. 1240.111 Section 1240.111 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INVENTIONS AND CONTRIBUTIONS Awards...

  14. Releasable Conjugation of Polymers to Proteins.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yuhui; Leroux, Jean-Christophe; Gauthier, Marc A

    2015-07-15

    Many synthetic strategies are available for preparing well-defined conjugates of peptides/proteins and polymers. Most reports on this topic involve coupling methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) to therapeutic proteins, a process referred to as PEGylation, to increase their circulation lifetime and reduce their immunogenicity. Unfortunately, the major dissuading dogma of PEGylation is that, in many cases, polymer modification leads to significant (or total) loss of activity/function. One approach that is gaining momentum to address this challenge is to release the native protein from the polymer with time in the body (releasable PEGylation). This contribution will present the state-of-the-art of this rapidly evolving field, with emphasis on the chemistry behind the release of the peptide/protein and the means for altering the rate of release in biological fluids. Linkers discussed include those based on the following: substituted maleic anhydride and succinates, disulfides, 1,6-benzyl-elimination, host-guest interactions, bicin, β-elimination, biodegradable polymers, E1cb elimination, β-alanine, photoimmolation, coordination chemistry, zymogen activation, proteolysis, and thioesters.

  15. 21 CFR 181.28 - Release agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Release agents. 181.28 Section 181.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) PRIOR-SANCTIONED FOOD INGREDIENTS Specific Prior-Sanctioned Food Ingredients §...

  16. 21 CFR 181.28 - Release agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Release agents. 181.28 Section 181.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) PRIOR-SANCTIONED FOOD INGREDIENTS Specific Prior-Sanctioned Food Ingredients §...

  17. 21 CFR 181.28 - Release agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Release agents. 181.28 Section 181.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) PRIOR-SANCTIONED FOOD INGREDIENTS Specific Prior-Sanctioned Food Ingredients §...

  18. 21 CFR 181.28 - Release agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Release agents. 181.28 Section 181.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) PRIOR-SANCTIONED FOOD INGREDIENTS Specific Prior-Sanctioned Food Ingredients §...

  19. Slow-Release Fertilizers For Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Golden, D. C.

    1995-01-01

    Synthetic mineral provides growing plants with nutrients, including micronutrients. Dissolves slowly in moist soil or in hydroponic solution, releasing constituents. Mineral synthetic apatite into which nutrients calcium, phosphorous, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, molybdenum, chlorine, boron, and sulfur incorporated in form of various salts. Each pellet has homogeneous inorganic composition. Composition readily adjusted to meet precise needs of plant.

  20. 78 FR 13478 - Compassionate Release; Technical Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... of Prisons 28 CFR Part 571 RIN 1120-AB66 Compassionate Release; Technical Changes AGENCY: Bureau of...) makes a minor change to remove an administrative level of review from the processing of a Compassionate... INFORMATION: In this interim rule, the Bureau of Prisons (Bureau) makes a minor change to remove...

  1. First disposable diaphragm will gradually release spermicide.

    PubMed

    1984-06-01

    The Southern Research Institute in Birmingham, Alabama will begin phase 1 trials of a new disposable disphragm with a controlled release spermicide as soon as they obtain Federal Drug Administration approval. The device is made of synthetic elastomer which contains a premixed nonoxynol-9 spermicide. Vaginal fluid causes the spermicide to build up and additional spermicide is released when the initial supply is depleted. The device is effective for up to 24 hours and the controlled release of spermicide makes it unnecessary to add spermicide if intercourse is repeated. Addditional advantages are that it is disposable, requires no inspection or cleaninng and is not messy. During the 1st phase of clinical study, 10-12 women will use the diaphragm, and they will report on its comfort, how well it stays in place, and whether it causes any local irritation. In the 2nd phase, 20 women will undergo postcoital testing in order to determine if the device is releasing sufficient levels of spermicide to immobilize sperm. Initally the diaphragms will be fitted by a phsician who will then write a prescription for the device. Eventually the diaphragm may be available in a one size fits all model which will be sold over the counter. The price of the device is expected to be about $1.00, and it will be on the market in about 3 years. PMID:12313084

  2. Plan to mitigate infrastructure development released

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-04-01

    Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell released a new strategy on 10 April 2014 to advance landscape-scale, science-based management of America's public lands and wildlife. The strategy will implement mitigation policies and practices at the Department of the Interior that can encourage infrastructure development while protecting natural and cultural resources.

