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Sample records for a1 receptor activation

  1. Intrinsic A(1) adenosine receptor activation during ischemia or reperfusion improves recovery in mouse hearts.

    PubMed

    Peart, J; Headrick, J P

    2000-11-01

    We assessed the role of A(1) adenosine receptor (A(1)AR) activation by endogenous adenosine in the modulation of ischemic contracture and postischemic recovery in Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts subjected to 20 min of total ischemia and 30 min of reperfusion. In control hearts, the rate-pressure product (RPP) and first derivative of pressure development over time (+dP/dt) recovered to 57 +/- 3 and 58 +/- 3% of preischemia, respectively. Diastolic pressure remained elevated at 20 +/- 2 mmHg (compared with 3 +/- 1 mmHg preischemia). Interstitial adenosine, assessed by microdialysis, rose from approximately 0.3 to 1.9 microM during ischemia compared with approximately 15 microM in rat heart. Nonetheless, these levels will near maximally activate A(1)ARs on the basis of effects of exogenous adenosine and 2-chloroadenosine. Neither A(1)AR blockade with 200 nM 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) during the ischemic period alone nor A(1)AR activation with 50 nM N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine altered rapidity or extent of ischemic contracture. However, ischemic DPCPX treatment significantly depressed postischemic recovery of RPP and +dP/dt (44 +/- 3 and 40 +/- 4% of preischemia, respectively). DPCPX treatment during the reperfusion period alone also reduced recovery of RPP and +dP/dt (to 44 +/- 2 and 47 +/- 2% of preischemia, respectively). These data indicate that 1) interstitial adenosine is lower in mouse versus rat myocardium during ischemia, 2) A(1)AR activation by endogenous adenosine or exogenous agonists does not modify ischemic contracture in murine myocardium, 3) A(1)AR activation by endogenous adenosine during ischemia attenuates postischemic stunning, and 4) A(1)AR activation by endogenous adenosine during the reperfusion period also improves postischemic contractile recovery.

  2. Anticonvulsant effect of AMP by direct activation of adenosine A1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Muzzi, Mirko; Coppi, Elisabetta; Pugliese, Anna Maria; Chiarugi, Alberto

    2013-12-01

    Purinergic neurotransmission mediated by adenosine (Ado) type 1 receptors (A1Rs) plays pivotal roles in negative modulation of epileptic seizures, and Ado is thought to be a key endogenous anticonvulsant. Recent evidence, however, indicates that AMP, the metabolic precursor of Ado, also activate A1Rs. Here, we evaluated the antiepileptic effects of AMP adopting in vitro and in vivo models of epilepsy. We report that AMP reversed the increase in population spike (PS) amplitude and the decrease in PS latency induced by a Mg(2+)-free extracellular solution in CA1 neurons of mouse hippocampal slices. The AMP effects were inhibited by the A1R antagonist DPCPX, but not prevented by inhibiting conversion of AMP into Ado, indicating that AMP inhibited per se sustained hippocampal excitatory neurotransmission by directly activating A1Rs. AMP also reduced seizure severity and mortality in a model of audiogenic convulsion. Of note, the anticonvulsant effects of AMP were potentiated by preventing its conversion into Ado and inhibited by DPCPX. When tested in a model of kainate-induced seizure, AMP prolonged latency of convulsions but had no effects on seizure severity and mortality. Data provide the first evidence that AMP is an endogenous anticonvulsant acting at A1Rs. © 2013.

  3. Dimerization of the EphA1 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Transmembrane Domain: Insights into the Mechanism of Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    EphA1 is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that plays a key role in developmental processes, including guidance of the migration of axons and cells in the nervous system. EphA1, in common with other RTKs, contains an N-terminal extracellular domain, a single transmembrane (TM) α-helix, and a C-terminal intracellular kinase domain. The TM helix forms a dimer, as seen in recent NMR studies. We have modeled the EphA1 TM dimer using a multiscale approach combining coarse-grain (CG) and atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The one-dimensional potential of mean force (PMF) for this system, based on interhelix separation, has been calculated using CG MD simulations. This provides a view of the free energy landscape for helix–helix interactions of the TM dimer in a lipid bilayer. The resulting PMF profiles suggest two states, consistent with a rotation-coupled activation mechanism. The more stable state corresponds to a right-handed helix dimer interacting via an N-terminal glycine zipper motif, consistent with a recent NMR structure (2K1K). A second metastable state corresponds to a structure in which the glycine zipper motif is not involved. Analysis of unrestrained CG MD simulations based on representative models from the PMF calculations or on the NMR structure reveals possible pathways of interconversion between these two states, involving helix rotations about their long axes. This suggests that the interaction of TM helices in EphA1 dimers may be intrinsically dynamic. This provides a potential mechanism for signaling whereby extracellular events drive a shift in the repopulation of the underlying TM helix dimer energy landscape. PMID:25286141

  4. Activation of the chemosensing transient receptor potential channel A1 (TRPA1) by alkylating agents.

    PubMed

    Stenger, Bernhard; Zehfuss, Franziska; Mückter, Harald; Schmidt, Annette; Balszuweit, Frank; Schäfer, Eva; Büch, Thomas; Gudermann, Thomas; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk

    2015-09-01

    The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) cation channel is expressed in different tissues including skin, lung and neuronal tissue. Recent reports identified TRPA1 as a sensor for noxious substances, implicating a functional role in the molecular toxicology. TRPA1 is activated by various potentially harmful electrophilic substances. The chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM) is a highly reactive alkylating agent that binds to numerous biological targets. Although SM is known for almost 200 years, detailed knowledge about the pathophysiology resulting from exposure is lacking. A specific therapy is not available. In this study, we investigated whether the alkylating agent 2-chloroethyl-ethylsulfide (CEES, a model substance for SM-promoted effects) and SM are able to activate TRPA1 channels. CEES induced a marked increase in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in TRPA1-expressing but not in TRPA1-negative cells. The TRP-channel blocker AP18 diminished the CEES-induced calcium influx. HEK293 cells permanently expressing TRPA1 were more sensitive toward cytotoxic effects of CEES compared with wild-type cells. At low CEES concentrations, CEES-induced cytotoxicity was prevented by AP18. Proof-of-concept experiments using SM resulted in a pronounced increase in [Ca(2+)]i in HEK293-A1-E cells. Human A549 lung epithelial cells, which express TRPA1 endogenously, reacted with a transient calcium influx in response to CEES exposure. The CEES-dependent calcium response was diminished by AP18. In summary, our results demonstrate that alkylating agents are able to activate TRPA1. Inhibition of TRPA1 counteracted cellular toxicity and could thus represent a feasible approach to mitigate SM-induced cell damage.

  5. Valerian extract Ze 911 inhibits postsynaptic potentials by activation of adenosine A1 receptors in rat cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Vissiennon, Z; Sichardt, K; Koetter, U; Brattström, A; Nieber, K

    2006-06-01

    In this study we evaluated the adenosine A1 receptor-mediated effect of valerian extract (Ze 911) on postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) in pyramidal cells of the rat cingulate cortex in a slice preparation. We first observed that N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA, 0.01 - 10 microM), an adenosine A1 receptor agonist, inhibited PSPs in a concentration-dependent manner. The CPA (10 microM)-induced inhibition was antagonized by 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX, 0.1 microM), an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist. Ze 911 concentration dependently (0.1 - 15 mg/mL) inhibited PSPs in the presence of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist 1,3,7-trimethyl-8-(3-chlorostyryl)xanthine (CSC, 0.2 microM) and adenosine deaminase (1 U/mL). The maximal inhibition induced by 10 mg/mL was completely antagonised by DPCPX (0.1 microM), an A1 receptor blocker. The data suggest that activation of adenosine A1 receptors is involved in the pharmacological effects of the valerian extract Ze 911.

  6. Adenosine A1 receptors modulate high voltage-activated Ca2+ currents and motor pattern generation in the Xenopus embryo

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Paul; Dale, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    Adenosine causes voltage- and non-voltage-dependent inhibition of high voltage-activated (HVA) Ca2+ currents in Xenopus laevis embryo spinal neurons. As this inhibition can be blocked by 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) and mimicked by N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) it appears to be mediated by A1 receptors. Agents active at A2 receptors either were without effect or could be blocked by DPCPX. AMP had no agonist action on these receptors. By using ω-conotoxin GVIA we found that adenosine inhibited an N-type Ca2+ current as well as a further unidentified HVA current that was insensitive to dihydropyridines, ω-agatoxin TK and ω-conotoxin MVIIC. Both types of current were subject to voltage- and non-voltage-dependent inhibition. We used CPA and DPCPX to test whether A1 receptors regulated spinal motor pattern generation in spinalized Xenopus embryos. DPCPX caused a near doubling of, while CPA greatly shortened, the length of swimming episodes. In addition, DPCPX slowed, while CPA greatly speeded up, the rate of run-down of motor activity. Our results demonstrate a novel action of A1 receptors in modulating spinal motor activity. Furthermore they confirm that adenosine is produced continually throughout swimming episodes and acts to cause the eventual termination of activity. PMID:10856119

  7. Activation of adenosine A(1) receptors alters behavioral and biochemical parameters in hyperthyroid rats.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Alessandra Nejar; Fontella, Fernanda Urruth; Bonan, Carla Denise; Barreto-Chaves, Maria Luiza M; Dalmaz, Carla; Sarkis, João José Freitas

    2006-02-28

    Adenosine acting on A(1) receptors has been related with neuroprotective and neuromodulatory actions, protection against oxidative stress and decrease of anxiety and nociceptive signaling. Previous studies demonstrated an inhibition of the enzymes that hydrolyze ATP to adenosine in the rat central nervous system after hyperthyroidism induction. Manifestations of hyperthyroidism include increased anxiety, nervousness, high O(2) consumption and physical hyperactivity. Here, we investigated the effects of administration of a specific agonist of adenosine A(1) receptor (N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine; CPA) on nociception, anxiety, exploratory response, locomotion and brain oxidative stress of hyperthyroid rats. Hyperthyroidism was induced by daily intraperitoneal injections of l-thyroxine (T4) for 14 days. Nociception was assessed with a tail-flick apparatus and exploratory behavior, locomotion and anxiety were analyzed by open-field and plus-maze tests. We verified the total antioxidant reactivity (TAR), lipid peroxide levels by the thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) reaction and the free radicals content by the DCF test. Our results demonstrated that CPA reverted the hyperalgesia induced by hyperthyroidism and decreased the exploratory behavior, locomotion and anxiety in hyperthyroid rats. Furthermore, CPA decreased lipid peroxidation in hippocampus and cerebral cortex of control rats and in cerebral cortex of hyperthyroid rats. CPA also increased the total antioxidant reactivity in hippocampus and cerebral cortex of control and hyperthyroid rats, but the production of free radicals verified by the DCF test was changed only in cerebral cortex. These results suggest that some of the hyperthyroidism effects are subjected to regulation by adenosine A(1) receptor, demonstrating the involvement of the adenosinergic system in this pathology.

  8. A1 adenosine receptor attenuates intracerebral hemorrhage-induced secondary brain injury in rats by activating the P38-MAPKAP2-Hsp27 pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Weiwei; Chen, Dongdong; Shen, Haitao; Chen, Zhouqing; Li, Haiying; Yu, Zhengquan; Chen, Gang

    2016-06-14

    This study was designed to determine the role of the A1 adenosine receptors in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced secondary brain injury and the underlying mechanisms. A collagenase-induced ICH model was established in Sprague-Dawley rats, and cultured primary rat cortical neurons were exposed to oxyhemoglobin at a concentration of 10 μM to mimic ICH in vitro. The A1 adenosine receptor agonist N(6)-cyclohexyladenosine and antagonist 8-phenyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine were used to study the role of A1 adenosine receptor in ICH-induced secondary brain injury, and antagonists of P38 and Hsp27 were used to study the underlying mechanisms of A1 adenosine receptor actions. The protein level of A1 adenosine receptor was significantly increased by ICH, while there was no significant change in protein levels of the other 3 adenosine receptors. In addition, the A1 adenosine receptor expression could be increased by N(6)-cyclohexyladenosine and decreased by 8-phenyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine under ICH conditions. Activation of the A1 adenosine receptor attenuated neuronal apoptosis in the subcortex, which was associated with increased phosphorylation of P38, MAPK, MAPKAP2, and Hsp27. Inhibition of the A1 adenosine receptor resulted in opposite effects. Finally, the neuroprotective effect of the A1 adenosine receptor agonist N(6)-cyclohexyladenosine was inhibited by antagonists of P38 and Hsp27. This study demonstrates that activation of the A1 adenosine receptor by N(6)-cyclohexyladenosine could prevent ICH-induced secondary brain injury via the P38-MAPKAP2-Hsp27 pathway.

  9. Negative Effects of SRD5A1 on Nuclear Activity of Progesterone Receptor Isoform B in JEG3 Cells.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zhuo; Sun, Min; Jiang, Feng; Yao, Yuanqing; Li, Yi

    2016-02-01

    Progesterone withdrawal signals labor in mammals. Elevated intracellular metabolism contributes to progesterone functional withdrawal through unknown mechanism, which is thought to act via progesterone receptor (PR). This study aims to investigate molecular mechanisms underlying progesterone withdrawal during pregnancy and labor. We investigated the role of 5α-reductase type I (SRD5A1) in enzymatic catalysis of progesterone and loss of PR function in a human trophoblast choriocarcinoma cell line JEG3. The PR isoform B (PR-B) was robustly expressed in JEG3 cells. The SRD5A1 small-interfering RNA knockdown led to significant increase in PR-B nuclear import, ectopic, whereas SRD5A1 overexpression resulted in remarkable inhibition of nuclear PR-B in P4-treated cells. Repression of SRD5A1 activated PR-B responsive gene, whereas overexpression of SRD5A1 possessed an inhibitory effect. JEG3 cell line is a valuable tool to study mechanisms responsible for loss of PR function and screening of drugs for preterm birth treatment. Our study aims to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying progesterone withdrawal during pregnancy and labor. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Activity-dependent ubiquitination of GluA1 mediates a distinct AMPA receptor endocytosis and sorting pathway.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Lindsay A; Hall, Benjamin J; Patrick, Gentry N

    2010-12-08

    The accurate trafficking of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) to and from the synapse is a critical component of learning and memory in the brain, whereas dysfunction of AMPAR trafficking is hypothesized to be an underlying mechanism of Alzheimer's disease. Previous work has shown that ubiquitination of integral membrane proteins is a common posttranslational modification used to mediate endocytosis and endocytic sorting of surface proteins in eukaryotic cells. Here we report that mammalian AMPARs become ubiquitinated in response to their activation. Using a mutant of GluA1 that is unable to be ubiquitinated at lysines on its C-terminus, we demonstrate that ubiquitination is required for internalization of surface AMPARs and their trafficking to the lysosome in response to the AMPAR agonist AMPA but not for internalization of AMPARs in response to the NMDA receptor agonist NMDA. Through overexpression or RNA interference-mediated knockdown, we identify that a specific E3 ligase, Nedd4-1 (neural-precursor cell-expressed developmentally downregulated gene 4-1), is necessary for this process. Finally, we show that ubiquitination of GluA1 by Nedd4-1 becomes more prevalent as neurons mature. Together, these data show that ubiquitination of GluA1-containing AMPARs by Nedd4-1 mediates their endocytosis and trafficking to the lysosome. Furthermore, these results provide insight into how hippocampal neurons regulate AMPAR trafficking and degradation with high specificity in response to differing neuronal signaling cues and suggest that changes to this pathway may occur as neurons mature.

  11. A1 adenosine receptor-induced phosphorylation and modulation of transglutaminase 2 activity in H9c2 cells: A role in cell survival.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Falguni S; Hargreaves, Alan J; Bonner, Philip L R; Boocock, David J; Coveney, Clare; Dickenson, John M

    2016-05-01

    The regulation of tissue transglutaminase (TG2) activity by the GPCR family is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the modulation of TG2 activity by the A1 adenosine receptor in cardiomyocyte-like H9c2 cells. H9c2 cells were lysed following stimulation with the A1 adenosine receptor agonist N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA). Transglutaminase activity was determined using an amine incorporating and a protein cross linking assay. TG2 phosphorylation was assessed via immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. The role of TG2 in A1 adenosine receptor-induced cytoprotection was investigated by monitoring hypoxia-induced cell death. CPA induced time and concentration-dependent increases in amine incorporating and protein crosslinking activity of TG2. CPA-induced increases in TG2 activity were attenuated by the TG2 inhibitors Z-DON and R283. Responses to CPA were blocked by PKC (Ro 31-8220), MEK1/2 (PD 98059), p38 MAPK (SB 203580) and JNK1/2 (SP 600125) inhibitors and by removal of extracellular Ca(2+). CPA triggered robust increases in the levels of TG2-associated phosphoserine and phosphothreonine, which were attenuated by PKC, MEK1/2 and JNK1/2 inhibitors. Fluorescence microscopy revealed TG2-mediated biotin-X-cadaverine incorporation into proteins and proteomic analysis identified known (Histone H4) and novel (Hexokinase 1) protein substrates for TG2. CPA pre-treatment reversed hypoxia-induced LDH release and decreases in MTT reduction. TG2 inhibitors R283 and Z-DON attenuated A1 adenosine receptor-induced cytoprotection. TG2 activity was stimulated by the A1 adenosine receptor in H9c2 cells via a multi protein kinase dependent pathway. These results suggest a role for TG2 in A1 adenosine receptor-induced cytoprotection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Rho-kinase signaling controls nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of class IIa Histone Deacetylase (HDAC7) and transcriptional activation of orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1

    SciTech Connect

    Compagnucci, Claudia; Barresi, Sabina; Petrini, Stefania

    2015-04-03

    Rho-kinase (ROCK) has been well documented to play a key role in RhoA-induced actin remodeling. ROCK activation results in myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation either by direct action on MLC kinase (MLCK) or by inhibition of MLC phosphatase (MLCP), modulating actin–myosin contraction. We found that inhibition of the ROCK pathway in induced pluripotent stem cells, leads to nuclear export of HDAC7 and transcriptional activation of the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 while in cells with constitutive ROCK hyperactivity due to loss of function of the RhoGTPase activating protein Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1), the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 is downregulated. Our study identify amore » new target of ROCK signaling via myosin phosphatase subunit (MYPT1) and Histone Deacetylase (HDAC7) at the nuclear level and provide new insights in the cellular functions of ROCK. - Highlights: • ROCK regulates nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HDAC7 via phosphorylation of MYPT1. • Nuclear export of HDAC7 and upregulation of NR4A1 occurs with low ROCK activity. • High levels of ROCK activity due to OPHN1 loss of function downregulate NR4A1.« less

  13. AMP is an adenosine A1 receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Rittiner, Joseph E; Korboukh, Ilia; Hull-Ryde, Emily A; Jin, Jian; Janzen, William P; Frye, Stephen V; Zylka, Mark J

    2012-02-17

    Numerous receptors for ATP, ADP, and adenosine exist; however, it is currently unknown whether a receptor for the related nucleotide adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) exists. Using a novel cell-based assay to visualize adenosine receptor activation in real time, we found that AMP and a non-hydrolyzable AMP analog (deoxyadenosine 5'-monophosphonate, ACP) directly activated the adenosine A(1) receptor (A(1)R). In contrast, AMP only activated the adenosine A(2B) receptor (A(2B)R) after hydrolysis to adenosine by ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E, CD73) or prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP, ACPP). Adenosine and AMP were equipotent human A(1)R agonists in our real-time assay and in a cAMP accumulation assay. ACP also depressed cAMP levels in mouse cortical neurons through activation of endogenous A(1)R. Non-selective purinergic receptor antagonists (pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid and suramin) did not block adenosine- or AMP-evoked activation. Moreover, mutation of His-251 in the human A(1)R ligand binding pocket reduced AMP potency without affecting adenosine potency. In contrast, mutation of a different binding pocket residue (His-278) eliminated responses to AMP and to adenosine. Taken together, our study indicates that the physiologically relevant nucleotide AMP is a full agonist of A(1)R. In addition, our study suggests that some of the physiological effects of AMP may be direct, and not indirect through ectonucleotidases that hydrolyze this nucleotide to adenosine.

  14. EphA2 receptor activation with ephrin-A1 ligand restores cetuximab efficacy in NRAS-mutant colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cuyàs, Elisabet; Queralt, Bernardo; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim; Menendez, Javier A

    2017-07-01

    Patients with wild-type KRAS metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) that harbors NRAS activating mutations do not benefit from anti-EGFR therapies. Very little is known about oncogenic NRAS signaling driving mCRC unresponsiveness to the EGFR-directed antibody cetuximab. Using a system of paired NRAS-mutant and wild-type isogenic mCRC cell lines to explore signaling pathways engaged by the common oncogenic NRAS Q61K variant upon challenge with cetuximab, we uncovered an unexpected mechanism of resistance to cetuximab involving dysregulation of the ephrin-A1/EphA2 signaling axis. Parental NRAS+/+ cells, but not NRASQ61K/+ cells, activated the ephrin receptor ephA1 in response to cetuximab treatment. Moreover, whereas cetuximab treatment significantly downregulated EPHA2 gene expression in NRAS+/+ cells, EPHA2 expression in NRASQ61K/+ cells was refractory to cetuximab. Remarkably, pharmacologically mimicked ephrin-A1 engagement to ephA2 converted NRAS-mutant into RAS wild-type mCRC cells in terms of cetuximab efficacy. Accordingly, activation of the ephA2 receptor by bioactive recombinant human ephrin-A1/Fc-fusion protein suppressed the cetuximab-unresponsive hyperactivation of MAPK and AKT and fully restored cetuximab activity in NRAS-mutant colorectal cells. Collectively, these findings reveal that the clinical benefit of cetuximab in mCRC might necessarily involve the suppression of the ligandless oncogenic signaling of the ephA2 receptor. Hence, ligand-dependent tumor suppressor signaling using therapeutic ephA2 agonists might offer new therapeutic opportunities to clinically widen the use of cetuximab in NRAS-mutated and/or ephA2-dependent mCRC tumors.

  15. Intracellular ATP influences synaptic plasticity in area CA1 of rat hippocampus via metabolism to adenosine and activity-dependent activation of adenosine A1 receptors.

    PubMed

    zur Nedden, Stephanie; Hawley, Simon; Pentland, Naomi; Hardie, D Grahame; Doney, Alexander S; Frenguelli, Bruno G

    2011-04-20

    The extent to which brain slices reflect the energetic status of the in vivo brain has been a subject of debate. We addressed this issue to investigate the recovery of energetic parameters and adenine nucleotides in rat hippocampal slices and the influence this has on synaptic transmission and plasticity. We show that, although adenine nucleotide levels recover appreciably within 10 min of incubation, it takes 3 h for a full recovery of the energy charge (to ≥ 0.93) and that incubation of brain slices at 34°C results in a significantly higher ATP/AMP ratio and a threefold lower activity of AMP-activated protein kinase compared with slices incubated at room temperature. Supplementation of artificial CSF with d-ribose and adenine (Rib/Ade) increased the total adenine nucleotide pool of brain slices, which, when corrected for the influence of the dead cut edges, closely approached in vivo values. Rib/Ade did not affect basal synaptic transmission or paired-pulse facilitation but did inhibit long-term potentiation (LTP) induced by tetanic or weak theta-burst stimulation. This decrease in LTP was reversed by strong theta-burst stimulation or antagonizing the inhibitory adenosine A(1) receptor suggesting that the elevated tissue ATP levels had resulted in greater activity-dependent adenosine release during LTP induction. This was confirmed by direct measurement of adenosine release with adenosine biosensors. These observations provide new insight into the recovery of adenine nucleotides after slice preparation, the sources of loss of such compounds in brain slices, the means by which to restore them, and the functional consequences of doing so.

  16. AMP Is an Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonist*

    PubMed Central

    Rittiner, Joseph E.; Korboukh, Ilia; Hull-Ryde, Emily A.; Jin, Jian; Janzen, William P.; Frye, Stephen V.; Zylka, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous receptors for ATP, ADP, and adenosine exist; however, it is currently unknown whether a receptor for the related nucleotide adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP) exists. Using a novel cell-based assay to visualize adenosine receptor activation in real time, we found that AMP and a non-hydrolyzable AMP analog (deoxyadenosine 5′-monophosphonate, ACP) directly activated the adenosine A1 receptor (A1R). In contrast, AMP only activated the adenosine A2B receptor (A2BR) after hydrolysis to adenosine by ecto-5′-nucleotidase (NT5E, CD73) or prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP, ACPP). Adenosine and AMP were equipotent human A1R agonists in our real-time assay and in a cAMP accumulation assay. ACP also depressed cAMP levels in mouse cortical neurons through activation of endogenous A1R. Non-selective purinergic receptor antagonists (pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2′,4′-disulfonic acid and suramin) did not block adenosine- or AMP-evoked activation. Moreover, mutation of His-251 in the human A1R ligand binding pocket reduced AMP potency without affecting adenosine potency. In contrast, mutation of a different binding pocket residue (His-278) eliminated responses to AMP and to adenosine. Taken together, our study indicates that the physiologically relevant nucleotide AMP is a full agonist of A1R. In addition, our study suggests that some of the physiological effects of AMP may be direct, and not indirect through ectonucleotidases that hydrolyze this nucleotide to adenosine. PMID:22215671

  17. Adenosine inhibits activity of hypocretin/orexin neurons via A1 receptor in the lateral hypothalamus: a possible sleep-promoting effect

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhong-Wu; Gao, Xiao-Bing

    2006-01-01

    Neurons in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) that contain hypocretin/orexin have been established as important promoters of arousal. Deficiencies in the hypocretin/orexin system lead to narcolepsy. The inhibition of hypocretin/orexin neurons by sleep-promoting neurotransmitters has been suggested as one part of the sleep regulation machinery. Adenosine has been identified as a sleep promoter and its role in sleep regulation in the basal forebrain has been well documented. However, the effect of adenosine on arousal-promoting hypocretin/orexin neurons has not been addressed, despite recent evidence that immunocytochemical visualization of adenosine receptors was detected in these neurons. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that adenosine inhibits the activity of hypocretin/orexin neurons by using electrophysiological methods in brain slices from mice expressing green fluorescent protein in hypocretin/orexin neurons. We found that adenosine significantly attenuated the frequency of action potentials without a change in membrane potential in hypocretin/orexin neurons. The adenosine-mediated inhibition is due to depression of excitatory synaptic transmission to hypocretin/orexin neurons, since adenosine depresses the amplitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic potential and the frequency of spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents in these neurons. At the cell body of the hypocretin/orexin neurons, adenosine inhibits voltage-dependent calcium currents without the induction of GIRK current. The inhibitory effect of adenosine is dose-dependent, pertussis toxin-sensitive and mediated via A1 receptors. In summary, our data suggest that in addition to its effect in the basal forebrain, adenosine exerts its sleep-promoting effect in the LH via inhibition of hypocretin/orexin neurons. PMID:17093123

  18. Adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs) play a critical role in osteoclast formation and function

    PubMed Central

    Kara, Firas M.; Chitu, Violeta; Sloane, Jennifer; Axelrod, Matthew; Fredholm, Bertil B.; Stanley, E. Richard; Cronstein, Bruce N.

    2010-01-01

    Adenosine regulates a wide variety of physiological processes via interaction with one or more G-protein-coupled receptors (A1R, A2AR, A2BR, and A3R). Because A1R occupancy promotes fusion of human monocytes to form giant cells in vitro, we determined whether A1R occupancy similarly promotes osteoclast function and formation. Bone marrow cells (BMCs) were harvested from C57Bl/6 female mice or A1R-knockout mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates and differentiated into osteoclasts in the presence of colony stimulating factor-1 and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand in the presence or absence of the A1R antagonist 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentyl xanthine (DPCPX). Osteoclast morphology was analyzed in tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase or F-actin-stained samples, and bone resorption was evaluated by toluidine blue staining of dentin. BMCs from A1R-knockout mice form fewer osteoclasts than BMCs from WT mice, and the A1R antagonist DPCPX inhibits osteoclast formation (IC50=1 nM), with altered morphology and reduced ability to resorb bone. A1R blockade increased ubiquitination and degradation of TRAF6 in RAW264.7 cells induced to differentiate into osteoclasts. These studies suggest a critical role for adenosine in bone homeostasis via interaction with adenosine A1R and further suggest that A1R may be a novel pharmacologic target to prevent the bone loss associated with inflammatory diseases and menopause.—Kara, F. M., Chitu, V., Sloane, J., Axelrod, M., Fredholm, B. B., Stanley, R., Cronstein, B. N. Adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs) play a critical role in osteoclast formation and function. PMID:20181934

  19. Bile Acid-regulated Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor-α (PPARα) Activity Underlies Circadian Expression of Intestinal Peptide Absorption Transporter PepT1/Slc15a1*

    PubMed Central

    Okamura, Ayako; Koyanagi, Satoru; Dilxiat, Adila; Kusunose, Naoki; Chen, Jia Jun; Matsunaga, Naoya; Shibata, Shigenobu; Ohdo, Shigehiro

    2014-01-01

    Digested proteins are mainly absorbed as small peptides composed of two or three amino acids. The intestinal absorption of small peptides is mediated via only one transport system: the proton-coupled peptide transporter-1 (PepT1) encoded from the soluble carrier protein Slc15a1. In mammals, intestinal expression of PepT1/Slc15a1 oscillates during the daily feeding cycle. Although the oscillation in the intestinal expression of PepT1/Slc15a1 is suggested to be controlled by molecular components of circadian clock, we demonstrated here that bile acids regulated the oscillation of PepT1/Slc15a1 expression through modulating the activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). Nocturnally active mice mainly consumed their food during the dark phase. PPARα activated the intestinal expression of Slc15a1 mRNA during the light period, and protein levels of PepT1 peaked before the start of the dark phase. After food intake, bile acids accumulated in intestinal epithelial cells. Intestinal accumulated bile acids interfered with recruitment of co-transcriptional activator CREB-binding protein/p300 on the promoter region of Slc15a1 gene, thereby suppressing PPARα-mediated transactivation of Slc15a1. The time-dependent suppression of PPARα-mediated transactivation by bile acids caused an oscillation in the intestinal expression of PepT1/Slc15a1 during the daily feeding cycle that led to circadian changes in the intestinal absorption of small peptides. These findings suggest a molecular clock-independent mechanism by which bile acid-regulated PPARα activity governs the circadian expression of intestinal peptide transporter. PMID:25016014

  20. ABA Renewal Involves Enhancements in Both GluA2-Lacking AMPA Receptor Activity and GluA1 Phosphorylation in the Lateral Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sungmo; Kim, Jihye; An, Bobae; Lee, Hyun Woo; Lee, Seungbok; Kim, Hyun; Lee, Justin C.; Lee, Sukwon; Choi, Sukwoo

    2014-01-01

    Fear renewal, the context-specific relapse of fear following fear extinction, is a leading animal model of post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) and fear-related disorders. Although fear extinction can diminish fear responses, this effect is restricted to the context where the extinction is carried out, and the extinguished fear strongly relapses when assessed in the original acquisition context (ABA renewal) or in a context distinct from the conditioning and extinction contexts (ABC renewal). We have previously identified Ser831 phosphorylation of GluA1 subunit in the lateral amygdala (LA) as a key molecular mechanism for ABC renewal. However, molecular mechanisms underlying ABA renewal remain to be elucidated. Here, we found that both the excitatory synaptic efficacy and GluA2-lacking AMPAR activity at thalamic input synapses onto the LA (T-LA synapses) were enhanced upon ABA renewal. GluA2-lacking AMPAR activity was also increased during low-threshold potentiation, a potential cellular substrate of renewal, at T-LA synapses. The microinjection of 1-naphtylacetyl-spermine (NASPM), a selective blocker of GluA2-lacking AMPARs, into the LA attenuated ABA renewal, suggesting a critical role of GluA2-lacking AMPARs in ABA renewal. We also found that Ser831 phosphorylation of GluA1 in the LA was increased upon ABA renewal. We developed a short peptide mimicking the Ser831-containing C-tail region of GluA1, which can be phosphorylated upon renewal (GluA1S); thus, the phosphorylated GluA1S may compete with Ser831-phosphorylated GluA1. This GluA1S peptide blocked the low-threshold potentiation when dialyzed into a recorded neuron. The microinjection of a cell-permeable form of GluA1S peptide into the LA attenuated ABA renewal. In support of the GluA1S experiments, a GluA1D peptide (in which the serine at 831 is replaced with a phosphomimetic amino acid, aspartate) attenuated ABA renewal when microinjected into the LA. These findings suggest that enhancements in both the

  1. ABA renewal involves enhancements in both GluA2-lacking AMPA receptor activity and GluA1 phosphorylation in the lateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyungjoon; Song, Beomjong; Kim, Jeongyeon; Hong, Ingie; Song, Sangho; Lee, Junuk; Park, Sungmo; Kim, Jihye; An, Bobae; Lee, Hyun Woo; Lee, Seungbok; Kim, Hyun; Lee, Justin C; Lee, Sukwon; Choi, Sukwoo

    2014-01-01

    Fear renewal, the context-specific relapse of fear following fear extinction, is a leading animal model of post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) and fear-related disorders. Although fear extinction can diminish fear responses, this effect is restricted to the context where the extinction is carried out, and the extinguished fear strongly relapses when assessed in the original acquisition context (ABA renewal) or in a context distinct from the conditioning and extinction contexts (ABC renewal). We have previously identified Ser831 phosphorylation of GluA1 subunit in the lateral amygdala (LA) as a key molecular mechanism for ABC renewal. However, molecular mechanisms underlying ABA renewal remain to be elucidated. Here, we found that both the excitatory synaptic efficacy and GluA2-lacking AMPAR activity at thalamic input synapses onto the LA (T-LA synapses) were enhanced upon ABA renewal. GluA2-lacking AMPAR activity was also increased during low-threshold potentiation, a potential cellular substrate of renewal, at T-LA synapses. The microinjection of 1-naphtylacetyl-spermine (NASPM), a selective blocker of GluA2-lacking AMPARs, into the LA attenuated ABA renewal, suggesting a critical role of GluA2-lacking AMPARs in ABA renewal. We also found that Ser831 phosphorylation of GluA1 in the LA was increased upon ABA renewal. We developed a short peptide mimicking the Ser831-containing C-tail region of GluA1, which can be phosphorylated upon renewal (GluA1S); thus, the phosphorylated GluA1S may compete with Ser831-phosphorylated GluA1. This GluA1S peptide blocked the low-threshold potentiation when dialyzed into a recorded neuron. The microinjection of a cell-permeable form of GluA1S peptide into the LA attenuated ABA renewal. In support of the GluA1S experiments, a GluA1D peptide (in which the serine at 831 is replaced with a phosphomimetic amino acid, aspartate) attenuated ABA renewal when microinjected into the LA. These findings suggest that enhancements in both the

  2. Triclosan activates aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent apoptosis and affects Cyp1a1 and Cyp1b1 expression in mouse neocortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Szychowski, Konrad A; Wnuk, Agnieszka; Kajta, Małgorzata; Wójtowicz, Anna K

    2016-11-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial agent that is used extensively in personal care and in sanitizing products, such as soaps, toothpastes, and hair products. A number of studies have revealed the presence of TCS in human tissues, such as fat, liver and brain, in addition to blood and breast milk. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of TCS on AhR and Cyp1a1/Cyp1b1 signaling in mouse neocortical neurons in primary cultures. In addition to the use of selective ligands and siRNAs, expression levels of mRNA and proteins as well as caspase-3 activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release have been measured. We also studied the involvement of the AhR in TCS-induced LDH release and caspase-3 activation as well as the effect of TCS on ROS generation. Cultures of neocortical neurons were prepared from Swiss mouse embryos on day 15/16 of gestation. The cells were cultured in phenol red-free Neurobasal medium with B27 and glutamine, and the neurons were exposed to 1 and 10µM TCS. Our experiments showed that the expression of AhR and Cyp1a1 mRNA decreased in cells exposed to 10µM TCS for 3 or 6h. In the case of Cyp1b1, mRNA expression remained unchanged compared with the control group following 3h of exposure to TCS, but after 6h, the mRNA expression of Cyp1b1 was decreased. Our results confirmed that the AhR is involved in the TCS mechanism of action, and our data demonstrated that after the cells were transfected with AhR siRNA, the cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic properties of TCS were decreased. The decrease in Cyp1a1 mRNA and protein expression levels accompanied by a decrease in its activity. The stimulation of Cyp1a1 activity produced by the application of an AhR agonist (βNF) was attenuated by TCS, whereas the addition of AhR antagonist (αNF) reversed the inhibitory effects of TCS. In our experiments, TCS diminished Cyp1b1 mRNA and enhanced its protein expression. In case of Cyp1a1 we observed

  3. Adenosine A1 receptor activation increases myocardial protein S-nitrosothiols and elicits protection from ischemia-reperfusion injury in male and female hearts

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Qin; Casin, Kevin M.; Mackowski, Nathan; Murphy, Elizabeth; Steenbergen, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in cardioprotection, and recent work from our group and others has implicated protein S-nitrosylation (SNO) as a critical component of NO-mediated protection in different models, including ischemic pre- and post-conditioning and sex-dependent cardioprotection. However, studies have yet to examine whether protein SNO levels are similarly increased with pharmacologic preconditioning in male and female hearts, and whether an increase in protein SNO levels, which is protective in male hearts, is sufficient to increase baseline protection in female hearts. Therefore, we pharmacologically preconditioned male and female hearts with the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclohexyl adenosine (CHA). CHA administration prior to ischemia significantly improved functional recovery in both male and female hearts compared to baseline in a Langendorff-perfused heart model of ischemia-reperfusion injury (% of preischemic function ± SE: male baseline: 37.5±3.4% vs. male CHA: 55.3±3.2%; female baseline: 61.4±5.7% vs. female CHA: 76.0±6.2%). In a separate set of hearts, we found that CHA increased p-Akt and p-eNOS levels. We also used SNO-resin-assisted capture with LC-MS/MS to identify SNO proteins in male and female hearts, and determined that CHA perfusion induced a modest increase in protein SNO levels in both male (11.4%) and female (12.3%) hearts compared to baseline. These findings support a potential role for protein SNO in a model of pharmacologic preconditioning, and provide evidence to suggest that a modest increase in protein SNO levels is sufficient to protect both male and female hearts from ischemic injury. In addition, a number of the SNO proteins identified with CHA treatment were also observed with other forms of cardioprotective stimuli in prior studies, further supporting a role for protein SNO in cardioprotection. PMID:28493997

  4. Interaction of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) and opioid receptors in spinal cord nociceptive reflexes.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Zepeda, Guillermo; Herrero, Juan F

    2013-08-14

    We previously observed that the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) is a very effective antinociceptive agent on intact but not on spinalized adult rats with inflammation. Since a close connection between opioid and adenosine A1 receptors has been described, we studied a possible relationship between these systems in the spinal cord. CPA-mediated antinociception was challenged by the selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1, 3-dimethylxanthine (CPT) and by the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone on male adult Wistar rats with carrageenan-induced inflammation. Withdrawal reflexes activated by noxious mechanical and electrical stimulation were recorded using the single motor technique in intact and sham-spinalized animals. CPA was very effective in intact and sham spinalized rats but not in spinalized animals. Full reversal of CPA antinociception was observed with i.v. 1mg/kg of naloxone but not with 20mg/kg of CPT i.v. in responses to noxious mechanical and electrical stimulation. CPT fully prevented CPA from any antinociceptive action whereas naloxone did not modify CPA activity. These results suggest a centrally-mediated action, since CPA depressed the wind-up phenomenon which is derived of the activity of spinal cord neurons. The present study provides strong in vivo evidence of an antinociceptive activity mediated by the adenosine A1 receptor system in the spinal cord, linked to an activation of opioid receptors in adult animals with inflammation. © 2013.

  5. Solubilization of active opiate receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Simonds, W F; Koski, G; Streaty, R A; Hjelmeland, L M; Klee, W A

    1980-01-01

    Receptors that reversibly bind opiates and opioid peptides have been solubilized from brain and neuroblastoma-glioma hybrid cell NG108-15 membranes. Active receptors are specifically solubilized with a new type of detergent 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate, which is a zwitterionic derivative of cholic acid. The solubilized receptor complexes behave as large molecules with a Stokes radius of 70 A and contain protein as an essential constituent. PMID:6254034

  6. M1 muscarinic receptor facilitates cognitive function by interplay with AMPA receptor GluA1 subunit.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lan-Xue; Ge, Yan-Hui; Xiong, Cai-Hong; Tang, Ling; Yan, Ying-Hui; Law, Ping-Yee; Qiu, Yu; Chen, Hong-Zhuan

    2018-03-06

    M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (M1 mAChRs) are the most abundant muscarinic receptors in the hippocampus and have been shown to have procognitive effects. AMPA receptors (AMPARs), an important subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors, are key components in neurocognitive networks. However, the role of AMPARs in procognitive effects of M1 mAChRs and how M1 mAChRs affect the function of AMPARs remain poorly understood. Here, we found that basal expression of GluA1, a subunit of AMPARs, and its phosphorylation at Ser845 were maintained by M1 mAChR activity. Activation of M1 mAChRs promoted membrane insertion of GluA1, especially to postsynaptic densities. Impairment of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory by antagonism of M1 mAChRs paralleled the reduction of GluA1 expression, and improvement of learning and memory by activation of M1 mAChRs was accompanied by the synaptic insertion of GluA1 and its increased phosphorylation at Ser845. Furthermore, abrogation of phosphorylation of Ser845 residue of GluA1 ablated M1 mAChR-mediated improvement of learning and memory. Taken together, these results show a functional correlation of M1 mAChRs and GluA1 and the essential role of GluA1 in M1 mAChR-mediated cognitive improvement.-Zhao, L.-X., Ge, Y.-H., Xiong, C.-H., Tang, L., Yan, Y.-H., Law, P.-Y., Qiu, Y., Chen, H.-Z. M1 muscarinic receptor facilitates cognitive function by interplay with AMPA receptor GluA1 subunit.

  7. Orphan nuclear receptor oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) plays a key role in hepatic cannabinoid receptor type 1-mediated induction of CYP7A1 gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yaochen; Kim, Don-Kyu; Lee, Ji-Min; Park, Seung Bum; Jeong, Won-IL; Kim, Seong Heon; Lee, In-Kyu; Lee, Chul-Ho; Chiang, John Y.L.; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids are primarily synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and have important roles in dietary lipid absorption and cholesterol homoeostasis. Detailed roles of the orphan nuclear receptors regulating cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis, have not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, we report that oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) is a novel transcriptional regulator of CYP7A1 expression. Activation of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 receptor) signalling induced ERRγ-mediated transcription of the CYP7A1 gene. Overexpression of ERRγ increased CYP7A1 expression in vitro and in vivo, whereas knockdown of ERRγ attenuated CYP7A1 expression. Deletion analysis of the CYP7A1 gene promoter and a ChIP assay revealed an ERRγ -binding site on the CYP7A1 gene promoter. Small heterodimer partner (SHP) inhibited the transcriptional activity of ERRγ and thus regulated CYP7A1 expression. Overexpression of ERRγ led to increased bile acid levels, whereas an inverse agonist of ERRγ, GSK5182, reduced CYP7A1 expression and bile acid synthesis. Finally, GSK5182 significantly reduced hepatic CB1 receptor-mediated induction of CYP7A1 expression and bile acid synthesis in alcohol-treated mice. These results provide the molecular mechanism linking ERRγ and bile acid metabolism. PMID:26348907

  8. The role of flavor and fragrance chemicals in TRPA1 (transient receptor potential cation channel, member A1) activity associated with allergies.

    PubMed

    Mihara, Satoru; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    TRPA1 has been proposed to be associated with diverse sensory allergic reactions, including thermal (cold) nociception, hearing and allergic inflammatory conditions. Some naturally occurring compounds are known to activate TRPA1 by forming a Michael addition product with a cysteine residue of TRPA1 through covalent protein modification and, in consequence, to cause allergic reactions. The anti-allergic property of TRPA1 agonists may be due to the activation and subsequent desensitization of TRPA1 expressed in sensory neurons. In this review, naturally occurring TRPA1 antagonists, such as camphor, 1,8-cineole, menthol, borneol, fenchyl alcohol and 2-methylisoborneol, and TRPA1 agonists, including thymol, carvacrol, 1'S-1'- acetoxychavicol acetate, cinnamaldehyde, α-n-hexyl cinnamic aldehyde and thymoquinone as well as isothiocyanates and sulfides are discussed.

  9. Ionotropic and metabotropic receptor mediated airway sensory nerve activation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Goo; Kollarik, Marian; Chuaychoo, Benjamas; Undem, Bradley J

    2004-01-01

    There are several receptors capable of inducing activating generator potentials in cough-associated afferent terminals in the airways. The chemical receptors leading to generator potentials can be subclassified into ionotropic and metabotropic types. An ionotropic receptor has an agonist-binding domain, and also serves directly as an ion channel that is opened upon binding of the agonist. Examples of ionotropic receptors found in airway sensory nerve terminals include receptors for serotonin (5-HT3 receptors), ATP (P2X receptors), acetylcholine (nicotinic receptors), receptors for capsaicin and related vanilloids (TRPV1 receptors), and acid receptors (acid sensing ion channels). Afferent nerve terminals can also be depolarized via activation of metabotropic or G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Among the GPCRs that can lead to activation of airway afferent fibers include bradykinin B2 and adenosine A1 receptors. The signaling events leading to GPCR-mediated membrane depolarization are more complex than that seen with ionotropic receptors. The GPCR-mediated effects are thought to occur through classical second messenger systems such as activation of phospholipase C. This may lead to membrane depolarization through interaction with specific ionotropic receptors (such as TRPV1) and/or various types of calcium activated channels.

  10. Interaction of valerian extracts of different polarity with adenosine receptors: identification of isovaltrate as an inverse agonist at A1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Lacher, Svenja K; Mayer, Ralf; Sichardt, Kathrin; Nieber, Karen; Müller, Christa E

    2007-01-15

    A series of extracts of valerian roots (Valeriana officinalis L.) was prepared with solvents of different polarity. Polar as well as nonpolar extracts were found to interact with adenosine A(1) receptors. While polar extracts activated A(1) receptors (partial agonistic activity), nonpolar extracts showed antagonistic or inverse agonistic activity at A(1) receptors, as demonstrated by GTPgammaS binding assays at human recombinant A(1) receptors stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Guided by radioligand binding assays, fractionation of a lipophilic petroleum ether:diethyl ether (1:1) extract led to the isolation of isovaltrate, which was characterized as a potent, highly efficacious inverse agonist at adenosine A(1) receptors (K(i) rat A(1): 2.05 microM). In experiments at rat brain slices measuring post-synaptic potentials (PSPs) in cortical neurons, isovaltrate at least partly reversed the reduction in the PSPs induced by the adenosine A(1) receptor agonist N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA). Isovaltrate may serve as a new lead structure for the development of inverse agonists at adenosine A(1) receptors. The common use of hydrophilic, but not lipophilic valerian extracts as mild sleep-inducing agents is consistent with the opposite actions of hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts on adenosine receptors.

  11. Activation of liver X receptor decreases atherosclerosis in Ldlr⁻/⁻ mice in the absence of ATP-binding cassette transporters A1 and G1 in myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Kappus, Mojdeh S; Murphy, Andrew J; Abramowicz, Sandra; Ntonga, Vusisizwe; Welch, Carrie L; Tall, Alan R; Westerterp, Marit

    2014-02-01

    Liver X receptor (LXR) activators decrease atherosclerosis in mice. LXR activators (1) directly upregulate genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport and (2) exert anti-inflammatory effects mediated by transrepression of nuclear factor-κB target genes. We investigated whether myeloid cell deficiency of ATP-binding cassette transporters A1 and G1 (ABCA1/G1), principal targets of LXR that promote macrophage cholesterol efflux and initiate reverse cholesterol transport, would abolish the beneficial effects of LXR activation on atherosclerosis. LXR activator T0901317 substantially reduced inflammatory gene expression in macrophages lacking ABCA1/G1. Ldlr(-/-) mice were transplanted with Abca1(-/-)Abcg1(-/-) or wild-type bone marrow (BM) and fed a Western-type diet for 6 weeks with or without T0901317 supplementation. Abca1/g1 BM deficiency increased atherosclerotic lesion complexity and inflammatory cell infiltration into the adventitia and myocardium. T0901317 markedly decreased lesion area, complexity, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the Abca1(-/-)Abcg1(-/-) BM-transplanted mice. To investigate whether this was because of macrophage Abca1/g1 deficiency, Ldlr(-/-) mice were transplanted with LysmCreAbca1(fl/fl)Abcg1(fl/fl) or Abca1(fl/fl)Abcg1(fl/fl) BM and fed Western-type diet with or without the more specific LXR agonist GW3965 for 12 weeks. GW3965 decreased lesion size in both groups, and the decrease was more prominent in the LysmCreAbca1(fl/fl)Abcg1(fl/fl) group. The results suggest that anti-inflammatory effects of LXR activators are of key importance to their antiatherosclerotic effects in vivo independent of cholesterol efflux pathways mediated by macrophage ABCA1/G1. This has implications for the development of LXR activators that lack adverse effects on lipogenic genes while maintaining the ability to transrepress inflammatory genes.

  12. Factors Modulating Estrogen Receptor Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-07-01

    public release; distribution unlimited The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author( s ) and should not be...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Activity Factors Modulating Estrogen Receptor 6. AUTHOR( S ) Michael J. Garabedian, Ph.D. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND...ADDRESS(ES) New York University Medical Center New York, New York 10016 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Commander U.S

  13. Central adenosine A1 receptors inhibit cough via suppression of excitatory glutamatergic and tachykininergic neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    El-Hashim, Ahmed Z; Mathews, Seena; Al-Shamlan, Fajer

    2018-05-16

    The A 1 adenosine receptor is reported to mediate several excitatory effects in the airways and has inhibitory effects in the central nervous system. In this study, we investigated the role of peripheral and central A 1 adenosine receptors in regulating cough and airway obstruction. Drugs were administered to guinea pigs via the inhaled or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) routes. Cough was induced by exposing guinea pigs to aerosolised 0.4 M citric acid, following drug inhalation or i.c.v. infusion, in a plethysmograph box. An automated analyzer recorded simultaneously both cough and airway obstruction. Inhaled A 1 receptor agonist, cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), dose-dependently inhibited cough (cough: 8 ± 3.4, 6.0 ± 4.5 and 1.9 ± 0.6 vs. 15.4 ± 3.7 for 0.3, 0.6 and 1, mg ml -1 vs. vehicle, respectively) and also inhibited airway obstruction. Similarly, CPA, administered i.c.v., inhibited both the citric acid-induced cough (cough: 21.3 ± 4.0 and 8.8 ± 3.4 vs. 23 ± 3.0 for 1.8 and 3 nmole ml -1 vs. vehicle, respectively) and airway obstruction; this was prevented by pretreatment with the A 1 adenosine receptor antagonist cyclopenty l-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX; i.c.v.). Treatment with DPCPX alone, dose-dependently enhanced the citric acid-induced cough and airway obstruction. This was reversed following treatment with either the GLUN1 receptor antagonist DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid or the NK 1 receptor antagonist FK-888. These findings suggest that activation of either peripheral or central A 1 adenosine receptors inhibits citric acid-induced cough and airway obstruction. The data also suggest that tonic activation of central adenosine A 1 receptors serves as a negative regulator of cough and airway obstruction, secondary to inhibition of excitatory glutamatergic and tachykininergic neurotransmission. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Mechanism for the activation of glutamate receptors

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists at the NIH have used a technique called cryo-electron microscopy to determine a molecular mechanism for the activation and desensitization of ionotropic glutamate receptors, a prominent class of neurotransmitter receptors in the brain and spina

  15. Adenosine A1 receptors contribute to immune regulation after neonatal hypoxic ischemic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Winerdal, Max; Winerdal, Malin E; Wang, Ying-Qing; Fredholm, Bertil B; Winqvist, Ola; Ådén, Ulrika

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal brain hypoxic ischemia (HI) often results in long-term motor and cognitive impairments. Post-ischemic inflammation greatly effects outcome and adenosine receptor signaling modulates both HI and immune cell function. Here, we investigated the influence of adenosine A1 receptor deficiency (A1R(-/-)) on key immune cell populations in a neonatal brain HI model. Ten-day-old mice were subjected to HI. Functional outcome was assessed by open locomotion and beam walking test and infarction size evaluated. Flow cytometry was performed on brain-infiltrating cells, and semi-automated analysis of flow cytometric data was applied. A1R(-/-) mice displayed larger infarctions (+33%, p < 0.05) and performed worse in beam walking tests (44% more mistakes, p < 0.05) than wild-type (WT) mice. Myeloid cell activation after injury was enhanced in A1R(-/-) versus WT brains. Activated B lymphocytes expressing IL-10 infiltrated the brain after HI in WT, but were less activated and did not increase in relative frequency in A1R(-/-). Also, A1R(-/-) B lymphocytes expressed less IL-10 than their WT counterparts, the A1R antagonist DPCPX decreased IL-10 expression whereas the A1R agonist CPA increased it. CD4(+) T lymphocytes including FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells, were unaffected by genotype, whereas CD8(+) T lymphocyte responses were smaller in A1R(-/-) mice. Using PCA to characterize the immune profile, we could discriminate the A1R(-/-) and WT genotypes as well as sham operated from HI-subjected animals. We conclude that A1R signaling modulates IL-10 expression by immune cells, influences the activation of these cells in vivo, and affects outcome after HI.

  16. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of a bivalent micro opiate and adenosine A1 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Smitha C; Ghosh, Nandita; By, Youlet; Berthault, Aurélie; Virolleaud, Marie-Alice; Carrega, Louis; Chouraqui, Gaëlle; Commeiras, Laurent; Condo, Jocelyne; Attolini, Mireille; Gaudel-Siri, Anouk; Ruf, Jean; Parrain, Jean-Luc; Rodriguez, Jean; Guieu, Régis

    2009-12-01

    The cross talk between different membrane receptors is the source of increasing research. We designed and synthesized a new hetero-bivalent ligand that has antagonist properties on both A(1) adenosine and mu opiate receptors with a K(i) of 0.8+/-0.05 and 0.7+/-0.03 microM, respectively. This hybrid molecule increases cAMP production in cells that over express the mu receptor as well as those over expressing the A(1) adenosine receptor and reverses the antalgic effects of mu and A(1) adenosine receptor agonists in animals.

  17. Adenosine-A1 Receptor Agonist Induced Hyperalgesic Priming Type II

    PubMed Central

    Araldi, Dioneia; Ferrari, Luiz F.; Levine, Jon D.

    2016-01-01

    We have recently shown that repeated exposure of the peripheral terminal of the primary afferent nociceptor to the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist DAMGO ([D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly5-ol]-Enkephalin acetate salt) induces a model of the transition to chronic pain that we have termed Type II hyperalgesic priming. Similar to Type I hyperalgesic priming, there is a markedly prolonged response to subsequent administration of proalgesic cytokines, prototypically prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). However, Type II hyperalgesic priming differs from Type I in being rapidly induced, protein kinase A (PKA), rather than PKCε dependent, not reversed by a protein translation inhibitor, occurring in female as well as in male rats, and isolectin B4-negative neuron dependent. We report that as with the repeated injection of a MOR agonist, the repeated administration of an agonist at the A1-adenosine receptor, also a Gi-protein coupled receptor, N6-Cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), also produces priming similar to DAMGO-induced Type II hyperalgesic priming. In this study we demonstrate that priming induced by repeated exposure to this A1-adenosine receptor agonist shares the same mechanisms as MOR-agonist induced priming. However, the prolongation of PGE2 hyperalgesia induced by repeated administration of CPA depends on G-protein αi subunit activation, differently from DAMGO-induced Type II priming, in which it depends on the β/γ subunit. These data implicate a novel form of Gi-protein signaling pathway in the Type II hyperalgesic priming induced by repeated administration of an agonist at A1-adenosine receptor to the peripheral terminal of the nociceptor. PMID:26588695

  18. Harman induces CYP1A1 enzyme through an aryl hydrocarbon receptor mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    El Gendy, Mohamed A.M.; El-Kadi, Ayman O.S., E-mail: aelkadi@pharmacy.ualberta.c

    Harman is a common compound in several foods, plants and beverages. Numerous studies have demonstrated its mutagenic, co-mutagenic and carcinogenic effects; however, the exact mechanism has not been fully identified. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor regulating the expression of the carcinogen-activating enzyme; cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1). In the present study, we examined the ability of harman to induce AhR-mediated signal transduction in human and rat hepatoma cells; HepG2 and H4IIE cells. Our results showed that harman significantly induced CYP1A1 mRNA in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Similarly, harman significantly induced CYP1A1 at protein and activity levels inmore » a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, the AhR antagonist, resveratrol, inhibited the increase in CYP1A1 activity by harman. The RNA polymerase inhibitor, actinomycin D, completely abolished the CYP1A1 mRNA induction by harman, indicating a transcriptional activation. The role of AhR in CYP1A1 induction by harman was confirmed by using siRNA specific for human AhR. The ability of harman to induce CYP1A1 was strongly correlated with its ability to stimulate AhR-dependent luciferase activity and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. At post-transcriptional and post-translational levels, harman did not affect the stability of CYP1A1 at the mRNA and the protein levels, excluding other mechanisms participating in the obtained effects. We concluded that harman can directly induce CYP1A1 gene expression in an AhR-dependent manner and may represent a novel mechanism by which harman promotes mutagenicity, co-mutagenicity and carcinogenicity.« less

  19. Adenosine A1 receptor: A neuroprotective target in light induced retinal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Soliño, Manuel; López, Ester María; Rey-Funes, Manuel; Loidl, César Fabián; Larrayoz, Ignacio M; Martínez, Alfredo; Girardi, Elena; López-Costa, Juan José

    2018-01-01

    Light induced retinal degeneration (LIRD) is a useful model that resembles human retinal degenerative diseases. The modulation of adenosine A1 receptor is neuroprotective in different models of retinal injury. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effect of the modulation of A1 receptor in LIRD. The eyes of rats intravitreally injected with N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), an A1 agonist, which were later subjected to continuous illumination (CI) for 24 h, showed retinas with a lower number of apoptotic nuclei and a decrease of Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) immunoreactive area than controls. Lower levels of activated Caspase 3 and GFAP were demonstrated by Western Blot (WB) in treated animals. Also a decrease of iNOS, TNFα and GFAP mRNA was demonstrated by RT-PCR. A decrease of Iba 1+/MHC-II+ reactive microglial cells was shown by immunohistochemistry. Electroretinograms (ERG) showed higher amplitudes of a-wave, b-wave and oscillatory potentials after CI compared to controls. Conversely, the eyes of rats intravitreally injected with dipropylcyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX), an A1 antagonist, and subjected to CI for 24 h, showed retinas with a higher number of apoptotic nuclei and an increase of GFAP immunoreactive area compared to controls. Also, higher levels of activated Caspase 3 and GFAP were demonstrated by Western Blot. The mRNA levels of iNOS, nNOS and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNFα) were not modified by DPCPX treatment. An increase of Iba 1+/MHC-II+ reactive microglial cells was shown by immunohistochemistry. ERG showed that the amplitudes of a-wave, b-wave, and oscillatory potentials after CI were similar to control values. A single pharmacological intervention prior illumination stress was able to swing retinal fate in opposite directions: CPA was neuroprotective, while DPCPX worsened retinal damage. In summary, A1 receptor agonism is a plausible neuroprotective strategy in LIRD.

  20. Vector-averaged gravity-induced changes in cell signaling and vitamin D receptor activity in MG-63 cells are reversed by a 1,25-(OH)2D3 analog, EB1089

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, R.; Smith, C. L.; Weigel, N. L.

    2002-01-01

    Skeletal unloading in an animal hindlimb suspension model and microgravity experienced by astronauts or as a result of prolonged bed rest causes site-specific losses in bone mineral density of 1%-2% per month. This is accompanied by reductions in circulating levels of 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3), the active metabolite of vitamin D. 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3), the ligand for the vitamin D receptor (VDR), is important for calcium absorption and plays a role in differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. To examine the responses of cells to activators of the VDR in a simulated microgravity environment, we used slow-turning lateral vessels (STLVs) in a rotating cell culture system. We found that, similar to cells grown in microgravity, MG-63 cells grown in the STLVs produce less osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, and collagen Ialpha1 mRNA and are less responsive to 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3). In addition, expression of VDR was reduced. Moreover, growth in the STLV caused activation of the stress-activated protein kinase pathway (SAPK), a kinase that inhibits VDR activity. In contrast, the 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) analog, EB1089, was able to compensate for some of the STLV-associated responses by reducing SAPK activity, elevating VDR levels, and increasing expression of osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase. These studies suggest that, not only does simulated microgravity reduce differentiation of MG-63 cells, but the activity of the VDR, an important regulator of bone metabolism, is reduced. Use of potent, less calcemic analogs of 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) may aid in overcoming this defect. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Inc.

  1. Effects of targeted deletion of A1 adenosine receptors on postischemic cardiac function and expression of adenosine receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Morrison, R Ray; Teng, Bunyen; Oldenburg, Peter J; Katwa, Laxmansa C; Schnermann, Jurgen B; Mustafa, S Jamal

    2006-10-01

    To examine ischemic tolerance in the absence of A(1) adenosine receptors (A(1)ARs), isolated wild-type (WT) and A(1)AR knockout (A(1)KO) murine hearts underwent global ischemia-reperfusion, and injury was measured in terms of functional recovery and efflux of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Hearts were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR both at baseline and at intervals during ischemia-reperfusion to determine whether compensatory expression of other adenosine receptor subtypes occurs with either A(1)AR deletion and/or ischemia-reperfusion. A(1)KO hearts had higher baseline coronary flow (CF) and left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) than WT hearts, whereas heart rate was unchanged by A(1)AR deletion. After 20 min of ischemia, CF was attenuated in A(1)KO compared with WT hearts, and this reduction persisted throughout reperfusion. Final recovery of LVDP was decreased in A(1)KO hearts (54.4 +/- 5.1 vs. WT 81.1 +/- 3.4% preischemic baseline) and correlated with higher diastolic pressure during reperfusion. Postischemic efflux of LDH was greater in A(1)KO compared with WT hearts. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated the absence of A(1)AR transcript in A(1)KO hearts, and the message for A(2A), A(2B), and A(3) adenosine receptors was similar in uninstrumented A(1)KO and WT hearts. Ischemia-reperfusion increased A(2B) mRNA expression 2.5-fold in both WT and A(1)KO hearts without changing A(1) or A(3) expression. In WT hearts, ischemia transiently doubled A(2A) mRNA, which returned to preischemic level upon reperfusion, a pattern not observed in A(1)KO hearts. Together, these data affirm the cardioprotective role of A(1)ARs and suggest that induced expression of other adenosine receptor subtypes may participate in the response to ischemia-reperfusion in isolated murine hearts.

  2. Spasticity therapy reacts to astrocyte GluA1 receptor upregulation following spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Soriano, Julio; Goiriena, Eider; Taylor, Julian

    2010-01-01

    For almost three decades intrathecal baclofen therapy has been the standard treatment for spinal cord injury spasticity when oral medication is ineffective or produces serious side effects. Although intrathecal baclofen therapy has a good clinical benefit-risk ratio for spinal spasticity, tolerance and the life-threatening withdrawal syndrome present serious problems for its management. Now, in an experimental model of spinal cord injury spasticity, AMPA receptor blockade with NGX424 (Tezampanel) has been shown to reduce stretch reflex activity alone and during tolerance to intrathecal baclofen therapy. These results stem from the observation that GluA1 receptors are overexpressed on reactive astrocytes following experimental ischaemic spinal cord injury. Although further validation is required, the appropriate choice of AMPA receptor antagonists for treatment of stretch hyperreflexia based on our recent understanding of reactive astrocyte neurobiology following spinal cord injury may lead to the development of a better adjunct clinical therapy for spasticity without the side effects of intrathecal baclofen therapy. LINKED ARTICLE This article is a commentary on Oshiro et al., pp. 976–985 of this issue. To view this paper visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00954.x PMID:20662840

  3. AMP-guided tumour-specific nanoparticle delivery via adenosine A1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Dai, Tongcheng; Li, Na; Han, Fajun; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Yuanxing; Liu, Qin

    2016-03-01

    Active targeting-ligands have been increasingly used to functionalize nanoparticles for tumour-specific clinical applications. Here we utilize nucleotide adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) as a novel ligand to functionalize polymer-based fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) for tumour-targeted imaging. We demonstrate that AMP-conjugated NPs (NPs-AMP) efficiently bind to and are following internalized into colon cancer cell CW-2 and breast cancer cell MDA-MB-468 in vitro. RNA interference and inhibitor assays reveal that the targeting effects mainly rely on the specific binding of AMP to adenosine A1 receptor (A1R), which is greatly up-regulated in cancer cells than in matched normal cells. More importantly, NPs-AMP specifically accumulate in the tumour site of colon and breast tumour xenografts and are further internalized into the tumour cells in vivo via tail vein injection, confirming that the high in vitro specificity of AMP can be successfully translated into the in vivo efficacy. Furthermore, NPs-AMP exhibit an active tumour-targeting behaviour in various colon and breast cancer cells, which is positively related to the up-regulation level of A1R in cancer cells, suggesting that AMP potentially suits for more extensive A1R-overexpressing cancer models. This work establishes AMP to be a novel tumour-targeting ligand and provides a promising strategy for future diagnostic or therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Small-animal PET study of adenosine A(1) receptors in rat brain: blocking receptors and raising extracellular adenosine.

    PubMed

    Paul, Soumen; Khanapur, Shivashankar; Rybczynska, Anna A; Kwizera, Chantal; Sijbesma, Jurgen W A; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Willemsen, Antoon T M; Elsinga, Philip H; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; van Waarde, Aren

    2011-08-01

    Activation of adenosine A(1) receptors (A(1)R) in the brain causes sedation, reduces anxiety, inhibits seizures, and promotes neuroprotection. Cerebral A(1)R can be visualized using 8-dicyclopropylmethyl-1-(11)C-methyl-3-propyl-xanthine ((11)C-MPDX) and PET. This study aims to test whether (11)C-MPDX can be used for quantitative studies of cerebral A(1)R in rodents. (11)C-MPDX was injected (intravenously) into isoflurane-anesthetized male Wistar rats (300 g). A dynamic scan of the central nervous system was obtained, using a small-animal PET camera. A cannula in a femoral artery was used for blood sampling. Three groups of animals were studied: group 1, controls (saline-treated); group 2, animals pretreated with the A(1)R antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX, 1 mg, intraperitoneally); and group 3, animals pretreated (intraperitoneally) with a 20% solution of ethanol in saline (2 mL) plus the adenosine kinase inhibitor 4-amino-5-(3-bromophenyl)-7-(6-morpholino-pyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d] pyrimidine dihydrochloride (ABT-702) (1 mg). DPCPX is known to occupy cerebral A(1)R, whereas ethanol and ABT-702 increase extracellular adenosine. In groups 1 and 3, the brain was clearly visualized. High uptake of (11)C-MPDX was noted in striatum, hippocampus, and cerebellum. In group 2, tracer uptake was strongly suppressed and regional differences were abolished. The treatment of group 3 resulted in an unexpected 40%-45% increase of the cerebral uptake of radioactivity as indicated by increases of PET standardized uptake value, distribution volume from Logan plot, nondisplaceable binding potential from 2-tissue-compartment model fit, and standardized uptake value from a biodistribution study performed after the PET scan. The partition coefficient of the tracer (K(1)/k(2) from the model fit) was not altered under the study conditions. (11)C-MPDX shows a regional distribution in rat brain consistent with binding to A(1)R. Tracer binding is blocked by the selective A

  5. Antinociception by systemically-administered acetaminophen (paracetamol) involves spinal serotonin 5-HT7 and adenosine A1 receptors, as well as peripheral adenosine A1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jean; Reid, Allison R; Sawynok, Jana

    2013-03-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a widely used analgesic, but its sites and mechanisms of action remain incompletely understood. Recent studies have separately implicated spinal adenosine A(1) receptors (A(1)Rs) and serotonin 5-HT(7) receptors (5-HT(7)Rs) in the antinociceptive effects of systemically administered acetaminophen. In the present study, we determined whether these two actions are linked by delivering a selective 5-HT(7)R antagonist to the spinal cord of mice and examining nociception using the formalin 2% model. In normal and A(1)R wild type mice, antinociception by systemic (i.p.) acetaminophen 300mg/kg was reduced by intrathecal (i.t.) delivery of the selective 5-HT(7)R antagonist SB269970 3μg. In mice lacking A(1)Rs, i.t. SB269970 did not reverse antinociception by systemic acetaminophen, indicating a link between spinal 5-HT(7)R and A(1)R mechanisms. We also explored potential roles of peripheral A(1)Rs in antinociception by acetaminophen administered both locally and systemically. In normal mice, intraplantar (i.pl.) acetaminophen 200μg produced antinociception in the formalin test, and this was blocked by co-administration of the selective A(1)R antagonist DPCPX 4.5μg. Acetaminophen administered into the contralateral hindpaw had no effect, indicating a local peripheral action. When acetaminophen was administered systemically, its antinociceptive effect was reversed by i.pl. DPCPX in normal mice; this was also observed in A(1)R wild type mice, but not in those lacking A(1)Rs. In summary, we demonstrate a link between spinal 5-HT(7)Rs and A(1)Rs in the spinal cord relevant to antinociception by systemic acetaminophen. Furthermore, we implicate peripheral A(1)Rs in the antinociceptive effects of locally- and systemically-administered acetaminophen. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hypothermia in mouse is caused by adenosine A1 and A3 receptor agonists and AMP via three distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Carlin, Jesse Lea; Jain, Shalini; Gizewski, Elizabeth; Wan, Tina C; Tosh, Dilip K; Xiao, Cuiying; Auchampach, John A; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Gavrilova, Oksana; Reitman, Marc L

    2017-03-01

    Small mammals have the ability to enter torpor, a hypothermic, hypometabolic state, allowing impressive energy conservation. Administration of adenosine or adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) can trigger a hypothermic, torpor-like state. We investigated the mechanisms for hypothermia using telemetric monitoring of body temperature in wild type and receptor knock out (Adora1 -/- , Adora3 -/- ) mice. Confirming prior data, stimulation of the A 3 adenosine receptor (AR) induced hypothermia via peripheral mast cell degranulation, histamine release, and activation of central histamine H 1 receptors. In contrast, A 1 AR agonists and AMP both acted centrally to cause hypothermia. Commonly used, selective A 1 AR agonists, including N 6 -cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), N 6 -cyclohexyladenosine (CHA), and MRS5474, caused hypothermia via both A 1 AR and A 3 AR when given intraperitoneally. Intracerebroventricular dosing, low peripheral doses of Cl-ENBA [(±)-5'-chloro-5'-deoxy-N 6 -endo-norbornyladenosine], or using Adora3 -/- mice allowed selective stimulation of A 1 AR. AMP-stimulated hypothermia can occur independently of A 1 AR, A 3 AR, and mast cells. A 1 AR and A 3 AR agonists and AMP cause regulated hypothermia that was characterized by a drop in total energy expenditure, physical inactivity, and preference for cooler environmental temperatures, indicating a reduced body temperature set point. Neither A 1 AR nor A 3 AR was required for fasting-induced torpor. A 1 AR and A 3 AR agonists and AMP trigger regulated hypothermia via three distinct mechanisms. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Therapeutic efficacy of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) against organophosphate intoxication.

