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Sample records for a1 receptors a1rs

  1. Adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs) play a critical role in osteoclast formation and function

    PubMed Central

    Kara, Firas M.; Chitu, Violeta; Sloane, Jennifer; Axelrod, Matthew; Fredholm, Bertil B.; Stanley, E. Richard; Cronstein, Bruce N.

    2010-01-01

    Adenosine regulates a wide variety of physiological processes via interaction with one or more G-protein-coupled receptors (A1R, A2AR, A2BR, and A3R). Because A1R occupancy promotes fusion of human monocytes to form giant cells in vitro, we determined whether A1R occupancy similarly promotes osteoclast function and formation. Bone marrow cells (BMCs) were harvested from C57Bl/6 female mice or A1R-knockout mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates and differentiated into osteoclasts in the presence of colony stimulating factor-1 and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand in the presence or absence of the A1R antagonist 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentyl xanthine (DPCPX). Osteoclast morphology was analyzed in tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase or F-actin-stained samples, and bone resorption was evaluated by toluidine blue staining of dentin. BMCs from A1R-knockout mice form fewer osteoclasts than BMCs from WT mice, and the A1R antagonist DPCPX inhibits osteoclast formation (IC50=1 nM), with altered morphology and reduced ability to resorb bone. A1R blockade increased ubiquitination and degradation of TRAF6 in RAW264.7 cells induced to differentiate into osteoclasts. These studies suggest a critical role for adenosine in bone homeostasis via interaction with adenosine A1R and further suggest that A1R may be a novel pharmacologic target to prevent the bone loss associated with inflammatory diseases and menopause.—Kara, F. M., Chitu, V., Sloane, J., Axelrod, M., Fredholm, B. B., Stanley, R., Cronstein, B. N. Adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs) play a critical role in osteoclast formation and function. PMID:20181934

  2. Is the COL5A1 rs12722 gene polymorphism associated with running economy?

    PubMed

    Bertuzzi, Rômulo; Pasqua, Leonardo A; Bueno, Salomão; Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo; Matsuda, Monique; Marquezini, Monica; Saldiva, Paulo H

    2014-01-01

    The COL5A1 rs12722 polymorphism is considered to be a novel genetic marker for endurance running performance. It has been postulated that COL5A1 rs12722 may influence the elasticity of tendons and the energetic cost of running. To date, there are no experimental data in the literature supporting the relationship between range of motion, running economy, and the COL5A1 rs12722 gene polymorphism. Therefore, the main purpose of the current study was to analyze the influence of the COL5A1rs12722 polymorphism on running economy and range of motion. One hundred and fifty (n = 150) physically active young men performed the following tests: a) a maximal incremental treadmill test, b) two constant-speed running tests (10 km · h(-1)) and 12 km · h(-1)) to determine the running economy, and c) a sit-and-reach test to determine the range of motion. All of the subjects were genotyped for the COL5A1 rs12722 single-nucleotide polymorphism. The genotype frequencies were TT = 27.9%, CT = 55.8%, and CC = 16.3%. There were no significant differences between COL5A1 genotypes for running economy measured at 10 km · h(-1) (p = 0.232) and 12 km · h(-1) (p = 0.259). Similarly, there were no significant differences between COL5A1 genotypes for range of motion (p = 0.337). These findings suggest that the previous relationship reported between COL5A1 rs12722 genotypes and running endurance performance might not be mediated by the energetic cost of running.

  3. Is the COL5A1 rs12722 Gene Polymorphism Associated with Running Economy?

    PubMed Central

    Bertuzzi, Rômulo; Pasqua, Leonardo A.; Bueno, Salomão; Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo; Matsuda, Monique; Marquezini, Monica; Saldiva, Paulo H.

    2014-01-01

    The COL5A1 rs12722 polymorphism is considered to be a novel genetic marker for endurance running performance. It has been postulated that COL5A1 rs12722 may influence the elasticity of tendons and the energetic cost of running. To date, there are no experimental data in the literature supporting the relationship between range of motion, running economy, and the COL5A1 rs12722 gene polymorphism. Therefore, the main purpose of the current study was to analyze the influence of the COL5A1rs12722 polymorphism on running economy and range of motion. One hundred and fifty (n = 150) physically active young men performed the following tests: a) a maximal incremental treadmill test, b) two constant-speed running tests (10 km•h−1 and 12 km•h−1) to determine the running economy, and c) a sit-and-reach test to determine the range of motion. All of the subjects were genotyped for the COL5A1 rs12722 single-nucleotide polymorphism. The genotype frequencies were TT = 27.9%, CT = 55.8%, and CC = 16.3%. There were no significant differences between COL5A1 genotypes for running economy measured at 10 km•h−1 (p = 0.232) and 12 km•h−1 (p = 0.259). Similarly, there were no significant differences between COL5A1 genotypes for range of motion (p = 0.337). These findings suggest that the previous relationship reported between COL5A1 rs12722 genotypes and running endurance performance might not be mediated by the energetic cost of running. PMID:25188268

  4. Association of COL1A1 rs1800012 polymorphism with musculoskeletal degenerative diseases: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Binlong; Huang, Donghua; Ma, Kaige; Deng, Xiangyu; Shi, Deyao; Wu, Fashuai; Shao, Zengwu

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1800012 in COL1A1 gene might be linked to the susceptibility of musculoskeletal degenerative diseases, such as osteoarthritis (OA) and intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD). However, the data from different studies is contradictory. Here we aimed to comprehensively summarize and clarify the relationship between the SNP and musculoskeletal degenerative diseases. Seven eligible studies including 1339 cases and 5406 controls were screened out from PubMed, Web Of Science and Cochrane library databases. Significant association was identified in sub group analysis of IVDD in homozygote model (GG versus TT: OR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.14–0.78, P = 0.012), heterozygote model (GT versus TT: OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.11–0.72, P = 0.008) and dominant model (GG/GT versus TT: OR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.13–0.74, P = 0.008). Additionally, significant relationship was also found in sub group analysis of severe degree of IVDD in homozygote model (GG versus TT: OR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.15–0.91, P = 0.031), heterozygote model (GT versus TT: OR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.13–0.87,P = 0.024) and dominant model (GG/GT versus TT: OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.14–0.88, P = 0.025). Although no significance was observed, there is a trend that the more G allele at COL1A1 rs1800012 site, the less possibility of IVDD and severe IVDD would happen. Our results indicate that COL1A1 rs1800012 polymorphism associates with the susceptibility of IVDD. However, this polymorphism may not be associated with OA risk. PMID:29088884

  5. Antinociception by systemically-administered acetaminophen (paracetamol) involves spinal serotonin 5-HT7 and adenosine A1 receptors, as well as peripheral adenosine A1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jean; Reid, Allison R; Sawynok, Jana

    2013-03-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a widely used analgesic, but its sites and mechanisms of action remain incompletely understood. Recent studies have separately implicated spinal adenosine A(1) receptors (A(1)Rs) and serotonin 5-HT(7) receptors (5-HT(7)Rs) in the antinociceptive effects of systemically administered acetaminophen. In the present study, we determined whether these two actions are linked by delivering a selective 5-HT(7)R antagonist to the spinal cord of mice and examining nociception using the formalin 2% model. In normal and A(1)R wild type mice, antinociception by systemic (i.p.) acetaminophen 300mg/kg was reduced by intrathecal (i.t.) delivery of the selective 5-HT(7)R antagonist SB269970 3μg. In mice lacking A(1)Rs, i.t. SB269970 did not reverse antinociception by systemic acetaminophen, indicating a link between spinal 5-HT(7)R and A(1)R mechanisms. We also explored potential roles of peripheral A(1)Rs in antinociception by acetaminophen administered both locally and systemically. In normal mice, intraplantar (i.pl.) acetaminophen 200μg produced antinociception in the formalin test, and this was blocked by co-administration of the selective A(1)R antagonist DPCPX 4.5μg. Acetaminophen administered into the contralateral hindpaw had no effect, indicating a local peripheral action. When acetaminophen was administered systemically, its antinociceptive effect was reversed by i.pl. DPCPX in normal mice; this was also observed in A(1)R wild type mice, but not in those lacking A(1)Rs. In summary, we demonstrate a link between spinal 5-HT(7)Rs and A(1)Rs in the spinal cord relevant to antinociception by systemic acetaminophen. Furthermore, we implicate peripheral A(1)Rs in the antinociceptive effects of locally- and systemically-administered acetaminophen. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anticonvulsant effect of AMP by direct activation of adenosine A1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Muzzi, Mirko; Coppi, Elisabetta; Pugliese, Anna Maria; Chiarugi, Alberto

    2013-12-01

    Purinergic neurotransmission mediated by adenosine (Ado) type 1 receptors (A1Rs) plays pivotal roles in negative modulation of epileptic seizures, and Ado is thought to be a key endogenous anticonvulsant. Recent evidence, however, indicates that AMP, the metabolic precursor of Ado, also activate A1Rs. Here, we evaluated the antiepileptic effects of AMP adopting in vitro and in vivo models of epilepsy. We report that AMP reversed the increase in population spike (PS) amplitude and the decrease in PS latency induced by a Mg(2+)-free extracellular solution in CA1 neurons of mouse hippocampal slices. The AMP effects were inhibited by the A1R antagonist DPCPX, but not prevented by inhibiting conversion of AMP into Ado, indicating that AMP inhibited per se sustained hippocampal excitatory neurotransmission by directly activating A1Rs. AMP also reduced seizure severity and mortality in a model of audiogenic convulsion. Of note, the anticonvulsant effects of AMP were potentiated by preventing its conversion into Ado and inhibited by DPCPX. When tested in a model of kainate-induced seizure, AMP prolonged latency of convulsions but had no effects on seizure severity and mortality. Data provide the first evidence that AMP is an endogenous anticonvulsant acting at A1Rs. © 2013.

  7. AMP is an adenosine A1 receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Rittiner, Joseph E; Korboukh, Ilia; Hull-Ryde, Emily A; Jin, Jian; Janzen, William P; Frye, Stephen V; Zylka, Mark J

    2012-02-17

    Numerous receptors for ATP, ADP, and adenosine exist; however, it is currently unknown whether a receptor for the related nucleotide adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) exists. Using a novel cell-based assay to visualize adenosine receptor activation in real time, we found that AMP and a non-hydrolyzable AMP analog (deoxyadenosine 5'-monophosphonate, ACP) directly activated the adenosine A(1) receptor (A(1)R). In contrast, AMP only activated the adenosine A(2B) receptor (A(2B)R) after hydrolysis to adenosine by ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E, CD73) or prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP, ACPP). Adenosine and AMP were equipotent human A(1)R agonists in our real-time assay and in a cAMP accumulation assay. ACP also depressed cAMP levels in mouse cortical neurons through activation of endogenous A(1)R. Non-selective purinergic receptor antagonists (pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid and suramin) did not block adenosine- or AMP-evoked activation. Moreover, mutation of His-251 in the human A(1)R ligand binding pocket reduced AMP potency without affecting adenosine potency. In contrast, mutation of a different binding pocket residue (His-278) eliminated responses to AMP and to adenosine. Taken together, our study indicates that the physiologically relevant nucleotide AMP is a full agonist of A(1)R. In addition, our study suggests that some of the physiological effects of AMP may be direct, and not indirect through ectonucleotidases that hydrolyze this nucleotide to adenosine.

  8. Anxiolytic Effect of Exogenous Ketone Supplementation Is Abolished by Adenosine A1 Receptor Inhibition in Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk Rats.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Zsolt; D'Agostino, Dominic P; Ari, Csilla

    2018-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are one of the most common mental health problems worldwide, but the exact pathophysiology remains largely unknown. It has been demonstrated previously that administration of exogenous ketone supplement KSMCT (ketone salt/KS + medium chain triglyceride/MCT oil) by intragastric gavage for 7 days decreased the anxiety level in genetically absence epileptic Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. To investigate the potential role of the adenosinergic system in the pathomechanism of anxiety we tested whether the inhibition of adenosine A 1 receptors (A 1 Rs) influence the anxiolytic effect of the exogenous ketone supplement. As A 1 Rs may mediate such an effect, in the present study we used a specific A 1 R antagonist, DPCPX (1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine) to test whether it modulates the anxiolytic effect of sub-chronically (7 days) applied KSMCT in the previously tested animal model by using elevated plus maze (EPM) test. We administered KSMCT (2.5 g/kg/day) alone by intragastric gavage and in combination with intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected of DPCPX in two doses (lower: 0.15 mg/kg, higher: 0.25 mg/kg). Control groups represented i.p saline and water gavage with or without i.p. DPCPX administration (2.5 g/kg/day). After treatments, the level of blood glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), as well as body weight were recorded. KSMCT alone significantly increased the time spent in the open arms and decreased the time spent in the closed arms, supporting our previous results. Injection of lower dose of DPCPX decreased, while higher dose of DPCPX abolished the effect of KSMCT administration on EPM. Blood βHB levels were significantly increased after administration of KSMCT, while DPCPX did not change the KSMCT induced increase in blood βHB levels. These results demonstrate that A 1 R inhibition modified (decreased) the anti-anxiety effect of KSMCT administration implying that the adenosinergic system, likely via A 1 Rs, may modulate the

  9. AMP Is an Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonist*

    PubMed Central

    Rittiner, Joseph E.; Korboukh, Ilia; Hull-Ryde, Emily A.; Jin, Jian; Janzen, William P.; Frye, Stephen V.; Zylka, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous receptors for ATP, ADP, and adenosine exist; however, it is currently unknown whether a receptor for the related nucleotide adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP) exists. Using a novel cell-based assay to visualize adenosine receptor activation in real time, we found that AMP and a non-hydrolyzable AMP analog (deoxyadenosine 5′-monophosphonate, ACP) directly activated the adenosine A1 receptor (A1R). In contrast, AMP only activated the adenosine A2B receptor (A2BR) after hydrolysis to adenosine by ecto-5′-nucleotidase (NT5E, CD73) or prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP, ACPP). Adenosine and AMP were equipotent human A1R agonists in our real-time assay and in a cAMP accumulation assay. ACP also depressed cAMP levels in mouse cortical neurons through activation of endogenous A1R. Non-selective purinergic receptor antagonists (pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2′,4′-disulfonic acid and suramin) did not block adenosine- or AMP-evoked activation. Moreover, mutation of His-251 in the human A1R ligand binding pocket reduced AMP potency without affecting adenosine potency. In contrast, mutation of a different binding pocket residue (His-278) eliminated responses to AMP and to adenosine. Taken together, our study indicates that the physiologically relevant nucleotide AMP is a full agonist of A1R. In addition, our study suggests that some of the physiological effects of AMP may be direct, and not indirect through ectonucleotidases that hydrolyze this nucleotide to adenosine. PMID:22215671

  10. Adenosine receptors and muscarinic receptors cooperate in acetylcholine release modulation in the neuromuscular synapse.

    PubMed

    Santafe, M M; Priego, M; Obis, T; Garcia, N; Tomàs, M; Lanuza, M A; Tomàs, J

    2015-07-01

    Adenosine receptors (ARs) are present in the motor terminals at the mouse neuromuscular junction. ARs and the presynaptic muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) share the functional control of the neuromuscular junction. We analysed their mutual interaction in transmitter release modulation. In electrophysiological experiments with unaltered synaptic transmission (muscles paralysed by blocking the voltage-dependent sodium channel of the muscle cells with μ-conotoxin GIIIB), we found that: (i) a collaborative action between different AR subtypes reduced synaptic depression at a moderate activity level (40 Hz); (ii) at high activity levels (100 Hz), endogenous adenosine production in the synaptic cleft was sufficient to reduce depression through A1 -type receptors (A1 Rs) and A2 A-type receptors (A2 A Rs); (iii) when the non-metabolizable 2-chloroadenosine (CADO) agonist was used, both the quantal content and depression were reduced; (iv) the protective effect of CADO on depression was mediated by A1 Rs, whereas A2 A Rs seemed to modulate A1 Rs; (v) ARs and mAChRs absolutely depended upon each other for the modulation of evoked and spontaneous acetylcholine release in basal conditions and in experimental conditions with CADO stimulation; (vi) the purinergic and muscarinic mechanisms cooperated in the control of depression by sharing a common pathway although the purinergic control was more powerful than the muscarinic control; and (vii) the imbalance of the ARs created by using subtype-selective and non-selective inhibitory and stimulatory agents uncoupled protein kinase C from evoked transmitter release. In summary, ARs (A1 Rs, A2 A Rs) and mAChRs (M1 , M2 ) cooperated in the control of activity-dependent synaptic depression and may share a common protein kinase C pathway. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Cerebral adenosine A₁ receptors are upregulated in rodent encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Paul, Soumen; Khanapur, Shivashankar; Boersma, Wytske; Sijbesma, Jurgen W; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Elsinga, Philip H; Meerlo, Peter; Doorduin, Janine; Dierckx, Rudi A; van Waarde, Aren

    2014-05-15

    Adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs) are implied in the modulation of neuroinflammation. Activation of cerebral A1Rs acts as a brake on the microglial response after traumatic brain injury and has neuroprotective properties in animal models of Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis. Neuroinflammatory processes in turn may affect the expression of A1Rs, but the available data is limited and inconsistent. Here, we applied an animal model of encephalitis to assess how neuroinflammation affects the expression of A1Rs. Two groups of animals were studied: Infected rats (n=7) were intranasally inoculated with herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1, 1 × 10(7) plaque forming units), sham-infected rats (n=6) received only phosphate-buffered saline. Six or seven days later, microPET scans (60 min with arterial blood sampling) were made using the tracer 8-dicyclopropyl-1-(11)C-methyl-3-propyl-xanthine ((11)C-MPDX). Tracer clearance from plasma and partition coefficient (K₁/k₂ estimated from a 2-tissue compartment model fit) were not significantly altered after virus infection. PET tracer distribution volume calculated from a Logan plot was significantly increased in the hippocampus (+37%) and medulla (+27%) of virus infected rats. Tracer binding potential (k₃/k₄ estimated from the model fit) was significantly increased in the cerebellum (+87%) and the medulla (+148%) which may indicate increased A1R expression. This was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis showing a strong increase of A1R immunoreactivity in the cerebellum of HSV-1-infected rats. Both the quantitative PET data and immunohistochemical analysis indicate that A1Rs are upregulated in brain areas where active virus is present. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of a bivalent micro opiate and adenosine A1 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Smitha C; Ghosh, Nandita; By, Youlet; Berthault, Aurélie; Virolleaud, Marie-Alice; Carrega, Louis; Chouraqui, Gaëlle; Commeiras, Laurent; Condo, Jocelyne; Attolini, Mireille; Gaudel-Siri, Anouk; Ruf, Jean; Parrain, Jean-Luc; Rodriguez, Jean; Guieu, Régis

    2009-12-01

    The cross talk between different membrane receptors is the source of increasing research. We designed and synthesized a new hetero-bivalent ligand that has antagonist properties on both A(1) adenosine and mu opiate receptors with a K(i) of 0.8+/-0.05 and 0.7+/-0.03 microM, respectively. This hybrid molecule increases cAMP production in cells that over express the mu receptor as well as those over expressing the A(1) adenosine receptor and reverses the antalgic effects of mu and A(1) adenosine receptor agonists in animals.

  13. Downregulation of adenosine and adenosine 1 receptor contributes to neuropathic pain in resiniferatoxin neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Kan, Hung-Wei; Chang, Chin-Hong; Lin, Chih-Lung; Lee, Yi-Chen; Hsieh, Sung-Tsang; Hsieh, Yu-Lin

    2018-04-16

    The neurochemical effects of adenosine signaling in small-fiber neuropathy leading to neuropathic pain are yet to be explored in a direct manner. This study examined this system at the level of ligand (via the ectonucleotidase activity of prostatic acid phosphatase, PAP) and adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs) in resiniferatoxin (RTX) neuropathy, a peripheral neurodegenerative disorder which specifically affects nociceptive nerves expressing transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1). We conducted immunohistochemistry on dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for functional assays, and pharmacological interventions to alter PAP and A1Rs in mice with RTX neuropathy. In DRG of RTX neuropathy, PAP(+) neurons were reduced compared with vehicle-treated mice (P = 0.002) . Functionally, PAP ectonucleotidase activity was consequently reduced (i.e., the content of adenosine in DRG, P = 0.012). PAP(+) neuronal density was correlated with the degree of mechanical allodynia, which was reversed by intrathecal lumbar puncture (i.t.) injection of recombinant PAP with a dose-dependent effect. Furthermore, A1Rs were downregulated (P = 0.002), and this downregulation was colocalized with the TRPV1 receptor (31.0% ± 2.8%). Mechanical allodynia was attenuated in a dose-dependent response by i.t. injection of the A1R ligand, adenosine; however, no analgesia was evident when an exogenous adenosine was blocked by A1R antagonist. This study demonstrated dual mechanisms of neuropathic pain in TRPV1-induced neuropathy, involving a reduced adenosine system at both the ligand (adenosine) and receptor (A1Rs) levels.

  14. Physiological roles of A1 and A2A adenosine receptors in regulating heart rate, body temperature, and locomotion as revealed using knockout mice and caffeine

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiang-Ning; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Fredholm, Bertil B.

    2009-01-01

    Heart rate (HR), body temperature (Temp), locomotor activity (LA), and oxygen consumption (O2C) were studied in awake mice lacking one or both of the adenosine A1 or A2A receptors (A1R or A2AR, respectively) using telemetry and respirometry, before and after caffeine administration. All parameters were lower during day than night and higher in females than males. When compared with wild-type (WT) littermates, HR was higher in male A1R knockout (A1RKO) mice but lower in A2ARKO mice and intermediate in A1-A2AR double KO mice. A single dose of an unselective β-blocker (timolol; 1 mg/kg) abolished the HR differences between these genotypes. Deletion of A1Rs had little effect on Temp, whereas deletion of A2ARs increased it in females and decreased it in males. A1-A2ARKO mice had lower Temp than WT mice. LA was unaltered in A1RKO mice and lower in A2ARKO and A1-A2ARKO mice than in WT mice. Caffeine injection increased LA but only in mice expressing A2AR. Caffeine ingestion also increased LA in an A2AR-dependent manner in male mice. Caffeine ingestion significantly increased O2C in WT mice, but less in the different KO mice. Injection of 30 mg/kg caffeine decreased Temp, especially in KO mice, and hence in a manner unrelated to A1R or A2AR blockade. Selective A2B antagonism had little or no effect. Thus A1R and A2AR influence HR, Temp, LA, and O2C in mice in a sex-dependent manner, indicating effects of endogenous adenosine. The A2AR plays an important role in the modulation of O2C and LA by acute and chronic caffeine administration. There is also evidence for effects of higher doses of caffeine being independent of both A1R and A2AR. PMID:19218506

  15. Physiological roles of A1 and A2A adenosine receptors in regulating heart rate, body temperature, and locomotion as revealed using knockout mice and caffeine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiang-Ning; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Fredholm, Bertil B

    2009-04-01

    Heart rate (HR), body temperature (Temp), locomotor activity (LA), and oxygen consumption (O(2)C) were studied in awake mice lacking one or both of the adenosine A(1) or A(2A) receptors (A(1)R or A(2A)R, respectively) using telemetry and respirometry, before and after caffeine administration. All parameters were lower during day than night and higher in females than males. When compared with wild-type (WT) littermates, HR was higher in male A(1)R knockout (A(1)RKO) mice but lower in A(2A)RKO mice and intermediate in A(1)-A(2A)R double KO mice. A single dose of an unselective beta-blocker (timolol; 1 mg/kg) abolished the HR differences between these genotypes. Deletion of A(1)Rs had little effect on Temp, whereas deletion of A(2A)Rs increased it in females and decreased it in males. A(1)-A(2A)RKO mice had lower Temp than WT mice. LA was unaltered in A(1)RKO mice and lower in A(2A)RKO and A(1)-A(2A)RKO mice than in WT mice. Caffeine injection increased LA but only in mice expressing A(2A)R. Caffeine ingestion also increased LA in an A(2A)R-dependent manner in male mice. Caffeine ingestion significantly increased O(2)C in WT mice, but less in the different KO mice. Injection of 30 mg/kg caffeine decreased Temp, especially in KO mice, and hence in a manner unrelated to A(1)R or A(2A)R blockade. Selective A(2B) antagonism had little or no effect. Thus A(1)R and A(2A)R influence HR, Temp, LA, and O(2)C in mice in a sex-dependent manner, indicating effects of endogenous adenosine. The A(2A)R plays an important role in the modulation of O(2)C and LA by acute and chronic caffeine administration. There is also evidence for effects of higher doses of caffeine being independent of both A(1)R and A(2A)R.

  16. CYP7A1-rs3808607 and APOE isoform associate with LDL cholesterol lowering after plant sterol consumption in a randomized clinical trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The benefits of plant sterols (PS) for cholesterol lowering are hampered by large heterogeneity across individuals, potentially due to genetic polymorphisms. We investigated the impact of candidate genetic variations on cholesterol response to PS, in a trial which recruited individuals with high or ...

  17. Effects of targeted deletion of A1 adenosine receptors on postischemic cardiac function and expression of adenosine receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Morrison, R Ray; Teng, Bunyen; Oldenburg, Peter J; Katwa, Laxmansa C; Schnermann, Jurgen B; Mustafa, S Jamal

    2006-10-01

    To examine ischemic tolerance in the absence of A(1) adenosine receptors (A(1)ARs), isolated wild-type (WT) and A(1)AR knockout (A(1)KO) murine hearts underwent global ischemia-reperfusion, and injury was measured in terms of functional recovery and efflux of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Hearts were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR both at baseline and at intervals during ischemia-reperfusion to determine whether compensatory expression of other adenosine receptor subtypes occurs with either A(1)AR deletion and/or ischemia-reperfusion. A(1)KO hearts had higher baseline coronary flow (CF) and left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) than WT hearts, whereas heart rate was unchanged by A(1)AR deletion. After 20 min of ischemia, CF was attenuated in A(1)KO compared with WT hearts, and this reduction persisted throughout reperfusion. Final recovery of LVDP was decreased in A(1)KO hearts (54.4 +/- 5.1 vs. WT 81.1 +/- 3.4% preischemic baseline) and correlated with higher diastolic pressure during reperfusion. Postischemic efflux of LDH was greater in A(1)KO compared with WT hearts. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated the absence of A(1)AR transcript in A(1)KO hearts, and the message for A(2A), A(2B), and A(3) adenosine receptors was similar in uninstrumented A(1)KO and WT hearts. Ischemia-reperfusion increased A(2B) mRNA expression 2.5-fold in both WT and A(1)KO hearts without changing A(1) or A(3) expression. In WT hearts, ischemia transiently doubled A(2A) mRNA, which returned to preischemic level upon reperfusion, a pattern not observed in A(1)KO hearts. Together, these data affirm the cardioprotective role of A(1)ARs and suggest that induced expression of other adenosine receptor subtypes may participate in the response to ischemia-reperfusion in isolated murine hearts.

  18. Interaction of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) and opioid receptors in spinal cord nociceptive reflexes.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Zepeda, Guillermo; Herrero, Juan F

    2013-08-14

    We previously observed that the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) is a very effective antinociceptive agent on intact but not on spinalized adult rats with inflammation. Since a close connection between opioid and adenosine A1 receptors has been described, we studied a possible relationship between these systems in the spinal cord. CPA-mediated antinociception was challenged by the selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1, 3-dimethylxanthine (CPT) and by the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone on male adult Wistar rats with carrageenan-induced inflammation. Withdrawal reflexes activated by noxious mechanical and electrical stimulation were recorded using the single motor technique in intact and sham-spinalized animals. CPA was very effective in intact and sham spinalized rats but not in spinalized animals. Full reversal of CPA antinociception was observed with i.v. 1mg/kg of naloxone but not with 20mg/kg of CPT i.v. in responses to noxious mechanical and electrical stimulation. CPT fully prevented CPA from any antinociceptive action whereas naloxone did not modify CPA activity. These results suggest a centrally-mediated action, since CPA depressed the wind-up phenomenon which is derived of the activity of spinal cord neurons. The present study provides strong in vivo evidence of an antinociceptive activity mediated by the adenosine A1 receptor system in the spinal cord, linked to an activation of opioid receptors in adult animals with inflammation. © 2013.

  19. M1 muscarinic receptor facilitates cognitive function by interplay with AMPA receptor GluA1 subunit.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lan-Xue; Ge, Yan-Hui; Xiong, Cai-Hong; Tang, Ling; Yan, Ying-Hui; Law, Ping-Yee; Qiu, Yu; Chen, Hong-Zhuan

    2018-03-06

    M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (M1 mAChRs) are the most abundant muscarinic receptors in the hippocampus and have been shown to have procognitive effects. AMPA receptors (AMPARs), an important subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors, are key components in neurocognitive networks. However, the role of AMPARs in procognitive effects of M1 mAChRs and how M1 mAChRs affect the function of AMPARs remain poorly understood. Here, we found that basal expression of GluA1, a subunit of AMPARs, and its phosphorylation at Ser845 were maintained by M1 mAChR activity. Activation of M1 mAChRs promoted membrane insertion of GluA1, especially to postsynaptic densities. Impairment of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory by antagonism of M1 mAChRs paralleled the reduction of GluA1 expression, and improvement of learning and memory by activation of M1 mAChRs was accompanied by the synaptic insertion of GluA1 and its increased phosphorylation at Ser845. Furthermore, abrogation of phosphorylation of Ser845 residue of GluA1 ablated M1 mAChR-mediated improvement of learning and memory. Taken together, these results show a functional correlation of M1 mAChRs and GluA1 and the essential role of GluA1 in M1 mAChR-mediated cognitive improvement.-Zhao, L.-X., Ge, Y.-H., Xiong, C.-H., Tang, L., Yan, Y.-H., Law, P.-Y., Qiu, Y., Chen, H.-Z. M1 muscarinic receptor facilitates cognitive function by interplay with AMPA receptor GluA1 subunit.

  20. Orphan nuclear receptor oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) plays a key role in hepatic cannabinoid receptor type 1-mediated induction of CYP7A1 gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yaochen; Kim, Don-Kyu; Lee, Ji-Min; Park, Seung Bum; Jeong, Won-IL; Kim, Seong Heon; Lee, In-Kyu; Lee, Chul-Ho; Chiang, John Y.L.; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids are primarily synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and have important roles in dietary lipid absorption and cholesterol homoeostasis. Detailed roles of the orphan nuclear receptors regulating cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis, have not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, we report that oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) is a novel transcriptional regulator of CYP7A1 expression. Activation of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 receptor) signalling induced ERRγ-mediated transcription of the CYP7A1 gene. Overexpression of ERRγ increased CYP7A1 expression in vitro and in vivo, whereas knockdown of ERRγ attenuated CYP7A1 expression. Deletion analysis of the CYP7A1 gene promoter and a ChIP assay revealed an ERRγ -binding site on the CYP7A1 gene promoter. Small heterodimer partner (SHP) inhibited the transcriptional activity of ERRγ and thus regulated CYP7A1 expression. Overexpression of ERRγ led to increased bile acid levels, whereas an inverse agonist of ERRγ, GSK5182, reduced CYP7A1 expression and bile acid synthesis. Finally, GSK5182 significantly reduced hepatic CB1 receptor-mediated induction of CYP7A1 expression and bile acid synthesis in alcohol-treated mice. These results provide the molecular mechanism linking ERRγ and bile acid metabolism. PMID:26348907

  1. Dynamic Regulation of FoxA1 by Steroid Receptors | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The estrogen receptor (ER) is a key regulator in breast cancer initiation and progression. A widely discussed model proposes that forkhead box protein A1 (FoxA1) acts as a pioneer factor in cancer by binding and penetrating closed chromatin to allow access by transcription factors (TFs), including ER.