  3. Nitric oxide releasing material adsorbs more fibrinogen.

    PubMed

    Lantvit, Sarah M; Barrett, Brittany J; Reynolds, Melissa M

    2013-11-01

    One mechanism of the failure of blood-contacting devices is clotting. Nitric oxide (NO) releasing materials are seen as a viable solution to the mediation of surface clotting by preventing platelet activation; however, NO's involvement in preventing clot formation extends beyond controlling platelet function. In this study, we evaluate NO's effect on factor XII (fibrinogen) adsorption and activation, which causes the initiation of the intrinsic arm of the coagulation cascade. This is done by utilizing a model plasticized poly(vinyl) chloride (PVC), N-diazeniumdiolate system and looking at the adsorption of fibrinogen, an important clotting protein, to these surfaces. The materials have been prepared in such a way to eliminate changes in surface properties between the control (plasticized PVC) and composite (NO-releasing) materials. This allows us to isolate NO release and determine the effect on the adsorption of fibrinogen, to the material surface. Surprisingly, it was found that an NO releasing material with a surface flux of 17.4 ± 0.5 × 10(-10) mol NO cm(-2) min(-1) showed a significant increase in the amount of fibrinogen adsorbed to the material surface compared to one with a flux of 13.0 ± 1.6 × 10(-10) mol NO cm(-2) min(-1) and the control (2334 ± 496, 226 ± 99, and 103 ±31% fibrinogen adsorbed of control, respectively). This study suggests that NO's role in controlling clotting is extended beyond platelet activation. PMID:23554300

  4. 7 CFR 356.5 - Bonded release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CFR chapter I. (b) Any request for the return of property based on the acceptance of a bond or other... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bonded release. 356.5 Section 356.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  5. Strain-Energy-Release Rates In Delamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, I. S.

    1988-01-01

    Q3DG computer program developed to perform quasi-three-dimensional stress analysis of composite laminates containing delaminations. Calculates strain-energy-release rates for long, rectangular composite laminates containing delaminations and subjected to any combination of mechanical, thermal, and hygroscopic loading. Written in FORTRAN V.

  6. 7 CFR 772.9 - Releases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... IMP borrowers who have had previous debt forgiveness on a farm loan program loan as defined in 7 CFR... been repaid with interest from the date of debt forgiveness. An AMP borrower may also be released in... administrative offset in accordance with 7 CFR part 3, Department of Treasury Offset Program (TOP) and...

  7. Anticipation and Controversy Surround "Superman" Release

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarons, Dakarai I.

    2010-01-01

    Well in advance of its official release, the education film "Waiting For Superman" has attracted a level of attention that could make it one of the year's most-watched documentaries--and one of the most controversial among educators, some of whom question its depictions of the American school system and how to improve it. Made by director Davis…

  8. 77 FR 67733 - Release of Waybill Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... Surface Transportation Board Release of Waybill Data The Surface Transportation Board has received a... permission to use certain data from the Board's 2011 Carload Waybill Sample. A copy of this request may be obtained from the Office of Economics. The waybill sample contains confidential railroad and shipper...

  9. 78 FR 3083 - Release of Waybill Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Release of Waybill Data The Surface Transportation Board has received a... permission to use certain data from the Board's 2011 Carload Waybill Sample. A copy of this request may be obtained from the Office of Economics. The waybill sample contains confidential railroad and shipper...

