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Sample records for a1 receptor-mediated inhibition

  1. The Role of cGMP on Adenosine A1 Receptor-mediated Inhibition of Synaptic Transmission at the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Isa; Serpa, André; Sebastião, Ana M.; Cascalheira, José F.

    2016-01-01

    Both adenosine A1 receptor and cGMP inhibit synaptic transmission at the hippocampus and recently it was found that A1 receptor increased cGMP levels in hippocampus, but the role of cGMP on A1 receptor-mediated inhibition of synaptic transmission remains to be established. In the present work we investigated if blocking the NOS/sGC/cGMP/PKG pathway using nitric oxide synthase (NOS), protein kinase G (PKG), and soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibitors modify the A1 receptor effect on synaptic transmission. Neurotransmission was evaluated by measuring the slope of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) evoked by electrical stimulation at hippocampal slices. N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA, 15 nM), a selective A1 receptor agonist, reversibly decreased the fEPSPs by 54 ± 5%. Incubation of the slices with an inhibitor of NOS (L-NAME, 200 μM) decreased the CPA effect on fEPSPs by 57 ± 9% in female rats. In males, ODQ (10 μM), an sGC inhibitor, decreased the CPA inhibitory effect on fEPSPs by 23 ± 6%, but only when adenosine deaminase (ADA,1 U/ml) was present; similar results were found in females, where ODQ decreased CPA-induced inhibition of fEPSP slope by 23 ± 7%. In male rats, the presence of the PKG inhibitor (KT5823, 1 nM) decreased the CPA effect by 45.0 ± 9%; similar results were obtained in females, where KT5823 caused a 32 ± 9% decrease on the CPA effect. In conclusion, the results suggest that the inhibitory action of adenosine A1 receptors on synaptic transmission at hippocampus is, in part, mediated by the NOS/sGC/cGMP/PKG pathway. PMID:27148059

  2. P2X1 receptor-mediated inhibition of the proliferation of human coronary smooth muscle cells involving the transcription factor NR4A1.

    PubMed

    Hinze, Annette Viktoria; Mayer, Peter; Harst, Anja; von Kügelgen, Ivar

    2013-12-01

    Adenine nucleotides acting at P2X1 receptors are potent vasoconstrictors. Recently, we demonstrated that activation of adenosine A2B receptors on human coronary smooth muscle cells inhibits cell proliferation by the induction of the nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 1 (NR4A1; alternative notation Nur77). In the present study, we searched for long-term effects mediated by P2X1 receptors by analyzing receptor-mediated changes in cell proliferation and in the expression of NR4A1. Cultured human coronary smooth muscle cells were treated with selective receptor ligands. Effects on proliferation were determined by counting cells and measuring changes in impedance. The induction of transcription factors was assessed by qPCR. The P2X receptor agonist α,β-methylene-ATP and its analog β,γ-methylene-ATP inhibited cell proliferation by about 50 % after 5 days in culture with half-maximal concentrations of 0.3 and 0.08 μM, respectively. The effects were abolished or markedly attenuated by the P2X1 receptor antagonist NF449 (carbonylbis-imino-benzene-triylbis-(carbonylimino)tetrakis-benzene-1,3-disulfonic acid; 100 nM and 1 μM). α,β-methylene-ATP and β,γ-methylene-ATP applied for 30 min to 4 h increased the expression of NR4A1; NF449 blocked or attenuated this effect. Small interfering RNA directed against NR4A1 diminished the antiproliferative effects of α,β-methylene-ATP and β,γ-methylene-ATP. α,β-methylene-ATP (0.1 to 30 μM) decreased migration of cultured human coronary smooth muscle cells in a chamber measuring changes in impedance; NF449 blocked the effect. In conclusion, our results demonstrate for the first time that adenine nucleotides acting at P2X1 receptors inhibit the proliferation of human coronary smooth muscle cells via the induction of the early gene NR4A1.

  3. α2 Adrenergic receptor-mediated inhibition of thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Madden, Christopher J; Tupone, Domenico; Cano, Georgina; Morrison, Shaun F

    2013-01-30

    α2 adrenergic receptor (α2-AR) agonists have been used as antihypertensive agents, in the management of drug withdrawal, and as sedative analgesics. Since α2-AR agonists also influence the regulation of body temperature, we explored their potential as antipyretic agents. This study delineates the central neural substrate for the inhibition of rat brown adipose tissue (BAT) and shivering thermogenesis by α2-AR agonists. Nanoinjection of the α2-AR agonist clonidine (1.2 nmol) into the rostral raphe pallidus area (rRPa) inhibited BAT sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and BAT thermogenesis. Subsequent nanoinjection of the α2-AR antagonist idazoxan (6 nmol) into the rRPa reversed the clonidine-evoked inhibition of BAT SNA and BAT thermogenesis. Systemic administration of the α2-AR agonists dexmedetomidine (25 μg/kg, i.v.) and clonidine (100 μg/kg, i.v.) inhibited shivering EMGs, BAT SNA, and BAT thermogenesis, effects that were reversed by nanoinjection of idazoxan (6 nmol) into the rRPa. Dexmedetomidine (100 μg/kg, i.p.) prevented and reversed lipopolysaccharide-evoked (10 μg/kg, i.p.) thermogenesis in free-behaving rats. Cholera toxin subunit b retrograde tracing from rRPa and pseudorabies virus transynaptic retrograde tracing from BAT combined with immunohistochemistry for catecholaminergic biosynthetic enzymes revealed the ventrolateral medulla as the source of catecholaminergic input to the rRPa and demonstrated that these catecholaminergic neurons are synaptically connected to BAT. Photostimulation of ventrolateral medulla neurons expressing the PRSx8-ChR2-mCherry lentiviral vector inhibited BAT SNA via activation of α2-ARs in the rRPa. These results indicate a potent inhibition of BAT and shivering thermogenesis by α2-AR activation in the rRPa, and suggest a therapeutic potential of α2-AR agonists for reducing potentially lethal elevations in body temperature during excessive fever.

  4. Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor-mediated inhibition of thermogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Christopher J.; Tupone, Domenico; Cano, Georgina; Morrison, Shaun F.

    2013-01-01

    Alpha2-adrenergic receptor (α2-AR) agonists have been use as anti-hypertensive agents, in the management of drug withdrawal, and as sedative analgesics. Since α2-AR agonists also influence the regulation of body temperature, we explored their potential as antipyretic agents. This study delineates the central neural substrate for the inhibition of rat brown adipose tissue (BAT) and shivering thermogenesis by α2-AR agonists. Nanoinjection of the α2-AR agonist, clonidine (1.2 nmol), into the rostral raphe pallidus (rRPa) inhibited BAT sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and BAT thermogenesis. Subsequent nanoinjection of the α2-AR antagonist, idazoxan (6nmol) into the rRPa reversed the clonidine-evoked inhibition of BAT SNA and BAT thermogenesis. Systemic administration of the α2-AR agonists, dexmedetomidine (25ug/kg, iv) or clonidine (100ug/kg, iv) inhibited shivering EMGs, BAT SNA and BAT thermogenesis effects that were reversed by nanoinjection of idazoxan (6nmol) into the rRPa. Dexmedetomidine (100µg/kg, ip) prevented and reversed lipopolysaccharide (10µg/kg ip)-evoked thermogenesis in free-behaving rats. Cholera toxin subunit b retrograde tracing from rRPa and pseudorabies virus transynaptic retrograde tracing from BAT combined with immunohistochemistry for catecholaminergic biosynthetic enzymes revealed the ventrolateral medulla as the source of catecholaminergic input to the rRPa and demonstrated that these catecholaminergic neurons are synaptically connected to BAT. Photostimulation of VLM neurons expressing of the PRSx8-ChR2-mCherry lentiviral vector inhibited BAT SNA via activation of α2-ARs in the rRPa. These results indicate a potent inhibition of BAT and shivering thermogenesis by α2-AR activation in the rRPa, and suggest a therapeutic potential of α2-AR agonists for reducing potentially-lethal elevations in body temperature during excessive fever. PMID:23365239

  5. GABA-A Receptors Mediate Tonic Inhibition and Neurosteroid Sensitivity in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Doodipala Samba

    2018-01-01

    Neurosteroids like allopregnanolone (AP) are positive allosteric modulators of synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA-A receptors. AP and related neurosteroids exhibit a greater potency for δ-containing extrasynaptic receptors. The δGABA-A receptors, which are expressed extrasynaptically in the dentate gyrus and other regions, contribute to tonic inhibition, promoting network shunting as well as reducing seizure susceptibility. Levels of endogenous neurosteroids fluctuate with ovarian cycle. Natural and synthetic neurosteroids maximally potentiate tonic inhibition in the hippocampus and provide robust protection against a variety of limbic seizures and status epilepticus. Recently, a consensus neurosteroid pharmacophore model has been proposed at extrasynaptic δGABA-A receptors based on structure-activity relationship for functional activation of tonic currents and seizure protection. Aside from anticonvulsant actions, neurosteroids have been found to be powerful anxiolytic and anesthetic agents. Neurosteroids and Zn 2+ have preferential affinity for δ-containing receptors. Thus, Zn 2+ can prevent neurosteroid activation of extrasynaptic δGABA-A receptor-mediated tonic inhibition. Recently, we demonstrated that Zn 2+ selectively inhibits extrasynaptic δGABA-A receptors and thereby fully prevents AP activation of tonic inhibition and seizure protection. We confirmed that neurosteroids exhibit greater sensitivity at extrasynaptic δGABA-A receptors. Overall, extrasynaptic GABA-A receptors are primary mediators of tonic inhibition in the brain and play a key role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy and other neurological disorders. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. PKCɛ mediates substance P inhibition of GABAA receptors-mediated current in rat dorsal root ganglion.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Yang; Ma, Ke-tao; Shi, Wen-yan; Wang, Ying-zi; Si, Jun-qiang

    2015-02-01

    The mechanism underlying the modulatory effect of substance P (SP) on GABA-activated response in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons was investigated. In freshly dissociated rat DRG neurons, whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to record GABA-activated current and sharp electrode intracellular recording technique was used to record GABA-induced membrane depolarization. Application of GABA (1-1000 μmol/L) induced an inward current in a concentration-dependent manner in 114 out of 127 DRG neurons (89.8 %) examined with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Bath application of GABA (1-1000 μmol/L) evoked a depolarizing response in 236 out of 257 (91.8%) DRG neurons examined with intracellular recordings. Application of SP (0.001-1 μmol/L) suppressed the GABA-activated inward current and membrane depolarization. The inhibitory effects were concentration-dependent and could be blocked by the selective neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors antagonist spantide but not by L659187 and SR142801 (1 μmol/L, n=7), selective antagonists of NK2 and NK3. The inhibitory effect of SP was significantly reduced by the calcium chelator BAPTA-AM, phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122, and PKC inhibitor chelerythrine, respectively. The PKA inhibitor H-89 did not affect the SP effect. Remarkably, the inhibitory effect of SP on GABA-activated current was nearly completely removed by a selective PKCε inhibitor epilon-V1-2 but not by safingol and LY333531, selective inhibitors of PKCα and PKCβ. Our results suggest that NK1 receptor mediates SP-induced inhibition of GABA-activated current and membrane depolarization by activating intracellular PLC-Ca²⁺-PKCε cascade. SP might regulate the excitability of peripheral nociceptors through inhibition of the "pre-synaptic inhibition" evoked by GABA, which may explain its role in pain and neurogenic inflammation.

  7. Somatostatin sst2 receptor-mediated inhibition of parietal cell function in rat isolated gastric mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, M. A.; Jarvie, E.; Feniuk, W.; Humphrey, P. P.

    1996-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to determine the location and functional characteristics of the somatostatin (SRIF) receptor type(s) which mediate inhibition of acid secretion in rat isolated gastric mucosa. 2. Gastrin (1 nM-1 microM), dimaprit (10 microM-300 microM) and isobutyl methylxanthine (IBMX, 1 microM-100 microM) all caused concentration-dependent increases in acid output. Responses to gastrin were almost completely inhibited by ranitidine (10 microM) at a concentration which abolished the secretory response to dimaprit. In contrast, responses to IBMX were not changed by ranitidine suggesting that IBMX acts directly on the parietal cell and not indirectly by releasing histamine from enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells. 3. SRIF-14 (1 nM-1 microM) had no effect on basal acid output, but inhibited acid output produced by gastrin, dimaprit and IBMX in a concentration-dependent manner with respective EC50 values of 46, 54 and 167 nM. The peptidase inhibitors, amastatin (10 microM) and phosphoramidon (1 microM), had no effect on SRIF-induced inhibition of dimaprit stimulated gastric acid secretion. 4. The inhibitory effect of a range of SRIF analogues on gastrin-, dimaprit- and IBMX-induced acid secretion was also studied. Irrespective of the secretagogue used to increase acid output, the rank order of potencies was similar (BIM-23027 = seglitide = octreotide > SRIF-14 = SRIF-28 > L-362,855). The linear peptide BIM-23056 was devoid of agonist or antagonist activity in concentrations up to 1 microM. 5. The sst2 receptor selective peptides, BIM-23027, seglitide and octreotide were the most potent inhibitors of gastrin-, dimaprit- and IBMX-induced acid secretion suggesting that SRIF receptors resembling the recombinant sst2 receptors are involved. Furthermore, since dimaprit and IBMX stimulate gastric acid secretion independently of histamine release, sst2 receptor-mediated inhibition must occur at the level of the parietal cell itself. PMID:8922739

  8. Somatostatin sst2 receptor-mediated inhibition of parietal cell function in rat isolated gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, M A; Jarvie, E; Feniuk, W; Humphrey, P P

    1996-11-01

    1. The aim of this study was to determine the location and functional characteristics of the somatostatin (SRIF) receptor type(s) which mediate inhibition of acid secretion in rat isolated gastric mucosa. 2. Gastrin (1 nM-1 microM), dimaprit (10 microM-300 microM) and isobutyl methylxanthine (IBMX, 1 microM-100 microM) all caused concentration-dependent increases in acid output. Responses to gastrin were almost completely inhibited by ranitidine (10 microM) at a concentration which abolished the secretory response to dimaprit. In contrast, responses to IBMX were not changed by ranitidine suggesting that IBMX acts directly on the parietal cell and not indirectly by releasing histamine from enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells. 3. SRIF-14 (1 nM-1 microM) had no effect on basal acid output, but inhibited acid output produced by gastrin, dimaprit and IBMX in a concentration-dependent manner with respective EC50 values of 46, 54 and 167 nM. The peptidase inhibitors, amastatin (10 microM) and phosphoramidon (1 microM), had no effect on SRIF-induced inhibition of dimaprit stimulated gastric acid secretion. 4. The inhibitory effect of a range of SRIF analogues on gastrin-, dimaprit- and IBMX-induced acid secretion was also studied. Irrespective of the secretagogue used to increase acid output, the rank order of potencies was similar (BIM-23027 = seglitide = octreotide > SRIF-14 = SRIF-28 > L-362,855). The linear peptide BIM-23056 was devoid of agonist or antagonist activity in concentrations up to 1 microM. 5. The sst2 receptor selective peptides, BIM-23027, seglitide and octreotide were the most potent inhibitors of gastrin-, dimaprit- and IBMX-induced acid secretion suggesting that SRIF receptors resembling the recombinant sst2 receptors are involved. Furthermore, since dimaprit and IBMX stimulate gastric acid secretion independently of histamine release, sst2 receptor-mediated inhibition must occur at the level of the parietal cell itself.

  9. Characterization of prejunctional 5-HT receptors mediating inhibition of sympathetic vasopressor responses in the pithed rat.

    PubMed Central

    Villalón, C. M.; Contreras, J.; Ramírez-San Juan, E.; Castillo, C.; Perusquía, M.; Terrón, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    1. It has recently been shown that continuous infusions of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) are able to inhibit, in a dose-dependent manner, the pressor responses induced by preganglionic (T7-T9) sympathetic stimulation in pithed rats pretreated with desipramine (50 micrograms kg-1, i.v.). This inhibitory effect, besides being significantly more pronounced at lower frequencies of stimulation (0.03-I Hz) and devoid of tachyphylaxis, is reversible after interrupting the infusions of 5-HT (up to 5.6 micrograms kg-1 min-1). In the present study we have characterized the pharmacological profile of the receptors mediating the above inhibitory effect of 5-HT. 2. The inhibition induced by 5.6 micrograms kg-1 min-1 of 5-HT on sympathetically-induced pressor responses was not blocked after i.v. treatment with physiological saline (1 ml kg-1), ritanserin (0.1 mg kg-1), MDL 72222 (0.15 mg kg-1) or tropisetron (3 mg kg-1), which did not modify the sympathetically-induced pressor responses per se, but was significantly antagonized by the 5-HT1-like and 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, methysergide (0.3 mg kg-1), which also produced a slight attenuation of the pressor responses to 0.03 and 0.1 Hz per se. 3. Unexpectedly and contrasting with methysergide, the 5-HT1-like and 5-HT2 receptor antagonists, methiothepin (0.01, 0.03 and 0.1 mg kg-1) and metergoline (1 and 3 mg kg-1), apparently failed to block the above 5-HT-induced inhibition. Nevertheless, it is noteworthy that these antagonists also blocked the electrically-induced pressor responses per se, presumably by blockade of vascular alpha 1-adrenoceptors and, indeed, this property might have masked their potential antagonism at the inhibitory 5-HT1-like receptors. 4. Consistent with the above findings, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT, a potent 5-HT1-like receptor agonist), metergoline and methysergide mimicked the inhibitory action of 5-HT with the following rank order of agonist potency: 5CT > > 5-HT > metergoline > or = methysergide. 5

  10. Estrous Cycle Regulation of Extrasynaptic δ-Containing GABAA Receptor-Mediated Tonic Inhibition and Limbic Epileptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xin; Gangisetty, Omkaram; Carver, Chase Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The ovarian cycle affects susceptibility to behavioral and neurologic conditions. The molecular mechanisms underlying these changes are poorly understood. Deficits in cyclical fluctuations in steroid hormones and receptor plasticity play a central role in physiologic and pathophysiologic menstrual conditions. It has been suggested that synaptic GABAA receptors mediate phasic inhibition in the hippocampus and extrasynaptic receptors mediate tonic inhibition in the dentate gyrus. Here we report a novel role of extrasynaptic δ-containing GABAA receptors as crucial mediators of the estrous cycle–related changes in neuronal excitability in mice, with hippocampus subfield specificity. In molecular and immunofluorescence studies, a significant increase occurred in δ-subunit, but not α4- and γ2-subunits, in the dentate gyrus during diestrus. However, δ-subunit upregulation was not evident in the CA1 region. The δ-subunit expression was undiminished by age and ovariectomy and in mice lacking progesterone receptors, but it was significantly reduced by finasteride, a neurosteroid synthesis inhibitor. Electrophysiologic studies confirmed greater potentiation of GABA currents by progesterone-derived neurosteroid allopregnanolone in dissociated dentate gyrus granule cells in diestrus than in CA1 pyramidal cells. The baseline conductance and allopregnanolone potentiation of tonic currents in dentate granule cells from hippocampal slices were higher than in CA1 pyramidal cells. In behavioral studies, susceptibility to hippocampus kindling epileptogenesis was lower in mice during diestrus. These results demonstrate the estrous cycle–related plasticity of neurosteroid-sensitive, δ-containing GABAA receptors that mediate tonic inhibition and seizure susceptibility. These findings may provide novel insight on molecular cascades of menstrual disorders like catamenial epilepsy, premenstrual syndrome, and migraine. PMID:23667248

  11. Cholera Toxin Inhibits the T-Cell Antigen Receptor-Mediated Increases in Inositol Trisphosphate and Cytoplasmic Free Calcium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imboden, John B.; Shoback, Dolores M.; Pattison, Gregory; Stobo, John D.

    1986-08-01

    The addition of monoclonal antibodies to the antigen receptor complex on the malignant human T-cell line Jurkat generates increases in inositol trisphosphate and in the concentration of cytoplasmic free calcium. Exposure of Jurkat cells to cholera toxin for 3 hr inhibited these receptor-mediated events and led to a selective, partial loss of the antigen receptor complex from the cellular surface. None of the effects of cholera toxin on the antigen receptor complex were mimicked by the B subunit of cholera toxin or by increasing intracellular cAMP levels with either forskolin or 8-bromo cAMP. These results suggest that a cholera toxin substrate can regulate signal transduction by the T-cell antigen receptor.

  12. Valerian Inhibits Rat Hepatocarcinogenesis by Activating GABA(A) Receptor-Mediated Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kakehashi, Anna; Kato, Ayumi; Ishii, Naomi; Wei, Min; Morimura, Keiichirou; Fukushima, Shoji; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Valerian is widely used as a traditional medicine to improve the quality of sleep due to interaction of several active components with the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor (GABA(A)R) system. Recently, activation of GABA signaling in stem cells has been reported to suppress cell cycle progression in vivo. Furthermore, possible inhibitory effects of GABA(A)R agonists on hepatocarcinogenesis have been reported. The present study was performed to investigate modulating effects of Valerian on hepatocarcinogenesis using a medium-term rat liver bioassay. Male F344 rats were treated with one of the most powerful Valerian species (Valeriana sitchensis) at doses of 0, 50, 500 and 5000 ppm in their drinking water after initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis with diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Formation of glutathione S-transferase placental form positive (GST-P+) foci was significantly inhibited by Valerian at all applied doses compared with DEN initiation control rats. Generation of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine in the rat liver was significantly suppressed by all doses of Valerian, likely due to suppression of Nrf2, CYP7A1 and induction of catalase expression. Cell proliferation was significantly inhibited, while apoptosis was induced in areas of GST-P+ foci of Valerian groups associated with suppression of c-myc, Mafb, cyclin D1 and induction of p21Waf1/Cip1, p53 and Bax mRNA expression. Interestingly, expression of the GABA(A)R alpha 1 subunit was observed in GST-P+ foci of DEN control rats, with significant elevation associated with Valerian treatment. These results indicate that Valerian exhibits inhibitory effects on rat hepatocarcinogenesis by inhibiting oxidative DNA damage, suppressing cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis in GST-P+ foci by activating GABA(A)R-mediated signaling. PMID:25419570

  13. Heterogeneity of prejunctional NPY receptor-mediated inhibition of cardiac neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Serone, Adrian P; Wright, Christine E; Angus, James A

    1999-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been proposed as the candidate inhibitory peptide mediating interactions between sympathetic and vagal neurotransmission in several species, including man. Here, we have defined the NPY receptors involved in modulation of cardiac autonomic neurotransmission using receptor-selective agonists and antagonists in the rabbit and guinea-pig isolated right atria.In isolated atrial preparations, sympathetically-mediated tachycardia (ST; with atropine 1 μM) or vagally-mediated bradycardia (VB; with propranolol 0.1–1 μM) in response to electrical field stimulation (EFS, 1–4 pulses) were tested 0–30 min after incubation with single concentrations of vehicle, NPY (0.01–10 μM), the Y2 receptor agonist N-Acetyl-[Leu28,31]NPY(24–36) (termed N-A[L]NPY(24–36)) or the Y1 receptor agonist [Leu31,Pro34]NPY (LP). The effect of NPY on the concentration-chronotropic response curves to isoprenaline and bethanechol were also assessed.Guinea-pig atria: NPY and N-A[L]NPY(24–36) caused concentration-dependent inhibition of VB and ST to EFS. Both peptides caused maximal inhibition of VB and ST within 10 min incubation and this remained constant. LP caused a concentration-dependent, transient inhibition of ST which was antagonized by the Y1-receptor antagonist GR231118 (0.3 μM), with apparent competitive kinetics. Rabbit atria: NPY (1 or 10 μM) had no effect on VB at any time point, but both NPY and LP caused a transient (∼10 min) inhibition of sympathetic tachycardia. This inhibition could be prevented by 0.3 μM GR231118. N-A[L]NPY(24–36) had no effect on ST. NPY had no effect on the response to β-adrenoceptor stimulation by isoprenaline nor muscarinic-receptor stimulation by bethanechol in either species.Thus, in the guinea-pig, NPY causes a stable inhibition of both VB and ST to EFS via Y2 receptors and transient inhibition of ST via Y1 receptors. In contrast in the rabbit, NPY has no effect on the cardiac vagus and

  14. Methods for recording and measuring tonic GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Bright, Damian P.; Smart, Trevor G.

    2013-01-01

    Tonic inhibitory conductances mediated by GABAA receptors have now been identified and characterized in many different brain regions. Most experimental studies of tonic GABAergic inhibition have been carried out using acute brain slice preparations but tonic currents have been recorded under a variety of different conditions. This diversity of recording conditions is likely to impact upon many of the factors responsible for controlling tonic inhibition and can make comparison between different studies difficult. In this review, we will firstly consider how various experimental conditions, including age of animal, recording temperature and solution composition, are likely to influence tonic GABAA conductances. We will then consider some technical considerations related to how the tonic conductance is measured and subsequently analyzed, including how the use of current noise may provide a complementary and reliable method for quantifying changes in tonic current. PMID:24367296

  15. Stimulation of accumbal GABAA receptors inhibits delta2-, but not delta1-, opioid receptor-mediated dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats.

    PubMed

    Aono, Yuri; Kiguchi, Yuri; Watanabe, Yuriko; Waddington, John L; Saigusa, Tadashi

    2017-11-15

    The nucleus accumbens contains delta-opioid receptors that may reduce inhibitory neurotransmission. Reduction in GABA A receptor-mediated inhibition of accumbal dopamine release due to delta-opioid receptor activation should be suppressed by stimulating accumbal GABA A receptors. As delta-opioid receptors are divided into delta2- and delta1-opioid receptors, we analysed the effects of the GABA A receptor agonist muscimol on delta2- and delta1-opioid receptor-mediated accumbal dopamine efflux in freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis. Drugs were administered intracerebrally through the dialysis probe. Doses of compounds indicate total amount administered (mol) during 25-50min infusions. The delta2-opioid receptor agonist deltorphin II (25.0nmol)- and delta1-opioid receptor agonist DPDPE (5.0nmol)-induced increases in dopamine efflux were inhibited by the delta2-opioid receptor antagonist naltriben (1.5nmol) and the delta1-opioid receptor antagonist BNTX (150.0pmol), respectively. Muscimol (250.0pmol) inhibited deltorphin II (25.0nmol)-induced dopamine efflux. The GABA A receptor antagonist bicuculline (50.0pmol), which failed to affect deltorphin II (25.0nmol)-induced dopamine efflux, counteracted the inhibitory effect of muscimol on deltorphin II-induced dopamine efflux. Neither muscimol (250.0pmol) nor bicuculline (50.0 and 500.0pmol) altered DPDPE (5.0nmol)-induced dopamine efflux. The present results show that reduction in accumbal GABA A receptor-mediated inhibition of dopaminergic activity is necessary to produce delta2-opioid receptor-induced increase in accumbal dopamine efflux. This study indicates that activation of delta2- but not delta1-opioid receptors on the cell bodies and/or terminals of accumbal GABAergic interneurons inhibits GABA release and, accordingly, decreases GABA A receptor-mediated inhibition of dopaminergic terminals, resulting in enhanced accumbal dopamine efflux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The TM2 6′ Position of GABAA Receptors Mediates Alcohol Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Rebecca J.; Trudell, James R.; Harris, R. Adron

    2012-01-01

    Ionotropic GABAA receptors (GABAARs), which mediate inhibitory neurotransmission in the central nervous system, are implicated in the behavioral effects of alcohol and alcoholism. Site-directed mutagenesis studies support the presence of discrete molecular sites involved in alcohol enhancement and, more recently, inhibition of GABAARs. We used Xenopus laevis oocytes to investigate the 6′ position in the second transmembrane region of GABAARs as a site influencing alcohol inhibition. We asked whether modification of the 6′ position by substitution with larger residues or methanethiol labeling [using methyl methanethiosulfonate (MMTS)] of a substituted cysteine, reduced GABA action and/or blocked further inhibition by alcohols. Labeling of the 6′ position in either α2 or β2 subunits reduced responses to GABA. In addition, methanol and ethanol potentiation increased after MMTS labeling or substitution with tryptophan or methionine, consistent with elimination of an inhibitory site for these alcohols. Specific alcohols, but not the anesthetic etomidate, competed with MMTS labeling at the 6′ position. We verified a role for the 6′ position in previously tested α2β2 as well as more physiologically relevant α2β2γ2s GABAARs. Finally, we built a novel molecular model based on the invertebrate glutamate-gated chloride channel receptor, a GABAAR homolog, revealing that the 6′ position residue faces the channel pore, and modification of this residue alters volume and polarity of the pore-facing cavity in this region. These results indicate that the 6′ positions in both α2 and β2 GABAAR subunits mediate inhibition by short-chain alcohols, which is consistent with the presence of multiple counteracting sites of action for alcohols on ligand-gated ion channels. PMID:22072732

  17. Pax6 Represses Androgen Receptor-Mediated Transactivation by Inhibiting Recruitment of the Coactivator SPBP

    PubMed Central

    Johnsen, Sylvia Sagen; Kaino, Katrine; Sjøttem, Eva; Johansen, Terje

    2011-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) has a central role in development and maintenance of the male reproductive system and in the etiology of prostate cancer. The transcription factor Pax6 has recently been reported to act as a repressor of AR and to be hypermethylated in prostate cancer cells. SPBP is a transcriptional regulator that previously has been shown to enhance the activity of Pax6. In this study we have identified SPBP to act as a transcriptional coactivator of AR. We also show that Pax6 inhibits SPBP-mediated enhancement of AR activity on the AR target gene probasin promoter, a repression that was partly reversed by increased expression of SPBP. Enhanced expression of Pax6 reduced the amount of SPBP associated with the probasin promoter when assayed by ChIP in HeLa cells. We mapped the interaction between both AR and SPBP, and AR and Pax6 to the DNA-binding domains of the involved proteins. Further binding studies revealed that Pax6 and SPBP compete for binding to AR. These results suggest that Pax6 represses AR activity by displacing and/or inhibiting recruitment of coactivators to AR target promoters. Understanding the mechanism for inhibition of AR coactivators can give rise to molecular targeted drugs for treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:21935435

  18. Inhibition of Na+−H+ exchange impairs receptor-mediated albumin endocytosis in renal proximal tubule-derived epithelial cells from opossum

    PubMed Central

    Gekle, Michael; Drumm, Karina; Mildenberger, Sigrid; Freudinger, Ruth; Gaßner, Birgit; Silbernagl, Stefan

    1999-01-01

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis is an important mechanism for transport of macromolecules and regulation of cell-surface receptor expression. In renal proximal tubules, receptor-mediated endocytosis mediates the reabsorption of filtered albumin. Acidification of the endocytic compartments is essential because it interferes with ligand-receptor dissociation, vesicle trafficking, fusion events and coat formation. Here we show that the activity of Na+−H+ exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) is important for proper receptor-mediated endocytosis of albumin and endosomal pH homeostasis in a renal proximal tubular cell line (opossum kidney cells) which expresses NHE3 only. Depending on their inhibitory potency with respect to NHE3 and their lipophilicity, the NHE inhibitors EIPA, amiloride and HOE694 differentially reduced albumin endocytosis. The hydrophilic inhibitor HOE642 had no effect. Inhibition of NHE3 led to an alkalinization of early endosomes and to an acidification of the cytoplasm, indicating that Na+−H+ exchange contributes to the acidification of the early endosomal compartment due to the existence of a sufficient Na+ gradient across the endosomal membrane. Exclusive acidification of the cytoplasm with propionic acid or by removal of Na+ induced a significantly smaller reduction in endocytosis than that induced by inhibition of Na+−H+ exchange. Analysis of the inhibitory profiles indicates that in early endosomes and endocytic vesicles NHE3 is of major importance, whereas plasma membrane NHE3 plays a minor role. Thus, NHE3-mediated acidification along the first part of the endocytic pathway plays an important role in receptor-mediated endocytosis. Furthermore, the involvement of NHE3 offers new ways to explain the regulation of receptor-mediated endocytosis. PMID:10545138

  19. Emodin isolated from Polygoni Multiflori Ramulus inhibits melanogenesis through the liver X receptor-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Ok; Park, Yong Seek; Nho, Youn Hwa; Yun, Seok Kyun; Kim, Youngsoo; Jung, Eunsun; Paik, Jean Kyung; Kim, Minhee; Cho, Il-Hoon; Lee, Jongsung

    2016-04-25

    Melanogenesis is a physiological process that results in the synthesis of melanin pigments, which play a crucial protective role against skin photocarcinogenesis. We investigated the effects of a Polygoni Multiflori Ramulus extract on melanogenesis and isolated emodin from Polygoni Multiflori as an active compound. In addition, the possible mechanisms of action were examined. We found that emodin inhibited both melanin content and tyrosinase activity concentration and time dependently. Tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-1, and TRP-2 mRNA levels decreased following emodin treatment. However, while the mRNA levels of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) were not affected by emodin, emodin reduced MITF protein levels. Furthermore, expression of the liver X-receptor (LXR) α gene, but not the LXR β gene was upregulated by emodin. Moreover, emodin regulated melanogenesis by promoting degradation of the MITF protein by upregulating the LXR α gene. The emodin effects on MITF was found to be mediated by phosphorylation of p42/44 MAPK. Taken together, these findings indicate that the inhibition of melanogenesis by emodin occurs through reduced MITF protein expression, which is mediated by upregulation of the LXR α gene and suggest that emodin may be useful as a hyperpigmentation inhibitor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Mediates Leflunomide-Induced Growth Inhibition of Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Edmond F.; Kopparapu, Prasad Rao; Koch, Daniel C.; Jang, Hyo Sang; Phillips, Jessica Lynne; Tanguay, Robert L.; Kerkvliet, Nancy I.; Kolluri, Siva Kumar

    2012-01-01

    A novel role of the dihydroorotatedehydrogenase (DHODH) inhibitor leflunomide as a potential anti-melanoma therapy was recently reported (Nature 471∶518-22, 2011). We previously reported that leflunomide strongly activates the transcriptional activity of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR). We therefore tested whether the AhR regulates the anti-proliferative effects of leflunomide in melanoma. We first evaluated the expression of AhR in melanoma cells and found that AhR is highly expressed in A375 melanoma as well as in several other cancer cell types. To evaluate whether AhR plays a role in regulating the growth inhibitory effects of leflunomide in A375 cells, we generated a stable cell line from parental A375 cells expressing a doxycycline (DOX) inducible AhR shRNA. Using these cells in the absence or presence of DOX (normal AhR levels or AhR-knockdown, respectively) we found that the anti-proliferative effects of leflunomide, but not its metabolite A771726, were strongly dependent upon AhR expression. It has been well established that supplementation of cells with exogenous uridine completely rescues the anti-proliferative effects due to DHODH inhibition. Thus, we performed uridine rescue experiments in A375 cells to determine whether the anti-proliferative effects of leflunomide are solely due to DHODH inhibition as previously reported. Interestingly, saturating levels of uridine only modestly rescued A375 cells from the anti-proliferative effects of both leflunomide and A771726, indicating additional mechanism(s), apart from DHODH inhibition are responsible for the anti-proliferative effects of leflunomide in melanoma cells. Uridine also did not rescue MDA-MB-435S melanoma cell proliferation after leflunomide treatment. Our results reveal that the AhR is a molecular target of leflunomide and support the feasibility of the clinical application of leflunomide for treating melanoma. Furthermore, analysis of expression data from 967 cancer cell lines revealed

  1. Y2-receptor-mediated selective inhibition of slow, inhibitory postsynaptic potential in submucous neurones of guinea-pig caecum.

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, S M; Mihara, S; Lees, G M

    1994-01-01

    1. The subtype of neuropeptide Y receptor mediating the selective inhibition of the slow inhibitory postsynaptic potential (i.p.s.p.) of submucous neurones in guinea-pig caecum was investigated by use of conventional intracellular electrophysiological recording techniques. 2. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) (1-300 nM) was found to depress or abolish reversibly the slow i.p.s.p. evoked by focal stimulation of internodal fibre tracts. At low concentrations (1-30 nM), a reduction in the duration of the slow i.p.s.p. was often apparent before any inhibition of the amplitude of this synaptic potential. 3. These inhibitory effects of NPY were mimicked by peptide YY (PYY; 0.3-100 nM), NPY13-36 (1-300 nM) and NPY22-36 (10-100 nM); [Leu31,Pro34]NPY ([Pro34]NPY) and bovine pancreatic polypeptide (bPP) were without pre- or postsynaptic effects at concentrations of up to 300 nM. The IC50 +/- s.e. mean values for PYY, NPY, and NPY13-36 were 2.7 +/- 0.3, 7.8 +/- 2.1 and 30 +/- 4.8 nM, respectively, and were significantly different from each other. Thus, the apparent rank order of potency was PYY > NPY > NPY13-36 >> [Pro34]NPY and bPP. 4. In concentrations of up to 300 nM, NPY and its analogues had no depressant effects on the active and passive properties of the impaled neurone and did not affect the amplitude or duration of either cholinergic fast synaptic potentials or non-cholinergic, slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials (e.p.s.ps). Furthermore, none of these peptides altered the amplitude or time-course of changes in membrane potential induced by focal application of acetylcholine or noradrenaline.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7858881

  2. LSD and DOB: interaction with 5-HT2A receptors to inhibit NMDA receptor-mediated transmission in the rat prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Arvanov, V L; Liang, X; Russo, A; Wang, R Y

    1999-09-01

    Both the phenethylamine hallucinogen (-)-1-2, 5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenyl-2-aminopropane (DOB), a selective serotonin 5-HT2A,2C receptor agonist, and the indoleamine hallucinogen D-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD, which binds to 5-HT1A, 1B, 1D, 1E, 1F, 2A, 2C, 5, 6, 7, dopamine D1 and D2, and alpha1 and alpha2 adrenergic receptors), but not their non-hallucinogenic congeners, inhibited N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced inward current and NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic responses evoked by electrical stimulation of the forceps minor in pyramidal cells of the prefrontal cortical slices. The inhibitory effect of hallucinogens was mimicked by 5-HT in the presence of selective 5-HT1A and 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. The inhibitory action of DOB, LSD and 5-HT on the NMDA transmission was blocked by the 5-HT2A receptor antagonists R-(+)-alpha-(2, 3-dimethoxyphenil)-1-[4-fluorophenylethyl]-4-piperidineme thanol (M100907) and ketanserin. However, at low concentrations, when both LSD and DOB by themselves only partially depressed the NMDA response, they blocked the inhibitory effect of 5-HT, suggesting a partial agonist action. Whereas N-(4-aminobutyl)-5-chloro-2-naphthalenesulphonamide (W-7, a calmodulin antagonist) and N-[2-[[[3-(4'-chlorophenyl)- 2-propenyl]methylamino]methyl]phenyl]-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4'-methoxy-b enzenesulphonamide phosphate (KN-93, a Ca2+/CaM-KII inhibitor), but not the negative control 2-[N-4'methoxybenzenesulphonyl]amino-N-(4'-chlorophenyl)-2-propeny l-N -methylbenzylamine phosphate (KN-92), blocked the inhibitory action of LSD and DOB, the selective protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine was without any effect. We conclude that phenethylamine and indoleamine hallucinogens may exert their hallucinogenic effect by interacting with 5-HT2A receptors via a Ca2+/CaM-KII-dependent signal transduction pathway as partial agonists and modulating the NMDA receptors-mediated sensory, perceptual, affective and cognitive processes.

  3. Proximal tubule sphingosine kinase-1 has a critical role in A1 adenosine receptor-mediated renal protection from ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Won; Kim, Mihwa; Kim, Joo Yun; Brown, Kevin M.; Haase, Volker H.; D’Agati, Vivette D.; Lee, H. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Renal ischemia reperfusion injury is a major cause of acute kidney injury. We previously found that renal A1 adenosine receptor (A1AR) activation attenuated multiple cell death pathways including necrosis, apoptosis and inflammation. Here, we tested whether induction of cytoprotective sphingosine kinase (SK)-1 and sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) synthesis might be the mechanism of protection. A selective A1AR agonist (CCPA) increased the synthesis of S1P and selectively induced SK-1 in mouse kidney and HK-2 cells. This agonist failed to protect SK1-knockout but protected SK2-knockout mice against renal ischemia reperfusion injury indicating a critical role of SK1 in A1AR-mediated renal protection. Inhibition of SK prevented A1AR-mediated defense against necrosis and apoptosis in HK-2 cells. A selective S1P1R antagonist (W146) and global in vivo gene knockdown of S1P1Rs with small interfering RNA completely abolished the renal protection provided by CCPA. Mice selectively deficient in renal proximal tubule S1P1Rs (S1P1Rflox/flox PEPCKCre/−) were not protected against renal ischemia reperfusion injury by CCPA. Mechanistically, CCPA increased nuclear translocation of hypoxia inducible factor-1α in HK-2 cells and selective hypoxia inducible factor-1α inhibition blocked A1AR-mediated induction of SK1. Thus, proximal tubule SK-1 has a critical role in A1AR-mediated protection against renal ischemia reperfusion injury. PMID:22695326

  4. Role of contact inhibition in the regulation of receptor-mediated uptake of low density lipoprotein in cultured vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Vlodavsky, I; Fielding, P E; Fielding, C J; Gospodarowicz, D

    1978-01-01

    Bovine vascular endothelial cells during logarithmic growth bind, internalize, and degrade low density lipoprotein (LDL) via a receptor-mediated pathway. However, contact-inhibited (confluent) monolayers bind but do not internalize LDL. This is in contrast to aortic smooth muscle cells or endothelial cells that have lost the property of contact inhibition. These cells internalize and degrade LDL at both high and low cell densities. The LDL receptors of smooth muscle and sparse endothelial cells down-regulate in response to LDL. In contrast, normal endothelial cells at confluency show little response. When contact inhibition in endothelial monolayers was locally released by wounding, and LDL was present, only cells released from contact inhibition accumulated LDL cholesterol. In smooth muscle cells under the same conditions, the entire culture interiorized lipid. It thus appears that in endothelial cells, unlike smooth muscle cells, contact inhibition is the major factor regulating cellular uptake of LDL cholesteryl ester. Reversal of contact inhibition by wounding provides a mechanism by which the endothelium could be the primary initiator of the atherosclerotic plaque. Images PMID:203937

  5. Bidirectional control of spike timing by GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition during theta oscillation in CA1 pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Kwag, Jeehyun; Paulsen, Ole

    2009-08-26

    Precisely controlled spike times relative to theta-frequency network oscillations play an important role in hippocampal memory processing. Here we study how inhibitory synaptic input during theta oscillation contributes to the control of spike timing. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from CA1 pyramidal cells in vitro with dynamic clamp to simulate theta-frequency oscillation (5 Hz), we show that gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABA(A)) receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) can not only delay but also advance the postsynaptic spike depending on the timing of the inhibition relative to the oscillation. Spike time advancement with IPSP was abolished by the h-channel blocker ZD7288 (10 microM), suggesting that IPSPs can interact with intrinsic membrane conductances to yield bidirectional control of spike timing.

  6. G protein-coupled estrogen receptor inhibits the P2Y receptor-mediated Ca(2+) signaling pathway in human airway epithelia.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yuan; Chow, Alison W; Yip, Wallace C; Li, Chi H; Wan, Tai F; Tong, Benjamin C; Cheung, King H; Chan, Wood Y; Chen, Yangchao; Cheng, Christopher H; Ko, Wing H

    2016-08-01

    P2Y receptor activation causes the release of inflammatory cytokines in the bronchial epithelium, whereas G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), a novel estrogen (E2) receptor, may play an anti-inflammatory role in this process. We investigated the cellular mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of GPER activation on the P2Y receptor-mediated Ca(2+) signaling pathway and cytokine production in airway epithelia. Expression of GPER in primary human bronchial epithelial (HBE) or 16HBE14o- cells was confirmed on both the mRNA and protein levels. Stimulation of HBE or 16HBE14o- cells with E2 or G1, a specific agonist of GPER, attenuated the nucleotide-evoked increases in [Ca(2+)]i, whereas this effect was reversed by G15, a GPER-specific antagonist. G1 inhibited the secretion of two proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, in cells stimulated by adenosine 5'-(γ-thio)triphosphate (ATPγS). G1 stimulated a real-time increase in cAMP levels in 16HBE14o- cells, which could be inhibited by adenylyl cyclase inhibitors. The inhibitory effects of E2 or G1 on P2Y receptor-induced increases in Ca(2+) were reversed by treating the cells with a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. These results demonstrated that the inhibitory effects of G1 or E2 on P2Y receptor-mediated Ca(2+) mobilization and cytokine secretion were due to GPER-mediated activation of a cAMP-dependent PKA pathway. This study has reported, for the first time, the expression and function of GPER as an anti-inflammatory component in human bronchial epithelia, which may mediate through its opposing effects on the pro-inflammatory pathway activated by the P2Y receptors in inflamed airway epithelia.

  7. Antagonist interaction with the human 5-HT7 receptor mediates the rapid and potent inhibition of non-G-protein-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity: a novel GPCR effect

    PubMed Central

    Klein, MT; Teitler, M

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The human 5-hydroxytryptamine7 (h5-HT7) receptor is Gs-coupled and stimulates the production of the intracellular signalling molecule cAMP. Previously, we reported a novel property of the h5-HT7 receptor: pseudo-irreversible antagonists irreversibly inhibit forskolin-stimulated (non-receptor-mediated) cAMP production. Herein, we sought to determine if competitive antagonists also affect forskolin-stimulated activity and if this effect is common among other Gs-coupled receptors. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Recombinant cell lines expressing h5-HT7 receptors or other receptors of interest were briefly exposed to antagonists; cAMP production was then stimulated by forskolin and quantified by an immunocompetitive assay. KEY RESULTS In human embryonic kidney 293 cells stably expressing h5-HT7 receptors, all competitive antagonists inhibited nearly 100% of forskolin-stimulated cAMP production. This effect was insensitive to pertussis toxin, that is, not Gi/o-mediated. Potency to inhibit forskolin-stimulated activity strongly correlated with h5-HT7 binding affinity (r2= 0.91), indicating that the antagonists acted through h5-HT7 receptors to inhibit forskolin. Potency and maximal effects of clozapine, a prototypical competitive h5-HT7 antagonist, were unaffected by varying forskolin concentration. Antagonist interaction with h5-HT6, human β1, β2, and β3 adrenoceptors did not inhibit forskolin's activity. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The inhibition of adenylate cyclase, as measured by forskolin's activity, is an underlying property of antagonist interaction with h5-HT7 receptors; however, this is not a common property of other Gs-coupled receptors. This phenomenon may be involved in the roles played by h5-HT7 receptors in human physiology. Development of h5-HT7 antagonists that do not elicit this effect would aid in the elucidation of its mechanisms and shed light on its possible physiological relevance. PMID:21198551

  8. Intravenous anaesthetics inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated currents and Ca2+ transients in rat intracardiac ganglion neurons

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Martin; Motin, Leonid; Gaul, Simon; Beker, Friederike; Fink, Rainer H A; Adams, David J

    2004-01-01

    The effects of intravenous (i.v.) anaesthetics on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-induced transients in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and membrane currents were investigated in neonatal rat intracardiac neurons. In fura-2-loaded neurons, nAChR activation evoked a transient increase in [Ca2+]I, which was inhibited reversibly and selectively by clinically relevant concentrations of thiopental. The half-maximal concentration for thiopental inhibition of nAChR-induced [Ca2+]i transients was 28 μM, close to the estimated clinical EC50 (clinically relevant (half-maximal) effective concentration) of thiopental. In fura-2-loaded neurons, voltage clamped at −60 mV to eliminate any contribution of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, thiopental (25 μM) simultaneously inhibited nAChR-induced increases in [Ca2+]i and peak current amplitudes. Thiopental inhibited nAChR-induced peak current amplitudes in dialysed whole-cell recordings by ∼ 40% at −120, −80 and −40 mV holding potential, indicating that the inhibition is voltage independent. The barbiturate, pentobarbital and the dissociative anaesthetic, ketamine, used at clinical EC50 were also shown to inhibit nAChR-induced increases in [Ca2+]i by ∼40%. Thiopental (25 μM) did not inhibit caffeine-, muscarine- or ATP-evoked increases in [Ca2+]i, indicating that inhibition of Ca2+ release from internal stores via either ryanodine receptor or inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor channels is unlikely. Depolarization-activated Ca2+ channel currents were unaffected in the presence of thiopental (25 μM), pentobarbital (50 μM) and ketamine (10 μM). In conclusion, i.v. anaesthetics inhibit nAChR-induced currents and [Ca2+]i transients in intracardiac neurons by binding to nAChRs and thereby may contribute to changes in heart rate and cardiac output under clinical conditions. PMID:15644873

  9. N-(4-Trifluoromethylphenyl)amide group of the synthetic histamine receptor agonist inhibits nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated catecholamine secretion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Chan; Park, Yong-Soo; Jun, Dong-Jae; Hur, Eun-Mi; Kim, Sun-Hee; Choi, Bo-Hwa; Kim, Kyong-Tai

    2006-02-28

    The therapeutic targeting of nicotinic receptors requires the identification of drugs that selectively activate or inhibit a limited range of nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In this study, we identified N-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)amide group of the synthetic histamine receptor ligands, histamine-trifluoromethyltoluide, that act as potent inhibitors of nAChRs in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Catecholamine secretion induced by the nAChRs agonist, 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium iodide (DMPP), was significantly inhibited by histamine-trifluoromethyltoluide. Real time carbon-fiber amperometry confirmed the ability of histamine-trifluoromethyltoluide to inhibit DMPP-induced exocytosis in single chromaffin cells. We also found that histamine-trifluoromethyltoluide inhibited DMPP-induced [Ca(2+)](i) and [Na(+)](i) increases, as well as DMPP-induced inward currents in the absence of extracellular calcium. Histamine-trifluoromethyltoluide had no effect on [(3)H]nicotine binding or on calcium increases induced by high K(+), bradykinin, veratridine, histamine, and benzoylbenzoyl ATP. Among the synthetic histamine receptor ligands, clobenpropit exhibited similarity. In addition, 4'-nitroacetanilide also significantly attenuated nAChR-mediated catecholamine secretion. In conclusion, the N-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)amide group of the histamine-trifluoromethyltoluide might be the critical moiety in the inhibition of nAChR-mediated CA secretion.

  10. Receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase and stimulation of arachidonic acid release in 3T3 fibroblasts. Selective susceptibility to islet-activating protein, pertussis toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Murayama, T.; Ui, M.

    1985-06-25

    Thrombin exhibited diverse effects on mouse 3T3 fibroblasts. It (a) decreased cAMP in the cell suspension, (b) inhibited adenylate cyclase in the Lubrol-permeabilized cell suspension in a GTP-dependent manner, increased releases of (c) arachidonic acid and (d) inositol from the cell monolayer prelabeled with these labeled compounds, (e) increased /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake into the cell monolayer, and (f) increased /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ uptake into the cell monolayer in a ouabain-sensitive manner. Most of the effects were reproduced by bradykinin, platelet-activating factor, and angiotensin II. The receptors for these agonists are thus likely to be linked to three separatemore » effector systems: the adenylate cyclase inhibition, the phosphoinositide breakdown leading to Ca/sup 2 +/ mobilization and phospholipase A2 activation, and the Na,K-ATPase activation. Among the effects of these agonists, (a), (b), (c), and (e) were abolished, but (d) and (f) were not, by prior treatment of the cells with islet-activating protein (IAP), pertussis toxin, which ADP-ribosylates the Mr = 41,000 protein, the alpha-subunit of the inhibitory guanine nucleotide regulatory protein (Ni), thereby abolishing receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase. The effects (a), (c), (d), and (e) of thrombin, but not (b), were mimicked by A23187, a calcium ionophore. The effects of A23187, in contrast to those of receptor agonists, were not affected by the treatment of cells with IAP. Thus, the IAP substrate, the alpha-subunit of Ni, or the protein alike, may play an additional role in signal transduction arising from the Ca/sup 2 +/-mobilizing receptors, probably mediating process(es) distal to phosphoinositide breakdown and proximal to Ca/sup 2 +/ gating.« less

  11. A drug-like antagonist inhibits thyrotropin receptor-mediated stimulation of cAMP production in Graves' orbital fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Susanne; Pope, Arthur; Geras-Raaka, Elizabeth; Raaka, Bruce M; Bahn, Rebecca S; Gershengorn, Marvin C

    2012-08-01

    Fibroblasts (FIBs) within the retro-orbital space of patients with Graves' disease (GOFs) express thyrotropin receptors (TSHRs) and are thought to be an orbital target of TSHR-stimulating autoantibodies in Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). Recently, we developed a low molecular weight, drug-like TSHR antagonist (NCGC00229600) that inhibited TSHR activation in a model cell system overexpressing TSHRs and in normal human thyrocytes expressing endogenous TSHRs. Herein, we test the hypothesis that NCGC00229600 will inhibit activation of TSHRs endogenously expressed in GOFs. Three strains of GOFs, previously obtained from patients with GO, were studied as undifferentiated FIBs and after differentiation into adipocytes (ADIPs), and another seven strains were studied only as FIBs. ADIP differentiation was monitored by morphology and measurement of adiponectin mRNA. FIBs and ADIPs were treated with the TSH- or TSHR-stimulating antibody M22 in the absence or presence of NCGC00229600 and TSHR activation was monitored by cAMP production. FIBs contained few if any lipid vesicles and undetectable levels of adiponectin mRNA, whereas ADIPs exhibited abundant lipid vesicles and levels of adiponectin mRNA more than 250,000 times greater than FIBs; TSHR mRNA levels were 10-fold higher in ADIPs than FIBs. FIBs exhibited higher absolute levels of basal and forskolin-stimulated cAMP production than ADIPs. Consistent with previous findings, TSH stimulated cAMP production in the majority of ADIP strains and less consistently in FIBs. Most importantly, NCGC00229600 reduced both TSH- and M22-stimulated cAMP production in GOFs. These data confirm previous findings that TSHR activation may cause increased cAMP production in GOFs and show that NCGC00229600 can inhibit TSHR activation in GOFs. These findings suggest that drug-like TSHR antagonists may have a role in treatment of GO.

  12. α5GABAA Receptors Mediate Tonic Inhibition in the Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn and Contribute to the Resolution Of Hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Perez-Sanchez, Jimena; Lorenzo, Louis-Etienne; Lecker, Irene; Zurek, Agnieszka A; Labrakakis, Charalampos; Bridgwater, Erica M; Orser, Beverley A; De Koninck, Yves; Bonin, Robert P

    2017-06-01

    Neuronal inhibition mediated by GABA A receptors constrains nociceptive processing in the spinal cord, and loss of GABAergic inhibition can produce allodynia and hyperalgesia. Extrasynaptic α5 subunit-containing GABA A receptors (α5GABA A Rs) generate a tonic conductance that inhibits neuronal activity and constrains learning and memory; however, it is unclear whether α5GABA A Rs similarly generate a tonic conductance in the spinal cord dorsal horn to constrain nociception. We assessed the distribution of α5GABA A Rs in the spinal cord dorsal horn by immunohistochemical analysis, and the activity and function of α5GABA A Rs in neurons of the superficial dorsal horn using electrophysiological and behavioral approaches in male, null-mutant mice lacking the GABA A R α5 subunit (Gabra5-/-) and wild-type mice (WT). The expression of α5GABA A Rs in the superficial dorsal horn followed a laminar pattern of distribution, with a higher expression in lamina II than lamina I. Similarly, the tonic GABA A current in lamina II neurons had a larger contribution from α5GABA A Rs than in lamina I, with no significant contribution of these receptors to synaptic GABA A current. In behavioural tests, WT and Gabra5-/- mice exhibited similar acute thermal and mechanical nociception, and similar mechanical sensitization immediately following intraplantar capsaicin or Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA). However, Gabra5-/- mice showed prolonged recovery from sensitization in these models, and increased responses in the late phase of the formalin test. Overall, our data suggest that tonically-active α5GABA A Rs in the spinal cord dorsal horn accelerate the resolution of hyperalgesia and may therefore serve as a novel therapeutic target to promote recovery from pathological pain. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Perimenstrual-Like Hormonal Regulation of Extrasynaptic δ-Containing GABAA Receptors Mediating Tonic Inhibition and Neurosteroid Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Chase Matthew; Wu, Xin; Gangisetty, Omkaram

    2014-01-01

    Neurosteroids are endogenous regulators of neuronal excitability and seizure susceptibility. Neurosteroids, such as allopregnanolone (AP; 3α-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one), exhibit enhanced anticonvulsant activity in perimenstrual catamenial epilepsy, a neuroendocrine condition in which seizures are clustered around the menstrual period associated with neurosteroid withdrawal (NSW). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such enhanced neurosteroid sensitivity remain unclear. Neurosteroids are allosteric modulators of both synaptic (αβγ2-containing) and extrasynaptic (αβδ-containing) GABAA receptors, but they display greater sensitivity toward δ-subunit receptors in dentate gyrus granule cells (DGGCs). Here we report a novel plasticity of extrasynaptic δ-containing GABAA receptors in the dentate gyrus in a mouse perimenstrual-like model of NSW. In molecular and immunofluorescence studies, a significant increase occurred in δ subunits, but not α1, α2, β2, and γ2 subunits, in the dentate gyrus of NSW mice. Electrophysiological studies confirmed enhanced sensitivity to AP potentiation of GABA-gated currents in DGGCs, but not in CA1 pyramidal cells, in NSW animals. AP produced a greater potentiation of tonic currents in DGGCs of NSW animals, and such enhanced AP sensitivity was not evident in δ-subunit knock-out mice subjected to a similar withdrawal paradigm. In behavioral studies, mice undergoing NSW exhibited enhanced seizure susceptibility to hippocampus kindling. AP has enhanced anticonvulsant effects in fully kindled wild-type mice, but not δ-subunit knock-out mice, undergoing NSW-induced seizures, confirming δ-linked neurosteroid sensitivity. These results indicate that perimenstrual NSW is associated with striking upregulation of extrasynaptic, δ-containing GABAA receptors that mediate tonic inhibition and neurosteroid sensitivity in the dentate gyrus. These findings may represent a molecular rationale for neurosteroid therapy of catamenial

  14. Serotonin 5-HT2C receptor-mediated inhibition of the M-current in hypothalamic POMC neurons.

    PubMed

    Roepke, T A; Smith, A W; Rønnekleiv, O K; Kelly, M J

    2012-06-01

    Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons are controlled by many central signals, including serotonin. Serotonin increases POMC activity and reduces feeding behavior via serotonion [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] receptors by modulating K(+) currents. A potential K(+) current is the M-current, a noninactivating, subthreshold outward K(+) current. Previously, we found that M-current activity was highly reduced in fasted vs. fed states in neuropeptide Y neurons. Because POMC neurons also respond to energy states, we hypothesized that fasting may alter the M-current and/or its modulation by serotonergic input to POMC neurons. Using visualized-patch recording in neurons from fed male enhanced green fluorescent protein-POMC transgenic mice, we established that POMC neurons expressed a robust M-current (102.1 ± 6.7 pA) that was antagonized by the selective KCNQ channel blocker XE-991 (40 μM). However, the XE-991-sensitive current in POMC neurons did not differ between fed and fasted states. To determine if serotonin suppresses the M-current via the 5-HT(2C) receptor, we examined the effects of the 5-HT(2A)/5-HT(2C) receptor agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) on the M-current. Indeed, DOI attenuated the M-current by 34.5 ± 6.9% and 42.0 ± 5.3% in POMC neurons from fed and fasted male mice, respectively. In addition, the 5-HT(1B)/5-HT(2C) receptor agonist m-chlorophenylpiperazine attenuated the M-current by 42.4 ± 5.4% in POMC neurons from fed male mice. Moreover, the selective 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist RS-102221 abrogated the actions of DOI in suppressing the M-current. Collectively, these data suggest that although M-current expression does not differ between fed and fasted states in POMC neurons, serotonin inhibits the M-current via activation of 5-HT(2C) receptors to increase POMC neuronal excitability and, subsequently, reduce food intake.

  15. Inhibition by islet-activating protein, pertussis toxin, of P2-purinergic receptor-mediated iodide efflux and phosphoinositide turnover in FRTL-5 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Okajima, F.; Sho, K.; Kondo, Y.

    1988-08-01

    Exposure of FRTL-5 thyroid cells to ATP (1 microM to 1 mM) resulted in the stimulation of I- efflux in association with the induction of inositol trisphosphate production and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. Nonhydrolyzable ATP derivatives, ADP and GTP, were also as effective in magnitude as ATP, whereas neither AMP nor adenosine exerted significant effect on I- efflux, suggesting a P2-purinergic receptor-mediated activation of I- efflux. Treatment of the cells with the islet-activating protein (IAP) pertussis toxin, which ADP-ribosylated a 41,000 mol wt membrane protein, effectively suppressed the phosphoinositide response to ATP in addition to ATP-dependent I- efflux at agonist concentrationsmore » below 10 microM. In contrast, the I- efflux stimulated by TSH, A23187, or phorbol myristate acetate was insusceptible to IAP. The IAP substrate, probably GTP-binding protein, is hence proposed to mediate the activation of P2-purinergic receptor-linked phospholipase-C in FRTL-5 cells. However, the responses to ATP, its nonhydrolyzable derivatives, or ADP at the higher agonist concentrations, especially above 100 microM, were only partially inhibited by IAP, even though the IAP substrate was totally ADP ribosylated by the toxin. The responses to GTP in the whole concentration range tested were not influenced by IAP treatment. Thus, signals arising from the P2-receptor might be transduced to phospholipase-C by two different pathways, i.e. IAP-sensitive and insensitive ones, and result in the stimulation of I- efflux.« less

  16. NEFM (Neurofilament Medium) Polypeptide, a Marker for Zona Glomerulosa Cells in Human Adrenal, Inhibits D1R (Dopamine D1 Receptor)-Mediated Secretion of Aldosterone.

    PubMed

    Maniero, Carmela; Garg, Sumedha; Zhao, Wanfeng; Johnson, Timothy Isaac; Zhou, Junhua; Gurnell, Mark; Brown, Morris J

    2017-08-01

    Heterogeneity among aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) has been highlighted by the discovery of somatic mutations. KCNJ5 mutations predominate in large zona fasciculata (ZF)-like APAs; mutations in CACNA1D , ATP1A1, ATP2B3 , and CTNNB1 are more likely to be found in small zona glomerulosa (ZG)-like APAs. Microarray comparison of KCNJ5 mutant versus wild-type APAs revealed significant differences in transcriptomes. NEFM , encoding a neurofilament subunit which is a D1R (dopamine D1 receptor)-interacting protein, was 4-fold upregulated in ZG-like versus ZF-like APAs and 14-fold more highly expressed in normal ZG versus ZF. Immunohistochemistry confirmed selective expression of NEFM (neurofilament medium) polypeptide in ZG and in ZG-like APAs. Silencing NEFM in adrenocortical H295R cells increased basal aldosterone secretion and cell proliferation; silencing also amplified aldosterone stimulation by the D1R agonist, fenoldopam, and inhibition by the D1R antagonist, SCH23390. NEFM coimmunoprecipitated with D1R, and its expression was stimulated by fenoldopam. Immunohistochemistry for D1R was mainly intracellular in ZG-like APAs but membranous in ZF-like APAs. Aldosterone secretion in response to fenoldopam in primary cells from ZF-like APAs was higher than in cells from ZG-like APAs. Transfection of mutant KCNJ5 caused a large reduction in NEFM expression in H295R cells. We conclude that NEFM is a negative regulator of aldosterone production and cell proliferation, in part by facilitating D1R internalization from the plasma membrane. Downregulation of NEFM in ZF-like APAs may contribute to a D1R/D2R imbalance underlying variable pharmacological responses to dopaminergic drugs among patients with APAs. Finally, taken together, our data point to the possibility that ZF-like APAs are in fact ZG in origin. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. CORM-A1 prevents blood-brain barrier dysfunction caused by ionotropic glutamate receptor-mediated endothelial oxidative stress and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Basuroy, Shyamali; Leffler, Charles W; Parfenova, Helena

    2013-06-01

    In cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (CMVEC) of newborn pigs, glutamate at excitotoxic concentrations (mM) causes apoptosis mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Carbon monoxide (CO) produced by CMVEC or delivered by a CO-releasing molecule, CORM-A1, has antioxidant properties. We tested the hypothesis that CORM-A1 prevents cerebrovascular endothelial barrier dysfunction caused by glutamate excitotoxicity. First, we identified the glutamate receptors (GluRs) and enzymatic sources of ROS involved in the mechanism of endothelial apoptosis. In glutamate-exposed CMVEC, ROS formation and apoptosis were blocked by rotenone, 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA), and antimycin, indicating that mitochondrial complexes I, II, and III are the major sources of oxidative stress. Agonists of ionotropic GluRs (iGluRs) N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), cis-ACPD, AMPA, and kainate increased ROS production and apoptosis, whereas iGluR antagonists exhibited antiapoptotic properties, suggesting that iGluRs mediate glutamate-induced endothelial apoptosis. The functional consequences of endothelial injury were tested in the model of blood-brain barrier (BBB) composed of CMVEC monolayer on semipermeable membranes. Glutamate and iGluR agonists reduced transendothelial electrical resistance and increased endothelial paracellular permeability to 3-kDa dextran. CORM-A1 exhibited potent antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties in CMVEC and completely prevented BBB dysfunction caused by glutamate and iGluR agonists. Overall, the endothelial component of the BBB is a cellular target for excitotoxic glutamate that, via a mechanism involving a iGluR-mediated activation of mitochondrial ROS production and apoptosis, leads to BBB opening that may be prevented by the antioxidant and antiapoptotic actions of CORMs. Antioxidant CORMs therapy may help preserve BBB functional integrity in neonatal cerebrovascular disease.

  18. Laminar distribution of GABAA- and glycine-receptor mediated tonic inhibition in the dorsal horn of the rat lumbar spinal cord: effects of picrotoxin and strychnine on expression of Fos-like immunoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Cronin, John N; Bradbury, Elizabeth J; Lidierth, Malcolm

    2004-11-01

    Inhibitory mechanisms are essential in suppressing the development of allodynia and hyperalgesia in the normal animal and there is evidence that loss of inhibition can lead to the development of neuropathic pain. We used Fos expression to map the distribution of tonically inhibited cells in the healthy rat lumbar spinal cord. In a control group, Fos-like immunoreactive (Fos-LI) cells were rare, averaging 7.5+/-2.2 cells (mean+/-SEM; N=13 sections) per 20 microm thick section of dorsal horn. This rose to 103+/-11 (mean+/-SEM; N=20) in picrotoxin-treated rats and to 88+/-11 (mean+/-SEM; N=18) in strychnine-treated rats. These changes were significant (ANOVA; P<0.001). There were marked regional variations in the distribution of Fos-LI cells between picrotoxin- and strychnine-treated animals. Picrotoxin induced a significant increase in the number of Fos-LI cells throughout the dorsal horn (lamina I-VI) while strychnine significantly elevated Fos-like immunoreactivity only in deep laminae (III-VI). For both picrotoxin and strychnine, the increase in Fos-like immunoreactivity peaked in lamina V (at 3579+/-319 and 3649+/-375% of control, respectively; mean+/-SEM) but for picrotoxin an additional peak was observed in the outer part of lamina II (1959+/-196%). Intrathecal administration of both GABAA and glycine receptor antagonists has been shown elsewhere to induce tactile allodynia. The present data suggest that this allodynia could arise due to blockade of tonic GABAA and glycine-receptor mediated inhibition in the deep dorsal horn. GABAA antagonists also induce hypersensitivity to noxious inputs. The blockade of tonic inhibition in the superficial dorsal horn shown here may underlie this hyperalgesia.

  19. Shifting Topographic Activation and 5-HT1A-Receptor Mediated Inhibition of Dorsal Raphe Serotonin Neurons Produced by Nicotine Exposure and Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Sperling, Robin; Commons, Kathryn G.

    2011-01-01

    Nicotine activates serotonin (5-HT) neurons innervating the forebrain and this is thought to reduce anxiety. Nicotine withdrawal has also been associated with an activation of 5-HT neurotransmission, although withdrawal increases anxiety. In each case, 5-HT1A receptors have been implicated in the response. To determine if there are different subgroups of 5-HT cells activated during nicotine administration and withdrawal, we mapped the appearance of Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, in 5-HT cells of the dorsal and median raphe nuclei (DR and MR). To understand the role 5-HT1A receptor feedback inhibitory pathways on 5-HT cell activity during these conditions, we administered a selective 5-HT1A-receptor antagonist and measured novel disinhibited Fos expression within 5-HT cells. Using these approaches, we found evidence that acute nicotine activates 5-HT neurons rostrally and in the lateral wings of the DR while there is 5-HT1A dependent inhibition of cells located ventrally both at rostral and mid levels. Previous chronic nicotine exposure did not modify the pattern of Fos activation produced by acute nicotine, but increased 5-HT1A-dependent inhibition of 5-HT cells in the caudal DR. This pattern was nearly reversed during nicotine withdrawal when there was evidence for caudal activation and mid- and rostral-5-HT1A-dependent inhibition. These results suggest that the distinct behavioral states produced by nicotine exposure and withdrawal correlate with reciprocal rostral-caudal patterns of activation and 5-HT1A-mediated inhibition of DR 5-HT neurons. The complimentary patterns of activation and inhibition suggest that 5-HT1A receptors may help shape distinct topographic patterns of activation within the DR. PMID:21501256

  20. Yellow Fever Virus, but Not Zika Virus or Dengue Virus, Inhibits T-Cell Receptor-Mediated T-Cell Function by an RNA-Based Mechanism.

    PubMed

    McLinden, James H; Bhattarai, Nirjal; Stapleton, Jack T; Chang, Qing; Kaufman, Thomas M; Cassel, Suzanne L; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S; Haim, Hillel; Houtman, Jon C; Xiang, Jinhua

    2017-11-27

    The Flavivirus genus within the Flaviviridae family is comprised of many important human pathogens including yellow fever virus (YFV), dengue virus (DENV), and Zika virus (ZKV), all of which are global public health concerns. Although the related flaviviruses hepatitis C virus and human pegivirus (formerly named GBV-C) interfere with T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling by novel RNA and protein-based mechanisms, the effect of other flaviviruses on TCR signaling is unknown. Here, we studied the effect of YFV, DENV, and ZKV on TCR signaling. Both YFV and ZKV replicated in human T cells in vitro; however, only YFV inhibited TCR signaling. This effect was mediated at least in part by the YFV envelope (env) protein coding RNA. Deletion mutagenesis studies demonstrated that expression of a short, YFV env RNA motif (vsRNA) was required and sufficient to inhibit TCR signaling. Expression of this vsRNA and YFV infection of T cells reduced the expression of a Src-kinase regulatory phosphatase (PTPRE), while ZKV infection did not. YFV infection in mice resulted in impaired TCR signaling and PTPRE expression, with associated reduction in murine response to experimental ovalbumin vaccination. Together, these data suggest that viruses within the flavivirus genus inhibit TCR signaling in a species-dependent manner. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Receptor-mediated cell mechanosensing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yunfeng; Ju, Lining; Rushdi, Muaz; Ge, Chenghao; Zhu, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Mechanosensing describes the ability of a cell to sense mechanical cues of its microenvironment, including not only all components of force, stress, and strain but also substrate rigidity, topology, and adhesiveness. This ability is crucial for the cell to respond to the surrounding mechanical cues and adapt to the changing environment. Examples of responses and adaptation include (de)activation, proliferation/apoptosis, and (de)differentiation. Receptor-mediated cell mechanosensing is a multistep process that is initiated by binding of cell surface receptors to their ligands on the extracellular matrix or the surface of adjacent cells. Mechanical cues are presented by the ligand and received by the receptor at the binding interface; but their transmission over space and time and their conversion into biochemical signals may involve other domains and additional molecules. In this review, a four-step model is described for the receptor-mediated cell mechanosensing process. Platelet glycoprotein Ib, T-cell receptor, and integrins are used as examples to illustrate the key concepts and players in this process. PMID:28954860

  2. Peripheral μ-opioid receptor mediated inhibition of calcium signaling and action potential-evoked calcium fluorescent transients in primary afferent CGRP nociceptive terminals.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Landon D; Schmidhammer, Helmut; Mulligan, Sean J

    2015-06-01

    While μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists remain the most powerful analgesics for the treatment of severe pain, serious adverse side effects that are secondary to their central nervous system actions pose substantial barriers to therapeutic use. Preclinical and clinical evidence suggest that peripheral MORs play an important role in opioid analgesia, particularly under inflammatory conditions. However, the mechanisms of peripheral MOR signaling in primary afferent pain fibres remain to be established. We have recently introduced a novel ex vivo optical imaging approach that, for the first time, allows the study of physiological functioning within individual peripheral nociceptive fibre free nerve endings in mice. In the present study, we found that MOR activation in selectively identified, primary afferent CGRP nociceptive terminals caused inhibition of N-type Ca(2+) channel signaling and suppression of action potential-evoked Ca(2+) fluorescent transients mediated by 'big conductance' Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (BKCa). In the live animal, we showed that the peripherally acting MOR agonist HS-731 produced analgesia and that BKCa channels were the major effectors of the peripheral MOR signaling. We have identified two key molecular transducers of MOR activation that mediate significant inhibition of nociceptive signaling in primary afferent terminals. Understanding the mechanisms of peripheral MOR signaling may promote the development of pathway selective μ-opioid drugs that offer improved therapeutic profiles for achieving potent analgesia while avoiding serious adverse central side effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Caffeine protects against experimental acute pancreatitis by inhibition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-mediated Ca2+ release

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Cane, Matthew C; Mukherjee, Rajarshi; Szatmary, Peter; Zhang, Xiaoying; Elliott, Victoria; Ouyang, Yulin; Chvanov, Michael; Latawiec, Diane; Wen, Li; Booth, David M; Haynes, Andrea C; Petersen, Ole H; Tepikin, Alexei V; Criddle, David N

    2017-01-01

    Objective Caffeine reduces toxic Ca2+ signals in pancreatic acinar cells via inhibition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R)-mediated signalling, but effects of other xanthines have not been evaluated, nor effects of xanthines on experimental acute pancreatitis (AP). We have determined effects of caffeine and its xanthine metabolites on pancreatic acinar IP3R-mediated Ca2+ signalling and experimental AP. Design Isolated pancreatic acinar cells were exposed to secretagogues, uncaged IP3 or toxins that induce AP and effects of xanthines, non-xanthine phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors and cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cAMP/cGMP) determined. The intracellular cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]C), mitochondrial depolarisation and necrosis were assessed by confocal microscopy. Effects of xanthines were evaluated in caerulein-induced AP (CER-AP), taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate-induced AP (TLCS-AP) or palmitoleic acid plus ethanol-induced AP (fatty acid ethyl ester AP (FAEE-AP)). Serum xanthines were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results Caffeine, dimethylxanthines and non-xanthine PDE inhibitors blocked IP3-mediated Ca2+ oscillations, while monomethylxanthines had little effect. Caffeine and dimethylxanthines inhibited uncaged IP3-induced Ca2+ rises, toxin-induced Ca2+ release, mitochondrial depolarisation and necrotic cell death pathway activation; cAMP/cGMP did not inhibit toxin-induced Ca2+ rises. Caffeine significantly ameliorated CER-AP with most effect at 25 mg/kg (seven injections hourly); paraxanthine or theophylline did not. Caffeine at 25 mg/kg significantly ameliorated TLCS-AP and FAEE-AP. Mean total serum levels of dimethylxanthines and trimethylxanthines peaked at >2 mM with 25 mg/kg caffeine but at <100 µM with 25 mg/kg paraxanthine or theophylline. Conclusions Caffeine and its dimethylxanthine metabolites reduced pathological IP3R-mediated pancreatic acinar Ca2

  4. Adenosine A2A receptors modulate the dopamine D2 receptor-mediated inhibition of synaptic transmission in the mouse prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Real, Joana I; Simões, Ana Patrícia; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Ferreira, Samira G; Rial, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    Prefrontal cortex (PFC) circuits are modulated by dopamine acting on D 1 - and D 2 -like receptors, which are pharmacologically exploited to manage neuropsychiatric conditions. Adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2 A R) also control PFC-related responses and A 2 A R antagonists are potential anti-psychotic drugs. As tight antagonistic A 2 A R-D 2 R and synergistic A 2 A R-D 1 R interactions occur in other brain regions, we now investigated the crosstalk between A 2 A R and D 1 /D 2 R controlling synaptic transmission between layers II/III and V in mouse PFC coronal slices. Dopamine decreased synaptic transmission, a presynaptic effect based on the parallel increase in paired-pulse responses. Dopamine inhibition was prevented by the D 2 R-like antagonist sulpiride but not by the D 1 R antagonist SCH23390 and was mimicked by the D 2 R agonist sumanirole, but not by the agonists of either D 4 R (A-412997) or D 3 R (PD128907). Dopamine inhibition was prevented by the A 2 A R antagonist, SCH58261, and attenuated in A 2 A R knockout mice. Accordingly, triple-labelling immunocytochemistry experiments revealed the co-localization of A 2 A R and D 2 R immunoreactivity in glutamatergic (vGluT1-positive) nerve terminals of the PFC. This reported positive A 2 A R-D 2 R interaction controlling PFC synaptic transmission provides a mechanistic justification for the anti-psychotic potential of A 2 A R antagonists. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. PD-1 immunoreceptor inhibits B cell receptor-mediated signaling by recruiting src homology 2-domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 to phosphotyrosine

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Taku; Maeda, Akito; Nishimura, Hiroyuki; Kurosaki, Tomohiro; Honjo, Tasuku

    2001-01-01

    PD-1 is an immunoreceptor that belongs to the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily and contains two tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic region. Studies on PD-1-deficient mice have shown that PD-1 plays critical roles in establishment and/or maintenance of peripheral tolerance, but the mode of action is totally unknown. To study the molecular mechanism for negative regulation of lymphocytes through the PD-1 receptor, we generated chimeric molecules composed of the IgG Fc receptor type IIB (FcγRIIB) extracellular region and the PD-1 cytoplasmic region and expressed them in a B lymphoma cell line, IIA1.6. Coligation of the cytoplasmic region of PD-1 with the B cell receptor (BCR) in IIA1.6 transformants inhibited BCR-mediated growth retardation, Ca2+ mobilization, and tyrosine phosphorylation of effector molecules, including Igβ, Syk, phospholipase C-γ2 (PLCγ2), and ERK1/2, whereas phosphorylation of Lyn and Dok was not affected. Mutagenesis studies indicated that these inhibitory effects do not require the N-terminal tyrosine in the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif-like sequence, but do require the other tyrosine residue in the C-terminal tail. This tyrosine was phosphorylated and recruited src homology 2-domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP-2) on coligation of PD-1 with BCR. These results show that PD-1 can inhibit BCR signaling by recruiting SHP-2 to its phosphotyrosine and dephosphorylating key signal transducers of BCR signaling. PMID:11698646

  6. Toll-like receptor-mediated inhibition of Gas6 and ProS expression facilitates inflammatory cytokine production in mouse macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Tingting; Zhang, Yue; Chen, Qiaoyuan; Yan, Keqin; Han, Daishu

    2012-01-01

    Activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) triggers rapid inflammatory cytokine production in various cell types. The exogenous product of growth-arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6) and Protein S (ProS) inhibit the TLR-triggered inflammatory responses through the activation of Tyro3, Axl and Mer (TAM) receptors. However, regulation of the Gas6/ProS-TAM system remains largely unknown. In the current study, mouse macrophages are shown to constitutively express Gas6 and ProS, which synergistically suppress the basal and TLR-triggered production of inflammatory cytokines, including those of tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β, by the macrophages in an autocrine manner. Notably, TLR signalling markedly decreases Gas6 and ProS expression in macrophages through the activation of the nuclear factor-κB. Further, the down-regulation of Gas6 and ProS by TLR signalling facilitates the TLR-mediated inflammatory cytokine production in mouse macrophages. These results describe a self-regulatory mechanism of TLR signalling through the suppression of Gas6 and ProS expression. PMID:22043818

  7. Melatonin inhibits nucleus pulposus (NP) cell proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling via the melatonin membrane receptors mediated PI3K-Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Li, Xingye; Chen, Chong; Chan, Matthew T V; Wu, William Ka Kei; Shen, Jianxiong

    2017-10-01

    Pinealectomy in vertebrates accelerated intervertebral disk degeneration (IDD). However, the potential mechanisms, particularly melatonin's role, are still to be clarified. In this study, for first time, melatonin membrane receptors of MT1 and MT2 were found to be present in the human intervertebral disk tissues and nucleus pulposus (NP) cells, respectively. Melatonin treatment significantly inhibited NP cell proliferation in dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, melatonin down-regulated gene expression of cyclin D1, PCNA, matrix metallopeptidase-3, and matrix metallopeptidase-9 and upregulated gene expression of collagen type II alpha 1 chain and aggrecan in NP cells. These effects of melatonin were blocked by luzindole, a nonspecific melatonin membrane receptor antagonist. Signaling pathway analysis indicated that in the intervertebral disk tissues and NP cells, melatonin acted on MT1/2 and subsequently reduced phosphorylation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase p85 regulatory subunit, phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1, and Akt. The results indicate that melatonin is a crucial regulator of NP cell function and plays a vital role in prevention of IDD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Peripheral apelin-13 administration inhibits gastrointestinal motor functions in rats: The role of cholecystokinin through CCK1 receptor-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Bülbül, Mehmet; Sinen, Osman; Birsen, İlknur; Nimet İzgüt-Uysal, V

    2017-06-01

    Apelin is the endogenous ligand of the G protein-coupled receptor APJ. The APJ receptor is widely expressed in gastrointestinal (GI) tissues including stomach and small intestine. Apelin administration was shown to induce the release of cholecystokinin (CCK) which is a well-known alimentary hormone with its inhibitory actions on GI motor functions through CCK 1 receptors on vagal afferent fibers. We investigated whether; (i) peripherally injected apelin-13 alters GI motor functions, (ii) apelin-induced changes are mediated by APJ receptor or CCK 1 receptor and (iii) vagal afferents are involved in inhibitory effects of apelin. Solid gastric emptying (GE) and colon transit (CT) were measured, whereas duodenal phase III-like contractions were recorded in rats administered with apelin-13 (300μg/kg, ip). CCK 1 receptor antagonist lorglumide (10mg/kg, ip) or APJ receptor antagonist F13A (300μg/kg, ip) was administered 30min prior to the apelin-13 injections. Vagal afferent denervation was achieved by systemic administration of vanilloid receptor agonist capsaicin (125mg/kg, sc). Apelin-13 administration significantly (p<0.01) increased the CCK level in portal venous plasma samples. Compared with vehicle-treated rats, apelin-13 significantly delayed both GE (p<0.001) and CT (p<0.01). Pretreatment of lorglumide or F13A completely abolished the apelin-13-induced inhibitory effects on GE and CT, moreover, apelin-13 was found ineffective in rats underwent afferent denervation. F13A administration alone significantly accelerated the basal CT. Apelin-13 noticeably disturbed the duodenal fasting motor pattern by impairing phase III-like contractions while increasing the amplitudes of phase II contractions which were prevented by pretreatment of lorglumide and capsaicin. Compared with vehicle-treated rats, lorglumide and capsaicin significantly (p<0.05) reduced the apelin-13-induced increases in phase II motility index. Peripherally administered apelin-13 inhibits GI motor

  9. Valerian extract Ze 911 inhibits postsynaptic potentials by activation of adenosine A1 receptors in rat cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Vissiennon, Z; Sichardt, K; Koetter, U; Brattström, A; Nieber, K

    2006-06-01

    In this study we evaluated the adenosine A1 receptor-mediated effect of valerian extract (Ze 911) on postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) in pyramidal cells of the rat cingulate cortex in a slice preparation. We first observed that N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA, 0.01 - 10 microM), an adenosine A1 receptor agonist, inhibited PSPs in a concentration-dependent manner. The CPA (10 microM)-induced inhibition was antagonized by 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX, 0.1 microM), an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist. Ze 911 concentration dependently (0.1 - 15 mg/mL) inhibited PSPs in the presence of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist 1,3,7-trimethyl-8-(3-chlorostyryl)xanthine (CSC, 0.2 microM) and adenosine deaminase (1 U/mL). The maximal inhibition induced by 10 mg/mL was completely antagonised by DPCPX (0.1 microM), an A1 receptor blocker. The data suggest that activation of adenosine A1 receptors is involved in the pharmacological effects of the valerian extract Ze 911.