  2. Potentiation of adenosine A1 receptor agonist CPA-induced antinociception by paeoniflorin in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Da-Zhi; Zhao, Fei-Li; Liu, Jing; Ji, Xin-Quan; Ye, Yang; Zhu, Xing-Zu

    2006-08-01

    The effect of paeoniflorin (PF), a major constituent isolated from Paeony radix, on N6-Cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), a selective adenosine A1 receptor (A1 receptor) agonist, induced antinociception was examined in mice. In the tail-pressure test, CPA (0.05, 0.1, 0.2 mg/kg, s.c.) could induce antinociception in a dose-dependent manner. PF (5, 10, 20 mg/kg, s.c.) alone failed to exhibit any antinociceptive effect in mice; however, pretreatment of PF (20 mg/kg, s.c.) could significantly enhance CPA-induced antinociception. Additionally, pretreatment of 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX, 0.25 mg/kg, s.c.), a selective A1 receptor antagonist, could antagonize the antinociceptive effect of combining CPA with PF. Furthermore, in the competitive binding experiments, PF did not displace the binding of [3H]-8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine ([3H]-DPCPX) but displaced that of [3H]-2-Chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine ([3H]-CCPA, a selective A1 receptor agonist) to the membrane preparation of rat cerebral cortex. These results suggested that PF might selectively increase the binding and antinociceptive effect of CPA by binding with A1 receptor.

  3. Age-dependent changes of presynaptic neuromodulation via A1-adenosine receptors in rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Sperlágh, B; Zsilla, G; Baranyi, M; Kékes-Szabó, A; Vizi, E S

    1997-10-01

    The presynaptic neuromodulation of stimulation-evoked release of [3H]-acetylcholine by endogenous adenosine, via A1-adenosine receptors, was studied in superfused hippocampal slices taken from 4-, 12- and 24-month-old rats. 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (0.25 microM), a selective A1-receptor antagonist, increased significantly the electrical field stimulation-induced release of [3H]-acetylcholine in slices prepared from 4- and 12-month-old rats, showing a tonic inhibitory action of endogenous adenosine via stimulation of presynaptic A1-adenosine receptors. In contrast, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine had no effect in 24-month-old rats. 2-Chloroadenosine (10 microM), an adenosine receptor agonist decreased the release of [3H]-acetylcholine in slices taken from 4- and 12-month-old rats, and no significant change was observed in slices taken from 24-month-old rats. In order to show whether the number/or affinity of the A1-receptors was affected in aged rats, [3H]-8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine binding was studied in hippocampal membranes prepared from rats of different ages. Whereas the Bmax value was significantly lower in 2-year-old rats than in younger counterparts, the dissociation constant (Kd) was not affected by aging, indicating that the density rather than the affinity of adenosine receptors was altered. Endogenous adenosine levels present in the extracellular space were also measured in the superfusate by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with ultraviolet detection, and an age-related increase in the adenosine level was found. In summary, our results indicate that during aging the level of adenosine in the extracellular fluid is increased in the hippocampus. There is a downregulation and reduced responsiveness of presynaptic adenosine A1-receptors, and it seems likely that these changes are due to the enhanced adenosine level in the extracellular space.

  4. Central adenosine A1 receptors inhibit cough via suppression of excitatory glutamatergic and tachykininergic neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    El-Hashim, Ahmed Z; Mathews, Seena; Al-Shamlan, Fajer

    2018-05-16

    The A 1 adenosine receptor is reported to mediate several excitatory effects in the airways and has inhibitory effects in the central nervous system. In this study, we investigated the role of peripheral and central A 1 adenosine receptors in regulating cough and airway obstruction. Drugs were administered to guinea pigs via the inhaled or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) routes. Cough was induced by exposing guinea pigs to aerosolised 0.4 M citric acid, following drug inhalation or i.c.v. infusion, in a plethysmograph box. An automated analyzer recorded simultaneously both cough and airway obstruction. Inhaled A 1 receptor agonist, cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), dose-dependently inhibited cough (cough: 8 ± 3.4, 6.0 ± 4.5 and 1.9 ± 0.6 vs. 15.4 ± 3.7 for 0.3, 0.6 and 1, mg ml -1 vs. vehicle, respectively) and also inhibited airway obstruction. Similarly, CPA, administered i.c.v., inhibited both the citric acid-induced cough (cough: 21.3 ± 4.0 and 8.8 ± 3.4 vs. 23 ± 3.0 for 1.8 and 3 nmole ml -1 vs. vehicle, respectively) and airway obstruction; this was prevented by pretreatment with the A 1 adenosine receptor antagonist cyclopenty l-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX; i.c.v.). Treatment with DPCPX alone, dose-dependently enhanced the citric acid-induced cough and airway obstruction. This was reversed following treatment with either the GLUN1 receptor antagonist DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid or the NK 1 receptor antagonist FK-888. These findings suggest that activation of either peripheral or central A 1 adenosine receptors inhibits citric acid-induced cough and airway obstruction. The data also suggest that tonic activation of central adenosine A 1 receptors serves as a negative regulator of cough and airway obstruction, secondary to inhibition of excitatory glutamatergic and tachykininergic neurotransmission. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Regulation of renal adenosine A(1) receptors: effect of dietary sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Smith, J A; Whitaker, E M; Yaktubay, N; Morton, M J; Bowmer, C J; Yates, M S

    1999-11-12

    The influence of dietary NaCl on the regulation of renal adenosine A(1) receptors was investigated in the rat. Renal membranes from rats fed on a diet low (0.04%) in NaCl showed a 46% increase in B(max) for the binding of [3H]-1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine ([3H]DPCPX), a selective adenosine A(1) receptor antagonist, compared to membranes from rats fed on a normal diet (0.4% NaCl). Conversely, a high NaCl diet (4.0%) resulted in a 37% decrease in B(max). Levels of renal adenosine A(1) receptor mRNA were 65% lower in rats on a high salt diet. Autoradiographic studies showed that, for the inner medullary collecting ducts, a low NaCl diet resulted in a 30% increase in [3H]DPCPX binding with a 39% decrease noted in rats maintained on a high salt diet. The results indicate that changes in adenosine A(1) receptor density may represent a novel mechanism whereby the kidneys adapt to changes in salt load.

  6. Adenosine transiently modulates stimulated dopamine release in the caudate putamen via A1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Ashley E.; Venton, B. Jill

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine modulates dopamine in the brain via A1 and A2A receptors, but that modulation has only been characterized on a slow time scale. Recent studies have characterized a rapid signaling mode of adenosine that suggests a possible rapid modulatory role. Here, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry was used to characterize the extent to which transient adenosine changes modulate stimulated dopamine release (5 pulses at 60 Hz) in rat caudate putamen brain slices. Exogenous adenosine was applied and dopamine concentration monitored. Adenosine only modulated dopamine when it was applied 2 or 5 s before stimulation. Longer time intervals and bath application of 5 µM adenosine did not decrease dopamine release. Mechanical stimulation of endogenous adenosine 2s before dopamine stimulation also decreased stimulated dopamine release by 41 ± 7 %, similar to the 54 ± 6 % decrease in dopamine after exogenous adenosine application. Dopamine inhibition by transient adenosine was recovered within 10 minutes. The A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) blocked the dopamine modulation, whereas dopamine modulation was unaffected by the A2A receptor antagonist SCH 442416. Thus, transient adenosine changes can transiently modulate phasic dopamine release via A1 receptors. These data demonstrate that adenosine has a rapid, but transient, modulatory role in the brain. PMID:25219576

  7. Adenosine-A1 Receptor Agonist Induced Hyperalgesic Priming Type II

    PubMed Central

    Araldi, Dioneia; Ferrari, Luiz F.; Levine, Jon D.

    2016-01-01

    We have recently shown that repeated exposure of the peripheral terminal of the primary afferent nociceptor to the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist DAMGO ([D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly5-ol]-Enkephalin acetate salt) induces a model of the transition to chronic pain that we have termed Type II hyperalgesic priming. Similar to Type I hyperalgesic priming, there is a markedly prolonged response to subsequent administration of proalgesic cytokines, prototypically prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). However, Type II hyperalgesic priming differs from Type I in being rapidly induced, protein kinase A (PKA), rather than PKCε dependent, not reversed by a protein translation inhibitor, occurring in female as well as in male rats, and isolectin B4-negative neuron dependent. We report that as with the repeated injection of a MOR agonist, the repeated administration of an agonist at the A1-adenosine receptor, also a Gi-protein coupled receptor, N6-Cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), also produces priming similar to DAMGO-induced Type II hyperalgesic priming. In this study we demonstrate that priming induced by repeated exposure to this A1-adenosine receptor agonist shares the same mechanisms as MOR-agonist induced priming. However, the prolongation of PGE2 hyperalgesia induced by repeated administration of CPA depends on G-protein αi subunit activation, differently from DAMGO-induced Type II priming, in which it depends on the β/γ subunit. These data implicate a novel form of Gi-protein signaling pathway in the Type II hyperalgesic priming induced by repeated administration of an agonist at A1-adenosine receptor to the peripheral terminal of the nociceptor. PMID:26588695

  8. Adenosine A1-Dopamine D1 Receptor Heteromers Control the Excitability of the Spinal Motoneuron.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Oliver, Marla; Moreno, Estefanía; Álvarez-Bagnarol, Yocasta; Ayala-Santiago, Christian; Cruz-Reyes, Nicole; Molina-Castro, Gian Carlo; Clemens, Stefan; Canela, Enric I; Ferré, Sergi; Casadó, Vicent; Díaz-Ríos, Manuel

    2018-05-24

    While the role of the ascending dopaminergic system in brain function and dysfunction has been a subject of extensive research, the role of the descending dopaminergic system in spinal cord function and dysfunction is just beginning to be understood. Adenosine plays a key role in the inhibitory control of the ascending dopaminergic system, largely dependent on functional complexes of specific subtypes of adenosine and dopamine receptors. Combining a selective destabilizing peptide strategy with a proximity ligation assay and patch-clamp electrophysiology in slices from male mouse lumbar spinal cord, the present study demonstrates the existence of adenosine A 1 -dopamine D 1 receptor heteromers in the spinal motoneuron by which adenosine tonically inhibits D 1 receptor-mediated signaling. A 1 -D 1 receptor heteromers play a significant control of the motoneuron excitability, represent main targets for the excitatory effects of caffeine in the spinal cord and can constitute new targets for the pharmacological therapy after spinal cord injury, motor aging-associated disorders and restless legs syndrome.

  9. Interaction of valerian extracts of different polarity with adenosine receptors: identification of isovaltrate as an inverse agonist at A1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Lacher, Svenja K; Mayer, Ralf; Sichardt, Kathrin; Nieber, Karen; Müller, Christa E

    2007-01-15

    A series of extracts of valerian roots (Valeriana officinalis L.) was prepared with solvents of different polarity. Polar as well as nonpolar extracts were found to interact with adenosine A(1) receptors. While polar extracts activated A(1) receptors (partial agonistic activity), nonpolar extracts showed antagonistic or inverse agonistic activity at A(1) receptors, as demonstrated by GTPgammaS binding assays at human recombinant A(1) receptors stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Guided by radioligand binding assays, fractionation of a lipophilic petroleum ether:diethyl ether (1:1) extract led to the isolation of isovaltrate, which was characterized as a potent, highly efficacious inverse agonist at adenosine A(1) receptors (K(i) rat A(1): 2.05 microM). In experiments at rat brain slices measuring post-synaptic potentials (PSPs) in cortical neurons, isovaltrate at least partly reversed the reduction in the PSPs induced by the adenosine A(1) receptor agonist N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA). Isovaltrate may serve as a new lead structure for the development of inverse agonists at adenosine A(1) receptors. The common use of hydrophilic, but not lipophilic valerian extracts as mild sleep-inducing agents is consistent with the opposite actions of hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts on adenosine receptors.

  10. Adenosine A1 receptors contribute to immune regulation after neonatal hypoxic ischemic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Winerdal, Max; Winerdal, Malin E; Wang, Ying-Qing; Fredholm, Bertil B; Winqvist, Ola; Ådén, Ulrika

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal brain hypoxic ischemia (HI) often results in long-term motor and cognitive impairments. Post-ischemic inflammation greatly effects outcome and adenosine receptor signaling modulates both HI and immune cell function. Here, we investigated the influence of adenosine A1 receptor deficiency (A1R(-/-)) on key immune cell populations in a neonatal brain HI model. Ten-day-old mice were subjected to HI. Functional outcome was assessed by open locomotion and beam walking test and infarction size evaluated. Flow cytometry was performed on brain-infiltrating cells, and semi-automated analysis of flow cytometric data was applied. A1R(-/-) mice displayed larger infarctions (+33%, p < 0.05) and performed worse in beam walking tests (44% more mistakes, p < 0.05) than wild-type (WT) mice. Myeloid cell activation after injury was enhanced in A1R(-/-) versus WT brains. Activated B lymphocytes expressing IL-10 infiltrated the brain after HI in WT, but were less activated and did not increase in relative frequency in A1R(-/-). Also, A1R(-/-) B lymphocytes expressed less IL-10 than their WT counterparts, the A1R antagonist DPCPX decreased IL-10 expression whereas the A1R agonist CPA increased it. CD4(+) T lymphocytes including FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells, were unaffected by genotype, whereas CD8(+) T lymphocyte responses were smaller in A1R(-/-) mice. Using PCA to characterize the immune profile, we could discriminate the A1R(-/-) and WT genotypes as well as sham operated from HI-subjected animals. We conclude that A1R signaling modulates IL-10 expression by immune cells, influences the activation of these cells in vivo, and affects outcome after HI.

  11. Characterization of the swine adipocyte A1 adenosine receptor using an optimized assay system.

    PubMed

    Dong, Q; Schuchman, J; Carey, G B

    1994-07-01

    The radioligand binding assay of A1 adenosine receptors in adipocyte crude plasma membrane from Yucatan miniature swine was optimized by evaluating 17 factors involved in the assay. Significant effects of CHAPS, adenosine deaminase, EDTA, pre-rinsing glass fiber filters and pH were found for the binding measurements. Using the optimized procedure, [3H]8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, ([3H]-DPCPX) binding to A1 adenosine receptors in swine subcutaneous adipocyte crude plasma membrane was measured; Bmax and Kd values were 479 +/- 77 fmol/mg protein and 0.87 +/- 0.10 nM, respectively. Values for mesenteric adipose tissue from sedentary swine and subcutaneous adipose tissue from exercise-trained swine were also measured.

  12. Recovery sleep after extended wakefulness restores elevated A1 adenosine receptor availability in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Elmenhorst, Eva-Maria; Hennecke, Eva; Kroll, Tina; Matusch, Andreas; Aeschbach, Daniel; Bauer, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine and functional A1 adenosine receptor (A1AR) availability are supposed to mediate sleep–wake regulation and cognitive performance. We hypothesized that cerebral A1AR availability after an extended wake period decreases to a well-rested state after recovery sleep. [18F]CPFPX positron emission tomography was used to quantify A1AR availability in 15 healthy male adults after 52 h of sleep deprivation and following 14 h of recovery sleep. Data were additionally compared with A1AR values after 8 h of baseline sleep from an earlier dataset. Polysomnography, cognitive performance, and sleepiness were monitored. Recovery from sleep deprivation was associated with a decrease in A1AR availability in several brain regions, ranging from 11% (insula) to 14% (striatum). A1AR availabilities after recovery did not differ from baseline sleep in the control group. The degree of performance impairment, sleepiness, and homeostatic sleep-pressure response to sleep deprivation correlated negatively with the decrease in A1AR availability. Sleep deprivation resulted in a higher A1AR availability in the human brain. The increase that was observed after 52 h of wakefulness was restored to control levels during a 14-h recovery sleep episode. Individuals with a large increase in A1AR availability were more resilient to sleep-loss effects than those with a subtle increase. This pattern implies that differences in endogenous adenosine and A1AR availability might be causal for individual responses to sleep loss. PMID:28373571

  13. Effects of serotonin 2A/1A receptor stimulation on social exclusion processing

    PubMed Central

    Preller, Katrin H.; Pokorny, Thomas; Hock, Andreas; Kraehenmann, Rainer; Stämpfli, Philipp; Seifritz, Erich; Scheidegger, Milan; Vollenweider, Franz X.

    2016-01-01

    Social ties are crucial for physical and mental health. However, psychiatric patients frequently encounter social rejection. Moreover, an increased reactivity to social exclusion influences the development, progression, and treatment of various psychiatric disorders. Nevertheless, the neuromodulatory substrates of rejection experiences are largely unknown. The preferential serotonin (5-HT) 2A/1A receptor agonist, psilocybin (Psi), reduces the processing of negative stimuli, but whether 5-HT2A/1A receptor stimulation modulates the processing of negative social interactions remains unclear. Therefore, this double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced, cross-over study assessed the neural response to social exclusion after the acute administration of Psi (0.215 mg/kg) or placebo (Pla) in 21 healthy volunteers by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and resting-state magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Participants reported a reduced feeling of social exclusion after Psi vs. Pla administration, and the neural response to social exclusion was decreased in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the middle frontal gyrus, key regions for social pain processing. The reduced neural response in the dACC was significantly correlated with Psi-induced changes in self-processing and decreased aspartate (Asp) content. In conclusion, 5-HT2A/1A receptor stimulation with psilocybin seems to reduce social pain processing in association with changes in self-experience. These findings may be relevant to the normalization of negative social interaction processing in psychiatric disorders characterized by increased rejection sensitivity. The current results also emphasize the importance of 5-HT2A/1A receptor subtypes and the Asp system in the control of social functioning, and as prospective targets in the treatment of sociocognitive impairments in psychiatric illnesses. PMID:27091970

  14. Overexpression of androgen receptor and forkhead-box A1 protein in apocrine breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sasahara, Manami; Matsui, Akira; Ichimura, Yoshiko; Hirakata, Yuuko; Murata, Yuuya; Marui, Eiji

    2014-03-01

    Apocrine breast carcinoma often lacks estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor type-2 (HER2) expression. Accordingly, development of a new treatment strategy is important for this type of cancer. The growth stimulus through the androgen receptor (AR) can be a candidate for targeted treatment. Therefore, we examined the factors related to AR transcription. We immunohistochemically evaluated 54 apocrine cancer lesions for ER, PgR, AR, HER2, Ki-67, forkhead-box protein A1 (FOXA1), and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) expression. ER, PgR, and HER2 were expressed at a low level, thus 44 out of 54 (81.4%) cases were of triple-negative breast cancer. AR, PSA and FOXA1 were expressed in 100% (54/54), 48% (26/54) and 93% (50/54) of cases, respectively. Most of apocrine breast carcinomas were immunohistochemically-positive for AR and FOXA1. Anti-androgenic therapies can potentially serve as a cancer-targeting therapy for apocrine breast carcinoma.

  15. Basal Levels of AMPA Receptor GluA1 Subunit Phosphorylation at Threonine 840 and Serine 845 in Hippocampal Neurons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babiec, Walter E.; Guglietta, Ryan; O'Dell, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Dephosphorylation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) GluA1 subunits at two sites, serine 845 (S845) and threonine 840 (T840), is thought to be involved in NMDA receptor-dependent forms of long-term depression (LTD). Importantly, the notion that dephosphorylation of these sites contributes to LTD assumes that a significant fraction of GluA1 subunits are…

  16. Adenosine A1 receptor: A neuroprotective target in light induced retinal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Soliño, Manuel; López, Ester María; Rey-Funes, Manuel; Loidl, César Fabián; Larrayoz, Ignacio M; Martínez, Alfredo; Girardi, Elena; López-Costa, Juan José

    2018-01-01

    Light induced retinal degeneration (LIRD) is a useful model that resembles human retinal degenerative diseases. The modulation of adenosine A1 receptor is neuroprotective in different models of retinal injury. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effect of the modulation of A1 receptor in LIRD. The eyes of rats intravitreally injected with N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), an A1 agonist, which were later subjected to continuous illumination (CI) for 24 h, showed retinas with a lower number of apoptotic nuclei and a decrease of Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) immunoreactive area than controls. Lower levels of activated Caspase 3 and GFAP were demonstrated by Western Blot (WB) in treated animals. Also a decrease of iNOS, TNFα and GFAP mRNA was demonstrated by RT-PCR. A decrease of Iba 1+/MHC-II+ reactive microglial cells was shown by immunohistochemistry. Electroretinograms (ERG) showed higher amplitudes of a-wave, b-wave and oscillatory potentials after CI compared to controls. Conversely, the eyes of rats intravitreally injected with dipropylcyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX), an A1 antagonist, and subjected to CI for 24 h, showed retinas with a higher number of apoptotic nuclei and an increase of GFAP immunoreactive area compared to controls. Also, higher levels of activated Caspase 3 and GFAP were demonstrated by Western Blot. The mRNA levels of iNOS, nNOS and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNFα) were not modified by DPCPX treatment. An increase of Iba 1+/MHC-II+ reactive microglial cells was shown by immunohistochemistry. ERG showed that the amplitudes of a-wave, b-wave, and oscillatory potentials after CI were similar to control values. A single pharmacological intervention prior illumination stress was able to swing retinal fate in opposite directions: CPA was neuroprotective, while DPCPX worsened retinal damage. In summary, A1 receptor agonism is a plausible neuroprotective strategy in LIRD.

  17. Small-animal PET study of adenosine A(1) receptors in rat brain: blocking receptors and raising extracellular adenosine.

    PubMed

    Paul, Soumen; Khanapur, Shivashankar; Rybczynska, Anna A; Kwizera, Chantal; Sijbesma, Jurgen W A; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Willemsen, Antoon T M; Elsinga, Philip H; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; van Waarde, Aren

    2011-08-01

    Activation of adenosine A(1) receptors (A(1)R) in the brain causes sedation, reduces anxiety, inhibits seizures, and promotes neuroprotection. Cerebral A(1)R can be visualized using 8-dicyclopropylmethyl-1-(11)C-methyl-3-propyl-xanthine ((11)C-MPDX) and PET. This study aims to test whether (11)C-MPDX can be used for quantitative studies of cerebral A(1)R in rodents. (11)C-MPDX was injected (intravenously) into isoflurane-anesthetized male Wistar rats (300 g). A dynamic scan of the central nervous system was obtained, using a small-animal PET camera. A cannula in a femoral artery was used for blood sampling. Three groups of animals were studied: group 1, controls (saline-treated); group 2, animals pretreated with the A(1)R antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX, 1 mg, intraperitoneally); and group 3, animals pretreated (intraperitoneally) with a 20% solution of ethanol in saline (2 mL) plus the adenosine kinase inhibitor 4-amino-5-(3-bromophenyl)-7-(6-morpholino-pyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d] pyrimidine dihydrochloride (ABT-702) (1 mg). DPCPX is known to occupy cerebral A(1)R, whereas ethanol and ABT-702 increase extracellular adenosine. In groups 1 and 3, the brain was clearly visualized. High uptake of (11)C-MPDX was noted in striatum, hippocampus, and cerebellum. In group 2, tracer uptake was strongly suppressed and regional differences were abolished. The treatment of group 3 resulted in an unexpected 40%-45% increase of the cerebral uptake of radioactivity as indicated by increases of PET standardized uptake value, distribution volume from Logan plot, nondisplaceable binding potential from 2-tissue-compartment model fit, and standardized uptake value from a biodistribution study performed after the PET scan. The partition coefficient of the tracer (K(1)/k(2) from the model fit) was not altered under the study conditions. (11)C-MPDX shows a regional distribution in rat brain consistent with binding to A(1)R. Tracer binding is blocked by the selective A

  18. SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 are associated with treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia with the combination of 5α-reductase inhibitors and α-adrenergic receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xin; Na, Rong; Huang, Tao; Wang, Li; Tao, Sha; Tian, Lu; Chen, Zhuo; Jiao, Yang; Kang, Jian; Zheng, Siqun; Xu, Jianfeng; Sun, Jielin; Qi, Jun

    2013-08-01

    Common treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia include 5α-reductase inhibitors and α-adrenergic receptor antagonists. However, these treatments can only partially decrease the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia progression. SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 are 5α-reductase inhibitor targets. We investigated the association between drug efficacy and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 genes in a Chinese population. We genotyped 11 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms in the SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 genes in a total of 426 benign prostatic hyperplasia cases and 1,008 controls from Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai, People's Republic of China. Cases were treated with type II 5α-reductase inhibitors and α-adrenergic receptor antagonists. We tested the association of tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms with benign prostatic hyperplasia risk/progression, clinical characteristics at baseline, including the I-PSS (International Prostate Symptom Score) and total prostate volume, and changes in clinical characteristics after treatment. The 11 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms were not significantly associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia risk or progression (each p >0.05). In the SRD5A1 gene rs6884552 and rs3797177 were significantly associated with baseline I-PSS (p = 0.04 and 0.003, respectively). In the SRD5A2 gene rs523349 (V89L) and rs9332975 were significantly associated with baseline total prostate volume (p = 0.01 and 0.001, respectively). In SRD5A1 rs166050 was significantly associated with the posttreatment change in total prostate volume (p = 0.04). In SRD5A2 rs523349 and rs612224 were significantly associated with the posttreatment I-PSS change (p = 0.03 and 0.009, respectively). SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 single nucleotide polymorphisms are significantly associated with the clinical characteristics of benign prostatic hyperplasia and the efficacy of benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and

  19. Activation of adenosine A(1) receptors alters behavioral and biochemical parameters in hyperthyroid rats.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Alessandra Nejar; Fontella, Fernanda Urruth; Bonan, Carla Denise; Barreto-Chaves, Maria Luiza M; Dalmaz, Carla; Sarkis, João José Freitas

    2006-02-28

    Adenosine acting on A(1) receptors has been related with neuroprotective and neuromodulatory actions, protection against oxidative stress and decrease of anxiety and nociceptive signaling. Previous studies demonstrated an inhibition of the enzymes that hydrolyze ATP to adenosine in the rat central nervous system after hyperthyroidism induction. Manifestations of hyperthyroidism include increased anxiety, nervousness, high O(2) consumption and physical hyperactivity. Here, we investigated the effects of administration of a specific agonist of adenosine A(1) receptor (N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine; CPA) on nociception, anxiety, exploratory response, locomotion and brain oxidative stress of hyperthyroid rats. Hyperthyroidism was induced by daily intraperitoneal injections of l-thyroxine (T4) for 14 days. Nociception was assessed with a tail-flick apparatus and exploratory behavior, locomotion and anxiety were analyzed by open-field and plus-maze tests. We verified the total antioxidant reactivity (TAR), lipid peroxide levels by the thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) reaction and the free radicals content by the DCF test. Our results demonstrated that CPA reverted the hyperalgesia induced by hyperthyroidism and decreased the exploratory behavior, locomotion and anxiety in hyperthyroid rats. Furthermore, CPA decreased lipid peroxidation in hippocampus and cerebral cortex of control rats and in cerebral cortex of hyperthyroid rats. CPA also increased the total antioxidant reactivity in hippocampus and cerebral cortex of control and hyperthyroid rats, but the production of free radicals verified by the DCF test was changed only in cerebral cortex. These results suggest that some of the hyperthyroidism effects are subjected to regulation by adenosine A(1) receptor, demonstrating the involvement of the adenosinergic system in this pathology.

  20. Spasticity therapy reacts to astrocyte GluA1 receptor upregulation following spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Soriano, Julio; Goiriena, Eider; Taylor, Julian

    2010-01-01

    For almost three decades intrathecal baclofen therapy has been the standard treatment for spinal cord injury spasticity when oral medication is ineffective or produces serious side effects. Although intrathecal baclofen therapy has a good clinical benefit-risk ratio for spinal spasticity, tolerance and the life-threatening withdrawal syndrome present serious problems for its management. Now, in an experimental model of spinal cord injury spasticity, AMPA receptor blockade with NGX424 (Tezampanel) has been shown to reduce stretch reflex activity alone and during tolerance to intrathecal baclofen therapy. These results stem from the observation that GluA1 receptors are overexpressed on reactive astrocytes following experimental ischaemic spinal cord injury. Although further validation is required, the appropriate choice of AMPA receptor antagonists for treatment of stretch hyperreflexia based on our recent understanding of reactive astrocyte neurobiology following spinal cord injury may lead to the development of a better adjunct clinical therapy for spasticity without the side effects of intrathecal baclofen therapy. LINKED ARTICLE This article is a commentary on Oshiro et al., pp. 976–985 of this issue. To view this paper visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00954.x PMID:20662840

  1. Harman induces CYP1A1 enzyme through an aryl hydrocarbon receptor mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    El Gendy, Mohamed A.M.; El-Kadi, Ayman O.S., E-mail: aelkadi@pharmacy.ualberta.c

    Harman is a common compound in several foods, plants and beverages. Numerous studies have demonstrated its mutagenic, co-mutagenic and carcinogenic effects; however, the exact mechanism has not been fully identified. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor regulating the expression of the carcinogen-activating enzyme; cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1). In the present study, we examined the ability of harman to induce AhR-mediated signal transduction in human and rat hepatoma cells; HepG2 and H4IIE cells. Our results showed that harman significantly induced CYP1A1 mRNA in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Similarly, harman significantly induced CYP1A1 at protein and activity levels inmore » a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, the AhR antagonist, resveratrol, inhibited the increase in CYP1A1 activity by harman. The RNA polymerase inhibitor, actinomycin D, completely abolished the CYP1A1 mRNA induction by harman, indicating a transcriptional activation. The role of AhR in CYP1A1 induction by harman was confirmed by using siRNA specific for human AhR. The ability of harman to induce CYP1A1 was strongly correlated with its ability to stimulate AhR-dependent luciferase activity and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. At post-transcriptional and post-translational levels, harman did not affect the stability of CYP1A1 at the mRNA and the protein levels, excluding other mechanisms participating in the obtained effects. We concluded that harman can directly induce CYP1A1 gene expression in an AhR-dependent manner and may represent a novel mechanism by which harman promotes mutagenicity, co-mutagenicity and carcinogenicity.« less

  2. Dimerization of the EphA1 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Transmembrane Domain: Insights into the Mechanism of Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    EphA1 is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that plays a key role in developmental processes, including guidance of the migration of axons and cells in the nervous system. EphA1, in common with other RTKs, contains an N-terminal extracellular domain, a single transmembrane (TM) α-helix, and a C-terminal intracellular kinase domain. The TM helix forms a dimer, as seen in recent NMR studies. We have modeled the EphA1 TM dimer using a multiscale approach combining coarse-grain (CG) and atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The one-dimensional potential of mean force (PMF) for this system, based on interhelix separation, has been calculated using CG MD simulations. This provides a view of the free energy landscape for helix–helix interactions of the TM dimer in a lipid bilayer. The resulting PMF profiles suggest two states, consistent with a rotation-coupled activation mechanism. The more stable state corresponds to a right-handed helix dimer interacting via an N-terminal glycine zipper motif, consistent with a recent NMR structure (2K1K). A second metastable state corresponds to a structure in which the glycine zipper motif is not involved. Analysis of unrestrained CG MD simulations based on representative models from the PMF calculations or on the NMR structure reveals possible pathways of interconversion between these two states, involving helix rotations about their long axes. This suggests that the interaction of TM helices in EphA1 dimers may be intrinsically dynamic. This provides a potential mechanism for signaling whereby extracellular events drive a shift in the repopulation of the underlying TM helix dimer energy landscape. PMID:25286141

  3. Enhanced tubuloglomerular feedback in mice with vascular overexpression of A1 adenosine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Oppermann, Mona; Qin, Yan; Lai, En Yin; Eisner, Christoph; Li, Lingli; Huang, Yuning; Mizel, Diane; Fryc, Justyna; Wilcox, Christopher S.; Briggs, Josephine; Schnermann, Jurgen

    2009-01-01

    Adenosine 1 receptors (A1AR) in the kidney are expressed in the vasculature and the tubular system. Pharmacological inhibition or global genetic deletion of A1AR causes marked reductions or abolishment of tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) responses. To assess the function of vascular A1AR in TGF, we generated transgenic mouse lines in which A1AR expression in smooth muscle was augmented by placing A1AR under the control of a 5.38-kb fragment of the rat smooth muscle α-actin promoter and first intron (12). Two founder lines with highest expression in the kidney [353 ± 42 and 575 ± 43% compared with the wild type (WT)] were used in the experiments. Enhanced expression of A1AR at the expected site in these lines was confirmed by augmented constrictor responses of isolated afferent arterioles to administration of the A1AR agonist N6-cyclohexyladenosine. Maximum TGF responses (0–30 nl/min flow step) were increased from 8.4 ± 0.9 mmHg in WT (n = 21) to 14.2 ± 0.7 mmHg in A1AR-transgene (tg) 4 (n = 22; P < 0.0001), and to 12.6 ± 1.2 mmHg in A1AR-tg7 (n = 12; P < 0.02). Stepwise changes in perfusion flow caused greater numerical TGF responses in A1AR-tg than WT in all flow ranges with differences reaching levels of significance in the intermediate flow ranges of 7.5–10 and 10–15 nl/min. Proximal-distal single-nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) differences (free-flow micropuncture) were also increased in A1AR-tg, averaging 6.25 ± 1.5 nl/min compared with 2.6 ± 0.51 nl/min in WT (P = 0.034). Basal plasma renin concentrations as well as the suppression of renin secretion after volume expansion were similar in A1AR-tg and WT mice, suggesting lack of transgene expression in juxtaglomerular cells. These data indicate that A1AR expression in vascular smooth muscle cells is a critical component for TGF signaling and that changes in renal vascular A1AR expression may determine the magnitude of TGF responses. PMID:19741017

  4. Intrinsic A(1) adenosine receptor activation during ischemia or reperfusion improves recovery in mouse hearts.

    PubMed

    Peart, J; Headrick, J P

    2000-11-01

    We assessed the role of A(1) adenosine receptor (A(1)AR) activation by endogenous adenosine in the modulation of ischemic contracture and postischemic recovery in Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts subjected to 20 min of total ischemia and 30 min of reperfusion. In control hearts, the rate-pressure product (RPP) and first derivative of pressure development over time (+dP/dt) recovered to 57 +/- 3 and 58 +/- 3% of preischemia, respectively. Diastolic pressure remained elevated at 20 +/- 2 mmHg (compared with 3 +/- 1 mmHg preischemia). Interstitial adenosine, assessed by microdialysis, rose from approximately 0.3 to 1.9 microM during ischemia compared with approximately 15 microM in rat heart. Nonetheless, these levels will near maximally activate A(1)ARs on the basis of effects of exogenous adenosine and 2-chloroadenosine. Neither A(1)AR blockade with 200 nM 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) during the ischemic period alone nor A(1)AR activation with 50 nM N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine altered rapidity or extent of ischemic contracture. However, ischemic DPCPX treatment significantly depressed postischemic recovery of RPP and +dP/dt (44 +/- 3 and 40 +/- 4% of preischemia, respectively). DPCPX treatment during the reperfusion period alone also reduced recovery of RPP and +dP/dt (to 44 +/- 2 and 47 +/- 2% of preischemia, respectively). These data indicate that 1) interstitial adenosine is lower in mouse versus rat myocardium during ischemia, 2) A(1)AR activation by endogenous adenosine or exogenous agonists does not modify ischemic contracture in murine myocardium, 3) A(1)AR activation by endogenous adenosine during ischemia attenuates postischemic stunning, and 4) A(1)AR activation by endogenous adenosine during the reperfusion period also improves postischemic contractile recovery.