  10. 78 FR 18423 - Release of Waybill Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Surface Transportation Board Release of Waybill Data The Surface Transportation Board has received a request from GATX Corporation (WB512-17--3/04/2013), for permission to use certain data from the Board's... waybill sample contains confidential railroad and shipper data; therefore, if any parties object to...

  11. 76 FR 35070 - Release of Waybill Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Release of Waybill Data The Surface Transportation Board has received a... permission to use certain data from the Board's 2000-2009 Carload Waybill Samples. A copy of the request may... shipper data; therefore, if any parties object to these requests, they should file their objections...

  12. 75 FR 12329 - Release of Waybill Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Release of Waybill Data The Surface Transportation Board has received a request from BST Associates (WB616-3-1/22/10) for access to certain data from the Board's 2008 Carload... Analysis, and Administration. The waybill sample contains confidential railroad and shipper data;...

  13. 76 FR 9073 - Release of Waybill Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... Surface Transportation Board Release of Waybill Data The Surface Transportation Board has received a... permission to use certain data from the Board's 1999 through 2009 Carload Waybill Samples. A copy of this... and shipper data; therefore, if any parties object to these requests, they should file...

  14. 76 FR 24959 - Release of Waybill Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... Surface Transportation Board Release of Waybill Data The Surface Transportation Board has received a... permission to use data from all fields from the Board's 1999 through 2009 Carload Waybill Samples. A copy of... railroad and shipper data; therefore, if any parties object to these requests, they should file...

  15. 76 FR 81557 - Release of Waybill Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Release of Waybill Data The Surface Transportation Board has received... certain data from the Board's Carload Waybill Samples. A copy of this request may be obtained from the Office of Economics. The waybill sample contains confidential railroad and shipper data; therefore,...

  16. 77 FR 21835 - Release of Waybill Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Release of Waybill Data The Surface Transportation Board has received a request from GATX Corporation (WB512-16--3/22/2012), for permission to use certain data from the Board's... waybill sample contains confidential railroad and shipper data; therefore, if any parties object to...

  17. 75 FR 9275 - Release of Waybill Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... Surface Transportation Board Release of Waybill Data The Surface Transportation Board has received a... to use certain data from the Board's 2008 Carload Waybill Sample. A copy of the request may be... contains confidential railroad and shipper data; therefore, if any parties object to these requests,...

  18. 78 FR 10262 - Release of Waybill Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... Surface Transportation Board Release of Waybill Data The Surface Transportation Board has received a request from the Association of American Railroads (WB463-15--1/18/13) for permission to use certain data... Economics. The waybill sample contains confidential railroad and shipper data; therefore, if any...

  19. 75 FR 180 - Release of Waybill Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... Surface Transportation Board Release of Waybill Data The Surface Transportation Board has received a... ] permission to use certain data from the Board's 2008 Carload Waybill Samples. A copy of this request may be... contains confidential railroad and shipper data; therefore, if any parties object to these requests,...

  20. 76 FR 1507 - Release of Waybill Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board Release of Waybill Data The Surface Transportation Board has received a request from Michael Behe representing FRN, LLC (WB604-9- 1/03/11) for permission to use certain data from... Economics. The waybill sample contains confidential railroad and shipper data; therefore, if any...

  1. 77 FR 6625 - Release of Waybill Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board Release of Waybill Data The Surface Transportation Board has received a... to use certain data from the Board's 2010 Carload Waybill Samples. A copy of this request may be obtained from the Office of Economics. The waybill sample contains confidential railroad and shipper...

  2. 77 FR 836 - Release of Waybill Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board Release of Waybill Data The Surface Transportation Board has received a... permission to use certain data from the Board's 2010 Carload Waybill Sample. A copy of the request may be obtained from the Office of Economics. The waybill sample contains confidential railroad and shipper...

  3. 76 FR 13447 - Release of Waybill Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Release of Waybill Data The Surface Transportation Board has received a... permission to use certain data from the Board's 2009 Carload Waybill Sample. A copy of the request may be obtained from the Office of Economics. The waybill sample contains confidential railroad and shipper...