  10. Particle aggregation during receptor-mediated endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Sheng; Kosmrlj, Andrej

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis of particles is driven by large binding energy between ligands on particles and receptors on a membrane, which compensates for the membrane bending energy and for the cost due to the mixing entropy of receptors. While the receptor-mediated endocytosis of individual particle is well understood, much less is known about the joint entry of multiple particles. Here, we demonstrate that the endocytosis of multiple particles leads to a kinetically driven entropic attraction, which may cause the aggregation of particles observed in experiments. During the endocytosis particles absorb nearby receptors and thus produce regions, which are depleted of receptors. When such depleted regions start overlapping, the corresponding particles experience osmotic-like attractive entropic force. If the attractive force between particles is large enough to overcome the repulsive interaction due to membrane bending, then particles tend to aggregate provided that they are sufficiently close, such that they are not completely engulfed before they come in contact. We discuss the necessary conditions for the aggregation of cylindrical particles during receptor-mediated endocytosis and comment on the generalization to spherical particles.

  11. Cell type specificity of GABA(A) receptor mediated signaling in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Semyanov, A

    2003-08-01

    Inhibitory signaling mediated by ionotropic GABA(1) receptors generally acts as a major brake against excessive excitability in the brain. This is especially relevant in epilepsy-prone structures such as the hippocampus, in which GABA(A) receptor mediated inhibition is critical in suppressing epileptiform activity. Indeed, potentiating GABA(A) receptor mediated signaling is an important target for antiepileptic drug therapy. GABA(A) receptor mediated inhibition has different roles in the network dependent on the target neuron. Inhibiting principal cells will thus reduce network excitability, whilst inhibiting interneurons will increase network excitability; GABAergic therapeutic agents do not distinguish between these two alternatives, which may explain why, on occasion, GABAergic antiepileptic drugs can be proconvulsant. The importance of the target-cell for the effect of neuroactive drugs has emerged from a number of recent studies. Immunocytochemical data have suggested non-uniform distribution of GABA(A) receptor subunits among hippocampal interneurons and pyramidal cells. This has been confirmed by subsequent electropharmacological data. These have demonstrated that compounds which act on GABA(A) receptors or the extracellular GABA concentration can have distinct effects in different neuronal populations. Recently, it has also been discovered that presynaptic glutamate heteroreceptors can modulate GABA release in the hippocampus in a postsynaptic cell-specific manner. Since systemically administrated drugs may act on different neuronal subtypes, they can exhibit paradoxical effects. Distinguishing compounds that have target specific effects on GABAergic signaling may lead to novel and more effective treatments against epilepsy.

  12. Virus Infection and Death Receptor-Mediated Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xingchen; Jiang, Wenbo; Liu, Zhongshun; Liu, Shuai; Liang, Xiaozhen

    2017-10-27

    Virus infection can trigger extrinsic apoptosis. Cell-surface death receptors of the tumor necrosis factor family mediate this process. They either assist persistent viral infection or elicit the elimination of infected cells by the host. Death receptor-mediated apoptosis plays an important role in viral pathogenesis and the host antiviral response. Many viruses have acquired the capability to subvert death receptor-mediated apoptosis and evade the host immune response, mainly by virally encoded gene products that suppress death receptor-mediated apoptosis. In this review, we summarize the current information on virus infection and death receptor-mediated apoptosis, particularly focusing on the viral proteins that modulate death receptor-mediated apoptosis.

  13. Virus Infection and Death Receptor-Mediated Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xingchen; Jiang, Wenbo; Liu, Zhongshun; Liu, Shuai; Liang, Xiaozhen

    2017-01-01

    Virus infection can trigger extrinsic apoptosis. Cell-surface death receptors of the tumor necrosis factor family mediate this process. They either assist persistent viral infection or elicit the elimination of infected cells by the host. Death receptor-mediated apoptosis plays an important role in viral pathogenesis and the host antiviral response. Many viruses have acquired the capability to subvert death receptor-mediated apoptosis and evade the host immune response, mainly by virally encoded gene products that suppress death receptor-mediated apoptosis. In this review, we summarize the current information on virus infection and death receptor-mediated apoptosis, particularly focusing on the viral proteins that modulate death receptor-mediated apoptosis. PMID:29077026

  14. Caffeine Inhibits the Activation of Hepatic Stellate Cells Induced by Acetaldehyde via Adenosine A2A Receptor Mediated by the cAMP/PKA/SRC/ERK1/2/P38 MAPK Signal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wanzhi; Wang, Qi; Zhao, Han; Yang, Feng; Lv, Xiongwen; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation is an essential event during alcoholic liver fibrosis. Evidence suggests that adenosine aggravates liver fibrosis via the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR). Caffeine, which is being widely consumed during daily life, inhibits the action of adenosine. In this study, we attempted to validate the hypothesis that caffeine influences acetaldehyde-induced HSC activation by acting on A2AR. Acetaldehyde at 50, 100, 200, and 400 μM significantly increased HSC-T6 cells proliferation, and cell proliferation reached a maximum at 48 h after exposure to 200 μM acetaldehyde. Caffeine and the A2AR antagonist ZM241385 decreased the cell viability and inhibited the expression of procollagen type I and type III in acetaldehyde-induced HSC-T6 cells. In addition, the inhibitory effect of caffeine on the expression of procollagen type I was regulated by A2AR-mediated signal pathway involving cAMP, PKA, SRC, and ERK1/2. Interestingly, caffeine’s inhibitory effect on the expression of procollagen type III may depend upon the A2AR-mediated P38 MAPK-dependent pathway. Conclusions: Caffeine significantly inhibited acetaldehyde-induced HSC-T6 cells activation by distinct A2AR mediated signal pathway via inhibition of cAMP-PKA-SRC-ERK1/2 for procollagen type I and via P38 MAPK for procollagen type III. PMID:24682220

  15. Mechanics of receptor-mediated endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Huajian; Shi, Wendong; Freund, Lambert B.

    2005-07-01

    Most viruses and bioparticles endocytosed by cells have characteristic sizes in the range of tens to hundreds of nanometers. The process of viruses entering and leaving animal cells is mediated by the binding interaction between ligand molecules on the viral capid and their receptor molecules on the cell membrane. How does the size of a bioparticle affect receptor-mediated endocytosis? Here, we study how a cell membrane containing diffusive mobile receptors wraps around a ligand-coated cylindrical or spherical particle. It is shown that particles in the size range of tens to hundreds of nanometers can enter or exit cells via wrapping even in the absence of clathrin or caveolin coats, and an optimal particles size exists for the smallest wrapping time. This model can also be extended to include the effect of clathrin coat. The results seem to show broad agreement with experimental observations. Author contributions: H.G. and L.B.F. designed research; H.G., W.S., and L.B.F. performed research; and H.G., W.S., and L.B.F. wrote the paper.Abbreviations: CNT, carbon nanotube; SWNT, single-walled nanotube.

  16. cAMP Catalyzing Phosphodiesterases Control Cholinergic Muscular Activity But Their Inhibition Does Not Enhance 5-HT4 Receptor-Mediated Facilitation of Cholinergic Contractions in the Murine Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Pauwelyn, Vicky; Lefebvre, Romain A.

    2018-01-01

    some contribution of PDE4. In contrast to the porcine gastrointestinal tract, the in vitro facilitation of electrically induced cholinergic contractions by 5-HT4 receptor stimulation could not be enhanced by specific PDE inhibition. The C57Bl/6J murine model is thus not suitable for in vivo testing of a 5-HT4 receptor agonist combined with a selective PDE4 inhibitor. PMID:29568269

  17. Modulation of AMPA receptor mediated current by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in layer I neurons of rat prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Bo; Luo, Dong; Yang, Jie; Xu, Xiao-Yan; Zhu, Bing-Lin; Wang, Xue-Feng; Yan, Zhen; Chen, Guo-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Layer I neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) exhibit extensive synaptic connections with deep layer neurons, implying their important role in the neural circuit. Study demonstrates that activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) increases excitatory neurotransmission in this layer. Here we found that nicotine selectively increased the amplitude of AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated current and AMPA/NMDA ratio, while without effect on NMDA receptor-mediated current. The augmentation of AMPAR current by nicotine was inhibited by a selective α7-nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA) and intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA. In addition, nicotinic effect on mEPSC or paired-pulse ratio was also prevented by MLA. Moreover, an enhanced inward rectification of AMPAR current by nicotine suggested a functional role of calcium permeable and GluA1 containing AMPAR. Consistently, nicotine enhancement of AMPAR current was inhibited by a selective calcium-permeable AMPAR inhibitor IEM-1460. Finally, the intracellular inclusion of synthetic peptide designed to block GluA1 subunit of AMPAR at CAMKII, PKC or PKA phosphorylation site, as well as corresponding kinase inhibitor, blocked nicotinic augmentation of AMPA/NMDA ratio. These results have revealed that nicotine increases AMPAR current by modulating the phosphorylation state of GluA1 which is dependent on α7-nAChR and intracellular calcium. PMID:26370265

  18. Receptor-Mediated Drug Delivery Systems Targeting to Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shanshan; Meng, Ying; Li, Chengyi; Qian, Min; Huang, Rongqin

    2015-01-01

    Glioma has been considered to be the most frequent primary tumor within the central nervous system (CNS). The complexity of glioma, especially the existence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), makes the survival and prognosis of glioma remain poor even after a standard treatment based on surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. This provides a rationale for the development of some novel therapeutic strategies. Among them, receptor-mediated drug delivery is a specific pattern taking advantage of differential expression of receptors between tumors and normal tissues. The strategy can actively transport drugs, such as small molecular drugs, gene medicines, and therapeutic proteins to glioma while minimizing adverse reactions. This review will summarize recent progress on receptor-mediated drug delivery systems targeting to glioma, and conclude the challenges and prospects of receptor-mediated glioma-targeted therapy for future applications. PMID:28344260

  19. The miR-199-dynamin regulatory axis controls receptor-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Juan F; Canfrán-Duque, Alberto; Goedeke, Leigh; Suárez, Yajaira; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (microRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression that modulate many physiological processes; however, their role in regulating intracellular transport remains largely unknown. Intriguingly, we found that the dynamin (DNM) genes, a GTPase family of proteins responsible for endocytosis in eukaryotic cells, encode the conserved miR-199a and miR-199b family of miRNAs within their intronic sequences. Here, we demonstrate that miR-199a and miR-199b regulate endocytic transport by controlling the expression of important mediators of endocytosis such as clathrin heavy chain (CLTC), Rab5A, low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and caveolin-1 (Cav-1). Importantly, miR-199a-5p and miR-199b-5p overexpression markedly inhibits CLTC, Rab5A, LDLR and Cav-1 expression, thus preventing receptor-mediated endocytosis in human cell lines (Huh7 and HeLa). Of note, miR-199a-5p inhibition increases target gene expression and receptor-mediated endocytosis. Taken together, our work identifies a new mechanism by which microRNAs regulate intracellular trafficking. In particular, we demonstrate that the DNM, miR-199a-5p and miR-199b-5p genes act as a bifunctional locus that regulates endocytosis, thus adding an unexpected layer of complexity in the regulation of intracellular trafficking. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Influence of ER leak on resting cytoplasmic Ca2+ and receptor-mediated Ca2+ signalling in human macrophage.

    PubMed

    Layhadi, Janice A; Fountain, Samuel J

    2017-06-03

    Mechanisms controlling endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca 2+ homeostasis are important regulators of resting cytoplasmic Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] cyto ) and receptor-mediated Ca 2+ signalling. Here we investigate channels responsible for ER Ca 2+ leak in THP-1 macrophage and human primary macrophage. In the absence of extracellular Ca 2+ we employ ionomycin action at the plasma membrane to stimulate ER Ca 2+ leak. Under these conditions ionomycin elevates [Ca 2+ ] cyto revealing a Ca 2+ leak response which is abolished by thapsigargin. IP 3 receptors (Xestospongin C, 2-APB), ryanodine receptors (dantrolene), and translocon (anisomycin) inhibition facilitated ER Ca 2+ leak in model macrophage, with translocon inhibition also reducing resting [Ca 2+ ] cyto . In primary macrophage, translocon inhibition blocks Ca 2+ leak but does not influence resting [Ca 2+ ] cyto . We identify a role for translocon-mediated ER Ca 2+ leak in receptor-mediated Ca 2+ signalling in both model and primary human macrophage, whereby the Ca 2+ response to ADP (P2Y receptor agonist) is augmented following anisomycin treatment. In conclusion, we demonstrate a role of ER Ca 2+ leak via the translocon in controlling resting cytoplasmic Ca 2+ in model macrophage and receptor-mediated Ca 2+ signalling in model macrophage and primary macrophage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Neuropeptide Y restores non-receptor-mediated vasoconstrictive action in superior mesenteric arteries in portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hartl, Johannes; Dietrich, Peter; Moleda, Lukas; Müller-Schilling, Martina; Wiest, Reiner

    2015-12-01

    Vascular hyporeactivity to vasoconstrictors contributes to splanchnic arterial vasodilatation and hemodynamic dysregulation in portal hypertension. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a sympathetic cotransmitter, has been shown to improve adrenergic vascular contractility in portal hypertensive rats and markedly attenuate hyperdynamic circulation. To further characterize the NPY-effects in portal hypertension, we investigated its role for non-receptor-mediated vasoconstriction in the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) of portal vein ligated (PVL) and sham-operated rats. Ex vivo SMA perfusion of PVL and sham rats was used to analyse the effects of NPY on pressure response to non-receptor-mediated vasoconstriction. Dose-response curves to KCl (30-300 mM) were used to bypass G protein-coupled receptor mechanisms. Potential involvement of the cyclooxygenase-pathway was tested by non-selective cyclooxygenase-inhibition using indomethacin. KCl-induced vascular contractility but not vascular sensitivity was significantly attenuated in PVL rats as compared with sham rats. Administration of NPY resulted in an augmentation of KCl-evoked vascular sensitivity being not different between study groups. However, KCl-induced vascular contractility was markedly more enhanced in PVL rats, thus, vascular response was no more significantly different between PVL and sham rats after addition of NPY. Administration of indomethacin abolished the NPY-induced enhancement of vasoconstriction. Receptor-independent vascular contractility is impaired in mesenteric arteries in portal hypertension. NPY improves non-receptor mediated mesenteric vasoconstriction more effective in portal hypertension than in healthy conditions correcting splanchnic vascular hyporesponsiveness. This beneficial vasoactive action of NPY adds to its well known more pronounced effects on adrenergic vasoconstriction in portal hypertension making it a promising therapeutic agent in portal hypertension. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A

  2. Multiscale Modeling of Virus Entry via Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin

    2012-11-01

    Virus infections are ubiquitous and remain major threats to human health worldwide. Viruses are intracellular parasites and must enter host cells to initiate infection. Receptor-mediated endocytosis is the most common entry pathway taken by viruses, the whole process is highly complex and dictated by various events, such as virus motions, membrane deformations, receptor diffusion and ligand-receptor reactions, occurring at multiple length and time scales. We develop a multiscale model for virus entry through receptor-mediated endocytosis. The binding of virus to cell surface is based on a mesoscale three dimensional stochastic adhesion model, the internalization (endocytosis) of virus and cellular membrane deformation is based on the discretization of Helfrich Hamiltonian in a curvilinear space using Monte Carlo method. The multiscale model is based on the combination of these two models. We will implement this model to study the herpes simplex virus entry into B78 cells and compare the model predictions with experimental measurements.

  3. Inhibition of Prevotella and Capnocytophaga immunoglobulin A1 proteases by human serum.

    PubMed

    Frandsen, E V; Kjeldsen, M; Kilian, M

    1997-07-01

    Oral Prevotella and Capnocytophaga species, regularly isolated from periodontal pockets and associated with extraoral infections, secret specific immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) proteases cleaving human IgA1 in the hinge region into intact Fab and Fc fragments. To investigate whether these enzymes are subject to inhibition in vivo in humans, we tested 34 sera from periodontally diseased and healthy individuals in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the presence and titers of inhibition of seven Prevotella and Capnocytophaga proteases. All or nearly all of the sera inhibited the IgA1 protease activity of Prevotella buccae, Prevotella oris, and Prevotella loescheii. A minor proportion of the sera inhibited Prevotella buccalis, Prevotella denticola, and Prevotella melaninogenica IgA1 proteases, while no sera inhibited Capnocytophaga ochracea IgA1 protease. All inhibition titers were low, ranging from 5 to 55, with titer being defined as the reciprocal of the dilution of serum causing 50% inhibition of one defined unit of protease activity. No correlation between periodontal disease status and the presence, absence, or titer of inhibition was observed. The nature of the low titers of inhibition in all sera of the IgA1 proteases of P. buccae, P. oris, and P. loescheii was further examined. In size exclusion chromatography, inhibitory activity corresponded to the peak volume of IgA. Additional inhibition of the P. oris IgA1 protease was found in fractions containing both IgA and IgG. Purification of the IgG fractions of five sera by passage of the sera on a protein G column resulted in recovery of inhibitory IgG antibodies against all three IgA1 proteases, with the highest titer being for the P. oris enzyme. These finding indicate that inhibitory activity is associated with enzyme-neutralizing antibodies.

  4. Inhibition of Prevotella and Capnocytophaga immunoglobulin A1 proteases by human serum.

    PubMed Central

    Frandsen, E V; Kjeldsen, M; Kilian, M

    1997-01-01

    Oral Prevotella and Capnocytophaga species, regularly isolated from periodontal pockets and associated with extraoral infections, secret specific immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) proteases cleaving human IgA1 in the hinge region into intact Fab and Fc fragments. To investigate whether these enzymes are subject to inhibition in vivo in humans, we tested 34 sera from periodontally diseased and healthy individuals in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the presence and titers of inhibition of seven Prevotella and Capnocytophaga proteases. All or nearly all of the sera inhibited the IgA1 protease activity of Prevotella buccae, Prevotella oris, and Prevotella loescheii. A minor proportion of the sera inhibited Prevotella buccalis, Prevotella denticola, and Prevotella melaninogenica IgA1 proteases, while no sera inhibited Capnocytophaga ochracea IgA1 protease. All inhibition titers were low, ranging from 5 to 55, with titer being defined as the reciprocal of the dilution of serum causing 50% inhibition of one defined unit of protease activity. No correlation between periodontal disease status and the presence, absence, or titer of inhibition was observed. The nature of the low titers of inhibition in all sera of the IgA1 proteases of P. buccae, P. oris, and P. loescheii was further examined. In size exclusion chromatography, inhibitory activity corresponded to the peak volume of IgA. Additional inhibition of the P. oris IgA1 protease was found in fractions containing both IgA and IgG. Purification of the IgG fractions of five sera by passage of the sera on a protein G column resulted in recovery of inhibitory IgG antibodies against all three IgA1 proteases, with the highest titer being for the P. oris enzyme. These finding indicate that inhibitory activity is associated with enzyme-neutralizing antibodies. PMID:9220164

  5. Stronger Dopamine D1 Receptor-Mediated Neurotransmission in Dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Farré, Daniel; Muñoz, Ana; Moreno, Estefanía; Reyes-Resina, Irene; Canet-Pons, Júlia; Dopeso-Reyes, Iria G; Rico, Alberto J; Lluís, Carme; Mallol, Josefa; Navarro, Gemma; Canela, Enric I; Cortés, Antonio; Labandeira-García, José L; Casadó, Vicent; Lanciego, José L; Franco, Rafael

    2015-12-01

    Radioligand binding assays to rat striatal dopamine D1 receptors showed that brain lateralization of the dopaminergic system were not due to changes in expression but in agonist affinity. D1 receptor-mediated striatal imbalance resulted from a significantly higher agonist affinity in the left striatum. D1 receptors heteromerize with dopamine D3 receptors, which are considered therapeutic targets for dyskinesia in parkinsonian patients. Expression of both D3 and D1-D3 receptor heteromers were increased in samples from 6-hydroxy-dopamine-hemilesioned rats rendered dyskinetic by treatment with 3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (L-DOPA). Similar findings were obtained using striatal samples from primates. Radioligand binding studies in the presence of a D3 agonist led in dyskinetic, but not in lesioned or L-DOPA-treated rats, to a higher dopamine sensitivity. Upon D3-receptor activation, the affinity of agonists for binding to the right striatal D1 receptor increased. Excess dopamine coming from L-DOPA medication likely activates D3 receptors thus making right and left striatal D1 receptors equally responsive to dopamine. These results show that dyskinesia occurs concurrently with a right/left striatal balance in D1 receptor-mediated neurotransmission.

  6. Dose-response approaches for nuclear receptor-mediated ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A public workshop, organized by a Steering Committee of scientists from government, industry, universities, and research organizations, was held at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) in September, 2010. The workshop explored the dose-response implications of toxicant modes of action (MOA) mediated by nuclear receptors. The dominant paradigm in human health risk assessment has been linear extrapolation without a threshold for cancer, and estimation of sub-threshold doses for non-cancer and (in appropriate cases) cancer endpoints. However, recent publications question the application of dose-response modeling approaches with a threshold. The growing body of molecular toxicology information and computational toxicology tools has allowed for exploration of the presence or absence of subthreshold doses for a number of receptor-mediated MOPs. The workshop explored the development of dose-response approaches for nuclear receptor-mediated liver cancer, within a MOA Human Relevance framework (HRF). Case studies addressed activation of the AHR; the CAR/PXR, and the PPARa. This paper describes the workshop process, key issues discussed, and conclusions. The value of an interactive workshop approach to apply current MOA/HRF frameworks was demonstrated. The results may help direct research on the MOA and dose-response of receptor-based toxicity, since there are commonalities for many receptors in the basic pathways involved for late steps in the

  7. Ethanol causes desensitization of receptor-mediated phospholipase C activation in isolated hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Higashi, K; Hoek, J B

    1991-02-05

    The effect of ethanol on receptor-mediated phospholipase C-linked signal transduction processes was investigated in isolated rat hepatocytes. Pretreatment of the cells with ethanol (6-300 mM) markedly inhibited a subsequent stimulation of phospholipase C by vasopressin, angiotensin II, or epidermal growth factor. By contrast, the effects of the alpha 1-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine and of glucagon were not affected by ethanol pretreatment. Ethanol inhibited the agonist-induced decrease in polyphosphoinositides, the formation of inositol phosphates, and the increase in cytosolic free Ca2+ levels, as detected with the intracellular Ca2+ indicator indo-1. The effects of ethanol were concentration dependent and were pronounced at low concentrations of agonists but were not significant at saturating levels. Pretreatment of the cells with the protein kinase C inhibitor H7 partly prevented the inhibition by ethanol of vasopressin-induced phospholipase C activation. By contrast, pretreatment of the cells with (Rp)-adenosine cyclic 3':5'-phosphorothioate [Rp)-cAMP-S), a competitive inhibitor of protein kinase A, potentiated the inhibitory effect of ethanol on the Ca2+ mobilization by vasopressin. (Rp)-cAMP-S similarly potentiated the inhibition of phospholipase C by the protein kinase C-activating phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). The kinase A inhibitor also made the Ca2+ mobilization by phenylephrine sensitive to ethanol, indicating that the formation of cAMP in the cells played a role in suppressing the sensitivity to ethanol. Pretreatment of the cells with ethanol enhanced the inhibitory effects of TPA on the vasopressin-induced phospholipase C activation at all concentrations of the hormone; however, these synergistic effects were prevented when TPA was added prior to ethanol, a condition that prevents the activation of phospholipase C by ethanol. The data indicate that ethanol causes desensitization of the receptor-mediated phospholipase C

  8. Glucocorticoid Receptor-Mediated Repression of Pro-Inflammatory Genes in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0314 TITLE: Glucocorticoid Receptor-Mediated Repression of Pro-Inflammatory Genes in Rheumatoid Arthritis ...19 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Glucocorticoid Receptor-Mediated Repression of Pro- Inflammatory Genes in Rheumatoid Arthritis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...SUBJECT TERMS Rheumatoid arthritis , inflammation and autoimmunity, macrophages, glucocorticoid receptor, transcriptional regulation, coactivators and

  9. Disulfanyl peptide decreases melanin synthesis via receptor-mediated ERK activation and the subsequent downregulation of MITF and tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Choi, H-R; Kang, Y-A; Lee, H-S; Park, K-C

    2016-06-01

    Bioactive peptides are commonly used in cosmeceutical purpose. This study was performed to search for an effective and short hypopigmenting peptide using normal human melanocytes as a screening model. A peptide that exhibits multitarget activities will be a promising peptide. Depigmenting effects were tested in normal human melanocytes. One peptide was selected, and signalling mechanism was investigated by Western blotting and immunofluorescent microscopic examination. A novel hypopigmenting peptide (dSHP) has been found to inhibit the production of melanin. This peptide significantly decreases tyrosinase activity but was not effective in a direct in vitro assay. It also induces the prolonged activation of ERK, and subsequently downregulates the levels of MITF. PD98059 abolished the dSHP-induced downregulation of MITF. These findings indicate that the dSHP-induced activation of ERK contributes to a reduced melanin synthesis via the downregulation of MITF. Fluorescent microscopic studies were consistent with such findings. Pertussis toxin reverses the downregulation of MITF, which means that the receptor-mediated ERK activation is involved. Moreover, it was also found that downregulation of MITF was clearly inhibited by lysosomal inhibitor (chloroquine). Novel tetrapeptide dSHP reduces the melanin synthesis by a receptor-mediated pathway. Furthermore, dSHP works by ERK activation and key transcription factor MITF degradation. Thus, it may be a good candidate as an effective hypopigmenting cosmetic agent. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  10. Insulin-Independent GABAA Receptor-Mediated Response in the Barrel Cortex of Mice with Impaired Met Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Fu-Sun; Erzurumlu, Reha S.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by genetic variants, susceptibility alleles, and environmental perturbations. The autism associated gene MET tyrosine kinase has been implicated in many behavioral domains and endophenotypes of autism, including abnormal neural signaling in human sensory cortex. We investigated somatosensory thalamocortical synaptic communication in mice deficient in Met activity in cortical excitatory neurons to gain insights into aberrant somatosensation characteristic of ASD. The ratio of excitation to inhibition is dramatically increased due to decreased postsynaptic GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition in the trigeminal thalamocortical pathway of mice lacking active Met in the cerebral cortex. Furthermore, in contrast to wild-type mice, insulin failed to increase GABAA receptor-mediated response in the barrel cortex of mice with compromised Met signaling. Thus, lacking insulin effects may be a risk factor in ASD pathogenesis. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A proposed common cause of neurodevelopmental disorders is an imbalance in excitatory neural transmission, provided by the glutamatergic neurons, and the inhibitory signals from the GABAergic interneurons. Many genes associated with autism spectrum disorders impair synaptic transmission in the expected cell type. Previously, inactivation of the autism-associated Met tyrosine kinase receptor in GABAergic interneurons led to decreased inhibition. In thus report, decreased Met signaling in glutamatergic neurons had no effect on excitation, but decimated inhibition. Further experiments indicate that loss of Met activity downregulates GABAA receptors on glutamatergic neurons in an insulin independent manner. These data provide a new mechanism for the loss of inhibition and subsequent abnormal excitation/inhibition balance and potential molecular candidates for treatment or prevention. PMID:27030755

  11. Endoxifen and Other Metabolites of Tamoxifen Inhibit Human Hydroxysteroid Sulfotransferase 2A1 (hSULT2A1)

    PubMed Central

    Squirewell, Edwin J.; Qin, Xiaoyan

    2014-01-01

    Although tamoxifen is a successful agent for treatment and prevention of estrogen-dependent breast cancer, its use has been limited by the low incidence of endometrial cancer. Human hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase 2A1 (hSULT2A1) catalyzes the formation of an α-sulfooxy metabolite of tamoxifen that is reactive toward DNA, and this has been implicated in its carcinogenicity. Also, hSULT2A1 functions in the metabolism of steroid hormones such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and pregnenolone (PREG). These roles of hSULT2A1 in steroid hormone metabolism and in generating a reactive metabolite of tamoxifen led us to examine its interactions with tamoxifen and several of its major metabolites. We hypothesized that metabolites of tamoxifen may regulate the catalytic activity of hSULT2A1, either through direct inhibition or through serving as alternate substrates for the enzyme. We found that 4-hydroxy-N-desmethyltamoxifen (endoxifen) is a potent inhibitor of hSULT2A1-catalyzed sulfation of PREG and DHEA, with Ki values of 3.5 and 2.8 μM, respectively. In the hSULT2A1-catalyzed sulfation of PREG, 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHTAM) and N-desmethyltamoxifen (N-desTAM) exhibited Ki values of 12.7 and 9.8 μM, respectively, whereas corresponding Ki values of 19.4 and 17.2 μM were observed with DHEA as substrate. A Ki value of 9.1 μM was observed for tamoxifen-N-oxide with DHEA as substrate, and this increased to 16.9 μM for the hSULT2A1-catalyzed sulfation of PREG. Three metabolites were substrates for hSULT2A1, with relative sulfation rates of 4-OHTAM > N-desTAM > > endoxifen. These results may be useful in interpreting ongoing clinical trials of endoxifen and in improving the design of related molecules. PMID:25157097

  12. Receptor-mediated gene transfer vectors: progress towards genetic pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Molas, M; Gómez-Valadés, A G; Vidal-Alabró, A; Miguel-Turu, M; Bermudez, J; Bartrons, R; Perales, J C

    2003-10-01

    Although specific delivery to tissues and unique cell types in vivo has been demonstrated for many non-viral vectors, current methods are still inadequate for human applications, mainly because of limitations on their efficiencies. All the steps required for an efficient receptor-mediated gene transfer process may in principle be exploited to enhance targeted gene delivery. These steps are: DNA/vector binding, internalization, subcellular trafficking, vesicular escape, nuclear import, and unpacking either for transcription or other functions (i.e., antisense, RNA interference, etc.). The large variety of vector designs that are currently available, usually aimed at improving the efficiency of these steps, has complicated the evaluation of data obtained from specific derivatives of such vectors. The importance of the structure of the final vector and the consequences of design decisions at specific steps on the overall efficiency of the vector will be discussed in detail. We emphasize in this review that stability in serum and thus, proper bioavailability of vectors to their specific receptors may be the single greatest limiting factor on the overall gene transfer efficiency in vivo. We discuss current approaches to overcome the intrinsic instability of synthetic vectors in the blood. In this regard, a summary of the structural features of the vectors obtained from current protocols will be presented and their functional characteristics evaluated. Dissecting information on molecular conjugates obtained by such methodologies, when carefully evaluated, should provide important guidelines for the creation of effective, targeted and safe DNA therapeutics.

  13. Activation of innate antiviral immune response via double-stranded RNA-dependent RLR receptor-mediated necroptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Wei-Hua; Azadzoi, Kazem M.; Su, Ning; Dai, Peng; Sun, Jianbin; Wang, Qin; Liang, Ping; Zhang, Wentao; Lei, Xiaoying; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Jing-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Viruses induce double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in the host cells. The mammalian system has developed dsRNA-dependent recognition receptors such as RLRs that recognize the long stretches of dsRNA as PAMPs to activate interferon-mediated antiviral pathways and apoptosis in severe infection. Here we report an efficient antiviral immune response through dsRNA-dependent RLR receptor-mediated necroptosis against infections from different classes of viruses. We demonstrated that virus-infected A549 cells were efficiently killed in the presence of a chimeric RLR receptor, dsCARE. It measurably suppressed the interferon antiviral pathway but promoted IL-1β production. Canonical cell death analysis by morphologic assessment, phosphatidylserine exposure, caspase cleavage and chemical inhibition excluded the involvement of apoptosis and consistently suggested RLR receptor-mediated necroptosis as the underlying mechanism of infected cell death. The necroptotic pathway was augmented by the formation of RIP1-RIP3 necrosome, recruitment of MLKL protein and the activation of cathepsin D. Contributing roles of RIP1 and RIP3 were confirmed by gene knockdown. Furthermore, the necroptosis inhibitor necrostatin-1 but not the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD impeded dsCARE-dependent infected cell death. Our data provides compelling evidence that the chimeric RLR receptor shifts the common interferon antiviral responses of infected cells to necroptosis and leads to rapid death of the virus-infected cells. This mechanism could be targeted as an efficient antiviral strategy. PMID:26935990

  14. AMPA receptor-mediated toxicity in oligodendrocyte progenitors involves free radical generation and activation of JNK, calpain and caspase 3.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsueh-Ning; Giasson, Benoit I; Mushynski, Walter E; Almazan, Guillermina

    2002-07-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate) receptor-mediated excitotoxicity were characterized in rat oligodendrocyte progenitor cultures. Activation of AMPA receptors, in the presence of cyclothiazide to selectively block desensitization, produced a massive Ca(2+) influx and cytotoxicity which were blocked by the antagonists CNQX and GYKI 52466. A role for free radical generation in oligodendrocyte progenitor cell death was deduced from three observations: (i) treatment with AMPA agonists decreased intracellular glutathione; (ii) depletion of intracellular glutathione with buthionine sulfoximine potentiated cell death; and (iii) the antioxidant N -acetylcysteine replenished intracellular glutathione and protected cultures from AMPA receptor-mediated toxicity. Cell death displayed some characteristics of apoptosis, including DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation and activation of caspase-3 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). A substrate of calpain and caspase-3, alpha-spectrin, was cleaved into characteristic products following treatment with AMPA agonists. In contrast, inhibition of either caspase-3 by DEVD-CHO or calpain by PD 150606 protected cells from excitotoxicity. Our results indicate that overactivation of AMPA receptors causes apoptosis in oligodendrocyte progenitors through mechanisms involving Ca(2+) influx, depletion of glutathione, and activation of JNK, calpain, and caspase-3.

  15. Targeting receptor-mediated endocytotic pathways with nanoparticles: rationale and advances

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shi; Olenyuk, Bogdan Z.; Okamoto, Curtis T.; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F.

    2012-01-01

    Targeting of drugs and their carrier systems by using receptor-mediated endocytotic pathways was in its nascent stages 25 years ago. In the intervening years, an explosion of knowledge focused on design and synthesis of nanoparticulate delivery systems as well as elucidation of the cellular complexity of what was previously-termed receptor-mediated endocytosis has now created a situation when it has become possible to design and test the feasibility of delivery of highly specific nanoparticle drug carriers to specific cells and tissue. This review outlines the mechanisms governing the major modes of receptor-mediated endocytosis used in drug delivery and highlights recent approaches using these as targets for in vivo drug delivery of nanoparticles. The review also discusses some of the inherent complexity associated with the simple shift from a ligand-drug conjugate versus a ligand-nanoparticle conjugate, in terms of ligand valency and its relationship to the mode of receptor-mediated internalization. PMID:23026636

  16. Bombesin receptor-mediated imaging and cytotoxicity: review and current status

    PubMed Central

    Sancho, Veronica; Di Florio, Alessia; Moody, Terry W.; Jensen, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    The three mammalian bombesin (Bn) receptors (gastrin-releasing peptide [GRP] receptor, neuromedin B [NMB] receptor, BRS-3) are one of the classes of G protein-coupled receptors that are most frequently over-express/ectopically expressed by common, important malignancies. Because of the clinical success of somatostatin receptor-mediated imaging and cytotoxicity with neuroendocrine tumors, there is now increasing interest in pursuing a similar approach with Bn receptors. In the last few years then have been more than 200 studies in this area. In the present paper, the in vitro and in vivo results, as well as results of human studies from many of these studies are reviewed and the current state of Bn receptor-mediated imaging or cytotoxicity is discussed. Both Bn receptor-mediated imaging studies as well as Bn receptor-mediated tumoral cytotoxic studies using radioactive and non-radioactive Bn-based ligands are covered. PMID:21034419

  17. Selective enhancement of NMDA receptor-mediated locomotor hyperactivity by male sex hormones in mice.

    PubMed

    van den Buuse, Maarten; Low, Jac Kee; Kwek, Perrin; Martin, Sally; Gogos, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Altered glutamate NMDA receptor function is implicated in schizophrenia, and gender differences have been demonstrated in this illness. This study aimed to investigate the interaction of gonadal hormones with NMDA receptor-mediated locomotor hyperactivity and PPI disruption in mice. The effect of 0.25 mg/kg of MK-801 on locomotor activity was greater in male mice than in female mice. Gonadectomy (by surgical castration) significantly reduced MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion in male mice, but no effect of gonadectomy was seen in female mice or on amphetamine-induced locomotor hyperactivity. The effect of MK-801 on prepulse inhibition of startle (PPI) was similar in intact and castrated male mice and in ovariectomized (OVX) female mice. In contrast, there was no effect of MK-801 on PPI in intact female mice. Forebrain NMDA receptor density, as measured with [ 3 H]MK-801 autoradiography, was significantly higher in male than in female mice but was not significantly altered by either castration or OVX. These results suggest that male sex hormones enhance the effect of NMDA receptor blockade on psychosis-like behaviour. This interaction was not seen in female mice and was independent of NMDA receptor density in the forebrain. Male sex hormones may be involved in psychosis by an interaction with NMDA receptor hypofunction.

  18. Fluid shear stress sensitizes cancer cells to receptor-mediated apoptosis via trimeric death receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Michael J.; King, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer metastasis, the process of cancer cell migration from a primary to distal location, typically leads to a poor patient prognosis. Hematogenous metastasis is initiated by intravasation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) into the bloodstream, which are then believed to adhere to the luminal surface of the endothelium and extravasate into distal locations. Apoptotic agents such as tumor necrosis factor apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), whether in soluble ligand form or expressed on the surface of natural killer cells, have shown promise in treating CTCs to reduce the probability of metastasis. The role of hemodynamic shear forces in altering the cancer cell response to apoptotic agents has not been previously investigated. Here, we report that human colon cancer COLO 205 and prostate cancer PC-3 cells exposed to a uniform fluid shear stress in a cone-and-plate viscometer become sensitized to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Shear-induced sensitization directly correlates with the application of fluid shear stress, and TRAIL-induced apoptosis increases in a fluid shear stress force- and time-dependent manner. In contrast, TRAIL-induced necrosis is not affected by the application fluid shear stress. Interestingly, fluid shear stress does not sensitize cancer cells to apoptosis when treated with doxorubicin, which also induces apoptosis in cancer cells. Caspase inhibition experiments reveal that shear stress-induced sensitization to TRAIL occurs via caspase-dependent apoptosis. These results suggest that physiological fluid shear forces can modulate receptor-mediated apoptosis of cancer cells in the presence of apoptotic agents.

  19. Receptor mediated endocytosis of vicilin in Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larval midgut epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Daniele; Oliveira, Gabriel B; Uchôa, Adriana F; Samuels, Richard I; Macedo, Maria Lígia R; Silva, Carlos P

    2017-08-01

    The transport of proteins across the intestinal epithelium of insects is still not well understood. There is evidence that vicilin, a major storage protein of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata), is internalized in larvae of the seed-beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. It has been reported that this vicilin interacts with proteins present in the microvillar membranes of columnar cells along the digestive tract of the larvae. In the present work, we studied the cellular pathway involved in endocytosis of vicilin in larval C. maculatus by employing ex vivo experiments. In the ex vivo approach, we incubated FITC-labelled vicilin with isolated midgut wholemounts in the absence or in the presence of endocytosis inhibitors. The fate of labelled or non-labelled globulins was monitored by confocal microscopy and fluorescence measurement. Our results suggest that the internalization of vicilins is due to receptor-mediated endocytosis. Here we report the identity of a microvillar vicilin-binding protein that was purified using affinity chromatography on a vicilin-sepharose column. The putative vicilin receptor showed high homology to proteins with the CRAL-TRIO domain, specifically the Sec14 superfamily member α-tocopherol transfer protein. The precise mechanism involved in vicilin internalization was defined through the use of specific inhibitors of the endocytosis pathway. The inhibitors filipin III and nystatin significantly inhibited the endocytosis of vicilin, while chlorpromazine and phenylarsine oxide had a much lower effect on endocytosis, suggesting that the endocytic pathway is predominantly mediated by caveolin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cryptococcus neoformans is internalized by receptor-mediated or 'triggered' phagocytosis, dependent on actin recruitment.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Caroline Rezende; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; de Souza, Wanderley; Rozental, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Cryptococcosis by the encapsulated yeast Cryptococcus neoformans affects mostly immunocompromised individuals and is a frequent neurological complication in AIDS patients. Recent studies support the idea that intracellular survival of Cryptococcus yeast cells is important for the pathogenesis of cryptococcosis. However, the initial steps of Cryptococcus internalization by host cells remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the mechanism of Cryptococcus neoformans phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages using confocal and electron microscopy techniques, as well as flow cytometry quantification, evaluating the importance of fungal capsule production and of host cell cytoskeletal elements for fungal phagocytosis. Electron microscopy analyses revealed that capsular and acapsular strains of C. neoformans are internalized by macrophages via both 'zipper' (receptor-mediated) and 'trigger' (membrane ruffle-dependent) phagocytosis mechanisms. Actin filaments surrounded phagosomes of capsular and acapsular yeasts, and the actin depolymerizing drugs cytochalasin D and latrunculin B inhibited yeast internalization and actin recruitment to the phagosome area. In contrast, nocodazole and paclitaxel, inhibitors of microtubule dynamics decreased internalization but did not prevent actin recruitment to the site of phagocytosis. Our results show that different uptake mechanisms, dependent on both actin and tubulin dynamics occur during yeast internalization by macrophages, and that capsule production does not affect the mode of Cryptococcus uptake by host cells.

  1. HCV core protein promotes hepatocyte proliferation and chemoresistance by inhibiting NR4A1

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Yongsheng, E-mail: yongshengtanwhu@126.com; Li, Yan, E-mail: liyansd2@163.com

    This study investigated the effect of HCV core protein on the proliferation of hepatocytes and hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCC), the influence of HCV core protein on HCC apoptosis induced by the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin, and the mechanism through which HCV core protein acts as a potential oncoprotein in HCV-related HCC by measuring the levels of NR4A1 and Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3), which are associated with tumor suppression and chemotherapy resistance. In the present study, PcDNA3.1-core and RUNX3 siRNA were transfected into LO2 and HepG2 cells using Lipofectamine 2000. LO2-core, HepG2-core, LO2-RUNX3 {sup low} and control cells were treated withmore » different concentrations of cisplatin for 72 h, and cell proliferation and apoptosis were assayed using the CellTiter 96{sup ®}Aqueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay Kit. Western blot and real time PCR analyses were used to detect NR4A1, RUNX3, smad7, Cyclin D1 and BAX. Confocal microscopy was used to determine the levels of NR4A1 in HepG2 and HepG2-core cells. The growth rate of HepG2-core cells was considerably greater than that of HepG2 cells. HCV core protein increased the expression of cyclin D1 and decreased the expressions of NR4A1 and RUNX3. In LO2 – RUNX3 {sup low}, the rate of cell proliferation and the level of cisplatin resistance were the same as in the LO2 -core. These results suggest that HCV core protein decreases the sensitivity of hepatocytes to cisplatin by inhibiting the expression of NR4A1 and promoting the expression of smad7, which negatively regulates the TGF-β pathway. This effect results in down regulation of RUNX3, a target of the TGF-β pathway. Taken together, these findings indicate that in hepatocytes, HCV core protein increases drug resistance and inhibits cell apoptosis by inhibiting the expressions of NR4A1 and RUNX3. - Highlights: • HCV core protein inhibits HepG2 cell sensitivity to cisplatin. • Core expression in HepG2 decreases

  2. Central adenosine A1 receptors inhibit cough via suppression of excitatory glutamatergic and tachykininergic neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    El-Hashim, Ahmed Z; Mathews, Seena; Al-Shamlan, Fajer

    2018-05-16

    The A 1 adenosine receptor is reported to mediate several excitatory effects in the airways and has inhibitory effects in the central nervous system. In this study, we investigated the role of peripheral and central A 1 adenosine receptors in regulating cough and airway obstruction. Drugs were administered to guinea pigs via the inhaled or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) routes. Cough was induced by exposing guinea pigs to aerosolised 0.4 M citric acid, following drug inhalation or i.c.v. infusion, in a plethysmograph box. An automated analyzer recorded simultaneously both cough and airway obstruction. Inhaled A 1 receptor agonist, cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), dose-dependently inhibited cough (cough: 8 ± 3.4, 6.0 ± 4.5 and 1.9 ± 0.6 vs. 15.4 ± 3.7 for 0.3, 0.6 and 1, mg ml -1 vs. vehicle, respectively) and also inhibited airway obstruction. Similarly, CPA, administered i.c.v., inhibited both the citric acid-induced cough (cough: 21.3 ± 4.0 and 8.8 ± 3.4 vs. 23 ± 3.0 for 1.8 and 3 nmole ml -1 vs. vehicle, respectively) and airway obstruction; this was prevented by pretreatment with the A 1 adenosine receptor antagonist cyclopenty l-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX; i.c.v.). Treatment with DPCPX alone, dose-dependently enhanced the citric acid-induced cough and airway obstruction. This was reversed following treatment with either the GLUN1 receptor antagonist DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid or the NK 1 receptor antagonist FK-888. These findings suggest that activation of either peripheral or central A 1 adenosine receptors inhibits citric acid-induced cough and airway obstruction. The data also suggest that tonic activation of central adenosine A 1 receptors serves as a negative regulator of cough and airway obstruction, secondary to inhibition of excitatory glutamatergic and tachykininergic neurotransmission. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Angiotensin II attenuates NMDA receptor-mediated neuronal cell death and prevents the associated reduction in Bcl-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Schelman, William R; Andres, Robert; Ferguson, Paul; Orr, Brent; Kang, Evan; Weyhenmeyer, James A

    2004-09-10

    While angiotensin II (Ang II) plays a major role in the regulation of blood pressure, fluid homeostasis and neuroendocrine function, recent studies have also implicated the peptide hormone in cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. In support of this, we have previously demonstrated that Ang II attenuates N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor signaling [Molec. Brain Res. 48 (1997) 197]. To further examine the modulatory role of Ang II on NMDA receptor function, we investigated the effect of angiotensin receptor (AT) activation on NMDA-mediated cell death and the accompanying decrease in Bcl-2 expression. The viability of differentiated N1E-115 and NG108-15 neuronal cell lines was reduced following exposure to NMDA in a dose-dependent manner. MTT analysis (mitochondrial integrity) revealed a decrease in cell survival of 49.4+/-12.3% in NG108 cells and 79.9+/-6.8% in N1E cells following treatment with 10 mM NMDA for 20 h. Cytotoxicity in N1E cells was inhibited by the noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801. Further, NMDA receptor-mediated cell death in NG108 cells was attenuated by treatment with Ang II. The Ang II effect was inhibited by both AT1 and AT2 receptor antagonists, losartan and PD123319, respectively, suggesting that both receptor subtypes may play a role in the survival effect of Ang II. Since it has been shown that activation of NMDA receptors alters the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins, Western blot analysis was performed in N1E cells to determine whether Ang II alters the NMDA-induced changes in Bcl-2 expression. A concentration-dependent decrease of intracellular Bcl-2 protein levels was observed following treatment with NMDA, and this reduction was inhibited by MK801. Addition of Ang II suppressed the NMDA receptor-mediated reduction in Bcl-2. The Ang II effect on NMDA-mediated changes in Bcl-2 levels was blocked by PD123319, but was not significantly changed by losartan, suggesting AT2 receptor specificity. Taken together, these

  4. Suppression of receptor-mediated Ca2+ mobilization and functional leukocyte responses by hyperforin.

    PubMed

    Feisst, Christian; Werz, Oliver

    2004-04-15

    We have recently identified hyperforin, a lipophilic constituent of the herb Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort), as a dual inhibitor of the proinflammatory enzymes cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-lipoxygenase. The aim of the present study was to further elucidate antiinflammatory properties and respective targets of hyperforin. We found that hyperforin inhibited the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as the release of leukocyte elastase (degranulation) in human isolated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL), challenged by the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) ligand N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) with an IC 50 approximately equal 0.3 microM. When PMNL were stimulated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) or ionomycin, hyperforin (up to 10 microM) failed to inhibit ROS production and elastase release, respectively. Moreover, hyperforin blocked receptor-mediated Ca(2+) mobilization ( IC 50 approximately equal 0.4 and 4 microM, respectively) in PMNL and monocytic cells, and caused a rapid decline of the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in resting cells. In contrast, the Ca(2+) influx induced by ionomycin or thapsigargin was not suppressed. Comparative studies with the specific phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122 and hyperforin revealed similarities between both compounds. Thus, U-73122 and hyperforin blocked fMLP- and PAF-induced Ca(2+) mobilization, ROS formation, and elastase release, but failed to suppress these responses when cells were stimulated by PMA or ionomycin. Also, both compounds rapidly decreased basal Ca(2+) levels in resting cells and led to a rapid decline of the Ca(2+) elevations evoked by fMLP or PAF. Our data suggest that hyperforin targets component(s) within G protein signaling cascades that regulate Ca(2+) homeostasis, coupled to proinflammatory leukocyte functions.

  5. Self-Assembly into Nanoparticles Is Essential for Receptor Mediated Uptake of Therapeutic Antisense Oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Ezzat, Kariem; Aoki, Yoshitsugu; Koo, Taeyoung; McClorey, Graham; Benner, Leif; Coenen-Stass, Anna; O'Donovan, Liz; Lehto, Taavi; Garcia-Guerra, Antonio; Nordin, Joel; Saleh, Amer F; Behlke, Mark; Morris, John; Goyenvalle, Aurelie; Dugovic, Branislav; Leumann, Christian; Gordon, Siamon; Gait, Michael J; El-Andaloussi, Samir; Wood, Matthew J A

    2015-07-08

    Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) have the potential to revolutionize medicine due to their ability to manipulate gene function for therapeutic purposes. ASOs are chemically modified and/or incorporated within nanoparticles to enhance their stability and cellular uptake, however, a major challenge is the poor understanding of their uptake mechanisms, which would facilitate improved ASO designs with enhanced activity and reduced toxicity. Here, we study the uptake mechanism of three therapeutically relevant ASOs (peptide-conjugated phosphorodiamidate morpholino (PPMO), 2'Omethyl phosphorothioate (2'OMe), and phosphorothioated tricyclo DNA (tcDNA) that have been optimized to induce exon skipping in models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We show that PPMO and tcDNA have high propensity to spontaneously self-assemble into nanoparticles. PPMO forms micelles of defined size and their net charge (zeta potential) is dependent on the medium and concentration. In biomimetic conditions and at low concentrations, PPMO obtains net negative charge and its uptake is mediated by class A scavenger receptor subtypes (SCARAs) as shown by competitive inhibition and RNAi silencing experiments in vitro. In vivo, the activity of PPMO was significantly decreased in SCARA1 knockout mice compared to wild-type animals. Additionally, we show that SCARA1 is involved in the uptake of tcDNA and 2'OMe as shown by competitive inhibition and colocalization experiments. Surface plasmon resonance binding analysis to SCARA1 demonstrated that PPMO and tcDNA have higher binding profiles to the receptor compared to 2'OMe. These results demonstrate receptor-mediated uptake for a range of therapeutic ASO chemistries, a mechanism that is dependent on their self-assembly into nanoparticles.

  6. Photolysis of Caged Ca2+ But Not Receptor-Mediated Ca2+ Signaling Triggers Astrocytic Glutamate Release

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Nathan A.; Xu, Qiwu; Goldman, Siri; Peng, Weiguo; Huang, Jason H.; Takano, Takahiro; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2013-01-01

    Astrocytes in hippocampal slices can dynamically regulate synaptic transmission in a process mediated by increases in intracellular Ca2+. However, it is debated whether astrocytic Ca2+ signals result in release of glutamate. We here compared astrocytic Ca2+ signaling triggered by agonist exposure versus photolysis side by side. Using transgenic mice in which astrocytes selectively express the MrgA1 receptor, we found that receptor-mediated astrocytic Ca2+ signaling consistently triggered neuronal hyperpolarization and decreased the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). In contrast, photolysis of caged Ca2+ (o-nitrophenyl–EGTA) in astrocytes led to neuronal depolarization and increased the frequency of mEPSCs through a metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated pathway. Analysis of transgenic mice in which astrocytic vesicular release is suppressed (dominant-negative SNARE mice) and pharmacological manipulations suggested that glutamate is primarily released by opening of anion channels rather than exocytosis. Combined, these studies show that photolysis but not by agonists induced astrocytic Ca2+ signaling triggers glutamate release. PMID:24174673

  7. Characterization of GABA/sub A/ receptor-mediated /sup 36/chloride uptake in rat brain synaptoneurosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Luu, M.D.; Morrow, A.L.; Paul, S.M.

    1987-09-07

    ..gamma..-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor-mediated /sup 36/chloride (/sup 36/Cl/sup -/) uptake was measured in synaptoneurosomes from rat brain. GABA and GABA agonists stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake in a concentration-dependent manner with the following order of potency: Muscimol>GABA>piperidine-4-sulfonic acid (P4S)>4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo-(5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol (THIP)=3-aminopropanesulfonic acid (3APS)>>taurine. Both P4S and 3APS behaved as partial agonists, while the GABA/sub B/ agonist, baclofen, was ineffective. The response to muscimol was inhibited by bicuculline and picrotoxin in a mixed competitive/non-competitive manner. Other inhibitors of GABA receptor-opened channels or non-neuronal anion channels such as penicillin, picrate, furosemide and disulfonic acid stilbenes also inhibited the response to muscimol. A regionalmore » variation in muscimol-stimulated /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake was observed; the largest responses were observed in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus, moderate responses were obtained in the striatum and hypothalamus and the smallest response was observed in the pons-medulla. GABA receptor-mediated /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ uptake was also dependent on the anion present in the media. The muscinol response varied in media containing the following anions: Br/sup -/>Cl/sup -/greater than or equal toNO/sub 3//sup -/>I/sup -/greater than or equal toSCN/sup -/>>C/sub 3/H/sub 5/OO/sup -/greater than or equal toClO/sub 4//sup -/>F/sup -/, consistent with the relative anion permeability through GABA receptor-gated anion channels and the enhancement of convulsant binding to the GABA receptor-gated Cl/sup -/ channel. 43 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.« less

  8. Receptor-Mediated and Fluid-Phase Transcytosis of Horseradish Peroxidase across Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ellinger, Isabella; Fuchs, Renate

    2010-01-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is often used as a fluid-phase marker to characterize endocytic and transcytotic processes. Likewise, it has been applied to investigate the mechanisms of biliary secretion of fluid in rat liver hepatocytes. However, HRP contains mannose residues and thus binds to mannose receptors (MRs) on liver cells, including hepatocytes. To study the role of MR-mediated endocytosis of HRP transport in hepatocytes, we determined the influence of the oligosaccharid mannan on HRP biliary secretion in the isolated perfused rat liver. A 1-minute pulse of HRP was applied followed by marker-free perfusion. HRP appeared in bile with biphasic kinetics: a first peak at 7 minutes and a second peak at 15 minutes after labeling. Perfusion with 0.8 mg/mL HRP in the presence of a twofold excess of mannan reduced the first peak by 41% without effect on the second one. Together with recently published data on MR expression in rat hepatocytes this demonstrates two different mechanisms for HRP transcytosis: a rapid, receptor-mediated transport and a slower fluid-phase transport. PMID:20168981

  9. CYP46A1 inhibition, brain cholesterol accumulation and neurodegeneration pave the way for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Djelti, Fathia; Braudeau, Jerome; Hudry, Eloise; Dhenain, Marc; Varin, Jennifer; Bièche, Ivan; Marquer, Catherine; Chali, Farah; Ayciriex, Sophie; Auzeil, Nicolas; Alves, Sandro; Langui, Dominique; Potier, Marie-Claude; Laprevote, Olivier; Vidaud, Michel; Duyckaerts, Charles; Miles, Richard; Aubourg, Patrick; Cartier, Nathalie

    2015-08-01

    Abnormalities in neuronal cholesterol homeostasis have been suspected or observed in several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. However, it has not been demonstrated whether an increased abundance of cholesterol in neurons in vivo contributes to neurodegeneration. To address this issue, we used RNA interference methodology to inhibit the expression of cholesterol 24-hydroxylase, encoded by the Cyp46a1 gene, in the hippocampus of normal mice. Cholesterol 24-hydroxylase controls cholesterol efflux from the brain and thereby plays a major role in regulating brain cholesterol homeostasis. We used an adeno-associated virus vector encoding short hairpin RNA directed against the mouse Cyp46a1 mRNA to decrease the expression of the Cyp46a1 gene in hippocampal neurons of normal mice. This increased the cholesterol concentration in neurons, followed by cognitive deficits and hippocampal atrophy due to apoptotic neuronal death. Prior to neuronal death, the recruitment of the amyloid protein precursor to lipid rafts was enhanced leading to the production of β-C-terminal fragment and amyloid-β peptides. Abnormal phosphorylation of tau and endoplasmic reticulum stress were also observed. In the APP23 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, the abundance of amyloid-β peptides increased following inhibition of Cyp46a1 expression, and neuronal death was more widespread than in normal mice. Altogether, these results suggest that increased amounts of neuronal cholesterol within the brain may contribute to inducing and/or aggravating Alzheimer's disease. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The Mas receptor mediates modulation of insulin signaling by angiotensin-(1-7).

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Marina C; Giani, Jorge F; Burghi, Valeria; Mayer, Marcos A; Carranza, Andrea; Taira, Carlos A; Dominici, Fernando P

    2012-08-20

    Angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) stimulates proteins belonging to the insulin signaling pathway and ameliorates the Ang II negative effects at this level. However, up to date, receptors involved and mechanisms behind these observations remain unknown. Accordingly, in the present study, we explored the in vivo effects of antagonism of the Ang-(1-7) specific Mas receptor on insulin signal transduction in rat insulin-target tissues. We evaluated the acute modulation of insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt, GSK-3β (Glycogen synthase kinase-3β) and AS160 (Akt substrate of 160kDa) by Ang-(1-7) and/or Ang II in the presence and absence of the selective Mas receptor antagonist A-779 in insulin-target tissues of normal rats. Also using A-779, we determined whether the Mas receptor mediates the improvement of insulin sensitivity exerted by chronic Ang-(1-7) treatment in fructose-fed rats (FFR), a model of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and mild hypertension. The two major findings of the present work are as follows; 1) Ang-(1-7) attenuates acute Ang II-mediated inhibition of insulin signaling components in normal rats via a Mas receptor-dependent mechanism; and 2). The Mas receptor appears to be involved in beneficial effects of Ang-(1-7) on the phosphorylation of crucial insulin signaling mediators (Akt, GSK-3β and AS160), in liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of FFR. These results shed light into the mechanism by which Ang-(1-7) exerts its positive physiological modulation of insulin actions in classical metabolic tissues and reinforces the central role of Akt in these effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Decrement of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents in dentate granule cells in epileptic hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Isokawa, M

    1996-05-01

    1. Inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) were studied in hippocampal dentate granule cells (DGCs) in the pilocarpine model and human temporal lobe epilepsy, with the use of the whole cell patch-clamp recording technique in slice preparations. 2. In the pilocarpine model, hippocampal slices were prepared from rats that were allowed to experience spontaneous seizures for 2 mo. Human hippocampal specimens were obtained from epileptic patients who underwent surgical treatment for medically intractable seizures. 3. IPSCs were generated by single perforant path stimulation and recorded at a membrane potential (Vm) of 0 mV near the reversal potential of glutamate excitatory postsynaptic currents in the voltage-clamp recording. IPSCs were pharmacologically identified as gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) IPSCs by 10 microM bicuculline methiodide. 4. During low-frequency stimulation, IPSCs were not different in amplitude among non-seizure-experienced rat hippocampi, human nonsclerotic hippocampi, seizure-experienced rat hippocampi, and human sclerotic hippocampi. In the last two groups of DGCs, current-clamp recordings indicated the presence of prolonged excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) mediated by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. 5. High-frequency stimulation, administered at Vm = -30 mV to activate NMDA currents, reduced GABAA IPSC amplitude specifically in seizure-experienced rat hippocampi (t = 2.5, P < 0.03) and human sclerotic hippocampi (t = 7.7, P < 0.01). This reduction was blocked by an NMDA receptor antagonist, 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) (50 microM). The time for GABAA IPSCs to recover to their original amplitude was also shortened by the application of APV. 6. I conclude that, when intensively activated, NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory transmission may interact with GABAergic synaptic inhibition in DGCs in seizure-experienced hippocampus to transiently reduce GABA(A) receptor-channel function. Such interactions may contribute to

  12. Direct muscarinic and nicotinic receptor-mediated excitation of rat medial vestibular nucleus neurons in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelan, K. D.; Gallagher, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    We have utilized intracellular recording techniques to investigate the cholinoceptivity of rat medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) neurons in a submerged brain slice preparation. Exogenous application of the mixed cholinergic agonists, acetylcholine (ACh) or carbachol (CCh), produced predominantly membrane depolarization, induction of action potential firing, and decreased input resistance. Application of the selective muscarinic receptor agonist muscarine (MUSC), or the selective nicotinic receptor agonists nicotine (NIC) or 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium (DMPP) also produced membrane depolarizations. The MUSC-induced depolarization was accompanied by decreased conductance, while an increase in conductance appeared to underlie the NIC- and DMPP-induced depolarizations. The muscarinic and nicotinic receptor mediated depolarizations persisted in tetrodotoxin and/or low Ca2+/high Mg2+ containing media, suggesting direct postsynaptic receptor activation. The MUSC-induced depolarization could be reversibly blocked by the selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist, atropine, while the DMPP-induced depolarization could be reversibly suppressed by the selective ganglionic nicotinic-receptor antagonist, mecamylamine. Some neurons exhibited a transient membrane hyperpolarization during the depolarizing response to CCh or MUSC application. This transient inhibition could be reversibly blocked by the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antagonist, bicuculline, suggesting that the underlying hyperpolarization results indirectly from the endogenous release of GABA acting at GABA receptors. This study confirms the cholinoceptivity of MVN neurons and establishes that individual MVN cells possess muscarinic as well as nicotinic receptors. The data provide support for a prominent role of cholinergic mechanisms in the direct and indirect regulation of the excitability of MVN neurons.

  13. Muscarinic receptor-mediated excitation of rat intracardiac ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Michiko; Ogata, Masanori; Kawamata, Tomoyuki; Ishibashi, Hitoshi

    2015-08-01

    Modulation of the membrane excitability of rat parasympathetic intracardiac ganglion neurons by muscarinic receptors was studied using an amphotericin B-perforated patch-clamp recording configuration. Activation of muscarinic receptors by oxotremorine-M (OxoM) depolarized the membrane, accompanied by repetitive action potentials. OxoM evoked inward currents under voltage-clamp conditions at a holding potential of -60 mV. Removal of extracellular Ca(2+) markedly increased the OxoM-induced current (IOxoM). The inward IOxoM in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) was fully inhibited by removal of extracellular Na(+), indicating the involvement of non-selective cation channels. The IOxoM was inhibited by organic cation channel antagonists including SKF-96365 and ML-204. The IOxoM was antagonized by muscarinic receptor antagonists with the following potency: 4-DAMP > pirenzepine = darifenacin > methoctramine. Muscarinic toxin 7 (MT-7), a highly selective inhibitor for M1 receptor, produced partial inhibition of the IOxoM. In the presence of MT-7, concentration-inhibition curve of the M3-preferring antagonist darifenacin was shifted to the left. These results suggest the contribution of M1 and M3 receptors to the OxoM response. The IOxoM was inhibited by U-73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor. The membrane-permeable IP3 receptor blocker xestospongin C also inhibited the IOxoM. Furthermore, pretreatment with thapsigargin and BAPTA-AM inhibited the IOxoM, while KN-62, a blocker of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, had no effect. These results suggest that the activation mechanism involves a PLC pathway, release of Ca(2+) from intracellular Ca(2+) stores and calmodulin. The cation channels activated by muscarinic receptors may play an important role in neuronal membrane depolarization in rat intracardiac ganglion neurons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Electroacupuncture improves cerebral blood flow and attenuates moderate ischemic injury via Angiotensin II its receptors-mediated mechanism in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; He, Jiaojun; Du, Yuanhao; Cui, Jingjun; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Xuezhu

    2014-11-11

    To investigate the effects and potential mechanism of electroacupuncture intervention on expressions of Angiotensin II and its receptors-mediated signaling pathway in experimentally induced cerebral ischemia. Totally 126 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group, model group and EA group. The latter two were further divided into ten subgroups (n = 6) following Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO). Changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and expressions of Angiotensin II and its receptors (AT1R, AT2R), as well as effector proteins in phosphatidyl inositol signal pathway were monitored before and at different times after MCAO. MCAO-induced decline of ipsilateral rCBF was partially suppressed by electroacupuncture, and contralateral blood flow was also superior to that of model group. Angiotensin II level was remarkably elevated immediately after MCAO, while electroacupuncture group exhibited significantly lower levels at 1 to 3 h and the value was significantly increased thereafter. The enhanced expression of AT1R was partially inhibited by electroacupuncture, while increased AT2R level was further induced. Electroacupuncture stimulation attenuated and postponed the upregulated-expressions of Gq and CaM these upregulations. ELISA results showed sharply increased expressions of DAG and IP3, which were remarkably neutralized by electroacupuncture. MCAO induced significant increases in expression of Angiotensin II and its receptor-mediated signal pathway. These enhanced expressions were significantly attenuated by electroacupuncture intervention, followed by reduced vasoconstriction and improved blood supply in ischemic region, and ultimately conferred beneficial effects on cerebral ischemia.

  15. GABAB receptor-mediated responses in GABAergic projection neurones of rat nucleus reticularis thalami in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, D; Huguenard, J R

    1996-06-15

    1. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings were obtained from GABAergic neurones of rat nucleus reticularis thalami (NRT) in vitro to assess pre- and postsynaptic GABAB receptor-mediated responses. Presynaptic inhibition of GABA release was studied at terminals on local axon collaterals within NRT as well as on projection fibres in the somatosensory relay nuclei. 2. The GABAB receptor agonist (R)-baclofen (10 microM) reduced monosynaptically evoked GABAA-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in NRT and somatosensory relay cells to 11 and 12% of control, respectively. 3. Action potential-independent miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) were observed in both cell types. Mean mIPSC amplitude was 20 pA in both NRT and relay cells at a holding potential of 0 mV. The mean mIPSC frequencies were 0.83 and 2.2 Hz in NRT and relay cells, respectively. Baclofen decreased mIPSP frequency by about half in each cell type without affecting amplitude. 4. Paired-burst inhibition of evoked IPSCs was studied in relay and NRT cells by applying pairs of 100 Hz stimulus bursts separated by 600 ms. The mean ratio of second to first peak IPSC amplitudes was 0.77. 5. In NRT cells baclofen induced a linear postsynaptic conductance increase of 0.82 nS with an associated reversal potential of -121 mV. A small (0.14 nS) GABAB component of the evoked IPSC was detected in only a minority of NRT cells (3 of 18). 6. All pre- and postsynaptic effects of baclofen, as well as PBI, were largely reversed by the specific GABAB receptor antagonist CGP 35348 (0.5 mM). 7. We conclude that activation of GABAB receptors in NRT leads to presynaptic autoinhibition of IPSCs in both NRT and relay cells, and to direct activation of a small linear K+ conductance. In addition our experiments suggest that reciprocal connectivity within NRT can be partially mediated by a small GABAB inhibitory event.

  16. Comparison of the inhibition potentials of icotinib and erlotinib against human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xuewei; Lv, Xia; Qu, Hengyan; Li, Dandan; Hu, Mengmeng; Guo, Wenzhi; Ge, Guangbo; Dong, Ruihua

    2017-11-01

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) plays a key role in detoxification of many potentially harmful compounds and drugs. UGT1A1 inhibition may bring risks of drug-drug interactions (DDIs), hyperbilirubinemia and drug-induced liver injury. This study aimed to investigate and compare the inhibitory effects of icotinib and erlotinib against UGT1A1, as well as to evaluate their potential DDI risks via UGT1A1 inhibition. The results demonstrated that both icotinib and erlotinib are UGT1A1 inhibitors, but the inhibitory effect of icotinib on UGT1A1 is weaker than that of erlotinib. The IC 50 values of icotinib and erlotinib against UGT1A1-mediated NCHN- O -glucuronidation in human liver microsomes (HLMs) were 5.15 and 0.68 μmol/L, respectively. Inhibition kinetic analyses demonstrated that both icotinib and erlotinib were non-competitive inhibitors against UGT1A1-mediated glucuronidation of NCHN in HLMs, with the K i values of 8.55 and 1.23 μmol/L, respectively. Furthermore, their potential DDI risks via UGT1A1 inhibition were quantitatively predicted by the ratio of the areas under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of NCHN. These findings are helpful for the medicinal chemists to design and develop next generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors with improved safety, as well as to guide reasonable applications of icotinib and erlotinib in clinic, especially for avoiding their potential DDI risks via UGT1A1 inhibition.

  17. Ligand Receptor-Mediated Regulation of Growth in Plants.

    PubMed

    Haruta, Miyoshi; Sussman, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    Growth and development of multicellular organisms are coordinately regulated by various signaling pathways involving the communication of inter- and intracellular components. To form the appropriate body patterns, cellular growth and development are modulated by either stimulating or inhibiting these pathways. Hormones and second messengers help to mediate the initiation and/or interaction of the various signaling pathways in all complex multicellular eukaryotes. In plants, hormones include small organic molecules, as well as larger peptides and small proteins, which, as in animals, act as ligands and interact with receptor proteins to trigger rapid biochemical changes and induce the intracellular transcriptional and long-term physiological responses. During the past two decades, the availability of genetic and genomic resources in the model plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana, has greatly helped in the discovery of plant hormone receptors and the components of signal transduction pathways and mechanisms used by these immobile but highly complex organisms. Recently, it has been shown that two of the most important plant hormones, auxin and abscisic acid (ABA), act through signaling pathways that have not yet been recognized in animals. For example, auxins stimulate cell elongation by bringing negatively acting transcriptional repressor proteins to the proteasome to be degraded, thus unleashing the gene expression program required for increasing cell size. The "dormancy" inducing hormone, ABA, binds to soluble receptor proteins and inhibits a specific class of protein phosphatases (PP2C), which activates phosphorylation signaling leading to transcriptional changes needed for the desiccation of the seeds prior to entering dormancy. While these two hormone receptors have no known animal counterparts, there are also many similarities between animal and plant signaling pathways. For example, in plants, the largest single gene family in the genome is the protein kinase

  18. Adrenergic receptor-mediated modulation of striatal firing patterns.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Hiroyuki; Kohno, Yu; Arake, Masashi; Tamura, Risa; Yukawa, Suguru; Sato, Yoshiaki; Morimoto, Yuji; Nishida, Yasuhiro; Yawo, Hiromu

    2016-11-01

    Although noradrenaline and adrenaline are some of the most important neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, the effects of noradrenergic/adrenergic modulation on the striatum have not been determined. In order to explore the effects of adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists on the striatal firing patterns, we used optogenetic methods which can induce continuous firings. We employed transgenic rats expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in neurons. The medium spiny neuron showed a slow rising depolarization during the 1-s long optogenetic striatal photostimulation and a residual potential with 8.6-s half-life decay after the photostimulation. As a result of the residual potential, five repetitive 1-sec long photostimulations with 20-s onset intervals cumulatively increased the number of spikes. This 'firing increment', possibly relating to the timing control function of the striatum, was used to evaluate the AR modulation. The β-AR agonist isoproterenol decreased the firing increment between the 1st and 5th stimulation cycles, while the α 1 -AR agonist phenylephrine enhanced the firing increment. Isoproterenol and adrenaline increased the early phase (0-0.5s of the photostimulation) firing response. This adrenergic modulation was inhibited by the β-antagonist propranolol. Conversely, phenylephrine and noradrenaline reduced the early phase response. β-ARs and α 1 -ARs work in opposition controlling the striatal firing initiation and the firing increment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Receptor-mediated Drp1 oligomerization on endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Wei-Ke; Fan, Xintao; Strack, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Drp1 is a dynamin guanosine triphosphatase important for mitochondrial and peroxisomal division. Drp1 oligomerization and mitochondrial recruitment are regulated by multiple factors, including interaction with mitochondrial receptors such as Mff, MiD49, MiD51, and Fis. In addition, both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and actin filaments play positive roles in mitochondrial division, but mechanisms for their roles are poorly defined. Here, we find that a population of Drp1 oligomers is associated with ER in mammalian cells and is distinct from mitochondrial or peroxisomal Drp1 populations. Subpopulations of Mff and Fis1, which are tail-anchored proteins, also localize to ER. Drp1 oligomers assemble on ER, from which they can transfer to mitochondria. Suppression of Mff or inhibition of actin polymerization through the formin INF2 significantly reduces all Drp1 oligomer populations (mitochondrial, peroxisomal, and ER bound) and mitochondrial division, whereas Mff targeting to ER has a stimulatory effect on division. Our results suggest that ER can function as a platform for Drp1 oligomerization, and that ER-associated Drp1 contributes to mitochondrial division. PMID:29158231

  20. Tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R inhibits human prostate cancer experimental bone metastasis in mouse models.

    PubMed

    Toneri, Makoto; Miwa, Shinji; Zhang, Yong; Hu, Cameron; Yano, Shuya; Matsumoto, Yasunori; Bouvet, Michael; Nakanishi, Hayao; Hoffman, Robert M; Zhao, Ming

    2015-10-13

    Bone metastasis is a frequent occurrence in prostate cancer patients and often is lethal. Zoledronic acid (ZOL) is often used for bone metastasis with limited efficacy. More effective models and treatment methods are required to improve the outcome of prostate cancer patients. In the present study, the effects of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R were analyzed in vitro and in vivo on prostate cancer cells and experimental bone metastasis. Both ZOL and S. typhimurium A1-R inhibited the growth of PC-3 cells expressing red fluorescent protien in vitro. To investigate the efficacy of S. typhimurium A1-R on prostate cancer experimental bone metastasis, we established models of both early and advanced stage bone metastasis. The mice were treated with ZOL, S. typhimurium A1-R, and combination therapy of both ZOL and S. typhimurium A1-R. ZOL and S. typhimurium A1-R inhibited the growth of solitary bone metastases. S. typhimurium A1-R treatment significantly decreased bone metastasis and delayed the appearance of PC-3 bone metastases of multiple mouse models. Additionally, S. typhimurium A1-R treatment significantly improved the overall survival of the mice with multiple bone metastases. The results of the present study indicate that S. typhimurium A1-R is useful to prevent and inhibit prostate cancer bone metastasis and has potential for future clinical use in the adjuvant setting.

  1. Scavenger receptor mediates systemic RNA interference in ticks.

    PubMed

    Aung, Kyaw Min; Boldbaatar, Damdinsuren; Umemiya-Shirafuji, Rika; Liao, Min; Xuenan, Xuan; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Galay, Remil Linggatong; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Fujisaki, Kozo

    2011-01-01

    RNA interference is an efficient method to silence gene and protein expressions. Here, the class B scavenger receptor CD36 (SRB) mediated the uptake of exogenous dsRNAs in the induction of the RNAi responses in ticks. Unfed female Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks were injected with a single or a combination of H. longicornis SRB (HlSRB) dsRNA, vitellogenin-1 (HlVg-1) dsRNA, and vitellogenin receptor (HlVgR) dsRNA. We found that specific and systemic silencing of the HlSRB, HlVg-1, and HlVgR genes was achieved in ticks injected with a single dsRNA of HlSRB, HlVg-1, and HlVgR. In ticks injected first with HlVg-1 or HlVgR dsRNA followed 96 hours later with HlSRB dsRNA (HlVg-1/HlSRB or HlVgR/HlSRB), gene silencing of HlSRB was achieved in addition to first knockdown in HlVg-1 or HlVgR, and prominent phenotypic changes were observed in engorgement, mortality, and hatchability, indicating that a systemic and specific double knockdown of target genes had been simultaneously attained in these ticks. However, in ticks injected with HlSRB dsRNA followed 96 hours later with HlVg-1 or HlVgR dsRNAs, silencing of HlSRB was achieved, but no subsequent knockdown in HlVgR or HlVg-1 was observed. The Westernblot and immunohistochemical examinations revealed that the endogenous HlSRB protein was fully abolished in midguts of ticks injected with HlSRB/HlVg-1 dsRNAs but HlVg-1 was normally expressed in midguts, suggesting that HlVg-1 dsRNA-mediated RNAi was fully inhibited by the first knockdown of HlSRB. Similarly, the abolished localization of HlSRB protein was recognized in ovaries of ticks injected with HlSRB/HlVgR, while normal localization of HlVgR was observed in ovaries, suggesting that the failure to knock-down HlVgR could be attributed to the first knockdown of HlSRB. In summary, we demonstrated for the first time that SRB may not only mediate the effective knock-down of gene expression by RNAi but also play essential roles for systemic RNAi of ticks.

  2. Scavenger Receptor Mediates Systemic RNA Interference in Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Aung, Kyaw Min; Boldbaatar, Damdinsuren; Umemiya-Shirafuji, Rika; Liao, Min; Xuenan, Xuan; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Linggatong Galay, Remil; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Fujisaki, Kozo

    2011-01-01

    RNA interference is an efficient method to silence gene and protein expressions. Here, the class B scavenger receptor CD36 (SRB) mediated the uptake of exogenous dsRNAs in the induction of the RNAi responses in ticks. Unfed female Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks were injected with a single or a combination of H. longicornis SRB (HlSRB) dsRNA, vitellogenin-1 (HlVg-1) dsRNA, and vitellogenin receptor (HlVgR) dsRNA. We found that specific and systemic silencing of the HlSRB, HlVg-1, and HlVgR genes was achieved in ticks injected with a single dsRNA of HlSRB, HlVg-1, and HlVgR. In ticks injected first with HlVg-1 or HlVgR dsRNA followed 96 hours later with HlSRB dsRNA (HlVg-1/HlSRB or HlVgR/HlSRB), gene silencing of HlSRB was achieved in addition to first knockdown in HlVg-1 or HlVgR, and prominent phenotypic changes were observed in engorgement, mortality, and hatchability, indicating that a systemic and specific double knockdown of target genes had been simultaneously attained in these ticks. However, in ticks injected with HlSRB dsRNA followed 96 hours later with HlVg-1 or HlVgR dsRNAs, silencing of HlSRB was achieved, but no subsequent knockdown in HlVgR or HlVg-1 was observed. The Westernblot and immunohistochemical examinations revealed that the endogenous HlSRB protein was fully abolished in midguts of ticks injected with HlSRB/HlVg-1 dsRNAs but HlVg-1 was normally expressed in midguts, suggesting that HlVg-1 dsRNA-mediated RNAi was fully inhibited by the first knockdown of HlSRB. Similarly, the abolished localization of HlSRB protein was recognized in ovaries of ticks injected with HlSRB/HlVgR, while normal localization of HlVgR was observed in ovaries, suggesting that the failure to knock-down HlVgR could be attributed to the first knockdown of HlSRB. In summary, we demonstrated for the first time that SRB may not only mediate the effective knock-down of gene expression by RNAi but also play essential roles for systemic RNAi of ticks. PMID:22145043

  3. Aspects of the homeostaic plasticity of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Mody, Istvan

    2005-01-01

    Plasticity of ligand-gated ion channels plays a critical role in nervous system development, circuit formation and refinement, and pathological processes. Recent advances have mainly focused on the plasticity of channels gated by excitatory amino acids, including their acclaimed role in learning and memory. These receptors, together with voltage-gated ion channels, have also been known to be subjected to a homeostatic form of plasticity that prevents destabilization of the neurone's function and that of the network during various physiological processes. To date, the plasticity of GABAA receptors has been examined mainly from a developmental and a pathological point of view. Little is known about homeostatic mechanisms governing their plasticity. This review summarizes some of the findings on the homeostatic plasticity of tonic and phasic inhibitory activity. PMID:15528237

  4. Androgen receptor mediated compensation of estradiol in response to aromatase inhibition: a mathematical model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemicals in the environment have the potential to cause reproductive toxicity by acting on the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. We have developed a mathematical model to predict chemical impacts on reproductive hormone production in the highly conserved HPG axis using...