    PubMed

    Bueters, Tjerk J H; Groen, Bas; Danhof, Meindert; IJzerman, Ad P; Van Helden, Herman P M

    2002-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate whether reduction of central acetylcholine (ACh) accumulation by adenosine receptor agonists could serve as a generic treatment against organophosphate (OP) poisoning. The OPs studied were tabun ( O-ethyl- N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate), sarin (isopropylmethylphosphonofluoridate), VX ( O-ethyl- S-2-diisopropylaminoethylmethylphosphonothiolate) and parathion ( O, O-diethyl- O-(4-nitrophenyl)phosphorothioate). The efficacy of the adenosine A(1) receptor agonist N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) against an OP intoxication was examined on the basis of the occurrence of clinical symptoms that are directly associated with such intoxication. CPA (1-2 mg/kg) effectively attenuated the cholinergic symptoms and prevented mortality in lethally tabun- or sarin-intoxicated rats. In contrast, CPA (2 mg/kg) proved to be ineffective against VX or parathion intoxication. Intracerebral microdialysis studies revealed that survival of sarin-poisoned and CPA-treated animals coincided with a minor elevation of extracellular ACh concentrations in the brain relative to the baseline value, whereas an 11-fold increase in transmitter levels was observed in animals not treated with CPA. In VX-intoxicated rats, however, the ACh amounts increased 18-fold, irrespective of treatment with CPA. The striatal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity following a lethal sarin intoxication was completely abolished in the vehicle-treated animals, whereas 10% and 60% AChE activity remained in animals treated with 2 mg/kg CPA 1 min after or 2 min prior to the poisoning, respectively. In VX-intoxicated animals the AChE activity in the brain was strongly reduced (striatum 10%, hippocampus 1%) regardless of the CPA treatment. These results demonstrate that CPA is highly effective against tabun or sarin poisoning, but fails to protect against VX or parathion. Survival and attenuation of clinical signs in tabun- or sarin-poisoned animals are associated with a

  8. Dynamic Regulation of FoxA1 by Steroid Receptors | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The estrogen receptor (ER) is a key regulator in breast cancer initiation and progression. A widely discussed model proposes that forkhead box protein A1 (FoxA1) acts as a pioneer factor in cancer by binding and penetrating closed chromatin to allow access by transcription factors (TFs), including ER.

  9. Class A1 scavenger receptor modulates glioma progression by regulating M2-like tumor-associated macrophage polarization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hanwen; Zhang, Wenbin; Sun, Xuan; Dang, Ruoyu; Zhou, Rongmei; Bai, Hui; Ben, Jingjing; Zhu, Xudong; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Qing; Xu, Yong; Chen, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages enhance glioma development and progression by shaping the tumor microenvironment. Class A1 scavenger receptor (SR-A1), a pattern recognition receptor primarily expressed in macrophages, is up-regulated in many human solid tumors. We found that SR-A1 expression in 136 human gliomas was positively correlated with tumor grade (P<0.01), but not prognosis or tumor recurrence. SR-A1-expressing macrophages originated primarily from circulating monocytes attracted to tumor tissue, and were almost twice as numerous as resident microglia in glioma tissues (P<0.001). The effects of SR-A1 on glioma proliferation and invasion were assessed in vivo using an SR-A1-deficient murine orthotopic glioma model. SR-A1 deletion promoted M2-like tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) polarization in mice by activating STAT3 and STAT6, which resulted in robust orthotopic glioma proliferation and angiogenesis. Finally, we found that HSP70 might be an endogenous ligand that activates SR-A1-dependent anti-tumorigenic pathways in gliomas, although its expression does not appear informative for diagnostic purposes. Our findings demonstrate a relationship between TAMs, SR-A1 expression and glioma growth and provide new insights into the pathogenic role of TAMs in glioma. PMID:27367025

  10. New Drug Candidate Targeting the 4A1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor for Medullary Thyroid Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Wen; Wang, Qun; Li, Qinpei; Wang, Huijuan; Wang, Jun; Teng, Tieshan; Chen, Mingliang; Ji, Ailing; Li, Yanzhang

    2018-03-02

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a relatively rare thyroid cancer responsible for a substantial fraction of thyroid cancer mortality. More effective therapeutic drugs with low toxicity for MTC are urgently needed. Orphan nuclear receptor 4A1 (NR4A1) plays a pivotal role in regulating the proliferation and apoptosis of a variety of tumor cells. Based on the NR4A1 protein structure, 2-imino-6-methoxy-2H-chromene-3-carbothioamide (IMCA) was identified from the Specs compounds database using the protein structure-guided virtual screening approach. Computationally-based molecular modeling studies suggested that IMCA has a high affinity for the ligand binding pocket of NR4A1. MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide] and apoptosis assays demonstrated that IMCA resulted in significant thyroid cancer cell death. Immunofluorescence assays showed that IMCA induced NR4A1 translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in thyroid cancer cell lines, which may be involved in the cell apoptotic process. In this study, the quantitative polymerase chain reaction results showed that the IMCA-induced upregulation of sestrin1 and sestrin2 was dose-dependent in thyroid cancer cell lines. Western blot showed that IMCA increased phosphorylation of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and decreased phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), which is the key enzyme in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. The experimental results suggest that IMCA is a drug candidate for MTC therapy and may work by increasing the nuclear export of NR4A1 to the cytoplasm and the tumor protein 53 (p53)-sestrins-AMPK-mTOR signaling pathway.

  11. Potentiation of adenosine A1 receptor agonist CPA-induced antinociception by paeoniflorin in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Da-Zhi; Zhao, Fei-Li; Liu, Jing; Ji, Xin-Quan; Ye, Yang; Zhu, Xing-Zu

    2006-08-01

    The effect of paeoniflorin (PF), a major constituent isolated from Paeony radix, on N6-Cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), a selective adenosine A1 receptor (A1 receptor) agonist, induced antinociception was examined in mice. In the tail-pressure test, CPA (0.05, 0.1, 0.2 mg/kg, s.c.) could induce antinociception in a dose-dependent manner. PF (5, 10, 20 mg/kg, s.c.) alone failed to exhibit any antinociceptive effect in mice; however, pretreatment of PF (20 mg/kg, s.c.) could significantly enhance CPA-induced antinociception. Additionally, pretreatment of 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX, 0.25 mg/kg, s.c.), a selective A1 receptor antagonist, could antagonize the antinociceptive effect of combining CPA with PF. Furthermore, in the competitive binding experiments, PF did not displace the binding of [3H]-8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine ([3H]-DPCPX) but displaced that of [3H]-2-Chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine ([3H]-CCPA, a selective A1 receptor agonist) to the membrane preparation of rat cerebral cortex. These results suggested that PF might selectively increase the binding and antinociceptive effect of CPA by binding with A1 receptor.

  12. Age-dependent changes of presynaptic neuromodulation via A1-adenosine receptors in rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Sperlágh, B; Zsilla, G; Baranyi, M; Kékes-Szabó, A; Vizi, E S

    1997-10-01

    The presynaptic neuromodulation of stimulation-evoked release of [3H]-acetylcholine by endogenous adenosine, via A1-adenosine receptors, was studied in superfused hippocampal slices taken from 4-, 12- and 24-month-old rats. 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (0.25 microM), a selective A1-receptor antagonist, increased significantly the electrical field stimulation-induced release of [3H]-acetylcholine in slices prepared from 4- and 12-month-old rats, showing a tonic inhibitory action of endogenous adenosine via stimulation of presynaptic A1-adenosine receptors. In contrast, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine had no effect in 24-month-old rats. 2-Chloroadenosine (10 microM), an adenosine receptor agonist decreased the release of [3H]-acetylcholine in slices taken from 4- and 12-month-old rats, and no significant change was observed in slices taken from 24-month-old rats. In order to show whether the number/or affinity of the A1-receptors was affected in aged rats, [3H]-8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine binding was studied in hippocampal membranes prepared from rats of different ages. Whereas the Bmax value was significantly lower in 2-year-old rats than in younger counterparts, the dissociation constant (Kd) was not affected by aging, indicating that the density rather than the affinity of adenosine receptors was altered. Endogenous adenosine levels present in the extracellular space were also measured in the superfusate by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with ultraviolet detection, and an age-related increase in the adenosine level was found. In summary, our results indicate that during aging the level of adenosine in the extracellular fluid is increased in the hippocampus. There is a downregulation and reduced responsiveness of presynaptic adenosine A1-receptors, and it seems likely that these changes are due to the enhanced adenosine level in the extracellular space.

  13. Using Nuclear Receptor Activity to Stratify Hepatocarcinogens

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nuclear receptors (NR) are a superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors that control a range of cellular processes. Persistent stimulation of some NR is a non-genotoxic mechanism of rodent liver cancer with unclear relevance to humans. Here we report on a systematic an...

  14. Androgen receptor antagonism drives cytochrome P450 17A1 inhibitor efficacy in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Norris, John D.; Ellison, Stephanie J.; Baker, Jennifer G.; Stagg, David B.; Wardell, Suzanne E.; Park, Sunghee; Alley, Holly M.; Baldi, Robert M.; Yllanes, Alexander; Andreano, Kaitlyn J.; Stice, James P.; Lawrence, Scott A.; Eisner, Joel R.; Price, Douglas K.; Moore, William R.; Figg, William D.; McDonnell, Donald P.

    2017-01-01

    The clinical utility of inhibiting cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17), a cytochrome p450 enzyme that is required for the production of androgens, has been exemplified by the approval of abiraterone for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Recently, however, it has been reported that CYP17 inhibitors can interact directly with the androgen receptor (AR). A phase I study recently reported that seviteronel, a CYP17 lyase–selective inhibitor, ædemonstrated a sustained reduction in prostate-specific antigen in a patient with CRPC, and another study showed seviteronel’s direct effects on AR function. This suggested that seviteronel may have therapeutically relevant activities in addition to its ability to inhibit androgen production. Here, we have demonstrated that CYP17 inhibitors, with the exception of orteronel, can function as competitive AR antagonists. Conformational profiling revealed that the CYP17 inhibitor–bound AR adopted a conformation that resembled the unliganded AR (apo-AR), precluding nuclear localization and DNA binding. Further, we observed that seviteronel and abiraterone inhibited the growth of tumor xenografts expressing the clinically relevant mutation AR-F876L and that this activity could be attributed entirely to competitive AR antagonism. The results of this study suggest that the ability of CYP17 inhibitors to directly antagonize the AR may contribute to their clinical efficacy in CRPC. PMID:28463227

  15. Tyrosine Phosphorylation of the Pioneer Transcription Factor FoxA1 Promotes Activation of Estrogen Signaling.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Noritaka; Shibazaki, Misato; Yamada, Chiaki; Anzai, Erina; Morii, Mariko; Nakayama, Yuji; Kuga, Takahisa; Hashimoto, Yuuki; Tomonaga, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2017-06-01

    The pioneer transcription factor FoxA1 plays an important role in estrogen signaling by opening closed chromatin and promoting recruitment of the estrogen receptor to its target regions in DNA. In this study, we analyzed tyrosine phosphorylation of FoxA1 by the non-receptor-type tyrosine kinase c-Abl. c-Abl was shown to phosphorylate FoxA1 at multiple sites, especially in the N- and C-terminal regions. Tyr429 and Tyr464 were identified as the major phosphorylation sites in the FoxA1 C-terminal region. The phosphomimetic and nonphosphorylatable FoxA1 mutants were generated by glutamic acid and phenylalanine substitutions at these tyrosine residues, respectively. The phosphomimetic FoxA1 promoted the activation of estrogen signaling, whereas the nonphosphorylatable FoxA1 suppressed its activation. Stimulation with the epidermal growth factor, which activates c-Abl, enhanced the activation of estrogen signaling. In contrast, the c-Abl inhibitor imatinib reduced its activation. The phosphomimetic FoxA1 mutant showed a higher affinity toward histone H3 than the wild-type. These results suggest that c-Abl-mediated phosphorylation of FoxA1 promotes the activation of estrogen signaling by inducing its binding to histones. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1453-1461, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Regulation of renal adenosine A(1) receptors: effect of dietary sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Smith, J A; Whitaker, E M; Yaktubay, N; Morton, M J; Bowmer, C J; Yates, M S

    1999-11-12

    The influence of dietary NaCl on the regulation of renal adenosine A(1) receptors was investigated in the rat. Renal membranes from rats fed on a diet low (0.04%) in NaCl showed a 46% increase in B(max) for the binding of [3H]-1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine ([3H]DPCPX), a selective adenosine A(1) receptor antagonist, compared to membranes from rats fed on a normal diet (0.4% NaCl). Conversely, a high NaCl diet (4.0%) resulted in a 37% decrease in B(max). Levels of renal adenosine A(1) receptor mRNA were 65% lower in rats on a high salt diet. Autoradiographic studies showed that, for the inner medullary collecting ducts, a low NaCl diet resulted in a 30% increase in [3H]DPCPX binding with a 39% decrease noted in rats maintained on a high salt diet. The results indicate that changes in adenosine A(1) receptor density may represent a novel mechanism whereby the kidneys adapt to changes in salt load.

  17. Chronic hypoxia up-regulates expression of adenosine A1 receptors in DDT1-MF2 cells.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Lucy C; Bonnet, Claire; Kemp, Paul J; Yates, Michael S; Bowmer, Christopher J

    2004-02-01

    As the first step to understand how chronic hypoxia might regulate smooth muscle function in health and disease, we have employed an established immortalised cell model of smooth muscle, DDT1-MF2 cells, to address the hypothesis that adenosine A1 receptor density is modulated by O2 availability. Maximal specific binding (Bmax) of the selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, [3H]-DPCPX, to cell membranes increased 3.5-fold from 0.48 +/- 0.02 pmol/mg to 1.7 +/- 0.5 pmol/mg protein after 16 hr of hypoxia and this effect was not accompanied by any statistically significant changes in either binding affinity (0.84 +/- 0.2 nM vs. 1.2 +/- 0.3 nM) or Hill coefficient (1.1 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.99 +/- 0.03). Hypoxia-evoked increases in membrane receptor density were paralleled in intact DDT1-MF2 cells. In addition, the increase in [3H]-DPCPX binding to intact cells was inhibited by co-incubation during hypoxia with the translational inhibitor cycloheximide, the transcriptional blocker actinomycin D and the NFkappaB inhibitor sulphasalazine. Together, these data show that adenosine A1 receptor density is modulated, at least in part, by O2-dependent activation of the transcription factor NFkappaB and adds to the list of processes dynamically regulated by ambient oxygen availability. Since hypoxia is an initiating factor in acute renal failure, similar changes in transcription may account for up-regulation of adenosine A1 receptors noted previously in the renal vasculature of rats with acute renal failure.

  18. Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) – focus on receptor-receptor-interactions and their physiological and pathophysiological impact

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with four members, PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, playing critical functions in hemostasis, thrombosis, embryonic development, wound healing, inflammation and cancer progression. PARs are characterized by a unique activation mechanism involving receptor cleavage by different proteinases at specific sites within the extracellular amino-terminus and the exposure of amino-terminal “tethered ligand“ domains that bind to and activate the cleaved receptors. After activation, the PAR family members are able to stimulate complex intracellular signalling networks via classical G protein-mediated pathways and beta-arrestin signalling. In addition, different receptor crosstalk mechanisms critically contribute to a high diversity of PAR signal transduction and receptor-trafficking processes that result in multiple physiological effects. In this review, we summarize current information about PAR-initiated physical and functional receptor interactions and their physiological and pathological roles. We focus especially on PAR homo- and heterodimerization, transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and receptor serine/threonine kinases (RSTKs), communication with other GPCRs, toll-like receptors and NOD-like receptors, ion channel receptors, and on PAR association with cargo receptors. In addition, we discuss the suitability of these receptor interaction mechanisms as targets for modulating PAR signalling in disease. PMID:24215724

  19. Effects of tianeptine on onset time of pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in mice: possible role of adenosine A1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Uzbay, Tayfun I; Kayir, Hakan; Ceyhan, Mert

    2007-02-01

    Depression is a common psychiatric problem in epileptic patients. Thus, it is important that an antidepressant agent has anticonvulsant activity. This study was organized to investigate the effects of tianeptine, an atypical antidepressant, on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure in mice. A possible contribution of adenosine receptors was also evaluated. Adult male Swiss-Webster mice (25-35 g) were subjects. PTZ (80 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to mice 30 min after tianeptine (2.5-80 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline administration. The onset times of 'first myoclonic jerk' (FMJ) and 'generalized clonic seizures' (GCS) were recorded. Duration of 600 s was taken as a cutoff time in calculation of the onset time of the seizures. To evaluate the contribution of adenosine receptors in the effect of tianeptine, a nonspecific adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine, a specific A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX), a specific A2A receptor antagonist 8-(3-chlorostyryl) caffeine (CSC) or their vehicles were administered to the mice 15 min before tianeptine (80 mg/kg) or saline treatments. Tianeptine (40 and 80 mg/kg) pretreatment significantly delayed the onset time of FMJ and GCS. Caffeine (10-60 mg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently blocked the retarding effect of tianeptine (80 mg/kg) on the onset times of FMJ and GCS. DPCPX (20 mg/kg) but not CSC (1-8 mg/kg) blocked the effect of tianeptine (80 mg/kg) on FMJ. Our results suggest that tianeptine delayed the onset time of PTZ-induced seizures via adenosine A1 receptors in mice. Thus, this drug may be a useful choice for epileptic patients with depression.

  20. Adenosine transiently modulates stimulated dopamine release in the caudate putamen via A1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Ashley E.; Venton, B. Jill

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine modulates dopamine in the brain via A1 and A2A receptors, but that modulation has only been characterized on a slow time scale. Recent studies have characterized a rapid signaling mode of adenosine that suggests a possible rapid modulatory role. Here, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry was used to characterize the extent to which transient adenosine changes modulate stimulated dopamine release (5 pulses at 60 Hz) in rat caudate putamen brain slices. Exogenous adenosine was applied and dopamine concentration monitored. Adenosine only modulated dopamine when it was applied 2 or 5 s before stimulation. Longer time intervals and bath application of 5 µM adenosine did not decrease dopamine release. Mechanical stimulation of endogenous adenosine 2s before dopamine stimulation also decreased stimulated dopamine release by 41 ± 7 %, similar to the 54 ± 6 % decrease in dopamine after exogenous adenosine application. Dopamine inhibition by transient adenosine was recovered within 10 minutes. The A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) blocked the dopamine modulation, whereas dopamine modulation was unaffected by the A2A receptor antagonist SCH 442416. Thus, transient adenosine changes can transiently modulate phasic dopamine release via A1 receptors. These data demonstrate that adenosine has a rapid, but transient, modulatory role in the brain. PMID:25219576

  1. Fatty acids activate a chimera of the clofibric acid-activated receptor and the glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Göttlicher, M; Widmark, E; Li, Q; Gustafsson, J A

    1992-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferators such as clofibric acid, nafenopin, and WY-14,643 have been shown to activate PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor), a member of the steroid nuclear receptor superfamily. We have cloned the cDNA from the rat that is homologous to that from the mouse [Issemann, I. & Green, S. (1990) Nature (London) 347, 645-650], which encodes a 97% similar protein with a particularly well-conserved putative ligand-binding domain. To search for physiologically occurring activators, we established a transcriptional transactivation assay by stably expressing in CHO cells a chimera of rat PPAR and the human glucocorticoid receptor that activates expression of the placental alkaline phosphatase reporter gene under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter. Testing of compounds related to lipid metabolism or peroxisomal proliferation revealed that 150 microM concentrations of arachidonic or linoleic acid but not of dehydroepiandrosterone, cholesterol, or 25-hydroxy-cholesterol, activate the receptor chimera. In addition, saturated fatty acids induce the reporter gene. Shortening the chain length to n = 6 or introduction of an omega-terminal carboxylic group abolished the activation potential of the fatty acid. In conclusion, the present results indicate that fatty acids can regulate gene expression mediated by a member of the steroid nuclear receptor superfamily. Images PMID:1316614

  2. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors for hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Usuda, Daisuke; Kanda, Tsugiyasu

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily, which is composed of four members encoded by distinct genes (α, β, γ, and δ). The genes undergo transactivation or transrepression under specific mechanisms that lead to the induction or repression of target gene expression. As is the case with other nuclear receptors, all four PPAR isoforms contain five or six structural regions in four functional domains; namely, A/B, C, D, and E/F. PPARs have many functions, particularly functions involving control of vascular tone, inflammation, and energy homeostasis, and are, therefore, important targets for hypertension, obesity, obesity-induced inflammation, and metabolic syndrome in general. Hence, PPARs also represent drug targets, and PPARα and PPARγ agonists are used clinically in the treatment of dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus, respectively. Because of their pleiotropic effects, they have been identified as active in a number of diseases and are targets for the development of a broad range of therapies for a variety of diseases. It is likely that the range of PPARγ agonist therapeutic actions will result in novel approaches to lifestyle and other diseases. The combination of PPARs with reagents or with other cardiovascular drugs, such as diuretics and angiotensin II receptor blockers, should be studied. This article provides a review of PPAR isoform characteristics, a discussion of progress in our understanding of the biological actions of PPARs, and a summary of PPAR agonist development for patient management. We also include a summary of the experimental and clinical evidence obtained from animal studies and clinical trials conducted to evaluate the usefulness and effectiveness of PPAR agonists in the treatment of lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:25228953

  3. Role of A1 and A2A adenosine receptor agonists in adipose tissue inflammation induced by obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    DeOliveira, Caroline Candida; Paiva Caria, Cintia Rabelo E; Ferreira Gotardo, Erica Martins; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; Gambero, Alessandra

    2017-03-15

    Adenosine receptors are expressed in adipose tissue and control physiological and pathological events such as lipolysis and inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of N 6 -cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), a potent and selective A 1 adenosine receptor agonist; 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxyamidoadenosine hydrochloride (CGS-21680), an A 2A adenosine receptor agonist; and 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA), a potent non-selective adenosine receptor agonist on adipose tissue inflammatory alterations induced by obesity in mice. Swiss mice were fed with a high-fat diet for 12 weeks and agonists were administered in the last two weeks. Body weight, adiposity and glucose homeostasis were evaluated. Inflammation in adipose tissue was assessed by evaluation of adipokine production and macrophage infiltration. Adenosine receptor signaling in adipose tissue was also evaluated. Mice that received CGS21680 presented an improvement in glucose homeostasis in association with systemically reduced inflammatory markers (TNF-α, PAI-1) and in the visceral adipose tissue (TNF-α, MCP-1, macrophage infiltration). Activation of p38 signaling was found in adipose tissue of this group of mice. NECA-treated mice presented some improvements in glucose homeostasis associated with an observed weight loss. Mice that received CPA presented only a reduction in the ex vivo basal lipolysis rate measured within visceral adipose tissue. In conclusion, administration of the A 2A receptor agonist to obese mice resulted in improvements in glucose homeostasis and adipose tissue inflammation, corroborating the idea that new therapeutics to treat obesity could emerge from these compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. CERAPP: Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Data from a large-scale modeling project called CERAPP (Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project) demonstrating using predictive computational models on high-throughput screening data to screen thousands of chemicals against the estrogen receptor.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Mansouri , K., A. Abdelaziz, A. Rybacka, A. Roncaglioni, A. Tropsha, A. Varnek, A. Zakharov, A. Worth, A. Richard , C. Grulke , D. Trisciuzzi, D. Fourches, D. Horvath, E. Benfenati , E. Muratov, E.B. Wedebye, F. Grisoni, G.F. Mangiatordi, G.M. Incisivo, H. Hong, H.W. Ng, I.V. Tetko, I. Balabin, J. Kancherla , J. Shen, J. Burton, M. Nicklaus, M. Cassotti, N.G. Nikolov, O. Nicolotti, P.L. Andersson, Q. Zang, R. Politi, R.D. Beger , R. Todeschini, R. Huang, S. Farag, S.A. Rosenberg, S. Slavov, X. Hu, and R. Judson. (Environmental Health Perspectives) CERAPP: Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PERSPECTIVES. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), Research Triangle Park, NC, USA, 1-49, (2016).

  5. Presynaptic M1, M2, and A1 receptors play roles in tetanic fade induced by pancuronium or cisatracurium.

    PubMed

    Bornia, Elaine Campana Sanches; Bando, Erika; Machinski, Miguel; Pereira, Monalisa Wolski; Alves-Do-Prado, Wilson

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether presynaptic facilitatory M1 and/or inhibitory M2 muscarinic receptors contributed to pancuronium- and cisatracurium-induced tetanic fade. Phrenic nerve-diaphragm muscle preparations of rats were indirectly stimulated with tetanic frequency (75 +/- 3.3 Hz; mean +/- SD). Doses of pancuronium, cisatracurium, hexamethonium, and d-tubocurarine for producing approximately 25% fade were determined. The effects of pirenzepine and methoctramine, blockers of presynaptic M1 and M2 receptors, respectively, on the tetanic fade were investigated. The concentrations required for approximately 25% fade were 413 microM for hexamethonium (26.8 +/- 2.4% 4% fade), 55 nM for d-tubocurarine (28.7 +/- 2.55% fade), 0.32 microM for pancuronium (25.4 +/- 2.2% fade), and 0.32 microM for cisatracurium (24.7 +/- 0.8% fade). Pirenzepine or methoctramine alone did not produce the fade. Methoctramine, 1 microM, attenuated the fade induced by hexamethonium (to 16.0 +/- 2.5% fade), d-tubocurarine (to 6.0 +/- 1.6 fade), pancuronium (to 8.0 +/- 4.0% fade), and cisatracurium (to 11.0 +/- 3.3% fade). 10 nM pirenzepine attenuated only the fades produced by pancuronium (to 5.0 +/- 0.11% fade) and cisatracurium (to 13.3 +/- 5.3% fade). Cisatracurium (0.32 microM) showed antiacetylcholinesterase activity (in plasma, 14.2 +/- 1.6%; 6%; in erythrocyt 17.2 +/- 2.66%) similar to that of pancuronium (0.32 microM). The selective A1 receptor blocker, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX; 2.5 nM), also attenuated the fades induced by pancuronium and cisatracurium. The tetanic fades produced by pancuronium and cisatracurium depend on the activation of presynaptic inhibitory M2 receptors; these agents also have anticholinesterase activities. The fades induced by these agents also depend on the activation of presynaptic inhibitory A1 receptors through the activation of stimulatory M1 receptors by acetylcholine.

  6. Adenosine A1-Dopamine D1 Receptor Heteromers Control the Excitability of the Spinal Motoneuron.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Oliver, Marla; Moreno, Estefanía; Álvarez-Bagnarol, Yocasta; Ayala-Santiago, Christian; Cruz-Reyes, Nicole; Molina-Castro, Gian Carlo; Clemens, Stefan; Canela, Enric I; Ferré, Sergi; Casadó, Vicent; Díaz-Ríos, Manuel

    2018-05-24

    While the role of the ascending dopaminergic system in brain function and dysfunction has been a subject of extensive research, the role of the descending dopaminergic system in spinal cord function and dysfunction is just beginning to be understood. Adenosine plays a key role in the inhibitory control of the ascending dopaminergic system, largely dependent on functional complexes of specific subtypes of adenosine and dopamine receptors. Combining a selective destabilizing peptide strategy with a proximity ligation assay and patch-clamp electrophysiology in slices from male mouse lumbar spinal cord, the present study demonstrates the existence of adenosine A 1 -dopamine D 1 receptor heteromers in the spinal motoneuron by which adenosine tonically inhibits D 1 receptor-mediated signaling. A 1 -D 1 receptor heteromers play a significant control of the motoneuron excitability, represent main targets for the excitatory effects of caffeine in the spinal cord and can constitute new targets for the pharmacological therapy after spinal cord injury, motor aging-associated disorders and restless legs syndrome.

  7. CERAPP: Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Humans potentially are exposed to thousands of man-made chemicals in the environment. Some chemicals mimic natural endocrine hormones and, thus, have the potential to be endocrine disruptors. Many of these chemicals never have been tested for their ability to interact with the estrogen receptor (ER). Risk assessors need tools to prioritize chemicals for assessment in costly in vivo tests, for instance, within the EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. Here, we describe a large-scale modeling project called CERAPP (Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project) demonstrating the efficacy of using predictive computational models on high-throughput screening data to screen thousands of chemicals against the ER. CERAPP combined multiple models developed in collaboration among 17 groups in the United States and Europe to predict ER activity of a common set of 32,464 chemical structures. Quantitative structure-activity relationship models and docking approaches were employed, mostly using a common training set of 1677 compounds provided by EPA, to build a total of 40 categorical and 8 continuous models for binding, agonist, and antagonist ER activity. All predictions were tested using an evaluation set of 7522 chemicals collected from the literature. To overcome the limitations of single models, a consensus was built weighting models using a scoring function (0 to 1) based on their accuracies. Individual model scores ranged from 0.69 to 0.85, showing

  8. Characterization of the swine adipocyte A1 adenosine receptor using an optimized assay system.

    PubMed

    Dong, Q; Schuchman, J; Carey, G B

    1994-07-01

    The radioligand binding assay of A1 adenosine receptors in adipocyte crude plasma membrane from Yucatan miniature swine was optimized by evaluating 17 factors involved in the assay. Significant effects of CHAPS, adenosine deaminase, EDTA, pre-rinsing glass fiber filters and pH were found for the binding measurements. Using the optimized procedure, [3H]8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, ([3H]-DPCPX) binding to A1 adenosine receptors in swine subcutaneous adipocyte crude plasma membrane was measured; Bmax and Kd values were 479 +/- 77 fmol/mg protein and 0.87 +/- 0.10 nM, respectively. Values for mesenteric adipose tissue from sedentary swine and subcutaneous adipose tissue from exercise-trained swine were also measured.

  9. Mediation of the neuroprotective action of R-phenylisopropyl-adenosine through a centrally located adenosine A1 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, D. G.; Miller, W. J.; Stone, T. W.

    1993-01-01

    1. Systemic injections of kainic acid, 10 mg kg-1, into adult rats resulted in lesions in the hippocampus, as assessed by peripheral benzodiazepine ligand binding. Co-administration of clonazepam at 1 mg kg-1 or 0.2 mg kg-1 prevented major seizures associated with kainate injections, but did not alter significantly the production of hippocampal damage. 2. The co-administration of the adenosine A1 agonist R-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA, 25 micrograms kg-1, i.p.) abolished the lesions induced by kainic acid. 3. The presence of the selective A1 antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (250 or 50 micrograms kg-1, i.p.) abolished the R-PIA neuroprotective action. 4. The A1/A2 antagonist, 8-(p-sulphophenyl)theophylline (20 mg kg-1, i.p.) which cannot cross the blood brain barrier, did not alter significantly the neuroprotective action of R-PIA, indicating that the neuroprotective action of the purine may be predominantly central. 5. The time course of the neuroprotection was also examined. R-PIA was effective when administered 2 h before or after kainate administration. 6. The results emphasise the potential utility of systemically active adenosine A1 receptor ligands in reducing CNS gliosis induced by the activation of excitatory amino acid receptors. PMID:8220909

  10. Recovery sleep after extended wakefulness restores elevated A1 adenosine receptor availability in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Elmenhorst, Eva-Maria; Hennecke, Eva; Kroll, Tina; Matusch, Andreas; Aeschbach, Daniel; Bauer, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine and functional A1 adenosine receptor (A1AR) availability are supposed to mediate sleep–wake regulation and cognitive performance. We hypothesized that cerebral A1AR availability after an extended wake period decreases to a well-rested state after recovery sleep. [18F]CPFPX positron emission tomography was used to quantify A1AR availability in 15 healthy male adults after 52 h of sleep deprivation and following 14 h of recovery sleep. Data were additionally compared with A1AR values after 8 h of baseline sleep from an earlier dataset. Polysomnography, cognitive performance, and sleepiness were monitored. Recovery from sleep deprivation was associated with a decrease in A1AR availability in several brain regions, ranging from 11% (insula) to 14% (striatum). A1AR availabilities after recovery did not differ from baseline sleep in the control group. The degree of performance impairment, sleepiness, and homeostatic sleep-pressure response to sleep deprivation correlated negatively with the decrease in A1AR availability. Sleep deprivation resulted in a higher A1AR availability in the human brain. The increase that was observed after 52 h of wakefulness was restored to control levels during a 14-h recovery sleep episode. Individuals with a large increase in A1AR availability were more resilient to sleep-loss effects than those with a subtle increase. This pattern implies that differences in endogenous adenosine and A1AR availability might be causal for individual responses to sleep loss. PMID:28373571

  11. Effects of serotonin 2A/1A receptor stimulation on social exclusion processing

    PubMed Central

    Preller, Katrin H.; Pokorny, Thomas; Hock, Andreas; Kraehenmann, Rainer; Stämpfli, Philipp; Seifritz, Erich; Scheidegger, Milan; Vollenweider, Franz X.

    2016-01-01

    Social ties are crucial for physical and mental health. However, psychiatric patients frequently encounter social rejection. Moreover, an increased reactivity to social exclusion influences the development, progression, and treatment of various psychiatric disorders. Nevertheless, the neuromodulatory substrates of rejection experiences are largely unknown. The preferential serotonin (5-HT) 2A/1A receptor agonist, psilocybin (Psi), reduces the processing of negative stimuli, but whether 5-HT2A/1A receptor stimulation modulates the processing of negative social interactions remains unclear. Therefore, this double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced, cross-over study assessed the neural response to social exclusion after the acute administration of Psi (0.215 mg/kg) or placebo (Pla) in 21 healthy volunteers by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and resting-state magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Participants reported a reduced feeling of social exclusion after Psi vs. Pla administration, and the neural response to social exclusion was decreased in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the middle frontal gyrus, key regions for social pain processing. The reduced neural response in the dACC was significantly correlated with Psi-induced changes in self-processing and decreased aspartate (Asp) content. In conclusion, 5-HT2A/1A receptor stimulation with psilocybin seems to reduce social pain processing in association with changes in self-experience. These findings may be relevant to the normalization of negative social interaction processing in psychiatric disorders characterized by increased rejection sensitivity. The current results also emphasize the importance of 5-HT2A/1A receptor subtypes and the Asp system in the control of social functioning, and as prospective targets in the treatment of sociocognitive impairments in psychiatric illnesses. PMID:27091970

  12. CERAPP: Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Kamel; Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Rybacka, Aleksandra; Roncaglioni, Alessandra; Tropsha, Alexander; Varnek, Alexandre; Zakharov, Alexey; Worth, Andrew; Richard, Ann M.; Grulke, Christopher M.; Trisciuzzi, Daniela; Fourches, Denis; Horvath, Dragos; Benfenati, Emilio; Muratov, Eugene; Wedebye, Eva Bay; Grisoni, Francesca; Mangiatordi, Giuseppe F.; Incisivo, Giuseppina M.; Hong, Huixiao; Ng, Hui W.; Tetko, Igor V.; Balabin, Ilya; Kancherla, Jayaram; Shen, Jie; Burton, Julien; Nicklaus, Marc; Cassotti, Matteo; Nikolov, Nikolai G.; Nicolotti, Orazio; Andersson, Patrik L.; Zang, Qingda; Politi, Regina; Beger, Richard D.; Todeschini, Roberto; Huang, Ruili; Farag, Sherif; Rosenberg, Sine A.; Slavov, Svetoslav; Hu, Xin; Judson, Richard S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Humans are exposed to thousands of man-made chemicals in the environment. Some chemicals mimic natural endocrine hormones and, thus, have the potential to be endocrine disruptors. Most of these chemicals have never been tested for their ability to interact with the estrogen receptor (ER). Risk assessors need tools to prioritize chemicals for evaluation in costly in vivo tests, for instance, within the U.S. EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. Objectives: We describe a large-scale modeling project called CERAPP (Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project) and demonstrate the efficacy of using predictive computational models trained on high-throughput screening data to evaluate thousands of chemicals for ER-related activity and prioritize them for further testing. Methods: CERAPP combined multiple models developed in collaboration with 17 groups in the United States and Europe to predict ER activity of a common set of 32,464 chemical structures. Quantitative structure–activity relationship models and docking approaches were employed, mostly using a common training set of 1,677 chemical structures provided by the U.S. EPA, to build a total of 40 categorical and 8 continuous models for binding, agonist, and antagonist ER activity. All predictions were evaluated on a set of 7,522 chemicals curated from the literature. To overcome the limitations of single models, a consensus was built by weighting models on scores based on their evaluated accuracies. Results: Individual model scores ranged from 0.69 to 0.85, showing high prediction reliabilities. Out of the 32,464 chemicals, the consensus model predicted 4,001 chemicals (12.3%) as high priority actives and 6,742 potential actives (20.8%) to be considered for further testing. Conclusion: This project demonstrated the possibility to screen large libraries of chemicals using a consensus of different in silico approaches. This concept will be applied in future projects related to other

  13. Overexpression of androgen receptor and forkhead-box A1 protein in apocrine breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sasahara, Manami; Matsui, Akira; Ichimura, Yoshiko; Hirakata, Yuuko; Murata, Yuuya; Marui, Eiji

    2014-03-01

    Apocrine breast carcinoma often lacks estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor type-2 (HER2) expression. Accordingly, development of a new treatment strategy is important for this type of cancer. The growth stimulus through the androgen receptor (AR) can be a candidate for targeted treatment. Therefore, we examined the factors related to AR transcription. We immunohistochemically evaluated 54 apocrine cancer lesions for ER, PgR, AR, HER2, Ki-67, forkhead-box protein A1 (FOXA1), and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) expression. ER, PgR, and HER2 were expressed at a low level, thus 44 out of 54 (81.4%) cases were of triple-negative breast cancer. AR, PSA and FOXA1 were expressed in 100% (54/54), 48% (26/54) and 93% (50/54) of cases, respectively. Most of apocrine breast carcinomas were immunohistochemically-positive for AR and FOXA1. Anti-androgenic therapies can potentially serve as a cancer-targeting therapy for apocrine breast carcinoma.

  14. Basal Levels of AMPA Receptor GluA1 Subunit Phosphorylation at Threonine 840 and Serine 845 in Hippocampal Neurons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babiec, Walter E.; Guglietta, Ryan; O'Dell, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Dephosphorylation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) GluA1 subunits at two sites, serine 845 (S845) and threonine 840 (T840), is thought to be involved in NMDA receptor-dependent forms of long-term depression (LTD). Importantly, the notion that dephosphorylation of these sites contributes to LTD assumes that a significant fraction of GluA1 subunits are…

  15. Importance of GluA1 Subunit-Containing AMPA Glutamate Receptors for Morphine State-Dependency

    PubMed Central

    Aitta-aho, Teemu; Möykkynen, Tommi P.; Panhelainen, Anne E.; Vekovischeva, Olga Yu.; Bäckström, Pia; Korpi, Esa R.

    2012-01-01

    In state-dependency, information retrieval is most efficient when the animal is in the same state as it was during the information acquisition. State-dependency has been implicated in a variety of learning and memory processes, but its mechanisms remain to be resolved. Here, mice deficient in AMPA-type glutamate receptor GluA1 subunits were first conditioned to morphine (10 or 20 mg/kg s.c. during eight sessions over four days) using an unbiased procedure, followed by testing for conditioned place preference at morphine states that were the same as or different from the one the mice were conditioned to. In GluA1 wildtype littermate mice the same-state morphine dose produced the greatest expression of place preference, while in the knockout mice no place preference was then detected. Both wildtype and knockout mice expressed moderate morphine-induced place preference when not at the morphine state (saline treatment at the test); in this case, place preference was weaker than that in the same-state test in wildtype mice. No correlation between place preference scores and locomotor activity during testing was found. Additionally, as compared to the controls, the knockout mice showed unchanged sensitization to morphine, morphine drug discrimination and brain regional μ-opioid receptor signal transduction at the G-protein level. However, the knockout mice failed to show increased AMPA/NMDA receptor current ratios in the ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons of midbrain slices after a single injection of morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c., sliced prepared 24 h afterwards), in contrast to the wildtype mice. The results indicate impaired drug-induced state-dependency in GluA1 knockout mice, correlating with impaired opioid-induced glutamate receptor neuroplasticity. PMID:22675452

  16. Ischaemic tolerance in aged mouse myocardium: the role of adenosine and effects of A1 adenosine receptor overexpression

    PubMed Central

    Headrick, John P; Willems, Laura; Ashton, Kevin J; Holmgren, Kirsten; Peart, Jason; Matherne, G Paul

    2003-01-01

    The genesis of the ischaemia intolerant phenotype in aged myocardium is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that impaired adenosine-mediated protection contributes to ischaemic intolerance, and examined whether this is countered by A1 adenosine receptor (A1AR) overexpression. Responses to 20 min ischaemia and 45 min reperfusion were assessed in perfused hearts from young (2–4 months) and moderately aged (16–18 months) mice. Post-ischaemic contractility was impaired by ageing with elevated ventricular diastolic (32 ± 2 vs. 18 ± 2 mmHg in young) and reduced developed (37 ± 3 vs. 83 ± 6 mmHg in young) pressures. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) loss was exaggerated (27 ± 2 vs. 16 ± 2 IU g−1in young) whereas the incidence of tachyarrhythmias was similar in young (15 ± 1 %) and aged hearts (16 ± 1 %). Functional analysis confirmed equipotent effects of 50 μm adenosine at A1 and A2 receptors in young and aged hearts. Nonetheless, while 50 μm adenosine improved diastolic (5 ± 1 mmHg) and developed pressures (134 ± 7 mmHg) and LDH loss (6 ± 2 IU g−1) in young hearts, it did not alter these variables in the aged group. Adenosine did attenuate arrhythmogenesis for both ages (to ∼10 %). In contrast to adenosine, 50 μm diazoxide reduced ischaemic damage and arrhythmogenesis for both ages. Contractile and anti-necrotic effects of adenosine were limited by 100 μm 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD) and 3 μm chelerythrine. Anti-arrhythmic effects were limited by 5-HD but not chelerythrine. Non-selective (100 μm 8-sulfophenyltheophylline) and A1-selective (150 nm 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine) adenosine receptor antagonism impaired ischaemic tolerance in young but not aged hearts. Quantitative real-time PCR and radioligand analysis indicated that impaired protection is unrelated to changes in A1AR mRNA transcription, or receptor density (∼8 fmol mg−1 protein in both age groups). However, A1AR overexpression improved tolerance for both ages, restoring

  17. Adenosine A1 Receptors in Mouse Pontine Reticular Formation Modulate Nociception Only in the Presence of Systemic Leptin

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Sarah L.; Watson, Christopher J.; Baghdoyan, Helen A.; Lydic, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Human obesity is associated with increased leptin levels and pain, but the specific brain regions and neurochemical mechanisms underlying this association remain poorly understood. This study used adult male C57BL/6J (B6, n = 14) mice and leptin-deficient, obese B6.Cg-Lepob/J (obese, n = 10) mice to evaluate the hypothesis that nociception is altered by systemic leptin levels and by adenosine A1 receptors in the pontine reticular formation. Nociception was quantified as paw withdrawal latency (PWL) in s after onset of a thermal stimulus. PWL was converted to percent maximum possible effect (%MPE). After obtaining baseline PWL measures, the pontine reticular formation was microinjected with saline (control), three concentrations of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6-p-sulfophenyladenosine (SPA), or super-active mouse leptin receptor antagonist (SMLA) followed by SPA 15 min later, and PWL was again quantified. In obese, leptin-deficient mice, nociception was quantified before and during leptin replacement via subcutaneous osmotic pumps. SPA was administered into the pontine reticular formation of leptin-replaced mice and PWL testing was repeated. During baseline (before vehicle or SPA administration), PWL was significantly (p = 0.0013) lower in leptin-replaced obese mice than in B6 mice. Microinjecting SPA into the pontine reticular formation of B6 mice caused a significant (p = 0.0003) concentration-dependent increase in %MPE. SPA also significantly (p < 0.05) increased %MPE in B6 mice and in leptin-replaced obese mice, but not in leptin-deficient obese mice. Microinjection of the mouse super-active leptin antagonist (SMLA) into the pontine reticular formation before SPA did not alter PWL. The results show for the first time that pontine reticular formation administration of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist SPA produced antinociception only in the presence of systemic leptin. The concentration-response data support the interpretation that adenosine A1 receptors

  18. Retinoid X receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activate an estrogen responsive gene independent of the estrogen receptor.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, S B; Medin, J A; Braissant, O; Kemp, L; Wahli, W; Ozato, K; Segars, J H

    1997-03-14

    Estrogen receptors regulate transcription of genes essential for sexual development and reproductive function. Since the retinoid X receptor (RXR) is able to modulate estrogen responsive genes and both 9-cis RA and fatty acids influenced development of estrogen responsive tumors, we hypothesized that estrogen responsive genes might be modulated by RXR and the fatty acid receptor (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, PPAR). To test this hypothesis, transfection assays in CV-1 cells were performed with an estrogen response element (ERE) coupled to a luciferase reporter construct. Addition of expression vectors for RXR and PPAR resulted in an 11-fold increase in luciferase activity in the presence of 9-cis RA. Furthermore, mobility shift assays demonstrated binding of RXR and PPAR to the vitellogenin A2-ERE and an ERE in the oxytocin promoter. Methylation interference assays demonstrated that specific guanine residues required for RXR/PPAR binding to the ERE were similar to residues required for ER binding. Moreover, RXR domain-deleted constructs in transfection assays showed that activation required RXR since an RXR delta AF-2 mutant completely abrogated reporter activity. Oligoprecipitation binding studies with biotinylated ERE and (35)S-labeled in vitro translated RXR constructs confirmed binding of delta AF-2 RXR mutant to the ERE in the presence of baculovirus-expressed PPAR. Finally, in situ hybridization confirmed RXR and PPAR mRNA expression in estrogen responsive tissues. Collectively, these data suggest that RXR and PPAR are present in reproductive tissues, are capable of activating estrogen responsive genes and suggest that the mechanism of activation may involve direct binding of the receptors to estrogen response elements.

  19. Trigeminal Medullary Dorsal Horn Neurons Activated by Nasal Stimulation Coexpress AMPA, NMDA, and NK1 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    McCulloch, P. F.; DiNovo, K. M.; Westerhaus, D. J.; Vizinas, T. A.; Peevey, J. F.; Lach, M. A.; Czarnocki, P.

    2013-01-01

    Afferent information initiating the cardiorespiratory responses during nasal stimulation projects from the nasal passages to neurons within the trigeminal medullary dorsal horn (MDH) via the anterior ethmoidal nerve (AEN). Central AEN terminals are thought to release glutamate to activate the MDH neurons. This study was designed to determine which neurotransmitter receptors (AMPA, kainate, or NMDA glutamate receptor subtypes or the Substance P receptor NK1) are expressed by these activated MDH neurons. Fos was used as a neuronal marker of activated neurons, and immunohistochemistry combined with epifluorescent microscopy was used to determine which neurotransmitter receptor subunits were coexpressed by activated MDH neurons. Results indicate that, during nasal stimulation with ammonia vapors in urethane-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats, activated neurons within the superficial MDH coexpress the AMPA glutamate receptor subunits GluA1 (95.8%) and GluA2/3 (88.2%), the NMDA glutamate receptor subunits GluN1 (89.1%) and GluN2A (41.4%), and NK1 receptors (64.0%). It is therefore likely that during nasal stimulation the central terminals of the AEN release glutamate and substance P that then produces activation of these MDH neurons. The involvement of AMPA and NMDA receptors may mediate fast and slow neurotransmission, respectively, while NK1 receptor involvement may indicate activation of a nociceptive pathway. PMID:24967301

  20. Principles of antibody-mediated TNF receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Wajant, H

    2015-01-01

    From the beginning of research on receptors of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily (TNFRSF), agonistic antibodies have been used to stimulate TNFRSF receptors in vitro and in vivo. Indeed, CD95, one of the first cloned TNFRSF receptors, was solely identified as the target of cell death-inducing antibodies. Early on, it became evident from in vitro studies that valency and Fcγ receptor (FcγR) binding of antibodies targeting TNFRSF receptors can be of crucial relevance for agonistic activity. TNFRSF receptor-specific antibodies of the IgM subclass and secondary cross-linked or aggregation prone dimeric antibodies typically display superior agonistic activity compared with dimeric antibodies. Likewise, anchoring of antibodies to cell surface-expressed FcγRs potentiate their ability to trigger TNFRSF receptor signaling. However, only recently has the relevance of oligomerization and FcγR binding for the in vivo activity of antibody-induced TNFRSF receptor activation been straightforwardly demonstrated in vivo. This review discusses the crucial role of oligomerization and/or FcγR binding for antibody-mediated TNFRSF receptor stimulation in light of current models of TNFRSF receptor activation and especially the overwhelming relevance of these issues for the rational development of therapeutic TNFRSF receptor-targeting antibodies. PMID:26292758

  1. Insulin receptor regulates photoreceptor CNG channel activity

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vivek K.; Rajala, Ammaji

    2012-01-01

    Photoreceptor cyclic nucleotide gated (CNG) channels are critical elements in phototransduction and light adaptation. Here we report that insulin receptor (IR), an integral membrane protein, directly phosphorylates the CNGA1 subunit of CNG channels that in turn affects the function of these channels negatively. The IR phosphorylates Tyr498 and Tyr503 residues on CNGA1 that are situated at the membrane-cytoplasmic interface. The IR tyrosine kinase activity is essential for the inhibition of CNG channel. To maintain the channels in an off state, it is necessary not only to have a precise balance of the cGMP levels but also to have a control on the cGMP sensitivity of the CNG channels itself. In this study, we observed that the channel opens at a lower concentration of cGMP in IR−/− mice. These studies suggest that IR regulates the modulation of CNG channel activity in vivo. PMID:23032687

  2. Insulin receptor regulates photoreceptor CNG channel activity.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vivek K; Rajala, Ammaji; Rajala, Raju V S

    2012-12-01

    Photoreceptor cyclic nucleotide gated (CNG) channels are critical elements in phototransduction and light adaptation. Here we report that insulin receptor (IR), an integral membrane protein, directly phosphorylates the CNGA1 subunit of CNG channels that in turn affects the function of these channels negatively. The IR phosphorylates Tyr(498) and Tyr(503) residues on CNGA1 that are situated at the membrane-cytoplasmic interface. The IR tyrosine kinase activity is essential for the inhibition of CNG channel. To maintain the channels in an off state, it is necessary not only to have a precise balance of the cGMP levels but also to have a control on the cGMP sensitivity of the CNG channels itself. In this study, we observed that the channel opens at a lower concentration of cGMP in IR(-/-) mice. These studies suggest that IR regulates the modulation of CNG channel activity in vivo.

  3. Gi proteins regulate adenylyl cyclase activity independent of receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Melsom, Caroline Bull; Ørstavik, Øivind; Osnes, Jan-Bjørn; Skomedal, Tor; Levy, Finn Olav; Krobert, Kurt Allen

    2014-01-01

    Despite the view that only β2- as opposed to β1-adrenoceptors (βARs) couple to G(i), some data indicate that the β1AR-evoked inotropic response is also influenced by the inhibition of Gi. Therefore, we wanted to determine if Gi exerts tonic receptor-independent inhibition upon basal adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity in cardiomyocytes. We used the Gs-selective (R,R)- and the Gs- and G(i)-activating (R,S)-fenoterol to selectively activate β2ARs (β1AR blockade present) in combination with Gi inactivation with pertussis toxin (PTX). We also determined the effect of PTX upon basal and forskolin-mediated responses. Contractility was measured ex vivo in left ventricular strips and cAMP accumulation was measured in isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes from adult Wistar rats. PTX amplified both the (R,R)- and (R,S)-fenoterol-evoked maximal inotropic response and concentration-dependent increases in cAMP accumulation. The EC50 values of fenoterol matched published binding affinities. The PTX enhancement of the Gs-selective (R,R)-fenoterol-mediated responses suggests that Gi regulates AC activity independent of receptor coupling to Gi protein. Consistent with this hypothesis, forskolin-evoked cAMP accumulation was increased and inotropic responses to forskolin were potentiated by PTX treatment. In non-PTX-treated tissue, phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3 and 4 inhibition or removal of either constitutive muscarinic receptor activation of Gi with atropine or removal of constitutive adenosine receptor activation with CGS 15943 had no effect upon contractility. However, in PTX-treated tissue, PDE3 and 4 inhibition alone increased basal levels of cAMP and accordingly evoked a large inotropic response. Together, these data indicate that Gi exerts intrinsic receptor-independent inhibitory activity upon AC. We propose that PTX treatment shifts the balance of intrinsic G(i) and Gs activity upon AC towards Gs, enhancing the effect of all cAMP-mediated inotropic agents.

  4. Gi Proteins Regulate Adenylyl Cyclase Activity Independent of Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Melsom, Caroline Bull; Ørstavik, Øivind; Osnes, Jan-Bjørn; Skomedal, Tor; Levy, Finn Olav; Krobert, Kurt Allen

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Despite the view that only β2- as opposed to β1-adrenoceptors (βARs) couple to Gi, some data indicate that the β1AR-evoked inotropic response is also influenced by the inhibition of Gi. Therefore, we wanted to determine if Gi exerts tonic receptor-independent inhibition upon basal adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity in cardiomyocytes. Experimental approach We used the Gs-selective (R,R)- and the Gs- and Gi-activating (R,S)-fenoterol to selectively activate β2ARs (β1AR blockade present) in combination with Gi inactivation with pertussis toxin (PTX). We also determined the effect of PTX upon basal and forskolin-mediated responses. Contractility was measured ex vivo in left ventricular strips and cAMP accumulation was measured in isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes from adult Wistar rats. Key results PTX amplified both the (R,R)- and (R,S)-fenoterol-evoked maximal inotropic response and concentration-dependent increases in cAMP accumulation. The EC50 values of fenoterol matched published binding affinities. The PTX enhancement of the Gs-selective (R,R)-fenoterol-mediated responses suggests that Gi regulates AC activity independent of receptor coupling to Gi protein. Consistent with this hypothesis, forskolin-evoked cAMP accumulation was increased and inotropic responses to forskolin were potentiated by PTX treatment. In non-PTX-treated tissue, phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3 and 4 inhibition or removal of either constitutive muscarinic receptor activation of Gi with atropine or removal of constitutive adenosine receptor activation with CGS 15943 had no effect upon contractility. However, in PTX-treated tissue, PDE3 and 4 inhibition alone increased basal levels of cAMP and accordingly evoked a large inotropic response. Conclusions and implications Together, these data indicate that Gi exerts intrinsic receptor-independent inhibitory activity upon AC. We propose that PTX treatment shifts the balance of intrinsic Gi and Gs activity upon AC towards Gs

  5. Non-genomic effects of the NR4A1/Nur77/TR3/NGFIB orphan nuclear receptor.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Alicja; Strzadala, Leon; Kalas, Wojciech

    2015-03-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1/Nur77/TR3/NGFIB acts primarily as a transcription factor to regulate the expression of multiple genes. However, increasing research attention has recently been given to non-genomic activities of NR4A1. The first description of a non-genomic action of NR4A1 referred to the conversion of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 into a pro-apoptotic protein by direct interaction with NR4A1. In response to certain apoptotic stimuli, NR4A1 translocates from the nucleus to the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) where it associates with Bcl-2 and thereby causes apoptosis. Afterwards, it appeared that NR4A1 could also bind and convert other anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members. The latest studies indicate a significant role of NR4A1 in the process of autophagy. For example, a new NR4A1-mediated pathway specific for melanoma cells has been described where NR4A1 interacts with the adenine nucleotide translocase 1 (ANT1) on the mitochondrial inner membrane (MIM) leading to induction of the autophagy pathway. Moreover, NR4A1 interaction with cytoplasmic p53 may also contribute to the induction of autophagy. In addition to mitochondria, NR4A1 could be translocated to the outer membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and associate with Bcl-2 or translocon-associated protein subunit γ (TRAPγ) causing ER stress-induced apoptosis. NR4A1 also contributes to the proteasomal degradation of β-catenin in colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, as well as to the stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) under non-hypoxic conditions. This review summarizes research findings on non-genomic effects of NR4A1 in normal and cancer cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of Gene Markers for Activation of the Nuclear Receptor Pregnane X Receptor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many environmentally-relevant chemicals and drugs activate the nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR). Activation of PXR in the mouse liver can lead to increases in liver weight in part through increased hepatocyte replication similar to chemicals that activate other nuclear ...

  7. Adenosine A1 Receptor Protects Against Cisplatin Ototoxicity by Suppressing the NOX3/STAT1 Inflammatory Pathway in the Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Tejbeer; Borse, Vikrant; Sheth, Sandeep; Sheehan, Kelly; Ghosh, Sumana; Tupal, Srinivasan; Jajoo, Sarvesh; Mukherjea, Debashree; Rybak, Leonard P.

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin is a commonly used antineoplastic agent that produces ototoxicity that is mediated in part by increasing levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the NOX3 NADPH oxidase pathway in the cochlea. Recent studies implicate ROS generation in mediating inflammatory and apoptotic processes and hearing loss by activating signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT1). In this study, we show that the adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR) protects against cisplatin ototoxicity by suppressing an inflammatory response initiated by ROS generation via NOX3 NADPH oxidase, leading to inhibition of STAT1. Trans-tympanic administration of the A1AR agonist R-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA) inhibited cisplatin-induced ototoxicity, as measured by auditory brainstem responses and scanning electron microscopy in male Wistar rats. This was associated with reduced NOX3 expression, STAT1 activation, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels, and apoptosis in the cochlea. In vitro studies in UB/OC-1 cells, an organ of Corti immortalized cell line, showed that R-PIA reduced cisplatin-induced phosphorylation of STAT1 Ser727 (but not Tyr701) and STAT1 luciferase activity by suppressing the ERK1/2, p38, and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. R-PIA also decreased the expression of STAT1 target genes, such as TNF-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and reduced cisplatin-mediated apoptosis. These data suggest that the A1AR provides otoprotection by suppressing NOX3 and inflammation in the cochlea and could serve as an ideal target for otoprotective drug therapy. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Cisplatin is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of solid tumors. Its use results in significant and permanent hearing loss, for which no US Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment is currently available. In this study, we targeted the cochlear adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR) by trans-tympanic injections of the agonist R

  8. Adenosine A1 Receptor Protects Against Cisplatin Ototoxicity by Suppressing the NOX3/STAT1 Inflammatory Pathway in the Cochlea.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Tejbeer; Borse, Vikrant; Sheth, Sandeep; Sheehan, Kelly; Ghosh, Sumana; Tupal, Srinivasan; Jajoo, Sarvesh; Mukherjea, Debashree; Rybak, Leonard P; Ramkumar, Vickram

    2016-04-06

    Cisplatin is a commonly used antineoplastic agent that produces ototoxicity that is mediated in part by increasing levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the NOX3 NADPH oxidase pathway in the cochlea. Recent studies implicate ROS generation in mediating inflammatory and apoptotic processes and hearing loss by activating signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT1). In this study, we show that the adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR) protects against cisplatin ototoxicity by suppressing an inflammatory response initiated by ROS generation via NOX3 NADPH oxidase, leading to inhibition of STAT1. Trans-tympanic administration of the A1AR agonist R-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA) inhibited cisplatin-induced ototoxicity, as measured by auditory brainstem responses and scanning electron microscopy in male Wistar rats. This was associated with reduced NOX3 expression, STAT1 activation, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels, and apoptosis in the cochlea. In vitro studies in UB/OC-1 cells, an organ of Corti immortalized cell line, showed that R-PIA reduced cisplatin-induced phosphorylation of STAT1 Ser(727) (but not Tyr(701)) and STAT1 luciferase activity by suppressing the ERK1/2, p38, and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways.R-PIA also decreased the expression of STAT1 target genes, such as TNF-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and reduced cisplatin-mediated apoptosis. These data suggest that the A1AR provides otoprotection by suppressing NOX3 and inflammation in the cochlea and could serve as an ideal target for otoprotective drug therapy. Cisplatin is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of solid tumors. Its use results in significant and permanent hearing loss, for which no US Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment is currently available. In this study, we targeted the cochlear adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR) by trans-tympanic injections of the agonist R

  9. Activation of neurotensin receptor type 1 attenuates locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Vadnie, Chelsea A; Hinton, David J; Choi, Sun; Choi, YuBin; Ruby, Christina L; Oliveros, Alfredo; Prieto, Miguel L; Park, Jun Hyun; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2014-10-01

    Intracerebroventricular administration of neurotensin (NT) suppresses locomotor activity. However, the brain regions that mediate the locomotor depressant effect of NT and receptor subtype-specific mechanisms involved are unclear. Using a brain-penetrating, selective NT receptor type 1 (NTS1) agonist PD149163, we investigated the effect of systemic and brain region-specific NTS1 activation on locomotor activity. Systemic administration of PD149163 attenuated the locomotor activity of C57BL/6J mice both in a novel environment and in their homecage. However, mice developed tolerance to the hypolocomotor effect of PD149163 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.). Since NTS1 is known to modulate dopaminergic signaling, we examined whether PD149163 blocks dopamine receptor-mediated hyperactivity. Pretreatment with PD149163 (0.1 or 0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited D2R agonist bromocriptine (8 mg/kg, i.p.)-mediated hyperactivity. D1R agonist SKF-81297 (8 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced hyperlocomotion was only inhibited by 0.1 mg/kg of PD149163. Since the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) have been implicated in the behavioral effects of NT, we examined whether microinjection of PD149163 into these regions reduces locomotion. Microinjection of PD149163 (2 pmol) into the NAc, but not the mPFC suppressed locomotor activity. In summary, our results indicate that systemic and intra-NAc activation of NTS1 is sufficient to reduce locomotion and NTS1 activation inhibits D2R-mediated hyperactivity. Our study will be helpful to identify pharmacological factors and a possible therapeutic window for NTS1-targeted therapies for movement disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Activation of Neurotensin Receptor Type 1 Attenuates Locomotor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Vadnie, Chelsea A.; Hinton, David J.; Choi, Sun; Choi, YuBin; Ruby, Christina L.; Oliveros, Alfredo; Prieto, Miguel L.; Park, Jun Hyun; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2014-01-01

    Intracerebroventricular administration of neurotensin (NT) suppresses locomotor activity. However, the brain regions that mediate the locomotor depressant effect of NT and receptor subtype-specific mechanisms involved are unclear. Using a brain-penetrating, selective NT receptor type 1 (NTS1) agonist PD149163, we investigated the effect of systemic and brain region-specific NTS1 activation on locomotor activity. Systemic administration of PD149163 attenuated the locomotor activity of C57BL/6J mice both in a novel environment and in their homecage. However, mice developed tolerance to the hypolocomotor effect of PD149163 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.). Since NTS1 is known to modulate dopaminergic signaling, we examined whether PD149163 blocks dopamine receptor-mediated hyperactivity. Pretreatment with PD149163 (0.1 or 0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited D2R agonist bromocriptine (8 mg/kg, i.p.)-mediated hyperactivity. D1R agonist SKF81297 (8 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced hyperlocomotion was only inhibited by 0.1 mg/kg of PD149163. Since the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) have been implicated in the behavioral effects of NT, we examined whether microinjection of PD149163 into these regions reduces locomotion. Microinjection of PD149163 (2 pmol) into the NAc, but not the mPFC suppressed locomotor activity. In summary, our results indicate that systemic and intra-NAc activation of NTS1 is sufficient to reduce locomotion and NTS1 activation inhibits D2R-mediated hyperactivity. Our study will be helpful to identify pharmacological factors and a possible therapeutic window for NTS1-targeted therapies for movement disorders. PMID:24929110

  11. Critical roles of TRPV2 channels, histamine H1 and adenosine A1 receptors in the initiation of acupoint signals for acupuncture analgesia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Meng; Wang, Xuezhi; Xing, Beibei; Yang, Hongwei; Sa, Zheyan; Zhang, Di; Yao, Wei; Yin, Na; Xia, Ying; Ding, Guanghong

    2018-04-25

    Acupuncture is one of the most promising modalities in complimentary medicine. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood yet. We found that in TRPV2 knockout male mice, acupuncture-induced analgesia was suppressed with a decreased activation of mast cells in the acupoints stimulated. The mast cell stabilizer sodium cromolyn could suppress the release of adenosine in the acupoints on male rats. A direct injection of adenosine A1 receptor agonist or histamine H1 receptor agonist increased β-endorphin in the cerebral-spinal fluid in the acute adjuvant arthritis male rats and thus replicated the analgesic effect of acupuncture. These observations suggest that the mast cell is the central structure of acupoints and is activated by acupuncture through TRPV2 channels. The mast cell transduces the mechanical stimuli to acupuncture signal by activating either H1 or A1 receptors, therefore triggering the acupuncture effect in the subject. These findings might open new frontiers for acupuncture research.

  12. Prolonged P300 latency in children with the D[sub 2] dopamine receptor A1 allele

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, E.P.; Berman, S.M.; Ozkaragoz, T.Z.

    1994-04-01

    Previous studies have indicated the presence of a hereditary component in the generation of the P300, or P3, a late positive component of the event-related potential. Moreover, the dopaminergic system has been implicated in the P3. In the present study, 98 healthy Caucasian boys, mean age of 12.5 years and of above-average intelligence, were studied. The sample was composed of 32 sons of active alcoholic (SAA) fathers, 36 sons of recovering alcoholic (SRA) fathers, and 30 sons of social drinker (SSD) fathers, with none of them having yet begun to consume alcohol or other drugs. TaqI A D[sub 2] dopaminemore » receptor alleles (A1 and A2) were determined. A significant difference in the frequency of the A1 allele was found among these three groups of boys, with the SAA group having the highest A1 allele frequency (.313), followed by the SRA (.139) and the SSD (.133) groups. The relationship of the A1 and A2 alleles to P3 amplitude and latency was also determined. The results showed no significant difference in P3 amplitude between boys with the A1 and A2 allele. However, P3 latency was significantly longer in the total sample of boys with the A1 allele compared with those carrying the A2 allele. These findings suggest that polymorphism of the D[sub 2] dopamine receptor gene is an important determinant of P3 latency. 84 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  13. Enhanced tubuloglomerular feedback in mice with vascular overexpression of A1 adenosine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Oppermann, Mona; Qin, Yan; Lai, En Yin; Eisner, Christoph; Li, Lingli; Huang, Yuning; Mizel, Diane; Fryc, Justyna; Wilcox, Christopher S.; Briggs, Josephine; Schnermann, Jurgen

    2009-01-01

    Adenosine 1 receptors (A1AR) in the kidney are expressed in the vasculature and the tubular system. Pharmacological inhibition or global genetic deletion of A1AR causes marked reductions or abolishment of tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) responses. To assess the function of vascular A1AR in TGF, we generated transgenic mouse lines in which A1AR expression in smooth muscle was augmented by placing A1AR under the control of a 5.38-kb fragment of the rat smooth muscle α-actin promoter and first intron (12). Two founder lines with highest expression in the kidney [353 ± 42 and 575 ± 43% compared with the wild type (WT)] were used in the experiments. Enhanced expression of A1AR at the expected site in these lines was confirmed by augmented constrictor responses of isolated afferent arterioles to administration of the A1AR agonist N6-cyclohexyladenosine. Maximum TGF responses (0–30 nl/min flow step) were increased from 8.4 ± 0.9 mmHg in WT (n = 21) to 14.2 ± 0.7 mmHg in A1AR-transgene (tg) 4 (n = 22; P < 0.0001), and to 12.6 ± 1.2 mmHg in A1AR-tg7 (n = 12; P < 0.02). Stepwise changes in perfusion flow caused greater numerical TGF responses in A1AR-tg than WT in all flow ranges with differences reaching levels of significance in the intermediate flow ranges of 7.5–10 and 10–15 nl/min. Proximal-distal single-nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) differences (free-flow micropuncture) were also increased in A1AR-tg, averaging 6.25 ± 1.5 nl/min compared with 2.6 ± 0.51 nl/min in WT (P = 0.034). Basal plasma renin concentrations as well as the suppression of renin secretion after volume expansion were similar in A1AR-tg and WT mice, suggesting lack of transgene expression in juxtaglomerular cells. These data indicate that A1AR expression in vascular smooth muscle cells is a critical component for TGF signaling and that changes in renal vascular A1AR expression may determine the magnitude of TGF responses. PMID:19741017

  14. Homeostatic action of adenosine A3 and A1 receptor agonists on proliferation of hematopoietic precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Michal; Pospísil, Milan; Znojil, Vladimír; Holá, Jirina; Streitová, Denisa; Vacek, Antonín

    2008-07-01

    Two adenosine receptor agonists, N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide (IB-MECA) and N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), which selectively activate adenosine A3 and A1 receptors, respectively, were tested for their ability to influence proliferation of granulocytic and erythroid cells in femoral bone marrow of mice using morphological criteria. Agonists were given intraperitoneally to mice in repeated isomolar doses of 200 nmol/kg. Three variants of experiments were performed to investigate the action of the agonists under normal resting state of mice and in phases of cell depletion and subsequent regeneration after treatment with the cytotoxic drug 5-fluorouracil. In the case of granulopoiesis, IB-MECA 1) increased by a moderate but significant level proliferation of cells under normal resting state; 2) strongly increased proliferation of cells in the cell depletion phase; but 3) did not influence cell proliferation in the regeneration phase. CPA did not influence cell proliferation under normal resting state and in the cell depletion phase, but strongly suppressed the overshooting cell proliferation in the regeneration phase. The stimulatory effect of IB-MECA on cell proliferation of erythroid cells was observed only when this agonist was administered during the cell depletion phase. CPA did not modulate erythroid proliferation in any of the functional states investigated, probably due to the lower demand for cell production as compared with granulopoiesis. The results indicate opposite effects of the two adenosine receptor agonists on proliferation of hematopoietic cells and suggest the plasticity and homeostatic role of the adenosine receptor expression.