  5. AMP-guided tumour-specific nanoparticle delivery via adenosine A1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Dai, Tongcheng; Li, Na; Han, Fajun; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Yuanxing; Liu, Qin

    2016-03-01

    Active targeting-ligands have been increasingly used to functionalize nanoparticles for tumour-specific clinical applications. Here we utilize nucleotide adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) as a novel ligand to functionalize polymer-based fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) for tumour-targeted imaging. We demonstrate that AMP-conjugated NPs (NPs-AMP) efficiently bind to and are following internalized into colon cancer cell CW-2 and breast cancer cell MDA-MB-468 in vitro. RNA interference and inhibitor assays reveal that the targeting effects mainly rely on the specific binding of AMP to adenosine A1 receptor (A1R), which is greatly up-regulated in cancer cells than in matched normal cells. More importantly, NPs-AMP specifically accumulate in the tumour site of colon and breast tumour xenografts and are further internalized into the tumour cells in vivo via tail vein injection, confirming that the high in vitro specificity of AMP can be successfully translated into the in vivo efficacy. Furthermore, NPs-AMP exhibit an active tumour-targeting behaviour in various colon and breast cancer cells, which is positively related to the up-regulation level of A1R in cancer cells, suggesting that AMP potentially suits for more extensive A1R-overexpressing cancer models. This work establishes AMP to be a novel tumour-targeting ligand and provides a promising strategy for future diagnostic or therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Posttranscriptional mRNA processing as a mechanism for regulation of human A1 adenosine receptor expression.

    PubMed Central

    Ren, H; Stiles, G L

    1994-01-01

    The human A1 adenosine receptor gene contains six exons with exons 1, 2, 3, 4, and part of 5 representing 5' untranslated regions. Reverse transcription-PCR with exon-specific primers showed two distinct transcripts containing either exons 3, 5, and 6 or exons 4, 5, and 6, with exons 3 and 4 being mutually exclusive. No mature mRNAs containing exons 1 and 2 have been detected. All human tissues that express any A1 receptors contain mRNA with exons 4, 5, and 6. Tissues which express high levels of A1 receptors contain mRNA with exons 3, 5, and 6. Exon 4 contains two upstream ATG codons whereas exon 3 contains none. COS cells transfected with expression vectors containing exon 4 (exons 1-6, 3-6, or Ex4-6) express much lower levels of A1 receptors than vectors without exon 4 (exons 3, 5, and 6). Mutation of upstream ATG codons in exon 4 leads to 3- to 7-fold increased A1 receptor expression, up to the level seen with the construct containing exons 3, 5, and 6. Thus, in human tissues "basal" levels of A1 receptors can be expressed by use of mRNA containing exons 4, 5, and 6, but when high levels are needed, alternative transcripts with exons 3, 5, and 6 are produced. Images PMID:8197148

  7. New Drug Candidate Targeting the 4A1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor for Medullary Thyroid Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Wen; Wang, Qun; Li, Qinpei; Wang, Huijuan; Wang, Jun; Teng, Tieshan; Chen, Mingliang; Ji, Ailing; Li, Yanzhang

    2018-03-02

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a relatively rare thyroid cancer responsible for a substantial fraction of thyroid cancer mortality. More effective therapeutic drugs with low toxicity for MTC are urgently needed. Orphan nuclear receptor 4A1 (NR4A1) plays a pivotal role in regulating the proliferation and apoptosis of a variety of tumor cells. Based on the NR4A1 protein structure, 2-imino-6-methoxy-2H-chromene-3-carbothioamide (IMCA) was identified from the Specs compounds database using the protein structure-guided virtual screening approach. Computationally-based molecular modeling studies suggested that IMCA has a high affinity for the ligand binding pocket of NR4A1. MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide] and apoptosis assays demonstrated that IMCA resulted in significant thyroid cancer cell death. Immunofluorescence assays showed that IMCA induced NR4A1 translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in thyroid cancer cell lines, which may be involved in the cell apoptotic process. In this study, the quantitative polymerase chain reaction results showed that the IMCA-induced upregulation of sestrin1 and sestrin2 was dose-dependent in thyroid cancer cell lines. Western blot showed that IMCA increased phosphorylation of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and decreased phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), which is the key enzyme in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. The experimental results suggest that IMCA is a drug candidate for MTC therapy and may work by increasing the nuclear export of NR4A1 to the cytoplasm and the tumor protein 53 (p53)-sestrins-AMPK-mTOR signaling pathway.

  8. Valerian extract Ze 911 inhibits postsynaptic potentials by activation of adenosine A1 receptors in rat cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Vissiennon, Z; Sichardt, K; Koetter, U; Brattström, A; Nieber, K

    2006-06-01

    In this study we evaluated the adenosine A1 receptor-mediated effect of valerian extract (Ze 911) on postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) in pyramidal cells of the rat cingulate cortex in a slice preparation. We first observed that N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA, 0.01 - 10 microM), an adenosine A1 receptor agonist, inhibited PSPs in a concentration-dependent manner. The CPA (10 microM)-induced inhibition was antagonized by 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX, 0.1 microM), an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist. Ze 911 concentration dependently (0.1 - 15 mg/mL) inhibited PSPs in the presence of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist 1,3,7-trimethyl-8-(3-chlorostyryl)xanthine (CSC, 0.2 microM) and adenosine deaminase (1 U/mL). The maximal inhibition induced by 10 mg/mL was completely antagonised by DPCPX (0.1 microM), an A1 receptor blocker. The data suggest that activation of adenosine A1 receptors is involved in the pharmacological effects of the valerian extract Ze 911.

  9. Role of central and peripheral adenosine receptors in the cardiovascular responses to intraperitoneal injections of adenosine A1 and A2A subtype receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Charles W; Karcz-Kubicha, Marzena; Thorndike, Eric B; Müller, Christa E; Tella, Srihari R; Ferré, Sergi; Goldberg, Steven R

    2005-03-01

    1. The cardiovascular effects of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) and the adenosine A2A receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS 21680) were investigated in rats implanted with telemetry transmitters for the measurement of blood pressure and heart rate. 2. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist CPA led to dose-dependent decreases in both blood pressure and heart rate. These effects of 0.3 mg kg(-1) CPA were antagonized by i.p. injections of the adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethyl-xanthine (CPT), but not by i.p. injections of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist 3-(3-hydroxypropyl)-8-(m-methoxystyryl)-7-methyl-1-propargylxanthine phosphate disodium salt (MSX-3). Injections (i.p.) of the peripherally acting nonselective adenosine antagonist 8-sulfophenyltheophylline (8-SPT) and the purported nonselective adenosine antagonist caffeine also antagonized the cardiovascular effects of CPA. 3. The adenosine A2A agonist CGS 21680 given i.p. produced a dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure and an increase in heart rate. These effects of 0.5 mg kg(-1) CGS 21680 were antagonized by i.p. injections of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3, but not by i.p. injections of the antagonists CPT, 8-SPT or caffeine. 4. Central administration (intracerebral ventricular) of CGS 21680 produced an increase in heart rate, but no change in blood pressure. MSX-3 given i.p. antagonized the effects of the central injection of CGS 21680. 5. These results suggest that adenosine A1 receptor agonists produce decreases in blood pressure and heart rate that are mediated by A1 receptors in the periphery, with little or no contribution of central adenosine A1 receptors to those effects. 6. The heart rate increasing effect of adenosine A2A agonists appears to be mediated by adenosine A2A receptors in the central nervous system. The blood pressure decreasing

  10. Therapeutic efficacy of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) against organophosphate intoxication.

    PubMed

    Bueters, Tjerk J H; Groen, Bas; Danhof, Meindert; IJzerman, Ad P; Van Helden, Herman P M

    2002-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate whether reduction of central acetylcholine (ACh) accumulation by adenosine receptor agonists could serve as a generic treatment against organophosphate (OP) poisoning. The OPs studied were tabun ( O-ethyl- N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate), sarin (isopropylmethylphosphonofluoridate), VX ( O-ethyl- S-2-diisopropylaminoethylmethylphosphonothiolate) and parathion ( O, O-diethyl- O-(4-nitrophenyl)phosphorothioate). The efficacy of the adenosine A(1) receptor agonist N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) against an OP intoxication was examined on the basis of the occurrence of clinical symptoms that are directly associated with such intoxication. CPA (1-2 mg/kg) effectively attenuated the cholinergic symptoms and prevented mortality in lethally tabun- or sarin-intoxicated rats. In contrast, CPA (2 mg/kg) proved to be ineffective against VX or parathion intoxication. Intracerebral microdialysis studies revealed that survival of sarin-poisoned and CPA-treated animals coincided with a minor elevation of extracellular ACh concentrations in the brain relative to the baseline value, whereas an 11-fold increase in transmitter levels was observed in animals not treated with CPA. In VX-intoxicated rats, however, the ACh amounts increased 18-fold, irrespective of treatment with CPA. The striatal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity following a lethal sarin intoxication was completely abolished in the vehicle-treated animals, whereas 10% and 60% AChE activity remained in animals treated with 2 mg/kg CPA 1 min after or 2 min prior to the poisoning, respectively. In VX-intoxicated animals the AChE activity in the brain was strongly reduced (striatum 10%, hippocampus 1%) regardless of the CPA treatment. These results demonstrate that CPA is highly effective against tabun or sarin poisoning, but fails to protect against VX or parathion. Survival and attenuation of clinical signs in tabun- or sarin-poisoned animals are associated with a

  11. Deletion of the GluA1 AMPA Receptor Subunit Alters the Expression of Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, David J.; Sprengel, Rolf; Seeburg, Peter H.; Bannerman, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Deletion of the GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit selectively impairs short-term memory for spatial locations. We further investigated this deficit by examining memory for discrete nonspatial visual stimuli in an operant chamber. Unconditioned suppression of magazine responding to visual stimuli was measured in wild-type and GluA1 knockout mice.…

  12. Androgen receptor antagonism drives cytochrome P450 17A1 inhibitor efficacy in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Norris, John D.; Ellison, Stephanie J.; Baker, Jennifer G.; Stagg, David B.; Wardell, Suzanne E.; Park, Sunghee; Alley, Holly M.; Baldi, Robert M.; Yllanes, Alexander; Andreano, Kaitlyn J.; Stice, James P.; Lawrence, Scott A.; Eisner, Joel R.; Price, Douglas K.; Moore, William R.; Figg, William D.; McDonnell, Donald P.

    2017-01-01

    The clinical utility of inhibiting cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17), a cytochrome p450 enzyme that is required for the production of androgens, has been exemplified by the approval of abiraterone for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Recently, however, it has been reported that CYP17 inhibitors can interact directly with the androgen receptor (AR). A phase I study recently reported that seviteronel, a CYP17 lyase–selective inhibitor, ædemonstrated a sustained reduction in prostate-specific antigen in a patient with CRPC, and another study showed seviteronel’s direct effects on AR function. This suggested that seviteronel may have therapeutically relevant activities in addition to its ability to inhibit androgen production. Here, we have demonstrated that CYP17 inhibitors, with the exception of orteronel, can function as competitive AR antagonists. Conformational profiling revealed that the CYP17 inhibitor–bound AR adopted a conformation that resembled the unliganded AR (apo-AR), precluding nuclear localization and DNA binding. Further, we observed that seviteronel and abiraterone inhibited the growth of tumor xenografts expressing the clinically relevant mutation AR-F876L and that this activity could be attributed entirely to competitive AR antagonism. The results of this study suggest that the ability of CYP17 inhibitors to directly antagonize the AR may contribute to their clinical efficacy in CRPC. PMID:28463227

  13. The Role of cGMP on Adenosine A1 Receptor-mediated Inhibition of Synaptic Transmission at the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Isa; Serpa, André; Sebastião, Ana M.; Cascalheira, José F.

    2016-01-01

    Both adenosine A1 receptor and cGMP inhibit synaptic transmission at the hippocampus and recently it was found that A1 receptor increased cGMP levels in hippocampus, but the role of cGMP on A1 receptor-mediated inhibition of synaptic transmission remains to be established. In the present work we investigated if blocking the NOS/sGC/cGMP/PKG pathway using nitric oxide synthase (NOS), protein kinase G (PKG), and soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibitors modify the A1 receptor effect on synaptic transmission. Neurotransmission was evaluated by measuring the slope of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) evoked by electrical stimulation at hippocampal slices. N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA, 15 nM), a selective A1 receptor agonist, reversibly decreased the fEPSPs by 54 ± 5%. Incubation of the slices with an inhibitor of NOS (L-NAME, 200 μM) decreased the CPA effect on fEPSPs by 57 ± 9% in female rats. In males, ODQ (10 μM), an sGC inhibitor, decreased the CPA inhibitory effect on fEPSPs by 23 ± 6%, but only when adenosine deaminase (ADA,1 U/ml) was present; similar results were found in females, where ODQ decreased CPA-induced inhibition of fEPSP slope by 23 ± 7%. In male rats, the presence of the PKG inhibitor (KT5823, 1 nM) decreased the CPA effect by 45.0 ± 9%; similar results were obtained in females, where KT5823 caused a 32 ± 9% decrease on the CPA effect. In conclusion, the results suggest that the inhibitory action of adenosine A1 receptors on synaptic transmission at hippocampus is, in part, mediated by the NOS/sGC/cGMP/PKG pathway. PMID:27148059

  14. Hypothermia in mouse is caused by adenosine A1 and A3 receptor agonists and AMP via three distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Carlin, Jesse Lea; Jain, Shalini; Gizewski, Elizabeth; Wan, Tina C; Tosh, Dilip K; Xiao, Cuiying; Auchampach, John A; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Gavrilova, Oksana; Reitman, Marc L

    2017-03-01

    Small mammals have the ability to enter torpor, a hypothermic, hypometabolic state, allowing impressive energy conservation. Administration of adenosine or adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) can trigger a hypothermic, torpor-like state. We investigated the mechanisms for hypothermia using telemetric monitoring of body temperature in wild type and receptor knock out (Adora1 -/- , Adora3 -/- ) mice. Confirming prior data, stimulation of the A 3 adenosine receptor (AR) induced hypothermia via peripheral mast cell degranulation, histamine release, and activation of central histamine H 1 receptors. In contrast, A 1 AR agonists and AMP both acted centrally to cause hypothermia. Commonly used, selective A 1 AR agonists, including N 6 -cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), N 6 -cyclohexyladenosine (CHA), and MRS5474, caused hypothermia via both A 1 AR and A 3 AR when given intraperitoneally. Intracerebroventricular dosing, low peripheral doses of Cl-ENBA [(±)-5'-chloro-5'-deoxy-N 6 -endo-norbornyladenosine], or using Adora3 -/- mice allowed selective stimulation of A 1 AR. AMP-stimulated hypothermia can occur independently of A 1 AR, A 3 AR, and mast cells. A 1 AR and A 3 AR agonists and AMP cause regulated hypothermia that was characterized by a drop in total energy expenditure, physical inactivity, and preference for cooler environmental temperatures, indicating a reduced body temperature set point. Neither A 1 AR nor A 3 AR was required for fasting-induced torpor. A 1 AR and A 3 AR agonists and AMP trigger regulated hypothermia via three distinct mechanisms. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Adenosine A1 receptors modulate high voltage-activated Ca2+ currents and motor pattern generation in the Xenopus embryo

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Paul; Dale, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    Adenosine causes voltage- and non-voltage-dependent inhibition of high voltage-activated (HVA) Ca2+ currents in Xenopus laevis embryo spinal neurons. As this inhibition can be blocked by 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) and mimicked by N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) it appears to be mediated by A1 receptors. Agents active at A2 receptors either were without effect or could be blocked by DPCPX. AMP had no agonist action on these receptors. By using ω-conotoxin GVIA we found that adenosine inhibited an N-type Ca2+ current as well as a further unidentified HVA current that was insensitive to dihydropyridines, ω-agatoxin TK and ω-conotoxin MVIIC. Both types of current were subject to voltage- and non-voltage-dependent inhibition. We used CPA and DPCPX to test whether A1 receptors regulated spinal motor pattern generation in spinalized Xenopus embryos. DPCPX caused a near doubling of, while CPA greatly shortened, the length of swimming episodes. In addition, DPCPX slowed, while CPA greatly speeded up, the rate of run-down of motor activity. Our results demonstrate a novel action of A1 receptors in modulating spinal motor activity. Furthermore they confirm that adenosine is produced continually throughout swimming episodes and acts to cause the eventual termination of activity. PMID:10856119

  16. Activation of the chemosensing transient receptor potential channel A1 (TRPA1) by alkylating agents.

    PubMed

    Stenger, Bernhard; Zehfuss, Franziska; Mückter, Harald; Schmidt, Annette; Balszuweit, Frank; Schäfer, Eva; Büch, Thomas; Gudermann, Thomas; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk

    2015-09-01

    The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) cation channel is expressed in different tissues including skin, lung and neuronal tissue. Recent reports identified TRPA1 as a sensor for noxious substances, implicating a functional role in the molecular toxicology. TRPA1 is activated by various potentially harmful electrophilic substances. The chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM) is a highly reactive alkylating agent that binds to numerous biological targets. Although SM is known for almost 200 years, detailed knowledge about the pathophysiology resulting from exposure is lacking. A specific therapy is not available. In this study, we investigated whether the alkylating agent 2-chloroethyl-ethylsulfide (CEES, a model substance for SM-promoted effects) and SM are able to activate TRPA1 channels. CEES induced a marked increase in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in TRPA1-expressing but not in TRPA1-negative cells. The TRP-channel blocker AP18 diminished the CEES-induced calcium influx. HEK293 cells permanently expressing TRPA1 were more sensitive toward cytotoxic effects of CEES compared with wild-type cells. At low CEES concentrations, CEES-induced cytotoxicity was prevented by AP18. Proof-of-concept experiments using SM resulted in a pronounced increase in [Ca(2+)]i in HEK293-A1-E cells. Human A549 lung epithelial cells, which express TRPA1 endogenously, reacted with a transient calcium influx in response to CEES exposure. The CEES-dependent calcium response was diminished by AP18. In summary, our results demonstrate that alkylating agents are able to activate TRPA1. Inhibition of TRPA1 counteracted cellular toxicity and could thus represent a feasible approach to mitigate SM-induced cell damage.

  17. Class A1 scavenger receptor modulates glioma progression by regulating M2-like tumor-associated macrophage polarization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hanwen; Zhang, Wenbin; Sun, Xuan; Dang, Ruoyu; Zhou, Rongmei; Bai, Hui; Ben, Jingjing; Zhu, Xudong; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Qing; Xu, Yong; Chen, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages enhance glioma development and progression by shaping the tumor microenvironment. Class A1 scavenger receptor (SR-A1), a pattern recognition receptor primarily expressed in macrophages, is up-regulated in many human solid tumors. We found that SR-A1 expression in 136 human gliomas was positively correlated with tumor grade (P<0.01), but not prognosis or tumor recurrence. SR-A1-expressing macrophages originated primarily from circulating monocytes attracted to tumor tissue, and were almost twice as numerous as resident microglia in glioma tissues (P<0.001). The effects of SR-A1 on glioma proliferation and invasion were assessed in vivo using an SR-A1-deficient murine orthotopic glioma model. SR-A1 deletion promoted M2-like tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) polarization in mice by activating STAT3 and STAT6, which resulted in robust orthotopic glioma proliferation and angiogenesis. Finally, we found that HSP70 might be an endogenous ligand that activates SR-A1-dependent anti-tumorigenic pathways in gliomas, although its expression does not appear informative for diagnostic purposes. Our findings demonstrate a relationship between TAMs, SR-A1 expression and glioma growth and provide new insights into the pathogenic role of TAMs in glioma. PMID:27367025

  18. Renal effects of the novel selective adenosine A1 receptor blocker SLV329 in experimental liver cirrhosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Hocher, Berthold; Heiden, Susi; von Websky, Karoline; Arafat, Ayman M; Rahnenführer, Jan; Alter, Markus; Kalk, Philipp; Ziegler, Dieter; Fischer, Yvan; Pfab, Thiemo

    2011-03-10

    Liver cirrhosis is often complicated by an impaired renal excretion of water and sodium. Diuretics tend to further deteriorate renal function. It is unknown whether chronic selective adenosine A(1) receptor blockade, via inhibition of the hepatorenal reflex and the tubuloglomerular feedback, might exert diuretic and natriuretic effects without a reduction of the glomerular filtration rate. In healthy animals intravenous treatment with the novel A(1) receptor antagonist SLV329 resulted in a strong dose-dependent diuretic (up to 3.4-fold) and natriuretic (up to 13.5-fold) effect without affecting creatinine clearance. Male Wistar rats with thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis received SLV329, vehicle or furosemide for 12 weeks. The creatinine clearance of cirrhotic animals decreased significantly (-36.5%, p<0.05), especially in those receiving furosemide (-41.9%, p<0.01). SLV329 was able to prevent this decline of creatinine clearance. Mortality was significantly lower in cirrhotic animals treated with SLV329 in comparison to animals treated with furosemide (17% vs. 54%, p<0.05). SLV329 did not relevantly influence the degree of liver fibrosis, kidney histology or expression of hepatic or renal adenosine receptors. In conclusion, chronic treatment with SLV329 prevented the decrease of creatinine clearance in a rat model of liver cirrhosis. Further studies will have to establish whether adenosine A(1) receptor antagonists are clinically beneficial at different stages of liver cirrhosis.

  19. Chronic hypoxia up-regulates expression of adenosine A1 receptors in DDT1-MF2 cells.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Lucy C; Bonnet, Claire; Kemp, Paul J; Yates, Michael S; Bowmer, Christopher J

    2004-02-01

    As the first step to understand how chronic hypoxia might regulate smooth muscle function in health and disease, we have employed an established immortalised cell model of smooth muscle, DDT1-MF2 cells, to address the hypothesis that adenosine A1 receptor density is modulated by O2 availability. Maximal specific binding (Bmax) of the selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, [3H]-DPCPX, to cell membranes increased 3.5-fold from 0.48 +/- 0.02 pmol/mg to 1.7 +/- 0.5 pmol/mg protein after 16 hr of hypoxia and this effect was not accompanied by any statistically significant changes in either binding affinity (0.84 +/- 0.2 nM vs. 1.2 +/- 0.3 nM) or Hill coefficient (1.1 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.99 +/- 0.03). Hypoxia-evoked increases in membrane receptor density were paralleled in intact DDT1-MF2 cells. In addition, the increase in [3H]-DPCPX binding to intact cells was inhibited by co-incubation during hypoxia with the translational inhibitor cycloheximide, the transcriptional blocker actinomycin D and the NFkappaB inhibitor sulphasalazine. Together, these data show that adenosine A1 receptor density is modulated, at least in part, by O2-dependent activation of the transcription factor NFkappaB and adds to the list of processes dynamically regulated by ambient oxygen availability. Since hypoxia is an initiating factor in acute renal failure, similar changes in transcription may account for up-regulation of adenosine A1 receptors noted previously in the renal vasculature of rats with acute renal failure.

  20. Effects of tianeptine on onset time of pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in mice: possible role of adenosine A1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Uzbay, Tayfun I; Kayir, Hakan; Ceyhan, Mert

    2007-02-01

    Depression is a common psychiatric problem in epileptic patients. Thus, it is important that an antidepressant agent has anticonvulsant activity. This study was organized to investigate the effects of tianeptine, an atypical antidepressant, on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure in mice. A possible contribution of adenosine receptors was also evaluated. Adult male Swiss-Webster mice (25-35 g) were subjects. PTZ (80 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to mice 30 min after tianeptine (2.5-80 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline administration. The onset times of 'first myoclonic jerk' (FMJ) and 'generalized clonic seizures' (GCS) were recorded. Duration of 600 s was taken as a cutoff time in calculation of the onset time of the seizures. To evaluate the contribution of adenosine receptors in the effect of tianeptine, a nonspecific adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine, a specific A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX), a specific A2A receptor antagonist 8-(3-chlorostyryl) caffeine (CSC) or their vehicles were administered to the mice 15 min before tianeptine (80 mg/kg) or saline treatments. Tianeptine (40 and 80 mg/kg) pretreatment significantly delayed the onset time of FMJ and GCS. Caffeine (10-60 mg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently blocked the retarding effect of tianeptine (80 mg/kg) on the onset times of FMJ and GCS. DPCPX (20 mg/kg) but not CSC (1-8 mg/kg) blocked the effect of tianeptine (80 mg/kg) on FMJ. Our results suggest that tianeptine delayed the onset time of PTZ-induced seizures via adenosine A1 receptors in mice. Thus, this drug may be a useful choice for epileptic patients with depression.

  1. Adenosine A1 Receptors in Mouse Pontine Reticular Formation Depress Breathing, Increase Anesthesia Recovery Time, and Decrease Acetylcholine Release

    PubMed Central

    Gettys, George C.; Liu, Fang; Kimlin, Ed; Baghdoyan, Helen A.; Lydic, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical and preclinical data demonstrate the analgesic actions of adenosine. Central administration of adenosine agonists, however, suppresses arousal and breathing by poorly understood mechanisms. This study tested the two-tailed hypothesis that adenosine A1 receptors in the pontine reticular formation (PRF) of C57BL/6J mice modulate breathing, behavioral arousal, and PRF acetylcholine release. Methods Three sets of experiments used 51 mice. First, breathing was measured by plethysmography after PRF microinjection of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6-sulfophenyl adenosine (SPA) or saline. Second, mice were anesthetized with isoflurane and time to recovery of righting response (RoRR) was quantified after PRF microinjection of SPA or saline. Third, acetylcholine release in the PRF was measured before and during microdialysis delivery of SPA, the adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX), or SPA and DPCPX. Results First, SPA significantly decreased respiratory rate (−18%), tidal volume (−12%) and minute ventilation (−16%). Second, SPA concentration accounted for 76% of the variance in RoRR. Third, SPA concentration accounted for a significant amount of the variance in acetylcholine release (52%), RoRR (98%), and breathing rate (86%). DPCPX alone caused a concentration-dependent increase in acetylcholine, decrease in RoRR, and decrease in breathing rate. Coadministration of SPA and DPCPX blocked the SPA-induced decrease in acetylcholine and increase in RoRR. Conclusions Endogenous adenosine acting at adenosine A1 receptors in the PRF modulates breathing, behavioral arousal, and acetylcholine release. The results support the interpretation that an adenosinergic-cholinergic interaction within the PRF comprises one neurochemical mechanism underlying the wakefulness stimulus for breathing. PMID:23263018

  2. Adenosine A(1) receptors in mouse pontine reticular formation depress breathing, increase anesthesia recovery time, and decrease acetylcholine release.

    PubMed

    Gettys, George C; Liu, Fang; Kimlin, Ed; Baghdoyan, Helen A; Lydic, Ralph

    2013-02-01

    Clinical and preclinical data demonstrate the analgesic actions of adenosine. Central administration of adenosine agonists, however, suppresses arousal and breathing by poorly understood mechanisms. This study tested the two-tailed hypothesis that adenosine A1 receptors in the pontine reticular formation (PRF) of C57BL/6J mice modulate breathing, behavioral arousal, and PRF acetylcholine release. Three sets of experiments used 51 mice. First, breathing was measured by plethysmography after PRF microinjection of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N-sulfophenyl adenosine (SPA) or saline. Second, mice were anesthetized with isoflurane and the time to recovery of righting response (RoRR) was quantified after a PRF microinjection of SPA or saline. Third, acetylcholine release in the PRF was measured before and during microdialysis delivery of SPA, the adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 1, 3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine, or SPA and 1, 3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine. First, SPA significantly decreased respiratory rate (-18%), tidal volume (-12%), and minute ventilation (-16%). Second, SPA concentration accounted for 76% of the variance in RoRR. Third, SPA concentration accounted for a significant amount of the variance in acetylcholine release (52%), RoRR (98%), and breathing rate (86%). 1, 3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine alone caused a concentration-dependent increase in acetylcholine, a decrease in RoRR, and a decrease in breathing rate. Coadministration of SPA and 1, 3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine blocked the SPA-induced decrease in acetylcholine and increase in RoRR. Endogenous adenosine acting at adenosine A1 receptors in the PRF modulates breathing, behavioral arousal, and acetylcholine release. The results support the interpretation that an adenosinergic-cholinergic interaction within the PRF comprises one neurochemical mechanism underlying the wakefulness stimulus for breathing.