  5. Metabotropic GABAB receptors mediate GABA inhibition of acetylcholine release in the rat neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Malomouzh, Artem I; Petrov, Konstantin A; Nurullin, Leniz F; Nikolsky, Evgeny E

    2015-12-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an amino acid which acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Here, we studied the effects of GABA on non-quantal, spontaneous, and evoked quantal acetylcholine (ACh) release from motor nerve endings. We found that while the application of 10 μM of GABA had no effect on spontaneous quantal ACh release, as detected by the frequency of miniature endplate potentials, GABA reduced the non-quantal ACh release by 57%, as determined by the H-effect value. Finally, the evoked quantal ACh release, estimated by calculating the quantal content of full-sized endplate potentials (EPPs), was reduced by 34%. GABA's inhibitory effect remained unchanged after pre-incubation with picrotoxin, an ionotropic GABAA receptor blocker, but was attenuated following application of the GABAB receptor blocker CGP 55845, which itself had no effect on ACh release. An inhibitor of phospholipase C, U73122, completely prevented the GABA-induced decrease in ACh release. Immunofluorescence demonstrated the presence of both subunits of the GABAB receptor (GABAB R1 and GABAB R2) in the neuromuscular junction. These findings suggest that metabotropic GABAB receptors are expressed in the mammalian neuromuscular synapse and their activation results in a phospholipase C-mediated reduction in the intensity of non-quantal and evoked quantal ACh release. We investigated the effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on neuromuscular transmission. GABA reduced the non-quantal and evoked quantal release of acetylcholine. These effects are mediated by GABAB receptors and are implemented via phospholipase C (PLC) activation. Our findings suggest that in the mammalian neuromuscular synapse, metabotropic GABAB receptors are expressed and their activation results in a reduction in the intensity of acetylcholine release. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  6. High Throughput Synthesis and Screening for Agents Inhibiting Androgen Receptor Mediated Gene Transcription

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    hydrochloride salt and methyl ester hydrolysis of 244 (LiOH, THF-MeOH) provided the lithium carboxylate Pyrrolidine based system (2a and b). Several hydro...strategy detailed above, the lithium salt 26 was used to provide trimer 28 (Scheme 4). However, coupling of the carboxylic acid derived from 28 with 3...M. A. Chem. Ind. 1996, 68, 325. 1. (a) Dervan, P. B. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2001, 9, 2215. (b) 13. The lithium salt 26 was used instead of the carboxylic

  7. Structural, Biochemical, and Computational Studies Reveal the Mechanism of Selective Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1A1 Inhibition by Cytotoxic Duocarmycin Analogues.

    PubMed

    Koch, Maximilian F; Harteis, Sabrina; Blank, Iris D; Pestel, Galina; Tietze, Lutz F; Ochsenfeld, Christian; Schneider, Sabine; Sieber, Stephan A

    2015-11-09

    Analogues of the natural product duocarmycin bearing an indole moiety were shown to bind aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) in addition to DNA, while derivatives without the indole solely addressed the ALDH1A1 protein. The molecular mechanism of selective ALDH1A1 inhibition by duocarmycin analogues was unraveled through cocrystallization, mutational studies, and molecular dynamics simulations. The structure of the complex shows the compound embedded in a hydrophobic pocket, where it is stabilized by several crucial π-stacking and van der Waals interactions. This binding mode positions the cyclopropyl electrophile for nucleophilic attack by the noncatalytic residue Cys302, thereby resulting in covalent attachment, steric occlusion of the active site, and inhibition of catalysis. The selectivity of duocarmycin analogues for ALDH1A1 is unique, since only minor alterations in the sequence of closely related protein isoforms restrict compound accessibility. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Menthol enhances phasic and tonic GABAA receptor-mediated currents in midbrain periaqueductal grey neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Benjamin K; Karim, Shafinaz; Goodchild, Ann K; Vaughan, Christopher W; Drew, Geoffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Menthol, a naturally occurring compound in the essential oil of mint leaves, is used for its medicinal, sensory and fragrant properties. Menthol acts via transient receptor potential (TRPM8 and TRPA1) channels and as a positive allosteric modulator of recombinant GABAA receptors. Here, we examined the actions of menthol on GABAA receptor-mediated currents in intact midbrain slices. Experimental Approach Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings were made from periaqueductal grey (PAG) neurons in midbrain slices from rats to determine the effects of menthol on GABAA receptor-mediated phasic IPSCs and tonic currents. Key Results Menthol (150–750 μM) produced a concentration-dependent prolongation of spontaneous GABAA receptor-mediated IPSCs, but not non-NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs throughout the PAG. Menthol actions were unaffected by TRPM8 and TRPA1 antagonists, tetrodotoxin and the benzodiazepine antagonist, flumazenil. Menthol also enhanced a tonic current, which was sensitive to the GABAA receptor antagonists, picrotoxin (100 μM), bicuculline (30 μM) and Zn2+ (100 μM), but unaffected by gabazine (10 μM) and a GABAC receptor antagonist, 1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)methylphosphinic acid hydrate (TPMPA; 50 μM). In addition, menthol potentiated currents induced by the extrasynaptic GABAA receptor agonist THIP/gaboxadol (10 μM). Conclusions and Implications These results suggest that menthol positively modulates both synaptic and extrasynaptic populations of GABAA receptors in native PAG neurons. The development of agents that potentiate GABAA-mediated tonic currents and phasic IPSCs in a manner similar to menthol could provide a basis for novel GABAA-related pharmacotherapies. PMID:24460753

  9. Ionotropic and metabotropic receptor mediated airway sensory nerve activation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Goo; Kollarik, Marian; Chuaychoo, Benjamas; Undem, Bradley J

    2004-01-01

    There are several receptors capable of inducing activating generator potentials in cough-associated afferent terminals in the airways. The chemical receptors leading to generator potentials can be subclassified into ionotropic and metabotropic types. An ionotropic receptor has an agonist-binding domain, and also serves directly as an ion channel that is opened upon binding of the agonist. Examples of ionotropic receptors found in airway sensory nerve terminals include receptors for serotonin (5-HT3 receptors), ATP (P2X receptors), acetylcholine (nicotinic receptors), receptors for capsaicin and related vanilloids (TRPV1 receptors), and acid receptors (acid sensing ion channels). Afferent nerve terminals can also be depolarized via activation of metabotropic or G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Among the GPCRs that can lead to activation of airway afferent fibers include bradykinin B2 and adenosine A1 receptors. The signaling events leading to GPCR-mediated membrane depolarization are more complex than that seen with ionotropic receptors. The GPCR-mediated effects are thought to occur through classical second messenger systems such as activation of phospholipase C. This may lead to membrane depolarization through interaction with specific ionotropic receptors (such as TRPV1) and/or various types of calcium activated channels.

  10. MicroRNA and receptor mediated signaling pathways as potential therapeutic targets in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Simonetta, Irene; Pinto, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Cardiac remodelling is a complex pathogenetic pathway involving genome expression, molecular, cellular, and interstitial changes that cause changes in size, shape and function of the heart after cardiac injury. Areas covered: We will review recent advances in understanding the role of several receptor-mediated signaling pathways and micro-RNAs, in addition to their potential as candidate target pathways in the pathogenesis of heart failure. The myocyte is the main target cell involved in the remodelling process via ischemia, cell necrosis and apoptosis (by means of various receptor pathways), and other mechanisms mediated by micro-RNAs. We will analyze the role of some receptor mediated signaling pathways such as natriuretic peptides, mediators of glycogen synthase kinase 3 and ERK1/2 pathways, beta-adrenergic receptor subtypes and relaxin receptor signaling mechanisms, TNF/TNF receptor family and TWEAK/Fn14 axis, and some micro-RNAs as candidate target pathways in pathogenesis of heart failure. These mediators of receptor-mediated pathways and micro-RNA are the most addressed targets of emerging therapies in modern heart failure treatment strategies. Expert opinion: Future treatment strategies should address mediators involved in multiple steps within heart failure pathogenetic pathways.

  11. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibition of col1a1 promoter expression in calvariae from neonatal transgenic mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedalov, A.; Salvatori, R.; Dodig, M.; Kapural, B.; Pavlin, D.; Kream, B. E.; Clark, S. H.; Woody, C. O.; Rowe, D. W.; Lichtler, A. C.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) on organ cultures of transgenic mouse calvariae containing segments of the Col1a1 promoter extending to -3518, -2297, -1997, -1794, -1763, and -1719 bp upstream of the transcription start site fused to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene. 1,25(OH)2D3 had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the expression of the -3518 bp promoter construct (ColCAT3.6), with maximal inhibition of about 50% at 10 nM. This level of inhibition was consistent with the previously observed effect on the endogenous Col1a1 gene in bone cell models. All of the shorter constructs were also inhibited by 10 nM 1,25(OH)2D3, suggesting that the sequences required for 1, 25(OH)2D3 inhibition are downstream of -1719 bp. The inhibitory effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on transgene mRNA was maintained in the presence of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, suggesting that the inhibitory effect on Col1a1 gene transcription does not require de novo protein synthesis. We also examined the in vivo effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment of transgenic mice on ColCAT activity, and found that 48 h treatment caused a dose-dependent inhibition of CAT activity in calvariae comparable to that observed in organ cultures. In conclusion, we demonstrated that 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibits Col1A1 promoter activity in transgenic mouse calvariae, both in vivo and in vitro. The results indicate that there is a 1, 25(OH)2D3 responsive element downstream of -1719 bp. The inhibitory effect does not require new protein synthesis.

  12. Efficient Receptor Mediated siRNA Delivery in Vitro by Folic Acid Targeted Pentablock Copolymer-Based Micelleplexes.

    PubMed

    Lehner, Roman; Liu, Kegang; Wang, Xueya; Hunziker, Patrick

    2017-08-14

    Novel, biocompatible polyplexes, based on the combination of cationic pentablock copolymers with folic acid functionalized copolymers, were designed and developed for target-specific siRNA delivery. The resulting micelleplexes spontaneously formed polymeric micelles with a hydrophobic core surrounded directly by a cationic poly-2-(4-aminobutyl)-oxazole (PABOXA) and subsequently shielded by hydrophilic poly-2-methyl-oxazole (PMOXA) layer. The described micelleplexes form highly stable particles even in complete serum after 24 h compared with the highly cationic polymer PEI, which show aggregate formation in serum containing buffer solution. Targeted siRNA delivery and gene knockdown could be shown using green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing HeLa cells, resulting in ∼31% and ∼8% suppression of the expression of GFP for targeted and nontargeted micelleplexes, respectively. Comparison studies of folic-receptor positive HeLa cells with normal folic-receptor-negative HEK293 cells revealed involvement of receptor mediated cellular uptake of fluorescently labeled siRNA. The new designed nanocarrier showed no cytotoxicity, having a potential application. The presented concept of shielding a nucleic-acid complexing cationic chains with a stealth layer and combining it with receptor ligand overcomes typical problems with undesired protein and cell interactions in delivery of nucleic acids using polymeric systems, opening new doors for application if RNA inhibition in the organism.

  13. Cryptococcus neoformans Is Internalized by Receptor-Mediated or ‘Triggered’ Phagocytosis, Dependent on Actin Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Caroline Rezende; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; de Souza, Wanderley; Rozental, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Cryptococcosis by the encapsulated yeast Cryptococcus neoformans affects mostly immunocompromised individuals and is a frequent neurological complication in AIDS patients. Recent studies support the idea that intracellular survival of Cryptococcus yeast cells is important for the pathogenesis of cryptococcosis. However, the initial steps of Cryptococcus internalization by host cells remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the mechanism of Cryptococcus neoformans phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages using confocal and electron microscopy techniques, as well as flow cytometry quantification, evaluating the importance of fungal capsule production and of host cell cytoskeletal elements for fungal phagocytosis. Electron microscopy analyses revealed that capsular and acapsular strains of C. neoformans are internalized by macrophages via both ‘zipper’ (receptor-mediated) and ‘trigger’ (membrane ruffle-dependent) phagocytosis mechanisms. Actin filaments surrounded phagosomes of capsular and acapsular yeasts, and the actin depolymerizing drugs cytochalasin D and latrunculin B inhibited yeast internalization and actin recruitment to the phagosome area. In contrast, nocodazole and paclitaxel, inhibitors of microtubule dynamics decreased internalization but did not prevent actin recruitment to the site of phagocytosis. Our results show that different uptake mechanisms, dependent on both actin and tubulin dynamics occur during yeast internalization by macrophages, and that capsule production does not affect the mode of Cryptococcus uptake by host cells. PMID:24586631

  14. CYP24A1 inhibition facilitates the anti-tumor effect of vitamin D3 on colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kósa, János P; Horváth, Péter; Wölfling, János; Kovács, Dóra; Balla, Bernadett; Mátyus, Péter; Horváth, Evelin; Speer, Gábor; Takács, István; Nagy, Zsolt; Horváth, Henrik; Lakatos, Péter

    2013-01-01

    AIM: The effects of vitamin D3 have been investigated on various tumors, including colorectal cancer (CRC). 25-hydroxyvitamin-D3-24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1), the enzyme that inactivates the active vitamin D3 metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-D3), is considered to be the main enzyme determining the biological half-life of 1,25-D3. During colorectal carcinogenesis, the expression and concentration of CYP24A1 increases significantly, suggesting that this phenomenon could be responsible for the proposed efficacy of 1,25-D3 in the treatment of CRC. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-tumor effects of vitamin D3 on the human CRC cell line Caco-2 after inhibition of the cytochrome P450 component of CYP24A1 activity. METHODS: We examined the expression of CYP24A1 mRNA and the effects of 1,25-D3 on the cell line Caco-2 after inhibition of CYP24A1. Cell viability and proliferation were determined by means of sulforhodamine-B staining and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, respectively, while cytotoxicity was estimated via the lactate dehydrogenase content of the cell culture supernatant. CYP24A1 expression was measured by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. A number of tetralone compounds were synthesized to investigate their CP24A1 inhibitory activity. RESULTS: In response to 1,25-D3, CYP24A1 mRNA expression was enhanced significantly, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Caco-2 cell viability and proliferation were not influenced by the administration of 1,25-D3 alone, but were markedly reduced by co-administration of 1,25-D3 and KD-35, a CYP24A1-inhibiting tetralone. Our data suggest that the mechanism of action of co-administered KD-35 and 1,25-D3 does not involve a direct cytotoxic effect, but rather the inhibition of cell proliferation. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that the selective inhibition of CYP24A1 by compounds such as KD-35 may be a new approach for enhancement of the anti-tumor effect of 1,25-D3 on CRC. PMID

  15. Mechanism of Inhibition of Hsp90 Dimerization by Gyrase B Inhibitor Coumermycin A1 (C-A1) Revealed by Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Thermodynamic Calculations.

    PubMed

    Cele, Favourite N; Kumalo, Hezekiel; Soliman, Mahmoud E S

    2016-09-01

    Heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 an emerging and attracting target in the anti-HIV drug discovery process due to the key role it plays in the pathogenicity of HIV-1 virus. In this research study, long-range all-atom molecular dynamics simulations were engaged for the bound and the unbound proteins to enhance the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the Hsp90 dimerization and inhibition. Results evidently showed that coumermycin A1 (C-A1), a recently discovered Hsp90 inhibitor, binds at the dimer's active site of the Hsp90 protein and leads to a substantial parting between dimeric opposed residues, which include Arg591.B, Lys594.A, Ser663.A, Thr653.B, Ala665.A, Thr649.B, Leu646.B and Asn669.A. Significant differences in magnitudes were observed in radius of gyration, root-mean-square deviation and root-mean-square fluctuation, which confirms a reasonably more flexible state in the apo conformation associated with it dimerization. In contrast, the bound conformer of Hsp90 showed less flexibility. This visibly highpoints the inhibition process resulting from the binding of the ligand. These findings were further validated by principal component analysis. We believe that the detailed dynamic analyses of Hsp90 presented in this study, would give an imperative insight and better understanding to the function and mechanisms of inhibition. Furthermore, information obtained from the binding mode of the inhibitor would be of great assistance in the design of more potent inhibitors against the HIV target Hsp90.

  16. Gonadotrophin-releasing activity of neurohypophysial hormones: II. The pituitary oxytocin receptor mediating gonadotrophin release differs from that of corticotrophs.

    PubMed

    Evans, J J; Catt, K J

    1989-07-01

    Neurohypophysial hormones stimulate gonadotrophin release from dispersed rat anterior pituitary cells in vitro, acting through receptors distinct from those which mediate the secretory response to gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH). The LH response to oxytocin was not affected by the presence of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, methyl isobutylxanthine, but was diminished in the absence of extracellular calcium and was progressively increased as the calcium concentration in the medium was raised to normal. In addition, the calcium channel antagonist, nifedipine, suppressed oxytocin-stimulated secretion of LH. It is likely that the mechanisms of LH release induced by GnRH and neurohypophysial hormones are similar, although stimulation of gonadotrophin secretion is mediated by separate receptor systems. Oxytocin was more active than vasopressin in releasing LH, but less active in releasing ACTH. The highly selective oxytocin agonist, [Thr4,Gly7]oxytocin, elicited concentration-dependent secretion of LH but had little effect on corticotrophin secretion. The neurohypophysial hormone antagonist analogues, [d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)2]vasopressin, [d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)2,Orn8]vasotocin and [d(CH2)5D-Tyr(Et)2Val4,Cit8]vasopressin, inhibited the LH response to both oxytocin and vasopressin. However, [d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)2]vasopressin was much less effective in inhibiting the ACTH response to the neurohypophysial hormones, and [d(CH2)5Tyr-(Me)2,Orn8]vasotocin and [d(CH2)5D-Tyr(Et)2,Val4,Cit8]vasopressin exhibited no inhibitory activity against ACTH release. Thus, agonist and antagonist analogues of neurohypophysial hormones display divergent activities with regard to LH and ACTH responses, and the neuropeptide receptor mediating gonadotroph activation is clearly different from that on the corticotroph. Whereas the corticotroph receptor is a vasopressin-type receptor an oxytocin-type receptor is responsible for gonadotrophin release by neurohypophysial hormones.

  17. Marketed Drugs Can Inhibit Cytochrome P450 27A1, a Potential New Target for Breast Cancer Adjuvant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mast, Natalia; Lin, Joseph B.

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 CYP27A1 is the only enzyme in humans converting cholesterol to 27-hydroxycholesterol, an oxysterol of multiple functions, including tissue-specific modulation of estrogen and liver X receptors. Both receptors seem to mediate adverse effects of 27-hydroxycholesterol in breast cancer when the levels of this oxysterol are elevated. The present work assessed druggability of CYP27A1 as a potential antibreast cancer target. We selected 26 anticancer and noncancer medications, most approved by the Food and Drug Administration, and evaluated them first in vitro for inhibition of purified recombinant CYP27A1 and binding to the enzyme active site. Six strong CYP27A1 inhibitors/binders were identified. These were the two antibreast cancer pharmaceuticals anastrozole and fadrozole, antiprostate cancer drug bicalutamide, sedative dexmedetomidine, and two antifungals ravuconazole and posaconazole. Anastrozole was then tested in vivo on mice, which received subcutaneous drug injections for 1 week. Mouse plasma and hepatic 27-hydroxycholesterol levels were decreased 2.6- and 1.6-fold, respectively, whereas plasma and hepatic cholesterol content remained unchanged. Thus, pharmacologic CYP27A1 inhibition is possible in the whole body and individual organs, but does not negatively affect cholesterol elimination. Our results enhance the potential of CYP27A1 as an antibreast cancer target, could be of importance for the interpretation of Femara versus Anastrozole Clinical Evaluation Trial, and bring attention to posaconazole as a potential complementary anti-breast cancer medication. More medications on the US market may have unanticipated off-target inhibition of CYP27A1, and we propose strategies for their identification. PMID:26082378

  18. Receptor-Mediated Drug Delivery to Macrophages in Chemotherapy of Leishmaniasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Amitabha; Chaudhuri, Gautam; Arora, Sunil K.; Sehgal, Shobha; Basu, Sandip K.

    1989-05-01

    Methotrexate coupled to maleylated bovine serum albumin was taken up efficiently through the ``scavenger'' receptors present on macrophages and led to selective killing of intracellular Leishmania mexicana amazonensis amastigotes in cultured hamster peritoneal macrophages. The drug conjugate was nearly 100 times as effective as free methotrexate in eliminating the intracellular parasites. Furthermore, in a model of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis in hamsters, the drug conjugate brought about more than 90% reduction in the size of footpad lesions within 11 days. In contrast, the free drug at a similar concentration did not significantly affect lesion size. These studies demonstrate the potential of receptor-mediated drug delivery in the therapy of macrophage-associated diseases.

  19. Receptor-Mediated Uptake of Phosphorothioate Antisense Oligonucleotides in Different Cell Types of the Liver.

    PubMed

    Miller, Colton M; Tanowitz, Michael; Donner, Aaron J; Prakash, Thazha P; Swayze, Eric E; Harris, Edward N; Seth, Punit P

    2018-06-01

    Oligonucleotide therapeutics have emerged as a third distinct platform for drug discovery within the pharmaceutical industry. Five oligonucleotide-based drugs have been approved by the US FDA and over 100 oligonucleotides drugs are currently at different stages of human trials. Several of these oligonucleotide drugs are modified using the phosphorothioate (PS) backbone modification where one of the nonbridging oxygen atoms of the phosphodiester linkage is replaced with sulfur. In this review, we summarize our knowledge on receptor-mediated uptake of PS antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) within different cell types of the liver-a privileged organ for the discovery of oligonucleotide-based therapeutics.

  20. Inhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupperman, Joel J.

    1978-01-01

    Explores the use of the concept of inhibition in moral philosophy. Argues that there are strong practical reasons for basing moral teaching on simple moral rules and for inculcating inhibitions about breaking these rules. (Author)

  1. Insulin Regulates GABAA Receptor-Mediated Tonic Currents in the Prefrontal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Trujeque-Ramos, Saraí; Castillo-Rolón, Diego; Galarraga, Elvira; Tapia, Dagoberto; Arenas-López, Gabina; Mihailescu, Stefan; Hernández-López, Salvador

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies, have shown that insulin increases extrasynaptic GABA A receptor-mediated currents in the hippocampus, causing alterations of neuronal excitability. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is another brain area which is involved in cognition functions and expresses insulin receptors. Here, we used electrophysiological, molecular, and immunocytochemical techniques to examine the effect of insulin on the extrasynaptic GABA A receptor-mediated tonic currents in brain slices. We found that insulin (20-500 nM) increases GABA A -mediated tonic currents. Our results suggest that insulin promotes the trafficking of extrasynaptic GABA A receptors from the cytoplasm to the cell membrane. Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry showed that PFC extrasynaptic GABA A receptors contain α-5 and δ subunits. Insulin effect on tonic currents decreased the firing rate and neuronal excitability in layer 5-6 PFC cells. These effects of insulin were dependent on the activation of the PI3K enzyme, a key mediator of the insulin response within the brain. Taken together, these results suggest that insulin modulation of the GABA A -mediated tonic currents can modify the activity of neural circuits within the PFC. These actions could help to explain the alterations of cognitive processes associated with changes in insulin signaling.

  2. Interleukin 1 amplifies receptor-mediated activation of phospholipase A2 in 3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Burch, R M; Connor, J R; Axelrod, J

    1988-01-01

    Human recombinant interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) and IL-1 beta stimulated prostaglandin E2 synthesis in 3T3 fibroblasts in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Enhanced prostaglandin E2 synthesis after IL-1 treatment was apparent by 1 hr and continued to increase for at least 2 days. Half-maximal stimulation occurred at 0.5 pM IL-1 alpha or IL-1 beta, and both interleukins were equally effective, with maximal stimulation occurring in response to 5-10 pM IL-1. In contrast to IL-1, bradykinin stimulation of prostaglandin E2 synthesis is rapid; its effect is maximal by 5 min. In cells that had been pretreated with IL-1 for 24 hr, prostaglandin E2 synthesis in response to bradykinin was amplified more than 10-fold. IL-1 also amplified the receptor-mediated formation of prostaglandin E2 by bombesin and thrombin. The lymphokine did not affect bradykinin receptor number or affinity. IL-1 treatment induced phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase but not phospholipase C or prostaglandin E isomerase. It also enhanced bradykinin-stimulated GTPase activity, suggesting possible induction of the GTP-binding regulatory protein coupled to the bradykinin receptor. Thus, IL-1 enhanced receptor-mediated release of prostaglandin E2 in response to bradykinin, bombesin, and thrombin by increasing the cellular levels of phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase, and GTP-binding regulatory protein(s). PMID:2901097

  3. Opioid receptors mediate direct predictive fear learning: evidence from one-trial blocking.

    PubMed

    Cole, Sindy; McNally, Gavan P

    2007-04-01

    Pavlovian fear learning depends on predictive error, so that fear learning occurs when the actual outcome of a conditioning trial exceeds the expected outcome. Previous research has shown that opioid receptors, including mu-opioid receptors in the ventrolateral quadrant of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (vlPAG), mediate such predictive fear learning. Four experiments reported here used a within-subject one-trial blocking design to study whether opioid receptors mediate a direct or indirect action of predictive error on Pavlovian association formation. In Stage I, rats were trained to fear conditioned stimulus (CS) A by pairing it with shock. In Stage II, CSA and CSB were co-presented once and co-terminated with shock. Two novel stimuli, CSC and CSD, were also co-presented once and co-terminated with shock in Stage II. The results showed one-trial blocking of fear learning (Experiment 1) as well as one-trial unblocking of fear learning when Stage II training employed a higher intensity footshock than was used in Stage I (Experiment 2). Systemic administrations of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (Experiment 3) or intra-vlPAG administrations of the selective mu-opioid receptor antagonist CTAP (Experiment 4) prior to Stage II training prevented one-trial blocking. These results show that opioid receptors mediate the direct actions of predictive error on Pavlovian association formation.

  4. Knockdown of SLC41A1 magnesium transporter promotes mineralization and attenuates magnesium inhibition during osteogenesis of mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Yu-Tzu; Shih, Ya-Yi; Liu, Yu-An; Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Lee, Oscar K

    2017-02-21

    Magnesium is essential for numerous physiological functions. Magnesium exists mostly in bone and the amount is dynamically regulated by skeletal remodeling. Accelerating bone mass loss occurs when magnesium intake is insufficient; whereas high magnesium could lead to mineralization defects. However, the underlying magnesium regulatory mechanisms remain elusive. In the present study, we investigated the effects of high extracellular magnesium concentration on osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) and the role of magnesium transporter SLC41A1 in the mineralization process. Murine MSCs derived from the bone marrow of BALB/c mouse or commercially purchased human MSCs were treated with osteogenic induction medium containing 5.8 mM magnesium chloride and the osteogenic differentiation efficiency was compared with that of MSCs in normal differentiation medium containing 0.8 mM magnesium chloride by cell morphology, gene expression profile of osteogenic markers, and Alizarin Red staining. Slc41a1 gene knockdown in MSCs was performed by siRNA transfection using Lipofectamine RNAiMAX, and the differentiation efficiency of siRNA-treated MSCs was also assessed. High concentration of extracellular magnesium ion inhibited mineralization during osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Early osteogenic marker genes including osterix, alkaline phosphatase, and type I collagen were significantly downregulated in MSCs under high concentration of magnesium, whereas late marker genes such as osteopontin, osteocalcin, and bone morphogenetic protein 2 were upregulated with statistical significance compared with those in normal differentiation medium containing 0.8 mM magnesium. siRNA treatment targeting SLC41A1 magnesium transporter, a member of the solute carrier family with a predominant Mg 2+ efflux system, accelerated the mineralization process and ameliorated the inhibition of mineralization caused by high concentration of magnesium. High concentration of

  5. LPA1 receptor-mediated thromboxane A2 release is responsible for lysophosphatidic acid-induced vascular smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Dancs, Péter Tibor; Ruisanchez, Éva; Balogh, Andrea; Panta, Cecília Rita; Miklós, Zsuzsanna; Nüsing, Rolf M; Aoki, Junken; Chun, Jerold; Offermanns, Stefan; Tigyi, Gábor; Benyó, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) has been recognized recently as an endothelium-dependent vasodilator, but several lines of evidence indicate that it may also stimulate vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), thereby contributing to vasoregulation and remodeling. In the present study, mRNA expression of all 6 LPA receptor genes was detected in murine aortic VSMCs, with the highest levels of LPA 1 , LPA 2 , LPA 4 , and LPA 6 In endothelium-denuded thoracic aorta (TA) and abdominal aorta (AA) segments, 1-oleoyl-LPA and the LPA 1-3 agonist VPC31143 induced dose-dependent vasoconstriction. VPC31143-induced AA contraction was sensitive to pertussis toxin (PTX), the LPA 1&3 antagonist Ki16425, and genetic deletion of LPA 1 but not that of LPA 2 or inhibition of LPA 3 , by diacylglycerol pyrophosphate. Surprisingly, vasoconstriction was also diminished in vessels lacking cyclooxygenase-1 [COX1 knockout (KO)] or the thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptor (TP KO). VPC31143 increased thromboxane A 2 (TXA 2 ) release from TA of wild-type, TP-KO, and LPA 2 -KO mice but not from LPA 1 -KO or COX1-KO mice, and PTX blocked this effect. Our findings indicate that LPA causes vasoconstriction in VSMCs, mediated by LPA 1 -, G i -, and COX1-dependent autocrine/paracrine TXA 2 release and consequent TP activation. We propose that this new-found interaction between the LPA/LPA 1 and TXA 2 /TP pathways plays significant roles in vasoregulation, hemostasis, thrombosis, and vascular remodeling.-Dancs, P. T., Ruisanchez, E., Balogh, A., Panta, C. R., Miklós, Z., Nüsing, R. M., Aoki, J., Chun, J., Offermanns, S., Tigyi, G., Benyó, Z. LPA 1 receptor-mediated thromboxane A 2 release is responsible for lysophosphatidic acid-induced vascular smooth muscle contraction. © FASEB.

  6. Asialoglycoprotein receptor mediates the toxic effects of an asialofetuin-diphtheria toxin fragment A conjugate on cultured rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Cawley, D.B.; Simpson, D.L.; Herschman, H.R.

    1981-06-01

    We have constructed a toxic hybrid protein that is recognized by asialoglycoprotein (ASGP) receptors of cultured rat hepatocytes. The conjugate consists of fragment A of diphtheria toxin (DTA) linked by a disulfide bond to asialofetuin (ASF). This conjugate is highly toxic, inhibiting protein synthesis in primary rat hepatocytes at concentrations as low as 10 pM. The ASF-DTA conjugate was 600 and 1800 times as toxic as diphtheria toxin and DTA, respectively, on primary rat hepatocytes. The ASGP receptor recognizes galactose-terminated proteins. We tested a series of glycoproteins for their ability to block the action of the ASF-DTA conjugate. Fetuin andmore » orosomucoid, two glycoproteins with terminal sialic acid on their oligosaccharide chains, did not block the action of the conjugate. Their galactose-terminated asialo derivatives, ASF and asialoorosomucoid, as expected, did block the action of the conjugate. The N-acetylglucosaminyl-terminated derivative (asialoagalactoorosomucoid) had no appreciable effect on the activity of the conjugate. We tested the ASF-DTA conjugate on six cell types; except for primary rat hepatocytes, none of them were affected by a high concentration (10 nM) of ASF-DTA conjugate. A fetuin-DTA conjugate was less toxic by a factor of 300 than the ASF-DTA conjugate and exerted its effects primarily through non-receptor-mediated mechanisms. The highly toxic ASF-DTA conjugate is cell-type specific, and its action is mediated by a well-characterized receptor, whose mechanism of receptor-ligand internalization has been extensively investigated.« less

  7. Asialoglycoprotein receptor mediates the toxic effects of an asialofetuin-diphtheria toxin fragment A conjugate on cultured rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Cawley, D B; Simpson, D L; Herschman, H R

    1981-01-01

    We have constructed a toxic hybrid protein that is recognized by asialoglycoprotein (ASGP) receptors of cultured rat hepatocytes. The conjugate consists of fragment A of diphtheria toxin (DTA) linked by a disulfide bond to asialofetuin (ASF). This conjugate is highly toxic, inhibiting protein synthesis in primary rat hepatocytes at concentrations as low as 10 pM. The ASF-DTA conjugate was 600 and 1800 times as toxic as diphtheria toxin and DTA, respectively, on primary rat hepatocytes. The ASGP receptor recognizes galactose-terminated proteins. We tested a series of glycoproteins for their ability to block the action of the ASF-DTA conjugate. Fetuin and orosomucoid, two glycoproteins with terminal sialic acid on their oligosaccharide chains, did not block the action of the conjugate. Their galactose-terminated asialo derivatives, ASF and asialoorosomucoid, as expected, did block the action of the conjugate. The N-acetylglucosaminyl-terminated derivative (asialogalactoorsomucoid) had no appreciable effect on the activity of the conjugate. We tested the ASF-DTA conjugate on six cell types; except for primary rat hepatocytes, none of them were affected by a high concentration (10 nM) of ASF-DTA conjugate. A fetuin-DTA conjugate was less toxic by a factor of 300 than the ASF-DTA conjugate and exerted its effects primarily through non-receptor-mediated mechanisms. The highly toxic ASF-DTA conjugate is cell-type specific, and its action is mediated by a well-characterized receptor, whose mechanism of receptor-ligand internalization has been extensively investigated. Images PMID:6167984

  8. Role of receptor-mediated endocytosis in the antiangiogenic effects of human T lymphoblastic cell-derived microparticles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun; Xiong, Wei; Qiu, Qian; Shao, Zhuo; Shao, Zuo; Hamel, David; Tahiri, Houda; Leclair, Grégoire; Lachapelle, Pierre; Chemtob, Sylvain; Hardy, Pierre

    2012-04-15

    Microparticles possess therapeutic potential regarding angiogenesis. We have demonstrated the contribution of apoptotic human CEM T lymphocyte-derived microparticles (LMPs) as inhibitors of angiogenic responses in animal models of inflammation and tumor growth. In the present study, we characterized the antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) effects of LMPs on pathological angiogenesis in an animal model of oxygen-induced retinopathy and explored the role of receptor-mediated endocytosis in the effects of LMPs on human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs). LMPs dramatically inhibited cell growth of HRECs, suppressed VEGF-induced cell migration in vitro experiments, and attenuated VEGF-induced retinal vascular leakage in vivo. Intravitreal injections of fluorescently labeled LMPs revealed accumulation of LMPs in retinal tissue, with more than 60% reductions of the vascular density in retinas of rats with oxygen-induced neovascularization. LMP uptake experiments demonstrated that the interaction between LMPs and HRECs is dependent on temperature. In addition, endocytosis is partially dependent on extracellular calcium. RNAi-mediated knockdown of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) reduced the uptake of LMPs and attenuated the inhibitory effects of LMPs on VEGF-A protein expression and HRECs cell growth. Intravitreal injection of lentivirus-mediated RNA interference reduced LDLR protein expression in retina by 53% and significantly blocked the antiangiogenic effects of LMPs on pathological vascularization. In summary, the potent antiangiogenic LMPs lead to a significant reduction of pathological retinal angiogenesis through modulation of VEGF signaling, whereas LDLR-mediated endocytosis plays a partial, but pivotal, role in the uptake of LMPs in HRECs.

  9. Contribution of Resting Conductance, GABAA-Receptor Mediated Miniature Synaptic Currents and Neurosteroid to Chloride Homeostasis in Central Neurons.

    PubMed

    Yelhekar, Tushar D; Druzin, Michael; Johansson, Staffan

    2017-01-01

    Maintenance of a low intraneuronal Cl - concentration, [Cl - ] i , is critical for inhibition in the CNS. Here, the contribution of passive, conductive Cl - flux to recovery of [Cl - ] i after a high load was analyzed in mature central neurons from rat. A novel method for quantifying the resting Cl - conductance, important for [Cl - ] i recovery, was developed and the possible contribution of GABA A and glycine receptors and of ClC-2 channels to this conductance was analyzed. The hypothesis that spontaneous, action potential-independent release of GABA is important for [Cl - ] i recovery was tested. [Cl - ] i was examined by gramicidin-perforated patch recordings in medial preoptic neurons. Cells were loaded with Cl - by combining GABA or glycine application with a depolarized voltage, and the time course of [Cl - ] i was followed by measurements of the Cl - equilibrium potential , as obtained from the current recorded during voltage ramps combined with GABA or glycine application. The results show that passive Cl - flux contributes significantly, in the same order of magnitude as does K + -Cl - cotransporter 2 (KCC2), to [Cl - ] i recovery and that Cl - conductance accounts for ∼ 6% of the total resting conductance. A major fraction of this resting Cl - conductance is picrotoxin (PTX)-sensitive and likely due to open GABA A receptors, but ClC-2 channels do not contribute. The results also show that when the decay of GABA A receptor-mediated miniature postsynaptic currents (minis) is slowed by the neurosteroid allopregnanolone, such minis may significantly quicken [Cl - ] i recovery, suggesting a possible steroid-regulated role for minis in the control of Cl - homeostasis.

  10. Gelidium amansii promotes dendritic spine morphology and synaptogenesis, and modulates NMDA receptor-mediated postsynaptic current.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Md Abdul; Mohibbullah, Md; Hong, Yong-Ki; Nam, Joo Hyun; Moon, Il Soo

    2014-01-01

    Neurotrophic factors are essential for the differentiation and maturation of developing neurons as well as providing survival support to the mature neurons. Moreover, therapeutically neurotrophic factors are promising to reconstruct partially damaged neuronal networks in neurodegenerative diseases. In the previous study, we reported that the ethanol extract of an edible marine alga, Gelidium amansii (GAE) had shown promising effects in the development and maturation of both axon and dendrites of hippocampal neurons. Here, we demonstrate that in primary culture of hippocampal neurons (1) GAE promotes a significant increase in the number of filopodia and dendritic spines; (2) promotes synaptogenesis; (3) enhances N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor recruitment; and (4) modulates NMDA-receptor-mediated postsynaptic current. Taken together these findings that GAE might be involved in both morphological and functional maturation of neurons suggest the possibility that GAE may constitute a promising candidate for novel compounds for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. Advanced Glycation End-Products and Their Receptor-Mediated Roles: Inflammation and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Younessi, Parisa; Yoonessi, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Glycation is a protein modification, which results in a change in a protein structure. Glycation is believed to be the etiology of various age-related diseases such as diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Activation of microglia and resident macrophages in the brain by glycated proteins with subsequent oxidative stress and cytokine release may be an important factor in the progression of AD. It is also suggested that interaction between an advanced glycation end product (AGE) and its receptor (RAGE) results in glial activation as well as cytokine release and reactive oxygen species release. The use of antioxidants, receptor mediated compounds and reactive oxygen species scavenging enzyme produce an opportunity to intervene with AGE-RAGE signaling pathway, and thereby to slow down the progression of aging-related diseases. PMID:23358382

  12. Targeting receptor-mediated transport for delivery of biologics across the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Lajoie, Jason M; Shusta, Eric V

    2015-01-01

    Biologics are an emerging class of medicines with substantial promise to treat neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, stroke, and multiple sclerosis. However, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) presents a formidable obstacle that appreciably limits brain uptake and hence the therapeutic potential of biologics following intravenous administration. One promising strategy for overcoming the BBB to deliver biologics is the targeting of endogenous receptor-mediated transport (RMT) systems that employ vesicular trafficking to transport ligands across the BBB endothelium. If a biologic is modified with an appropriate targeting ligand, it can gain improved access to the brain via RMT. Various RMT-targeting strategies have been developed over the past 20 years, and this review explores exciting recent advances, emphasizing studies that show brain targeting in vivo.

  13. Histamine H1-receptor-mediated modulation of the delayed rectifier K+ current in guinea-pig atrial cells: opposite effects on IKs and IKr

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yasunori; Ogura, Takehiko; Uemura, Hiroko; Saito, Toshihiro; Masuda, Yoshiaki; Nakaya, Haruaki

    1999-01-01

    Histamine receptor-mediated modulation of the rapid and slow components of the delayed rectifier K+ current (IK) was investigated in enzymatically-dissociated atrial cells of guinea-pigs using the whole cell configuration of the patch clamp technique.Histamine at a concentration of 10 μM enhanced IK recorded during strong depolarization to potentials ranging from +20 to +40 mV and inhibited IK recorded during mild depolarization to potentials ranging from −20 to −10 mV. The increase of IK was more prominent with longer depolarizing pulses, whereas the inhibition of IK was more marked with shorter depolarizing pulses, suggesting that histamine enhances IKs (the slow component of IK) and inhibits IKr (the rapid component of IK).The histamine-induced enhancement of IKs and inhibition of IKr were abolished by 3 μM chlorpheniramine but not by 10 μM cimetidine, suggesting that these opposite effects of histamine on IKr and IKs are mediated by H1-receptors.In the presence of 5 μM E-4031, an IKr blocker, histamine hardly affected IK during mild depolarization although it enhanced IK during strong depolarization in a concentration-dependent manner. Histamine increased IKs with EC50 value of 0.7 μM. In the presence of 300 μM indapamide, an IKs blocker, histamine hardly affected IKs but inhibited IKr in a concentration-dependent manner. Histamine decreased IKr with IC50 value of 0.3 μM.Pretreatment with 100 nM calphostin C or 30 nM staurosporine, protein kinase C inhibitors, abolished the histamine-induced enhancement of IKs, but failed to affect the histamine-induced inhibition of IKr.We conclude that in guinea-pig atrial cells H1-receptor stimulation enhances IKs and inhibits IKr through different intracellular mechanisms. PMID:10602335

  14. Potentiation of NMDA receptor-mediated transmission in striatal cholinergic interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Oswald, Manfred J.; Schulz, Jan M.; Kelsch, Wolfgang; Oorschot, Dorothy E.; Reynolds, John N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Pauses in the tonic firing of striatal cholinergic interneurons (CINs) emerge during reward-related learning in response to conditioning of a neutral cue. We have previously reported that augmenting the postsynaptic response to cortical afferents in CINs is coupled to the emergence of a cell-intrinsic afterhyperpolarization (AHP) underlying pauses in tonic activity. Here we investigated in a bihemispheric rat-brain slice preparation the mechanisms of synaptic plasticity of excitatory afferents to CINs and the association with changes in the AHP. We found that high frequency stimulation (HFS) of commissural corticostriatal afferents from the contralateral hemisphere induced a robust long-term depression (LTD) of postsynaptic potentials (PSP) in CINs. Depression of the PSP of smaller magnitude and duration was observed in response to HFS of the ipsilateral white matter or cerebral cortex. In Mg2+-free solution HFS induced NMDA receptor-dependent potentiation of the PSP, evident in both the maximal slope and amplitude of the PSP. The increase in maximal slope corroborates previous findings, and was blocked by antagonism of either D1-like dopamine receptors with SCH23390 or D2-like dopamine receptors with sulpiride during HFS in Mg2+-free solution. Potentiation of the slower PSP amplitude component was due to augmentation of the NMDA receptor-mediated potential as this was completely reversed on subsequent application of the NMDA receptor antagonist AP5. HFS similarly potentiated NMDA receptor currents isolated by blockade of AMPA/kainate receptors with CNQX. The plasticity-induced increase in the slow PSP component was directly associated with an increase in the subsequent AHP. Thus plasticity of cortical afferent synapses is ideally suited to influence the cue-induced firing dynamics of CINs, particularly through potentiation of NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission. PMID:25914618

  15. Potentiation of NMDA receptor-mediated transmission in striatal cholinergic interneurons.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Manfred J; Schulz, Jan M; Kelsch, Wolfgang; Oorschot, Dorothy E; Reynolds, John N J

    2015-01-01

    Pauses in the tonic firing of striatal cholinergic interneurons (CINs) emerge during reward-related learning in response to conditioning of a neutral cue. We have previously reported that augmenting the postsynaptic response to cortical afferents in CINs is coupled to the emergence of a cell-intrinsic afterhyperpolarization (AHP) underlying pauses in tonic activity. Here we investigated in a bihemispheric rat-brain slice preparation the mechanisms of synaptic plasticity of excitatory afferents to CINs and the association with changes in the AHP. We found that high frequency stimulation (HFS) of commissural corticostriatal afferents from the contralateral hemisphere induced a robust long-term depression (LTD) of postsynaptic potentials (PSP) in CINs. Depression of the PSP of smaller magnitude and duration was observed in response to HFS of the ipsilateral white matter or cerebral cortex. In Mg(2+)-free solution HFS induced NMDA receptor-dependent potentiation of the PSP, evident in both the maximal slope and amplitude of the PSP. The increase in maximal slope corroborates previous findings, and was blocked by antagonism of either D1-like dopamine receptors with SCH23390 or D2-like dopamine receptors with sulpiride during HFS in Mg(2+)-free solution. Potentiation of the slower PSP amplitude component was due to augmentation of the NMDA receptor-mediated potential as this was completely reversed on subsequent application of the NMDA receptor antagonist AP5. HFS similarly potentiated NMDA receptor currents isolated by blockade of AMPA/kainate receptors with CNQX. The plasticity-induced increase in the slow PSP component was directly associated with an increase in the subsequent AHP. Thus plasticity of cortical afferent synapses is ideally suited to influence the cue-induced firing dynamics of CINs, particularly through potentiation of NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission.

  16. Biotin-Tagged Polysaccharide Vesicular Nanocarriers for Receptor-Mediated Anticancer Drug Delivery in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Nilesh Umakant; Jayakannan, Manickam

    2018-06-15

    Biotin-conjugated multi-stimuli-responsive polysaccharide vesicular nanocarriers are designed and developed, for the first time, to accomplish receptor-mediated endocytosis in cancer cells and to deliver anticancer drugs at the intracellular compartments. For this purpose, a new renewable hydrophobic unit was custom designed with redox-degradable disulphide and enzyme-biodegradable aliphatic ester chemical linkages and it was conjugated along with biotin on the dextran backbone. The dextran derivative self-assembled into nanovesicles of < 200 nm in size which were characterized by dynamic and static light scattering, electron and atomic force microscopes. Avidin-HABA assay established the high affinity of biotin-tagged dextran vesicles towards membrane-receptors up to 25 nM concentration. Doxorubicin-hydrochloride (DOX.HCl) loaded dextran vesicles exhibited stable formulation in PBS and FBS. Redox-degradation by glutathione (GSH) showed 60 % drug release whereas lysosomal esterase enzyme enabled > 98 % drug release in 12 h. Confocal microscope and flow cytometry assisted time-dependent cellular uptake studies revealed that the biotin-receptor over expressed cervical cancer cells (HeLa) exhibited larger drug accumulation through receptor-assisted endocytosis process. This process enabled the delivery of higher amount of DOX and significantly enhanced the killing in cancer cells (HeLa) compared to wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (WT-MEF, normal cells). Control experiments such as biotin pre-treatment in cancer cells and energy-suppressed cellular uptake at 4 C further supported the occurrence of receptor-mediated endocytosis by the biotin-tagged polymer vesicles. This report provides first insights into the targeted polysaccharide vesicle platform, and the proof-of-concept is successfully demonstrated in biotin receptors over expressed cervical cancer cells.

  17. Receptor-mediated cytotoxicity of alpha-MSH fragments containing melphalan in a human melanoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Morandini, R; Süli-Vargha, H; Libert, A; Loir, B; Botyánszki, J; Medzihradszky, K; Ghanem, G

    1994-01-02

    Four alpha-MSH drug conjugates have been synthesized, 2 C-terminal (Pep 3 and 4) and 2 central fragments (Pep 1 and 2), the latter being the 4-10 sequence known to be the main alpha-MSH-receptor-recognition site. Melphalan was introduced into each sequence at different locations. Their ability to recognize alpha-MSH receptors as well as their cytotoxic effects were compared in 3 cell lines: melanoma, carcinoma and fibroblast cells. Pep 1 and 2 were able to specifically bind to MSH receptors on melanoma cells by displacing labelled alpha-MSH from its binding sites at concentrations similar to the 4-10 heptapeptide sequence known to contain the main receptor-recognition site. They subsequently penetrate the cell, most probably by a receptor internalization mechanism, since about half of their effect could be inhibited by competition at the receptor level. Significant and selective cytotoxic effects to melanoma cells could be observed after only 2 hr exposure to the drug conjugates. Interestingly, these 2 conjugates, differing only in melphalan position, showed completely different cytotoxicity in terms of IC50 values, Pep 1 being 24 times more toxic to all cells; but the 2 were equally specific to melanoma cells. However, they both were less toxic to all cells than melphalan itself. Furthermore, Pep 1 and 2 were able to block the receptor and, unlike Pep 3 and 4, their cytotoxic effect could be significantly inhibited by an alpha-MSH agonist. Pep 3 and 4 were 5 to 10 times less toxic than melphalan to melanoma and carcinoma cells and 50 times less to fibroblast cells, and did not show any cell-type selectivity. They were less toxic than Pep 1 to melanoma and carcinoma cells by a factor of 2, but equally toxic to fibroblasts. In contrast, they were more toxic than Pep 2 to fibroblasts, melanoma and carcinoma by a factor of 3, 10 and 24 respectively. Our data strongly suggest a receptor-mediated cytotoxicity mechanism occurring with alpha-MSH central fragments in human

  18. A-Ring modified steroidal azoles retaining similar potent and slowly reversible CYP17A1 inhibition as abiraterone

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimoto, Francis K.; Upadhyay, Sunil K.; Bratoeff, Eugene; Auchus, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Abiraterone acetate is a potent inhibitor of human cytochrome P450c17 (CYP17A1, 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase) and is clinically used in combination with prednisone for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer. Although many studies have documented the potency of abiraterone (Abi) in a variety of in vitro and in vivo systems for several species, the exact potency of Abi for human CYP17A1 enzyme has not yet been determined, and the structural requirements for high-potency steroidal azole inhibitors are not established. We synthesized 4 Abi analogs differing in the A-B ring substitution patterns: 3α-hydroxy-Δ4-Abi (13), 3-keto-Δ4-Abi (11), 3-keto-5α-Abi (6), and 3α-hydroxy-5α-Abi (5). We measured the spectral binding constants (Ks) using purified and modified human CYP17A1 along with the determination constants (Ki) applying a native human CYP17A1 enzyme in yeast microsomes for these compounds as well as for ketoconazole. For Abi, 3-keto-Δ4-Abi, 3-keto-5α-Abi, and 3α-hydroxy-5α-Abi, the type 2 spectral changes gave the best fit for a quadratic equation, since in these experiments Ks values were 0.1-2.6 nM, much lower than that for ketoconazole and 3α-hydroxy-Δ4-Abi (Ks values were 140 and 1660 nM, respectively). Inhibition experiments showed mixed inhibition patterns with Ki values of 7-80 nM. Abi dissociation from the CYP17A1-Abi complex was incomplete and slow; the t1/2 for dissociation was 1.8 hour, with 55% of complex remaining after 5 hours. We conclude that Abi and the 3 related steroidal azoles (3-keto-Δ4-Abi, 3-keto-5α-Abi, and 3α-hydroxy-5α-Abi), which also mimic natural substrates, are extraordinarily potent inhibitors of human CYP17A1, whereas the 3α-hydroxy-Δ4-Abi is moderately potent and comparable to ketoconazole. PMID:24508512

  19. Crystal structures of trimethoprim-resistant DfrA1 rationalize potent inhibition by propargyl-linked antifolates

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Michael N.; G-Dayanandan, Narendran; Wright, Dennis L.; Anderson, Amy C.

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, notably Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, have become major health concerns worldwide. Resistance to effective therapeutics is often carried by class I and II integrons that can confer insensitivity to carbapenems, extended spectrum beta-lactamases, the antifolate trimethoprim, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Specifically of interest to the study here, a prevalent gene (dfrA1) coding for an insensitive dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) confers 190- or 1000-fold resistance to trimethoprim for K. pneumoniae and E. coli, respectively. Attaining inhibition of both the wild-type and resistant forms of the enzyme is critical for new antifolates. For several years, we have been developing the propargyl-linked antifolates (PLAs) as effective inhibitors against trimethoprim-resistant DHFR enzymes. Here, we show that the PLAs are active against both the wild-type and DfrA1 DHFR proteins. We report two high resolution crystal structures of DfrA1 bound to potent PLAs. The structure-activity relationships and crystal structures will be critical in driving the design of broadly active inhibitors against wild-type and resistant DHFR. PMID:27624966

  20. Nicotine impairs cyclooxygenase-2-dependent kinin-receptor-mediated murine airway relaxations

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yuan, E-mail: yuan.xu@ki.se; Cardell, Lars-Olaf

    Introduction: Cigarette smoke induces local inflammation and airway hyperreactivity. In asthmatics, it worsens the symptoms and increases the risk for exacerbation. The present study investigates the effects of nicotine on airway relaxations in isolated murine tracheal segments. Methods: Segments were cultured for 24 h in the presence of vehicle, nicotine (10 μM) and/or dexamethasone (1 μM). Airway relaxations were assessed in myographs after pre-contraction with carbachol (1 μM). Kinin receptors, cyclooxygenase (COX) and inflammatory mediator expressions were assessed by real-time PCR and confocal-microscopy-based immunohistochemistry. Results: The organ culture procedure markedly increased bradykinin- (selective B{sub 2} receptor agonist) and des-Arg{sup 9}-bradykinin-more » (selective B{sub 1} receptor agonist) induced relaxations, and slightly increased relaxation induced by isoprenaline, but not that induced by PGE{sub 2}. The kinin receptor mediated relaxations were epithelium-, COX-2- and EP2-receptor-dependent and accompanied by drastically enhanced mRNA levels of kinin receptors, as well as inflammatory mediators MCP-1 and iNOS. Increase in COX-2 and mPGES-1 was verified both at mRNA and protein levels. Nicotine selectively suppressed the organ-culture-enhanced relaxations induced by des-Arg{sup 9}-bradykinin and bradykinin, at the same time reducing mPGES-1 mRNA and protein expressions. α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor inhibitors α-bungarotoxin and MG624 both blocked the nicotine effects on kinin B{sub 2} receptors, but not those on B{sub 1}. Dexamethasone completely abolished kinin-induced relaxations. Conclusion: It is tempting to conclude that a local inflammatory process per se could have a bronchoprotective component by increasing COX-2 mediated airway relaxations and that nicotine could impede this safety mechanism. Dexamethasone further reduced airway inflammation together with relaxations. This might contribute to the steroid resistance

  1. Receptor-mediated endocytosis and intracellular trafficking of insulin and low-density lipoprotein by retinal vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Stitt, A W; Anderson, H R; Gardiner, T A; Bailie, J R; Archer, D B

    1994-08-01

    The authors investigated the receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME) and intracellular trafficking of insulin and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in cultured retinal vascular endothelial cells (RVECs). Low-density lipoprotein and insulin were conjugated to 10 nm colloidal gold, and these ligands were added to cultured bovine RVECs for 20 minutes at 4 degrees C. The cultures were then warmed to 37 degrees C and fixed after incubation times between 30 seconds and 1 hour. Control cells were incubated with unconjugated gold colloid at times and concentrations similar to those of the ligands. Additional control cells were exposed to several concentrations of anti-insulin receptor antibody or a saturating solution of unconjugated insulin before incubation with gold insulin. Using transmission electron microscopy, insulin gold and LDL gold were both observed at various stages of RME. Insulin-gold particles were first seen to bind to the apical plasma membrane (PM) before clustering in clathrin-coated pits and internalization in coated vesicles. Gold was later visualized in uncoated cytoplasmic vesicles, corresponding to early endosomes and multivesicular bodies (MVBs) or late endosomes. In several instances, localized regions of the limiting membrane of the MVBs appeared coated, a feature of endosomal membranes not previously described. After RME at the apical PM and passage through the endosomal system, the greater part of both insulin- and LDL-gold conjugates was seen to accumulate in large lysosome-like compartments. However, a small but significant proportion of the internalized ligands was transcytosed and released as discrete membrane-associated quanta at the basal cell surface. The uptake of LDL gold was greatly increased in highly vacuolated, late-passage RVECs. In controls, anti-insulin receptor antibody and excess unconjugated insulin caused up to 89% inhibition in gold-insulin binding and internalization. These results illustrate the internalization and intracellular

  2. CCKB/gastrin receptors mediate changes in sodium and potassium absorption in the isolated perfused rat kidney.

    PubMed

    von Schrenck, T; Ahrens, M; de Weerth, A; Bobrowski, C; Wolf, G; Jonas, L; Jocks, T; Schulz, M; Bläker, M; Neumaier, M; Stahl, R A

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the function of cholecystokinin B (CCKB)/gastrin receptors in the rat kidney, we identified the receptors by Northern blot and localized the receptors by immunohistochemistry. The functional effects of gastrin were studied under standardized in vitro conditions using the isolated perfused kidney. Rat kidneys were mounted in an organ bath by attaching the renal artery to a perfusion system. A catheter was inserted into the renal vein and the ureter to collect samples that were analyzed for the concentrations of electrolytes. After a preperfusion period, gastrin-17-I was given via the renal artery (10-8 to 10-6 mol/L). Subsequently, hemodynamic parameters (for example, perfusate flow) and changes in sodium and potassium absorption were determined. All data were subjected to a nonparametric analysis of variance and, in case of significant results, to subsequent paired comparisons by the a posteriori Wilcoxon test. Northern blot analysis detected CCKB receptor transcripts in total RNA isolated from kidneys. Immunohistochemistry localized CCKB receptors on tubules and collecting duct cells. Compared with controls, gastrin (10-6 mol/L) caused a decrease in the fractional sodium reabsorption (basal 80%, 10 minutes after application of gastrin 71%, after 20 minutes 62%, P < 0.05). This effect was inhibited by the CCKB receptor antagonist L-365,260. Gastrin decreased urinary potassium excretion at 10-8 and 10-6 mol/L [maximal decrease at 10-6 mol/L from baseline values (100%) to 49% after 10 minutes and to 69% after 20 minutes, P < 0.05, N = 6]. This effect was also abolished by the CCKB receptor antagonist L-365,260. Gastrin (10-6 mol/L) reduced perfusate flow by 31% (P < 0.05). CCKB receptors are expressed in the rat kidney on tubules and collecting ducts. These receptors mediate changes in renal potassium and sodium absorption. In addition, gastrin causes a decrease in perfusate flow, indicating that CCKB receptors might also modulate vascular resistance in

  3. Beta receptor-mediated modulation of the late positive potential in humans.

    PubMed

    de Rover, Mischa; Brown, Stephen B R E; Boot, Nathalie; Hajcak, Greg; van Noorden, Martijn S; van der Wee, Nic J A; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2012-02-01

    Electrophysiological studies have identified a scalp potential, the late positive potential (LPP), which is modulated by the emotional intensity of observed stimuli. Previous work has shown that the LPP reflects the modulation of activity in extrastriate visual cortical structures, but little is known about the source of that modulation. The present study investigated whether beta-adrenergic receptors are involved in the generation of the LPP. We used a genetic individual differences approach (experiment 1) and a pharmacological manipulation (experiment 2) to test the hypothesis that the LPP is modulated by the activation of β-adrenergic receptors. In experiment 1, we found that LPP amplitude depends on allelic variation in the β1-receptor gene polymorphism. In experiment 2, we found that LPP amplitude was modulated by the β-blocker propranolol in a direction dependent on subjects' level of trait anxiety: In participants with lower trait anxiety, propranolol led to a (nonsignificant) decrease in the LPP modulation; in participants with higher trait anxiety, propranolol increased the emotion-related LPP modulation. These results provide initial support for the hypothesis that the LPP reflects the downstream effects, in visual cortical areas, of β-receptor-mediated activation of the amygdala.

  4. Modulation of receptor-mediated gonadotropin action in rat testes by dietary fat.

    PubMed

    Sebokova, E; Garg, M L; Clandinin, M T

    1988-06-01

    The effect of feeding diets enriched with 18:2 omega 6, 18:3 omega 3, or saturated fatty acids on lipid composition and receptor-mediated action of luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin (LH/hCG) in rat testicular plasma membranes was investigated. Linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid treatments reduced total phospholipid and cholesterol content of the testicular plasma membrane and altered membrane phospholipid composition. Change in phospholipid and cholesterol content after feeding the polyunsaturated fats decreased cholesterol to phospholipid ratios and binding capacity of the LH/hCG receptor in the testicular plasma membrane. LH-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was decreased in animals fed the linolenic acid-rich diet. NaF-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was decreased in animals fed diets high in either polyunsaturated fatty acid. Decreased plasma membrane LH/hCG receptor content was associated with decreased testosterone production in Leydig cells in response to LH in the linolenic acid-fed group. It is suggested that change in cholesterol-to-phospholipid ratios alters the physical properties of testicular plasma membranes in a manner that influences accessibility of LH/hCG receptors in testicular tissue.

  5. Plant cell surface receptor-mediated signaling - a common theme amid diversity.

    PubMed

    He, Yunxia; Zhou, Jinggeng; Shan, Libo; Meng, Xiangzong

    2018-01-29

    Sessile plants employ a diverse array of plasma membrane-bound receptors to perceive endogenous and exogenous signals for regulation of plant growth, development and immunity. These cell surface receptors include receptor-like kinases (RLKs) and receptor-like proteins (RLPs) that harbor different extracellular domains for perception of distinct ligands. Several RLK and RLP signaling pathways converge at the somatic embryogenesis receptor kinases (SERKs), which function as shared co-receptors. A repertoire of receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases (RLCKs) associate with the receptor complexes to relay intracellular signaling. Downstream of the receptor complexes, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are among the key signaling modules at which the signals converge, and these cascades regulate diverse cellular and physiological responses through phosphorylation of different downstream substrates. In this Review, we summarize the emerging common theme that underlies cell surface receptor-mediated signaling pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana : the dynamic association of RLKs and RLPs with specific co-receptors and RLCKs for signal transduction. We further discuss how signaling specificities are maintained through modules at which signals converge, with a focus on SERK-mediated receptor signaling. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Changes in receptor-mediated endocytosis in liver sinusoidal cells after partial hepatectomy in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kamimoto, Y; Tanabe, D; Tashiro, S; Hiraoka, T; Miyauchi, Y

    1994-06-01

    Liver sinusoidal cells play an important role in host defense by clearing particulate matter and macromolecules from the circulation. In this study, receptor-mediated endocytosis in sinusoidal cells was examined in two-thirds hepatectomized rats using 125I-labeled formaldehyde-treated bovine serum albumin (fBSA) as an endocytable macromolecule. The liver-weight to body-weight ratio in hepatectomized rats returned to the control value 10 days after hepatectomy. The endocytotic index for fBSA in sinusoidal cells decreased significantly to 0.0210 +/- 0.0017 (controls, 0.0598 +/- 0.0019) on the first day, then returned to the control level at 5 days (0.0554 +/- 0.0030). The changes in hepatic uptake for fBSA showed a similar time course of the endocytotic index. A transient increase in the uptake of fBSA per unit weight of liver of 22-39% above control occurred 2 to 3 days after hepatectomy. In contrast to fBSA, the endocytotic index in hepatocytes evaluated with 125I-labeled asialofetuin reached the minimum level on the second day, and then recovered to the control level 10 days after hepatectomy. These results suggest that endocytosis of fBSA by sinusoidal cells decreases after hepatectomy and rapidly recovers to normal before the completion of liver regeneration, whereas endocytosis of asialofetuin by hepatocytes decreases following hepatic resection and returns to normal when regeneration is substantially complete.

  7. Kainate receptors mediate signaling in both transient and sustained OFF bipolar cell pathways in mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Borghuis, Bart G; Looger, Loren L; Tomita, Susumu; Demb, Jonathan B

    2014-04-30

    A fundamental question in sensory neuroscience is how parallel processing is implemented at the level of molecular and circuit mechanisms. In the retina, it has been proposed that distinct OFF cone bipolar cell types generate fast/transient and slow/sustained pathways by the differential expression of AMPA- and kainate-type glutamate receptors, respectively. However, the functional significance of these receptors in the intact circuit during light stimulation remains unclear. Here, we measured glutamate release from mouse bipolar cells by two-photon imaging of a glutamate sensor (iGluSnFR) expressed on postsynaptic amacrine and ganglion cell dendrites. In both transient and sustained OFF layers, cone-driven glutamate release from bipolar cells was blocked by antagonists to kainate receptors but not AMPA receptors. Electrophysiological recordings from bipolar and ganglion cells confirmed the essential role of kainate receptors for signaling in both transient and sustained OFF pathways. Kainate receptors mediated responses to contrast modulation up to 20 Hz. Light-evoked responses in all mouse OFF bipolar pathways depend on kainate, not AMPA, receptors.

  8. Selective antagonism of AMPA receptors unmasks kainate receptor-mediated responses in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Paternain, A V; Morales, M; Lerma, J

    1995-01-01

    Although both protein and mRNAs for kainate receptor subunits are abundant in several brain regions, the responsiveness of AMPA receptors to kainate has made it difficult to demonstrate the presence of functional kainate-type receptors in native cells. Recently, however, we have shown that many hippocampal neurons in culture express glutamate receptors of the kainate type. The large nondesensitizing response that kainate induces at AMPA receptors precludes detection and analysis of smaller, rapidly desensitizing currents induced by kainate at kainate receptors. Consequently, the functional significance of these strongly desensitizing glutamate receptors remains enigmatic. We report here that the family of new noncompetitive antagonists of AMPA receptors (GYKI 52466 and 53655) minimally affects kainate-induced responses at kainate receptors while completely blocking AMPA receptor-mediated currents, making it possible to separate the responses mediated by each receptor. These compounds will allow determination of the role played by kainate receptors in synaptic transmission and plasticity in the mammalian brain, as well as evaluation of their involvement in neurotoxicity.

  9. Multivalent ligand-receptor-mediated interaction of small filled vesicles with a cellular membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2017-07-01

    The ligand-receptor-mediated contacts of small sub-100-nm-sized lipid vesicles (or nanoparticles) with the cellular membrane are of interest in the contexts of cell-to-cell communication, endocytosis of membrane-coated virions, and drug (RNA) delivery. In all these cases, the interior of vesicles is filled by biologically relevant content. Despite the diversity of such systems, the corresponding ligand-receptor interaction possesses universal features. One of them is that the vesicle-membrane contacts can be accompanied by the redistribution of ligands and receptors between the contact and contact-free regions. In particular, the concentrations of ligands and receptors may become appreciably higher in the contact regions and their composition may there be different compared to that in the suspended state in the solution. A statistical model presented herein describes the corresponding distribution of various ligands and receptors and allows one to calculate the related change of the free energy with variation of the vesicle-engulfment extent. The results obtained are used to clarify the necessary conditions for the vesicle-assisted pathway of drug delivery.

  10. Unsaturated fatty acyl recognition by Frizzled receptors mediates dimerization upon Wnt ligand binding

    PubMed Central

    Nile, Aaron H.; Mukund, Susmith; Stanger, Karen; Wang, Weiru; Hannoush, Rami N.

    2017-01-01

    Frizzled (FZD) receptors mediate Wnt signaling in diverse processes ranging from bone growth to stem cell activity. Moreover, high FZD receptor expression at the cell surface contributes to overactive Wnt signaling in subsets of pancreatic, ovarian, gastric, and colorectal tumors. Despite the progress in biochemical understanding of Wnt–FZD receptor interactions, the molecular basis for recognition of Wnt cis-unsaturated fatty acyl groups by the cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of FZD receptors remains elusive. Here, we determined a crystal structure of human FZD7 CRD unexpectedly bound to a 24-carbon fatty acid. We also report a crystal structure of human FZD5 CRD bound to C16:1 cis-Δ9 unsaturated fatty acid. Both structures reveal a dimeric arrangement of the CRD. The lipid-binding groove exhibits flexibility and spans both monomers, adopting a U-shaped geometry that accommodates the fatty acid. Re-evaluation of the published mouse FZD8 CRD structure reveals that it also shares the same architecture as FZD5 and FZD7 CRDs. Our results define a common molecular mechanism for recognition of the cis-unsaturated fatty acyl group, a necessary posttranslational modification of Wnts, by multiple FZD receptors. The fatty acid bridges two CRD monomers, implying that Wnt binding mediates FZD receptor dimerization. Our data uncover possibilities for the arrangement of Wnt–FZD CRD complexes and shed structural insights that could aide in the identification of pharmacological strategies to modulate FZD receptor function. PMID:28377511

  11. Toll Receptor-Mediated Hippo Signaling Controls Innate Immunity in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Zheng, Yonggang; Yin, Feng; Yu, Jianzhong; Silverman, Neal; Pan, Duojia

    2016-01-28

    The Hippo signaling pathway functions through Yorkie to control tissue growth and homeostasis. How this pathway regulates non-developmental processes remains largely unexplored. Here, we report an essential role for Hippo signaling in innate immunity whereby Yorkie directly regulates the transcription of the Drosophila IκB homolog, Cactus, in Toll receptor-mediated antimicrobial response. Loss of Hippo pathway tumor suppressors or activation of Yorkie in fat bodies, the Drosophila immune organ, leads to elevated cactus mRNA levels, decreased expression of antimicrobial peptides, and vulnerability to infection by Gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, Gram-positive bacteria acutely activate Hippo-Yorkie signaling in fat bodies via the Toll-Myd88-Pelle cascade through Pelle-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of the Cka subunit of the Hippo-inhibitory STRIPAK PP2A complex. Our studies elucidate a Toll-mediated Hippo signaling pathway in antimicrobial response, highlight the importance of regulating IκB/Cactus transcription in innate immunity, and identify Gram-positive bacteria as extracellular stimuli of Hippo signaling under physiological settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Internalisation of the bleomycin molecules responsible for bleomycin toxicity: a receptor-mediated endocytosis mechanism.

    PubMed

    Pron, G; Mahrour, N; Orlowski, S; Tounekti, O; Poddevin, B; Belehradek, J; Mir, L M

    1999-01-01

    Bleomycin (BLM) does not diffuse through the plasma membrane but nevertheless displays cytotoxic activity due to DNA break generation. The aim of the study was to describe the mechanism of BLM internalisation. We previously provided evidence for the existence of BLM-binding sites at the surface of DC-3F Chinese hamster fibroblasts, as well as of their involvement in BLM cytotoxicity on DC-3F cells and related BLM-resistant sublines. Here we report that A253 human cells and their BLM-resistant subline C-10E also possessed a membrane protein of ca. 250 kDa specifically binding BLM. Part of this C-10E cell resistance could be explained by a decrease in the number of BLM-binding sites exposed at the cell surface with respect to A253 cells. The comparison between A253 and DC-3F cells exposing a similar number of BLM-binding sites revealed that the faster the fluid phase endocytosis, the greater the cell sensitivity to BLM. Moreover, the experimental modification of endocytotic vesicle size showed that BLM cytotoxicity was directly correlated with the flux of plasma membrane area engulfed during endocytosis rather than with the fluid phase volume incorporated. Thus, BLM would be internalised by a receptor-mediated endocytosis mechanism which would first require BLM binding to its membrane receptor and then the transfer of the complex into intracellular endocytotic vesicles, followed by BLM entry into the cytosol, probably from a nonacidic compartment.

  13. BK channel β1 subunits regulate airway contraction secondary to M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediated depolarization.

    PubMed

    Semenov, Iurii; Wang, Bin; Herlihy, Jeremiah T; Brenner, Robert

    2011-04-01

    The large conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium channel (BK channel) and its smooth muscle-specific β1 subunit regulate excitation–contraction coupling in many types of smooth muscle cells. However, the relative contribution of BK channels to control of M2- or M3-muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediated airway smooth muscle contraction is poorly understood. Previously, we showed that knockout of the BK channel β1 subunit enhances cholinergic-evoked trachea contractions. Here, we demonstrate that the enhanced contraction of the BK β1 knockout can be ascribed to a defect in BK channel opposition of M2 receptor-mediated contractions. Indeed, the enhanced contraction of β1 knockout is eliminated by specific M2 receptor antagonism. The role of BK β1 to oppose M2 signalling is evidenced by a greater than fourfold increase in the contribution of L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels to contraction that otherwise does not occur with M2 antagonist or with β1 containing BK channels. The mechanism through which BK channels oppose M2-mediated recruitment of calcium channels is through a negative shift in resting voltage that offsets, rather than directly opposes, M2-mediated depolarization. The negative shift in resting voltage is reduced to similar extents by BK β1 knockout or by paxilline block of BK channels. Normalization of β1 knockout baseline voltage with low external potassium eliminated the enhanced M2-receptor mediated contraction. In summary, these findings indicate that an important function of BK/β1 channels is to oppose cholinergic M2 receptor-mediated depolarization and activation of calcium channels by restricting excitation–contraction coupling to more negative voltage ranges.

  14. BK channel β1 subunits regulate airway contraction secondary to M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediated depolarization

    PubMed Central

    Semenov, Iurii; Wang, Bin; Herlihy, Jeremiah T; Brenner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The large conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium channel (BK channel) and its smooth muscle-specific β1 subunit regulate excitation–contraction coupling in many types of smooth muscle cells. However, the relative contribution of BK channels to control of M2- or M3-muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediated airway smooth muscle contraction is poorly understood. Previously, we showed that knockout of the BK channel β1 subunit enhances cholinergic-evoked trachea contractions. Here, we demonstrate that the enhanced contraction of the BK β1 knockout can be ascribed to a defect in BK channel opposition of M2 receptor-mediated contractions. Indeed, the enhanced contraction of β1 knockout is eliminated by specific M2 receptor antagonism. The role of BK β1 to oppose M2 signalling is evidenced by a greater than fourfold increase in the contribution of L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels to contraction that otherwise does not occur with M2 antagonist or with β1 containing BK channels. The mechanism through which BK channels oppose M2-mediated recruitment of calcium channels is through a negative shift in resting voltage that offsets, rather than directly opposes, M2-mediated depolarization. The negative shift in resting voltage is reduced to similar extents by BK β1 knockout or by paxilline block of BK channels. Normalization of β1 knockout baseline voltage with low external potassium eliminated the enhanced M2-receptor mediated contraction. In summary, these findings indicate that an important function of BK/β1 channels is to oppose cholinergic M2 receptor-mediated depolarization and activation of calcium channels by restricting excitation–contraction coupling to more negative voltage ranges. PMID:21300746

  15. Pharmacological characterization of the 5-HT receptor-mediated contraction in the mouse isolated ileum

    PubMed Central

    Tuladhar, B R; Womack, M D; Naylor, R J

    2000-01-01

    The pharmacological characterization of a 5-HT receptor-mediated contractile response in the mouse isolated ileum is described. In the presence of methysergide (1 μM), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, 0.3–100 μM) produced phasic concentration-dependent contractions of segments of the mouse isolated ileum with a pEC50 value of 5.47±0.09. The 5-HT3 receptor selective agonists m-chlorophenylbiguanide (0.3–100 μM, pEC50 5.81±0.04), 1-phenylbiguanide (3–100 μM, pEC50 5.05±0.06) and 2-methyl-5-HT (3–100 μM, pEC50 5.00±0.07) acted as full agonists to induce contractile responses. 5-methoxytryptamine (0.1–100 μM), RS 67506 (0.1–100 μM) and α-methyl-5-HT (0.1–100 μM) failed to mimic the 5-HT responses. The contractile response to 5-HT was not antagonized by either 5-HT2 receptor antagonists ritanserin (0.1 μM) or ketanserin (1 μM) nor the 5-HT4 receptor antagonist SB 204070 (0.1 μM). The 5-HT3 receptor selective antagonists granisetron (0.3–1 nM), tropisetron (1–10 nM), ondansetron (10 nM–1 μM) and MDL 72222 (10 nM–1 μM) caused rightward displacement of the concentration-response curves to 5-HT. The lower concentrations of the antagonists caused approximate parallel rightward shifts of the concentration-response curves to 5-HT with apparent pKB values for granisetron (9.70±0.39), tropisetron (9.18±0.20), ondansetron (8.84±0.24) and MDL 72222 (8.65±0.35). But higher concentrations of antagonists resulted in a progressive reduction in the maximum responses. The contractile response to 5-HT was abolished by tetrodotoxin (0.3 μM); atropine (0.1 and 1 μM) decreased the maximum response of the 5-HT concentration-response curve by approximately 65%. It is concluded that a neuronally located 5-HT3 receptor mediates a contractile response to 5-HT in the mouse ileum. The 5-HT3 receptor in the mouse ileum has a different pharmacological profile to that reported for the guinea-pig ileum. PMID:11139451

  16. Unique allosteric regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor-mediated signal transduction by oleamide

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Elizabeth A.; Carson, Monica J.; Neal, Michael J.; Sutcliffe, J. Gregor

    1997-01-01

    The effects of oleamide, an amidated lipid isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of sleep-deprived cats, on serotonin receptor-mediated responses were investigated in cultured mammalian cells. In rat P11 cells, which endogenously express the 5-hydroxytryptamine2A (5HT2A) receptor, oleamide significantly potentiated 5HT-induced phosphoinositide hydrolysis. In HeLa cells expressing the 5HT7 receptor subtype, oleamide caused a concentration-dependent increase in cAMP accumulation but with lower efficacy than that observed by 5HT. This effect was not observed in untransfected HeLa cells. Clozapine did not prevent the increase in cAMP elicited by oleamide, and ketanserin caused an ≈65% decrease. In the presence of 5HT, oleamide had the opposite effect on cAMP, causing insurmountable antagonism of the concentration-effect curve to 5HT, but had no effect on cAMP levels elicited by isoproterenol or forskolin. These results indicate that oleamide can modulate 5HT-mediated signal transduction at different subtypes of mammalian 5HT receptors. Additionally, our data indicate that oleamide acts at an apparent allosteric site on the 5HT7 receptor and elicits functional responses via activation of this site. This represents a unique mechanism of activation for 5HT G protein-coupled receptors and suggests that G protein-coupled neurotransmitter receptors may act like their iontropic counterparts (i.e., γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors) in that there may be several binding sites on the receptor that regulate functional activity with varying efficacies. PMID:9391162

  17. Receptor-mediated endocytosis generates nanomechanical force reflective of ligand identity and cellular property.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Ren, Juan; Wang, Jingren; Li, Shixie; Zou, Qingze; Gao, Nan

    2018-08-01

    Whether environmental (thermal, chemical, and nutrient) signals generate quantifiable, nanoscale, mechanophysical changes in the cellular plasma membrane has not been well elucidated. Assessment of such mechanophysical properties of plasma membrane may shed lights on fundamental cellular process. Atomic force microscopic (AFM) measurement of the mechanical properties of live cells was hampered by the difficulty in accounting for the effects of the cantilever motion and the associated hydrodynamic force on the mechanical measurement. These challenges have been addressed in our recently developed control-based AFM nanomechanical measurement protocol, which enables a fast, noninvasive, broadband measurement of the real-time changes in plasma membrane elasticity in live cells. Here we show using this newly developed AFM platform that the plasma membrane of live mammalian cells exhibits a constant and quantifiable nanomechanical property, the membrane elasticity. This mechanical property sensitively changes in response to environmental factors, such as the thermal, chemical, and growth factor stimuli. We demonstrate that different chemical inhibitors of endocytosis elicit distinct changes in plasma membrane elastic modulus reflecting their specific molecular actions on the lipid configuration or the endocytic machinery. Interestingly, two different growth factors, EGF and Wnt3a, elicited distinct elastic force profiles revealed by AFM at the plasma membrane during receptor-mediated endocytosis. By applying this platform to genetically modified cells, we uncovered a previously unknown contribution of Cdc42, a key component of the cellular trafficking network, to EGF-stimulated endocytosis at plasma membrane. Together, this nanomechanical AFM study establishes an important foundation that is expandable and adaptable for investigation of cellular membrane evolution in response to various key extracellular signals. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. cap alpha. /sub 2/-Adrenergic receptor-mediated sensitization of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.B.; Toews, M.L.; Turner, J.T.