  15. Cell death sensitization of leukemia cells by opioid receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Claudia; Roscher, Mareike; Hormann, Inis; Fichtner, Iduna; Alt, Andreas; Hilger, Ralf A.; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Miltner, Erich

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) regulates a number of cellular processes and modulates cell death induction. cAMP levels are altered upon stimulation of specific G-protein-coupled receptors inhibiting or activating adenylyl cyclases. Opioid receptor stimulation can activate inhibitory Gi-proteins which in turn block adenylyl cyclase activity reducing cAMP. Opioids such as D,L-methadone induce cell death in leukemia cells. However, the mechanism how opioids trigger apoptosis and activate caspases in leukemia cells is not understood. In this study, we demonstrate that downregulation of cAMP induced by opioid receptor activation using the opioid D,L-methadone kills and sensitizes leukemia cells for doxorubicin treatment. Enhancing cAMP levels by blocking opioid-receptor signaling strongly reduced D,L-methadone-induced apoptosis, caspase activation and doxorubicin-sensitivity. Induction of cell death in leukemia cells by activation of opioid receptors using the opioid D,L-methadone depends on critical levels of opioid receptor expression on the cell surface. Doxorubicin increased opioid receptor expression in leukemia cells. In addition, the opioid D,L-methadone increased doxorubicin uptake and decreased doxorubicin efflux in leukemia cells, suggesting that the opioid D,L-methadone as well as doxorubicin mutually increase their cytotoxic potential. Furthermore, we found that opioid receptor activation using D,L-methadone alone or in addition to doxorubicin inhibits tumor growth significantly in vivo. These results demonstrate that opioid receptor activation via triggering the downregulation of cAMP induces apoptosis, activates caspases and sensitizes leukemia cells for doxorubicin treatment. Hence, opioid receptor activation seems to be a promising strategy to improve anticancer therapies. PMID:23633472

  16. Gustatory Receptor Neurons in Manduca sexta Contain a TrpA1-Dependent Signaling Pathway that Integrates Taste and Temperature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Temperature modulates the peripheral taste response of many animals, in part by activating transient receptor potential (Trp) cation channels. We hypothesized that temperature would also modulate peripheral taste responses in larval Manduca sexta. We recorded excitatory responses of the lateral and medial styloconic sensilla to chemical stimuli at 14, 22, and 30 °C. The excitatory responses to 5 chemical stimuli—a salt (KCl), 3 sugars (sucrose, glucose, and inositol) and an alkaloid (caffeine)—were unaffected by temperature. In contrast, the excitatory response to the aversive compound, aristolochic acid (AA), increased robustly with temperature. Next, we asked whether TrpA1 mediates the thermally dependent taste response to AA. To this end, we 1) identified a TrpA1 gene in M. sexta; 2) demonstrated expression of TrpA1 in the lateral and medial styloconic sensilla; 3) determined that 2 TrpA1 antagonists (HC-030031 and mecamylamine) inhibit the taste response to AA, but not caffeine; and then 4) established that the thermal dependence of the taste response to AA is blocked by HC-030031. Taken together, our results indicate that TrpA1 serves as a molecular integrator of taste and temperature in M. sexta. PMID:23828906

  17. Posttranscriptional mRNA processing as a mechanism for regulation of human A1 adenosine receptor expression.

    PubMed Central

    Ren, H; Stiles, G L

    1994-01-01

    The human A1 adenosine receptor gene contains six exons with exons 1, 2, 3, 4, and part of 5 representing 5' untranslated regions. Reverse transcription-PCR with exon-specific primers showed two distinct transcripts containing either exons 3, 5, and 6 or exons 4, 5, and 6, with exons 3 and 4 being mutually exclusive. No mature mRNAs containing exons 1 and 2 have been detected. All human tissues that express any A1 receptors contain mRNA with exons 4, 5, and 6. Tissues which express high levels of A1 receptors contain mRNA with exons 3, 5, and 6. Exon 4 contains two upstream ATG codons whereas exon 3 contains none. COS cells transfected with expression vectors containing exon 4 (exons 1-6, 3-6, or Ex4-6) express much lower levels of A1 receptors than vectors without exon 4 (exons 3, 5, and 6). Mutation of upstream ATG codons in exon 4 leads to 3- to 7-fold increased A1 receptor expression, up to the level seen with the construct containing exons 3, 5, and 6. Thus, in human tissues "basal" levels of A1 receptors can be expressed by use of mRNA containing exons 4, 5, and 6, but when high levels are needed, alternative transcripts with exons 3, 5, and 6 are produced. Images PMID:8197148

  18. The Orphan Nuclear Receptor TR4 Is a Vitamin A-activated Nuclear Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, X. Edward; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; Xu, Yong

    2015-11-30

    Testicular receptors 2 and 4 (TR2/4) constitute a subgroup of orphan nuclear receptors that play important roles in spermatogenesis, lipid and lipoprotein regulation, and the development of the central nervous system. Currently, little is known about the structural features and the ligand regulation of these receptors. Here we report the crystal structure of the ligand-free TR4 ligand binding domain, which reveals an autorepressed conformation. The ligand binding pocket of TR4 is filled by the C-terminal half of helix 10, and the cofactor binding site is occupied by the AF-2 helix, thus preventing ligand-independent activation of the receptor. However, TR4 exhibitsmore » constitutive transcriptional activity on multiple promoters, which can be further potentiated by nuclear receptor coactivators. Mutations designed to disrupt cofactor binding, dimerization, or ligand binding substantially reduce the transcriptional activity of this receptor. Importantly, both retinol and retinoic acid are able to promote TR4 to recruit coactivators and to activate a TR4-regulated reporter. These findings demonstrate that TR4 is a ligand-regulated nuclear receptor and suggest that retinoids might have a much wider regulatory role via activation of orphan receptors such as TR4.« less

  19. Platelet Kainate Receptor Signaling Promotes Thrombosis by Stimulating Cyclooxygenase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Henry; Swaim, AnneMarie; Herrera, Jesus Enrique; Becker, Diane; Becker, Lewis; Srivastava, Kalyan; Thompson, Laura E.; Shero, Michelle R.; Perez-Tamayo, Alita; Suktitpat, Bhoom; Mathias, Rasika; Contractor, Anis; Faraday, Nauder; Morrell, Craig N.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Glutamate is a major signaling molecule that binds to glutamate receptors including the ionotropic glutamate receptors; kainate (KA) receptor (KAR), the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR), and the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor (AMPAR). Each is well characterized in the central nervous system (CNS), but glutamate has important signaling roles in peripheral tissues as well, including a role in regulating platelet function. Objective Our previous work has demonstrated that glutamate is released by platelets in high concentrations within a developing thrombus and increases platelet activation and thrombosis. We now show that platelets express a functional KAR that drives increased agonist induced platelet activation. Methods and Results KAR induced increase in platelet activation is in part the result of activation of platelet cyclooxygenase (COX) in a Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) dependent manner. Platelets derived from KA receptor subunit knockout mice (GluR6−/−) are resistant to KA effects and have a prolonged time to thrombosis in vivo. Importantly, we have also identified polymorphisms in KA receptor subunits that are associated with phenotypic changes in platelet function in a large group of Caucasians and African Americans. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that glutamate regulation of platelet activation is in part COX dependent, and suggest that the KA receptor is a novel anti-thrombotic target. PMID:19679838

  20. Protection against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity to neostriatal dopaminergic neurons by adenosine receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Delle Donne, K T; Sonsalla, P K

    1994-12-01

    Methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurotoxicity to nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in experimental animals appears to have a glutamatergic component because blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors prevents the neuropathologic consequences. Because adenosine affords neuroprotection against various forms of glutamate-mediated neuronal damage, the present studies were performed to investigate whether adenosine plays a protective role in METH-induced toxicity. METH-induced decrements in neostriatal dopamine content and tyrosine hydroxylase activity in mice were potentiated by concurrent treatment with caffeine, a nonselective adenosine antagonist that blocks both A1 and A2 adenosine receptors. In contrast, chronic treatment of mice with caffeine through their drinking water for 4 weeks, which increased the number of adenosine A1 receptors in the neostriatum and frontal cortex, followed by drug washout, prevented the neurochemical changes produced by the treatment of mice with METH treatment. In contrast, this treatment did not prevent 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Furthermore, concurrent administration of cyclopentyladenosine, an adenosine A1 receptor agonist, attenuated the METH-induced neurochemical changes. This protection by cyclopentyladenosine was blocked by cyclopentyltheophylline, an A1 receptor antagonist. These results indicate that activation of A1 receptors can protect against METH-induced neurotoxicity in mice.

  1. Proximal tubule sphingosine kinase-1 has a critical role in A1 adenosine receptor-mediated renal protection from ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Won; Kim, Mihwa; Kim, Joo Yun; Brown, Kevin M.; Haase, Volker H.; D’Agati, Vivette D.; Lee, H. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Renal ischemia reperfusion injury is a major cause of acute kidney injury. We previously found that renal A1 adenosine receptor (A1AR) activation attenuated multiple cell death pathways including necrosis, apoptosis and inflammation. Here, we tested whether induction of cytoprotective sphingosine kinase (SK)-1 and sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) synthesis might be the mechanism of protection. A selective A1AR agonist (CCPA) increased the synthesis of S1P and selectively induced SK-1 in mouse kidney and HK-2 cells. This agonist failed to protect SK1-knockout but protected SK2-knockout mice against renal ischemia reperfusion injury indicating a critical role of SK1 in A1AR-mediated renal protection. Inhibition of SK prevented A1AR-mediated defense against necrosis and apoptosis in HK-2 cells. A selective S1P1R antagonist (W146) and global in vivo gene knockdown of S1P1Rs with small interfering RNA completely abolished the renal protection provided by CCPA. Mice selectively deficient in renal proximal tubule S1P1Rs (S1P1Rflox/flox PEPCKCre/−) were not protected against renal ischemia reperfusion injury by CCPA. Mechanistically, CCPA increased nuclear translocation of hypoxia inducible factor-1α in HK-2 cells and selective hypoxia inducible factor-1α inhibition blocked A1AR-mediated induction of SK1. Thus, proximal tubule SK-1 has a critical role in A1AR-mediated protection against renal ischemia reperfusion injury. PMID:22695326

  2. Role of central and peripheral adenosine receptors in the cardiovascular responses to intraperitoneal injections of adenosine A1 and A2A subtype receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Charles W; Karcz-Kubicha, Marzena; Thorndike, Eric B; Müller, Christa E; Tella, Srihari R; Ferré, Sergi; Goldberg, Steven R

    2005-03-01

    1. The cardiovascular effects of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) and the adenosine A2A receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS 21680) were investigated in rats implanted with telemetry transmitters for the measurement of blood pressure and heart rate. 2. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist CPA led to dose-dependent decreases in both blood pressure and heart rate. These effects of 0.3 mg kg(-1) CPA were antagonized by i.p. injections of the adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethyl-xanthine (CPT), but not by i.p. injections of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist 3-(3-hydroxypropyl)-8-(m-methoxystyryl)-7-methyl-1-propargylxanthine phosphate disodium salt (MSX-3). Injections (i.p.) of the peripherally acting nonselective adenosine antagonist 8-sulfophenyltheophylline (8-SPT) and the purported nonselective adenosine antagonist caffeine also antagonized the cardiovascular effects of CPA. 3. The adenosine A2A agonist CGS 21680 given i.p. produced a dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure and an increase in heart rate. These effects of 0.5 mg kg(-1) CGS 21680 were antagonized by i.p. injections of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3, but not by i.p. injections of the antagonists CPT, 8-SPT or caffeine. 4. Central administration (intracerebral ventricular) of CGS 21680 produced an increase in heart rate, but no change in blood pressure. MSX-3 given i.p. antagonized the effects of the central injection of CGS 21680. 5. These results suggest that adenosine A1 receptor agonists produce decreases in blood pressure and heart rate that are mediated by A1 receptors in the periphery, with little or no contribution of central adenosine A1 receptors to those effects. 6. The heart rate increasing effect of adenosine A2A agonists appears to be mediated by adenosine A2A receptors in the central nervous system. The blood pressure decreasing

  3. Effect of Gestational Exposure of Cypermethrin on Postnatal Development of Brain Cytochrome P450 2D1 and 3A1 and Neurotransmitter Receptors.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anshuman; Mudawal, Anubha; Shukla, Rajendra K; Yadav, Sanjay; Khanna, Vinay K; Sethumadhavan, Rao; Parmar, Devendra

    2015-08-01

    Oral administration of low doses (1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg) of cypermethrin to pregnant Wistar rats from gestation days 5 to 21 led to dose-dependent differences in the induction of cytochrome P450 2D1 (CYP2D1) and 3A1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein in brain regions isolated from the offsprings postnatally at 3 weeks that persisted up to adulthood (12 weeks). Similar alterations were observed in the expression of GABAergic, muscarinic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic neurotransmitter receptors in brain regions of rat offsprings. Rechallenge of the prenatally exposed offsprings at adulthood (12 weeks old) with cypermethrin (p.o., 10 mg/kg for 6 days) led to a greater magnitude of alterations in the expression of CYPs, neurotransmitter receptors, and neurotransmitter receptor binding in the brain regions when compared to the control offsprings treated at adulthood with cypermethrin or prenatally exposed offsprings. A greater magnitude of decrease was also observed in the spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) in prenatally exposed offsprings rechallenged with cypermethrin. The present data indicating similarities in the alterations in the expression of CYPs (2D1 and 3A1) and neurotransmitter receptors in brain has led us to suggest that endogenous function regulating CYPs is possibly associated with neurotransmission processes. A greater magnitude of alterations in CYP2D1, 3A1, neurotransmitter receptors, and SLA in rechallenged animals has further provided evidence that alterations in CYPs are possibly linked with neurotransmission processes.

  4. Dimerization with Cannabinoid Receptors Allosterically Modulates Delta Opioid Receptor Activity during Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Stockton, Steven D.; Miller, Lydia K.; Devi, Lakshmi A.

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of receptor signaling is increased by receptor heteromerization leading to dynamic regulation of receptor function. While a number of studies have demonstrated that family A G-protein-coupled receptors are capable of forming heteromers in vitro, the role of these heteromers in normal physiology and disease has been poorly explored. In this study, direct interactions between CB1 cannabinoid and delta opioid receptors in the brain were examined. Additionally, regulation of heteromer levels and signaling in a rodent model of neuropathic pain was explored. First we examined changes in the expression, function and interaction of these receptors in the cerebral cortex of rats with a peripheral nerve lesion that resulted in neuropathic pain. We found that, following the peripheral nerve lesion, the expression of both cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R) and the delta opioid receptor (DOR) are increased in select brain regions. Concomitantly, an increase in CB1R activity and decrease in DOR activity was observed. We hypothesize that this decrease in DOR activity could be due to heteromeric interactions between these two receptors. Using a CB1R-DOR heteromer-specific antibody, we found increased levels of CB1R-DOR heteromer protein in the cortex of neuropathic animals. We subsequently examined the functionality of these heteromers by testing whether low, non-signaling doses of CB1R ligands influenced DOR signaling in the cortex. We found that, in cortical membranes from animals that experienced neuropathic pain, non-signaling doses of CB1R ligands significantly enhanced DOR activity. Moreover, this activity is selectively blocked by a heteromer-specific antibody. Together, these results demonstrate an important role for CB1R-DOR heteromers in altered cortical function of DOR during neuropathic pain. Moreover, they suggest the possibility that a novel heteromer-directed therapeutic strategy for enhancing DOR activity, could potentially be employed to reduce

  5. Deletion of the GluA1 AMPA Receptor Subunit Alters the Expression of Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, David J.; Sprengel, Rolf; Seeburg, Peter H.; Bannerman, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Deletion of the GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit selectively impairs short-term memory for spatial locations. We further investigated this deficit by examining memory for discrete nonspatial visual stimuli in an operant chamber. Unconditioned suppression of magazine responding to visual stimuli was measured in wild-type and GluA1 knockout mice.…

  6. Glutamate receptor activation in the kindled dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Behr, J; Heinemann, U; Mody, I

    2000-01-01

    The contribution of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), and kainate receptor activation to the enhanced seizure susceptibility of the dentate gyrus was investigated in an experimental model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Using the specific NMDA and AMPA receptor antagonists D-APV and SYM 2206, we examined alterations in glutamate receptor-dependent synaptic currents 48 hours and 28 days after kindling in field-potential and voltage-clamp recordings. Forty-eight hours after kindling, the fractions of AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic current components shifted dramatically in favor of the NMDA receptor-mediated response. Four weeks after kindling, however, AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents reverted to control-like values. Neither single nor repetitive perforant path stimuli evoked kainate receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents in dentate gyrus granule cells of control or kindled rats. The enhanced excitability of the kindled dentate gyrus 48 hours after the last seizure most likely results from transiently enhanced NMDA receptor activation. The NMDA receptor seems to play a critical role in the induction of the kindled state rather than in the persistence of the enhanced seizure susceptibility.

  7. Activation of human peroxisome-activated receptor-gamma ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Obesity in children has become an epidemic and recent research suggests a possible contribution from exposure to environmental chemicals. Several chemicals, such as phthalates, brominated flame retardants, and perfluorinated chemicals, are common in house dust on floors where children play and are suspected obesogens. Obesogens can act via a mechanism that involves activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARy). A previous study found that dust collected from children’s homes binds to PPARy. Here, we investigated the ability of house dust to activate PPARy in a transiently transfected cell assay. Dust samples were collected in 2012 from carpeted and hardwood floors in children’s homes using thimbles fitted into a vacuum cleaner hose (“TEO” samples), or from homes in an adult cohort NIEHS study. Dust was extracted with 50:50 hexane:acetone, sonicated, centrifuged, and the organic layer collected. This was repeated 2X. The extracts were filtered to remove particulates, dried with purified nitrogen, and reconstituted in DMS0 at 200 ug/ul. COS-1 cells were transfected for 24 hrs with a human PPARy vector containing a luciferase reporter, and exposed for 24 hrs to negative controls water or DMSO (0.1%), positive controls Troglitazone (3 uM in water) or Rosiglitazone (100 nM in DMSO), or dust extracts serially diluted in DMEM at 50, 100, and 200 ug/ml in 0.1% DMSO. Cells were lysed and luciferase activity was measured. Data were log-tra

  8. Phenobarbital indirectly activates the constitutive active androstane receptor (CAR) by inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Mutoh, Shingo; Sobhany, Mack; Moore, Rick; Perera, Lalith; Pedersen, Lee; Sueyoshi, Tatsuya; Negishi, Masahiko

    2017-01-01

    Phenobarbital is a central nervous system depressant that also indirectly activates nuclear receptor constitutive active androstane receptor (CAR), which promotes drug and energy metabolism, as well as cell growth (and death), in the liver. We found that phenobarbital activated CAR by inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Phenobarbital bound to EGFR and potently inhibited the binding of EGF, which prevented the activation of EGFR. This abrogation of EGFR signaling induced the dephosphorylation of receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) at Tyr52, which then promoted the dephosphorylation of CAR at Thr38 by the catalytic core subunit of protein phosphatase 2A. The findings demonstrated that the phenobarbital-induced mechanism of CAR dephosphorylation and activation is mediated through its direct interaction with and inhibition of EGFR. PMID:23652203

  9. Phenobarbital indirectly activates the constitutive active androstane receptor (CAR) by inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Mutoh, Shingo; Sobhany, Mack; Moore, Rick; Perera, Lalith; Pedersen, Lee; Sueyoshi, Tatsuya; Negishi, Masahiko

    2013-05-07

    Phenobarbital is a central nervous system depressant that also indirectly activates nuclear receptor constitutive active androstane receptor (CAR), which promotes drug and energy metabolism, as well as cell growth (and death), in the liver. We found that phenobarbital activated CAR by inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Phenobarbital bound to EGFR and potently inhibited the binding of EGF, which prevented the activation of EGFR. This abrogation of EGFR signaling induced the dephosphorylation of receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) at Tyr(52), which then promoted the dephosphorylation of CAR at Thr(38) by the catalytic core subunit of protein phosphatase 2A. The findings demonstrated that the phenobarbital-induced mechanism of CAR dephosphorylation and activation is mediated through its direct interaction with and inhibition of EGFR.

  10. Plant cysteine proteases that evoke itch activate protease-activated receptors

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, V.B.; Lerner, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bromelain, ficin and papain are cysteine proteases from plants that produce itch upon injection into skin. Their mechanism of action has not been considered previously. Objectives To determine the mechanism by which these proteases function. Methods The ability of these proteases to activate protease-activated receptors was determined by ratiometric calcium imaging. Results We show here that bromelain, ficin and papain activate protease-activated receptors 2 and 4. Conclusions Bromelain, ficin and papain function as signalling molecules and activate protease-activated receptors. Activation of these receptors is the likely mechanism by which these proteases evoke itch. PMID:20491769

  11. Characterization of peroxisome proliferator-activiated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)-independent effects of PPARalpha activators in the rodent liver: Di(2-ethylehexyl) phthalate activates the constitutive activated receptor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC) are thought to mediate their effects in rodents on hepatocyte growth and liver cancer through the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). Recent studies indicate that the plasticizer di-2-ethylhexyl ph...

  12. Inhibitors for Androgen Receptor Activation Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    such as FKBP52 or HSP90 bind in vivo, and started a collaboration with Marc Cox at UT El Paso to test these possibilities. Our assays of mutated amino...will complete testing the compounds in full length AR constructs and publish the results. We have begun two collaborations, one with Marc Cox on...Prof. Marc Cox and Dr. Paul Rennie to identify proteins that bind to BF3 so that we may form crystals of the receptor with these proteins and learn more about function of the human androgen receptor.

  13. Tie2 and Eph Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Activation and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Barton, William A.; Dalton, Annamarie C.; Seegar, Tom C.M.; Himanen, Juha P.

    2014-01-01

    The Eph and Tie cell surface receptors mediate a variety of signaling events during development and in the adult organism. As other receptor tyrosine kinases, they are activated on binding of extracellular ligands and their catalytic activity is tightly regulated on multiple levels. The Eph and Tie receptors display some unique characteristics, including the requirement of ligand-induced receptor clustering for efficient signaling. Interestingly, both Ephs and Ties can mediate different, even opposite, biological effects depending on the specific ligand eliciting the response and on the cellular context. Here we discuss the structural features of these receptors, their interactions with various ligands, as well as functional implications for downstream signaling initiation. The Eph/ephrin structures are already well reviewed and we only provide a brief overview on the initial binding events. We go into more detail discussing the Tie-angiopoietin structures and recognition. PMID:24478383

  14. P2X1 receptor-mediated inhibition of the proliferation of human coronary smooth muscle cells involving the transcription factor NR4A1.

    PubMed

    Hinze, Annette Viktoria; Mayer, Peter; Harst, Anja; von Kügelgen, Ivar

    2013-12-01

    Adenine nucleotides acting at P2X1 receptors are potent vasoconstrictors. Recently, we demonstrated that activation of adenosine A2B receptors on human coronary smooth muscle cells inhibits cell proliferation by the induction of the nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 1 (NR4A1; alternative notation Nur77). In the present study, we searched for long-term effects mediated by P2X1 receptors by analyzing receptor-mediated changes in cell proliferation and in the expression of NR4A1. Cultured human coronary smooth muscle cells were treated with selective receptor ligands. Effects on proliferation were determined by counting cells and measuring changes in impedance. The induction of transcription factors was assessed by qPCR. The P2X receptor agonist α,β-methylene-ATP and its analog β,γ-methylene-ATP inhibited cell proliferation by about 50 % after 5 days in culture with half-maximal concentrations of 0.3 and 0.08 μM, respectively. The effects were abolished or markedly attenuated by the P2X1 receptor antagonist NF449 (carbonylbis-imino-benzene-triylbis-(carbonylimino)tetrakis-benzene-1,3-disulfonic acid; 100 nM and 1 μM). α,β-methylene-ATP and β,γ-methylene-ATP applied for 30 min to 4 h increased the expression of NR4A1; NF449 blocked or attenuated this effect. Small interfering RNA directed against NR4A1 diminished the antiproliferative effects of α,β-methylene-ATP and β,γ-methylene-ATP. α,β-methylene-ATP (0.1 to 30 μM) decreased migration of cultured human coronary smooth muscle cells in a chamber measuring changes in impedance; NF449 blocked the effect. In conclusion, our results demonstrate for the first time that adenine nucleotides acting at P2X1 receptors inhibit the proliferation of human coronary smooth muscle cells via the induction of the early gene NR4A1.

  15. Structure and dynamics of a constitutively active neurotensin receptor

    PubMed Central

    Krumm, Brian E.; Lee, Sangbae; Bhattacharya, Supriyo; Botos, Istvan; White, Courtney F.; Du, Haijuan; Vaidehi, Nagarajan; Grisshammer, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Many G protein-coupled receptors show constitutive activity, resulting in the production of a second messenger in the absence of an agonist; and naturally occurring constitutively active mutations in receptors have been implicated in diseases. To gain insight into mechanistic aspects of constitutive activity, we report here the 3.3 Å crystal structure of a constitutively active, agonist-bound neurotensin receptor (NTSR1) and molecular dynamics simulations of agonist-occupied and ligand-free receptor. Comparison with the structure of a NTSR1 variant that has little constitutive activity reveals uncoupling of the ligand-binding domain from conserved connector residues, that effect conformational changes during GPCR activation. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations show strong contacts between connector residue side chains and increased flexibility at the intracellular receptor face as features that coincide with robust signalling in cells. The loss of correlation between the binding pocket and conserved connector residues, combined with altered receptor dynamics, possibly explains the reduced neurotensin efficacy in the constitutively active NTSR1 and a facilitated initial engagement with G protein in the absence of agonist. PMID:27924846

  16. Structure and dynamics of a constitutively active neurotensin receptor

    DOE PAGES

    Krumm, Brian E.; Lee, Sangbae; Bhattacharya, Supriyo; ...

    2016-12-07

    Many G protein-coupled receptors show constitutive activity, resulting in the production of a second messenger in the absence of an agonist; and naturally occurring constitutively active mutations in receptors have been implicated in diseases. To gain insight into mechanistic aspects of constitutive activity, we report here the 3.3 Å crystal structure of a constitutively active, agonist-bound neurotensin receptor (NTSR1) and molecular dynamics simulations of agonist-occupied and ligand-free receptor. Comparison with the structure of a NTSR1 variant that has little constitutive activity reveals uncoupling of the ligand-binding domain from conserved connector residues, that effect conformational changes during GPCR activation. Furthermore, molecularmore » dynamics simulations show strong contacts between connector residue side chains and increased flexibility at the intracellular receptor face as features that coincide with robust signalling in cells. In conclusion, the loss of correlation between the binding pocket and conserved connector residues, combined with altered receptor dynamics, possibly explains the reduced neurotensin efficacy in the constitutively active NTSR1 and a facilitated initial engagement with G protein in the absence of agonist.« less

  17. Structure and dynamics of a constitutively active neurotensin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Krumm, Brian E.; Lee, Sangbae; Bhattacharya, Supriyo

    Many G protein-coupled receptors show constitutive activity, resulting in the production of a second messenger in the absence of an agonist; and naturally occurring constitutively active mutations in receptors have been implicated in diseases. To gain insight into mechanistic aspects of constitutive activity, we report here the 3.3 Å crystal structure of a constitutively active, agonist-bound neurotensin receptor (NTSR1) and molecular dynamics simulations of agonist-occupied and ligand-free receptor. Comparison with the structure of a NTSR1 variant that has little constitutive activity reveals uncoupling of the ligand-binding domain from conserved connector residues, that effect conformational changes during GPCR activation. Furthermore, molecularmore » dynamics simulations show strong contacts between connector residue side chains and increased flexibility at the intracellular receptor face as features that coincide with robust signalling in cells. In conclusion, the loss of correlation between the binding pocket and conserved connector residues, combined with altered receptor dynamics, possibly explains the reduced neurotensin efficacy in the constitutively active NTSR1 and a facilitated initial engagement with G protein in the absence of agonist.« less

  18. Endothelin ETA Receptor Blockade, by Activating ETB Receptors, Increases Vascular Permeability and Induces Exaggerated Fluid Retention.

    PubMed

    Vercauteren, Magali; Trensz, Frederic; Pasquali, Anne; Cattaneo, Christophe; Strasser, Daniel S; Hess, Patrick; Iglarz, Marc; Clozel, Martine

    2017-05-01

    Endothelin (ET) receptor antagonists have been associated with fluid retention. It has been suggested that, of the two endothelin receptor subtypes, ET B receptors should not be blocked, because of their involvement in natriuresis and diuresis. Surprisingly, clinical data suggest that ET A -selective antagonists pose a greater risk of fluid overload than dual antagonists. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of each endothelin receptor to fluid retention and vascular permeability in rats. Sitaxentan and ambrisentan as ET A -selective antagonists and bosentan and macitentan as dual antagonists were used as representatives of each class, respectively. ET A -selective antagonism caused a dose-dependent hematocrit/hemoglobin decrease that was prevented by ET B -selective receptor antagonism. ET A -selective antagonism led to a significant blood pressure reduction, plasma volume expansion, and a greater increase in vascular permeability than dual antagonism. Isolated vessel experiments showed that ET A -selective antagonism increased vascular permeability via ET B receptor overstimulation. Acutely, ET A -selective but not dual antagonism activated sympathetic activity and increased plasma arginine vasopressin and aldosterone concentrations. The hematocrit/hemoglobin decrease induced by ET A -selective antagonism was reduced in Brattleboro rats and in Wistar rats treated with an arginine vasopressin receptor antagonist. Finally, the decrease in hematocrit/hemoglobin was larger in the venous than in the arterial side, suggesting fluid redistribution. In conclusion, by activating ET B receptors, endothelin receptor antagonists (particularly ET A -selective antagonists) favor edema formation by causing: 1) fluid retention resulting from arginine vasopressin and aldosterone activation secondary to vasodilation, and 2) increased vascular permeability. Plasma volume redistribution may explain the clinical observation of a hematocrit/hemoglobin decrease

  19. Mincle suppresses Toll-like receptor 4 activation.

    PubMed

    Greco, Stephanie H; Mahmood, Syed Kashif; Vahle, Anne-Kristin; Ochi, Atsuo; Batel, Jennifer; Deutsch, Michael; Barilla, Rocky; Seifert, Lena; Pachter, H Leon; Daley, Donnele; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Hundeyin, Mautin; Mani, Vishnu R; Miller, George

    2016-07-01

    Regulation of Toll-like receptor responses is critical for limiting tissue injury and autoimmunity in both sepsis and sterile inflammation. We found that Mincle, a C-type lectin receptor, regulates proinflammatory Toll-like receptor 4 signaling. Specifically, Mincle ligation diminishes Toll-like receptor 4-mediated inflammation, whereas Mincle deletion or knockdown results in marked hyperresponsiveness to lipopolysaccharide in vitro, as well as overwhelming lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammation in vivo. Mechanistically, Mincle deletion does not up-regulate Toll-like receptor 4 expression or reduce interleukin 10 production after Toll-like receptor 4 ligation; however, Mincle deletion decreases production of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent inhibitory intermediate suppressor of cytokine signaling 1, A20, and ABIN3 and increases expression of the Toll-like receptor 4 coreceptor CD14. Blockade of CD14 mitigates the increased sensitivity of Mincle(-/-) leukocytes to Toll-like receptor 4 ligation. Collectively, we describe a major role for Mincle in suppressing Toll-like receptor 4 responses and implicate its importance in nonmycobacterial models of inflammation. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  20. The Role of cGMP on Adenosine A1 Receptor-mediated Inhibition of Synaptic Transmission at the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Isa; Serpa, André; Sebastião, Ana M.; Cascalheira, José F.

    2016-01-01

    Both adenosine A1 receptor and cGMP inhibit synaptic transmission at the hippocampus and recently it was found that A1 receptor increased cGMP levels in hippocampus, but the role of cGMP on A1 receptor-mediated inhibition of synaptic transmission remains to be established. In the present work we investigated if blocking the NOS/sGC/cGMP/PKG pathway using nitric oxide synthase (NOS), protein kinase G (PKG), and soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibitors modify the A1 receptor effect on synaptic transmission. Neurotransmission was evaluated by measuring the slope of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) evoked by electrical stimulation at hippocampal slices. N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA, 15 nM), a selective A1 receptor agonist, reversibly decreased the fEPSPs by 54 ± 5%. Incubation of the slices with an inhibitor of NOS (L-NAME, 200 μM) decreased the CPA effect on fEPSPs by 57 ± 9% in female rats. In males, ODQ (10 μM), an sGC inhibitor, decreased the CPA inhibitory effect on fEPSPs by 23 ± 6%, but only when adenosine deaminase (ADA,1 U/ml) was present; similar results were found in females, where ODQ decreased CPA-induced inhibition of fEPSP slope by 23 ± 7%. In male rats, the presence of the PKG inhibitor (KT5823, 1 nM) decreased the CPA effect by 45.0 ± 9%; similar results were obtained in females, where KT5823 caused a 32 ± 9% decrease on the CPA effect. In conclusion, the results suggest that the inhibitory action of adenosine A1 receptors on synaptic transmission at hippocampus is, in part, mediated by the NOS/sGC/cGMP/PKG pathway. PMID:27148059

  1. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor: A family of nuclear receptors role in various diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Sandeep; Gupta, Paras; Saini, Arminder Singh; Kaushal, Chaitnya; Sharma, Saurabh

    2011-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors of nuclear hormone receptor superfamily comprising of the following three subtypes: PPARα, PPARγ, and PPARβ/δ. Activation of PPAR-α reduces triglyceride level and is involved in regulation of energy homeostasis. Activation of PPAR-γ causes insulin sensitization and enhances glucose metabolism, whereas activation of PPAR-β/δ enhances fatty acids metabolism. Thus, PPAR family of nuclear receptors plays a major regulatory role in energy homeostasis and metabolic function. The present review critically analyzes the protective and detrimental effect of PPAR agonists in dyslipidemia, diabetes, adipocyte differentiation, inflammation, cancer, lung diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, fertility or reproduction, pain, and obesity. PMID:22247890

  2. An activation switch in the rhodopsin family of G protein-coupled receptors: the thyrotropin receptor.

    PubMed

    Urizar, Eneko; Claeysen, Sylvie; Deupí, Xavier; Govaerts, Cedric; Costagliola, Sabine; Vassart, Gilbert; Pardo, Leonardo

    2005-04-29

    We aimed at understanding molecular events involved in the activation of a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family, the thyrotropin receptor. We have focused on the transmembrane region and in particular on a network of polar interactions between highly conserved residues. Using molecular dynamics simulations and site-directed mutagenesis techniques we have identified residue Asn-7.49, of the NPxxY motif of TM 7, as a molecular switch in the mechanism of thyrotropin receptor (TSHr) activation. Asn-7.49 appears to adopt two different conformations in the inactive and active states. These two states are characterized by specific interactions between this Asn and polar residues in the transmembrane domain. The inactive gauche+ conformation is maintained by interactions with residues Thr-6.43 and Asp-6.44. Mutation of these residues into Ala increases the constitutive activity of the receptor by factors of approximately 14 and approximately 10 relative to wild type TSHr, respectively. Upon receptor activation Asn-7.49 adopts the trans conformation to interact with Asp-2.50 and a putatively charged residue that remains to be identified. In addition, the conserved Leu-2.46 of the (N/S)LxxxD motif also plays a significant role in restraining the receptor in the inactive state because the L2.46A mutation increases constitutive activity by a factor of approximately 13 relative to wild type TSHr. As residues Leu-2.46, Asp-2.50, and Asn-7.49 are strongly conserved, this molecular mechanism of TSHr activation can be extended to other members of the rhodopsin-like family of G protein-coupled receptors.

  3. Protease-Activated Receptors and other G-Protein-Coupled Receptors: the Melanoma Connection

    PubMed Central

    Rosero, Rebecca A.; Villares, Gabriel J.; Bar-Eli, Menashe

    2016-01-01

    The vast array of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play crucial roles in both physiological and pathological processes, including vision, coagulation, inflammation, autophagy, and cell proliferation. GPCRs also affect processes that augment cell proliferation and metastases in many cancers including melanoma. Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer, yet limited therapeutic modalities are available to patients with metastatic melanoma. Studies have found that both chemokine receptors and protease-activated receptors, both of which are GPCRs, are central to the metastatic melanoma phenotype and may serve as potential targets in novel therapies against melanoma and other cancers. PMID:27379162

  4. Protease-Activated Receptors and other G-Protein-Coupled Receptors: the Melanoma Connection.

    PubMed

    Rosero, Rebecca A; Villares, Gabriel J; Bar-Eli, Menashe

    2016-01-01

    The vast array of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play crucial roles in both physiological and pathological processes, including vision, coagulation, inflammation, autophagy, and cell proliferation. GPCRs also affect processes that augment cell proliferation and metastases in many cancers including melanoma. Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer, yet limited therapeutic modalities are available to patients with metastatic melanoma. Studies have found that both chemokine receptors and protease-activated receptors, both of which are GPCRs, are central to the metastatic melanoma phenotype and may serve as potential targets in novel therapies against melanoma and other cancers.

  5. Understanding Cytokine and Growth Factor Receptor Activation Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Atanasova, Mariya; Whitty, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the detailed mechanism of action of cytokine and growth factor receptors – and particularly our quantitative understanding of the link between structure, mechanism and function – lags significantly behind our knowledge of comparable functional protein classes such as enzymes, G protein-coupled receptors, and ion channels. In particular, it remains controversial whether such receptors are activated by a mechanism of ligand-induced oligomerization, versus a mechanism in which the ligand binds to a pre-associated receptor dimer or oligomer that becomes activated through subsequent conformational rearrangement. A major limitation to progress has been the relative paucity of methods for performing quantitative mechanistic experiments on unmodified receptors expressed at endogenous levels on live cells. In this article we review the current state of knowledge on the activation mechanisms of cytokine and growth factor receptors, critically evaluate the evidence for and against the different proposed mechanisms, and highlight other key questions that remain unanswered. New approaches and techniques have led to rapid recent progress in this area, and the field is poised for major advances in the coming years, which promises to revolutionize our understanding of this large and biologically and medically important class of receptors. PMID:23046381

  6. Inhibitors for Androgen Receptor Activation Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Inhibitor of Coregulator Binding to the Thyroid Hormone Receptor.. Molecular Endocrinology, 2007 Sep 6; [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 17823305 (related...Kiplin Guy†, Paul Webb‡, and Robert J. Fletterick* *Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, §Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, and...are also small but significant shifts in secondary structural elements; residues 720–730 (H3) and 825–847 (H9) exhibit rmsd of 0.33 and 0.44

  7. Synergistic effects of adenosine A1 and P2Y receptor stimulation on calcium mobilization and PKC translocation in DDT1 MF-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Fredholm, Bertil B; Assender, Jean W; Irenius, Eva; Kodama, Noriko; Saito, Naoaki

    2003-06-01

    1. The effect of adenosine analogues and of nucleotides, alone or in combination, on intracellular calcium, accumulation of inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate (InsP3), and on activation of protein kinase C (PKC) was studied in DDT1 MF2 cells derived from a Syrian hamster myosarcoma. These cells were found to express mRNA for A1 and some as yet unidentified P2Y receptor(s). 2. Activation of either receptor type stimulated the production of InsP3 and raised intracellular calcium in DDT1 MF2 cells. Similarly, the A1 selective agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) increased PKC-dependent phosphorylation of the substrate MBP(4-14) and induced a PKC translocation to the plasma membrane as determined using [3H]-phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu) binding in DDT1 MF-2 cells. However, neither adenosine nor CPA induced a significant translocation of transiently transfected gamma-PKC-GFP from the cytosol to the cell membrane. In contrast to adenosine analogues, ATP and UTP also caused a rapid but transient translocation of gamma-PKC-GFP and activation of PKC. 3. Doses of the A1 agonist CPA and of ATP or UTP per se caused barely detectable increases in intracellular Ca2+ but when combined, they caused an almost maximal stimulation. Similarly, adenosine (0.6 microM) and UTP (or ATP, 2.5 microM), which per se caused no detectable translocation of either gamma- or epsilon-PKC-GFP, caused when combined a very clear-cut translocation of both PKC subforms, albeit with different time courses. These results show that simultaneous activation of P2Y and adenosine A1 receptors synergistically increases Ca2+ transients and translocation of PKC in DDT1 MF-2 cells. Since adenosine is rapidly formed by breakdown of extracellular ATP, such interactions may be biologically important.

  8. Endothelin-converting enzyme 2 differentially regulates opioid receptor activity

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, A; Fujita, W; Gomes, I; Bobeck, E; Devi, L A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Opioid receptor function is modulated by post-activation events such as receptor endocytosis, recycling and/or degradation. While it is generally understood that the peptide ligand gets co-endocytosed with the receptor, relatively few studies have investigated the role of the endocytosed peptide and peptide processing enzymes in regulating receptor function. In this study, we focused on endothelin-converting enzyme 2 (ECE2), a member of the neprilysin family of metallopeptidases that exhibits an acidic pH optimum, localizes to an intracellular compartment and selectively processes neuropeptides including opioid peptides in vitro, and examined its role in modulating μ receptor recycling and resensitization. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effect of ECE2 inhibition on hydrolysis of the endocytosed peptide was examined using thin-layer chromatography and on μ opioid receptor trafficking using either elisa or microscopy. The effect of ECE2 inhibition on receptor signalling was measured using a cAMP assay and, in vivo, on antinociception induced by intrathecally administered opioids by the tail-flick assay. KEY RESULTS The highly selective ECE2 inhibitor, S136492, significantly impaired μ receptor recycling and signalling by only those ligands that are ECE2 substrates and this was seen both in heterologous cells and in cells endogenously co-expressing μ receptors with ECE2. We also found that ECE2 inhibition attenuated antinociception mediated only by opioid peptides that are ECE2 substrates. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results suggest that ECE2, by selectively processing endogenous opioid peptides in the endocytic compartment, plays a role in modulating opioid receptor activity. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2 PMID:24990314

  9. Pharmacological characterization of receptor-activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) and the human calcitonin receptor.

    PubMed

    Armour, S L; Foord, S; Kenakin, T; Chen, W J

    1999-12-01

    Receptor-activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) are a family of single transmembrane domain proteins shown to be important for the transport and ligand specificity of the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor. In this report, we describe the analysis of pharmacological properties of the human calcitonin receptor (hCTR) coexpressed with different RAMPs with the use of the Xenopus laevis melanophore expression system. We show that coexpression of RAMP3 with human calcitonin receptor changed the relative potency of hCTR to human calcitonin (hCAL) and rat amylin. RAMP1 and RAMP2, in contrast, had little effect on the change of hCTR potency to hCAL or rat amylin. When coexpressed with RAMP3, hCTR reversed the relative potency by a 3.5-fold loss in sensitivity to hCAL and a 19-fold increase in sensitivity to rat amylin. AC66, an inverse agonist, produced apparent simple competitive antagonism of hCAL and rat amylin, as indicated by linear Schild regressions. The potency of AC66 was changed in the blockade of rat amylin but not hCAL responses with RAMP3 coexpression. The mean pK(B) for AC66 to hCAL was 9.4 +/- 0.3 without RAMP3 and 9.45 +/- 0.07 with RAMP3. For the antagonism of AC66 to rat amylin, the pK(B) was 9.25 +/- 0.15 without RAMP3 and 8.2 +/- 0.35 with RAMP3. The finding suggests that RAMP3 might modify the active states of calcitonin receptor in such a way as to create a new receptor phenotype that is "amylin-like." Irrespective of the physiological association of the new receptor species, the finding that a coexpressed membrane protein can completely change agonist and antagonist affinities for a receptor raises implications for screening in recombinant receptor systems.

  10. Liver X receptor alpha mediated genistein induction of human dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase (hSULT2A1) in Hep G2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yue; Zhang, Shunfen; Zhou, Tianyan

    2013-04-15

    Cytosolic sulfotransferases are one of the major families of phase II drug metabolizing enzymes. Sulfotransferase-catalyzed sulfonation regulates hormone activities, metabolizes drugs, detoxifies xenobiotics, and bioactivates carcinogens. Human dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase (hSULT2A1) plays important biological roles by sulfating endogenous hydroxysteroids and exogenous xenobiotics. Genistein, mainly existing in soy food products, is a naturally occurring phytoestrogen with both chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential. Our previous studies have shown that genistein significantly induces hSULT2A1 in Hep G2 and Caco-2 cells. In this study, we investigated the roles of liver X receptor (LXRα) in the genistein induction of hSULT2A1. LXRs have been shown to induce expressionmore » of mouse Sult2a9 and hSULT2A1 gene. Our results demonstrate that LXRα mediates the genistein induction of hSULT2A1, supported by Western blot analysis results, hSULT2A1 promoter driven luciferase reporter gene assay results, and mRNA interference results. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay results demonstrate that genistein increase the recruitment of hLXRα binding to the hSULT2A1 promoter. These results suggest that hLXRα plays an important role in the hSULT2A1 gene regulation. The biological functions of phytoestrogens may partially relate to their induction activity toward hydroxysteroid SULT. - Highlights: ► Liver X receptor α mediated genistein induction of hSULT2A1 in Hep G2 cells. ► LXRα and RXRα dimerization further activated this induction. ► Western blot results agreed well with luciferase reporter gene assay results. ► LXRs gene silencing significantly decreased hSULT2A1 expression. ► ChIP analysis suggested that genistein enhances hLXRα binding to the hSULT2A1 promoter.« less

  11. Identification of COUP-TFII Orphan Nuclear Receptor as a Retinoic Acid-Activated Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, Schoen W; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Zhou, X Edward

    2010-01-12

    The chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factors (COUP-TFI and II) make up the most conserved subfamily of nuclear receptors that play key roles in angiogenesis, neuronal development, organogenesis, cell fate determination, and metabolic homeostasis. Although the biological functions of COUP-TFs have been studied extensively, little is known of their structural features or aspects of ligand regulation. Here we report the ligand-free 1.48 {angstrom} crystal structure of the human COUP-TFII ligand-binding domain. The structure reveals an autorepressed conformation of the receptor, where helix {alpha}10 is bent into the ligand-binding pocket and the activation function-2 helix is folded into the cofactor binding site,more » thus preventing the recruitment of coactivators. In contrast, in multiple cell lines, COUP-TFII exhibits constitutive transcriptional activity, which can be further potentiated by nuclear receptor coactivators. Mutations designed to disrupt cofactor binding, dimerization, and ligand binding, substantially reduce the COUP-TFII transcriptional activity. Importantly, retinoid acids are able to promote COUP-TFII to recruit coactivators and activate a COUP-TF reporter construct. Although the concentration needed is higher than the physiological levels of retinoic acids, these findings demonstrate that COUP-TFII is a ligand-regulated nuclear receptor, in which ligands activate the receptor by releasing it from the autorepressed conformation.« less

  12. Glutamate mediates platelet activation through the AMPA receptor

    PubMed Central

    Morrell, Craig N.; Sun, Henry; Ikeda, Masahiro; Beique, Jean-Claude; Swaim, Anne Marie; Mason, Emily; Martin, Tanika V.; Thompson, Laura E.; Gozen, Oguz; Ampagoomian, David; Sprengel, Rolf; Rothstein, Jeffrey; Faraday, Nauder; Huganir, Richard; Lowenstein, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    Glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter that binds to the kainate receptor, the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, and the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor (AMPAR). Each receptor was first characterized and cloned in the central nervous system (CNS). Glutamate is also present in the periphery, and glutamate receptors have been identified in nonneuronal tissues, including bone, heart, kidney, pancreas, and platelets. Platelets play a central role in normal thrombosis and hemostasis, as well as contributing greatly to diseases such as stroke and myocardial infarction. Despite the presence of glutamate in platelet granules, the role of glutamate during hemostasis is unknown. We now show that activated platelets release glutamate, that platelets express AMPAR subunits, and that glutamate increases agonist-induced platelet activation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that glutamate binding to the AMPAR increases intracellular sodium concentration and depolarizes platelets, which are important steps in platelet activation. In contrast, platelets treated with the AMPAR antagonist CNQX or platelets derived from GluR1 knockout mice are resistant to AMPA effects. Importantly, mice lacking GluR1 have a prolonged time to thrombosis in vivo. Our data identify glutamate as a regulator of platelet activation, and suggest that the AMPA receptor is a novel antithrombotic target. PMID:18283118

  13. Assembly and activation of neurotrophic factor receptor complexes.

    PubMed

    Simi, Anastasia; Ibáñez, Carlos F

    2010-04-01

    Neurotrophic factors play important roles in the development and function of both neuronal and glial elements of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Their functional diversity is in part based on their ability to interact with alternative complexes of receptor molecules. This review focuses on our current understanding of the mechanisms that govern the assembly and activation of neurotrophic factor receptor complexes. The realization that many, if not the majority, of these complexes exist in a preassembled form at the plasma membrane has forced the revision of classical ligand-mediated oligomerization models, and led to the discovery of novel mechanisms of receptor activation and generation of signaling diversity which are likely to be shared by many different classes of receptors.

  14. AT2 RECEPTOR ACTIVITIES AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Matavelli, Luis C.; Siragy, Helmy M.

    2014-01-01

    Although angiotensin II subtype-2 receptor (AT2R) was discovered over two decades ago, its contribution to physiology and pathophysiology is not fully elucidated. Current knowledge suggests that under normal physiologic conditions, AT2R counterbalances the effects of angiotensin II subtype-1 receptor (AT1R). A major obstacle for AT2R investigations was the lack of specific agonists. Most of the earlier AT2R studies were performed using the peptidic agonist, CG42112A, or the non-peptidic antagonist PD123319. CGP42112A is non-specific for AT2R and in higher concentrations can bind to AT1R. Recently, the development of specific non-peptidic AT2R agonists boosted the efforts in identifying the therapeutic potentials for AT2R stimulation. Unlike AT1R, AT2R is involved in vasodilation via release of bradykinin and nitric oxide, anti-inflammation and healing from injury. Interestingly, the vasodilatory effects of AT2R stimulation were not associated with significant reduction in blood pressure. In the kidney, AT2R stimulation produced natriuresis, increased renal blood flow, and reduced tissue inflammation. In animal studies, enhanced AT2R function led to reduction of cardiac inflammation and fibrosis, and reduced the size of the infarcted area. Similarly, AT2R stimulation demonstrated protective effects in vasculature and brain. PMID:25636068

  15. Neurokinin receptor modulation of respiratory activity in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Bongianni, Fulvia; Mutolo, Donatella; Cinelli, Elenia; Pantaleo, Tito

    2008-06-01

    The respiratory role of neurokinin (NK) receptors was investigated in alpha-chloralose-urethane-anaesthetized, vagotomized, paralysed and artificially ventilated rabbits by using bilateral microinjections (30-50 nL) of NK receptor agonists and antagonists. Microinjections were performed in a region located just caudal to the rostral expiratory neurons. This region displayed features similar to those of the pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC) of adult cats and rats, and proved to produce excitatory respiratory effects in response to microinjections of D,L-homocysteic acid. We used as agonists (0.1, 0.5 and 5 mM) substance P (SP), the NK1 receptor agonists [Sar(9), Met(O2)(11)]-SP and GR 73632, the NK2 receptor agonist NKA, the NK3 receptor agonist senktide, and as antagonists (5 mM) the NK1 receptor antagonist CP-99,994 and the NK2 receptor antagonist MEN 10376. SP always increased respiratory frequency, but NK1 receptor agonists did not change respiratory variables. NKA and senktide at 5 mm increased respiratory frequency. CP-99,994 caused increases in respiratory frequency and did not antagonize the effects of SP. MEN 10376 prevented the respiratory responses induced by NKA and reduced those provoked by SP. SP or the NK1 receptor agonists (5 mM) injected (1 microL) into the IV ventricle caused marked excitatory effects on respiration. The results suggest that NK2 and NK3, but not NK1, receptors are involved in the excitatory modulation of inspiratory activity within the investigated region and are consistent with the notion that the pre-BötC neurons are important components of the inspiratory rhythm-generating mechanisms.

  16. Modular Activating Receptors in Innate and Adaptive Immunity.

    PubMed

    Berry, Richard; Call, Matthew E

    2017-03-14

    Triggering of cell-mediated immunity is largely dependent on the recognition of foreign or abnormal molecules by a myriad of cell surface-bound receptors. Many activating immune receptors do not possess any intrinsic signaling capacity but instead form noncovalent complexes with one or more dimeric signaling modules that communicate with a common set of kinases to initiate intracellular information-transfer pathways. This modular architecture, where the ligand binding and signaling functions are detached from one another, is a common theme that is widely employed throughout the innate and adaptive arms of immune systems. The evolutionary advantages of this highly adaptable platform for molecular recognition are visible in the variety of ligand-receptor interactions that can be linked to common signaling pathways, the diversification of receptor modules in response to pathogen challenges, and the amplification of cellular responses through incorporation of multiple signaling motifs. Here we provide an overview of the major classes of modular activating immune receptors and outline the current state of knowledge regarding how these receptors assemble, recognize their ligands, and ultimately trigger intracellular signal transduction pathways that activate immune cell effector functions.

  17. The kinase activity of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 with activation loop mutations affects receptor trafficking and signaling.

    PubMed

    Lievens, Patricia M-J; Mutinelli, Chiara; Baynes, Darcie; Liboi, Elio

    2004-10-08

    Amino acid substitutions at the Lys-650 codon within the activation loop kinase domain of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) result in graded constitutive phosphorylation of the receptor. Accordingly, the Lys-650 mutants are associated with dwarfisms with graded clinical severity. To assess the importance of the phosphorylation level on FGFR3 maturation along the secretory pathway, hemagglutinin A-tagged derivatives were studied. The highly activated SADDAN (severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans) mutant accumulates in its immature and phosphorylated form in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which fails to be degraded. Furthermore, the Janus kinase (Jak)/STAT pathway is activated from the ER by direct recruitment of Jak1. Abolishing the autocatalytic property of the mutated FGFR3 by replacing the critical Tyr-718 reestablishes the receptor full maturation and inhibits signaling. Differently, the low activated hypochondroplasia mutant is present as a mature phosphorylated form on the plasma membrane, although with a delayed transition in the ER, and is completely processed. Signaling does not occur in the presence of brefeldin A; instead, STAT1 is activated when protein secretion is blocked with monensin, suggesting that the hypochondroplasia receptor signals at the exit from the ER. Our results suggest that kinase activity affects FGFR3 trafficking and determines the spatial segregation of signaling pathways. Consequently, the defect in down-regulation of the highly activated receptors results in the increased signaling capacity from the intracellular compartments, and this may determine the severity of the diseases.

  18. Kinetic deuterium isotope effects in glucocorticoid receptor activation

    SciTech Connect

    Aranyi, P.

    1984-01-01

    Activation and deactivation of the chick thymus glucocorticoid receptor protein was studied in ordinary and heavy water by DNA-cellulose binding of the tritiated triamcinolone acetonide-receptor complex. Activation was significantly slower in heavy water if it was promoted by incubation at elevated temperature in buffers of low ionic strength. In the presence of 300 mM KC1 or after separation from the low molecular weight cytosol constituents, the complex was activated at the same rate in both solvents. Deactivation (time dependent loss of DNA-binding capacity) was much faster in ordinary than in heavy water regardless of gel filtration or the presence ofmore » KC1. A model of receptor activation-deactivation was constructed on the basis of these data that accounts for the observed kinetic deuterium isotope effects and reveals some submolecular details of the process.« less

  19. Preclinical pharmacology of bilastine, a new selective histamine H1 receptor antagonist: receptor selectivity and in vitro antihistaminic activity.

    PubMed

    Corcóstegui, Reyes; Labeaga, Luis; Innerárity, Ana; Berisa, Agustin; Orjales, Aurelio

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to establish the receptor selectivity and antihistaminic activity of bilastine, a new selective antihistamine receptor antagonist. In vitro experiments were conducted using a receptor binding screening panel and guinea-pig and rat tissues. Antihistaminic activity was determined using H1 receptor binding studies and in vitro H1 antagonism studies conducted in guinea-pig tissues and human cell lines. Receptor selectivity was established using a receptor binding screening panel and a receptor antagonism screening conducted in guinea-pig, rat and rabbit tissues. Inhibition of inflammatory mediators was determined through the Schultz-Dale reaction in sensitised guinea-pig ileum. Bilastine binds to histamine H1-receptors as indicated by its displacement of [3H]-pyrilamine from H1-receptors expressed in guinea-pig cerebellum and human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell lines. The studies conducted on guinea-pig smooth muscle demonstrated the capability of bilastine to antagonise H1-receptors. Bilastine is selective for histamine H1-receptors as shown in receptor-binding screening conducted to determine the binding capacity of bilastine to 30 different receptors. The specificity of its H1-receptor antagonistic activity was also demonstrated in a series of in vitro experiments conducted on guinea-pig and rat tissues. The results of these studies confirmed the lack of significant antagonism against serotonin, bradykinin, leukotriene D4, calcium, muscarinic M3-receptors, alpha1-adrenoceptors, beta2-adrenoceptors, and H2- and H3-receptors. The results of the in vitro Schultz-Dale reaction demonstrated that bilastine also has anti-inflammatory activity. These preclinical studies provide evidence that bilastine has H1- antihistamine activity, with high specificity for H1-receptors, and poor or no affinity for other receptors. Bilastine has also been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties.

  20. CgA1AR-1 acts as an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor in oyster Crassostrea gigas mediating both cellular and humoral immune response.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaoqun; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Lingling; Qiu, Limei; Zhang, Huan; Wang, Hao; Song, Linsheng

    2016-11-01

    We have now cloned an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor (A1AR) from the cDNA library of oyster Crassostrea gigas, designating as CgA1AR-1. The full length of CgA1AR-1 was 1149 bp and it encodes a protein of 382 amino acids containing a 7 transmembrane domain, whose putative topology was similar to the A1ARs in higher organisms and shared similarity of 19% with mammalian A1ARs according to the phylogenic analysis. After cell transfection of CgA1AR-1 into HEK293T cells and the incubation with its specific agonist norepinephrine (NE), the concentration of second messenger Ca 2+ increased significantly (p < 0.05). But, this increasing of Ca 2+ could be inhibited by adding A1AR antagonist DOX. Tissue distribution assays using qRT-PCR suggested that CgA1AR-1 mRNA was ubiquitously expressed in all the major tissues of oyster. LPS stimulation could induce the up-regulation of CgA1AR-1 mRNA in haemocytes from 12 h to 24 h post stimulation. Moreover, the blocking of CgA1AR-1 by DOX before LPS stimulation affected the mRNA expression of oyster TNF (CGI_10005109 and CGI_10006440) in haemocytes, resulting in the rise of haemocyte phagocytic rate and apoptosis index. In addition to cellular immunity, CgA1AR-1 was also involved in humoral immunity of oyster. Inhibition of CgA1AR-1 with DOX could repress the up-regulation of LZY and SOD activities caused by LPS stimulation. These results suggested that CgA1AR-1 acted as an α-1 adrenergic receptor in cetacholaminergic neuroendocrine-immune network mediating both cellular and humoral immune response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The metabotropic glutamate receptors: structure, activation mechanism and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Pin, Jean-Philippe; Acher, Francine

    2002-06-01

    The metabotropic glutamate receptors are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) involved in the regulation of many synapses, including most glutamatergic fast excitatory synapses. Eight subtypes have been identified that can be classified into three groups. The molecular characterization of these receptors revealed proteins much more complex than any other GPCRs. They are composed of a Venus Flytrap (VFT) module where glutamate binds, connected to a heptahelical domain responsible for G-protein coupling. Recent data including the structure of the VFT module determined with and without glutamate, indicate that these receptors function as dimers. Moreover a number of intracellular proteins can regulate their targeting and transduction mechanism. Such structural features of mGlu receptors offer multiple possibilities for synthetic compounds to modulate their activity. In addition to agonists and competitive antagonists acting at the glutamate binding site, a number of non-competitive antagonists with inverse agonist activity, and positive allosteric modulators have been discovered. These later compounds share specific properties that make them good candidates for therapeutic applications. First, their non-amino acid structure makes them pass more easily the blood brain barrier. Second, they are much more selective than any other compound identified so far, being the first subtype selective molecules. Third, for the negative modulators, their non competitive mechanism of action makes them relatively unaffected by high concentrations of glutamate that may be present in disease states (e.g. stroke, epilepsy, neuropathic pain, etc.). Fourth, like the benzodiazepines acting at the GABA(A) receptors, the positive modulators offer a new way to increase the activity of these receptors in vivo, with a low risk of inducing their desensitization. The present review article focuses on the specific structural features of these receptors and highlights the various possibilities these

  2. The protease-activated receptor-2 upregulates keratinocyte phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Sharlow, E R; Paine, C S; Babiarz, L; Eisinger, M; Shapiro, S; Seiberg, M

    2000-09-01

    The protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) belongs to the family of seven transmembrane domain receptors, which are activated by the specific enzymatic cleavage of their extracellular amino termini. Synthetic peptides corresponding to the tethered ligand domain (SLIGRL in mouse, SLIGKV in human) can activate PAR-2 without the need for receptor cleavage. PAR-2 activation is involved in cell growth, differentiation and inflammatory processes, and was shown to affect melanin and melanosome ingestion by human keratinocytes. Data presented here suggest that PAR-2 activation may regulate human keratinocyte phagocytosis. PAR-2 activation by trypsin, SLIGRL or SLIGKV increased the ability of keratinocytes to ingest fluorescently labeled microspheres or E. coli K-12 bioparticles. This PAR-2 mediated increase in keratinocyte phagocytic capability correlated with an increase in actin polymerization and *-actinin reorganization, cell surface morphological changes and increased soluble protease activity. Moreover, addition of serine protease inhibitors downmodulated both the constitutive and the PAR-2 mediated increases in phagocytosis, suggesting that serine proteases mediate this functional activity in keratinocytes. PAR-2 involvement in keratinocyte phagocytosis is a novel function for this receptor.

  3. Renal effects of the novel selective adenosine A1 receptor blocker SLV329 in experimental liver cirrhosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Hocher, Berthold; Heiden, Susi; von Websky, Karoline; Arafat, Ayman M; Rahnenführer, Jan; Alter, Markus; Kalk, Philipp; Ziegler, Dieter; Fischer, Yvan; Pfab, Thiemo

    2011-03-10

    Liver cirrhosis is often complicated by an impaired renal excretion of water and sodium. Diuretics tend to further deteriorate renal function. It is unknown whether chronic selective adenosine A(1) receptor blockade, via inhibition of the hepatorenal reflex and the tubuloglomerular feedback, might exert diuretic and natriuretic effects without a reduction of the glomerular filtration rate. In healthy animals intravenous treatment with the novel A(1) receptor antagonist SLV329 resulted in a strong dose-dependent diuretic (up to 3.4-fold) and natriuretic (up to 13.5-fold) effect without affecting creatinine clearance. Male Wistar rats with thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis received SLV329, vehicle or furosemide for 12 weeks. The creatinine clearance of cirrhotic animals decreased significantly (-36.5%, p<0.05), especially in those receiving furosemide (-41.9%, p<0.01). SLV329 was able to prevent this decline of creatinine clearance. Mortality was significantly lower in cirrhotic animals treated with SLV329 in comparison to animals treated with furosemide (17% vs. 54%, p<0.05). SLV329 did not relevantly influence the degree of liver fibrosis, kidney histology or expression of hepatic or renal adenosine receptors. In conclusion, chronic treatment with SLV329 prevented the decrease of creatinine clearance in a rat model of liver cirrhosis. Further studies will have to establish whether adenosine A(1) receptor antagonists are clinically beneficial at different stages of liver cirrhosis.

  4. Glycine Potentiates AMPA Receptor Function through Metabotropic Activation of GluN2A-Containing NMDA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li-Jun; Hu, Rong; Lujan, Brendan; Chen, Juan; Zhang, Jian-Jian; Nakano, Yasuko; Cui, Tian-Yuan; Liao, Ming-Xia; Chen, Jin-Cao; Man, Heng-Ye; Feng, Hua; Wan, Qi

    2016-01-01

    NMDA receptors are Ca2+-permeable ion channels. The activation of NMDA receptors requires agonist glutamate and co-agonist glycine. Recent evidence indicates that NMDA receptor also has metabotropic function. Here we report that in cultured mouse hippocampal neurons, glycine increases AMPA receptor-mediated currents independent of the channel activity of NMDA receptors and the activation of glycine receptors. The potentiation of AMPA receptor function by glycine is antagonized by the inhibition of ERK1/2. In the hippocampal neurons and in the HEK293 cells transfected with different combinations of NMDA receptors, glycine preferentially acts on GluN2A-containing NMDA receptors (GluN2ARs), but not GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors (GluN2BRs), to enhance ERK1/2 phosphorylation independent of the channel activity of GluN2ARs. Without requiring the channel activity of GluN2ARs, glycine increases AMPA receptor-mediated currents through GluN2ARs. Thus, these results reveal a metabotropic function of GluN2ARs in mediating glycine-induced potentiation of AMPA receptor function via ERK1/2 activation. PMID:27807405

  5. Regulation of Proteome Maintenance Gene Expression by Activators of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor a (PPARa)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa) is activated by a large number of xenobiotic and hypolipidemic compounds called peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC). One agonist of PPARa (WY-14,643) regulates responses in the mouse liver to chemic...

  6. Activation-induced proteolysis of cytoplasmic domain of zeta in T cell receptors and Fc receptors.

    PubMed

    Taupin, J L; Anderson, P

    1994-12-01

    The CD3-T cell receptor (TCR) complex on T cells and the Fc gamma receptor type III (Fc gamma RIII)-zeta-gamma complex on natural killer cells are functionally analogous activation receptors that associate with a family of disulfide-linked dimers composed of the related subunits zeta and gamma. Immunochemical analysis of receptor complexes separated on two-dimensional diagonal gels allowed the identification of a previously uncharacterized zeta-p14 heterodimer. zeta-p14 is a component of both CD3-TCR and Fc gamma RIII-zeta-gamma. Peptide mapping analysis shows that p14 is structurally related to zeta, suggesting that it is either: (i) derived from zeta proteolytically or (ii) the product of an alternatively spliced mRNA. The observation that COS cells transformed with a cDNA encoding zeta express zeta-p14 supports the former possibility. The expression of CD3-TCR complexes including zeta-p14 increases following activation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or concanavalin A, suggesting that proteolysis of zeta may contribute to receptor modulation or desensitization.

  7. Immunolocalization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and retinoid X receptors in the adult rat CNS.

    PubMed

    Moreno, S; Farioli-Vecchioli, S; Cerù, M P

    2004-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated and retinoid X receptors (PPARs and RXRs) are transcription factors belonging to the steroid hormone receptor superfamily. Upon activation by their ligands, PPARs and RXRs bind to their target genes as heterodimers. Ligands of these receptors include lipophylic molecules, such as retinoids, fatty acids and eicosanoids, the importance of which in the metabolism and functioning of the nervous tissue is well documented. The immunohistochemical distribution of PPARs and RXRs in the CNS of the adult rat was studied by means of a sensitive biotinyl-tyramide method. All PPAR (alpha, beta/delta and gamma) and RXR (alpha, beta and gamma) isotypes were detected and found to exhibit specific patterns of localization in the different areas of the brain and spinal cord. The presence of the nuclear receptors was observed in both neuronal and glial cells. While PPAR beta/delta and RXR beta showed a widespread distribution, alpha and gamma isotypes exhibited a more restricted pattern of expression. The frontal cortex, basal ganglia, reticular formation, some cranial nerve nuclei, deep cerebellar nuclei, and cerebellar Golgi cells appeared rather rich in all studied receptors. Based on our data, we suggest that in the adult CNS, PPARs and RXRs, besides playing roles common to many other tissues, may have specific functions in regulating the expression of genes involved in neurotransmission, and therefore play roles in complex processes, such as aging, neurodegeneration, learning and memory.

  8. The cometary activity of Centaur P/2004 A1 (LONEOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epifani, E. Mazzotta; Dall'Ora, M.; Perna, D.; Palumbo, P.; Colangeli, L.

    2011-08-01

    P/2004 A1 (LONEOS) is one of the few active objects in the dynamical class of Centaurs. It has been recently injected into an inner orbit with a perihelion distance q = 5.5 au. The aim of this paper is to characterize the dust coma of this peculiar object, 2.5 yr after its first 'new' perihelion passage inside the Solar system. Broad-band visible images taken at the TNG telescope in 2007 February were analysed in order to characterize the dust coma of the Centaur: it was still quite active at rh = 6.5 au post-perihelion, with a coma and a well-developed wide tail-like structure, with a measured R-Afρ= 162 ± 10 cm in an aperture radius ρ= 104 km. The (V - R) colour and the reddening values depict a scenario of a slightly red dust coma. A dust mass-loss rate of ? = 133 kg s-1 is derived from a photometric model, consistent with a scenario of a quite constant emission rate along the Centaur orbit. An upper limit for the Centaur radius of 3.5 km is derived by some realistic hypotheses on CO molecular production rate and on the mean grain scatterer size in the coma. Dynamical lifetime estimates compared to modelled loss rate result in a radius lower limit of 0.5 km, indicating therefore that the Centaur size is likely of the same order of magnitude of the short-period comets. Based on observations made at the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

  9. The influence of standardized Valeriana officinalis extract on the CYP3A1 gene expression by nuclear receptors in in vivo model.

    PubMed

    Bogacz, Anna; Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M; Karasiewicz, Monika; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Majchrzycki, Marian; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Ozarowski, Marcin; Grzeskowiak, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis is one of the most popular medicinal plants commonly used as a sedative and sleep aid. It is suggested that its pharmacologically active compounds derived from the root may modulate the CYP3A4 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and lead to pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of valerian on the expression level of CYP3A1 (homologue to human CYP3A4) as well as nuclear receptors PXR, CAR, RXR, GR, and HNF-4α. Male Wistar rats were given standardized valerian extract (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 3 and 10 days. The expression in liver tissue was analyzed by using real-time PCR. Our result showed a decrease of CYP3A1 expression level by 35% (P = 0.248) and 37% (P < 0.001), respectively. Moreover, Valeriana exhibited statistically significant reduction in RXR (approximately 28%) only after 3-day treatment. We also demonstrated a decrease in the amount HNF-4α by 22% (P = 0.005) and 32% (P = 0.012), respectively. In case of CAR, the increase of expression level by 46% (P = 0.023) was noted. These findings suggest that Valeriana officinalis extract can decrease the CYP3A4 expression and therefore may lead to interactions with synthetic drugs metabolized by this enzyme.

  10. The Influence of Standardized Valeriana officinalis Extract on the CYP3A1 Gene Expression by Nuclear Receptors in In Vivo Model

    PubMed Central

    Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M.; Karasiewicz, Monika; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L.; Ozarowski, Marcin; Grzeskowiak, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis is one of the most popular medicinal plants commonly used as a sedative and sleep aid. It is suggested that its pharmacologically active compounds derived from the root may modulate the CYP3A4 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and lead to pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of valerian on the expression level of CYP3A1 (homologue to human CYP3A4) as well as nuclear receptors PXR, CAR, RXR, GR, and HNF-4α. Male Wistar rats were given standardized valerian extract (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 3 and 10 days. The expression in liver tissue was analyzed by using real-time PCR. Our result showed a decrease of CYP3A1 expression level by 35% (P = 0.248) and 37% (P < 0.001), respectively. Moreover, Valeriana exhibited statistically significant reduction in RXR (approximately 28%) only after 3-day treatment. We also demonstrated a decrease in the amount HNF-4α by 22% (P = 0.005) and 32% (P = 0.012), respectively. In case of CAR, the increase of expression level by 46% (P = 0.023) was noted. These findings suggest that Valeriana officinalis extract can decrease the CYP3A4 expression and therefore may lead to interactions with synthetic drugs metabolized by this enzyme. PMID:25302309

  11. Immunomodulatory effects of endogenous and synthetic peptides activating opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Pomorska, Dorota K; Gach, Katarzyna; Janecka, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The main role of endogenous opioid peptides is the modulation of pain. Opioid peptides exert their analgesic activity by binding to the opioid receptors distributed widely in the central nervous system (CNS). However, opioid receptors are also found on tissues and organs outside the CNS, including the cells of the immune system, indicating that opioids are capable of exerting additional effects in periphery. Morphine, which is a gold standard in the treatment of chronic pain, is well-known for its immunosuppressive effects. Much less is known about the immunomodulatory effects exerted by endogenous (enkephalins, endorphins, dynorphins and endomorphins) and synthetic peptides activating opioid receptors. In this review we tried to summarize opioid peptide-mediated modulation of immune cell functions which can be stimulatory as well as inhibitory.