  4. 77 FR 551 - Release of Waybill Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... Surface Transportation Board Release of Waybill Data The Surface Transportation Board has received a... to use certain data from the Board's 2009 Carload Waybill Sample. A copy of this request may be obtained from the Office of Economics. The waybill sample contains confidential railroad and shipper...

  5. 75 FR 1683 - Release of Waybill Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Surface Transportation Board Release of Waybill Data The Surface Transportation Board has received a... permission to use certain data from the Board's 1999 through 2008 Carload Waybill Samples. A copy of this... waybill sample contains confidential railroad and shipper data; therefore, if any parties object to...

  6. 76 FR 6842 - Release of Waybill Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board Release of Waybill Data The Surface Transportation Board has received a request from the Association of American Railroads (WB463-13-01/13/11) for permission to use certain data... Economics. The waybill sample contains confidential railroad and shipper data; therefore, if any...

  7. 77 FR 4398 - Release of Waybill Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board Release of Waybill Data The Surface Transportation Board has received a... permission to use certain data from the Board's 2000-2010 Carload Waybill Samples. A copy of the request may... shipper data; therefore, if any parties object to these requests, they should file their objections...

  8. 76 FR 22449 - Release of Waybill Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... Surface Transportation Board Release of Waybill Data The Surface Transportation Board has received a request from GATX Corporation (WB512-15--3/29/11), for permission to use certain data from the Board's... sample contains confidential railroad and shipper data; ] therefore, if any parties object to...

  9. 77 FR 1976 - Release of Waybill Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... Register on January 5, 2012 (77 FR 551). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Marcin Skomial, (202) 245-0344. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On January 5, 2012, the Federal Register published a notice at 77 FR 551, which... Surface Transportation Board Release of Waybill Data AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT....

  10. 75 FR 2927 - Release of Waybill Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... Surface Transportation Board Release of Waybill Data The Surface Transportation Board has received a...) for permission to use certain data from the Board's Carload Waybill Samples. A copy of the request may... sample contains confidential railroad and shipper data; therefore, if any parties object to...

  11. 76 FR 6651 - Release of Waybill Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... Surface Transportation Board Release of Waybill Data The Surface Transportation Board has received a... permission to use certain data from the Board's 2009 Carload Waybill Samples. A copy of this request may be... contains confidential railroad and shipper data; therefore, if any parties object to these requests,...

  12. 77 FR 322 - Release of Waybill Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... Surface Transportation Board Release of Waybill Data The Surface Transportation Board has received a request from Michael Behe representing FRN, LLC (WB604-10--12/14/11) for permission to use certain data... Economics. ] The waybill sample contains confidential railroad and shipper data; therefore, if any...

  13. 76 FR 2192 - Release of Waybill Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... Surface Transportation Board Release of Waybill Data The Surface Transportation Board has received a... certain data from the Board's 2009 Carload Waybill Sample. A copy of this request may be obtained from the Office of Economics. The waybill sample contains confidential railroad and shipper data; therefore,...

  14. 75 FR 517 - Release of Waybill Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... Surface Transportation Board Release of Waybill Data The Surface Transportation Board has received a request from John C. Martin Associates, LLC (WB10-014--12/08/09), for permission to use certain data from... shipper data; therefore, if any parties object to these requests, they should file their objections...

  15. 76 FR 12412 - Release of Waybill Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... Surface Transportation Board Release of Waybill Data The Surface Transportation Board has received a... permission to use certain data from the Board's 2008 and 2009 Carload Waybill Samples. A copy of this request... shipper data; therefore, if any parties object to these requests, they should file their objections...

  16. 75 FR 1118 - Release of Waybill Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board Release of Waybill Data The Surface Transportation Board has received a... use certain data from the Board's 1985 through 2008 Carload Waybill Samples. A copy of this request... sample contains confidential railroad and shipper data; therefore, if any parties object to...

  17. 76 FR 82350 - Release of Waybill Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... Surface Transportation Board Release of Waybill Data The Surface Transportation Board has received a... permission to use certain data from the Board's 1999 through 2010 Carload Waybill Samples. A copy of this... and shipper data; therefore, if any parties object to these requests, they should file...