    1987-03-01

    Preincubation of HT29 human colonic adenocarcinoma cells with ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic agonists resulted in a 10- to 20-fold increase in forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production as compared to cells preincubated without agonist. Similar results were obtained using either a (/sup 3/H)adenine prelabeling assay or a cyclic AMP radioimmunoassay to measure cyclic AMP levels. This phenomenon, which is termed sensitization, is ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor-mediated and rapid in onset and reversal. Yohimbine, an ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor-selective antagonist, blocked norepinephrine-induced sensitization, whereas prazosin (..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic) and sotalol (..beta..-adrenergic) did not. The time for half-maximal sensitization was 5 min and the half-timemore » for reversal was 10 min. Only a 2-fold sensitization of cyclic AMP production stimulated by vasoactive intestinal peptide was observed, indicating that sensitization is relatively selective for forskolin. Sensitization reflects an increased production of cyclic AMP and not a decreased degradation of cyclic AMP, since incubation with a phosphodiesterase inhibitor and forskolin did not mimic sensitization. Increasing the levels of cyclic AMP during the preincubation had no effect on sensitization, indicating that sensitization is not caused by decreased cyclic AMP levels during the preincubation. This rapid and dramatic sensitization of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production is a previously unreported effect that can be added to the growing list of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic responses that are not mediated by a decrease in cyclic AMP.« less

  19. Milrinone attenuates thromboxane receptor-mediated hyperresponsiveness in hypoxic pulmonary arterial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, K T; Elkhateeb, O; Nolette, N; Outbih, O; Halayko, A J; Dakshinamurti, S

    2011-07-01

    Neonatal pulmonary hypertension (PPHN) is characterized by pulmonary vasoconstriction, due in part to dysregulation of the thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptor. Hypoxia induces TP receptor-mediated hyperresponsiveness, whereas serine phosphorylation mediates desensitization of TP receptors. We hypothesized that prostacyclin (IP) receptor activity induces TP receptor phosphorylation and decreases ligand affinity; that TP receptor sensitization in hypoxic myocytes is due to IP receptor inactivation; and that this would be reversible by the cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor milrinone. We examined functional regulation of TP receptors by serine phosphorylation and effects of IP receptor stimulation and protein kinase A (PKA) activity on TP receptor sensitivity in myocytes from neonatal porcine resistance pulmonary arteries after 72 h hypoxia in vitro. Ca(2+) response curves to U46619 (TP receptor agonist) were determined in hypoxic and normoxic myocytes incubated with or without iloprost (IP receptor agonist), forskolin (adenylyl cyclase activator), H8 (PKA inhibitor) or milrinone. TP and IP receptor saturation binding kinetics were measured in presence of iloprost or 8-bromo-cAMP. Ligand affinity for TP receptors was normalized in vitro by IP receptor signalling intermediates. However, IP receptor affinity was compromised in hypoxic myocytes, decreasing cAMP production. Milrinone normalized TP receptor sensitivity in hypoxic myocytes by restoring PKA-mediated regulatory TP receptor phosphorylation. TP receptor sensitivity and EC(50) for TP receptor agonists was regulated by PKA, as TP receptor serine phosphorylation by PKA down-regulated Ca(2+) mobilization. Hypoxia decreased IP receptor activity and cAMP generation, inducing TP receptor hyperresponsiveness, which was reversed by milrinone. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  20. Receptor-mediated transcytosis of cyclophilin B through the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, M; Descamps, L; Allain, F; Denys, A; Durieux, S; Fenart, L; Kieda, C; Cecchelli, R; Spik, G

    1999-07-01

    Cyclophilin B (CyPB) is a cyclosporin A (CsA)-binding protein mainly located in intracellular vesicles and secreted in biological fluids. In previous works, we demonstrated that CyPB interacts with T lymphocytes and enhances in vitro cellular incorporation and activity of CsA. In addition to its immunosuppressive activity, CsA is able to promote regeneration of damaged peripheral nerves. However, the crossing of the drug from plasma to neural tissue is restricted by the relative impermeability of the blood-brain barrier. To know whether CyPB might also participate in the delivery of CsA into the brain, we have analyzed the interactions of CyPB with brain capillary endothelial cells. First, we demonstrated that CyPB binds to two types of binding sites present at the surface of capillary endothelial cells from various species of tissues. The first type of binding sites (K(D) = 300 nM; number of sites = 3 x 10(6)) is related to interactions with negatively charged compounds such as proteoglycans. The second type of binding sites, approximately 50,000 per cell, exhibits a higher affinity for CyPB (K(D) = 15 nM) and is involved in an endocytosis process, indicating it might correspond to a functional receptor. Finally, the use of an in vitro model of blood-brain barrier allowed us to demonstrate that CyPB is transcytosed by a receptor-mediated pathway (flux = 16.5 fmol/cm2/h). In these conditions, CyPB did not significantly modify the passage of CsA, indicating that it is unlikely to provide a pathway for CsA brain delivery.

  1. Specific neurokinin receptors mediate plasma extravasation in the rat knee joint.

    PubMed Central

    Lam, F. Y.; Ferrell, W. R.

    1991-01-01

    1 Plasma extravasation in the rat knee joint was induced by intra-articular injection of neurokinins and specific neurokinin receptor agonists. 2 Pronounced plasma extravasation was produced by substance P (SP, 4-185 microM) and to a lesser extent by neurokinin-B (NKB, 83-413 microM), whereas neurokinin-A (NKA, 88-440 microM) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, 26-130 microM) had no significant effect. 3 The specific neurokinin1 receptor agonist [Sar9, Met(O2)11]-substance P (NK1 agonist) in doses of 0.4-70 microM appeared to be more potent than SP in eliciting plasma extravasation. The neurokinin2 receptor agonist [Nle10]-neurokinin A4-10 (NK2 agonist) was not effective at 70 microM but produced a small and significant effect at 330 microM, whereas the neurokinin3 receptor agonist [MePhe7]-neurokinin B (NK3 agonist) was without effect at 40 microM or 400 microM. 4 Injections of SP or NKA into the synovial cavity of the rat knee were equally effective in producing marked plasma extravasation in remote sites such as the forelimb and hindlimb paws. 5 Co-administration experiments showed that the effects of SP were synergistic with NKA or the NK1 receptor agonist, but not with CGRP or the NK2 receptor agonist. 6 The rank order of potency was NK1 agonist greater than or equal to SP greater than NKB greater than NK2 agonist suggesting that NK1 receptors mediate plasma extravasation in the rat knee joint. PMID:1715229

  2. Characterization of muscarinic receptors mediating relaxation and contraction in the rat iris dilator muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Y; Yamahara, N S; Tanaka, M; Ryang, S; Kawai, T; Imaizumi, Y; Watanabe, M

    1995-01-01

    1. The characteristics of muscarinic receptors mediating relaxation and/or contraction in the rat iris dilator muscle were examined. 2. Relaxation was induced in a dilator muscle by application of acetylcholine (ACh) at low doses (3 microM or less) and contraction was induced by high doses. Methacholine and carbachol also showed biphasic effects similar to those of ACh; in contrast, bethanechol, arecoline, pilocarpine and McN-A-343 induced mainly relaxation but no substantial contraction. 3. After parasympathetic denervation by ciliary ganglionectomy, the relaxant response to muscarinic agonists disappeared upon nerve stimulation. Application of McN-A-343 and pilocarpine induced only small contractions in denervated dilator muscles, indicating that these are partial agonists for contraction. 4. pA2 values of pirenzepine, methoctramine, AF-DX 116, himbacine, and 4-DAMP for antagonism to pilocarpine-induced relaxation in normal dilator muscles and those for antagonism to ACh-induced contraction in denervated dilator muscles were determined. The pA2 values for antagonism to relaxation of all these antagonists were most similar to those for M3-type muscarinic receptors. 5. Although pA2 values for contraction of these antagonists, except for methoctramine, were very close to those for relaxation, contraction was not significantly antagonized by methoctramine. Contraction might be mediated by M3-like receptors which have a very low affinity for methoctramine. 6. In conclusion, ACh-induced biphasic responses in rat iris dilator muscles were clearly distinguished from each other by specific muscarinic agonists and parasympathetic denervation, whereas muscarinic receptors could not be subclassified according to the pA2 values of 5 specific antagonists only. PMID:7539696

  3. Arsenic as an endocrine disruptor: arsenic disrupts retinoic acid receptor-and thyroid hormone receptor-mediated gene regulation and thyroid hormone-mediated amphibian tail metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Davey, Jennifer C; Nomikos, Athena P; Wungjiranirun, Manida; Sherman, Jenna R; Ingram, Liam; Batki, Cavus; Lariviere, Jean P; Hamilton, Joshua W

    2008-02-01

    Chronic exposure to excess arsenic in drinking water has been strongly associated with increased risks of multiple cancers, diabetes, heart disease, and reproductive and developmental problems in humans. We previously demonstrated that As, a potent endocrine disruptor at low, environmentally relevant levels, alters steroid signaling at the level of receptor-mediated gene regulation for all five steroid receptors. The goal of this study was to determine whether As can also disrupt gene regulation via the retinoic acid (RA) receptor (RAR) and/or the thyroid hormone (TH) receptor (TR) and whether these effects are similar to previously observed effects on steroid regulation. Human embryonic NT2 or rat pituitary GH3 cells were treated with 0.01-5 microM sodium arsenite for 24 hr, with or without RA or TH, respectively, to examine effects of As on receptor-mediated gene transcription. At low, noncytotoxic doses, As significantly altered RAR-dependent gene transcription of a transfected RAR response element-luciferase construct and the native RA-inducible cytochrome P450 CYP26A gene in NT2 cells. Likewise, low-dose As significantly altered expression of a transfected TR response element-luciferase construct and the endogenous TR-regulated type I deiodinase (DIO1) gene in a similar manner in GH3 cells. An amphibian ex vivo tail metamorphosis assay was used to examine whether endocrine disruption by low-dose As could have specific pathophysiologic consequences, because tail metamorphosis is tightly controlled by TH through TR. TH-dependent tail shrinkage was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by 0.1- 4.0 microM As. As had similar effects on RAR- and TR-mediated gene regulation as those previously observed for the steroid receptors, suggesting a common mechanism or action. Arsenic also profoundly affected a TR-dependent developmental process in a model animal system at very low concentrations. Because RAR and TH are critical for both normal human development and adult

  4. Escitalopram attenuates β-amyloid-induced tau hyperphosphorylation in primary hippocampal neurons through the 5-HT1A receptor mediated Akt/GSK-3β pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Wei-Gang; Wu, Di; Tang, Xiang; Li, Xiao-Li; Wu, Fang-Fang; Bai, Feng; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Tau hyperphosphorylation is an important pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate whether escitalopram could inhibit amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced tau hyperphosphorylation and the underlying mechanisms, we treated the rat primary hippocampal neurons with Aβ1-42 and examined the effect of escitalopram on tau hyperphosphorylation. Results showed that escitalopram decreased Aβ1–42-induced tau hyperphosphorylation. In addition, escitalopram activated the Akt/GSK-3β pathway, and the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 blocked the attenuation of tau hyperphosphorylation induced by escitalopram. Moreover, the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT also activated the Akt/GSK-3β pathway and decreased Aβ1-42-induced tau hyperphosphorylation. Furthermore, the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 blocked the activation of Akt/GSK-3β pathway and the attenuation of tau hyperphosphorylation induced by escitalopram. Finally, escitalopram improved Aβ1–42 induced impairment of neurite outgrowth and spine density, and reversed Aβ1–42 induced reduction of synaptic proteins. Our results demonstrated that escitalopram attenuated Aβ1–42-induced tau hyperphosphorylation in primary hippocampal neurons through the 5-HT1A receptor mediated Akt/GSK-3β pathway. PMID:26950279

  5. Escitalopram attenuates β-amyloid-induced tau hyperphosphorylation in primary hippocampal neurons through the 5-HT1A receptor mediated Akt/GSK-3β pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Juan; Ren, Qing-Guo; Gong, Wei-Gang; Wu, Di; Tang, Xiang; Li, Xiao-Li; Wu, Fang-Fang; Bai, Feng; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Jun

    2016-03-22

    Tau hyperphosphorylation is an important pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate whether escitalopram could inhibit amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced tau hyperphosphorylation and the underlying mechanisms, we treated the rat primary hippocampal neurons with Aβ1-42 and examined the effect of escitalopram on tau hyperphosphorylation. Results showed that escitalopram decreased Aβ1-42-induced tau hyperphosphorylation. In addition, escitalopram activated the Akt/GSK-3β pathway, and the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 blocked the attenuation of tau hyperphosphorylation induced by escitalopram. Moreover, the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT also activated the Akt/GSK-3β pathway and decreased Aβ1-42-induced tau hyperphosphorylation. Furthermore, the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 blocked the activation of Akt/GSK-3β pathway and the attenuation of tau hyperphosphorylation induced by escitalopram. Finally, escitalopram improved Aβ1-42 induced impairment of neurite outgrowth and spine density, and reversed Aβ1-42 induced reduction of synaptic proteins. Our results demonstrated that escitalopram attenuated Aβ1-42-induced tau hyperphosphorylation in primary hippocampal neurons through the 5-HT1A receptor mediated Akt/GSK-3β pathway.

  6. Inhibition of EphA2/EphrinA1 signal attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ji Young; Shin, Mi Hwa; Douglas, Ivor S; Chung, Kyung Soo; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Ji Ye; Kang, Young Ae; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Kim, Young Sam; Park, Moo Suk

    2016-11-01

    Eph-Ephrin signalling mediates various cellular processes, including vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, cell migration, axon guidance, fluid homoeostasis and repair after injury. Although previous studies have demonstrated that stimulation of the EphA receptor induces increased vascular permeability and inflammatory response in lung injury, the detailed mechanisms of EphA2 signalling are unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the role of EphA2 signalling in mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury. Acute LPS exposure significantly up-regulated EphA2 and EphrinA1 expression. Compared with LPS+IgG mice (IgG instillation after LPS exposure), LPS+EphA2 mAb mice [EphA2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) instillation posttreatment after LPS exposure] had attenuated lung injury and reduced cell counts and protein concentration of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). EphA2 mAb posttreatment down-regulated the expression of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) 110γ, phospho-Akt, phospho-NF-κB p65, phospho-Src and phospho-S6K in lung lysates. In addition, inhibiting the EphA2 receptor augmented the expression of E-cadherin, which is involved in cell-cell adhesion. Our study identified EphA2 receptor as an unrecognized modulator of several signalling pathways-including PI3K-Akt-NF-kB, Src-NF-κB, E-cadherin and mTOR-in LPS-induced lung injury. These results suggest that EphA2 receptor inhibitors may function as novel therapeutic agents for LPS-induced lung injury. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  7. Inhibition of phospholipase A1, lipase and galactolipase activities of pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 by methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate (MAFP).

    PubMed

    Amara, Sawsan; Delorme, Vincent; Record, Michel; Carrière, Frédéric

    2012-11-01

    Methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate (MAFP) is a known inhibitor of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and some other serine enzymes. MAFP was found here to be an irreversible inhibitor of human pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 (HPLRP2), an enzyme displaying lipase, phospholipase A1 and galactolipase activities. In the presence of MAFP, mass spectrometry analysis of HPLRP2 revealed a mass increase of 351Da, suggesting a covalent binding of MAFP to the active site serine residue. When HPLRP2 was pre-incubated with MAFP before measuring residual activity, a direct inhibition of HPLRP2 occurred, confirming that HPLRP2 has an active site freely accessible to solvent and differs from most lipases in solution. HPLRP2 activities on tributyrin (TC4), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and monogalactosyl dioctanoylglycerol (C8-MGDG) were equally inhibited under these conditions. Bile salts were not required to trigger the inhibition, but they significantly increased the rate of HPLRP2 inhibition, probably because of MAFP micellar solubilization. Since HPLRP2 is active on various substrates that self-organize differently in the presence of water, HPLRP2 inhibition by MAFP was tested in the presence of these substrates after adding MAFP in the course of the lipolysis reaction. In this case, the rates of inhibition of lipase, phospholipase A1 and galactolipase activities were not equivalent (triglycerides>PC>MGDG), suggesting different enzyme/inhibitor partitioning between the aqueous phase and lipid aggregates. The inhibition by MAFP of a well identified phospholipase A1 (HPLRP2), present in pancreatic juice and also in human monocytes, indicates that MAFP cannot be used for discriminating phospholipase A2 from A1 activities at the cellular level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. β-Adrenergic Receptor-Mediated Cardiac Contractility is Inhibited via Vasopressin Type 1A-Receptor-Dependent Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tilley, Douglas G.; Zhu, Weizhong; Myers, Valerie D.; Barr, Larry A.; Gao, Erhe; Li, Xue; Song, Jianliang; Carter, Rhonda L.; Makarewich, Catherine A.; Yu, Daohai; Troupes, Constantine D.; Grisanti, Laurel A.; Coleman, Ryan C.; Koch, Walter J.; Houser, Steven R.; Cheung, Joseph Y.; Feldman, Arthur M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Enhanced arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels are associated with increased mortality during end-stage human heart failure (HF), and cardiac AVP type 1A receptor (V1AR) expression becomes increased. Additionally, mice with cardiac-restricted V1AR overexpression develop cardiomyopathy and decreased β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) responsiveness. This led us to hypothesize that V1AR signaling regulated βAR responsiveness and in doing so contributes to HF development. Methods and Results Transaortic constriction resulted in decreased cardiac function and βAR density and increased cardiac V1AR expression, effects reversed by a V1AR-selective antagonist. Molecularly, V1AR stimulation led to decreased βAR ligand affinity, as well as βAR-induced Ca2+ mobilization and cAMP generation in isolated adult cardiomyocytes, effects recapitulated via ex vivo Langendorff analysis. V1AR-mediated regulation of βAR responsiveness was demonstrated to occur in a previously unrecognized Gq protein-independent/GRK-dependent manner. Conclusions This newly discovered relationship between cardiac V1AR and βAR may be informative for the treatment of patients with acute decompensated HF and elevated AVP. PMID:25205804

  9. μ-Opioid Receptor-Mediated Inhibition of Intercalated Neurons and Effect on Synaptic Transmission to the Central Amygdala.

    PubMed

    Blaesse, Peter; Goedecke, Lena; Bazelot, Michaël; Capogna, Marco; Pape, Hans-Christian; Jüngling, Kay

    2015-05-13

    The amygdala is a key region for the processing of information underlying fear, anxiety, and fear extinction. Within the local neuronal networks of the amygdala, a population of inhibitory, intercalated neurons (ITCs) modulates the flow of information among various nuclei of amygdala, including the basal nucleus (BA) and the centromedial nucleus (CeM) of the amygdala. These ITCs have been shown to be important during fear extinction and are target of a variety of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. Here we provide evidence that the activation of μ-opioid receptors (MORs) by the specific agonist DAMGO ([D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-Enkephalin) hyperpolarizes medially located ITCs (mITCs) in acute brain slices of mice. Moreover, we use whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in combination with local electrical stimulation or glutamate uncaging to analyze the effect of MOR activation on local microcircuits. We show that the GABAergic transmission between mITCs and CeM neurons is attenuated by DAMGO, whereas the glutamatergic transmission on CeM neurons and mITCs is unaffected. Furthermore, MOR activation induced by theta burst stimulation in BA suppresses plastic changes of feedforward inhibitory transmission onto CeM neurons as revealed by the MOR antagonist CTAP d-Phe-Cys-Tyr-d-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2. In summary, the mITCs constitute a target for the opioid system, and therefore, the activation of MOR in ITCs might play a central role in the modulation of the information processing between the basolateral complex of the amygdala and central nuclei of the amygdala. Copyright © 2015 Blaesse, Goedecke et al.

  10. THE SHARK RECTAL GLAND MODEL: A CHAMPION OF RECEPTOR MEDIATED CHLORIDE SECRETION THROUGH CFTR

    PubMed Central

    FORREST, JOHN N.

    2016-01-01

    The dogfish shark salt gland was predicted by Smith and discovered by Burger at the Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory in Salisbury Cove, Maine. It is an epithelial organ in the intestine composed of tubules that serve a single function: the secretion of hypertonic NaCl. Many G protein receptors are present on the basolateral surface of these tubules, including stimulatory receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide, adenosine A2, growth hormone releasing hormone, and inhibitory receptors for somatostatin and adenosine A1. An entirely different class of stimulatory receptors is present as C-type natriuretic peptide receptors. Each stimulatory receptor evokes powerful NaCl secretion. G protein receptors bind to Gαs to activate the catalytic unit of adenylate cyclase to form cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and protein kinase A that phosphorylates the regulatory domain of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, opening the channel. The C-type natriuretic peptide receptor stimulates by activating guanylate cyclase and endogenous cyclic guanosine monophosphate which inhibits type 3 phosphodiesterase, the enzyme that breaks down cAMP, thereby elevating cAMP and activating the protein kinase A pathway. PMID:28066051

  11. Inhibition of angiogenesis by leflunomide via targeting the soluble ephrin-A1/EphA2 system in bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Chu, Maolin; Zhang, Chunying

    2018-01-24

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in bladder cancer (BCa). The immunosuppressive drug leflunomide has attracted worldwide attention. However, the effects of leflunomide on angiogenesis in cancer remain unclear. Here, we report the increased expression of soluble ephrin-A1 (sEphrin-A1) in supernatants of BCa cell lines (RT4, T24, and TCCSUP) co-cultured with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) compared with that in immortalized uroepithelial cells (SV-HUC-1) co-cultured with HUVECs. sEphrin-A1 is released from BCa cells as a monomeric protein that is a functional form of the ligand. The co-culture supernatants containing sEphrin-A1 caused the internalization and down-regulation of EphA2 on endothelial cells and dramatic functional activation of HUVECs. This sEphrin-A1/EphA2 system is mainly functional in regulating angiogenesis in BCa tissue. We showed that leflunomide (LEF) inhibited angiogenesis in a N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine (BBN)-induced bladder carcinogenesis model and a tumor xenograft model, as well as in BCa cell and HUVEC co-culture systems, via significant inhibition of the sEphrin-A1/EphA2 system. Ephrin-A1 overexpression could partially reverse LEF-induced suppression of angiogenesis and subsequent tumor growth inhibition. Thus, LEF has a significant anti-angiogenesis effect on BCa cells and BCa tissue via its inhibition of the functional angiogenic sEphrin-A1/EphA2 system and may have potential for treating BCa beyond immunosuppressive therapy.

  12. EphrinA1 Inhibits Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-Induced Intracellular Signaling and Suppresses Retinal Neovascularization and Blood-Retinal Barrier Breakdown

    PubMed Central

    Ojima, Tomonari; Takagi, Hitoshi; Suzuma, Kiyoshi; Oh, Hideyasu; Suzuma, Izumi; Ohashi, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Daisuke; Suganami, Eri; Murakami, Tomoaki; Kurimoto, Masafumi; Honda, Yoshihito; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2006-01-01

    The Eph receptor/ephrin system is a recently discovered regulator of vascular development during embryogenesis. Activation of EphA2, one of the Eph receptors, reportedly suppresses cell proliferation and adhesion in a wide range of cell types, including vascular endothelial cells. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a primary role in both pathological angiogenesis and abnormal vascular leakage in diabetic retinopathy. In the study described herein, we demonstrated that EphA2 stimulation by ephrinA1 in cultured bovine retinal endothelial cells inhibits VEGF-induced VEGFR2 receptor phosphorylation and its downstream signaling cascades, including PKC (protein kinase C)-ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) 1/2 and Akt. This inhibition resulted in the reduction of VEGF-induced angiogenic cell activity, including migration, tube formation, and cellular proliferation. These inhibitory effects were further confirmed in animal models. Intraocular injection of ephrinA1 suppressed ischemic retinal neovascularization in a dose-dependent manner in a mouse model. At a dose of 125 ng/eye, the inhibition was 36.0 ± 14.9% (P < 0.001). EphrinA1 also inhibited VEGF-induced retinal vascular permeability in a rat model by 46.0 ± 10.0% (P < 0.05). These findings suggest a novel therapeutic potential for EphA2/ephrinA1 in the treatment of neovascularization and vasopermeability abnormalities in diabetic retinopathy. PMID:16400034

  13. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester inhibits 3-MC-induced CYP1A1 expression through induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyung Gyun; Han, Eun Hee; Im, Ji Hye

    2015-09-25

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a natural component of propolis, is reported to have anticarcinogenic properties, although its precise chemopreventive mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of CAPE on 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC)-induced CYP1A1 expression and activities. CAPE reduced the formation of the benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct. Moreover, CAPE inhibited 3-MC-induced CYP1A1 activity, mRNA expression, protein level, and promoter activity. CAPE treatment also decreased 3-MC-inducible xenobiotic-response element (XRE)-linked luciferase, aryl hydrocarbons receptor (AhR) transactivation and nuclear localization. CAPE induced hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein level and HIF-1α responsible element (HRE) transcriptional activity. CAPE-mediated HIF-1α reduced 3-MC-inducible CYP1A1 protein expression. Takenmore » together, CAPE decreases 3-MC-mediated CYP1A1 expression, and this inhibitory response is associated with inhibition of AhR and HIF-1α induction. - Highlights: • CAPE reduced the formation of the benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct. • CAPE inhibited 3-MC-induced CYP1A1 expression. • CAPE induced HIF-1α induction. • CAPE-mediated HIF-1α reduced 3-MC-inducible CYP1A1 expression.« less

  14. Metformin inhibits 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced breast carcinogenesis and adduct formation in human breast cells by inhibiting the cytochrome P4501A1/aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Maayah, Zaid H.; Ghebeh, Hazem; Alhaider, Abdulqader A.

    2015-04-15

    Recent studies have established that metformin (MET), an oral anti-diabetic drug, possesses antioxidant activity and is effective against different types of cancer in several carcinogen-induced animal models and cell lines. However, whether MET can protect against breast cancer has not been reported before. Therefore, the overall objectives of the present study are to elucidate the potential chemopreventive effect of MET in non-cancerous human breast MCF10A cells and explore the underlying mechanism involved, specifically the role of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1)/aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway. Transformation of the MCF10A cells into initiated breast cancer cells with DNA adduct formation was conducted usingmore » 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), an AhR ligand. The chemopreventive effect of MET against DMBA-induced breast carcinogenesis was evidenced by the capability of MET to restore the induction of the mRNA levels of basic excision repair genes, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1 (APE1), and the level of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Interestingly, the inhibition of DMBA-induced DNA adduct formation was associated with proportional decrease in CYP1A1 and in NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) gene expression. Mechanistically, the involvements of AhR and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in the MET-mediated inhibition of DMBA-induced CYP1A1 and NQO1 gene expression were evidenced by the ability of MET to inhibit DMBA-induced xenobiotic responsive element and antioxidant responsive element luciferase reporter gene expression which suggests an AhR- and Nrf2-dependent transcriptional control. However, the inability of MET to bind to AhR suggests that MET is not an AhR ligand. In conclusion, the present work shows a strong evidence that MET inhibits the DMBA-mediated carcinogenicity and adduct formation by inhibiting the expression of CYP1A1 through an AhR ligand

  15. Inhibition of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling downregulates expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase isoform 3A1 (ALDH3A1) to reduce resistance against temozolomide in glioblastoma in vitro.

    PubMed

    Suwala, Abigail Kora; Koch, Katharina; Rios, Dayana Herrera; Aretz, Philippe; Uhlmann, Constanze; Ogorek, Isabella; Felsberg, Jörg; Reifenberger, Guido; Köhrer, Karl; Deenen, René; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Kahlert, Ulf D; Maciaczyk, Jaroslaw

    2018-04-27

    Glioblastoma is the most aggressive type of glioma. The Wingless (Wnt) signaling pathway has been shown to promote stem cell properties and resistance to radio- and chemotherapy in glioblastoma. Here, we demonstrate that pharmacological Wnt pathway inhibition using the porcupine inhibitor LGK974 acts synergistically with temozolomide (TMZ), the chemotherapeutic drug currently used as standard treatment for glioblastoma, to suppress in vitro growth of glioma cells. Synergistic growth inhibition was independent of the O 6 -alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase ( MGMT ) promoter methylation status. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 ( ALDH3A1 ) was significantly down-regulated when cells were treated with LGK974 and TMZ. Suppressing ALDH3A1 expression increased the efficacy of TMZ and reduced clonogenic potential accompanied by decreased expression of stem cell markers CD133, Nestin and Sox2. Taken together, our study suggests that previous observations concerning Wnt signaling blockade to reduce chemoresistance in glioblastoma is at least in part mediated by inhibition of ALDH3A1.

  16. EphrinA1-EphA2 interaction-mediated apoptosis and Flt3L-induced immunotherapy inhibits tumor growth in a breast cancer mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Manish; Vemula, Sai V.; Sharma, Anurag; Ahi, Yadvinder S.; Mittal, Shalini; Bangari, Dinesh S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2 is overexpressed in several types of cancers and is currently being pursued as a target for breast cancer therapeutics. The EphA2 ligand EphrinA1 induces EphA2 phosphorylation and intracellular internalization and degradation, thus inhibiting tumor progression. The hematopoietic growth factor, FMS-like tyrosine kinase receptor ligand (Flt3L), promotes expansion and mobilization of functional dendritic cells. Methods We tested the EphrinA1-EphA2 interaction in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells focusing on the receptor-ligand-mediated apoptosis of breast cancer cells. In order to determine whether the EphrinA1-EphA2 interaction-associated apoptosis and Flt3L-mediated immunotherapy would have an additive effect in inhibiting tumor growth, we used an immunocompetent mouse model of breast cancer to evaluate intratumoral (i.t.) inoculation strategies with human adenovirus (HAd) vectors expressing either EphrinA1 (HAd-EphrinA1-Fc), Flt3L (HAd-Flt3L) or a combination of EphrinA1-Fc + Flt3L (HAd-EphrinA1-Fc + HAd-Flt3L). Results In vitro analysis demonstrated that an EphrinA1-EphA2 interaction led to apoptosis-related changes in breast cancer cells. In vivo, three i.t. inoculations of HAd-EphrinA1-Fc showed potent inhibition of tumor growth. Furthermore, increased inhibition in tumor growth was observed with the combination of HAd-EphrinA1-Fc and HAd-Flt3L accompanied by the generation of an anti-tumor adaptive immune response. Conclusions The results indicating induction of apoptosis and inhibition of mammary tumor growth show the potential therapeutic benefits of HAd-EphrinA1-Fc. In combination with HAd-Flt3L, this represents a promising strategy to effectively induce mammary tumor regression by HAd vector-based therapy. PMID:22228563

  17. In vitro binding and receptor-mediated activity of terlipressin at vasopressin receptors V1 and V2

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Khurram; Pappas, Stephen Chris; Devarakonda, Krishna R

    2018-01-01

    Terlipressin, a synthetic, systemic vasoconstrictor with selective activity at vasopressin-1 (V1) receptors, is a pro-drug for the endogenous/natural porcine hormone [Lys8]-vasopressin (LVP). We investigated binding and receptor-mediated cellular activities of terlipressin, LVP, and endogenous human hormone [Arg8]-vasopressin (AVP) at V1 and vasopressin-2 (V2) receptors. Cell membrane homogenates of Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing human V1 and V2 receptors were used in competitive binding assays to measure receptor-binding activity. These cells were used in functional assays to measure receptor-mediated cellular activity of terlipressin, LVP, and AVP. Binding was measured by [3H]AVP counts, and the activity was measured by fluorometric detection of intracellular calcium mobilization (V1) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (V2). Binding potency at V1 and V2 was AVP>LVP>>terlipressin. LVP and terlipressin had approximately sixfold higher affinity for V1 than for V2. Cellular activity potency was also AVP>LVP>>terlipressin. Terlipressin was a partial agonist at V1 and a full agonist at V2; LVP was a full agonist at both V1 and V2. The in vivo response to terlipressin is likely due to the partial V1 agonist activity of terlipressin and full V1 agonist activity of its metabolite, LVP. These results provide supportive evidence for previous findings and further establish terlipressin pharmacology for vasopressin receptors. PMID:29302194

  18. In vitro binding and receptor-mediated activity of terlipressin at vasopressin receptors V1 and V2.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Khurram; Pappas, Stephen Chris; Devarakonda, Krishna R

    2018-01-01

    Terlipressin, a synthetic, systemic vasoconstrictor with selective activity at vasopressin-1 (V 1 ) receptors, is a pro-drug for the endogenous/natural porcine hormone [Lys 8 ]-vasopressin (LVP). We investigated binding and receptor-mediated cellular activities of terlipressin, LVP, and endogenous human hormone [Arg 8 ]-vasopressin (AVP) at V 1 and vasopressin-2 (V 2 ) receptors. Cell membrane homogenates of Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing human V 1 and V 2 receptors were used in competitive binding assays to measure receptor-binding activity. These cells were used in functional assays to measure receptor-mediated cellular activity of terlipressin, LVP, and AVP. Binding was measured by [ 3 H]AVP counts, and the activity was measured by fluorometric detection of intracellular calcium mobilization (V 1 ) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (V 2 ). Binding potency at V 1 and V 2 was AVP>LVP>terlipressin. LVP and terlipressin had approximately sixfold higher affinity for V 1 than for V 2 . Cellular activity potency was also AVP>LVP>terlipressin. Terlipressin was a partial agonist at V 1 and a full agonist at V 2 ; LVP was a full agonist at both V 1 and V 2 . The in vivo response to terlipressin is likely due to the partial V 1 agonist activity of terlipressin and full V 1 agonist activity of its metabolite, LVP. These results provide supportive evidence for previous findings and further establish terlipressin pharmacology for vasopressin receptors.

  19. Antigen-Specific Immune Modulation Targets mTORC1 Function To Drive Chemokine Receptor-Mediated T Cell Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weirong; Wan, Xiaoxiao; Ukah, Tobechukwu K; Miller, Mindy M; Barik, Subhasis; Cattin-Roy, Alexis N; Zaghouani, Habib

    2016-11-01

    To contain autoimmunity, pathogenic T cells must be eliminated or diverted from reaching the target organ. Recently, we defined a novel form of T cell tolerance whereby treatment with Ag downregulates expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 and prevents diabetogenic Th1 cells from reaching the pancreas, leading to suppression of type 1 diabetes (T1D). This report defines the signaling events underlying Ag-induced chemokine receptor-mediated tolerance. Specifically, we show that the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a major target for induction of CXCR3 downregulation and crippling of Th1 cells. Indeed, Ag administration induces upregulation of programmed death-ligand 1 on dendritic cells in a T cell-dependent manner. In return, programmed death-ligand 1 interacts with the constitutively expressed programmed death-1 on the target T cells and stimulates docking of Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 phosphatase to the cytoplasmic tail of programmed death-1. Active Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 impairs the signaling function of the PI3K/protein kinase B (AKT) pathway, leading to functional defect of mTORC1, downregulation of CXCR3 expression, and suppression of T1D. Thus, mTORC1 component of the metabolic pathway serves as a target for chemokine receptor-mediated T cell tolerance and suppression of T1D. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  20. GABAa and GABAc receptor-mediated modulation of responses to color stimuli: electroretinographic study in the turtle Emys orbicularis.

    PubMed

    Kupenova, Petia; Vitanova, Lily; Popova, Elka

    2010-04-01

    GABAergic transmission is involved in color coding in the retina. The specific contribution of different GABA receptors to spectral sensitivity of the retinal responses is not well characterized. We studied GABAa and GABAc receptor-mediated effects on the intensity-response functions of the electroretinographic ON (b-wave) and OFF (d-wave) responses to color stimuli. For this purpose, we compared the effects of GABAa receptor blockade by bicuculline with the effects of GABAa + GABAc receptor blockade by picrotoxin. The blockade of both GABAa and GABAc receptors caused an amplitude increase of the electroretinographic responses, but the effects of the two blockades depended in a specific manner on stimulus intensity and wavelength. The effects of GABAa receptor blockade showed distinct color ON/OFF asymmetry. The absolute and relative sensitivities of the ON responses to blue stimuli and OFF responses to red stimuli were increased to the greatest degree while the sensitivity of the ON responses to red stimuli and OFF responses to blue stimuli was least increased. In contrast, color ON/OFF asymmetry was not typical of the effects of GABAc receptor blockade. The most prominent GABAc effect was the sensitivity increase of the ON and OFF responses to blue stimuli and, to some lesser extent, to green stimuli. The results of this study indicate a specific role of GABAa and GABAc receptor-mediated influences in processing of chromatic information in the distal retina.

  1. Receptor-mediated transfer of pSV2CAT DNA to mouse liver cells using asialofetuin-labeled liposomes.

    PubMed

    Hara, T; Aramaki, Y; Takada, S; Koike, K; Tsuchiya, S

    1995-12-01

    Asialofetuin-labeled liposomes (AF-liposomes) were developed as a nonviral vector having high transfection activity for receptor-mediated gene transfer to hepatocytes by systemic administration. Initially, the majority of pSV2CAT, a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene expression plasmid, was associated with AF-liposomes (AF-liposome-pSV2CAT), and they were injected into the portal vein of an adult mouse. Significantly high CAT activity was observed in the liver. The CAT activity in the liver was further increased two-fold by using AF-liposomes completely encapsulating pSV2CAT. Nonlabeled control liposomes, on the other hand, showed lower CAT activity in the liver than in the spleen or lung. The level of CAT mRNA reflected the CAT activity obtained by each liposome preparation in each tissue. Immunohistochemical staining showed that CAT was produced in a large number of parenchymal cells localizing in the periportal area. The plasmid encapsulated in the internal aqueous layer of the liposomes was effectively protected from environmental degradation. Thus, by administration into the blood circulation, AF-liposomes would be successfully incorporated into hepatocytes through receptor-mediated endocytosis, and the encapsulated plasmid would be transferred to the intracellular pathway.

  2. CB1 receptor-mediated signaling underlies the hippocampal synaptic, learning, and memory deficits following treatment with JWH-081, a new component of spice/K2 preparations.

    PubMed

    Basavarajappa, Balapal S; Subbanna, Shivakumar

    2014-02-01

    Recently, synthetic cannabinoids have been sprayed onto plant material, which is subsequently packaged and sold as "Spice" or "K2" to mimic the effects of marijuana. A recent report identified several synthetic additives in samples of "Spice/K2", including JWH-081, a synthetic ligand for the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1). The deleterious effects of JWH-081 on brain function are not known, particularly on CB1 signaling, synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Here, we evaluated the effects of JWH-081 on pCaMKIV, pCREB, and pERK1/2 signaling events followed by long-term potentiation (LTP), hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks using CB1 receptor wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice. Acute administration of JWH-081 impaired CaMKIV phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner, whereas inhibition of CREB phosphorylation in CB1 receptor WT mice was observed only at higher dose of JWH-081 (1.25 mg/kg). JWH-081 at higher dose impaired CaMKIV and CREB phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner in CB1 receptor WT mice but not in KO mice and failed to alter ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In addition, SR treated or CB1 receptor KO mice have a lower pCaMKIV/CaMKIV ratio and higher pCREB/CREB ratio compared with vehicle or WT littermates. In hippocampal slices, JWH-081 impaired LTP in CB1 receptor WT but not in KO littermates. Furthermore, JWH-081 at higher dose impaired object recognition, spontaneous alternation and spatial memory on the Y-maze in CB1 receptor WT mice but not in KO mice. Collectively our findings suggest that deleterious effects of JWH-081 on hippocampal function involves CB1 receptor mediated impairments in CaMKIV and CREB phosphorylation, LTP, learning and memory in mice. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) enhances hippocampal excitatory and seizure activity through IGF-1 receptor-mediated mechanisms in the epileptic brain.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guohui; Wang, Wei; Cao, Qingqing; Gu, Juan; Mi, Xiujuan; Wang, Kewei; Chen, Guojun; Wang, Xuefeng

    2015-12-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is known to promote neurogenesis and survival. However, recent studies have suggested that IGF-1 regulates neuronal firing and excitatory neurotransmission. In the present study, focusing on temporal lobe epilepsy, we found that IGF-1 levels and IGF-1 receptor activation are increased in human epileptogenic tissues, and pilocarpine- and pentylenetetrazole-treated rat models. Using an acute model of seizures, we showed that lateral cerebroventricular infusion of IGF-1 elevates IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signalling before pilocarpine application had proconvulsant effects. In vivo electroencephalogram recordings and power spectrogram analysis of local field potential revealed that IGF-1 promotes epileptiform activities. This effect is diminished by co-application of an IGF-1R inhibitor. In an in vitro electrophysiological study, we demonstrated that IGF-1 enhancement of excitatory neurotransmission and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptor- and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated currents is inhibited by IGF-1R inhibitor. Finally, activation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)-1/2 and protein kinase B (Akt) in seizures in rats is increased by exogenous IGF-1 and diminished by picropodophyllin. A behavioural study reveals that the ERK1/2 or Akt inhibitor attenuates seizure activity. These results indicate that increased IGF-1 levels after recurrent hippocampal neuronal firings might, in turn, promote seizure activity via IGF-1R-dependent mechanisms. The present study presents a previously unappreciated role of IGF-1R in the development of seizure activity. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  4. Alzheimer's Therapeutics Targeting Amyloid Beta 1–42 Oligomers II: Sigma-2/PGRMC1 Receptors Mediate Abeta 42 Oligomer Binding and Synaptotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Izzo, Nicholas J.; Xu, Jinbin; Zeng, Chenbo; Kirk, Molly J.; Mozzoni, Kelsie; Silky, Colleen; Rehak, Courtney; Yurko, Raymond; Look, Gary; Rishton, Gilbert; Safferstein, Hank; Cruchaga, Carlos; Goate, Alison; Cahill, Michael A.; Arancio, Ottavio; Mach, Robert H.; Craven, Rolf; Head, Elizabeth; LeVine, Harry; Spires-Jones, Tara L.; Catalano, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid beta (Abeta) 1–42 oligomers accumulate in brains of patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and disrupt synaptic plasticity processes that underlie memory formation. Synaptic binding of Abeta oligomers to several putative receptor proteins is reported to inhibit long-term potentiation, affect membrane trafficking and induce reversible spine loss in neurons, leading to impaired cognitive performance and ultimately to anterograde amnesia in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have identified a receptor not previously associated with AD that mediates the binding of Abeta oligomers to neurons, and describe novel therapeutic antagonists of this receptor capable of blocking Abeta toxic effects on synapses in vitro and cognitive deficits in vivo. Knockdown of sigma-2/PGRMC1 (progesterone receptor membrane component 1) protein expression in vitro using siRNA results in a highly correlated reduction in binding of exogenous Abeta oligomers to neurons of more than 90%. Expression of sigma-2/PGRMC1 is upregulated in vitro by treatment with Abeta oligomers, and is dysregulated in Alzheimer's disease patients' brain compared to age-matched, normal individuals. Specific, high affinity small molecule receptor antagonists and antibodies raised against specific regions on this receptor can displace synthetic Abeta oligomer binding to synaptic puncta in vitro and displace endogenous human AD patient oligomers from brain tissue sections in a dose-dependent manner. These receptor antagonists prevent and reverse the effects of Abeta oligomers on membrane trafficking and synapse loss in vitro and cognitive deficits in AD mouse models. These findings suggest sigma-2/PGRMC1 receptors mediate saturable oligomer binding to synaptic puncta on neurons and that brain penetrant, small molecules can displace endogenous and synthetic oligomers and improve cognitive deficits in AD models. We propose that sigma-2/PGRMC1 is a key mediator of the pathological effects of

  5. Chronic Exposure to Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Alters Neuronal Function in the Mammalian Forebrain via Androgen Receptor- and Estrogen Receptor-Mediated Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Penatti, Carlos A A; Porter, Donna M; Henderson, Leslie P

    2009-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) can promote detrimental effects on social behaviors for which γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor-mediated circuits in the forebrain play a critical role. While all AAS bind to androgen receptors (AR), they may also be aromatized to estrogens and thus potentially impart effects via estrogen receptors (ER). Chronic exposure of wild type male mice to a combination of chemically distinct AAS increased action potential (AP) frequency, selective GABAA receptor subunit mRNAs, and GABAergic synaptic current decay in the medial preoptic area (mPOA). Experiments performed with pharmacological agents and in AR-deficient Tfm mutant mice suggest that the AAS-dependent enhancement of GABAergic transmission in wild type mice is AR-mediated. In AR-deficient mice, the AAS elicited dramatically different effects, decreasing AP frequency, sIPSC amplitude and frequency and the expression of selective GABAA receptor subunit mRNAs. Surprisingly, in the absence of AR signaling, the data indicate that the AAS do not act as ER agonists, but rather suggest a novel in vivo action in which the AAS inhibit aromatase and impair endogenous ER signaling. These results show that the AAS have the capacity to alter neuronal function in the forebrain via multiple steroid signaling mechanisms and suggest that effects of these steroids in the brain will depend not only on the balance of AR- vs. ER-mediated regulation for different target genes, but also on the ability of these drugs to alter steroid metabolism and thus the endogenous steroid milieu. PMID:19812324

  6. Ethanol exposure during the third trimester equivalent does not affect GABAA or AMPA receptor-mediated spontaneous synaptic transmission in rat CA3 pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Baculis, Brian Charles; Valenzuela, Carlos Fernando

    2015-12-02

    Ethanol exposure during the rodent equivalent to the 3(rd) trimester of human pregnancy (i.e., first 1-2 weeks of neonatal life) has been shown to produce structural and functional alterations in the CA3 hippocampal sub-region, which is involved in associative memory. Synaptic plasticity mechanisms dependent on retrograde release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) driven by activation of L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (L-VGCCs) are thought to play a role in stabilization of both GABAergic and glutamatergic synapses in CA3 pyramidal neurons. We previously showed that ethanol exposure during the first week of life blocks BDNF/L-VGCC-dependent long-term potentiation of GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in these neurons. Here, we tested whether this effect is associated with lasting alterations in GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission. Rats were exposed to air or ethanol for 3 h/day between postnatal days three and five in vapor inhalation chambers, a paradigm that produces peak serum ethanol levels near 0.3 g/dl. Whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiological recordings of spontaneous inhibitory and excitatory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs and sEPSCs, respectively) were obtained from CA3 pyramidal neurons in coronal brain slices prepared at postnatal days 13-17. Ethanol exposure did not significantly affect the frequency, amplitude, rise-time and half-width of either sIPSCs or sEPSCs. We show that an ethanol exposure paradigm known to inhibit synaptic plasticity mechanisms that may participate in the stabilization of GABAergic and glutamatergic synapses in CA3 pyramidal neurons does not produce lasting functional alterations in these synapses, suggesting that compensatory mechanisms restored the balance of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission.

  7. Sulforaphane inhibits CYP1A1 activity and promotes genotoxicity induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Fangxing, E-mail: fxyang@zju.edu.cn; Zhuang, Shulin; Zhang, Chao

    2013-06-15

    Increasing environmental pollution by carcinogens such as some of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has prompted growing interest in searching for chemopreventive compounds which are readily obtainable. Sulforaphane (SFN) is isolated from cruciferous vegetables and has the potentials to reduce carcinogenesis through various pathways. In this study, we studied the effects of SFN on CYP1A1 activity and genotoxicity induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The results showed that SFN inhibited TCDD-induced CYP1A1 activity in H4IIE cells by directly inhibiting CYP1A1 activity, probably through binding to aryl hydrocarbon receptor and/or CYP1A1 revealed by molecular docking. However, SFN promoted TCDD-induced DNA damage in yeast cellsmore » and reduced the viability of initiated yeast cells. Besides, it is surprising that SFN also failed to reduce genotoxicity induced by other genotoxic reagents which possess different mechanisms to lead to DNA damage. Currently, it is difficult to predict whether SFN has the potentials to reduce the risk of TCDD based on the conflicting observations in the study. Therefore, further studies should be urgent to reveal the function and mechanism of SFN in the stress of such POPs on human health. - Highlights: • Sulforaphane inhibited TCDD-induced CYP1A1 activity in H4IIE cells. • Sulforaphane may bind to aryl hydrocarbon receptor and/or CYP1A1. • Sulforaphane promoted TCDD-induced DNA damage in yeast cells. • Sulforaphane may promote DNA damage by DNA strand breaks or DNA alkylation.« less

  8. Tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R Inhibits Osteosarcoma Angiogenesis in the In Vivo Gelfoam® Assay Visualized by Color-coded Imaging.

    PubMed

    Kiyuna, Tasuku; Tome, Yasunori; Uehara, Fuminari; Murakami, Takashi; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Ming; Kanaya, Fuminori; Hoffman, Robert M

    2018-01-01

    We previously developed a color-coded imaging model that can quantify the length of nascent blood vessels using Gelfoam® implanted in nestin-driven green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP) nude mice. In this model, nascent blood vessels selectively express GFP. We also previously showed that osteosarcoma cells promote angiogenesis in this assay. We have also previously demonstrated the tumor-targeting bacteria Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (S. typhimurium A1-R) can inhibit or regress all tested tumor types in mouse models. The aim of the present study was to determine if S. typhimurium A1-R could inhibit osteosarcoma angiogenesis in the in vivo Gelfoam® color-coded imaging assay. Gelfoam® was implanted subcutaneously in ND-GFP nude mice. Skin flaps were made 7 days after implantation and 143B-RFP human osteosarcoma cells expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) were injected into the implanted Gelfoam. After establishment of tumors in the Gelfoam®, control-group mice were treated with phosphate buffered saline via tail-vein injection (iv) and the experimental group was treated with S. typhimurium A1-R iv Skin flaps were made at day 7, 14, 21, and 28 after implantation of the Gelfoam® to allow imaging of vascularization in the Gelfoam® using a variable-magnification small-animal imaging system and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Nascent blood vessels expressing ND-GFP extended into the Gelfoam® over time in both groups. However, the extent of nascent blood-vessel growth was significantly inhibited by S. typhimurium A1-R treatment by day 28. The present results indicate S. typhimurium A1-R has potential for anti-angiogenic targeted therapy of osteosarcoma. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  9. Targeted delivery of let-7a microRNA encapsulated ephrin-A1 conjugated liposomal nanoparticles inhibit tumor growth in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hung-Yen; Mohammed, Kamal A; Kaye, Fredric; Sharma, Parvesh; Moudgil, Brij M; Clapp, William L; Nasreen, Najmunnisa

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs) are small noncoding RNA sequences that negatively regulate the expression of target genes by posttranscriptional repression. miRs are dysregulated in various diseases, including cancer. let-7a miR, an antioncogenic miR, is downregulated in lung cancers. Our earlier studies demonstrated that let-7a miR inhibits tumor growth in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and could be a potential therapeutic against lung cancer. EphA2 (ephrin type-A receptor 2) tyrosine kinase is overexpressed in most cancer cells, including MPM and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Ephrin-A1, a specific ligand of the EphA2 receptor, inhibits cell proliferation and migration. In this study, to enhance the delivery of miR, the miRs were encapsulated in the DOTAP (N-[1-(2.3-dioleoyloxy)propyl]-N,N,N-trimethyl ammonium)/Cholesterol/DSPE (1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[cyanur(polyethylene glycol)-2000])-PEG (polyethylene glycol)-cyanur liposomal nanoparticles (LNP) and ephrin-A1 was conjugated on the surface of LNP to target receptor EphA2 on lung cancer cells. The LNP with an average diameter of 100 nm showed high stability, low cytotoxicity, and high loading efficiency of precursor let-7a miR and ephrin-A1. The ephrin-A1 conjugated LNP (ephrin-A1–LNP) and let-7a miR encapsulated LNP (miR–LNP) showed improved transfection efficiency against MPM and NSCLC. The effectiveness of targeted delivery of let-7a miR encapsulated ephrin-A1 conjugated LNP (miR–ephrin-A1–LNP) was determined on MPM and NSCLC tumor growth in vitro. miR–ephrin-A1–LNP significantly increased the delivery of let-7a miR in lung cancer cells when compared with free let-7a miR. In addition, the expression of target gene Ras was significantly repressed following miR–ephrin-A1–LNP treatment. Furthermore, the miR–ephrin-A1–LNP complex significantly inhibited MPM and NSCLC proliferation, migration, and tumor growth. Our results demonstrate that the engineered miR–ephrin-A

  10. Spinal Endocannabinoids and CB1 Receptors Mediate C-Fiber-Induced Heterosynaptic Pain Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Pernía-Andrade, Alejandro J.; Kato, Ako; Witschi, Robert; Nyilas, Rita; Katona, István; Freund, Tamás F.; Watanabe, Masahiko; Filitz, Jörg; Koppert, Wolfgang; Schüttler, Jürgen; Ji, Guangchen; Neugebauer, Volker; Marsicano, Giovanni; Lutz, Beat; Vanegas, Horacio; Zeilhofer, Hanns Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Diminished synaptic inhibition in the spinal dorsal horn is a major contributor to chronic pain. Pathways, which reduce synaptic inhibition in inflammatory and neuropathic pain states, have been identified, but central hyperalgesia and diminished dorsal horn synaptic inhibition also occur in the absence of inflammation or neuropathy, solely triggered by intense nociceptive (C–fiber) input to the spinal dorsal horn. We found that endocannabinoids produced upon strong nociceptive stimulation activated CB1 receptors on inhibitory dorsal horn neurons to reduce the synaptic release of GABA and glycine and thus rendered nociceptive neurons excitable by non-painful stimuli. Spinal endocannabinoids and CB1 receptors on inhibitory dorsal horn interneurons act as mediators of heterosynaptic pain sensitization and play an unexpected role in dorsal horn pain controlling circuits. PMID:19661434

  11. AT1 receptor-mediated uptake of angiotensin II and NHE-3 expression in proximal tubule cells through a microtubule-dependent endocytic pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao C; Hopfer, Ulrich; Zhuo, Jia L

    2009-11-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) is taken up by proximal tubule (PT) cells via AT1 (AT1a) receptor-mediated endocytosis, but the underlying cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. The present study tested the hypothesis that the microtubule- rather than the clathrin-dependent endocytic pathway regulates AT1-mediated uptake of ANG II and ANG II-induced sodium and hydrogen exchanger-3 (NHE-3) expression in PT cells. The expression of AT1 receptors, clathrin light (LC) and heavy chain (HC) proteins, and type 1 microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs; MAP-1A and MAP-1B) in PT cells were knocked down by their respective small interfering (si) RNAs before AT1-mediated FITC-ANG II uptake and ANG II-induced NHE-3 expression were studied. AT1 siRNAs inhibited AT1 expression and blocked ANG II-induced NHE-3 expression in PT cells, as expected (P < 0.01). Clathrin LC or HC siRNAs knocked down their respective proteins by approximately 90% with a peak response at 24 h, and blocked the clathrin-dependent uptake of Alexa Fluor 594-transferrin (P < 0.01). However, neither LC nor HC siRNAs inhibited AT1-mediated uptake of FITC-ANG II or affected ANG II-induced NHE-3 expression. MAP-1A or MAP-1B siRNAs markedly knocked down MAP-1A or MAP-1B proteins in a time-dependent manner with peak inhibitions at 48 h (>76.8%, P < 0.01). MAP protein knockdown resulted in approximately 52% decreases in AT1-mediated FITC-ANG II uptake and approximately 66% decreases in ANG II-induced NHE-3 expression (P < 0.01). These effects were associated with threefold decreases in ANG II-induced MAP kinases ERK 1/2 activation (P < 0.01), but not with altered AT1 expression or clathrin-dependent transferrin uptake. Both losartan and AT1a receptor deletion in mouse PT cells completely abolished the effects of MAP-1A knockdown on ANG II-induced NHE-3 expression and activation of MAP kinases ERK1/2. Our findings suggest that the alternative microtubule-dependent endocytic pathway, rather than the canonical clathrin

  12. Mechanism-Based Tumor-Targeting Drug Delivery System. Validation of Efficient Vitamin Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis and Drug Release

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.; Wong, S.; Zhao, X.

    An efficient mechanism-based tumor-targeting drug delivery system, based on tumor-specific vitamin-receptor mediated endocytosis, has been developed. The tumor-targeting drug delivery system is a conjugate of a tumor-targeting molecule (biotin: vitamin H or vitamin B-7), a mechanism-based self-immolative linker and a second-generation taxoid (SB-T-1214) as the cytotoxic agent. This conjugate (1) is designed to be (i) specific to the vitamin receptors overexpressed on tumor cell surface and (ii) internalized efficiently through receptor-mediated endocytosis, followed by smooth drug release via glutathione-triggered self-immolation of the linker. In order to monitor and validate the sequence of events hypothesized, i.e., receptor-mediated endocytosis of the conjugate,more » drug release, and drug-binding to the target protein (microtubules), three fluorescent/fluorogenic molecular probes (2, 3, and 4) were designed and synthesized. The actual occurrence of these processes was unambiguously confirmed by means of confocal fluorescence microscopy (CFM) and flow cytometry using L1210FR leukemia cells, overexpressing biotin receptors. The molecular probe 4, bearing the taxoid linked to fluorescein, was also used to examine the cell specificity (i.e., efficacy of receptor-based cell targeting) for three cell lines, L1210FR (biotin receptors overexpressed), L1210 (biotin receptors not overexpressed), and WI38 (normal human lung fibroblast, biotin receptor negative). As anticipated, the molecular probe 4 exhibited high specificity only to L1210FR. To confirm the direct correlation between the cell-specific drug delivery and anticancer activity of the probe 4, its cytotoxicity against these three cell lines was also examined. The results clearly showed a good correlation between the two methods. In the same manner, excellent cell-specific cytotoxicity of the conjugate 1 (without fluorescein attachment to the taxoid) against the same three cell lines was confirmed. This

  13. V1-receptor mediated GSH efflux by vasopressin from rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Sato, C; Liu, J H; Uchihara, M; Izumi, N; Yauchi, T; Sakaj, Y; Asahina, Y; Fukuma, T; Takano, T; Marumo, F

    1992-01-01

    Vasopression increases sinusoidal efflux of GSH in the perfused rat liver. The mechanism of this effect was studied in the perfused rat liver and in isolated rat hepatocytes. Vasopressin stimulated GSH efflux in both systems and a V1-receptor antagonist (OPC-21268) significantly inhibited the effect of vasopressin suggesting that vasopressin stimulates GSH efflux from rat hepatocytes via V1-receptor.

  14. Palmatine suppresses glutamine-mediated interaction between pancreatic cancer and stellate cells through simultaneous inhibition of survivin and COL1A1

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthy, Divya; Muñoz, Amanda R.; Su, Angel; Hwang, Rosa F.; Keppler, Brian R.; Chan, Daniel E.; Halff, Glenn; Ghosh, Rita; Kumar, Addanki P.

    2018-01-01

    Reciprocal interaction between pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) and cancer cells (PCCs) in the tumor microenvironment (TME) promotes tumor cell survival and progression to lethal, therapeutically resistant pancreatic cancer. The goal of this study was to test the ability of Palmatine (PMT) to disrupt this reciprocal interaction in vitro and examine the underlying mechanism of interaction. We show that PSCs secrete glutamine into the extracellular environment under nutrient deprivation. PMT suppresses glutamine-mediated changes in GLI signaling in PCCs resulting in the inhibition of growth and migration while inducing apoptosis by inhibition of survivin. PMT-mediated inhibition of (glioma-associated oncogene 1) GLI activity in stellate cells leads to suppression (collagen type 1 alpha 1) COL1A1 activation. Remarkably, PMT potentiated gemcitabine’s growth inhibitory activity in PSCs, PCCs and inherently gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells. This is the first study that shows the ability of PMT to inhibit growth of PSCs and PCCs either alone or in combination with gemcitabine. These studies warrant additional investigations using preclinical models to develop PMT as an agent for clinical management of pancreatic cancer. PMID:29414301

  15. Receptor-mediated activation of nitric oxide synthesis by arginine in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Mahesh S.; Ferguson, T. Bruce; Johnson, Fruzsina K.; Johnson, Robert A.; Parthasarathy, Sampath; Lancaster, Jack R.

    2007-01-01

    Arginine contains the guanidinium group and thus has structural similarity to ligands of imidazoline and α-2 adrenoceptors (α-2 AR). Therefore, we investigated the possibility that exogenous arginine may act as a ligand for these receptors in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and activate intracellular nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Idazoxan, a mixed antagonist of imidazoline and α-2 adrenoceptors, partly inhibited l-arginine-initiated NO formation as measured by a Griess reaction. Rauwolscine, a highly specific antagonist of α-2 AR, at very low concentrations completely inhibited NO formation. Like l-arginine, agmatine (decarboxylated arginine) also activated NO synthesis, however, at much lower concentrations. We found that dexmedetomidine, a specific agonist of α-2 AR was very potent in activating cellular NO, thus indicating a possible role for α-2 AR in l-arginine-mediated NO synthesis. d-arginine also activated NO production and could be inhibited by imidazoline and α-2 AR antagonists, thus indicating nonsubstrate actions of arginine. Pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of G proteins, attenuated l-arginine-mediated NO synthesis, thus indicating mediation via G proteins. l-type Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine and phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 inhibited NO formation and thus implicated participation of a second messenger pathway. Finally, in isolated rat gracilis vessels, rauwolscine completely inhibited the l-arginine-initiated vessel relaxation. Taken together, these data provide evidence for binding of arginine to membrane receptor(s), leading to the activation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) NO production through a second messenger pathway. These findings provide a previously unrecognized mechanistic explanation for the beneficial effects of l-arginine in the cardiovascular system and thus provide new potential avenues for therapeutic development. PMID:17535904

  16. hsa-miR-135a-1 inhibits prostate cancer cell growth and migration by targeting EGFR.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Tao, Tao; Wang, Yiduo; Fang, Fang; Huang, Yeqing; Chen, Shuqiu; Zhu, Weidong; Chen, Ming

    2016-10-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of death in men worldwide. Differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with metastatic prostate cancer. However, their potential roles for affecting prostate cancer initiation and progression remain largely unknown. Here, we examined the aberrant expression profiles of miRNAs in human metastatic prostate cancer tissues. We further validated our miRNA expression data using two large, independent clinical prostate cancer datasets from the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Our data support a model in which hsa-miR-135-1 acts as a potential tumor suppressor in metastatic prostate cancer. First, its downregulation was positively correlated with late TNM stage, high Gleason score, and adverse prognosis. Second, cell growth, cell cycle progression, cell migration and invasion, and xenograft tumor formation were dramatically inhibited by miR-135a overexpression. Third, in the microarray gene expression data analysis using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA), Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) analysis, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), and Oncomine concept analysis, we showed that miR-135a targets multiple oncogenic pathways including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which we verified using functional experimental assays. These results help advance our understanding of the function of miRNAs in metastatic prostate cancer and provide a basis for further clinical investigation.

  17. Chronic Neuropathic Pain in Mice Reduces μ-Opioid Receptor-Mediated G-protein Activity in the Thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Hoot, Michelle R.; Sim-Selley, Laura J.; Selley, Dana E.; Scoggins, Krista L.; Dewey, William L.

    2011-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is a debilitating condition that is often difficult to treat using conventional pharmacological interventions and the exact mechanisms involved in the establishment and maintenance of this type of chronic pain have yet to be fully elucidated. The present studies examined the effect of chronic nerve injury on μ-opioid receptors and receptor-mediated G-protein activity within the supraspinal brain regions involved in pain processing of mice. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) reduced paw withdrawal latency, which was maximal at 10 days post-injury. [d-Ala2,(N-Me)Phe4, Gly5-OH] enkephalin (DAMGO)-stimulated [35S]GTPγS binding was then conducted at this time point in membranes prepared from the rostral ACC (rACC), thalamus and periaqueductal grey (PAG) of CCI and sham-operated mice. Results showed reduced DAMGO-stimulated [35S]GTPγS binding in the thalamus and PAG of CCI mice, with no change in the rACC. In thalamus, this reduction was due to decreased maximal stimulation by DAMGO, with no difference in EC50 values. In PAG, however, DAMGO Emax values did not significantly differ between groups, possibly due to the small magnitude of the main effect. [3H]Naloxone binding in membranes of the thalamus showed no significant differences in Bmax values between CCI and sham-operated mice, indicating that the difference in G-protein activation did not result from differences in μ-opioid receptor levels. These results suggest that CCI induced a region-specific adaptation of μ-opioid receptor-mediated G-protein activity, with apparent desensitization of the μ-opioid receptor in the thalamus and PAG and could have implications for treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:21762883

  18. Reboxetine Enhances the Olanzapine-Induced Antipsychotic-Like Effect, Cortical Dopamine Outflow and NMDA Receptor-Mediated Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Monica M; Jardemark, Kent; Malmerfelt, Anna; Björkholm, Carl; Svensson, Torgny H

    2010-01-01

    Preclinical data have shown that addition of the selective norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitor reboxetine increases the antipsychotic-like effect of the D2/3 antagonist raclopride and, in parallel, enhances cortical dopamine output. Subsequent clinical results suggested that adding reboxetine to stable treatments with various antipsychotic drugs (APDs) may improve positive, negative and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated in rats the effects of adding reboxetine to the second-generation APD olanzapine on: (i) antipsychotic efficacy, using the conditioned avoidance response (CAR) test, (ii) extrapyramidal side effect (EPS) liability, using a catalepsy test, (iii) dopamine efflux in the medial prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens, using in vivo microdialysis in freely moving animals and (iv) cortical N-methyl--aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated transmission, using intracellular electrophysiological recording in vitro. Reboxetine (6 mg/kg) enhanced the suppression of CAR induced by a suboptimal dose (1.25 mg/kg), but not an optimal (2.5 mg/kg) dose of olanzapine without any concomitant catalepsy. Addition of reboxetine to the low dose of olanzapine also markedly increased cortical dopamine outflow and facilitated prefrontal NMDA receptor-mediated transmission. Our data suggest that adjunctive treatment with a NET inhibitor may enhance the therapeutic effect of low-dose olanzapine in schizophrenia without increasing EPS liability and add an antidepressant action, thus in principle allowing for a dose reduction of olanzapine with a concomitant reduction of dose-related side effects, such as EPS and weight gain. PMID:20463659

  19. Adenosine inhibits activity of hypocretin/orexin neurons via A1 receptor in the lateral hypothalamus: a possible sleep-promoting effect

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhong-Wu; Gao, Xiao-Bing

    2006-01-01

    Neurons in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) that contain hypocretin/orexin have been established as important promoters of arousal. Deficiencies in the hypocretin/orexin system lead to narcolepsy. The inhibition of hypocretin/orexin neurons by sleep-promoting neurotransmitters has been suggested as one part of the sleep regulation machinery. Adenosine has been identified as a sleep promoter and its role in sleep regulation in the basal forebrain has been well documented. However, the effect of adenosine on arousal-promoting hypocretin/orexin neurons has not been addressed, despite recent evidence that immunocytochemical visualization of adenosine receptors was detected in these neurons. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that adenosine inhibits the activity of hypocretin/orexin neurons by using electrophysiological methods in brain slices from mice expressing green fluorescent protein in hypocretin/orexin neurons. We found that adenosine significantly attenuated the frequency of action potentials without a change in membrane potential in hypocretin/orexin neurons. The adenosine-mediated inhibition is due to depression of excitatory synaptic transmission to hypocretin/orexin neurons, since adenosine depresses the amplitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic potential and the frequency of spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents in these neurons. At the cell body of the hypocretin/orexin neurons, adenosine inhibits voltage-dependent calcium currents without the induction of GIRK current. The inhibitory effect of adenosine is dose-dependent, pertussis toxin-sensitive and mediated via A1 receptors. In summary, our data suggest that in addition to its effect in the basal forebrain, adenosine exerts its sleep-promoting effect in the LH via inhibition of hypocretin/orexin neurons. PMID:17093123

  20. Distinct subunits in heteromeric kainate receptors mediate ionotropic and metabotropic function at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Arnaud; Sachidhanandam, Shankar; Utvik, Jo Kristian; Coussen, Françoise; Mulle, Christophe

    2005-12-14

    Heteromeric kainate receptors (KARs) containing both glutamate receptor 6 (GluR6) and KA2 subunits are involved in KAR-mediated EPSCs at mossy fiber synapses in CA3 pyramidal cells. We report that endogenous glutamate, by activating KARs, reversibly inhibits the slow Ca2+-activated K+ current I(sAHP) and increases neuronal excitability through a G-protein-coupled mechanism. Using KAR knockout mice, we show that KA2 is essential for the inhibition of I(sAHP) in CA3 pyramidal cells by low nanomolar concentrations of kainate, in addition to GluR6. In GluR6(-/-) mice, both ionotropic synaptic transmission and inhibition of I(sAHP) by endogenous glutamate released from mossy fibers was lost. In contrast, inhibition of I(sAHP) was absent in KA2(-/-) mice despite the preservation of KAR-mediated EPSCs. These data indicate that the metabotropic action of KARs did not rely on the activation of a KAR-mediated inward current. Biochemical analysis of knock-out mice revealed that KA2 was required for the interaction of KARs with Galpha(q/11)-proteins known to be involved in I(sAHP) modulation. Finally, the ionotropic and metabotropic actions of KARs at mossy fiber synapses were differentially sensitive to the competitive glutamate receptor ligands kainate (5 nM) and kynurenate (1 mM). We propose a model in which KARs could operate in two modes at mossy fiber synapses: through a direct ionotropic action of GluR6, and through an indirect G-protein-coupled mechanism requiring the binding of glutamate to KA2.

  1. The Role of Estrogen Related Receptor in Modulating Estrogen Receptor Mediated Transcription in Breast Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    tumors correlates with an unfavorable prognosis (Ariazi 2002; Lu 2001; Suzuki 2004; Vanacker 1999). The transcriptional activity of ERRa is not inhibited...SA. 101:6570-5. Needham, M ., S. Raines, J. McPheat, C. Stacey, J. Ellston, S. Hoare, and M . Parker. 2000. Differential interaction of steroid hormone...R. Graves, M . Wright, and B.M. Spiegelman. 1998. A cold- inducible coactivator of nuclear receptors linked to adaptive thermogenesis. Cell. 92:829- 39

  2. Modeling the interactions of bacteria and Toll-like receptor-mediated inflammation in necrotizing enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Arciero, Julia; Ermentrout, G. Bard; Siggers, Richard; Afrazi, Amin; Hackam, David; Vodovotz, Yoram; Rubin, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a severe disease of the gastrointestinal tract in premature infants, characterized by a disrupted intestinal epithelium and an exaggerated pro-inflammatory response. Since the activation of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) blocks cell migration and proliferation and contributes to an uncontrolled inflammatory response within the intestine, this receptor has been identified as a key contributor to the development of NEC. Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR9) has been shown to sense bacterial genome components (CpG DNA) and to play an anti-inflammatory role in NEC. We present in vitro results demonstrating direct inhibition of TLR4 activation by CpG DNA, and we develop a mathematical model of bacteria–immune interactions within the intestine to investigate how such inhibition of TLR4 signaling might alter inflammation, associated bacterial invasion of tissue, and resulting outcomes. The model predicts that TLR9 can inhibit both the beneficial and detrimental effects of TLR4, and thus a proper balance of action by these two receptors is needed to promote intestinal health. The model results are also used to explore three interventions that could potentially prevent the development of NEC: reducing bacteria in the mucus layer, administering probiotic treatment, and blocking TLR4 activation. While the model shows that these interventions would be successful in most cases, the model is also used to identify situations in which the proposed treatments might be harmful. PMID:23238281

  3. Human Milk Components Modulate Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Inflammation.

    PubMed

    He, YingYing; Lawlor, Nathan T; Newburg, David S

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is central to innate immunity. Aberrant expression of TLRs is found in neonatal inflammatory diseases. Several bioactive components of human milk modulate TLR expression and signaling pathways, including soluble toll-like receptors (sTLRs), soluble cluster of differentiation (sCD) 14, glycoproteins, small peptides, and oligosaccharides. Some milk components, such as sialyl (α2,3) lactose and lacto-N-fucopentaose III, are reported to increase TLR signaling; under some circumstances this might contribute toward immunologic balance. Human milk on the whole is strongly anti-inflammatory, and contains abundant components that depress TLR signaling pathways: sTLR2 and sCD14 inhibit TLR2 signaling; sCD14, lactadherin, lactoferrin, and 2'-fucosyllactose attenuate TLR4 signaling; 3'-galactosyllactose inhibits TLR3 signaling, and β-defensin 2 inhibits TLR7 signaling. Feeding human milk to neonates decreases their risk of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. Thus, the TLR regulatory components found in human milk hold promise as benign oral prophylactic and therapeutic treatments for the many gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders mediated by abnormal TLR signaling. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Kainate receptor-mediated depression of glutamatergic transmission involving protein kinase A in the lateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Negrete-Díaz, José Vicente; Duque-Feria, Paloma; Andrade-Talavera, Yuniesky; Carrión, Miriam; Flores, Gonzalo; Rodríguez-Moreno, Antonio

    2012-04-01

    Kainate receptors (KARs) have been described as modulators of synaptic transmission at different synapses. However, this role of KARs has not been well characterized in the amygdala. We have explored the effect of kainate receptor activation at the synapse established between fibers originating at medial geniculate nucleus and the principal cells in the lateral amygdala. We have observed an inhibition of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) amplitude after a brief application of KARs agonists KA and ATPA. Paired-pulse recordings showed a clear pair pulse facilitation that was enhanced after KA or ATPA application. When postsynaptic cells were loaded with BAPTA, the depression of eEPSC amplitude observed after the perfusion of KAR agonists was not prevented. We have also observed that the inhibition of the eEPSCs by KARs agonists was prevented by protein kinase A but not by protein kinase C inhibitors. Taken together our results indicate that KARs present at this synapse are pre-synaptic and their activation mediate the inhibition of glutamate release through a mechanism that involves the activation of protein kinase A. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  5. Receptor-Mediated Uptake and Intracellular Sorting of Multivalent Lipid Nanoparticles Against the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and the Human EGFR 2 (HER2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, David Tu

    In the area of receptor-targeted lipid nanoparticles for drug delivery, efficiency has been mainly focused on cell-specificity, endocytosis, and subsequently effects on bioactivity such as cell growth inhibition. Aspects of targeted liposomal uptake and intracellular sorting are not well defined. This dissertation assessed a series of ligands as targeted functional groups against HER2 and EGFR for liposomal drug delivery. Receptor-mediated uptake, both mono-targeted and dual-targeted to multiple receptors of different ligand valence, and the intracellular sorting of lipid nanoparticles were investigated to improve the delivery of drugs to cancer cells. Lipid nanoparticles were functionalized through a new sequential micelle transfer---conjugation method, while the micelle transfer method was extended to growth factors. Through a combination of both techniques, anti-HER2 and anti-EGFR dual-targeted immunoliposomes with different combinations of ligand valence were developed for comparative studies. With the array of lipid nanoparticles, the uptake and cytotoxicity of lipid nanoparticles in relationship to ligand valence, both mono-targeting and dual-targeting, were evaluated on a small panel of breast cancer cell lines that express HER2 and EGFR of varying levels. Comparable uptake ratios of ligand to expressed receptor and apparent cooperativity were observed. For cell lines that express both receptors, additive dose-uptake effects were also observed with dual-targeted immunoliposomes, which translated to marginal improvements in cell growth inhibition with doxorubicin delivery. Colocalization analysis revealed that ligand-conjugated lipid nanoparticles settle to endosomal compartments similar to their attached ligands. Pathway transregulation and pathway saturation were also observed to affect trafficking. In the end, liposomes routed to the recycling endosomes were never observed to traffic beyond the endosomes nor to be exocytose like recycled ligands. Based on

  6. Inhibitory Effects of Polyacetylene Compounds from Panax ginseng on Neurotrophin Receptor-Mediated Hair Growth.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Aoi; Matsuura, Daisuke; Kanatani, Hirotoshi; Yano, Shingo; Tsunakawa, Mitsuo; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Shigemori, Hideyuki

    2017-01-01

    Neurotrophins play an important role in the control of the hair growth cycle. Therefore, neurotrophin receptor antagonists have therapeutic potential for the treatment of hair growth disorders. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of Panax ginseng, a medicinal plant commonly used to treat alopecia, on the binding of neurotrophins to their receptors. In addition, we isolated and characterized the bioactive compounds of P. ginseng extracts. P. ginseng hexane extracts strongly inhibited brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-TrkB and β-nerve growth factor (β-NGF)-p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) binding. Furthermore, we identified the following 6 polyacetylene compounds as the bioactive components in P. ginseng hexane extract: panaxynol (1), panaxydol (2), panaxydol chlorohydrin (3), 1,8-heptadecadiene-4,6-diyne-3,10-diol (4), panaxytriol (5), and dihydropanaxacol (6). In particular, compounds 4, 5, and 6 significantly inhibited BDNF-TrkB binding in a dose-dependent manner. To identify the structural component mediating the inhibitory effect, we investigated the effects of the hydroxyl moiety in these compounds. We found that the inhibitory effect of panaxytriol (5) was strong, whereas the inhibitory effect of Ac-panaxytriol (7) was relatively weak. Our findings suggest that P. ginseng-derived polyacetylenes with a hydroxyl moiety might provide therapeutic benefits to patients with hair growth disorders such as alopecia by inhibiting the binding of neurotrophins to their receptors. Although saponins have been proposed to be the primary mediators of the effects of P. ginseng on hair growth, this study revealed that polyacetylene compounds exert similar effects.

  7. Rab GTPases Regulate Endothelial Cell Protein C Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis and Trafficking of Factor VIIa

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Ramesh C.; Keshava, Shiva; Esmon, Charles T.; Pendurthi, Usha R.; Rao, L. Vijaya Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have established that factor VIIa (FVIIa) binds to the endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR). FVIIa binding to EPCR may promote the endocytosis of this receptor/ligand complex. Rab GTPases are known to play a crucial role in the endocytic and exocytic pathways of receptors or receptor/ligand complexes. The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of Rab GTPases in the intracellular trafficking of EPCR and FVIIa. CHO-EPCR cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were transduced with recombinant adenoviral vectors to express wild-type, constitutively active, or dominant negative mutant of various Rab GTPases. Cells were exposed to FVIIa conjugated with AF488 fluorescent probe (AF488-FVIIa), and intracellular trafficking of FVIIa, EPCR, and Rab proteins was evaluated by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. In cells expressing wild-type or constitutively active Rab4A, internalized AF488-FVIIa accumulated in early/sorting endosomes and its entry into the recycling endosomal compartment (REC) was inhibited. Expression of constitutively active Rab5A induced large endosomal structures beneath the plasma membrane where EPCR and FVIIa accumulated. Dominant negative Rab5A inhibited the endocytosis of EPCR-FVIIa. Expression of constitutively active Rab11 resulted in retention of accumulated AF488-FVIIa in the REC, whereas expression of a dominant negative form of Rab11 led to accumulation of internalized FVIIa in the cytoplasm and prevented entry of internalized FVIIa into the REC. Expression of dominant negative Rab11 also inhibited the transport of FVIIa across the endothelium. Overall our data show that Rab GTPases regulate the internalization and intracellular trafficking of EPCR-FVIIa. PMID:23555015

  8. Presynaptic Kainate Receptor Mediation of Frequency Facilitation at Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Synapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Dietmar; Mellor, Jack; Nicoll, Roger A.

    2001-03-01

    Inhibition of transmitter release by presynaptic receptors is widespread in the central nervous system and is typically mediated via metabotropic receptors. In contrast, very little is known about facilitatory receptors, and synaptic activation of a facilitatory autoreceptor has not been established. Here we show that activation of presynaptic kainate receptors can facilitate transmitter release from hippocampal mossy fiber synapses. Synaptic activation of these presumed ionotropic kainate receptors is very fast (<10 ms) and lasts for seconds. Thus, these presynaptic kainate receptors contribute to the short-term plasticity characteristics of mossy fiber synapses, which were previously thought to be an intrinsic property of the synapse.

  9. Copolymers of poly-L-lysine with serine and tryptophan form stable DNA vectors: implications for receptor-mediated gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Valadés, A G; Molas, M; Vidal-Alabró, A; Bermúdez, J; Bartrons, R; Perales, J C

    2005-01-20

    Inefficient gene transfer and poor stability in physiological medium are important shortcomings for receptor-mediated gene transfer vectors. Here, we evaluate vectors formulated with random copolymers of L-lysine/L-serine (3:1) and L-lysine/L-tryptophan (4:1), focusing on both their biophysical and functional characterization. By means of dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we demonstrate that poly-L-lysine (pK), poly-L-lysine-L-tryptophan (pKW) and poly-L-lysine-L-serine (pKS) are able to form compacted, small particles when mixed with plasmid DNA in the absence of salt. Upon dilution in physiological medium, copolymers of both lys/ser and lys/trp do not aggregate, in contrast with poly-L-lysine DNA complexes as determined by scattering, DLS and TEM measurements. Tight packing, as demonstrated by resistance to heparin, SDS and trypsin treatments, is also featured in tryptophan-containing complexes. Successful receptor-mediated endocytosis gene transfer using galactosylated copolymers into cells expressing the asiagloglycoprotein receptor correlated with lack of aggregation. Particles obtained using galactosylated poly-L-lysine-L-tryptophan (Gal-pKW) copolymer demonstrated specific receptor-mediated gene transfer since reporter gene activity dropped in the presence of an excess ligand in the culture medium during transfection. Although copolymers of galactosylated poly-L-lysine-L-serine (Gal-pKS) do not aggregate in the presence of salt, they are not able to internalize in a specific receptor-mediated endocytosis fashion. The introduction of bulky aromatic/hydrophobic (tryptophan) or hydrophillic (serine) moieties into the positively charged vectors allows the compacted particles to disperse into salt-containing medium avoiding salt-induced aggregation. Moreover, tryptophan-containing particles are able to mediate specific gene transfer via receptor-mediated endocytosis.

  10. Toll-like receptor mediated activation is possibly involved in immunoregulating properties of cow's milk hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Kiewiet, M. B. Gea; Dekkers, Renske; Gros, Marjan; van Neerven, R. J. Joost; Groeneveld, Andre; de Vos, Paul; Faas, Marijke M.

    2017-01-01

    Immunomodulating proteins and peptides are formed during the hydrolysis of cow’s milk proteins. These proteins are potential ingredients in functional foods used for the management of a range of immune related problems, both in infants and adults. However, the mechanism behind these effects is unknown. We hypothesize that the interaction of peptides with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) can induce immune effects, since these receptors are known to sample many dietary molecules in the intestine in order to regulate immune effects. To investigate this, we compared the immune effects and TLR activation and inhibition by whey and casein hydrolysates with different hydrolysis levels. We first measured cytokine production in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with either whey, casein, or their hydrolysates. IL-10 and TNFα were induced by whey hydrolysates (decreasing with increasing hydrolysis level), but not by casein hydrolysates. Next, the activation of TLR 2, 3, 5 and 9 receptors were observed by intact and mildly hydrolysed whey proteins only and not by casein hydrolysates in TLR reporter cell lines. Many casein hydrolysates inhibited TLR signaling (mainly TLR 5 and 9). These results demonstrate that the effects of cow’s milk proteins on the immune system are protein type and hydrolysis dependent. TLR signaling is suggested as a possible mechanism for differences in effect. This knowledge contributes to a better understanding of the immune effects of hydrolysates and the design of infant formula, and nutrition in general, with specific immunoregulatory effects. PMID:28594834

  11. The Fc and not CD4 Receptor Mediates Antibody Enhancement of HIV Infection in Human Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homsy, Jacques; Meyer, Mia; Tateno, Masatoshi; Clarkson, Sarah; Levy, Jay A.