  3. Role of A1 and A2A adenosine receptor agonists in adipose tissue inflammation induced by obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    DeOliveira, Caroline Candida; Paiva Caria, Cintia Rabelo E; Ferreira Gotardo, Erica Martins; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; Gambero, Alessandra

    2017-03-15

    Adenosine receptors are expressed in adipose tissue and control physiological and pathological events such as lipolysis and inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of N 6 -cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), a potent and selective A 1 adenosine receptor agonist; 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxyamidoadenosine hydrochloride (CGS-21680), an A 2A adenosine receptor agonist; and 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA), a potent non-selective adenosine receptor agonist on adipose tissue inflammatory alterations induced by obesity in mice. Swiss mice were fed with a high-fat diet for 12 weeks and agonists were administered in the last two weeks. Body weight, adiposity and glucose homeostasis were evaluated. Inflammation in adipose tissue was assessed by evaluation of adipokine production and macrophage infiltration. Adenosine receptor signaling in adipose tissue was also evaluated. Mice that received CGS21680 presented an improvement in glucose homeostasis in association with systemically reduced inflammatory markers (TNF-α, PAI-1) and in the visceral adipose tissue (TNF-α, MCP-1, macrophage infiltration). Activation of p38 signaling was found in adipose tissue of this group of mice. NECA-treated mice presented some improvements in glucose homeostasis associated with an observed weight loss. Mice that received CPA presented only a reduction in the ex vivo basal lipolysis rate measured within visceral adipose tissue. In conclusion, administration of the A 2A receptor agonist to obese mice resulted in improvements in glucose homeostasis and adipose tissue inflammation, corroborating the idea that new therapeutics to treat obesity could emerge from these compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ischaemic tolerance in aged mouse myocardium: the role of adenosine and effects of A1 adenosine receptor overexpression

    PubMed Central

    Headrick, John P; Willems, Laura; Ashton, Kevin J; Holmgren, Kirsten; Peart, Jason; Matherne, G Paul

    2003-01-01

    The genesis of the ischaemia intolerant phenotype in aged myocardium is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that impaired adenosine-mediated protection contributes to ischaemic intolerance, and examined whether this is countered by A1 adenosine receptor (A1AR) overexpression. Responses to 20 min ischaemia and 45 min reperfusion were assessed in perfused hearts from young (2–4 months) and moderately aged (16–18 months) mice. Post-ischaemic contractility was impaired by ageing with elevated ventricular diastolic (32 ± 2 vs. 18 ± 2 mmHg in young) and reduced developed (37 ± 3 vs. 83 ± 6 mmHg in young) pressures. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) loss was exaggerated (27 ± 2 vs. 16 ± 2 IU g−1in young) whereas the incidence of tachyarrhythmias was similar in young (15 ± 1 %) and aged hearts (16 ± 1 %). Functional analysis confirmed equipotent effects of 50 μm adenosine at A1 and A2 receptors in young and aged hearts. Nonetheless, while 50 μm adenosine improved diastolic (5 ± 1 mmHg) and developed pressures (134 ± 7 mmHg) and LDH loss (6 ± 2 IU g−1) in young hearts, it did not alter these variables in the aged group. Adenosine did attenuate arrhythmogenesis for both ages (to ∼10 %). In contrast to adenosine, 50 μm diazoxide reduced ischaemic damage and arrhythmogenesis for both ages. Contractile and anti-necrotic effects of adenosine were limited by 100 μm 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD) and 3 μm chelerythrine. Anti-arrhythmic effects were limited by 5-HD but not chelerythrine. Non-selective (100 μm 8-sulfophenyltheophylline) and A1-selective (150 nm 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine) adenosine receptor antagonism impaired ischaemic tolerance in young but not aged hearts. Quantitative real-time PCR and radioligand analysis indicated that impaired protection is unrelated to changes in A1AR mRNA transcription, or receptor density (∼8 fmol mg−1 protein in both age groups). However, A1AR overexpression improved tolerance for both ages, restoring

  5. A1 adenosine receptor attenuates intracerebral hemorrhage-induced secondary brain injury in rats by activating the P38-MAPKAP2-Hsp27 pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Weiwei; Chen, Dongdong; Shen, Haitao; Chen, Zhouqing; Li, Haiying; Yu, Zhengquan; Chen, Gang

    2016-06-14

    This study was designed to determine the role of the A1 adenosine receptors in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced secondary brain injury and the underlying mechanisms. A collagenase-induced ICH model was established in Sprague-Dawley rats, and cultured primary rat cortical neurons were exposed to oxyhemoglobin at a concentration of 10 μM to mimic ICH in vitro. The A1 adenosine receptor agonist N(6)-cyclohexyladenosine and antagonist 8-phenyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine were used to study the role of A1 adenosine receptor in ICH-induced secondary brain injury, and antagonists of P38 and Hsp27 were used to study the underlying mechanisms of A1 adenosine receptor actions. The protein level of A1 adenosine receptor was significantly increased by ICH, while there was no significant change in protein levels of the other 3 adenosine receptors. In addition, the A1 adenosine receptor expression could be increased by N(6)-cyclohexyladenosine and decreased by 8-phenyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine under ICH conditions. Activation of the A1 adenosine receptor attenuated neuronal apoptosis in the subcortex, which was associated with increased phosphorylation of P38, MAPK, MAPKAP2, and Hsp27. Inhibition of the A1 adenosine receptor resulted in opposite effects. Finally, the neuroprotective effect of the A1 adenosine receptor agonist N(6)-cyclohexyladenosine was inhibited by antagonists of P38 and Hsp27. This study demonstrates that activation of the A1 adenosine receptor by N(6)-cyclohexyladenosine could prevent ICH-induced secondary brain injury via the P38-MAPKAP2-Hsp27 pathway.

  6. Importance of GluA1 Subunit-Containing AMPA Glutamate Receptors for Morphine State-Dependency

    PubMed Central

    Aitta-aho, Teemu; Möykkynen, Tommi P.; Panhelainen, Anne E.; Vekovischeva, Olga Yu.; Bäckström, Pia; Korpi, Esa R.

    2012-01-01

    In state-dependency, information retrieval is most efficient when the animal is in the same state as it was during the information acquisition. State-dependency has been implicated in a variety of learning and memory processes, but its mechanisms remain to be resolved. Here, mice deficient in AMPA-type glutamate receptor GluA1 subunits were first conditioned to morphine (10 or 20 mg/kg s.c. during eight sessions over four days) using an unbiased procedure, followed by testing for conditioned place preference at morphine states that were the same as or different from the one the mice were conditioned to. In GluA1 wildtype littermate mice the same-state morphine dose produced the greatest expression of place preference, while in the knockout mice no place preference was then detected. Both wildtype and knockout mice expressed moderate morphine-induced place preference when not at the morphine state (saline treatment at the test); in this case, place preference was weaker than that in the same-state test in wildtype mice. No correlation between place preference scores and locomotor activity during testing was found. Additionally, as compared to the controls, the knockout mice showed unchanged sensitization to morphine, morphine drug discrimination and brain regional μ-opioid receptor signal transduction at the G-protein level. However, the knockout mice failed to show increased AMPA/NMDA receptor current ratios in the ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons of midbrain slices after a single injection of morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c., sliced prepared 24 h afterwards), in contrast to the wildtype mice. The results indicate impaired drug-induced state-dependency in GluA1 knockout mice, correlating with impaired opioid-induced glutamate receptor neuroplasticity. PMID:22675452

  7. Malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) adducted surfactant protein induced lung inflammation is mediated through scavenger receptor a (SR-A1).

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Muna; DeVasure, Jane M; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Wyatt, Todd A

    2017-02-13

    Co-exposure to cigarette smoke and alcohol leads to the generation of high concentrations of acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde in the lung. These aldehydes being highly electrophilic in nature react with biologically relevant proteins such as surfactant protein D (SPD) through a Schiff base reaction to generate SPD adducted malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde adduct (SPD-MAA) in mouse lung. SPD-MAA results in an increase in lung pro-inflammatory chemokine, keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), and the recruitment of lung lavage neutrophils. Previous in vitro studies in bronchial epithelial cells and macrophages show that scavenger receptor A (SR-A1/CD204) is a major receptor for SPD-MAA. No studies have yet examined the in vivo role of SR-A1 in MAA-mediated lung inflammation. Therefore, we hypothesize that in the absence of SR-A1, MAA-induced inflammation in the lung is reduced or diminished. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6 WT and SR-A1 KO mice were nasally instilled with 50 μg/mL of SPD-MAA for 3 weeks (wks). After 3 weeks, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected and assayed for a total cell count, a differential cell count and CXCL1 (KC) chemokine. Lung tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and antibodies to MAA adduct. Results showed that BAL cellularity and influx of neutrophils were decreased in SR-A1 KO mice as compared to WT following repetitive SPD-MAA exposure. MAA adduct staining in the lung epithelium was decreased in SR-A1 KO mice. In comparison to WT, no increase in CXCL1 was observed in BAL fluid from SR-A1 KO mice over time. Overall, the data demonstrate that SR-A1/CD204 plays an important role in SPD-MAA induced inflammation in lung.

  8. Adenosine A1 Receptors in Mouse Pontine Reticular Formation Modulate Nociception Only in the Presence of Systemic Leptin

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Sarah L.; Watson, Christopher J.; Baghdoyan, Helen A.; Lydic, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Human obesity is associated with increased leptin levels and pain, but the specific brain regions and neurochemical mechanisms underlying this association remain poorly understood. This study used adult male C57BL/6J (B6, n = 14) mice and leptin-deficient, obese B6.Cg-Lepob/J (obese, n = 10) mice to evaluate the hypothesis that nociception is altered by systemic leptin levels and by adenosine A1 receptors in the pontine reticular formation. Nociception was quantified as paw withdrawal latency (PWL) in s after onset of a thermal stimulus. PWL was converted to percent maximum possible effect (%MPE). After obtaining baseline PWL measures, the pontine reticular formation was microinjected with saline (control), three concentrations of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6-p-sulfophenyladenosine (SPA), or super-active mouse leptin receptor antagonist (SMLA) followed by SPA 15 min later, and PWL was again quantified. In obese, leptin-deficient mice, nociception was quantified before and during leptin replacement via subcutaneous osmotic pumps. SPA was administered into the pontine reticular formation of leptin-replaced mice and PWL testing was repeated. During baseline (before vehicle or SPA administration), PWL was significantly (p = 0.0013) lower in leptin-replaced obese mice than in B6 mice. Microinjecting SPA into the pontine reticular formation of B6 mice caused a significant (p = 0.0003) concentration-dependent increase in %MPE. SPA also significantly (p < 0.05) increased %MPE in B6 mice and in leptin-replaced obese mice, but not in leptin-deficient obese mice. Microinjection of the mouse super-active leptin antagonist (SMLA) into the pontine reticular formation before SPA did not alter PWL. The results show for the first time that pontine reticular formation administration of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist SPA produced antinociception only in the presence of systemic leptin. The concentration-response data support the interpretation that adenosine A1 receptors

  9. Non-genomic effects of the NR4A1/Nur77/TR3/NGFIB orphan nuclear receptor.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Alicja; Strzadala, Leon; Kalas, Wojciech

    2015-03-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1/Nur77/TR3/NGFIB acts primarily as a transcription factor to regulate the expression of multiple genes. However, increasing research attention has recently been given to non-genomic activities of NR4A1. The first description of a non-genomic action of NR4A1 referred to the conversion of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 into a pro-apoptotic protein by direct interaction with NR4A1. In response to certain apoptotic stimuli, NR4A1 translocates from the nucleus to the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) where it associates with Bcl-2 and thereby causes apoptosis. Afterwards, it appeared that NR4A1 could also bind and convert other anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members. The latest studies indicate a significant role of NR4A1 in the process of autophagy. For example, a new NR4A1-mediated pathway specific for melanoma cells has been described where NR4A1 interacts with the adenine nucleotide translocase 1 (ANT1) on the mitochondrial inner membrane (MIM) leading to induction of the autophagy pathway. Moreover, NR4A1 interaction with cytoplasmic p53 may also contribute to the induction of autophagy. In addition to mitochondria, NR4A1 could be translocated to the outer membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and associate with Bcl-2 or translocon-associated protein subunit γ (TRAPγ) causing ER stress-induced apoptosis. NR4A1 also contributes to the proteasomal degradation of β-catenin in colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, as well as to the stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) under non-hypoxic conditions. This review summarizes research findings on non-genomic effects of NR4A1 in normal and cancer cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The EphA2 Receptor and EphrinA1 Ligand in Solid Tumors: Function and Therapeutic Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Wykosky, Jill; Debinski, Waldemar

    2013-01-01

    The Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and ephrin ligands have been studied extensively for their roles in developmental processes. In recent years, Eph receptors and ephrins have been found to be integral players in cancer formation and progression. Among these are EphA2 and ephrinA1, which are involved in the development and maintenance of many different types of solid tumors. The function of EphA2 and ephrinA1 in tumorigenesis and tumor progression is complex and seems to be dependent on cell type and microenvironment. These variables affect the expression of the EphA2 and ephrinA1 proteins, the pathways through which they induce signaling, and the functional consequences of that signaling on the behavior of tumor cells and tumor-associated cells. This review will specifically focus on the roles that EphA2 and ephrinA1 play in the different cell types that contribute to the malignancy of solid tumors, with emphasis on the opportunities for therapeutic targeting. PMID:19074825

  11. Mediation of the neuroprotective action of R-phenylisopropyl-adenosine through a centrally located adenosine A1 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, D. G.; Miller, W. J.; Stone, T. W.

    1993-01-01

    1. Systemic injections of kainic acid, 10 mg kg-1, into adult rats resulted in lesions in the hippocampus, as assessed by peripheral benzodiazepine ligand binding. Co-administration of clonazepam at 1 mg kg-1 or 0.2 mg kg-1 prevented major seizures associated with kainate injections, but did not alter significantly the production of hippocampal damage. 2. The co-administration of the adenosine A1 agonist R-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA, 25 micrograms kg-1, i.p.) abolished the lesions induced by kainic acid. 3. The presence of the selective A1 antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (250 or 50 micrograms kg-1, i.p.) abolished the R-PIA neuroprotective action. 4. The A1/A2 antagonist, 8-(p-sulphophenyl)theophylline (20 mg kg-1, i.p.) which cannot cross the blood brain barrier, did not alter significantly the neuroprotective action of R-PIA, indicating that the neuroprotective action of the purine may be predominantly central. 5. The time course of the neuroprotection was also examined. R-PIA was effective when administered 2 h before or after kainate administration. 6. The results emphasise the potential utility of systemically active adenosine A1 receptor ligands in reducing CNS gliosis induced by the activation of excitatory amino acid receptors. PMID:8220909

  12. Presynaptic M1, M2, and A1 receptors play roles in tetanic fade induced by pancuronium or cisatracurium.

    PubMed

    Bornia, Elaine Campana Sanches; Bando, Erika; Machinski, Miguel; Pereira, Monalisa Wolski; Alves-Do-Prado, Wilson

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether presynaptic facilitatory M1 and/or inhibitory M2 muscarinic receptors contributed to pancuronium- and cisatracurium-induced tetanic fade. Phrenic nerve-diaphragm muscle preparations of rats were indirectly stimulated with tetanic frequency (75 +/- 3.3 Hz; mean +/- SD). Doses of pancuronium, cisatracurium, hexamethonium, and d-tubocurarine for producing approximately 25% fade were determined. The effects of pirenzepine and methoctramine, blockers of presynaptic M1 and M2 receptors, respectively, on the tetanic fade were investigated. The concentrations required for approximately 25% fade were 413 microM for hexamethonium (26.8 +/- 2.4% 4% fade), 55 nM for d-tubocurarine (28.7 +/- 2.55% fade), 0.32 microM for pancuronium (25.4 +/- 2.2% fade), and 0.32 microM for cisatracurium (24.7 +/- 0.8% fade). Pirenzepine or methoctramine alone did not produce the fade. Methoctramine, 1 microM, attenuated the fade induced by hexamethonium (to 16.0 +/- 2.5% fade), d-tubocurarine (to 6.0 +/- 1.6 fade), pancuronium (to 8.0 +/- 4.0% fade), and cisatracurium (to 11.0 +/- 3.3% fade). 10 nM pirenzepine attenuated only the fades produced by pancuronium (to 5.0 +/- 0.11% fade) and cisatracurium (to 13.3 +/- 5.3% fade). Cisatracurium (0.32 microM) showed antiacetylcholinesterase activity (in plasma, 14.2 +/- 1.6%; 6%; in erythrocyt 17.2 +/- 2.66%) similar to that of pancuronium (0.32 microM). The selective A1 receptor blocker, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX; 2.5 nM), also attenuated the fades induced by pancuronium and cisatracurium. The tetanic fades produced by pancuronium and cisatracurium depend on the activation of presynaptic inhibitory M2 receptors; these agents also have anticholinesterase activities. The fades induced by these agents also depend on the activation of presynaptic inhibitory A1 receptors through the activation of stimulatory M1 receptors by acetylcholine.

  13. A novel mechanism of renal blood flow autoregulation and the autoregulatory role of A1 adenosine receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Just, Armin; Arendshorst, William J

    2007-11-01

    Autoregulation of renal blood flow (RBF) is mediated by a fast myogenic response (MR; approximately 5 s), a slower tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF; approximately 25 s), and potentially additional mechanisms. A1 adenosine receptors (A1AR) mediate TGF in superficial nephrons and contribute to overall autoregulation, but the impact on the other autoregulatory mechanisms is unknown. We studied dynamic autoregulatory responses of RBF to rapid step increases of renal artery pressure in mice. MR was estimated from autoregulation within the first 5 s, TGF from that at 5-25 s, and a third mechanism from 25-100 s. Genetic deficiency of A1AR (A1AR-/-) reduced autoregulation at 5-25 s by 50%, indicating a residual fourth mechanism resembling TGF kinetics but independent of A1AR. MR and third mechanism were unaltered in A1AR-/-. Autoregulation in A1AR-/- was faster at 5-25 than at 25-100 s suggesting two separate mechanisms. Furosemide in wild-type mice (WT) eliminated the third mechanism and enhanced MR, indicating TGF-MR interaction. In A1AR-/-, furosemide did not further impair autoregulation at 5-25 s, but eliminated the third mechanism and enhanced MR. The resulting time course was the same as during furosemide in WT, indicating that A1AR do not affect autoregulation during furosemide inhibition of TGF. We conclude that at least one novel mechanism complements MR and TGF in RBF autoregulation, that is slower than MR and TGF and sensitive to furosemide, but not mediated by A1AR. A fourth mechanism with kinetics similar to TGF but independent of A1AR and furosemide might also contribute. A1AR mediate classical TGF but not TGF-MR interaction.

  14. Prolonged P300 latency in children with the D[sub 2] dopamine receptor A1 allele

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, E.P.; Berman, S.M.; Ozkaragoz, T.Z.

    1994-04-01

    Previous studies have indicated the presence of a hereditary component in the generation of the P300, or P3, a late positive component of the event-related potential. Moreover, the dopaminergic system has been implicated in the P3. In the present study, 98 healthy Caucasian boys, mean age of 12.5 years and of above-average intelligence, were studied. The sample was composed of 32 sons of active alcoholic (SAA) fathers, 36 sons of recovering alcoholic (SRA) fathers, and 30 sons of social drinker (SSD) fathers, with none of them having yet begun to consume alcohol or other drugs. TaqI A D[sub 2] dopaminemore » receptor alleles (A1 and A2) were determined. A significant difference in the frequency of the A1 allele was found among these three groups of boys, with the SAA group having the highest A1 allele frequency (.313), followed by the SRA (.139) and the SSD (.133) groups. The relationship of the A1 and A2 alleles to P3 amplitude and latency was also determined. The results showed no significant difference in P3 amplitude between boys with the A1 and A2 allele. However, P3 latency was significantly longer in the total sample of boys with the A1 allele compared with those carrying the A2 allele. These findings suggest that polymorphism of the D[sub 2] dopamine receptor gene is an important determinant of P3 latency. 84 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  15. Association analysis of the vitamin D receptor gene, the type I collagen gene COL1A1, and the estrogen receptor gene in idiopathic osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Loughlin, J; Sinsheimer, J S; Mustafa, Z; Carr, A J; Clipsham, K; Bloomfield, V A; Chitnavis, J; Bailey, A; Sykes, B; Chapman, K

    2000-03-01

    Evidence has accumulated supporting a role for genes in the etiology of osteoarthritis (OA). Several candidates have been targeted as potential susceptibility loci including genes that are involved in the regulation of bone density. Genetic association analysis has suggested a role for the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) and the estrogen receptor gene (ER) in susceptibility. Such findings must be tested in additional independent cohorts. We tested for association of these 2 genes, plus a third gene implicated in bone density, COL1A1, with idiopathic OA. A case-control cohort of 371 affected probands and 369 unaffected spouses was used. Association was tested using 4 intragenic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), one each for the VDR and COL1A1 genes, and 2 for the ER gene. The VDR and ER SNP are the same SNP that have been associated with OA. All 4 SNP affect restriction enzyme sites and were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction and enzyme digestion. Allele and genotype distributions for each SNP were compared between cases and controls and analyzed using Fisher's exact test. There was no evidence of association of the VDR or the ER gene SNP to OA. There was weak evidence of association of the COL1A1 SNP in female cases (p = 0.017), reflected by a difference in the distribution of genotypes at this SNP between female cases and controls (p = 0.027). However, when corrected for multiple testing, these results were not significant. If the VDR, ER, or COL1A1 genes do encode predisposition to OA then the 4 SNP tested are not associated with major susceptibility alleles at these 3 loci.

  16. Phosphatidic acid phospholipase A1 mediates ER–Golgi transit of a family of G protein–coupled receptors

    PubMed Central

    Kunduri, Govind; Yuan, Changqing; Parthibane, Velayoudame; Nyswaner, Katherine M.; Kanwar, Ritu; Nagashima, Kunio; Britt, Steven G.; Mehta, Nickita; Kotu, Varshika; Porterfield, Mindy; Tiemeyer, Michael; Dolph, Patrick J.; Acharya, Usha

    2014-01-01

    The coat protein II (COPII)–coated vesicular system transports newly synthesized secretory and membrane proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi complex. Recruitment of cargo into COPII vesicles requires an interaction of COPII proteins either with the cargo molecules directly or with cargo receptors for anterograde trafficking. We show that cytosolic phosphatidic acid phospholipase A1 (PAPLA1) interacts with COPII protein family members and is required for the transport of Rh1 (rhodopsin 1), an N-glycosylated G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR), from the ER to the Golgi complex. In papla1 mutants, in the absence of transport to the Golgi, Rh1 is aberrantly glycosylated and is mislocalized. These defects lead to decreased levels of the protein and decreased sensitivity of the photoreceptors to light. Several GPCRs, including other rhodopsins and Bride of sevenless, are similarly affected. Our findings show that a cytosolic protein is necessary for transit of selective transmembrane receptor cargo by the COPII coat for anterograde trafficking. PMID:25002678

  17. Homeostatic action of adenosine A3 and A1 receptor agonists on proliferation of hematopoietic precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Michal; Pospísil, Milan; Znojil, Vladimír; Holá, Jirina; Streitová, Denisa; Vacek, Antonín

    2008-07-01

    Two adenosine receptor agonists, N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide (IB-MECA) and N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), which selectively activate adenosine A3 and A1 receptors, respectively, were tested for their ability to influence proliferation of granulocytic and erythroid cells in femoral bone marrow of mice using morphological criteria. Agonists were given intraperitoneally to mice in repeated isomolar doses of 200 nmol/kg. Three variants of experiments were performed to investigate the action of the agonists under normal resting state of mice and in phases of cell depletion and subsequent regeneration after treatment with the cytotoxic drug 5-fluorouracil. In the case of granulopoiesis, IB-MECA 1) increased by a moderate but significant level proliferation of cells under normal resting state; 2) strongly increased proliferation of cells in the cell depletion phase; but 3) did not influence cell proliferation in the regeneration phase. CPA did not influence cell proliferation under normal resting state and in the cell depletion phase, but strongly suppressed the overshooting cell proliferation in the regeneration phase. The stimulatory effect of IB-MECA on cell proliferation of erythroid cells was observed only when this agonist was administered during the cell depletion phase. CPA did not modulate erythroid proliferation in any of the functional states investigated, probably due to the lower demand for cell production as compared with granulopoiesis. The results indicate opposite effects of the two adenosine receptor agonists on proliferation of hematopoietic cells and suggest the plasticity and homeostatic role of the adenosine receptor expression.

  18. Deletion of the GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit impairs recency-dependent object recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, David J.; Hindley, Emma; Smeaton, Emily; Denny, Nick; Taylor, Amy; Barkus, Chris; Sprengel, Rolf; Seeburg, Peter H.; Bannerman, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Deletion of the GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit impairs short-term spatial recognition memory. It has been suggested that short-term recognition depends upon memory caused by the recent presentation of a stimulus that is independent of contextual–retrieval processes. The aim of the present set of experiments was to test whether the role of GluA1 extends to nonspatial recognition memory. Wild-type and GluA1 knockout mice were tested on the standard object recognition task and a context-independent recognition task that required recency-dependent memory. In a first set of experiments it was found that GluA1 deletion failed to impair performance on either of the object recognition or recency-dependent tasks. However, GluA1 knockout mice displayed increased levels of exploration of the objects in both the sample and test phases compared to controls. In contrast, when the time that GluA1 knockout mice spent exploring the objects was yoked to control mice during the sample phase, it was found that GluA1 deletion now impaired performance on both the object recognition and the recency-dependent tasks. GluA1 deletion failed to impair performance on a context-dependent recognition task regardless of whether object exposure in knockout mice was yoked to controls or not. These results demonstrate that GluA1 is necessary for nonspatial as well as spatial recognition memory and plays an important role in recency-dependent memory processes. PMID:21378100

  19. Diadenosine tetraphosphate stimulates atrial ANP release via A(1) receptor: involvement of K(ATP) channel and PKC.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kuichang; Cao, Chunhua; Bai, Guang Yi; Kim, Sung Zoo; Kim, Suhn Hee

    2007-07-01

    Diadenosine polyphosphates (APnAs) are endogenous compounds and exert diverse cardiovascular functions. However, the effects of APnAs on atrial ANP release and contractility have not been studied. In this study, the effects of diadenosine tetraphosphate (AP4A) on atrial ANP release and contractility, and their mechanisms were studied using isolated perfused rat atria. Treatment of atria with AP4A resulted in decreases in atrial contractility and extracellular fluid (ECF) translocation whereas ANP secretion and cAMP levels in perfusate were increased in a dose-dependent manner. These effects of AP4A were attenuated by A(1) receptor antagonist but not by A(2A) or A(3) receptor antagonist. Other purinoceptor antagonists also did not show any effects on AP4A-induced ANF release and contractility. The increment of ANP release and negative inotropy induced by AP4A was similar to those induced by AP3A, AP5A, and AP6A. Protein kinase A inhibitors accentuated AP4A-induced ANP secretion. In contrast, an inhibitor of phospholipase C, protein kinase C or sarcolemma K(ATP) channel completely blocked AP4A-induced ANP secretion. However, an inhibitor of adenylyl cyclase or mitochondria K(ATP) channel had no significant modification of AP4A effects. These results suggest that AP4A regulates atrial inotropy and ANP release mainly through A(1) receptor signaling involving phospholipase C-protein kinase C and sarcolemmal K(ATP) channel and that protein kinase A negatively modulates the effects of AP4A.

  20. Gustatory Receptor Neurons in Manduca sexta Contain a TrpA1-Dependent Signaling Pathway that Integrates Taste and Temperature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Temperature modulates the peripheral taste response of many animals, in part by activating transient receptor potential (Trp) cation channels. We hypothesized that temperature would also modulate peripheral taste responses in larval Manduca sexta. We recorded excitatory responses of the lateral and medial styloconic sensilla to chemical stimuli at 14, 22, and 30 °C. The excitatory responses to 5 chemical stimuli—a salt (KCl), 3 sugars (sucrose, glucose, and inositol) and an alkaloid (caffeine)—were unaffected by temperature. In contrast, the excitatory response to the aversive compound, aristolochic acid (AA), increased robustly with temperature. Next, we asked whether TrpA1 mediates the thermally dependent taste response to AA. To this end, we 1) identified a TrpA1 gene in M. sexta; 2) demonstrated expression of TrpA1 in the lateral and medial styloconic sensilla; 3) determined that 2 TrpA1 antagonists (HC-030031 and mecamylamine) inhibit the taste response to AA, but not caffeine; and then 4) established that the thermal dependence of the taste response to AA is blocked by HC-030031. Taken together, our results indicate that TrpA1 serves as a molecular integrator of taste and temperature in M. sexta. PMID:23828906

  1. Negative Effects of SRD5A1 on Nuclear Activity of Progesterone Receptor Isoform B in JEG3 Cells.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zhuo; Sun, Min; Jiang, Feng; Yao, Yuanqing; Li, Yi

    2016-02-01

    Progesterone withdrawal signals labor in mammals. Elevated intracellular metabolism contributes to progesterone functional withdrawal through unknown mechanism, which is thought to act via progesterone receptor (PR). This study aims to investigate molecular mechanisms underlying progesterone withdrawal during pregnancy and labor. We investigated the role of 5α-reductase type I (SRD5A1) in enzymatic catalysis of progesterone and loss of PR function in a human trophoblast choriocarcinoma cell line JEG3. The PR isoform B (PR-B) was robustly expressed in JEG3 cells. The SRD5A1 small-interfering RNA knockdown led to significant increase in PR-B nuclear import, ectopic, whereas SRD5A1 overexpression resulted in remarkable inhibition of nuclear PR-B in P4-treated cells. Repression of SRD5A1 activated PR-B responsive gene, whereas overexpression of SRD5A1 possessed an inhibitory effect. JEG3 cell line is a valuable tool to study mechanisms responsible for loss of PR function and screening of drugs for preterm birth treatment. Our study aims to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying progesterone withdrawal during pregnancy and labor. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Adenosine A1 Receptor Protects Against Cisplatin Ototoxicity by Suppressing the NOX3/STAT1 Inflammatory Pathway in the Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Tejbeer; Borse, Vikrant; Sheth, Sandeep; Sheehan, Kelly; Ghosh, Sumana; Tupal, Srinivasan; Jajoo, Sarvesh; Mukherjea, Debashree; Rybak, Leonard P.