  12. Regulation of the catalytic activity of the EGF receptor

    PubMed Central

    Endres, Nicholas F.; Engel, Kate; Das, Rahul; Kovacs, Erika; Kuriyan, John

    2011-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase involved in cell growth that is often misregulated in cancer. Several recent studies highlight the unique structural mechanisms involved in its regulation. Some elucidate the important role that the juxtamembrane segment and the transmembrane helix play in stabilizing the activating asymmetric kinase dimer, and suggest that its activation mechanism is likely to be conserved amongst the other human EGFR-related receptors. Other studies provide new explanations for two long observed, but poorly understood phenomena, the apparent heterogeneity in ligand binding and the formation of ligand-independent dimers. New insights into the allosteric mechanisms utilized by intracellular regulators of EGFR provide hope that allosteric sites could be used as targets for drug development. PMID:21868214

  13. Protease activated receptor-2 (PAR2): possible target of phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Kakarala, Kavita Kumari; Jamil, Kaiser

    2015-09-01

    The use of phytochemicals either singly or in combination with other anticancer drugs comes with an advantage of less toxicity and minimal side effects. Signaling pathways play central role in cell cycle, cell growth, metabolism, etc. Thus, the identification of phytochemicals with promising antagonistic effect on the receptor/s playing key role in single transduction may have better therapeutic application. With this background, phytochemicals were screened against protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2). PAR2 belongs to the superfamily of GPCRs and is an important target for breast cancer. Using in silico methods, this study was able to identify the phytochemicals with promising binding affinity suggesting their therapeutic potential in the treatment of breast cancer. The findings from this study acquires importance as the information on the possible agonists and antagonists of PAR2 is limited due its unique mechanism of activation.

  14. Extrasynaptic targeting of NMDA receptors following D1 dopamine receptor activation and cocaine self-administration

    PubMed Central

    Ortinski, Pavel I.; Turner, Jill R.; Pierce, R. Christopher

    2013-01-01

    We previously showed that after repeated exposure to cocaine, D1-like dopamine receptor (D1DR) stimulation reverses plastic changes of AMPA receptor-mediated signaling in the nucleus accumbens shell. However, there is little information on the impact of cocaine self-administration on D1-NMDA receptor interactions in this brain region. Here, we assessed whether cocaine self-administration alters the effects of D1DR stimulation on synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs) using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. In slices from cocaine-naïve rats, pre-treatment with a D1DR agonist decreased synaptic NMDAR receptor-mediated currents and increased the contribution of extrasynaptic NMDARs. In contrast, neither cocaine self-administration alone nor cocaine experience followed by D1DR stimulation had an effect on synaptic or extrasynaptic NMDAR signaling. Activation of extrasynaptic NMDARs relies on the availability of extracellular glutamate, which is regulated primarily by glutamate transporters. In cocaine-experienced animals, administration of a glutamate re-uptake blocker, DL-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartic acid (TBOA), revealed increased extrasynaptic NMDAR activity and stronger baseline activity of glutamate uptake transporters relative to cocaine-naïve rats. In cocaine-naïve rats, the D1DR-mediated increase in extrasynaptic NMDAR signaling was independent of the activity of glutamate re-uptake transporters. Taken together, these results indicate that cocaine experience blunts the influence of D1DRs on synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDAR signaling. Additionally, prior cocaine self-administration limits activation of the extrasynaptic NMDAR pool by increasing glutamate re-uptake. These findings outline a pattern of adaptive interactions between D1DRs and NMDARs in the nucleus accumbens shell and demonstrate up-regulation of extrasynaptic NMDAR signaling as a novel consequence of cocaine self-administration. PMID:23719812

  15. Central or Peripheral Delivery of an Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonist Improves Mechanical Allodynia in a Mouse Model of Painful Diabetic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Katz, N. K.; Ryals, J. M.; Wright, D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus, and a significant proportion of individuals suffer debilitating pain that significantly affects their quality of life. Unfortunately, symptomatic treatment options have limited efficacy, and often carry significant risk of systemic adverse effects. Activation of the adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) by the analgesic small molecule adenosine has been shown to have antinociceptive benefits in models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. The current study used a mouse model of painful diabetic neuropathy to determine the effect of diabetes on endogenous adenosine production, and if central or peripheral delivery of adenosine receptor agonists could alleviate signs of mechanical allodynia in diabetic mice. Diabetes was induced using streptozocin in male A/J mice. Mechanical withdrawal thresholds were measured weekly to characterize neuropathy phenotype. Hydrolysis of AMP into adenosine by ectonucleotidases was determined in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cord at 8-weeks post-induction of diabetes. AMP, adenosine and the specific A1R agonist, N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), were administered both centrally (intrathecal) and peripherally (intraplantar) to determine the effect of activation of adenosine receptors on mechanical allodynia in diabetic mice. Eight weeks post-induction, diabetic mice displayed significantly decreased hydrolysis of extracellular AMP in the DRG; at this same time, diabetic mice displayed significantly decreased mechanical withdrawal thresholds compared to nondiabetic controls. Central delivery AMP, adenosine and CPA significantly improved mechanical withdrawal thresholds in diabetic mice. Surprisingly, peripheral delivery of CPA also improved mechanical allodynia in diabetic mice. This study provides new evidence that diabetes significantly affects endogenous AMP hydrolysis, suggesting that altered adenosine production could contribute to the development of painful

  16. Regulation of Liver Energy Balance by the Nuclear Receptors Farnesoid X Receptor and Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor α.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kang Ho; Moore, David D

    2017-01-01

    The liver undergoes major changes in substrate utilization and metabolic output over the daily feeding and fasting cycle. These changes occur acutely in response to hormones such as insulin and glucagon, with rapid changes in signaling pathways mediated by protein phosphorylation and other post-translational modifications. They are also reflected in chronic alterations in gene expression in response to nutrient-sensitive transcription factors. Among these, the nuclear receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) provide an intriguing, coordinated response to maintain energy balance in the liver. FXR is activated in the fed state by bile acids returning to the liver, while PPARα is activated in the fasted state in response to the free fatty acids produced by adipocyte lipolysis or possibly other signals. Key Messages: Previous studies indicate that FXR and PPARα have opposing effects on each other's primary targets in key metabolic pathways including gluconeogenesis. Our more recent work shows that these 2 nuclear receptors coordinately regulate autophagy: FXR suppresses this pathway of nutrient and energy recovery, while PPARα activates it. Another recent study indicates that FXR activates the complement and coagulation pathway, while earlier studies identify this as a negative target of PPARα. Since secretion is a very energy- and nutrient-intensive process for hepatocytes, it is possible that FXR licenses it in the nutrient-rich fed state, while PPARα represses it to spare resources in the fasted state. Energy balance is a potential connection linking FXR and PPARα regulation of autophagy and secretion, 2 seemingly unrelated aspects of hepatocyte function. FXR and PPARα act coordinately to promote energy balance and homeostasis in the liver by regulating autophagy and potentially protein secretion. It is quite likely that their impact extends to additional pathways relevant to hepatic energy balance, and

  17. CaMKIIα-GluA1 activity underlies vulnerability to adolescent binge alcohol drinking

    PubMed Central

    Agoglia, Abigail E.; Holstein, Sarah E.; Reid, Grant; Hodge, Clyde W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Binge drinking during adolescence is associated with increased risk for developing alcohol use disorders (AUDs); however, the neural mechanisms underlying this liability are unclear. In this study, we sought to determine if binge-drinking alters expression or phosphorylation of two molecular mechanisms of neuroplasticity, calcium/calmodulin dependent kinase II alpha (CaMKIIα) and the GluA1 subunit of AMPA receptors (AMPAR) in addiction-associated brain regions. We also asked if activation of CaMKIIα-dependent AMPAR activity escalates binge-like drinking. Methods To address these questions, CaMKIIαT286 and GluA1S831 protein phosphorylation and expression were assessed in the amygdala and striatum of adolescent and adult male C57BL/6J mice immediately after voluntary binge-like alcohol drinking (blood alcohol > 80mg/dL). In separate mice, effects of the CaMKIIα-dependent pGluA1S831-enhancing drug tianeptine were tested on binge-like alcohol consumption in both age groups. Results Binge-like drinking decreased CaMKIIαT286 phosphorylation (pCaMKIIαT286) selectively in adolescent amygdala with no effect in adults. Alcohol also produced a trend for reduced pGluA1S831 expression in adolescent amygdala but differentially increased pGluA1S831 in adult amygdala. No effects were observed in the nucleus accumbens or dorsal striatum. Tianeptine increased binge-like alcohol consumption in adolescents but decreased alcohol consumption in adults. Sucrose consumption was similarly decreased by tianeptine pretreatment in both ages. Conclusions These data show that the adolescent and adult amygdalae are differentially sensitive to effects of binge-like alcohol drinking on plasticity-linked glutamate signaling molecules. Tianeptine-induced increases in binge-like drinking only in adolescents suggest that differential CaMKIIα-dependent AMPAR activation may underlie age-related escalation of binge drinking. PMID:26247621

  18. Microsomal receptor for steroid hormones: functional implications for nuclear activity.

    PubMed

    Muldoon, T G; Watson, G H; Evans, A C; Steinsapir, J

    1988-01-01

    Target tissues for steroid hormones are responsive by virtue of and to the extent of their content of functional intracellular receptors. Recent years have seen a shift in considerations of the cellular dynamics and distribution of these receptors, with current views favoring predominant intranuclear localization in the intact cell. This paper summarizes our analyses of the microsomal estrogen and androgen binding capability of rat uterine and ventral prostate tissue, respectively; these studies have revealed a set of high affinity sites that may act as a conduit for estrogen traversing the cell en route to the nucleus. These sites have many properties in common with cytosolic receptors, with the salient difference of a failure to activate to a more avid DNA-binding form under conditions which permit such activation of cytosolic receptors. The microsomal estrogen-binding proteins also have appreciable affinity for progesterone, another distinction from other known cellular estrogen receptor species. Various experimental approaches were employed to demonstrate that the microsomal receptors were not simply cytosol contaminants; the most convincing evidence is the recent successful separation of the cytosolic and microsomal forms by differential ammonium sulfate precipitation. Discrete subfractionation of subcellular components on successive sucrose gradients, with simultaneous assessments of binding capability and marker enzyme concentrations, indicates that the major portion of the binding is localized within the vesicles of the endoplasmic reticulum free of significant plasma membrane contamination. The microsomal receptors are readily solubilized by extraction with high- or low-salt-containing buffers or with steroid. The residual microsomes following such extraction have the characteristics of saturable acceptor sites for cytosolic estrogen-receptor complexes. The extent to which these sites will accept the cytosolic complexes is equal to the concentration of

  19. Modulating Estrogen Receptor-related ReceptorActivity Inhibits Cell Proliferation*

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Stéphanie; Lanvin, Olivia; Tribollet, Violaine; Macari, Claire; North, Sophie; Vanacker, Jean-Marc

    2009-01-01

    High expression of the estrogen receptor-related receptor (ERR)-α in human tumors is correlated to a poor prognosis, suggesting an involvement of the receptor in cell proliferation. In this study, we show that a synthetic compound (XCT790) that modulates the activity of ERRα reduces the proliferation of various cell lines and blocks the G1/S transition of the cell cycle in an ERRα-dependent manner. XCT790 induces, in a p53-independent manner, the expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21waf/cip1 at the protein, mRNA, and promoter level, leading to an accumulation of hypophosphorylated Rb. Finally, XCT790 reduces cell tumorigenicity in Nude mice. PMID:19546226

  20. Adenosine A1 receptors link to smooth muscle contraction via CYP4a, PKC-α, and ERK1/2

    PubMed Central

    Kunduri, SS; Mustafa, SJ; Ponnoth, DS; Dick, GM; Nayeem, MA

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR) activation contracts smooth muscle, although signaling mechanisms aren’t thoroughly understood. Activation of A1AR leads to metabolism of arachidonic acid, including the production of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) by cytochrome P4504a (CYP4a). 20-HETE can activate protein kinase C-α (PKC-α) which crosstalks with extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) pathway. Both these pathways can regulate smooth muscle contraction, we tested the hypothesis that A1AR contracts smooth muscle through a pathway involving CYP4a, PKC-α, and ERK1/2. Experiments included isometric tension recordings of aortic contraction and Western blots of signaling molecules in wild type (WT) and A1AR knockout (A1KO) mice. Contraction to the A1-selective agonist CCPA was absent in A1KO mice aortae, indicating the contractile role of A1AR. Inhibition of CYP4a (HET0016) abolished CCPA-induced contraction in WT aortae, indicating a critical role for 20-HETE. Both WT and A1KO mice aortae contracted in response to exogenous 20-HETE. Inhibition of PKC-α (Gö6976) or ERK1/2 (PD98059) attenuated 20-HETE-induced contraction equally, suggesting that ERK1/2 is downstream of PKC-α. Contractions to exogenous 20-HETE were significantly less in A1KO mice; reduced protein levels of PKC-α, p-ERK1/2, and total ERK1/2 supported this observation. Our data indicate that A1AR mediates smooth muscle contraction via CYP4a and a PKC-α-ERK1/2 pathway. PMID:23519140

  1. Adenosine A1 receptors link to smooth muscle contraction via CYP4a, protein kinase C-α, and ERK1/2.

    PubMed

    Kunduri, Swati S; Mustafa, S Jamal; Ponnoth, Dovenia S; Dick, Gregory M; Nayeem, Mohammed A

    2013-07-01

    Adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR) activation contracts smooth muscle, although signaling mechanisms are not thoroughly understood. Activation of A1AR leads to metabolism of arachidonic acid, including the production of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) by cytochrome P4504a (CYP4a). The 20-HETE can activate protein kinase C-α (PKC-α), which crosstalks with extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) pathway. Both these pathways can regulate smooth muscle contraction, we tested the hypothesis that A1AR contracts smooth muscle through a pathway involving CYP4a, PKC-α, and ERK1/2. Experiments included isometric tension recordings of aortic contraction and Western blots of signaling molecules in wild type (WT) and A1AR knockout (A1KO) mice. Contraction to the A1-selective agonist 2-chloro-N cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA) was absent in A1KO mice aortae, indicating the contractile role of A1AR. Inhibition of CYP4a (HET0016) abolished 2-chloro-N cyclopentyladenosine-induced contraction in WT aortae, indicating a critical role for 20-HETE. Both WT and A1KO mice aortae contracted in response to exogenous 20-HETE. Inhibition of PKC-α (Gö6976) or ERK1/2 (PD98059) attenuated 20-HETE-induced contraction equally, suggesting that ERK1/2 is downstream of PKC-α. Contractions to exogenous 20-HETE were significantly less in A1KO mice; reduced protein levels of PKC-α, p-ERK1/2, and total ERK1/2 supported this observation. Our data indicate that A1AR mediates smooth muscle contraction via CYP4a and a PKC-α-ERK1/2 pathway.

  2. Adenosine A1 Receptors in Mouse Pontine Reticular Formation Depress Breathing, Increase Anesthesia Recovery Time, and Decrease Acetylcholine Release

    PubMed Central

    Gettys, George C.; Liu, Fang; Kimlin, Ed; Baghdoyan, Helen A.; Lydic, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical and preclinical data demonstrate the analgesic actions of adenosine. Central administration of adenosine agonists, however, suppresses arousal and breathing by poorly understood mechanisms. This study tested the two-tailed hypothesis that adenosine A1 receptors in the pontine reticular formation (PRF) of C57BL/6J mice modulate breathing, behavioral arousal, and PRF acetylcholine release. Methods Three sets of experiments used 51 mice. First, breathing was measured by plethysmography after PRF microinjection of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6-sulfophenyl adenosine (SPA) or saline. Second, mice were anesthetized with isoflurane and time to recovery of righting response (RoRR) was quantified after PRF microinjection of SPA or saline. Third, acetylcholine release in the PRF was measured before and during microdialysis delivery of SPA, the adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX), or SPA and DPCPX. Results First, SPA significantly decreased respiratory rate (−18%), tidal volume (−12%) and minute ventilation (−16%). Second, SPA concentration accounted for 76% of the variance in RoRR. Third, SPA concentration accounted for a significant amount of the variance in acetylcholine release (52%), RoRR (98%), and breathing rate (86%). DPCPX alone caused a concentration-dependent increase in acetylcholine, decrease in RoRR, and decrease in breathing rate. Coadministration of SPA and DPCPX blocked the SPA-induced decrease in acetylcholine and increase in RoRR. Conclusions Endogenous adenosine acting at adenosine A1 receptors in the PRF modulates breathing, behavioral arousal, and acetylcholine release. The results support the interpretation that an adenosinergic-cholinergic interaction within the PRF comprises one neurochemical mechanism underlying the wakefulness stimulus for breathing. PMID:23263018

  3. Adenosine A(1) receptors in mouse pontine reticular formation depress breathing, increase anesthesia recovery time, and decrease acetylcholine release.

    PubMed

    Gettys, George C; Liu, Fang; Kimlin, Ed; Baghdoyan, Helen A; Lydic, Ralph

    2013-02-01

    Clinical and preclinical data demonstrate the analgesic actions of adenosine. Central administration of adenosine agonists, however, suppresses arousal and breathing by poorly understood mechanisms. This study tested the two-tailed hypothesis that adenosine A1 receptors in the pontine reticular formation (PRF) of C57BL/6J mice modulate breathing, behavioral arousal, and PRF acetylcholine release. Three sets of experiments used 51 mice. First, breathing was measured by plethysmography after PRF microinjection of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N-sulfophenyl adenosine (SPA) or saline. Second, mice were anesthetized with isoflurane and the time to recovery of righting response (RoRR) was quantified after a PRF microinjection of SPA or saline. Third, acetylcholine release in the PRF was measured before and during microdialysis delivery of SPA, the adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 1, 3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine, or SPA and 1, 3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine. First, SPA significantly decreased respiratory rate (-18%), tidal volume (-12%), and minute ventilation (-16%). Second, SPA concentration accounted for 76% of the variance in RoRR. Third, SPA concentration accounted for a significant amount of the variance in acetylcholine release (52%), RoRR (98%), and breathing rate (86%). 1, 3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine alone caused a concentration-dependent increase in acetylcholine, a decrease in RoRR, and a decrease in breathing rate. Coadministration of SPA and 1, 3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine blocked the SPA-induced decrease in acetylcholine and increase in RoRR. Endogenous adenosine acting at adenosine A1 receptors in the PRF modulates breathing, behavioral arousal, and acetylcholine release. The results support the interpretation that an adenosinergic-cholinergic interaction within the PRF comprises one neurochemical mechanism underlying the wakefulness stimulus for breathing.

  4. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor and glucocorticoid receptor interact to activate human metallothionein 2A

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Shoko, E-mail: satosho@rs.tus.ac.jp; Shirakawa, Hitoshi, E-mail: shirakah@m.tohoku.ac.jp; Tomita, Shuhei, E-mail: tomita@med.tottori-u.ac.jp

    2013-11-15

    Although the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) play essential roles in mammalian development, stress responses, and other physiological events, crosstalk between these receptors has been the subject of much debate. Metallothioneins are classic glucocorticoid-inducible genes that were reported to increase upon treatment with AHR agonists in rodent tissues and cultured human cells. In this study, the mechanism of human metallothionein 2A (MT2A) gene transcription activation by AHR was investigated. Cotreatment with 3-methylcholanthrene and dexamethasone, agonists of AHR and GR respectively, synergistically increased MT2A mRNA levels in HepG2 cells. MT2A induction was suppressed by RNA interference against AHRmore » or GR. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed a physical interaction between AHR and GR proteins. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that AHR was recruited to the glucocorticoid response element in the MT2A promoter. Thus, we provide a novel mechanism whereby AHR modulates expression of human MT2A via the glucocorticoid response element and protein–protein interactions with GR. - Highlights: • Aryl hydrocarbon receptor forms a complex with glucocorticoid receptor in cells. • Human metallothionein gene is regulated by the AHR and GR interaction. • AHR–GR complex binds to glucocorticoid response element in metallothionein gene. • We demonstrated a novel transcriptional mechanism via AHR and GR interaction.« less

  5. Nuclear Receptor Activity and Liver Cancer Lesion Progression

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that control diverse cellular processes. Chronic stimulation of some NRs is a non-genotoxic mechanism of rodent liver cancer with unclear relevance to humans. We explored this question using human CAR, PXR, PPARα,...

  6. Models for H₃ receptor antagonist activity of sulfonylurea derivatives.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Naveen; Madan, A K

    2014-03-01

    The histamine H₃ receptor has been perceived as an auspicious target for the treatment of various central and peripheral nervous system diseases. In present study, a wide variety of 60 2D and 3D molecular descriptors (MDs) were successfully utilized for the development of models for the prediction of antagonist activity of sulfonylurea derivatives for histamine H₃ receptors. Models were developed through decision tree (DT), random forest (RF) and moving average analysis (MAA). Dragon software version 6.0.28 was employed for calculation of values of diverse MDs of each analogue involved in the data set. The DT classified and correctly predicted the input data with an impressive non-error rate of 94% in the training set and 82.5% during cross validation. RF correctly classified the analogues into active and inactive with a non-error rate of 79.3%. The MAA based models predicted the antagonist histamine H₃ receptor activity with non-error rate up to 90%. Active ranges of the proposed MAA based models not only exhibited high potency but also showed improved safety as indicated by relatively high values of selectivity index. The statistical significance of the models was assessed through sensitivity, specificity, non-error rate, Matthew's correlation coefficient and intercorrelation analysis. Proposed models offer vast potential for providing lead structures for development of potent but safe H₃ receptor antagonist sulfonylurea derivatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Critical Thinking Activities To Improve Writing Skills: Arguments A-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Michael O.

    Emphasizing real-life communication skills, this book offers cooperative activities to help teachers supplement their writing programs with easy-to-use critical thinking activities. The 16 activities in the book are suitable for grades 4 through 8, for gifted younger students, or as a remediation tool for older students. The activities expose…

  8. Activation of Adenosine A2A Receptors Inhibits Neutrophil Transuroepithelial Migration ▿

    PubMed Central

    Säve, Susanne; Mohlin, Camilla; Vumma, Ravi; Persson, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    Adenosine has been identified as a significant inhibitor of inflammation by acting on adenosine A2A receptors. In this study, we examined the role of adenosine and A2A receptors in the transmigration of human neutrophils across an in vitro model of the transitional bladder urothelium. Human uroepithelial cells (UROtsa) were grown on transwell inserts; uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and neutrophils were added to the transwell system; and the number of migrating neutrophils was evaluated. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry were used to investigate the expression of adenosine receptors, the epithelial adhesion molecule ICAM-1, and the neutrophil integrin CD11b. Levels of proinflammatory interleukin-8 (IL-8) and phosphorylated IκBα were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and Luminex assays, respectively. The neutrophils expressed all four adenosine receptor subtypes (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 receptors), but A3 receptors were not expressed by UROtsa cells. UPEC stimulated neutrophil transuroepithelial migration, which was significantly decreased in response to the specific A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680. The inhibitory effect of CGS 21680 on neutrophil migration was reversed by the A2A receptor antagonist SCH 58261. The production of chemotactic IL-8 and the expression of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1 or CD11b were not significantly affected by CGS 21680. However, a significant decrease in the level of phosporylated IκBα was revealed in response to CGS 21680. In conclusion, UPEC infection in vitro evoked neutrophil migration through a multilayered human uroepithelium. The UPEC-evoked neutrophil transmigration decreased in response to A2A receptor activation, possibly through inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:21646447

  9. Activation of D4 dopamine receptor decreases AT1 angiotensin II receptor expression in rat renal proximal tubule cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ken; Deng, Kun; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Zhen; Zheng, Shuo; Ren, Hongmei; He, Duofen; Han, Yu; Asico, Laureano D.; Jose, Pedro A.; Zeng, Chunyu

    2014-01-01

    The dopaminergic and renin angiotensin systems interact to regulate blood pressure. Disruption of the D4 dopamine receptor gene in mice produces hypertension that is associated with increased renal AT1 receptor expression. We hypothesize that the D4 receptor can inhibit AT1 receptor expression and function in renal proximal tubules (RPTs) cells from Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats but the D4 receptor regulation of AT1 receptor is aberrant in RPT cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The D4 receptor agonist, PD168077, decreased AT1 receptor protein expression in a time and concentration-dependent manner in WKY cells. By contrast, in SHR cells, PD168077 increased AT1 receptor protein expression. The inhibitory effect of D4 receptor on AT1 receptor expression in WKY cells was blocked by a calcium channel blocker, nicardipine, or calcium-free medium, indicating that calcium is involved in the D4 receptor-mediated signaling pathway. Angiotensin II increased Na+-K+ ATPase activity in WKY cells. Pretreatment with PD168077 decreased the stimulatory effect of angiotensin II on Na+-K+ ATPase activity in WKY cells. In SHR cells, the inhibitory effect of D4 receptor on angiotensin II-mediated stimulation of Na+-K+ ATPase activity was aberrant; pretreatment with PD168077 augmented the stimulatory effect of AT1 receptor on Na+-K+ ATPase activity in SHR cells. This was confirmed in vivo; pre-treatment with PD128077 for one week augmented the anti-hypertensive and natriuretic effect of losartan in SHRs but not in WKY rats. We suggest that an aberrant interaction between D4 and AT1 receptors may play a role in the abnormal regulation of sodium excretion in hypertension. PMID:25368031

  10. Alkyl isothiocyanates suppress epidermal growth factor receptor kinase activity but augment tyrosine kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Takahiro; Uehara, Yoshimasa; Kawajiri, Hiroo; Ryoyama, Kazuo; Yamori, Takao; Fuke, Yoko

    2009-10-01

    We have reported the in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities of 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MITC) derived from a Japanese spice, wasabi. In order to obtain some clues about the mechanism of the anticancer activity, we have studied the effect of alkyl isothiocyanates (MITCs) on protein kinase activities. The anti-autophosphorylation activity of MITCs with respect to the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated receptor kinase of A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells was examined by incorporation of radioactive ATP into an acid-insoluble fraction. Their anti-phosphorylation activity with respect to the non-receptor protein kinase was analyzed by a standard SDS-PAGE method. All the tested MITCs interfered with the EGF-stimulated receptor kinase activity in a dose-dependent manner, although their effects were less than 1/10 of that of erbstatin in microg/ml. On the other hand, the MITCs did not interfere with non-receptor kinases (kinase A, kinase C, tyrosine kinase and calmodulin dependent kinase III), but enhanced non-receptor tyrosine kinase. A possible anticancer mechanism of MITCs may involve the suppression of EGF receptor kinase activity and augmentation of non-receptor PTK.

  11. The role of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in the caffeine effect on MDMA-induced DA and 5-HT release in the mouse striatum.

    PubMed

    Górska, A M; Gołembiowska, K

    2015-04-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") popular as a designer drug is often used with caffeine to gain a stronger stimulant effect. MDMA induces 5-HT and DA release by interaction with monoamine transporters. Co-administration of caffeine and MDMA may aggravate MDMA-induced toxic effects on DA and 5-HT terminals. In the present study, we determined whether caffeine influences DA and 5-HT release induced by MDMA. We also tried to find out if adenosine A1 and A2A receptors play a role in the effect of caffeine by investigating the effect of the selective adenosine A1 and A2A receptor antagonists, DPCPX and KW 6002 on DA and 5-HT release induced by MDMA. Mice were treated with caffeine (10 mg/kg) and MDMA (20 or 40 mg/kg) alone or in combination. DA and 5-HT release in the mouse striatum was measured using in vivo microdialysis. Caffeine exacerbated the effect of MDMA on DA and 5-HT release. DPCPX or KW 6002 co-administered with MDMA had similar influence as caffeine, but KW 6002 was more potent than caffeine or DPCPX. To exclude the contribution of MAO inhibition by caffeine in the caffeine effect on MDMA-induced increase in DA and 5-HT, we also tested the effect of the nonxanthine adenosine receptor antagonist CGS 15943A lacking properties of MAO activity modification. Our findings indicate that adenosine A1 and A2A receptor blockade may account for the caffeine-induced exacerbation of the MDMA effect on DA and 5-HT release and may aggravate MDMA toxicity.

  12. A role of the SAM domain in EphA2 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaojun; Hapiak, Vera; Zheng, Ji; Muller-Greven, Jeannine; Bowman, Deanna; Lingerak, Ryan; Buck, Matthias; Wang, Bing-Cheng; Smith, Adam W

    2017-03-24

    Among the 20 subfamilies of protein receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), Eph receptors are unique in possessing a sterile alpha motif (SAM domain) at their C-terminal ends. However, the functions of SAM domains in Eph receptors remain elusive. Here we report on a combined cell biology and quantitative fluorescence study to investigate the role of the SAM domain in EphA2 function. We observed elevated tyrosine autophosphorylation levels upon deletion of the EphA2 SAM domain (EphA2ΔS) in DU145 and PC3 prostate cancer cells and a skin tumor cell line derived from EphA1/A2 knockout mice. These results suggest that SAM domain deletion induced constitutive activation of EphA2 kinase activity. In order to explain these effects, we applied fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to investigate the lateral molecular organization of EphA2. Our results indicate that SAM domain deletion (EphA2ΔS-GFP) increases oligomerization compared to the full length receptor (EphA2FL-GFP). Stimulation with ephrinA1, a ligand for EphA2, induced further oligomerization and activation of EphA2FL-GFP. The SAM domain deletion mutant, EphA2ΔS-GFP, also underwent further oligomerization upon ephrinA1 stimulation, but the oligomers were larger than those observed for EphA2FL-GFP. Based on these results, we conclude that the EphA2 SAM domain inhibits kinase activity by reducing receptor oligomerization.

  13. CINPA1 Is an Inhibitor of Constitutive Androstane Receptor That Does Not Activate Pregnane X Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Cherian, Milu T; Lin, Wenwei; Wu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) are xenobiotic sensors that enhance the detoxification and elimination of xenobiotics and endobiotics by modulating the expression of genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Elevated levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes and efflux transporters, resulting from CAR activation in various cancers, promote the elimination of chemotherapeutic agents, leading to reduced therapeutic effectiveness and acquired drug resistance. CAR inhibitors, in combination with existing chemotherapeutics, could therefore be used to attenuate multidrug resistance in cancers. Interestingly, all previously reported CAR inverse-agonists are also activators of PXR, rendering them mechanistically counterproductive in tissues where both these xenobiotic receptors are present and active. We used a directed high-throughput screening approach, followed by subsequent mechanistic studies, to identify novel, potent, and specific small-molecule CAR inhibitors that do not activate PXR. We describe here one such inhibitor, CINPA1 (CAR inhibitor not PXR activator 1), capable of reducing CAR-mediated transcription with an IC50 of ∼70 nM. CINPA1 1) is a specific xenobiotic receptor inhibitor and has no cytotoxic effects up to 30 µM; 2) inhibits CAR-mediated gene expression in primary human hepatocytes, where CAR is endogenously expressed; 3) does not alter the protein levels or subcellular localization of CAR; 4) increases corepressor and reduces coactivator interaction with the CAR ligand-binding domain in mammalian two-hybrid assays; and 5) disrupts CAR binding to the promoter regions of target genes in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. CINPA1 could be used as a novel molecular tool for understanding CAR function. PMID:25762023

  14. Transcriptional activation by the thyroid hormone receptor through ligand-dependent receptor recruitment and chromatin remodelling.

    PubMed

    Grøntved, Lars; Waterfall, Joshua J; Kim, Dong Wook; Baek, Songjoon; Sung, Myong-Hee; Zhao, Li; Park, Jeong Won; Nielsen, Ronni; Walker, Robert L; Zhu, Yuelin J; Meltzer, Paul S; Hager, Gordon L; Cheng, Sheue-yann

    2015-04-28

    A bimodal switch model is widely used to describe transcriptional regulation by the thyroid hormone receptor (TR). In this model, the unliganded TR forms stable, chromatin-bound complexes with transcriptional co-repressors to repress transcription. Binding of hormone dissociates co-repressors and facilitates recruitment of co-activators to activate transcription. Here we show that in addition to hormone-independent TR occupancy, ChIP-seq against endogenous TR in mouse liver tissue demonstrates considerable hormone-induced TR recruitment to chromatin associated with chromatin remodelling and activated gene transcription. Genome-wide footprinting analysis using DNase-seq provides little evidence for TR footprints both in the absence and presence of hormone, suggesting that unliganded TR engagement with repressive complexes on chromatin is, similar to activating receptor complexes, a highly dynamic process. This dynamic and ligand-dependent interaction with chromatin is likely shared by all steroid hormone receptors regardless of their capacity to repress transcription in the absence of ligand.

  15. 5-HT1A/1B Receptors as Targets for Optimizing Pigmentary Responses in C57BL/6 Mouse Skin to Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hua-Li; Pang, Si-Lin; Liu, Qiong-Zhen; Wang, Qian; Cai, Min-Xuan; Shang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Stress has been reported to induce alterations of skin pigmentary response. Acute stress is associated with increased turnover of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) whereas chronic stress causes a decrease. 5-HT receptors have been detected in pigment cells, indicating their role in skin pigmentation. To ascertain the precise role of 5-HT in stress-induced pigmentary responses, C57BL/6 mice were subjected to chronic restraint stress and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CRS and CUMS, two models of chronic stress) for 21 days, finally resulting in abnormal pigmentary responses. Subsequently, stressed mice were characterized by the absence of a black pigment in dorsal coat. The down-regulation of tyrosinase (TYR) and tyrosinase-related proteins (TRP1 and TRP2) expression in stressed skin was accompanied by reduced levels of 5-HT and decreased expression of 5-HT receptor (5-HTR) system. In both murine B16F10 melanoma cells and normal human melanocytes (NHMCs), 5-HT had a stimulatory effect on melanin production, dendricity and migration. When treated with 5-HT in cultured hair follicles (HFs), the increased expression of melanogenesis-related genes and the activation of 5-HT1A, 1B and 7 receptors also occurred. The serum obtained from stressed mice showed significantly decreased tyrosinase activity in NHMCs compared to that from nonstressed mice. The decrease in tyrosinase activity was further augmented in the presence of 5-HTR1A, 1B and 7 antagonists, WAY100635, SB216641 and SB269970. In vivo, stressed mice received 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP), a member of the class of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (fluoxetine; FX) and 5-HTR1A/1B agonists (8-OH-DPAT/CP94253), finally contributing to the normalization of pigmentary responses. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that the serotoninergic system plays an important role in the regulation of stress-induced depigmentation, which can be mediated by 5-HT1A/1B receptors. 5-HT and 5-HTR1A

  16. Modulation of postsynaptic potentials in rat cortical neurons by valerian extracts macerated with different alcohols: involvement of adenosine A(1)- and GABA(A)-receptors.

    PubMed

    Sichardt, K; Vissiennon, Z; Koetter, U; Brattström, A; Nieber, K

    2007-10-01

    Valeriana officinalis (valerian) is used traditionally as a mild sedative. Research into valerian is sparse, and studies differ greatly with respect to design, measures and preparations used. This study compares the action of a methanol (M-E), ethanol (E-E) and an extract macerated with ethylacetate (EA-E) from roots of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L., Valerianaceae) on postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) in cortical neurons. Intracellular recordings were performed in rat brain slice preparations containing pyramidal cells of the cingulate cortex. PSPs were induced by electrical field stimulation. The M-E induced strong inhibition in the concentration range 0.1-15 mg/mL, whereas the E-E (1-10 mg/mL) did not influence significantly the PSPs. The maximum inhibition induced by the M-E was completely antagonized by 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX, 0.1 microm), an antagonist on the adenosine A(1) receptor. Contrary to the M-E, the EA-E (10 mg/mL) induced an increase of the PSPs, which was completely blocked by the GABA(A) receptor antagonist picrotoxin (100 microm). The data suggest that activation of adenosine A(1) and GABA(A) receptors is mediated by different components within the valerian extract. The two mechanisms may contribute independently to the sleep-inducing effect of valerian.

  17. Malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) adducted surfactant protein induced lung inflammation is mediated through scavenger receptor a (SR-A1).

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Muna; DeVasure, Jane M; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Wyatt, Todd A

    2017-02-13

    Co-exposure to cigarette smoke and alcohol leads to the generation of high concentrations of acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde in the lung. These aldehydes being highly electrophilic in nature react with biologically relevant proteins such as surfactant protein D (SPD) through a Schiff base reaction to generate SPD adducted malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde adduct (SPD-MAA) in mouse lung. SPD-MAA results in an increase in lung pro-inflammatory chemokine, keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), and the recruitment of lung lavage neutrophils. Previous in vitro studies in bronchial epithelial cells and macrophages show that scavenger receptor A (SR-A1/CD204) is a major receptor for SPD-MAA. No studies have yet examined the in vivo role of SR-A1 in MAA-mediated lung inflammation. Therefore, we hypothesize that in the absence of SR-A1, MAA-induced inflammation in the lung is reduced or diminished. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6 WT and SR-A1 KO mice were nasally instilled with 50 μg/mL of SPD-MAA for 3 weeks (wks). After 3 weeks, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected and assayed for a total cell count, a differential cell count and CXCL1 (KC) chemokine. Lung tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and antibodies to MAA adduct. Results showed that BAL cellularity and influx of neutrophils were decreased in SR-A1 KO mice as compared to WT following repetitive SPD-MAA exposure. MAA adduct staining in the lung epithelium was decreased in SR-A1 KO mice. In comparison to WT, no increase in CXCL1 was observed in BAL fluid from SR-A1 KO mice over time. Overall, the data demonstrate that SR-A1/CD204 plays an important role in SPD-MAA induced inflammation in lung.

  18. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) by their ligands and protein kinase A activators

    PubMed Central

    Lazennec, Gwendal; Canaple, Laurence; Saugy, Damien; Wahli, Walter

    2000-01-01

    The nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) α, β and γ activate the transcription of multiple genes involved in lipid metabolism. Several natural and synthetic ligands have been identified for each PPAR isotype but little is known about the phosphorylation state of these receptors. We show here that activators of protein kinase A (PKA) can enhance mouse PPAR activity in the absence and the presence of exogenous ligands in transient transfection experiments. The activation function 1 (AF-1) of PPARs was dispensable for transcriptional enhancement, whereas the activation function 2 (AF-2) was required for this effect. We also show that several domains of PPAR can be phosphorylated by PKA in vitro. Moreover, gel experiments suggest that PKA stabilizes binding of the liganded PPAR to DNA. PKA inhibitors decreased not only the kinase dependent induction of PPARs but also their ligand-dependent induction, suggesting that the ligands may also mobilize the PKA pathway to lead to maximal transcriptional induction by PPARs. Moreover, comparing PPARα KO with PPARα wild-type mice, we show that the expression of the ACO gene can be regulated by PKA-activated PPARα in liver. These data demonstrate that the PKA pathway is an important modulator of PPAR activity and we propose a model associating this pathway in the control of fatty acid β-oxidation under conditions of fasting, stress and exercise. PMID:11117527

  19. Hypoxia perturbs aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and CYP1A1 expression induced by PCB 126 in human skin and liver-derived cell lines.

    PubMed

    Vorrink, Sabine U; Severson, Paul L; Kulak, Mikhail V; Futscher, Bernard W; Domann, Frederick E

    2014-02-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an important mediator of toxic responses after exposure to xenobiotics including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Activation of AhR responsive genes requires AhR dimerization with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), a heterodimeric partner also shared by the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein. TCDD-stimulated AhR transcriptional activity can be influenced by hypoxia; however, it less well known whether hypoxia interferes with AhR transcriptional transactivation in the context of PCB-mediated AhR activation in human cells. Elucidation of this interaction is important in liver hepatocytes which extensively metabolize ingested PCBs and experience varying degrees of oxygen tension during normal physiologic function. This study was designed to assess the effect of hypoxia on AhR transcriptional responses after exposure to 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126). Exposure to 1% O2 prior to PCB 126 treatment significantly inhibited CYP1A1 mRNA and protein expression in human HepG2 and HaCaT cells. CYP1A1 transcriptional activation was significantly decreased upon PCB 126 stimulation under conditions of hypoxia. Additionally, hypoxia pre-treatment reduced PCB 126 induced AhR binding to CYP1 target gene promoters. Importantly, ARNT overexpression rescued cells from the inhibitory effect of hypoxia on XRE-luciferase reporter activity. Therefore, the mechanism of interference of the signaling crosstalk between the AhR and hypoxia pathways appears to be at least in part dependent on ARNT availability. Our results show that AhR activation and CYP1A1 expression induced by PCB 126 were significantly inhibited by hypoxia and hypoxia might therefore play an important role in PCB metabolism and toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The EphA2 Receptor and EphrinA1 Ligand in Solid Tumors: Function and Therapeutic Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Wykosky, Jill; Debinski, Waldemar

    2013-01-01

    The Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and ephrin ligands have been studied extensively for their roles in developmental processes. In recent years, Eph receptors and ephrins have been found to be integral players in cancer formation and progression. Among these are EphA2 and ephrinA1, which are involved in the development and maintenance of many different types of solid tumors. The function of EphA2 and ephrinA1 in tumorigenesis and tumor progression is complex and seems to be dependent on cell type and microenvironment. These variables affect the expression of the EphA2 and ephrinA1 proteins, the pathways through which they induce signaling, and the functional consequences of that signaling on the behavior of tumor cells and tumor-associated cells. This review will specifically focus on the roles that EphA2 and ephrinA1 play in the different cell types that contribute to the malignancy of solid tumors, with emphasis on the opportunities for therapeutic targeting. PMID:19074825

  1. Allosteric receptor activation by the plant peptide hormone phytosulfokine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jizong; Li, Hongju; Han, Zhifu; Zhang, Heqiao; Wang, Tong; Lin, Guangzhong; Chang, Junbiao; Yang, Weicai; Chai, Jijie

    2015-09-10

    Phytosulfokine (PSK) is a disulfated pentapeptide that has a ubiquitous role in plant growth and development. PSK is perceived by its receptor PSKR, a leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase (LRR-RK). The mechanisms underlying the recognition of PSK, the activation of PSKR and the identity of the components downstream of the initial binding remain elusive. Here we report the crystal structures of the extracellular LRR domain of PSKR in free, PSK- and co-receptor-bound forms. The structures reveal that PSK interacts mainly with a β-strand from the island domain of PSKR, forming an anti-β-sheet. The two sulfate moieties of PSK interact directly with PSKR, sensitizing PSKR recognition of PSK. Supported by biochemical, structural and genetic evidence, PSK binding enhances PSKR heterodimerization with the somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinases (SERKs). However, PSK is not directly involved in PSKR-SERK interaction but stabilizes PSKR island domain for recruitment of a SERK. Our data reveal the structural basis for PSKR recognition of PSK and allosteric activation of PSKR by PSK, opening up new avenues for the design of PSKR-specific small molecules.

  2. Different phenolic compounds activate distinct human bitter taste receptors.

    PubMed

    Soares, Susana; Kohl, Susann; Thalmann, Sophie; Mateus, Nuno; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; De Freitas, Victor

    2013-02-20

    Bitterness is a major sensory attribute of several common foods and beverages rich in polyphenol compounds. These compounds are reported as very important for health as chemopreventive compounds, but they are also known to taste bitter. In this work, the activation of the human bitter taste receptors, TAS2Rs, by six polyphenol compounds was analyzed. The compounds chosen are present in a wide range of plant-derived foods and beverages, namely, red wine, beer, tea, and chocolate. Pentagalloylglucose (PGG) is a hydrolyzable tannin, (-)-epicatechin is a precursor of condensed tannins, procyanidin dimer B3 and trimer C2 belong to the condensed tannins, and malvidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-glucoside are anthocyanins. The results show that the different compounds activate different combinations of the ~25 TAS2Rs. (-)-Epicatechin activated three receptors, TAS2R4, TAS2R5, and TAS2R39, whereas only two receptors, TAS2R5 and TAS2R39, responded to PGG. In contrast, malvidin-3-glucoside and procyanidin trimer stimulated only one receptor, TAS2R7 and TAS2R5, respectively. Notably, tannins are the first natural agonists found for TAS2R5 that display high potency only toward this receptor. The catechol and/or galloyl groups appear to be important structural determinants that mediate the interaction of these polyphenolic compounds with TAS2R5. Overall, the EC(50) values obtained for the different compounds vary 100-fold, with the lowest values for PGG and malvidin-3-glucoside compounds, suggesting that they could be significant polyphenols responsible for the bitterness of fruits, vegetables, and derived products even if they are present in very low concentrations.

  3. Pyrimidinergic Receptor Activation Controls Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Moreira-Souza, Aline Cristina Abreu; Marinho, Ygor; Correa, Gladys; Santoro, Giani França; Coutinho, Claudia Mara Lara Melo; Vommaro, Rossiane Claudia; Coutinho-Silva, Robson

    2015-01-01

    Infection by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is highly prevalent worldwide and may have serious clinical manifestations in immunocompromised patients. T. gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that infects almost any cell type in mammalian hosts, including immune cells. The immune cells express purinergic P2 receptors in their membrane – subdivided into P2Y and P2X subfamilies - whose activation is important for infection control. Here, we examined the effect of treatment with UTP and UDP in mouse peritoneal macrophages infected with T. gondii tachyzoites. Treatment with these nucleotides reduced parasitic load by 90%, but did not increase the levels of the inflammatory mediators NO and ROS, nor did it modulate host cell death by apoptosis or necrosis. On the other hand, UTP and UDP treatments induced early egress of tachyzoites from infected macrophages, in a Ca2+-dependent manner, as shown by scanning electron microscopy analysis, and videomicroscopy. In subsequent infections, prematurely egressed parasites had reduced infectivity, and could neither replicate nor inhibit the fusion of lysosomes to the parasitophorous vacuole. The use of selective agonists and antagonists of the receptor subtypes P2Y2 and P2Y4 and P2Y6 showed that premature parasite egress may be mediated by the activation of these receptor subtypes. Our results suggest that the activity of P2Y host cell receptors controls T. gondii infection in macrophages, highlighting the importance of pyrimidinergic signaling for innate immune system response against infection. Finally the P2Y receptors should be considered as new target for the development of drugs against T. gondii infection. PMID:26192447

  4. Adenosine A2A receptor agonists with potent antiplatelet activity.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Fuentes, Manuel; Caballero, Julio; Palomo, Iván; Hinz, Sonja; El-Tayeb, Ali; Müller, Christa E

    2018-05-01

    Selected adenosine A 2A receptor agonists (PSB-15826, PSB-12404, and PSB-16301) have been evaluated as new antiplatelet agents. In addition, radioligand-binding studies and receptor-docking experiments were performed in order to explain their differential biological effects on a molecular level. Among the tested adenosine derivatives, PSB-15826 was the most potent compound to inhibit platelet aggregation (EC 50 0.32 ± 0.05 µmol/L) and platelet P-selectin cell-surface localization (EC 50 0.062 ± 0.2 µmol/L), and to increase intraplatelets cAMP levels (EC 50 0.24 ± 0.01 µmol/L). The compound was more active than CGS21680 (EC 50 0.97±0.07 µmol/L) and equipotent to NECA (EC 50 0.31 ± 0.05 µmol/L) in platelet aggregation induced by ADP. In contrast to the results from cAMP assays, K i values determined in radioligand-binding studies were not predictive of the A 2A agonists' antiplatelet activity. Docking studies revealed the key molecular determinants of this new family of adenosine A 2A receptor agonists: differences in activities are related to π-stacking interactions between the ligands and the residue His264 in the extracellular loop of the adenosine A 2A receptor which may result in increased residence times. In conclusion, these results provide an improved understanding of the requirements of antiplatelet adenosine A 2A receptor agonists.

  5. The Growth Hormone Receptor: Mechanism of Receptor Activation, Cell Signaling, and Physiological Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Dehkhoda, Farhad; Lee, Christine M. M.; Medina, Johan; Brooks, Andrew J.

    2018-01-01

    The growth hormone receptor (GHR), although most well known for regulating growth, has many other important biological functions including regulating metabolism and controlling physiological processes related to the hepatobiliary, cardiovascular, renal, gastrointestinal, and reproductive systems. In addition, growth hormone signaling is an important regulator of aging and plays a significant role in cancer development. Growth hormone activates the Janus kinase (JAK)–signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway, and recent studies have provided a new understanding of the mechanism of JAK2 activation by growth hormone binding to its receptor. JAK2 activation is required for growth hormone-mediated activation of STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5, and the negative regulation of JAK–STAT signaling comprises an important step in the control of this signaling pathway. The GHR also activates the Src family kinase signaling pathway independent of JAK2. This review covers the molecular mechanisms of GHR activation and signal transduction as well as the physiological consequences of growth hormone signaling. PMID:29487568

  6. Metformin suppresses CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in breast cancer cells by down-regulating aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression

    SciTech Connect

    Do, Minh Truong; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Tran, Thi Thu Phuong

    2014-10-01

    Induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1B1 by environmental xenobiotic chemicals or endogenous ligands through the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes related to cancer, such as transformation and tumorigenesis. Here, we investigated the effects of the anti-diabetes drug metformin on expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in breast cancer cells under constitutive and inducible conditions. Our results indicated that metformin down-regulated the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in breast cancer cells under constitutive and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced conditions. Down-regulation of AhR expression was required for metformin-mediated decreases in CYP1A1 andmore » CYP1B1 expression, and the metformin-mediated CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 reduction is irrelevant to estrogen receptor α (ERα) signaling. Furthermore, we found that metformin markedly down-regulated Sp1 protein levels in breast cancer cells. The use of genetic and pharmacological tools revealed that metformin-mediated down-regulation of AhR expression was mediated through the reduction of Sp1 protein. Metformin inhibited endogenous AhR ligand-induced CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression by suppressing tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) expression in MCF-7 cells. Finally, metformin inhibits TDO expression through a down-regulation of Sp1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein levels. Our findings demonstrate that metformin reduces CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in breast cancer cells by down-regulating AhR signaling. Metformin would be able to act as a potential chemopreventive agent against CYP1A1 and CYP1B1-mediated carcinogenesis and development of cancer. - Graphical abstract: Schematic of the CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 gene regulation by metformin. - Highlights: • Metformin inhibits CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression. • Metformin down-regulates the AhR signaling. • Metformin reduces Sp1 protein expression. • Metformin suppresses TDO

  7. Thrombin Receptors and Protease-Activated Receptor-2 in Human Placentation

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Peter J.; Koi, Hideki; Parry, Samuel; Brass, Lawrence F.; Strauss, Jerome F.; Wang, Li-Peng; Tomaszewski, John E.; Christenson, Lane K.

    2003-01-01

    Proteolysis of the thrombin receptor, protease activated receptor-1 (PAR1), may enhance normal and pathological cellular invasion, and indirect evidence suggests that activation of PAR1 expressed by invasive extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) influences human placentation. Here we describe PAR1, PAR2, and PAR3 protein distribution in the developing human placenta and implicate PAR1 and PAR2 activation in functions central to EVT invasion. PAR1, PAR2, and PAR3 are expressed in cultured 8- to 13-week-old EVTs, and in situ in 18- to 20-week-old placental syncytiotrophoblasts and invasive trophoblasts. Thrombin, but not the PAR2 agonist peptide SLIGKV, inhibited proliferation in cultured EVTs, although both agonists stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis and EVT invasion through Matrigel barriers. Thrombin-induced phosphoinositide hydrolysis was completely inhibited and the thrombin effect on proliferation was prevented when PAR1 cleavage was first blocked with specific monoclonal antibodies, indicating that PAR1 is the predominant thrombin receptor on EVTs. Together these results support a role for PAR1, and potentially PAR2 and PAR3 in the invasive phase of human placentation. PMID:14507634

  8. A novel mechanism of renal blood flow autoregulation and the autoregulatory role of A1 adenosine receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Just, Armin; Arendshorst, William J

    2007-11-01

    Autoregulation of renal blood flow (RBF) is mediated by a fast myogenic response (MR; approximately 5 s), a slower tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF; approximately 25 s), and potentially additional mechanisms. A1 adenosine receptors (A1AR) mediate TGF in superficial nephrons and contribute to overall autoregulation, but the impact on the other autoregulatory mechanisms is unknown. We studied dynamic autoregulatory responses of RBF to rapid step increases of renal artery pressure in mice. MR was estimated from autoregulation within the first 5 s, TGF from that at 5-25 s, and a third mechanism from 25-100 s. Genetic deficiency of A1AR (A1AR-/-) reduced autoregulation at 5-25 s by 50%, indicating a residual fourth mechanism resembling TGF kinetics but independent of A1AR. MR and third mechanism were unaltered in A1AR-/-. Autoregulation in A1AR-/- was faster at 5-25 than at 25-100 s suggesting two separate mechanisms. Furosemide in wild-type mice (WT) eliminated the third mechanism and enhanced MR, indicating TGF-MR interaction. In A1AR-/-, furosemide did not further impair autoregulation at 5-25 s, but eliminated the third mechanism and enhanced MR. The resulting time course was the same as during furosemide in WT, indicating that A1AR do not affect autoregulation during furosemide inhibition of TGF. We conclude that at least one novel mechanism complements MR and TGF in RBF autoregulation, that is slower than MR and TGF and sensitive to furosemide, but not mediated by A1AR. A fourth mechanism with kinetics similar to TGF but independent of A1AR and furosemide might also contribute. A1AR mediate classical TGF but not TGF-MR interaction.

  9. Functional relevance of G-protein-coupled-receptor-associated proteins, exemplified by receptor-activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs).

    PubMed

    Fischer, J A; Muff, R; Born, W

    2002-08-01

    The calcitonin (CT) receptor (CTR) and the CTR-like receptor (CRLR) are close relatives within the type II family of G-protein-coupled receptors, demonstrating sequence identity of 50%. Unlike the interaction between CT and CTR, receptors for the related hormones and neuropeptides amylin, CT-gene-related peptide (CGRP) and adrenomedullin (AM) require one of three accessory receptor-activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) for ligand recognition. An amylin/CGRP receptor is revealed when CTR is co-expressed with RAMP1. When complexed with RAMP3, CTR interacts with amylin alone. CRLR, initially classed as an orphan receptor, is a CGRP receptor when co-expressed with RAMP1. The same receptor is specific for AM in the presence of RAMP2. Together with human RAMP3, CRLR defines an AM receptor, and with mouse RAMP3 it is a low-affinity CGRP/AM receptor. CTR-RAMP1, antagonized preferentially by salmon CT-(8-32) and not by CGRP-(8-37), and CRLR-RAMP1, antagonized by CGRP-(8-37), are two CGRP receptor isotypes. Thus amylin and CGRP interact specifically with heterodimeric complexes between CTR and RAMP1 or RAMP3, and CGRP and AM interact with complexes between CRLR and RAMP1, RAMP2 or RAMP3.

  10. Protease-activated receptor 2, a receptor involved in melanosome transfer, is upregulated in human skin by ultraviolet irradiation.

    PubMed

    Scott, G; Deng, A; Rodriguez-Burford, C; Seiberg, M; Han, R; Babiarz, L; Grizzle, W; Bell, W; Pentland, A

    2001-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that the protease-activated receptor 2 is involved in skin pigmentation through increased phagocytosis of melanosomes by keratinocytes. Ultraviolet irradiation is a potent stimulus for melanosome transfer. We show that protease-activated receptor 2 expression in human skin is upregulated by ultraviolet irradiation. Subjects with skin type I, II, or III were exposed to two or three minimal erythema doses of irradiation from a solar simulator. Biopsies were taken from nonexposed and irradiated skin 24 and 96 h after irradiation and protease-activated receptor 2 expression was detected using immunohistochemical staining. In nonirradiated skin, protease-activated receptor 2 expression was confined to keratinocytes in the lower one-third of the epidermis. After ultraviolet irradiation protease-activated receptor 2 expression was observed in keratinocytes in the upper two-thirds of the epidermis or the entire epidermis at both time points studied. Subjects with skin type I showed delayed upregulation of protease-activated receptor 2 expression, however, compared with subjects with skin types II and III. Irradiated cultured human keratinocytes showed upregulation in protease-activated receptor 2 expression as determined by immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting. Cell culture supernatants from irradiated keratinocytes also exhibited a dose-dependent increase in protease-activated receptor-2 cleavage activity. These results suggest an important role for protease-activated receptor-2 in pigmentation in vivo. Differences in protease-activated receptor 2 regulation in type I skin compared with skin types II and III suggest a potential mechanism for differences in tanning in subjects with different skin types.

  11. Human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor mRNA and protein expression during development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are nuclear hormone receptors that regulate lipid and glucose homeostasis and are important in reproduction and development. PPARs are targets ofpharmaceuticals and are also activated by environmental contaminants, including ...

  12. Manipulation of P2X Receptor Activities by Light Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Seong

    2016-01-01

    P2X receptors are involved in amplification of inflammatory responses in peripheral nociceptive fibers and in mediating pain-related signals to the CNS. Control of P2X activation has significant importance in managing unwanted hypersensitive neuron responses. To overcome the limitations of chemical ligand treatment, optical stimulation methods of optogenetics and photoswitching achieve efficient control of P2X activation while allowing specificity at the target site and convenient stimulation by light illumination. There are many potential applications for photosensitive elements, such as improved uncaging methods, photoisomerizable ligands, photoswitches, and gold nanoparticles. Each technique has both advantages and downsides, and techniques are selected according to the purpose of the application. Technical advances not only provide novel approaches to manage inflammation or pain mediated by P2X receptors but also suggest a similar approach for controlling other ion channels. PMID:26884649

  13. Manipulation of P2X Receptor Activities by Light Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Seong

    2016-01-01

    P2X receptors are involved in amplification of inflammatory responses in peripheral nociceptive fibers and in mediating pain-related signals to the CNS. Control of P2X activation has significant importance in managing unwanted hypersensitive neuron responses. To overcome the limitations of chemical ligand treatment, optical stimulation methods of optogenetics and photoswitching achieve efficient control of P2X activation while allowing specificity at the target site and convenient stimulation by light illumination. There are many potential applications for photosensitive elements, such as improved uncaging methods, photoisomerizable ligands, photoswitches, and gold nanoparticles. Each technique has both advantages and downsides, and techniques are selected according to the purpose of the application. Technical advances not only provide novel approaches to manage inflammation or pain mediated by P2X receptors but also suggest a similar approach for controlling other ion channels.

  14. Visualising Androgen Receptor Activity in Male and Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dart, D. Alwyn; Waxman, Jonathan; Aboagye, Eric O.; Bevan, Charlotte L.

    2013-01-01

    Androgens, required for normal development and fertility of males and females, have vital roles in the reproductive tract, brain, cardiovascular system, smooth muscle and bone. Androgens function via the androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor. To assay and localise AR activity in vivo we generated the transgenic “ARE-Luc” mouse, expressing a luciferase reporter gene under the control of activated endogenous AR. In vivo imaging of androgen-mediated luciferase activity revealed several strongly expressing tissues in the male mouse as expected and also in certain female tissues. In males the testes, prostate, seminal vesicles and bone marrow all showed high AR activity. In females, strong activity was seen in the ovaries, uterus, omentum tissue and mammary glands. In both sexes AR expression and activity was also found in salivary glands, the eye (and associated glands), adipose tissue, spleen and, notably, regions of the brain. Luciferase protein expression was found in the same cell layers as androgen receptor expression. Additionally, mouse AR expression and activity correlated well with AR expression in human tissues. The anti-androgen bicalutamide reduced luciferase signal in all tissues. Our model demonstrates that androgens can act in these tissues directly via AR, rather than exclusively via androgen aromatisation to estrogens and activation of the estrogen receptor. Additionally, it visually demonstrates the fundamental importance of AR signalling outside the normal role in the reproductive organs. This model represents an important tool for physiological and developmental analysis of androgen signalling, and for characterization of known and novel androgenic or antiandrogenic compounds. PMID:23940781

  15. Association analysis of the vitamin D receptor gene, the type I collagen gene COL1A1, and the estrogen receptor gene in idiopathic osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Loughlin, J; Sinsheimer, J S; Mustafa, Z; Carr, A J; Clipsham, K; Bloomfield, V A; Chitnavis, J; Bailey, A; Sykes, B; Chapman, K

    2000-03-01

    Evidence has accumulated supporting a role for genes in the etiology of osteoarthritis (OA). Several candidates have been targeted as potential susceptibility loci including genes that are involved in the regulation of bone density. Genetic association analysis has suggested a role for the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) and the estrogen receptor gene (ER) in susceptibility. Such findings must be tested in additional independent cohorts. We tested for association of these 2 genes, plus a third gene implicated in bone density, COL1A1, with idiopathic OA. A case-control cohort of 371 affected probands and 369 unaffected spouses was used. Association was tested using 4 intragenic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), one each for the VDR and COL1A1 genes, and 2 for the ER gene. The VDR and ER SNP are the same SNP that have been associated with OA. All 4 SNP affect restriction enzyme sites and were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction and enzyme digestion. Allele and genotype distributions for each SNP were compared between cases and controls and analyzed using Fisher's exact test. There was no evidence of association of the VDR or the ER gene SNP to OA. There was weak evidence of association of the COL1A1 SNP in female cases (p = 0.017), reflected by a difference in the distribution of genotypes at this SNP between female cases and controls (p = 0.027). However, when corrected for multiple testing, these results were not significant. If the VDR, ER, or COL1A1 genes do encode predisposition to OA then the 4 SNP tested are not associated with major susceptibility alleles at these 3 loci.

  16. A 1 GHz Oscillator-Type Active Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Jennifer L.; Scardelletti, Maximilian; Ponchak, George E.

    2008-01-01

    Wireless sensors are desired for monitoring aircraft engines, automotive engines, industrial machinery, and many other applications. The most important requirement of sensors is that they do not interfere with the environment that they are monitoring. Therefore, wireless sensors must be small, which demands a high level of integration. Sensors that modulate an oscillator active antenna have advantages of small size, high level of integration, and lower packaging cost. Several types of oscillator active antennas have been reported. Ip et al. demonstrated a CPW line fed patch antenna with a feedback loop [1]. No degradation in performance was noticed without a ground plane. A GaAs FET was used in an amplifier/oscillator-based active antenna [2]. An oscillator based on a Cree SiC transistor was designed and characterized in [3]. This paper reports the integration of the SiC Clapp oscillator to a slotline loop antenna.

  17. Nuclear receptor-mediated regulation of carboxylesterase expression and activity.

    PubMed

    Staudinger, Jeff L; Xu, Chenshu; Cui, Yue J; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2010-03-01

    Emerging evidence demonstrates that several nuclear receptor (NR) family members regulate drug-inducible expression and activity of several important carboxylesterase (CES) enzymes in mammalian liver and intestine. Numerous clinically prescribed anticancer prodrugs, carbamate and pyrethroid insecticides, environmental toxicants and procarcinogens are substrates for CES enzymes. Moreover, a key strategy used in rational drug design frequently utilizes an ester linkage methodology to selectively target a prodrug, or to improve the water solubility of a novel compound. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding NR-mediated regulation of CES enzymes in mammals and highlights their importance in drug metabolism, drug-drug interactions and toxicology. New knowledge regarding the transcriptional regulation of CES enzymes by NR proteins pregnane x receptor (NR1I2) and constitutive androstane receptor (NR1I3) has recently come to light through the use of knockout and transgenic mouse models. Novel insights regarding the species-specific cross-regulation of glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) and PPAR-alpha (NR1C1) signaling and CES gene expression are discussed. Elucidation of the role of NR-mediated regulation of CES enzymes in liver and intestine will have a significant impact on rational drug design and the development of novel prodrugs, especially for patients on combination therapy.

  18. Phosphatidic acid phospholipase A1 mediates ER–Golgi transit of a family of G protein–coupled receptors

    PubMed Central

    Kunduri, Govind; Yuan, Changqing; Parthibane, Velayoudame; Nyswaner, Katherine M.; Kanwar, Ritu; Nagashima, Kunio; Britt, Steven G.; Mehta, Nickita; Kotu, Varshika; Porterfield, Mindy; Tiemeyer, Michael; Dolph, Patrick J.; Acharya, Usha

    2014-01-01

    The coat protein II (COPII)–coated vesicular system transports newly synthesized secretory and membrane proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi complex. Recruitment of cargo into COPII vesicles requires an interaction of COPII proteins either with the cargo molecules directly or with cargo receptors for anterograde trafficking. We show that cytosolic phosphatidic acid phospholipase A1 (PAPLA1) interacts with COPII protein family members and is required for the transport of Rh1 (rhodopsin 1), an N-glycosylated G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR), from the ER to the Golgi complex. In papla1 mutants, in the absence of transport to the Golgi, Rh1 is aberrantly glycosylated and is mislocalized. These defects lead to decreased levels of the protein and decreased sensitivity of the photoreceptors to light. Several GPCRs, including other rhodopsins and Bride of sevenless, are similarly affected. Our findings show that a cytosolic protein is necessary for transit of selective transmembrane receptor cargo by the COPII coat for anterograde trafficking. PMID:25002678

  19. Pulmonary stretch receptor afferents activate excitatory amino acid receptors in the nucleus tractus solitarii in rats.

    PubMed

    Bonham, A C; Coles, S K; McCrimmon, D R

    1993-05-01

    1. The goal of the present study was to identify potential neurotransmitter candidates in the Breuer-Hering (BH) reflex pathway, specifically at synapses between the primary afferents and probable second-order neurones (pump cells) within the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). We hypothesized that if activation of specific receptors in the NTS is required for production of the BH reflex, then (1) injection of the receptor agonist(s) would mimic the reflex response (apnoea), (2) injection of appropriate antagonists would impair the apnoea produced by either lung inflation or agonist injection, and (3) second-order neurones in the pathway would be excited by either lung inflation or agonists while antagonists would prevent the response to either. 2. Studies were carried out either in spontaneously breathing or in paralysed, thoracotomized and ventilated rats in which either diaphragm EMG or phrenic nerve activity, expired CO2 concentration and arterial pressure were continuously monitored. The BH reflex was physiologically activated by inflating the lungs. 3. Pressure injections (0.03-15 pmol) of selective excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptor agonists, quisqualic acid (Quis) and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) into an area of the NTS shown previously to contain neurones required for production of the BH reflex produced dose-dependent apnoeas that mimicked the response to lung inflation. Injection of substance P (0.03-4 pmol) did not alter baseline respiratory pattern. 4. Injections of the EAA antagonists, kynurenic acid (Kyn; 0.6-240 pmol), 6-cyano-7-nitro-quinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) or 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX) into the BH region of the NTS reversibly impaired the apnoea produced by lung inflation. All three antagonists reduced or abolished the apnoeas resulting from injection of Quis or NMDA, and slowed baseline respiratory frequency. In contrast, injections of the highly selective NMDA receptor antagonist, D-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acids (AP5), in

  20. Activation of adenosine low-affinity A3 receptors inhibits the enteric short interplexus neural circuit triggered by histamine.

    PubMed

    Bozarov, Andrey; Wang, Yu-Zhong; Yu, Jun Ge; Wunderlich, Jacqueline; Hassanain, Hamdy H; Alhaj, Mazin; Cooke, Helen J; Grants, Iveta; Ren, Tianhua; Christofi, Fievos L

    2009-12-01

    We tested the novel hypothesis that endogenous adenosine (eADO) activates low-affinity A3 receptors in a model of neurogenic diarrhea in the guinea pig colon. Dimaprit activation of H2 receptors was used to trigger a cyclic coordinated response of contraction and Cl(-) secretion. Contraction-relaxation was monitored by sonomicrometry (via intracrystal distance) simultaneously with short-circuit current (I(sc), Cl(-) secretion). The short interplexus reflex coordinated response was attenuated or abolished by antagonists at H2 (cimetidine), 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 receptor (RS39604), neurokinin-1 receptor (GR82334), or nicotinic (mecamylamine) receptors. The A1 agonist 2-chloro-N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA) abolished coordinated responses, and A1 antagonists could restore normal responses. A1-selective antagonists alone [8-cyclopentyltheophylline (CPT), 1,3-dipropyl-8-(2-amino-4-chlorophenyl)xanthine (PACPX), or 8-cyclopentyl-N(3)-[3-(4-(fluorosulfonyl)benzoyloxy)propyl]-xanthine (FSCPX)] caused a concentration-dependent augmentation of crypt cell secretion or contraction and acted at nanomolar concentrations. The A3 agonist N(6)-(3-iodobenzyl)-adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide (IB-MECA) abolished coordinated responses and the A3 antagonist 3-ethyl-5-benzyl-2-methyl-4-phenylethynyl-6-phenyl-1,4-(+/-)-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate (MRS1191) could restore and further augment responses. The IB-MECA effect was resistant to knockdown of adenosine A1 receptor with the irreversible antagonist FSCPX; the IC(50) for IB-MECA was 0.8 microM. MRS1191 alone could augment or unmask coordinated responses to dimaprit, and IB-MECA suppressed them. MRS1191 augmented distension-evoked reflex I(sc) responses. Adenosine deaminase mimicked actions of adenosine receptor antagonists. A3 receptor immunoreactivity was differentially expressed in enteric neurons of different parts of colon. After tetrodotoxin, IB-MECA caused circular muscle relaxation. The data support the novel concept that

  1. Activation of adenosine low-affinity A3 receptors inhibits the enteric short interplexus neural circuit triggered by histamine

    PubMed Central

    Bozarov, Andrey; Wang, Yu-Zhong; Yu, Jun Ge; Wunderlich, Jacqueline; Hassanain, Hamdy H.; Alhaj, Mazin; Cooke, Helen J.; Grants, Iveta; Ren, Tianhua

    2009-01-01

    We tested the novel hypothesis that endogenous adenosine (eADO) activates low-affinity A3 receptors in a model of neurogenic diarrhea in the guinea pig colon. Dimaprit activation of H2 receptors was used to trigger a cyclic coordinated response of contraction and Cl− secretion. Contraction-relaxation was monitored by sonomicrometry (via intracrystal distance) simultaneously with short-circuit current (Isc, Cl− secretion). The short interplexus reflex coordinated response was attenuated or abolished by antagonists at H2 (cimetidine), 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 receptor (RS39604), neurokinin-1 receptor (GR82334), or nicotinic (mecamylamine) receptors. The A1 agonist 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA) abolished coordinated responses, and A1 antagonists could restore normal responses. A1-selective antagonists alone [8-cyclopentyltheophylline (CPT), 1,3-dipropyl-8-(2-amino-4-chlorophenyl)xanthine (PACPX), or 8-cyclopentyl-N3-[3-(4-(fluorosulfonyl)benzoyloxy)propyl]-xanthine (FSCPX)] caused a concentration-dependent augmentation of crypt cell secretion or contraction and acted at nanomolar concentrations. The A3 agonist N6-(3-iodobenzyl)-adenosine-5′-N-methyluronamide (IB-MECA) abolished coordinated responses and the A3 antagonist 3-ethyl-5-benzyl-2-methyl-4-phenylethynyl-6-phenyl-1,4-(±)-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate (MRS1191) could restore and further augment responses. The IB-MECA effect was resistant to knockdown of adenosine A1 receptor with the irreversible antagonist FSCPX; the IC50 for IB-MECA was 0.8 μM. MRS1191 alone could augment or unmask coordinated responses to dimaprit, and IB-MECA suppressed them. MRS1191 augmented distension-evoked reflex Isc responses. Adenosine deaminase mimicked actions of adenosine receptor antagonists. A3 receptor immunoreactivity was differentially expressed in enteric neurons of different parts of colon. After tetrodotoxin, IB-MECA caused circular muscle relaxation. The data support the novel concept that eADO acts at

  2. Activation of RIG-I-like Receptor Signal Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Bruns, Annie; Horvath, Curt M.