    1989-06-01

    Antibodies that enhance human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infectivity have been found in the blood of infected individuals and in infected or immunized animals. These findings raise serious concern for the development of a safe vaccine against acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. To address the in vivo relevance and mechanism of this phenomenon, antibody-dependent enhancement of HIV infectivity in peripheral blood macrophages, lymphocytes, and human fibroblastoid cells was studied. Neither Leu3a, a monoclonal antibody directed against the CD4 receptor, nor soluble recombinant CD4 even at high concentrations prevented this enhancement. The addition of monoclonal antibody to the Fc receptor III (anti-FcRIII), but not of antibodies that react with FcRI or FcRII, inhibited HIV type 1 and HIV type 2 enhancement in peripheral blood macrophages. Although enhancement of HIV infection in CD4+ lymphocytes could not be blocked by anti-FcRIII, it was inhibited by the addition of human immunoglobulin G aggregates. The results indicate that the FcRIII receptor on human macrophages and possibly another Fc receptor on human CD4+ lymphocytes mediate antibody-dependent enhancement of HIV infectivity and that this phenomenon proceeds through a mechanism independent of the CD4 protein.

  12. Differential inhibition of rat and human Na+-dependent taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP/SLC10A1)by bosentan: a mechanism for species differences in hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Elaine M; Watkins, Paul B; Kim, Richard B; Brouwer, Kim L R

    2007-06-01

    Bile acid accumulation in hepatocytes due to inhibition of the canalicular bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11) has been proposed as a mechanism for bosentan-induced hepatotoxicity. The observation that bosentan does not induce hepatotoxicity in rats, although bosentan has been reported to inhibit rat Bsep and cause elevated serum bile acids, challenges this mechanism. The lack of hepatotoxicity could be explained if bosentan inhibited hepatocyte uptake as well as canalicular efflux of bile acids. In the current study, bosentan was found to be a more potent inhibitor of Na(+)-dependent taurocholate uptake in rat (IC(50) 5.4 microM) than human (IC(50) 30 microM) suspended hepatocytes. In addition, bosentan was a more potent inhibitor of taurocholate uptake by rat Na(+)-dependent taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (Ntcp/Slc10a1) (IC(50) 0.71 microM) than human NTCP (SLC10A1) (IC(50) 24 microM) expressed in HEK293 cells. Thus, bosentan is a more potent inhibitor of Ntcp than NTCP, and this should result in less intrahepatocyte accumulation of bile acids in rats during bosentan treatment. To begin characterization of this species difference, two chimeric molecules were generated and expressed in HEK293 cells; NTCP(1-140)/Ntcp(141-362) and Ntcp(1-140)/NTCP(141-349). The mode of bosentan inhibition was noncompetitive for Ntcp, and competitive for NTCP (K(i) 18 microM) and NTCP(1-140)/Ntcp(141-362) (K(i) 1.7 microM); bosentan affected both the K(m) and V(max) of Ntcp(1-140)/NTCP(141-349) (K(i) 7.0 microM). The carboxyl portions of NTCP and Ntcp were found to confer species differences in basal taurocholate transport V(max). In conclusion, differential inhibition of Ntcp and NTCP may represent a novel mechanism for species differences in bosentan-induced hepatotoxicity.

  13. The Haemophilus ducreyi LspA1 protein inhibits phagocytosis by using a new mechanism involving activation of C-terminal Src kinase.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Dana A; Worth, Randall G; Rosen, Michael K; Grinstein, Sergio; van Oers, Nicolai S C; Hansen, Eric J

    2014-05-20

    Haemophilus ducreyi causes chancroid, a sexually transmitted infection. A primary means by which this pathogen causes disease involves eluding phagocytosis; however, the molecular basis for this escape mechanism has been poorly understood. Here, we report that the LspA virulence factors of H. ducreyi inhibit phagocytosis by stimulating the catalytic activity of C-terminal Src kinase (Csk), which itself inhibits Src family protein tyrosine kinases (SFKs) that promote phagocytosis. Inhibitory activity could be localized to a 37-kDa domain (designated YL2) of the 456-kDa LspA1 protein. The YL2 domain impaired ingestion of IgG-opsonized targets and decreased levels of active SFKs when expressed in mammalian cells. YL2 contains tyrosine residues in two EPIYG motifs that are phosphorylated in mammalian cells. These tyrosine residues were essential for YL2-based inhibition of phagocytosis. Csk was identified as the predominant mammalian protein interacting with YL2, and a dominant-negative Csk rescued phagocytosis in the presence of YL2. Purified Csk phosphorylated the tyrosines in the YL2 EPIYG motifs. Phosphorylated YL2 increased Csk catalytic activity, resulting in positive feedback, such that YL2 can be phosphorylated by the same kinase that it activates. Finally, we found that the Helicobacter pylori CagA protein also inhibited phagocytosis in a Csk-dependent manner, raising the possibility that this may be a general mechanism among diverse bacteria. Harnessing Csk to subvert the Fcγ receptor (FcγR)-mediated phagocytic pathway represents a new bacterial mechanism for circumventing a crucial component of the innate immune response and may potentially affect other SFK-involved cellular pathways. Phagocytosis is a critical component of the immune system that enables pathogens to be contained and cleared. A number of bacterial pathogens have developed specific strategies to either physically evade phagocytosis or block the intracellular signaling required for

  14. Bisphenol A down-regulates rate-limiting Cyp11a1 to acutely inhibit steroidogenesis in cultured mouse antral follicles

    SciTech Connect

    Peretz, Jackye, E-mail: peretz@illinois.edu; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is the backbone of polycarbonate plastic products and the epoxy resin lining of aluminum cans. Previous studies have shown that exposure to BPA decreases sex steroid hormone production in mouse antral follicles. The current study tests the hypothesis that BPA first decreases the expression levels of the steroidogenic enzyme cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (Cyp11a1) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in mouse antral follicles, leading to a decrease in sex steroid hormone production in vitro. Further, the current study tests the hypothesis that these effects are acute and reversible after removal of BPA. Exposure to BPA (10more » μg/mL and 100 μg/mL) significantly decreased expression of Cyp11a1 and StAR beginning at 18 h and 72 h, respectively, compared to controls. Exposure to BPA (10 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL) significantly decreased progesterone levels beginning at 24 h and decreased androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol levels at 72 h and 96 h compared to controls. Further, after removing BPA from the culture media at 20 h, expression of Cyp11a1 and progesterone levels were restored to control levels by 48 h and 72 h, respectively. Additionally, expression of StAR and levels of androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol never decreased compared to controls. These data suggest that BPA acutely decreases expression of Cyp11a1 as early as 18 h and this reduction in Cyp11a1 may lead to a decrease in progesterone production by 24 h, followed by a decrease in androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol production and expression of StAR at 72 h. Therefore, BPA exposure likely targets Cyp11a1 and steroidogenesis, but these effects are reversible with removal of BPA exposure. - Highlights: • BPA may target Cyp11a1 to inhibit steroidogenesis in antral follicles. • BPA may decrease the expression of Cyp11a1 prior to inhibiting steroidogenesis. • The adverse effects of BPA on steroidogenesis in antral follicles are

  15. AT1 receptors mediate angiotensin II-induced release of nitric oxide in afferent arterioles.

    PubMed

    Patzak, Andreas; Lai, En Y; Mrowka, Ralf; Steege, Andreas; Persson, Pontus B; Persson, A Erik G

    2004-11-01

    Recent studies have indicated that angiotensin II (Ang II) possibly activates the nitric oxide (NO) system. We investigated the role of AT receptor subtypes (AT-R) in mediating the Ang II-induced NO release in afferent arterioles (Af) of mice. Isolated Af of mice were perfused, and the isotonic contraction measured. Further, NO release was determined using DAF-FM, a fluorescence indicator for NO. Moreover, we qualitatively assessed the expression of AT-R at the mRNA level using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Ang II reduced luminal diameters dose dependently (67.3 +/- 6.3% at 10(-6) mol/L). Inhibition of AT2-R with PD123.319 did not change the Ang II contractile response. AT1-R blockade with ZD7155 inhibited contraction. Stimulation of AT2-R during AT1-R inhibition with ZD7155, and preconstriction with norepinephrine (NE) had no influence on the diameter. Drug application via the perfusion pipette changed flow and pressure, and enhanced NO fluorescence by DeltaF = 4.0 +/- 0.4% (N= 14, background). Luminal application of Ang II (10(-7) mol/L) increased the NO fluorescence by DeltaF = 9.9 +/- 1.2% (N= 8). AT1-R blockade blunted the increase to background levels (DeltaF to 4.0 +/- 0.3%, N= 6, P < 0.05), but AT2-R blockade did not (8.1 +/- 0.9%, N= 9). L-NAME nearly abolished the Ang II effect on the NO fluorescence (DeltaF = 1.6 +/- 0.5% (N= 8). NE did not increase NO release beyond the background levels. RT-PCR showed expression of both AT1-R and AT2-R. The results indicate an Ang II-induced NO release in Af of mice, which is mediated by AT1-R. Thus, Ang II balances its own constrictor action in Af. This control mechanism is very important in view of high renin and angiotensin II concentration in the juxtaglomerular apparatus.

  16. Calmodulin activity regulates group I metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated signal transduction and synaptic depression.

    PubMed

    Sethna, Ferzin; Zhang, Ming; Kaphzan, Hanoch; Klann, Eric; Autio, Dawn; Cox, Charles L; Wang, Hongbing

    2016-05-01

    Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR), including mGluR1 and mGluR 5 (mGluR1/5), are coupled to Gq and modulate activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Direct activation of mGluR1/5 causes protein translation-dependent long-term depression (LTD). Although it has been established that intracellular Ca(2+) and the Gq-regulated signaling molecules are required for mGluR1/5 LTD, whether and how Ca(2+) regulates Gq signaling and upregulation of protein expression remain unknown. Through pharmacological inhibition, we tested the function of the Ca(2+) sensor calmodulin (CaM) in intracellular signaling triggered by the activation of mGluR1/5. CaM inhibitor N-[4-aminobutyl]-5-chloro-2-naphthalenesulfonamide hydrochloride (W13) suppressed the mGluR1/5-stimulated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p70-S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) in hippocampal neurons. W13 also blocked the mGluR1/5 agonist-induced synaptic depression in hippocampal slices and in anesthetized mice. Consistent with the function of CaM, inhibiting the downstream targets Ca(2+) /CaM-dependent protein kinases (CaMK) blocked ERK1/2 and S6K1 activation. Furthermore, disruption of the CaM-CaMK-ERK1/2 signaling cascade suppressed the mGluR1/5-stimulated upregulation of Arc expression. Altogether, our data suggest CaM as a new Gq signaling component for coupling Ca(2+) and protein upregulation and regulating mGluR1/5-mediated synaptic modification. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Modulation of TNF Release by Choline Requires α7 Subunit Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor-Mediated Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, William R; Rosas-Ballina, Mauricio; Gallowitsch-Puerta, Margot; Ochani, Mahendar; Ochani, Kanta; Yang, Li-Hong; Hudson, LaQueta; Lin, Xinchun; Patel, Nirav; Johnson, Sarah M; Chavan, Sangeeta; Goldstein, Richard S; Czura, Christopher J; Miller, Edmund J; Al-Abed, Yousef; Tracey, Kevin J; Pavlov, Valentin A

    2008-01-01

    The α7 subunit-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) is an essential component in the vagus nerve-based cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway that regulates the levels of TNF, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), and other cytokines during inflammation. Choline is an essential nutrient, a cell membrane constituent, a precursor in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine, and a selective natural α7nAChR agonist. Here, we studied the anti-inflammatory potential of choline in murine endotoxemia and sepsis, and the role of the α7nAChR in mediating the suppressive effect of choline on TNF release. Choline (0.1–50 mM) dose-dependently suppressed TNF release from endotoxin-activated RAW macrophage-like cells, and this effect was associated with significant inhibition of NF-κB activation. Choline (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]) treatment prior to endotoxin administration in mice significantly reduced systemic TNF levels. In contrast to its TNF suppressive effect in wild type mice, choline (50 mg/kg, i.p.) failed to inhibit systemic TNF levels in α7nAChR knockout mice during endotoxemia. Choline also failed to suppress TNF release from endotoxin-activated peritoneal macrophages isolated from α7nAChR knockout mice. Choline treatment prior to endotoxin resulted in a significantly improved survival rate as compared with saline-treated endotoxemic controls. Choline also suppressed HMGB1 release in vitro and in vivo, and choline treatment initiated 24 h after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced polymicrobial sepsis significantly improved survival in mice. In addition, choline suppressed TNF release from endotoxin-activated human whole blood and macrophages. Collectively, these data characterize the anti-inflammatory efficacy of choline and demonstrate that the modulation of TNF release by choline requires α7nAChR-mediated signaling. PMID:18584048

  18. Ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate inducible defense in the water flea Daphnia pulex.

    PubMed

    Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Sato, Masanao; Colbourne, John K; Iguchi, Taisen

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is the ability held in many organisms to produce different phenotypes with a given genome in response to environmental stimuli, such as temperature, nutrition and various biological interactions. It seems likely that environmental signals induce a variety of mechanistic responses that influence ontogenetic processes. Inducible defenses, in which prey animals alter their morphology, behavior and/or other traits to help protect against direct or latent predation threats, are among the most striking examples of phenotypic plasticity. The freshwater microcrustacean Daphnia pulex forms tooth-like defensive structures, "neckteeth," in response to chemical cues or signals, referred to as "kairomones," in this case released from phantom midge larvae, a predator of D. pulex. To identify factors involved in the reception and/or transmission of a kairomone, we used microarray analysis to identify genes up-regulated following a short period of exposure to the midge kairomone. In addition to identifying differentially expressed genes of unknown function, we also found significant up-regulation of genes encoding ionotropic glutamate receptors, which are known to be involved in neurotransmission in many animal species. Specific antagonists of these receptors strongly inhibit the formation of neckteeth in D. pulex, although agonists did not induce neckteeth by themselves, indicating that ionotropic glutamate receptors are necessary but not sufficient for early steps of neckteeth formation in D. pulex. Moreover, using co-exposure of D. pulex to antagonists and juvenile hormone (JH), which physiologically mediates neckteeth formation, we found evidence suggesting that the inhibitory effect of antagonists is not due to direct inhibition of JH synthesis/secretion. Our findings not only provide a candidate molecule required for the inducible defense response in D. pulex, but also will contribute to the understanding of complex mechanisms underlying the recognition

  19. Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors Mediate Inducible Defense in the Water Flea Daphnia pulex

    PubMed Central

    Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Sato, Masanao; Colbourne, John K.; Iguchi, Taisen

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is the ability held in many organisms to produce different phenotypes with a given genome in response to environmental stimuli, such as temperature, nutrition and various biological interactions. It seems likely that environmental signals induce a variety of mechanistic responses that influence ontogenetic processes. Inducible defenses, in which prey animals alter their morphology, behavior and/or other traits to help protect against direct or latent predation threats, are among the most striking examples of phenotypic plasticity. The freshwater microcrustacean Daphnia pulex forms tooth-like defensive structures, “neckteeth,” in response to chemical cues or signals, referred to as “kairomones,” in this case released from phantom midge larvae, a predator of D. pulex. To identify factors involved in the reception and/or transmission of a kairomone, we used microarray analysis to identify genes up-regulated following a short period of exposure to the midge kairomone. In addition to identifying differentially expressed genes of unknown function, we also found significant up-regulation of genes encoding ionotropic glutamate receptors, which are known to be involved in neurotransmission in many animal species. Specific antagonists of these receptors strongly inhibit the formation of neckteeth in D. pulex, although agonists did not induce neckteeth by themselves, indicating that ionotropic glutamate receptors are necessary but not sufficient for early steps of neckteeth formation in D. pulex. Moreover, using co-exposure of D. pulex to antagonists and juvenile hormone (JH), which physiologically mediates neckteeth formation, we found evidence suggesting that the inhibitory effect of antagonists is not due to direct inhibition of JH synthesis/secretion. Our findings not only provide a candidate molecule required for the inducible defense response in D. pulex, but also will contribute to the understanding of complex mechanisms underlying the

  20. The P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) receptors mediate autoinhibition of transmitter release in sympathetic innervated tissues.

    PubMed

    Quintas, Clara; Fraga, Sónia; Gonçalves, Jorge; Queiroz, Glória

    2009-12-01

    In the sympathetic nervous system, ATP is a co-transmitter and modulator of transmitter release, inhibiting noradrenaline release by acting on P2Y autoreceptors, but in peripheral tissues the subtypes involved have only scarcely been identified. We investigated the identity of the noradrenaline release-inhibiting P2Y subtypes in the epididymal portion of vas deferens and tail artery of the rat. The subtypes operating as autoreceptors, the signalling mechanism and cross-talk with alpha(2)-autoreceptors, was also investigated in the epididymal portion. In both tissues, the nucleotides 2-methylthioATP, 2-methylthioADP, ADP and ATP inhibited noradrenaline release up to 68%, with the following order of potency: 2-methylthioADP=2-methylthioATP>ADP=ATP in the epididymal portion and 2-methylthioADP=2-methylthioATP=ADP>ATP in the tail artery. The selective P2Y(1) antagonist 2'-deoxy-N(6)-methyladenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate (30microM) and the P2Y(12) antagonist 2,2-dimethyl-propionic acid 3-(2-chloro-6-methylaminopurin-9-yl)-2-(2,2-dimethyl-propionyloxymethyl)-propyl ester (30microM) increased noradrenaline release per se by 25+/-8% and 18+/-3%, respectively, in the epididymal portion but not in tail artery. Both antagonists attenuated the effect of nucleotides in the epididymal portion whereas in tail artery only the P2Y(1) antagonist was effective. The agonist of P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) receptors, 2-methylthioADP, caused an inhibition of noradrenaline release that was not prevented by inhibition of phospholipase C or protein kinase C but was abolished by pertussis toxin. 2-methylthioADP and the adenosine A(1) receptor agonist N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine were less potent at inhibiting noradrenaline release under marked influence of alpha(2)-autoinhibition. In both tissues, nucleotides modulate noradrenaline release by activation of inhibitory P2Y(1) receptors but in the epididymal portion P2Y(12) receptors also participate. P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) receptors are coupled to G

  1. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor mediates activation of ras through different signaling pathways in different cell types.

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, T; Fantl, W J; Escobedo, J A; Williams, L T; Kaziro, Y

    1993-01-01

    A series of pieces of evidence have shown that Ras protein acts as a transducer of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor-mediated signaling pathway: (i) formation of Ras.GTP is detected immediately on PDGF stimulation, and (ii) a dominant inhibitory mutant Ras, as well as a neutralizing anti-Ras antibody, can interfere with PDGF-induced responses. On the other hand, several signal transducing molecules including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), GTPase-activating protein (GAP), and phospholipase C gamma (PLC gamma) bind directly to the PDGF receptor and become tyrosine phosphorylated. Recently, it was shown that specific phosphorylated tyrosines of the PDGF receptor are responsible for interaction between the receptor and each signaling molecule. However, the roles of these signaling molecules have not been elucidated, and it remains unclear which molecules are implicated in the Ras pathway. In this study, we measured Ras activation in cell lines expressing mutant PDGF receptors that are deficient in coupling with specific molecules. In fibroblast CHO cells, a mutant receptor (Y708F/Y719F [PI3-K-binding sites]) was unable to stimulate Ras, whereas another mutant (Y739F [the GAP-binding site]) could do so, suggesting an indispensable role of PI3-K or a protein that binds to the same sites as PI3-K for PDGF-stimulated Ras activation. By contrast, both of the above mutants were capable of stimulating Ras protein in a pro-B-cell line, BaF3. Furthermore, a mutant receptor (Y977F/Y989F [PLC gamma-binding sites]) could fully activate Ras, and the direct activation of protein kinase C and calcium mobilization had almost no effect on the GDP/GTP state of Ras in this cell line. These results suggest that, in the pro-B-cell transfectants, each of the above pathways (PI3-K, GAP, and PLC gamma) can be eliminated without a loss of Ras activation. It remains unclear whether another unknown essential pathway which regulates Ras protein exists within BaF3 cells

  2. Competitive inhibition of carcinogen-activating CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 enzymes by a standardized complex mixture of PAH extracted from coal tar

    SciTech Connect

    Mahadevan, B.; Marston, C.P.; Luch, A.

    2007-03-15

    A complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) extracted from coal tar, the Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1597, was recently shown to decrease the levels of DNA binding of the 2 strong carcinogens benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and dibenzo(a,l)pyrene (DBP) in the human mammary carcinoma-derived cell line MCF-7. The present study was designed to further elucidate the biochemical mechanisms involved in this inhibition process. We examined the effects of SRM 1597 on the metabolic activation of BP and DBP toward DNA-binding derivatives in Chinese hamster cells expressing either human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 or CYP1B1. The data obtained from biochemical experiments revealedmore » that SRM 1597 competitively inhibited the activity of both human enzymes as analyzed by 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation assays. While the Michaelis-Menten constant (K-M) was {lt} 0.4 {mu}M in the absence of SRM 1597, this value increased up to 1.12 (CYP1A1) or 4.45 {mu}M (CYP1B1) in the presence of 0.1 {mu} g/ml SRM 1597. Hence the inhibitory effects of the complex mixture on human CYP1B1 were much stronger when compared to human CYP1A1 Taken together, the decreases in PAH-DNA adduct formation on co-treatment with SRM 1597 revealed inhibitory effects on the CYP enzymes that convert carcinogenic PAH into DNA-binding metabolites. The implications for the tumorigenicity of complex environmental PAR mixtures are discussed.« less

  3. CB1 cannabinoid receptors mediate endochondral skeletal growth attenuation by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Elad; Tam, Joseph; Mechoulam, Raphael; Zimmer, Andreas; Maor, Gila; Bab, Itai

    2015-01-01

    The endocannabinoid (EC) system regulates bone mass. Because cannabis use during pregnancy results in stature shorter than normal, we examined the role of the EC system in skeletal elongation. We show that CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors are expressed specifically in hypertrophic chondrocytes of the epiphyseal growth cartilage (EGC), which drives vertebrate growth. These cells also express diacylglycerol lipases, critical biosynthetic enzymes of the main EC, and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), which is present at significant levels in the EGC. Femora of CB1- and/or CB2-deficient mice at the end of the rapid growth phase are longer compared to wild-type (WT) animals. We find that Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) slows skeletal elongation of female WT and CB2-, but not CB1-, deficient mice, which is reflected in femoral and lumbar vertebral body length. This in turn results in lower body weight, but unaltered fat content. THC inhibits EGC chondrocyte hypertrophy in ex vivo cultures and reduces the hypertrophic cell zone thickness of CB1-, but not CB2-, deficient mice. These results demonstrate a local growth-restraining EC system in the EGC. The relevance of the present findings to humans remains to be studied. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Genetic disruption of oncogenic Kras sensitizes lung cancer cells to Fas receptor-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Mou, Haiwei; Moore, Jill; Malonia, Sunil K; Li, Yingxiang; Ozata, Deniz M; Hough, Soren; Song, Chun-Qing; Smith, Jordan L; Fischer, Andrew; Weng, Zhiping; Green, Michael R; Xue, Wen

    2017-04-04

    Genetic lesions that activate KRAS account for ∼30% of the 1.6 million annual cases of lung cancer. Despite clinical need, KRAS is still undruggable using traditional small-molecule drugs/inhibitors. When oncogenic Kras is suppressed by RNA interference, tumors initially regress but eventually recur and proliferate despite suppression of Kras Here, we show that tumor cells can survive knockout of oncogenic Kras , indicating the existence of Kras -independent survival pathways. Thus, even if clinical KRAS inhibitors were available, resistance would remain an obstacle to treatment. Kras -independent cancer cells exhibit decreased colony formation in vitro but retain the ability to form tumors in mice. Comparing the transcriptomes of oncogenic Kras cells and Kras knockout cells, we identified 603 genes that were specifically up-regulated in Kras knockout cells, including the Fas gene, which encodes a cell surface death receptor involved in physiological regulation of apoptosis. Antibodies recognizing Fas receptor efficiently induced apoptosis of Kras knockout cells but not oncogenic Kras -expressing cells. Increased Fas expression in Kras knockout cells was attributed to decreased association of repressive epigenetic marks at the Fas promoter. Concordant with this observation, treating oncogenic Kras cells with histone deacetylase inhibitor and Fas-activating antibody efficiently induced apoptosis, thus bypassing the need to inhibit Kras. Our results suggest that activation of Fas could be exploited as an Achilles' heel in tumors initiated by oncogenic Kras.

  5. Genetic disruption of oncogenic Kras sensitizes lung cancer cells to Fas receptor-mediated apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Mou, Haiwei; Moore, Jill; Malonia, Sunil K.; Li, Yingxiang; Ozata, Deniz M.; Hough, Soren; Song, Chun-Qing; Smith, Jordan L.; Fischer, Andrew; Weng, Zhiping; Xue, Wen

    2017-01-01

    Genetic lesions that activate KRAS account for ∼30% of the 1.6 million annual cases of lung cancer. Despite clinical need, KRAS is still undruggable using traditional small-molecule drugs/inhibitors. When oncogenic Kras is suppressed by RNA interference, tumors initially regress but eventually recur and proliferate despite suppression of Kras. Here, we show that tumor cells can survive knockout of oncogenic Kras, indicating the existence of Kras-independent survival pathways. Thus, even if clinical KRAS inhibitors were available, resistance would remain an obstacle to treatment. Kras-independent cancer cells exhibit decreased colony formation in vitro but retain the ability to form tumors in mice. Comparing the transcriptomes of oncogenic Kras cells and Kras knockout cells, we identified 603 genes that were specifically up-regulated in Kras knockout cells, including the Fas gene, which encodes a cell surface death receptor involved in physiological regulation of apoptosis. Antibodies recognizing Fas receptor efficiently induced apoptosis of Kras knockout cells but not oncogenic Kras-expressing cells. Increased Fas expression in Kras knockout cells was attributed to decreased association of repressive epigenetic marks at the Fas promoter. Concordant with this observation, treating oncogenic Kras cells with histone deacetylase inhibitor and Fas-activating antibody efficiently induced apoptosis, thus bypassing the need to inhibit Kras. Our results suggest that activation of Fas could be exploited as an Achilles’ heel in tumors initiated by oncogenic Kras. PMID:28320962

  6. β2-adrenergic receptor-mediated negative regulation of group 2 innate lymphoid cell responses.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Saya; Brestoff, Jonathan R; Flamar, Anne-Laure; Moeller, Jesper B; Klose, Christoph S N; Rankin, Lucille C; Yudanin, Naomi A; Monticelli, Laurel A; Putzel, Gregory Garbès; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Artis, David

    2018-03-02

    The type 2 inflammatory response is induced by various environmental and infectious stimuli. Although recent studies identified group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) as potent sources of type 2 cytokines, the molecular pathways controlling ILC2 responses are incompletely defined. Here we demonstrate that murine ILC2s express the β 2 -adrenergic receptor (β 2 AR) and colocalize with adrenergic neurons in the intestine. β 2 AR deficiency resulted in exaggerated ILC2 responses and type 2 inflammation in intestinal and lung tissues. Conversely, β 2 AR agonist treatment was associated with impaired ILC2 responses and reduced inflammation in vivo. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that the β 2 AR pathway is a cell-intrinsic negative regulator of ILC2 responses through inhibition of cell proliferation and effector function. Collectively, these data provide the first evidence of a neuronal-derived regulatory circuit that limits ILC2-dependent type 2 inflammation. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  7. The TIM and TAM families of phosphatidylserine receptors mediate dengue virus entry.

    PubMed

    Meertens, Laurent; Carnec, Xavier; Lecoin, Manuel Perera; Ramdasi, Rasika; Guivel-Benhassine, Florence; Lew, Erin; Lemke, Greg; Schwartz, Olivier; Amara, Ali

    2012-10-18

    Dengue viruses (DVs) are responsible for the most medically relevant arboviral diseases. However, the molecular interactions mediating DV entry are poorly understood. We determined that TIM and TAM proteins, two receptor families that mediate the phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-dependent phagocytic removal of apoptotic cells, serve as DV entry factors. Cells poorly susceptible to DV are robustly infected after ectopic expression of TIM or TAM receptors. Conversely, DV infection of susceptible cells is inhibited by anti-TIM or anti-TAM antibodies or knockdown of TIM and TAM expression. TIM receptors facilitate DV entry by directly interacting with virion-associated PtdSer. TAM-mediated infection relies on indirect DV recognition, in which the TAM ligand Gas6 acts as a bridging molecule by binding to PtdSer within the virion. This dual mode of virus recognition by TIM and TAM receptors reveals how DVs usurp the apoptotic cell clearance pathway for infectious entry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Neurokinin subtype receptors mediating substance P contraction in immature rabbit airways.

    PubMed

    Kazem, E; John, C; Tanaka, D T

    1996-01-01

    Two-week-old rabbit tracheal smooth muscle (TSM) and bronchial smooth muscle (BSM) segments were placed in organ baths, and isometric contractions to substance P (SP) were obtained. In the presence of phosphoramidon (PHOS), a neutral endopeptidase inhibitor, BSM segments were significantly more reactive and sensitive to SP than TSM segments. Neither neostigmine (NEO) nor atropine (ATR) eliminated these regional differences. Airway contractile responses to: 1) Senktide (NK-3 agonist); 2) neurokinin A (NKA, a NK-2 agonist); and 3) Septide (a highly selective NK-1 agonist) were separately obtained. In the presence of PHOS and NEO, Senktide was virtually inactive in both BSM and TSM. In the presence of PHOS, NEO, and ATR, NKA was equipotent in all airway segments; in contrast, the Septide response was significantly more reactive in BSM than in TSM segments. After inhibition of NK-1 activity with GR 82334, a competitive NK-1 receptor antagonist, the regional differences in SP reactivity were greatly diminished. This latter indication of a NK-1 contribution was confirmed using Septide-mediated inactivation of NK-1 receptors whereby the regional differences in airway sensitivity to SP were eliminated. These findings indicate that both endogenous neutral endopeptidase activity as well as NK-1 and NK-2 receptor influences may modulate the contractile responses to SP in immature rabbit airways.

  9. Ran GTPase promotes cancer progression via Met receptor-mediated downstream signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Hiu-Fung; Chan, Ka-Kui; Platt-Higgins, Angela; Dakir, El-Habib; Matchett, Kyle B.; Haggag, Yusuf Ahmed; Jithesh, Puthen V.; Habib, Tanwir; Faheem, Ahmed; Dean, Fennell A.; Morgan, Richard; Rudland, Philip S.; El-Tanani, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown previously that cancer cells with an activated oncogenic pathway, including Met activation, require Ran for growth and survival. Here, we show that knockdown of Ran leads to a reduction of Met receptor expression in several breast and lung cancer cell lines. This, in turn suppressed HGF expression and the Met-mediated activation of the Akt pathway, as well as cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. In a cell line model where Met amplification has previously been shown to contribute to gefitinib resistance, Ran knockdown sensitized cells to gefitinib-mediated inhibition of Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation and consequently reduced cell proliferation. We further demonstrate that Met reduction-mediated by knockdown of Ran, occurs at the post-transcriptional level, probably via a matrix metalloproteinase. Moreover, the level of immunoreactive Ran and Met are positively associated in human breast cancer specimens, suggesting that a high level of Ran may be a pre-requisite for Met overexpression. Interestingly, a high level of immunoreactive Ran dictates the prognostic significance of Met, indicating that the co-overexpression of Met and Ran may be associated with cancer progression and could be used in combination as a prognostic indicator. PMID:27716616

  10. A putative octopamine/tyramine receptor mediating appetite in a hungry fly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Yuko; Ozaki, Mamiko

    2011-07-01

    In the blowfly Phormia regina, experience of simultaneous feeding with d-limonene exposure inhibits proboscis extension reflex (PER) due to decreased tyramine (TA) titer in the brain. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of TA signaling pathway related to the associated feeding behavior, we cloned cDNA encoding the octopamine/TA receptor (PregOAR/TAR). The deduced protein is composed of 607 amino acid residues and has 7 predicted transmembrane domains. Based on homology and phylogenetic analyses, this protein belongs to the OAR/TAR family. The PregOAR/TAR was mainly expressed in head, with low levels of expression in other tissues at adult stages. Gene expression profile is in agreement with a plethora of functions ascribed to TA in various insect tissues. The immunolabeled cell bodies and processes were localized in the medial protocerebrum, outer layer of lobula, antennal lobe, and subesophageal ganglion. These results suggest that decrease of TA level in the brain likely affects neurons expressing PregOAR/TAR, causing mediation of the sensitivity in the sensillum and/or output of motor neurons for PER.

  11. Senescence as a novel mechanism involved in β-adrenergic receptor mediated cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Rongrong; Zhu, Baoling; Sun, Yan; Shi, Dandan; Chen, Li; Zhang, Youyi; Li, Zijian; Xue, Lixiang

    2017-01-01

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy used to be elucidated by biomechanical, stretch-sensitive or neurohumoral mechanisms. However, a series of hints have indicated that hypertrophy process simulates senescence program. However, further evidence need to be pursued. To verify this hypothesis and examine whether cardiac senescence is a novel mechanism of hypertrophy induced by isoproterenol, 2-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to isoproterenol infusion (0.25mg/kg/day) for 7 days by subcutaneous injection). Key characteristics of senescence (senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, lipofuscin, expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors) were examined in cardiac hypertrophy model. Senescence-like phenotype, such as increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, accumulation of lipofuscin and high levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (e.g. p16, p19, p21 and p53) was found along the process of cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac-specific transcription factor GATA4 increased in isoproterenol-treated cardiomyocytes as well. We further found that myocardial hypertrophy could be inhibited by resveratrol, an anti-aging compound, in a dose-dependent manner. Our results showed for the first time that cardiac senescence is involved in the process of pathological cardiac hypertrophy induced by isoproterenol. PMID:28783759

  12. Mannose Receptor Mediates the Immune Response to Ganoderma atrum Polysaccharides in Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Juan; Tang, Xiao-Fang; Shuai, Xiao-Xue; Jiang, Cheng-Jia; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Le-Feng; Yao, Yu-Fei; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2017-01-18

    The ability of mannose receptor (MR) to recognize the carbohydrate structures is well-established. Here, we reported that MR was crucial for the immune response to a Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide (PSG-1), as evidenced by elevation of MR in association with increase of phagocytosis and concentrations of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in normal macrophages. Elevation of MR triggered by PSG-1 also led to control lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-triggered inflammatory response via the increase of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and inhibition of phagocytosis and IL-1β. Anti-MR antibody partly attenuated PSG-1-mediated anti-inflammatory responses, while it could not affect TNF-α secretion, suggesting that another receptor was involved in PSG-1-triggered immunomodulatory effects. MR and toll-like receptor (TLR)4 coordinated the influences on the TLR4-mediated signaling cascade by the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway in LPS-stimulated macrophages subjected to PSG-1. Collectively, immune response to PSG-1 required recognition by MR in macrophages. The NF-κB pathway served as a central role for the coordination of MR and TLR4 to elicit immune response to PSG-1.

  13. Ursodeoxycholic Acid Induces Death Receptor-mediated Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won Sup; Jung, Ji Hyun; Panchanathan, Radha; Yun, Jeong Won; Kim, Dong Hoon; Kim, Hye Jung; Kim, Gon Sup; Ryu, Chung Ho; Shin, Sung Chul; Hong, Soon Chan; Choi, Yung Hyun; Jung, Jin-Myung

    2017-01-01

    Background Bile acids have anti-cancer properties in a certain types of cancers. We determined anticancer activity and its underlying molecular mechanism of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in human DU145 prostate cancer cells. Methods Cell viability was measured with an MTT assay. UDCA-induced apoptosis was determined with flow cytometric analysis. The expression levels of apoptosis-related signaling proteins were examined with Western blotting. Results UDCA treatment significantly inhibited cell growth of DU145 in a dose-dependent manner. It induced cellular shrinkage and cytoplasmic blebs and accumulated the cells with sub-G1 DNA contents. Moreover, UDCA activated caspase 8, suggesting that UDCA-induced apoptosis is associated with extrinsic pathway. Consistent to this finding, UDCA increased the expressions of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor, death receptor 4 (DR4) and death receptor 5 (DR5), and TRAIL augmented the UDCA-induced cell death in DU145 cells. In addition, UDCA also increased the expressions of Bax and cytochrome c and decreased the expression of Bcl-xL in DU145 cells. This finding suggests that UDCA-induced apoptosis may be involved in intrinsic pathway. Conclusions UDCA induces apoptosis via extrinsic pathway as well as intrinsic pathway in DU145 prostate cancer cells. UDCA may be a promising anti-cancer agent against prostate cancer. PMID:28382282

  14. Anxiolytic Effect of Exogenous Ketone Supplementation Is Abolished by Adenosine A1 Receptor Inhibition in Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk Rats.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Zsolt; D'Agostino, Dominic P; Ari, Csilla

    2018-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are one of the most common mental health problems worldwide, but the exact pathophysiology remains largely unknown. It has been demonstrated previously that administration of exogenous ketone supplement KSMCT (ketone salt/KS + medium chain triglyceride/MCT oil) by intragastric gavage for 7 days decreased the anxiety level in genetically absence epileptic Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. To investigate the potential role of the adenosinergic system in the pathomechanism of anxiety we tested whether the inhibition of adenosine A 1 receptors (A 1 Rs) influence the anxiolytic effect of the exogenous ketone supplement. As A 1 Rs may mediate such an effect, in the present study we used a specific A 1 R antagonist, DPCPX (1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine) to test whether it modulates the anxiolytic effect of sub-chronically (7 days) applied KSMCT in the previously tested animal model by using elevated plus maze (EPM) test. We administered KSMCT (2.5 g/kg/day) alone by intragastric gavage and in combination with intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected of DPCPX in two doses (lower: 0.15 mg/kg, higher: 0.25 mg/kg). Control groups represented i.p saline and water gavage with or without i.p. DPCPX administration (2.5 g/kg/day). After treatments, the level of blood glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), as well as body weight were recorded. KSMCT alone significantly increased the time spent in the open arms and decreased the time spent in the closed arms, supporting our previous results. Injection of lower dose of DPCPX decreased, while higher dose of DPCPX abolished the effect of KSMCT administration on EPM. Blood βHB levels were significantly increased after administration of KSMCT, while DPCPX did not change the KSMCT induced increase in blood βHB levels. These results demonstrate that A 1 R inhibition modified (decreased) the anti-anxiety effect of KSMCT administration implying that the adenosinergic system, likely via A 1 Rs, may modulate the

  15. Antitumoral Cascade-Targeting Ligand for IL-6 Receptor-Mediated Gene Delivery to Glioma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shanshan; Reinhard, Sören; Li, Chengyi; Qian, Min; Jiang, Huiling; Du, Yilin; Lächelt, Ulrich; Lu, Weiyue; Wagner, Ernst; Huang, Rongqin

    2017-07-05

    The effective treatment of glioma is largely hindered by the poor transfer of drug delivery systems across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the difficulty in distinguishing healthy and tumorous cells. In this work, for the first time, an interleukin-6 receptor binding I 6 P 7 peptide was exploited as a cascade-targeting ligand in combination with a succinoyl tetraethylene pentamine (Stp)-histidine oligomer-based nonviral gene delivery system (I 6 P 7 -Stp-His/DNA). The I 6 P 7 peptide provides multiple functions, including the cascade-targeting potential represented by a combined BBB-crossing and subsequent glioma-targeting ability, as well as a direct tumor-inhibiting effect. I 6 P 7 -Stp-His/DNA nanoparticles (NPs) mediated higher gene expression in human glioma U87 cells than in healthy human astrocytes and a deeper penetration into glioma spheroids than scrambled peptide-modified NPs. Transport of I 6 P 7 -modified, but not the control, NPs across the BBB was demonstrated in vitro in a transwell bEnd.3 cell model resulting in transfection of underlying U87 cells and also in vivo in glioma-bearing mice. Intravenous administration of I 6 P 7 -Stp-His/plasmid DNA (pDNA)-encoding inhibitor of growth 4 (pING4) significantly prolonged the survival time of orthotopic U87 glioma-bearing mice. The results denote that I 6 P 7 peptide is a roborant cascade-targeting ligand, and I 6 P 7 -modified NPs might be exploited for efficient glioma therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Ror2 Receptor Mediates Wnt11 Ligand Signaling and Affects Convergence and Extension Movements in Zebrafish*

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yan; Tan, Xungang; Zhang, Haifeng; Liu, Chengdong; Zhao, Beibei; Li, Yun; Lu, Ling; Liu, Yunzhang; Zhou, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    The receptor-tyrosine kinase Ror2 acts as an alternative receptor or co-receptor for Wnt5a and mediates Wnt5a-induced convergent extension movements during embryogenesis in mice and Xenopus as well as the polarity and migration of several cell types during development. However, little is known about whether Ror2 function is conserved in other vertebrates or is involved in other non-canonical Wnt ligands in vivo. In this study we demonstrated that overexpression of dominant-negative ror2 (ror2-TM) mRNA in zebrafish embryos resulted in convergence and extension defects and incompletely separated eyes, which is consistent with observations from slb/wnt11 mutants or wnt11 knockdown morphants. Moreover, the co-injection of ror2-TM mRNA and a wnt11 morpholino or the coexpression of ror2 and wnt11 in zebrafish embryos synergetically induced more severe convergence and extension defects. Transplantation studies further demonstrated that the Ror2 receptor responded to the Wnt11 ligand and regulated cell migration and cell morphology during gastrulation. DnRor2 inhibited the action of Wnt11, which was revealed by a decreased percentage of Wnt11-induced convergence and extension defects. Ror2 physically interacts with Wnt11. The intracellular Tyr-647 and Ser-863 sites of Ror2 are essential for mediating the action of Wnt11. Dishevelled and RhoA act downstream of Wnt11-Ror2 to regulate convergence and extension movements. Overall, our data suggest an important role of Ror2 in mediating Wnt11 signaling and in regulating convergence and extension movements in zebrafish. PMID:24928507

  17. An endogenous 55 kDa TNF receptor mediates cell death in a neural cell line.

    PubMed

    Sipe, K J; Srisawasdi, D; Dantzer, R; Kelley, K W; Weyhenmeyer, J A

    1996-06-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) is associated with developmental and injury-related events in the central nervous system (CNS). In the present study, we have examined the role of TNF on neurons using the clonal murine neuroblastoma line, N1E-115 (N1E). N1E cells represent a well-defined model for studying neuronal development since they can be maintained as either undifferentiated, mitotically active neuroblasts or as differentiated, mature neurons. Northern and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses revealed that both undifferentiated and differentiated N1Es express transcripts for the 55 kDa TNF receptor (TNFR), but not the 75 kDa TNFR. The biological activity of the expressed TNF receptor was demonstrated by a dose dependent cytotoxicity to either recombinant murine or human TNF when the cells were incubated with the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D. The lack of the 75 kDa receptor mRNA expression and the dose dependent response to rHuTNF, an agonist specific for the murine 55 kDa receptor, suggest that the TNF induced cytotoxicity is mediated through the 55 kDa receptor in both the undifferentiated and differentiated N1Es. Light microscopic observations, flow cytometric analysis of hypodiploid DNA, and electrophoretic analysis of nucleosomal DNA fragmentation of N1Es treated with actinomycin D and TNF revealed features characteristic of both necrotic and apoptotic cell death. These findings demonstrate that blast and mature N1E cells express the 55 kDa TNF receptor which is responsible for inducing both necrotic and apoptotic death in these cells. The observation that actinomycin D renders N1E cells susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of TNF indicates that a sensitization step, such as removal of an endogenous protective factor or viral-mediated inhibition of transcription, may be necessary for TNF cytotoxicity in neurons.

  18. An in vitro approach for prioritization and evaluation of chemical effects on glucocorticoid receptor mediated adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Jessica K; Beames, Tyler; Parks, Bethany; Doheny, Daniel; Song, Gina; Efremenko, Alina; Yoon, Miyoung; Foley, Briana; Deisenroth, Chad; McMullen, Patrick D; Clewell, Rebecca A

    2018-05-18

    Rising obesity rates worldwide have socio-economic ramifications. While genetics, diet, and lack of exercise are major contributors to obesity, environmental factors may enhance susceptibility through disruption of hormone homeostasis and metabolic processes. The obesogen hypothesis contends that chemical exposure early in development may enhance adipocyte differentiation, thereby increasing the number of adipocytes and predisposing for obesity and metabolic disease. We previously developed a primary human adipose stem cell (hASC) assay to evaluate the effect of environmental chemicals on PPARG-dependent adipogenesis. Here, the assay was modified to determine the effects of chemicals on the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) pathway. In differentiation cocktail lacking the glucocorticoid agonist dexamethasone (DEX), hASCs do not differentiate into adipocytes. In the presence of GR agonists, adipocyte maturation was observed using phenotypic makers for lipid accumulation, adipokine secretion, and expression of key genes. To evaluate the role of environmental compounds on adipocyte differentiation, progenitor cells were treated with 19 prioritized compounds previously identified by ToxPi as having GR-dependent bioactivity, and multiplexed assays were used to confirm a GR-dependent mode of action. Five chemicals were found to be strong agonists. The assay was also modified to evaluate GR-antagonists, and 8/10 of the hypothesized antagonists inhibited adipogenesis. The in vitro bioactivity data was put into context with extrapolated human steady state concentrations (Css) and clinical exposure data (Cmax). These data support using a human adipose-derived stem cell differentiation assay to test the potential of chemicals to alter human GR-dependent adipogenesis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Rapid Activation of Bone Morphogenic Protein 9 by Receptor-mediated Displacement of Pro-domains*

    PubMed Central

    Kienast, Yvonne; Jucknischke, Ute; Scheiblich, Stefan; Thier, Martina; de Wouters, Mariana; Haas, Alexander; Lehmann, Christian; Brand, Verena; Bernicke, Dirk; Honold, Konrad; Lorenz, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    By non-covalent association after proteolytic cleavage, the pro-domains modulate the activities of the mature growth factor domains across the transforming growth factor-β family. In the case of bone morphogenic protein 9 (BMP9), however, the pro-domains do not inhibit the bioactivity of the growth factor, and the BMP9·pro-domain complexes have equivalent biological activities as the BMP9 mature ligand dimers. By using real-time surface plasmon resonance, we could demonstrate that either binding of pro-domain-complexed BMP9 to type I receptor activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1), type II receptors, co-receptor endoglin, or to mature BMP9 domain targeting antibodies leads to immediate and complete displacement of the pro-domains from the complex. Vice versa, pro-domain binding by an anti-pro-domain antibody results in release of the mature BMP9 growth factor. Based on these findings, we adjusted ELISA assays to measure the protein levels of different BMP9 variants. Although mature BMP9 and inactive precursor BMP9 protein were directly detectable by ELISA, BMP9·pro-domain complex could only be measured indirectly as dissociated fragments due to displacement of mature growth factor and pro-domains after antibody binding. Our studies provide a model in which BMP9 can be readily activated upon getting into contact with its receptors. This increases the understanding of the underlying biology of BMP9 activation and also provides guidance for ELISA development for the detection of circulating BMP9 variants. PMID:26677222

  20. Muscarinic receptors mediate cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity in type 2 diabetes mellitus rats.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Tetsuya; Ishizuka, Osamu; Ogawa, Teruyuki; Yamagishi, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Minagawa, Tomonori; Nakazawa, Masaki; Gautam, Sudha Silwal; Nishizawa, Osamu

    2014-10-01

    This study determined if muscarinic receptors could mediate the cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity induced in type 2 diabetes mellitus rats. Ten-week-old female Goto-Kakizaki diabetic rats (n = 12) and Wister Kyoto non-diabetic rats (n = 12) were maintained on a high-fat diet for 4 weeks. Cystometric investigations of the unanesthetized rats were carried out at room temperature (27 ± 2°C) for 20 min. They were intravenously administered imidafenacin (0.3 mg/kg, n = 6) or vehicle (n = 6). After 5 min, the rats were transferred to a low temperature (4 ± 2°C) for 40 min where the cystometry was continued. The rats were then returned to room temperature for the final cystometric measurements. Afterwards, expressions of bladder muscarinic receptor M3 and M2 messenger ribonucleic acids and proteins were assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. In non-diabetic Wister Kyoto rats, imidafenacin did not reduce cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity. In diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats, just after transfer to a low temperature, the cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity in imidafenacin-treated rats was reduced compared with vehicle-treated rats. Within the urinary bladders, the ratio of M3 to M2 receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in the diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats was significantly higher than that of the non-diabetic Wister Kyoto rats. The proportion of muscarinic M3 receptor-positive area within the detrusor in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats was also significantly higher than that in non-diabetic Wister Kyoto rats. Imidafenacin partially inhibits cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. In this animal model, muscarinic M3 receptors partially mediate cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  1. In vitro reconstitution of T cell receptor-mediated segregation of the CD45 phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Catherine B.; Fernandes, Ricardo A.; Hui, Enfu; Su, Xiaolei; Garcia, K. Christopher; Vale, Ronald D.

    2017-01-01

    T cell signaling initiates upon the binding of peptide-loaded MHC (pMHC) on an antigen-presenting cell to the T cell receptor (TCR) on a T cell. TCR phosphorylation in response to pMHC binding is accompanied by segregation of the transmembrane phosphatase CD45 away from TCR–pMHC complexes. The kinetic segregation hypothesis proposes that CD45 exclusion shifts the local kinase–phosphatase balance to favor TCR phosphorylation. Spatial partitioning may arise from the size difference between the large CD45 extracellular domain and the smaller TCR–pMHC complex, although parsing potential contributions of extracellular protein size, actin activity, and lipid domains is difficult in living cells. Here, we reconstitute segregation of CD45 from bound receptor–ligand pairs using purified proteins on model membranes. Using a model receptor–ligand pair (FRB–FKBP), we first test physical and computational predictions for protein organization at membrane interfaces. We then show that the TCR–pMHC interaction causes partial exclusion of CD45. Comparing two developmentally regulated isoforms of CD45, the larger RABC variant is excluded more rapidly and efficiently (∼50%) than the smaller R0 isoform (∼20%), suggesting that CD45 isotypes could regulate signaling thresholds in different T cell subtypes. Similar to the sensitivity of T cell signaling, TCR–pMHC interactions with Kds of ≤15 µM were needed to exclude CD45. We further show that the coreceptor PD-1 with its ligand PD-L1, immunotherapy targets that inhibit T cell signaling, also exclude CD45. These results demonstrate that the binding energies of physiological receptor–ligand pairs on the T cell are sufficient to create spatial organization at membrane–membrane interfaces. PMID:29042512

  2. Kappa Opioid Receptor-Mediated Dysregulation of GABAergic Transmission in the Central Amygdala in Cocaine Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Kallupi, Marsida; Wee, Sunmee; Edwards, Scott; Whitfield, Tim W.; Oleata, Christopher S.; Luu, George; Schmeichel, Brooke E.; Koob, George F.; Roberto, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies have demonstrated an enhanced dynorphin/kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) system following repeated cocaine exposure, but few reports have focused on neuroadaptations within the central amygdala (CeA). Methods We identified KOR-related physiological changes in the CeA following escalation of cocaine self-administration in rats. We used in vitro slice electrophysiological (intracellular and whole-cell recordings) methods to assess whether differential cocaine access in either 1h (short access, ShA) or 6h (long access, LgA) sessions induced plasticity at CeA GABAergic synapses, or altered the sensitivity of these synapses to KOR agonism (U50488) or antagonism (nor-BNI). We then determined the functional effects of CeA KOR blockade in cocaine-related behaviors. Results Baseline evoked GABAergic transmission was enhanced in the CeA from ShA and LgA rats compared to cocaine-naïve rats. Acute cocaine (1 uM) application significantly decreased GABA release in all groups (naïve, ShA, and LgA rats). Application of U50488 (1 uM) significantly decreased GABAergic transmission in the CeA from naïve rats, but increased it in LgA rats. Conversely, nor-BNI (200 nM) significantly increased GABAergic transmission in the CeA from naïve rats, but decreased it in LgA rats. Nor-BNI did not alter the acute cocaine-induced inhibition of GABAergic responses. Finally, CeA microinfusion of nor-BNI blocked cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization and attenuated the heightened anxiety-like behavior observed during withdrawal from chronic cocaine exposure in the defensive burying paradigm. Conclusion Together these data demonstrate that CeA dynorphin/KOR systems are dysregulated following excessive cocaine exposure and suggest KOR antagonism as a viable therapeutic strategy for cocaine addiction. PMID:23751206

  3. Receptor-Mediated Delivery of CRISPR-Cas9 Endonuclease for Cell-Type-Specific Gene Editing.

    PubMed

    Rouet, Romain; Thuma, Benjamin A; Roy, Marc D; Lintner, Nathanael G; Rubitski, David M; Finley, James E; Wisniewska, Hanna M; Mendonsa, Rima; Hirsh, Ariana; de Oñate, Lorena; Compte Barrón, Joan; McLellan, Thomas J; Bellenger, Justin; Feng, Xidong; Varghese, Alison; Chrunyk, Boris A; Borzilleri, Kris; Hesp, Kevin D; Zhou, Kaihong; Ma, Nannan; Tu, Meihua; Dullea, Robert; McClure, Kim F; Wilson, Ross C; Liras, Spiros; Mascitti, Vincent; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2018-05-30

    CRISPR-Cas RNA-guided endonucleases hold great promise for disrupting or correcting genomic sequences through site-specific DNA cleavage and repair. However, the lack of methods for cell- and tissue-selective delivery currently limits both research and clinical uses of these enzymes. We report the design and in vitro evaluation of S. pyogenes Cas9 proteins harboring asialoglycoprotein receptor ligands (ASGPrL). In particular, we demonstrate that the resulting ribonucleoproteins (Cas9-ASGPrL RNP) can be engineered to be preferentially internalized into cells expressing the corresponding receptor on their surface. Uptake of such fluorescently labeled proteins in liver-derived cell lines HEPG2 (ASGPr+) and SKHEP (control; diminished ASGPr) was studied by live cell imaging and demonstrates increased accumulation of Cas9-ASGPrL RNP in HEPG2 cells as a result of effective ASGPr-mediated endocytosis. When uptake occurred in the presence of a peptide with endosomolytic properties, we observed receptor-facilitated and cell-type specific gene editing that did not rely on electroporation or the use of transfection reagents. Overall, these in vitro results validate the receptor-mediated delivery of genome-editing enzymes as an approach for cell-selective gene editing and provide a framework for future potential applications to hepatoselective gene editing in vivo.

  4. Ruthenium complexes with phenylterpyridine derivatives target cell membrane and trigger death receptors-mediated apoptosis in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhiqin; Gao, Pan; Yu, Lianling; Ma, Bin; You, Yuanyuan; Chan, Leung; Mei, Chaoming; Chen, Tianfeng

    2017-06-01

    Elucidation of the communication between metal complexes and cell membrane may provide useful information for rational design of metal-based anticancer drugs. Herein we synthesized a novel class of ruthenium (Ru) complexes containing phtpy derivatives (phtpy = phenylterpyridine), analyzed their structure-activity relationship and revealed their action mechanisms. The result showed that, the increase in the planarity of hydrophobic Ru complexes significantly enhanced their lipophilicity and cellular uptake. Meanwhile, the introduction of nitro group effectively improved their anticancer efficacy. Further mechanism studies revealed that, complex (2c), firstly accumulated on cell membrane and interacted with death receptors to activate extrinsic apoptosis signaling pathway. The complex was then transported into cell cytoplasm through transferrin receptor-mediated endocytosis. Most of the intracellular 2c accumulated in cell plasma, decreasing the level of cellular ROS, inducing the activation of caspase-9 and thus intensifying the apoptosis. At the same time, the residual 2c can translocate into cell nucleus to interact with DNA, induce DNA damage, activate p53 pathway and enhance apoptosis. Comparing with cisplatin, 2c possesses prolonged circulation time in blood, comparable antitumor ability and importantly, much lower toxicity in vivo. Taken together, this study uncovers the role of membrane receptors in the anticancer actions of Ru complexes, and provides fundamental information for rational design of membrane receptor targeting anticancer drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An special epithelial staining agents: folic acid receptor-mediated diagnosis (FRD) effectively and conveniently screen patients with cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Meng-Han; Hu, Ling-Yun; Du, Xin-Xin; Yang, Min; Zhang, Wei-Yi; Huang, Ke; Li, Li-An; Jiang, Shu-Fang; Li, Ya-Li

    2015-01-01

    High-quality screening with cytology has markedly reduced mortality from cervical cancer. However, it needs experienced pathologists to review and make the final decisions. We have developed folic acid receptor-mediated diagnosis (FRD) kits to effectively and conveniently screen patients with cervical cancer. We conduct present study aim to assess clinical significances of FRD in screening cervical cancer. A total of 169 patients were enrolled at Chinese People's liberation Army (PLA) general hospital. We compared diagnostic significances of FRD with thinprep cytology test (TCT). Meanwhile, colposcopy was also performed to confirm any lesion suspicious for cervical cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of FRD were 71.93% and 66.07% in diagnosis cervical cancer, respectively. Meanwhile, the positive predictive values (PPV), negative predictive values (NPV), Youden index were 51.90%, 82.22%, 0.38, respectively. On the other hand, the sensitivity and specificity of TCT in diagnosis cervical cancer were 73.68% and 61.61% respectively. PPV, NPV and Youden index for TCT were 49.41%, 82.14% and 0.35 respectively. Overall, FRD have high values of sensitivity, specificity and Youden index. However, this difference failed to statistical significance. FRD have comparable diagnostic significance with TCT. Therefore, FRD might serve as one effective method to screen cervical cancer. Especially for those patients living in remote regions of China, where cytology was unavailable.

  6. An special epithelial staining agents: folic acid receptor-mediated diagnosis (FRD) effectively and conveniently screen patients with cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Meng-Han; Hu, Ling-Yun; Du, Xin-Xin; Yang, Min; Zhang, Wei-Yi; Huang, Ke; Li, Li-An; Jiang, Shu-Fang; Li, Ya-Li

    2015-01-01

    High-quality screening with cytology has markedly reduced mortality from cervical cancer. However, it needs experienced pathologists to review and make the final decisions. We have developed folic acid receptor-mediated diagnosis (FRD) kits to effectively and conveniently screen patients with cervical cancer. We conduct present study aim to assess clinical significances of FRD in screening cervical cancer. A total of 169 patients were enrolled at Chinese People’s liberation Army (PLA) general hospital. We compared diagnostic significances of FRD with thinprep cytology test (TCT). Meanwhile, colposcopy was also performed to confirm any lesion suspicious for cervical cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of FRD were 71.93% and 66.07% in diagnosis cervical cancer, respectively. Meanwhile, the positive predictive values (PPV), negative predictive values (NPV), Youden index were 51.90%, 82.22%, 0.38, respectively. On the other hand, the sensitivity and specificity of TCT in diagnosis cervical cancer were 73.68% and 61.61% respectively. PPV, NPV and Youden index for TCT were 49.41%, 82.14% and 0.35 respectively. Overall, FRD have high values of sensitivity, specificity and Youden index. However, this difference failed to statistical significance. FRD have comparable diagnostic significance with TCT. Therefore, FRD might serve as one effective method to screen cervical cancer. Especially for those patients living in remote regions of China, where cytology was unavailable. PMID:26221336

  7. Receptor-mediated membrane adhesion of lipid-polymer hybrid (LPH) nanoparticles studied by dissipative particle dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenlong; Gorfe, Alemayehu A.

    2014-12-01

    Lipid-polymer hybrid (LPH) nanoparticles represent a novel class of targeted drug delivery platforms that combine the advantages of liposomes and biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles. However, the molecular details of the interaction between LPHs and their target cell membranes remain poorly understood. We have investigated the receptor-mediated membrane adhesion process of a ligand-tethered LPH nanoparticle using extensive dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations. We found that the spontaneous adhesion process follows a first-order kinetics characterized by two distinct stages: a rapid nanoparticle-membrane engagement, followed by a slow growth in the number of ligand-receptor pairs coupled with structural re-organization of both the nanoparticle and the membrane. The number of ligand-receptor pairs increases with the dynamic segregation of ligands and receptors toward the adhesion zone causing an out-of-plane deformation of the membrane. Moreover, the fluidity of the lipid shell allows for strong nanoparticle-membrane interactions to occur even when the ligand density is low. The LPH-membrane avidity is enhanced by the increased stability of each receptor-ligand pair due to the geometric confinement and the cooperative effect arising from multiple binding events. Thus, our results reveal the unique advantages of LPH nanoparticles as active cell-targeting nanocarriers and provide some general principles governing nanoparticle-cell interactions that may aid future design of LPHs with improved affinity and specificity for a given target of interest.

  8. Nuclear Membranes ETB Receptors Mediate ET-1-induced Increase of Nuclear Calcium in Human Left Ventricular Endocardial Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Jules, Farah; Avedanian, Levon; Al-Khoury, Johny; Keita, Ramatoulaye; Normand, Alexandre; Bkaily, Ghassan; Jacques, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    In fetal human left ventricular endocardial endothelial cells (EECLs), both plasma membrane (PM) ET(A)R and ET(B)R were reported to mediate ET-1-induced increase of intracellular calcium [Ca](i); however, this effect was mediated by ET(A)R in right EECs (EECRs). In this study, we verified whether, as for the PM, nuclear membranes (NMs) ET-1 receptors activation in EECLs and EECRs induce an increase of nuclear calcium ([Ca](n)) and if this effect is mediated through the same receptor type as in PM. Using a plasmalemma-perforated technique and 3D confocal microscopy, our results showed that, as in PM intact cells, superfusion of nuclei of both cell types with cytosolic ET-1 induced a concentration-dependent sustained increase of [Ca](n). In EECRs, the ET(A)R antagonist prevented the effect of ET-1 on [Ca](n) without affecting EECLs. However, in both cell types, the effect of cytosolic ET-1 on [Ca](n) was prevented by the ETBR antagonist. In conclusion, both NMs' ET(A)R and ET(B)R mediated the effect of cytosolic ET-1 on [Ca](n) in EECRs. In contrast, only NMs' ET(B)R activation mediated the effect of cytosolic ET-1 in EECLs. Hence, the type of NMs' receptors mediating the effect of ET-1 on [Ca](n) are different from those of PM mediating the increase in [Ca](i).

  9. Design and development of hyaluronan-functionalized polybenzofulvene nanoparticles as CD44 receptor mediated drug delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licciardi, Mariano; Scialabba, Cinzia; Giammona, Gaetano; Paolino, Marco; Razzano, Vincenzo; Grisci, Giorgio; Giuliani, Germano; Makovec, Francesco; Cappelli, Andrea

    2017-06-01

    A tri-component polymer brush (TCPB ), composed of a polybenzofulvene copolymer bearing low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HA) on the surface of its cylindrical brush-like backbone and oligo-PEG fractions, was employed in the preparation of 350 nm nanostructured drug delivery systems capable of delivering the anticancer drug doxorubicin. The obtained drug delivery systems were characterized on the basis of drug loading and release, dimensions and zeta potential, morphology and in vitro cell activity, and uptake on three different human cell lines, namely the bronchial epithelial 16HBE, the breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7, and the colon cancer HCT116 cells. Finally, the ability of doxorubicin-loaded TCPB nanoparticles (DOXO-TCPB) to be internalized into cancer cells by CD44 receptor mediated uptake was assessed by means of uptake studies in HCT cells. These data were supported by anti-CD44-FITC staining assay. The proposed TCPB nanostructured drug delivery systems have many potential applications in nanomedicine, including cancer targeted drug delivery.

  10. A synthetic peptide derived from A1 module in CRD4 of human TNF receptor-1 inhibits binding and proinflammatory effect of human TNF-alpha.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yingnan; Wang, Zhaohe; Bu, Xianzhang; Tang, Shu; Mei, Zhengrong; Liu, Peiqing

    2009-06-01

    Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a proinflammatory cytokine, which has been shown to be a causative factor in rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and septic shock. Proinflammatory effect of TNF-alpha is activated mainly through human TNF receptor-1 (TNF-R1). However, the role of the fourth cystein-rich domain (CRD4) of TNF-R1 extracellular portion in the interaction of TNF-alpha with TNF-R1 is still unclear. In the present study, binding activity of TNF-alpha to TNF-R1 and protein levels of IkappaB-alpha and nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) p65 subunit in HeLa cells were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western-blot analysis. Pep 3 (LRENECVS) which was derived from the hydrophilic region of A1 module in CRD4 remarkably inhibited the binding of TNF-alpha to TNF-R1, and also reversed TNF-alpha-induced degradation of IkappaB-alpha and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB p65 subunit in HeLa cells. Our results confirmed that the hydrophilic region of A1 module in CRD4 participated in the interaction of TNF-alpha with TNF-R1, and demonstrated the potential of small-molecule TNF-alpha extracellular inhibitors targeting at A1 module in CRD4 of TNF-R1 in suppressing proinflammatory effect of TNF-alpha.

  11. Kappa Opioid Receptors Mediate Heterosynaptic Suppression of Hippocampal Inputs in the Rat Ventral Striatum

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Kappa opioid receptors (KORs) are highly enriched within the ventral striatum (VS) and are thought to modulate striatal neurotransmission. This includes presynaptic inhibition of local glutamatergic release from excitatory inputs to the VS. However, it is not known which inputs drive this modulation and what impact they have on the local circuit dynamics within the VS. Individual medium spiny neurons (MSNs) within the VS serve as a site of convergence for glutamatergic inputs arising from the PFC and limbic regions, such as the hippocampus (HP). Recent data suggest that competition can arise between these inputs with robust cortical activation leading to a reduction in ongoing HP-evoked MSN responses. Here, we investigated the contribution of KOR signaling in PFC-driven heterosynaptic suppression of HP inputs onto MSNs using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in slices from adult rats. Optogenetically evoked HP EPSPs were greatly attenuated after a short latency (50 ms) following burst-like PFC electrical stimulation, and the magnitude of this suppression was partially reversed following blockade of GABAARs (GABA Type A receptors), but not GABABRs (GABA Type B receptors). A similar reduction in suppression was observed in the presence of the KOR antagonist, norBNI. Combined blockade of local GABAARs and KORs resulted in complete blockade of PFC-induced heterosynaptic suppression of less salient HP inputs. These findings highlight a mechanism by which strong, transient PFC activity can take precedence over other excitatory inputs to the VS. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Emerging evidence suggests that kappa opioid receptor (KOR) activation can selectively modulate striatal glutamatergic inputs onto medium spiny neurons (MSNs). In this study, we found that robust cortical stimulation leads to a reduction in ongoing hippocampal-evoked MSNs responses through the combined recruitment of local inhibitory mechanisms and activation of presynaptic KORs in the ventral striatum (VS

  12. Astrocytes Regulate GLP-1 Receptor-Mediated Effects on Energy Balance

    PubMed Central

    Reiner, David J.; Mietlicki-Baase, Elizabeth G.; McGrath, Lauren E.; Zimmer, Derek J.; Bence, Kendra K.; Sousa, Gregory L.; Konanur, Vaibhav R.; Krawczyk, Joanna; Burk, David H.; Kanoski, Scott E.; Hermann, Gerlinda E.; Rogers, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Astrocytes are well established modulators of extracellular glutamate, but their direct influence on energy balance-relevant behaviors is largely understudied. As the anorectic effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists are partly mediated by central modulation of glutamatergic signaling, we tested the hypothesis that astrocytic GLP-1R signaling regulates energy balance in rats. Central or peripheral administration of a fluorophore-labeled GLP-1R agonist, exendin-4, localizes within astrocytes and neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), a hindbrain nucleus critical for energy balance control. This effect is mediated by GLP-1R, as the uptake of systemically administered fluorophore-tagged exendin-4 was blocked by central pretreatment with the competitive GLP-1R antagonist exendin-(9–39). Ex vivo analyses show prolonged exendin-4-induced activation (live cell calcium signaling) of NTS astrocytes and neurons; these effects are also attenuated by exendin-(9–39), indicating mediation by the GLP-1R. In vitro analyses show that the application of GLP-1R agonists increases cAMP levels in astrocytes. Immunohistochemical analyses reveal that endogenous GLP-1 axons form close synaptic apposition with NTS astrocytes. Finally, pharmacological inhibition of NTS astrocytes attenuates the anorectic and body weight-suppressive effects of intra-NTS GLP-1R activation. Collectively, data demonstrate a role for NTS astrocytic GLP-1R signaling in energy balance control. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists reduce food intake and are approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of obesity, but the cellular mechanisms underlying the anorectic effects of GLP-1 require further investigation. Astrocytes represent a major cellular population in the CNS that regulates neurotransmission, yet the role of astrocytes in mediating energy balance is largely unstudied. The current data provide novel evidence that

  13. Microglia P2Y₆ receptors mediate nitric oxide release and astrocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Quintas, Clara; Pinho, Diana; Pereira, Clara; Saraiva, Lucília; Gonçalves, Jorge; Queiroz, Glória

    2014-09-03

    During cerebral inflammation uracil nucleotides leak to the extracellular medium and activate glial pyrimidine receptors contributing to the development of a reactive phenotype. Chronically activated microglia acquire an anti-inflammatory phenotype that favors neuronal differentiation, but the impact of these microglia on astrogliosis is unknown. We investigated the contribution of pyrimidine receptors to microglia-astrocyte signaling in a chronic model of inflammation and its impact on astrogliosis. Co-cultures of astrocytes and microglia were chronically treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and incubated with uracil nucleotides for 48 h. The effect of nucleotides was evaluated in methyl-[3H]-thymidine incorporation. Western blot and immunofluorescence was performed to detect the expression of P2Y6 receptors and the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Nitric oxide (NO) release was quantified through Griess reaction. Cell death was also investigated by the LDH assay and by the TUNEL assay or Hoechst 33258 staining. UTP, UDP (0.001 to 1 mM) or PSB 0474 (0.01 to 10 μM) inhibited cell proliferation up to 43 ± 2% (n = 10, P <0.05), an effect prevented by the selective P2Y6 receptor antagonist MRS 2578 (1 μM). UTP was rapidly metabolized into UDP, which had a longer half-life. The inhibitory effect of UDP (1 mM) was abolished by phospholipase C (PLC), protein kinase C (PKC) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors. Both UDP (1 mM) and PSB 0474 (10 μM) increased NO release up to 199 ± 20% (n = 4, P <0.05), an effect dependent on P2Y6 receptors-PLC-PKC pathway activation, indicating that this pathway mediates NO release. Western blot and immunocytochemistry analysis indicated that P2Y6 receptors were expressed in the cultures being mainly localized in microglia. Moreover, the expression of iNOS was mainly observed in microglia and was upregulated by UDP (1 mM) or PSB 0474 (10 μM). UDP-mediated NO release induced apoptosis in astrocytes

  14. Enhanced Functional Activity of the Cannabinoid Type-1 Receptor Mediates Adolescent Behavior.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Miriam; Kasanetz, Fernando; Lynch, Diane L; Friemel, Chris M; Lassalle, Olivier; Hurst, Dow P; Steindel, Frauke; Monory, Krisztina; Schäfer, Carola; Miederer, Isabelle; Leweke, F Markus; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Lutz, Beat; Reggio, Patricia H; Manzoni, Olivier J; Spanagel, Rainer

    2015-10-14

    Adolescence is characterized by drastic behavioral adaptations and comprises a particularly vulnerable period for the emergence of various psychiatric disorders. Growing evidence reveals that the pathophysiology of these disorders might derive from aberrations of normal neurodevelopmental changes in the adolescent brain. Understanding the molecular underpinnings of adolescent behavior is therefore critical for understanding the origin of psychopathology, but the molecular mechanisms that trigger adolescent behavior are unknown. Here, we hypothesize that the cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R) may play a critical role in mediating adolescent behavior because enhanced endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling has been suggested to occur transiently during adolescence. To study enhanced CB1R signaling, we introduced a missense mutation (F238L) into the rat Cnr1 gene that encodes for the CB1R. According to our hypothesis, rats with the F238L mutation (Cnr1(F238L)) should sustain features of adolescent behavior into adulthood. Gain of function of the mutated receptor was demonstrated by in silico modeling and was verified functionally in a series of biochemical and electrophysiological experiments. Mutant rats exhibit an adolescent-like phenotype during adulthood compared with wild-type littermates, with typical high risk/novelty seeking, increased peer interaction, enhanced impulsivity, and augmented reward sensitivity for drug and nondrug reward. Partial inhibition of CB1R activity in Cnr1(F238L) mutant rats normalized behavior and led to a wild-type phenotype. We conclude that the activity state and functionality of the CB1R is critical for mediating adolescent behavior. These findings implicate the eCB system as an important research target for the neuropathology of adolescent-onset mental health disorders. We present the first rodent model with a gain-of-function mutation in the cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R). Adult mutant rats exhibit an adolescent-like phenotype with

  15. CYP1A1 induction and CYP3A4 inhibition by the fungicide imazalil in the human intestinal Caco-2 cells-comparison with other conazole pesticides.

    PubMed

    Sergent, Thérèse; Dupont, Isabelle; Jassogne, Coralie; Ribonnet, Laurence; van der Heiden, Edwige; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Muller, Marc; McAlister, Dan; Pussemier, Luc; Larondelle, Yvan; Schneider, Yves-Jacques

    2009-02-10

    Imazalil (IMA) is a widely used imidazole-antifungal pesticide and, therefore, a food contaminant. This compound is also used as a drug (enilconazole). As intestine is the first site of exposure to ingested drugs and pollutants, we have investigated the effects of IMA, at realistic intestinal concentrations, on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and efflux pumps by using Caco-2 cells, as a validated in vitro model of the human intestinal absorptive epithelium. For comparison, other conazole fungicides, i.e. ketoconazole, propiconazole and tebuconazole, were also studied. IMA induced cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 activity to the same extent as benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cell-free aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) binding assay and reporter gene assay suggested that IMA is not an AhR-ligand, implying that IMA-mediated induction should involve an AhR-independent pathway. Moreover, IMA strongly inhibited the CYP3A4 activity in 1,25-vitamin D(3)-induced Caco-2 cells. The other fungicides had weak or nil effects on CYP activities. Study of the apical efflux pump activities revealed that ketoconazole inhibited both P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP-2) or breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), whereas IMA and other fungicides did not. Our results imply that coingestion of IMA-contaminated food and CYP3A4- or CYP1A1-metabolizable drugs or chemicals could lead to drug bioavailability modulation or toxicological interactions, with possible adverse effects for human health.

  16. Altered GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission disrupts the firing of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in male mice under conditions that mimic steroid abuse

    PubMed Central

    Penatti, Carlos A A; Davis, Matthew C; Porter, Donna M; Henderson, Leslie P

    2010-01-01

    Gonadotropin–releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are the central regulators of reproduction. GABAergic transmission plays a critical role in pubertal activation of pulsatile GnRH secretion. Self-administration of excessive doses of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) disrupts reproductive function and may have critical repercussions for pubertal onset in adolescent users. Here, we demonstrate that chronic treatment of adolescent male mice with the AAS, 17α-methyltestosterone (17αMT), significantly decreased action potential frequency in GnRH neurons, reduced the serum gonadotropin levels, and decreased testes mass. AAS treatment did not induce significant changes in GABAA receptor subunit mRNA levels or alter the amplitude or decay kinetics of GABAA receptor-mediated spontaneous postsynaptic currents (sPSC) or tonic currents in GnRH neurons. However, AAS treatment significantly increased action potential frequency in neighboring medial preoptic area (mPOA) neurons and GABAA receptor-mediated sPSC frequency in GnRH neurons. In addition, physical isolation of the more lateral aspects of the mPOA from the medially-localized GnRH neurons abrogated the AAS-induced increase in GABAA receptor-mediated sPSC frequency and the decrease in action potential firing in the GnRH cells. Our results indicate that AAS act predominantly on steroid-sensitive presynaptic neurons within the mPOA to impart significant increases in GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory tone onto downstream GnRH neurons resulting in diminished activity of these pivotal mediators of reproductive function. These AAS-induced changes in central GABAergic circuits of the forebrain may significantly contribute to the disruptive actions of these drugs on pubertal maturation and the development of reproductive competence in male steroid abusers. PMID:20463213

  17. Synthesis and Evaluation of Vitamin D Receptor-Mediated Activities of Cholesterol and Vitamin D Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Teske, Kelly A.; Bogart, Jonathan W.; Sanchez, Luis M.; Yu, Olivia B.; Preston, Joshua V.; Cook, James M.; Silvaggi, Nicholas R.; Bikle, Daniel D.; Arnold, Leggy A.

    2016-01-01

    A systematic study with phase 1 and phase 2 metabolites of cholesterol and vitamin D was conducted to determine whether their biological activity is mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The investigation necessitated the development of novel synthetic routes for lithocholic acid (LCA) glucuronides (Gluc). Biochemical and cell-based assays were used to demonstrate that hydroxylated LCA analogs were not able to bind VDR. This excludes VDR from mediating their biological and pharmacological activities. Among the synthesized LCA conjugates a novel VDR agonist was identified. LCA Gluc II increased the expression of CYP24A1 in DU145 cancer cells especially in the presence of the endogenous VDR ligand 1,25(OH)2D3. Furthermore, the methyl ester of LCA was identified as novel VDR antagonist. For the first time, we showed that calcitroic acid, the assumed inactive final metabolite of vitamin D, was able to activate VDR-mediated transcription to a higher magnitude than bile acid LCA. Due to a higher metabolic stability in comparison to vitamin D, a very low toxicity, and high concentration in bile and intestine, calcitroic acid is likely to be an important mediator of the protective vitamin D properties against colon cancer. PMID:26774929

  18. Chicken adenovirus (CELO virus) particles augment receptor-mediated DNA delivery to mammalian cells and yield exceptional levels of stable transformants.

    PubMed Central

    Cotten, M; Wagner, E; Zatloukal, K; Birnstiel, M L

    1993-01-01

    Delivery of genes via receptor-mediated endocytosis is severely limited by the poor exit of endocytosed DNA from the endosome. A large enhancement in delivery efficiency has been obtained by including human adenovirus particles in the delivery system. This enhancement is probably a function of the natural adenovirus entry mechanism, which must include passage through or disruption of the endosomal membrane. In an effort to identify safer virus particles useful in this application, we have tested the chicken adenovirus CELO virus for its ability to augment receptor-mediated gene delivery. We report here that CELO virus possesses pH-dependent, liposome disruption activity similar to that of human adenovirus type 5. Furthermore, the chicken adenovirus can be used to augment receptor-mediated gene delivery to levels comparable to those found for the human adenovirus when it is physically linked to polylysine ligand-condensed DNA particles. The chicken adenovirus has the advantage of being produced inexpensively in embryonated eggs, and the virus is naturally replication defective in mammalian cells, even in the presence of wild-type human adenovirus. Images PMID:8099627

  19. Vasodilator therapy with hydralazine induces angiotensin AT2 receptor-mediated cardiomyocyte growth in mice lacking guanylyl cyclase-A

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y; Saito, Y; Kuwahara, K; Rong, X; Kishimoto, I; Harada, M; Horiuchi, M; Murray, M; Nakao, K

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Recent clinical guidelines advocate the use of the isosorbide dinitrate/hydralazine combination in treatment for heart failure. However, clinical and laboratory evidence suggest that some vasodilators may induce cardiac hypertrophy under uncertain conditions. This study investigated the effects and underlying mechanism of action of the vasodilator hydralazine on cardiac growth. Experimental approach: Wild-type mice and animals deficient in guanylyl cyclase-A (GCA) and/or angiotensin receptors (AT1 and AT2 subtypes) were treated with hydralazine (≈24 mg·kg−1·day−1 in drinking water) for 5 weeks. Cardiac mass and/or cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area, fibrosis (van Giessen-staining) and cardiac gene expression (real-time RT-PCR) were measured. Key results: Hydralazine lowered blood pressure in mice of all genotypes. However, this treatment increased the heart and left ventricular to body weight ratios, as well as cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area, and cardiac expression of atrial natriuretic peptide mRNA in mice lacking GCA. Hydralazine did not affect cardiac hypertrophy in wild-type mice and mice lacking either AT1 or AT2 receptors alone. However, the pro-hypertrophic effect of hydralazine was prevented in mice lacking both GCA and AT2, but not GCA and AT1 receptors. However, hydralazine did decrease cardiac collagen deposition and collagen I mRNA (signs of cardiac fibrosis) in mice that were deficient in GCA, or both GCA and AT2 receptors. Conclusions and implications: The vasodilator hydralazine induced AT2 receptor-mediated cardiomyocyte growth under conditions of GCA deficiency. However, attenuation of cardiac fibrosis by hydralazine could be beneficial in the management of cardiac diseases. PMID:20136844

  20. Biological functionalization of drug delivery carriers to bypass size restrictions of receptor-mediated endocytosis independently from receptor targeting.