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin is a commonly used antineoplastic agent that produces ototoxicity that is mediated in part by increasing levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the NOX3 NADPH oxidase pathway in the cochlea. Recent studies implicate ROS generation in mediating inflammatory and apoptotic processes and hearing loss by activating signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT1). In this study, we show that the adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR) protects against cisplatin ototoxicity by suppressing an inflammatory response initiated by ROS generation via NOX3 NADPH oxidase, leading to inhibition of STAT1. Trans-tympanic administration of the A1AR agonist R-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA) inhibited cisplatin-induced ototoxicity, as measured by auditory brainstem responses and scanning electron microscopy in male Wistar rats. This was associated with reduced NOX3 expression, STAT1 activation, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels, and apoptosis in the cochlea. In vitro studies in UB/OC-1 cells, an organ of Corti immortalized cell line, showed that R-PIA reduced cisplatin-induced phosphorylation of STAT1 Ser727 (but not Tyr701) and STAT1 luciferase activity by suppressing the ERK1/2, p38, and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. R-PIA also decreased the expression of STAT1 target genes, such as TNF-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and reduced cisplatin-mediated apoptosis. These data suggest that the A1AR provides otoprotection by suppressing NOX3 and inflammation in the cochlea and could serve as an ideal target for otoprotective drug therapy. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Cisplatin is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of solid tumors. Its use results in significant and permanent hearing loss, for which no US Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment is currently available. In this study, we targeted the cochlear adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR) by trans-tympanic injections of the agonist R

  3. Adenosine A1 Receptor Protects Against Cisplatin Ototoxicity by Suppressing the NOX3/STAT1 Inflammatory Pathway in the Cochlea.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Tejbeer; Borse, Vikrant; Sheth, Sandeep; Sheehan, Kelly; Ghosh, Sumana; Tupal, Srinivasan; Jajoo, Sarvesh; Mukherjea, Debashree; Rybak, Leonard P; Ramkumar, Vickram

    2016-04-06

    Cisplatin is a commonly used antineoplastic agent that produces ototoxicity that is mediated in part by increasing levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the NOX3 NADPH oxidase pathway in the cochlea. Recent studies implicate ROS generation in mediating inflammatory and apoptotic processes and hearing loss by activating signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT1). In this study, we show that the adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR) protects against cisplatin ototoxicity by suppressing an inflammatory response initiated by ROS generation via NOX3 NADPH oxidase, leading to inhibition of STAT1. Trans-tympanic administration of the A1AR agonist R-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA) inhibited cisplatin-induced ototoxicity, as measured by auditory brainstem responses and scanning electron microscopy in male Wistar rats. This was associated with reduced NOX3 expression, STAT1 activation, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels, and apoptosis in the cochlea. In vitro studies in UB/OC-1 cells, an organ of Corti immortalized cell line, showed that R-PIA reduced cisplatin-induced phosphorylation of STAT1 Ser(727) (but not Tyr(701)) and STAT1 luciferase activity by suppressing the ERK1/2, p38, and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways.R-PIA also decreased the expression of STAT1 target genes, such as TNF-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and reduced cisplatin-mediated apoptosis. These data suggest that the A1AR provides otoprotection by suppressing NOX3 and inflammation in the cochlea and could serve as an ideal target for otoprotective drug therapy. Cisplatin is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of solid tumors. Its use results in significant and permanent hearing loss, for which no US Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment is currently available. In this study, we targeted the cochlear adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR) by trans-tympanic injections of the agonist R

  4. Proximal tubule sphingosine kinase-1 has a critical role in A1 adenosine receptor-mediated renal protection from ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Won; Kim, Mihwa; Kim, Joo Yun; Brown, Kevin M.; Haase, Volker H.; D’Agati, Vivette D.; Lee, H. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Renal ischemia reperfusion injury is a major cause of acute kidney injury. We previously found that renal A1 adenosine receptor (A1AR) activation attenuated multiple cell death pathways including necrosis, apoptosis and inflammation. Here, we tested whether induction of cytoprotective sphingosine kinase (SK)-1 and sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) synthesis might be the mechanism of protection. A selective A1AR agonist (CCPA) increased the synthesis of S1P and selectively induced SK-1 in mouse kidney and HK-2 cells. This agonist failed to protect SK1-knockout but protected SK2-knockout mice against renal ischemia reperfusion injury indicating a critical role of SK1 in A1AR-mediated renal protection. Inhibition of SK prevented A1AR-mediated defense against necrosis and apoptosis in HK-2 cells. A selective S1P1R antagonist (W146) and global in vivo gene knockdown of S1P1Rs with small interfering RNA completely abolished the renal protection provided by CCPA. Mice selectively deficient in renal proximal tubule S1P1Rs (S1P1Rflox/flox PEPCKCre/−) were not protected against renal ischemia reperfusion injury by CCPA. Mechanistically, CCPA increased nuclear translocation of hypoxia inducible factor-1α in HK-2 cells and selective hypoxia inducible factor-1α inhibition blocked A1AR-mediated induction of SK1. Thus, proximal tubule SK-1 has a critical role in A1AR-mediated protection against renal ischemia reperfusion injury. PMID:22695326

  5. Food cravings, food addiction, and a dopamine-resistant (DRD2 A1) receptor polymorphism in Asian American college students.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Joanna; Trang, Amy; Henning, Susanne M; Wilhalme, Holly; Carpenter, Catherine; Heber, David; Li, Zhaoping

    2016-01-01

    In an era where obesity remains an important public health concern, food addiction has emerged as a possible contributor to obesity. The DRD2 gene is the most studied polymorphism. The aim of this study was to investigate a relationship between food addiction questionnaires, body composition measurements, and a dopamine- resistant receptor polymorphism (DRD2 A1) among Asian Americans. A total of 84 Asian American college students were recruited. Participants underwent body composition measurement via bioelectrical impedance, answered questionnaires (Food Craving Inventory and Power of Food Scale), and had blood drawn for genotyping (PCR). There was no difference in body composition (BMI, percent body fat) between the A1 (A1A1 or A1A2) and A2 (A2A2) groups. There were statistically significant differences in food cravings of carbohydrates and fast food on the Food Craving Inventory between the A1 and A2 groups (p=0.03), but not for sugar or fat. Among Asian college females, there was also a difference on the Power of Food questionnaire (p=0.04), which was not seen among men. 13 out of 55 women also had >30% body fat at a BMI of 21.4 to 28.5 kg/m2. Greater carbohydrate and fast food craving was associated with the DRD2 A1 versus A2 allele among Asian Americans. Further studies examining the ability of dopamine agonists to affect food craving and to reduce body fat in Asian American are warranted. More studies in food addiction among obese Asian Americans are needed with careful definition of obesity, specifically for Asian women.

  6. Activity-dependent ubiquitination of GluA1 mediates a distinct AMPA receptor endocytosis and sorting pathway.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Lindsay A; Hall, Benjamin J; Patrick, Gentry N

    2010-12-08

    The accurate trafficking of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) to and from the synapse is a critical component of learning and memory in the brain, whereas dysfunction of AMPAR trafficking is hypothesized to be an underlying mechanism of Alzheimer's disease. Previous work has shown that ubiquitination of integral membrane proteins is a common posttranslational modification used to mediate endocytosis and endocytic sorting of surface proteins in eukaryotic cells. Here we report that mammalian AMPARs become ubiquitinated in response to their activation. Using a mutant of GluA1 that is unable to be ubiquitinated at lysines on its C-terminus, we demonstrate that ubiquitination is required for internalization of surface AMPARs and their trafficking to the lysosome in response to the AMPAR agonist AMPA but not for internalization of AMPARs in response to the NMDA receptor agonist NMDA. Through overexpression or RNA interference-mediated knockdown, we identify that a specific E3 ligase, Nedd4-1 (neural-precursor cell-expressed developmentally downregulated gene 4-1), is necessary for this process. Finally, we show that ubiquitination of GluA1 by Nedd4-1 becomes more prevalent as neurons mature. Together, these data show that ubiquitination of GluA1-containing AMPARs by Nedd4-1 mediates their endocytosis and trafficking to the lysosome. Furthermore, these results provide insight into how hippocampal neurons regulate AMPAR trafficking and degradation with high specificity in response to differing neuronal signaling cues and suggest that changes to this pathway may occur as neurons mature.

  7. Human Anti-Oxidation Protein A1M—A Potential Kidney Protection Agent in Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ahlstedt, Jonas; Tran, Thuy A.; Strand, Sven-Erik; Gram, Magnus; Åkerström, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) has been in clinical use for 15 years to treat metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. PRRT is limited by reabsorption and retention of the administered radiolabeled somatostatin analogues in the proximal tubule. Consequently, it is essential to develop and employ methods to protect the kidneys during PRRT. Today, infusion of positively charged amino acids is the standard method of kidney protection. Other methods, such as administration of amifostine, are still under evaluation and show promising results. α1-microglobulin (A1M) is a reductase and radical scavenging protein ubiquitously present in plasma and extravascular tissue. Human A1M has antioxidation properties and has been shown to prevent radiation-induced in vitro cell damage and protect non-irradiated surrounding cells. It has recently been shown in mice that exogenously infused A1M and the somatostatin analogue octreotide are co-localized in proximal tubules of the kidney after intravenous infusion. In this review we describe the current situation of kidney protection during PRRT, discuss the necessity and implications of more precise dosimetry and present A1M as a new, potential candidate for renal protection during PRRT and related targeted radionuclide therapies. PMID:26694383

  8. Effect of long term caffeine treatment on A1 and A2 adenosine receptor binding and on mRNA levels in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Johansson, B; Ahlberg, S; van der Ploeg, I; Brené, S; Lindefors, N; Persson, H; Fredholm, B B

    1993-04-01

    The effect of long-term oral treatment with caffeine on A1 and A2 receptors in the rat brain was studied. Caffeine was added to the drinking water and the animals were sacrificed after a 12 day treatment period. The plasma caffeine concentration was close to 100 microM. A1 receptors were studied using quantitative autoradiography with [3H]cyclohexyladenosine (CHA). Caffeine treatment increased the number of A1 receptors in the CA3 subfield of the hippocampus from 337 to 393 fmol/mg with no change in KD (0.692 vs. 0.675 nM). A1 mRNA was measured using Northern blots and quantitative in situ hybridization. There was no increase in A1 mRNA. A2a receptors, located in dopamine rich regions of the rat brain, were studied with quantitative autoradiography using [3H]CGS 21680 as the ligand, and the A2a mRNA was determined using quantitative in situ hybridization. Caffeine treatment produced no significant change in either receptor number or mRNA, even though the apparent Bmax tended to increase from 322 +/- 8 to 352 +/- 8 fmol/mg. The results show that treatment with caffeine in a dose that causes tolerance to several effects of caffeine and increases some effects of adenosine analogues increases the number of A1 receptors without any change in A1 mRNA, suggesting that the adaptive changes are at a post-translational level. There were no significant changes in A2 receptors indicating that the two types are regulated differently and/or that the amount of endogenous agonist is sufficient to regulate A1, but not A2 receptors.

  9. Embryonic caffeine exposure acts via A1 adenosine receptors to alter adult cardiac function and DNA methylation in mice.

    PubMed

    Buscariollo, Daniela L; Fang, Xiefan; Greenwood, Victoria; Xue, Huiling; Rivkees, Scott A; Wendler, Christopher C

    2014-01-01

    Evidence indicates that disruption of normal prenatal development influences an individual's risk of developing obesity and cardiovascular disease as an adult. Thus, understanding how in utero exposure to chemical agents leads to increased susceptibility to adult diseases is a critical health related issue. Our aim was to determine whether adenosine A1 receptors (A1ARs) mediate the long-term effects of in utero caffeine exposure on cardiac function and whether these long-term effects are the result of changes in DNA methylation patterns in adult hearts. Pregnant A1AR knockout mice were treated with caffeine (20 mg/kg) or vehicle (0.09% NaCl) i.p. at embryonic day 8.5. This caffeine treatment results in serum levels equivalent to the consumption of 2-4 cups of coffee in humans. After dams gave birth, offspring were examined at 8-10 weeks of age. A1AR+/+ offspring treated in utero with caffeine were 10% heavier than vehicle controls. Using echocardiography, we observed altered cardiac function and morphology in adult mice exposed to caffeine in utero. Caffeine treatment decreased cardiac output by 11% and increased left ventricular wall thickness by 29% during diastole. Using DNA methylation arrays, we identified altered DNA methylation patterns in A1AR+/+ caffeine treated hearts, including 7719 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) within the genome and an overall decrease in DNA methylation of 26%. Analysis of genes associated with DMRs revealed that many are associated with cardiac hypertrophy. These data demonstrate that A1ARs mediate in utero caffeine effects on cardiac function and growth and that caffeine exposure leads to changes in DNA methylation.

  10. The amphiphilic peptide adenoregulin enhances agonist binding to A1-adenosine receptors and [35S]GTP gamma S to brain membranes.

    PubMed

    Moni, R W; Romero, F S; Daly, J W

    1995-08-01

    1. Adenoregulin is an amphilic peptide isolated from skin mucus of the tree frog, Phyllomedusa bicolor. Synthetic adenoregulin enhanced the binding of agonists to several G-protein-coupled receptors in rat brain membranes. 2. The maximal enhancement of agonist binding, and in parentheses, the concentration of adenoregulin affording maximal enhancement were as follows: 60% (20 microM) for A1-adenosine receptors, 30% (100 microM) for A2a-adenosine receptors, 20% (2 microM) for alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, and 30% (10 microM) for 5HT1A receptors. High affinity agonist binding for A1-, alpha 2-, and 5HT1A-receptors was virtually abolished by GTP gamma S in the presence of adenoregulin, but was only partially abolished in its absence. Magnesium ions increased the binding of agonists to receptors and reduced the enhancement elicited by adenoregulin. 3. The effect of adenoregulin on binding of N6-cyclohexyladenosine ([3H]CHA) to A1-receptors was relatively slow and was irreversible. Adenoregulin increased the Bmax value for [3H]CHA binding sites, and the proportion of high affinity states, and slowed the rate of [3H]CHA dissociation. Binding of the A1-selective antagonist, [3H]DPCPX, was maximally enhanced by only 13% at 2 microM adenoregulin. Basal and A1-adenosine receptor-stimulated binding of [35S]GTP gamma S were maximally enhanced 45% and 23%, respectively, by 50 microM adenoregulin. In CHAPS-solubilized membranes from rat cortex, the binding of both [3H]CHA and [3H]DPCPX were enhanced by adenoregulin. Binding of [3H]CHA to membranes from DDT1 MF-2 cells was maximally enhanced 17% at 20 microM adenoregulin. In intact DDT1 MF-2 cells, 20 microM adenoregulin did not potentiate the inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation mediated via the adenosine A1 receptor. 4. It is proposed that adenoregulin enhances agonist binding through a mechanism involving enhancement of guanyl nucleotide exchange at G-proteins, resulting in a conversion of receptors into a high affinity state

  11. β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide acts at prejunctional adenosine A1 receptors to suppress inhibitory musculomotor neurotransmission in guinea pig colon and human jejunum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guo-Du; Wang, Xi-Yu; Liu, Sumei; Xia, Yun; Zou, Fei; Qu, Meihua; Needleman, Bradley J.; Mikami, Dean J.

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular microelectrodes were used to record neurogenic inhibitory junction potentials in the intestinal circular muscle coat. Electrical field stimulation was used to stimulate intramural neurons and evoke contraction of the smooth musculature. Exposure to β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (β-NAD) did not alter smooth muscle membrane potential in guinea pig colon or human jejunum. ATP, ADP, β-NAD, and adenosine, as well as the purinergic P2Y1 receptor antagonists MRS 2179 and MRS 2500 and the adenosine A1 receptor agonist 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine, each suppressed inhibitory junction potentials in guinea pig and human preparations. β-NAD suppressed contractile force of twitch-like contractions evoked by electrical field stimulation in guinea pig and human preparations. P2Y1 receptor antagonists did not reverse this action. Stimulation of adenosine A1 receptors with 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine suppressed the force of twitch contractions evoked by electrical field stimulation in like manner to the action of β-NAD. Blockade of adenosine A1 receptors with 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine suppressed the inhibitory action of β-NAD on the force of electrically evoked contractions. The results do not support an inhibitory neurotransmitter role for β-NAD at intestinal neuromuscular junctions. The data suggest that β-NAD is a ligand for the adenosine A1 receptor subtype expressed by neurons in the enteric nervous system. The influence of β-NAD on intestinal motility emerges from adenosine A1 receptor-mediated suppression of neurotransmitter release at inhibitory neuromuscular junctions. PMID:25813057

  12. A1 adenosine receptor-induced phosphorylation and modulation of transglutaminase 2 activity in H9c2 cells: A role in cell survival.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Falguni S; Hargreaves, Alan J; Bonner, Philip L R; Boocock, David J; Coveney, Clare; Dickenson, John M

    2016-05-01

    The regulation of tissue transglutaminase (TG2) activity by the GPCR family is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the modulation of TG2 activity by the A1 adenosine receptor in cardiomyocyte-like H9c2 cells. H9c2 cells were lysed following stimulation with the A1 adenosine receptor agonist N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA). Transglutaminase activity was determined using an amine incorporating and a protein cross linking assay. TG2 phosphorylation was assessed via immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. The role of TG2 in A1 adenosine receptor-induced cytoprotection was investigated by monitoring hypoxia-induced cell death. CPA induced time and concentration-dependent increases in amine incorporating and protein crosslinking activity of TG2. CPA-induced increases in TG2 activity were attenuated by the TG2 inhibitors Z-DON and R283. Responses to CPA were blocked by PKC (Ro 31-8220), MEK1/2 (PD 98059), p38 MAPK (SB 203580) and JNK1/2 (SP 600125) inhibitors and by removal of extracellular Ca(2+). CPA triggered robust increases in the levels of TG2-associated phosphoserine and phosphothreonine, which were attenuated by PKC, MEK1/2 and JNK1/2 inhibitors. Fluorescence microscopy revealed TG2-mediated biotin-X-cadaverine incorporation into proteins and proteomic analysis identified known (Histone H4) and novel (Hexokinase 1) protein substrates for TG2. CPA pre-treatment reversed hypoxia-induced LDH release and decreases in MTT reduction. TG2 inhibitors R283 and Z-DON attenuated A1 adenosine receptor-induced cytoprotection. TG2 activity was stimulated by the A1 adenosine receptor in H9c2 cells via a multi protein kinase dependent pathway. These results suggest a role for TG2 in A1 adenosine receptor-induced cytoprotection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Involvement of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in the adenosinergic modulation of the discriminative-stimulus effects of cocaine and methamphetamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Justinova, Zuzana; Ferre, Sergi; Segal, Pavan N; Antoniou, Katerina; Solinas, Marcello; Pappas, Lara A; Highkin, Jena L; Hockemeyer, Jorg; Munzar, Patrik; Goldberg, Steven R

    2003-12-01

    Adenosine, by acting on adenosine A1 and A2A receptors, is known to antagonistically modulate dopaminergic neurotransmission. We have recently reported that nonselective adenosine receptor antagonists (caffeine and 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine) can partially substitute for the discriminative-stimulus effects of methamphetamine. In the present study, by using more selective compounds, we investigated the involvement of A1 and A2A receptors in the adenosinergic modulation of the discriminative-stimulus effects of both cocaine and methamphetamine. The effects of the A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA; 0.01-0.1 mg/kg) and antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (CPT; 1.3-23.7 mg/kg) and the A2A receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine hydrochloride (CGS 21680; 0.03-0.18 mg/kg) and antagonist 3-(3-hydroxypropyl)-8-(3-methoxystyryl)-7-methyl-1-propargylxanthin phosphate disodium salt (MSX-3; 1-56 mg/kg) were evaluated in rats trained to discriminate either 1 mg/kg methamphetamine or 10 mg/kg cocaine from saline under a fixed-ratio 10 schedule of food presentation. The A1 and A2A receptor antagonists (CPT and MSX-3) both produced high levels of drug-lever selection when substituted for either methamphetamine or cocaine and significantly shifted dose-response curves of both psychostimulants to the left. Unexpectedly, the A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 also produced drug-appropriate responding (although at lower levels) when substituted for the cocaine-training stimulus, and both CGS 21680 and the A1 receptor agonist CPA significantly shifted the cocaine dose-response curve to the left. In contrast, both agonists did not produce significant levels of drug-lever selection when substituted for the methamphetamine-training stimulus and failed to shift the methamphetamine dose-response curve. Therefore, adenosine A1 and A2A receptors appear to play important but differential roles in the modulation of the

  14. Correlations between polymorphisms in the uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A and C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 genes and infection with the hepatitis B virus in three ethnic groups in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chan; He, Yan; Shan, Ke-Ren; Tan, Kui; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Chan-Juan; Guan, Zhi-Zhong

    2018-02-01

    Objective To determine whether genetic polymorphisms in the uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A ( UGT1A) and the C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 ( CCR5) genes are associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Yi, Yao and Han ethnic groups in the Guizhou Province of China. Methods The study enrolled subjects with and without HBV infection. Whole blood was used for DNA genotyping using standard techniques. The study determined the frequencies of several polymorphic alleles ( UGT1A6 [rs2070959], UGT1A1 [rs8175347], CCR5-59029 [rs1799987] and CCR5Δ32 [rs333]) and then characterized their relationship with HBV infection. Results A total of 404 subjects were enrolled in the study: 138 from the Yao group, 101 from the Yi group and 165 from the Han group. There was a significant difference in the frequency of UGT1A1 rs8175347 polymorphisms among the three groups. The rates of 7TA carriers of UGT1A1 rs8175347 in all three groups were significantly higher than the other genotypes. Individuals with genotype AA of UGT1A6 rs2070959 in the Yi group had a higher risk for HBV infection than in the Yao and Han groups. The frequency of genotype GG in CCR5-59029 in the Yao group was significantly higher than in the Yi group. The genotypes of CCR5Δ32 were not associated with HBV infection. Conclusion These findings provide genetic and epidemiological evidence for an association of UGT1A and CCR5-59029 polymorphisms with HBV infection in Chinese Yi and Yao populations.

  15. Effect of Gestational Exposure of Cypermethrin on Postnatal Development of Brain Cytochrome P450 2D1 and 3A1 and Neurotransmitter Receptors.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anshuman; Mudawal, Anubha; Shukla, Rajendra K; Yadav, Sanjay; Khanna, Vinay K; Sethumadhavan, Rao; Parmar, Devendra

    2015-08-01

    Oral administration of low doses (1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg) of cypermethrin to pregnant Wistar rats from gestation days 5 to 21 led to dose-dependent differences in the induction of cytochrome P450 2D1 (CYP2D1) and 3A1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein in brain regions isolated from the offsprings postnatally at 3 weeks that persisted up to adulthood (12 weeks). Similar alterations were observed in the expression of GABAergic, muscarinic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic neurotransmitter receptors in brain regions of rat offsprings. Rechallenge of the prenatally exposed offsprings at adulthood (12 weeks old) with cypermethrin (p.o., 10 mg/kg for 6 days) led to a greater magnitude of alterations in the expression of CYPs, neurotransmitter receptors, and neurotransmitter receptor binding in the brain regions when compared to the control offsprings treated at adulthood with cypermethrin or prenatally exposed offsprings. A greater magnitude of decrease was also observed in the spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) in prenatally exposed offsprings rechallenged with cypermethrin. The present data indicating similarities in the alterations in the expression of CYPs (2D1 and 3A1) and neurotransmitter receptors in brain has led us to suggest that endogenous function regulating CYPs is possibly associated with neurotransmission processes. A greater magnitude of alterations in CYP2D1, 3A1, neurotransmitter receptors, and SLA in rechallenged animals has further provided evidence that alterations in CYPs are possibly linked with neurotransmission processes.

  16. P2X1 receptor-mediated inhibition of the proliferation of human coronary smooth muscle cells involving the transcription factor NR4A1.

    PubMed

    Hinze, Annette Viktoria; Mayer, Peter; Harst, Anja; von Kügelgen, Ivar

    2013-12-01

    Adenine nucleotides acting at P2X1 receptors are potent vasoconstrictors. Recently, we demonstrated that activation of adenosine A2B receptors on human coronary smooth muscle cells inhibits cell proliferation by the induction of the nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 1 (NR4A1; alternative notation Nur77). In the present study, we searched for long-term effects mediated by P2X1 receptors by analyzing receptor-mediated changes in cell proliferation and in the expression of NR4A1. Cultured human coronary smooth muscle cells were treated with selective receptor ligands. Effects on proliferation were determined by counting cells and measuring changes in impedance. The induction of transcription factors was assessed by qPCR. The P2X receptor agonist α,β-methylene-ATP and its analog β,γ-methylene-ATP inhibited cell proliferation by about 50 % after 5 days in culture with half-maximal concentrations of 0.3 and 0.08 μM, respectively. The effects were abolished or markedly attenuated by the P2X1 receptor antagonist NF449 (carbonylbis-imino-benzene-triylbis-(carbonylimino)tetrakis-benzene-1,3-disulfonic acid; 100 nM and 1 μM). α,β-methylene-ATP and β,γ-methylene-ATP applied for 30 min to 4 h increased the expression of NR4A1; NF449 blocked or attenuated this effect. Small interfering RNA directed against NR4A1 diminished the antiproliferative effects of α,β-methylene-ATP and β,γ-methylene-ATP. α,β-methylene-ATP (0.1 to 30 μM) decreased migration of cultured human coronary smooth muscle cells in a chamber measuring changes in impedance; NF449 blocked the effect. In conclusion, our results demonstrate for the first time that adenine nucleotides acting at P2X1 receptors inhibit the proliferation of human coronary smooth muscle cells via the induction of the early gene NR4A1.

  17. Critical roles of TRPV2 channels, histamine H1 and adenosine A1 receptors in the initiation of acupoint signals for acupuncture analgesia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Meng; Wang, Xuezhi; Xing, Beibei; Yang, Hongwei; Sa, Zheyan; Zhang, Di; Yao, Wei; Yin, Na; Xia, Ying; Ding, Guanghong

    2018-04-25

    Acupuncture is one of the most promising modalities in complimentary medicine. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood yet. We found that in TRPV2 knockout male mice, acupuncture-induced analgesia was suppressed with a decreased activation of mast cells in the acupoints stimulated. The mast cell stabilizer sodium cromolyn could suppress the release of adenosine in the acupoints on male rats. A direct injection of adenosine A1 receptor agonist or histamine H1 receptor agonist increased β-endorphin in the cerebral-spinal fluid in the acute adjuvant arthritis male rats and thus replicated the analgesic effect of acupuncture. These observations suggest that the mast cell is the central structure of acupoints and is activated by acupuncture through TRPV2 channels. The mast cell transduces the mechanical stimuli to acupuncture signal by activating either H1 or A1 receptors, therefore triggering the acupuncture effect in the subject. These findings might open new frontiers for acupuncture research.

  18. Transporter Protein-Coupled DPCPX Nanoconjugates Induce Diaphragmatic Recovery after SCI by Blocking Adenosine A1 Receptors.

    PubMed

    Minic, Zeljka; Zhang, Yanhua; Mao, Guangzhao; Goshgarian, Harry G

    2016-03-23

    Respiratory complications in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) are common and have a negative impact on the quality of patients' lives. Systemic administration of drugs that improve respiratory function often cause deleterious side effects. The present study examines the applicability of a novel nanotechnology-based drug delivery system, which induces recovery of diaphragm function after SCI in the adult rat model. We developed a protein-coupled nanoconjugate to selectively deliver by transsynaptic transport small therapeutic amounts of an A1 adenosine receptor antagonist to the respiratory centers. A single administration of the nanoconjugate restored 75% of the respiratory drive at 0.1% of the systemic therapeutic drug dose. The reduction of the systemic dose may obviate the side effects. The recovery lasted for 4 weeks (the longest period studied). These findings have translational implications for patients with respiratory dysfunction after SCI. The leading causes of death in humans following SCI are respiratory complications secondary to paralysis of respiratory muscles. Systemic administration of methylxantines improves respiratory function but also leads to the development of deleterious side effects due to actions of the drug on nonrespiratory sites. The importance of the present study lies in the novel drug delivery approach that uses nanotechnology to selectively deliver recovery-inducing drugs to the respiratory centers exclusively. This strategy allows for a reduction in the therapeutic drug dose, which may reduce harmful side effects and markedly improve the quality of life for SCI patients. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/363441-12$15.00/0.

  19. Impact of CYP19A1 and ESR1 variants on early-onset side effects during combined endocrine therapy in the TEXT trial.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Harriet; Gray, Kathryn P; Pagani, Olivia; Regan, Meredith M; Viale, Giuseppe; Aristarco, Valentina; Macis, Debora; Puccio, Antonella; Roux, Susanne; Maibach, Rudolf; Colleoni, Marco; Rabaglio, Manuela; Price, Karen N; Coates, Alan S; Gelber, Richard D; Goldhirsch, Aron; Kammler, Roswitha; Bonanni, Bernardo; Walley, Barbara A

    2016-11-08

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) and cytochrome P450 19A1 (CYP19A1) genes have been associated with breast cancer risk, endocrine therapy response and side effects, mainly in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer. This analysis aimed to assess the association of selected germline CYP19A1 and ESR1 SNPs with early-onset hot flashes, sweating and musculoskeletal symptoms in premenopausal patients enrolled in the Tamoxifen and Exemestane Trial (TEXT). Blood was collected from consenting premenopausal women with hormone-responsive early breast cancer, randomly assigned to 5-years of tamoxifen plus ovarian suppression (OFS) or exemestane plus OFS. DNA was extracted with QIAamp kits and genotyped for two CYP19A1 (rs4646 and rs10046) and three ESR1 (rs2077647, rs2234693 and rs9340799) SNPs by a real-time pyrosequencing technique. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded at baseline and 3-monthly during the first year. Associations of the genotype variants with grade ≥2 early-onset targeted AEs of hot flashes/sweating or musculoskeletal events were assessed using logistic regression models. There were 2660 premenopausal patients with breast cancer in the intention-to-treat population of TEXT, and 1967 (74 %) are included in this translational study. The CYP19A1 rs10046 variant T/T, represented in 23 % of women, was associated with a reduced incidence of grade ≥2 hot flashes/sweating (univariate odds ratio (OR) = 0.78; 95 % CI 0.63-0.97; P = 0.03), more strongly in patients assigned exemestane + OFS (TT vs CT/CC: OR = 0.65, 95 % CI = 0.48-0.89) than assigned tamoxifen + OFS (OR = 0.94, 95 % CI = 0.69-1.27, interaction P = 0.03). No association with any of the CYP19A1/ESR1 genotypes and musculoskeletal AEs was found. The CYP19A1 rs10046 variant T/T favors lower incidence of hot flashes/sweating under exemestane + OFS treatment, suggesting endocrine-mediated effects. Based on findings

  20. Association of vdr, cyp27b1, cyp24a1 and mthfr gene polymorphisms with oral lichen planus risk.

    PubMed

    Kujundzic, Bojan; Zeljic, Katarina; Supic, Gordana; Magic, Marko; Stanimirovic, Dragan; Ilic, Vesna; Jovanovic, Barbara; Magic, Zvonko

    2016-05-01

    The current study investigated the association between VDR EcoRV (rs4516035), FokI (rs2228570), ApaI (rs7975232) and TaqI (rs731236), CYP27B1 (rs4646536), CYP24A1 (rs2296241), and MTHFR (rs1801133) gene polymorphisms and risk of oral lichen planus (OLP) occurrence. The study group consisted of 65 oral lichen planus patients and 100 healthy blood donors in the control group. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped by real time PCR or PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. Heterozygous as well as mutated genotype of vitamin D receptor (VDR) FokI (rs2228570) polymorphism was associated with increased oral lichen planus risk in comparison with wild type genotype (odds ratio (OR) = 3.877, p = 0.017, OR = 38.153, p = 0.001, respectively). A significantly decreased OLP risk was observed for heterozygous genotype of rs2296241 polymorphism in CYP24A1 gene compared with the wild type form (OR = 0.314, p = 0.012). VDR gene polymorphisms ApaI and TaqI were in linkage disequilibrium (D' = 0.71, r(2) = 0.22). Identified haplotype AT was associated with decreased OLP risk (OR = 0.592, p = 0.047). Our results highlight the possible important role of VDR FokI (rs2228570) and CYP24A1 rs2296241 gene polymorphisms for oral lichen planus susceptibility. Identification of new molecular biomarkers could potentially contribute to determination of individuals with OLP predisposition.