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian cells have the ability to recognize virus infection and mount a powerful antiviral response. Pattern recognition receptor proteins detect molecular signatures of virus infection and activate antiviral signaling cascades. The RIG-I-like receptors are cytoplasmic DExD/H box proteins that can specifically recognize virus-derived RNA species as a molecular feature discriminating the pathogen from the host. The RIG-I-like receptor family is composed of three homologous proteins, RIG-I, MDA5, and LGP2. All of these proteins can bind double-stranded RNA species with varying affinities via their conserved DExD/H box RNA helicase domains and C-terminal regulatory domains. The recognition of foreign RNA by the RLRs activates enzymatic functions and initiates signal transduction pathways resulting in the production of antiviral cytokines and the establishment of a broadly effective cellular antiviral state that protects neighboring cells from infection and triggers innate and adaptive immune systems. The propagation of this signal via the interferon antiviral system has been studied extensively, while the precise roles for enzymatic activities of the RNA helicase domain in antiviral responses are only beginning to be elucidated. Here, current models for RLR ligand recognition and signaling are reviewed. PMID:22066529

  3. Structural insights into μ-opioid receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Weijiao; Manglik, Aashish; Venkatakrishnan, A. J.; Laeremans, Toon; Feinberg, Evan N.; Sanborn, Adrian L.; Kato, Hideaki E.; Livingston, Kathryn E.; Thorsen, Thor S.; Kling, Ralf; Granier, Sébastien; Gmeiner, Peter; Husbands, Stephen M.; Traynor, John R.; Weis, William I.; Steyaert, Jan; Dror, Ron O.; Kobilka, Brian K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Activation of the μ-opioid receptor (μOR) is responsible for the efficacy of the most effective analgesics. To understand the structural basis for μOR activation, we obtained a 2.1 Å X-ray crystal structure of the μOR bound to the morphinan agonist BU72 and stabilized by a G protein-mimetic camelid-antibody fragment. The BU72-stabilized changes in the μOR binding pocket are subtle and differ from those observed for agonist-bound structures of the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and the M2 muscarinic receptor (M2R). Comparison with active β2AR reveals a common rearrangement in the packing of three conserved amino acids in the core of the μOR, and molecular dynamics simulations illustrate how the ligand-binding pocket is conformationally linked to this conserved triad. Additionally, an extensive polar network between the ligand-binding pocket and the cytoplasmic domains appears to play a similar role in signal propagation for all three GPCRs. PMID:26245379

  4. Pharmacological activation of lysophosphatidic acid receptors regulates erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Kuan-Hung; Ho, Ya-Hsuan; Chiang, Jui-Chung; Li, Meng-Wei; Lin, Shi-Hung; Chen, Wei-Min; Chiang, Chi-Ling; Lin, Yu-Nung; Yang, Ya-Jan; Chen, Chiung-Nien; Lu, Jenher; Huang, Chang-Jen; Tigyi, Gabor; Yao, Chao-Ling; Lee, Hsinyu

    2016-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a growth factor-like phospholipid, regulates numerous physiological functions, including cell proliferation and differentiation. In a previous study, we have demonstrated that LPA activates erythropoiesis by activating the LPA 3 receptor subtype (LPA3) under erythropoietin (EPO) induction. In the present study, we applied a pharmacological approach to further elucidate the functions of LPA receptors during red blood cell (RBC) differentiation. In K562 human erythroleukemia cells, knockdown of LPA2 enhanced erythropoiesis, whereas knockdown of LPA3 inhibited RBC differentiation. In CD34+ human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSC) and K526 cells, the LPA3 agonist 1-oleoyl-2-methyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphothionate (2S-OMPT) promoted erythropoiesis, whereas the LPA2 agonist dodecyl monophosphate (DMP) and the nonlipid specific agonist GRI977143 (GRI) suppressed this process. In zebrafish embryos, hemoglobin expression was significantly increased by 2S-OMPT treatment but was inhibited by GRI. Furthermore, GRI treatment decreased, whereas 2S-OMPT treatment increased RBC counts and amount of hemoglobin level in adult BALB/c mice. These results indicate that LPA2 and LPA3 play opposing roles during RBC differentiation. The pharmacological activation of LPA receptor subtypes represent a novel strategies for augmenting or inhibiting erythropoiesis. PMID:27244685

  5. Pharmacological activation of lysophosphatidic acid receptors regulates erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kuan-Hung; Ho, Ya-Hsuan; Chiang, Jui-Chung; Li, Meng-Wei; Lin, Shi-Hung; Chen, Wei-Min; Chiang, Chi-Ling; Lin, Yu-Nung; Yang, Ya-Jan; Chen, Chiung-Nien; Lu, Jenher; Huang, Chang-Jen; Tigyi, Gabor; Yao, Chao-Ling; Lee, Hsinyu

    2016-05-31

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a growth factor-like phospholipid, regulates numerous physiological functions, including cell proliferation and differentiation. In a previous study, we have demonstrated that LPA activates erythropoiesis by activating the LPA 3 receptor subtype (LPA3) under erythropoietin (EPO) induction. In the present study, we applied a pharmacological approach to further elucidate the functions of LPA receptors during red blood cell (RBC) differentiation. In K562 human erythroleukemia cells, knockdown of LPA2 enhanced erythropoiesis, whereas knockdown of LPA3 inhibited RBC differentiation. In CD34(+) human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSC) and K526 cells, the LPA3 agonist 1-oleoyl-2-methyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphothionate (2S-OMPT) promoted erythropoiesis, whereas the LPA2 agonist dodecyl monophosphate (DMP) and the nonlipid specific agonist GRI977143 (GRI) suppressed this process. In zebrafish embryos, hemoglobin expression was significantly increased by 2S-OMPT treatment but was inhibited by GRI. Furthermore, GRI treatment decreased, whereas 2S-OMPT treatment increased RBC counts and amount of hemoglobin level in adult BALB/c mice. These results indicate that LPA2 and LPA3 play opposing roles during RBC differentiation. The pharmacological activation of LPA receptor subtypes represent a novel strategies for augmenting or inhibiting erythropoiesis.

  6. Evidence for two distinct phosphorylation pathways activated by high affinity immunoglobulin E receptors.

    PubMed

    Adamczewski, M; Paolini, R; Kinet, J P

    1992-09-05

    The high affinity receptor for immunoglobulin (Ig) E on mast cells, along with the antigen receptors on T and B cells and Fc receptors for IgG, belongs to a class of receptors which lack intrinsic kinase activity, but activate non-receptor tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases. Receptor engagement triggers a chain of signaling events leading from protein phosphorylation to activation of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, an increase in intracellular calcium levels, and ultimately the activation of more specialized functions. IgE receptor disengagement leads to reversal of phosphorylation by undefined phosphatases and to inhibition of activation pathways. Here we show that phenylarsine oxide, a chemical which reacts with thiol groups and has been reported to inhibit tyrosine phosphatases, uncouples the IgE receptor-mediated phosphorylation signal from activation of phosphatidyl inositol metabolism, the increase in intracellular calcium levels, and serotonin release. Phenylarsine oxide inhibits neither the kinases (tyrosine and serine/threonine) phosphorylating the receptor and various cellular substrates nor, unexpectedly, the phosphatases responsible for the dephosphorylation following receptor disengagement. By contrast, it abolishes the receptor-mediated phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma 1, but not phospholipase C activity in vitro. Therefore the phosphorylation and activation of phospholipase C likely requires a phenylarsine oxide-sensitive element. Receptor aggregation thus activates at least two distinct phosphorylation pathways: a phenylarsine oxide-insensitive pathway leading to phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of the receptor and of various substrates and a sensitive pathway leading to phospholipase C-gamma 1 phosphorylation.

  7. In vitro binding and receptor-mediated activity of terlipressin at vasopressin receptors V1 and V2

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Khurram; Pappas, Stephen Chris; Devarakonda, Krishna R

    2018-01-01

    Terlipressin, a synthetic, systemic vasoconstrictor with selective activity at vasopressin-1 (V1) receptors, is a pro-drug for the endogenous/natural porcine hormone [Lys8]-vasopressin (LVP). We investigated binding and receptor-mediated cellular activities of terlipressin, LVP, and endogenous human hormone [Arg8]-vasopressin (AVP) at V1 and vasopressin-2 (V2) receptors. Cell membrane homogenates of Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing human V1 and V2 receptors were used in competitive binding assays to measure receptor-binding activity. These cells were used in functional assays to measure receptor-mediated cellular activity of terlipressin, LVP, and AVP. Binding was measured by [3H]AVP counts, and the activity was measured by fluorometric detection of intracellular calcium mobilization (V1) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (V2). Binding potency at V1 and V2 was AVP>LVP>>terlipressin. LVP and terlipressin had approximately sixfold higher affinity for V1 than for V2. Cellular activity potency was also AVP>LVP>>terlipressin. Terlipressin was a partial agonist at V1 and a full agonist at V2; LVP was a full agonist at both V1 and V2. The in vivo response to terlipressin is likely due to the partial V1 agonist activity of terlipressin and full V1 agonist activity of its metabolite, LVP. These results provide supportive evidence for previous findings and further establish terlipressin pharmacology for vasopressin receptors. PMID:29302194

  8. In vitro binding and receptor-mediated activity of terlipressin at vasopressin receptors V1 and V2.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Khurram; Pappas, Stephen Chris; Devarakonda, Krishna R

    2018-01-01

    Terlipressin, a synthetic, systemic vasoconstrictor with selective activity at vasopressin-1 (V 1 ) receptors, is a pro-drug for the endogenous/natural porcine hormone [Lys 8 ]-vasopressin (LVP). We investigated binding and receptor-mediated cellular activities of terlipressin, LVP, and endogenous human hormone [Arg 8 ]-vasopressin (AVP) at V 1 and vasopressin-2 (V 2 ) receptors. Cell membrane homogenates of Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing human V 1 and V 2 receptors were used in competitive binding assays to measure receptor-binding activity. These cells were used in functional assays to measure receptor-mediated cellular activity of terlipressin, LVP, and AVP. Binding was measured by [ 3 H]AVP counts, and the activity was measured by fluorometric detection of intracellular calcium mobilization (V 1 ) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (V 2 ). Binding potency at V 1 and V 2 was AVP>LVP>terlipressin. LVP and terlipressin had approximately sixfold higher affinity for V 1 than for V 2 . Cellular activity potency was also AVP>LVP>terlipressin. Terlipressin was a partial agonist at V 1 and a full agonist at V 2 ; LVP was a full agonist at both V 1 and V 2 . The in vivo response to terlipressin is likely due to the partial V 1 agonist activity of terlipressin and full V 1 agonist activity of its metabolite, LVP. These results provide supportive evidence for previous findings and further establish terlipressin pharmacology for vasopressin receptors.

  9. Deletion of the GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit impairs recency-dependent object recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, David J.; Hindley, Emma; Smeaton, Emily; Denny, Nick; Taylor, Amy; Barkus, Chris; Sprengel, Rolf; Seeburg, Peter H.; Bannerman, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Deletion of the GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit impairs short-term spatial recognition memory. It has been suggested that short-term recognition depends upon memory caused by the recent presentation of a stimulus that is independent of contextual–retrieval processes. The aim of the present set of experiments was to test whether the role of GluA1 extends to nonspatial recognition memory. Wild-type and GluA1 knockout mice were tested on the standard object recognition task and a context-independent recognition task that required recency-dependent memory. In a first set of experiments it was found that GluA1 deletion failed to impair performance on either of the object recognition or recency-dependent tasks. However, GluA1 knockout mice displayed increased levels of exploration of the objects in both the sample and test phases compared to controls. In contrast, when the time that GluA1 knockout mice spent exploring the objects was yoked to control mice during the sample phase, it was found that GluA1 deletion now impaired performance on both the object recognition and the recency-dependent tasks. GluA1 deletion failed to impair performance on a context-dependent recognition task regardless of whether object exposure in knockout mice was yoked to controls or not. These results demonstrate that GluA1 is necessary for nonspatial as well as spatial recognition memory and plays an important role in recency-dependent memory processes. PMID:21378100

  10. Sustained ligand-activated preconditioning via δ-opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Peart, Jason N; Hoe, Louise E See; Gross, Garrett J; Headrick, John P

    2011-01-01

    We have previously described novel cardioprotection in response to sustained morphine exposure, efficacious in young to aged myocardium and mechanistically distinct from conventional opioid or preconditioning (PC) responses. We further investigate opioid-dependent sustained ligand-activated preconditioning (SLP), assessing duration of protection, opioid receptor involvement, additivity with conventional responses, and signaling underlying preischemic induction of the phenotype. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with morphine (75-mg subcutaneous pellet) for 5 days followed by morphine-free periods (0, 3, 5, or 7 days) before ex vivo assessment of myocardial tolerance to 25-min ischemia/45-min reperfusion. SLP substantially reduced infarction (by ∼50%) and postischemic contractile dysfunction (eliminating contracture, doubling force development). Cardioprotection persisted for 5 to 7 days after treatment. SLP was induced specifically by δ-receptor and not κ- or μ-opioid receptor agonism, was eliminated by δ-receptor and nonselective antagonism, and was additive with adenosinergic but not acute morphine- or PC-triggered protection. Cotreatment during preischemic morphine exposure with the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor wortmannin, but not the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor myristoylated PKI-(14-22)-amide, prevented induction of SLP. This was consistent with shifts in total and phospho-Akt during the induction period. In summary, data reveal that SLP triggers sustained protection from ischemia for up to 7 days after stimulus, is δ-opioid receptor mediated, is induced in a PI3K-dependent/PKA-independent manner, and augments adenosinergic protection. Mechanisms underlying SLP may be useful targets for manipulation of ischemic tolerance in young or aged myocardium.

  11. Diadenosine tetraphosphate stimulates atrial ANP release via A(1) receptor: involvement of K(ATP) channel and PKC.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kuichang; Cao, Chunhua; Bai, Guang Yi; Kim, Sung Zoo; Kim, Suhn Hee

    2007-07-01

    Diadenosine polyphosphates (APnAs) are endogenous compounds and exert diverse cardiovascular functions. However, the effects of APnAs on atrial ANP release and contractility have not been studied. In this study, the effects of diadenosine tetraphosphate (AP4A) on atrial ANP release and contractility, and their mechanisms were studied using isolated perfused rat atria. Treatment of atria with AP4A resulted in decreases in atrial contractility and extracellular fluid (ECF) translocation whereas ANP secretion and cAMP levels in perfusate were increased in a dose-dependent manner. These effects of AP4A were attenuated by A(1) receptor antagonist but not by A(2A) or A(3) receptor antagonist. Other purinoceptor antagonists also did not show any effects on AP4A-induced ANF release and contractility. The increment of ANP release and negative inotropy induced by AP4A was similar to those induced by AP3A, AP5A, and AP6A. Protein kinase A inhibitors accentuated AP4A-induced ANP secretion. In contrast, an inhibitor of phospholipase C, protein kinase C or sarcolemma K(ATP) channel completely blocked AP4A-induced ANP secretion. However, an inhibitor of adenylyl cyclase or mitochondria K(ATP) channel had no significant modification of AP4A effects. These results suggest that AP4A regulates atrial inotropy and ANP release mainly through A(1) receptor signaling involving phospholipase C-protein kinase C and sarcolemmal K(ATP) channel and that protein kinase A negatively modulates the effects of AP4A.

  12. The prostaglandin EP1 receptor potentiates kainate receptor activation via a protein kinase C pathway and exacerbates status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Asheebo; Gueorguieva, Paoula; Lelutiu, Nadia; Quan, Yi; Shaw, Renee; Dingledine, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) regulates membrane excitability, synaptic transmission, plasticity, and neuronal survival. The consequences of PGE2 release following seizures has been the subject of much study. Here we demonstrate that the prostaglandin E2 receptor 1 (EP1, or Ptger1) modulates native kainate receptors, a family of ionotropic glutamate receptors widely expressed throughout the central nervous system. Global ablation of the EP1 gene in mice (EP1-KO) had no effect on seizure threshold after kainate injection but reduced the likelihood to enter status epilepticus. EP1-KO mice that did experience typical status epilepticus had reduced hippocampal neurodegeneration and a blunted inflammatory response. Further studies with native prostanoid and kainate receptors in cultured cortical neurons, as well as with recombinant prostanoid and kainate receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes, demonstrated that EP1 receptor activation potentiates heteromeric but not homomeric kainate receptors via a second messenger cascade involving phospholipase C, calcium and protein kinase C. Three critical GluK5 C-terminal serines underlie the potentiation of the GluK2/GluK5 receptor by EP1 activation. Taken together, these results indicate that EP1 receptor activation during seizures, through a protein kinase C pathway, increases the probability of kainic acid induced status epilepticus, and independently promotes hippocampal neurodegeneration and a broad inflammatory response. PMID:24952362

  13. Hypoxia perturbs aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and CYP1A1 expression induced by PCB 126 in human skin and liver-derived cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Vorrink, Sabine U.; Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA; Severson, Paul L.

    2014-02-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an important mediator of toxic responses after exposure to xenobiotics including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Activation of AhR responsive genes requires AhR dimerization with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), a heterodimeric partner also shared by the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein. TCDD-stimulated AhR transcriptional activity can be influenced by hypoxia; however, it less well known whether hypoxia interferes with AhR transcriptional transactivation in the context of PCB-mediated AhR activation in human cells. Elucidation of this interaction is important in liver hepatocytes which extensively metabolize ingested PCBs and experience varying degreesmore » of oxygen tension during normal physiologic function. This study was designed to assess the effect of hypoxia on AhR transcriptional responses after exposure to 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126). Exposure to 1% O{sub 2} prior to PCB 126 treatment significantly inhibited CYP1A1 mRNA and protein expression in human HepG2 and HaCaT cells. CYP1A1 transcriptional activation was significantly decreased upon PCB 126 stimulation under conditions of hypoxia. Additionally, hypoxia pre-treatment reduced PCB 126 induced AhR binding to CYP1 target gene promoters. Importantly, ARNT overexpression rescued cells from the inhibitory effect of hypoxia on XRE-luciferase reporter activity. Therefore, the mechanism of interference of the signaling crosstalk between the AhR and hypoxia pathways appears to be at least in part dependent on ARNT availability. Our results show that AhR activation and CYP1A1 expression induced by PCB 126 were significantly inhibited by hypoxia and hypoxia might therefore play an important role in PCB metabolism and toxicity. - Highlights: • Significant crosstalk exists between AhR and HIF-1α signaling. • Hypoxia perturbs PCB 126 induced Ah

  14. Deflation-activated receptors, not classical inflation-activated receptors, mediate the Hering-Breuer deflation reflex.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jerry

    2016-11-01

    Many airway sensory units respond to both lung inflation and deflation. Whether those responses to opposite stimuli come from one sensor (one-sensor theory) or more than one sensor (multiple-sensor theory) is debatable. One-sensor theory is commonly presumed in the literature. This article proposes a multiple-sensor theory in which a sensory unit contains different sensors for sensing different forces. Two major types of mechanical sensors operate in the lung: inflation- and deflation-activated receptors (DARs). Inflation-activated sensors can be further divided into slowly adapting receptors (SARs) and rapidly adapting receptors (RARs). Many SAR and RAR units also respond to lung deflation because they contain DARs. Pure DARs, which respond to lung deflation only, are rare in large animals but are easily identified in small animals. Lung deflation-induced reflex effects previously attributed to RARs should be assigned to DARs (including pure DARs and DARs associated with SARs and RARs) if the multiple-sensor theory is accepted. Thus, based on the information, it is proposed that activation of DARs can attenuate lung deflation, shorten expiratory time, increase respiratory rate, evoke inspiration, and cause airway secretion and dyspnea.

  15. Binding of Losartan to Angiotensin AT1 Receptors Increases Dopamine D1 Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dong; Scott, Lena; Crambert, Susanne; Zelenin, Sergey; Eklöf, Ann-Christine; Di Ciano, Luis; Ibarra, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Signaling through both angiotensin AT1 receptors (AT1R) and dopamine D1 receptors (D1R) modulates renal sodium excretion and arterial BP. AT1R and D1R form heterodimers, but whether treatment with AT1R antagonists functionally modifies D1R via allosterism is unknown. In this study, the AT1R antagonist losartan strengthened the interaction between AT1R and D1R and increased expression of D1R on the plasma membrane in vitro. In rat proximal tubule cells that express endogenous AT1R and D1R, losartan increased cAMP generation. Losartan increased cAMP in HEK 293a cells transfected with both AT1R and D1R, but it did not increase cAMP in cells transfected with either receptor alone, suggesting that losartan induces D1R activation. Furthermore, losartan did not increase cAMP in HEK 293a cells expressing AT1R and mutant S397/S398A D1R, which disrupts the physical interaction between AT1R and D1R. In vivo, administration of a D1R antagonist significantly attenuated the antihypertensive effect of losartan in rats with renal hypertension. Taken together, these data imply that losartan might exert its antihypertensive effect both by inhibiting AT1R signaling and by enhancing D1R signaling. PMID:22193384

  16. Identification of Modulators of the Nuclear Receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α (PPARα) in a Mouse Liver Gene Expression Compendium

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nuclear receptor family member peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is activated by therapeutic hypolipidemic drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals to regulate genes involved in lipid transport and catabolism. Chronic activation of PPARα in rodents inc...

  17. Structure-activity analysis of synthetic alpha-thrombin-receptor-activating peptides.

    PubMed

    Van Obberghen-Schilling, E; Rasmussen, U B; Vouret-Craviari, V; Lentes, K U; Pavirani, A; Pouysségur, J

    1993-06-15

    alpha-Thrombin stimulates G-protein-coupled effectors leading to secretion and aggregation in human platelets, and to a mitogenic response in CCL39 hamster fibroblasts. alpha-Thrombin receptors can be activated by synthetic peptides corresponding to the receptor sequence starting with serine-42, at the proposed cleavage site. We have previously determined that the agonist domain of receptor-activating peptides resides within the five N-terminal residues [Vouret-Craviari, Van Obberghen-Schilling, Rasmussen, Pavirani, Lecocq and Pouysségur (1992) Mol. Biol. Cell. 3, 95-102], although the 7-residue peptide (SFFLRNP) corresponding to the hamster alpha-thrombin receptor was 10 times more potent than the 5-residue peptide for activation of human platelets. In the present study we have analysed the role of individual amino acids in receptor activation by using a series of modified hexa- or hepta-peptides derived from the human alpha-thrombin-receptor sequence. Cellular events examined here include phospholipase C activation, adenylyl cyclase inhibition and DNA synthesis stimulation in non-transformed CCL39 fibroblasts and a tumorigenic variant of that line (A71 cells). Modification of the peptide sequence had similar functional consequence for each of the assays described, indicating that either a unique receptor or pharmacologically indistinguishable receptor subtypes activate distinct G-protein signalling pathways. Furthermore, we found that: (1) the N-terminal serine can be replaced by small or intermediately sized amino acids (+/- hydroxyl groups) without loss of activity. However, its replacement by an aromatic side-chain or omission of the N-terminal amino group severely reduces activity. (2) An aromatic side-chain on the penultimate N-terminal residue appears to play a critical role since phenylalanine in this position can be substituted by tyrosine without complete loss of activity whereas an alanine in its place is not tolerated. (3) Deletion of the first

  18. Structure-activity analysis of synthetic alpha-thrombin-receptor-activating peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Van Obberghen-Schilling, E; Rasmussen, U B; Vouret-Craviari, V; Lentes, K U; Pavirani, A; Pouysségur, J

    1993-01-01

    alpha-Thrombin stimulates G-protein-coupled effectors leading to secretion and aggregation in human platelets, and to a mitogenic response in CCL39 hamster fibroblasts. alpha-Thrombin receptors can be activated by synthetic peptides corresponding to the receptor sequence starting with serine-42, at the proposed cleavage site. We have previously determined that the agonist domain of receptor-activating peptides resides within the five N-terminal residues [Vouret-Craviari, Van Obberghen-Schilling, Rasmussen, Pavirani, Lecocq and Pouysségur (1992) Mol. Biol. Cell. 3, 95-102], although the 7-residue peptide (SFFLRNP) corresponding to the hamster alpha-thrombin receptor was 10 times more potent than the 5-residue peptide for activation of human platelets. In the present study we have analysed the role of individual amino acids in receptor activation by using a series of modified hexa- or hepta-peptides derived from the human alpha-thrombin-receptor sequence. Cellular events examined here include phospholipase C activation, adenylyl cyclase inhibition and DNA synthesis stimulation in non-transformed CCL39 fibroblasts and a tumorigenic variant of that line (A71 cells). Modification of the peptide sequence had similar functional consequence for each of the assays described, indicating that either a unique receptor or pharmacologically indistinguishable receptor subtypes activate distinct G-protein signalling pathways. Furthermore, we found that: (1) the N-terminal serine can be replaced by small or intermediately sized amino acids (+/- hydroxyl groups) without loss of activity. However, its replacement by an aromatic side-chain or omission of the N-terminal amino group severely reduces activity. (2) An aromatic side-chain on the penultimate N-terminal residue appears to play a critical role since phenylalanine in this position can be substituted by tyrosine without complete loss of activity whereas an alanine in its place is not tolerated. (3) Deletion of the first

  19. Thermal nociception is decreased by hypocretin-1 and an adenosine A1 receptor agonist microinjected into the pontine reticular formation of Sprague Dawley rat.

    PubMed

    Watson, Sarah L; Watson, Christopher J; Baghdoyan, Helen A; Lydic, Ralph

    2010-06-01

    Clinical and preclinical data concur that sleep disruption causes hyperalgesia, but the brain mechanisms through which sleep and pain interact remain poorly understood. Evidence that pontine components of the ascending reticular activating system modulate sleep and nociception encouraged the present study testing the hypothesis that hypocretin-1 (orexin-A) and an adenosine receptor agonist administered into the pontine reticular nucleus, oral part (PnO) each alter thermal nociception. Adult male rats (n = 23) were implanted with microinjection guide tubes aimed for the PnO. The PnO was microinjected with saline (control), hypocretin-1, the adenosine A(1) receptor agonist N(6)-p-sulfophenyladenosine (SPA), the hypocretin receptor-1 antagonist N-(2-Methyl-6-benzoxazolyl)-N''-1,5-naphthyridin-4-yl-urea (SB-334867), and hypocretin-1 plus SB-334867. As an index of antinociceptive behavior, the latency (in seconds) to paw withdrawal away from a thermal stimulus was measured following each microinjection. Compared to control, antinociception was significantly increased by hypocretin-1 and by SPA. SB-334867 increased nociceptive responsiveness, and administration of hypocretin-1 plus SB-334867 blocked the antinociception caused by hypocretin-1. These results suggest for the first time that hypocretin receptors in rat PnO modulate nociception. Widely distributed and overlapping neural networks regulate states of sleep and pain. Specifying the brain regions and neurotransmitters through which pain and sleep interact is an essential step for developing adjunctive therapies that diminish pain without disrupting states of sleep and wakefulness. Copyright (c) 2010 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The influences of metabotropic receptor activation on cellular signaling and synaptic function in amacrine cells.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Evanna

    2012-01-01

    Amacrine cells receive glutamatergic input from bipolar cells and GABAergic, glycinergic, cholinergic, and dopaminergic input from other amacrine cells. Glutamate, GABA, glycine, and acetylcholine (ACh) interact with ionotropic receptors and it is these interactions that form much of the functional circuitry in the inner retina. However, glutamate, GABA, ACh, and dopamine also activate metabotropic receptors linked to second messenger pathways that have the potential to modify the function of individual cells as well as retinal circuitry. Here, the physiological effects of activating dopamine receptors, metabotropic glutamate receptors, GABAB receptors, and muscarinic ACh receptors on amacrine cells will be discussed. The retina also expresses metabotropic receptors and the biochemical machinery associated with the synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). The effects of activating cannabinoid receptors and S1P receptors on amacrine cell function will also be addressed. Copyright © Cambridge University Press, 2012

  1. Behavioral meaningful opioidergic stimulation activates kappa receptor gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Teodorov, E.; Ferrari, M.F.R.; Fior-Chadi, D.R.; Camarini, R.; Felício, L.F.

    2012-01-01

    The periaqueductal gray (PAG) has been reported to be a location for opioid regulation of pain and a potential site for behavioral selection in females. Opioid-mediated behavioral and physiological responses differ according to the activity of opioid receptor subtypes. The present study investigated the effects of the peripheral injection of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 into the dorsal subcutaneous region of animals on maternal behavior and on Oprk1 gene activity in the PAG of female rats. Female Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g at the beginning of the study were randomly divided into 2 groups for maternal behavior and gene expression experiments. On day 5, pups were removed at 7:00 am and placed in another home cage that was distant from their mother. Thirty minutes after removing the pups, the dams were treated with U69593 (0.15 mg/kg, sc) or 0.9% saline (up to 1 mL/kg) and after 30 min were evaluated in the maternal behavior test. Latencies in seconds for pup retrieval, grouping, crouching, and full maternal behavior were scored. The results showed that U69593 administration inhibited maternal behavior (P < 0.05) because a lower percentage of U69593 group dams showed retrieval of first pup, retrieving all pups, grouping, crouching and displaying full maternal behavior compared to the saline group. Opioid gene expression was evaluated using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A single injection of U69593 increased Oprk1 PAG expression in both virgin (P < 0.05) and lactating female rats (P < 0.01), with no significant effect on Oprm1 or Oprd1 gene activity. Thus, the expression of kappa-opioid receptors in the PAG may be modulated by single opioid receptor stimulation and behavioral meaningful opioidergic transmission in the adult female might occur simultaneously to specific changes in gene expression of kappa-opioid receptor subtype. This is yet another alert for the complex role of the opioid system in female

  2. Food cravings, food addiction, and a dopamine-resistant (DRD2 A1) receptor polymorphism in Asian American college students.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Joanna; Trang, Amy; Henning, Susanne M; Wilhalme, Holly; Carpenter, Catherine; Heber, David; Li, Zhaoping

    2016-01-01

    In an era where obesity remains an important public health concern, food addiction has emerged as a possible contributor to obesity. The DRD2 gene is the most studied polymorphism. The aim of this study was to investigate a relationship between food addiction questionnaires, body composition measurements, and a dopamine- resistant receptor polymorphism (DRD2 A1) among Asian Americans. A total of 84 Asian American college students were recruited. Participants underwent body composition measurement via bioelectrical impedance, answered questionnaires (Food Craving Inventory and Power of Food Scale), and had blood drawn for genotyping (PCR). There was no difference in body composition (BMI, percent body fat) between the A1 (A1A1 or A1A2) and A2 (A2A2) groups. There were statistically significant differences in food cravings of carbohydrates and fast food on the Food Craving Inventory between the A1 and A2 groups (p=0.03), but not for sugar or fat. Among Asian college females, there was also a difference on the Power of Food questionnaire (p=0.04), which was not seen among men. 13 out of 55 women also had >30% body fat at a BMI of 21.4 to 28.5 kg/m2. Greater carbohydrate and fast food craving was associated with the DRD2 A1 versus A2 allele among Asian Americans. Further studies examining the ability of dopamine agonists to affect food craving and to reduce body fat in Asian American are warranted. More studies in food addiction among obese Asian Americans are needed with careful definition of obesity, specifically for Asian women.

  3. The Nuclear Orphan Receptor NR4A1 is Involved in the Apoptotic Pathway Induced by LPS and Simvastatin in RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Chan; Song, Seok Bean; Lee, Sang Kyu; Park, Sang Min; Kim, Young Sang

    2014-04-01

    Macrophage death plays a role in several physiological and inflammatory pathologies such as sepsis and arthritis. In our previous work, we showed that simvastatin triggers cell death in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells through both caspase-dependent and independent apoptotic pathways. Here, we show that the nuclear orphan receptor NR4A1 is involved in a caspase-independent apoptotic process induced by LPS and simvastatin. Simvastatin-induced NR4A1 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages and ectopic expression of a dominant-negative mutant form of NR4A1 effectively suppressed both DNA fragmentation and the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) during LPS- and simvastatin-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, apoptosis was accompanied by Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) translocation to the mitochondria. Our findings suggest that NR4A1 expression and mitochondrial translocation of Bax are related to simvastatin-induced apoptosis in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

  4. Masked Chimeric Antigen Receptor for Tumor-Specific Activation.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaolu; Bryson, Paul D; Zhao, Yifan; Cinay, Gunce E; Li, Si; Guo, Yunfei; Siriwon, Natnaree; Wang, Pin

    2017-01-04

    Adoptive cellular therapy based on chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T (CAR-T) cells is a powerful form of cancer immunotherapy. CAR-T cells can be redirected to specifically recognize tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and induce high levels of antitumor activity. However, they may also display "on-target off-tumor" toxicities, resulting from low-level expression of TAAs in healthy tissues. These adverse effects have raised considerable safety concerns and limited the clinical application of this otherwise promising therapeutic modality. To minimize such side effects, we have designed an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-specific masked CAR (mCAR), which consists of a masking peptide that blocks the antigen-binding site and a protease-sensitive linker. Proteases commonly active in the tumor microenvironment can cleave the linker and disengage the masking peptide, thereby enabling CAR-T cells to recognize target antigens only at the tumor site. In vitro mCAR showed dramatically reduced antigen binding and antigen-specific activation in the absence of proteases, but normal levels of binding and activity upon treatment with certain proteases. Masked CAR-T cells also showed antitumor efficacy in vivo comparable to that of unmasked CAR. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of improving the safety profile of conventional CARs and may also inspire future design of CAR molecules targeting broadly expressed TAAs. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Thiophene-Core Estrogen Receptor Ligands Having Superagonist Activity

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jian; Wang, Pengcheng; Srinivasan, Sathish; Nwachukwu, Jerome C.; Guo, Pu; Huang, Minjian; Carlson, Kathryn E.; Katzenellenbogen, John A.; Nettles, Kendall W.; Zhou, Hai-Bing

    2013-01-01

    To probe the importance of the heterocyclic core of estrogen receptor (ER) ligands, we prepared a series of thiophene-core ligands by Suzuki cross-coupling of aryl boronic acids with bromo-thiophenes, and we assessed their receptor binding and cell biological activities. The disposition of the phenol substituents on the thiophene core, at alternate or adjacent sites, and the nature of substituents on these phenols all contribute to binding affinity and subtype selectivity. Most of the bis(hydroxyphenyl)-thiophenes were ERβ selective, whereas the tris(hydroxyphenyl)-thiophenes were ERα selective; analogous furan-core compounds generally have lower affinity and less selectivity. Some diarylthiophenes show distinct superagonist activity in reporter gene assays, giving maximal activities 2–3 times that of estradiol, and modeling suggests that these ligands have a different interaction with a hydrogen-bonding residue in helix-11. Ligand-core modification may be a new strategy for developing ER ligands whose selectivity is based on having transcriptional activity greater than that of estradiol. PMID:23586645

  6. Fc-receptor induced cell spreading during frustrated phagocytosis in J774A.1 macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovari, Daniel; Curtis, Jennifer; Wei, Wenbin

    2014-03-01

    Phagocytosis is the process where by cells engulf foreign particles. It is the primary mechanism through which macrophages and neutrophils (white blood cells) eliminate pathogens and debris from the body. The behavior is the result of a cascade of chemical and mechanical cues, which result in the actin-driven expansion of the cell's membrane around its target. For macrophages undergoing Fc-mediated phagocytosis, we show that above a minimum threshold the spreading rate and maximum cell-target contact area are independent of the target's opsonin density. Qualitatively, macrophage phagocytic spreading is similar to the spreading of other cell types (e.g. fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and Dict.d.). Early spreading is most likely the result of ``passive'' alignment of the cell to the target surface. This is followed by an active expansion period driven by actin. Finally upon reaching a maximum contact area, typically 2-3 times the size of ``non-activated'' cells, macrophages often undergo a period of rapid contraction not reported in other cell types. We hypothesize that this, as yet unexplained, transition may be specific to the chemical and mechanical machinery associated with phagocytosis. This work was funded by NSF grant PHYS 0848797 and NSF grant DMR 0820382.

  7. Cross-talk between an activator of nuclear receptors-mediated transcription and the D1 dopamine receptor signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Azriel; Vogel, Robert; Rutledge, Su Jane; Opas, Evan E; Rodan, Gideon A; Friedman, Eitan

    2005-03-01

    Nuclear receptors are transcription factors that usually interact, in a ligand-dependent manner, with specific DNA sequences located within promoters of target genes. The nuclear receptors can also be controlled in a ligand-independent manner via the action of membrane receptors and cellular signaling pathways. 5-Tetradecyloxy-2-furancarboxylic acid (TOFA) was shown to stimulate transcription from the MMTV promoter via chimeric receptors that consist of the DNA binding domain of GR and the ligand binding regions of the PPARbeta or LXRbeta nuclear receptors (GR/PPARbeta and GR/LXRbeta). TOFA and hydroxycholesterols also modulate transcription from NF-kappaB- and AP-1-controlled reporter genes and induce neurite differentiation in PC12 cells. In CV-1 cells that express D(1) dopamine receptors, D(1) dopamine receptor stimulation was found to inhibit TOFA-stimulated transcription from the MMTV promoter that is under the control of chimeric GR/PPARbeta and GR/LXRbeta receptors. Treatment with the D(1) dopamine receptor antagonist, SCH23390, prevented dopamine-mediated suppression of transcription, and by itself increased transcription controlled by GR/LXRbeta. Furthermore, combined treatment of CV-1 cells with TOFA and SCH23390 increased transcription controlled by the GR/LXRbeta chimeric receptor synergistically. The significance of this in vitro synergy was demonstrated in vivo, by the observation that SCH23390 (but not haloperidol)-mediated catalepsy in rats was potentiated by TOFA, thus showing that an agent that mimics the in vitro activities of compounds that activate members of the LXR and PPAR receptor families can influence D1 dopamine receptor elicited responses.

  8. Human Anti-Oxidation Protein A1M—A Potential Kidney Protection Agent in Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ahlstedt, Jonas; Tran, Thuy A.; Strand, Sven-Erik; Gram, Magnus; Åkerström, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) has been in clinical use for 15 years to treat metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. PRRT is limited by reabsorption and retention of the administered radiolabeled somatostatin analogues in the proximal tubule. Consequently, it is essential to develop and employ methods to protect the kidneys during PRRT. Today, infusion of positively charged amino acids is the standard method of kidney protection. Other methods, such as administration of amifostine, are still under evaluation and show promising results. α1-microglobulin (A1M) is a reductase and radical scavenging protein ubiquitously present in plasma and extravascular tissue. Human A1M has antioxidation properties and has been shown to prevent radiation-induced in vitro cell damage and protect non-irradiated surrounding cells. It has recently been shown in mice that exogenously infused A1M and the somatostatin analogue octreotide are co-localized in proximal tubules of the kidney after intravenous infusion. In this review we describe the current situation of kidney protection during PRRT, discuss the necessity and implications of more precise dosimetry and present A1M as a new, potential candidate for renal protection during PRRT and related targeted radionuclide therapies. PMID:26694383

  9. The antinociceptive effects of the systemic adenosine A1 receptor agonist CPA in the absence and in the presence of spinal cord sensitization.

    PubMed

    Curros-Criado, M Mar; Herrero, Juan F

    2005-12-01

    Adenosine A1 receptor agonists are effective antinociceptive agents in neuropathic and inflammatory pain, though they appear to be weak analgesics in acute nociception. Important discrepancies are observed on the effectiveness and potency of adenosine analogues when comparing different studies, probably due to the use of different ligands, models of antinociception, routes of administration and types of sensitization. We studied the systemic antinociceptive effects of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) in spinal cord neuronal responses from adult male rats in acute nociception and in sensitization due to arthritis and neuropathy. The experiments showed that CPA was effective in the three experimental conditions, with a similar potency in reducing responses to noxious mechanical stimulation (ID50s: 20 +/- 1.2 microg/kg in acute nociception, 18 +/- 1.1 microg/kg in arthritis, 17.4 +/- 2 microg/kg in neuropathy). The phenomenon of wind-up was also dose-dependently reduced by CPA in the three experimental situations although the main action was seen in arthritis. Depression of blood pressure by CPA was not dose-dependent. We conclude that systemic CPA is a potent and effective analgesic in sensitization due to arthritis and neuropathy but also in acute nociception. The effect is independent of the cardiovascular activity and is centrally mediated since wind-up was inhibited.

  10. Morphine induces μ opioid receptor endocytosis in guinea pig enteric neurons following prolonged receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Patierno, Simona; Anselmi, Laura; Jaramillo, Ingrid; Scott, David; Garcia, Rachel; Sternini, Catia

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims The μ opioid receptor (μOR) undergoes rapid endocytosis following acute stimulation with opioids and most opiates, but not with morphine. We investigated whether prolonged activation of μOR affects morphine’s ability to induce receptor endocytosis in enteric neurons. Methods We compared the effects of morphine, a poor μOR-internalizing opiate, and [D-Ala2, MePhe4,Gly-ol5] enkephalin (DAMGO), a potent μOR-internalizing agonist, on μOR trafficking in enteric neurons and on the expression of dynamin and β-arrestin immunoreactivity in the ileum of guinea pigs rendered tolerant by chronic administration of morphine. Results Morphine (100 µM) strongly induced endocytosis of μOR in tolerant but not naïve neurons (55.7%±9.3% vs. 24.2%±7.3%, P<0.001) whereas DAMGO (10 µM) strongly induced internalization of μOR in neurons from tolerant and naïve animals (63.6%±8.4% and 66.5%±3.6%). Morphine- or DAMGO-induced μOR endocytosis resulted from direct interactions between the ligand and the μOR, because endocytosis was not affected by tetrodotoxin, a blocker of endogenous neurotransmitter release. Ligand-induced μOR internalization was inhibited by pretreatment with the dynamin inhibitor, dynasore. Chronic morphine administration resulted in a significant increase in dynamin and translocation of dynamin immunoreactivity from the intracellular pool to the plasma membrane, but did not affect β arrestin immunoreactivity. Conclusion Chronic activation of μORs increases the ability of morphine to induce μOR endocytosis in enteric neurons, which depends on the level and cellular localization of dynamin, a regulatory protein that has an important role in receptor-mediated signal transduction in cells. PMID:21070774

  11. Effect of long term caffeine treatment on A1 and A2 adenosine receptor binding and on mRNA levels in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Johansson, B; Ahlberg, S; van der Ploeg, I; Brené, S; Lindefors, N; Persson, H; Fredholm, B B

    1993-04-01

    The effect of long-term oral treatment with caffeine on A1 and A2 receptors in the rat brain was studied. Caffeine was added to the drinking water and the animals were sacrificed after a 12 day treatment period. The plasma caffeine concentration was close to 100 microM. A1 receptors were studied using quantitative autoradiography with [3H]cyclohexyladenosine (CHA). Caffeine treatment increased the number of A1 receptors in the CA3 subfield of the hippocampus from 337 to 393 fmol/mg with no change in KD (0.692 vs. 0.675 nM). A1 mRNA was measured using Northern blots and quantitative in situ hybridization. There was no increase in A1 mRNA. A2a receptors, located in dopamine rich regions of the rat brain, were studied with quantitative autoradiography using [3H]CGS 21680 as the ligand, and the A2a mRNA was determined using quantitative in situ hybridization. Caffeine treatment produced no significant change in either receptor number or mRNA, even though the apparent Bmax tended to increase from 322 +/- 8 to 352 +/- 8 fmol/mg. The results show that treatment with caffeine in a dose that causes tolerance to several effects of caffeine and increases some effects of adenosine analogues increases the number of A1 receptors without any change in A1 mRNA, suggesting that the adaptive changes are at a post-translational level. There were no significant changes in A2 receptors indicating that the two types are regulated differently and/or that the amount of endogenous agonist is sufficient to regulate A1, but not A2 receptors.

  12. Synaptic activity regulates AMPA receptor trafficking through different recycling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ning; Jeyifous, Okunola; Munro, Charlotte; Montgomery, Johanna M; Green, William N

    2015-01-01

    Changes in glutamatergic synaptic strength in brain are dependent on AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) recycling, which is assumed to occur through a single local pathway. In this study, we present evidence that AMPAR recycling occurs through different pathways regulated by synaptic activity. Without synaptic stimulation, most AMPARs recycled in dynamin-independent endosomes containing the GTPase, Arf6. Few AMPARs recycled in dynamin-dependent endosomes labeled by transferrin receptors (TfRs). AMPAR recycling was blocked by alterations in the GTPase, TC10, which co-localized with Arf6 endosomes. TC10 mutants that reduced AMPAR recycling had no effect on increased AMPAR levels with long-term potentiation (LTP) and little effect on decreased AMPAR levels with long-term depression. However, internalized AMPAR levels in TfR-containing recycling endosomes increased after LTP, indicating increased AMPAR recycling through the dynamin-dependent pathway with synaptic plasticity. LTP-induced AMPAR endocytosis is inconsistent with local recycling as a source of increased surface receptors, suggesting AMPARs are trafficked from other sites. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06878.001 PMID:25970033

  13. Dopamine Receptor Activation Increases HIV Entry into Primary Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Gaskill, Peter J.; Yano, Hideaki H.; Kalpana, Ganjam V.; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Berman, Joan W.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers. PMID:25268786

  14. Active site proton delivery and the lyase activity of human CYP17A1

    SciTech Connect

    Khatri, Yogan; Gregory, Michael C.; Grinkova, Yelena V.

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •The disruption of PREG/PROG hydroxylation activity by T306A showed the participation of Cpd I. •T306A supports the involvement of a nucleophilic peroxo-anion during lyase activity. •The presence of cytochrome b{sub 5} augments C–C lyase activity. •Δ5-Steroids are preferred substrates for CYP17 catalysis. -- Abstract: Cytochrome P450 CYP17A1 catalyzes a series of reactions that lie at the intersection of corticoid and androgen biosynthesis and thus occupies an essential role in steroid hormone metabolism. This multifunctional enzyme catalyzes the 17α-hydroxylation of Δ4- and Δ5-steroids progesterone and pregnenolone to form the corresponding 17α-hydroxy products through its hydroxylase activity, and a subsequent 17,20-carbon–carbonmore » scission of pregnene-side chain produce the androgens androstenedione (AD) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). While the former hydroxylation reaction is believed to proceed through a conventional “Compound I” rebound mechanism, it has been suggested that the latter carbon cleavage is initiated by an iron-peroxy intermediate. We report on the role of Thr306 in CYP17 catalysis. Thr306 is a member of the conserved acid/alcohol pair thought to be essential for the efficient delivery of protons required for hydroperoxoanion heterolysis and formation of Compound I in the cytochromes P450. Wild type and T306A CYP17A1 self-assembled in Nanodiscs were used to quantitate turnover and coupling efficiencies of CYP17’s physiological Δ4- and Δ5-substrates. We observed that T306A co-incorporated in Nanodiscs with its redox partner cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase, coupled NADPH only by 0.9% and 0.7% compared to the wild type (97% and 22%) during the conversion of pregnenolone and progesterone, respectively, to the corresponding 17-OH products. Despite increased oxidation of pyridine nucleotide, hydroxylase activity was drastically diminished in the T306A mutant, suggesting a high degree of uncoupling in which

  15. Structural Determinants of the Insulin Receptor-related Receptor Activation by Alkali*

    PubMed Central

    Deyev, Igor E.; Mitrofanova, Alla V.; Zhevlenev, Egor S.; Radionov, Nikita; Berchatova, Anastasiya A.; Popova, Nadezhda V.; Serova, Oxana V.; Petrenko, Alexander G.

    2013-01-01

    IRR is a member of the insulin receptor (IR) family that does not have any known agonist of a peptide nature but can be activated by mildly alkaline medium and was thus proposed to function as an extracellular pH sensor. IRR activation by alkali is defined by its N-terminal extracellular region. To reveal key structural elements involved in alkali sensing, we developed an in vitro method to quantify activity of IRR and its mutants. Replacing the IRR L1C domains (residues 1–333) or L2 domain (residues 334–462) or both with the homologous fragments of IR reduced the receptor activity to 35, 64, and 7% percent, respectively. Within L1C domains, five amino acid residues (Leu-135, Gly-188, Arg-244, and vicinal His-318 and Lys-319) were identified as IRR-specific by species conservation analysis of the IR family. These residues are exposed and located in junctions between secondary structure folds. The quintuple mutation of these residues to alanine had the same negative effect as the entire L1C domain replacement, whereas none of the single mutations was as effective. Separate mutations of these five residues and of L2 produced partial negative effects that were additive. The pH dependence of cell-expressed mutants (L1C and L2 swap, L2 plus triple LGR mutation, and L2 plus quintuple LGRHK mutation) was shifted toward alkalinity and, in contrast with IRR, did not show significant positive cooperativity. Our data suggest that IRR activation is not based on a single residue deprotonation in the IRR ectodomain but rather involves synergistic conformational changes at multiple points. PMID:24121506

  16. An Improved Ivermectin-activated Chloride Channel Receptor for Inhibiting Electrical Activity in Defined Neuronal Populations*

    PubMed Central

    Lynagh, Timothy; Lynch, Joseph W.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to silence the electrical activity of defined neuronal populations in vivo is dramatically advancing our understanding of brain function. This technology may eventually be useful clinically for treating a variety of neuropathological disorders caused by excessive neuronal activity. Several neuronal silencing methods have been developed, with the bacterial light-activated halorhodopsin and the invertebrate allatostatin-activated G protein-coupled receptor proving the most successful to date. However, both techniques may be difficult to implement clinically due to their requirement for surgically implanted stimulus delivery methods and their use of nonhuman receptors. A third silencing method, an invertebrate glutamate-gated chloride channel receptor (GluClR) activated by ivermectin, solves the stimulus delivery problem as ivermectin is a safe, well tolerated drug that reaches the brain following systemic administration. However, the limitations of this method include poor functional expression, possibly due to the requirement to coexpress two different subunits in individual neurons, and the nonhuman origin of GluClR. Here, we describe the development of a modified human α1 glycine receptor as an improved ivermectin-gated silencing receptor. The crucial development was the identification of a mutation, A288G, which increased ivermectin sensitivity almost 100-fold, rendering it similar to that of GluClR. Glycine sensitivity was eliminated via the F207A mutation. Its large unitary conductance, homomeric expression, and human origin may render the F207A/A288G α1 glycine receptor an improved silencing receptor for neuroscientific and clinical purposes. As all known highly ivermectin-sensitive GluClRs contain an endogenous glycine residue at the corresponding location, this residue appears essential for exquisite ivermectin sensitivity. PMID:20308070

  17. Embryonic caffeine exposure acts via A1 adenosine receptors to alter adult cardiac function and DNA methylation in mice.

    PubMed

    Buscariollo, Daniela L; Fang, Xiefan; Greenwood, Victoria; Xue, Huiling; Rivkees, Scott A; Wendler, Christopher C

    2014-01-01

    Evidence indicates that disruption of normal prenatal development influences an individual's risk of developing obesity and cardiovascular disease as an adult. Thus, understanding how in utero exposure to chemical agents leads to increased susceptibility to adult diseases is a critical health related issue. Our aim was to determine whether adenosine A1 receptors (A1ARs) mediate the long-term effects of in utero caffeine exposure on cardiac function and whether these long-term effects are the result of changes in DNA methylation patterns in adult hearts. Pregnant A1AR knockout mice were treated with caffeine (20 mg/kg) or vehicle (0.09% NaCl) i.p. at embryonic day 8.5. This caffeine treatment results in serum levels equivalent to the consumption of 2-4 cups of coffee in humans. After dams gave birth, offspring were examined at 8-10 weeks of age. A1AR+/+ offspring treated in utero with caffeine were 10% heavier than vehicle controls. Using echocardiography, we observed altered cardiac function and morphology in adult mice exposed to caffeine in utero. Caffeine treatment decreased cardiac output by 11% and increased left ventricular wall thickness by 29% during diastole. Using DNA methylation arrays, we identified altered DNA methylation patterns in A1AR+/+ caffeine treated hearts, including 7719 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) within the genome and an overall decrease in DNA methylation of 26%. Analysis of genes associated with DMRs revealed that many are associated with cardiac hypertrophy. These data demonstrate that A1ARs mediate in utero caffeine effects on cardiac function and growth and that caffeine exposure leads to changes in DNA methylation.

  18. Protease Activated Receptor-2 Contributes to Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Antoniak, Silvio; Sparkenbaugh, Erica M.; Tencati, Michael; Rojas, Mauricio; Mackman, Nigel; Pawlinski, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure is a major clinical problem worldwide. Previous studies have demonstrated an important role for G protein-coupled receptors, including protease-activated receptors (PARs), in the pathology of heart hypertrophy and failure. Activation of PAR-2 on cardiomyocytes has been shown to induce hypertrophic growth in vitro. PAR-2 also contributes to myocardial infarction and heart remodeling after ischemia/reperfusion injury. In this study, we found that PAR-2 induced hypertrophic growth of cultured rat neonatal cardiomyocytes in a MEK1/2 and p38 dependent manner. In addition, PAR-2 activation on mouse cardiomyocytes increased expression of the pro-fibrotic chemokine MCP-1. Furthermore, cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of PAR-2 in mice induced heart hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis, inflammation and heart failure. Finally, in a mouse model of myocardial infarction induced by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery, PAR-2 deficiency attenuated heart remodeling and improved heart function independently of its contribution to the size of the initial infarct. Taken together, our data indicate that PAR-2 signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertrophy and heart failure. PMID:24312345

  19. Activity of lingual, laryngeal and oesophageal receptors in conscious sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Falempin, M; Rousseau, J P

    1984-01-01

    Vagal afferent impulse traffic has been studied in conscious sheep by electromyographic recording from the motor units of the sterno-cleido-mastoid (s.c.m.) muscle reinnervated by sensory vagal axons. Units which responded during movements of the tongue and during the pharyngolaryngeal and oesophageal stages of swallowing were chosen for this study. Lingual units showed a phasic discharge bearing a temporal relation to movements of the tongue during licking of the lips or chewing of a bolus before swallowing. Laryngeal units had no spontaneous activity. A discharge occurred with the ascending movement of the larynx during swallowing. Oesophageal units did not exhibit any tonic activity. They fired only at the time of primary or secondary oesophageal peristalsis. The oesophageal units showed a bimodal distribution. The oesophageal receptors are more concentrated at the beginning and the end of the thoracic oesophagus. During primary peristalsis, the afferent discharge was reinforced in only 57% of the cases when sheep swallowed a bolus (pellets or inflated balloons). When the discharge was reinforced, its increase ceased as volumes of the bolus were increased from 20 to 40 ml. During local oesophageal contractions, the afferent discharge was only present when the inflated balloon was located at the site of the receptor. It was enhanced at the time the primary peristaltic wave passed over the balloon. Inflation of a second balloon cranially in the oesophagus led to abolition of the activity of the unit at the caudal site though the distension there was maintained. PMID:6707965

  20. Vitamin D receptor activation and survival in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Kovesdy, C P; Kalantar-Zadeh, K

    2008-06-01

    Replacement of activated vitamin D has been the cornerstone of therapy for secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). Recent findings from several large observational studies have suggested that the benefits of vitamin D receptor activators (VDRA) may extend beyond the traditional parathyroid hormone (PTH)-lowering effect, and could result in direct cardiovascular and metabolic benefits. The advent of several new analogs of the activated vitamin D molecule has widened our therapeutic armamentarium, but has also made therapeutic decisions more complicated. Treatment of SHPT has become even more complex with the arrival of the first calcium-sensing receptor (CSR) agonist (cinacalcet hydrochloride) and with the uncovering of novel mechanisms responsible for SHPT. We provide a brief overview of the physiology and pathophysiology of SHPT, with a focus on vitamin D metabolism, and discuss various practical aspects of VDRA therapy and its reported association with survival in recent observational studies. A detailed discussion of the available agents is aimed at providing the practicing physician with a clear understanding of the advantages or disadvantages of the individual medications. A number of open questions are also analyzed, including the present and future roles of CSR agonists and 25(OH) vitamin D replacement.

  1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha}-independent peroxisome proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiuguo; Tanaka, Naoki; Nakajima, Takero

    2006-08-11

    Hepatic peroxisome proliferation, increases in the numerical and volume density of peroxisomes, is believed to be closely related to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) activation; however, it remains unknown whether peroxisome proliferation depends absolutely on this activation. To verify occurrence of PPAR{alpha}-independent peroxisome proliferation, fenofibrate treatment was used, which was expected to significantly enhance PPAR{alpha} dependence in the assay system. Surprisingly, a novel type of PPAR{alpha}-independent peroxisome proliferation and enlargement was uncovered in PPAR{alpha}-null mice. The increased expression of dynamin-like protein 1, but not peroxisome biogenesis factor 11{alpha}, might be associated with the PPAR{alpha}-independent peroxisome proliferation at least in part.

  2. Protease-activated receptor 2-mediated protection of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury: role of transient receptor potential vanilloid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Beihua

    2009-01-01

    Activation of the protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) or the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channels expressed in cardiac sensory afferents containing calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and/or substance P (SP) has been proposed to play a protective role in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the interaction between PAR2 and TRPV1 is largely unknown. Using gene-targeted TRPV1-null mutant (TRPV1−/−) or wild-type (WT) mice, we test the hypothesis that TRPV1 contributes to PAR2-mediated cardiac protection via increasing the release of CGRP and SP. Immunofluorescence labeling showed that TRPV1 coexpressed with PAR2, PKC-ε, or PKAc in cardiomyocytes, cardiac blood vessels, and perivascular nerves in WT but not TRPV1−/− hearts. WT or TRPV1−/− hearts were Langendorff perfused with the selective PAR2 agonist, SLIGRL, in the presence or absence of various antagonists, followed by 35 min of global ischemia and 40 min of reperfusion (I/R). The recovery rate of coronary flow, the maximum rate of left ventricular pressure development, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, and left ventricular developed pressure were evaluated after I/R. SLIGRL improved the recovery of hemodynamic parameters, decreased lactate dehydrogenase release, and reduced the infarct size in both WT and TRPV1−/− hearts (P < 0.05). The protection of SLIGRL was significantly surpassed for WT compared with TRPV1−/− hearts (P < 0.05). CGRP8–37, a selective CGRP receptor antagonist, RP67580, a selective neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, PKC-ε V1–2, a selective PKC-ε inhibitor, or H-89, a selective PKA inhibitor, abolished SLIGRL protection by inhibiting the recovery of the rate of coronary flow, maximum rate of left ventricular pressure development, and left ventricular developed pressure, and increasing left ventricular end-diastolic pressure in WT but not TRPV1−/− hearts. Radioimmunoassay showed that SLIGRL increased the release

  3. LTP-triggered cholesterol redistribution activates Cdc42 and drives AMPA receptor synaptic delivery

    PubMed Central

    Brachet, Anna; Norwood, Stephanie; Brouwers, Jos F.; Palomer, Ernest; Helms, J. Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Neurotransmitter receptor trafficking during synaptic plasticity requires the concerted action of multiple signaling pathways and the protein transport machinery. However, little is known about the contribution of lipid metabolism during these processes. In this paper, we addressed the question of the role of cholesterol in synaptic changes during long-term potentiation (LTP). We found that N-methyl-d-aspartate–type glutamate receptor (NMDAR) activation during LTP induction leads to a rapid and sustained loss or redistribution of intracellular cholesterol in the neuron. A reduction in cholesterol, in turn, leads to the activation of Cdc42 and the mobilization of GluA1-containing α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid–type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) from Rab11-recycling endosomes into the synaptic membrane, leading to synaptic potentiation. This process is accompanied by an increase of NMDAR function and an enhancement of LTP. These results imply that cholesterol acts as a sensor of NMDAR activation and as a trigger of downstream signaling to engage small GTPase (guanosine triphosphatase) activation and AMPAR synaptic delivery during LTP. PMID:25753037

  4. Naringin exhibits in vivo prokinetic activity via activation of ghrelin receptor in gastrointestinal motility dysfunction rats.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yongwoo; Kim, Tae-Kwang; Shim, Won-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Poncirus fructus (PF), also known as the dried immature fruit of Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf., has long been used as a cure for the treatment of various gastrointestinal disorders in eastern Asia. Recently, it was reported that naringin, a flavonoid constituent of the PF extract, causes the activation of ghrelin receptor in vitro. Although the ghrelin receptor is involved in the enhancement of intestinal motility, there are no studies as yet involving in vivo action of naringin. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to investigate whether naringin exhibits a prokinetic effect in vivo. We measured the intestinal transit rate in rats with gastrointestinal motility dysfunction (GMD) and performed a pharmacokinetic analysis of naringin to investigate the effect of naringin on prokinetic activity in vivo. The results of this study show that the aqueous extract of PF and its constituent naringin have a strong prokinetic activity in GMD rats via activation of the ghrelin receptor. Surprisingly, pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that naringin has low bioavailability (11%), implying that the prokinetic effect of naringin was largely due to the local activation of ghrelin receptor in the intestine rather than a systemic effect after absorption. Indeed, it turned out that intravenous administration of naringin led to a lower prokinetic effect than when administrated orally to rats, indicating that naringin prefers to act on the intestinal wall rather than getting absorbed into the systemic circuit. This local mode of action might be advantageous for preventing possible systemic side effects since naringin is not well absorbed into the system circuit. Naringin exhibits an in vivo prokinetic activity by a preferable local activation of ghrelin receptor. Moreover, we propose that naringin could play a role as a leading compound for the development of ghrelin receptor-based prokinetic agents. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. The Environmental Estrogen, Nonylphenol, Activates the Constitutive Androstane Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Juan P.; Huang, Wendong; Chapman, Laura M.; Chua, Steven; Moore, David D.; Baldwin, William S.

    2007-01-01

    Nonylphenol (NP) and its parent compounds, the nonylphenol ethoxylates are some of the most prevalent chemicals found in U.S. waterways. NP is also resistant to biodegradation and is a known environmental estrogen, which makes NP a chemical of concern. Our data show that NP also activates the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), an orphan nuclear receptor important in the induction of detoxification enzymes, including the P450s. Transactivation assays demonstrate that NP increases murine CAR (mCAR) transcriptional activity, and NP treatment can overcome the inhibitory effects of the inverse agonist, androstanol, on mCAR activation. Treatment of wild-type (CAR +/+) mice with NP at 50 or 75 mg/kg/day increases Cyp2b protein expression in a dose-dependent manner as demonstrated by Western blotting, and was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription–PCR of Cyp2b10 transcript levels. CAR-null (CAR −/−) mice show no increased expression of Cyp2b following NP treatment, indicating that CAR is required for NP-mediated Cyp2b induction. In addition, NP increases the translocation of CAR into the nucleus, which is the key step in the commencement of CAR's transcriptional activity. NP also induced CYP2B6 in primary human hepatocytes, and increased Cyp2b10 messenger RNA and protein expression in humanized CAR mice, indicating that NP is an activator of human CAR as well. In conclusion, NP is a CAR activator, and this was demonstrated in vitro with transactivation assays and in vivo with transgenic CAR mouse models. PMID:17483497

  6. Artificial masculinization in tilapia involves androgen receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Golan, Matan; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

    2014-10-01

    Estrogens have a pivotal role in natural female sexual differentiation of tilapia while lack of steroids results in testicular development. Despite the fact that androgens do not participate in natural sex differentiation, synthetic androgens, mainly 17-α-methyltestosterone (MT) are effective in the production of all-male fish in aquaculture. The sex inversion potency of synthetic androgens may arise from their androgenic activity or else as inhibitors of aromatase activity. The current study is an attempt to differentiate between the two alleged activities in order to evaluate their contribution to the sex inversion process and aid the search for novel sex inversion agents. In the present study, MT inhibited aromatase activity, when applied in vitro as did the non-aromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In comparison, exposure to fadrozole, a specific aromatase inhibitor, was considerably more effective. Androgenic activity of MT was evaluated by exposure of Sciaenochromis fryeri fry to the substance and testing for the appearance of blue color. Flutamide, an androgen antagonist, administered concomitantly with MT, reduced the appearance of the blue color and the sex inversion potency of MT in a dose-dependent manner. In tilapia, administration of MT, fadrozole or DHT resulted in efficient sex inversion while flutamide reduced the sex inversion potency of all three compounds. In the case of MT and DHT the decrease in sex inversion efficiency caused by flutamide is most likely due to the direct blocking of the androgen binding to its cognate receptor. The negative effect of flutamide on the efficiency of the fadrozole treatment may indicate that the masculinizing activity of fadrozole may be attributed to excess, un-aromatized, androgens accumulated in the differentiating gonad. The present study shows that when androgen receptors are blocked, there is a reduction in the efficiency of sex inversion treatments. Our results suggest that in contrast to

  7. Presynaptic muscarinic acetylcholine autoreceptors (M1, M2 and M4 subtypes), adenosine receptors (A1 and A2A) and tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor (TrkB) modulate the developmental synapse elimination process at the neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Laura; Garcia, Neus; Hurtado, Erica; Simó, Anna; Tomàs, Marta; Lanuza, Maria A; Santafé, Manel; Tomàs, Josep

    2016-06-23

    The development of the nervous system involves an initially exuberant production of neurons that make an excessive number of synaptic contacts. The initial overproduction of synapses promotes connectivity. Hebbian competition between axons with different activities (the least active are punished) leads to the loss of roughly half of the overproduced elements and this refines connectivity and increases specificity. The neuromuscular junction is innervated by a single axon at the end of the synapse elimination process and, because of its relative simplicity, has long been used as a model for studying the general principles of synapse development. The involvement of the presynaptic muscarinic ACh autoreceptors may allow for the direct competitive interaction between nerve endings through differential activity-dependent acetylcholine release in the synaptic cleft. Then, the most active ending may directly punish the less active ones. Our previous results indicate the existence in the weakest axons on the polyinnervated neonatal NMJ of an ACh release inhibition mechanism based on mAChR coupled to protein kinase C and voltage-dependent calcium channels. We suggest that this mechanism plays a role in the elimination of redundant neonatal synapses. Here we used confocal microscopy and quantitative morphological analysis to count the number of brightly fluorescent axons per endplate in P7, P9 and P15 transgenic B6.Cg-Tg (Thy1-YFP)16 Jrs/J mice. We investigate the involvement of individual mAChR M1-, M2- and M4-subtypes in the control of axonal elimination after the Levator auris longus muscle had been exposed to agonist and antagonist in vivo. We also analysed the role of adenosine receptor subtypes (A1 and A2A) and the tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor. The data show that postnatal axonal elimination is a regulated multireceptor mechanism that guaranteed the monoinnervation of the neuromuscular synapses. The three receptor sets considered (mAChR, AR and TrkB receptors

  8. Spontaneous olfactory receptor neuron activity determines follower cell response properties

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Joby; Dunn, Felice A.; Stopfer, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Noisy or spontaneous activity is common in neural systems and poses a challenge to detecting and discriminating signals. Here we use the locust to answer fundamental questions about noise in the olfactory system: Where does spontaneous activity originate? How is this activity propagated or reduced throughout multiple stages of neural processing? What mechanisms favor the detection of signals despite the presence of spontaneous activity? We found that spontaneous activity long observed in the secondary projection neurons (PNs) originates almost entirely from the primary olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) rather than from spontaneous circuit interactions in the antennal lobe, and that spontaneous activity in ORNs tonically depolarizes the resting membrane potentials of their target PNs and local neurons (LNs), and indirectly tonically depolarizes tertiary Kenyon cells (KCs). However, because these neurons have different response thresholds, in the absence of odor stimulation, ORNs and PNs display a high spontaneous firing rate but KCs are nearly silent. Finally, we used a simulation of the olfactory network to show that discrimination of signal and noise in the KCs is best when threshold levels are set so that baseline activity in PNs persists. Our results show how the olfactory system benefits from making a signal detection decision after a point of maximal information convergence, e.g., after KCs pool inputs from many PNs. PMID:22357872

  9. A synthetic peptide derived from A1 module in CRD4 of human TNF receptor-1 inhibits binding and proinflammatory effect of human TNF-alpha.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yingnan; Wang, Zhaohe; Bu, Xianzhang; Tang, Shu; Mei, Zhengrong; Liu, Peiqing

    2009-06-01

    Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a proinflammatory cytokine, which has been shown to be a causative factor in rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and septic shock. Proinflammatory effect of TNF-alpha is activated mainly through human TNF receptor-1 (TNF-R1). However, the role of the fourth cystein-rich domain (CRD4) of TNF-R1 extracellular portion in the interaction of TNF-alpha with TNF-R1 is still unclear. In the present study, binding activity of TNF-alpha to TNF-R1 and protein levels of IkappaB-alpha and nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) p65 subunit in HeLa cells were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western-blot analysis. Pep 3 (LRENECVS) which was derived from the hydrophilic region of A1 module in CRD4 remarkably inhibited the binding of TNF-alpha to TNF-R1, and also reversed TNF-alpha-induced degradation of IkappaB-alpha and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB p65 subunit in HeLa cells. Our results confirmed that the hydrophilic region of A1 module in CRD4 participated in the interaction of TNF-alpha with TNF-R1, and demonstrated the potential of small-molecule TNF-alpha extracellular inhibitors targeting at A1 module in CRD4 of TNF-R1 in suppressing proinflammatory effect of TNF-alpha.

  10. Mode of action framework analysis for receptor-mediated toxicity: the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha (PPARα) as a case study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Therapeutic hypolipidemic agents and industrial chemicals that cause peroxisome proliferation and induce liver tumors in rodents activate the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Research has elucidated the cellular and molecular events by w...