    PubMed

    Ansar, Maria; Serrano, Daniel; Papademetriou, Iason; Bhowmick, Tridib Kumar; Muro, Silvia

    2013-12-23

    Targeting of drug carriers to cell-surface receptors involved in endocytosis is commonly used for intracellular drug delivery. However, most endocytic receptors mediate uptake via clathrin or caveolar pathways associated with ≤200-nm vesicles, restricting carrier design. We recently showed that endocytosis mediated by intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), which differs from clathrin- and caveolae-mediated pathways, allows uptake of nano- and microcarriers in cell culture and in vivo due to recruitment of cellular sphingomyelinases to the plasmalemma. This leads to ceramide generation at carrier binding sites and formation of actin stress-fibers, enabling engulfment and uptake of a wide size-range of carriers. Here we adapted this paradigm to enhance uptake of drug carriers targeted to receptors associated with size-restricted pathways. We coated sphingomyelinase onto model (polystyrene) submicro- and microcarriers targeted to clathrin-associated mannose-6-phosphate receptor. In endothelial cells, this provided ceramide enrichment at the cell surface and actin stress-fiber formation, modifying the uptake pathway and enhancing carrier endocytosis without affecting targeting, endosomal transport, cell-associated degradation, or cell viability. This improvement depended on the carrier size and enzyme dose, and similar results were observed for other receptors (transferrin receptor) and cell types (epithelial cells). This phenomenon also enhanced tissue accumulation of carriers after intravenous injection in mice. Hence, it is possible to maintain targeting toward a selected receptor while bypassing natural size restrictions of its associated endocytic route by functionalization of drug carriers with biological elements mimicking the ICAM-1 pathway. This strategy holds considerable promise to enhance flexibility of design of targeted drug delivery systems.

  1. The brain cytoplasmic RNA BC1 regulates dopamine D2 receptor-mediated transmission in the striatum.

    PubMed

    Centonze, Diego; Rossi, Silvia; Napoli, Ilaria; Mercaldo, Valentina; Lacoux, Caroline; Ferrari, Francesca; Ciotti, Maria Teresa; De Chiara, Valentina; Prosperetti, Chiara; Maccarrone, Mauro; Fezza, Filomena; Calabresi, Paolo; Bernardi, Giorgio; Bagni, Claudia

    2007-08-15

    Dopamine D(2) receptor (D(2)DR)-mediated transmission in the striatum is remarkably flexible, and changes in its efficacy have been heavily implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions. Although receptor-associated proteins are clearly involved in specific forms of synaptic plasticity, the molecular mechanisms regulating the sensitivity of D(2) receptors in this brain area are essentially obscure. We have studied the physiological responses of the D(2)DR stimulations in mice lacking the brain cytoplasmic RNA BC1, a small noncoding dendritically localized RNA that is supposed to play a role in mRNA translation. We show that the efficiency of D(2)-mediated transmission regulating striatal GABA synapses is under the control of BC1 RNA, through a negative influence on D(2) receptor protein level affecting the functional pool of receptors. Ablation of the BC1 gene did not result in widespread dysregulation of synaptic transmission, because the sensitivity of cannabinoid CB(1) receptors was intact in the striatum of BC1 knock-out (KO) mice despite D(2) and CB(1) receptors mediated similar electrophysiological actions. Interestingly, the fragile X mental retardation protein FMRP, one of the multiple BC1 partners, is not involved in the BC1 effects on the D(2)-mediated transmission. Because D(2)DR mRNA is apparently equally translated in the BC1-KO and wild-type mice, whereas the protein level is higher in BC1-KO mice, we suggest that BC1 RNA controls D(2)DR indirectly, probably regulating translation of molecules involved in D(2)DR turnover and/or stability.

  2. Biological Functionalization of Drug Delivery Carriers to Bypass Size Restrictions of Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis Independently from Receptor Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Ansar, Maria; Serrano, Daniel; Papademetriou, Iason; Bhowmick, Tridib Kumar; Muro, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Targeting of drug carriers to cell-surface receptors involved in endocytosis is commonly used for intracellular drug delivery. However, most endocytic receptors mediate uptake via clathrin or caveolar pathways associated with ≤200-nm vesicles, restricting carrier design. We recently showed that endocytosis mediated by intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), which differs from clathrin- and caveolar-mediated pathways, allows uptake of nano- and micro-carriers in cell culture and in vivo due to recruitment of cellular sphingomyelinases to the plasmalemma. This leads to ceramide generation at carrier binding sites and formation of actin stress-fibers, enabling engulfment and uptake of a wide size-range of carriers. Here we adapted this paradigm to enhance uptake of drug carriers targeted to receptors associated with size-restricted pathways. We coated sphingomyelinase onto model (polystyrene) submicro- and micro-carriers targeted to clathrin-associated mannose-6-phosphate receptor. In endothelial cells, this provided ceramide enrichment at the cell surface and actin stress-fiber formation, modifying the uptake pathway and enhancing carrier endocytosis without affecting targeting, endosomal transport, cell-associated degradation, or cell viability. This improvement depended on the carrier size and enzyme dose, and similar results were observed for other receptors (transferrin receptor) and cell types (epithelial cells). This phenomenon also enhanced tissue accumulation of carriers after intravenous injection in mice. Hence, it is possible to maintain targeting toward a selected receptor while bypassing natural size-restrictions of its associated endocytic route by functionalization of drug carriers with biological elements mimicking the ICAM-1 pathway. This strategy holds considerable promise to enhance flexibility of design of targeted drug delivery systems. PMID:24237309

  3. Testin, a novel binding partner of the calcium-sensing receptor, enhances receptor-mediated Rho-kinase signalling

    SciTech Connect

    Magno, Aaron L.; Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Hospital Avenue, Nedlands, Western Australia 6009; Ingley, Evan

    Highlights: {yields} A yeast two-hybrid screen revealed testin bound to the calcium-sensing receptor. {yields} The second zinc finger of LIM domain 1 of testin is critical for interaction. {yields} Testin bound to a region of the receptor tail important for cell signalling. {yields} Testin and receptor interaction was confirmed in mammalian (HEK293) cells. {yields} Overexpression of testin enhanced receptor-mediated Rho signalling in HEK293 cells. -- Abstract: The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) plays an integral role in calcium homeostasis and the regulation of other cellular functions including cell proliferation and cytoskeletal organisation. The multifunctional nature of the CaR is manifested through ligand-dependentmore » stimulation of different signalling pathways that are also regulated by partner binding proteins. Following a yeast two-hybrid library screen using the intracellular tail of the CaR as bait, we identified several novel binding partners including the focal adhesion protein, testin. Testin has not previously been shown to interact with cell surface receptors. The sites of interaction between the CaR and testin were mapped to the membrane proximal region of the receptor tail and the second zinc-finger of LIM domain 1 of testin, the integrity of which was found to be critical for the CaR-testin interaction. The CaR-testin association was confirmed in HEK293 cells by coimmunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy studies. Ectopic expression of testin in HEK293 cells stably expressing the CaR enhanced CaR-stimulated Rho activity but had no effect on CaR-stimulated ERK signalling. These results suggest an interplay between the CaR and testin in the regulation of CaR-mediated Rho signalling with possible effects on the cytoskeleton.« less

  4. Alterations in Intestinal Contractility during Inflammation Are Caused by Both Smooth Muscle Damage and Specific Receptor-mediated Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Tanović, Adnan; Fernández, Ester; Jiménez, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    Aim To evaluate motoric intestinal disturbances during inflammation with Trichinella spiralis in rats as an experimental model. Methods We examined the changes in worm-positive (jejunum) and worm-free (ileum) intestinal segments of rats infected with T. spiralis. To investigate the relationship between structural and functional changes in smooth muscle, we measured the thickness of the muscle layers of rat jejunum and ileum. Mechanical responses to KCl 30 mmol/L, acetylcholine (ACh) 10−8-10−4 mol/L, substance P (SP) 10−9-10−5 mol/L, and to electrical field stimulation of longitudinal muscle strips in the jejunum and ileum were studied in muscle bath as controls (day 0) and on day 2, 6, 14, 23, and 72 after infection. Results After T. spiralis infestation, an inflammation of the mucosal and submucosal layers of jejunum was observed, whereas in the worm-free ileum there was not any inflammatory infiltrate. Increase in the smooth muscle thickness of both jejunum and ileum were correlated with increased responses to depolarizing agent KCl and to ACh. However, responses to SP were decreased on day 14-23 after infection in jejunum and from day 6-14 after infection in ileum. Electric field stimulation-induced contractions were transiently decreased in the jejunum (day 2 after infection) but in the ileum the contractile responses were decreased until the end of the study period. Conclusions Alterations in intestinal smooth muscle function do not require the presence of the parasite and the absence of histopathological signs of inflammation do not warrant intact motor function. Changes in motor responses after T. spiralis infection are not only due to smooth muscle damage but also to disturbances in specific receptor-mediated mechanisms. PMID:16625700

  5. Alterations in intestinal contractility during inflammation are caused by both smooth muscle damage and specific receptor-mediated mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tanović, Adnan; Fernández, Ester; Jiménez, Marcel

    2006-04-01

    To evaluate motoric intestinal disturbances during inflammation with Trichinella spiralis in rats as an experimental model. We examined the changes in worm-positive (jejunum) and worm-free (ileum) intestinal segments of rats infected with T. spiralis. To investigate the relationship between structural and functional changes in smooth muscle, we measured the thickness of the muscle layers of rat jejunum and ileum. Mechanical responses to KCl 30 mmol/L, acetylcholine (ACh) 10(-8)-10(-4) mol/L, substance P (SP) 10(-9)-10(-5) mol/L, and to electrical field stimulation of longitudinal muscle strips in the jejunum and ileum were studied in muscle bath as controls (day 0) and on day 2, 6, 14, 23, and 72 after infection. After T. spiralis infestation, an inflammation of the mucosal and submucosal layers of jejunum was observed, whereas in the worm-free ileum there was not any inflammatory infiltrate. Increase in the smooth muscle thickness of both jejunum and ileum were correlated with increased responses to depolarizing agent KCl and to ACh. However, responses to SP were decreased on day 14-23 after infection in jejunum and from day 6-14 after infection in ileum. Electric field stimulation-induced contractions were transiently decreased in the jejunum (day 2 after infection) but in the ileum the contractile responses were decreased until the end of the study period. Alterations in intestinal smooth muscle function do not require the presence of the parasite and the absence of histopathological signs of inflammation do not warrant intact motor function. Changes in motor responses after T. spiralis infection are not only due to smooth muscle damage but also to disturbances in specific receptor-mediated mechanisms.

  6. Clonidine Induces Apoptosis of Human Corneal Epithelial Cells through Death Receptors-Mediated, Mitochondria-Dependent Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Fan, Dan; Fan, Ting-Jun

    2017-03-01

    Clonidine, an α2-adrenoreceptor agonist, is an anti-glaucoma drug clinically used in many developing countries, and its abuse might damage the cornea and impair human vision. However, its cytotoxicity and precise mechanisms need to be elucidated. Herein, we investigated the cytotoxicity of clonidine and its underlying mechanisms, using an in vitro model of human corneal epithelial (HCEP) cells and an in vivo model of cat corneas, respectively. HCEP cells were treated with various doses of clonidine for 1-28 h, resulting in abnormal morphology, decline of cell viability and G1 phase arrest in a time- and/or dose-dependent manner. Moreover, clonidine treatment induced elevation of plasma membrane permeability, phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA fragmentation, and apoptotic body formation in HCEP cells. Furthermore, we found that clonidine treatment resulted in activated caspase-2, -3, -8, and -9, disruption of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, downregulation of Bcl-2, and upregulation of Bad, cytoplasmic cytochrome c and apoptosis inducing factor, suggesting that clonidine-induced apoptosis is triggered through Fas/TNFR1 death receptors and Bcl-2 family proteins-mediated mitochondria-dependent pathways. Finally, our in vivo results displayed that 0.25% clonidine could induce DNA fragmentation of cat corneal epithelial cells. In summary, our findings suggest that clonidine above 1/32 of its clinical therapeutic dosage is cytotoxic to corneal epithelial cells by inducing cell apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, and its pro-apoptotic effect on HCEP cells is triggered by a Fas/TNFR1 death receptors-mediated, mitochondria-dependent signaling pathway. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The overexpressed human 46-kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptor mediates endocytosis and sorting of. beta. -glucuronidase

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, H.; Grubb, J.H.; Sly, W.S.

    1990-10-01

    The authors studied the function of the human small (46-kDa) mannose 6-phosphate receptor (SMPR) in transfected mouse L cells that do not express the larger insulin-like growth factor II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor. Cells overexpressing human SMPR were studied for enzyme binding to cell surface receptors, for binding to intracellular receptors in permeabilized cells, and for receptor-mediated endocytosis of recombinant human {beta}-glucuronidase. Specific binding to human SMPR in permeabilized cells showed a pH optimum between pH 6.0 and pH 6.5. Binding was significant in the present of EDTA but was enhanced by added divalent cations. Up to 2.3{percent} of the total functionalmore » receptor could be detected on the cell surface by enzyme binding. They present experiments showing that at very high levels of overexpression, and at pH 6.5, human SMPR mediated the endocytosis of {beta}-glucuronidase. At pH 7.5, the rate of endocytosis was only 14{percent} the rate seen at pH 6.5. Cells overexpressing human SMPR also showed reduced secretion of newly synthesized {beta}-glucuronidase when compared to cells transfected with vector only, suggesting that overexpressed human SMPR can participate in sorting of newly synthesized {beta}-glucuronidase and partially correct the sorting defect in mouse L cells that do not express the insulin-like growth factor II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor.« less

  8. Astemizole Synergizes Calcitriol Antiproliferative Activity by Inhibiting CYP24A1 and Upregulating VDR: A Novel Approach for Breast Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, David; Santos, Nancy; Avila, Euclides; Ordaz-Rosado, David; Rivas-Suárez, Mariana; Halhali, Ali; Rodríguez, Pamela; Gamboa-Domínguez, Armando; Medina-Franco, Heriberto; Camacho, Javier; Larrea, Fernando; Díaz, Lorenza

    2012-01-01

    Background Calcitriol antiproliferative effects include inhibition of the oncogenic ether-à-go-go-1 potassium channel (Eag1) expression, which is necessary for cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis. Astemizole, a new promising antineoplastic drug, targets Eag1 by blocking ion currents. Herein, we characterized the interaction between calcitriol and astemizole as well as their conjoint antiproliferative action in SUM-229PE, T-47D and primary tumor-derived breast cancer cells. Methodology/Principal Findings Molecular markers were studied by immunocytochemistry, Western blot and real time PCR. Inhibitory concentrations were determined by dose-response curves and metabolic activity assays. At clinically achievable drug concentrations, synergistic antiproliferative interaction was observed between calcitriol and astemizole, as calculated by combination index analysis (CI <1). Astemizole significantly enhanced calcitriol’s growth-inhibitory effects (3–11 folds, P<0.01). Mean IC20 values were 1.82±2.41 nM and 1.62±0.75 µM; for calcitriol (in estrogen receptor negative cells) and astemizole, respectively. Real time PCR showed that both drugs alone downregulated, while simultaneous treatment further reduced Ki-67 and Eag1 gene expression (P<0.05). Astemizole inhibited basal and calcitriol-induced CYP24A1 and CYP3A4 mRNA expression (cytochromes involved in calcitriol and astemizole degradation) in breast and hepatoma cancer cells, respectively, while upregulated vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression. Conclusions/Significance Astemizole synergized calcitriol antiproliferative effects by downregulating CYP24A1, upregulating VDR and targeting Eag1. This study provides insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in astemizole-calcitriol combined antineoplastic effect, offering scientific support to test both compounds in combination in further preclinical and clinical studies of neoplasms expressing VDR and Eag1. VDR-negative tumors might also be sensitized to

  9. Orphan nuclear receptor oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) plays a key role in hepatic cannabinoid receptor type 1-mediated induction of CYP7A1 gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yaochen; Kim, Don-Kyu; Lee, Ji-Min; Park, Seung Bum; Jeong, Won-IL; Kim, Seong Heon; Lee, In-Kyu; Lee, Chul-Ho; Chiang, John Y.L.; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids are primarily synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and have important roles in dietary lipid absorption and cholesterol homoeostasis. Detailed roles of the orphan nuclear receptors regulating cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis, have not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, we report that oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) is a novel transcriptional regulator of CYP7A1 expression. Activation of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 receptor) signalling induced ERRγ-mediated transcription of the CYP7A1 gene. Overexpression of ERRγ increased CYP7A1 expression in vitro and in vivo, whereas knockdown of ERRγ attenuated CYP7A1 expression. Deletion analysis of the CYP7A1 gene promoter and a ChIP assay revealed an ERRγ -binding site on the CYP7A1 gene promoter. Small heterodimer partner (SHP) inhibited the transcriptional activity of ERRγ and thus regulated CYP7A1 expression. Overexpression of ERRγ led to increased bile acid levels, whereas an inverse agonist of ERRγ, GSK5182, reduced CYP7A1 expression and bile acid synthesis. Finally, GSK5182 significantly reduced hepatic CB1 receptor-mediated induction of CYP7A1 expression and bile acid synthesis in alcohol-treated mice. These results provide the molecular mechanism linking ERRγ and bile acid metabolism. PMID:26348907

  10. Cancer stem cell mediated acquired chemoresistance in head and neck cancer can be abrogated by aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 A1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kulsum, Safeena; Sudheendra, Holalugunda Vittalamurthy; Pandian, Ramanan; Ravindra, Doddathimmasandra Ramanjanappa; Siddappa, Gangotri; R, Nisheena; Chevour, Priyanka; Ramachandran, Balaji; Sagar, Milind; Jayaprakash, Aravindakshan; Mehta, Alka; Kekatpure, Vikram; Hedne, Naveen; Kuriakose, Moni A; Suresh, Amritha

    2017-02-01

    Chemoresistance leading to disease relapse is one of the major challenges to improve outcome in head and neck cancers. Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) are increasingly being implicated in chemotherapy resistance, this study investigates the correlation between CSC behavior and acquired drug resistance in in vitro cell line models. Cell lines resistant to Cisplatin (Cal-27 CisR, Hep-2 CisR) and 5FU (Cal-27 5FUR) with high Resistance Indices (RI) were generated (RI ≥ 3) by short-term treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines with chemotherapeutic drugs (Cisplatin, Docetaxel, 5FU), using a dose-incremental strategy. The cell lines (Cal-27 DoxR, Hep-2 DoxR, Hep-2 5FUR) that showed low RI, nevertheless had a high cross resistance to Cisplatin/5FU (P < 0.05). Cal-27 CisR and DoxR showed 12-14% enrichment of CD44+ cells, while CisR/5FUR showed 4-6% increase in ALDH1A1+ cells as compared to parental cells (P < 0.05). Increased expression of stem cell markers (CD44, CD133, NOTCH1, ALDH1A1, OCT4, SOX2) in these cell lines, correlated with enhanced spheroid/colony formation, migratory potential, and increased in vivo tumor burden (P < 0.05). Inhibition of ALDH1A1 in Cal-27 CisR led to down regulation of the CSC markers, reduction in migratory, self-renewal and tumorigenic potential (P < 0.05) accompanied by an induction of sensitivity to Cisplatin (P < 0.05). Further, ex vivo treatment of explants (n = 4) from HNSCC patients with the inhibitor (NCT-501) in combination with Cisplatin showed a significant decrease in proliferating cells as compared to individual treatment (P = 0.001). This study hence suggests an ALDH1A1-driven, CSC-mediated mechanism in acquired drug resistance of HNSCC, which may have therapeutic implications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Tangeretin inhibits the proliferation of human breast cancer cells via CYP1A1/CYP1B1 enzyme induction and CYP1A1/CYP1B1-mediated metabolism to the product 4' hydroxy tangeretin.

    PubMed

    Surichan, Somchaiya; Arroo, Randolph R; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P

    2018-04-04

    Tangeretin is a polymethoxylated flavone with multifaceted anticancer activity. In the present study, the metabolism of tangeretin was evaluated in the CYP1 expressing human breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and MDA-MB-468 and in the normal breast cell line MCF10A. Tangeretin was converted to 4' OH tangeretin by recombinant CYP1 enzymes and by CYP1 enzymes expressed in MCF7 and MDA-MB-468 cells. This metabolite was absent in MCF10A cells that did not express CYP1 enzymes. Tangeretin exhibited submicromolar IC50 (0.25 ± 0.15 μM) in MDA-MB-468 cells, whereas it was less active in MCF7 cells (39.3 ± 1.5 μM) and completely inactive in MCF10A cells (>100 μM). In MDA-MB-468 cells that were coincubated with the CYP1 inhibitor acacetin, an approximately 70-fold increase was noted in the IC50 (18 ± 1.6 μM) of tangeretin. In the presence of the CYP1 inhibitor acacetin, the conversion of tangeretin to 4' OH tangeretin was significantly reduced in MDA-MB-468 cells (2.55 ± 0.19 μM vs. 6.33 ± 0.12 μM). The mechanism of antiproliferative action involved cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase for MCF7 and MDA-MB-468 cells. Tangeretin was further shown to induce CYP1 enzyme activity and CYP1A1/CYP1B1 protein expression in MCF7 and MDA-MB-468 cells. These results suggest that tangeretin inhibits the proliferation of breast cancer cells via CYP1A1/CYP1B1-mediated metabolism to the product 4' hydroxy tangeretin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Increased GABA(A) inhibition of the RVLM after hindlimb unloading in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffitt, Julia A.; Heesch, Cheryl M.; Hasser, Eileen M.

    2002-01-01

    Attenuated baroreflex-mediated increases in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in hindlimb unloaded (HU) rats apparently are due to changes within the central nervous system. We hypothesized that GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) is increased after hindlimb unloading. Responses to bilateral microinjection of the GABA(A) antagonist (-)-bicuculline methiodide (BIC) into the RVLM were examined before and during caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM) inhibition in Inactin-anesthetized control and HU rats. Increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and RSNA in response to BIC in the RVLM were significantly enhanced in HU rats. Responses to bilateral CVLM blockade were not different. When remaining GABA(A) inhibition in the RVLM was blocked by BIC during CVLM inhibition, the additional increases in MAP and RSNA were significantly greater in HU rats. These data indicate that GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition of RVLM neurons is augmented after hindlimb unloading. Effects of input from the CVLM were unaltered. Thus, after cardiovascular deconditioning in rodents, the attenuated increase in sympathetic nerve activity in response to hypotension is associated with greater GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition of RVLM neurons originating at least in part from sources other than the CVLM.

  13. Impaired receptor-mediated catabolism of low density lipoprotein in the WHHL rabbit, an animal model of familial hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Bilheimer, David W.; Watanabe, Yoshio; Kita, Toru

    1982-01-01

    The homozygous WHHL (Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic) rabbit displays either no or only minimal low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor activity on cultured fibroblasts and liver membranes and has therefore been proposed as an animal model for human familial hypercholesterolemia. To assess the impact of this mutation on LDL metabolism in vivo, we performed lipoprotein turnover studies in normal and WHHL rabbits using both native rabbit LDL and chemically modified LDL (i.e., methyl-LDL) that does not bind to LDL receptors. The total fractional catabolic rate (FCR) for LDL in the normal rabbit was 3.5-fold greater than in the WHHL rabbit. Sixty-seven percent of the total FCR for LDL in the normal rabbit was due to LDL receptor-mediated clearance and 33% was attributable to receptor-independent processes; in the WHHL rabbit, essentially all of the LDL was catabolized via receptor-independent processes. Despite a 17.5-fold elevated plasma pool size of LDL apoprotein (apo-LDL) in WHHL as compared to normal rabbits, the receptor-independent FCR—as judged by the turnover of methyl-LDL—was similar in the two strains. Thus, the receptor-independent catabolic processes are not influenced by the mutation affecting the LDL receptor. The WHHL rabbits also exhibited a 5.6-fold increase in the absolute rate of apo-LDL synthesis and catabolism. In absolute terms, the WHHL rabbit cleared 19-fold more apo-LDL via receptor-independent processes than did the normal rabbit and cleared virtually none by the receptor-dependent pathway. These results indicate that the homozygous WHHL rabbit shares a number of metabolic features in common with human familial hypercholesterolemia and should serve as a useful model for the study of altered lipoprotein metabolism associated with receptor abnormalities. We also noted that the in vivo metabolic behavior of human and rabbit LDL in the normal rabbit differed such that the mean total FCR for human LDL was only 64% of the mean total FCR for

  14. S100A11 protects against neuronal cell apoptosis induced by cerebral ischemia via inhibiting the nuclear translocation of annexin A1.

    PubMed

    Xia, Qian; Li, Xing; Zhou, Huijuan; Zheng, Lu; Shi, Jing

    2018-05-29

    The subcellular location of annexin A1 (ANXA1) determines the ultimate fate of neurons after ischemic stroke. ANXA1 nuclear translocation is involved in neuronal apoptosis after cerebral ischemia, and extracellular ANXA1 is also associated with regulation of inflammatory responses. As the factors and mechanism that influence ANXA1 subcellular translocation remain unclear, studies aiming to determine and clarify the role of ANXA1 as a cell fate 'regulator' within cells are critically needed. In this study, we found that intracerebroventricular injection of the recombinant adenovirus vector Ad-S100A11 (carrying S100A11) strongly improved cognitive function and induced robust neuroprotective effects after ischemic stroke in vivo. Furthermore, upregulation of S100A11 protected against neuronal apoptosis induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) in vitro. Surprisingly, S100A11 overexpression markedly decreased ANXA1 nuclear translocation and subsequently alleviated OGD/R-induced neuronal apoptosis. Notably, S100A11 exerted its neuroprotective effect by directly binding ANXA1. Importantly, S100A11 directly interacted with ANXA1 through the nuclear translocation signal (NTS) of ANXA1, which is essential for ANXA1 to import into the nucleus. Consistent with our previous studies, ANXA1 nuclear translocation after OGD/R promoted p53 transcriptional activity, induced mRNA expression of the pro-apoptotic Bid gene, and activated the caspase-3 apoptotic pathway, which was almost completely reversed by S100A11 overexpression. Thus, S100A11 protects against cell apoptosis by inhibiting OGD/R-induced ANXA1 nuclear translocation. This study provides a novel mechanism whereby S100A11 protects against neuronal cells apoptosis, suggesting the potential for a previously unidentified treatment strategy in minimizing apoptosis after ischemic stroke.

  15. Enhanced Oral Bioavailability of Domperidone with Piperine in Male Wistar Rats: Involvement of CYP3A1 and P-gp Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Athukuri, Bhargavi Latha; Neerati, Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Domperidone is a commonly used antiemetic drug. The oral bioavailability of domperidone is very low due to its rapid first pass metabolism in the intestine and liver. Piperine, the main alkaloid present in black pepper has been reported to show inhibitory effects on Cytochrome P-450 (CYP-450) enzymes and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). In the present study we investigated the effect of piperine pretreatment on the intestinal transport and oral bioavailability of domperidone in male Wistar rats. The intestinal transport of domperidone was evaluated by an in-vitro non-everted sac method and in-situ single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) study. The oral pharmacokinetics of domperidone was evaluated by conducting oral bioavailability study in rats. A statistically significant improvement in apparent permeability (Papp) was observed in rats pretreated with piperine compared to the respective control group. The effective permeability (Peff) of domperidone was increased in the ileum of the piperine treated group. Following pretreatment with piperine, the peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the concentration- time curve (AUC) were significantly increased. A significant decrease in time to reach maximum plasma concentration (Tmax), clearance and elimination rate constant (Kel) was observed in rats pretreated with piperine. Piperine enhanced the oral bioavailability of domperidone by inhibiting CYP3A1 and P-gp in rats. This observation suggests the possibility that the combination of piperine with other CYP3A4 and P-gp dual substrates may also improve bioavailability. Further clinical studies are recommended to verify this drug interaction in human volunteers and patients. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page.

  16. Inhibition of protein kinase CK2 reduces CYP24A1 expression and enhances 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 anti-tumor activity in human prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wei; Yu, Wei-Dong; Ma, Yingyu; Chernov, Mikhail; Trump, Donald L.; Johnson, Candace S.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D has broad range of physiological functions and anti-tumor effects. 24-hydroxylase, encoded by the CYP24A1 gene, is the key enzyme for degrading many forms of vitamin D including the most active form, 1,25D3. Inhibition of CYP24A1 enhances 1,25D3 anti-tumor activity. In order to isolate regulators of CYP24A1 expression in prostate cancer cells, we established a stable prostate cancer cell line PC3 with CYP24A1 promoter driving luciferase expression to screen a small molecular library for compounds that inhibit CYP24A1 promoter activity. From this screening, we identified, 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzimidazole (TBBz), a protein kinase CK2 selective inhibitor as a disruptor of CYP24A1 promoter activity. We show that TBBz inhibits CYP24A1 promoter activity induced by 1,25D3 in prostate cancer cells. In addition, TBBz downregulates endogenous CYP24A1 mRNA level in TBBz treated PC3 cells. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated CK2 knockdown reduces 1,25D3 induced CYP24A1 mRNA expression in PC3 cells. These results suggest that CK2 contributes to 1,25D3 mediated target gene expression. Lastly, inhibition of CK2 by TBBz or CK2 siRNA significantly enhanced 1,25D3 mediated anti-proliferative effect in vitro and in vivo in a xenograft model. In summary, our findings reveal that protein kinase CK2 is involved in the regulation of CYP24A1 expression by 1,25D3 and CK2 inhibitor enhances 1,25D3 mediated anti-tumor effect. PMID:23358686

  17. Adenosine A1-Dopamine D1 Receptor Heteromers Control the Excitability of the Spinal Motoneuron.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Oliver, Marla; Moreno, Estefanía; Álvarez-Bagnarol, Yocasta; Ayala-Santiago, Christian; Cruz-Reyes, Nicole; Molina-Castro, Gian Carlo; Clemens, Stefan; Canela, Enric I; Ferré, Sergi; Casadó, Vicent; Díaz-Ríos, Manuel

    2018-05-24

    While the role of the ascending dopaminergic system in brain function and dysfunction has been a subject of extensive research, the role of the descending dopaminergic system in spinal cord function and dysfunction is just beginning to be understood. Adenosine plays a key role in the inhibitory control of the ascending dopaminergic system, largely dependent on functional complexes of specific subtypes of adenosine and dopamine receptors. Combining a selective destabilizing peptide strategy with a proximity ligation assay and patch-clamp electrophysiology in slices from male mouse lumbar spinal cord, the present study demonstrates the existence of adenosine A 1 -dopamine D 1 receptor heteromers in the spinal motoneuron by which adenosine tonically inhibits D 1 receptor-mediated signaling. A 1 -D 1 receptor heteromers play a significant control of the motoneuron excitability, represent main targets for the excitatory effects of caffeine in the spinal cord and can constitute new targets for the pharmacological therapy after spinal cord injury, motor aging-associated disorders and restless legs syndrome.

  18. Diosgenin inhibits atherosclerosis via suppressing the MiR-19b-induced downregulation of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yun-cheng; Yang, Jing; Yao, Feng; Xie, Wei; Tang, Yan-yan; Ouyang, Xin-ping; He, Ping-ping; Tan, Yu-lin; Li, Liang; Zhang, Min; Liu, Dan; Cayabyab, Francisco S; Zheng, Xi-Long; Tang, Chao-ke

    2015-05-01

    Diosgenin (Dgn), a structural analogue of cholesterol, has been reported to have the hypolipidemic and antiatherogenic properties, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Given the key roles of macrophages in cholesterol metabolism and atherogenesis, it is critical to investigate macrophage cholesterol efflux and development of atherosclerotic lesion after Dgn treatment. This study was designed to evaluate the potential effects of Dgn on macrophage cholesterol metabolism and the development of aortic atherosclerosis, and to explore its underlying mechanisms. Dgn significantly up-regulated the expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) protein, but didn't affect liver X receptor α levels in foam cells derived from human THP-1 macrophages and mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPMs) as determined by western blotting. The miR-19b levels were markedly down-regulated in Dgn-treated THP-1 macrophages/MPM-derived foam cells. Cholesterol transport assays revealed that treatment with Dgn alone or together with miR-19b inhibitor notably enhanced ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux, resulting in the reduced levels of total cholesterol, free cholesterol and cholesterol ester as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The fecal 3H-sterol originating from cholesterol-laden MPMs was increased in apolipoprotein E knockout mice treated with Dgn or both Dgn and antagomiR-19b. Treatment with Dgn alone or together with antagomiR-19b elevated plasma high-density lipoprotein levels, but reduced plasma low-density lipoprotein levels. Accordingly, aortic lipid deposition and plaque area were reduced, and collagen content and ABCA1 expression were increased in mice treated with Dgn alone or together with antagomiR-19b. However, miR-19b overexpression abrogated the lipid-lowering and atheroprotective effects induced by Dgn. The present study demonstrates that Dgn enhances ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux and inhibits aortic atherosclerosis

  19. An autism-associated point mutation in the neuroligin cytoplasmic tail selectively impairs AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Etherton, Mark R; Tabuchi, Katsuhiko; Sharma, Manu; Ko, Jaewon; Südhof, Thomas C

    2011-06-03

    Neuroligins are evolutionarily conserved postsynaptic cell-adhesion molecules that function, at least in part, by forming trans-synaptic complexes with presynaptic neurexins. Different neuroligin isoforms perform diverse functions and exhibit distinct intracellular localizations, but contain similar cytoplasmic sequences whose role remains largely unknown. Here, we analysed the effect of a single amino-acid substitution (R704C) that targets a conserved arginine residue in the cytoplasmic sequence of all neuroligins, and that was associated with autism in neuroligin-4. We introduced the R704C mutation into mouse neuroligin-3 by homologous recombination, and examined its effect on synapses in vitro and in vivo. Electrophysiological and morphological studies revealed that the neuroligin-3 R704C mutation did not significantly alter synapse formation, but dramatically impaired synapse function. Specifically, the R704C mutation caused a major and selective decrease in AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus, without similarly changing NMDA or GABA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission, and without detectably altering presynaptic neurotransmitter release. Our results suggest that the cytoplasmic tail of neuroligin-3 has a central role in synaptic transmission by modulating the recruitment of AMPA receptors to postsynaptic sites at excitatory synapses.

  20. The Relationship Between the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System and NMDA Receptor-Mediated Signal and the Prevention of Retinal Ganglion Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Mamoru; Hirooka, Kazuyuki; Ono, Aoi; Nakano, Yuki; Nishiyama, Akira; Tsujikawa, Akitaka

    2017-03-01

    Excitotoxicity, which is due to glutamate-induced toxic effects on the retinal ganglion cell (RGC), is one of several mechanisms of RGC loss. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has also been implicated in RGC death. Therefore, it is important to determine the exact relationship between the RAAS and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated signal in order to prevent RGC death. N-methyl-d-aspartate or aldosterone was injected into the vitreous body. After intravitreal injection of NMDA or aldosterone, animals were treated with spironolactone or memantine. Retinal damage was evaluated by measuring the number of RGCs at 4 weeks after local administration of aldosterone or at 2 weeks after local administration of NMDA. Vitreous humor levels of aldosterone were measured using enzyme immunoassay kits. A significantly decreased number of RGCs were observed after intravitreal injection of NMDA. Although spironolactone did not show any neuroprotective effects, memantine significantly reduced NMDA-induced degeneration in the retina. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the number of RGCs was observed after an intravitreal injection of aldosterone. While memantine did not exhibit any neuroprotective effects, spironolactone caused a significant reduction in the aldosterone-induced degeneration in the retina. There was no change in the aldosterone concentration in the vitreous humor after an NMDA injection. Our findings indirectly show that there is no relationship between the RAAS and NMDA receptor-mediated signal with regard to RGC death.

  1. Region-specificity of GABAA receptor mediated effects on orientation and direction selectivity in cat visual cortical area 18.

    PubMed

    Jirmann, Kay-Uwe; Pernberg, Joachim; Eysel, Ulf T

    2009-01-01

    The role of GABAergic inhibition in orientation and direction selectivity has been investigated with the GABA(A)-Blocker bicuculline in the cat visual cortex, and results indicated a region specific difference of functional contributions of GABAergic inhibition in areas 17 and 18. In area 17 inhibition appeared mainly involved in sculpturing orientation and direction tuning, while in area 18 inhibition seemed more closely associated with temporal receptive field properties. However, different types of stimuli were used to test areas 17 and 18 and further studies performed in area 17 suggested an important influence of the stimulus type (single light bars vs. moving gratings) on the evoked responses (transient vs. sustained) and inhibitory mechanisms (GABA(A) vs. GABA(B)) which in turn might be more decisive for the specific results than the cortical region. To insert the missing link in this chain of arguments it was necessary to study GABAergic inhibition in area 18 with moving light bars, which has not been done so far. Therefore, in the present study we investigated area 18 cells responding to oriented moving light bars with extracellular recordings and reversible microiontophoretic blockade of GABAergig inhibition with bicuculline methiodide. The majority of neurons was characterized by a pronounced orientation specificity and variable degrees of direction selectivity. GABA(A)ergic inhibition significantly influenced preferred orientation and preferred direction in area 18. During the action of bicuculline orientation tuning width increased and orientation and direction selectivity indices decreased. Our results obtained in area 18 with moving bar stimuli, although in the proportion of affected cells similar to those described in area 17, quantitatively matched the findings for direction and orientation specificity obtained with moving gratings in area 18. Accordingly, stimulus type is not decisive in area 18 and the GABA(A) dependent, inhibitory intracortical

  2. Unimpaired Autoreactive T-Cell Traffic Within the Central Nervous System During Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Mediated inhibition of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korner, Heinrich; Goodsall, Anna L.; Lemckert, Frances A.; Scallon, Bernard J.; Ghrayeb, John; Ford, Andrew L.; Sedgwick, Jonathon D.

    1995-11-01

    The critical role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) as a mediator in autoimmune inflammatory processes is evident from in vivo studies with TNF-blocking agents. However, the mechanisms by which TNF, and possibly also its homologue lymphotoxin α, contributes to development of pathology in rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn disease and in animal models like experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is unclear. Possibilities include regulation of vascular adhesion molecules enabling leukocyte movement into tissues or direct cytokine-mediated effector functions such as mediation of tissue damage. Here we show that administration of a TNF receptor (55 kDa)-IgG fusion protein prevented clinical signs of actively induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Significantly, the total number of CD4^+ T lymphocytes isolated from the central nervous system of clinically healthy treated versus diseased control animals was comparable. By using a CD45 congenic model of passively transferred experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis to enable tracking of myelin basic protein-specific effector T lymphocytes, prevention of clinical signs of disease was again demonstrated in treated animals but without quantitative or qualitative impediment to the movement of autoreactive T lymphocytes to and within the central nervous system. Thus, despite the uninterrupted movement of specific T lymphocytes into the target tissue, subsequent disease development was blocked. This provides compelling evidence for a direct effector role of TNF/lymphotoxin α in autoimmune tissue damage.

  3. The ginsenoside PPD exerts anti-endometriosis effects by suppressing estrogen receptor-mediated inhibition of endometrial stromal cell autophagy and NK cell cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Zhou, Wen-Jie; Gu, Chun-Jie; Wu, Ke; Yang, Hui-Li; Mei, Jie; Yu, Jia-Jun; Hou, Xiao-Fan; Sun, Jian-Song; Xu, Feng-Yuan; Li, Da-Jin; Jin, Li-Ping; Li, Ming-Qing

    2018-05-14

    Endometriosis (EMS) is an estrogen-dependent gynecological disease with a low autophagy level of ectopic endometrial stromal cells (eESCs). Impaired NK cell cytotoxic activity is involved in the clearance obstruction of the ectopic endometrial tissue in the abdominopelvic cavity. Protopanaxadiol (PPD) and protopanaxatriol (PPT) are two metabolites of ginsenosides, which have profound biological functions, such as anti-cancer activities. However, the role and mechanism of ginsenosides and metabolites in endometriosis are completely unknown. Here, we found that the compounds PPD, PPT, ginsenoside-Rg3 (G-Rg3), ginsenoside-Rh2 (G-Rh2), and esculentoside A (EsA) led to significant decreases in the viability of eESCs, particularly PPD (IC50 = 30.64 µM). In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that PPD promoted the expression of progesterone receptor (PR) and downregulated the expression of estrogen receptor α (ERα) in eESCs. Treatment with PPD obviously induced the autophagy of eESCs and reversed the inhibitory effect of estrogen on eESC autophagy. In addition, eESCs pretreated with PPD enhanced the cytotoxic activity of NK cells in response to eESCs. PPD decreased the numbers and suppressed the growth of ectopic lesions in a mouse EMS model. These results suggest that PPD plays a role in anti-EMS activation, possibly by restricting estrogen-mediated autophagy regulation and enhancing the cytotoxicity of NK cells. This result provides a scientific basis for potential therapeutic strategies to treat EMS by PPD or further structural modification.

  4. Human GRK4γ142V Variant Promotes Angiotensin II Type I Receptor-Mediated Hypertension via Renal Histone Deacetylase Type 1 Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Zeng, Chunyu; Villar, Van Anthony M; Chen, Shi-You; Konkalmatt, Prasad; Wang, Xiaoyan; Asico, Laureano D; Jones, John E; Yang, Yu; Sanada, Hironobu; Felder, Robin A; Eisner, Gilbert M; Weir, Matthew R; Armando, Ines; Jose, Pedro A

    2016-02-01

    The influence of a single gene on the pathogenesis of essential hypertension may be difficult to ascertain, unless the gene interacts with other genes that are germane to blood pressure regulation. G-protein-coupled receptor kinase type 4 (GRK4) is one such gene. We have reported that the expression of its variant hGRK4γ(142V) in mice results in hypertension because of impaired dopamine D1 receptor. Signaling through dopamine D1 receptor and angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) reciprocally modulates renal sodium excretion and blood pressure. Here, we demonstrate the ability of the hGRK4γ(142V) to increase the expression and activity of the AT1R. We show that hGRK4γ(142V) phosphorylates histone deacetylase type 1 and promotes its nuclear export to the cytoplasm, resulting in increased AT1R expression and greater pressor response to angiotensin II. AT1R blockade and the deletion of the Agtr1a gene normalize the hypertension in hGRK4γ(142V) mice. These findings illustrate the unique role of GRK4 by targeting receptors with opposite physiological activity for the same goal of maintaining blood pressure homeostasis, and thus making the GRK4 a relevant therapeutic target to control blood pressure. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Insulin-Independent GABAA Receptor-Mediated Response in the Barrel Cortex of Mice with Impaired Met Activity.

    PubMed

    Lo, Fu-Sun; Erzurumlu, Reha S; Powell, Elizabeth M

    2016-03-30

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by genetic variants, susceptibility alleles, and environmental perturbations. The autism associated geneMETtyrosine kinase has been implicated in many behavioral domains and endophenotypes of autism, including abnormal neural signaling in human sensory cortex. We investigated somatosensory thalamocortical synaptic communication in mice deficient in Met activity in cortical excitatory neurons to gain insights into aberrant somatosensation characteristic of ASD. The ratio of excitation to inhibition is dramatically increased due to decreased postsynaptic GABAAreceptor-mediated inhibition in the trigeminal thalamocortical pathway of mice lacking active Met in the cerebral cortex. Furthermore, in contrast to wild-type mice, insulin failed to increase GABAAreceptor-mediated response in the barrel cortex of mice with compromised Met signaling. Thus, lacking insulin effects may be a risk factor in ASD pathogenesis. A proposed common cause of neurodevelopmental disorders is an imbalance in excitatory neural transmission, provided by the glutamatergic neurons, and the inhibitory signals from the GABAergic interneurons. Many genes associated with autism spectrum disorders impair synaptic transmission in the expected cell type. Previously, inactivation of the autism-associated Met tyrosine kinase receptor in GABAergic interneurons led to decreased inhibition. In thus report, decreased Met signaling in glutamatergic neurons had no effect on excitation, but decimated inhibition. Further experiments indicate that loss of Met activity downregulates GABAAreceptors on glutamatergic neurons in an insulin independent manner. These data provide a new mechanism for the loss of inhibition and subsequent abnormal excitation/inhibition balance and potential molecular candidates for treatment or prevention. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/363691-07$15.00/0.

  6. Selectivity and specificity of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor ligands: caveats and critical thinking in characterizing receptor-mediated effects.

    PubMed

    Salomone, Salvatore; Waeber, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Receptors for sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) have been identified only recently. Their medicinal chemistry is therefore still in its infancy, and few selective agonists or antagonists are available. Furthermore, the selectivity of S1P receptor agonists or antagonists is not well established. JTE-013 and BML-241 (also known as CAY10444), used extensively as specific S1P(2) and S1P(3) receptors antagonists respectively, are cases in point. When analyzing S1P-induced vasoconstriction in mouse basilar artery, we observed that JTE-013 inhibited not only the effect of S1P, but also the effect of U46619, endothelin-1 or high KCl; JTE-013 strongly inhibited responses to S1P in S1P(2) receptor knockout mice. Similarly, BML-241 has been shown to inhibit increases in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration via P(2) receptor or α(1A)-adrenoceptor stimulation and α(1A)-adrenoceptor-mediated contraction of rat mesenteric artery, while it did not affect S1P(3)-mediated decrease of forskolin-induced cyclic AMP accumulation. Another putative S1P(1/3) receptor antagonist, VPC23019, does not inhibit S1P(3)-mediated vasoconstriction. With these examples in mind, we discuss caveats about relying on available pharmacological tools to characterize receptor subtypes.

  7. GABAB receptor-mediated frequency-dependent and circadian changes in synaptic plasticity modulate retinal input to the suprachiasmatic nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Moldavan, Mykhaylo G; Allen, Charles N

    2013-01-01

    Light is the most important environmental signal that entrains the circadian clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) was stimulated to simulate the light intensity-dependent discharges of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells projecting axons to the hypothalamus. EPSCs were evoked by paired-pulse stimulation or by application of stimulus trains, and recorded from SCN neurons in rat brain slices. Initial release probability (Pr) and synaptic plasticity changes depended on the strength of GABAB receptor (GABABR)-mediated presynaptic inhibition and could be different at the same GABABR agonist concentration. Facilitation caused by frequency-dependent relief of GABABR-mediated inhibition was observed when the initial Pr was decreased to less than 15% of control during strong activation of presynaptic GABAB receptors by (±)baclofen (10 μm), GABA (≥2 mm) or by GABA uptake inhibitor nipecotic acid (≥5 mm). In contrast, short-term synaptic depression appeared during baclofen (10 μm) application when initial Pr was greater than 30% of control. Block of 4-aminopyridine-sensitive K+ currents increased the amplitude and time constant of decay of evoked EPSCs (eEPSCs), and decreased the GABABR-mediated presynaptic inhibition. The GABAB receptor antagonist CGP55845 (3 μm) increased the eEPSCs amplitude 30% throughout the light−dark cycle. During light and dark phases the RHT inputs to 55% and 33% of recorded neurons, respectively, were under GABAB inhibitory control indicating that the tonic inhibition induced by local changes of endogenous GABA concentration contributes to the circadian variation of RHT transmitter release. We conclude that GABABR-mediated presynaptic inhibition decreased with increasing frequency and broadening of presynaptic action potentials, and depended on the sensitivity of RHT terminals to GABABR agonists, and diurnal changes of the extracellular GABA concentration around

  8. SLP-76 is required for high-affinity IgE receptor- and IL-3 receptor-mediated activation of basophils.

    PubMed

    Hidano, Shinya; Kitamura, Daisuke; Kumar, Lalit; Geha, Raif S; Goitsuka, Ryo

    2012-11-01

    Basophils have been reported to play a critical role in allergic inflammation by secreting IL-4 in response to IL-3 or high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI)-cross-linking. However, the signaling pathways downstream of FcεRI and the IL-3 receptor in basophils have yet to be determined. In the present study, we used mice deficient in SLP-76 (Src homology 2 domain-containing leukocyte phosphoprotein of 76kDa) to demonstrate critical functions of this adaptor molecule in transducing FcεRI- and IL-3 receptor-mediated signals that induce basophil activation. Although SLP-76 was dispensable for in vivo differentiation, as well as IL-3-induced in vitro proliferation of basophils, IL-4 production induced by both stimuli was completely ablated by SLP-76 deficiency. Biochemical analyses revealed that IL-3-induced phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC) γ2 and Akt, but not STAT5, was severely reduced in SLP-76-deficient basophils, whereas FcεRI cross-linking phosphorylation of PLCγ2, but not Akt, was abrogated by SLP-76 deficiency, suggesting important differences in the requirement of SLP-76 for Akt activation between FcεRI- and IL-3 receptor-mediated signaling pathways in basophils. Because IL-3-induced IL-4 production was sensitive to calcineurin inhibitors and an intracellular calcium chelator, in addition to PI3K inhibitors, SLP-76 appears to regulate FcεRI- and IL-3 receptor-induced IL-4 production via mediating PLCγ2 activation in basophils. Taken together, these findings indicate that SLP-76 is an essential signaling component for basophil activation downstream of both FcεRI and the IL-3 receptor.

  9. Mu-Opioid (MOP) receptor mediated G-protein signaling is impaired in specific brain regions in a rat model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Szűcs, Edina; Büki, Alexandra; Kékesi, Gabriella; Horváth, Gyöngyi; Benyhe, Sándor

    2016-04-21

    Schizophrenia is a complex mental health disorder. Clinical reports suggest that many patients with schizophrenia are less sensitive to pain than other individuals. Animal models do not interpret schizophrenia completely, but they can model a number of symptoms of the disease, including decreased pain sensitivities and increased pain thresholds of various modalities. Opioid receptors and endogenous opioid peptides have a substantial role in analgesia. In this biochemical study we investigated changes in the signaling properties of the mu-opioid (MOP) receptor in different brain regions, which are involved in the pain transmission, i.e., thalamus, olfactory bulb, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Our goal was to compare the transmembrane signaling mediated by MOP receptors in control rats and in a recently developed rat model of schizophrenia. Regulatory G-protein activation via MOP receptors were measured in [(35)S]GTPγS binding assays in the presence of a highly selective MOP receptor peptide agonist, DAMGO. It was found that the MOP receptor mediated activation of G-proteins was substantially lower in membranes prepared from the 'schizophrenic' model rats than in control animals. The potency of DAMGO to activate MOP receptor was also decreased in all brain regions studied. Taken together in our rat model of schizophrenia, MOP receptor mediated G-proteins have a reduced stimulatory activity compared to membrane preparations taken from control animals. The observed distinct changes of opioid receptor functions in different areas of the brain do not explain the augmented nociceptive threshold described in these animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Single residues in the surface subunits of oncogenic sheep retrovirus envelopes distinguish receptor-mediated triggering for fusion at low pH and infection

    SciTech Connect

    Cote, Marceline; Zheng, Yi-Min; Albritton, Lorraine M.

    2011-12-20

    Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) and enzootic nasal tumor virus (ENTV) are two closely related oncogenic retroviruses that share the same cellular receptor yet exhibit distinct fusogenicity and infectivity. Here, we find that the low fusogenicity of ENTV envelope protein (Env) is not because of receptor binding, but lies in its intrinsic insensitivity to receptor-mediated triggering for fusion at low pH. Distinct from JSRV, shedding of ENTV surface (SU) subunit into culture medium was not enhanced by a soluble form of receptor, Hyal2 (sHyal2), and sHyal2 was unable to effectively inactivate the ENTV pseudovirions. Remarkably, replacing either of the two aminomore » acid residues, N191 or S195, located in the ENTV SU with the corresponding JSRV residues, H191 or G195, markedly increased the Env-mediated membrane fusion activity and infection. Reciprocal amino acid substitutions also partly switched the sensitivities of ENTV and JSRV pseudovirions to sHyal2-mediated SU shedding and inactivation. While N191 is responsible for an extra N-linked glycosylation of ENTV SU relative to that of JSRV, S195 possibly forms a hydrogen bond with a surrounding amino acid residue. Molecular modeling of the pre-fusion structure of JSRV Env predicts that the segment of SU that contains H191 to G195 contacts the fusion peptide and suggests that the H191N and G195S changes seen in ENTV may stabilize its pre-fusion structure against receptor priming and therefore modulate fusion activation by Hyal2. In summary, our study reveals critical determinants in the SU subunits of JSRV and ENTV Env proteins that likely regulate their local structures and thereby differential receptor-mediated fusion activation at low pH, and these findings explain, at least in part, their distinct viral infectivity.« less

  11. Extraction and Inhibition of Enzymatic Activity of Botulinum Neurotoxins/A1, /A2, and /A3 by a Panel of Monoclonal Anti-BoNT/A Antibodies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    triplicate and results were averaged. MS Detection A master mix was created consisting of 9 parts matrix solution (alpha-cyano-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid ...thus, do not inhibit the catalytic activity. Another feature of BoNT/A is that it exhibits genetic and amino acid variance within the toxin type, or...less amino acid variance [23] and this variance has been reported to affect binding of the toxin to anti-BoNT/A mAbs [24]. For these reasons, it is

  12. Fibroblast growth factor receptor mediates fibroblast-dependent growth in EMMPRIN-depleted head and neck cancer tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiyong; Hartman, Yolanda E; Warram, Jason M; Knowles, Joseph A; Sweeny, Larissa; Zhou, Tong; Rosenthal, Eben L

    2011-08-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tumors (HNSCC) contain a dense fibrous stroma which is known to promote tumor growth, although the mechanism of stroma-mediated growth remains unclear. As dysplastic mucosal epithelium progresses to cancer, there is incremental overexpression of extracellular matrix metalloprotease inducer (EMMPRIN) which is associated with tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we present evidence that gain of EMMPRIN expression allows tumor growth to be less dependent on fibroblasts by modulating fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR2) signaling. We show that silencing EMMPRIN in FaDu and SCC-5 HNSCC cell lines inhibits cell growth, but when EMMPRIN-silenced tumor cells were cocultured with fibroblasts or inoculated with fibroblasts into severe combined immunodeficient mice, the growth inhibition by silencing EMMPRIN was blunted by the presence of fibroblasts. Coculture experiments showed fibroblast-dependent tumor cell growth occurred via a paracrine signaling. Analysis of tumor gene expression revealed expression of FGFR2 was inversely related to EMMPRIN expression. To determine the role of FGFR2 signaling in EMMPRIN-silenced tumor cells, ligands and inhibitors of FGFR2 were assessed. Both FGF1 and FGF2 enhanced tumor growth in EMMPRIN-silenced cells compared with control vector-transfected cells, whereas inhibition of FGFR2 with blocking antibody or with a synthetic inhibitor (PD173074) inhibited tumor cell growth in fibroblast coculture, suggesting the importance of FGFR2 signaling in fibroblast-mediated tumor growth. Analysis of xenografted tumors revealed that EMMPRIN-silenced tumors had a larger stromal compartment compared with control. Taken together, these results suggest that EMMPRIN acquired during tumor progression promotes fibroblast-independent tumor growth.

  13. Fibroblast growth factor receptor mediates fibroblast-dependent growth in EMMPRIN depleted head and neck cancer tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiyong; Hartman, Yolanda E.; Warram, Jason M.; Knowles, Joseph A.; Sweeny, Larrisa; Zhou, Tong; Rosenthal, Eben L.

    2011-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tumors (HNSCC) contain a dense fibrous stroma which is known to promote tumor growth, although the mechanism of stroma mediated growth remains unclear. As dysplastic mucosal epithelium progresses to cancer there is incremental overexpression of extracellular matrix metalloprotease inducer (EMMPRIN) which is associated with tumor growth and metastasis. Here we present evidence that gain of EMMPRIN expression allows tumor growth to be less dependent on fibroblasts by modulating fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR2) signaling. We show that silencing EMMPRIN in FaDu and SCC-5 HNSCC cell lines inhibits cell growth, but when EMMPRIN-silenced tumor cells were co-cultured with fibroblasts or inoculated with fibroblasts into SCID mice, the growth inhibition by silencing EMMPRIN was blunted by the presence of fibroblasts. Co-culture experiments demonstrated fibroblast-dependent tumor cell growth occurred via a paracrine signaling. Analysis of tumor gene expression revealed expression of FGFR2 was inversely related to EMMPRIN expression. To determine the role of FGFR2 signaling in EMMPRIN silenced tumor cells, ligands and inhibitors of FGFR2 were assessed. Both FGF1 and FGF2 enhanced tumor growth in EMMPRIN silenced cells compared to control vector transfected cells, while inhibition of FGFR2 with blocking antibody or with a synthetic inhibitor (PD173074) inhibited tumor cell growth in fibroblast co-culture, suggesting the importance of FGFR2 signaling in fibroblast mediated tumor growth. Analysis of xenografted tumors revealed EMMPRIN silenced tumors had a larger stromal compartment compared to control. Taken together, these results suggest that EMMPRIN acquired during tumor progression promotes fibroblast independent tumor growth. PMID:21665938

  14. The noradrenergic component in tapentadol action counteracts μ-opioid receptor-mediated adverse effects on adult neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Meneghini, Vasco; Cuccurazzu, Bruna; Bortolotto, Valeria; Ramazzotti, Vera; Ubezio, Federica; Tzschentke, Thomas M; Canonico, Pier Luigi; Grilli, Mariagrazia

    2014-05-01

    Opiates were the first drugs shown to negatively impact neurogenesis in the adult mammalian hippocampus. Literature data also suggest that norepinephrine is a positive modulator of hippocampal neurogenesis in vitro and in vivo. On the basis of these observations, we investigated whether tapentadol, a novel central analgesic combining μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonism with norepinephrine reuptake inhibition (NRI), may produce less inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis compared with morphine. When tested in vitro, morphine inhibited neuronal differentiation, neurite outgrowth, and survival of adult mouse hippocampal neural progenitors and their progeny, via MOR interaction. By contrast, tapentadol was devoid of these adverse effects on cell survival and reduced neurite outgrowth and the number of newly generated neurons only at nanomolar concentrations where the MOR component is predominant. On the contrary, at higher (micromolar) concentrations, tapentadol elicited proneurogenic and antiapoptotic effects via activation of β2 and α2 adrenergic receptors, respectively. Altogether, these data suggest that the noradrenergic component in tapentadol has the potential to counteract the adverse MOR-mediated effects on hippocampal neurogenesis. As a proof of concept, we showed that reboxetine, an NRI antidepressant, counteracted both antineurogenic and apoptotic effects of morphine in vitro. In line with these observations, chronic tapentadol treatment did not negatively affect hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo. In light of the increasing long-term use of opiates in chronic pain, in principle, the tapentadol combined mechanism of action may result in less or no reduction in adult neurogenesis compared with classic opiates.

  15. Increased Signaling via Adenosine A1 Receptors, Sleep Deprivation, Imipramine, and Ketamine Inhibit Depressive-like Behavior via Induction of Homer1a

    PubMed Central

    Serchov, Tsvetan; Clement, Hans-Willi; Schwarz, Martin K.; Iasevoli, Felice; Tosh, Dilip K.; Idzko, Marco; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Normann, Claus; Biber, Knut; van Calker, Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Major depressive disorder is among the most commonly diagnosed disabling mental diseases. Several non-pharmacological treatments of depression upregulate adenosine concentration and/or adenosine A1 receptors (A1R) in the brain. To test whether enhanced A1R signaling mediates antidepressant effects, we generated a transgenic mouse with enhanced doxycycline-regulated A1R expression, specifically in forebrain neurons. Upregulating A1R led to pronounced acute and chronic resilience toward depressive-like behavior in various tests. Conversely, A1R knockout mice displayed an increased depressive-like behavior and were resistant to the antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation (SD). Various antidepressant treatments increase homer1a expression in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Specific siRNA knockdown of homer1a in mPFC enhanced depressive-like behavior and prevented the antidepressant effects of A1R upregulation, SD, imipramine, and ketamine treatment. In contrast, viral overexpression of homer1a in the mPFC had antidepressant effects. Thus, increased expression of homer1a is a final common pathway mediating the antidepressant effects of different antidepressant treatments. PMID:26247862

  16. Substrate Binding Protein DppA1 of ABC Transporter DppBCDF Increases Biofilm Formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Inhibiting Pf5 Prophage Lysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yunho; Song, Sooyeon; Sheng, Lili; Zhu, Lei; Kim, Jun-Seob; Wood, Thomas K.

    2018-01-01

    Filamentous phage impact biofilm development, stress tolerance, virulence, biofilm dispersal, and colony variants. Previously, we identified 137 Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 mutants with more than threefold enhanced and 88 mutants with more than 10-fold reduced biofilm formation by screening 5850 transposon mutants (PLoS Pathogens 5: e1000483, 2009). Here, we characterized the function of one of these 225 mutations, dppA1 (PA14_58350), in regard to biofilm formation. DppA1 is a substrate-binding protein (SBP) involved in peptide utilization via the DppBCDF ABC transporter system. We show that compared to the wild-type strain, inactivating dppA1 led to 68-fold less biofilm formation in a static model and abolished biofilm formation in flow cells. Moreover, the dppA1 mutant had a delay in swarming and produced 20-fold less small-colony variants, and both biofilm formation and swarming were complemented by producing DppA1. A whole-transcriptome analysis showed that only 10 bacteriophage Pf5 genes were significantly induced in the biofilm cells of the dppA1 mutant compared to the wild-type strain, and inactivation of dppA1 resulted in a 600-fold increase in Pf5 excision and a million-fold increase in phage production. As expected, inactivating Pf5 genes PA0720 and PA0723 increased biofilm formation substantially. Inactivation of DppA1 also reduced growth (due to cell lysis). Hence, DppA1 increases biofilm formation by repressing Pf5 prophage. PMID:29416528

  17. h5-HT1B receptor-mediated constitutive Gαi3-protein activation in stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells: an antibody capture assay reveals protean efficacy of 5-HT

    PubMed Central

    Newman-Tancredi, Adrian; Cussac, Didier; Marini, Laetitia; Touzard, Manuelle; Millan, Mark J

    2003-01-01

    Serotonin 5-HT1B receptors couple to G-proteins of the Gi/o family. However, their activation of specific G-protein subtypes is poorly characterised. Using an innovative antibody capture/guanosine-5′-0-(3-[35S]thio)-triphosphate ([35S]GTPγS) binding strategy, we characterised Gαi3 subunit activation by h5-HT1B receptors stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The agonists, 5-HT, alniditan and BMS181,101, stimulated Gαi3, whereas methiothepin and SB224,289 behaved as inverse agonists. The selective 5-HT1B receptor ligand, S18127, modestly stimulated Gαi3 and reversed the actions of both 5-HT and methiothepin. S18127 (1 μM) also produced parallel, dextral shifts of the 5-HT and methiothepin isotherms. Isotopic dilution experiments ([35S]GTPγS versus GTPγS) revealed high-affinity [35S]GTPγS binding to Gαi3 subunits in the absence of receptor ligands indicating constitutive activity. High-affinity [35S]GTPγS binding was increased 2.8-fold by 5-HT with an increase in the affinity of GTPγS for Gαi3 subunits. In contrast, methiothepin halved the number of high-affinity binding sites and decreased their affinity. h5-HT1B receptor-mediated Gαi3 subunit activation was dependent on the concentration of NaCl. At 300 mM, 5-HT stimulated [35S]GTPγS binding, basal Gαi3 activation was low and methiothepin was inactive. In contrast, at 10 mM NaCl, basal activity was enhanced and the inverse agonist activity of methiothepin was accentuated. Under these conditions, 5-HT decreased Gαi3 activation. In conclusion, at h5-HT1B receptors expressed in CHO cells: (i) inverse agonist induced inhibition of Gαi3, and its reversal by S18127, reveals constitutive activation of this Gα subunit; (ii) constitutive Gαi3 activation can be quantified by isotopic dilution [35S]GTPγS binding and (iii) decreasing NaCl concentrations enhances Gαi3 activation and leads to protean agonist properties of 5-HT: that is a switch to inhibition of Gαi3. PMID:12684263

  18. h5-HT(1B) receptor-mediated constitutive Galphai3-protein activation in stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells: an antibody capture assay reveals protean efficacy of 5-HT.

    PubMed

    Newman-Tancredi, Adrian; Cussac, Didier; Marini, Laetitia; Touzard, Manuelle; Millan, Mark J

    2003-03-01

    1. Serotonin 5-HT(1B) receptors couple to G-proteins of the Gi/o family. However, their activation of specific G-protein subtypes is poorly characterised. Using an innovative antibody capture/guanosine-5'-0-(3-[(35)S]thio)-triphosphate ([(35)S]GTPgammaS) binding strategy, we characterised Galpha(i3) subunit activation by h5-HT(1B) receptors stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. 2. The agonists, 5-HT, alniditan and BMS181,101, stimulated Galpha(i3), whereas methiothepin and SB224,289 behaved as inverse agonists. The selective 5-HT(1B) receptor ligand, S18127, modestly stimulated Galpha(i3) and reversed the actions of both 5-HT and methiothepin. S18127 (1 micro M) also produced parallel, dextral shifts of the 5-HT and methiothepin isotherms. 3. Isotopic dilution experiments ([(35)S]GTPgammaS versus GTPgammaS) revealed high-affinity [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding to Galpha(i3) subunits in the absence of receptor ligands indicating constitutive activity. High-affinity [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding was increased 2.8-fold by 5-HT with an increase in the affinity of GTPgammaS for Galpha(i3) subunits. In contrast, methiothepin halved the number of high-affinity binding sites and decreased their affinity. 4. h5-HT(1B) receptor-mediated Galpha(i3) subunit activation was dependent on the concentration of NaCl. At 300 mM, 5-HT stimulated [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding, basal Galpha(i3) activation was low and methiothepin was inactive. In contrast, at 10 mM NaCl, basal activity was enhanced and the inverse agonist activity of methiothepin was accentuated. Under these conditions, 5-HT decreased Galpha(i3) activation. 5. In conclusion, at h5-HT(1B) receptors expressed in CHO cells: (i) inverse agonist induced inhibition of Galpha(i3), and its reversal by S18127, reveals constitutive activation of this Galpha subunit; (ii) constitutive Galpha(i3) activation can be quantified by isotopic dilution [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding and (iii) decreasing NaCl concentrations enhances Galpha(i3

  19. Analgesic effect of paeoniflorin in rats with neonatal maternal separation-induced visceral hyperalgesia is mediated through adenosine A(1) receptor by inhibiting the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Hong-Li; Li, Zhi; Zhang, Hong-Qi; Xu, Hong-Xi; Sung, Joseph J Y; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2009-11-01

    Paeoniflorin (PF), a chief active ingredient in the root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall (family Ranunculaceae), is effective in relieving colorectal distention (CRD)-induced visceral pain in rats with visceral hyperalgesia induced by neonatal maternal separation (NMS). This study aimed at exploring the underlying mechanisms of PF's analgesic effect on CRD-evoked nociceptive signaling in the central nervous system (CNS) and investigating whether the adenosine A(1) receptor is involved in PF's anti-nociception. CRD-induced visceral pain as well as phosphorylated-extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (p-ERK) and phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB) expression in the CNS structures of NMS rats were suppressed by NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801) and ERK phosphorylation inhibitor U0126. PF could similarly inhibit CRD-evoked p-ERK and c-Fos expression in laminae I-II of the lumbosacral dorsal horn and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). PF could also reverse the CRD-evoked increased glutamate concentration by CRD as shown by dynamic microdialysis monitoring in ACC, whereas, DPCPX, an antagonist of adenosine A(1) receptor, significantly blocked the analgesic effect of PF and PF's inhibition on CRD-induced p-ERK and p-CREB expression. These results suggest that PF's analgesic effect is possibly mediated by adenosine A(1) receptor by inhibiting CRD-evoked glutamate release and the NMDA receptor dependent ERK signaling.

  20. Receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases are pivotal components in pattern recognition receptor-mediated signaling in plant immunity.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Koji; Yamada, Kenta; Kawasaki, Tsutomu

    2013-10-01

    Innate immunity is generally initiated with recognition of conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). PAMPs are perceived by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), leading to activation of a series of immune responses, including the expression of defense genes, ROS production and activation of MAP kinase. Recent progress has indicated that receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases (RLCKs) are directly activated by ligand-activated PRRs and initiate pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) in both Arabidopsis and rice. To suppress PTI, pathogens inhibit the RLCKs by many types of effectors, including AvrAC, AvrPphB and Xoo1488. In this review, we summarize recent advances in RLCK-mediated PTI in plants.

  1. Prenatal betaine exposure alleviates corticosterone-induced inhibition of CYP27A1 expression in the liver of juvenile chickens associated with its promoter DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yun; Sun, Qinwei; Zong, Yibo; Liu, Jie; Idriss, Abdulrahman A; Omer, Nagmeldin A; Zhao, Ruqian

    2017-05-15

    Sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) plays an important role in cholesterol homeostasis by degrading cholesterol to bile acids. Betaine can alleviate high-fat diet-induced hepatic cholesterol accumulation and maternal betaine treatment programs the hepatic expression of CYP27A1 in offspring. Excessive corticosterone (CORT) exposure causes hepatic cholesterol deposition in chickens, yet it remains unknown whether prenatal betaine modulates CORT-induced cholesterol accumulation in chicken liver later in life and whether it involves epigenetic gene regulation of CYP27A1. In this study, fertilized eggs were injected with saline or betaine at 2.5mg/egg before incubation, and the hatchlings were raised under the same condition till 56days of age followed by 7days of subcutaneous CORT injection. Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (Tch), HDL- and LDL-cholesterol were significantly increased (P<0.05), after CORT challenge, in both control and betaine groups. However, prenatal betaine exposure prevented CORT-induced increase (P<0.05) in hepatic Tch content. Hepatic expression of cholesterol biosynthesis genes and ACAT1 protein that esterifies cholesterol for storage, were activated in both control and betaine groups upon CORT challenge. However, betaine-treated chickens were protected from CORT-induced repression (P<0.05) in LXR and CYP27A1 expression in the liver. CORT-induced down-regulation of LXR and CYP27A1 coincided with significantly increased (P<0.05) CpG methylation on their promoters, which was significantly ameliorated in betaine-treated chickens. These results suggest that in ovo betaine injection alleviates CORT-induced hepatic cholesterol deposition most probably through epigenetic regulation of CYP27A1 and LXR genes in juvenile chickens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bisphenol A down-regulates rate-limiting Cyp11a1 to acutely inhibit steroidogenesis in cultured mouse antral follicles.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Jackye; Flaws, Jodi A

    2013-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is the backbone of polycarbonate plastic products and the epoxy resin lining of aluminum cans. Previous studies have shown that exposure to BPA decreases sex steroid hormone production in mouse antral follicles. The current study tests the hypothesis that BPA first decreases the expression levels of the steroidogenic enzyme cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (Cyp11a1) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in mouse antral follicles, leading to a decrease in sex steroid hormone production in vitro. Further, the current study tests the hypothesis that these effects are acute and reversible after removal of BPA. Exposure to BPA (10μg/mL and 100μg/mL) significantly decreased expression of Cyp11a1 and StAR beginning at 18h and 72h, respectively, compared to controls. Exposure to BPA (10μg/mL and 100μg/mL) significantly decreased progesterone levels beginning at 24h and decreased androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol levels at 72h and 96h compared to controls. Further, after removing BPA from the culture media at 20h, expression of Cyp11a1 and progesterone levels were restored to control levels by 48h and 72h, respectively. Additionally, expression of StAR and levels of androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol never decreased compared to controls. These data suggest that BPA acutely decreases expression of Cyp11a1 as early as 18h and this reduction in Cyp11a1 may lead to a decrease in progesterone production by 24h, followed by a decrease in androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol production and expression of StAR at 72h. Therefore, BPA exposure likely targets Cyp11a1 and steroidogenesis, but these effects are reversible with removal of BPA exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. AIB1 is required for the acquisition of epithelial growth factor receptor-mediated tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Wenhui; Zhang Qingyuan; Kang Xinmei

    2009-03-13

    Acquired resistance to tamoxifen has become a serious obstacle in breast cancer treatment. The underlying mechanism responsible for this condition has not been completely elucidated. In this study, a tamoxifen-resistant (Tam-R) MCF-7 breast cancer cell line was developed to mimic the occurrence of acquired tamoxifen resistance as seen in clinical practice. Increased expression levels of HER1, HER2 and the estrogen receptor (ER)-AIB1 complex were found in tamoxifen-resistant cells. EGF stimulation and gefitinib inhibition experiments further demonstrated that HER1/HER2 signaling and AIB1 were involved in the proliferation of cells that had acquired Tam resistance. However, when AIB1 was silenced with AIB1-siRNAmore » in Tam-R cells, the cell growth stimulated by the HER1/HER2 signaling pathway was significantly reduced, and the cells were again found to be inhibited by tamoxifen. These results suggest that the AIB1 protein could be a limiting factor in the HER1/HER2-mediated hormone-independent growth of Tam-R cells. Thus, AIB1 may be a new therapeutic target, and the removal of AIB1 may decrease the crosstalk between ER and the HER1/HER2 pathway, resulting in the restoration of tamoxifen sensitivity in tamoxifen-resistant cells.« less

  4. Novel function of transcription factor Nrf2 as an inhibitor of RON tyrosine kinase receptor-mediated cancer cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Thangasamy, Amalraj; Rogge, Jessica; Krishnegowda, Naveen K; Freeman, James W; Ammanamanchi, Sudhakar

    2011-09-16

    Recepteur d' origine nantais (RON), a tyrosine kinase receptor, is aberrantly expressed in human tumors and promotes cancer cell invasion. RON receptor activation is also associated with resistance to tamoxifen treatment in breast cancer cells. Nrf2 is a positive regulator of cytoprotective genes. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and site-directed mutagenesis studies of the RON promoter, we identified Nrf2 as a negative regulator of RON gene expression. High Nrf2 and low RON expression was observed in normal mammary tissue whereas high RON and low or undetectable expression of Nrf2 was observed in breast tumors. The Nrf2 inducer sulforaphane (SFN) as well as ectopic Nrf2 expression or knock-down of the Nrf2 negative regulator keap1, which stabilizes Nrf2, inhibited RON expression and invasion of carcinoma cells. Consequently, our studies identified a novel functional role for Nrf2 as a "repressor" and RON kinase as a molecular target of SFN, which mediates the anti-tumor effects of SFN. These results are not limited to breast cancer cells since the Nrf2 inducer SFN stabilized Nrf2 and inhibited RON expression in carcinoma cells from various tumor types.

  5. Distinct Fcγ receptors mediate the effect of Serum Amyloid P on neutrophil adhesion and fibrocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Nehemiah; Pilling, Darrell; Gomer, Richard H.

    2014-01-01

    The plasma protein Serum Amyloid P (SAP) reduces neutrophil adhesion, inhibits the differentiation of monocytes into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes, and promotes phagocytosis of cell debris by macrophages. Together, these effects of SAP reduce key aspects of inflammation and fibrosis, and SAP injections improve lung function in pulmonary fibrosis patients. SAP functions are mediated in part by Fcγ receptors, but the contribution of each Fcγ receptor is not fully understood. We found that amino acids Q55 and E126 in human SAP affect human fibrocyte differentiation and SAP binding to FcγRI. E126, K130 and Q128 affect neutrophil adhesion and SAP affinity for FcγRIIa. Q128 also affects phagocytosis by macrophages and SAP affinity for FcγRI. All the identified functionally significant amino acids in SAP form a binding site that is distinct from the previously described SAP-FcγRIIa binding site. Blocking FcγRI with an IgG blocking antibody reduces the SAP effect on fibrocyte differentiation, and ligating FcγRIIa with antibodies reduces neutrophil adhesion. Together, these results suggest that SAP binds to FcγRI on monocytes to inhibit fibrocyte differentiation, and binds to FcγRIIa on neutrophils to reduce neutrophil adhesion. PMID:25024390

  6. Enhanced Y1-receptor-mediated vasoconstrictive action of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in superior mesenteric arteries in portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Wiest, Reiner; Jurzik, Lars; Moleda, Lukas; Froh, Matthias; Schnabl, Bernd; von Hörsten, Stephan; Schölmerich, Juergen; Straub, Rainer H

    2006-03-01

    Vascular hyporeactivity to catecholamines contributes to arterial vasodilation and hemodynamic dysregulation in portal hypertension. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a sympathetic neurotransmitter facilitating adrenergic vasoconstriction via Y1-receptors on the vascular smooth muscle. Therefore, we investigated its role for vascular reactivity in the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) of portal vein ligated (PVL) and sham operated rats. In vitro perfused SMA vascular beds of rats were tested for the cumulative dose-response to NPY dependent on the presence and level of alpha1-adrenergic vascular tone (methoxamine MT: 0.3-10 microM). Moreover, the effect of NPY (50 nM) on vascular responsiveness to alpha1-adrenergic stimulation (MT: 0.3-300 microM) was evaluated. Y1-receptor function was tested by Y1-selective inhibition using BIBP-3226 (1 microM). NPY dose-dependently and endothelium-independently enhanced MT-pre-constriction in SMA. This potentiation was increasingly effective with increasing adrenergic pre-stimulation and being more pronounced in PVL rats as compared to sham rats at high MT concentrations. NPY enhanced vascular contractility only in PVL rats correcting the adrenergic vascular hyporeactivity. Y1-receptor inhibition completely abolished NPY-evoked vasoconstrictive effects. NPY endothelium-independently potentiates adrenergic vasoconstriction via Y1-receptors being more pronounced in portal hypertension improving mesenteric vascular contractility and thereby correcting the splanchnic vascular hyporeactivity. This makes NPY a superior vasoconstrictor counterbalancing arterial vasodilation in portal hypertension.

  7. Intraperitoneal administration of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R inhibits disseminated human ovarian cancer and extends survival in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Ming; Yano, Shuya; Uehara, Fuminari; Yamamoto, Mako; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Toneri, Makoto; Bouvet, Michael; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal disseminated cancer is highly treatment resistant. We here report the efficacy of intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R in a nude mouse model of disseminated human ovarian cancer. The mouse model was established by intraperitoneal injection of the human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3-GFP. Seven days after implantation, mice were treated with S. typhimurium A1-R via intravenous (i.v.) or i.p. administration at the same dose, 5×107 CFU, once per week. Both i.v. and i.p. treatments effected prolonged survival compared with the untreated control group (P=0.025 and P<0.001, respectively). However, i.p. treatment was less toxic than i.v. treatment. Tumor-specific targeting of S. typhimurium A1-R was confirmed with bacterial culture from tumors and various organs and tumor or organ colony formation after i.v. or i.p. injection. Selective tumor targeting was most effective with i.p. administration. The results of the present study show S. typhimurium A1-R has promising clinical potential for disseminated ovarian cancer, especially via i.p. administration. PMID:25957417

  8. Androgen Receptor-Mediated Growth Suppression of HPr-1AR and PC3-Lenti-AR Prostate Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Eric C.