  1. CgA1AR-1 acts as an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor in oyster Crassostrea gigas mediating both cellular and humoral immune response.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaoqun; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Lingling; Qiu, Limei; Zhang, Huan; Wang, Hao; Song, Linsheng

    2016-11-01

    We have now cloned an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor (A1AR) from the cDNA library of oyster Crassostrea gigas, designating as CgA1AR-1. The full length of CgA1AR-1 was 1149 bp and it encodes a protein of 382 amino acids containing a 7 transmembrane domain, whose putative topology was similar to the A1ARs in higher organisms and shared similarity of 19% with mammalian A1ARs according to the phylogenic analysis. After cell transfection of CgA1AR-1 into HEK293T cells and the incubation with its specific agonist norepinephrine (NE), the concentration of second messenger Ca 2+ increased significantly (p < 0.05). But, this increasing of Ca 2+ could be inhibited by adding A1AR antagonist DOX. Tissue distribution assays using qRT-PCR suggested that CgA1AR-1 mRNA was ubiquitously expressed in all the major tissues of oyster. LPS stimulation could induce the up-regulation of CgA1AR-1 mRNA in haemocytes from 12 h to 24 h post stimulation. Moreover, the blocking of CgA1AR-1 by DOX before LPS stimulation affected the mRNA expression of oyster TNF (CGI_10005109 and CGI_10006440) in haemocytes, resulting in the rise of haemocyte phagocytic rate and apoptosis index. In addition to cellular immunity, CgA1AR-1 was also involved in humoral immunity of oyster. Inhibition of CgA1AR-1 with DOX could repress the up-regulation of LZY and SOD activities caused by LPS stimulation. These results suggested that CgA1AR-1 acted as an α-1 adrenergic receptor in cetacholaminergic neuroendocrine-immune network mediating both cellular and humoral immune response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. β-Cell deletion of Nr4a1 and Nr4a3 nuclear receptors impedes mitochondrial respiration and insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Merrick S; Hancock, Chad R; Ray, Jason D; Kener, Kyle B; Draney, Carrie; Garland, Kevin; Hardman, Jeremy; Bikman, Benjamin T; Tessem, Jeffery S

    2016-07-01

    β-Cell insulin secretion is dependent on proper mitochondrial function. Various studies have clearly shown that the Nr4a family of orphan nuclear receptors is essential for fuel utilization and mitochondrial function in liver, muscle, and adipose. Previously, we have demonstrated that overexpression of Nr4a1 or Nr4a3 is sufficient to induce proliferation of pancreatic β-cells. In this study, we examined whether Nr4a expression impacts pancreatic β-cell mitochondrial function. Here, we show that β-cell mitochondrial respiration is dependent on the nuclear receptors Nr4a1 and Nr4a3. Mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized cells was significantly decreased in β-cells lacking Nr4a1 or Nr4a3. Furthermore, respiration rates of intact cells deficient for Nr4a1 or Nr4a3 in the presence of 16 mM glucose resulted in decreased glucose mediated oxygen consumption. Consistent with this reduction in respiration, a significant decrease in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion rates is observed with deletion of Nr4a1 or Nr4a3. Interestingly, the changes in respiration and insulin secretion occur without a reduction in mitochondrial content, suggesting decreased mitochondrial function. We establish that knockdown of Nr4a1 and Nr4a3 results in decreased expression of the mitochondrial dehydrogenase subunits Idh3g and Sdhb. We demonstrate that loss of Nr4a1 and Nr4a3 impedes production of ATP and ultimately inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. These data demonstrate for the first time that the orphan nuclear receptors Nr4a1 and Nr4a3 are critical for β-cell mitochondrial function and insulin secretion. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Liver X receptor alpha mediated genistein induction of human dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase (hSULT2A1) in Hep G2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yue; Zhang, Shunfen; Zhou, Tianyan

    2013-04-15

    Cytosolic sulfotransferases are one of the major families of phase II drug metabolizing enzymes. Sulfotransferase-catalyzed sulfonation regulates hormone activities, metabolizes drugs, detoxifies xenobiotics, and bioactivates carcinogens. Human dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase (hSULT2A1) plays important biological roles by sulfating endogenous hydroxysteroids and exogenous xenobiotics. Genistein, mainly existing in soy food products, is a naturally occurring phytoestrogen with both chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential. Our previous studies have shown that genistein significantly induces hSULT2A1 in Hep G2 and Caco-2 cells. In this study, we investigated the roles of liver X receptor (LXRα) in the genistein induction of hSULT2A1. LXRs have been shown to induce expressionmore » of mouse Sult2a9 and hSULT2A1 gene. Our results demonstrate that LXRα mediates the genistein induction of hSULT2A1, supported by Western blot analysis results, hSULT2A1 promoter driven luciferase reporter gene assay results, and mRNA interference results. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay results demonstrate that genistein increase the recruitment of hLXRα binding to the hSULT2A1 promoter. These results suggest that hLXRα plays an important role in the hSULT2A1 gene regulation. The biological functions of phytoestrogens may partially relate to their induction activity toward hydroxysteroid SULT. - Highlights: ► Liver X receptor α mediated genistein induction of hSULT2A1 in Hep G2 cells. ► LXRα and RXRα dimerization further activated this induction. ► Western blot results agreed well with luciferase reporter gene assay results. ► LXRs gene silencing significantly decreased hSULT2A1 expression. ► ChIP analysis suggested that genistein enhances hLXRα binding to the hSULT2A1 promoter.« less

  4. Association of COL1A1 polymorphism with high myopia: a Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Guang-Ming; Zhao, Xiao-Jing; Chen, Ai-Ming; Chen, Yong-Xing; Li, Qin

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the association between collagen type I alpha 1 (COL1A1) gene and high myopia. METHODS In this Meta-analysis, we examined 5 published case-control studies that involved 1942 high myopia cases and 2929 healthy controls to assess the association between the COL1A1 rs2075555 polymorphism and high myopia risk. We calculated the pooled odds ratios (ORs) of COL1A1 rs2075555 polymorphism in high myopia cases vs healthy controls to evaluate the strength of the association. RESULTS Overall, there was no significant difference both in the genotype and allele distributions of COL1A1 rs2075555 polymorphism between high myopia cases and healthy controls: CC vs AA OR=1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.76-1.58; AC vs AA OR=0.98, 95%CI 0.80-1.20; CC/AC vs AA/OR=1.01, 95%CI 0.84-1.22; CC vs AC/AA OR=1.06, 95%CI=0.93-1.20; C vs A OR=1.06, 95%CI 0.91-1.23). In addition, in the stratified analyses by ethnicity, no significant associations were found in any genetic model both in European and Asia cohorts. CONCLUSION Our results indicate that the COL1A1 rs2075555 polymorphism may not affect susceptibility to high myopia. PMID:27162737

  5. Identification of novel thiazolo[5,4-d]pyrimidine derivatives as human A1 and A2A adenosine receptor antagonists/inverse agonists.

    PubMed

    Varano, Flavia; Catarzi, Daniela; Falsini, Matteo; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Pasquini, Silvia; Varani, Katia; Colotta, Vittoria

    2018-07-23

    In this study a new set of thiazolo[5,4-d]pyrimidine derivatives was synthesized. These derivatives bear different substituents at positions 2 and 5 of the thiazolopyrimidine core while maintaining a free amino group at position-7. The new compounds were tested for their affinity and potency at human (h) A 1 , A 2A , A 2B and A 3 adenosine receptors expressed in CHO cells. The results reveal that the higher affinity of these new set of thiazolopyrimidines is toward the hA 1 and hA 2A adenosine receptors subtypes and is tuned by the substitution pattern at both the 2 and 5 positions of the thiazolopyrimidine nucleus. Functional studies evidenced that the compounds behaved as dual A 1 /A 2A antagonists/inverse agonists. Compound 3, bearing a 5-((2-methoxyphenyl) methylamino) group and a phenyl moiety at position 2, displayed the highest affinity (hA 1 K i  = 10.2 nM; hA 2A K i  = 4.72 nM) and behaved as a potent A 1 /A 2A antagonist/inverse agonist (hA 1 IC 50  = 13.4 nM; hA 2A IC 50  = 5.34 nM). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Synergistic effects of adenosine A1 and P2Y receptor stimulation on calcium mobilization and PKC translocation in DDT1 MF-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Fredholm, Bertil B; Assender, Jean W; Irenius, Eva; Kodama, Noriko; Saito, Naoaki

    2003-06-01

    1. The effect of adenosine analogues and of nucleotides, alone or in combination, on intracellular calcium, accumulation of inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate (InsP3), and on activation of protein kinase C (PKC) was studied in DDT1 MF2 cells derived from a Syrian hamster myosarcoma. These cells were found to express mRNA for A1 and some as yet unidentified P2Y receptor(s). 2. Activation of either receptor type stimulated the production of InsP3 and raised intracellular calcium in DDT1 MF2 cells. Similarly, the A1 selective agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) increased PKC-dependent phosphorylation of the substrate MBP(4-14) and induced a PKC translocation to the plasma membrane as determined using [3H]-phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu) binding in DDT1 MF-2 cells. However, neither adenosine nor CPA induced a significant translocation of transiently transfected gamma-PKC-GFP from the cytosol to the cell membrane. In contrast to adenosine analogues, ATP and UTP also caused a rapid but transient translocation of gamma-PKC-GFP and activation of PKC. 3. Doses of the A1 agonist CPA and of ATP or UTP per se caused barely detectable increases in intracellular Ca2+ but when combined, they caused an almost maximal stimulation. Similarly, adenosine (0.6 microM) and UTP (or ATP, 2.5 microM), which per se caused no detectable translocation of either gamma- or epsilon-PKC-GFP, caused when combined a very clear-cut translocation of both PKC subforms, albeit with different time courses. These results show that simultaneous activation of P2Y and adenosine A1 receptors synergistically increases Ca2+ transients and translocation of PKC in DDT1 MF-2 cells. Since adenosine is rapidly formed by breakdown of extracellular ATP, such interactions may be biologically important.

  7. Diuretic effects of KW-3902 (8-(noradamantan-3-yl)-1,3-dipropylxanthine), a novel adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T; Mizumoto, H; Karasawa, A

    1993-12-01

    The diuretic effects of KW-3902 (8-(noradamantan-3-yl)-1,3-dipropylxanthine), a novel adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, were determined and compared with those of trichlormethiazide (TCM) and furosemide in saline-loaded conscious dogs. KW-3902, at doses higher than 0.1 mg/kg (p.o.), produced dose-dependent increases of urine volume and sodium excretion and these effects were statistically significant at doses of 1-100 mg/kg. The increase in potassium excretion was lower than that of sodium, and the ratio of sodium to potassium excretion (Na/K) tended to be elevated. TCM (0.3 mg/kg) and furosemide (3 mg/kg) also induced increases in urine volume and sodium excretion. The diuretic effects of KW-3902 lasted for 4 h after administration, whereas TCM and furosemide caused significant natriuresis for 2 h after administration. Thus, KW-3902 exhibited a longer lasting natriuresis than TCM and furosemide. These results indicate that adenosine A1 receptor blockade by KW-3902 causes consistent diuresis and natriuresis in dogs and suggest that adenosine A1 receptor blockade is a promising approach to diuretic therapy.

  8. The role of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in the caffeine effect on MDMA-induced DA and 5-HT release in the mouse striatum.

    PubMed

    Górska, A M; Gołembiowska, K

    2015-04-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") popular as a designer drug is often used with caffeine to gain a stronger stimulant effect. MDMA induces 5-HT and DA release by interaction with monoamine transporters. Co-administration of caffeine and MDMA may aggravate MDMA-induced toxic effects on DA and 5-HT terminals. In the present study, we determined whether caffeine influences DA and 5-HT release induced by MDMA. We also tried to find out if adenosine A1 and A2A receptors play a role in the effect of caffeine by investigating the effect of the selective adenosine A1 and A2A receptor antagonists, DPCPX and KW 6002 on DA and 5-HT release induced by MDMA. Mice were treated with caffeine (10 mg/kg) and MDMA (20 or 40 mg/kg) alone or in combination. DA and 5-HT release in the mouse striatum was measured using in vivo microdialysis. Caffeine exacerbated the effect of MDMA on DA and 5-HT release. DPCPX or KW 6002 co-administered with MDMA had similar influence as caffeine, but KW 6002 was more potent than caffeine or DPCPX. To exclude the contribution of MAO inhibition by caffeine in the caffeine effect on MDMA-induced increase in DA and 5-HT, we also tested the effect of the nonxanthine adenosine receptor antagonist CGS 15943A lacking properties of MAO activity modification. Our findings indicate that adenosine A1 and A2A receptor blockade may account for the caffeine-induced exacerbation of the MDMA effect on DA and 5-HT release and may aggravate MDMA toxicity.

  9. Metformin suppresses CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in breast cancer cells by down-regulating aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression

    SciTech Connect

    Do, Minh Truong; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Tran, Thi Thu Phuong

    2014-10-01

    Induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1B1 by environmental xenobiotic chemicals or endogenous ligands through the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes related to cancer, such as transformation and tumorigenesis. Here, we investigated the effects of the anti-diabetes drug metformin on expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in breast cancer cells under constitutive and inducible conditions. Our results indicated that metformin down-regulated the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in breast cancer cells under constitutive and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced conditions. Down-regulation of AhR expression was required for metformin-mediated decreases in CYP1A1 andmore » CYP1B1 expression, and the metformin-mediated CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 reduction is irrelevant to estrogen receptor α (ERα) signaling. Furthermore, we found that metformin markedly down-regulated Sp1 protein levels in breast cancer cells. The use of genetic and pharmacological tools revealed that metformin-mediated down-regulation of AhR expression was mediated through the reduction of Sp1 protein. Metformin inhibited endogenous AhR ligand-induced CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression by suppressing tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) expression in MCF-7 cells. Finally, metformin inhibits TDO expression through a down-regulation of Sp1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein levels. Our findings demonstrate that metformin reduces CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in breast cancer cells by down-regulating AhR signaling. Metformin would be able to act as a potential chemopreventive agent against CYP1A1 and CYP1B1-mediated carcinogenesis and development of cancer. - Graphical abstract: Schematic of the CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 gene regulation by metformin. - Highlights: • Metformin inhibits CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression. • Metformin down-regulates the AhR signaling. • Metformin reduces Sp1 protein expression. • Metformin suppresses TDO

  10. The influence of standardized Valeriana officinalis extract on the CYP3A1 gene expression by nuclear receptors in in vivo model.

    PubMed

    Bogacz, Anna; Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M; Karasiewicz, Monika; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Majchrzycki, Marian; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Ozarowski, Marcin; Grzeskowiak, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis is one of the most popular medicinal plants commonly used as a sedative and sleep aid. It is suggested that its pharmacologically active compounds derived from the root may modulate the CYP3A4 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and lead to pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of valerian on the expression level of CYP3A1 (homologue to human CYP3A4) as well as nuclear receptors PXR, CAR, RXR, GR, and HNF-4α. Male Wistar rats were given standardized valerian extract (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 3 and 10 days. The expression in liver tissue was analyzed by using real-time PCR. Our result showed a decrease of CYP3A1 expression level by 35% (P = 0.248) and 37% (P < 0.001), respectively. Moreover, Valeriana exhibited statistically significant reduction in RXR (approximately 28%) only after 3-day treatment. We also demonstrated a decrease in the amount HNF-4α by 22% (P = 0.005) and 32% (P = 0.012), respectively. In case of CAR, the increase of expression level by 46% (P = 0.023) was noted. These findings suggest that Valeriana officinalis extract can decrease the CYP3A4 expression and therefore may lead to interactions with synthetic drugs metabolized by this enzyme.

  11. The Influence of Standardized Valeriana officinalis Extract on the CYP3A1 Gene Expression by Nuclear Receptors in In Vivo Model

    PubMed Central

    Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M.; Karasiewicz, Monika; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L.; Ozarowski, Marcin; Grzeskowiak, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis is one of the most popular medicinal plants commonly used as a sedative and sleep aid. It is suggested that its pharmacologically active compounds derived from the root may modulate the CYP3A4 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and lead to pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of valerian on the expression level of CYP3A1 (homologue to human CYP3A4) as well as nuclear receptors PXR, CAR, RXR, GR, and HNF-4α. Male Wistar rats were given standardized valerian extract (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 3 and 10 days. The expression in liver tissue was analyzed by using real-time PCR. Our result showed a decrease of CYP3A1 expression level by 35% (P = 0.248) and 37% (P < 0.001), respectively. Moreover, Valeriana exhibited statistically significant reduction in RXR (approximately 28%) only after 3-day treatment. We also demonstrated a decrease in the amount HNF-4α by 22% (P = 0.005) and 32% (P = 0.012), respectively. In case of CAR, the increase of expression level by 46% (P = 0.023) was noted. These findings suggest that Valeriana officinalis extract can decrease the CYP3A4 expression and therefore may lead to interactions with synthetic drugs metabolized by this enzyme. PMID:25302309

  12. Modulation of postsynaptic potentials in rat cortical neurons by valerian extracts macerated with different alcohols: involvement of adenosine A(1)- and GABA(A)-receptors.

    PubMed

    Sichardt, K; Vissiennon, Z; Koetter, U; Brattström, A; Nieber, K

    2007-10-01

    Valeriana officinalis (valerian) is used traditionally as a mild sedative. Research into valerian is sparse, and studies differ greatly with respect to design, measures and preparations used. This study compares the action of a methanol (M-E), ethanol (E-E) and an extract macerated with ethylacetate (EA-E) from roots of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L., Valerianaceae) on postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) in cortical neurons. Intracellular recordings were performed in rat brain slice preparations containing pyramidal cells of the cingulate cortex. PSPs were induced by electrical field stimulation. The M-E induced strong inhibition in the concentration range 0.1-15 mg/mL, whereas the E-E (1-10 mg/mL) did not influence significantly the PSPs. The maximum inhibition induced by the M-E was completely antagonized by 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX, 0.1 microm), an antagonist on the adenosine A(1) receptor. Contrary to the M-E, the EA-E (10 mg/mL) induced an increase of the PSPs, which was completely blocked by the GABA(A) receptor antagonist picrotoxin (100 microm). The data suggest that activation of adenosine A(1) and GABA(A) receptors is mediated by different components within the valerian extract. The two mechanisms may contribute independently to the sleep-inducing effect of valerian.

  13. Rho-kinase signaling controls nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of class IIa Histone Deacetylase (HDAC7) and transcriptional activation of orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1

    SciTech Connect

    Compagnucci, Claudia; Barresi, Sabina; Petrini, Stefania

    2015-04-03

    Rho-kinase (ROCK) has been well documented to play a key role in RhoA-induced actin remodeling. ROCK activation results in myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation either by direct action on MLC kinase (MLCK) or by inhibition of MLC phosphatase (MLCP), modulating actin–myosin contraction. We found that inhibition of the ROCK pathway in induced pluripotent stem cells, leads to nuclear export of HDAC7 and transcriptional activation of the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 while in cells with constitutive ROCK hyperactivity due to loss of function of the RhoGTPase activating protein Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1), the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 is downregulated. Our study identify amore » new target of ROCK signaling via myosin phosphatase subunit (MYPT1) and Histone Deacetylase (HDAC7) at the nuclear level and provide new insights in the cellular functions of ROCK. - Highlights: • ROCK regulates nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HDAC7 via phosphorylation of MYPT1. • Nuclear export of HDAC7 and upregulation of NR4A1 occurs with low ROCK activity. • High levels of ROCK activity due to OPHN1 loss of function downregulate NR4A1.« less

  14. EphA2 receptor activation with ephrin-A1 ligand restores cetuximab efficacy in NRAS-mutant colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cuyàs, Elisabet; Queralt, Bernardo; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim; Menendez, Javier A

    2017-07-01

    Patients with wild-type KRAS metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) that harbors NRAS activating mutations do not benefit from anti-EGFR therapies. Very little is known about oncogenic NRAS signaling driving mCRC unresponsiveness to the EGFR-directed antibody cetuximab. Using a system of paired NRAS-mutant and wild-type isogenic mCRC cell lines to explore signaling pathways engaged by the common oncogenic NRAS Q61K variant upon challenge with cetuximab, we uncovered an unexpected mechanism of resistance to cetuximab involving dysregulation of the ephrin-A1/EphA2 signaling axis. Parental NRAS+/+ cells, but not NRASQ61K/+ cells, activated the ephrin receptor ephA1 in response to cetuximab treatment. Moreover, whereas cetuximab treatment significantly downregulated EPHA2 gene expression in NRAS+/+ cells, EPHA2 expression in NRASQ61K/+ cells was refractory to cetuximab. Remarkably, pharmacologically mimicked ephrin-A1 engagement to ephA2 converted NRAS-mutant into RAS wild-type mCRC cells in terms of cetuximab efficacy. Accordingly, activation of the ephA2 receptor by bioactive recombinant human ephrin-A1/Fc-fusion protein suppressed the cetuximab-unresponsive hyperactivation of MAPK and AKT and fully restored cetuximab activity in NRAS-mutant colorectal cells. Collectively, these findings reveal that the clinical benefit of cetuximab in mCRC might necessarily involve the suppression of the ligandless oncogenic signaling of the ephA2 receptor. Hence, ligand-dependent tumor suppressor signaling using therapeutic ephA2 agonists might offer new therapeutic opportunities to clinically widen the use of cetuximab in NRAS-mutated and/or ephA2-dependent mCRC tumors.

  15. Central or Peripheral Delivery of an Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonist Improves Mechanical Allodynia in a Mouse Model of Painful Diabetic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Katz, N. K.; Ryals, J. M.; Wright, D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus, and a significant proportion of individuals suffer debilitating pain that significantly affects their quality of life. Unfortunately, symptomatic treatment options have limited efficacy, and often carry significant risk of systemic adverse effects. Activation of the adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) by the analgesic small molecule adenosine has been shown to have antinociceptive benefits in models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. The current study used a mouse model of painful diabetic neuropathy to determine the effect of diabetes on endogenous adenosine production, and if central or peripheral delivery of adenosine receptor agonists could alleviate signs of mechanical allodynia in diabetic mice. Diabetes was induced using streptozocin in male A/J mice. Mechanical withdrawal thresholds were measured weekly to characterize neuropathy phenotype. Hydrolysis of AMP into adenosine by ectonucleotidases was determined in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cord at 8-weeks post-induction of diabetes. AMP, adenosine and the specific A1R agonist, N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), were administered both centrally (intrathecal) and peripherally (intraplantar) to determine the effect of activation of adenosine receptors on mechanical allodynia in diabetic mice. Eight weeks post-induction, diabetic mice displayed significantly decreased hydrolysis of extracellular AMP in the DRG; at this same time, diabetic mice displayed significantly decreased mechanical withdrawal thresholds compared to nondiabetic controls. Central delivery AMP, adenosine and CPA significantly improved mechanical withdrawal thresholds in diabetic mice. Surprisingly, peripheral delivery of CPA also improved mechanical allodynia in diabetic mice. This study provides new evidence that diabetes significantly affects endogenous AMP hydrolysis, suggesting that altered adenosine production could contribute to the development of painful

  16. Rats fed soy protein isolate (SPI) have impaired hepatic CYP1A1 induction by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as a result of interference with aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Singhal, Rohit; Badger, Thomas M.; Arkansas Children's Nutrition Center, Little Rock, AR 72202

    2008-03-01

    Consumption of soy diets has been found to reduce cancer incidence in animals and is associated with reduced cancer risk in humans. Previously, we have demonstrated that female Sprague-Dawley rats fed purified AIN-93G diets with soy protein isolate (SPI) as the sole protein source had reduced CYP1A1 induction and basal aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) levels relative to those fed the same diet containing casein (CAS). In the present study, the molecular mechanisms underlying reduced AhR expression have been studied. The SPI-effect on AhR was not observed after feeding diets containing the purified soy isoflavones genistein or daidzein. Rat hepatoma FGC-4more » cells were treated with the serum obtained from rats fed CAS- or SPI-containing diets. Reduced AhR levels (P < 0.05) were observed after 24 h exposure to SPI-serum without any changes in the overall expression of chaperone proteins-HSP90 and XAP2. SPI-serum-stimulated AhR degradation was inhibited by treating the cells with the proteasome inhibitor, MG132, and was observed to be preceded by ubiquitination of the receptor. A reduced association of XAP2 with the immunoprecipitated AhR complex was observed. SPI-serum-mediated AhR degradation was preceded by nuclear translocation of the receptor. However, the translocated receptor was found to be unable to heterodimerize with ARNT or to bind to XRE elements on the CYP1A1 enhancer. These data suggest that feeding SPI-containing diets antagonizes AhR signaling by a novel mechanism which differs from those established for known AhR antagonists.« less

  17. Adenosine A1 receptors link to smooth muscle contraction via CYP4a, PKC-α, and ERK1/2

    PubMed Central

    Kunduri, SS; Mustafa, SJ; Ponnoth, DS; Dick, GM; Nayeem, MA

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR) activation contracts smooth muscle, although signaling mechanisms aren’t thoroughly understood. Activation of A1AR leads to metabolism of arachidonic acid, including the production of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) by cytochrome P4504a (CYP4a). 20-HETE can activate protein kinase C-α (PKC-α) which crosstalks with extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) pathway. Both these pathways can regulate smooth muscle contraction, we tested the hypothesis that A1AR contracts smooth muscle through a pathway involving CYP4a, PKC-α, and ERK1/2. Experiments included isometric tension recordings of aortic contraction and Western blots of signaling molecules in wild type (WT) and A1AR knockout (A1KO) mice. Contraction to the A1-selective agonist CCPA was absent in A1KO mice aortae, indicating the contractile role of A1AR. Inhibition of CYP4a (HET0016) abolished CCPA-induced contraction in WT aortae, indicating a critical role for 20-HETE. Both WT and A1KO mice aortae contracted in response to exogenous 20-HETE. Inhibition of PKC-α (Gö6976) or ERK1/2 (PD98059) attenuated 20-HETE-induced contraction equally, suggesting that ERK1/2 is downstream of PKC-α. Contractions to exogenous 20-HETE were significantly less in A1KO mice; reduced protein levels of PKC-α, p-ERK1/2, and total ERK1/2 supported this observation. Our data indicate that A1AR mediates smooth muscle contraction via CYP4a and a PKC-α-ERK1/2 pathway. PMID:23519140

  18. Adenosine A1 receptors link to smooth muscle contraction via CYP4a, protein kinase C-α, and ERK1/2.

    PubMed

    Kunduri, Swati S; Mustafa, S Jamal; Ponnoth, Dovenia S; Dick, Gregory M; Nayeem, Mohammed A

    2013-07-01

    Adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR) activation contracts smooth muscle, although signaling mechanisms are not thoroughly understood. Activation of A1AR leads to metabolism of arachidonic acid, including the production of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) by cytochrome P4504a (CYP4a). The 20-HETE can activate protein kinase C-α (PKC-α), which crosstalks with extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) pathway. Both these pathways can regulate smooth muscle contraction, we tested the hypothesis that A1AR contracts smooth muscle through a pathway involving CYP4a, PKC-α, and ERK1/2. Experiments included isometric tension recordings of aortic contraction and Western blots of signaling molecules in wild type (WT) and A1AR knockout (A1KO) mice. Contraction to the A1-selective agonist 2-chloro-N cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA) was absent in A1KO mice aortae, indicating the contractile role of A1AR. Inhibition of CYP4a (HET0016) abolished 2-chloro-N cyclopentyladenosine-induced contraction in WT aortae, indicating a critical role for 20-HETE. Both WT and A1KO mice aortae contracted in response to exogenous 20-HETE. Inhibition of PKC-α (Gö6976) or ERK1/2 (PD98059) attenuated 20-HETE-induced contraction equally, suggesting that ERK1/2 is downstream of PKC-α. Contractions to exogenous 20-HETE were significantly less in A1KO mice; reduced protein levels of PKC-α, p-ERK1/2, and total ERK1/2 supported this observation. Our data indicate that A1AR mediates smooth muscle contraction via CYP4a and a PKC-α-ERK1/2 pathway.

  19. The group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist LY354740 and the D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol reduce locomotor hyperactivity but fail to rescue spatial working memory in GluA1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Boerner, Thomas; Bygrave, Alexei M; Chen, Jingkai; Fernando, Anushka; Jackson, Stephanie; Barkus, Chris; Sprengel, Rolf; Seeburg, Peter H; Harrison, Paul J; Gilmour, Gary; Bannerman, David M; Sanderson, David J

    2017-04-01

    Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists have been suggested as potential anti-psychotics, at least in part, based on the observation that the agonist LY354740 appeared to rescue the cognitive deficits caused by non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists, including spatial working memory deficits in rodents. Here, we tested the ability of LY354740 to rescue spatial working memory performance in mice that lack the GluA1 subunit of the AMPA glutamate receptor, encoded by Gria1, a gene recently implicated in schizophrenia by genome-wide association studies. We found that LY354740 failed to rescue the spatial working memory deficit in Gria1 -/- mice during rewarded alternation performance in the T-maze. In contrast, LY354740 did reduce the locomotor hyperactivity in these animals to a level that was similar to controls. A similar pattern was found with the dopamine receptor antagonist haloperidol, with no amelioration of the spatial working memory deficit in Gria1 -/- mice, even though the same dose of haloperidol reduced their locomotor hyperactivity. These results with LY354740 contrast with the rescue of spatial working memory in models of glutamatergic hypofunction using non-competitive NMDAR antagonists. Future studies should determine whether group II mGluR agonists can rescue spatial working memory deficits with other NMDAR manipulations, including genetic models and other pharmacological manipulations of NMDAR function. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. 5-HT1A/1B Receptors as Targets for Optimizing Pigmentary Responses in C57BL/6 Mouse Skin to Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hua-Li; Pang, Si-Lin; Liu, Qiong-Zhen; Wang, Qian; Cai, Min-Xuan; Shang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Stress has been reported to induce alterations of skin pigmentary response. Acute stress is associated with increased turnover of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) whereas chronic stress causes a decrease. 5-HT receptors have been detected in pigment cells, indicating their role in skin pigmentation. To ascertain the precise role of 5-HT in stress-induced pigmentary responses, C57BL/6 mice were subjected to chronic restraint stress and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CRS and CUMS, two models of chronic stress) for 21 days, finally resulting in abnormal pigmentary responses. Subsequently, stressed mice were characterized by the absence of a black pigment in dorsal coat. The down-regulation of tyrosinase (TYR) and tyrosinase-related proteins (TRP1 and TRP2) expression in stressed skin was accompanied by reduced levels of 5-HT and decreased expression of 5-HT receptor (5-HTR) system. In both murine B16F10 melanoma cells and normal human melanocytes (NHMCs), 5-HT had a stimulatory effect on melanin production, dendricity and migration. When treated with 5-HT in cultured hair follicles (HFs), the increased expression of melanogenesis-related genes and the activation of 5-HT1A, 1B and 7 receptors also occurred. The serum obtained from stressed mice showed significantly decreased tyrosinase activity in NHMCs compared to that from nonstressed mice. The decrease in tyrosinase activity was further augmented in the presence of 5-HTR1A, 1B and 7 antagonists, WAY100635, SB216641 and SB269970. In vivo, stressed mice received 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP), a member of the class of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (fluoxetine; FX) and 5-HTR1A/1B agonists (8-OH-DPAT/CP94253), finally contributing to the normalization of pigmentary responses. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that the serotoninergic system plays an important role in the regulation of stress-induced depigmentation, which can be mediated by 5-HT1A/1B receptors. 5-HT and 5-HTR1A

  1. Genetic disruption of the nuclear receptor Nur77 (Nr4a1) in rat reduces dopamine cell loss and l-Dopa-induced dyskinesia in experimental Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Rouillard, Claude; Baillargeon, Joanie; Paquet, Brigitte; St-Hilaire, Michel; Maheux, Jérôme; Lévesque, Catherine; Darlix, Noémie; Majeur, Simon; Lévesque, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an idiopathic progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of midbrain dopamine neurons. Levodopa (l-dopa) is the main pharmacological approach to relieve PD motor symptoms. However, chronic treatment with l-Dopa is inevitably associated with the generation of abnormal involuntary movements (l-Dopa-induced dyskinesia). We have previously shown that Nr4a1 (Nur77), a transcription factor of the nuclear receptor family, is closely associated with dopamine neurotransmission in the mature brain. However, the role of Nr4a1 in the etiology of PD and its treatment remain elusive. We report here that the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine in rat lead to a rapid up-regulation of Nr4a1 in the substantia nigra. Genetic disruption of Nr4a1 in rat reduced neurotoxin-induced dopamine cell loss and l-Dopa-induced dyskinesia, whereas virally-driven striatal overexpression of Nr4a1 enhanced or partially restored involuntary movements induced by chronic l-Dopa in wild type and Nr4a1-deficient rats, respectively. Collectively, these results suggest that Nr4a1 is involved in dopamine cell loss and l-Dopa-induced dyskinesia in experimental PD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased Signaling via Adenosine A1 Receptors, Sleep Deprivation, Imipramine, and Ketamine Inhibit Depressive-like Behavior via Induction of Homer1a

    PubMed Central

    Serchov, Tsvetan; Clement, Hans-Willi; Schwarz, Martin K.; Iasevoli, Felice; Tosh, Dilip K.; Idzko, Marco; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Normann, Claus; Biber, Knut; van Calker, Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Major depressive disorder is among the most commonly diagnosed disabling mental diseases. Several non-pharmacological treatments of depression upregulate adenosine concentration and/or adenosine A1 receptors (A1R) in the brain. To test whether enhanced A1R signaling mediates antidepressant effects, we generated a transgenic mouse with enhanced doxycycline-regulated A1R expression, specifically in forebrain neurons. Upregulating A1R led to pronounced acute and chronic resilience toward depressive-like behavior in various tests. Conversely, A1R knockout mice displayed an increased depressive-like behavior and were resistant to the antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation (SD). Various antidepressant treatments increase homer1a expression in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Specific siRNA knockdown of homer1a in mPFC enhanced depressive-like behavior and prevented the antidepressant effects of A1R upregulation, SD, imipramine, and ketamine treatment. In contrast, viral overexpression of homer1a in the mPFC had antidepressant effects. Thus, increased expression of homer1a is a final common pathway mediating the antidepressant effects of different antidepressant treatments. PMID:26247862

  3. A comparison of an A1 adenosine receptor agonist (CVT-510) with diltiazem for slowing of AV nodal conduction in guinea-pig

    PubMed Central

    Snowdy, Stephen; Liang, Hui Xiu; Blackburn, Brent; Lum, Robert; Nelson, Marek; Wang, Lisa; Pfister, Jürg; Sharma, Bhavender P; Wolff, Andrew; Belardinelli, Luiz

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacological properties (i.e. the AV nodal depressant, vasodilator, and inotropic effects) of two AV nodal blocking agents belonging to different drug classes; a novel A1 adenosine receptor (A1 receptor) agonist, N-(3(R)-tetrahydrofuranyl)-6-aminopurine riboside (CVT-510), and the prototypical calcium channel blocker diltiazem.In the atrial-paced isolated heart, CVT-510 was approximately 5 fold more potent to prolong the stimulus-to-His bundle (S–H interval), a measure of slowing AV nodal conduction (EC50=41 nM) than to increase coronary conductance (EC50=200 nM). At concentrations of CVT-510 (40 nM) and diltiazem (1 μM) that caused equal prolongation of S–H interval (∼10 ms), diltiazem, but not CVT-510, significantly reduced left ventricular developed pressure (LVP) and markedly increased coronary conductance. CVT-510 shortened atrial (EC50=73 nM) but not the ventricular monophasic action potentials (MAP).In atrial-paced anaesthetized guinea-pigs, intravenous infusions of CVT-510 and diltiazem caused nearly equal prolongations of P–R interval. However, diltiazem, but not CVT-510, significantly reduced mean arterial blood pressure.Both CVT-510 and diltiazem prolonged S–H interval, i.e., slowed AV nodal conduction. However, the A1 receptor-selective agonist CVT-510 did so without causing the negative inotropic, vasodilator, and hypotensive effects associated with diltiazem. Because CVT-510 did not affect the ventricular action potential, it is unlikely that this agonist will have a proarrythmic action in ventricular myocardium. PMID:10051130

  4. Cardiovascular effects of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) decisive for its therapeutic efficacy in sarin poisoning.