  11. Peroxisome Proliferators-Activated Receptor (PPAR) Modulators and Metabolic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Min-Chul; Lee, Kyoung; Paik, Sang-Gi; Yoon, Do-Young

    2008-01-01

    Overweight and obesity lead to an increased risk for metabolic disorders such as impaired glucose regulation/insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Several molecular drug targets with potential to prevent or treat metabolic disorders have been revealed. Interestingly, the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), which belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily, has many beneficial clinical effects. PPAR directly modulates gene expression by binding to a specific ligand. All PPAR subtypes (α, γ, and σ) are involved in glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and energy balance. PPAR agonists play an important role in therapeutic aspects of metabolic disorders. However, undesired effects of the existing PPAR agonists have been reported. A great deal of recent research has focused on the discovery of new PPAR modulators with more beneficial effects and more safety without producing undesired side effects. Herein, we briefly review the roles of PPAR in metabolic disorders, the effects of PPAR modulators in metabolic disorders, and the technologies with which to discover new PPAR modulators. PMID:18566691

  12. Role of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in Inflammation Control

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Mostafa

    2004-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) were discovered over a decade ago, and were classified as orphan members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. To date, three PPAR subtypes have been discovered and characterized (PPARα, β/δ, γ). Different PPAR subtypes have been shown to play crucial roles in important diseases and conditions such as obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis, cancer, and fertility. Among the most studied roles of PPARs is their involvement in inflammatory processes. Numerous studies have revealed that agonists of PPARα and PPARγ exert anti-inflammatory effects both in vitro and in vivo. Using the carrageenan-induced paw edema model of inflammation, a recent study in our laboratories showed that these agonists hinder the initiation phase, but not the late phase of the inflammatory process. Furthermore, in the same experimental model, we recently also observed that activation of PPARδ exerted an anti-inflammatory effect. Despite the fact that exclusive dependence of these effects on PPARs has been questioned, the bulk of evidence suggests that all three PPAR subtypes, PPARα, δ, γ, play a significant role in controlling inflammatory responses. Whether these subtypes act via a common mechanism or are independent of each other remains to be elucidated. However, due to the intensity of research efforts in this area, it is anticipated that these efforts will result in the development of PPAR ligands as therapeutic agents for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:15292582

  13. Increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ activity reduces imatinib uptake and efficacy in chronic myeloid leukemia mononuclear cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jueqiong; Lu, Liu; Kok, Chung H.; Saunders, Verity A.; Goyne, Jarrad M.; Dang, Phuong; Leclercq, Tamara M.; Hughes, Timothy P.; White, Deborah L.

    2017-01-01

    Imatinib is actively transported by organic cation transporter-1 (OCT-1) influx transporter, and low OCT-1 activity in diagnostic chronic myeloid leukemia blood mononuclear cells is significantly associated with poor molecular response to imatinib. Herein we report that, in diagnostic chronic myeloid leukemia mononuclear cells and BCR-ABL1+ cell lines, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonists (GW1929, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone) significantly decrease OCT-1 activity; conversely, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ antagonists (GW9662, T0070907) increase OCT-1 activity. Importantly, these effects can lead to corresponding changes in sensitivity to BCR-ABL kinase inhibition. Results were confirmed in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-transduced K562 cells. Furthermore, we identified a strong negative correlation between OCT-1 activity and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ transcriptional activity in diagnostic chronic myeloid leukemia patients (n=84; P<0.0001), suggesting that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ activation has a negative impact on the intracellular uptake of imatinib and consequent BCR-ABL kinase inhibition. The inter-patient variability of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ activation likely accounts for the heterogeneity observed in patient OCT-1 activity at diagnosis. Recently, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist pioglitazone was reported to act synergistically with imatinib, targeting the residual chronic myeloid leukemia stem cell pool. Our findings suggest that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ ligands have differential effects on circulating mononuclear cells compared to stem cells. Since the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ activation on imatinib uptake in mononuclear cells may counteract the clinical benefit of this activation in stem cells, caution should be applied when combining these therapies, especially in

  14. Cyclic AMP-receptor protein activates aerobactin receptor IutA expression in Vibrio vulnificus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Choon-Mee; Kim, Seong-Jung; Shin, Sung-Heui

    2012-04-01

    The ferrophilic bacterium Vibrio vulnificus can utilize the siderophore aerobactin of Escherichia coli for iron acquisition via its specific receptor IutA. This siderophore piracy by V. vulnificus may contribute to its survival and proliferation, especially in mixed bacterial environments. In this study, we examined the effects of glucose, cyclic AMP (cAMP), and cAMP-receptor protein (Crp) on iutA expression in V. vulnificus. Glucose dose-dependently repressed iutA expression. A mutation in cya encoding adenylate cyclase required for cAMP synthesis severely repressed iutA expression, and this change was recovered by in trans complementing cya or the addition of exogenous cAMP. Furthermore, a mutation in crp encoding Crp severely repressed iutA expression, and this change was recovered by complementing crp. Accordingly, glucose deprivation under iron-limited conditions is an environmental signal for iutA expression, and Crp functions as an activator that regulates iutA expression in response to glucose availability.

  15. Expression of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptors and retinoid X receptors in the kidney.

    PubMed

    Yang, T; Michele, D E; Park, J; Smart, A M; Lin, Z; Brosius, F C; Schnermann, J B; Briggs, J P

    1999-12-01

    The discovery that 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) is a ligand for the gamma-isoform of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) suggests nuclear signaling by prostaglandins. Studies were undertaken to determine the nephron localization of PPAR isoforms and their heterodimer partners, retinoid X receptors (RXR), and to evaluate the function of this system in the kidney. PPARalpha mRNA, determined by RT-PCR, was found predominately in cortex and further localized to proximal convoluted tubule (PCT); PPARgamma was abundant in renal inner medulla, localized to inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) and renal medullary interstitial cells (RMIC); PPARbeta, the ubiquitous form of PPAR, was abundant in all nephron segments examined. RXRalpha was localized to PCT and IMCD, whereas RXRbeta was expressed in almost all nephron segments examined. mRNA expression of acyl-CoA synthase (ACS), a known PPAR target gene, was stimulated in renal cortex of rats fed with fenofibrate, but the expression was not significantly altered in either cortex or inner medulla of rats fed with troglitazone. In cultured RMIC cells, both troglitazone and 15d-PGJ2 significantly inhibited cell proliferation and dramatically altered cell shape by induction of cell process formation. We conclude that PPAR and RXR isoforms are expressed in a nephron segment-specific manner, suggesting distinct functions, with PPARalpha being involved in energy metabolism through regulating ACS in PCT and with PPARgamma being involved in modulating RMIC growth and differentiation.

  16. Oleamide activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dionisi, Mauro; Alexander, Stephen P H; Bennett, Andrew J

    2012-05-14

    Oleamide (ODA) is a fatty acid primary amide first identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of sleep-deprived cats, which exerts effects on vascular and neuronal tissues, with a variety of molecular targets including cannabinoid receptors and gap junctions. It has recently been reported to exert a hypolipidemic effect in hamsters. Here, we have investigated the nuclear receptor family of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) as potential targets for ODA action. Activation of PPARα, PPARβ and PPARγ was assessed using recombinant expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells with a luciferase reporter gene assay. Direct binding of ODA to the ligand binding domain of each of the three PPARs was monitored in a cell-free fluorescent ligand competition assay. A well-established assay of PPARγ activity, the differentiation of 3T3-L1 murine fibroblasts into adipocytes, was assessed using an Oil Red O uptake-based assay. ODA, at 10 and 50 μM, was able to transactivate PPARα, PPARβ and PPARγ receptors. ODA bound to the ligand binding domain of all three PPARs, although complete displacement of fluorescent ligand was only evident for PPARγ, at which an IC50 value of 38 μM was estimated. In 3T3-L1 cells, ODA, at 10 and 20 μM, induced adipogenesis. We have, therefore, identified a novel site of action of ODA through PPAR nuclear receptors and shown how ODA should be considered as a weak PPARγ ligand in vitro.

  17. Guanosine-5'-monophosphate induces cell death in rat hippocampal slices via ionotropic glutamate receptors activation and glutamate uptake inhibition.

    PubMed

    Molz, Simone; Dal-Cim, Tharine; Tasca, Carla I

    2009-12-01

    Guanine derivatives modulate the glutamatergic system through displacement of binding of glutamate to its receptors acting as antagonist of glutamate receptors in moderate to high micromolar concentrations. Guanosine-5'-monophosphate (GMP) is shown to be neuroprotective against glutamate- or oxygen/glucose deprivation-induced neurotoxicity and also against NMDA-induced apoptosis in hippocampal slices. However, in this study we are showing that high extracellular GMP concentrations (5mM) reduced cell viability in hippocampal brain slices. The toxic effect of GMP was not blocked by dipyridamole, a nucleoside transport inhibitor, nor mimicked by guanosine, suggesting an extracellular mode of action to GMP which does not involve its hydrolysis to guanosine. GMP-dependent cell damage was not blocked by P1 purinergic receptor antagonists, neither altered by adenosine A(1) or A(2A) receptor agonists. The blockage of the ionotropic glutamate receptors AMPA or NMDA, but not KA or metabotropic glutamate receptors, reversed the toxicity induced by GMP. GMP (5mM) induced a decrease in glutamate uptake into hippocampal slices, which was reversed by dl-TBOA. Therefore, GMP-induced hippocampal cell damage involves activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors and inhibition of glutamate transporters activity.

  18. A restricted population of CB1 cannabinoid receptors with neuroprotective activity.

    PubMed

    Chiarlone, Anna; Bellocchio, Luigi; Blázquez, Cristina; Resel, Eva; Soria-Gómez, Edgar; Cannich, Astrid; Ferrero, José J; Sagredo, Onintza; Benito, Cristina; Romero, Julián; Sánchez-Prieto, José; Lutz, Beat; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Galve-Roperh, Ismael; Guzmán, Manuel

    2014-06-03

    The CB1 cannabinoid receptor, the main molecular target of endocannabinoids and cannabis active components, is the most abundant G protein-coupled receptor in the mammalian brain. Of note, CB1 receptors are expressed at the synapses of two opposing (i.e., GABAergic/inhibitory and glutamatergic/excitatory) neuronal populations, so the activation of one and/or another receptor population may conceivably evoke different effects. Despite the widely reported neuroprotective activity of the CB1 receptor in animal models, the precise pathophysiological relevance of those two CB1 receptor pools in neurodegenerative processes is unknown. Here, we first induced excitotoxic damage in the mouse brain by (i) administering quinolinic acid to conditional mutant animals lacking CB1 receptors selectively in GABAergic or glutamatergic neurons, and (ii) manipulating corticostriatal glutamatergic projections remotely with a designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug pharmacogenetic approach. We next examined the alterations that occur in the R6/2 mouse, a well-established model of Huntington disease, upon (i) fully knocking out CB1 receptors, and (ii) deleting CB1 receptors selectively in corticostriatal glutamatergic or striatal GABAergic neurons. The data unequivocally identify the restricted population of CB1 receptors located on glutamatergic terminals as an indispensable player in the neuroprotective activity of (endo)cannabinoids, therefore suggesting that this precise receptor pool constitutes a promising target for neuroprotective therapeutic strategies.

  19. The First Structure–Activity Relationship Studies for Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, two independent technologies have emerged and been widely adopted by the neuroscience community for remotely controlling neuronal activity: optogenetics which utilize engineered channelrhodopsin and other opsins, and chemogenetics which utilize engineered G protein-coupled receptors (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs)) and other orthologous ligand–receptor pairs. Using directed molecular evolution, two types of DREADDs derived from human muscarinic acetylcholine receptors have been developed: hM3Dq which activates neuronal firing, and hM4Di which inhibits neuronal firing. Importantly, these DREADDs were not activated by the native ligand acetylcholine (ACh), but selectively activated by clozapine N-oxide (CNO), a pharmacologically inert ligand. CNO has been used extensively in rodent models to activate DREADDs, and although CNO is not subject to significant metabolic transformation in mice, a small fraction of CNO is apparently metabolized to clozapine in humans and guinea pigs, lessening the translational potential of DREADDs. To effectively translate the DREADD technology, the next generation of DREADD agonists are needed and a thorough understanding of structure–activity relationships (SARs) of DREADDs is required for developing such ligands. We therefore conducted the first SAR studies of hM3Dq. We explored multiple regions of the scaffold represented by CNO, identified interesting SAR trends, and discovered several compounds that are very potent hM3Dq agonists but do not activate the native human M3 receptor (hM3). We also discovered that the approved drug perlapine is a novel hM3Dq agonist with >10 000-fold selectivity for hM3Dq over hM3. PMID:25587888

  20. N6-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-Adenosine Exhibits Insecticidal Activity against Plutella xylostella via Adenosine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ming; Chai, Yiqiu; Chen, Guanjv; Wang, Huidong; Huang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is one of the most important pests of cruciferous crops. We have earlier shown that N6-(2-hydroxyethyl)-adenosine (HEA) exhibits insecticidal activity against P. xylostella. In the present study we investigated the possible mechanism of insecticidal action of HEA on P. xylostella. HEA is a derivative of adenosine, therefore, we speculated whether it acts via P. xylostella adenosine receptor (PxAdoR). We used RNAi approach to silence PxAdoR gene and used antagonist of denosine receptor (AdoR) to study the insecticidal effect of HEA. We cloned the whole sequence of PxAdoR gene. A BLAST search using NCBI protein database showed a 61% identity with the Drosophila adenosine receptor (DmAdoR) and a 32–35% identity with human AdoR. Though the amino acids sequence of PxAdoR was different compared to other adenosine receptors, most of the amino acids that are known to be important for adenosine receptor ligand binding and signaling were present. However, only 30% binding sites key residues was similar between PxAdoR and A1R. HEA, at a dose of 1 mg/mL, was found to be lethal to the second-instar larvae of P. xylostella, and a significant reduction of mortality and growth inhibition ratio were obtained when HEA was administered to the larvae along with PxAdoR-dsRNA or antagonist of AdoR (SCH58261) for 36, 48, or 60 h. Especially at 48 h, the rate of growth inhibition of the PxAdoR knockdown group was 3.5-fold less than that of the HEA group, and the corrected mortality of SCH58261 group was reduced almost 2-fold compared with the HEA group. Our findings show that HEA may exert its insecticidal activity against P. xylostella larvae via acting on PxAdoR. PMID:27668428

  1. N6-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-Adenosine Exhibits Insecticidal Activity against Plutella xylostella via Adenosine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ming; Chai, Yiqiu; Chen, Guanjv; Wang, Huidong; Huang, Bo

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is one of the most important pests of cruciferous crops. We have earlier shown that N6-(2-hydroxyethyl)-adenosine (HEA) exhibits insecticidal activity against P. xylostella. In the present study we investigated the possible mechanism of insecticidal action of HEA on P. xylostella. HEA is a derivative of adenosine, therefore, we speculated whether it acts via P. xylostella adenosine receptor (PxAdoR). We used RNAi approach to silence PxAdoR gene and used antagonist of denosine receptor (AdoR) to study the insecticidal effect of HEA. We cloned the whole sequence of PxAdoR gene. A BLAST search using NCBI protein database showed a 61% identity with the Drosophila adenosine receptor (DmAdoR) and a 32-35% identity with human AdoR. Though the amino acids sequence of PxAdoR was different compared to other adenosine receptors, most of the amino acids that are known to be important for adenosine receptor ligand binding and signaling were present. However, only 30% binding sites key residues was similar between PxAdoR and A1R. HEA, at a dose of 1 mg/mL, was found to be lethal to the second-instar larvae of P. xylostella, and a significant reduction of mortality and growth inhibition ratio were obtained when HEA was administered to the larvae along with PxAdoR-dsRNA or antagonist of AdoR (SCH58261) for 36, 48, or 60 h. Especially at 48 h, the rate of growth inhibition of the PxAdoR knockdown group was 3.5-fold less than that of the HEA group, and the corrected mortality of SCH58261 group was reduced almost 2-fold compared with the HEA group. Our findings show that HEA may exert its insecticidal activity against P. xylostella larvae via acting on PxAdoR.

  2. Androgen receptor polyglutamine repeat length affects receptor activity and C2C12 cell development.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Ryan L; Spangenburg, Espen E; Chin, Eva R; Roth, Stephen M

    2011-10-20

    Testosterone (T) has an anabolic effect on skeletal muscle and is believed to exert its local effects via the androgen receptor (AR). The AR harbors a polymorphic stretch of glutamine repeats demonstrated to inversely affect receptor transcriptional activity in prostate and kidney cells. The effects of AR glutamine repeat length on skeletal muscle are unknown. In this study we examined the effect of AR CAG repeat length on AR function in C2C12 cells. AR expression vectors harboring 14, 24, and 33 CAG repeats were used to assess AR transcriptional activity. C2C12 cell proliferation, differentiation, gene expression, myotube formation, and myonuclear fusion index were assessed. Transcriptional activity increased with increasing repeat length and in response to testosterone (AR14 = 3.91 ± 0.26, AR24 = 25.21 ± 1.72, AR33 = 36.08 ± 3.22 relative light units; P < 0.001). Ligand activation was increased for AR33 (2.10 ± 0.04) compared with AR14 (1.54 ± 0.09) and AR24 (1.57 ± 0.05, P < 0.001). AR mRNA expression was elevated in each stably transfected line. AR33 cell proliferation (20,512.3 ± 1,024.0) was decreased vs. AR14 (27,604.17 ± 1,425.3; P < 0.001) after 72 h. Decreased CK activity in AR14 cells (54.9 ± 2.9 units/μg protein) in comparison to AR33 (70.8 ± 8.1) (P < 0.05) was noted. The myonuclear fusion index was lower for AR14 (15.21 ± 3.24%) and AR33 (9.97 ± 3.14%) in comparison to WT (35.07 ± 5.60%, P < 0.001). AR14 and AR33 cells also displayed atypical myotube morphology. RT-PCR revealed genotype differences in myostatin and myogenin expression. We conclude that AR polyglutamine repeat length is directly associated with transcriptional activity and alters the growth and development of C2C12 cells. This polymorphism may contribute to the heritability of muscle mass in humans.

  3. Release inhibitory receptors activation favours the A2A-adenosine receptor-mediated facilitation of noradrenaline release in isolated rat tail artery

    PubMed Central

    Fresco, Paula; Diniz, Carmen; Queiroz, Glória; Gonçalves, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    Interactions between A2A-adenosine receptors and α2-, A1- and P2- release-inhibitory receptors, on the modulation of noradrenaline release were studied in isolated rat tail artery. Preparations were labelled with [3H]-noradrenaline, superfused with desipramine-containing medium, and stimulated electrically (100 pulses at 5 Hz or 20 pulses at 50 Hz).Blockade of α2-autoreceptors with yohimbine (1 μM) increased tritium overflow elicited by 100 pulses at 5 Hz but not by 20 pulses at 50 Hz.The selective A2A-receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS 21680; 1 – 100 nM) enhanced tritium overflow elicited by 100 pulses at 5 Hz. Yohimbine prevented the effect of CGS 21680, which was restored by the A1-receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA; 100 nM) or by the P2-receptor agonist 2-methylthioadenosine triphosphate (2-MeSATP; 80 μM).CGS 21680 (100 nM) failed to increase tritium overflow elicited by 20 pulses at 50 Hz. The α2-adrenoceptor agonist 5-bromo-6-(2-imidazolin-2-ylamino)-quinoxaline (UK 14304; 30 nM), the A1-receptor agonist CPA (100 nM) or the P2-receptor agonist 2-MeSATP (80 μM) reduced tritium overflow. In the presence of these agonists CGS 21680 elicited a facilitation of tritium overflow.Blockade of potassium channels with tetraethylammonium (TEA; 5 mM) increased tritium overflow elicited by 100 pulses at 5 Hz to values similar to those obtained in the presence of yohimbine but did not prevent the effect of CGS 21680 (100 nM) on tritium overflow.It is concluded that, in isolated rat tail artery, the facilitation of noradrenaline release mediated by A2A-adenosine receptors is favoured by activation of release inhibitory receptors. PMID:12010771

  4. Analgesic effect of paeoniflorin in rats with neonatal maternal separation-induced visceral hyperalgesia is mediated through adenosine A(1) receptor by inhibiting the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Hong-Li; Li, Zhi; Zhang, Hong-Qi; Xu, Hong-Xi; Sung, Joseph J Y; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2009-11-01

    Paeoniflorin (PF), a chief active ingredient in the root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall (family Ranunculaceae), is effective in relieving colorectal distention (CRD)-induced visceral pain in rats with visceral hyperalgesia induced by neonatal maternal separation (NMS). This study aimed at exploring the underlying mechanisms of PF's analgesic effect on CRD-evoked nociceptive signaling in the central nervous system (CNS) and investigating whether the adenosine A(1) receptor is involved in PF's anti-nociception. CRD-induced visceral pain as well as phosphorylated-extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (p-ERK) and phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB) expression in the CNS structures of NMS rats were suppressed by NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801) and ERK phosphorylation inhibitor U0126. PF could similarly inhibit CRD-evoked p-ERK and c-Fos expression in laminae I-II of the lumbosacral dorsal horn and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). PF could also reverse the CRD-evoked increased glutamate concentration by CRD as shown by dynamic microdialysis monitoring in ACC, whereas, DPCPX, an antagonist of adenosine A(1) receptor, significantly blocked the analgesic effect of PF and PF's inhibition on CRD-induced p-ERK and p-CREB expression. These results suggest that PF's analgesic effect is possibly mediated by adenosine A(1) receptor by inhibiting CRD-evoked glutamate release and the NMDA receptor dependent ERK signaling.

  5. Ventromedial hypothalamic melanocortin receptor activation: regulation of activity energy expenditure and skeletal muscle thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gavini, Chaitanya K; Jones, William C; Novak, Colleen M

    2016-09-15

    The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and the central melanocortin system both play vital roles in regulating energy balance by modulating energy intake and utilization. Recent evidence suggests that activation of the VMH alters skeletal muscle metabolism. We show that intra-VMH melanocortin receptor activation increases energy expenditure and physical activity, switches fuel utilization to fats, and lowers work efficiency such that excess calories are dissipated by skeletal muscle as heat. We also show that intra-VMH melanocortin receptor activation increases sympathetic nervous system outflow to skeletal muscle. Intra-VMH melanocortin receptor activation also induced significant changes in the expression of mediators of energy expenditure in muscle. These results support the role of melanocortin receptors in the VMH in the modulation of skeletal muscle metabolism. The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and the brain melanocortin system both play vital roles in increasing energy expenditure (EE) and physical activity, decreasing appetite and modulating sympathetic nervous system (SNS) outflow. Because of recent evidence showing that VMH activation modulates skeletal muscle metabolism, we propose the existence of an axis between the VMH and skeletal muscle, modulated by brain melanocortins, modelled on the brain control of brown adipose tissue. Activation of melanocortin receptors in the VMH of rats using a non-specific agonist melanotan II (MTII), compared to vehicle, increased oxygen consumption and EE and decreased the respiratory exchange ratio. Intra-VMH MTII enhanced activity-related EE even when activity levels were held constant. MTII treatment increased gastrocnemius muscle heat dissipation during controlled activity, as well as in the home cage. Compared to vehicle-treated rats, rats with intra-VMH melanocortin receptor activation had higher skeletal muscle norepinephrine turnover, indicating an increased SNS drive to muscle. Lastly, intra-VMH MTII induced m

  6. Regulation of platelet activating factor receptor coupled phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C activity

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The major objectives of this study were two-fold. The first was to establish whether binding of platelet activating factor (PAF) to its receptor was integral to the stimulation of polyphosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) in rabbit platelets. The second was to determine regulatory features of this receptor-coupled mechanism. ({sup 3}H)PAF binding demonstrated two binding sites, a high affinity site with a inhibitory constant (Ki) of 2.65 nM and a low affinity site with a Ki of 0.80 {mu}M. PAF receptor coupled activation of phosphoinositide-specific PLC was studied in platelets which were made refractory, by short term pretreatments, to either PAF ormore » thrombin. Saponin-permeabilized rabbit platelets continue to regulate the mechanism(s) coupling PAF receptors to PLC stimulation. However, TRP{gamma}S and GDP{beta}S, which affect guanine nucleotide regulatory protein functions, were unable to modulate the PLC activity to any appreciable extent as compared to PAF. The possible involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) activation in regulating PAF-stimulated PLC activity was studied in rabbit platelets pretreated with staurosporine followed by pretreatments with PAF or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA).« less

  7. Physiological roles of A1 and A2A adenosine receptors in regulating heart rate, body temperature, and locomotion as revealed using knockout mice and caffeine

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiang-Ning; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Fredholm, Bertil B.

    2009-01-01

    Heart rate (HR), body temperature (Temp), locomotor activity (LA), and oxygen consumption (O2C) were studied in awake mice lacking one or both of the adenosine A1 or A2A receptors (A1R or A2AR, respectively) using telemetry and respirometry, before and after caffeine administration. All parameters were lower during day than night and higher in females than males. When compared with wild-type (WT) littermates, HR was higher in male A1R knockout (A1RKO) mice but lower in A2ARKO mice and intermediate in A1-A2AR double KO mice. A single dose of an unselective β-blocker (timolol; 1 mg/kg) abolished the HR differences between these genotypes. Deletion of A1Rs had little effect on Temp, whereas deletion of A2ARs increased it in females and decreased it in males. A1-A2ARKO mice had lower Temp than WT mice. LA was unaltered in A1RKO mice and lower in A2ARKO and A1-A2ARKO mice than in WT mice. Caffeine injection increased LA but only in mice expressing A2AR. Caffeine ingestion also increased LA in an A2AR-dependent manner in male mice. Caffeine ingestion significantly increased O2C in WT mice, but less in the different KO mice. Injection of 30 mg/kg caffeine decreased Temp, especially in KO mice, and hence in a manner unrelated to A1R or A2AR blockade. Selective A2B antagonism had little or no effect. Thus A1R and A2AR influence HR, Temp, LA, and O2C in mice in a sex-dependent manner, indicating effects of endogenous adenosine. The A2AR plays an important role in the modulation of O2C and LA by acute and chronic caffeine administration. There is also evidence for effects of higher doses of caffeine being independent of both A1R and A2AR. PMID:19218506

  8. Physiological roles of A1 and A2A adenosine receptors in regulating heart rate, body temperature, and locomotion as revealed using knockout mice and caffeine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiang-Ning; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Fredholm, Bertil B

    2009-04-01

    Heart rate (HR), body temperature (Temp), locomotor activity (LA), and oxygen consumption (O(2)C) were studied in awake mice lacking one or both of the adenosine A(1) or A(2A) receptors (A(1)R or A(2A)R, respectively) using telemetry and respirometry, before and after caffeine administration. All parameters were lower during day than night and higher in females than males. When compared with wild-type (WT) littermates, HR was higher in male A(1)R knockout (A(1)RKO) mice but lower in A(2A)RKO mice and intermediate in A(1)-A(2A)R double KO mice. A single dose of an unselective beta-blocker (timolol; 1 mg/kg) abolished the HR differences between these genotypes. Deletion of A(1)Rs had little effect on Temp, whereas deletion of A(2A)Rs increased it in females and decreased it in males. A(1)-A(2A)RKO mice had lower Temp than WT mice. LA was unaltered in A(1)RKO mice and lower in A(2A)RKO and A(1)-A(2A)RKO mice than in WT mice. Caffeine injection increased LA but only in mice expressing A(2A)R. Caffeine ingestion also increased LA in an A(2A)R-dependent manner in male mice. Caffeine ingestion significantly increased O(2)C in WT mice, but less in the different KO mice. Injection of 30 mg/kg caffeine decreased Temp, especially in KO mice, and hence in a manner unrelated to A(1)R or A(2A)R blockade. Selective A(2B) antagonism had little or no effect. Thus A(1)R and A(2A)R influence HR, Temp, LA, and O(2)C in mice in a sex-dependent manner, indicating effects of endogenous adenosine. The A(2A)R plays an important role in the modulation of O(2)C and LA by acute and chronic caffeine administration. There is also evidence for effects of higher doses of caffeine being independent of both A(1)R and A(2A)R.

  9. Activation and Regulation of Purinergic P2X Receptor Channels

    PubMed Central

    Coddou, Claudio; Yan, Zonghe; Obsil, Tomas; Huidobro-Toro, J. Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian ATP-gated nonselective cation channels (P2XRs) can be composed of seven possible subunits, denoted P2X1 to P2X7. Each subunit contains a large ectodomain, two transmembrane domains, and intracellular N and C termini. Functional P2XRs are organized as homomeric and heteromeric trimers. This review focuses on the binding sites involved in the activation (orthosteric) and regulation (allosteric) of P2XRs. The ectodomains contain three ATP binding sites, presumably located between neighboring subunits and formed by highly conserved residues. The detection and coordination of three ATP phosphate residues by positively charged amino acids are likely to play a dominant role in determining agonist potency, whereas an AsnPheArg motif may contribute to binding by coordinating the adenine ring. Nonconserved ectodomain histidines provide the binding sites for trace metals, divalent cations, and protons. The transmembrane domains account not only for the formation of the channel pore but also for the binding of ivermectin (a specific P2X4R allosteric regulator) and alcohols. The N- and C- domains provide the structures that determine the kinetics of receptor desensitization and/or pore dilation and are critical for the regulation of receptor functions by intracellular messengers, kinases, reactive oxygen species and mercury. The recent publication of the crystal structure of the zebrafish P2X4.1R in a closed state provides a major advance in the understanding of this family of receptor channels. We will discuss data obtained from numerous site-directed mutagenesis experiments accumulated during the last 15 years with reference to the crystal structure, allowing a structural interpretation of the molecular basis of orthosteric and allosteric ligand actions. PMID:21737531

  10. Constitutive androstane receptor activation evokes the expression of glycolytic genes

    SciTech Connect

    Yarushkin, Andrei A.; Kazantseva, Yuliya A.; Prokopyeva, Elena A.

    It is well-known that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation by 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) increases the liver-to-body weight ratio. CAR-mediated liver growth is correlated with increased expression of the pleiotropic transcription factor cMyc, which stimulates cell cycle regulatory genes and drives proliferating cells into S phase. Because glycolysis supports cell proliferation and cMyc is essential for the activation of glycolytic genes, we hypothesized that CAR-mediated up-regulation of cMyc in mouse livers might play a role in inducing the expression of glycolytic genes. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of long-term CAR activation on glycolytic genes in amore » mouse model not subjected to metabolic stress. We demonstrated that long-term CAR activation by TCPOBOP increases expression of cMyc, which was correlated with reduced expression of gluconeogenic genes and up-regulation of glucose transporter, glycolytic and mitochondrial pyruvate metabolising genes. These changes in gene expression after TCPOBOP treatment were strongly correlated with changes in levels of glycolytic intermediates in mouse livers. Moreover, we demonstrated a significant positive regulatory effect of TCPOBOP-activated CAR on both mRNA and protein levels of Pkm2, a master regulator of glucose metabolism and cell proliferation. Thus, our findings provide evidence to support the conclusion that CAR activation initiates a transcriptional program that facilitates the coordinated metabolic activities required for cell proliferation. - Highlights: • CAR-mediated liver growth is correlated with increased expression of cMyc. • CAR activation increased the expression of glycolytic genes in mouse livers. • CAR activation increased the level of Pkm2 in mouse livers.« less

  11. The amphiphilic peptide adenoregulin enhances agonist binding to A1-adenosine receptors and [35S]GTP gamma S to brain membranes.

    PubMed

    Moni, R W; Romero, F S; Daly, J W

    1995-08-01

    1. Adenoregulin is an amphilic peptide isolated from skin mucus of the tree frog, Phyllomedusa bicolor. Synthetic adenoregulin enhanced the binding of agonists to several G-protein-coupled receptors in rat brain membranes. 2. The maximal enhancement of agonist binding, and in parentheses, the concentration of adenoregulin affording maximal enhancement were as follows: 60% (20 microM) for A1-adenosine receptors, 30% (100 microM) for A2a-adenosine receptors, 20% (2 microM) for alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, and 30% (10 microM) for 5HT1A receptors. High affinity agonist binding for A1-, alpha 2-, and 5HT1A-receptors was virtually abolished by GTP gamma S in the presence of adenoregulin, but was only partially abolished in its absence. Magnesium ions increased the binding of agonists to receptors and reduced the enhancement elicited by adenoregulin. 3. The effect of adenoregulin on binding of N6-cyclohexyladenosine ([3H]CHA) to A1-receptors was relatively slow and was irreversible. Adenoregulin increased the Bmax value for [3H]CHA binding sites, and the proportion of high affinity states, and slowed the rate of [3H]CHA dissociation. Binding of the A1-selective antagonist, [3H]DPCPX, was maximally enhanced by only 13% at 2 microM adenoregulin. Basal and A1-adenosine receptor-stimulated binding of [35S]GTP gamma S were maximally enhanced 45% and 23%, respectively, by 50 microM adenoregulin. In CHAPS-solubilized membranes from rat cortex, the binding of both [3H]CHA and [3H]DPCPX were enhanced by adenoregulin. Binding of [3H]CHA to membranes from DDT1 MF-2 cells was maximally enhanced 17% at 20 microM adenoregulin. In intact DDT1 MF-2 cells, 20 microM adenoregulin did not potentiate the inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation mediated via the adenosine A1 receptor. 4. It is proposed that adenoregulin enhances agonist binding through a mechanism involving enhancement of guanyl nucleotide exchange at G-proteins, resulting in a conversion of receptors into a high affinity state

  12. The Chinese Herbal Medicine Sophora flavescens Activates Pregnane X Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Laiyou; Li, Feng; Lu, Jie; Li, Guodong; Li, Dan; Zhong, Xiao-bo; Guo, Grace L.

    2010-01-01

    Sophora flavescens (SF) is an herbal medicine widely used for the treatment of viral hepatitis, cancer, viral myocarditis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and skin diseases. It was recently reported that SF up-regulates CYP3A expression. The mechanism of SF-induced CYP3A expression is unknown. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that SF-induced CYP3A expression is mediated by the activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR). We used two cell lines, DPX2 and HepaRG, to investigate the role of PXR in SF-induced CYP3A expression. The DPX2 cell line is derived from HepG2 cells with the stable transfection of human PXR and a luciferase reporter gene linked with a human PXR response element identified in the CYP3A4 gene promoter. In DPX2 cells, SF activated PXR in a concentration-dependent manner. We used a metabolomic approach to identify the chemical constituents in SF, which were further analyzed for their effect on PXR activation and CYP3A regulation. One chemical in SF, N-methylcytisine, was identified as an individual chemical that activated PXR. HepaRG is a highly differentiated hepatoma cell line that mimics human hepatocytes. In HepaRG cells, N-methylcytisine significantly induced CYP3A4 expression, and this induction was suppressed by the PXR antagonist sulforaphane. These results suggest that SF induces CYP3A expression via the activation of PXR. PMID:20736322

  13. Selective dopamine receptor 4 activation mediates the hippocampal neuronal calcium response via IP3 and ryanodine receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Li; Wang, Jian-Gang; Guo, Fang-Li; Gao, Xia-Huan; Zhao, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Lu, Cheng-Biao

    2017-09-01

    Intracellular calcium is a key factor in most cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, proliferation and neurotransmitter release. Dopamine (DA) mediates synaptic transmission by regulating the intracellular calcium content. It is not clear, however, which specific subunit of the DA receptor contributes to DA modulation of intracellular calcium content changes. Through the traditional technique of Fura-2 calcium imaging, this study demonstrated that the DA can induce transient calcium in cultured hippocampal neurons and that this response can be mimicked by a selective dopamine receptor 4 (DR4) agonist PD168077 (PD). PD-induced calcium transience can be blocked by a calcium chelator, such as BAPTA-AM, or by pre-treatment of neurons with thapsigargin, a IP 3 receptor antagonist, or a micromolar concentration of ryanodine, a ryanodine receptor (RyR) antagonist. However PD-induced calcium transience cannot be blocked by pre-treatment of neurons with a free-calcium medium or a cocktail of NMDA receptor, L-type calcium channel and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor blockers. These results indicate that the calcium response induced by DR4 activation is mainly through activation of IP 3 receptor in internal stores, which is likely to contribute to the DA modulation of synaptic transmission and cognitive function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. The Structure of the GM-CSF Receptor Complex Reveals a Distinct Mode of Cytokine Receptor Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Guido; Hercus, Timothy R.; McClure, Barbara J.

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that controls the production and function of blood cells, is deregulated in clinical conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and leukemia, yet offers therapeutic value for other diseases. Its receptors are heterodimers consisting of a ligand-specific {alpha} subunit and a {beta}c subunit that is shared with the interleukin (IL)-3 and IL-5 receptors. How signaling is initiated remains an enigma. We report here the crystal structure of the human GM-CSF/GM-CSF receptor ternary complex and its assembly into an unexpected dodecamer or higher-order complex. Importantly, mutagenesis of the GM-CSF receptor at the dodecamer interface andmore » functional studies reveal that dodecamer formation is required for receptor activation and signaling. This unusual form of receptor assembly likely applies also to IL-3 and IL-5 receptors, providing a structural basis for understanding their mechanism of activation and for the development of therapeutics.« less

  15. Vitamin K epoxide reductase regulation of androgen receptor activity

    PubMed Central

    Tew, Ben Yi; Hong, Teresa B.; Otto-Duessel, Maya; Elix, Catherine; Castro, Egbert; He, Miaoling; Wu, Xiwei; Pal, Sumanta K.; Kalkum, Markus; Jones, Jeremy O.

    2017-01-01

    Long-term use of warfarin has been shown to be associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. Warfarin belongs to the vitamin K antagonist class of anticoagulants, which inhibit vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR). The vitamin K cycle is primarily known for its role in γ-carboxylation, a rare post-translational modification important in blood coagulation. Here we show that warfarin inhibits the transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor (AR), an important driver of prostate cancer development and progression. Warfarin treatment or knockdown of its target VKOR inhibits the activity of AR both in cell lines and in mouse prostate tissue. We demonstrate that AR can be γ-carboxylated, and mapped the γ-carboxylation to glutamate residue 2 (E2) using mass spectrometry. However, mutation of E2 and other glutamates on AR failed to suppress the effects of warfarin on AR suggesting that inhibition of AR is γ-carboxylation independent. To identify pathways upstream of AR signaling that are affected by warfarin, we performed RNA-seq on prostates of warfarin-treated mice. We found that warfarin inhibited peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) signaling, which in turn, inhibited AR signaling. Although warfarin is unfit for use as a chemopreventative due to its anticoagulatory effects, our data suggest that its ability to reduce prostate cancer risk is independent of its anticoagulation properties. Furthermore, our data show that warfarin inhibits PPARγ and AR signaling, which suggests that inhibition of these pathways could be used to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. PMID:28099154

  16. Substance P receptor desensitization requires receptor activation but not phospholipase C

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiya, Hiroshi; Putney, J.W. Jr.

    1988-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposure of parotid acinar cells to substance P at 37{degree}C results in activation of phospholipase C, formation of ({sup 3}H)inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}), and persistent desensitization of the substance P response. In cells treated with antimycin in medium containing glucose, ATP was decreased to {approximately}20% of control values, IP{sub 3} formation was completely inhibited, but desensitization was unaffected. When cells were treated with antimycin in the absence of glucose, cellular ATP was decreased to {approximately}5% of control values, and both IP{sub 3} formation and desensitization were blocked. A series of substance P-related peptides increased themore » formation of ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 3} and induced desensitization of the substance P response with a similar rank order of potencies. The substance P antagonist, (D-Pro{sup 2}, D-Try{sup 7,9})-substance P, inhibited substance P-induced IP{sub 3} formation and desensitization but did not induce desensitization. These results suggest that the desensitization of substance P-induced IP{sub 3} formation requires agonist activation of a P-type substance P receptor, and that one or more cellular ATP-dependent processes are required for this reaction. However, activation of phospholipase C and the generation of inositol phosphates does not seem to be a prerequisite for desensitization.« less

  17. Activity-Dependent Ubiquitination of GluA1 Mediates a Distinct AMPAR Endocytosis and Sorting Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Lindsay A.; Hall, Benjamin J.; Patrick, Gentry N.

    2010-01-01

    The accurate trafficking of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) to and from the synapse is a critical component of learning and memory in the brain, while dysfunction of AMPAR trafficking is hypothesized to be an underlying mechanism of Alzheimer’s disease. Previous work has shown that ubiquitination of integral membrane proteins is a common post-translational modification used to mediate endocytosis and endocytic sorting of surface proteins in eukaryotic cells. Here we report that mammalian AMPARs become ubiquitinated in response to their activation. Using a mutant of GluA1 that is unable to be ubiquitinated at lysines on its carboxy-terminus, we demonstrate that ubiquitination is required for internalization of surface AMPARs and their trafficking to the lysosome in response to the AMPAR agonist AMPA, but not for internalization of AMPARs in response to the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) agonist NMDA. Through over-expression or RNAi-mediated knockdown, we identify that a specific E3 ligase, Nedd4-1, is necessary for this process. Finally, we show that ubiquitination of GluA1 by Nedd4-1 becomes more prevalent as neurons mature. Together, these data show that ubiquitination of GluA1-containing AMPARs by Nedd4-1 mediates their endocytosis and trafficking to the lysosome. Furthermore, these results provide insight into how hippocampal neurons regulate AMPAR trafficking and degradation with high specificity in response to differing neuronal signaling cues, and suggest that changes to this pathway may occur as neurons mature. PMID:21148011

  18. The pharmacology of Ro 64-6198, a systemically active, nonpeptide NOP receptor (opiate receptor-like 1, ORL-1) agonist with diverse preclinical therapeutic activity.

    PubMed

    Shoblock, James R

    2007-01-01

    The NOP receptor (formerly referred to as opiate receptor-like 1, ORL-1, LC132, OP(4), or NOP(1)) is a G protein-coupled receptor that shares high homology to the classic opioid MOP, DOP, and KOP (mu, delta, and kappa, respectively) receptors and was first cloned in 1994 by several groups. The NOP receptor remained an orphan receptor until 1995, when the endogenous neuropeptide agonist, known as nociceptin or orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) was isolated. Five years later, a group at Hoffmann-La Roche reported on the selective, nonpeptide NOP agonist Ro 64-6198, which became the most extensively published nonpeptide NOP agonist and a valuable pharmacological tool in determining the potential of the NOP receptor as a therapeutic target. Ro 64-6198 is systemically active and achieves high brain penetration. It has subnanomolar affinity for the NOP receptor and is at least 100 times more selective for the NOP receptor over the classic opioid receptors. Ro 64-6198 ranges from partial to full agonist, depending on the assay. Preclinical data indicate that Ro 64-6198 may have broad clinical uses, such as in treating stress and anxiety, addiction, neuropathic pain, cough, and anorexia. This review summarizes the pharmacology and preclinical data of Ro 64-6198.

  19. Functional selectivity induced by mGlu₄ receptor positive allosteric modulation and concomitant activation of Gq coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shen; Zamorano, Rocio; Conn, P Jeffrey; Niswender, Colleen M

    2013-03-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlus) are a group of Family C Seven Transmembrane Spanning Receptors (7TMRs) that play important roles in modulating signaling transduction, particularly within the central nervous system. mGlu(4) belongs to a subfamily of mGlus that is predominantly coupled to G(i/o) G proteins. We now report that the ubiquitous autacoid and neuromodulator, histamine, induces substantial glutamate-activated calcium mobilization in mGlu(4)-expressing cells, an effect which is observed in the absence of co-expressed chimeric G proteins. This strong induction of calcium signaling downstream of glutamate activation of mGlu(4) depends upon the presence of H(1) histamine receptors. Interestingly, the potentiating effect of histamine activation does not extend to other mGlu(4)-mediated signaling events downstream of G(i/o) G proteins, such as cAMP inhibition, suggesting that the presence of G(q) coupled receptors such as H(1) may bias normal mGlu(4)-mediated G(i/o) signaling events. When the activity induced by small molecule positive allosteric modulators of mGlu(4) is assessed, the potentiated signaling of mGlu(4) is further biased by histamine toward calcium-dependent pathways. These results suggest that G(i/o)-coupled mGlus may induce substantial, and potentially unexpected, calcium-mediated signaling events if stimulation occurs concomitantly with activation of G(q) receptors. Additionally, our results suggest that signaling induced by small molecule positive allosteric modulators may be substantially biased when G(q) receptors are co-activated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR(2)) in human periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Holzhausen, M; Cortelli, J R; da Silva, V Araújo; Franco, G C Nobre; Cortelli, S Cavalca; Vergnolle, N

    2010-09-01

    No evidence for the role of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR(2)) in human periodontal disease has been demonstrated so far. Thus, we sought to investigate the expression of PAR(2) mRNA in chronic periodontitis, and to examine whether its expression is related to the presence of PAR(2) potential activators. Microbiological and gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected from individuals with chronic periodontitis and control individuals, and the presence of neutrophil serine proteinase 3 (P3) and Porphyromonas gingivalis was evaluated. PAR(2) mRNA expression was higher (p < 0.001) in those with chronic periodontitis compared with control individuals, and it was statistically decreased (p = 0.0006) after periodontal treatment. Furthermore, those with chronic periodontitis presented higher (p < 0.05) levels of IL-1alpha, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha, total proteolytic activity, P. gingivalis prevalence, and P3mRNA expression compared with control individuals. We conclude that PAR(2) mRNA expression and its potential activators are elevated in human chronic periodontitis, therefore suggesting that PAR(2) may play a role in periodontal inflammation.

  1. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in Female Reproduction and Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Carta, Gaspare; Artini, Paolo Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive functions may be altered by the exposure to a multitude of endogenous and exogenous agents, drug or environmental pollutants, which are known to affect gene transcription through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) activation. PPARs act as ligand activated transcription factors and regulate metabolic processes such as lipid and glucose metabolism, energy homeostasis, inflammation, and cell proliferation and differentiation. All PPARs isotypes are expressed along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and are strictly involved in reproductive functions. Since female fertility and energy metabolism are tightly interconnected, the research on female infertility points towards the exploration of potential PPARs activating/antagonizing compounds, mainly belonging to the class of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and fibrates, as useful agents for the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in women with ovarian dysfunctions. In the present review, we discuss the recent evidence about PPARs expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and their involvement in female reproduction. Finally, the therapeutic potential of their manipulation through several drugs is also discussed. PMID:27559343

  2. Chronic cannabinoid receptor 2 activation reverses paclitaxel neuropathy without tolerance or cannabinoid receptor 1-dependent withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Deng, Liting; Guindon, Josée; Cornett, Benjamin L; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Mackie, Ken; Hohmann, Andrea G

    2015-03-01

    Mixed cannabinoid receptor 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2) agonists such as Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) can produce tolerance, physical withdrawal, and unwanted CB1-mediated central nervous system side effects. Whether repeated systemic administration of a CB2-preferring agonist engages CB1 receptors or produces CB1-mediated side effects is unknown. We evaluated antiallodynic efficacy, possible tolerance, and cannabimimetic side effects of repeated dosing with a CB2-preferring agonist AM1710 in a model of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy produced by paclitaxel using CB1 knockout (CB1KO), CB2 knockout (CB2KO), and wild-type (WT) mice. Comparisons were made with the prototypic classic cannabinoid Δ(9)-THC. We also explored the site and possible mechanism of action of AM1710. Paclitaxel-induced mechanical and cold allodynia developed to an equivalent degree in CB1KO, CB2KO, and WT mice. Both AM1710 and Δ(9)-THC suppressed established paclitaxel-induced allodynia in WT mice. In contrast to Δ(9)-THC, chronic administration of AM1710 did not engage CB1 activity or produce antinociceptive tolerance, CB1-mediated cannabinoid withdrawal, hypothermia, or motor dysfunction. Antiallodynic efficacy of systemic administration of AM1710 was absent in CB2KO mice and WT mice receiving the CB2 antagonist AM630, administered either systemically or intrathecally. Intrathecal administration of AM1710 also attenuated paclitaxel-induced allodynia in WT mice, but not CB2KO mice, implicating a possible role for spinal CB2 receptors in AM1710 antiallodynic efficacy. Finally, both acute and chronic administration of AM1710 decreased messenger RNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in lumbar spinal cord of paclitaxel-treated WT mice. Our results highlight the potential of prolonged use of CB2 agonists for managing chemotherapy-induced allodynia with a favorable therapeutic ratio marked by sustained efficacy and absence of tolerance, physical

  3. Plasticizers May Activate Human Hepatic Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α Less Than That of a Mouse but May Activate Constitutive Androstane Receptor in Liver

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Yuki; Nakamura, Toshiki; Yanagiba, Yukie; Ramdhan, Doni Hikmat; Yamagishi, Nozomi; Naito, Hisao; Kamijima, Michihiro; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Nakajima, Tamie

    2012-01-01

    Dibutylphthalate (DBP), di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), and di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA) are used as plasticizers. Their metabolites activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α, which may be related to their toxicities. However, species differences in the receptor functions between rodents and human make it difficult to precisely extrapolate their toxicity from animal studies to human. In this paper, we compared the species differences in the activation of mouse and human hepatic PPARα by these plasticizers using wild-type (mPPARα) and humanized PPARα (hPPARα) mice. At 12 weeks old, each genotyped male mouse was classified into three groups, and fed daily for 2 weeks per os with corn oil (vehicle control), 2.5 or 5.0 mmol/kg DBP (696, 1392 mg/kg), DEHP (977, 1953 mg/kg), and DEHA (926, 1853 mg/kg), respectively. Generally, hepatic PPARα of mPPARα mice was more strongly activated than that of hPPARα mice when several target genes involving β-oxidation of fatty acids were evaluated. Interestingly, all plasticizers also activated hepatic constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) more in hPPARα mice than in mPPARα mice. Taken together, these plasticizers activated mouse and human hepatic PPARα as well as CAR. The activation of PPARα was stronger in mPPARα mice than in hPPARα mice, while the opposite was true of CAR. PMID:22792086

  4. β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide acts at prejunctional adenosine A1 receptors to suppress inhibitory musculomotor neurotransmission in guinea pig colon and human jejunum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guo-Du; Wang, Xi-Yu; Liu, Sumei; Xia, Yun; Zou, Fei; Qu, Meihua; Needleman, Bradley J.; Mikami, Dean J.

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular microelectrodes were used to record neurogenic inhibitory junction potentials in the intestinal circular muscle coat. Electrical field stimulation was used to stimulate intramural neurons and evoke contraction of the smooth musculature. Exposure to β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (β-NAD) did not alter smooth muscle membrane potential in guinea pig colon or human jejunum. ATP, ADP, β-NAD, and adenosine, as well as the purinergic P2Y1 receptor antagonists MRS 2179 and MRS 2500 and the adenosine A1 receptor agonist 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine, each suppressed inhibitory junction potentials in guinea pig and human preparations. β-NAD suppressed contractile force of twitch-like contractions evoked by electrical field stimulation in guinea pig and human preparations. P2Y1 receptor antagonists did not reverse this action. Stimulation of adenosine A1 receptors with 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine suppressed the force of twitch contractions evoked by electrical field stimulation in like manner to the action of β-NAD. Blockade of adenosine A1 receptors with 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine suppressed the inhibitory action of β-NAD on the force of electrically evoked contractions. The results do not support an inhibitory neurotransmitter role for β-NAD at intestinal neuromuscular junctions. The data suggest that β-NAD is a ligand for the adenosine A1 receptor subtype expressed by neurons in the enteric nervous system. The influence of β-NAD on intestinal motility emerges from adenosine A1 receptor-mediated suppression of neurotransmitter release at inhibitory neuromuscular junctions. PMID:25813057

  5. Residues within the Transmembrane Domain of the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Involved in Ligand Binding and Receptor Activation: Modelling the Ligand-Bound Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Coopman, K.; Wallis, R.; Robb, G.; Brown, A. J. H.; Wilkinson, G. F.; Timms, D.

    2011-01-01

    The C-terminal regions of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) bind to the N terminus of the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R), facilitating interaction of the ligand N terminus with the receptor transmembrane domain. In contrast, the agonist exendin-4 relies less on the transmembrane domain, and truncated antagonist analogs (e.g. exendin 9–39) may interact solely with the receptor N terminus. Here we used mutagenesis to explore the role of residues highly conserved in the predicted transmembrane helices of mammalian GLP-1Rs and conserved in family B G protein coupled receptors in ligand binding and GLP-1R activation. By iteration using information from the mutagenesis, along with the available crystal structure of the receptor N terminus and a model of the active opsin transmembrane domain, we developed a structural receptor model with GLP-1 bound and used this to better understand consequences of mutations. Mutation at Y152 [transmembrane helix (TM) 1], R190 (TM2), Y235 (TM3), H363 (TM6), and E364 (TM6) produced similar reductions in affinity for GLP-1 and exendin 9–39. In contrast, other mutations either preferentially [K197 (TM2), Q234 (TM3), and W284 (extracellular loop 2)] or solely [D198 (TM2) and R310 (TM5)] reduced GLP-1 affinity. Reduced agonist affinity was always associated with reduced potency. However, reductions in potency exceeded reductions in agonist affinity for K197A, W284A, and R310A, while H363A was uncoupled from cAMP generation, highlighting critical roles of these residues in translating binding to activation. Data show important roles in ligand binding and receptor activation of conserved residues within the transmembrane domain of the GLP-1R. The receptor structural model provides insight into the roles of these residues. PMID:21868452

  6. Dioxin mediates downregulation of the reduced folate carrier transport activity via the arylhydrocarbon receptor signalling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Halwachs, Sandra, E-mail: halwachs@vetmed.uni-leipzig.d; Lakoma, Cathleen; Gebhardt, Rolf

    2010-07-15

    Dioxins such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) are common environmental contaminants known to regulate several genes via activation of the transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) associated with the development of numerous adverse biological effects. However, comparatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which dioxins display their toxic effects in vertebrates. The 5' untranslated region of the hepatocellular Reduced folate carrier (Rfc1; Slc19a1) exhibits AhR binding sites termed dioxin responsive elements (DRE) that have as yet only been found in the promoter region of prototypical TCDD target genes. Rfc1 mediated transport of reduced folates and antifolate drugs such as methotrexatemore » (MTX) plays an essential role in physiological folate homeostasis and MTX cancer chemotherapy. In order to determine whether this carrier represents a target gene of dioxins we have investigated the influence of TCDD on functional Rfc1 activity in rat liver. Pre-treatment of rats with TCDD significantly diminished hepatocellular Rfc1 uptake activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In further mechanistic studies we demonstrated that this reduction was due to TCDD-dependent activation of the AhR signalling pathway. We additionally showed that binding of the activated receptor to DRE motifs in the Rfc1 promoter resulted in downregulation of Rfc1 gene expression and reduced carrier protein levels. As downregulation of pivotal Rfc1 activity results in functional folate deficiency associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular diseases or carcinogenesis, our results indicate that deregulation of this essential transport pathway represents a novel regulatory mechanism how dioxins display their toxic effects through the Ah receptor.« less

  7. Cytoprotective signaling by activated protein C requires protease-activated receptor-3 in podocytes

    PubMed Central

    Madhusudhan, Thati; Wang, Hongjie; Straub, Beate K.; Gröne, Elisabeth; Zhou, Qianxing; Shahzad, Khurrum; Müller-Krebs, Sandra; Schwenger, Vedat; Gerlitz, Bruce; Grinnell, Brian W.; Griffin, John H.; Reiser, Jochen; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Esmon, Charles T.; Nawroth, Peter P.

    2012-01-01

    The cytoprotective effects of activated protein C (aPC) are well established. In contrast, the receptors and signaling mechanism through which aPC conveys cytoprotection in various cell types remain incompletely defined. Thus, within the renal glomeruli, aPC preserves endothelial cells via a protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and endothelial protein C receptor-dependent mechanism. Conversely, the signaling mechanism through which aPC protects podocytes remains unknown. While exploring the latter, we identified a novel aPC/PAR-dependent cytoprotective signaling mechanism. In podocytes, aPC inhibits apoptosis through proteolytic activation of PAR-3 independent of endothelial protein C receptor. PAR-3 is not signaling competent itself as it requires aPCinduced heterodimerization with PAR-2 (human podocytes) or PAR-1 (mouse podocytes). This cytoprotective signaling mechanism depends on caveolin-1 dephosphorylation. In vivo aPC protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced podocyte injury and proteinuria. Genetic deletion of PAR-3 impairs the nephroprotective effect of aPC, demonstrating the crucial role of PAR-3 for aPC-dependent podocyte protection. This novel, aPC-mediated interaction of PARs demonstrates the plasticity and cell-specificity of cytoprotective aPC signaling. The evidence of specific, dynamic signaling complexes underlying aPC-mediated cytoprotection may allow the design of cell type specific targeted therapies. PMID:22117049

  8. Neurokinin-1 receptor activation in Botzinger complex evokes bradypnoea.

    PubMed

    Fong, Angelina Y; Potts, Jeffrey T

    2006-09-15

    In the present study, we examined the role of the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) in the modulation of respiratory rhythm in a functionally identified bradypnoeic region of the ventral respiratory group (VRG) in the in situ arterially perfused juvenile rat preparation. In electrophysiologically and functionally identified bradypnoeic sites corresponding to the Bötzinger complex (BötC), microinjection of the selective NK1R agonist [Sar(9)-Met(O(2))(11)]-substance P (SSP) produced a significant reduction in phrenic frequency mediated exclusively by an increase in expiratory duration (T(E)). The reduction was characterized by a significant increase in postinspiratory (post-I) duration with no effect on either late-expiratory duration (E2) or inspiratory duration (T(I)). In contrast, in a functionally identified tachypnoeic region, corresponding to the preBötzinger complex (Pre-BötC), control microinjection of SSP elicited tachypnoea. Pretreatment with the NK1R antagonist CP99994 in the BötC significantly attenuated the bradypnoeic response to SSP injection and blunted the increase in T(E) duration. This effect of SSP mimicked the extension of T(E) produced by activation of the Hering-Breuer reflex. Therefore, we hypothesized that activation of NK1Rs in the BötC is requisite for the expiratory-lengthening effect of the Hering-Breuer reflex. Unilateral electrical stimulation of the cervical vagus nerve produced bradypnoea by exclusively extending T(E). Ipsilateral blockade of NK1Rs by CP99994 following blockade of the contralateral BötC by the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol significantly reduced the extension of T(E) produced by vagal stimulation. Results from the present study demonstrate that selective activation of NK1Rs in a functionally identified bradypnoeic region of the VRG can depress respiratory frequency by selectively lengthening post-I duration and provide evidence that endogenous activation of NK1Rs in the BötC appears to be involved in the

  9. Phosphorylated Nuclear Receptor CAR Forms a Homodimer To Repress Its Constitutive Activity for Ligand Activation

    PubMed Central

    Shizu, Ryota; Osabe, Makoto; Perera, Lalith; Moore, Rick; Sueyoshi, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The nuclear receptor CAR (NR1I3) regulates hepatic drug and energy metabolism as well as cell fate. Its activation can be a critical factor in drug-induced toxicity and the development of diseases, including diabetes and tumors. CAR inactivates its constitutive activity by phosphorylation at threonine 38. Utilizing receptor for protein kinase 1 (RACK1) as the regulatory subunit, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) dephosphorylates threonine 38 to activate CAR. Here we demonstrate that CAR undergoes homodimer-monomer conversion to regulate this dephosphorylation. By coexpression of two differently tagged CAR proteins in Huh-7 cells, mouse primary hepatocytes, and mouse livers, coimmunoprecipitation and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed that CAR can form a homodimer in a configuration in which the PP2A/RACK1 binding site is buried within its dimer interface. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) was found to stimulate CAR homodimerization, thus constraining CAR in its inactive form. The agonistic ligand CITCO binds directly to the CAR homodimer and dissociates phosphorylated CAR into its monomers, exposing the PP2A/RACK1 binding site for dephosphorylation. Phenobarbital, which is not a CAR ligand, binds the EGF receptor, reversing the EGF signal to monomerize CAR for its indirect activation. Thus, the homodimer-monomer conversion is the underlying molecular mechanism that regulates CAR activation, by placing phosphorylated threonine 38 as the common target for both direct and indirect activation of CAR. PMID:28265001

  10. Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor γ (PPARγ) and CD36 Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Wenwen; Chen, Yuanli; Li, Yan; Sun, Lei; Liu, Ying; Liu, Mengyang; Yu, Miao; Li, Xiaoju; Han, Jihong; Duan, Yajun

    2016-01-01

    Progesterone or its analog, one of components of hormone replacement therapy, may attenuate the cardioprotective effects of estrogen. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Expression of CD36, a receptor for oxidized LDL (oxLDL) that enhances macrophage/foam cell formation, is activated by the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). CD36 also functions as a fatty acid transporter to influence fatty acid metabolism and the pathophysiological status of several diseases. In this study, we determined that progesterone induced macrophage CD36 expression, which is related to progesterone receptor (PR) activity. Progesterone enhanced cellular oxLDL uptake in a CD36-dependent manner. Mechanistically, progesterone increased PPARγ expression and PPARγ promoter activity in a PR-dependent manner and the binding of PR with the progesterone response element in the PPARγ promoter. Specific deletion of macrophage PPARγ (MφPPARγ KO) expression in mice abolished progesterone-induced macrophage CD36 expression and cellular oxLDL accumulation. We also determined that, associated with gestation and increased serum progesterone levels, CD36 and PPARγ expression in mouse adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and peritoneal macrophages were substantially activated. Taken together, our study demonstrates that progesterone can play dual pathophysiological roles by activating PPARγ expression, in which progesterone increases macrophage CD36 expression and oxLDL accumulation, a negative effect on atherosclerosis, and enhances the PPARγ-CD36 pathway in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, a protective effect on pregnancy. PMID:27226602

  11. Regulated internalization of NMDA receptors drives PKD1-mediated suppression of the activity of residual cell-surface NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiao-Qian; Qiao, Haifa; Groveman, Bradley R; Feng, Shuang; Pflueger, Melissa; Xin, Wen-Kuan; Ali, Mohammad K; Lin, Shuang-Xiu; Xu, Jindong; Duclot, Florian; Kabbaj, Mohamed; Wang, Wei; Ding, Xin-Sheng; Santiago-Sim, Teresa; Jiang, Xing-Hong; Salter, Michael W; Yu, Xian-Min

    2015-11-19

    Constitutive and regulated internalization of cell surface proteins has been extensively investigated. The regulated internalization has been characterized as a principal mechanism for removing cell-surface receptors from the plasma membrane, and signaling to downstream targets of receptors. However, so far it is still not known whether the functional properties of remaining (non-internalized) receptor/channels may be regulated by internalization of the same class of receptor/channels. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is a principal subtype of glutamate-gated ion channel and plays key roles in neuronal plasticity and memory functions. NMDARs are well-known to undergo two types of regulated internalization - homologous and heterologous, which can be induced by high NMDA/glycine and DHPG, respectively. In the present work, we investigated effects of regulated NMDAR internalization on the activity of residual cell-surface NMDARs and neuronal functions. In electrophysiological experiments we discovered that the regulated internalization of NMDARs not only reduced the number of cell surface NMDARs but also caused an inhibition of the activity of remaining (non-internalized) surface NMDARs. In biochemical experiments we identified that this functional inhibition of remaining surface NMDARs was mediated by increased serine phosphorylation of surface NMDARs, resulting from the activation of protein kinase D1 (PKD1). Knockdown of PKD1 did not affect NMDAR internalization but prevented the phosphorylation and inhibition of remaining surface NMDARs and NMDAR-mediated synaptic functions. These data demonstrate a novel concept that regulated internalization of cell surface NMDARs not only reduces the number of NMDARs on the cell surface but also causes an inhibition of the activity of remaining surface NMDARs through intracellular signaling pathway(s). Furthermore, modulating the activity of remaining surface receptors may be an effective approach for treating receptor

  12. Ligand Recognition by A-Class Eph Receptors: Crystal Structures of the EphA2 Ligand-Binding Domain and the EphA2/ephrin-A1 Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Himanen, J.; Goldgur, Y; Miao, H

    2009-01-01

    Ephrin (Eph) receptor tyrosine kinases fall into two subclasses (A and B) according to preferences for their ephrin ligands. All published structural studies of Eph receptor/ephrin complexes involve B-class receptors. Here, we present the crystal structures of an A-class complex between EphA2 and ephrin-A1 and of unbound EphA2. Although these structures are similar overall to their B-class counterparts, they reveal important differences that define subclass specificity. The structures suggest that the A-class Eph receptor/ephrin interactions involve smaller rearrangements in the interacting partners, better described by a 'lock-and-key'-type binding mechanism, in contrast to the 'induced fit' mechanism defining the B-class molecules.more » This model is supported by structure-based mutagenesis and by differential requirements for ligand oligomerization by the two subclasses in cell-based Eph receptor activation assays. Finally, the structure of the unligated receptor reveals a homodimer assembly that might represent EphA2-specific homotypic cell adhesion interactions.« less

  13. Activation of Postnatal Neural Stem Cells Requires Nuclear Receptor TLX

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Wenze; Zou, Yuhua; Shen, ChengCheng; Zhang, Chun-Li

    2011-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) continually produce new neurons in postnatal brains. However, the majority of these cells stay in a non-dividing, inactive state. The molecular mechanism that is required for these cells to enter proliferation still remains largely unknown. Here, we show that nuclear receptor TLX (NR2E1) controls the activation status of postnatal NSCs in mice. Lineage tracing indicates that TLX-expressing cells give rise to both activated and inactive postnatal NSCs. Surprisingly, loss of TLX function does not result in spontaneous glial differentiation, but rather leads to a precipitous age-dependent increase of inactive cells with marker expression and radial morphology for NSCs. These inactive cells are mis-positioned throughout the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus during development and can proliferate again after reintroducing ectopic TLX. RNA-seq analysis of sorted NSCs revealed a TLX-dependent global expression signature, which includes the p53 signaling pathway. TLX regulates p21 expression in a p53-dependent manner and acute removal of p53 can rescue the proliferation defect of TLX-null NSCs in culture. Together, these findings suggest that TLX acts as an essential regulator that ensures the proliferative ability of postnatal NSCs by controlling their activation through genetic interaction with p53 and other signaling pathways. PMID:21957244

  14. Activation of postnatal neural stem cells requires nuclear receptor TLX.

    PubMed

    Niu, Wenze; Zou, Yuhua; Shen, Chengcheng; Zhang, Chun-Li

    2011-09-28

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) continually produce new neurons in postnatal brains. However, the majority of these cells stay in a nondividing, inactive state. The molecular mechanism that is required for these cells to enter proliferation still remains largely unknown. Here, we show that nuclear receptor TLX (NR2E1) controls the activation status of postnatal NSCs in mice. Lineage tracing indicates that TLX-expressing cells give rise to both activated and inactive postnatal NSCs. Surprisingly, loss of TLX function does not result in spontaneous glial differentiation, but rather leads to a precipitous age-dependent increase of inactive cells with marker expression and radial morphology for NSCs. These inactive cells are mispositioned throughout the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus during development and can proliferate again after reintroduction of ectopic TLX. RNA-seq analysis of sorted NSCs revealed a TLX-dependent global expression signature, which includes the p53 signaling pathway. TLX regulates p21 expression in a p53-dependent manner, and acute removal of p53 can rescue the proliferation defect of TLX-null NSCs in culture. Together, these findings suggest that TLX acts as an essential regulator that ensures the proliferative ability of postnatal NSCs by controlling their activation through genetic interaction with p53 and other signaling pathways.

  15. A Mechanism of Intracellular P2X Receptor Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Sivaramakrishnan, Venketesh; Fountain, Samuel J.

    2012-01-01

    P2X receptors (P2XRs) are ATP-activated calcium-permeable ligand-gated ion channels traditionally viewed as sensors of extracellular ATP during diverse physiological processes including pain, inflammation, and taste. However, in addition to a cell surface residency P2XRs also populate the membranes of intracellular compartments, including mammalian lysosomes, phagosomes, and the contractile vacuole (CV) of the amoeba Dictyostelium. The function of intracellular P2XRs is unclear and represents a major gap in our understanding of ATP signaling. Here, we exploit the genetic versatility of Dictyostelium to investigate the effects of physiological concentrations of ATP on calcium signaling in isolated CVs. Within the CV, an acidic calcium store, P2XRs are orientated to sense luminal ATP. Application of ATP to isolated vacuoles leads to luminal translocation of ATP and release of calcium. Mechanisms of luminal ATP translocation and ATP-evoked calcium release share common pharmacology, suggesting that they are linked processes. The ability of ATP to mobilize stored calcium is reduced in vacuoles isolated from P2XAR knock-out amoeba and ablated in cells devoid of P2XRs. Pharmacological inhibition of luminal ATP translocation or depletion of CV calcium attenuates CV function in vivo, manifesting as a loss of regulatory cell volume decrease following osmotic swelling. We propose that intracellular P2XRs regulate vacuole activity by acting as calcium release channels, activated by translocation of ATP into the vacuole lumen. PMID:22736763

  16. 17 CFR 240.15a-1 - Securities activities of OTC derivatives dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... derivatives dealers. 240.15a-1 Section 240.15a-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Exemption of Certain Otc Derivatives Dealers § 240.15a-1 Securities activities of OTC derivatives dealers. Preliminary Note: OTC derivatives dealers are a special...

  17. Characterization of the intrinsic activity for a novel class of cannabinoid receptor ligands: Indole Quinuclidine analogues

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Lirit N.; Ford, Benjamin M.; Madadi, Nikhil R.; Penthala, Narsimha R.; Crooks, Peter A.; Prather, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    Our laboratory recently reported that a group of novel indole quinuclidine analogues bind with nanomolar affinity to cannabinoid type-1 and type-2 receptors. This study characterized the intrinsic activity of these compounds by determining whether they exhibit agonist, antagonist, or inverse agonist activity at cannabinoid type-1 and/or type-2 receptors. Cannabinoid receptors activate Gi/Go-proteins that then proceed to inhibit activity of the downstream intracellular effector adenylyl cyclase. Therefore, intrinsic activity was quantified by measuring the ability of compounds to modulate levels of intracellular cAMP in intact cells. Concerning cannabinoid type-1 receptors endogenously expressed in Neuro2A cells, a single analogue exhibited agonist activity, while eight acted as neutral antagonists and two possessed inverse agonist activity. For cannabinoid type-2 receptors stably expressed in CHO cells, all but two analogues acted as agonists; these two exceptions exhibited inverse agonist activity. Confirming specificity at cannabinoid type-1 receptors, modulation of adenylyl cyclase activity by all proposed agonists and inverse agonists was blocked by co-incubation with the neutral cannabinoid type-1 antagonist O-2050. All proposed cannabinoid type-1 receptor antagonists attenuated adenylyl cyclase modulation by cannabinoid agonist CP-55,940. Specificity at cannabinoid type-2 receptors was confirmed by failure of all compounds to modulate adenylyl cyclase activity in CHO cells devoid of cannabinoid type-2 receptors. Further characterization of select analogues demonstrated concentration-dependent modulation of adenylyl cyclase activity with potencies similar to their respective affinities for cannabinoid receptors. Therefore, indole quinuclidines are a novel structural class of compounds exhibiting high affinity and a range of intrinsic activity at cannabinoid type-1 and type-2 receptors. PMID:24858620

  18. The non-biphenyl-tetrazole angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonist eprosartan is a unique and robust inverse agonist of the active state of the AT1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Takezako, Takanobu; Unal, Hamiyet; Karnik, Sadashiva S; Node, Koichi

    2018-03-23

    Conditions such as hypertension and renal allograft rejection are accompanied by chronic, agonist-independent, signalling by angiotensin II AT 1 receptors. The current treatment paradigm for these diseases entails the preferred use of inverse agonist AT 1 receptor blockers (ARBs). However, variability in the inverse agonist activities of common biphenyl-tetrazole ARBs for the active state of AT 1 receptors often leads to treatment failure. Therefore, characterization of robust inverse agonist ARBs for the active state of AT 1 receptors is necessary. To identify the robust inverse agonist for active state of AT 1 receptors and its molecular mechanism, we performed site-directed mutagenesis, competition binding assay, inositol phosphate production assay and molecular modelling for both ground-state wild-type AT 1 receptors and active-state N111G mutant AT 1 receptors. Although candesartan and telmisartan exhibited weaker inverse agonist activity for N111G- compared with WT-AT 1 receptors, only eprosartan exhibited robust inverse agonist activity for both N111G- and WT- AT 1 receptors. Specific ligand-receptor contacts for candesartan and telmisartan are altered in the active-state N111G- AT 1 receptors compared with the ground-state WT-AT 1 receptors, suggesting an explanation of their attenuated inverse agonist activity for the active state of AT 1 receptors. In contrast, interactions between eprosartan and N111G-AT 1 receptors were not significantly altered, and the inverse agonist activity of eprosartan was robust. Eprosartan may be a better therapeutic option than other ARBs. Comparative studies investigating eprosartan and other ARBs for the treatment of diseases caused by chronic, agonist-independent, AT 1 receptor activation are warranted. © 2018 The British Pharmacological Society.