    2015-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) mediates the developmental, physiologic, and pathologic effects of androgens including 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). However, the mechanisms whereby AR regulates growth suppression and differentiation of luminal epithelial cells in the prostate gland and proliferation of malignant versions of these cells are not well understood, though they are central to prostate development, homeostasis, and neoplasia. Here, we identify androgen-responsive genes that restrain cell cycle progression and proliferation of human prostate epithelial cell lines (HPr-1AR and PC3-Lenti-AR), and we investigate the mechanisms through which AR regulates their expression. DHT inhibited proliferation of HPr-1AR and PC3-Lenti-AR, and cell cycle analysis revealed a prolonged G1 interval. In the cell cycle, the G1/S-phase transition is initiated by the activity of cyclin D and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) complexes, which relieve growth suppression. In HPr-1AR, cyclin D1/2 and CDK4/6 mRNAs were androgen-repressed, whereas CDK inhibitor, CDKN1A, mRNA was androgen-induced. The regulation of these transcripts was AR-dependent, and involved multiple mechanisms. Similar AR-mediated down-regulation of CDK4/6 mRNAs and up-regulation of CDKN1A mRNA occurred in PC3-Lenti-AR. Further, CDK4/6 overexpression suppressed DHT-inhibited cell cycle progression and proliferation of HPr-1AR and PC3-Lenti-AR, whereas CDKN1A overexpression induced cell cycle arrest. We therefore propose that AR-mediated growth suppression of HPr-1AR involves cyclin D1 mRNA decay, transcriptional repression of cyclin D2 and CDK4/6, and transcriptional activation of CDKN1A, which serve to decrease CDK4/6 activity. AR-mediated inhibition of PC3-Lenti-AR proliferation occurs through a similar mechanism, albeit without down-regulation of cyclin D. Our findings provide insight into AR-mediated regulation of prostate epithelial cell proliferation. PMID:26372468

  9. Dopamine D2 receptor-mediated neuroprotection in a G2019S Lrrk2 genetic model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Alessandro; Tantucci, Michela; Marchi, Saverio; Mazzocchetti, Petra; Morari, Michele; Pinton, Paolo; Mancini, Andrea; Calabresi, Paolo

    2018-02-12

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder in which genetic and environmental factors synergistically lead to loss of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. Mutation of leucine-rich repeated kinase2 (Lrrk2) genes is responsible for the majority of inherited familial cases of PD and can also be found in sporadic cases. The pathophysiological role of this kinase has to be fully understood yet. Hyperactivation of Lrrk2 kinase domain might represent a predisposing factor for both enhanced striatal glutamatergic release and mitochondrial vulnerability to environmental factors that are observed in PD. To investigate possible alterations of striatal susceptibility to mitochondrial dysfunction, we performed electrophysiological recordings from the nucleus striatum of a G2019S Lrrk2 mouse model of PD, as well as molecular and morphological analyses of G2019S Lrrk2-expressing SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. In G2019S mice, we found reduced striatal DA levels, according to the hypothesis of alteration of dopaminergic transmission, and increased loss of field potential induced by the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone. This detrimental effect is reversed by the D2 DA receptor agonist quinpirole via the inhibition of the cAMP/PKA intracellular pathway. Analysis of mitochondrial functions in G2019S Lrrk2-expressing SH-SY5Y cells revealed strong rotenone-induced oxidative stress characterized by reduced Ca 2+ buffering capability and ATP synthesis, production of reactive oxygen species, and increased mitochondrial fragmentation. Importantly, quinpirole was able to prevent all these changes. We suggest that the G2019S-Lrrk2 mutation is a predisposing factor for enhanced striatal susceptibility to mitochondrial dysfunction induced by exposure to mitochondrial environmental toxins and that the D2 receptor stimulation is neuroprotective on mitochondrial function, via the inhibition of cAMP/PKA intracellular pathway. We suggest new possible neuroprotective strategies for

  10. TRPC3- and ETB receptor-mediated PI3K/AKT activation induces vasogenic edema formation following status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Kang, Tae-Cheon

    2017-10-01

    Status epilepticus (SE, a prolonged seizure activity) is a high risk factor of developing vasogenic edema, which leads to secondary complications following SE. In the present study, we investigated whether transient receptor potential canonical channel-3 (TRPC3) may link vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway to NFκB/ET B receptor axis in the rat piriform cortex during vasogenic edema formation. Following SE, TRPC3 and ET B receptor independently activated phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/AKT/eNOS signaling pathway. SN50 (a NFκB inhibitor) attenuated the up-regulations of eNOS, TRPC3 and ET B receptor expressions following SE, accompanied by reductions in PI3K/AKT phosphorylations. Inhibition of SE-induced VEGF over-expression by leptomycin B also abrogated PI3K and AKT phosphorylations, but not TRPC3 expression. Wortmannin (a PI3K inhibitor) and 3CAI (an AKT inhibitor) effectively inhibited up-regulation of eNOS expressions and vasogenic edema lesion following SE. These findings indicate that PI3K/AKT may be common down-stream molecules for TRPC3- and ET B receptor signaling pathways during vasogenic edema formation. In addition, the present data demonstrate for the first time that TRPC3 may integrate VEGF- and NFκB-mediated vasogenic edema formation following SE. Thus, we suggest that PI3K/AKT signaling pathway may be one of considerable therapeutic targets for vasogenic edema. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cyproheptadine Enhances the I K of Mouse Cortical Neurons through Sigma-1 Receptor-Mediated Intracellular Signal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    He, Yan-Lin; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Gao, Xiao-Fei; Yao, Jin-Jing; Hu, Chang-Long; Mei, Yan-Ai

    2012-01-01

    Cyproheptadine (CPH) is a histamine- and serotonin-receptor antagonist, and its effects are observed recently in the modulation of multiple intracellular signals. In this study, we used cortical neurons and HEK-293 cells transfected with Kv2.1 α-subunit to address whether CPH modify neural voltage-gated K+ channels by a mechanism independent of its serotonergic and histaminergic properties. Our results demonstrate that intracellularly delivered CPH increased the I K by reducing the activity of protein kinas A (PKA). Inhibition of Gi eliminated the CPH-induced effect on both the I K and PKA. Blocking of 5-HT-, M-, D2-, H1- or H2- type GPCR receptors with relevant antagonists did not eliminate the CPH-induced effect on the I K. Antagonists of the sigma-1 receptor, however, blocked the effect of CPH. Moreover, the inhibition of sigma-1 by siRNA knockdown significantly reduced the CPH-induced effect on the I K. On the contrary, sigma-1 receptor agonist mimicked the effects of CPH on the induction of I K. A ligand-receptor binding assay indicated that CPH bound to the sigma-1 receptor. Similar effect of CPH were obtained from HEK-293 cells transfected with the α-subunit of Kv2.1. In overall, we reveal for the first time that CPH enhances the I K by modulating activity of PKA, and that the associated activation of the sigma-1 receptor/Gi-protein pathway might be involved. Our findings illustrate an uncharacterized effect of CPH on neuron excitability through the I K, which is independent of histamine H1 and serotonin receptors. PMID:22844454

  12. Depression of NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission by four α2 adrenoceptor agonists on the in vitro rat spinal cord preparation

    PubMed Central

    Faber, E S L; Chambers, J P; Evans, R H

    1998-01-01

    α2-Adrenoceptor agonists have a spinal site of analgesic action. In the current study the synaptic depressant actions of xylazine, detomidine, romifidine and dexmedetomidine have been compared on segmental reflexes containing NMDA receptor-mediated components in the neonatal rat hemisected spinal cord preparation in vitro.Reflexes were evoked in the ventral root following either supramaximal electrical stimulation of the corresponding ipsilateral lumbar dorsal root to evoke the high intensity excitatory postsynaptic potential (e.p.s.p.) involving all primary afferent fibres, or low intensity stimulation to evoke the solely A fibre-mediated low intensity e.p.s.p. The high intensity e.p.s.p. contains a greater NMDA receptor-mediated component.Xylazine, romifidine, detomidine and dexmedetomidine all depressed both the high intensity e.p.s.p. and the low intensity e.p.s.p. giving respective EC50 values of 0.91±0.2 μM (n=12), 23.4±3 nM (n=12), 37.7±7 nM (n=8) and 0.84±0.1 nM (n=4) for depression of the high intensity e.p.s.p. and 0.76±0.1 μM (n=12), 22.0±3 nM (n=12), 24.9±6 nM (n=4) and 2.7±0.6 nM (n=4) for depression of the low intensity e.p.s.p., respectively. Unlike the other three drugs, the two values for dexmedetomidine, showing a greater selectivity for the high intensity e.p.s.p., are significantly different.Each of these depressant actions was reversed by the selective α2-adrenoceptor antagonist atipamezole (1 μM).In contrast to previous reports of the actions of α2-adrenoceptor agonists on the in vitro spinal cord preparation, at concentrations ten fold higher than the above EC50 values xylazine, romifidine, detomidine and dexmedetomidine depressed the initial population spike of motoneurons (MSR). This depression was not reversed by atipamezole.Comparison of the rank order of the present EC50 values for depression of the high intensity e.p.s.p. with potency ratios from in vivo analgesic tests in previous studies show a close

  13. Adenosine A₁ and A₂A receptor-mediated modulation of acetylcholine release in the mice neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Neus; Priego, Mercedes; Obis, Teresa; Santafe, Manel M; Tomàs, Marta; Besalduch, Nuria; Lanuza, M Angel; Tomàs, Josep

    2013-07-01

    Immunocytochemistry shows that purinergic receptors (P1Rs) type A1 and A2A (A1 R and A2 A R, respectively) are present in the nerve endings at the P6 and P30 Levator auris longus (LAL) mouse neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). As described elsewhere, 25 μm adenosine reduces (50%) acetylcholine release in high Mg(2+) or d-tubocurarine paralysed muscle. We hypothesize that in more preserved neurotransmission machinery conditions (blocking the voltage-dependent sodium channel of the muscle cells with μ-conotoxin GIIIB) the physiological role of the P1Rs in the NMJ must be better observed. We found that the presence of a non-selective P1R agonist (adenosine) or antagonist (8-SPT) or selective modulators of A1 R or A2 A R subtypes (CCPA and DPCPX, or CGS-21680 and SCH-58261, respectively) does not result in any changes in the evoked release. However, P1Rs seem to be involved in spontaneous release (miniature endplate potentials MEPPs) because MEPP frequency is increased by non-selective block but decreased by non-selective stimulation, with A1 Rs playing the main role. We assayed the role of P1Rs in presynaptic short-term plasticity during imposed synaptic activity (40 Hz for 2 min of supramaximal stimuli). Depression is reduced by micromolar adenosine but increased by blocking P1Rs with 8-SPT. Synaptic depression is not affected by the presence of selective A1 R and A2 A R modulators, which suggests that both receptors need to collaborate. Thus, A1 R and A2 A R might have no real effect on neuromuscular transmission in resting conditions. However, these receptors can conserve resources by limiting spontaneous quantal leak of acetylcholine and may protect synaptic function by reducing the magnitude of depression during repetitive activity. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Fc Receptor-Mediated Activities of Env-Specific Human Monoclonal Antibodies Generated from Volunteers Receiving the DNA Prime-Protein Boost HIV Vaccine DP6-001.

    PubMed

    Costa, Matthew R; Pollara, Justin; Edwards, Regina Whitney; Seaman, Michael S; Gorny, Miroslaw K; Montefiori, David C; Liao, Hua-Xin; Ferrari, Guido; Lu, Shan; Wang, Shixia

    2016-11-15

    HIV-1 is able to elicit broadly potent neutralizing antibodies in a very small subset of individuals only after several years of infection, and therefore, vaccines that elicit these types of antibodies have been difficult to design. The RV144 trial showed that moderate protection is possible and that this protection may correlate with antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity. Our previous studies demonstrated that in an HIV vaccine phase I trial, the DP6-001 trial, a polyvalent Env DNA prime-protein boost formulation could elicit potent and broadly reactive, gp120-specific antibodies with positive neutralization activities. Here we report on the production and analysis of HIV-1 Env-specific human monoclonal antibodies (hMAbs) isolated from vaccinees in the DP6-001 trial. For this initial report, 13 hMAbs from four vaccinees in the DP6-001 trial showed broad binding to gp120 proteins of diverse subtypes both autologous and heterologous to vaccine immunogens. Equally cross-reactive Fc receptor-mediated functional activities, including ADCC and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) activities, were present with both immune sera and isolated MAbs, confirming the induction of nonneutralizing functional hMAbs by the DNA prime-protein boost vaccination. Elicitation of broadly reactive hMAbs by vaccination in healthy human volunteers confirms the value of the polyvalent formulation in this HIV vaccine design. The roles of Fc receptor-mediated protective antibody responses are gaining more attention due to their potential contribution to the low-level protection against HIV-1 infection that they provided in the RV144 trial. At the same time, information about hMabs from other human HIV vaccine studies is very limited. In the current study, both immune sera and monoclonal antibodies from vaccinated humans showed not only high-level ADCC and ADCP activities but also cross-subtype ADCC and ADCP activities when a polyvalent DNA prime-protein boost

  15. Pre-synaptic kainate receptor-mediated facilitation of glutamate release involves PKA and Ca(2+) -calmodulin at thalamocortical synapses.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Talavera, Yuniesky; Duque-Feria, Paloma; Sihra, Talvinder S; Rodríguez-Moreno, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    We have investigated the mechanisms underlying the facilitatory modulation mediated by kainate receptor (KAR) activation in the cortex, using isolated nerve terminals (synaptosomes) and slice preparations. In cortical nerve terminals, kainate (KA, 100 μM) produced an increase in 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-evoked glutamate release. In thalamocortical slices, KA (1 μM) produced an increase in the amplitude of evoked excitatory post-synaptic currents (eEPSCs) at synapses established between thalamic axon terminals from the ventrobasal nucleus onto stellate neurons of L4 of the somatosensory cortex. In both, synaptosomes and slices, the effect of KA was antagonized by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione, and persisted after pre-treatment with a cocktail of antagonists of other receptors whose activation could potentially have produced facilitation of release indirectly. Mechanistically, the observed effects of KA appear to be congruent in synaptosomal and slice preparations. Thus, the facilitation by KA of synaptosomal glutamate release and thalamocortical synaptic transmission were suppressed by the inhibition of protein kinase A and occluded by the stimulation of adenylyl cyclase. Dissecting this G-protein-independent regulation further in thalamocortical slices, the KAR-mediated facilitation of synaptic transmission was found to be sensitive to the block of Ca(2+) permeant KARs by philanthotoxin. Intriguingly, the synaptic facilitation was abrogated by depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores by thapsigargin, or inhibition of Ca(2+) -induced Ca(2+) -release by ryanodine. Thus, the KA-mediated modulation was contingent on both Ca(2+) entry through Ca(2+) -permeable KARs and liberation of intracellular Ca(2+) stores. Finally, sensitivity to W-7 indicated that the increased cytosolic [Ca(2+) ] underpinning KAR-mediated regulation of synaptic transmission at thalamocortical synapses, requires downstream activation of calmodulin. We conclude that neocortical pre

  16. The serotonin receptor mediates changes in autonomic neurotransmission and gastrointestinal transit induced by heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis SBC8803.

    PubMed

    Horii, Y; Nakakita, Y; Misonou, Y; Nakamura, T; Nagai, K

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacilli exhibit several health benefits in mammals, including humans. Our previous reports established that heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis SBC8803 (SBC8803) increased both efferent gastric vagal nerve activity and afferent intestinal vagal nerve activity in rats. We speculated that this strain could be useful for the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. In this study, we examined the effects of SBC8803 on peristalsis and the activity of the efferent celiac vagal nerve innervating the intestine in rats. First, we examined the effects of intraduodenal (ID) administration of SBC8803 on efferent celiac vagal nerve activity (efferent CVNA) in urethane-anesthetised rats using electrophysiological studies. The effects of intravenous injection of the serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist granisetron on changes in efferent CVNA due to ID administration of SBC8803 were also investigated. Finally, the effects of oral gavage of SBC8803 on GI transit were analysed using the charcoal propulsion method in conscious rats treated with or without granisetron. ID administration of SBC8803 increased efferent CVNA. Pretreatment with granisetron eliminated SBC8803-dependent changes in efferent CVNA. Furthermore, oral gavage of SBC8803 significantly accelerated GI transit, while pretreatment with granisetron inhibited GI transit. Our findings suggested that SBC8803 increased efferent CVNA and GI transit of charcoal meal via 5-HT3 receptors. Moreover, SBC8803 enhanced the activity of efferent vagal nerve innervating the intestine and promoted peristalsis via 5-HT3 receptors.

  17. Endomorphin analogues containing D-Pro2 discriminate different μ-opioid receptor mediated antinociception in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sakurada, Shinobu; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Takafumi; Yuhki, Masayuki; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Murayama, Kimie; Sakurada, Chikai; Sakurada, Tsukasa

    2002-01-01

    The antagonistic actions of D-Pro2-endomorphins on inhibition of the paw withdrawal response by endomorphins were studied in mice. D-Pro2-endomorphin-1 and D-Pro2-endomorphin-2, injected intrathecally (i.t.), had no significant effect on the nociceptive thermal threshold alone. When D-Pro2-endomorphin-1 (0.05–0.1 pmol) was injected simultaneously with i.t. endomorphin-1 (5.0 nmol) or endomorphin-2 (5.0 nmol), antinociception induced by endomoprhin-1 was reduced significantly, whereas endomorphin-2-induced antinociception was not affected by D-Pro2-endomorphin-1. Antinociception induced by i.t. endomorphin-2 (5.0 nmol) was reduced significantly by its analogue, D-Pro2-endomorphin-2 (100 pmol), but not by D-Pro2-endomorphin-1. D-Pro2-endomorphin-1. D-Pro2-endomorphin-1 also antagonized the antinociceptive effect of i.t. DAMGO, a μ-opioid receptor agonist, whereas D-Pro2-endomorphin-2 failed to reduce the effect of DAMGO. These results suggest that endomorphin analogues containing D-Pro2 are able to discriminate the antinociceptive actions of μ1- and μ2-opioid receptor agonists at the spinal cord level. PMID:12466222

  18. Neurokinin 1 Receptor Mediates Membrane Blebbing and Sheer Stress-Induced Microparticle Formation in HEK293 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Panpan; Douglas, Steven D.; Meshki, John; Tuluc, Florin

    2012-01-01

    Cell-derived microparticles participate in intercellular communication similar to the classical messenger systems of small and macro-molecules that bind to specialized membrane receptors. Microparticles have been implicated in the regulation of a variety of complex physiopathologic processes, such as thrombosis, the control of innate and adaptive immunity, and cancer. The neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) is a Gq-coupled receptor present on the membrane of a variety of tissues, including neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system, immune cells, endocrine and exocrine glands, and smooth muscle. The endogenous agonist of NK1R is the undecapeptide substance P (SP). We have previously described intracellular signaling mechanisms that regulate NK1R-mediated rapid cell shape changes in HEK293 cells and U373MG cells. In the present study, we show that the activation of NK1R in HEK293 cells, but not in U373MG cells, leads to formation of sheer-stress induced microparticles that stain positive with the membrane-selective fluorescent dye FM 2–10. SP-induced microparticle formation is independent of elevated intracellular calcium concentrations and activation of NK1R present on HEK293-derived microparticles triggers detectable calcium increase in SP-induced microparticles. The ROCK inhibitor Y27632 and the dynamin inhibitor dynasore inhibited membrane blebbing and microparticle formation in HEK293 cells, strongly suggesting that microparticle formation in this cell type is dependent on membrane blebbing. PMID:23024816

  19. Clathrin Terminal Domain-Ligand Interactions Regulate Sorting of Mannose 6-Phosphate Receptors Mediated by AP-1 and GGA Adaptors*

    PubMed Central

    Stahlschmidt, Wiebke; Robertson, Mark J.; Robinson, Phillip J.; McCluskey, Adam; Haucke, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Clathrin plays important roles in intracellular membrane traffic including endocytosis of plasma membrane proteins and receptors and protein sorting between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes. Whether clathrin serves additional roles in receptor recycling, degradative sorting, or constitutive secretion has remained somewhat controversial. Here we have used acute pharmacological perturbation of clathrin terminal domain (TD) function to dissect the role of clathrin in intracellular membrane traffic. We report that internalization of major histocompatibility complex I (MHCI) is inhibited in cells depleted of clathrin or its major clathrin adaptor complex 2 (AP-2), a phenotype mimicked by application of Pitstop® inhibitors of clathrin TD function. Hence, MHCI endocytosis occurs via a clathrin/AP-2-dependent pathway. Acute perturbation of clathrin also impairs the dynamics of intracellular clathrin/adaptor complex 1 (AP-1)- or GGA (Golgi-localized, γ-ear-containing, Arf-binding protein)-coated structures at the TGN/endosomal interface, resulting in the peripheral dispersion of mannose 6-phosphate receptors. By contrast, secretory traffic of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein, recycling of internalized transferrin from endosomes, or degradation of EGF receptor proceeds unperturbed in cells with impaired clathrin TD function. These data indicate that clathrin is required for the function of AP-1- and GGA-coated carriers at the TGN but may be dispensable for outward traffic en route to the plasma membrane. PMID:24407285

  20. Solid lipid nanoparticles carrying chemotherapeutic drug across the blood-brain barrier through insulin receptor-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yung-Chih; Shih-Huang, Chun-Yuan

    2013-09-01

    Carmustine (BCNU)-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were grafted with 83-14 monoclonal antibody (MAb) (83-14 MAb/BCNU-SLNs) and applied to the brain-targeting delivery. Human brain-microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) incubated with 83-14 MAb/BCNU-SLNs were stained to demonstrate the interaction between the nanocarriers and expressed insulin receptors (IRs). The results revealed that the particle size of 83-14 MAb/BCNU-SLNs decreased with an increasing weight percentage of Dynasan 114 (DYN). Storage at 4 °C for 6 weeks slightly deformed the colloidal morphology. In addition, poloxamer 407 on 83-14 MAb/BCNU-SLNs induced cytotoxicity to RAW264.7 cells and inhibited phagocytosis by RAW264.7 cells. An increase in the weight percentage of DYN from 0% to 67% slightly reduced the viability of RAW264.7 cells and promoted phagocytosis. Moreover, the transport ability of 83-14 MAb/BCNU-SLNs across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vitro enhanced with an increasing weight percentage of Tween 80. 83-14 MAb on MAb/BCNU-SLNs stimulated endocytosis by HBMECs via IRs and enhanced the permeability of BCNU across the BBB. 83-14 MAb/BCNU-SLNs can be a promising antitumor drug delivery system for transporting BCNU to the brain.

  1. P2X and P2Y Receptors Mediate Contraction Induced by Electrical Field Stimulation in Feline Esophageal Smooth Muscle.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young Rae; Jang, Hyeon Soon; Kim, Won; Park, Sun Young; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2010-10-01

    It is well-known that electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced contraction is mediated by a cholinergic mechanism and other neurotransmitters. NO, ATP, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and substance P are released by EFS. To investigate the purinergic mechanism involved in the EFS-induced contraction, purinegic receptors antagonists were used. Suramine, a non-selective P2 receptor antagonist, reduced the contraction induced by EFS. NF023 (10(-7)~10(-4) M), a selective P2X antagonist, inhibited the contraction evoked by EFS. Reactive blue (10(-6)~10(-4) M), selective P2Y antagonist, also blocked the contraction in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, P2X agonist α,β-methylene 5'-adenosine triphosphate (αβMeATP, 10(-7)~10(-5) M) potentiated EFS-induced contraction in a dose-dependent manner. P2Y agonist adenosine 5'-[β-thio]diphosphate trilithium salt (ADPβS, 10(-7)~10(-5) M) also potentiated EFS-induced contractions in a dose-dependent manner. Ecto-ATPase activator apyrase (5 and 10 U/ml) reduced EFS-induced contractions. Inversely, 6-N,N-diethyl-D-β,γ-dibromomethylene 5'-triphosphate triammonium (ARL 67156, 10(-4) M) increased EFS-induced contraction. These data suggest that endogenous ATP plays a role in EFS-induced contractions which are mediated through both P2X-receptors and P2Y-receptors stimulation in cat esophageal smooth muscle.

  2. N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine interferes with the epidermal growth factor receptor-mediated signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhihua; Yang, Jun; Huang, Yun; Yu, Yingnian

    2005-03-01

    Many environmental factors, such as ultraviolet (UV) and arsenic, can induce the clustering of cell surface receptors, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). This is accompanied by the phosphorylation of the receptors and the activation of ensuing cellular signal transduction pathways, which are implicated in the various cellular responses caused by the exposure to these factors. In this study, we have shown that N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), an alkylating agent, also induced the clustering of EGFR in human amnion FL cells, which was similar in morphology to that of epidermal growth factor treatment. However, MNNG treatment did not activate Ras, the downstream mediator in EGFR signaling pathway, as compared to EGF treatment. The autophosphorylation of tyrosine residues Y1068 and Y1173 at the intracellular domain of EGFR, which is related to Ras activation under EGF treatment, was also not observed by MNNG exposure. Interestingly, although MNNG did not affect the binding of EGF to EGFR, MNNG can interfere with EGF function. For instance, pre-incubating FL cells with MNNG inhibited the autophosphorylation of EGFR by EGF treatment, as well as the activation of Ras. In addition, the phosphorylation of Y845 on EGFR by EGF, which is mediated through c-Src or related kinases but not autophosphorylation, was also affected by MNNG. Therefore, MNNG may influence the tyrosine kinase activity as well as the phosphorylation of EGFR through its interaction with EGFR.

  3. Neurokinin 1 receptor mediates membrane blebbing and sheer stress-induced microparticle formation in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Panpan; Douglas, Steven D; Meshki, John; Tuluc, Florin

    2012-01-01

    Cell-derived microparticles participate in intercellular communication similar to the classical messenger systems of small and macro-molecules that bind to specialized membrane receptors. Microparticles have been implicated in the regulation of a variety of complex physiopathologic processes, such as thrombosis, the control of innate and adaptive immunity, and cancer. The neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) is a Gq-coupled receptor present on the membrane of a variety of tissues, including neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system, immune cells, endocrine and exocrine glands, and smooth muscle. The endogenous agonist of NK1R is the undecapeptide substance P (SP). We have previously described intracellular signaling mechanisms that regulate NK1R-mediated rapid cell shape changes in HEK293 cells and U373MG cells. In the present study, we show that the activation of NK1R in HEK293 cells, but not in U373MG cells, leads to formation of sheer-stress induced microparticles that stain positive with the membrane-selective fluorescent dye FM 2-10. SP-induced microparticle formation is independent of elevated intracellular calcium concentrations and activation of NK1R present on HEK293-derived microparticles triggers detectable calcium increase in SP-induced microparticles. The ROCK inhibitor Y27632 and the dynamin inhibitor dynasore inhibited membrane blebbing and microparticle formation in HEK293 cells, strongly suggesting that microparticle formation in this cell type is dependent on membrane blebbing.

  4. Autophagic degradation of the androgen receptor mediated by increased phosphorylation of p62 suppresses apoptosis in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Mitani, Takakazu; Minami, Masato; Harada, Naoki; Ashida, Hitoshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2015-10-01

    Prostate cancer grows under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia decreases androgen receptor (AR) protein levels. However, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here, we report that p62-mediated autophagy degrades AR protein and suppresses apoptosis in prostate cancer LNCaP cells in hypoxia. In LNCaP cells, hypoxia decreased AR at the protein level, but not at the mRNA level. Hypoxia-induced AR degradation was inhibited not only by knockdown of LC3, a key component of the autophagy machinery, but also by knockdown of p62. Depletion of p62 enhanced hypoxia-induced poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and caspase-3 cleavage, markers of apoptosis, whereas simultaneous knockdown of p62 and AR suppressed hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Hypoxia increased the formation of a cytosolic p62-AR complex and enhanced sequestration of AR from the nucleus. Formation of this complex was promoted by the increased phosphorylation of serine 403 in the ubiquitin-associated domain of p62 during hypoxia. An antioxidant and an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor reduced hypoxia-induced p62 phosphorylation at serine 403 and suppressed hypoxia-induced complex formation between AR and p62. These results demonstrate that hypoxia enhances the complex formation between p62 and AR by promoting phosphorylation of p62 at serine 403, probably through activating AMPK, and that p62-mediated autophagy degrades AR protein for cell survival in hypoxia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cleavage of Type I Collagen by Fibroblast Activation Protein-α Enhances Class A Scavenger Receptor Mediated Macrophage Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Mazur, Anna; Holthoff, Emily; Vadali, Shanthi; Kelly, Thomas; Post, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Pathophysiological conditions such as fibrosis, inflammation, and tumor progression are associated with modification of the extracellular matrix (ECM). These modifications create ligands that differentially interact with cells to promote responses that drive pathological processes. Within the tumor stroma, fibroblasts are activated and increase the expression of type I collagen. In addition, activated fibroblasts specifically express fibroblast activation protein-α (FAP), a post-prolyl peptidase. Although FAP reportedly cleaves type I collagen and contributes to tumor progression, the specific pathophysiologic role of FAP is not clear. In this study, the possibility that FAP-mediated cleavage of type I collagen modulates macrophage interaction with collagen was examined using macrophage adhesion assays. Our results demonstrate that FAP selectively cleaves type I collagen resulting in increased macrophage adhesion. Increased macrophage adhesion to FAP-cleaved collagen was not affected by inhibiting integrin-mediated interactions, but was abolished in macrophages lacking the class A scavenger receptor (SR-A/CD204). Further, SR-A expressing macrophages localize with activated fibroblasts in breast tumors of MMTV-PyMT mice. Together, these results demonstrate that FAP-cleaved collagen is a substrate for SR-A-dependent macrophage adhesion, and suggest that by modifying the ECM, FAP plays a novel role in mediating communication between activated fibroblasts and macrophages. PMID:26934296

  6. 6-shogaol, a major compound in ginger, induces aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated transcriptional activity and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kazutaka; Satsu, Hideo; Mikubo, Ayano; Ogiwara, Haru; Yakabe, Takafumi; Inakuma, Takahiro; Shimizu, Makoto

    2014-06-18

    Xenobiotics are usually detoxified by drug-metabolizing enzymes and excreted from the body. The expression of many of drug-metabolizing enzymes is regulated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Some substances in vegetables have the potential to be AHR ligands. To search for vegetable components that exhibit AHR-mediated transcriptional activity, we assessed the activity of vegetable extracts and identified the active compounds using the previously established stable AHR-responsive HepG2 cell line. Among the hot water extracts of vegetables, the highest activity was found in ginger. The ethyl acetate fraction of the ginger hot water extract remarkably induced AHR-mediated transcriptional activity, and the major active compound was found to be 6-shogaol. Subsequently, the mRNA levels of AHR-targeting drug-metabolizing enzymes (CYP1A1, UGT1A1, and ABCG 2) and the protein level of CYP1A1 in HepG2 cells were shown to be increased by 6-shogaol. This is the first report that 6-shogaol can regulate the expression of detoxification enzymes by AHR activation.

  7. Shunting inhibition improves robustness of gamma oscillations in hippocampal interneuron networks by homogenizing firing rates.

    PubMed

    Vida, Imre; Bartos, Marlene; Jonas, Peter

    2006-01-05

    Networks of GABAergic neurons are key elements in the generation of gamma oscillations in the brain. Computational studies suggested that the emergence of coherent oscillations requires hyperpolarizing inhibition. Here, we show that GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition in mature interneurons of the hippocampal dentate gyrus is shunting rather than hyperpolarizing. Unexpectedly, when shunting inhibition is incorporated into a structured interneuron network model with fast and strong synapses, coherent oscillations emerge. In comparison to hyperpolarizing inhibition, networks with shunting inhibition show several advantages. First, oscillations are generated with smaller tonic excitatory drive. Second, network frequencies are tuned to the gamma band. Finally, robustness against heterogeneity in the excitatory drive is markedly improved. In single interneurons, shunting inhibition shortens the interspike interval for low levels of drive but prolongs it for high levels, leading to homogenization of neuronal firing rates. Thus, shunting inhibition may confer increased robustness to gamma oscillations in the brain.

  8. Cross-talk between an activator of nuclear receptors-mediated transcription and the D1 dopamine receptor signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Azriel; Vogel, Robert; Rutledge, Su Jane; Opas, Evan E; Rodan, Gideon A; Friedman, Eitan

    2005-03-01

    Nuclear receptors are transcription factors that usually interact, in a ligand-dependent manner, with specific DNA sequences located within promoters of target genes. The nuclear receptors can also be controlled in a ligand-independent manner via the action of membrane receptors and cellular signaling pathways. 5-Tetradecyloxy-2-furancarboxylic acid (TOFA) was shown to stimulate transcription from the MMTV promoter via chimeric receptors that consist of the DNA binding domain of GR and the ligand binding regions of the PPARbeta or LXRbeta nuclear receptors (GR/PPARbeta and GR/LXRbeta). TOFA and hydroxycholesterols also modulate transcription from NF-kappaB- and AP-1-controlled reporter genes and induce neurite differentiation in PC12 cells. In CV-1 cells that express D(1) dopamine receptors, D(1) dopamine receptor stimulation was found to inhibit TOFA-stimulated transcription from the MMTV promoter that is under the control of chimeric GR/PPARbeta and GR/LXRbeta receptors. Treatment with the D(1) dopamine receptor antagonist, SCH23390, prevented dopamine-mediated suppression of transcription, and by itself increased transcription controlled by GR/LXRbeta. Furthermore, combined treatment of CV-1 cells with TOFA and SCH23390 increased transcription controlled by the GR/LXRbeta chimeric receptor synergistically. The significance of this in vitro synergy was demonstrated in vivo, by the observation that SCH23390 (but not haloperidol)-mediated catalepsy in rats was potentiated by TOFA, thus showing that an agent that mimics the in vitro activities of compounds that activate members of the LXR and PPAR receptor families can influence D1 dopamine receptor elicited responses.

  9. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors sensitize cancer cells to death receptor-mediated apoptosis by enhancing death receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Meng, X Wei; Koh, Brian D; Zhang, Jin-San; Flatten, Karen S; Schneider, Paula A; Billadeau, Daniel D; Hess, Allan D; Smith, B Douglas; Karp, Judith E; Kaufmann, Scott H

    2014-07-25

    Recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-α-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), agonistic monoclonal antibodies to TRAIL receptors, and small molecule TRAIL receptor agonists are in various stages of preclinical and early phase clinical testing as potential anticancer drugs. Accordingly, there is substantial interest in understanding factors that affect sensitivity to these agents. In the present study we observed that the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors olaparib and veliparib sensitize the myeloid leukemia cell lines ML-1 and K562, the ovarian cancer line PEO1, non-small cell lung cancer line A549, and a majority of clinical AML isolates, but not normal marrow, to TRAIL. Further analysis demonstrated that PARP inhibitor treatment results in activation of the FAS and TNFRSF10B (death receptor 5 (DR5)) promoters, increased Fas and DR5 mRNA, and elevated cell surface expression of these receptors in sensitized cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated enhanced binding of the transcription factor Sp1 to the TNFRSF10B promoter in the presence of PARP inhibitor. Knockdown of PARP1 or PARP2 (but not PARP3 and PARP4) not only increased expression of Fas and DR5 at the mRNA and protein level, but also recapitulated the sensitizing effects of the PARP inhibition. Conversely, Sp1 knockdown diminished the PARP inhibitor effects. In view of the fact that TRAIL is part of the armamentarium of natural killer cells, these observations identify a new facet of PARP inhibitor action while simultaneously providing the mechanistic underpinnings of a novel therapeutic combination that warrants further investigation.

  10. Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors Sensitize Cancer Cells to Death Receptor-mediated Apoptosis by Enhancing Death Receptor Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Meng, X. Wei; Koh, Brian D.; Zhang, Jin-San; Flatten, Karen S.; Schneider, Paula A.; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Hess, Allan D.; Smith, B. Douglas; Karp, Judith E.; Kaufmann, Scott H.

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-α-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), agonistic monoclonal antibodies to TRAIL receptors, and small molecule TRAIL receptor agonists are in various stages of preclinical and early phase clinical testing as potential anticancer drugs. Accordingly, there is substantial interest in understanding factors that affect sensitivity to these agents. In the present study we observed that the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors olaparib and veliparib sensitize the myeloid leukemia cell lines ML-1 and K562, the ovarian cancer line PEO1, non-small cell lung cancer line A549, and a majority of clinical AML isolates, but not normal marrow, to TRAIL. Further analysis demonstrated that PARP inhibitor treatment results in activation of the FAS and TNFRSF10B (death receptor 5 (DR5)) promoters, increased Fas and DR5 mRNA, and elevated cell surface expression of these receptors in sensitized cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated enhanced binding of the transcription factor Sp1 to the TNFRSF10B promoter in the presence of PARP inhibitor. Knockdown of PARP1 or PARP2 (but not PARP3 and PARP4) not only increased expression of Fas and DR5 at the mRNA and protein level, but also recapitulated the sensitizing effects of the PARP inhibition. Conversely, Sp1 knockdown diminished the PARP inhibitor effects. In view of the fact that TRAIL is part of the armamentarium of natural killer cells, these observations identify a new facet of PARP inhibitor action while simultaneously providing the mechanistic underpinnings of a novel therapeutic combination that warrants further investigation. PMID:24895135

  11. P2Y6 receptor mediates colonic NaCl secretion via differential activation of cAMP-mediated transport

    PubMed Central

    Köttgen, Michael; Löffler, Thomas; Jacobi, Christoph; Nitschke, Roland; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Schreiber, Rainer; Frische, Sebastian; Nielsen, Søren; Leipziger, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Extracellular nucleotides are important regulators of epithelial ion transport. Here we investigated nucleotide-mediated effects on colonic NaCl secretion and the signal transduction mechanisms involved. Basolateral UDP induced a sustained activation of Cl– secretion, which was completely inhibited by 293B, a specific inhibitor of cAMP-stimulated basolateral KCNQ1/KCNE3 K+ channels. We therefore speculated that a basolateral P2Y6 receptor could increase cAMP. Indeed UDP elevated cAMP in isolated crypts. We identified an epithelial P2Y6 receptor using crypt [Ca2+]i measurements, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry. To investigate whether the rat P2Y6elevates cAMP, we coexpressed the P2Y1 or P2Y6 receptor together with the cAMP-regulated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl– channel in Xenopus oocytes. A two-electrode voltage clamp was used to monitor nucleotide-induced Cl– currents. In oocytes expressing the P2Y1 receptor, ATP transiently activated the endogenous Ca2+-activated Cl– current, but not CFTR. In contrast, in oocytes expressing the P2Y6receptor, UDP transiently activated the Ca2+-activated Cl– current and subsequently CFTR. CFTR Cl– currents were identified by their halide conductance sequence. In summary we find a basolateral P2Y6 receptor in colonic epithelial cells stimulating sustained NaCl secretion by way of a synergistic increase of [Ca2+]i and cAMP. In support of these data P2Y6 receptor stimulation differentially activates CFTR in Xenopus oocytes. PMID:12569163

  12. PA1 Protein, a New Competitive Decelerator Acting at More than One Step to Impede Glucocorticoid Receptor-mediated Transactivation*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenhuan; Sun, Yunguang; Cho, Young-Wook; Chow, Carson C.; Simons, S. Stoney

    2013-01-01

    Numerous cofactors modulate the gene regulatory activity of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) by affecting one or more of the following three major transcriptional properties: the maximal activity of agonists (Amax), the potency of agonists (EC50), and the partial agonist activity of antisteroids (PAA). Here, we report that the recently described nuclear protein, Pax2 transactivation domain interaction protein (PTIP)-associated protein 1 (PA1), is a new inhibitor of GR transactivation. PA1 suppresses Amax, increases the EC50, and reduces the PAA of an exogenous reporter gene in a manner that is independent of associated PTIP. PA1 is fully active with, and strongly binds to, the C-terminal half of GR. PA1 reverses the effects of the coactivator TIF2 on GR-mediated gene induction but is unable to augment the actions of the corepressor SMRT. Analysis of competition assays between PA1 and TIF2 with an exogenous reporter indicates that the kinetic definition of PA1 action is a competitive decelerator at two sites upstream from where TIF2 acts. With the endogenous genes IGFBP1 and IP6K3, PA1 also represses GR induction, increases the EC50, and decreases the PAA. ChIP and re-ChIP experiments indicate that PA1 accomplishes this inhibition of the two genes via different mechanisms as follows: PA1 appears to increase GR dissociation from and reduce GR transactivation at the IGFBP1 promoter regions but blocks GR binding to the IP6K3 promoter. We conclude that PA1 is a new competitive decelerator of GR transactivation and can act at more than one molecularly defined step in a manner that depends upon the specific gene. PMID:23161582

  13. PA1 protein, a new competitive decelerator acting at more than one step to impede glucocorticoid receptor-mediated transactivation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenhuan; Sun, Yunguang; Cho, Young-Wook; Chow, Carson C; Simons, S Stoney

    2013-01-04

    Numerous cofactors modulate the gene regulatory activity of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) by affecting one or more of the following three major transcriptional properties: the maximal activity of agonists (A(max)), the potency of agonists (EC(50)), and the partial agonist activity of antisteroids (PAA). Here, we report that the recently described nuclear protein, Pax2 transactivation domain interaction protein (PTIP)-associated protein 1 (PA1), is a new inhibitor of GR transactivation. PA1 suppresses A(max), increases the EC(50), and reduces the PAA of an exogenous reporter gene in a manner that is independent of associated PTIP. PA1 is fully active with, and strongly binds to, the C-terminal half of GR. PA1 reverses the effects of the coactivator TIF2 on GR-mediated gene induction but is unable to augment the actions of the corepressor SMRT. Analysis of competition assays between PA1 and TIF2 with an exogenous reporter indicates that the kinetic definition of PA1 action is a competitive decelerator at two sites upstream from where TIF2 acts. With the endogenous genes IGFBP1 and IP6K3, PA1 also represses GR induction, increases the EC(50), and decreases the PAA. ChIP and re-ChIP experiments indicate that PA1 accomplishes this inhibition of the two genes via different mechanisms as follows: PA1 appears to increase GR dissociation from and reduce GR transactivation at the IGFBP1 promoter regions but blocks GR binding to the IP6K3 promoter. We conclude that PA1 is a new competitive decelerator of GR transactivation and can act at more than one molecularly defined step in a manner that depends upon the specific gene.

  14. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and the mesoaccumbens reward circuit: evidence for GABA(B) receptor-mediated effects.

    PubMed

    Pistis, M; Muntoni, A L; Pillolla, G; Perra, S; Cignarella, G; Melis, M; Gessa, G L

    2005-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a short-chain fatty acid naturally occurring in the mammalian brain, which recently emerged as a major recreational drug of abuse. GHB has multiple neuronal mechanisms including activation of both the GABA(B) receptor, and a distinct GHB-specific receptor. This complex GHB-GABA(B) receptor interaction is probably responsible for the multifaceted pharmacological, behavioral and toxicological profile of GHB. Drugs of abuse exert remarkably similar effects upon reward-related circuits, in particular the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and the nucleus accumbens (NAc). We used single unit recordings in vivo from urethane-anesthetized rats to characterize the effects of GHB on evoked firing in NAc "shell" neurons and on spontaneous activity of antidromically identified dopamine (DA) cells located in the ventral tegmental area. GHB was studied in comparison with the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen and antagonist (2S)(+)-5,5-dimethyl-2-morpholineacetic acid (SCH50911). Additionally, we utilized a GHB analog, gamma-(p-methoxybenzil)-gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (NCS-435), devoid of GABA(B) binding properties, but with high affinity for specific GHB binding sites. In common with other drugs of abuse, GHB depressed firing in NAc neurons evoked by the stimulation of the basolateral amygdala. On DA neurons, GHB exerted heterogeneous effects, which were correlated to the baseline firing rate of the cells but led to a moderate stimulation of the DA system. All GHB actions were mediated by GABA(B) receptors, since they were blocked by SCH50911 and were not mimicked by NCS-435. Our study indicates that the electrophysiological profile of GHB is close to typical drugs of abuse: both inhibition of NAc neurons and moderate to strong stimulation of DA transmission are distinctive features of diverse classes of abused drugs. Moreover, it is concluded that addictive and rewarding properties of GHB do not necessarily involve a putative high affinity GHB

  15. Lymphotropic Virions Affect Chemokine Receptor-Mediated Neural Signaling and Apoptosis: Implications for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Associated Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jialin; Ghorpade, Anuja; Niemann, Douglas; Cotter, Robin L.; Thylin, Michael R.; Epstein, Leon; Swartz, Jennifer M.; Shepard, Robin B.; Liu, Xiaojuan; Nukuna, Adeline; Gendelman, Howard E.

    1999-01-01

    Chemokine receptors pivotal for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in lymphocytes and macrophages (CCR3, CCR5, and CXCR4) are expressed on neural cells (microglia, astrocytes, and/or neurons). It is these cells which are damaged during progressive HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system. We theorize that viral coreceptors could effect neural cell damage during HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD) without simultaneously affecting viral replication. To these ends, we studied the ability of diverse viral strains to affect intracellular signaling and apoptosis of neurons, astrocytes, and monocyte-derived macrophages. Inhibition of cyclic AMP, activation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and apoptosis were induced by diverse HIV-1 strains, principally in neurons. Virions from T-cell-tropic (T-tropic) strains (MN, IIIB, and Lai) produced the most significant alterations in signaling of neurons and astrocytes. The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, gp120, induced markedly less neural damage than purified virions. Macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) strains (ADA, JR-FL, Bal, MS-CSF, and DJV) produced the least neural damage, while 89.6, a dual-tropic HIV-1 strain, elicited intermediate neural cell damage. All T-tropic strain-mediated neuronal impairments were blocked by the CXCR4 antibody, 12G5. In contrast, the M-tropic strains were only partially blocked by 12G5. CXCR4-mediated neuronal apoptosis was confirmed in pure populations of rat cerebellar granule neurons and was blocked by HA1004, an inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, protein kinase A, and protein kinase C. Taken together, these results suggest that progeny HIV-1 virions can influence neuronal signal transduction and apoptosis. This process occurs, in part, through CXCR4 and is independent of CD4 binding. T-tropic viruses that traffic in and out of the brain during progressive HIV-1 disease may play an important role in HAD neuropathogenesis. PMID:10482576

  16. Chronic exposure to bisphenol a impairs progesterone receptor-mediated signaling in the uterus during early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Quanxi; Davila, Juanmahel; Bagchi, Milan K.; Bagchi, Indrani C.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental and occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is a major threat to female reproductive health. Bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental toxicant that is commonly found in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, has received much attention due to its estrogenic activity and high risk of chronic exposure in human. Whereas BPA has been linked to infertility and recurrent miscarriage in women, the impact of its exposure on uterine function during early pregnancy remains unclear. In a recent publication in Endocrinology, we demonstrated that prolonged exposure to an environmental relevant dose of BPA disrupts progesterone receptor-regulated uterine functions, thus affecting uterine receptivity for embryo implantation and decidua morphogenesis, two critical events for establishment and maintenance of early pregnancy. In particular we reported a marked impairment of progesterone receptor (PGR) expression and its downstream effector HAND2 in the uterine stromal cells in response to chronic BPA exposure. In an earlier study we have shown that HAND2 controls embryo implantation by repressing fibroblast growth factor (FGF) expression and the MAP kinase signaling pathway, thus inhibiting epithelial proliferation. Interestingly we observed that downregulation of PGR and HAND2 expression in uterine stroma upon BPA exposure was associated with an enhanced activation of FGFR and MAPK signaling, aberrant proliferation, and lack of uterine receptivity in the epithelium. In addition, the proliferation and differentiation of endometrial stromal cells to decidual cells, an event critical for the maintenance of early pregnancy, was severely compromised in response to BPA. This research highlight will provide an overview of our findings and discuss the potential mechanisms by which chronic BPA impairs PGR-HAND2 pathway and adversely affects implantation and the establishment of pregnancy. PMID:28239613

  17. Dorsal hippocampal NMDA receptors mediate the interactive effects of arachidonylcyclopropylamide and MDMA/ecstasy on memory retrieval in rats.

    PubMed

    Ghaderi, Marzieh; Rezayof, Ameneh; Vousooghi, Nasim; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-04-03

    A combination of cannabis and ecstasy may change the cognitive functions more than either drug alone. The present study was designed to investigate the possible involvement of dorsal hippocampal NMDA receptors in the interactive effects of arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA) and ecstasy/MDMA on memory retrieval. Adult male Wistar rats were cannulated into the CA1 regions of the dorsal hippocampus (intra-CA1) and memory retrieval was examined using the step-through type of passive avoidance task. Intra-CA1 microinjection of a selective CB1 receptor agonist, ACPA (0.5-4ng/rat) immediately before the testing phase (pre-test), but not after the training phase (post-training), impaired memory retrieval. In addition, pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of MDMA (0.5-1μg/rat) dose-dependently decreased step-through latency, indicating an amnesic effect of the drug by itself. Interestingly, pre-test microinjection of a higher dose of MDMA into the CA1 regions significantly improved ACPA-induced memory impairment. Moreover, pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of a selective NMDA receptor antagonist, D-AP5 (1 and 2μg/rat) inhibited the reversal effect of MDMA on the impairment of memory retrieval induced by ACPA. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of the same doses of D-AP5 had no effect on memory retrieval alone. These findings suggest that ACPA or MDMA consumption can induce memory retrieval impairment, while their co-administration improves this amnesic effect through interacting with hippocampal glutamatergic-NMDA receptor mechanism. Thus, it seems that the tendency to abuse cannabis with ecstasy may be for avoiding cognitive dysfunction. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Chronic restraint stress causes a delayed increase in responding for palatable food cues during forced abstinence via a dopamine D1-like receptor-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ball, Kevin T; Best, Olivia; Luo, Jonathan; Miller, Leah R

    2017-02-15

    Relapse to unhealthy eating habits in dieters is often triggered by stress. Animal models, moreover, have confirmed a causal role for acute stress in relapse. The role of chronic stress in relapse vulnerability, however, has received relatively little attention. Therefore, in the present study, we used an abstinence-based relapse model in rats to test the hypothesis that exposure to chronic stress increases subsequent relapse vulnerability. Rats were trained to press a lever for highly palatable food reinforcers in daily 3-h sessions and then tested for food seeking (i.e., responding for food associated cues) both before and after an acute or chronic restraint stress procedure (3h/day×1day or 10days, respectively) or control procedure (unstressed). The second food seeking test was conducted either 1day or 7days after the last restraint. Because chronic stress causes dopamine D1-like receptor-mediated alterations in prefrontal cortex (a relapse node), we also assessed dopaminergic involvement by administering either SCH-23390 (10.0μg/kg; i.p.), a dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist, or vehicle prior to daily treatments. Results showed that chronically, but not acutely, stressed rats displayed increased food seeking 7days, but not 1day, after the last restraint. Importantly, SCH-23390 combined with chronic stress reversed this effect. These results suggest that drugs targeting D 1 -like receptors during chronic stress may help to prevent future relapse in dieters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Chronic restraint stress causes a delayed increase in responding for palatable food cues during forced abstinence via a dopamine D1-like receptor-mediated mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Kevin T.; Best, Olivia; Luo, Jonathan; Miller, Leah R.

    2016-01-01

    Relapse to unhealthy eating habits in dieters is often triggered by stress. Animal models, moreover, have confirmed a causal role for acute stress in relapse. The role of chronic stress in relapse vulnerability, however, has received relatively little attention. Therefore, in the present study, we used an abstinence-based relapse model in rats to test the hypothesis that exposure to chronic stress increases subsequent relapse vulnerability. Rats were trained to press a lever for highly palatable food reinforcers in daily 3-hr sessions and then tested for food seeking (i.e., responding for food associated cues) both before and after an acute or chronic restraint stress procedure (3 h/day × 1 day or 10 days, respectively) or control procedure (unstressed). The second food seeking test was conducted either 1 day or 7 days after the last restraint. Because chronic stress causes dopamine D1-like receptor-mediated alterations in prefrontal cortex (a relapse node), we also assessed dopaminergic involvement by administering either SCH-23390 (10.0 μg/kg; i.p.), a dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist, or vehicle prior to daily treatments. Results showed that chronically, but not acutely, stressed rats displayed increased food seeking 7 days, but not 1 day, after the last restraint. Importantly, SCH-23390 combined with chronic stress reversed this effect. These results suggest that drugs targeting D1-like receptors during chronic stress may help to prevent future relapse in dieters. PMID:27845229

  20. Schwann cells use TAM receptor-mediated phagocytosis in addition to autophagy to clear myelin in a mouse model of nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Brosius Lutz, Amanda; Chung, Won-Suk; Sloan, Steven A; Carson, Glenn A; Zhou, Lu; Lovelett, Emilie; Posada, Sean; Zuchero, J Bradley; Barres, Ben A

    2017-09-19

    Ineffective myelin debris clearance is a major factor contributing to the poor regenerative ability of the central nervous system. In stark contrast, rapid clearance of myelin debris from the injured peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the keys to this system's remarkable regenerative capacity, but the molecular mechanisms driving PNS myelin clearance are incompletely understood. We set out to discover new pathways of PNS myelin clearance to identify novel strategies for activating myelin clearance in the injured central nervous system, where myelin debris is not cleared efficiently. Here we show that Schwann cells, the myelinating glia of the PNS, collaborate with hematogenous macrophages to clear myelin debris using TAM (Tyro3, Axl, Mer) receptor-mediated phagocytosis as well as autophagy. In a mouse model of PNS nerve crush injury, Schwann cells up-regulate TAM phagocytic receptors Axl and Mertk following PNS injury, and Schwann cells lacking both of these phagocytic receptors exhibit significantly impaired myelin phagocytosis both in vitro and in vivo. Autophagy-deficient Schwann cells also display reductions in myelin clearance after mouse nerve crush injury, as has been recently shown following nerve transection. These findings add a mechanism, Axl/Mertk-mediated myelin clearance, to the repertoire of cellular machinery used to clear myelin in the injured PNS. Given recent evidence that astrocytes express Axl and Mertk and have previously unrecognized phagocytic potential, this pathway may be a promising avenue for activating myelin clearance after CNS injury.

  1. Citrate Modulates the Regulation by Zn2+ of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor-Mediated Channel Current and Neurotransmitter Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westergaard, Niels; Banke, Tue; Wahl, Philip; Sonnewald, Ursula; Schousboe, Arne

    1995-04-01

    The effect of the two metal-ion chelators EDTA and citrate on the action of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors was investigated by use of cultured mouse cerebellar granule neurons and Xenopus oocytes, respectively, to monitor either NMDA-evoked transmitter release or membrane currents. Transmitter release from the glutamatergic neurons was determined by superfusion of the cells after preloading with the glutamate analogue D-[^3H]aspartate. The oocytes were injected with mRNA isolated from mouse cerebellum and, after incubation to allow translation to occur, currents mediated by NMDA were recorded electrophysiologically by voltage clamp at a holding potential of -80 mV. It was found that citrate as well as EDTA could attenuate the inhibitory action of Zn2+ on NMDA receptor-mediated transmitter release from the neurons and membrane currents in the oocytes. These effects were specifically related to the NMDA receptor, since the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 abolished the action and no effects of Zn2+ and its chelators were observed when kainate was used to selectively activate non-NMDA receptors. Since it was additionally demonstrated that citrate (and EDTA) preferentially chelated Zn2+ rather than Ca2+, the present findings strongly suggest that endogenous citrate released specifically from astrocytes into the extracellular space in the brain may function as a modulator of NMDA receptor activity. This is yet another example of astrocytic influence on neuronal activity.

  2. Activation of the prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex induces anxiety-like behaviors via N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated glutamatergic neurotransmission in mice.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Akiyoshi; Ohashi, Masanori; Suzuki, Satoshi; Tsukagoshi, Mai; Sugiyama, Azusa; Yamada, Misa; Oka, Jun-Ichiro; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Yamada, Mitsuhiko

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the possible roles of the prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex (PL) in the regulation of anxiety-like behaviors by pharmacologically activating the terminals of neuronal inputs or postsynaptic efferent neurons with a sodium channel activator veratrine. The extracellular glutamate levels were measured by in vivo microdialysis, and the behaviors were assessed with the open field (OF) test in mice simultaneously. The samples were collected every 10 min for 60 min, as basal levels of glutamate. The medium containing drugs were perfused for 30 min. The OF test was performed in the last 10 min of drug perfusion. After the drug treatments, the perfusion medium containing drugs was switched back to perfusion medium without drugs, and then samples were collected for another 90 min. The extracellular glutamate levels were significantly elevated after local perfusion of veratrine in the PL. At the same time, perfusion of veratrine in the PL produced anxiety-like behaviors in mice. Local coperfusion of a sodium channel blocker, lamotrigine, completely diminished the veratrine-induced elevated extracellular glutamate levels and the behavioral changes. Local coperfusion of an NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, but not a non-NMDA (AMPA/kainate) receptor antagonist, CNQX, completely diminished the behavioral changes without any effects on the veratrine-induced elevated extracellular glutamate levels. This study demonstrates that the activation of the PL with veratrine induces anxiety-like behaviors via NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic neurotransmission in mice. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Inhibition of cholesterol absorption associated with a PPAR alpha-dependent increase in ABC binding cassette transporter A1 in mice.

    PubMed

    Knight, Brian L; Patel, Dilip D; Humphreys, Sandy M; Wiggins, David; Gibbons, Geoffrey F

    2003-11-01

    Dietary supplementation with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) ligand WY 14,643 gave rise to a 4- to 5-fold increase in the expression of mRNA for the ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) in the intestine of normal mice. There was no effect in the intestine of PPAR alpha-null mice. Consumption of a high-cholesterol diet also increased intestinal ABCA1 expression. The effects of WY 14,643 and the high-cholesterol diet were not additive. WY 14,643 feeding reduced intestinal absorption of cholesterol in the normal mice, irrespective of the dietary cholesterol concentration, and this resulted in lower diet-derived cholesterol and cholesteryl ester concentrations in plasma and liver. At each concentration of dietary cholesterol, there was a similar significant inverse correlation between intestinal ABCA1 mRNA content and the amount of cholesterol absorbed. The fibrate-induced changes in the intestines of the normal mice were accompanied by an increased concentration of the mRNA encoding the sterol-regulatory element binding protein-1c gene (SREBP-1c), a known target gene for the oxysterol receptor liver X receptor alpha (LXR alpha). There was a correlation between intestinal ABCA1 mRNA and SREBP-1c mRNA contents, but not between SREBP-1c mRNA content and cholesterol absorption. These results suggest that PPAR alpha influences cholesterol absorption through modulating ABCA1 activity in the intestine by a mechanism involving LXR alpha.

  4. Alterations of myocardial and vascular adrenergic receptor-mediated responses in Escherichia coli-induced septic shock in the rat.

    PubMed

    Boillot, A; Massol, J; Maupoil, V; Grelier, R; Capellier, G; Berthelot, A; Barale, F

    1996-08-01

    -stimulated myocardial cAMP was significantly (p < .01) reduced compared with the control group. In aortic rings, bacteria administration significantly (p < .01) shifted the dose-response curve to norepinephrine to the right, both in the presence and absence of endothelium. NG-monomethyl-L-arginine significantly increased the contractions to attain the control level: p < .001 in presence of endothelium; p < .05 in absence of endothelium. In ex vivo experiments, 3 hrs after E. coli injection, vascular responsiveness was sharply decreased. This impaired response was improved by inhibition of nitric oxide. The heart, nevertheless, was still able to modulate its inotropic and chronotropic response to isoproterenol, even though an impaired beta-adrenergic-receptor stimulation of cAMP was already present.

  5. Membrane receptor-mediated apoptosis and caspase activation in the differentiated EoL-1 eosinophilic cell line.

    PubMed

    Al-Rabia, Mohammed W; Blaylock, Morgan G; Sexton, Darren W; Walsh, Garry M

    2004-06-01

    Caspases are key molecules in the control of apoptosis, but relatively little is known about their contribution to eosinophil apoptosis. We examined caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities in receptor ligation-dependent apoptosis induction in the differentiated human eosinophilic cell line EoL-1. Differentiated EoL-1 exhibited bi-lobed nuclei, eosinophil-associated membrane receptors, and basic granule proteins. Annexin-V fluorescein isothiocyanate binding to EoL-1 revealed significant (P<0.01) apoptosis induction in cells cultured for 20 h with monoclonal antibodies (mAb) specific for CD45 (71%+/-4.3), CD45RA (58%+/-2.3), CD45RB (68%+/-2.4), CD95 (47%+/-2.6), and CD69 (52%+/-2.1) compared with control (23%+/-1.6) or CD45RO mAb (27%+/-3.9). The pan-caspase inhibitor Z-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (fmk) and inhibitors of caspase-8 (Z-Ile-Glu-Thr-Asp-fmk) and caspase-9 (Z-Leu-Glu-His-Asp-fmk) significantly inhibited mAb-induced apoptosis of EoL-1 but had no effect on constitutive (baseline) apoptosis at 16 and 20 h. Caspase activity was analyzed using the novel CaspaTag trade mark technique and flow cytometry. EoL-1 treated with pan-CD45, CD45RA, CD45RB, and CD95 mAb exhibited caspase-3 and -9 activation at 12 h post-treatment, which increased at 16 and 20 h. Activated caspase-8 was detected 12 and 16 h after ligation with CD45, CD45RA, CD45RB, and CD95 mAb followed by a trend toward basal levels at 20 h. CD69 ligation resulted in caspase-3 activation, a modest but significant activation of caspase-8, and a loss in mitochondrial transmembrane potential but had no significant effect on activation of caspase-9. Thus, the intrinsic and extrinsic caspase pathways are involved in controlling receptor ligation-mediated apoptosis induction in human eosinophils, findings that may aid the development of a more targeted, anti-inflammatory therapy for asthma.

  6. NMDA receptor mediates proliferation and CREB phosphorylation in postnatal Müller glia-derived retinal progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Mónica

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Postnatal retinal Müller glia are considered to be retinal progenitors as they retain the ability to dedifferentiate, proliferate, and differentiate to new retinal glia and neurons after injury. The proliferation and differentiation processes are coordinated by several extrinsic factors and neurotransmitters, including glutamate. Thus, the appropriate numbers and proportions of the different cell types are generated to form a functional retina during development and during injury repair. Here we analyze the changes in the proliferation of postnatal Müller glia-derived progenitors after activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors. Methods Müller glia-derived progenitor cell cultures were characterized by immunocytochemistry with antibodies against the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor and the progenitor cell marker nestin. The effect of glutamate receptor agonists and antagonists on cell proliferation was analyzed by BrdU incorporation or Ki67 immunostaining, cell counting, and by immunolabeling of phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (P-CREB) transcription factor. The effect of NMDA receptor activation was analyzed in vivo by P-CREB immunohistochemistry in retinal sections of Long-Evans NMDA injected rats. Results We show that NMDA receptor activation significantly increases the proliferation rate of Müller-glia derived progenitor cells and that this increase can be blocked by NMDA receptor antagonists. Furthermore, we show that CREB phosphorylation is induced in NMDA-treated Müller-glia derived progenitor cells in culture and that specific pharmacological inhibition of CREB phosphorylation results in a decreased number of proliferating cells. We confirmed the relevance of these observations by the analysis of retinal sections after NMDA injection in vivo where immunoreactivity to phosphorylated CREB is also increased after treatment. Conclusions In the present study we show that NMDA receptor activation induces

  7. Characterization of tachykinin receptors mediating bronchomotor and vasodepressor responses to neuropeptide gamma and substance P in the anaesthetized rabbit.

    PubMed

    Yuan, L; Burcher, E; Nail, B S

    1998-02-01

    The effects of i.v. injections of two endogenous tachykinins, substance P (SP) and neuropeptide gamma and the highly selective tachykinin agonists [Sar9,Met(O2)11]-SP, [Lys5,MeLeu9, Nle10]-NKA(4-10) and senktide, on total lung resistance (RL), dynamic lung compliance (Cdyn) and systemic blood pressure, were compared in the anaesthetized rabbit. Senktide, the NK-3 receptor selective agonist, had no effect on RL, Cdyn or blood pressure. The other four agonists caused dose-dependent increases in RL and Cdyn, with [Sar9,Met(O2)11]-SP being the most potent agonist in producing changes in the absence of phosphoramidon. This suggested that NK-1 receptors play an important role in these responses. [Sar9, Met(O2)11]-SP, SP and neuropeptide gamma also decreased blood pressure. Phosphoramidon (1 mg/kg) potentiated the changes in RL and Cdyn evoked by [Sar9,Met(O2)11]-SP and SP, with very marked enhancement of responses to neuropeptide gamma. Responses to [Lys5, MeLeu9,Nle10]-NKA(4-10) were unaffected, suggesting that this NK-2 selective agonist may not be catabolized by neutral endopeptidase (NEP). In the presence of phosphoramidon, the non-peptide tachykinin NK-1 receptor selective antagonist CP 96345 (80 nmol/kg) reduced all responses to [Sar9,Met(O2)11]-SP and SP, whereas the NK-2 selective antagonist SR 48968 (40 nmol/kg) inhibited the bronchomotor but not the vasodepressor responses to neuropeptide gamma and [Lys5,MeLeu9, Nle10]-NKA(4-10). The fall in blood pressure induced by neuropeptide gamma was diminished by CP 96345, whereas bronchoconstriction was unaffected, indicating possible differences in NK-1 receptors in the vasculature and airways. Electrical stimulation of the distal ends of vagus nerves caused increases in RL which were abolished by atropine (1 mg/kg). Copyright 1998 Academic Press Limited

  8. Angiotensin II AT1 receptors mediate neuronal sensitization and sustained blood pressure response induced by a single injection of amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Marchese, N A; Paz, M C; Caeiro, X; Dadam, F M; Baiardi, G; Perez, M F; Bregonzio, C

    2017-01-06

    A single exposure to amphetamine induces neurochemical sensitization in striatal areas. The neuropeptide angiotensin II, through AT 1 receptors (AT 1 -R) activation, is involved in these responses. However, amphetamine-induced alterations can be extended to extra-striatal areas involved in blood pressure control and their physiological outcomes. Our aim for the present study was to analyze the possible role for AT 1 -R in these events using a two-injection protocol and to further characterize the proposed AT 1 -R antagonism protocol. Central effect of orally administered AT 1 -R blocker (Candesartan, 3mg/kg p.o.×5days) in male Wistar rats was analyzed by spontaneous activity of neurons within locus coeruleus. In another group of animals pretreated with the AT 1 -R blocker or vehicle, sensitization was achieved by a single administration of amphetamine (5mg/kg i.p. - day 6) followed by a 3-week period off drug. On day 27, after receiving an amphetamine challenge (0.5mg/kg i.p.), we evaluated: (1) the sensitized c-Fos expression in locus coeruleus (LC), nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), caudal ventrolateral medulla (A1) and central amygdala (CeAmy); and (2) the blood pressure response. AT 1 -R blockade decreased LC neurons' spontaneous firing rate. Moreover, sensitized c-Fos immunoreactivity in TH+neurons was found in LC and NTS; and both responses were blunted by the AT 1 -R blocker pretreatment. Meanwhile, no differences were found neither in CeAmy nor A1. Sensitized blood pressure response was observed as sustained changes in mean arterial pressure and was effectively prevented by AT 1 -R blockade. Our results extend AT 1 -R role in amphetamine-induced sensitization over noradrenergic nuclei and their cardiovascular output. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chronic stress induces a selective decrease in AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic excitation at hippocampal temporoammonic-CA1 synapses.

    PubMed

    Kallarackal, Angy J; Kvarta, Mark D; Cammarata, Erin; Jaberi, Leelah; Cai, Xiang; Bailey, Aileen M; Thompson, Scott M

    2013-10-02

    Chronic stress promotes depression, but how it disrupts cognition and mood remains unknown. Chronic stress causes atrophy of pyramidal cell dendrites in the hippocampus and cortex in human and animal models, and a depressive-like behavioral state. We now test the hypothesis that excitatory temporoammonic (TA) synapses in the distal dendrites of CA1 pyramidal cells in rats are altered by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) and restored by chronic antidepressant treatment, in conjunction with the behavioral consequences of CUS. We observed a decrease in AMPAR-mediated excitation at TA-CA1 synapses, but not Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses, after CUS, with a corresponding layer-specific decrease in GluA1 expression. Both changes were reversed by chronic fluoxetine. CUS also disrupted long-term memory consolidation in the Morris water maze, a function of TA-CA1 synapses. The decreases in TA-CA1 AMPAR-mediated excitation and performance in the consolidation test were correlated positively with decreases in sucrose preference, a measure of anhedonia. We conclude that chronic stress selectively decreases AMPAR number and function at specific synapses and suggest that this underlies various depressive endophenotypes. Our findings provide evidence that glutamatergic dysfunction is an underlying cause of depression and that current first-line antidepressant drugs act by restoring excitatory synaptic strength. Our findings suggest novel therapeutic targets for this debilitating disease.

  10. Presynaptic facilitatory adenosine A2A receptors mediate fade induced by neuromuscular relaxants that exhibit anticholinesterase activity.

    PubMed

    Bornia, Elaine Cs; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo; Alves-Do-Prado, Wilson

    2011-03-01

    1. Pancuronium, cisatracurium and vecuronium are antinicotinic agents that, in contrast with d-tubocurarine and hexamethonium, exhibit anticholinesterase activity. Pancuronium-, cisatracurium- and vecuronium-induced fade results from blockade of facilitatory nicotinic receptors on motor nerves, but fade produced by such agents also depends on the presynaptic activation of inhibitory muscarinic M2 receptors by acetylcholine released from motor nerve terminals and activation of inhibitory adenosine A1 receptors by adenosine released from motor nerves and muscles. The participation of presynaptic facilitatory A2A receptors in fade caused by pancuronium, cisatracurium and vecuronium has not yet been investigated. In the present study, we determined the effects of ZM241385, an antagonist of presynaptic facilitatory A2A receptors, on fade produced by these neuromuscular relaxants in the rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND) preparation. 2. The muscles were stimulated indirectly at 75±3Hz to induce a sustained tetanizing muscular contraction. The lowest concentration at which each antinicotinic agent produced fade without modifying initial tetanic tension (presynaptic action) was determined. 3. d-Tubocurarine-induced fade occurred only at 55 nmol/L, a concentration that also reduced maximal tetanic tension (post-synaptic action). At 10 nmol/L, ZM 241385 alone did not produce fade, but it did attenuate pancuronium (0.32 μmol/L)-, cisatracurium (0.32 μmol/L)- and vecuronium (0.36 μmol/L)-induced fade. 4. The fade induced by the 'pure' antinicotinic agents d-tubocurarine (55 nmol/L) and hexamethonium (413 μmol/L) was not altered by 10 nmol/L ZM 241385, indicating that presynaptic adenosine A2A receptors play a significant role in the fade produced by antinicotinic agents when such agents have anticholinesterase activity. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Schizophrenia susceptibility and NMDA-receptor mediated signalling: an association study involving 32 tagSNPs of DAO, DAOA, PPP3CC, and DTNBP1 genes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies supported associations between four NMDA-receptor-mediated signalling genes (D-amino acid oxidase, DAO; D-amino acid oxidase activator, DAOA; protein phosphatase 3 catalytic subunit gamma isoform, PPP3CC; dystrobrevin-binding protein 1, DTNBP1) and schizophrenia susceptibility, even though with contrasting results. Methods In an attempt to replicate these findings for the first time in an Italian population, a panel of 32 tagSNPs was analysed in a representative case-control sample involving 879 subjects. Results An association in the allele frequency was observed for the estimated PPP3CC CAG triplotype in the SNP window rs4872499 T/C-rs11780915 A/G-rs13271367 G/A (pcorrect = 0.001). Similarly, the clustered genotype frequencies of the estimated/phased CAG triplotype differed between cases and controls (p = 0.004), with the carriers having a higher frequency in the control population (p = 0.002, odd ratio OR = 0.59, 95% confident interval CI: 0.43-0.82). Following the phenotypic dissection strategy, the analysis of single SNPs evidenced a protective effect in males of rs11780915 and rs13271367 in PPP3CC gene (pcorrect = 0.02, pcorrect = 0.04 respectively). Moreover the estimated/phased GT diplotype (rs2070586A/G-rs3741775G/T) carriers of the DAO gene were more highly represented in female controls (p = 0.017, OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.37-0.90), as were the estimated/phased CAG triplotype carriers of the PPP3CC gene in females (p = 0.01, OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.32-0.87). In addition, we performed an interaction analysis, and a 66% (p = 0.003, OR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.17-0.70) lower risk of developing schizophrenia for female (CAG + GT) carriers versus non-CAG or -GT carriers was observed. For DTNBP1, we found a protective effect in males for the rs6459409 (pcorrect = 0.02) and the estimated/phased CT diplotype (rs6459409-rs9476886) carriers (p = 3x10-4, OR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.30-0.70). In

  12. Spinal 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors mediate low, but not high, frequency TENS-induced antihyperalgesia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Rajan; King, Ellen W.; Dickman, Janelle K.; Herold, Carli A.; Johnston, Natalie F.; Spurgin, Megan L.; Sluka, Kathleen A.

    2009-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a form of non-pharmacological treatment for pain. Involvement of descending inhibitory systems is implicated in TENS-induced analgesia. In the present study, the roles of spinal 5-HT and α2-adrenoceptors in TENS analgesia were investigated in rats. Hyperalgesia was induced by inflaming the knee joint with 3% kaolin—carrageenan mixture and assessed by measuring paw withdrawal latency (PWL) to heat before and 4 h after injection. The (1) α2-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine (30 μg), (2) 5-HT antagonist methysergide (5-HT1 and 5-HT2,30 μg), one of the 5-HT receptor subtype antagonists, (3) NAN-190 (5-HT1A, 15 μg), (4) ketanserin (5-HT2A, 30 μg), (5) MDL-72222 (5-HT3, 12 μg), or (6) vehicle was administered intrathecally prior to TENS treatment. Low (4 Hz) or high (100 Hz) frequency TENS at sensory intensity was then applied to the inflamed knee for 20 min and PWL was determined. Selectivity of the antagonists used was confirmed using respective agonists administered intrathecally. Yohimbine had no effect on the antihyperalgesia produced by low or high frequency TENS. Methysergide and MDL-72222 prevented the antihyperalgesia produced by low, but not high, frequency TENS. Ketanserin attenuated the antihyperalgesic effects of low frequency TENS whereas NAN-190 had no effect. The results from the present study show that spinal 5-HT receptors mediate low, but not high, frequency TENS-induced antihyperalgesia through activation of 5-HT2A and 5-HT3 receptors in rats. Furthermore, spinal noradrenergic receptors are not involved in either low or high frequency TENS antihyperalgesia. PMID:14499437

  13. Genistein Promotes Proliferation of Human Cervical Cancer Cells Through Estrogen Receptor-Mediated PI3K/Akt-NF-κB Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hai-Hong; Chen, Shu-Ping; Zheng, Qiu-Ling; Nie, Shao-Ping; Li, Wen-Juan; Hu, Xiao-Juan; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2018-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are polyphenol compounds which have similar structure to 17β-estradiol (E2), a kind of main estrogen in women. Thus, phytoestrogens may affect the reproductive and endocrine systems, leading to the development of estrogen-related cancers. The effect of genistein (Gen), one of the most studied phytoestrogens, on human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) was investigated in this study. It was found that Gen at concentrations of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 µmol·L-1 promoted the proliferation of HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. Gen increased the portion of HeLa cells in S phase and decreased the portion of the cells in G1 phase. Besides, apoptosis rate of the cells was significantly lower when treated with Gen compared with the control group. It was also found that the expression of ERα, Akt or nuclear NF-κB p65 protein was activated by Gen. The correlation between these three proteins may be as following: ERα was the upstream, followed by Akt, and then nuclear NF-κB p65 protein. In addition, the downstream genes of activated nuclear NF-κB p65 were found to be associated with cell cycle and apoptosis of cancer cells. Our results suggested that Gen may stimulate cell proliferation partially through the estrogen receptor-mediated PI3K/Akt-NF-κB pathway and the further activation of the downstream genes of nuclear NF-κB p65. PMID:29344275

  14. Angiotensin II stimulates calcineurin activity in proximal tubule epithelia through AT-1 receptor-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of the PLC-gamma1 isoform.

    PubMed

    Lea, Janice P; Jin, Shao G; Roberts, Brian R; Shuler, Michael S; Marrero, Mario B; Tumlin, James A

    2002-07-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) contributes to the maintenance of extracellular fluid volume by regulating sodium transport in the nephron. In nonepithelial cells, activation of phospholipase C (PLC) by AT-1 receptors stimulates the generation of 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) and the release of intracellular calcium. Calcineurin, a serine-threonine phosphatase, is activated by calcium and calmodulin, and both PLC and calcineurin have been linked to sodium transport in the proximal tubule. An examination of whether AngII activates calcineurin in a model of proximal tubule epithelia (LLC-PK1 cells) was performed; AngII increased calcineurin activity within 30 s. An examination of whether AngII activates PLC in proximal tubule epithelia was also performed after first showing that all three families of PLC isoforms are present in LLC-PK1 cells. Application of AngII increased IP(3) generation by 60% within 15 s, which coincided with AngII-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the PLC-gamma1 isoform also observed at 15 s. AngII-induced tyrosine phosphorylation was blocked by the AT-1 receptor antagonist, Losartan. Subsequently, an inhibitor of tyrosine phosphorylation blocked the AngII-induced activation of calcineurin, as did coincubation with an inhibitor of PLC activity and with an antagonist of the AT-1 receptor. It is therefore concluded that AngII stimulates calcineurin phosphatase activity in proximal tubule epithelial cells through a mechanism involving AT-1 receptor-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of the PLC isoform.

  15. Activation of the sigma receptor 1 modulates AMPA receptor-mediated light-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents in rat retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei-Lei; Deng, Qin-Qin; Weng, Shi-Jun; Yang, Xiong-Li; Zhong, Yong-Mei

    2016-09-22

    Sigma receptor (σR), a unique receptor family, is classified into three subtypes: σR1, σR2 and σR3. It was previously shown that σR1 activation induced by 1μM SKF10047 (SKF) suppressed N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated responses of rat retinal ganglion cells (GCs) and the suppression was mediated by a distinct Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipase C (PLC)-protein kinase C (PKC) pathway. In the present work, using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques in rat retinal slice preparations, we further demonstrate that SKF of higher dosage (50μM) significantly suppressed AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated light-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (L-EPSCs) of retinal ON-type GCs (ON GCs), and the effect was reversed by the σR1 antagonist BD1047, suggesting the involvement of σR1. The SKF (50μM) effect was unlikely due to a change in glutamate release from bipolar cells, as suggested by the unaltered paired-pulse ratio (PPR) of AMPAR-mediated EPSCs of ON GCs. SKF (50μM) did not change L-EPSCs of ON GCs when the G protein inhibitor GDP-β-S or the protein kinase G (PKG) inhibitor KT5823 was intracellularly infused. Calcium imaging further revealed that SKF (50μM) did not change intracellular calcium concentration in GCs and persisted to suppress L-EPSCs when intracellular calcium was chelated by BAPTA. The SKF (50μM) effect was intact when protein kinase A (PKA) and phosphatidylinostiol (PI)-PLC signaling pathways were both blocked. We conclude that the SKF (50μM) effect is Ca(2+)-independent, PKG-dependent, but not involving PKA, PI-PLC pathways. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. P2X1 Receptor-Mediated Ca2+ Influx Triggered by DA-9801 Potentiates Nerve Growth Factor-Induced Neurite Outgrowth.

    PubMed

    Back, Moon Jung; Lee, Hae Kyung; Lee, Joo Hyun; Fu, Zhicheng; Son, Mi Won; Choi, Sang Zin; Go, Hyo Sang; Yoo, Sungjae; Hwang, Sun Wook; Kim, Dae Kyong

    2016-11-16

    Nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neuronal regeneration has emerged as a strategy to treat neuronal degeneration-associated disorders. However, direct NGF administration is limited by the occurrence of adverse effects at high doses of NGF. Therefore, development of a therapeutic strategy to promote the NGF trophic effect is required. In view of the lack of understanding of the mechanism for potentiating the NGF effect, this study investigated molecular targets of DA-9801, a well-standardized Dioscorea rhizome extract, which has a promoting effect on NGF. An increase in intracellular calcium ion level was induced by DA-9801, and chelation of extracellular calcium ions with ethylene-bis(oxyethylenenitrilo)tetraacetic acid (EGTA) suppressed the potentiating effect of DA-9801 on NGF-induced neurite outgrowth. In addition, EGTA treatment reduced the DA-9801-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), the major mediators of neurite outgrowth. To find which calcium ion-permeable channel contributes to the calcium ion influx induced by DA-9801, we treated PC12 cells with various inhibitors of calcium ion-permeable channels. NF449, a P2X1 receptor selective antagonist, significantly abolished the potentiating effect of DA-9801 on NGF-induced neurite outgrowth and abrogated the DA-9801-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In addition, transfection with siRNA of P2X1 receptor significantly reduced the DA-9801-enhanced neurite outgrowth. In conclusion, calcium ion influx through P2X1 receptor mediated the promoting effect of DA-9801 on NGF-induced neurite outgrowth via ERK1/2 phosphorylation.

  17. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Mediate the Suppressive Effect of an Injection of Diluted Bee Venom into the GV3 Acupoint on Oxaliplatin-Induced Neuropathic Cold Allodynia in Rats.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Heera; Kim, Min Joon; Yoon, Insoo; Li, Dong Xing; Bae, Hyunsu; Kim, Sun Kwang

    2015-01-01

    Oxaliplatin, a platinum-based chemotherapy drug, often induces acute neuropathic pain, especially cold allodynia, even after a single administration. Subcutaneous injection of diluted bee venom (BV) into acupoints has been used to treat various pain symptoms in traditional oriental medicine. Although we previously demonstrated the suppressive effect of BV injection on oxaliplatin-induced cold allodynia in rats, its neurochemical mechanism remained unclear. This study investigates whether and how the cholinergic system mediates the relieving effect of BV injection on cold allodynia in oxaliplatin-administered rats. The behavioral signs of cold allodynia induced by an oxaliplatin administration (6 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) were evaluated by a tail immersion test in cold water (4°C). BV (0.25 mg/kg, subcutaneously (s.c.)) injection into the Yaoyangguan acupoint, located between the spinous processes of the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae, significantly alleviated the cold allodynia. This relieving effect of BV injection on oxaliplatin-induced cold allodynia was blocked by a pretreatment with mecamylamine (a non-selective nicotinic receptor antagonist, 2 mg/kg, i.p.), but not by atropine (a non-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg, i.p.). Further, dihydro-β-erythroidinehydrobromide (DHβE, an α4β2 nicotinic antagonist, 5 mg/kg, i.p.) prevented the anti-allodynic effect of BV, whereas methyllycaconitine (an α7 nicotinic antagonist, 6 mg/kg, i.p.) did not. Finally, intrathecal administration of DHβE (10 nM) blocked the BV-induced anti-allodynic effect. These results suggest that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, especially spinal α4β2 receptors, but not muscarinic receptors, mediate the suppressive effect of BV injection on oxaliplatin-induced acute cold allodynia in rats.

  18. The effect of age on the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol and its GABA(A) receptor mediation in cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Helms, Christa M; Grant, Kathleen A

    2011-08-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is less common among aged compared to young adults, with aged adults showing greater sensitivity to many behavioral effects of ethanol. This study compared the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol in young and middle-aged adult cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and its γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor mediation. Two male and two female monkeys trained to discriminate ethanol (1.0 g/kg, i.g.; 60-min pre-treatment interval) from water at 5-6 years of age (Grant et al. in Psychopharmacology 152:181-188, 2000) were re-trained in the current study more than a decade later (19.3 ± 1.0 years of age) for a within-subjects comparison. Also, four experimentally naïve middle-aged (mean ± SEM, 17.0 ± 1.5 years of age) female monkeys were trained to discriminate ethanol for between-subjects comparison with published data from young adult naïve monkeys. Two of the naïve middle-aged monkeys attained criterion performance, with weak stimulus control and few discrimination tests, despite greater blood-ethanol concentration 60 min after 1.0 g/kg ethanol in middle-aged compared to young adult female monkeys (Green et al. in Alcohol Clin Exp Res 23:611-616, 1999). The efficacy of the GABA(A) receptor positive modulators pentobarbital, midazolam, allopregnanolone, pregnanolone, and androsterone to substitute for the discriminative stimulus effects of 1.0 g/kg ethanol was maintained from young adulthood to middle age. The data suggest that 1.0 g/kg ethanol is a weak discriminative stimulus in naive middle-aged monkeys. Nevertheless, the GABA(A) receptor mechanisms mediating the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol, when learned as a young adult, appear stable across one third of the primate lifespan.