    PubMed

    Joosen, Marloes J A; Bueters, Tjerk J H; van Helden, Herman P M

    2004-01-01

    Mortality and occurrence of cholinergic symptoms upon sarin intoxication (144 micro g/kg s.c., approximately 2 x LD50) in rats is completely prevented by treatment with the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA, 2 mg/kg i.m.). Previously, we have shown that CPA treatment altered the distribution of sarin into the brain, presumably through its cardiovascular side effects. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of the cardiodepressant effects of CPA to its therapeutic efficacy against sarin intoxication. Intramuscular treatment of rats with 0.5 and 2.0 mg/kg CPA 1 min after sarin poisoning attenuated most cholinergic symptoms and prevented mortality, which seemed to be directly associated with an immediate strong and long-lasting bradycardia and hypotension caused by CPA. Treatment with lower doses of CPA (0.1 and 0.05 mg/kg i.m.) caused similar levels of bradycardia and hypotension, albeit a few minutes later than at the higher doses of CPA. Upon sarin intoxication, this was correlated with increased incidence of cholinergic symptoms and decreased survival rates. Pretreatment with the peripheral adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8- p-sulphophenyltheophylline (8-PST, 20 mg/kg i.p.) counteracted the cardiodepressant effects of 0.05 mg/kg CPA almost completely, thereby nearly abolishing its therapeutic efficacy against sarin poisoning. In conclusion, the present results strongly indicate that bradycardia and hypotension induced by the peripheral adenosine A1 receptor play a prominent role in the therapeutic efficacy of CPA in cases of sarin poisoning.

  5. Genetic association of COL1A1 polymorphisms with high myopia in Asian population: a Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Bo; Qu, Chao; Huang, Xiao-Fang; Ye, Zi-Meng; Zhang, Ding-Ding; Shi, Yi; Chen, Rong; Liu, Yu-Ping; Shuai, Ping

    2016-01-01

    AIM To comprehensively evaluate the potential association of COL1A1 polymorphisms with high myopia by a systematic review and Meta-analysis. METHODS All association studies on COL1A1 and high myopia reported up to June 10, 2014 in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Chinese Biomedical Database were retrieved. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were analyzed for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using fixed- and random- effects models according to between-study heterogeneity. Publication bias analyses were conducted by Egger's test. RESULTS A total of four studies from reported papers were included in this analysis. The Meta-analyses for COL1A1 rs2075555, composed of 2304 high myopia patients and 2272 controls, failed to detect any significant association with high myopia. A total of 971 cases and 649 controls were tested for COL1A1 rs2269336. The association of COL1A1 rs2269336 with high myopia was observed in recessive model (CC vs CG+GG, P=0.03) and in heterozygous model (CG vs GG, P=0.04), but not in other models. CONCLUSION This Meta-analysis shows that COL1A1 rs2269336 (CC vs CG+GG) affects individual susceptibility to high myopia, whereas there is no association detected between SNPs rs2075555 and high myopia. Given the limited sample size, further investigations including more ethnic groups are required to validate the association. PMID:27588274

  6. Ethanol and Caffeine Effects on Social Interaction and Recognition in Mice: Involvement of Adenosine A2A and A1 Receptors.

    PubMed

    López-Cruz, Laura; San-Miguel, Noemí; Bayarri, Pilar; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D; Correa, Mercé

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol and caffeine are frequently consumed in combination and have opposite effects on the adenosine system: ethanol metabolism leads to an increase in adenosine levels, while caffeine is a non-selective adenosine A 1 /A 2A receptor antagonist. These receptors are highly expressed in striatum and olfactory tubercle, brain areas involved in exploration and social interaction in rodents. Ethanol modulates social interaction processes, but the role of adenosine in social behavior is still poorly understood. The present work was undertaken to study the impact of ethanol, caffeine and their combination on social behavior, and to explore the involvement of A 1 and A 2A receptors on those actions. Male CD1 mice were evaluated in a social interaction three-chamber paradigm, for preference of conspecific vs. object, and also for long-term recognition memory of familiar vs. novel conspecific. Ethanol showed a biphasic effect, with low doses (0.25 g/kg) increasing social contact and higher doses (1.0-1.5 g/kg) reducing social interaction. However, no dose changed social preference; mice always spent more time sniffing the conspecific than the object, independently of the ethanol dose. Ethanol, even at doses that did not change social exploration, produced amnestic effects on social recognition the following day. Caffeine reduced social contact (15.0-60.0 mg/kg), and even blocked social preference at higher doses (30.0-60.0 mg/kg). The A 1 antagonist Cyclopentyltheophylline (CPT; 3-9 mg/kg) did not modify social contact or preference on its own, and the A 2A antagonist MSX-3 (1.5-6 mg/kg) increased social interaction at all doses. Ethanol at intermediate doses (0.5-1.0 g/kg) was able to reverse the reduction in social exploration induced by caffeine (15.0-30.0 mg/kg). Although there was no interaction between ethanol and CPT or MSX-3 on social exploration in the first day, MSX-3 blocked the amnestic effects of ethanol observed on the following day. Thus, ethanol impairs the

  7. The Role of Nuclear Receptor Coactivator A1B1 in Growth Factor-Mediated Mammary Tumorigenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    study display dwarfism and the retardation of mammary gland growth [9]. At the 4-month time point, I similarly observed an overall decrease in mammary...Coactivator A1B1 in Growth Factor- Mediated Mammary Tumorigenesis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Mark P Fereshteh (BS) CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION

  8. Thermal nociception is decreased by hypocretin-1 and an adenosine A1 receptor agonist microinjected into the pontine reticular formation of Sprague Dawley rat.

    PubMed

    Watson, Sarah L; Watson, Christopher J; Baghdoyan, Helen A; Lydic, Ralph

    2010-06-01

    Clinical and preclinical data concur that sleep disruption causes hyperalgesia, but the brain mechanisms through which sleep and pain interact remain poorly understood. Evidence that pontine components of the ascending reticular activating system modulate sleep and nociception encouraged the present study testing the hypothesis that hypocretin-1 (orexin-A) and an adenosine receptor agonist administered into the pontine reticular nucleus, oral part (PnO) each alter thermal nociception. Adult male rats (n = 23) were implanted with microinjection guide tubes aimed for the PnO. The PnO was microinjected with saline (control), hypocretin-1, the adenosine A(1) receptor agonist N(6)-p-sulfophenyladenosine (SPA), the hypocretin receptor-1 antagonist N-(2-Methyl-6-benzoxazolyl)-N''-1,5-naphthyridin-4-yl-urea (SB-334867), and hypocretin-1 plus SB-334867. As an index of antinociceptive behavior, the latency (in seconds) to paw withdrawal away from a thermal stimulus was measured following each microinjection. Compared to control, antinociception was significantly increased by hypocretin-1 and by SPA. SB-334867 increased nociceptive responsiveness, and administration of hypocretin-1 plus SB-334867 blocked the antinociception caused by hypocretin-1. These results suggest for the first time that hypocretin receptors in rat PnO modulate nociception. Widely distributed and overlapping neural networks regulate states of sleep and pain. Specifying the brain regions and neurotransmitters through which pain and sleep interact is an essential step for developing adjunctive therapies that diminish pain without disrupting states of sleep and wakefulness. Copyright (c) 2010 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Annexin-A1 and caldesmon are associated with resistance to tamoxifen in estrogen receptor positive recurrent breast cancer.

    PubMed

    De Marchi, Tommaso; Timmermans, Anne M; Smid, Marcel; Look, Maxime P; Stingl, Christoph; Opdam, Mark; Linn, Sabine C; Sweep, Fred C G J; Span, Paul N; Kliffen, Mike; van Deurzen, Carolien H M; Luider, Theo M; Foekens, John A; Martens, John W; Umar, Arzu

    2016-01-19

    Tamoxifen therapy resistance constitutes a major cause of death in patients with recurrent estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer. Through high resolution mass spectrometry (MS), we previously generated a 4-protein predictive signature for tamoxifen therapy outcome in recurrent breast cancer. ANXA1 and CALD1, which were not included in the classifier, were however the most differentially expressed proteins. We first evaluated the clinical relevance of these markers in our MS cohort, followed by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining on an independent set of tumors incorporated in a tissue microarray (TMA) and regression analysis in relation to time to progression (TTP), clinical benefit and objective response. In order to assess which mechanisms ANXA1 and CALD1 might been involved in, we performed Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) on ANXA1 and CALD1 correlated proteins in our MS cohort. ANXA1 (Hazard ratio [HR] = 1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-2.75; P = 0.003) and CALD1 (HR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.04-2.36; P = 0.039) based patient stratification showed significant association to TTP, while IHC staining on TMA showed that both ANXA1 (HR = 1.82; 95% CI: 1.12-3.00; P = 0.016) and CALD1 (HR = 2.29; 95% CI: 1.40-3.75; P = 0.001) expression was associated with shorter TTP independently of traditional predictive factors. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the majority of proteins correlated to ANXA1 also correlated with CALD1. IPA indicated that ANXA1 and CALD1 were associated with ER-downregulation and NFκB signaling. We hereby report that ANXA1 and CALD1 proteins are independent markers for tamoxifen therapy outcome and are associated to fast tumor progression.

  10. Effects of Long-Term Caffeine Consumption on the Adenosine A1 Receptor in the Rat Brain: an In Vivo PET Study with [18F]CPFPX.

    PubMed

    Nabbi-Schroeter, Danje; Elmenhorst, David; Oskamp, Angela; Laskowski, Stefanie; Bauer, Andreas; Kroll, Tina

    2018-04-01

    Caffeine, a nonselective antagonist of adenosine receptors, is the most popular psychostimulant worldwide. Recently, a protective role of moderate chronic caffeine consumption against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease has been discussed. Thus, aim of the present study was an in vivo investigation of effects of long-term caffeine consumption on the adenosine A 1 receptor (A 1 AR) in the rat brain. Sixteen adult, male rats underwent five positron emission tomography (PET) scans with the highly selective A 1 AR radioligand [ 18 F]CPFPX in order to determine A 1 AR availability. After the first baseline PET scan, the animals were assigned to two groups: Caffeine treatment and control group. The caffeine-treated animals received caffeinated tap water (30 mg/kg bodyweight/day, corresponding to 4-5 cups of coffee per day in humans) for 12 weeks. Subsequently, caffeine was withdrawn and repeated PET measurements were performed on day 1, 2, 4, and 7 of caffeine withdrawal. The control animals were measured according to the same time schedule. At day 1, after 4.4 h of caffeine withdrawal, a significant decrease (- 34.5%, p < 0.001) of whole brain A 1 AR availability was observed. Unlike all other investigated brain regions in caffeine-treated rats, the hypothalamus and nucleus accumbens showed no significant intraindividual differences between baseline and first withdrawal PET scan. After approximately 27 h of caffeine withdrawal, the region- and group-specific effects disappeared and A 1 AR availability settled around baseline. The present study provides evidence that chronic caffeine consumption does not lead to persistent changes in functional availability of cerebral A 1 ARs which have previously been associated with neuroprotective effects of caffeine. The acute and region-specific decrease in cerebral A 1 AR availability directly after caffeine withdrawal is most likely caused by residual amounts of caffeine metabolites

  11. Antihypertensive effect of formononetin through regulating the expressions of eNOS, 5-HT2A/1B receptors and α1-adrenoceptors in spontaneously rat arteries.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tao; Wang, Jie; Huang, Lin-Hong; Cao, Yong-Xiao

    2013-01-15

    One of the main pathological changes of hypertension is the dysfunction of blood vessels. We have found in our previous study that formononetin, one kind of phytoestrogens, has an acute antihypertensive effect. Therefore, we hypothesized that formononetin might produce a chronic antihypertensive effect through regulating the expressions of contractile receptors and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in artery. The present study was conducted to verify this effect. Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were divided into two groups, orally administrated formononetin (50mg/kg per day) and Tween 80 vehicle, respectively, for 8 weeks. The blood pressure was measured by tail-cuff method. Isometric tension of arterial rings was recorded by a myograph system. The mRNA and protein expression in arteries was determined with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results showed that the systolic blood pressure of SHRs decreased significantly in formononetin group compared to Tween 80 group. The vasoconstriction induced by phenylephrine or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the mesenteric artery segments in formononetin group was decreased, and the relaxation induced by acetylcholine was increased compared with that in Tween 80 group. In the mesenteric arteries of the formononetin-treated SHRs, the expressions of α(1)-adrenoceptors and 5-HT(2A/1B) receptors at both mRNA and protein levels decreased, while the mRNA and protein expressions of eNOS increased. In conclusion, formononetin has a chronic antihypertensive effect in SHRs. The antihypertensive mechanism may be associated with the down-regulation of α(1)-adrenoceptors and 5-HT(2A/1B) receptors, and the up-regulation of eNOS expression in arteries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The antinociceptive effects of the systemic adenosine A1 receptor agonist CPA in the absence and in the presence of spinal cord sensitization.

    PubMed

    Curros-Criado, M Mar; Herrero, Juan F

    2005-12-01

    Adenosine A1 receptor agonists are effective antinociceptive agents in neuropathic and inflammatory pain, though they appear to be weak analgesics in acute nociception. Important discrepancies are observed on the effectiveness and potency of adenosine analogues when comparing different studies, probably due to the use of different ligands, models of antinociception, routes of administration and types of sensitization. We studied the systemic antinociceptive effects of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) in spinal cord neuronal responses from adult male rats in acute nociception and in sensitization due to arthritis and neuropathy. The experiments showed that CPA was effective in the three experimental conditions, with a similar potency in reducing responses to noxious mechanical stimulation (ID50s: 20 +/- 1.2 microg/kg in acute nociception, 18 +/- 1.1 microg/kg in arthritis, 17.4 +/- 2 microg/kg in neuropathy). The phenomenon of wind-up was also dose-dependently reduced by CPA in the three experimental situations although the main action was seen in arthritis. Depression of blood pressure by CPA was not dose-dependent. We conclude that systemic CPA is a potent and effective analgesic in sensitization due to arthritis and neuropathy but also in acute nociception. The effect is independent of the cardiovascular activity and is centrally mediated since wind-up was inhibited.

  13. Lack of association between TaqI A1 Allele of dopamine D2 receptor gene and alcohol-use disorders in Atayal natives of Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Chia-Hsiang Chen; Shih-Hsiang Chien; Hai-Gwo Hwu

    1996-09-20

    Association studies between the A1 allele of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene TaqI A polymorphism and alcoholism remain controversial. A recent study from Japan demonstrated that the A1 allele is associated with severe alcoholism in the Japanese population. We were interested in knowing if this association also exists in the Atayals of Taiwan, who were found to have a higher prevalence of alcohol-use disorders than the Han Chinese in Taiwan. Genotype and allele frequencies were determined in alcohol-abusing, alcohol-dependent, and nonalcoholic control Atayal natives in Taiwan. A1 allele frequencies in alcohol-dependent, alcohol-abusing, and normal control Atayals were 0.39, 0.42,more » and 0.39, respectively. No difference in A1 allele frequency was found among these three groups. Our data do not support the hypothesis that the A1 allele of the TaqI A polymorphism of the DRD2 gene increases susceptibility to alcohol-use disorders in the Atayals of Taiwan. 18 refs., 1 tab.« less

  14. Odor Preference Learning and Memory Modify GluA1 Phosphorylation and GluA1 Distribution in the Neonate Rat Olfactory Bulb: Testing the AMPA Receptor Hypothesis in an Appetitive Learning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Wen; Darby-King, Andrea; Grimes, Matthew T.; Howland, John G.; Wang, Yu Tian; McLean, John H.; Harley, Carolyn W.

    2011-01-01

    An increase in synaptic AMPA receptors is hypothesized to mediate learning and memory. AMPA receptor increases have been reported in aversive learning models, although it is not clear if they are seen with memory maintenance. Here we examine AMPA receptor changes in a cAMP/PKA/CREB-dependent appetitive learning model: odor preference learning in…

  15. Hypoxia perturbs aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and CYP1A1 expression induced by PCB 126 in human skin and liver-derived cell lines.

    PubMed

    Vorrink, Sabine U; Severson, Paul L; Kulak, Mikhail V; Futscher, Bernard W; Domann, Frederick E

    2014-02-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an important mediator of toxic responses after exposure to xenobiotics including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Activation of AhR responsive genes requires AhR dimerization with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), a heterodimeric partner also shared by the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein. TCDD-stimulated AhR transcriptional activity can be influenced by hypoxia; however, it less well known whether hypoxia interferes with AhR transcriptional transactivation in the context of PCB-mediated AhR activation in human cells. Elucidation of this interaction is important in liver hepatocytes which extensively metabolize ingested PCBs and experience varying degrees of oxygen tension during normal physiologic function. This study was designed to assess the effect of hypoxia on AhR transcriptional responses after exposure to 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126). Exposure to 1% O2 prior to PCB 126 treatment significantly inhibited CYP1A1 mRNA and protein expression in human HepG2 and HaCaT cells. CYP1A1 transcriptional activation was significantly decreased upon PCB 126 stimulation under conditions of hypoxia. Additionally, hypoxia pre-treatment reduced PCB 126 induced AhR binding to CYP1 target gene promoters. Importantly, ARNT overexpression rescued cells from the inhibitory effect of hypoxia on XRE-luciferase reporter activity. Therefore, the mechanism of interference of the signaling crosstalk between the AhR and hypoxia pathways appears to be at least in part dependent on ARNT availability. Our results show that AhR activation and CYP1A1 expression induced by PCB 126 were significantly inhibited by hypoxia and hypoxia might therefore play an important role in PCB metabolism and toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Nuclear Orphan Receptor NR4A1 is Involved in the Apoptotic Pathway Induced by LPS and Simvastatin in RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Chan; Song, Seok Bean; Lee, Sang Kyu; Park, Sang Min; Kim, Young Sang

    2014-04-01

    Macrophage death plays a role in several physiological and inflammatory pathologies such as sepsis and arthritis. In our previous work, we showed that simvastatin triggers cell death in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells through both caspase-dependent and independent apoptotic pathways. Here, we show that the nuclear orphan receptor NR4A1 is involved in a caspase-independent apoptotic process induced by LPS and simvastatin. Simvastatin-induced NR4A1 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages and ectopic expression of a dominant-negative mutant form of NR4A1 effectively suppressed both DNA fragmentation and the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) during LPS- and simvastatin-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, apoptosis was accompanied by Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) translocation to the mitochondria. Our findings suggest that NR4A1 expression and mitochondrial translocation of Bax are related to simvastatin-induced apoptosis in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

  17. No association between the TaqI A1 RFLP of the D2 receptor gene and alcoholism in a Mexican population

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz-Fuentes, C.; Carmarena, B.; Eroza, V.

    1994-09-01

    The suggested association of the A1 allele of the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) human gene with alcoholism was studied by comparing the DRD2/TaqI genotypes of 36 healthy controls and 38 individuals who met the DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence. All subjects were unrelated, with parents and grandparents of Mexican origin. The alcoholics in our sample suffered one of the following conditions: delirium tremens (16.6%), alcohol hallucinosis (56.6%) or uncomplicated alcohol withdrawal (26.4%). Eight-eight percent of the controls carried the A1 allele. The frequency of the DRD2 A1 allele in the Mexican urban sample (pA1 = 0.61) was 2 tomore » 3-fold higher than reported in Caucasian populations from the USA and Europe, but similar to the allele frequencies found in defined Amerindian populations. There were not significant differences in the prevalence or allele frequency between alcoholics (pA1 = 0.64) and controls, regardless if the alcoholics were subtyped accordingly to severity, age of onset or positive family history. Alcoholics had higher scores than controls in the neuroticism (N) and psychoticism (P) subscales on the Eysenck personality test: alcoholics P = 6.2 {+-} 2.9, N = 16.0 {+-} 4.2 vs. controls P = 2.5 {+-} 2.3, N = 5.7 {+-} 5.1; p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively. However, no relationship between personality traits and genotypes was found. Our results do not support a consistent association between the TaqI A1 RFLP for the DRD2 gene and alcoholism.« less

  18. Expression Levels of KMT2C and SLC20A1 Identified by Information-theoretical Analysis Are Powerful Prognostic Biomarkers in Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Akimoto, Kazunori

    2017-06-01

    In general, it has been considered that estrogen receptor-positive (ER + ) breast cancer has a good prognosis and is responsive to endocrine therapy. However, one third of patients with ER + breast cancer exhibit endocrine therapy resistance, and many patients develop recurrence and die 5 to 10 years after diagnosis. In ER +  breast cancer, a major problem is to distinguish those patients most likely to develop recurrence or metastatic disease within 10 years after diagnosis from those with a sufficiently good prognosis. We downloaded the messenger RNA expression data and the clinical information for 401 patients with ER +  breast cancer from the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics. An information-theoretical approach was used to identify the prognostic factors for survival in patients with ER + breast cancer and to classify those patients according to the prognostic factors. The information-theoretical approach contributed to the identification of KMT2C and SLC20A1 as prognostic biomarkers in ER + breast cancer. We found that low KMT2C expression was associated with a poor outcome and high SLC20A1 expression was associated with a poor outcome. Both levels of KMT2C and SLC20A1 expression were significantly and strongly associated with the differentiation of survival. The 10-year survival rate for ER + patients with low KMT2C and high SLC20A1 expression was 0%. In contrast, for ER + patients with high KMT2C and low SLC20A1 expression, the 10-year survival rate was 86.78%. Our results strongly suggest that clinical examination of the expression of both KMT2C and SLC20A1 in ER + breast cancer will be very useful for the determination of prognosis and therapy. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A synthetic peptide derived from A1 module in CRD4 of human TNF receptor-1 inhibits binding and proinflammatory effect of human TNF-alpha.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yingnan; Wang, Zhaohe; Bu, Xianzhang; Tang, Shu; Mei, Zhengrong; Liu, Peiqing

    2009-06-01

    Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a proinflammatory cytokine, which has been shown to be a causative factor in rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and septic shock. Proinflammatory effect of TNF-alpha is activated mainly through human TNF receptor-1 (TNF-R1). However, the role of the fourth cystein-rich domain (CRD4) of TNF-R1 extracellular portion in the interaction of TNF-alpha with TNF-R1 is still unclear. In the present study, binding activity of TNF-alpha to TNF-R1 and protein levels of IkappaB-alpha and nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) p65 subunit in HeLa cells were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western-blot analysis. Pep 3 (LRENECVS) which was derived from the hydrophilic region of A1 module in CRD4 remarkably inhibited the binding of TNF-alpha to TNF-R1, and also reversed TNF-alpha-induced degradation of IkappaB-alpha and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB p65 subunit in HeLa cells. Our results confirmed that the hydrophilic region of A1 module in CRD4 participated in the interaction of TNF-alpha with TNF-R1, and demonstrated the potential of small-molecule TNF-alpha extracellular inhibitors targeting at A1 module in CRD4 of TNF-R1 in suppressing proinflammatory effect of TNF-alpha.

  20. Functional interaction and cross-tolerance between ethanol and Δ9-THC: possible modulation by mouse cerebellar adenosinergic A1/GABAergic-A receptors.

    PubMed

    Dar, M Saeed

    2014-08-15

    We have previously shown a functional motor interaction between ethanol and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) that involved cerebellar adenosinergic A1 and GABAergic A receptor modulation. We now report the development of cross-tolerance between intracerebellar Δ(9)-THC and intraperitoneal ethanol using ataxia as the test response in male CD-1 mice. The drugs [Δ(9)-THC (20 μg), N(6)-cyclohexyladenosine, CHA (12 ng), muscimol (20 ng)] used in the study were directly microinfused stereotaxically via guide cannulas into the cerebellum except ethanol. Δ(9)-THC, infused once daily for 5 days followed 16 h after the last infusion by acute ethanol (2g/kg) and Rotorod evaluation, virtually abolished ethanol ataxia indicating development of cross-tolerance. The cross-tolerance was also observed when the order of ethanol and Δ(9)-THC treatment was reversed, i.e., ethanol injected once daily for 5 days followed 16 h after the last ethanol injection by Δ(9)-THC infusion. The cross-tolerance appeared within 24-48 h, lasted over 72 h and was maximal in 5-day ethanol/Δ(9)-THC-treated animals. Finally, tolerance in chronic ethanol/Δ(9)-THC/-treated animals developed not only to ethanol/Δ(9)-THC-induced ataxia, respectively, but also to the ataxia potentiating effect of CHA and muscimol, indicating modulation by cerebellar adenosinergic A1 and GABAA receptors. A practical implication of these results could be that marijuana smokers may experience little or no negative effects such as ataxia following alcohol consumption. Clinically, such antagonism of ethanol-induced ataxia can be observed in marijuana users thereby encouraging more alcohol consumption and thus may represent a risk factor for the development of alcoholism in this segment of population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Hypoxia perturbs aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and CYP1A1 expression induced by PCB 126 in human skin and liver-derived cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Vorrink, Sabine U.; Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA; Severson, Paul L.

    2014-02-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an important mediator of toxic responses after exposure to xenobiotics including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Activation of AhR responsive genes requires AhR dimerization with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), a heterodimeric partner also shared by the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein. TCDD-stimulated AhR transcriptional activity can be influenced by hypoxia; however, it less well known whether hypoxia interferes with AhR transcriptional transactivation in the context of PCB-mediated AhR activation in human cells. Elucidation of this interaction is important in liver hepatocytes which extensively metabolize ingested PCBs and experience varying degreesmore » of oxygen tension during normal physiologic function. This study was designed to assess the effect of hypoxia on AhR transcriptional responses after exposure to 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126). Exposure to 1% O{sub 2} prior to PCB 126 treatment significantly inhibited CYP1A1 mRNA and protein expression in human HepG2 and HaCaT cells. CYP1A1 transcriptional activation was significantly decreased upon PCB 126 stimulation under conditions of hypoxia. Additionally, hypoxia pre-treatment reduced PCB 126 induced AhR binding to CYP1 target gene promoters. Importantly, ARNT overexpression rescued cells from the inhibitory effect of hypoxia on XRE-luciferase reporter activity. Therefore, the mechanism of interference of the signaling crosstalk between the AhR and hypoxia pathways appears to be at least in part dependent on ARNT availability. Our results show that AhR activation and CYP1A1 expression induced by PCB 126 were significantly inhibited by hypoxia and hypoxia might therefore play an important role in PCB metabolism and toxicity. - Highlights: • Significant crosstalk exists between AhR and HIF-1α signaling. • Hypoxia perturbs PCB 126 induced Ah

  2. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and genetic polymorphisms in the Ah receptor, CYP1A1 and GSTM1 affect infant birth size in Japanese subjects.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, S; Kondo, T; Sata, F; Saijo, Y; Katoh, S; Nakajima, S; Ishizuka, M; Fujita, S; Kishi, R

    2006-02-01

    Genetic susceptibility to tobacco smoke might have relation to adverse pregnancy outcomes. To estimate the effects of maternal smoking and genetic polymorphisms on infant birth weight and length, we conducted a prospective cohort study of 293 women who delivered singleton live births in Sapporo, Japan. Birth weight and length were significantly lower among infants born to continuously smoking women having the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) wild type genotype (Arg/Arg; 211 g +/- 76 g; 1.2 cm +/- 0.4 cm, p < 0.01 and p < 0.01, respectively), the CYP1A1 variant genotype (m1/m2 + m2/m2; 170 g +/- 64 g, 0.8 cm +/- 0.3 cm, p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively), or the GSTM1 null genotype (171 g +/- 58 g, 0.6 cm +/- 0.3 cm, p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). When combinations of these genotypes were considered, birth weight and length were significantly lower for infants of continuously smoking women in the AhR wild type + CYP1A1 variant group (315 g +/- 116 g; 1.7 cm +/- 0.6 cm, p < 0.01 and p < 0.01, respectively) and in the CYP1A1 variant + GSTM1 null group (237 g +/- 92 g; 1.3 cm +/- 0.5 cm, p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). These genotypes did not confer adverse effects among women who had never smoked; therefore, maternal smoking in combination with maternal AhR, CYP1A1 and GSTM1 genetic polymorphisms may adversely affect infant birth size.