  19. Contribution of regional brain melanocortin receptor subtypes to elevated activity energy expenditure in lean, active rats

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Charu; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Cai, Minying; Hruby, Victor J.; Bednarek, Maria; Novak, Colleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity and non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) are crucial factors accounting for individual differences in body weight, interacting with genetic predisposition. In the brain, a number of neuroendocrine intermediates regulate food intake and energy expenditure (EE); this includes the brain melanocortin (MC) system, consisting of melanocortin peptides as well as their receptors (MCR). MC3R and MC4R have emerged as critical modulators of EE and food intake. To determine how variance in MC signaling may underlie individual differences in physical activity levels, we examined behavioral response to MC receptor agonists and antagonists in rats that show high and low levels of physical activity and NEAT, that is, high- and low-capacity runners (HCR, LCR), developed by artificial selection for differential intrinsic aerobic running capacity. Focusing on the hypothalamus, we identified brain region-specific elevations in expression of MCR 3, 4, and also MC5R, in the highly active, lean HCR relative to the less active and obesity-prone LCR. Further, the differences in activity and associated EE as a result of MCR activation or suppression using specific agonists and antagonists were similarly region-specific and directly corresponded to the differential MCR expression patterns. The agonists and antagonists investigated here did not significantly impact food intake at the doses used, suggesting that the differential pattern of receptor expression may by more meaningful to physical activity than to other aspects of energy balance regulation. Thus, MCR-mediated physical activity may be a key neural mechanism in distinguishing the lean phenotype and a target for enhancing physical activity and NEAT. PMID:26404873

  20. Critical Hydrogen Bond Formation for Activation of the Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Cabana, Jérôme; Holleran, Brian; Beaulieu, Marie-Ève; Leduc, Richard; Escher, Emanuel; Guillemette, Gaétan; Lavigne, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors contain selectively important residues that play central roles in the conformational changes that occur during receptor activation. Asparagine 111 (N1113.35) is such a residue within the angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor. Substitution of N1113.35 for glycine leads to a constitutively active receptor, whereas substitution for tryptophan leads to an inactivable receptor. Here, we analyzed the AT1 receptor and two mutants (N111G and N111W) by molecular dynamics simulations, which revealed a novel molecular switch involving the strictly conserved residue D742.50. Indeed, D742.50 forms a stable hydrogen bond (H-bond) with the residue in position 1113.35 in the wild-type and the inactivable receptor. However, in the constitutively active mutant N111G-AT1 receptor, residue D74 is reoriented to form a new H-bond with another strictly conserved residue, N461.50. When expressed in HEK293 cells, the mutant N46G-AT1 receptor was poorly activable, although it retained a high binding affinity. Interestingly, the mutant N46G/N111G-AT1 receptor was also inactivable. Molecular dynamics simulations also revealed the presence of a cluster of hydrophobic residues from transmembrane domains 2, 3, and 7 that appears to stabilize the inactive form of the receptor. Whereas this hydrophobic cluster and the H-bond between D742.50 and W1113.35 are more stable in the inactivable N111W-AT1 receptor, the mutant N111W/F77A-AT1 receptor, designed to weaken the hydrophobic core, showed significant agonist-induced signaling. These results support the potential for the formation of an H-bond between residues D742.50 and N461.50 in the activation of the AT1 receptor. PMID:23223579

  1. SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED DECLINE IN HEPATIC PEROXISOMAL ENZYME ACTIVITIES CORRESPONDS WITH DIMINISHED LEVELS OF RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA, BUT NOT PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR ALPHA1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Aging is associated with alterations in hepatic peroxisomal metabolism and susceptibility to hepatocarcinogenecity produced by agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa). Mechanisms involved in these effects are not well understood. Howev...

  2. Role of Receptors in Bacillus thuringiensis Crystal Toxin Activity

    PubMed Central

    Pigott, Craig R.; Ellar, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis produces crystalline protein inclusions with insecticidal or nematocidal properties. These crystal (Cry) proteins determine a particular strain's toxicity profile. Transgenic crops expressing one or more recombinant Cry toxins have become agriculturally important. Individual Cry toxins are usually toxic to only a few species within an order, and receptors on midgut epithelial cells have been shown to be critical determinants of Cry specificity. The best characterized of these receptors have been identified for lepidopterans, and two major receptor classes have emerged: the aminopeptidase N (APN) receptors and the cadherin-like receptors. Currently, 38 different APNs have been reported for 12 different lepidopterans. Each APN belongs to one of five groups that have unique structural features and Cry-binding properties. While 17 different APNs have been reported to bind to Cry toxins, only 2 have been shown to mediate toxin susceptibly in vivo. In contrast, several cadherin-like proteins bind to Cry toxins and confer toxin susceptibility in vitro, and disruption of the cadherin gene has been associated with toxin resistance. Nonetheless, only a small subset of the lepidopteran-specific Cry toxins has been shown to interact with cadherin-like proteins. This review analyzes the interactions between Cry toxins and their receptors, focusing on the identification and validation of receptors, the molecular basis for receptor recognition, the role of the receptor in resistant insects, and proposed models to explain the sequence of events at the cell surface by which receptor binding leads to cell death. PMID:17554045

  3. Modulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release in skeletal muscle expressing ryanodine receptor impaired in regulation by calmodulin and S100A1

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Naohiro; Prosser, Benjamin L.; Ghassemi, Farshid; Xu, Le; Pasek, Daniel A.; Eu, Jerry P.; Hernández-Ochoa, Erick O.; Cannon, Brian R.; Wilder, Paul T.; Lovering, Richard M.; Weber, David; Melzer, Werner; Schneider, Martin F.

    2011-01-01

    In vitro, calmodulin (CaM) and S100A1 activate the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor ion channel (RyR1) at submicromolar Ca2+ concentrations, whereas at micromolar Ca2+ concentrations, CaM inhibits RyR1. One amino acid substitution (RyR1-L3625D) has previously been demonstrated to impair CaM binding and regulation of RyR1. Here we show that the RyR1-L3625D substitution also abolishes S100A1 binding. To determine the physiological relevance of these findings, mutant mice were generated with the RyR1-L3625D substitution in exon 74, which encodes the CaM and S100A1 binding domain of RyR1. Homozygous mutant mice (Ryr1D/D) were viable and appeared normal. However, single RyR1 channel recordings from Ryr1D/D mice exhibited impaired activation by CaM and S100A1 and impaired CaCaM inhibition. Isolated flexor digitorum brevis muscle fibers from Ryr1D/D mice had depressed Ca2+ transients when stimulated by a single action potential. However, during repetitive stimulation, the mutant fibers demonstrated greater relative summation of the Ca2+ transients. Consistently, in vivo stimulation of tibialis anterior muscles in Ryr1D/D mice demonstrated reduced twitch force in response to a single action potential, but greater summation of force during high-frequency stimulation. During repetitive stimulation, Ryr1D/D fibers exhibited slowed inactivation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release flux, consistent with increased summation of the Ca2+ transient and contractile force. Peak Ca2+ release flux was suppressed at all voltages in voltage-clamped Ryr1D/D fibers. The results suggest that the RyR1-L3625D mutation removes both an early activating effect of S100A1 and CaM and delayed suppressing effect of CaCaM on RyR1 Ca2+ release, providing new insights into CaM and S100A1 regulation of skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling. PMID:21289290

  4. Mechanoreceptor afferent activity compared with receptor field dimensions and pressure changes in feline urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Downie, J W; Armour, J A

    1992-11-01

    The relationship between vesical mechanoreceptor field dimensions and afferent nerve activity recorded in pelvic plexus nerve filaments was examined in chloralose-anesthetized cats. Orthogonal receptor field dimensions were monitored with piezoelectric ultrasonic crystals. Reflexly generated bladder contractile activity made measurements difficult, therefore data were collected from cats subjected to actual sacral rhizotomy. Afferent activity was episodic and was initiated at different pressure and receptor field dimension thresholds. Maximum afferent activity did not correlate with maximum volume or pressure. Furthermore, activity was not linearly related to intravesical pressure, receptor field dimensions, or calculated wall tension. Pressure-length hysteresis of the receptor fields occurred. The responses of identified afferent units and their associated receptor field dimensions to brief contractions elicited by the ganglion stimulant 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium iodide (2.5-20 micrograms i.a.), studied under constant volume or constant pressure conditions, are compatible with bladder mechanoreceptors behaving as tension receptors. Because activity generated by bladder mechanoreceptors did not correlate in a simple fashion with intravesical pressure or receptor field dimensions, it is concluded that such receptors are influenced by the viscoelastic properties of the bladder wall. Furthermore, as a result of the heterogeneity of the bladder wall, receptor field tension appears to offer a more precise relationship with the activity of bladder wall mechanoreceptors than does intravesical pressure.

  5. Involvement of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in the adenosinergic modulation of the discriminative-stimulus effects of cocaine and methamphetamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Justinova, Zuzana; Ferre, Sergi; Segal, Pavan N; Antoniou, Katerina; Solinas, Marcello; Pappas, Lara A; Highkin, Jena L; Hockemeyer, Jorg; Munzar, Patrik; Goldberg, Steven R

    2003-12-01

    Adenosine, by acting on adenosine A1 and A2A receptors, is known to antagonistically modulate dopaminergic neurotransmission. We have recently reported that nonselective adenosine receptor antagonists (caffeine and 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine) can partially substitute for the discriminative-stimulus effects of methamphetamine. In the present study, by using more selective compounds, we investigated the involvement of A1 and A2A receptors in the adenosinergic modulation of the discriminative-stimulus effects of both cocaine and methamphetamine. The effects of the A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA; 0.01-0.1 mg/kg) and antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (CPT; 1.3-23.7 mg/kg) and the A2A receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine hydrochloride (CGS 21680; 0.03-0.18 mg/kg) and antagonist 3-(3-hydroxypropyl)-8-(3-methoxystyryl)-7-methyl-1-propargylxanthin phosphate disodium salt (MSX-3; 1-56 mg/kg) were evaluated in rats trained to discriminate either 1 mg/kg methamphetamine or 10 mg/kg cocaine from saline under a fixed-ratio 10 schedule of food presentation. The A1 and A2A receptor antagonists (CPT and MSX-3) both produced high levels of drug-lever selection when substituted for either methamphetamine or cocaine and significantly shifted dose-response curves of both psychostimulants to the left. Unexpectedly, the A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 also produced drug-appropriate responding (although at lower levels) when substituted for the cocaine-training stimulus, and both CGS 21680 and the A1 receptor agonist CPA significantly shifted the cocaine dose-response curve to the left. In contrast, both agonists did not produce significant levels of drug-lever selection when substituted for the methamphetamine-training stimulus and failed to shift the methamphetamine dose-response curve. Therefore, adenosine A1 and A2A receptors appear to play important but differential roles in the modulation of the

  6. Analysis of the Heat Shock Response in Mouse Liver Reveals Transcriptional Dependence on the Nuclear Receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha (PPARα)

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) regulates responses to chemical or physical stress in part by altering expression of genes involved in proteome maintenance. Many of these genes are also transcriptionally regulated by h...

  7. Constitutive androstane receptor activation promotes bilirubin clearance in a murine model of alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuyan; Zheng, Liyu; Wu, Jinming; Tang, Binbin; Zhang, Mengqin; Zhu, Debin; Lin, Xianfan

    2017-06-01

    Increased plasma levels of bilirubin have been reported in rat models and patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a known xenobiotic receptor, which induces the detoxification and transport of bilirubin. In the present study, the bilirubin transport regulatory mechanisms, and the role of CAR activation in hepatic and extrahepatic bilirubin clearance were investigated in a murine model of ALD. The mice were fed a Lieber-DeCarli ethanol diet or an isocaloric control diet for 4 weeks, followed by the administration of CAR agonists, 1,4-bis-[2‑(3,5-dichlorpyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) and phenobarbital (PB), and their vehicles to examine the effect of the pharmacological activation of CAR on serum levels of bilirubin and on the bilirubin clearance pathway in ALD by serological survey, western blotting and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that chronic ethanol ingestion impaired the nuclear translocation of CAR, which was accompanied by elevated serum levels of bilirubin, suppression of the expression of hepatic and renal organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1A1 and hepatic multidrug resistance‑associated protein 2 (MRP2), and induction of the expression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1. The activation of CAR by TCPOBOP and PB resulted in downregulation of the serum levels of bilirubin followed by selective upregulation of the expression levels of OATP1A1, OATP1A4, UGT1A1 and MRP2 in ALD. These results revealed the bilirubin transport regulatory mechanisms and highlighted the importance of CAR in modulating the bilirubin clearance pathway in the ALD mouse model.

  8. Selenoprotein W controls epidermal growth factor receptor surface expression, activation and degradation via receptor ubiquitination

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) is the founding member of the ErbB family of growth factor receptors that modulate a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways controlling growth, proliferation and differentiation. Selenoprotein W (SEPW1) is a diet-regulated, highly conserved...

  9. Beta-arrestin inhibits CAMKKbeta-dependent AMPK activation downstream of protease-activated-receptor-2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Jiang, Yong; Wang, Yinsheng; Shyy, John Y; DeFea, Kathryn A

    2010-09-21

    Proteinase-activated-receptor-2 (PAR2) is a seven transmembrane receptor that can activate two separate signaling arms: one through Gαq and Ca2+ mobilization, and a second through recruitment of β-arrestin scaffolds. In some cases downstream targets of the Gαq/Ca2+ signaling arm are directly inhibited by β-arrestins, while in other cases the two pathways are synergistic; thus β-arrestins act as molecular switches capable of modifying the signal generated by the receptor. Here we demonstrate that PAR2 can activate adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key regulator of cellular energy balance, through Ca2+-dependent Kinase Kinase β (CAMKKβ), while inhibiting AMPK through interaction with β-arrestins. The ultimate outcome of PAR2 activation depended on the cell type studied; in cultured fibroblasts with low endogenous β-arrestins, PAR2 activated AMPK; however, in primary fat and liver, PAR2 only activated AMPK in β-arrestin-2-/- mice. β-arrestin-2 could be co-immunoprecipitated with AMPK and CAMKKβ under baseline conditions from both cultured fibroblasts and primary fat, and its association with both proteins was increased by PAR2 activation. Addition of recombinant β-arrestin-2 to in vitro kinase assays directly inhibited phosphorylation of AMPK by CAMKKβ on Thr172. Studies have shown that decreased AMPK activity is associated with obesity and Type II Diabetes, while AMPK activity is increased with metabolically favorable conditions and cholesterol lowering drugs. These results suggest a role for β-arrestin in the inhibition of AMPK signaling, raising the possibility that β-arrestin-dependent PAR2 signaling may act as a molecular switch turning a positive signal to AMPK into an inhibitory one.

  10. Calmodulin Lobes Facilitate Dimerization and Activation of Estrogen Receptor-α*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhigang; Zhang, Yonghong; Hedman, Andrew C.; Ames, James B.

    2017-01-01

    Estrogen receptor α (ER-α) is a nuclear hormone receptor that controls selected genes, thereby regulating proliferation and differentiation of target tissues, such as breast. Gene expression controlled by ER-α is modulated by Ca2+ via calmodulin (CaM). Here we present the NMR structure of Ca2+-CaM bound to two molecules of ER-α (residues 287–305). The two lobes of CaM bind to the same site on two separate ER-α molecules (residues 292, 296, 299, 302, and 303), which explains why CaM binds two molecules of ER-α in a 1:2 complex and stabilizes ER-α dimerization. Exposed glutamate residues in CaM (Glu-11, Glu-14, Glu-84, and Glu-87) form salt bridges with key lysine residues in ER-α (Lys-299, Lys-302, and Lys-303), which is likely to prevent ubiquitination at these sites and inhibit degradation of ER-α. Transfection of cells with full-length CaM slightly increased the ability of estrogen to enhance transcriptional activation by ER-α of endogenous estrogen-responsive genes. By contrast, expression of either the N- or C-lobe of CaM abrogated estrogen-stimulated transcription of the estrogen responsive genes pS2 and progesterone receptor. These data suggest that CaM-induced dimerization of ER-α is required for estrogen-stimulated transcriptional activation by the receptor. In light of the critical role of ER-α in breast carcinoma, our data suggest that small molecules that selectively disrupt the interaction of ER-α with CaM may be useful in the therapy of breast carcinoma. PMID:28174300

  11. Microbiome-Derived Tryptophan Metabolites and Their Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Dependent Agonist and Antagonist Activities

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Un-Ho; Lee, Syng-Ook; Sridharan, Gautham; Lee, Kyongbum; Davidson, Laurie A.; Jayaraman, Arul; Chapkin, Robert S.; Alaniz, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The tryptophan metabolites indole, indole-3-acetate, and tryptamine were identified in mouse cecal extracts and fecal pellets by mass spectrometry. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonist and antagonist activities of these microbiota-derived compounds were investigated in CaCo-2 intestinal cells as a model for understanding their interactions with colonic tissue, which is highly aryl hydrocarbon (Ah)–responsive. Activation of Ah-responsive genes demonstrated that tryptamine and indole 3-acetate were AHR agonists, whereas indole was an AHR antagonist that inhibited TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin)–induced CYP1A1 expression. In contrast, the tryptophan metabolites exhibited minimal anti-inflammatory activities, whereas TCDD decreased phorbol ester-induced CXCR4 [chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4] gene expression, and this response was AHR dependent. These results demonstrate that the tryptophan metabolites indole, tryptamine, and indole-3-acetate modulate AHR-mediated responses in CaCo-2 cells, and concentrations of indole that exhibit AHR antagonist activity (100–250 μM) are detected in the intestinal microbiome. PMID:24563545

  12. Preclinical Testing of Novel Oxytocin Receptor Activators in Models of Autism Phenotypes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: TITLE: Preclinical Testing of Novel Oxytocin Receptor Activators in Models of Autism ...AUG 2013-7 Aug 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Preclinical Testing of Novel Oxytocin Receptor Activators in Models of Autism ...a genetic mouse model of autism -like phenotypes, the Grin1 knockdown mouse. The Grin1 gene encodes the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor . In the

  13. Screening of herbal extracts for activation of the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor.

    PubMed

    Rau, O; Wurglics, M; Dingermann, Th; Abdel-Tawab, M; Schubert-Zsilavecz, M

    2006-11-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors play a pivotal role in metazoan lipid and glucose homeostasis. Synthetic activators of PPARalpha (fibrates) and PPARgamma (glitazones) are therefore widely used for treatment of dislipidemia and diabetes, respectively. There is growing evidence for herbal compounds to influence nuclear receptor signalling e.g. the PPARs. We recently reported carnosic acid and carnosol, both being diterpenes found in the labiate herbs sage and rosemary, to be activators of PPARgamma. The subsequent screening of a variety of ethanolic extracts, obtained from traditionally used herbs, for PPAR activation, led to an exceptionally high hit rate. Among 52 extracts nearly the half significantly activated PPARgamma and 14 activated PPARalpha in addition, whereas three of them were pan-PPAR activators, which also activated PPARdelta. The most active extracts, for which a concentration dependent effect could be shown, were the extracts of Alisma plantago aquatica (ze xie/european waterplantain), Catharanthus roseus (madagascar periwinkle), Acorus calamus (sweet calamus), Euphorbia balsamifera (balsam spurge), Jatropha curcas (barbados nut), Origanum majorana (marjoram), Zea mays (corn silk), Capsicum frutescens (chilli) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle). The results of the present study provide a possible rationale for the traditional use of many herbs as antidiabetics.

  14. Emamectin is a non-selective allosteric activator of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and GABAA/C receptors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaojun; Sepich, Caraline; Lukas, Ronald J; Zhu, Guonian; Chang, Yongchang

    2016-05-13

    Avermectins are a group of compounds isolated from a soil-dwelling bacterium. They have been widely used as parasiticides and insecticides, acting by relatively irreversible activation of invertebrate chloride channels. Emamectin is a soluble derivative of an avermectin. It is an insecticide, which persistently activates glutamate-gated chloride channels. However, its effects on mammalian ligand-gated ion channels are unknown. To this end, we tested the effect of emamectin on two cation selective nicotinic receptors and two GABA-gated chloride channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes using two-electrode voltage clamp. Our results demonstrate that emamectin could directly activate α7 nAChR, α4β2 nAChR, α1β2γ2 GABAA receptor and ρ1 GABAC receptor concentration dependently, with similar potencies for each channel. However, the potencies for it to activate these channels were at least two orders of magnitude lower than its potency of activating invertebrate glutamate-gated chloride channel. In contrast, ivermectin only activated the α1β2γ2 GABAA receptor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Emamectin is a non-selective allosteric activator of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and GABAA/C receptors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaojun; Sepich, Caraline; Lukas, Ronald J; Zhu, Guonian; Chang, Yongchang

    2016-01-01

    Avermectins are a group of compounds isolated from a soil-dwelling bacterium. They have been widely used as parasiticides and insecticides, acting by relatively irreversible activation of invertebrate chloride channels. Emamectin is a soluble derivative of an avermectin. It is an insecticide, which persistently activates glutamate-gated chloride channels. However, its effects on mammalian ligand-gated ion channels are unknown. To this end, we tested the effect of emamectin on two cation selective nicotinic receptors and two GABA-gated chloride channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes using two-electrode voltage clamp. Our results demonstrate that emamectin could directly activate α7 nAChR, α4β2 nAChR, α1β2γ2 GABAA receptor and ρ1 GABAC receptor concentration dependently, with similar potencies for each channel. However, the potencies for it to activate these channels were at least two orders of magnitude lower than its potency of activating invertebrate glutamate-gated chloride channel. In contrast, ivermectin only activated the α1β2γ2 GABAA receptor. PMID:27049309

  16. Metformin, an AMPK activator, stimulates the phosphorylation of aquaporin 2 and urea transporter A1 in inner medullary collecting ducts.

    PubMed

    Klein, Janet D; Wang, Yanhua; Blount, Mitsi A; Molina, Patrick A; LaRocque, Lauren M; Ruiz, Joseph A; Sands, Jeff M

    2016-05-15

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is characterized by production of very large quantities of dilute urine due to an inability of the kidney to respond to vasopressin. Congenital NDI results from mutations in the type 2 vasopressin receptor (V2R) in ∼90% of families. These patients do not have mutations in aquaporin-2 (AQP2) or urea transporter UT-A1 (UT-A1). We tested adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK) since it is known to phosphorylate another vasopressin-sensitive transporter, NKCC2 (Na-K-2Cl cotransporter). We found AMPK expressed in rat inner medulla (IM). AMPK directly phosphorylated AQP2 and UT-A1 in vitro. Metformin, an AMPK activator, increased phosphorylation of both AQP2 and UT-A1 in rat inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCDs). Metformin increased the apical plasma membrane accumulation of AQP2, but not UT-A1, in rat IM. Metformin increased both osmotic water permeability and urea permeability in perfused rat terminal IMCDs. These findings suggest that metformin increases osmotic water permeability by increasing AQP2 accumulation in the apical plasma membrane but increases urea permeability by activating UT-A1 already present in the membrane. Lastly, metformin increased urine osmolality in mice lacking a V2R, a mouse model of congenital NDI. We conclude that AMPK activation by metformin mimics many of the mechanisms by which vasopressin increases urine-concentrating ability. These findings suggest that metformin may be a novel therapeutic option for congenital NDI due to V2R mutations. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Metformin, an AMPK activator, stimulates the phosphorylation of aquaporin 2 and urea transporter A1 in inner medullary collecting ducts

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanhua; Blount, Mitsi A.; Molina, Patrick A.; LaRocque, Lauren M.; Ruiz, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is characterized by production of very large quantities of dilute urine due to an inability of the kidney to respond to vasopressin. Congenital NDI results from mutations in the type 2 vasopressin receptor (V2R) in ∼90% of families. These patients do not have mutations in aquaporin-2 (AQP2) or urea transporter UT-A1 (UT-A1). We tested adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK) since it is known to phosphorylate another vasopressin-sensitive transporter, NKCC2 (Na-K-2Cl cotransporter). We found AMPK expressed in rat inner medulla (IM). AMPK directly phosphorylated AQP2 and UT-A1 in vitro. Metformin, an AMPK activator, increased phosphorylation of both AQP2 and UT-A1 in rat inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCDs). Metformin increased the apical plasma membrane accumulation of AQP2, but not UT-A1, in rat IM. Metformin increased both osmotic water permeability and urea permeability in perfused rat terminal IMCDs. These findings suggest that metformin increases osmotic water permeability by increasing AQP2 accumulation in the apical plasma membrane but increases urea permeability by activating UT-A1 already present in the membrane. Lastly, metformin increased urine osmolality in mice lacking a V2R, a mouse model of congenital NDI. We conclude that AMPK activation by metformin mimics many of the mechanisms by which vasopressin increases urine-concentrating ability. These findings suggest that metformin may be a novel therapeutic option for congenital NDI due to V2R mutations. PMID:26962099

  18. Mechanical stress activates NMDA receptors in the absence of agonists.

    PubMed

    Maneshi, Mohammad Mehdi; Maki, Bruce; Gnanasambandam, Radhakrishnan; Belin, Sophie; Popescu, Gabriela K; Sachs, Frederick; Hua, Susan Z

    2017-01-03

    While studying the physiological response of primary rat astrocytes to fluid shear stress in a model of traumatic brain injury (TBI), we found that shear stress induced Ca 2+ entry. The influx was inhibited by MK-801, a specific pore blocker of N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) channels, and this occurred in the absence of agonists. Other NMDA open channel blockers ketamine and memantine showed a similar effect. The competitive glutamate antagonists AP5 and GluN2B-selective inhibitor ifenprodil reduced NMDA-activated currents, but had no effect on the mechanically induced Ca 2+ influx. Extracellular Mg 2+ at 2 mM did not significantly affect the shear induced Ca 2+ influx, but at 10 mM it produced significant inhibition. Patch clamp experiments showed mechanical activation of NMDAR and inhibition by MK-801. The mechanical sensitivity of NMDARs may play a role in the normal physiology of fluid flow in the glymphatic system and it has obvious relevance to TBI.

  19. Mechanical stress activates NMDA receptors in the absence of agonists

    PubMed Central

    Maneshi, Mohammad Mehdi; Maki, Bruce; Gnanasambandam, Radhakrishnan; Belin, Sophie; Popescu, Gabriela K.; Sachs, Frederick; Hua, Susan Z.

    2017-01-01

    While studying the physiological response of primary rat astrocytes to fluid shear stress in a model of traumatic brain injury (TBI), we found that shear stress induced Ca2+ entry. The influx was inhibited by MK-801, a specific pore blocker of N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) channels, and this occurred in the absence of agonists. Other NMDA open channel blockers ketamine and memantine showed a similar effect. The competitive glutamate antagonists AP5 and GluN2B-selective inhibitor ifenprodil reduced NMDA-activated currents, but had no effect on the mechanically induced Ca2+ influx. Extracellular Mg2+ at 2 mM did not significantly affect the shear induced Ca2+ influx, but at 10 mM it produced significant inhibition. Patch clamp experiments showed mechanical activation of NMDAR and inhibition by MK-801. The mechanical sensitivity of NMDARs may play a role in the normal physiology of fluid flow in the glymphatic system and it has obvious relevance to TBI. PMID:28045032

  20. The Wnt receptor Frizzled-4 modulates ADAM13 metalloprotease activity.

    PubMed

    Abbruzzese, Genevieve; Gorny, Anne-Kathrin; Kaufmann, Lilian T; Cousin, Hélène; Kleino, Iivari; Steinbeisser, Herbert; Alfandari, Dominique

    2015-03-15

    Cranial neural crest (CNC) cells are a transient population of stem cells that originate at the border of the neural plate and the epidermis, and migrate ventrally to contribute to most of the facial structures including bones, cartilage, muscles and ganglia. ADAM13 is a cell surface metalloprotease that is essential for CNC cell migration. Here, we show in Xenopus laevis embryos that the Wnt receptor Fz4 binds to the cysteine-rich domain of ADAM13 and negatively regulates its proteolytic activity in vivo. Gain of Fz4 function inhibits CNC cell migration and can be rescued by gain of ADAM13 function. Loss of Fz4 function also inhibits CNC cell migration and induces a reduction of mature ADAM13, together with an increase in the ADAM13 cytoplasmic fragment that is known to translocate into the nucleus to regulate gene expression. We propose that Fz4 associates with ADAM13 during its transport to the plasma membrane to regulate its proteolytic activity. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. The Wnt receptor Frizzled-4 modulates ADAM13 metalloprotease activity

    PubMed Central

    Abbruzzese, Genevieve; Gorny, Anne-Kathrin; Kaufmann, Lilian T.; Cousin, Hélène; Kleino, Iivari; Steinbeisser, Herbert; Alfandari, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cranial neural crest (CNC) cells are a transient population of stem cells that originate at the border of the neural plate and the epidermis, and migrate ventrally to contribute to most of the facial structures including bones, cartilage, muscles and ganglia. ADAM13 is a cell surface metalloprotease that is essential for CNC cell migration. Here, we show in Xenopus laevis embryos that the Wnt receptor Fz4 binds to the cysteine-rich domain of ADAM13 and negatively regulates its proteolytic activity in vivo. Gain of Fz4 function inhibits CNC cell migration and can be rescued by gain of ADAM13 function. Loss of Fz4 function also inhibits CNC cell migration and induces a reduction of mature ADAM13, together with an increase in the ADAM13 cytoplasmic fragment that is known to translocate into the nucleus to regulate gene expression. We propose that Fz4 associates with ADAM13 during its transport to the plasma membrane to regulate its proteolytic activity. PMID:25616895

  2. Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator–Activated Receptor β/δ Induces Lung Cancer Growth via Peroxisome Proliferator–Activated Receptor Coactivator γ-1α

    PubMed Central

    Han, ShouWei; Ritzenthaler, Jeffrey D.; Sun, XiaoJuan; Zheng, Ying; Roman, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that a selective agonist of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ), GW501516, stimulated human non–small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) growth, partly through inhibition of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 expression. Here, we show that GW501516 also decreases the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα), a major regulator of energy metabolism. This was mediated through specific activation of PPARβ/δ, as a PPARβ/δ small interfering RNA inhibited the effect. However, AMPKα did not mediate the growth-promoting effects of GW501516, as silencing of AMPKα did not inhibit GW501516-induced cell proliferation. Instead, we found that GW501516 stimulated peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor coactivator γ (PGC)-1α, which activated the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3-K)/Akt mitogenic pathway. An inhibitor of PI3-K, LY294002, had no effect on PGC-1α, consistent with PGC-1α being upstream of PI3-K/Akt. Of note, an activator of AMPKα, 5-amino-4-imidazole carboxamide riboside, inhibited the growth-promoting effects of GW501516, suggesting that although AMPKα is not responsible for the mitogenic effects of GW501516, its activation can oppose these events. This study unveils a novel mechanism by which GW501516 and activation of PPARβ/δ stimulate human lung carcinoma cell proliferation, and suggests that activation of AMPKα may oppose this effect. PMID:18776129

  3. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta induces lung cancer growth via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator gamma-1alpha.

    PubMed

    Han, Shouwei; Ritzenthaler, Jeffrey D; Sun, Xiaojuan; Zheng, Ying; Roman, Jesse

    2009-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that a selective agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARbeta/delta), GW501516, stimulated human non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) growth, partly through inhibition of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 expression. Here, we show that GW501516 also decreases the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKalpha), a major regulator of energy metabolism. This was mediated through specific activation of PPARbeta/delta, as a PPARbeta/delta small interfering RNA inhibited the effect. However, AMPKalpha did not mediate the growth-promoting effects of GW501516, as silencing of AMPKalpha did not inhibit GW501516-induced cell proliferation. Instead, we found that GW501516 stimulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator gamma (PGC)-1alpha, which activated the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3-K)/Akt mitogenic pathway. An inhibitor of PI3-K, LY294002, had no effect on PGC-1alpha, consistent with PGC-1alpha being upstream of PI3-K/Akt. Of note, an activator of AMPKalpha, 5-amino-4-imidazole carboxamide riboside, inhibited the growth-promoting effects of GW501516, suggesting that although AMPKalpha is not responsible for the mitogenic effects of GW501516, its activation can oppose these events. This study unveils a novel mechanism by which GW501516 and activation of PPARbeta/delta stimulate human lung carcinoma cell proliferation, and suggests that activation of AMPKalpha may oppose this effect.

  4. Antihyperalgesic activity of a novel nonpeptide bradykinin B1 receptor antagonist in transgenic mice expressing the human B1 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Alyson; Kaur, Satbir; Li, Bifang; Panesar, Moh; Saha, Uma; Davis, Clare; Dragoni, Ilaria; Colley, Sian; Ritchie, Tim; Bevan, Stuart; Burgess, Gillian; McIntyre, Peter

    2005-01-01

    We describe the properties of a novel nonpeptide kinin B1 receptor antagonist, NVP-SAA164, and demonstrate its in vivo activity in models of inflammatory pain in transgenic mice expressing the human B1 receptor. NVP-SAA164 showed high affinity for the human B1 receptor expressed in HEK293 cells (Ki 8 nM), and inhibited increases in intracellular calcium induced by desArg10kallidin (desArg10KD) (IC50 33 nM). While a similar high affinity was observed in monkey fibroblasts (Ki 7.7 nM), NVP-SAA164 showed no affinity for the rat B1 receptor expressed in Cos-7 cells. In transgenic mice in which the native B1 receptor was deleted and the gene encoding the human B1 receptor was inserted (hB1 knockin, hB1-KI), hB1 receptor mRNA was induced in tissues following LPS treatment. No mRNA encoding the mouse or human B1 receptor was detected in mouse B1 receptor knockout (mB1-KO) mice following LPS treatment. Freund's complete adjuvant-induced mechanical hyperalgesia was similar in wild-type and hB1-KI mice, but was significantly reduced in mB1-KO animals. Mechanical hyperalgesia induced by injection of the B1 agonist desArg10KD into the contralateral paw 24 h following FCA injection was similar in wild-type and hB1-KI mice, but was absent in mB1-KO animals. Oral administration of NVP-SAA164 produced a dose-related reversal of FCA-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and desArg10KD-induced hyperalgesia in hB1-KI mice, but was inactive against inflammatory pain in wild-type mice. These data demonstrate the use of transgenic technology to investigate the in vivo efficacy of species selective agents and show that NVP-SAA164 is a novel orally active B1 receptor antagonist, providing further support for the utility of B1 receptor antagonists in inflammatory pain conditions in man. PMID:15685199

  5. Role of physicochemical properties in the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ.

    PubMed

    Maltarollo, Vinícius G; Homem-de-Mello, Paula; Honorio, Káthia M

    2011-10-01

    Current researches on treatments for metabolic diseases involve a class of biological receptors called peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which control the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. A subclass of these receptors, PPARδ, regulates several metabolic processes, and the substances that activate them are being studied as new drug candidates for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. In this study, several PPARδ agonists with experimental biological activity were selected for a structural and chemical study. Electronic, stereochemical, lipophilic and topological descriptors were calculated for the selected compounds using various theoretical methods, such as density functional theory (DFT). Fisher's weight and principal components analysis (PCA) methods were employed to select the most relevant variables for this study. The partial least squares (PLS) method was used to construct the multivariate statistical model, and the best model obtained had 4 PCs, q ( 2 ) = 0.80 and r ( 2 ) = 0.90, indicating a good internal consistency. The prediction residues calculated for the compounds in the test set had low values, indicating the good predictive capability of our PLS model. The model obtained in this study is reliable and can be used to predict the biological activity of new untested compounds. Docking studies have also confirmed the importance of the molecular descriptors selected for this system.

  6. Activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor reduces carbendazim-induced cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Kuo-Liang

    Carbendazim inhibits microtubule assembly, thus blocking mitosis and inhibiting cancer cell proliferation. Accordingly, carbendazim is being explored as an anticancer drug. Data show that carbendazim increased mRNA and protein expressions and promoter activity of CYP1A1. In addition, carbendazim activated transcriptional activity of the aryl hydrocarbon response element, and induced nuclear translocation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a sign the AhR is activated. Carbendazim-induced CYP1A1 expression was blocked by AhR antagonists, and was abolished in AhR signal-deficient cells. Results demonstrated that carbendazim activated the AhR, thereby stimulating CYP1A1 expression. In order to understand whether AhR-induced metabolic enzymes turn carbendazim intomore » less-toxic metabolites, Hoechst 33342 staining to reveal carbendazim-induced nuclear changes and flow cytometry to reveal the subG{sub 0}/G{sub 1} population were applied to monitor carbendazim-induced cell apoptosis. Carbendazim induced less apoptosis in Hepa-1c1c7 cells than in AhR signal-deficient Hepa-1c1c7 mutant cells. Pretreatment with β-NF, an AhR agonist that highly induces CYP1A1 expression, decreased carbendazim-induced cell death. In addition, the lower the level of AhR was, the lower the vitality present in carbendazim-treated cells, including hepatoma cells and their derivatives with AhR RNA interference, also embryonic kidney cells, bladder carcinoma cells, and AhR signal-deficient Hepa-1c1c7 cells. In summary, carbendazim is an AhR agonist. The toxicity of carbendazim was lower in cells with the AhR signal. This report provides clues indicating that carbendazim is more potent at inducing cell death in tissues without than in those with the AhR signal, an important reference for applying carbendazim in cancer chemotherapy. - Highlights: • Carbendazim induced transcriptional activity of the aryl hydrocarbon response element. • Carbendazim induced nuclear translocation of the

  7. Agmatine produces antidepressant-like effects by activating AMPA receptors and mTOR signaling.

    PubMed

    Neis, Vivian Binder; Moretti, Morgana; Bettio, Luis Eduardo B; Ribeiro, Camille M; Rosa, Priscila Batista; Gonçalves, Filipe Marques; Lopes, Mark William; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2016-06-01

    The activation of AMPA receptors and mTOR signaling has been reported as mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effects of fast-acting agents, specially the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine. In the present study, oral administration of agmatine (0.1mg/kg), a neuromodulator that has been reported to modulate NMDA receptors, caused a significant reduction in the immobility time of mice submitted to the tail suspension test (TST), an effect prevented by the administration of DNQX (AMPA receptor antagonist, 2.5μg/site, i.c.v.), BDNF antibody (1μg/site, i.c.v.), K-252a (TrkB receptor antagonist, 1μg/site, i.c.v.), LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor, 10nmol/site, i.c.v.) or rapamycin (selective mTOR inhibitor, 0.2nmol/site, i.c.v.). Moreover, the administration of lithium chloride (non-selective GSK-3β inhibitor, 10mg/kg, p.o.) or AR-A014418 (selective GSK-3β inhibitor, 0.01μg/site, i.c.v.) in combination with a sub-effective dose of agmatine (0.0001mg/kg, p.o.) reduced the immobility time in the TST when compared with either drug alone. Furthermore, increased immunocontents of BDNF, PSD-95 and GluA1 were found in the prefrontal cortex of mice just 1h after agmatine administration. These results indicate that the antidepressant-like effect of agmatine in the TST may be dependent on the activation of AMPA and TrkB receptors, PI3K and mTOR signaling as well as inhibition of GSK-3β, and increase in synaptic proteins. The results contribute to elucidate the complex signaling pathways involved in the antidepressant effect of agmatine and reinforce the pivotal role of these molecular targets for antidepressant responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  8. β1-adrenergic receptors activate two distinct signaling pathways in striatal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Meitzen, John; Luoma, Jessie I.; Stern, Christopher M.; Mermelstein, Paul G.

    2010-01-01

    Monoamine action in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens plays essential roles in striatal physiology. Although research often focuses on dopamine and its receptors, norepinephrine and adrenergic receptors are also crucial in regulating striatal function. While noradrenergic neurotransmission has been identified in the striatum, little is known regarding the signaling pathways activated by β-adrenergic receptors in this brain region. Using cultured striatal neurons, we characterized a novel signaling pathway by which activation of β1-adrenergic receptors leads to the rapid phosphorylation of cAMP Response Element Binding Protein (CREB), a transcription-factor implicated as a molecular switch underlying long-term changes in brain function. Norepinephrine-mediated CREB phosphorylation requires β1-adrenergic receptor stimulation of a receptor tyrosine kinase, ultimately leading to the activation of a Ras/Raf/MEK/MAPK/MSK signaling pathway. Activation of β1-adrenergic receptors also induces CRE-dependent transcription and increased c-fos expression. In addition, stimulation of β1-adrenergic receptors produces cAMP production, but surprisingly, β1-adrenergic receptor activation of adenylyl cyclase was not functionally linked to rapid CREB phosphorylation. These findings demonstrate that activation of β1-adrenergic receptors on striatal neurons can stimulate two distinct signaling pathways. These adrenergic actions can produce long-term changes in gene expression, as well as rapidly modulate cellular physiology. By elucidating the mechanisms by which norepinephrine and β1-adrenergic receptor activation affects striatal physiology, we provide the means to more fully understand the role of monoamines in modulating striatal function, specifically how norepinephrine and β1-adrenergic receptors may affect striatal physiology. PMID:21143600

  9. Characterization of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor a (PPARa) -Independent Effects of PPARa Activators in the Rodent Liver: Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate Also Activates the Constitutive Activated Receptor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC) are thought to mediate their effects in rodents on hepatocyte growth and liver cancer through the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor alpha (PPARa). Recent studies indicate that one such PPC, the plasticizer di2- et...

  10. Structure-activity relationships of rosiglitazone for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma transrepression.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Yosuke; Nomura, Sayaka; Makishima, Makoto; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Minoru

    2017-06-15

    Anti-inflammatory effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPRAγ) ligands are thought to be largely due to PPARγ-mediated transrepression. Thus, transrepression-selective PPARγ ligands without agonistic activity or with only partial agonistic activity should exhibit anti-inflammatory properties with reduced side effects. Here, we investigated the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone, focusing on transrepression activity. Alkenic analogs showed slightly more potent transrepression with reduced efficacy of transactivating agonistic activity. Removal of the alkyl group on the nitrogen atom improved selectivity for transrepression over transactivation. Among the synthesized compounds, 3l exhibited stronger transrepressional activity (IC 50 : 14μM) and weaker agonistic efficacy (11%) than rosiglitazone or pioglitazone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ligand-independent activation of the oestrogen receptor by mutation of a conserved tyrosine.

    PubMed Central

    White, R; Sjöberg, M; Kalkhoven, E; Parker, M G

    1997-01-01

    The oestrogen receptor is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors which, on binding the steroid hormone 17beta-oestradiol, interacts with co-activator proteins and stimulates gene expression. Replacement of a single tyrosine in the hormone-binding domain generated activated forms of the receptor which stimulated transcription in the absence of hormone. This increased activation is related to a decrease in hydrophobicity and a reduction in size of the side chain of the amino acid with which the tyrosine is replaced. Ligand-independent, in common with ligand-dependent transcriptional activation, requires an amphipathic alpha-helix at the C-terminus of the ligand-binding domain which is essential for the interaction of the receptor with a number of potential co-activator proteins. In contrast to the wild-type protein, constitutively active receptors were able to bind both the receptor-interacting protein RIP-140 and the steroid receptor co-activator SRC-1 in a ligand-independent manner, although in the case of SRC-1 this was only evident when the receptors were prebound to DNA. We propose, therefore, that this tyrosine is required to maintain the receptor in a transcriptionally inactive state in the absence of hormone. Modification of this residue may generate a conformational change in the ligand-binding domain of the receptor to form an interacting surface which allows the recruitment of co-activators independent of hormone binding. This suggests that this tyrosine may be a target for a different signalling pathway which forms an alternative mechanism of activating oestrogen receptor-mediated transcription. PMID:9135157

  12. Receptor-mediated protein kinase activation and the mechanism of transmembrane signaling in bacterial chemotaxis.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y; Levit, M; Lurz, R; Surette, M G; Stock, J B

    1997-01-01

    Chemotaxis responses of Escherichia coli and Salmonella are mediated by type I membrane receptors with N-terminal extracytoplasmic sensing domains connected by transmembrane helices to C-terminal signaling domains in the cytoplasm. Receptor signaling involves regulation of an associated protein kinase, CheA. Here we show that kinase activation by a soluble signaling domain construct involves the formation of a large complex, with approximately 14 receptor signaling domains per CheA dimer. Electron microscopic examination of these active complexes indicates a well defined bundle composed of numerous receptor filaments. Our findings suggest a mechanism for transmembrane signaling whereby stimulus-induced changes in lateral packing interactions within an array of receptor-sensing domains at the cell surface perturb an equilibrium between active and inactive receptor-kinase complexes within the cytoplasm. PMID:9405352

  13. Pregnane X receptor regulates the AhR/Cyp1A1 pathway and protects liver cells from benzo-[α]-pyrene-induced DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hongmei; Gu, Xinsheng; Chen, Jingshu; Xie, Ying; Ke, Sui; Wu, Jing; Golovko, Andrei; Morpurgo, Benjamin; Yan, Chunhong; Phillips, Timothy D; Xie, Wen; Luo, Jianyuan; Zhou, Zhijun; Tian, Yanan

    2017-06-05

    Pregnane X receptor (PXR) plays an important role in protecting cells from mutagenic DNA damages induced by endogenous and exogenous toxicants. This protective function is often attributed to the PXR-regulated metabolic detoxification. Here we report a novel potential mechanism that PXR reduces benzo-[α]-pyrene(BaP)-induced DNA damage through inhibiting the transcriptional activity of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) which plays a pivotal role in the bioactivation of BaP. We have utilized three well-characterized cell lines, i.e. Hepa1c1c7, AhR +/+; Bpr lacks AhR obligatory partner ARNT; Tao, lacks AhR, to analyze pivotal role of AhR/ARNT complex in mediating the BaP-induced DNA damages using comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis). We found that PXR activation could significantly inhibit BaP-induced DNA damage in the HepG2 cells as well as mouse hepatocytes. Using PXR-null and wild type mouse hepatocytes we showed that PXR activation by pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN) significantly inhibited BaP-induced DNA damage and this protective effect was abolished in PXR-null hepatocytes. Mechanistically, PXR activation inhibited expression of AhR-target genes for CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and CYP1A2 that are required for BaP biotransformation in cultured liver cells, or in the livers of C57BL/6J mice. Using an AhR-responsive reporter assay as well as chromatin immunoprecipitation assay we found that PXR activation transcriptionally represses AhR-regulated gene expression. Furthermore, we found that PXR directly bound AhR at its DNA-binding domain, and this association may play a role in preventing of the AhR from binding to its target genes as shown in the ChIP assay. Taken together, our study has revealed a novel mechanism by which PXR protects liver cells from BaP-induced DNA damage through inhibiting the BaP biotransformation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Transporter Protein-Coupled DPCPX Nanoconjugates Induce Diaphragmatic Recovery after SCI by Blocking Adenosine A1 Receptors.

    PubMed

    Minic, Zeljka; Zhang, Yanhua; Mao, Guangzhao; Goshgarian, Harry G

    2016-03-23

    Respiratory complications in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) are common and have a negative impact on the quality of patients' lives. Systemic administration of drugs that improve respiratory function often cause deleterious side effects. The present study examines the applicability of a novel nanotechnology-based drug delivery system, which induces recovery of diaphragm function after SCI in the adult rat model. We developed a protein-coupled nanoconjugate to selectively deliver by transsynaptic transport small therapeutic amounts of an A1 adenosine receptor antagonist to the respiratory centers. A single administration of the nanoconjugate restored 75% of the respiratory drive at 0.1% of the systemic therapeutic drug dose. The reduction of the systemic dose may obviate the side effects. The recovery lasted for 4 weeks (the longest period studied). These findings have translational implications for patients with respiratory dysfunction after SCI. The leading causes of death in humans following SCI are respiratory complications secondary to paralysis of respiratory muscles. Systemic administration of methylxantines improves respiratory function but also leads to the development of deleterious side effects due to actions of the drug on nonrespiratory sites. The importance of the present study lies in the novel drug delivery approach that uses nanotechnology to selectively deliver recovery-inducing drugs to the respiratory centers exclusively. This strategy allows for a reduction in the therapeutic drug dose, which may reduce harmful side effects and markedly improve the quality of life for SCI patients. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/363441-12$15.00/0.

  15. Estrogen Receptor β Activation Rapidly Modulates Male Sexual Motivation through the Transactivation of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 1a

    PubMed Central

    Seredynski, Aurore L.; Balthazart, Jacques; Ball, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the transcriptional activity of their liganded nuclear receptors, estrogens, such as estradiol (E2), modulate cell functions, and consequently physiology and behavior, within minutes through membrane-initiated events. The membrane-associated receptors (mERs) underlying the acute effects of estrogens on behavior have mostly been documented in females where active estrogens are thought to be of ovarian origin. We determined here, by acute intracerebroventricular injections of specific agonists and antagonists, the type(s) of mERs that modulate rapid effects of brain-derived estrogens on sexual motivation in male Japanese quail. Brain aromatase blockade acutely inhibited sexual motivation. Diarylpropionitrile (DPN), an estrogen receptor β (ERβ)-specific agonist, and to a lesser extent 17α-estradiol, possibly acting through ER-X, prevented this effect. In contrast, drugs targeting ERα (PPT and MPP), GPR30 (G1 and G15), and the Gq-mER (STX) did not affect sexual motivation. The mGluR1a antagonist LY367385 significantly inhibited sexual motivation but mGluR2/3 and mGluR5 antagonists were ineffective. LY367385 also blocked the behavioral restoration induced by E2 or DPN, providing functional evidence that ERβ interacts with metabotropic glutamate receptor 1a (mGluR1a) signaling to acutely regulate male sexual motivation. Together these results show that ERβ plays a key role in sexual behavior regulation and the recently uncovered cooperation between mERs and mGluRs is functional in males where it mediates the acute effects of estrogens produced centrally in response to social stimuli. The presence of an ER–mGluR interaction in birds suggests that this mechanism emerged relatively early in vertebrate history and is well conserved. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The membrane-associated receptors underlying the acute effects of estrogens on behavior have mostly been documented in females, where active estrogens are thought to be of ovarian origin. Using acute

  16. Estrogen Receptor β Activation Rapidly Modulates Male Sexual Motivation through the Transactivation of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 1a.

    PubMed

    Seredynski, Aurore L; Balthazart, Jacques; Ball, Gregory F; Cornil, Charlotte A

    2015-09-23

    In addition to the transcriptional activity of their liganded nuclear receptors, estrogens, such as estradiol (E2), modulate cell functions, and consequently physiology and behavior, within minutes through membrane-initiated events. The membrane-associated receptors (mERs) underlying the acute effects of estrogens on behavior have mostly been documented in females where active estrogens are thought to be of ovarian origin. We determined here, by acute intracerebroventricular injections of specific agonists and antagonists, the type(s) of mERs that modulate rapid effects of brain-derived estrogens on sexual motivation in male Japanese quail. Brain aromatase blockade acutely inhibited sexual motivation. Diarylpropionitrile (DPN), an estrogen receptor β (ERβ)-specific agonist, and to a lesser extent 17α-estradiol, possibly acting through ER-X, prevented this effect. In contrast, drugs targeting ERα (PPT and MPP), GPR30 (G1 and G15), and the Gq-mER (STX) did not affect sexual motivation. The mGluR1a antagonist LY367385 significantly inhibited sexual motivation but mGluR2/3 and mGluR5 antagonists were ineffective. LY367385 also blocked the behavioral restoration induced by E2 or DPN, providing functional evidence that ERβ interacts with metabotropic glutamate receptor 1a (mGluR1a) signaling to acutely regulate male sexual motivation. Together these results show that ERβ plays a key role in sexual behavior regulation and the recently uncovered cooperation between mERs and mGluRs is functional in males where it mediates the acute effects of estrogens produced centrally in response to social stimuli. The presence of an ER-mGluR interaction in birds suggests that this mechanism emerged relatively early in vertebrate history and is well conserved. Significance statement: The membrane-associated receptors underlying the acute effects of estrogens on behavior have mostly been documented in females, where active estrogens are thought to be of ovarian origin. Using acute

  17. Activation of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) promotes blastocyst hatching in mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee Jung; Hwang, Soo Jin; Yoon, Jung Ah; Jun, Jin Hyun; Lim, Hyunjung Jade; Yoon, Tae Ki; Song, Haengseok

    2011-10-01

    Prostaglandins participate in a variety of female reproductive processes, including ovulation, fertilization, embryo implantation and parturition. In particular, maternal prostacyclin (PGI(2)) is critical for embryo implantation and the action of PGI(2) is not mediated via its G-protein-coupled membrane receptor, IP, but its nuclear receptor, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ). Recently, several studies have shown that PGI(2) enhances blastocyst development and/or hatching rate in vitro, and subsequently implantation and live birth rates in mice. However, the mechanism by which PGI(2) improves preimplantation embryo development in vitro remains unclear. Using molecular, pharmacologic and genetic approaches, we show that PGI(2)-induced PPARδ activation accelerates blastocyst hatching in mice. mRNAs for PPARδ, retinoid X receptor (heterodimeric partners of PPARδ) and PGI(2) synthase (PGIS) are temporally induced after zygotic gene activation, and their expression reaches maximum levels at the blastocyst stage, suggesting that functional complex of PPARδ can be formed in the blastocyst. Carbaprostacyclin (a stable analogue of PGI(2)) and GW501516 (a PPARδ selective agonist) significantly accelerated blastocyst hatching but did not increase total cell number of cultured blastocysts. Whereas U51605 (a PGIS inhibitor) interfered with blastocyst hatching, GW501516 restored U51605-induced retarded hatching. In contrast to the improvement of blastocyst hatching by PPARδ agonists, PPAR antagonists significantly inhibited blastocyst hatching. Furthermore, deletion of PPARδ at early stages of preimplantation mouse embryos caused delay of blastocyst hatching, but did not impair blastocyst development. Taken together, PGI(2)-induced PPARδ activation accelerates blastocyst hatching in mice.

  18. AmTAR2: Functional characterization of a honeybee tyramine receptor stimulating adenylyl cyclase activity.

    PubMed

    Reim, Tina; Balfanz, Sabine; Baumann, Arnd; Blenau, Wolfgang; Thamm, Markus; Scheiner, Ricarda

    2017-01-01

    The biogenic monoamines norepinephrine and epinephrine regulate important physiological functions in vertebrates. Insects such as honeybees do not synthesize these neuroactive substances. Instead, they employ octopamine and tyramine for comparable physiological functions. These biogenic amines activate specific guanine nucleotide-binding (G) protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Based on pharmacological data obtained on heterologously expressed receptors, α- and β-adrenergic-like octopamine receptors are better activated by octopamine than by tyramine. Conversely, GPCRs forming the type 1 tyramine receptor clade (synonymous to octopamine/tyramine receptors) are better activated by tyramine than by octopamine. More recently, receptors were characterized which are almost exclusively activated by tyramine, thus forming an independent type 2 tyramine receptor clade. Functionally, type 1 tyramine receptors inhibit adenylyl cyclase activity, leading to a decrease in intracellular cAMP concentration ([cAMP] i ). Type 2 tyramine receptors can mediate Ca 2+ signals or both Ca 2+ signals and effects on [cAMP] i . We here provide evidence that the honeybee tyramine receptor 2 (AmTAR2), when heterologously expressed in flpTM cells, exclusively causes an increase in [cAMP] i . The receptor displays a pronounced preference for tyramine over octopamine. Its activity can be blocked by a series of established antagonists, of which mianserin and yohimbine are most efficient. The functional characterization of two tyramine receptors from the honeybee, AmTAR1 (previously named AmTYR1) and AmTAR2, which respond to tyramine by changing cAMP levels in opposite direction, is an important step towards understanding the actions of tyramine in honeybee behavior and physiology, particularly in comparison to the effects of octopamine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A bacterial tyrosine phosphatase inhibits plant pattern recognition receptor activation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by surface-localised pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) is a key component of plant innate immunity. Most known plant PRRs are receptor kinases and initiation of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) signalling requires phosphorylation of the PR...

  20. Genetic dissection of endothelial transcriptional activity of zebrafish aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AHRs).

    PubMed

    Sugden, Wade W; Leonardo-Mendonça, Roberto C; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío; Siekmann, Arndt F

    2017-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor conserved across phyla from flies to humans. Activated by a number of endogenous ligands and environmental toxins, studies on AHR function and gene regulation have largely focused on a toxicological perspective relating to aromatic hydrocarbons generated by human activities and the often-deleterious effects of exposure on vertebrates mediated by AHR activation. A growing body of work has highlighted the importance of AHR in physiologic processes, including immune cell differentiation and vascular patterning. Here we dissect the contribution of the 3 zebrafish AHRs, ahr1a, ahr1b and ahr2, to endothelial cyp1a1/b1 gene regulation under physiologic conditions and upon exposure to the AHR ligand Beta-naphthoflavone. We show that in fish multiple AHRs are functional in the vasculature, with vessel-specific differences in the ability of ahr1b to compensate for the loss of ahr2 to maintain AHR signaling. We further provide evidence that AHR can regulate the expression of the chemokine receptor cxcr4a in endothelial cells, a regulatory mechanism that may provide insight into AHR function in the endothelium.

  1. Is receptor oligomerization causally linked to activation of the EGF receptor kinase?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rintoul, D. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Transduction of a signal from an extracellular peptide hormone to produce an intracellular response is often mediated by a cell surface receptor, which is usually a glycoprotein. The secondary intracellular signal(s) generated after hormone binding to the receptor have been intensively studied. The nature of the primary signal generated by ligand binding to the receptor is understood less well in most cases. The particular case of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor is analyzed, and evidence for or against two dissimilar models of primary signal transduction is reviewed. Evidence for the most widely accepted current model is found to be unconvincing. Evidence for the other model is substantial but indirect; a direct test of this model remains to be done.

  2. NMDA receptor activation regulates sociability by its effect on mTOR signaling activity.

    PubMed

    Burket, Jessica A; Benson, Andrew D; Tang, Amy H; Deutsch, Stephen I

    2015-07-03

    Tuberous Sclerosis Complex is one example of a syndromic form of autism spectrum disorder associated with disinhibited activity of mTORC1 in neurons (e.g., cerebellar Purkinje cells). mTORC1 is a complex protein possessing serine/threonine kinase activity and a key downstream molecule in a signaling cascade beginning at the cell surface with the transduction of neurotransmitters (e.g., glutamate and acetylcholine) and nerve growth factors (e.g., Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor). Interestingly, the severity of the intellectual disability in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex may relate more to this metabolic disturbance (i.e., overactivity of mTOR signaling) than the density of cortical tubers. Several recent reports showed that rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTORC1, improved sociability and other symptoms in mouse models of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex and autism spectrum disorder, consistent with mTORC1 overactivity playing an important pathogenic role. NMDA receptor activation may also dampen mTORC1 activity by at least two possible mechanisms: regulating intraneuronal accumulation of arginine and the phosphorylation status of a specific extracellular signal regulating kinase (i.e., ERK1/2), both of which are "drivers" of mTORC1 activity. Conceivably, the prosocial effects of targeting the NMDA receptor with agonists in mouse models of autism spectrum disorders result from their ability to dampen mTORC1 activity in neurons. Strategies for dampening mTORC1 overactivity by NMDA receptor activation may be preferred to its direct inhibition in chronic neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Receptor activity-modifying protein-dependent effects of mutations in the calcitonin receptor-like receptor: implications for adrenomedullin and calcitonin gene-related peptide pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, H A; Walker, C S; Ly, K N; Bailey, R J; Barwell, J; Poyner, D R; Hay, D L

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) define the pharmacology of the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR). The interactions of the different RAMPs with this class B GPCR yield high-affinity calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) or adrenomedullin (AM) receptors. However, the mechanism for this is unclear. Experimental Approach Guided by receptor models, we mutated residues in the N-terminal helix of CLR, RAMP2 and RAMP3 hypothesized to be involved in peptide interactions. These were assayed for cAMP production with AM, AM2 and CGRP together with their cell surface expression. Binding studies were also conducted for selected mutants. Key Results An important domain for peptide interactions on CLR from I32 to I52 was defined. Although I41 was universally important for binding and receptor function, the role of other residues depended on both ligand and RAMP. Peptide binding to CLR/RAMP3 involved a more restricted range of residues than that to CLR/RAMP1 or CLR/RAMP2. E101 of RAMP2 had a major role in AM interactions, and F111/W84 of RAMP2/3 was important with each peptide. Conclusions and Implications RAMP-dependent effects of CLR mutations suggest that the different RAMPs control accessibility of peptides to binding residues situated on the CLR N-terminus. RAMP3 appears to alter the role of specific residues at the CLR-RAMP interface compared with RAMP1 and RAMP2. PMID:24199627

  4. Nicotine Activation of α4* Receptors: Sufficient for Reward, Tolerance, and Sensitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapper, Andrew R.; McKinney, Sheri L.; Nashmi, Raad; Schwarz, Johannes; Deshpande, Purnima; Labarca, Cesar; Whiteaker, Paul; Marks, Michael J.; Collins, Allan C.; Lester, Henry A.

    2004-11-01

    The identity of nicotinic receptor subtypes sufficient to elicit both the acute and chronic effects of nicotine dependence is unknown. We engineered mutant mice with α4 nicotinic subunits containing a single point mutation, Leu9' --> Ala9' in the pore-forming M2 domain, rendering α4* receptors hypersensitive to nicotine. Selective activation of α4* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with low doses of agonist recapitulates nicotine effects thought to be important in dependence, including reinforcement in response to acute nicotine administration, as well as tolerance and sensitization elicited by chronic nicotine administration. These data indicate that activation of α4* receptors is sufficient for nicotine-induced reward, tolerance, and sensitization.

  5. Predicting receptor functionality of signaling lymphocyte activation molecule for measles virus hemagglutinin by docking simulation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoshiyuki

    2017-05-01

    Predicting susceptibility of various species to a virus assists assessment of risk of interspecies transmission. Evaluation of receptor functionality may be useful in screening for susceptibility. In this study, docking simulation was conducted for measles virus hemagglutinin (MV-H) and immunoglobulin-like variable domain of signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM-V). It was observed that the docking scores for MV-H and SLAM-V correlated with the activity of SLAM as an MV receptor. These results suggest that the receptor functionality may be predicted from the docking scores of virion surface proteins and cellular receptor molecules. © 2017 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Cellular progesterone receptor phosphorylation in response to ligands activating protein kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, K.V.; Peralta, W.D.; Greene, G.L.

    1987-08-14

    Progesterone receptors were immunoprecipitated with monoclonal antibodies KD68 from lysates of human breast carcinoma T47D cells labelled to steady state specific activity with /sup 32/Pi. The 120 kDa /sup 32/P-labelled progesterone receptor band was resolved by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and identified by autoradiography. Phosphoamino acid analysis revealed serine phosphorylation, but no threonine or tyrosine phosphorylation. Treatment of the /sup 32/Pi-labelled cells with EGF, TPA or dibutyryl cAMP had no significant quantitative effect on progesterone receptor phosphorylation, though the EGF receptor and the cAMP-dependent protein kinases have been reported to catalyze phosphorylation of purified avian progesterone receptor preparations in cell freemore » systems. Progesterone receptor phosphorylation on serine residues was increased by 2-fold in cells treated with 10 nM progesterone; EGF had no effect on progesterone-mediated progesterone receptor phosphorylation.« less

  7. LOCALIZATION OF CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE RECEPTOR (CLR) AND RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 1 (RAMP1) IN HUMAN GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

    PubMed Central

    Cottrell, Graeme S.; Alemi, Farzad; Kirkland, Jacob G.; Grady, Eileen F.; Corvera, Carlos U.; Bhargava, Aditi

    2012-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) exerts its diverse effects on vasodilation, nociception, secretion, and motor function through a heterodimeric receptor comprising of calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1). Despite the importance of CLR•RAMP1 in human disease, little is known about its distribution in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract, where it participates in inflammation and pain. In this study, we determined that CLR and RAMP1 mRNAs are expressed in normal human stomach, ileum and colon by RT-PCR. We next characterized antibodies that we generated to rat CLR and RAMP1 in transfected HEK cells. Having characterized these antibodies in vitro, we then localized CLR-, RAMP1-, CGRP- and intermedin-immunoreactivity (IMD-IR) in various human GI segments. In the stomach, nerve bundles in the myenteric plexus and nerve fibers throughout the circular and longitudinal muscle had prominent CLR-IR. In the proximal colon and ileum, CLR was found in nerve varicosities of the myenteric plexus and surrounding submucosal neurons. Interestingly, CGRP expressing fibers did not co-localize, but were in close proximity to CLR. However, CLR and RAMP1, the two subunits of a functional CGRP receptor were clearly localized in myenteric plexus, where they may form functional cell-surface receptors. IMD, another member of calcitonin peptide family was also found in close proximity to CLR, and like CGRP, did not co-localize with either CLR or RAMP1 receptors. Thus, CGRP and IMD appear to be released locally, where they can mediate their effect on their receptors regulating diverse functions such as inflammation, pain and motility. PMID:22484227

  8. Function of the cytoplasmic tail of human calcitonin receptor-like receptor in complex with receptor activity-modifying protein 2

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwasako, Kenji, E-mail: kuwasako@fc.miyazaki-u.ac.jp; Kitamura, Kazuo; Nagata, Sayaka

    2010-02-12

    Receptor activity-modifying protein 2 (RAMP2) enables calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) to form an adrenomedullin (AM)-specific receptor. Here we investigated the function of the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail (C-tail) of human (h)CRLR by co-transfecting its C-terminal mutants into HEK-293 cells stably expressing hRAMP2. Deleting the C-tail from CRLR disrupted AM-evoked cAMP production or receptor internalization, but did not affect [{sup 125}I]AM binding. We found that CRLR residues 428-439 are required for AM-evoked cAMP production, though deleting this region had little effect on receptor internalization. Moreover, pretreatment with pertussis toxin (100 ng/mL) led to significant increases in AM-induced cAMP production via wild-type CRLR/RAMP2more » complexes. This effect was canceled by deleting CRLR residues 454-457, suggesting Gi couples to this region. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that CRLR truncation mutants lacking residues in the Ser/Thr-rich region extending from Ser{sup 449} to Ser{sup 467} were unable to undergo AM-induced receptor internalization and, in contrast to the effect on wild-type CRLR, overexpression of GPCR kinases-2, -3 and -4 failed to promote internalization of CRLR mutants lacking residues 449-467. Thus, the hCRLR C-tail is crucial for AM-evoked cAMP production and internalization of the CRLR/RAMP2, while the receptor internalization is dependent on the aforementioned GPCR kinases, but not Gs coupling.« less

  9. Role of transglutaminase 2 in A1 adenosine receptor- and β2-adrenoceptor-mediated pharmacological pre- and post-conditioning against hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced cell death in H9c2 cells.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Falguni S; Nelson, Carl P; Dickenson, John M

    2018-01-15

    Pharmacologically-induced pre- and post-conditioning represent attractive therapeutic strategies to reduce ischaemia/reperfusion injury during cardiac surgery and following myocardial infarction. We have previously reported that transglutaminase 2 (TG2) activity is modulated by the A 1 adenosine receptor and β 2 -adrenoceptor in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. The primary aim of this study was to determine the role of TG2 in A 1 adenosine receptor and β 2 -adrenoceptor-induced pharmacological pre- and post-conditioning in the H9c2 cells. H9c2 cells were exposed to 8h hypoxia (1% O 2 ) followed by 18h reoxygenation, after which cell viability was assessed by monitoring mitochondrial reduction of MTT, lactate dehydrogenase release and caspase-3 activation. N 6 -cyclopentyladenosine (CPA; A 1 adenosine receptor agonist), formoterol (β 2 -adrenoceptor agonist) or isoprenaline (non-selective β-adrenoceptor agonist) were added before hypoxia/reoxygenation (pre-conditioning) or at the start of reoxygenation following hypoxia (post-conditioning). Pharmacological pre- and post-conditioning with CPA and isoprenaline significantly reduced hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced cell death. In contrast, formoterol did not elicit protection. Pre-treatment with pertussis toxin (G i/o -protein inhibitor), DPCPX (A 1 adenosine receptor antagonist) or TG2 inhibitors (Z-DON and R283) attenuated the A 1 adenosine receptor-induced pharmacological pre- and post-conditioning. Similarly, pertussis toxin, ICI 118,551 (β 2 -adrenoceptor antagonist) or TG2 inhibition attenuated the isoprenaline-induced cell survival. Knockdown of TG2 using small interfering RNA (siRNA) attenuated CPA and isoprenaline-induced pharmacological pre- and post-conditioning. Finally, proteomic analysis following isoprenaline treatment identified known (e.g. protein S100-A6) and novel (e.g. adenine phosphoribosyltransferase) protein substrates for TG2. These results have shown that A 1 adenosine receptor and β 2 -adrenoceptor

  10. The phosphoproteome of toll-like receptor-activated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Weintz, Gabriele; Olsen, Jesper V; Frühauf, Katja; Niedzielska, Magdalena; Amit, Ido; Jantsch, Jonathan; Mages, Jörg; Frech, Cornelie; Dölken, Lars; Mann, Matthias; Lang, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Recognition of microbial danger signals by toll-like receptors (TLR) causes re-programming of macrophages. To investigate kinase cascades triggered by the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on systems level, we performed a global, quantitative and kinetic analysis of the phosphoproteome of primary macrophages using stable isotope labelling with amino acids in cell culture, phosphopeptide enrichment and high-resolution mass spectrometry. In parallel, nascent RNA was profiled to link transcription factor (TF) phosphorylation to TLR4-induced transcriptional activation. We reproducibly identified 1850 phosphoproteins with 6956 phosphorylation sites, two thirds of which were not reported earlier. LPS caused major dynamic changes in the phosphoproteome (24% up-regulation and 9% down-regulation). Functional bioinformatic analyses confirmed canonical players of the TLR pathway and highlighted other signalling modules (e.g. mTOR, ATM/ATR kinases) and the cytoskeleton as hotspots of LPS-regulated phosphorylation. Finally, weaving together phosphoproteome and nascent transcriptome data by in silico promoter analysis, we implicated several phosphorylated TFs in primary LPS-controlled gene expression. PMID:20531401

  11. Androgen receptor activation: a prospective therapeutic target for bladder cancer?

    PubMed

    Mizushima, Taichi; Tirador, Kathleen A; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    Patients with non-muscle-invasive or muscle-invasive bladder cancer undergoing surgery and currently available conventional therapy remain having a high risk of tumor recurrence or progression, respectively. Novel targeted molecular therapy is therefore expected to improve patient outcomes. Meanwhile, substantially higher incidence of bladder cancer in men has prompted research on androgen-mediated androgen receptor (AR) signaling in this malignancy. Indeed, preclinical evidence has suggested that AR signaling plays an important role in urothelial carcinogenesis and tumor outgrowth as well as resistance to some of the currently available conventional non-surgical therapies. Areas covered: We summarize and discuss available data suggesting the involvement of AR and its potential downstream targets in the development and progression of bladder cancer. Associations between AR signaling and sensitivity to cisplatin/doxorubicin or bacillus Calmette-Guérin treatment are also reviewed. Expert opinion: AR activation is likely to correlate with the promotion of urothelial carcinogenesis and cancer outgrowth as well as resistance to conventional therapies. Molecular therapy targeting the AR may thus provide effective chemopreventive and therapeutic approaches for urothelial cancer. Accordingly, bladder cancer can now be considered as an endocrine-related neoplasm. Clinical application of various anti-AR therapies available for AR-dependent prostate cancer to bladder cancer patients is anticipated.