  19. Role of Al in Zn bath on the formation of the inhibition layer during hot-dip galvanizing for a 1.2Si-1.5Mn transformation-induced plasticity steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kuang-Kuo; Hsu, Chiung-Wen; Chang, Liuwen; Gan, Dershin; Yang, Kuo-Cheng

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated the interaction between the Al in the Zn bath and the surface oxides formed by selective oxidation on a 1.2Si-1.5Mn TRIP steel during hot-dip galvanizing. XPS and TEM were employed for characterization. The results indicated that the amorphous xMnO·SiO2 oxide could react with Al to form a Si-Mn-Al-containing oxide. The crystalline MnSiO3 and Mn2SiO4 oxides could be largely reduced by Al to form holes in the oxide film. Consequently, the steel covered by a layer of mixed xMnO·SiO2 and MnSiO3 could form a continuous Fe2Al5 inhibition layer and showed the highest galvanizability among the three samples examined.

  20. Dopamine D2 receptor-mediated G-protein activation in rat striatum: functional autoradiography and influence of unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the substantia nigra.

    PubMed

    Newman-Tancredi, A; Cussac, D; Brocco, M; Rivet, J M; Chaput, C; Touzard, M; Pasteau, V; Millan, M J

    2001-11-30

    , the present data indicate that, in rat striatum, the actions of quinelorane are mediated primarily by D2 receptors, and suggest that behavioural hypersensitivity to this agonist, induced by unilateral SNPC lesions, is associated with an increase in D2, but not D3 or D4, receptor-mediated G-protein activation.

  1. P2Y receptor-mediated transient relaxation of rat longitudinal ileum preparations involves phospholipase C activation, intracellular Ca(2+) release and SK channel activation.

    PubMed

    Mader, Felix; Krause, Ludwig; Tokay, Tursonjan; Hakenberg, Oliver W; Köhling, Rüdiger; Kirschstein, Timo

    2016-05-01

    Purinergic signaling plays a major role in the enteric nervous system, where it governs gut motility through a number of P2X and P2Y receptors. The aim of this study was to investigate the P2Y receptor-mediated motility in rat longitudinal ileum preparations. Ileum smooth muscle strips were prepared from rats, and fixed in an organ bath. Isometric contraction and relaxation responses of the muscle strips were measured with force transducers. Drugs were applied by adding of stock solutions to the organ bath to yield the individual final concentrations. Application of the non-hydrolyzable P2 receptor agonists α,β-Me-ATP or 2-Me-S-ADP (10, 100 μmol/L) dose-dependently elicited a transient relaxation response followed by a sustained contraction. The relaxation response was largely blocked by SK channel blockers apamin (500 nmol/L) and UCL1684 (10 μmol/L), PLC inhibitor U73122 (100 μmol/L), IP3 receptor blocker 2-APB (100 μmol/L) or sarcoendoplasmic Ca(2+) ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin (1 μmol/L), but not affected by atropine, NO synthase blocker L-NAME or tetrodotoxin. Furthermore, α,β-Me-ATP-induced relaxation was suppressed by P2Y1 receptor antagonist MRS2179 (50 μmol/L) or P2Y13 receptor antagonist MRS2211 (100 μmol/L), and was abolished by co-application of the two antagonists, whereas 2-Me-S-ADP-induced relaxation was abolished by P2Y6 receptor antagonist MRS2578 (50 μmol/L). In addition, P2Y1 receptor antagonist MRS2500 (1 μmol/L) not only abolished α,β-Me-ATP-induced relaxation, but also suppressed 2-Me-S-ADP-induced relaxation. P2Y receptor agonist-induced transient relaxation of rat ileum smooth muscle strips is mediated predominantly by P2Y1 receptor, but also by P2Y6 and P2Y13 receptors, and involves PLC, IP3, Ca(2+) release and SK channel activation, but is independent of acetylcholine and NO release.

  2. Contribution of Priority PAHs and POPs to Ah Receptor-Mediated Activities in Sediment Samples from the River Elbe Estuary, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Otte, Jens C.; Keiter, Steffen; Faßbender, Christopher; Higley, Eric B.; Rocha, Paula Suares; Brinkmann, Markus; Wahrendorf, Dierk-Steffen; Manz, Werner; Wetzel, Markus A.; Braunbeck, Thomas; Giesy, John P.; Hecker, Markus; Hollert, Henner

    2013-01-01

    The estuary of the River Elbe between Hamburg and the North Sea (Germany) is a sink for contaminated sediment and suspended particulate matter (SPM). One major concern is the effect of human activities on the hydrodynamics, particularly the intensive dredging activities in this area that may result in remobilization of sediment-bound pollutants. The aim of this study was to identify pollutants contributing to the toxicological risk associated with re-suspension of sediments in the Elbe Estuary by use of an effect-directed analysis that combines chemical and biological analyses in with specific fractionation techniques. Sediments were collected from sites along the Elbe Estuary and a site from a small harbor basin of the Elbe Estuary that is known to be polluted. The sixteen priority EPA-PAHs were quantified in organic extracts of sediments. In addition, dioxin equivalents of sediments were investigated by use of the 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase assay with RTL-W1 cells and the Ah receptor-mediated luciferase transactivation assay with H4IIE-luc cells. Quantification of the 16 priority PAHs revealed that sediments were moderately contaminated at all of the sites in the Elbe River Estuary (<0.02–0.906 µg/g dw). Sediments contained relatively small concentrations of dioxin equivalents (Bio-TEQ) with concentrations ranging from 15.5 to 322 pg/g dw, which were significantly correlated with dioxin equivalents calculated based on toxicity reference values and concentrations of PAH. The concentration of Bio-TEQ at the reference site exceeded 200,000 pg/g dw. In a potency balance the 16 PAHs explained between 47 and 118% of the Bio-TEQ in the luciferase assay, which can be explained by the constant input of PAHs bound to SPM from the upper course of the Elbe River into its estuary. Successful identification of a significant portion of dioxin-like activity to priority PAHs in complex environmental samples such as sediments has rarely been reported. PMID:24146763

  3. Olfactory bulb short axon cell release of GABA and dopamine produces a temporally biphasic inhibition-excitation response in external tufted cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaolin; Plachez, Celine; Shao, Zuoyi; Puche, Adam; Shipley, Michael T

    2013-02-13

    Evidence for coexpression of two or more classic neurotransmitters in neurons has increased, but less is known about cotransmission. Ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons corelease dopamine (DA), the excitatory transmitter glutamate, and the inhibitory transmitter GABA onto target cells in the striatum. Olfactory bulb (OB) short axon cells (SACs) form interglomerular connections and coexpress markers for DA and GABA. Using an optogenetic approach, we provide evidence that mouse OB SACs release both GABA and DA onto external tufted cells (ETCs) in other glomeruli. Optical activation of channelrhodopsin specifically expressed in DAergic SACs produced a GABA(A) receptor-mediated monosynaptic inhibitory response, followed by DA-D(1)-like receptor-mediated excitatory response in ETCs. The GABA(A) receptor-mediated hyperpolarization activates I(h) current in ETCs; synaptically released DA increases I(h), which enhances postinhibitory rebound spiking. Thus, the opposing actions of synaptically released GABA and DA are functionally integrated by I(h) to generate an inhibition-to-excitation "switch" in ETCs. Consistent with the established role of I(h) in ETC burst firing, we show that endogenous DA release increases ETC spontaneous bursting frequency. ETCs transmit sensory signals to mitral/tufted output neurons and drive intraglomerular inhibition to shape glomerulus output to downstream olfactory networks. GABA and DA cotransmission from SACs to ETCs may play a key role in regulating output coding across the glomerular array.

  4. Olfactory bulb short axon cell release of GABA and dopamine produces a temporally biphasic inhibition-excitation response in external tufted cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shaolin; Plachez, Celine; Shao, Zuoyi; Puche, Adam; Shipley, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence for co-expression of two or more classic neurotransmitters in neurons has increased but less is known about co-transmission. Ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons, co-release dopamine (DA), the excitatory transmitter glutamate and the inhibitory transmitter GABA onto target cells in the striatum. Olfactory bulb (OB) short axon cells (SACs) form interglomerular connections and co-express markers for dopamine (DA) and GABA. Using an optogenetic approach we provide evidence that mouse OB SACs release both GABA and DA onto external tufted cells (ETCs) in other glomeruli. Optical activation of channelrhodopsin specifically expressed in DAergic SACs produced a GABAA receptor-mediated monosynaptic inhibitory response followed by DA-D1-like receptor-mediated excitatory response in ETCs. The GABAA receptor-mediated hyperpolarization activates Ih current in ETCs; synaptically released DA increases Ih, which enhances post-inhibitory rebound spiking. Thus, the opposing actions of synaptically released GABA and DA are functionally integrated by Ih to generate an inhibition-to-excitation “switch” in ETCs. Consistent with the established role of Ih in ETC burst firing, we show that endogenous DA release increases ETC spontaneous bursting frequency. ETCs transmit sensory signals to mitral/tufted output neurons and drive intraglomerular inhibition to shape glomerulus output to downstream olfactory networks. GABA and DA co-transmission from SACs to ETCs may play a key role in regulating output coding across the glomerular array. PMID:23407950

  5. Protein kinase A can block EphA2 receptor-mediated cell repulsion by increasing EphA2 S897 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Barquilla, Antonio; Lamberto, Ilaria; Noberini, Roberta; Heynen-Genel, Susanne; Brill, Laurence M; Pasquale, Elena B

    2016-09-01

    The EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase plays key roles in tissue homeostasis and disease processes such as cancer, pathological angiogenesis, and inflammation through two distinct signaling mechanisms. EphA2 "canonical" signaling involves ephrin-A ligand binding, tyrosine autophosphorylation, and kinase activity; EphA2 "noncanonical" signaling involves phosphorylation of serine 897 (S897) by AKT and RSK kinases. To identify small molecules counteracting EphA2 canonical signaling, we developed a high-content screening platform measuring inhibition of ephrin-A1-induced PC3 prostate cancer cell retraction. Surprisingly, most hits from a screened collection of pharmacologically active compounds are agents that elevate intracellular cAMP by activating G protein-coupled receptors such as the β2-adrenoceptor. We found that cAMP promotes phosphorylation of S897 by protein kinase A (PKA) as well as increases the phosphorylation of several nearby serine/threonine residues, which constitute a phosphorylation hotspot. Whereas EphA2 canonical and noncanonical signaling have been viewed as mutually exclusive, we show that S897 phosphorylation by PKA can coexist with EphA2 tyrosine phosphorylation and block cell retraction induced by EphA2 kinase activity. Our findings reveal a novel paradigm in EphA2 function involving the interplay of canonical and noncanonical signaling and highlight the ability of the β2-adrenoceptor/cAMP/PKA axis to rewire EphA2 signaling in a subset of cancer cells. © 2016 Barquilla et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  6. In vitro fusion of endocytic vesicles is inhibited by cyclin A-cdc2 kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Woodman, P G; Adamczewski, J P; Hunt, T; Warren, G

    1993-01-01

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis and recycling are inhibited in mitotic mammalian cells, and previous studies have shown that inhibition of endocytic vesicle fusion in vitro occurs via cyclin B-cdc2 kinase. To test for the ability of cyclin A-cdc2 kinase to inhibit endocytic vesicle fusion, we employed recombinant cyclin A proteins. Addition of cyclin A to interphase extracts activated a histone kinase and markedly reduced the efficiency of endocytic vesicle fusion. By a number of criteria, inhibition of fusion was shown to be due to the action of cyclin A, via the mitosis-specific cdc2 kinase, and not an indirect effect through cyclin B. Two-stage incubations were used to demonstrate that at least one target of cyclin A-cdc2 kinase is a cytosolic component of the fusion apparatus. Reconstitution experiments showed that this component was also modified in mitotic cytosols and was unaffected by N-ethyl maleimide treatment. Images PMID:8334308

  7. In vitro fusion of endocytic vesicles is inhibited by cyclin A-cdc2 kinase.

    PubMed

    Woodman, P G; Adamczewski, J P; Hunt, T; Warren, G

    1993-05-01

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis and recycling are inhibited in mitotic mammalian cells, and previous studies have shown that inhibition of endocytic vesicle fusion in vitro occurs via cyclin B-cdc2 kinase. To test for the ability of cyclin A-cdc2 kinase to inhibit endocytic vesicle fusion, we employed recombinant cyclin A proteins. Addition of cyclin A to interphase extracts activated a histone kinase and markedly reduced the efficiency of endocytic vesicle fusion. By a number of criteria, inhibition of fusion was shown to be due to the action of cyclin A, via the mitosis-specific cdc2 kinase, and not an indirect effect through cyclin B. Two-stage incubations were used to demonstrate that at least one target of cyclin A-cdc2 kinase is a cytosolic component of the fusion apparatus. Reconstitution experiments showed that this component was also modified in mitotic cytosols and was unaffected by N-ethyl maleimide treatment.

  8. The main source of ambient GABA responsible for tonic inhibition in the mouse hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Glykys, Joseph; Mody, Istvan

    2007-01-01

    The extracellular space of the brain contains γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that activates extrasynaptic GABAA receptors mediating tonic inhibition. The source of this GABA is uncertain: it could be overspill of vesicular release, non-vesicular leakage, reverse transport, dying cells or glia. Using a novel approach, we simultaneously measured phasic and tonic inhibitory currents and assessed their correlation. Enhancing or diminishing vesicular GABA release in hippocampal neurons caused highly correlated changes in the two inhibitions. During high-frequency phasic inhibitory bursts, tonic current was also enhanced as shown by simulating the summation of IPSCs and by recordings in knockout mice devoid of tonic inhibitory current. When vesicular release was reduced by blocking action potentials or the vesicular GABA transporter, phasic and tonic currents decreased in a correlated fashion. Our results are consistent with most of hippocampal tonic inhibitory current being mediated by GABA released from the very vesicles responsible for activating phasic inhibition. PMID:17525114

  9. The main source of ambient GABA responsible for tonic inhibition in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Glykys, Joseph; Mody, Istvan

    2007-08-01

    The extracellular space of the brain contains gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that activates extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors mediating tonic inhibition. The source of this GABA is uncertain: it could be overspill of vesicular release, non-vesicular leakage, reverse transport, dying cells or glia. Using a novel approach, we simultaneously measured phasic and tonic inhibitory currents and assessed their correlation. Enhancing or diminishing vesicular GABA release in hippocampal neurons caused highly correlated changes in the two inhibitions. During high-frequency phasic inhibitory bursts, tonic current was also enhanced as shown by simulating the summation of IPSCs and by recordings in knockout mice devoid of tonic inhibitory current. When vesicular release was reduced by blocking action potentials or the vesicular GABA transporter, phasic and tonic currents decreased in a correlated fashion. Our results are consistent with most of hippocampal tonic inhibitory current being mediated by GABA released from the very vesicles responsible for activating phasic inhibition.

  10. Tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids mimic direct but not receptor-mediated inhibitory effects of estrogens and phytoestrogens on testicular endocrine function. Possible significance for Leydig cell insufficiency in alcohol addiction

    SciTech Connect

    Stammel, W.; Thomas, H.; Staib, W.

    1991-01-01

    Possible effects of various tetrahydroisoquinolines (TIQs) on rat testicular endocrine function were tested in vitro in order to prove whether these compounds may be mediators of the development of Leydig cell insufficiency. TIQ effects on different levels of regulation of testis function were compared in vitro with estrogen effects, since both classes of compounds have structural similarities. Gonadotropin-stimulated testosterone production by testicular Leydig cells was inhibited by tetrahydropapaveroline and isosalsoline, the IC{sub 50} values being comparable to those of estradiol, 2-hydroxyestradiol, and the phytoestrogens, coumestrol and genistein; salsolinol and salsoline were less effective, and salsolidine was ineffective. None of thesemore » TIQs interacted significantly with testicular estrogen receptor as analyzed by estradiol displacement. However, tetrahydropapaveroline, isosalsoline and salsolinol competitively inhibited substrate binding to cytochrome P45OXVII, with similar efficiency as the estrogens did; salsoline and salsolidine were again much less effective.« less

  11. Gastric acid secretion: activation and inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, G.; Prinz, C.; Loo, D.; Bamberg, K.; Besancon, M.; Shin, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Peripheral regulation of gastric acid secretion is initiated by the release of gastrin from the G cell. Gastrin then stimulates the cholecystokinin-B receptor on the enterochromaffin-like cell beginning a calcium signaling cascade. An exocytotic release of histamine follows with concomitant activation of a C1- current. The released histamine begins the H2-receptor mediated sequence of events in the parietal cell, which results in activation of the gastric H+/K+ - ATPase. This enzyme is the final common pathway of acid secretion. The H+/K+ - ATPase is composed of two subunits: the larger alpha-subunit couples ion transport to hydrolysis of ATP, the smaller beta-subunit is required for appropriate assembly of the holoenzyme. Both the membrane and extracytoplasmic domain contain the ion transport pathway, and therefore, this region is the target for the antisecretory drugs of the post-H2 era. The 100 kDa alpha-subunit has probably 10 membrane spanning segments with, therefore, five extracytoplasmic loops. The 35 kDA beta-subunit has a single membrane spanning segment, and most of this protein is extracytoplasmic with the six or seven N glycosylation consensus sequences occupied. Omeprazole is an acid-accumulated, acid-activated, prodrug that binds covalently to two cysteine residues at positions 813 (or 822) and 892, accessible from the acidic face of the pump. Lansoprazole binds to cys321, 813 (or 822) and 892; pantoprazole binds to cys813 and 822. The common binding site for these drugs (cys813 or 822) is responsible for the inhibition of acid transport. Covalent inhibition of the acid pump improves control of acid secretion, but since the effective half life of the inhibition in man is about 48 hr, full inhibition of acid secretion, perhaps necessary for eradication of Helicobacter pylori in combination with a single antibiotic, will require prolongation of the effect of this class of drug. PMID:7502535

  12. Evidence that tachykinin NK1 and NK2 receptors mediate non-adrenergic non-cholinergic excitation and contraction in the circular muscle of guinea-pig duodenum.

    PubMed Central

    Zagorodnyuk, V.; Santicioli, P.; Maggi, C. A.; Giachetti, A.

    1995-01-01

    1. In the presence of atropine (1 microM), guanethidine (3 microM), indomethacin (3 microM), apamin (0.1 microM) and L-nitroarginine (L-NOARG, 30 microM), electrical field simulation (EFS) produced a nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) excitatory junctional potential (e.j.p.), action potentials and contraction of the circular muscle of the guinea-pig proximal duodenum, recorded by the single sucrose gap technique. 2. The selective tachykinin (TK) NK1 receptor antagonist, GR 82,334 (30 nM-3 microM) produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the EFS-evoked NANC e.j.p. and contraction. Similarly, the selective NK2 receptor antagonists, MEN 10,627 (30 nM-3 microM) and GR 94,800 (100 nM-10 microM), both produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the EFS-evoked NANC e.j.p. and contraction. GR 82,334 inhibited the electrical and mechanical NANC responses to EFS in an almost parallel manner, while MEN 10,627 and GR 94,800 were more effective in inhibiting the mechanical than the electrical response to EFS. 3. Activation of the NK1 or NK2 receptor by the selective agonists, [Sar9]substance P (SP) sulphone and [beta Ala8]neurokinin A (NKA) (4-10), respectively (0.3 microM each), produced depolarization, action potentials and contractions. GR 82,334 selectively inhibited the responses to [Sar9]SP sulphone, without affecting the responses to [beta Ala8]NKA (4-10). MEN 10,627 and GR 94,800 inhibited or abolished the responses to [beta Ala8]NKA (4-10), without affecting the responses to [Sar9]SP sulphone. 4. Nifedipine (1 microM) abolished the action potentials and contraction produced either by EFS or by the TK receptor agonists [Sar9]SP sulphone or [beta Ala8]NKA (4-10). 5. In the presence of nifedipine, the NANC e.j.p. produced by EFS was biphasic: in the majority of strips tested (21 out of 29) an early fast phase of depolarization was followed by a second slow component. The combined administration of GR 82,334 and GR 94,800 (3 microM each) reduced both

  13. Ghrelin receptors mediate ghrelin-induced excitation of agouti-related protein/neuropeptide Y but not pro-opiomelanocortin neurons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Rui; Chen, Hong; Zhou, Jing-Jing; Pradhan, Geetali; Sun, Yuxiang; Pan, Hui-Lin; Li, De-Pei

    2017-08-01

    Ghrelin increases food intake and body weight by stimulating orexigenic agouti-related protein (AgRP)/neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons and inhibiting anorexic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the hypothalamus. Growth hormone secretagogue receptor (Ghsr) mediates the effect of ghrelin on feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. However, the role of Ghsr in the ghrelin effect on these two populations of neurons is unclear. We hypothesized that Ghsr mediates the effect of ghrelin on AgRP and POMC neurons. In this study, we determined whether Ghsr similarly mediates the effects of ghrelin on AgRP/NPY and POMC neurons using cell type-specific Ghsr-knockout mice. Perforated whole-cell recordings were performed on green fluorescent protein-tagged AgRP/NPY and POMC neurons in the arcuate nucleus in hypothalamic slices. In Ghsr +/+ mice, ghrelin (100 nM) significantly increased the firing activity of AgRP/NPY neurons but inhibited the firing activity of POMC neurons. In Ghsr -/- mice, the excitatory effect of ghrelin on AgRP/NPY neurons was abolished. Ablation of Ghsr also eliminated ghrelin-induced increases in the frequency of GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents of POMC neurons. Strikingly, ablation of Ghsr converted the ghrelin effect on POMC neurons from inhibition to excitation. Des-acylated ghrelin had no such effect on POMC neurons in Ghsr -/- mice. In both Ghsr +/+ and Ghsr -/- mice, blocking GABA A receptors with gabazine increased the basal firing activity of POMC neurons, and ghrelin further increased the firing activity of POMC neurons in the presence of gabazine. Our findings provide unequivocal evidence that Ghsr is essential for ghrelin-induced excitation of AgRP/NPY neurons. However, ghrelin excites POMC neurons through an unidentified mechanism that is distinct from conventional Ghsr. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  14. Coengagement of CD16 and CD94 receptors mediates secretion of chemokines and induces apoptotic death of naive natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Jewett, Anahid; Cacalano, Nicholas A; Head, Christian; Teruel, Antonia

    2006-04-01

    Down-modulation of CD16 (FcgammaRIII) receptors and loss of natural killer (NK) cell function have been observed in oral cancer patients. However, neither the mechanisms nor the significance of the decrease in CD16 receptors have been fully understood. The cytotoxic activity and survival of NK cells are negatively regulated by antibodies directed against CD16 surface receptor. The addition of anti-CD94 antibody in combination with either F(ab')(2) fragment or intact anti-CD16 antibody to NK cells resulted in significant inhibition of NK cell cytotoxic function and induction of apoptosis in resting human peripheral blood NK cells. Addition of interleukin-2 to anti-CD16 and/or anti-CD94 antibody-treated NK cells significantly inhibited apoptosis and increased the function of NK cells. There was a significant increase in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) but not IFN-gamma secretion in NK cells treated either with anti-CD16 antibody alone or in combination with anti-CD94 antibodies. Consequently, the addition of anti-TNF-alpha antibody partially inhibited apoptosis of NK cells mediated by the combination of anti-CD94 and anti-CD16 antibodies. Increase in apoptotic death of NK cells also correlated with an increase in type 2 inflammatory cytokines and in the induction of chemokines. Thus, we conclude that binding of antibodies to CD16 and CD94 NK cell receptors induces death of the NK cells and signals for the release of chemokines.

  15. Filipin-dependent Inhibition of Cholera Toxin: Evidence for Toxin Internalization and Activation through Caveolae-like Domains

    PubMed Central

    Orlandi, Palmer A.; Fishman, Peter H.

    1998-01-01

    The mechanism by which cholera toxin (CT) is internalized from the plasma membrane before its intracellular reduction and subsequent activation of adenylyl cyclase is not well understood. Ganglioside GM1, the receptor for CT, is predominantly clustered in detergent-insoluble glycolipid rafts and in caveolae, noncoated, cholesterol-rich invaginations on the plasma membrane. In this study, we used filipin, a sterol-binding agent that disrupts caveolae and caveolae-like structures, to explore their role in the internalization and activation of CT in CaCo-2 human intestinal epithelial cells. When toxin internalization was quantified, only 33% of surface-bound toxin was internalized by filipin-treated cells within 1 h compared with 79% in untreated cells. However, CT activation as determined by its reduction to form the A1 peptide and CT activity as measured by cyclic AMP accumulation were inhibited in filipin-treated cells. Another sterol-binding agent, 2-hydroxy-β-cyclodextrin, gave comparable results. The cationic amphiphilic drug chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of clathrin-dependent, receptor-mediated endocytosis, however, affected neither CT internalization, activation, nor activity in contrast to its inhibitory effects on diphtheria toxin cytotoxicity. As filipin did not inhibit the latter, the two drugs appeared to distinguish between caveolae- and coated pit–mediated processes. In addition to its effects in CaCo-2 cells that express low levels of caveolin, filipin also inhibited CT activity in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 and Jurkat T lymphoma cells that are, respectively, rich in or lack caveolin. Thus, filipin inhibition correlated more closely with alterations in the biochemical characteristics of CT-bound membranes due to the interactions of filipin with cholesterol rather than with the expressed levels of caveolin and caveolar structure. Our results indicated that the internalization and activation of CT was dependent on and mediated through cholesterol

  16. Anesthetic Agent-Specific Effects on Synaptic Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    MacIver, M. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Background Anesthetics enhance gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibition in the central nervous system. Different agents have been shown to act on tonic versus synaptic GABA receptors to different degrees, but it remains unknown whether different forms of synaptic inhibition are also differentially engaged. With this in mind, we tested the hypothesis that different types of GABA-mediated synapses exhibit different anesthetic sensitivities. The present study compared effects produced by isoflurane, halothane, pentobarbital, thiopental and propofol on paired pulse GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic inhibition. Effects on glutamate-mediated facilitation were also studied. Methods Synaptic responses were measured in rat hippocampal brain slices. Orthodromic paired pulse stimulation was used to assess anesthetic effects on either glutamate-mediated excitatory inputs or GABA-mediated inhibitory inputs to CA1 neurons. Antidromic stimulation was used to assess anesthetic effects on CA1 background excitability. Agents were studied at equi-effective concentrations for population spike depression to compare their relative degree of effect on synaptic inhibition. Results Differing degrees of anesthetic effect on paired pulse facilitation at excitatory glutamate synapses were evident, and blocking GABA inhibition revealed a previously unseen presynaptic action for pentobarbital. Although all five anesthetics depressed synaptically evoked excitation of CA1 neurons, the involvement of enhanced GABA-mediated inhibition differed considerably among agents. Single pulse inhibition was enhanced by propofol, thiopental and pentobarbital, but only marginally by halothane and isoflurane. In contrast, isoflurane enhanced paired pulse inhibition strongly, as did thiopental, but propofol, pentobarbital and halothane were less effective. Conclusions These observations support the idea that different GABA synapses use receptors with differing subunit compositions, and that anesthetics

  17. Anesthetic agent-specific effects on synaptic inhibition.

    PubMed

    MacIver, M Bruce

    2014-09-01

    Anesthetics enhance γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibition in the central nervous system. Different agents have been shown to act on tonic versus synaptic GABA receptors to different degrees, but it remains unknown whether different forms of synaptic inhibition are also differentially engaged. With this in mind, we tested the hypothesis that different types of GABA-mediated synapses exhibit different anesthetic sensitivities. The present study compared effects produced by isoflurane, halothane, pentobarbital, thiopental, and propofol on paired-pulse GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic inhibition. Effects on glutamate-mediated facilitation were also studied. Synaptic responses were measured in rat hippocampal brain slices. Orthodromic paired-pulse stimulation was used to assess anesthetic effects on either glutamate-mediated excitatory inputs or GABA-mediated inhibitory inputs to CA1 neurons. Antidromic stimulation was used to assess anesthetic effects on CA1 background excitability. Agents were studied at equieffective concentrations for population spike depression to compare their relative degree of effect on synaptic inhibition. Differing degrees of anesthetic effect on paired-pulse facilitation at excitatory glutamate synapses were evident, and blocking GABA inhibition revealed a previously unseen presynaptic action for pentobarbital. Although all 5 anesthetics depressed synaptically evoked excitation of CA1 neurons, the involvement of enhanced GABA-mediated inhibition differed considerably among agents. Single-pulse inhibition was enhanced by propofol, thiopental, and pentobarbital, but only marginally by halothane and isoflurane. In contrast, isoflurane enhanced paired-pulse inhibition strongly, as did thiopental, but propofol, pentobarbital, and halothane were less effective. These observations support the idea that different GABA synapses use receptors with differing subunit compositions and that anesthetics exhibit differing degrees of selectivity for

  18. Type-3 ryanodine receptors mediate hypoxia-, but not neurotransmitter-induced calcium release and contraction in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yun-Min; Wang, Qing-Song; Rathore, Rakesh; Zhang, Wan-Hui; Mazurkiewicz, Joseph E; Sorrentino, Vincenzo; Singer, Harold A; Kotlikoff, Michael I; Wang, Yong-Xiao

    2005-04-01

    In this study we examined the expression of RyR subtypes and the role of RyRs in neurotransmitter- and hypoxia-induced Ca2+ release and contraction in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Under perforated patch clamp conditions, maximal activation of RyRs with caffeine or inositol triphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) with noradrenaline induced equivalent increases in [Ca2+]i and Ca2+-activated Cl- currents in freshly isolated rat PASMCs. Following maximal IP3-induced Ca2+ release, neither caffeine nor chloro-m-cresol induced a response, whereas prior application of caffeine or chloro-m-cresol blocked IP3-induced Ca2+ release. In cultured human PASMCs, which lack functional expression of RyRs, caffeine failed to affect ATP-induced increases in [Ca2+]i in the presence and absence of extracellular Ca2+. The RyR antagonists ruthenium red, ryanodine, tetracaine, and dantrolene greatly inhibited submaximal noradrenaline- and hypoxia-induced Ca2+ release and contraction in freshly isolated rat PASMCs, but did not affect ATP-induced Ca2+ release in cultured human PASMCs. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining indicated similar expression of all three RyR subtypes (RyR1, RyR2, and RyR3) in freshly isolated rat PASMCs. In freshly isolated PASMCs from RyR3 knockout (RyR3-/-) mice, hypoxia-induced, but not submaximal noradrenaline-induced, Ca2+ release and contraction were significantly reduced. Ruthenium red and tetracaine can further inhibit hypoxic increase in [Ca2+]i in RyR3-/- mouse PASMCs. Collectively, our data suggest that (a) RyRs play an important role in submaximal noradrenaline- and hypoxia-induced Ca2+ release and contraction; (b) all three subtype RyRs are expressed; and (c) RyR3 gene knockout significantly inhibits hypoxia-, but not submaximal noradrenaline-induced Ca2+ and contractile responses in PASMCs.

  19. Involvement of nitric oxide synthase in matrix metalloproteinase-9- and/or urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-mediated glioma cell migration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Src tyrosine kinase activates inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and, in turn, nitric oxide production as a means to transduce cell migration. Src tyrosine kinase plays a key proximal role to control α9β1 signaling. Our recent studies have clearly demonstrated the role of α9β1 integrin in matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and/or urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR)-mediated glioma cell migration. In the present study, we evaluated the involvement of α9β1 integrin-iNOS pathway in MMP-9- and/or uPAR-mediated glioma cell migration. Methods MMP-9 and uPAR shRNAs and overexpressing plasmids were used to downregulate and upregulate these molecules, respectively in U251 glioma cells and 5310 glioma xenograft cells. The effect of treatments on migration and invasion potential of these glioma cells were assessed by spheroid migration, wound healing, and Matrigel invasion assays. In order to attain the other objectives we also performed immunocytochemical, immunohistochemical, RT-PCR, Western blot and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. Results Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the prominent association of iNOS with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Immunofluorescence analysis showed prominent expression of iNOS in glioma cells. MMP-9 and/or uPAR knockdown by respective shRNAs reduced iNOS expression in these glioma cells. RT-PCR analysis revealed elevated iNOS mRNA expression in either MMP-9 or uPAR overexpressed glioma cells. The migration potential of MMP-9- and/or uPAR-overexpressed U251 glioma cells was significantly inhibited after treatment with L-NAME, an inhibitor of iNOS. Similarly, a significant inhibition of the invasion potential of the control or MMP-9/uPAR-overexpressed glioma cells was noticed after L-NAME treatment. A prominent reduction of iNOS expression was observed in the tumor regions of nude mice brains, which were injected with 5310 glioma cells, after MMP-9 and/or uPAR knockdown. Protein expressions

  20. Relationship between SU Subdomains That Regulate the Receptor-Mediated Transition from the Native (Fusion-Inhibited) to the Fusion-Active Conformation of the Murine Leukemia Virus Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Lavillette, Dimitri; Ruggieri, Alessia; Boson, Bertrand; Maurice, Marielle; Cosset, François-Loïc

    2002-01-01

    Envelope glycoproteins (Env) of retroviruses are trimers of SU (surface) and TM (transmembrane) heterodimers and are expressed on virions in fusion-competent forms that are likely to be metastable. Activation of the viral receptor-binding domain (RBD) via its interaction with a cell surface receptor is thought to initiate a cascade of events that lead to refolding of the Env glycoprotein into its stable fusion-active conformation. While the fusion-active conformation of the TM subunit has been described in detail for several retroviruses, little is known about the fusion-competent structure of the retroviral glycoproteins or the molecular events that mediate the transition between the two conformations. By characterizing Env chimeras between the ecotropic and amphotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV) SUs as well as a set of point mutants, we show that alterations of the conformation of the SU glycoprotein strongly elevate Env fusogenicity by disrupting the stability of the Env complex. Compensatory mutations that restored both Env stability and fusion control were also identified, allowing definition of interactions within the Env complex that maintain the stability of the native Env complex. We show that, in the receptor-unbound form, structural interactions between the N terminus of the viral RBD (NTR domain), the proline-rich region (PRR), and the distal part of the C-terminal domain of the SU subunit maintain a conformation of the glycoprotein that is fusion inhibitory. Additionally, we identified mutations that disrupt this fusion-inhibitory conformation and allow fusion activation in the absence of viral receptors, provided that receptor-activated RBD fragments are added in trans during infection. Other mutations were identified that allow fusion activation in the absence of receptors for both the viral glycoprotein and the trans-acting RBD. Finally, we found mutations of the SU that bypass in cis the requirement for the NTR domain in fusion activation. All these different mutations call for a critical role of the PRR in mediating conformational changes of the Env glycoprotein during fusion activation. Our results suggest a model of MLV Env fusion activation in which unlocking of the fusion-inhibitory conformation is initiated by receptor binding of the viral RBD, which, upon disruption of the PRR, allows the NTR domain to promote further events in Env fusion activation. This involves a second type of interaction, in cis or in trans, between the receptor-activated RBD and a median segment of the freed C-terminal domain. PMID:12208946

  1. Learning and memory deficits consequent to reduction of the fragile X mental retardation protein result from metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated inhibition of cAMP signaling in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kanellopoulos, Alexandros K; Semelidou, Ourania; Kotini, Andriana G; Anezaki, Maria; Skoulakis, Efthimios M C

    2012-09-19

    Loss of the RNA-binding fragile X protein [fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP)] results in a spectrum of cognitive deficits, the fragile X syndrome (FXS), while aging individuals with decreased protein levels present with a subset of these symptoms and tremor. The broad range of behavioral deficits likely reflects the ubiquitous distribution and multiple functions of the protein. FMRP loss is expected to affect multiple neuronal proteins and intracellular signaling pathways, whose identity and interactions are essential in understanding and ameliorating FXS symptoms. We used heterozygous mutants and targeted RNA interference-mediated abrogation in Drosophila to uncover molecular pathways affected by FMRP reduction. We present evidence that FMRP loss results in excess metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) activity, attributable at least in part to elevation of the protein in affected neurons. Using high-resolution behavioral, genetic, and biochemical analyses, we present evidence that excess mGluR upon FMRP attenuation is linked to the cAMP decrement reported in patients and models, and underlies olfactory associative learning and memory deficits. Furthermore, our data indicate positive transcriptional regulation of the fly fmr1 gene by cAMP, via protein kinase A, likely through the transcription factor CREB. Because the human Fmr1 gene also contains CREB binding sites, the interaction of mGluR excess and cAMP signaling defects we present suggests novel combinatorial pharmaceutical approaches to symptom amelioration upon FMRP attenuation.

  2. Glucocorticoid receptor-mediated delivery of nano gold-withaferin conjugates for reversal of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and tumor regression.

    PubMed

    Agarwalla, Pritha; Mukherjee, Sudip; Sreedhar, Bojja; Banerjee, Rajkumar

    2016-10-01

    To explore the potential of glucocorticoid receptor-targeted nano-gold formulation as antitumor drug sensitizing agent. Simultaneous conjugation of gold nanoparticle with thiol-modified dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid and anticancer drug withaferin A afforded stable gold nanoparticle-modifed dexamethasone-withaferin A nanoconjugate. This metallic nanoparticle formulation showed glucocorticoid receptor-dependent cancer cell selective cytotoxicity, inhibited growth of aggressive mouse melanoma tumor, reduced mice mortality, while reversing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in tumor cells. Same treatment also leads to near-complete downregulation of ABCG2 drug transporter in tumor-associated cells thus attributing it to its drug sensitizing ability. The presently synthesized nanoconjugate holds a great promise to sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapeutics and induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition reversal in tumor cells preventing metastasis.

  3. Bruton's tyrosine kinase regulates B cell antigen receptor-mediated JNK1 response through Rac1 and phospholipase C-gamma2 activation.

    PubMed

    Inabe, Kazunori; Miyawaki, Toshio; Longnecker, Richard; Matsukura, Hiroyoshi; Tsukada, Satoshi; Kurosaki, Tomohiro

    2002-03-13

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is essential for B cell development and B cell antigen receptor (BCR) function. Recent studies have shown that Btk plays an important role in BCR-mediated c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) 1 activation; however, the mechanism by which Btk participates in the JNK1 response remains elusive. Here we show that the BCR-mediated Rac1 activation is significantly inhibited by loss of Btk, while this Rac1 activation is not affected by loss of phospholipase C-gamma2 (PLC-gamma2). Since PLC-gamma2 is also required for BCR-mediated JNK1 response, our results suggest that Btk regulates Rac1 pathway as well as PLC-gamma2 pathway, both of which contribute to the BCR-mediated JNK1 response.

  4. Cross-talk between Carboxypeptidase M and the Kinin B1 Receptor Mediates a New Mode of G Protein-coupled Receptor Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianming; Tan, Fulong; Brovkovych, Viktor; Zhang, Yongkang; Skidgel, Randal A.

    2011-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling is affected by formation of GPCR homo- or heterodimers, but GPCR regulation by other cell surface proteins is not well understood. We reported that the kinin B1 receptor (B1R) heterodimerizes with membrane carboxypeptidase M (CPM), facilitating receptor signaling via CPM-mediated conversion of bradykinin or kallidin to des-Arg kinin B1R agonists. Here, we found that a catalytically inactive CPM mutant that still binds substrate (CPM-E264Q) also facilitates efficient B1R signaling by B2 receptor agonists bradykinin or kallidin. This response required co-expression of B1R and CPM-E264Q in the same cell, was disrupted by antibody that dissociates CPM from B1R, and was not found with a CPM-E264Q-B1R fusion protein. An additional mutation that reduced the affinity of CPM for C-terminal Arg and increased the affinity for C-terminal Lys inhibited the B1R response to bradykinin (with C-terminal Arg) but generated a response to Lys9-bradykinin. CPM-E264Q-mediated activation of B1Rs by bradykinin resulted in increased intramolecular fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in a B1R FRET construct, similar to that generated directly by a B1R agonist. In cytokine-treated human lung microvascular endothelial cells, disruption of B1R-CPM heterodimers inhibited B1R-dependent NO production stimulated by bradykinin and blocked the increased endothelial permeability caused by treatment with bradykinin and pyrogallol (a superoxide generator). Thus, CPM and B1Rs on cell membranes form a critical complex that potentiates B1R signaling. Kinin peptide binding to CPM causes a conformational change in the B1R leading to intracellular signaling and reveals a new mode of GPCR activation by a cell surface peptidase. PMID:21454694

  5. CB1 receptor mediated analgesia from the Nucleus Reticularis Gigantocellularis pars alpha is activated in an animal model of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Monhemius, R; Azami, J; Green, D L; Roberts, M H

    2001-07-20

    Cannabinoids are known to suppress responses to noxious stimulation in animals and man. Recent research has suggested a role for endogenous cannabinoids in the descending inhibition of dorsal horn cells via a supraspinal site of action. We have recently demonstrated [J. Physiol. 506(2) (1998) 459] that the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis pars alpha (GiA) is a major source of such descending modulation, and importantly, that this system is activated in response to noxious stimulation. We have therefore investigated the role of CB1 receptor activation in mediating the antinociceptive effects of activation of GiA in models of acute and chronic pain. Microinjections (0.5 microl 60% DMSO) of either WIN 55,212-2 (5 microg, selective CB1 agonist), SR141716A (50 microg, competitive CB1 antagonist), both compounds together, or vehicle alone into GiA were performed prior to these tests in a randomised, blind manner. In control animals, WIN 55,212-2 markedly increased withdrawal latencies in the tail flick test and reduced responses to subcutaneous formalin. These effects were blocked by co-administration of SR141716A. These data suggest that activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptor subtypes in GiA leads to behavioural analgesia. In animals with partial sciatic nerve ligation, microinjection of drugs and injection of formalin were performed contralaterally to the site of ligation. Partial sciatic nerve ligation significantly reduced behavioural responses to contralaterally applied formalin. Microinjection of SR141716A to GiA reversed this inhibition of responses to formalin in animals with partial sciatic nerve ligation. These data provide evidence that endogenous CB1 receptor ligands are involved in GiA mediated antinociception, and that this system is important for the modulation of nociceptive transmission in an animal model of chronic neuropathic pain.

  6. Odontoblasts as sensory receptors: transient receptor potential channels, pannexin-1, and ionotropic ATP receptors mediate intercellular odontoblast-neuron signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki; Sato, Masaki; Kimura, Maki; Sobhan, Ubaidus; Shimada, Miyuki; Nishiyama, Akihiro; Kawaguchi, Aya; Soya, Manabu; Kuroda, Hidetaka; Katakura, Akira; Ichinohe, Tatsuya; Tazaki, Masakazu

    2015-04-01

    Various stimuli induce pain when applied to the surface of exposed dentin. However, the mechanisms underlying dentinal pain remain unclear. We investigated intercellular signal transduction between odontoblasts and trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons following direct mechanical stimulation of odontoblasts. Mechanical stimulation of single odontoblasts increased the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) by activating the mechanosensitive-transient receptor potential (TRP) channels TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV4, and TRPA1, but not TRPM8 channels. In cocultures of odontoblasts and TG neurons, increases in [Ca(2+)]i were observed not only in mechanically stimulated odontoblasts, but also in neighboring odontoblasts and TG neurons. These increases in [Ca(2+)]i were abolished in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) and in the presence of mechanosensitive TRP channel antagonists. A pannexin-1 (ATP-permeable channel) inhibitor and ATP-degrading enzyme abolished the increases in [Ca(2+)]i in neighboring odontoblasts and TG neurons, but not in the stimulated odontoblasts. G-protein-coupled P2Y nucleotide receptor antagonists also inhibited the increases in [Ca(2+)]i. An ionotropic ATP (P2X3) receptor antagonist inhibited the increase in [Ca(2+)]i in neighboring TG neurons, but not in stimulated or neighboring odontoblasts. During mechanical stimulation of single odontoblasts, a connexin-43 blocker did not have any effects on the [Ca(2+)]i responses observed in any of the cells. These results indicate that ATP, released from mechanically stimulated odontoblasts via pannexin-1 in response to TRP channel activation, transmits a signal to P2X3 receptors on TG neurons. We suggest that odontoblasts are sensory receptor cells and that ATP released from odontoblasts functions as a neurotransmitter in the sensory transduction sequence for dentinal pain.

  7. Role of transglutaminase 2 in PAC1 receptor mediated protection against hypoxia-induced cell death and neurite outgrowth in differentiating N2a neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Algarni, Alanood S; Hargreaves, Alan J; Dickenson, John M

    2017-03-15

    The PAC 1 receptor and tissue transglutaminase (TG2) play important roles in neurite outgrowth and modulation of neuronal cell survival. In this study, we investigated the regulation of TG2 activity by the PAC 1 receptor in retinoic acid-induced differentiating N2a neuroblastoma cells. TG2 transamidase activity was determined using an amine incorporation and a peptide cross linking assay. In situ TG2 activity was assessed by visualising the incorporation of biotin-X-cadaverine using confocal microscopy. TG2 phosphorylation was monitored via immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. The role of TG2 in PAC 1 receptor-induced cytoprotection and neurite outgrowth was investigated by monitoring hypoxia-induced cell death and appearance of axonal-like processes, respectively. The amine incorporation and protein crosslinking activity of TG2 increased in a time and concentration-dependent manner following stimulation with pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-27 (PACAP-27). PACAP-27 mediated increases in TG2 activity were abolished by the TG2 inhibitors Z-DON and R283 and by pharmacological inhibition of protein kinase A (KT 5720 and Rp-cAMPs), protein kinase C (Ro 31-8220), MEK1/2 (PD 98059), and removal of extracellular Ca 2+ . Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated PACAP-27 induced in situ TG2 activity. TG2 inhibition blocked PACAP-27 induced attenuation of hypoxia-induced cell death and outgrowth of axon-like processes. TG2 activation and cytoprotection were also observed in human SH-SY5Y cells. Together, these results demonstrate that TG2 activity was stimulated downstream of the PAC 1 receptor via a multi protein kinase dependent pathway. Furthermore, PAC 1 receptor-induced cytoprotection and neurite outgrowth are dependent upon TG2. These results highlight the importance of TG2 in the cellular functions of the PAC 1 receptor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Icaritin induces MC3T3-E1 subclone14 cell differentiation through estrogen receptor-mediated ERK1/2 and p38 signaling activation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhidi; Ou, Ling; Wang, Chaopeng; Yang, Li; Wang, Panpan; Liu, Hengrui; Xiong, Yingquan; Sun, Kehuan; Zhang, Ronghua; Zhu, Xiaofeng

    2017-10-01

    Icaritin (ICT), a hydrolytic product of icariin from the genus Epimedium, has many indicated pharmacological and biological activities. Several studies have shown that ICT has potential osteoprotective effects, including stimulation of osteoblast differentiation and inhibition of osteoclast differentiation. However, the molecular mechanism for this anabolic action of ICT remains largely unknown. Here, we found that ICT could enhance MC3T3-E1 subclone 14 preosteoblastic cell differentiation associated with increased mRNA levels and protein expression of the differentiation markers alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type 1 collagen (COL1), osteocalcin (OC), osteoponin (OPN) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), and improved mineralization, confirmed by bone nodule formation and collagen synthesis. To characterize the underlying mechanisms, we examined the effect of ICT on estrogen receptor (ER) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. ICT treatment induced p38 kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation, but it demonstrated at the same time point no effect on activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). ER antagonist ICI182780, p38 antagonist SB203580 and ERK1/2 antagonist PD98059 markedly inhibited the ICT-induced the mRNA expression of ALP, COL1, OC and OPN. ICI182780 attenuated the ICT-induced phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2. These observations indicate a potential mechanism of osteogenic effects of ICT involving the ERK1/2 and p38 pathway activation through the ER. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. A Functional Landscape of Resistance to ALK Inhibition in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Frederick H.; Johannessen, Cory M.; Piccioni, Federica; Tamayo, Pablo; Kim, Jong Wook; Van Allen, Eliezer M.; Corsello, Steven M.; Capelletti, Marzia; Calles, Antonio; Butaney, Mohit; Sharifnia, Tanaz; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Mesirov, Jill P.; Hahn, William C.; Engelman, Jeffrey A.; Meyerson, Matthew; Root, David E.; Jänne, Pasi A.; Garraway, Levi A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary We conducted a large-scale functional genetic study to characterize mechanisms of resistance to ALK inhibition in ALK-dependent lung cancer cells. We identify members of known resistance pathways and additional putative resistance drivers. Among the latter were members of the P2Y purinergic receptor family of G-protein coupled receptors (P2Y1, P2Y2, and P2Y6). P2Y receptors mediated resistance in part through a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent mechanism. Moreover, PKC activation alone was sufficient to confer resistance to ALK inhibitors whereas combined ALK and PKC inhibition restored sensitivity. We observed enrichment of gene signatures associated with several resistance drivers (including P2Y receptors) in crizotinib-resistant ALK-rearranged lung tumors compared to treatment-naïve controls, supporting a role for identified resistance mechanisms in clinical resistance. PMID:25759024

  10. Episodic Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racsmany, Mihaly; Conway, Martin A.

    2006-01-01

    Six experiments examined the proposal that an item of long-term knowledge can be simultaneously inhibited and activated. In 2 directed forgetting experiments items to-be-forgotten were found to be inhibited in list-cued recall but activated in lexical decision tasks. In 3 retrieval practice experiments, unpracticed items from practiced categories…

  11. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated disruption of vitellogenin synthesis in the fish liver: Cross-talk between AHR- and ERα-signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Bemanian, Vahid; Male, Rune; Goksøyr, Anders

    2004-01-01

    Background In the fish liver, the synthesis of egg yolk protein precursor vitellogenin (VTG) is under control of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). Environmental contaminants such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) are suspected to have antiestrogenic effects. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is the initial cellular target for TCDD and related compounds. The AHR is a ligand-activated transcription factor that stimulates the expression of the genes encoding xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A). In this study, the effects of activation of AHR on the hepatic expression of VTG and ERα genes, in primary cultured salmon hepatocytes, have been investigated. Results The expression of the genes encoding VTG and ERα were strongly induced by 17β-estradiol (E2). However, the expression of VTG was disrupted by exposure of the cells to TCDD while CYP1A expression was enhanced. The effect of TCDD on VTG and CYP1A expression was annulled by the AHR-inhibitor α-naphthoflavone. Furthermore, exposure of the cells to TCDD abolished E2-induced accumulation of ERα mRNA. The AHR-mediated inhibitory effects on the expression of the VTG and ERα genes may occur at transcriptional and/or post-transcriptional levels. Nuclear run-off experiments revealed that simultaneous exposure of the cells to E2 and TCDD strongly inhibited the initiation of transcription of the VTG and ERα genes. In addition, inhibition of RNA synthesis by actinomycin D treatment showed that post-transcriptional levels of VTG and ERα mRNAs were not significantly altered upon treatment of the cells with TCDD. These results suggested that activation of AHR may inhibit the transactivation capacity of the ERα. Further, electrophoretic mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts prepared from cells treated for one or two hours with E2, alone or in mixture with TCDD, showed a strong reduction in the DNA binding activities upon TCDD treatment. These results also suggested

  12. Low doses of cyclic AMP-phosphodiesterase inhibitors rapidly evoke opioid receptor-mediated thermal hyperalgesia in naïve mice which is converted to prominent analgesia by cotreatment with ultra-low-dose naltrexone.

    PubMed

    Crain, Stanley M; Shen, Ke-Fei

    2008-09-22

    Systemic (s.c.) injection in naïve mice of cyclic AMP-phosphodiesterase (cAMP-PDE) inhibitors, e.g. 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine [(IBMX) or caffeine, 10 mg/kg] or the more specific cAMP-PDE inhibitor, rolipram (1 mug/kg), rapidly evokes thermal hyperalgesia (lasting >5 h). These effects appear to be mediated by enhanced excitatory opioid receptor signaling, as occurs during withdrawal in opioid-dependent mice. Cotreatment of these mice with ultra-low-dose naltrexone (NTX, 0.1 ng/kg-1 pg/kg, s.c.) results in prominent opioid analgesia (lasting >4 h) even when the dose of rolipram is reduced to 1 pg/kg. Cotreatment of these cAMP-PDE inhibitors in naïve mice with an ultra-low-dose (0.1 ng/kg) of the kappa-opioid receptor antagonist, nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) or the mu-opioid receptor antagonist, beta-funaltrexamine (beta-FNA) also results in opioid analgesia. These excitatory effects of cAMP-PDE inhibitors in naïve mice may be mediated by enhanced release of small amounts of endogenous bimodally-acting (excitatory/inhibitory) opioid agonists by neurons in nociceptive networks. Ultra-low-dose NTX, nor-BNI or beta-FNA selectively antagonizes high-efficacy excitatory (hyperalgesic) Gs-coupled opioid receptor-mediated signaling in naïve mice and results in rapid conversion to inhibitory (analgesic) Gi/Go-coupled opioid receptor-mediated signaling which normally requires activation by much higher doses of opioid agonists. Cotreatment with a low subanalgesic dose of kelatorphan, an inhibitor of multiple endogenous opioid peptide-degrading enzymes, stabilizes endogenous opioid agonists released by cAMP-PDE inhibitors, resulting in conversion of the hyperalgesia to analgesia without requiring selective blockade of excitatory opioid receptor signaling. The present study provides a novel pharmacologic paradigm that may facilitate development of valuable non-narcotic clinical analgesics utilizing cotreatment with ultra-low-dose rolipram plus ultra-low-dose NTX or related

  13. Tetraspanin 6 (TSPAN6) Negatively Regulates Retinoic Acid-inducible Gene I-like Receptor-mediated Immune Signaling in a Ubiquitination-dependent Manner*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yetao; Tong, Xiaomei; Omoregie, Ehimwenma Sheena; Liu, Wenjun; Meng, Songdong; Ye, Xin

    2012-01-01

    The recognition between retinoic acid-inducible gene I-like receptors (RLRs) and viral RNA triggers an intracellular cascade of signaling to induce the expression of type I IFNs. Both positive and negative regulation of the RLR signaling pathway are important for the host antiviral immune response. Here, we demonstrate that the tetraspanin protein TSPAN6 inhibits RLR signaling by affecting the formation of the adaptor MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling)-centered signalosome. We found that overexpression of TSPAN6 impaired RLR-mediated activation of IFN-stimulated response element, NF-κB, and IFN-β promoters, whereas knockdown of TSPAN6 enhanced the RLR-mediated signaling pathway. Interestingly, as the RLR pathway was activated, TSPAN6 underwent Lys-63-linked ubiquitination, which promoted its association with MAVS. The interaction of TSPAN6 and MAVS interfered with the recruitment of RLR downstream molecules TRAF3, MITA, and IRF3 to MAVS. Further study revealed that the first transmembrane domain of TSPAN6 is critical for its ubiquitination and association with MAVS as well as its inhibitory effect on RLR signaling. We concluded that TSPAN6 functions as a negative regulator of the RLR pathway by interacting with MAVS in a ubiquitination-dependent manner. PMID:22908223

  14. Rapid desensitization and resensitization of 5-HT sub 2 receptor mediated phosphatidyl inositol hydrolysis by serotonin agonists in quiescent calf aortic smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pauwels, P.J.; Van Gompel, P.; Leysen, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Agonist regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine{sub 2} (5-HT{sub 2}) receptors was studied in calf aortic smooth muscle cultures incubated in a quiescent, defined synthetic medium that does not stimulate cell proliferation, but that provides cells with supplements that maintain cell viability. In these cells, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced ({sup 3}H)inositol phosphates accumulation showed the characteristics of a 5-HT{sub 2} receptor coupled transducing system according to the inhibition of the response by 5-HT{sub 2} antagonists at nanomolar concentrations. The 5-HT{sub 2} receptor coupled response became rapidly desensitized during continued incubation with 5-HT and 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOM); nearly full desensitization was obtained in two hours with 10more » {mu}M 5-HT and DOM pretreatment. The recovery of the response had a half-live of 5 hours after 2 hours pretreatment and of 9.5 to 12.5 hours after 24 to 96 hours agonist pretreatment. The DOM-induced desensitization of the 5-HT{sub 2} receptor coupled response was fully blocked by 0.1 {mu}M cinanserin. Cinanserin alone did not induce desensitization or up-regulation of the 5-HT{sub 2} receptor coupled response at 0.1 {mu}M.« less

  15. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma upregulated factor (PAUF) confers resistance to pancreatic cancer cells against oncolytic parvovirus H-1 infection through IFNA receptor-mediated signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Kaowinn, Sirichat; Cho, Il-Rae; Moon, Jeong

    2015-04-03

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma upregulated factor (PAUF), a novel oncogene, plays a crucial role in the development of pancreatic cancer, including its metastasis and proliferation. Therefore, PAUF-expressing pancreatic cancer cells could be important targets for oncolytic virus-mediated treatment. Panc-1 cells expressing PAUF (Panc-PAUF) showed relative resistance to parvovirus H-1 infection compared with Panc-1 cells expressing an empty vector (Panc-Vec). Of interest, expression of type I IFN-α receptor (IFNAR) was higher in Panc-PAUF cells than in Panc-Vec cells. Increased expression of IFNAR in turn increased the activation of Stat1 and Tyk2 in Panc-PAUF cells compared with that in Panc-Vec cells. Suppression of Tyk2more » and Stat1, which are important downstream molecules for IFN-α signaling, sensitized pancreatic cancer cells to parvovirus H-1-mediated apoptosis. Further, constitutive suppression of PAUF sensitized Bxpc3 pancreatic cancer cells to parvovirus H-1 infection. Taken together, these results suggested that PAUF conferred resistance to pancreatic cancer cells against oncolytic parvovirus H-1 infection through IFNAR-mediated signaling. - Highlights: • PAUF confers resistance against oncolytic parvovirus H-1 infection. • PAUF enhances the expression of IFNAR in Panc-1 cells. • Increased activation of Tyk2 or Stat1 by PAUF provides resistance to parvovirus H-1-mediated apoptosis. • Constitutive inhibition of PAUF enhances parvovirus H-1-mediated oncolysis of Bxpc3 pancreatic cancer cells.« less

  16. NKp44 receptor mediates interaction of the envelope glycoproteins from the West-Nile and dengue viruses with Natural Killer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hershkovitz, Oren; Rosental, Benyamin; Rosenberg, Lior Ann; Navarro-Sanchez, Martha Erika; Jivov, Sergey; Zilka, Alon; Gershoni-Yahalom, Orly; Brient-Litzler, Elodie; Bedouelle, Hugues; Ho, Joanna W.; Campbell, Kerry S.; Rager-Zisman, Bracha; Despres, Philippe; Porgador, Angel

    2009-01-01

    Dengue virus (DV) and West Nile virus (WNV) have become a global concern due to their widespread distribution and their ability to cause a variety of human diseases. Antiviral immune defenses involve natural killer (NK) cells. In the present study, we investigated the interaction between NK cells and these two flaviviruses. We show that the NK-activating receptor NKp44 is involved in virally-mediated NK activation through direct interaction with the flavivirus envelope protein. Recombinant NKp44 directly binds to purified DV and WNV envelope proteins and specifically to domain III of WNV envelope protein (EIII); it also binds to WNV virus-like particles (VLPs). These WNV-VLPs and WNV-EIII directly bind NK cells expressing high levels of NKp44. Functionally, interaction of NK cells with infective and inactivated WNV results in NKp44-mediated NK de-granulation. Finally, WNV infection of cells results in increased binding of recombinant NKp44 that is specifically inhibited by anti-WNV serum. WNV-infected target cells induce IFNγ secretion and augmented lysis by NKp44-expressing primary NK cells that are blocked by anti-NKp44 antibodies. Our findings show that triggering of NK cells by flavivirus is mediated by interaction of NKp44 with the flavivirus envelope protein. PMID:19635919

  17. Histone deacetylase inhibitors up-regulate LL-37 expression independent of toll-like receptor mediated signalling in airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quan; Liu, Juan; Roschmann, Kristina Irene Lisolette; van Egmond, Danielle; Golebski, Korneliusz; Fokkens, Wytske Johanna; Wang, Dehui; van Drunen, Cornelis Maria

    2013-04-11

    HDAC inhibitors have been proposed as anticancer agents. However, their roles in innate genes expression remain not well known. Cathelicidin LL-37 is one of the few human bactericidal peptides, but the regulation of histone acetylation on LL-37 expression in airway epithelium remains largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of two non-selective HDACi, trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate (SB), on the expression of the cathelicidin LL-37 in human airway epithelial cells. LL37 in human NCI-H292 airway epithelial cells and the primary cultures of normal nasal epithelial cells(PNEC) in response to HDAC inhibitors with or without poly (I:C) stimulation was assessed using real-time PCR and western blot. In parallel, IL-6 expression was evaluated by ELISA. Our results showed that HDAC inhibitors up-regulated LL-37 gene expression independent of poly (I:C) stimulation in PNEC as well as in NCI-H292 cells. HDAC inhibitors increased LL37 protein expression in NCI-H292 cells but not in PNEC. In addition, HDAC inhibitors significantly inhibited poly (I:C)-induced IL-6 production in both of the epithelial cells. In conclusion, HDAC inhibitors directly up-regulated LL-37 gene expression in human airway epithelial cells.

  18. Histone deacetylase inhibitors up-regulate LL-37 expression independent of toll-like receptor mediated signalling in airway epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    HDAC inhibitors have been proposed as anticancer agents. However, their roles in innate genes expression remain not well known. Cathelicidin LL-37 is one of the few human bactericidal peptides, but the regulation of histone acetylation on LL-37 expression in airway epithelium remains largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of two non-selective HDACi, trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate (SB), on the expression of the cathelicidin LL-37 in human airway epithelial cells. LL37 in human NCI-H292 airway epithelial cells and the primary cultures of normal nasal epithelial cells(PNEC) in response to HDAC inhibitors with or without poly (I:C) stimulation was assessed using real-time PCR and western blot. In parallel, IL-6 expression was evaluated by ELISA. Our results showed that HDAC inhibitors up-regulated LL-37 gene expression independent of poly (I:C) stimulation in PNEC as well as in NCI-H292 cells. HDAC inhibitors increased LL37 protein expression in NCI-H292 cells but not in PNEC. In addition, HDAC inhibitors significantly inhibited poly (I:C)-induced IL-6 production in both of the epithelial cells. In conclusion, HDAC inhibitors directly up-regulated LL-37 gene expression in human airway epithelial cells. PMID:23577829

  19. Spontaneous and natural cytotoxicity receptor-mediated cytotoxicity are effector functions of distinct natural killer subsets in hepatitis C virus-infected chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Verstrepen, B E; Nieuwenhuis, I G; Mooij, P; Bogers, W M; Boonstra, A; Koopman, G

    2016-07-01

    In humans, CD16 and CD56 are used to identify functionally distinct natural killer (NK) subsets. Due to ubiquitous CD56 expression, this marker cannot be used to distinguish between NK cell subsets in chimpanzees. Therefore, functional analysis of distinct NK subsets during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has never been performed in these animals. In the present study an alternative strategy was used to identify four distinct NK subsets on the basis of the expression of CD16 and CD94. The expression of activating and inhibiting surface receptors showed that these subsets resemble human NK subsets. CD107 expression was used to determine degranulation of the different subsets in naive and HCV-infected chimpanzees. In HCV-infected chimpanzees increased spontaneous cytotoxicity was observed in CD94(high/dim) CD16(pos) and CD94(low) CD16(pos) subsets. By contrast, increased natural cytotoxicity receptor (NCR)- mediated degranulation after NKp30 and NKp44 triggering was demonstrated in the CD94(dim) CD16(neg) subset. Our findings suggest that spontaneous and NCR-mediated cytotoxicity are effector functions of distinct NK subsets in HCV-infected chimpanzees. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  20. HR38, an ortholog of NR4A family nuclear receptors, mediates 20-hydroxyecdysone regulation of carbohydrate metabolism during mosquito reproduction.

    PubMed

    Dong, Dujuan; Zhang, Yang; Smykal, Vlastimil; Ling, Lin; Raikhel, Alexander S

    2018-05-01

    The Aedes aegypti mosquito is the principal vector for many dangerous human viral diseases. Carbohydrate metabolism (CM) is essential for supplying the energy necessary for host seeking, blood digestion and rapid egg development of this vector insect. The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and the ecdysone receptor (EcR) are important regulators of CM, coordinating it with female reproductive events. We report here that the NR4A nuclear receptor AHR38 plays a critical role in mediating these actions of 20E and EcR. AHR38 RNA interference (RNAi) depletion in female mosquitoes blocked the transcriptional activation of CM genes encoding phosphoglucomutase (PGM) and trehalose-6-phophate synthase (TPS); it caused an increase of glycogen accumulation and a decrease of the circulating sugar trehalose. This treatment also resulted in a dramatic reduction in fecundity. Considering that these phenotypes resulting from AHR38 RNAi depletion are similar to those of EcR RNAi, we investigated a possible connection between these transcription factors in CM regulation. EcR RNAi inhibits the AHR38 gene expression. Moreover, the 20E-induced EcR complex directly activates AHR38 by binding to the ecdysone response element (EcRE) in the upstream regulatory region of this gene. The present work has implicated AHR38 in the 20E-mediated control of CM and provided new insight into mechanisms of 20E regulation of metabolism during female mosquito reproduction. © 2018 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Transactivation of TrkB by Sigma-1 receptor mediates cocaine-induced changes in dendritic spine density and morphology in hippocampal and cortical neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ka, Minhan; Kook, Yeon-Hee; Liao, Ke; Buch, Shilpa; Kim, Woo-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine is a highly addictive narcotic associated with dendritic spine plasticity in the striatum. However, it remains elusive whether cocaine modifies spines in a cell type-specific or region-specific manner or whether it alters different types of synapses in the brain. In addition, there is a paucity of data on the regulatory mechanism(s) involved in cocaine-induced modification of spine density. In the current study, we report that cocaine exposure differentially alters spine density, spine morphology, and the types of synapses in hippocampal and cortical neurons. Cocaine exposure in the hippocampus resulted in increased spine density, but had no significant effect on cortical neurons. Although cocaine exposure altered spine morphology in both cell types, the patterns of spine morphology were distinct for each cell type. Furthermore, we observed that cocaine selectively affects the density of excitatory synapses. Intriguingly, in hippocampal neurons cocaine-mediated effects on spine density and morphology involved sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1 R) and its downstream TrkB signaling, which were not the case in cortical neurons. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of Sig-1 R prevented cocaine-induced TrkB activation in hippocampal neurons. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism by which cocaine induces selective changes in spine morphology, spine density, and synapse formation, and could provide insights into the cellular basis for the cognitive impairment observed in cocaine addicts. PMID:27735948

  2. Repeated administration of aripiprazole produces a sensitization effect in the suppression of avoidance responding and phencyclidine-induced hyperlocomotion and increases D2 receptor-mediated behavioral function.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun; Qin, Rongyin; Li, Ming

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated how repeated administration of aripiprazole (a novel antipsychotic drug) alters its behavioral effects in two behavioral tests of antipsychotic activity and whether this alteration is correlated with an increase in dopamine D2 receptor function. Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were first repeatedly tested with aripiprazole (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg, subcutaneously (sc)) or vehicle in a conditioned avoidance response (CAR) test or a phencyclidine (PCP) (3.20 mg/kg, sc)-induced hyperlocomotion test daily for five consecutive days. After 2-3 days of drug-free retraining or resting, all rats were then challenged with aripiprazole (1.5 or 3.0 mg/kg, sc). Repeated administration of aripiprazole progressively increased its inhibition of avoidance responding and PCP-induced hyperlocomotion. More importantly, rats previously treated with aripiprazole showed significantly lower avoidance response and lower PCP-induced hyperlocomotion than those previously treated with vehicle in the challenge tests. An increased sensitivity to quinpirole (a selective D2/3 agonist) in prior aripiprazole-treated rats was also found in the quinpirole-induced hyperlocomotion test, suggesting an enhanced D2/3-mediated function. These findings suggest that aripiprazole, despite its distinct receptor mechanisms of action, induces a sensitization effect similar to those induced by other antipsychotic drugs and this effect may be partially mediated by brain plasticity involving D2/3 receptor systems. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Repeated administration of aripiprazole produces a sensitization effect in the suppression of avoidance responding and phencyclidine-induced hyperlocomotion and increases D2 receptor-mediated behavioral function

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jun; Qin, Rongyin; Li, Ming

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated how repeated administration of aripiprazole (a novel antipsychotic drug) alters its behavioral effects in two behavioral tests of antipsychotic activity and whether this alteration is correlated with an increase in dopamine D2 receptor function. Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were first repeatedly tested with aripiprazole (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg, subcutaneously (sc)) or vehicle in a conditioned avoidance response (CAR) test or a phencyclidine (PCP) (3.20 mg/kg, sc)-induced hyperlocomotion test daily for five consecutive days. After 2–3 days of drug-free retraining or resting, all rats were then challenged with aripiprazole (1.5 or 3.0 mg/kg, sc). Repeated administration of aripiprazole progressively increased its inhibition of avoidance responding and PCP-induced hyperlocomotion. More importantly, rats previously treated with aripiprazole showed significantly lower avoidance response and lower PCP-induced hyperlocomotion than those previously treated with vehicle in the challenge tests. An increased sensitivity to quinpirole (a selective D2/3 agonist) in prior aripiprazole-treated rats was also found in the quinpirole-induced hyperlocomotion test, suggesting an enhanced D2/3-mediated function. These findings suggest that aripiprazole, despite its distinct receptor mechanisms of action, induces a sensitization effect similar to those induced by other antipsychotic drugs and this effect may be partially mediated by brain plasticity involving D2/3 receptor systems. PMID:25586399

  4. Inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase Erk1/2 promotes protein degradation of ATP binding cassette transporters A1 and G1 in CHO and HuH7 cells.

    PubMed

    Mulay, Vishwaroop; Wood, Peta; Manetsch, Melanie; Darabi, Masoud; Cairns, Rose; Hoque, Monira; Chan, Karen Cecilia; Reverter, Meritxell; Alvarez-Guaita, Anna; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Rentero, Carles; Heeren, Joerg; Enrich, Carlos; Grewal, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Signal transduction modulates expression and activity of cholesterol transporters. We recently demonstrated that the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade regulates protein stability of Scavenger Receptor BI (SR-BI) through Proliferator Activator Receptor (PPARα) -dependent degradation pathways. In addition, MAPK (Mek/Erk 1/2) inhibition has been shown to influence liver X receptor (LXR) -inducible ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter ABCA1 expression in macrophages. Here we investigated if Ras/MAPK signaling could alter expression and activity of ABCA1 and ABCG1 in steroidogenic and hepatic cell lines. We demonstrate that in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and human hepatic HuH7 cells, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2) inhibition reduces PPARα-inducible ABCA1 protein levels, while ectopic expression of constitutively active H-Ras, K-Ras and MAPK/Erk kinase 1 (Mek1) increases ABCA1 protein expression, respectively. Furthermore, Mek1/2 inhibitors reduce ABCG1 protein levels in ABCG1 overexpressing CHO cells (CHO-ABCG1) and human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells treated with LXR agonist. This correlates with Mek1/2 inhibition reducing ABCG1 cell surface expression and decreasing cholesterol efflux onto High Density Lipoproteins (HDL). Real Time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and protein turnover studies reveal that Mek1/2 inhibitors do not target transcriptional regulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1, but promote ABCA1 and ABCG1 protein degradation in HuH7 and CHO cells, respectively. In line with published data from mouse macrophages, blocking Mek1/2 activity upregulates ABCA1 and ABCG1 protein levels in human THP1 macrophages, indicating opposite roles for the Ras/MAPK pathway in the regulation of ABC transporter activity in macrophages compared to steroidogenic and hepatic cell types. In summary, this study suggests that Ras/MAPK signaling modulates PPARα- and LXR-dependent protein degradation

  5. H-Ras Modulates N-Methyl-d-aspartate Receptor Function via Inhibition of Src Tyrosine Kinase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Claire; Yaka, Rami; Dinh, Son; Ron, Dorit

    2005-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation of the NR2A and NR2B subunits of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor by Src protein-tyrosine kinases modulates receptor channel activity and is necessary for the induction of long term potentiation (LTP). Deletion of H-Ras increases both NR2 tyrosine phosphorylation and NMDA receptor-mediated hippocampal LTP. Here we investigated whether H-Ras regulates phosphorylation and function of the NMDA receptor via Src family protein-tyrosine kinases. We identified Src as a novel H-Ras binding partner. H-Ras bound to Src but not Fyn both in vitro and in brain via the Src kinase domain. Cotransfection of H-Ras and Src inhibited Src activity and decreased NR2A tyrosine phosphorylation. Treatment of rat brain slices with Tat-H-Ras depleted NR2A from the synaptic membrane, decreased endogenous Src activity and NR2A phosphorylation, and decreased the magnitude of hip-pocampal LTP. No change was observed for NR2B. We suggest that H-Ras negatively regulates Src phosphorylation of NR2A and retention of NR2A into the synaptic membrane leading to inhibition of NMDA receptor function. This mechanism is specific for Src and NR2A and has implications for studies in which regulation of NMDA receptor-mediated LTP is important, such as synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory and addiction. PMID:12695509

  6. Alpha5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mediates nicotine-induced HIF-1α and VEGF expression in non-small cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Xiaoli; Jia, Yanfei; Zu, Shanshan

    By binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), nicotine induces the proliferation and apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Previous studies have indicated that α5-nAChR is highly associated with lung cancer risk and nicotine dependence. However, the mechanisms through which α5-nAChRs may influence lung carcinogenesis are far from clear. In the present study, we investigated the roles of α5-nAChR in the nicotine-induced expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of α5-nAChR and HIF-1α in 60 specimens of lung cancer and para-carcinoma tissue. The correlations between the expression levels ofmore » α5-nAChR and HIF-1α and other clinicopathological data were analyzed. In a cell line that highly expressed α5-nAChR, the loss of α5-nAChR function by siRNA was used to study whether α5-nAChR is involved in the nicotine-induced expression of HIF-1α and VEGF through the activation of the ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Cell growth was detected using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). α5-nAChR (78.3%) and HIF-1α (88.3%) were both overexpressed in NSCLC, and their expression levels were found to be correlated with each other (P < 0.05). In the A549 cell line, α5-nAChR and HIF-1α were found to be expressed under normal conditions, and their expression levels were significantly increased in response to nicotine treatment. The silencing of α5-nAChR significantly inhibited the nicotine-induced cell proliferation compared with the control group and attenuated the nicotine-induced upregulation of HIF-1α and VEGF, and these effects required the cooperation of the ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. These results show that the α5-nAChR/HIF-1α/VEGF axis is involved in nicotine-induced tumor cell proliferation, which suggests that α5-nAChR may serve as a potential anticancer target in nicotine-associated lung cancer

  7. Dopamine D2 receptors mediate the increase in reinstatement of the conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine induced by acute social defeat.

    PubMed

    Reguilón, Marina Daiana; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Ferrer-Pérez, Carmen; Roger-Sánchez, Concepción; Aguilar, María Asunción; Miñarro, José; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta

    2017-03-15

    Social stress modifies the activity of brain areas involved in the rewarding effects of psychostimulants, inducing neuroadaptations in the dopaminergic mesolimbic system and modifying the sensitivity of dopamine receptors. In the present study we evaluated the effect of the dopamine D 1 - and D 2 -like receptor antagonists (SCH23390 and raclopride, respectively) on the short-time effects of acute social defeat (ASD). Male OF1 mice were socially defeated before each conditioning session of the conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by 1mg/kg or 25mg/kg of cocaine plus the corresponding dopamine antagonist. A final experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of the dopamine antagonists on the CPP induced by 3mg/kg of cocaine with or without a stress experience. Mice exposed to ASD showed an increase in reinstatement of the conditioned reinforcing effects of cocaine that was blocked by all of the dopamine receptor antagonists. Blockade of dopamine D 2 -like receptors with raclopride specifically prevented the effects of stress without affecting the rewarding properties of cocaine. However, SCH23390 inhibited cocaine-induced preference in the control groups and even induced aversion in defeated mice conditioned with the lower dose of cocaine. Moreover, the lowest dose of SCH23390 blocked the rewarding effects of 3mg/kg of cocaine-induced CPP. Our results confirm that the dopamine D 2 receptor is involved in the short-term effects of ASD on the rewarding effects of cocaine. The dopamine D 1 receptor is clearly involved in the rewarding effects of cocaine, but its role in the effects of ASD remains to be demonstrated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Glt1 glutamate receptor mediates the establishment and perpetuation of chronic visceral pain in an animal model of stress-induced bladder hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, A Lenore; Jellison, Forrest C; Lee, Una J; Bradesi, Sylvie; Rodríguez, Larissa V

    2016-04-01

    Psychological stress exacerbates interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), a lower urinary tract pain disorder characterized by increased urinary frequency and bladder pain. Glutamate (Glu) is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter modulating nociceptive networks. Glt1, an astrocytic transporter responsible for Glu clearance, is critical in pain signaling termination. We sought to examine the role of Glt1 in stress-induced bladder hyperalgesia and urinary frequency. In a model of stress-induced bladder hyperalgesia with high construct validity to human IC/BPS, female Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were subjected to 10-day water avoidance stress (WAS). Referred hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia were assessed after WAS with von Frey filaments. After behavioral testing, we assessed Glt1 expression in the spinal cord by immunoblotting. We also examined the influence of dihydrokainate (DHK) and ceftriaxone (CTX), which downregulate and upregulate Glt1, respectively, on pain development. Rats exposed to WAS demonstrated increased voiding frequency, increased colonic motility, anxiety-like behaviors, and enhanced visceral hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia. This behavioral phenotype correlated with decreases in spinal Glt1 expression. Exogenous Glt1 downregulation by DHK resulted in hyperalgesia similar to that following WAS. Exogenous Glt1 upregulation via intraperitoneal CTX injection inhibited the development of and reversed preexisting pain and voiding dysfunction induced by WAS. Repeated psychological stress results in voiding dysfunction and hyperalgesia that correlate with altered central nervous system glutamate processing. Manipulation of Glu handling altered the allodynia developing after psychological stress, implicating Glu neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of bladder hyperalgesia in the WAS model of IC/BPS. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. An Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Mediated Amplification Loop That Enforces Cell Migration in ER-/PR-/Her2- Human Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Novikov, Olga; Wang, Zhongyan; Stanford, Elizabeth A; Parks, Ashley J; Ramirez-Cardenas, Alejandra; Landesman, Esther; Laklouk, Israa; Sarita-Reyes, Carmen; Gusenleitner, Daniel; Li, Amy; Monti, Stefano; Manteiga, Sara; Lee, Kyongbum; Sherr, David H

    2016-11-01

    The endogenous ligand-activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) plays an important role in numerous biologic processes. As the known number of AHR-mediated processes grows, so too does the importance of determining what endogenous AHR ligands are produced, how their production is regulated, and what biologic consequences ensue. Consequently, our studies were designed primarily to determine whether ER - /PR - /Her2 - breast cancer cells have the potential to produce endogenous AHR ligands and, if so, how production of these ligands is controlled. We postulated that: 1) malignant cells produce tryptophan-derived AHR ligand(s) through the kynurenine pathway; 2) these metabolites have the potential to drive AHR-dependent breast cancer migration; 3) the AHR controls expression of a rate-limiting kynurenine pathway enzyme(s) in a closed amplification loop; and 4) environmental AHR ligands mimic the effects of endogenous ligands. Data presented in this work indicate that primary human breast cancers, and their metastases, express high levels of AHR and tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO); representative ER - /PR - /Her2 - cell lines express TDO and produce sufficient intracellular kynurenine and xanthurenic acid concentrations to chronically activate the AHR. TDO overexpression, or excess kynurenine or xanthurenic acid, accelerates migration in an AHR-dependent fashion. Environmental AHR ligands 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo[p]dioxin and benzo[a]pyrene mimic this effect. AHR knockdown or inhibition significantly reduces TDO2 expression. These studies identify, for the first time, a positive amplification loop in which AHR-dependent TDO2 expression contributes to endogenous AHR ligand production. The net biologic effect of AHR activation by endogenous ligands, which can be mimicked by environmental ligands, is an increase in tumor cell migration, a measure of tumor aggressiveness. Copyright © 2016 by The Author(s).

  10. An Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Mediated Amplification Loop That Enforces Cell Migration in ER−/PR−/Her2− Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Novikov, Olga; Wang, Zhongyan; Stanford, Elizabeth A.; Parks, Ashley J.; Ramirez-Cardenas, Alejandra; Landesman, Esther; Laklouk, Israa; Sarita-Reyes, Carmen; Gusenleitner, Daniel; Li, Amy; Monti, Stefano; Manteiga, Sara; Lee, Kyongbum

    2016-01-01

    The endogenous ligand-activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) plays an important role in numerous biologic processes. As the known number of AHR-mediated processes grows, so too does the importance of determining what endogenous AHR ligands are produced, how their production is regulated, and what biologic consequences ensue. Consequently, our studies were designed primarily to determine whether ER−/PR−/Her2− breast cancer cells have the potential to produce endogenous AHR ligands and, if so, how production of these ligands is controlled. We postulated that: 1) malignant cells produce tryptophan-derived AHR ligand(s) through the kynurenine pathway; 2) these metabolites have the potential to drive AHR-dependent breast cancer migration; 3) the AHR controls expression of a rate-limiting kynurenine pathway enzyme(s) in a closed amplification loop; and 4) environmental AHR ligands mimic the effects of endogenous ligands. Data presented in this work indicate that primary human breast cancers, and their metastases, express high levels of AHR and tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO); representative ER−/PR−/Her2− cell lines express TDO and produce sufficient intracellular kynurenine and xanthurenic acid concentrations to chronically activate the AHR. TDO overexpression, or excess kynurenine or xanthurenic acid, accelerates migration in an AHR-dependent fashion. Environmental AHR ligands 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo[p]dioxin and benzo[a]pyrene mimic this effect. AHR knockdown or inhibition significantly reduces TDO2 expression. These studies identify, for the first time, a positive amplification loop in which AHR-dependent TDO2 expression contributes to endogenous AHR ligand production. The net biologic effect of AHR activation by endogenous ligands, which can be mimicked by environmental ligands, is an increase in tumor cell migration, a measure of tumor aggressiveness. PMID:27573671