  18. Eicosanoid release as laboratory indicator of biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Mahiout, A; Jörres, A; Schultze, G; Meinhold, H; Kessel, M

    1989-06-01

    Biocompatibility evaluation of extracorporeal devices requires the establishment of sensitive indicators of blood cells/surface interactions. Among others, arachidonic acid derivatives, such as prostaglandins and thromboxanes, play an important role in the cell control systems. Hence, the release of eicosanoids during blood exposure to dialyzer membranes was investigated. Experiments included in vitro incubation of human blood with flat membranes (FM), as well as ex vivo perfusion of hollow fiber membranes (HFM) with blood from healthy volunteers in single-pass fashion. In both models, a significant release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) was detected. In addition, the amount of eicosanoid release depended on the type of membrane tested. After a 10-min FM incubation with fresh blood, plasma concentrations of TXB2 and PGE2 were pronounced by polycarbonate when compared to Cuprophan and polyacrylonitrile. During 10 min of open loop perfusion of HFM, polymethylmethacrylate was the most active biomaterial, whereas the reactivity of Cuprophan was significantly lower. Among HFM, Hemophan was by far the less active. These results indicate that the release of eicosanoids represents a sensitive parameter of blood cells/membrane reactivity. Thus, the question arises as to whether or not the extracorporeal process of cyclooxygenase activity could contribute to the clinical side effects of chronical hemodialysis.

  19. Electrosprayed nanoparticle delivery system for controlled release.

    PubMed

    Eltayeb, Megdi; Stride, Eleanor; Edirisinghe, Mohan; Harker, Anthony

    2016-09-01

    This study utilises an electrohydrodynamic technique to prepare core-shell lipid nanoparticles with a tunable size and high active ingredient loading capacity, encapsulation efficiency and controlled release. Using stearic acid and ethylvanillin as model shell and active ingredients respectively, we identify the processing conditions and ratios of lipid:ethylvanillin required to form nanoparticles. Nanoparticles with a mean size ranging from 60 to 70nm at the rate of 1.37×10(9) nanoparticles per minute were prepared with different lipid:ethylvanillin ratios. The polydispersity index was ≈21% and the encapsulation efficiency ≈70%. It was found that the rate of ethylvanillin release was a function of the nanoparticle size, and lipid:ethylvanillin ratio. The internal structure of the lipid nanoparticles was studied by transmission electron microscopy which confirmed that the ethylvanillin was encapsulated within a stearic acid shell. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis indicated that the ethylvanillin had not been affected. Extensive analysis of the release of ethylvanillin was performed using several existing models and a new diffusive release model incorporating a tanh function. The results were consistent with a core-shell structure. PMID:27207047

  20. First disposable diaphragm will gradually release spermicide.

    PubMed

    1984-06-01

    The Southern Research Institute in Birmingham, Alabama will begin phase 1 trials of a new disposable disphragm with a controlled release spermicide as soon as they obtain Federal Drug Administration approval. The device is made of synthetic elastomer which contains a premixed nonoxynol-9 spermicide. Vaginal fluid causes the spermicide to build up and additional spermicide is released when the initial supply is depleted. The device is effective for up to 24 hours and the controlled release of spermicide makes it unnecessary to add spermicide if intercourse is repeated. Addditional advantages are that it is disposable, requires no inspection or cleaninng and is not messy. During the 1st phase of clinical study, 10-12 women will use the diaphragm, and they will report on its comfort, how well it stays in place, and whether it causes any local irritation. In the 2nd phase, 20 women will undergo postcoital testing in order to determine if the device is releasing sufficient levels of spermicide to immobilize sperm. Initally the diaphragms will be fitted by a phsician who will then write a prescription for the device. Eventually the diaphragm may be available in a one size fits all model which will be sold over the counter. The price of the device is expected to be about $1.00, and it will be on the market in about 3 years.