  12. TRAIL-death receptor endocytosis and apoptosis are selectively regulated by dynamin-1 activation

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Carlos R.; Chen, Ping-Hung; Bendris, Nawal; Schmid, Sandra L.

    2017-01-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) constitutes the major pathway for uptake of signaling receptors into eukaryotic cells. As such, CME regulates signaling from cell-surface receptors, but whether and how specific signaling receptors reciprocally regulate the CME machinery remains an open question. Although best studied for its role in membrane fission, the GTPase dynamin also regulates early stages of CME. We recently reported that dynamin-1 (Dyn1), previously assumed to be neuron-specific, can be selectively activated in cancer cells to alter endocytic trafficking. Here we report that dynamin isoforms differentially regulate the endocytosis and apoptotic signaling downstream of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand–death receptor (TRAIL–DR) complexes in several cancer cells. Whereas the CME of constitutively internalized transferrin receptors is mainly dependent on the ubiquitously expressed Dyn2, TRAIL-induced DR endocytosis is selectively regulated by activation of Dyn1. We show that TRAIL stimulation activates ryanodine receptor-mediated calcium release from endoplasmic reticulum stores, leading to calcineurin-mediated dephosphorylation and activation of Dyn1, TRAIL–DR endocytosis, and increased resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. TRAIL–DR-mediated ryanodine receptor activation and endocytosis is dependent on early caspase-8 activation. These findings delineate specific mechanisms for the reciprocal crosstalk between signaling and the regulation of CME, leading to autoregulation of endocytosis and signaling downstream of surface receptors. PMID:28049841

  13. TRAIL-death receptor endocytosis and apoptosis are selectively regulated by dynamin-1 activation.

    PubMed

    Reis, Carlos R; Chen, Ping-Hung; Bendris, Nawal; Schmid, Sandra L

    2017-01-17

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) constitutes the major pathway for uptake of signaling receptors into eukaryotic cells. As such, CME regulates signaling from cell-surface receptors, but whether and how specific signaling receptors reciprocally regulate the CME machinery remains an open question. Although best studied for its role in membrane fission, the GTPase dynamin also regulates early stages of CME. We recently reported that dynamin-1 (Dyn1), previously assumed to be neuron-specific, can be selectively activated in cancer cells to alter endocytic trafficking. Here we report that dynamin isoforms differentially regulate the endocytosis and apoptotic signaling downstream of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-death receptor (TRAIL-DR) complexes in several cancer cells. Whereas the CME of constitutively internalized transferrin receptors is mainly dependent on the ubiquitously expressed Dyn2, TRAIL-induced DR endocytosis is selectively regulated by activation of Dyn1. We show that TRAIL stimulation activates ryanodine receptor-mediated calcium release from endoplasmic reticulum stores, leading to calcineurin-mediated dephosphorylation and activation of Dyn1, TRAIL-DR endocytosis, and increased resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. TRAIL-DR-mediated ryanodine receptor activation and endocytosis is dependent on early caspase-8 activation. These findings delineate specific mechanisms for the reciprocal crosstalk between signaling and the regulation of CME, leading to autoregulation of endocytosis and signaling downstream of surface receptors.

  14. Discovery of potent peptide-mimetic antagonists for the human thrombin receptor, protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1).

    PubMed

    Maryanoff, Bruce E; Zhang, Han-Cheng; Andrade-Gordon, Patricia; Derian, Claudia K

    2003-03-01

    Protease-activated receptors (PARs) represent a unique family of seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors, which are enzymatically cleaved to expose a new extracellular N-terminus that acts as a tethered activating ligand. PAR-1 is cleaved and activated by the serine protease alpha-thrombin, is expressed in various tissues (e.g. platelets and vascular cells), and is involved in cellular responses associated with hemostasis, proliferation, and tissue injury. By using a de novo design approach, we have discovered a series of potent heterocycle-based peptide-miimetic antagonists of PAR-1, exemplified by advanced leads RWJ-56110 (22) and RWJ-58259 (32). These compounds are potent, selective PAR-1 antagonists, devoid of PAR-1 agonist and thrombin inhibitory activity: they bind to PAR-1, interfere with calcium mobilization and cellular functions associated with PAR-1, and do not affect PAR-2, PAR-3, or PAR-4. RWJ-56110 was determined to be a direct inhibitor of PAR-1 activation and internalization, without affecting PAR-1 N-terminal cleavage. At high concentrations of alpha-thrombin, RWJ-56110 fully blocked activation responses in human vascular cells, but not in human platelets; whereas, at high concentrations of TRAP-6, RWJ-56110 blocked activation responses in both cell types. This result is consistent with the presence of another thrombin receptor on human platelets, namely PAR-4. RWJ-56110 and RWJ-58259 clearly interrupt the binding of a tethered ligand to its receptor. RWJ-58259 demonstrated antirestenotic activity in a rat balloon angioplasty model and antithrombotic activity in a cynomolgus monkey arterial injury model. Such PAR-1 antagonists should not only serve as useful tools to delineate the physiological and pathophysiological roles of PAR-1, but also may have therapeutic potential for treating thrombosis and restenosis in humans.

  15. The transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 mediates mechanical hyperalgesia induced by the activation of B1 receptor in mice.

    PubMed

    Meotti, Flavia Carla; Figueiredo, Cláudia Pinto; Manjavachi, Marianne; Calixto, João B

    2017-02-01

    The kinin receptor B 1 and the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) work as initiators and gatekeepers of nociception and inflammation. This study reports that the nociceptive transmission induced by activation of B 1 receptor is dependent on TRPA1 ion channel. The mechanical hyperalgesia was induced by intrathecal (i.t.) injection of B 1 agonist des-Arginine 9 -bradykinin (DABK) or TRPA1 agonist cinnamaldehyde and was evaluated by the withdrawal response after von Frey Hair application in the hind paw. After behavioral experiments, lumbar spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were harvested to assess protein expression and mRNA by immunohistochemistry and real time-PCR, respectively. The pharmacological antagonism (HC030031) or the down-regulation of TRPA1 greatly inhibited the mechanical hyperalgesia induced by DABK. Intrathecal injection of DABK up regulated the ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule (Iba-1) in lumbar spinal cord (L5-L6); TRPA1 protein and mRNA in lumbar spinal cord; and B 1 receptor mRNA in both lumbar spinal cord and DRG. The knockdown of TRPA1 prevented microglia activation induced by DABK. Furthermore, the mechanical hyperalgesia induced by either DABK or by cinnamaldehyde was significantly reduced by inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX), protein kinase C (PKC) or phospholipase C (PLC). In summary, this study revealed that TRPA1 positively modulates the mechanical hyperalgesia induced by B 1 receptor activation in the spinal cord and that the classical GPCR downstream molecules PLC, diacylglycerol (DAG), 3,4,5-inositide phosphate (IP 3 ) and PKC are involved in the nociceptive transmission triggered by these two receptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Activation and inhibition of mouse muscle and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Papke, Roger L; Wecker, Lynn; Stitzel, Jerry A

    2010-05-01

    Transgenic mouse models with nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) knockouts and knockins have provided important insights into the molecular substrates of addiction and disease. However, most studies of heterologously expressed neuronal nAChR have used clones obtained from other species, usually human or rat. In this work, we use mouse clones expressed in Xenopus oocytes to provide a relatively comprehensive characterization of the three primary classes of nAChR: muscle-type receptors, heteromeric neuronal receptors, and homomeric alpha7-type receptors. We evaluated the activation of these receptor subtypes with acetylcholine and cytisine-related compounds, including varenicline. We also characterized the activity of classic nAChR antagonists, confirming the utility of mecamylamine and dihydro-beta-erythroidine as selective antagonists in mouse models of alpha3beta4 and alpha4beta2 receptors, respectively. We also conducted an in-depth analysis of decamethonium and hexamethonium on muscle and neuronal receptor subtypes. Our data indicate that, as with receptors cloned from other species, pairwise expression of neuronal alpha and beta subunits in oocytes generates heterogeneous populations of receptors, most likely caused by variations in subunit stoichiometry. Coexpression of the mouse alpha5 subunit had varying effects, depending on the other subunits expressed. The properties of cytisine-related compounds are similar for mouse, rat, and human nAChR, except that varenicline produced greater residual inhibition of mouse alpha4beta2 receptors than with human receptors. We confirm that decamethonium is a partial agonist, selective for muscle-type receptors, but also note that it is a nondepolarizing antagonist for neuronal-type receptors. Hexamethonium was a relatively nonselective antagonist with mixed competitive and noncompetitive activity.

  17. Activation and Inhibition of Mouse Muscle and Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Expressed in Xenopus Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wecker, Lynn; Stitzel, Jerry A.

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic mouse models with nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) knockouts and knockins have provided important insights into the molecular substrates of addiction and disease. However, most studies of heterologously expressed neuronal nAChR have used clones obtained from other species, usually human or rat. In this work, we use mouse clones expressed in Xenopus oocytes to provide a relatively comprehensive characterization of the three primary classes of nAChR: muscle-type receptors, heteromeric neuronal receptors, and homomeric α7-type receptors. We evaluated the activation of these receptor subtypes with acetylcholine and cytisine-related compounds, including varenicline. We also characterized the activity of classic nAChR antagonists, confirming the utility of mecamylamine and dihydro-β-erythroidine as selective antagonists in mouse models of α3β4 and α4β2 receptors, respectively. We also conducted an in-depth analysis of decamethonium and hexamethonium on muscle and neuronal receptor subtypes. Our data indicate that, as with receptors cloned from other species, pairwise expression of neuronal α and β subunits in oocytes generates heterogeneous populations of receptors, most likely caused by variations in subunit stoichiometry. Coexpression of the mouse α5 subunit had varying effects, depending on the other subunits expressed. The properties of cytisine-related compounds are similar for mouse, rat, and human nAChR, except that varenicline produced greater residual inhibition of mouse α4β2 receptors than with human receptors. We confirm that decamethonium is a partial agonist, selective for muscle-type receptors, but also note that it is a nondepolarizing antagonist for neuronal-type receptors. Hexamethonium was a relatively nonselective antagonist with mixed competitive and noncompetitive activity. PMID:20100906

  18. Quantitative structure-activity relationships of selective antagonists of glucagon receptor using QuaSAR descriptors.

    PubMed

    Manoj Kumar, Palanivelu; Karthikeyan, Chandrabose; Hari Narayana Moorthy, Narayana Subbiah; Trivedi, Piyush

    2006-11-01

    In the present paper, quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) approach was applied to understand the affinity and selectivity of a novel series of triaryl imidazole derivatives towards glucagon receptor. Statistically significant and highly predictive QSARs were derived for glucagon receptor inhibition by triaryl imidazoles using QuaSAR descriptors of molecular operating environment (MOE) employing computer-assisted multiple regression procedure. The generated QSAR models revealed that factors related to hydrophobicity, molecular shape and geometry predominantly influences glucagon receptor binding affinity of the triaryl imidazoles indicating the relevance of shape specific steric interactions between the molecule and the receptor. Further, QSAR models formulated for selective inhibition of glucagon receptor over p38 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase of the compounds in the series highlights that the same structural features, which influence the glucagon receptor affinity, also contribute to their selective inhibition.

  19. CORM-A1 prevents blood-brain barrier dysfunction caused by ionotropic glutamate receptor-mediated endothelial oxidative stress and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Basuroy, Shyamali; Leffler, Charles W; Parfenova, Helena

    2013-06-01

    In cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (CMVEC) of newborn pigs, glutamate at excitotoxic concentrations (mM) causes apoptosis mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Carbon monoxide (CO) produced by CMVEC or delivered by a CO-releasing molecule, CORM-A1, has antioxidant properties. We tested the hypothesis that CORM-A1 prevents cerebrovascular endothelial barrier dysfunction caused by glutamate excitotoxicity. First, we identified the glutamate receptors (GluRs) and enzymatic sources of ROS involved in the mechanism of endothelial apoptosis. In glutamate-exposed CMVEC, ROS formation and apoptosis were blocked by rotenone, 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA), and antimycin, indicating that mitochondrial complexes I, II, and III are the major sources of oxidative stress. Agonists of ionotropic GluRs (iGluRs) N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), cis-ACPD, AMPA, and kainate increased ROS production and apoptosis, whereas iGluR antagonists exhibited antiapoptotic properties, suggesting that iGluRs mediate glutamate-induced endothelial apoptosis. The functional consequences of endothelial injury were tested in the model of blood-brain barrier (BBB) composed of CMVEC monolayer on semipermeable membranes. Glutamate and iGluR agonists reduced transendothelial electrical resistance and increased endothelial paracellular permeability to 3-kDa dextran. CORM-A1 exhibited potent antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties in CMVEC and completely prevented BBB dysfunction caused by glutamate and iGluR agonists. Overall, the endothelial component of the BBB is a cellular target for excitotoxic glutamate that, via a mechanism involving a iGluR-mediated activation of mitochondrial ROS production and apoptosis, leads to BBB opening that may be prevented by the antioxidant and antiapoptotic actions of CORMs. Antioxidant CORMs therapy may help preserve BBB functional integrity in neonatal cerebrovascular disease.

  20. Differential expression and activation of a family of murine peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Kliewer, S A; Forman, B M; Blumberg, B; Ong, E S; Borgmeyer, U; Mangelsdorf, D J; Umesono, K; Evans, R M

    1994-01-01

    To gain insight into the function of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isoforms in mammals, we have cloned and characterized two PPAR alpha-related cDNAs (designated PPAR gamma and -delta, respectively) from mouse. The three PPAR isoforms display widely divergent patterns of expression during embryogenesis and in the adult. Surprisingly, PPAR gamma and -delta are not activated by pirinixic acid (Wy 14,643), a potent peroxisome proliferator and activator of PPAR alpha. However, PPAR gamma and -delta are activated by the structurally distinct peroxisome proliferator LY-171883 and linoleic acid, respectively, indicating that each of the isoforms can act as a regulated activator of transcription. These data suggest that tissue-specific responsiveness to peroxisome proliferators, including certain fatty acids, is in part a consequence of differential expression of multiple, pharmacologically distinct PPAR isoforms. Images PMID:8041794

  1. Sulindac metabolites inhibit epidermal growth factor receptor activation and expression.

    PubMed

    Pangburn, Heather A; Kraus, Hanna; Ahnen, Dennis J; Rice, Pamela L

    2005-09-02

    Regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with a decreased mortality from colorectal cancer (CRC). NSAIDs induce apoptotic cell death in colon cancer cells in vitro and inhibit growth of neoplastic colonic mucosa in vivo however, the biochemical mechanisms required for these growth inhibitory effects are not well defined. We previously reported that metabolites of the NSAID sulindac downregulate extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling and that this effect is both necessary and sufficient for the apoptotic effects of these drugs. The goal of this project was to specifically test the hypothesis that sulindac metabolites block activation and/or expression of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR). HT29 human colon cancer cells were treated with EGF, alone, or in the presence of sulindac sulfide or sulindac sulfone. Cells lysates were assayed by immunoblotting for phosphorylated EGFR (pEGFR, pY1068), total EGFR, phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pERK1/2), total ERK1/2, activated caspase-3, and alpha-tubulin. EGF treatment rapidly induced phosphorylation of both EGFR and ERK1/2 in HT29 colon cancer cells. Pretreatment with sulindac metabolites for 24 h blocked EGF-induced phosphorylation of both EGFR and ERK1/2 and decreased total EGFR protein expression. Under basal conditions, downregulation of pEGFR and total EGFR was detected as early as 12 h following sulindac sulfide treatment and persisted through at least 48 h. Sulindac sulfone induced downregulation of pEGFR and total EGFR was detected as early as 1 h and 24 h, respectively, following drug treatment, and persisted through at least 72 h. EGFR downregulation by sulindac metabolites was observed in three different CRC cell lines, occurred prior to the observed downregulation of pERK1/2 and induction of apoptosis by these drugs, and was not dependent of caspase activation. These results suggest that downregulation of EGFR signaling by sulindac metabolites may

  2. Phospholipase activities associated with the tonoplast from Acer pseudoplatanus cells: identification of a phospholipase A1 activity.

    PubMed

    Tavernier, E; Pugin, A

    1995-02-15

    The study of phospholipase activities associated with the tonoplast of Acer pseudoplatanus was performed in vitro with sn-2-[14C]acylphosphatidylcholine (PC) as a substrate. The hydrolysis of radiolabelled PC into [14C]phosphatidic acid and [14C]lyso-PC demonstrated the presence of phospholipase D and A1 activities, respectively, associated with the tonoplast of Acer pseudoplatanus. The vacuolar sap did not show any significant phospholipase activity. In a second step, the properties of the phospholipase A1 activity was studied using tonoplast endogenous PC labelled in vivo with [14C]choline as a substrate. The phospholipase A1 showed an optimal activity at pH about 6-6.5, did not necessarily require divalent cations, but was stimulated by Mg2+ and particularly by Ca2+. This work presents the first evidence for the presence of phospholipases A1 in plant cells.

  3. Isolated dorsal root ganglion neurones inhibit receptor-dependent adenylyl cyclase activity in associated glial cells

    PubMed Central

    Ng, KY; Yeung, BHS; Wong, YH; Wise, H

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Hyper-nociceptive PGE2 EP4 receptors and prostacyclin (IP) receptors are present in adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones and glial cells in culture. The present study has investigated the cell-specific expression of two other Gs-protein coupled hyper-nociceptive receptor systems: β-adrenoceptors and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors in isolated DRG cells and has examined the influence of neurone–glial cell interactions in regulating adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity. Experimental Approach Agonist-stimulated AC activity was determined in mixed DRG cell cultures from adult rats and compared with activity in DRG neurone-enriched cell cultures and pure DRG glial cell cultures. Key Results Pharmacological analysis showed the presence of Gs-coupled β2-adrenoceptors and CGRP receptors, but not β1-adrenoceptors, in all three DRG cell preparations. Agonist-stimulated AC activity was weakest in DRG neurone-enriched cell cultures. DRG neurones inhibited IP receptor-stimulated glial cell AC activity by a process dependent on both cell–cell contact and neurone-derived soluble factors, but this is unlikely to involve purine or glutamine receptor activation. Conclusions and Implications Gs-coupled hyper-nociceptive receptors are readily expressed on DRG glial cells in isolated cell cultures and the activity of CGRP, EP4 and IP receptors, but not β2-adrenoceptors, in glial cells is inhibited by DRG neurones. Studies using isolated DRG cells should be aware that hyper-nociceptive ligands may stimulate receptors on glial cells in addition to neurones, and that variable numbers of neurones and glial cells will influence absolute measures of AC activity and affect downstream functional responses. PMID:22924655

  4. AN ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR ACTIVATION SWITCH PATCH REVEALED THROUGH EVOLUTIONARY TRACE ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Bonde, Marie Mi; Yao, Rong; Ma, Jian-Nong; Madabushi, Srinivasan; Haunsø, Stig; Burstein, Ethan S.; Whistler, Jennifer L.; Sheikh, Søren P.; Lichtarge, Olivier; Hansen, Jakob Lerche

    2010-01-01

    Seven transmembrane (7TM) or G protein-coupled receptors constitute a large superfamily of cell surface receptors sharing a structural motif of seven transmembrane spanning alpha helices. Their activation mechanism most likely involves concerted movements of the transmembrane helices, but remains to be completely resolved. Evolutionary Trace (ET) analysis is a computational method, which identifies clusters of functionally important residues by integrating information on evolutionary important residue variations with receptor structure. Combined with known mutational data, ET predicted a patch of residues in the cytoplasmic parts of TM2, TM3, and TM6 to form an activation switch that is common to all family A 7TM receptors. We tested this hypothesis in the rat Angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 (AT1) receptor. The receptor has important roles in the cardiovascular system, but has also frequently been applied as a model for 7TM receptor activation and signaling. Six mutations: F66A, L67R, L70R, L119R, D125A, and I245F were targeted to the putative switch and assayed for changes in activation state by their ligand binding, signaling, and trafficking properties. All but one receptor mutant (that was not expressed well) displayed phenotypes associated with changed activation state, such as increased agonist affinity or basal activity, promiscuous activation, or constitutive internalization highlighting the importance of testing different signaling pathways. We conclude that this evolutionary important patch mediates interactions important for maintaining the inactive state. More broadly, these observations in the AT1 receptor are consistent with computational predictions of a generic role for this patch in 7TM receptor activation. PMID:20227396

  5. Maternal obesity alters feto-placental Cytochrome P4501A1 activity

    PubMed Central

    DuBois, Barent N.; O’Tierney, Perrie; Pearson, Jacob; Friedman, Jacob E.; Thornburg, Kent; Cherala, Ganesh

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1), an important drug metabolizing enzyme, is expressed in human placenta throughout gestation as well as in fetal liver. Obesity, a chronic inflammatory condition, is known to alter CYP enzyme expression in non-placental tissues. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that maternal obesity alters the distribution of CYP1A1 activity in feto-placental unit. Placentas were collected from non-obese (BMI<30) and obese (BMI>30) women at term. Livers were collected from gestation day 130 fetuses of non-human primates fed either control diet or high-fat diet (HFD). Cytosol and microsomes were collected using differential centrifugation, and incubated with 7-Ethoxyresorufin. The CYP1A1 specific activity (pmoles of resorufin formed/min/mg of protein) was measured at excitation/emission wavelength of 530/590nm. Placentas of obese women had significantly reduced microsomal CYP1A1 activity compared to non-obese women (0.046 vs. 0.082; p<0.05); however no such effect was observed on cytosolic activity. Similarly, fetal liver from HFD fed mothers had significantly reduced microsomal CYP1A1 activity (0.44±0.04 vs. 0.20±0.10; p<0.05), with no significant difference in cytosolic CYP1A1 activity (control, 1.23±0.20; HFD, 0.80±0.40). Interestingly, multiple linear regression analyses of placental efficiency indicates cytosolic CYP1A1 activity is a main effect (5.67±2.32 (β±SEM); p=0.022) along with BMI (−0.57±0.26; p=0.037), fetal gender (1.07±0.26; p<0.001), and maternal age (0.07±0.03; p=0.011). In summary, while maternal obesity affects microsomal CYP1A1 activity alone, cytosolic activity along with maternal BMI is an important determinant of placental efficiency. Together, these data suggest that maternal lifestyle could have a significant impact on CYP1A1 activity, and hints at a possible role for CYP1A1 in feto-placental growth and thereby well-being of fetus. PMID:23046808

  6. The proteinase-activated receptor-2 mediates phagocytosis in a Rho-dependent manner in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Scott, Glynis; Leopardi, Sonya; Parker, Lorelle; Babiarz, Laura; Seiberg, Miri; Han, Rujiing

    2003-09-01

    Recent work shows that the G-protein-coupled receptor proteinase activated receptor-2 activates signals that stimulate melanosome uptake in keratinocytes in vivo and in vitro. The Rho family of GTP-binding proteins is involved in cytoskeletal remodeling during phagocytosis. We show that proteinase-activated receptor-2 mediated phagocytosis in human keratinocytes is Rho dependent and that proteinase-activated receptor-2 signals to activate Rho. In contrast, Rho activity did not affect either proteinase-activated receptor-2 activity or mRNA and protein levels. We explored the signaling mechanisms of proteinase-activated receptor-2 mediated Rho activation in human keratinocytes and show that activation of proteinase-activated receptor-2, either through specific proteinase-activated receptor-2 activating peptides or through trypsinization, elevates cAMP in keratinocytes. Proteinase-activated receptor-2 mediated Rho activation was pertussis toxin insensitive and independent of the protein kinase A signaling pathway. These data are the first to show that proteinase-activated receptor-2 mediated phagocytosis is Rho dependent and that proteinase-activated receptor-2 signals to Rho and cAMP in keratinocytes. Because phagocytosis of melanosomes is recognized as an important mechanism for melanosome transfer to keratinocytes, these results suggest that Rho is a critical signaling intermediate in melanosome uptake in keratinocytes.

  7. Heterodimerization with beta2-adrenergic receptors promotes surface expression and functional activity of alpha1D-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Uberti, Michelle A; Hague, Chris; Oller, Heide; Minneman, Kenneth P; Hall, Randy A

    2005-04-01

    The alpha1D-adrenergic receptor (alpha1D-AR) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is poorly trafficked to the cell surface and largely nonfunctional when heterologously expressed by itself in a variety of cell types. We screened a library of approximately 30 other group I GPCRs in a quantitative luminometer assay for the ability to promote alpha1D-AR cell surface expression. Strikingly, these screens revealed only two receptors capable of inducing robust increases in the amount of alpha1D-AR at the cell surface: alpha1B-AR and beta2-AR. Confocal imaging confirmed that coexpression with beta2-AR resulted in translocation of alpha1D-AR from intracellular sites to the plasma membrane. Additionally, coimmunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that alpha1D-AR and beta2-AR specifically interact to form heterodimers when coexpressed in HEK-293 cells. Ligand binding studies revealed an increase in total alpha1D-AR binding sites upon coexpression with beta2-AR, but no apparent effect on the pharmacological properties of the receptors. In functional studies, coexpression with beta2-AR significantly enhanced the coupling of alpha1D-AR to norepinephrine-stimulated Ca2+ mobilization. Heterodimerization of beta2-AR with alpha1D-AR also conferred the ability of alpha1D-AR to cointernalize upon beta2-AR agonist stimulation, revealing a novel mechanism by which these different adrenergic receptor subtypes may regulate each other's activity. These findings demonstrate that the selective association of alpha1D-AR with other receptors is crucial for receptor surface expression and function and also shed light on a novel mechanism of cross talk between alpha1- and beta2-ARs that is mediated through heterodimerization and cross-internalization.

  8. A truncated human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha splice variant with dominant negative activity.

    PubMed

    Gervois, P; Torra, I P; Chinetti, G; Grötzinger, T; Dubois, G; Fruchart, J C; Fruchart-Najib, J; Leitersdorf, E; Staels, B

    1999-09-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) plays a key role in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. However, important inter- and intraspecies differences exist in the response to PPARalpha activators. This incited us to screen for PPARalpha variants with different signaling functions. In the present study, using a RT-PCR approach a variant human PPARalpha mRNA species was identified, which lacks the entire exon 6 due to alternative splicing. This deletion leads to the introduction of a premature stop codon, resulting in the formation of a truncated PPARalpha protein (PPARalphatr) lacking part of the hinge region and the entire ligand-binding domain. RNase protection analysis demonstrated that PPARalphatr mRNA is expressed in several human tissues and cells, representing between 20-50% of total PPARalpha mRNA. By contrast, PPARalphatr mRNA could not be detected in rodent tissues. Western blot analysis using PPARalpha-specific antibodies demonstrated the presence of an immunoreactive protein migrating at the size of in vitro produced PPARalphatr protein both in human hepatoma HepG2 cells and in human hepatocytes. Both in the presence or absence of 9-cis-retinoic acid receptor, PPARalphatr did not bind to DNA in gel shift assays. Immunocytochemical analysis of transfected CV-1 cells indicated that, whereas transfected PPARalphawt was mainly nuclear localized, the majority of PPARalphatr resided in the cytoplasm, with presence in the nucleus depending on cell culture conditions. Whereas a chimeric PPARalphatr protein containing a nuclear localization signal cloned at its N-terminal localized into the nucleus and exhibited strong negative activity on PPARalphawt transactivation function, PPARalphatr interfered with PPARalphatr transactivation function only under culture conditions inducing its nuclear localization. Cotransfection of the coactivator CREB-binding protein relieved the transcriptional repression of PPARalphawt by PPARalphatr, suggesting

  9. Antihypertensive effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ activation.

    PubMed

    Toral, Marta; Romero, Miguel; Pérez-Vizcaíno, Francisco; Duarte, Juan; Jiménez, Rosario

    2017-02-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors, which is composed of three members encoded by distinct genes: PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ. The biological actions of PPARα and PPARγ and their potential as a cardiovascular therapeutic target have been extensively reviewed, whereas the biological actions of PPARβ/δ and its effectiveness as a therapeutic target in the treatment of hypertension remain less investigated. Preclinical studies suggest that pharmacological PPARβ/δ activation induces antihypertensive effects in direct [spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), ANG II, and DOCA-salt] and indirect (dyslipemic and gestational) models of hypertension, associated with end-organ damage protection. This review summarizes mechanistic insights into the antihypertensive effects of PPARβ/δ activators, including molecular and functional mechanisms. Pharmacological PPARβ/δ activation induces genomic actions including the increase of regulators of G protein-coupled signaling (RGS), acute nongenomic vasodilator effects, as well as the ability to improve the endothelial dysfunction, reduce vascular inflammation, vasoconstrictor responses, and sympathetic outflow from central nervous system. Evidence from clinical trials is also examined. These preclinical and clinical outcomes of PPARβ/δ ligands may provide a basis for the development of therapies in combating hypertension. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Ligands raise the constraint that limits constitutive activation in G protein-coupled opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Vezzi, Vanessa; Onaran, H Ongun; Molinari, Paola; Guerrini, Remo; Balboni, Gianfranco; Calò, Girolamo; Costa, Tommaso

    2013-08-16

    Using a cell-free bioluminescence resonance energy transfer strategy we compared the levels of spontaneous and ligand-induced receptor-G protein coupling in δ (DOP) and μ (MOP) opioid receptors. In this assay GDP can suppress spontaneous coupling, thus allowing its quantification. The level of constitutive activity was 4-5 times greater at the DOP than at the MOP receptor. A series of opioid analogues with a common peptidomimetic scaffold displayed remarkable inversions of efficacy in the two receptors. Agonists that enhanced coupling above the low intrinsic level of the MOP receptor were inverse agonists in reducing the greater level of constitutive coupling of the DOP receptor. Yet the intrinsic activities of such ligands are identical when scaled over the GDP base line of both receptors. This pattern is in conflict with the predictions of the ternary complex model and the "two state" extensions. According to this theory, the order of spontaneous and ligand-induced coupling cannot be reversed if a shift of the equilibrium between active and inactive forms raises constitutive activation in one receptor type. We propose that constitutive activation results from a lessened intrinsic barrier that restrains spontaneous coupling. Any ligand, regardless of its efficacy, must enhance this constraint to stabilize the ligand-bound complexed form.

  11. Dynamic conformational switching in the chemokine ligand is essential for G-protein-coupled receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Prem Raj B.; Sawant, Kirti V.; Isley, Angela; Pedroza, Mesias; Garofalo, Roberto P.; Richardson, Ricardo M.; Rajarathnam, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Chemokines mediate diverse functions from organogenesis to mobilizing leucocytes, and are unusual agonists for class-A GPCRs (G-protein-coupled receptors) because of their large size and multi-domain structure. The current model for receptor activation, which involves interactions between chemokine N-loop and receptor N-terminal residues (Site-I) and between chemokine N-terminal and receptor extracellular loop/transmembrane residues (Site-II), fails to describe differences in ligand/receptor selectivity and the activation of multiple signalling pathways. In the present study, we show in neutrophil-activating chemokine CXCL8 that the highly conserved GP (glycine-proline) motif located distal to both N-terminal and N-loop residues couples Site-I and Site-II interactions. Mutations in the GP motif caused various differences from native-like function to complete loss of activity that could not be correlated with the specific mutation, receptor affinity or subtype, or a specific signalling pathway. NMR studies indicated that the GP motif does not influence Site-I interactions, but molecular dynamics simulations suggested that this motif dictates substates of the CXCL8 conformational ensemble. We conclude that the GP motif enables diverse receptor functions by controlling cross-talk between Site-I and Site-II, and further propose that the repertoire of chemokine functions is best described by a conformational ensemble model in which a network of long-range coupled indirect interactions mediate receptor activity. PMID:24032673

  12. Comparative Expression Analysis of Cytochrome P450 1A1, Cytochrome P450 1B1 and Nuclear Receptors in the Female Genital and Colorectal Tissues of Human and Pigtailed Macaque

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Minlu; Zhou, Tian; Pearlman, Andrew P; Paton, Dorothy L; Rohan, Lisa C

    2017-01-01

    Summary This manuscript summarizes our recent progress in examine the CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 as well as a number of nuclear receptors in the female genital and colorectal tissues of human and pigtailed macaque. Understanding the nuclear receptor mediated regulation of CYP1A1 and 1B1 expression in these tissues is necessary for identifying cancer risk factors and developing CYP1A1/1B1-targeted anti-cancer therapeutics. However, there is a lack of systematic and comparative analysis of the expression profile of CYP1A1, 1B1 and NRs in the female genital and colorectal tissues of human and clinically relevant animal models. The current study aims to fill this gap. We found CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and a number of nuclear receptors were expressed in the female genital and colorectal tissues of human and macaque. However, the mRNA level and protein localization of these CYP enzymes and NRs depended on the type of tissue examined. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1B1 activate hormonal and environmental procarcinogens, and are associated with carcinogenesis in female genital and colorectal tissues. Understanding the nuclear receptor (NR) mediated regulation of CYP expression in these tissues is necessary for identifying cancer risk factors and developing CYP1A1/1B1-targeted anti-cancer therapeutics. The study aims to analyze the expression profile of CYP1A1, 1B1 and NRs in the female genital and colorectal tissues of human and pigtailed macaques. We found that compared to the liver, human CYP1A1 mRNA level in the genital and colorectal tissues was significantly lower, while the CYP1B1 level was significantly higher. CYP1A1 protein was mainly localized in the plasma membrane of the uterine and endocervical epithelial cells. The CYP1B1 protein was concentrated in the nucleus of genital and colorectal tissues. Fourteen NRs in the genital tract and 12 NRs in colorectal tissue were expressed at levels similar to or higher than the liver. The expression and localization of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and

  13. Comparative Expression Analysis of Cytochrome P450 1A1, Cytochrome P450 1B1 and Nuclear Receptors in the Female Genital and Colorectal Tissues of Human and Pigtailed Macaque.

    PubMed

    Hu, Minlu; Zhou, Tian; Pearlman, Andrew P; Paton, Dorothy L; Rohan, Lisa C

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes our recent progress in examine the CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 as well as a number of nuclear receptors in the female genital and colorectal tissues of human and pigtailed macaque. Understanding the nuclear receptor mediated regulation of CYP1A1 and 1B1 expression in these tissues is necessary for identifying cancer risk factors and developing CYP1A1/1B1-targeted anti-cancer therapeutics. However, there is a lack of systematic and comparative analysis of the expression profile of CYP1A1, 1B1 and NRs in the female genital and colorectal tissues of human and clinically relevant animal models. The current study aims to fill this gap. We found CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and a number of nuclear receptors were expressed in the female genital and colorectal tissues of human and macaque. However, the mRNA level and protein localization of these CYP enzymes and NRs depended on the type of tissue examined. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1B1 activate hormonal and environmental procarcinogens, and are associated with carcinogenesis in female genital and colorectal tissues. Understanding the nuclear receptor (NR) mediated regulation of CYP expression in these tissues is necessary for identifying cancer risk factors and developing CYP1A1/1B1-targeted anti-cancer therapeutics. The study aims to analyze the expression profile of CYP1A1, 1B1 and NRs in the female genital and colorectal tissues of human and pigtailed macaques. We found that compared to the liver, human CYP1A1 mRNA level in the genital and colorectal tissues was significantly lower, while the CYP1B1 level was significantly higher. CYP1A1 protein was mainly localized in the plasma membrane of the uterine and endocervical epithelial cells. The CYP1B1 protein was concentrated in the nucleus of genital and colorectal tissues. Fourteen NRs in the genital tract and 12 NRs in colorectal tissue were expressed at levels similar to or higher than the liver. The expression and localization of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and NRs in

  14. Purification of the active C5a receptor from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes as a receptor - G sub i complex

    SciTech Connect

    Rollins, T.E.; Siciliano, S.; Kobayashi, S.

    1991-02-01

    The authors have isolated, in an active state, the C5a receptor from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The purification was achieved in a single step using a C5a affinity column in which the C5a molecule was coupled to the resin through its N terminus. The purified receptor, like the crude solubilized molecule, exhibited a single class of high-affinity binding sites with a K{sub d} of 30 pM. Further, the binding of C5a retained its sensitivity to guanine nucleotides, implying that the purified receptor contained a guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein). SDS/PAGE revealed the presence of three polypeptides with molecular masses of 42,more » 40, and 36 kDa, which were determined to be the C5a-binding subunit and the {alpha} and {beta} subunits of G{sub i}, respectively. The 36- and 40-kDa polypeptides were identified by immunoblotting and by the ability of pertussis toxin to ADP-ribosylate the 40-kDa molecule. These results confirm their earlier hypothesis that the receptor exists as a complex with a G protein in the presence or absence of C5a. The tight coupling between the receptor and G protein should make possible the identification of the G protein(s) involved in the transduction pathways used by C5a to produce its many biological effects.« less

  15. Effects of an orally active vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Burrell, L M; Phillips, P A; Stephenson, J; Risvanis, J; Hutchins, A M; Johnston, C I

    1993-05-01

    1. This paper reports on the in vitro and in vivo characteristics of a non-peptide vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist 1-(1-[4-(3-acetylaminopropoxy)benzoyl]-4-piperidyl)-3,4-dihydro-2( 1H)- quinolinone (OPC-21268). 2. OPC-21268 caused a concentration-dependent displacement of the selective V1 receptor antagonist radioligand, [125I]-[d(CH2)5, sarcosine7]AVP from vasopressin V1 receptors in rat liver and kidney membranes, inhibitory concentration of 50% (IC50) 4 x 10(-8), 0.3 mol/L liver and 1.5 x 10(-8), 0.2 mol/L kidney. OPC-21268 had little effect on the selective V2 antagonist radioligand [3H]desGly-NH2(9)-d(CH2)5[D-Ileu2, Ileu4]AVP binding to V2 receptors in renal membranes (IC50 > 10(-4) mol/L). 3. After oral administration to rats, OPC-21268 was an effective V1 antagonist to both liver and kidney V1 receptors, in a dose-dependent manner. 4. These studies confirm that OPC-21268 is a potent non-peptide, orally effective V1 vasopressin receptor antagonist.

  16. Effect of hyperglycaemia on muscarinic M3 receptor expression and secretory sensitivity to cholinergic receptor activation in islets.

    PubMed

    Hauge-Evans, A C; Reers, C; Kerby, A; Franklin, Z; Amisten, S; King, A J; Hassan, Z; Vilches-Flores, A; Tippu, Z; Persaud, S J; Jones, P M

    2014-10-01

    Islets are innervated by parasympathetic nerves which release acetylcholine (ACh) to amplify glucose-induced insulin secretion, primarily via muscarinic M3 receptors (M3R). Here we investigate the consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia on islet M3R expression and secretory sensitivity of mouse islets to cholinergic receptor activation. The impact of hyperglycaemia was studied in (i) islets isolated from ob/ob mice, (ii) alginate-encapsulated mouse islets transplanted intraperitoneally into streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice and (iii) mouse and human islets maintained in vitro at 5.5 or 16 mmol/l glucose. Blood glucose levels were assessed by a commercial glucose meter, insulin content by RIA and M3R expression by qPCR and immunohistochemistry. M3R mRNA expression was reduced in both ob/ob islets and islets maintained at 16 mmol/l glucose for 3 days (68 and 50% control, respectively). In all three models of hyperglycaemia the secretory sensitivity to the cholinergic receptor agonist, carbachol, was reduced by 60-70% compared to control islets. Treatment for 72 h with the irreversible PKC activator, PMA, or the PKC inhibitor, Gö6983, did not alter islet M3R mRNA expression nor did incubation with the PI3K-inhibitor, LY294002, although enhancement of glucose-induced insulin secretion by LY294002 was reduced in islets maintained at 16 mmol/l glucose, as was mRNA expression of the PI3K regulatory subunit, p85α. Cholinergic regulation of insulin release is impaired in three experimental islet models of hyperglycaemia consistent with reduced expression of M3 receptors. Our data suggest that the receptor downregulation is a PKC- and PI3K-independent consequence of the hyperglycaemic environment, and they imply that M3 receptors could be potential targets in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Presynaptic facilitatory adenosine A2A receptors mediate fade induced by neuromuscular relaxants that exhibit anticholinesterase activity.

    PubMed

    Bornia, Elaine Cs; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo; Alves-Do-Prado, Wilson

    2011-03-01

    1. Pancuronium, cisatracurium and vecuronium are antinicotinic agents that, in contrast with d-tubocurarine and hexamethonium, exhibit anticholinesterase activity. Pancuronium-, cisatracurium- and vecuronium-induced fade results from blockade of facilitatory nicotinic receptors on motor nerves, but fade produced by such agents also depends on the presynaptic activation of inhibitory muscarinic M2 receptors by acetylcholine released from motor nerve terminals and activation of inhibitory adenosine A1 receptors by adenosine released from motor nerves and muscles. The participation of presynaptic facilitatory A2A receptors in fade caused by pancuronium, cisatracurium and vecuronium has not yet been investigated. In the present study, we determined the effects of ZM241385, an antagonist of presynaptic facilitatory A2A receptors, on fade produced by these neuromuscular relaxants in the rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND) preparation. 2. The muscles were stimulated indirectly at 75±3Hz to induce a sustained tetanizing muscular contraction. The lowest concentration at which each antinicotinic agent produced fade without modifying initial tetanic tension (presynaptic action) was determined. 3. d-Tubocurarine-induced fade occurred only at 55 nmol/L, a concentration that also reduced maximal tetanic tension (post-synaptic action). At 10 nmol/L, ZM 241385 alone did not produce fade, but it did attenuate pancuronium (0.32 μmol/L)-, cisatracurium (0.32 μmol/L)- and vecuronium (0.36 μmol/L)-induced fade. 4. The fade induced by the 'pure' antinicotinic agents d-tubocurarine (55 nmol/L) and hexamethonium (413 μmol/L) was not altered by 10 nmol/L ZM 241385, indicating that presynaptic adenosine A2A receptors play a significant role in the fade produced by antinicotinic agents when such agents have anticholinesterase activity. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Glucose-Sensing Receptor T1R3: A New Signaling Receptor Activated by Glucose in Pancreatic β-Cells.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Itaru; Nakagawa, Yuko; Hamano, Kunihisa; Medina, Johan; Li, Longfei; Nagasawa, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Subunits of the sweet taste receptors T1R2 and T1R3 are expressed in pancreatic β-cells. Compared with T1R3, mRNA expression of T1R2 is considerably lower. At the protein level, expression of T1R2 is undetectable in β-cells. Accordingly, a major component of the sweet taste-sensing receptor in β-cells may be a homodimer of T1R3 rather than a heterodimer of T1R2/T1R3. Inhibition of this receptor by gurmarin or deletion of the T1R3 gene attenuates glucose-induced insulin secretion from β-cells. Hence the T1R3 homodimer functions as a glucose-sensing receptor (GSR) in pancreatic β-cells. When GSR is activated by the T1R3 agonist sucralose, elevation of intracellular ATP concentration ([ATP]i) is observed. Sucralose increases [ATP]i even in the absence of ambient glucose, indicating that sucralose increases [ATP]i not simply by activating glucokinase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the glycolytic pathway. In addition, sucralose augments elevation of [ATP]i induced by methylsuccinate, suggesting that sucralose activates mitochondrial metabolism. Nonmetabolizable 3-O-methylglucose also increases [ATP]i and knockdown of T1R3 attenuates elevation of [ATP]i induced by high concentration of glucose. Collectively, these results indicate that the T1R3 homodimer functions as a GSR; this receptor is involved in glucose-induced insulin secretion by activating glucose metabolism probably in mitochondria.

  19. Confinement of activating receptors at the plasma membrane controls natural killer cell tolerance.

    PubMed

    Guia, Sophie; Jaeger, Baptiste N; Piatek, Stefan; Mailfert, Sébastien; Trombik, Tomasz; Fenis, Aurore; Chevrier, Nicolas; Walzer, Thierry; Kerdiles, Yann M; Marguet, Didier; Vivier, Eric; Ugolini, Sophie

    2011-04-05

    Natural killer (NK) cell tolerance to self is partly ensured by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-specific inhibitory receptors on NK cells, which dampen their reactivity when engaged. However, NK cells that do not detect self MHC class I are not autoreactive. We used dynamic fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to show that MHC class I-independent NK cell tolerance in mice was associated with the presence of hyporesponsive NK cells in which both activating and inhibitory receptors were confined in an actin meshwork at the plasma membrane. In contrast, the recognition of self MHC class I by inhibitory receptors "educated" NK cells to become fully reactive, and activating NK cell receptors became dynamically compartmentalized in membrane nanodomains. We propose that the confinement of activating receptors at the plasma membrane is pivotal to ensuring the self-tolerance of NK cells.

  20. Activation of Melatonin Receptors Reduces Relapse-Like Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Vengeliene, Valentina; Noori, Hamid R; Spanagel, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin is an endogenous synchronizer of biological rhythms and a modulator of physiological functions and behaviors of all mammals. Reduced levels of melatonin and a delay of its nocturnal peak concentration have been found in alcohol-dependent patients and rats. Here we investigated whether the melatonergic system is a novel target to treat alcohol addiction. Male Wistar rats were subjected to long-term voluntary alcohol consumption with repeated abstinence phases. Circadian drinking rhythmicity and patterns were registered with high temporal resolution by a drinkometer system and analyzed by Fourier analysis. We examined potential antirelapse effect of the novel antidepressant drug agomelatine. Given that agomelatine is a potent MT1 and MT2 receptor agonist and a 5-HT2C antagonist we also tested the effects of melatonin itself and the 5-HT2C antagonist SB242084. All drugs reduced relapse-like drinking. Agomelatine and melatonin administered at the end of the light phase led to very similar changes on all measures of the post-abstinence drinking behavior, suggesting that effects of agomelatine on relapse-like behavior are mostly driven by its melatonergic activity. Both drugs caused a clear phase advance in the diurnal drinking pattern when compared with the control vehicle-treated group and a reduced frequency of approaches to alcohol bottles. Melatonin given at the onset of the light phase had no effect on the circadian phase and very small effects on alcohol consumption. We conclude that targeting the melatonergic system in alcohol-dependent individuals can induce a circadian phase advance, which may restore normal sleep architecture and reduce relapse behavior. PMID:25994077

  1. Signaling cross-talk between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor/retinoid X receptor and estrogen receptor through estrogen response elements.

    PubMed

    Keller, H; Givel, F; Perroud, M; Wahli, W

    1995-07-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are nuclear hormone receptors that are activated by fatty acids and 9-cis-retinoic acid, respectively. PPARs and RXRs form heterodimers that activate transcription by binding to PPAR response elements (PPREs) in the promoter of target genes. The PPREs described thus far consist of a direct tandem repeat of the AGGTCA core element with one intervening nucleotide. We show here that the vitellogenin A2 estrogen response element (ERE) can also function as a PPRE and is bound by a PPAR/RXR heterodimer. Although this heterodimer can bind to several other ERE-related palindromic response elements containing AGGTCA half-sites, only the ERE is able to confer transactivation of test reporter plasmids, when the ERE is placed either close to or at a distance from the transcription initiation site. Examination of natural ERE-containing promoters, including the pS2, very-low-density apolipoprotein II and vitellogenin A2 genes, revealed considerable differences in the binding of PPAR/RXR heterodimers to these EREs. In their natural promoter context, these EREs did not allow transcriptional activation by PPARs/RXRs. Analysis of this lack of stimulation of the vitellogenin A2 promoter demonstrated that PPARs/RXRs bind to the ERE but cannot transactivate due to a nonpermissive promoter structure. As a consequence, PPARs/RXRs inhibit transactivation by the estrogen receptor through competition for ERE binding. This is the first example of signaling cross-talk between PPAR/RXR and estrogen receptor.

  2. Effect of propofol on androgen receptor activity in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, Kenichiro; Hirotsu, Akiko; Daijo, Hiroki; Matsuyama, Tomonori; Terada, Naoki; Tanaka, Tomoharu

    2017-08-15

    Androgen receptor is a nuclear receptor and transcription factor activated by androgenic hormones. Androgen receptor activity plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of prostate cancer. Although accumulating evidence suggests that general anesthetics, including opioids, affect cancer cell growth and impact patient prognosis, the effect of those drugs on androgen receptor in prostate cancer is not clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the general anesthetic propofol on androgen receptor activity in prostate cancer cells. An androgen-dependent human prostate cancer cell line (LNCaP) was stimulated with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and exposed to propofol. The induction of androgen receptor target genes was investigated using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and androgen receptor protein levels and localization patterns were analyzed using immunoblotting and immunofluorescence assays. The effect of propofol on the proliferation of LNCaP cells was analyzed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Propofol significantly inhibited DHT-induced expression of androgen receptor target genes in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and immunoblotting and immunofluorescence assays indicated that propofol suppressed nuclear levels of androgen receptor proteins. Exposure to propofol for 24h suppressed the proliferation of LNCaP cells, whereas 4h of exposure did not exert significant effects. Together, our results indicate that propofol suppresses nuclear androgen receptor protein levels, and inhibits androgen receptor transcriptional activity and proliferation in LNCaP cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pharmacological Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Activation Attenuates Neutrophil Recruitment by a Mechanism Dependent on Nicotinic Receptor and the Spleen.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rangel L; Castanheira, Fernanda V; Figueiredo, Jozi G; Bassi, Gabriel S; Ferreira, Sérgio H; Cunha, Fernando Q; Cunha, Thiago M; Kanashiro, Alexandre

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the effect of beta-adrenergic receptor activation on neutrophil migration in experimental peritonitis elucidating the neuroimmune components involved such as nicotinic receptors and the spleen. Mice pre-treated with mecamylamine (nicotinic antagonist) and propranolol (beta-adrenergic antagonist) or splenectomized animals were treated with isoproterenol (beta-adrenergic agonist) prior to intraperitoneal injection of carrageenan. After 4 h, the infiltrating neutrophils and the local cytokine/chemokine levels were evaluated in the peritoneal lavage. The effect of isoproterenol on neutrophil chemotaxis was investigated in a Boyden chamber. Isoproterenol inhibited neutrophil trafficking, reducing the cytokine/chemokine release and neutrophil chemotaxis. Surprisingly, the isoproterenol effect on neutrophil migration was totally reverted by splenectomy and mecamylamine pre-treatment. In contrast, the inhibitory effect of nicotine on neutrophil migration was abrogated only by splenectomy but not by propranolol pre-treatment. Collectively, our data show that beta-adrenergic receptor activation regulates the acute neutrophil recruitment via splenic nicotinic receptor.

  4. Alternative activation of macrophages and pulmonary fibrosis are modulated by scavenger receptor, macrophage receptor with collagenous structure.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Shubha; Larson-Casey, Jennifer L; Ryan, Alan J; He, Chao; Kobzik, Lester; Carter, A Brent

    2015-08-01

    Alternative activation of alveolar macrophages is linked to fibrosis following exposure to asbestos. The scavenger receptor, macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), provides innate immune defense against inhaled particles and pathogens; however, a receptor for asbestos has not been identified. We hypothesized that MARCO acts as an initial signaling receptor for asbestos, polarizes macrophages to a profibrotic M2 phenotype, and is required for the development of asbestos-induced fibrosis. Compared with normal subjects, alveolar macrophages isolated from patients with asbestosis express higher amounts of MARCO and have greater profibrotic polarization. Arginase 1 (40-fold) and IL-10 (265-fold) were higher in patients. In vivo, the genetic deletion of MARCO attenuated the profibrotic environment and pulmonary fibrosis in mice exposed to chrysotile. Moreover, alveolar macrophages from MARCO(-/-) mice polarize to an M1 phenotype, whereas wild-type mice have higher Ym1 (>3.0-fold) and nearly 7-fold more active TGF-β1 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid (BALF). Arg(432) and Arg(434) in domain V of MARCO are required for the polarization of macrophages to a profibrotic phenotype as mutation of these residues reduced FIZZ1 expression (17-fold) compared with cells expressing MARCO. These observations demonstrate that a macrophage membrane protein regulates the fibrotic response to lung injury and suggest a novel target for therapeutic intervention. © FASEB.

  5. Novel role for proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) in membrane trafficking of proteinase-activated receptor 4 (PAR4).

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Margaret R; McIntosh, Kathryn A; Pediani, John D; Robben, Joris; Cooke, Alexandra E; Nilsson, Mary; Gould, Gwyn W; Mundell, Stuart; Milligan, Graeme; Plevin, Robin

    2012-05-11

    Proteinase-activated receptors 4 (PAR(4)) is a class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) recognized through the ability of serine proteases such as thrombin and trypsin to mediate receptor activation. Due to the irreversible nature of activation, a fresh supply of receptor is required to be mobilized to the cell surface for responsiveness to agonist to be sustained. Unlike other PAR subtypes, the mechanisms regulating receptor trafficking of PAR(4) remain unknown. Here, we report novel features of the intracellular trafficking of PAR(4) to the plasma membrane. PAR(4) was poorly expressed at the plasma membrane and largely retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a complex with the COPI protein subunit β-COP1. Analysis of the PAR(4) protein sequence identified an arginine-based (RXR) ER retention sequence located within intracellular loop-2 (R(183)AR → A(183)AA), mutation of which allowed efficient membrane delivery of PAR(4). Interestingly, co-expression with PAR(2) facilitated plasma membrane delivery of PAR(4), an effect produced through disruption of β-COP1 binding and facilitation of interaction with the chaperone protein 14-3-3ζ. Intermolecular FRET studies confirmed heterodimerization between PAR(2) and PAR(4). PAR(2) also enhanced glycosylation of PAR(4) and activation of PAR(4) signaling. Our results identify a novel regulatory role for PAR(2) in the anterograde traffic of PAR(4). PAR(2) was shown to both facilitate and abrogate protein interactions with PAR(4), impacting upon receptor localization and cell signal transduction. This work is likely to impact markedly upon the understanding of the receptor pharmacology of PAR(4) in normal physiology and disease.

  6. β-Cell deletion of Nr4a1 and Nr4a3 nuclear receptors impedes mitochondrial respiration and insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Merrick S; Hancock, Chad R; Ray, Jason D; Kener, Kyle B; Draney, Carrie; Garland, Kevin; Hardman, Jeremy; Bikman, Benjamin T; Tessem, Jeffery S

    2016-07-01

    β-Cell insulin secretion is dependent on proper mitochondrial function. Various studies have clearly shown that the Nr4a family of orphan nuclear receptors is essential for fuel utilization and mitochondrial function in liver, muscle, and adipose. Previously, we have demonstrated that overexpression of Nr4a1 or Nr4a3 is sufficient to induce proliferation of pancreatic β-cells. In this study, we examined whether Nr4a expression impacts pancreatic β-cell mitochondrial function. Here, we show that β-cell mitochondrial respiration is dependent on the nuclear receptors Nr4a1 and Nr4a3. Mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized cells was significantly decreased in β-cells lacking Nr4a1 or Nr4a3. Furthermore, respiration rates of intact cells deficient for Nr4a1 or Nr4a3 in the presence of 16 mM glucose resulted in decreased glucose mediated oxygen consumption. Consistent with this reduction in respiration, a significant decrease in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion rates is observed with deletion of Nr4a1 or Nr4a3. Interestingly, the changes in respiration and insulin secretion occur without a reduction in mitochondrial content, suggesting decreased mitochondrial function. We establish that knockdown of Nr4a1 and Nr4a3 results in decreased expression of the mitochondrial dehydrogenase subunits Idh3g and Sdhb. We demonstrate that loss of Nr4a1 and Nr4a3 impedes production of ATP and ultimately inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. These data demonstrate for the first time that the orphan nuclear receptors Nr4a1 and Nr4a3 are critical for β-cell mitochondrial function and insulin secretion. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Homocysteine directly interacts and activates the angiotensin II type I receptor to aggravate vascular injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Tuoyi; Yu, Bing; Liu, Zhixin; Li, Jingyuan; Ma, Mingliang; Wang, Yingbao; Zhu, Mingjiang; Yin, Huiyong; Wang, Xiaofeng; Fu, Yi; Yu, Fang; Wang, Xian; Fang, Xiaohong; Sun, Jinpeng; Kong, Wei

    2018-01-02

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is a risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases. However, the mechanism underlying HHcy-aggravated vascular injury remains unclear. Here we show that the aggravation of abdominal aortic aneurysm by HHcy is abolished in mice with genetic deletion of the angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor and in mice treated with an AT1 blocker. We find that homocysteine directly activates AT1 receptor signalling. Homocysteine displaces angiotensin II and limits its binding to AT1 receptor. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer analysis reveals distinct conformational changes of AT1 receptor upon binding to angiotensin II and homocysteine. Molecular dynamics and site-directed mutagenesis experiments suggest that homocysteine regulates the conformation of the AT1 receptor both orthosterically and allosterically by forming a salt bridge and a disulfide bond with its Arg 167 and Cys 289 residues, respectively. Together, these findings suggest that strategies aimed at blocking the AT1 receptor may mitigate HHcy-associated aneurysmal vascular injuries.

  8. Activation of multiple mitogen-activated protein kinases by recombinant calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor.

    PubMed

    Parameswaran, N; Disa, J; Spielman, W S; Brooks, D P; Nambi, P; Aiyar, N

    2000-02-18

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide is a 37-amino-acid neuropeptide and a potent vasodilator. Although calcitonin gene-related peptide has been shown to have a number of effects in a variety of systems, the mechanisms of action and the intracellular signaling pathways, especially the regulation of mitogen-activated protien kinase (MAPK) pathway, is not known. In the present study we investigated the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide in the regulation of MAPKs in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells stably transfected with a recombinant porcine calcitonin gene-related peptide-1 receptor. Calcitonin gene-related peptide caused a significant dose-dependent increase in cAMP response and the effect was inhibited by calcitonin gene-related peptide(8-37), the calcitonin gene-related peptide-receptor antagonist. Calcitonin gene-related peptide also caused a time- and concentration-dependent increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (P38 MAPK) activities, with apparently no significant change in cjun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity. Forskolin, a direct activator of adenylyl cyclase also stimulated ERK and P38 activities in these cells suggesting the invovement of cAMP in this process. Calcitonin gene-related peptide-stimulated ERK and P38 MAPK activities were inhibited significantly by calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist, calcitonin gene-related peptide-(8-37) suggesting the involvement of calcitonin gene-related peptide-1 receptor. Preincubation of the cells with the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor, H89 [¿N-[2-((p-bromocinnamyl)amino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide, hydrochloride¿] inhibited calcitonin gene-related peptide-mediated activation of ERK and p38 kinases. On the other hand, preincubation of the cells with wortmannin ¿[1S-(1alpha,6balpha,9abeta,11alpha, 11bbeta)]-11-(acetyloxy)-1,6b,7,8,9a,10,11, 11b-octahydro-1-(methoxymethyl)-9a,11b-dimethyl-3H-furo[4,3, 2-de]indeno[4,5-h]-2

  9. Stimulating the GPR30 estrogen receptor with a novel tamoxifen analogue activates SF-1 and promotes endometrial cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Benjamin C; Suzawa, Miyuki; Blind, Raymond D; Tobias, Sandra C; Bulun, Serdar E; Scanlan, Thomas S; Ingraham, Holly A

    2009-07-01

    Estrogens and selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulators such as tamoxifen are known to increase uterine cell proliferation. Mounting evidence suggests that estrogen signaling is mediated not only by ERalpha and ERbeta nuclear receptors, but also by GPR30 (GPER), a seven transmembrane (7TM) receptor. Here, we report that primary human endometriotic H-38 cells express high levels of GPR30 with no detectable ERalpha or ERbeta. Using a novel tamoxifen analogue, STX, which activates GPR30 but not ERs, significant stimulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways was observed in H-38 cells and in Ishikawa endometrial cancer cells expressing GPR30; a similar effect was observed in JEG3 choriocarcinoma cells. STX treatment also increased cellular pools of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5) triphosphate, a proposed ligand for the nuclear hormone receptor SF-1 (NR5A1). Consistent with these findings, STX, tamoxifen, and the phytoestrogen genistein were able to increase SF-1 transcription, promote Ishikawa cell proliferation, and induce the SF-1 target gene aromatase in a GPR30-dependent manner. Our findings suggest a novel signaling paradigm that is initiated by estrogen activation of the 7TM receptor GPR30, with signal transduction cascades (PI3K and MAPK) converging on nuclear hormone receptors (SF-1/LRH-1) to modulate their transcriptional output. We propose that this novel GPR30/SF-1 pathway increases local concentrations of estrogen, and together with classic ER signaling, mediate the proliferative effects of synthetic estrogens such as tamoxifen, in promoting endometriosis and endometrial cancers.

  10. A disease-associated mutation in the adhesion GPCR BAI2 (ADGRB2) increases receptor signaling activity.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Ryan H; Toro, Camilo; Gahl, William A; Hall, Randy A

    2017-12-01

    Mutations in G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that increase constitutive signaling activity can cause human disease. A de novo C-terminal mutation (R1465W) in the adhesion GPCR BAI2 (also known as ADGRB2) was identified in a patient suffering from progressive spastic paraparesis and other neurological symptoms. In vitro studies revealed that this mutation strongly increases the constitutive signaling activity of an N-terminally cleaved form of BAI2, which represents the activated form of the receptor. Further studies dissecting the mechanism(s) underling this effect revealed that wild-type BAI2 primarily couples to Gα z , with the R1465W mutation conferring increased coupling to Gα i . The R1465W mutation also increases the total and surface expression of BAI2. The mutation has no effect on receptor binding to β-arrestins, but does perturb binding to the endocytic protein endophilin A1, identified here as a novel interacting partner for BAI2. These studies provide new insights into the signaling capabilities of the adhesion GPCR BAI2/ADGRB2 and shed light on how an apparent gain-of-function mutation to the receptor's C-terminus may lead to human disease. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. GABA-B receptor activation and conflict behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Ketelaars, C.E.J.; Bollen, E.L.; Rigter, H.

    1988-01-01

    Baclofen and oxazepam enhance extinction of conflict behavior in the Geller-Seifter test while baclofen and diazepam release punished behavior in Vogel's conflict test. In order to investigate the possibility that the effect of the selective GABA-B receptor agonist baclofen is mediated indirectly via the GABA-A/benzodiazepine receptor complex, the effect of pretreatment of rats with baclofen on (/sup 3/H)-diazepam binding to washed and unwashed cortical and cerebellar membranes of rats has been studied. Baclofen pretreatment increase Bmax in washed cerebellar membranes when bicuculline was present in the incubation mixture. No effect was seen in cortical membranes. The present results render itmore » unlikely that the effect of baclofen on extinction of conflict behavior and punished drinking is mediated via the GABA-A/benzodiazepine receptor complex. 50 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.« less

  12. Vitamin E tocotrienols improve insulin sensitivity through activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Kang, Zhanfang; Wong, Chiwai

    2010-03-01

    Vitamin E is comprised of two classes of compounds: tocopherols and tocotrienols. Tocotrienol-enriched palm oil has been shown to help reduce blood glucose levels in patients and preclinical animal models. However, the mechanistic basis for tocotrienol action is not well established. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha, gamma, and delta (PPARalpha, PPARgamma, and PPARdelta) are ligand-regulated transcription factors that play essential roles in energy metabolism. Importantly, synthetic PPARalpha and PPARgamma ligands are currently used for treating hyperlipidemia and diabetes. In this study, we present data that tocotrienols within palm oil functioned as PPAR modulators. Specifically, both alpha- and gamma-tocotrienol activated PPARalpha, while delta-tocotrienol activated PPARalpha, PPARgamma, and PPARdelta in reporter-based assays. Tocotrienols enhanced the interaction between the purified ligand-binding domain of PPARalpha with the receptor-interacting motif of coactivator PPARgamma coactivator-1alpha. In addition, the tocotrienol-rich fraction of palm oil improved whole body glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity of diabetic Db/Db mice by selectively regulating PPAR target genes. These lines of evidence collectively suggested that PPARs represent a set of molecular targets of tocotrienols.

  13. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta agonist ameliorated inflammasome activation in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Yeon, Jong Eun; Ko, Eun Jung; Yoon, Eileen L; Suh, Sang Jun; Kang, Keunhee; Kim, Hae Rim; Kang, Seoung Hee; Yoo, Yang Jae; Je, Jihye; Lee, Beom Jae; Kim, Ji Hoon; Seo, Yeon Seok; Yim, Hyung Joon; Byun, Kwan Soo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the inflammasome activation and the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-δ agonist treatment in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) models. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were classified according to control or high fat diet (HFD) with or without PPAR-δ agonist (GW) over period of 12 wk [control, HFD, HFD + lipopolysaccharide (LPS), HFD + LPS + GW group]. HepG2 cells were exposed to palmitic acid (PA) and/or LPS in the absence or presence of GW. RESULTS: HFD caused glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis. In mice fed an HFD with LPS, caspase-1 and interleukin (IL)-1β in the liver were significantly increased. Treatment with GW ameliorated the steatosis and inhibited overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In HepG2 cells, PA and LPS treatment markedly increased mRNA of several nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor family members (NLRP3, NLRP6, and NLRP10), caspase-1 and IL-1β. PA and LPS also exaggerated reactive oxygen species production. All of the above effects of PA and LPS were reduced by GW. GW also enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK-α. CONCLUSION: PPAR-δ agonist reduces fatty acid-induced inflammation and steatosis by suppressing inflammasome activation. Targeting the inflammasome by the PPAR-δ agonist may have therapeutic implication for NAFLD. PMID:26668503

  14. Activation of the mGlu7 receptor elicits antidepressant-like effects in mice.

    PubMed

    Palucha, Agnieszka; Klak, Kinga; Branski, Piotr; van der Putten, Herman; Flor, Peter J; Pilc, Andrzej

    2007-11-01

    Broad evidence indicates that modulation of the glutamatergic system could be an efficient way to achieve antidepressant activity. Metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGlu receptor) ligands seem to be promising agents to treat several central nervous system disorders, including psychiatric ones. The aim of our study was to investigate potential antidepressant-like activity of the first, selective, and bio-available mGlu7 receptor agonist, AMN082 (N,N'-dibenzyhydryl-ethane-1,2-diamine dihydrochloride), in wild-type (WT) and mGlu7 receptor knock-out (KO) mice. The forced swim test (FST) and the tail suspension test (TST) in mice were used to assess antidepressant-like activity of AMN082. We found that AMN082, administered IP, induced a dose-dependent decrease in the immobility time of WT animals in the FST and TST, suggesting antidepressant-like potency of an mGlu7 receptor agonist. Moreover, AMN082 did not change the behaviour of mGlu7 receptor KO mice compared to WT littermates in the TST, while imipramine, used as a reference control, significantly reduced their immobility, indicating an mGlu7 receptor-dependent mechanism of the antidepressant-like activity of AMN082. However, at high doses, AMN082 significantly decreased spontaneous locomotor activity of both mGlu7 receptor KO mice and WT control animals, suggesting off-target activity of AMN082 resulting in hypo-locomotion. These results strongly suggest that activation of the mGlu7 receptor elicits antidepressant-like effects.

  15. Stoichiometry for activation of neuronal α7 nicotinic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Natalia; Corradi, Jeremías; Sine, Steven M.; Bouzat, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal α7 nicotinic receptors elicit rapid cation influx in response to acetylcholine (ACh) or its hydrolysis product choline. They contribute to cognition, synaptic plasticity, and neuroprotection and have been implicated in neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. α7, however, often localizes distal to sites of nerve-released ACh and binds ACh with low affinity, and thus elicits its biological response with low agonist occupancy. To assess the function of α7 when ACh occupies fewer than five of its identical binding sites, we measured the open-channel lifetime of individual receptors in which four of the five ACh binding sites were disabled. To improve the time resolution of the inherently brief α7 channel openings, background mutations or a potentiator was used to increase open duration. We find that, in receptors with only one intact binding site, the open-channel lifetime is indistinguishable from receptors with five intact binding sites, counter to expectations from prototypical neurotransmitter-gated ion channels where the open-channel lifetime increases with the number of binding sites occupied by agonist. Replacing the membrane-embedded domain of α7 by that of the related 5-HT3A receptor increases the number of sites that need to be occupied to achieve the maximal open-channel lifetime, thus revealing a unique interdependence between the detector and actuator domains of these receptors. The distinctive ability of a single occupancy to elicit a full biological response adapts α7 to volume transmission, a prevalent mechanism of ACh-mediated signaling in the nervous system and nonneuronal cells. PMID:24297903

  16. Expression of protease-activated-receptor 2 (PAR-2) in human esophageal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Inci, Kamuran; Edebo, Anders; Olbe, Lars; Casselbrant, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The role of duodenal reflux in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) containing bile salts and pancreatic enzymes (with special attention to trypsin) is still under discussion. Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are a novel family and PAR-2 is a unique member of this family because it is activated by trypsin. The aim of the present study was to examine the presence and the position of the PAR-2 receptor in human esophageal mucosa in different subgroups of GERD. Distal biopsies taken from healthy controls, patients with erosive reflux disease (ERD), patients with specialized intestinal metaplasia (SIM) and adenocarcinoma were analyzed for the PAR-2 receptor with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Gene transcripts for the PAR-2 receptor were