  3. Presynaptic muscarinic acetylcholine autoreceptors (M1, M2 and M4 subtypes), adenosine receptors (A1 and A2A) and tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor (TrkB) modulate the developmental synapse elimination process at the neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Laura; Garcia, Neus; Hurtado, Erica; Simó, Anna; Tomàs, Marta; Lanuza, Maria A; Santafé, Manel; Tomàs, Josep

    2016-06-23

    The development of the nervous system involves an initially exuberant production of neurons that make an excessive number of synaptic contacts. The initial overproduction of synapses promotes connectivity. Hebbian competition between axons with different activities (the least active are punished) leads to the loss of roughly half of the overproduced elements and this refines connectivity and increases specificity. The neuromuscular junction is innervated by a single axon at the end of the synapse elimination process and, because of its relative simplicity, has long been used as a model for studying the general principles of synapse development. The involvement of the presynaptic muscarinic ACh autoreceptors may allow for the direct competitive interaction between nerve endings through differential activity-dependent acetylcholine release in the synaptic cleft. Then, the most active ending may directly punish the less active ones. Our previous results indicate the existence in the weakest axons on the polyinnervated neonatal NMJ of an ACh release inhibition mechanism based on mAChR coupled to protein kinase C and voltage-dependent calcium channels. We suggest that this mechanism plays a role in the elimination of redundant neonatal synapses. Here we used confocal microscopy and quantitative morphological analysis to count the number of brightly fluorescent axons per endplate in P7, P9 and P15 transgenic B6.Cg-Tg (Thy1-YFP)16 Jrs/J mice. We investigate the involvement of individual mAChR M1-, M2- and M4-subtypes in the control of axonal elimination after the Levator auris longus muscle had been exposed to agonist and antagonist in vivo. We also analysed the role of adenosine receptor subtypes (A1 and A2A) and the tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor. The data show that postnatal axonal elimination is a regulated multireceptor mechanism that guaranteed the monoinnervation of the neuromuscular synapses. The three receptor sets considered (mAChR, AR and TrkB receptors

  4. Adenosine inhibits activity of hypocretin/orexin neurons via A1 receptor in the lateral hypothalamus: a possible sleep-promoting effect

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhong-Wu; Gao, Xiao-Bing

    2006-01-01

    Neurons in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) that contain hypocretin/orexin have been established as important promoters of arousal. Deficiencies in the hypocretin/orexin system lead to narcolepsy. The inhibition of hypocretin/orexin neurons by sleep-promoting neurotransmitters has been suggested as one part of the sleep regulation machinery. Adenosine has been identified as a sleep promoter and its role in sleep regulation in the basal forebrain has been well documented. However, the effect of adenosine on arousal-promoting hypocretin/orexin neurons has not been addressed, despite recent evidence that immunocytochemical visualization of adenosine receptors was detected in these neurons. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that adenosine inhibits the activity of hypocretin/orexin neurons by using electrophysiological methods in brain slices from mice expressing green fluorescent protein in hypocretin/orexin neurons. We found that adenosine significantly attenuated the frequency of action potentials without a change in membrane potential in hypocretin/orexin neurons. The adenosine-mediated inhibition is due to depression of excitatory synaptic transmission to hypocretin/orexin neurons, since adenosine depresses the amplitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic potential and the frequency of spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents in these neurons. At the cell body of the hypocretin/orexin neurons, adenosine inhibits voltage-dependent calcium currents without the induction of GIRK current. The inhibitory effect of adenosine is dose-dependent, pertussis toxin-sensitive and mediated via A1 receptors. In summary, our data suggest that in addition to its effect in the basal forebrain, adenosine exerts its sleep-promoting effect in the LH via inhibition of hypocretin/orexin neurons. PMID:17093123

  5. Carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine, but not eslicarbazepine, enhance excitatory synaptic transmission onto hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells through an antagonist action at adenosine A1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Booker, Sam A; Pires, Nuno; Cobb, Stuart; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício; Vida, Imre

    2015-06-01

    This study assessed the anticonvulsant and seizure generation effects of carbamazepine (CBZ), oxcarbazepine (OXC) and eslicarbazepine (S-Lic) in wild-type mice. Electrophysiological recordings were made to discriminate potential cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying anti- and pro-epileptic actions. The anticonvulsant and pro-convulsant effects were evaluated in the MES, the 6-Hz and the Irwin tests. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were used to investigate the effects on fast excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in hippocampal area CA1. The safety window for CBZ, OXC and eslicarbazepine (ED50 value against the MES test and the dose that produces grade 5 convulsions in all mice), was 6.3, 6.0 and 12.5, respectively. At high concentrations the three drugs reduced synaptic transmission. CBZ and OXC enhanced excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) at low, therapeutically-relevant concentrations. These effects were associated with no change in inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) resulting in altered balance between excitation and inhibition. S-Lic had no effect on EPSC or IPSC amplitudes over the same concentration range. The CBZ mediated enhancement of EPSCs was blocked by DPCPX, a selective antagonist, and occluded by CCPA, a selective agonist of the adenosine A1 receptor. Furthermore, reduction of endogenous adenosine by application of the enzyme adenosine deaminase also abolished the CBZ- and OXC-induced increase of EPSCs, indicating that the two drugs act as antagonists at native adenosine receptors. In conclusion, CBZ and OXC possess pro-epileptic actions at clinically-relevant concentrations through the enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission. S-Lic by comparison has no such effect on synaptic transmission, explaining its lack of seizure exacerbation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhanced Long-Term and Impaired Short-Term Spatial Memory in GluA1 AMPA Receptor Subunit Knockout Mice: Evidence for a Dual-Process Memory Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, David J.; Good, Mark A.; Skelton, Kathryn; Sprengel, Rolf; Seeburg, Peter H.; Rawlins, J. Nicholas P.; Bannerman, David M.

    2009-01-01

    The GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit is a key mediator of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and is especially important for a rapidly-induced, short-lasting form of potentiation. GluA1 gene deletion impairs hippocampus-dependent, spatial working memory, but spares hippocampus-dependent spatial reference memory. These findings may reflect the necessity of…

  7. Modulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release in skeletal muscle expressing ryanodine receptor impaired in regulation by calmodulin and S100A1

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Naohiro; Prosser, Benjamin L.; Ghassemi, Farshid; Xu, Le; Pasek, Daniel A.; Eu, Jerry P.; Hernández-Ochoa, Erick O.; Cannon, Brian R.; Wilder, Paul T.; Lovering, Richard M.; Weber, David; Melzer, Werner; Schneider, Martin F.

    2011-01-01

    In vitro, calmodulin (CaM) and S100A1 activate the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor ion channel (RyR1) at submicromolar Ca2+ concentrations, whereas at micromolar Ca2+ concentrations, CaM inhibits RyR1. One amino acid substitution (RyR1-L3625D) has previously been demonstrated to impair CaM binding and regulation of RyR1. Here we show that the RyR1-L3625D substitution also abolishes S100A1 binding. To determine the physiological relevance of these findings, mutant mice were generated with the RyR1-L3625D substitution in exon 74, which encodes the CaM and S100A1 binding domain of RyR1. Homozygous mutant mice (Ryr1D/D) were viable and appeared normal. However, single RyR1 channel recordings from Ryr1D/D mice exhibited impaired activation by CaM and S100A1 and impaired CaCaM inhibition. Isolated flexor digitorum brevis muscle fibers from Ryr1D/D mice had depressed Ca2+ transients when stimulated by a single action potential. However, during repetitive stimulation, the mutant fibers demonstrated greater relative summation of the Ca2+ transients. Consistently, in vivo stimulation of tibialis anterior muscles in Ryr1D/D mice demonstrated reduced twitch force in response to a single action potential, but greater summation of force during high-frequency stimulation. During repetitive stimulation, Ryr1D/D fibers exhibited slowed inactivation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release flux, consistent with increased summation of the Ca2+ transient and contractile force. Peak Ca2+ release flux was suppressed at all voltages in voltage-clamped Ryr1D/D fibers. The results suggest that the RyR1-L3625D mutation removes both an early activating effect of S100A1 and CaM and delayed suppressing effect of CaCaM on RyR1 Ca2+ release, providing new insights into CaM and S100A1 regulation of skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling. PMID:21289290

  8. CORM-A1 prevents blood-brain barrier dysfunction caused by ionotropic glutamate receptor-mediated endothelial oxidative stress and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Basuroy, Shyamali; Leffler, Charles W; Parfenova, Helena

    2013-06-01

    In cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (CMVEC) of newborn pigs, glutamate at excitotoxic concentrations (mM) causes apoptosis mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Carbon monoxide (CO) produced by CMVEC or delivered by a CO-releasing molecule, CORM-A1, has antioxidant properties. We tested the hypothesis that CORM-A1 prevents cerebrovascular endothelial barrier dysfunction caused by glutamate excitotoxicity. First, we identified the glutamate receptors (GluRs) and enzymatic sources of ROS involved in the mechanism of endothelial apoptosis. In glutamate-exposed CMVEC, ROS formation and apoptosis were blocked by rotenone, 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA), and antimycin, indicating that mitochondrial complexes I, II, and III are the major sources of oxidative stress. Agonists of ionotropic GluRs (iGluRs) N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), cis-ACPD, AMPA, and kainate increased ROS production and apoptosis, whereas iGluR antagonists exhibited antiapoptotic properties, suggesting that iGluRs mediate glutamate-induced endothelial apoptosis. The functional consequences of endothelial injury were tested in the model of blood-brain barrier (BBB) composed of CMVEC monolayer on semipermeable membranes. Glutamate and iGluR agonists reduced transendothelial electrical resistance and increased endothelial paracellular permeability to 3-kDa dextran. CORM-A1 exhibited potent antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties in CMVEC and completely prevented BBB dysfunction caused by glutamate and iGluR agonists. Overall, the endothelial component of the BBB is a cellular target for excitotoxic glutamate that, via a mechanism involving a iGluR-mediated activation of mitochondrial ROS production and apoptosis, leads to BBB opening that may be prevented by the antioxidant and antiapoptotic actions of CORMs. Antioxidant CORMs therapy may help preserve BBB functional integrity in neonatal cerebrovascular disease.

  9. The Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Germinated Brown Rice Involves the Upregulation of the Apolipoprotein A1 and Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Genes

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Maznah; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Ithnin, Hairuszah

    2013-01-01

    Germinated brown rice (GBR) is rich in bioactive compounds, which confer GBR with many functional properties. Evidence of its hypocholesterolemic effects is emerging, but the exact mechanisms of action and bioactive compounds involved have not been fully documented. Using type 2 diabetic rats, we studied the effects of white rice, GBR, and brown rice (BR) on lipid profile and on the regulation of selected genes involved in cholesterol metabolism. Our results showed that the upregulation of apolipoprotein A1 and low-density lipoprotein receptor genes was involved in the hypocholesterolemic effects of GBR. Additionally, in vitro studies using HEPG2 cells showed that acylated steryl glycoside, gamma amino butyric acid, and oryzanol and phenolic extracts of GBR contribute to the nutrigenomic regulation of these genes. Transcriptional and nontranscriptional mechanisms are likely involved in the overall hypocholesterolemic effects of GBR suggesting that it may have an impact on the prevention and/or management of hypercholesterolemia due to a wide variety of metabolic perturbations. However, there is need to conduct long-term clinical trials to determine the clinical relevance of the hypocholesterolemic effects of GBR determined through animal studies. PMID:23671850

  10. Adenosine A₁ and A₂A receptor-mediated modulation of acetylcholine release in the mice neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Neus; Priego, Mercedes; Obis, Teresa; Santafe, Manel M; Tomàs, Marta; Besalduch, Nuria; Lanuza, M Angel; Tomàs, Josep

    2013-07-01

    Immunocytochemistry shows that purinergic receptors (P1Rs) type A1 and A2A (A1 R and A2 A R, respectively) are present in the nerve endings at the P6 and P30 Levator auris longus (LAL) mouse neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). As described elsewhere, 25 μm adenosine reduces (50%) acetylcholine release in high Mg(2+) or d-tubocurarine paralysed muscle. We hypothesize that in more preserved neurotransmission machinery conditions (blocking the voltage-dependent sodium channel of the muscle cells with μ-conotoxin GIIIB) the physiological role of the P1Rs in the NMJ must be better observed. We found that the presence of a non-selective P1R agonist (adenosine) or antagonist (8-SPT) or selective modulators of A1 R or A2 A R subtypes (CCPA and DPCPX, or CGS-21680 and SCH-58261, respectively) does not result in any changes in the evoked release. However, P1Rs seem to be involved in spontaneous release (miniature endplate potentials MEPPs) because MEPP frequency is increased by non-selective block but decreased by non-selective stimulation, with A1 Rs playing the main role. We assayed the role of P1Rs in presynaptic short-term plasticity during imposed synaptic activity (40 Hz for 2 min of supramaximal stimuli). Depression is reduced by micromolar adenosine but increased by blocking P1Rs with 8-SPT. Synaptic depression is not affected by the presence of selective A1 R and A2 A R modulators, which suggests that both receptors need to collaborate. Thus, A1 R and A2 A R might have no real effect on neuromuscular transmission in resting conditions. However, these receptors can conserve resources by limiting spontaneous quantal leak of acetylcholine and may protect synaptic function by reducing the magnitude of depression during repetitive activity. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Pregnane X receptor regulates the AhR/Cyp1A1 pathway and protects liver cells from benzo-[α]-pyrene-induced DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hongmei; Gu, Xinsheng; Chen, Jingshu; Xie, Ying; Ke, Sui; Wu, Jing; Golovko, Andrei; Morpurgo, Benjamin; Yan, Chunhong; Phillips, Timothy D; Xie, Wen; Luo, Jianyuan; Zhou, Zhijun; Tian, Yanan

    2017-06-05

    Pregnane X receptor (PXR) plays an important role in protecting cells from mutagenic DNA damages induced by endogenous and exogenous toxicants. This protective function is often attributed to the PXR-regulated metabolic detoxification. Here we report a novel potential mechanism that PXR reduces benzo-[α]-pyrene(BaP)-induced DNA damage through inhibiting the transcriptional activity of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) which plays a pivotal role in the bioactivation of BaP. We have utilized three well-characterized cell lines, i.e. Hepa1c1c7, AhR +/+; Bpr lacks AhR obligatory partner ARNT; Tao, lacks AhR, to analyze pivotal role of AhR/ARNT complex in mediating the BaP-induced DNA damages using comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis). We found that PXR activation could significantly inhibit BaP-induced DNA damage in the HepG2 cells as well as mouse hepatocytes. Using PXR-null and wild type mouse hepatocytes we showed that PXR activation by pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN) significantly inhibited BaP-induced DNA damage and this protective effect was abolished in PXR-null hepatocytes. Mechanistically, PXR activation inhibited expression of AhR-target genes for CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and CYP1A2 that are required for BaP biotransformation in cultured liver cells, or in the livers of C57BL/6J mice. Using an AhR-responsive reporter assay as well as chromatin immunoprecipitation assay we found that PXR activation transcriptionally represses AhR-regulated gene expression. Furthermore, we found that PXR directly bound AhR at its DNA-binding domain, and this association may play a role in preventing of the AhR from binding to its target genes as shown in the ChIP assay. Taken together, our study has revealed a novel mechanism by which PXR protects liver cells from BaP-induced DNA damage through inhibiting the BaP biotransformation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Three cysteine residues of SLC52A1, a receptor for the porcine endogenous retrovirus-A (PERV-A), play a critical role in cell surface expression and infectivity.

    PubMed

    Colon-Moran, Winston; Argaw, Takele; Wilson, Carolyn A

    2017-07-01

    Porcine endogenous retrovirus-A (PERV-A), a gammaretrovirus, infects human cells in vitro, thus raising the potential risk of cross-species transmission in xenotransplantation. Two members of the solute carrier family 52 (SLC52A1 and SLC52A2) are PERV-A receptors. Site-directed mutagenesis of the cDNA encoding SLC52A1 identified that only one of two putative glycosylation signals is occupied by glycans. In addition, we showed that glycosylation of SLC52A1 is not necessary for PERV-A receptor function. We also identified that at a minimum, three cysteine residues are sufficient for SLC52A1 cell surface expression. Mutation of cysteine at position 365 and either of the two cysteine residues in the C-terminal tail at positions 442 or 446 reduced SLC52A1 surface expression and PERV-A infection suggesting that these residues may contribute to overall structural stability and receptor function. Understanding interactions between PERV-A and its cellular receptor may provide novel strategies to prevent zoonotic infection in the setting of xenotransplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Analgesic effect of paeoniflorin in rats with neonatal maternal separation-induced visceral hyperalgesia is mediated through adenosine A(1) receptor by inhibiting the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Hong-Li; Li, Zhi; Zhang, Hong-Qi; Xu, Hong-Xi; Sung, Joseph J Y; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2009-11-01

    Paeoniflorin (PF), a chief active ingredient in the root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall (family Ranunculaceae), is effective in relieving colorectal distention (CRD)-induced visceral pain in rats with visceral hyperalgesia induced by neonatal maternal separation (NMS). This study aimed at exploring the underlying mechanisms of PF's analgesic effect on CRD-evoked nociceptive signaling in the central nervous system (CNS) and investigating whether the adenosine A(1) receptor is involved in PF's anti-nociception. CRD-induced visceral pain as well as phosphorylated-extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (p-ERK) and phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB) expression in the CNS structures of NMS rats were suppressed by NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801) and ERK phosphorylation inhibitor U0126. PF could similarly inhibit CRD-evoked p-ERK and c-Fos expression in laminae I-II of the lumbosacral dorsal horn and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). PF could also reverse the CRD-evoked increased glutamate concentration by CRD as shown by dynamic microdialysis monitoring in ACC, whereas, DPCPX, an antagonist of adenosine A(1) receptor, significantly blocked the analgesic effect of PF and PF's inhibition on CRD-induced p-ERK and p-CREB expression. These results suggest that PF's analgesic effect is possibly mediated by adenosine A(1) receptor by inhibiting CRD-evoked glutamate release and the NMDA receptor dependent ERK signaling.

  14. Intracellular ATP influences synaptic plasticity in area CA1 of rat hippocampus via metabolism to adenosine and activity-dependent activation of adenosine A1 receptors.

    PubMed

    zur Nedden, Stephanie; Hawley, Simon; Pentland, Naomi; Hardie, D Grahame; Doney, Alexander S; Frenguelli, Bruno G

    2011-04-20

    The extent to which brain slices reflect the energetic status of the in vivo brain has been a subject of debate. We addressed this issue to investigate the recovery of energetic parameters and adenine nucleotides in rat hippocampal slices and the influence this has on synaptic transmission and plasticity. We show that, although adenine nucleotide levels recover appreciably within 10 min of incubation, it takes 3 h for a full recovery of the energy charge (to ≥ 0.93) and that incubation of brain slices at 34°C results in a significantly higher ATP/AMP ratio and a threefold lower activity of AMP-activated protein kinase compared with slices incubated at room temperature. Supplementation of artificial CSF with d-ribose and adenine (Rib/Ade) increased the total adenine nucleotide pool of brain slices, which, when corrected for the influence of the dead cut edges, closely approached in vivo values. Rib/Ade did not affect basal synaptic transmission or paired-pulse facilitation but did inhibit long-term potentiation (LTP) induced by tetanic or weak theta-burst stimulation. This decrease in LTP was reversed by strong theta-burst stimulation or antagonizing the inhibitory adenosine A(1) receptor suggesting that the elevated tissue ATP levels had resulted in greater activity-dependent adenosine release during LTP induction. This was confirmed by direct measurement of adenosine release with adenosine biosensors. These observations provide new insight into the recovery of adenine nucleotides after slice preparation, the sources of loss of such compounds in brain slices, the means by which to restore them, and the functional consequences of doing so.

  15. Adenosine A1 receptor activation increases myocardial protein S-nitrosothiols and elicits protection from ischemia-reperfusion injury in male and female hearts

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Qin; Casin, Kevin M.; Mackowski, Nathan; Murphy, Elizabeth; Steenbergen, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in cardioprotection, and recent work from our group and others has implicated protein S-nitrosylation (SNO) as a critical component of NO-mediated protection in different models, including ischemic pre- and post-conditioning and sex-dependent cardioprotection. However, studies have yet to examine whether protein SNO levels are similarly increased with pharmacologic preconditioning in male and female hearts, and whether an increase in protein SNO levels, which is protective in male hearts, is sufficient to increase baseline protection in female hearts. Therefore, we pharmacologically preconditioned male and female hearts with the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclohexyl adenosine (CHA). CHA administration prior to ischemia significantly improved functional recovery in both male and female hearts compared to baseline in a Langendorff-perfused heart model of ischemia-reperfusion injury (% of preischemic function ± SE: male baseline: 37.5±3.4% vs. male CHA: 55.3±3.2%; female baseline: 61.4±5.7% vs. female CHA: 76.0±6.2%). In a separate set of hearts, we found that CHA increased p-Akt and p-eNOS levels. We also used SNO-resin-assisted capture with LC-MS/MS to identify SNO proteins in male and female hearts, and determined that CHA perfusion induced a modest increase in protein SNO levels in both male (11.4%) and female (12.3%) hearts compared to baseline. These findings support a potential role for protein SNO in a model of pharmacologic preconditioning, and provide evidence to suggest that a modest increase in protein SNO levels is sufficient to protect both male and female hearts from ischemic injury. In addition, a number of the SNO proteins identified with CHA treatment were also observed with other forms of cardioprotective stimuli in prior studies, further supporting a role for protein SNO in cardioprotection. PMID:28493997

  16. Adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, L-97-1, improves survival and protects the kidney in a rat model of cecal ligation and puncture induced sepsis☆

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Constance N.; Vance, Constance O.; Lechner, Melissa G.; Matuschak, George M.; Lechner, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Previously it was reported that combining antibiotics with L-97-1, an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, significantly improves survival and blocks acute lung injury induced by Yersinia pestis CO 99 in a rat model of pneumonic plague. In the current studies using a conscious rat model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) sepsis, L-97-1 was administered in daily intravenous infusions in combination with antibiotics to simulate the use of L-97-1 as an anti-sepsis therapeutic in the clinical setting. In these studies, when administered at 12 hours (h) following CLP, in combination with broad spectrum antibiotics, ceftriaxone and clindamycin, L-97-1 improves 7 day (d) survival [25%, 35%, and 75%, respectively for L-97-1 (10 mg/kg/h, 12.5 mg/kg/h, and 15 mg/kg/h) versus (vs.) 25% for antibiotics alone] in a dose-dependent manner. The addition of L-97-1, 15 mg/kg/h to antibiotics significantly increased 7 d survival following CLP compared to therapy with either antibiotics alone (P = 0.002) or L-97-1 at 15 mg/kg/h alone (P < 0.001) and was not significantly different than survival in sham CLP animals (Log-rank (Mantel-Cox) test with Bonferroni’s correction for multiple comparisons). Moreover, in these studies, in combination with antibiotics L-97-1 dose-dependently protects the kidney, significantly improving renal function at 24 h post CLP at 10 mg/kg/h (P < 0.001), 12.5 mg/kg/h (P < 0.0001), and 15 mg/kg/h (P < 0.0001) vs. antibiotics alone (ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post-hoc test for pair-wise comparisons). The results of these studies support efficacy for L-97-1 as an anti-sepsis therapeutic. PMID:25041842

  17. Ligand Recognition by A-Class Eph Receptors: Crystal Structures of the EphA2 Ligand-Binding Domain and the EphA2/ephrin-A1 Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Himanen, J.; Goldgur, Y; Miao, H

    2009-01-01

    Ephrin (Eph) receptor tyrosine kinases fall into two subclasses (A and B) according to preferences for their ephrin ligands. All published structural studies of Eph receptor/ephrin complexes involve B-class receptors. Here, we present the crystal structures of an A-class complex between EphA2 and ephrin-A1 and of unbound EphA2. Although these structures are similar overall to their B-class counterparts, they reveal important differences that define subclass specificity. The structures suggest that the A-class Eph receptor/ephrin interactions involve smaller rearrangements in the interacting partners, better described by a 'lock-and-key'-type binding mechanism, in contrast to the 'induced fit' mechanism defining the B-class molecules.more » This model is supported by structure-based mutagenesis and by differential requirements for ligand oligomerization by the two subclasses in cell-based Eph receptor activation assays. Finally, the structure of the unligated receptor reveals a homodimer assembly that might represent EphA2-specific homotypic cell adhesion interactions.« less

  18. Comparative Expression Analysis of Cytochrome P450 1A1, Cytochrome P450 1B1 and Nuclear Receptors in the Female Genital and Colorectal Tissues of Human and Pigtailed Macaque

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Minlu; Zhou, Tian; Pearlman, Andrew P; Paton, Dorothy L; Rohan, Lisa C

    2017-01-01

    Summary This manuscript summarizes our recent progress in examine the CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 as well as a number of nuclear receptors in the female genital and colorectal tissues of human and pigtailed macaque. Understanding the nuclear receptor mediated regulation of CYP1A1 and 1B1 expression in these tissues is necessary for identifying cancer risk factors and developing CYP1A1/1B1-targeted anti-cancer therapeutics. However, there is a lack of systematic and comparative analysis of the expression profile of CYP1A1, 1B1 and NRs in the female genital and colorectal tissues of human and clinically relevant animal models. The current study aims to fill this gap. We found CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and a number of nuclear receptors were expressed in the female genital and colorectal tissues of human and macaque. However, the mRNA level and protein localization of these CYP enzymes and NRs depended on the type of tissue examined. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1B1 activate hormonal and environmental procarcinogens, and are associated with carcinogenesis in female genital and colorectal tissues. Understanding the nuclear receptor (NR) mediated regulation of CYP expression in these tissues is necessary for identifying cancer risk factors and developing CYP1A1/1B1-targeted anti-cancer therapeutics. The study aims to analyze the expression profile of CYP1A1, 1B1 and NRs in the female genital and colorectal tissues of human and pigtailed macaques. We found that compared to the liver, human CYP1A1 mRNA level in the genital and colorectal tissues was significantly lower, while the CYP1B1 level was significantly higher. CYP1A1 protein was mainly localized in the plasma membrane of the uterine and endocervical epithelial cells. The CYP1B1 protein was concentrated in the nucleus of genital and colorectal tissues. Fourteen NRs in the genital tract and 12 NRs in colorectal tissue were expressed at levels similar to or higher than the liver. The expression and localization of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and

  19. Comparative Expression Analysis of Cytochrome P450 1A1, Cytochrome P450 1B1 and Nuclear Receptors in the Female Genital and Colorectal Tissues of Human and Pigtailed Macaque.

    PubMed

    Hu, Minlu; Zhou, Tian; Pearlman, Andrew P; Paton, Dorothy L; Rohan, Lisa C

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes our recent progress in examine the CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 as well as a number of nuclear receptors in the female genital and colorectal tissues of human and pigtailed macaque. Understanding the nuclear receptor mediated regulation of CYP1A1 and 1B1 expression in these tissues is necessary for identifying cancer risk factors and developing CYP1A1/1B1-targeted anti-cancer therapeutics. However, there is a lack of systematic and comparative analysis of the expression profile of CYP1A1, 1B1 and NRs in the female genital and colorectal tissues of human and clinically relevant animal models. The current study aims to fill this gap. We found CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and a number of nuclear receptors were expressed in the female genital and colorectal tissues of human and macaque. However, the mRNA level and protein localization of these CYP enzymes and NRs depended on the type of tissue examined. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1B1 activate hormonal and environmental procarcinogens, and are associated with carcinogenesis in female genital and colorectal tissues. Understanding the nuclear receptor (NR) mediated regulation of CYP expression in these tissues is necessary for identifying cancer risk factors and developing CYP1A1/1B1-targeted anti-cancer therapeutics. The study aims to analyze the expression profile of CYP1A1, 1B1 and NRs in the female genital and colorectal tissues of human and pigtailed macaques. We found that compared to the liver, human CYP1A1 mRNA level in the genital and colorectal tissues was significantly lower, while the CYP1B1 level was significantly higher. CYP1A1 protein was mainly localized in the plasma membrane of the uterine and endocervical epithelial cells. The CYP1B1 protein was concentrated in the nucleus of genital and colorectal tissues. Fourteen NRs in the genital tract and 12 NRs in colorectal tissue were expressed at levels similar to or higher than the liver. The expression and localization of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and NRs in

  20. Role of transglutaminase 2 in A1 adenosine receptor- and β2-adrenoceptor-mediated pharmacological pre- and post-conditioning against hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced cell death in H9c2 cells.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Falguni S; Nelson, Carl P; Dickenson, John M

    2018-01-15

    Pharmacologically-induced pre- and post-conditioning represent attractive therapeutic strategies to reduce ischaemia/reperfusion injury during cardiac surgery and following myocardial infarction. We have previously reported that transglutaminase 2 (TG2) activity is modulated by the A 1 adenosine receptor and β 2 -adrenoceptor in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. The primary aim of this study was to determine the role of TG2 in A 1 adenosine receptor and β 2 -adrenoceptor-induced pharmacological pre- and post-conditioning in the H9c2 cells. H9c2 cells were exposed to 8h hypoxia (1% O 2 ) followed by 18h reoxygenation, after which cell viability was assessed by monitoring mitochondrial reduction of MTT, lactate dehydrogenase release and caspase-3 activation. N 6 -cyclopentyladenosine (CPA; A 1 adenosine receptor agonist), formoterol (β 2 -adrenoceptor agonist) or isoprenaline (non-selective β-adrenoceptor agonist) were added before hypoxia/reoxygenation (pre-conditioning) or at the start of reoxygenation following hypoxia (post-conditioning). Pharmacological pre- and post-conditioning with CPA and isoprenaline significantly reduced hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced cell death. In contrast, formoterol did not elicit protection. Pre-treatment with pertussis toxin (G i/o -protein inhibitor), DPCPX (A 1 adenosine receptor antagonist) or TG2 inhibitors (Z-DON and R283) attenuated the A 1 adenosine receptor-induced pharmacological pre- and post-conditioning. Similarly, pertussis toxin, ICI 118,551 (β 2 -adrenoceptor antagonist) or TG2 inhibition attenuated the isoprenaline-induced cell survival. Knockdown of TG2 using small interfering RNA (siRNA) attenuated CPA and isoprenaline-induced pharmacological pre- and post-conditioning. Finally, proteomic analysis following isoprenaline treatment identified known (e.g. protein S100-A6) and novel (e.g. adenine phosphoribosyltransferase) protein substrates for TG2. These results have shown that A 1 adenosine receptor and β 2 -adrenoceptor

  1. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in CETP, SLC46A1, SLC19A1, CD36, BCMO1, APOA5, and ABCA1 are significant predictors of plasma HDL in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In a marker-trait association study we estimated the statistical significance of 65 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 23 candidate genes on HDL levels of two independent Caucasian populations. Each population consisted of men and women and their HDL levels were adjusted for gender and body weight. We used a linear regression model. Selected genes corresponded to folate metabolism, vitamins B-12, A, and E, and cholesterol pathways or lipid metabolism. Methods Extracted DNA from both the Sacramento and Beltsville populations was analyzed using an allele discrimination assay with a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry platform. The adjusted phenotype, y, was HDL levels adjusted for gender and body weight only statistical analyses were performed using the genotype association and regression modules from the SNP Variation Suite v7. Results Statistically significant SNP (where P values were adjusted for false discovery rate) included: CETP (rs7499892 and rs5882); SLC46A1 (rs37514694; rs739439); SLC19A1 (rs3788199); CD36 (rs3211956); BCMO1 (rs6564851), APOA5 (rs662799), and ABCA1 (rs4149267). Many prior association trends of the SNP with HDL were replicated in our cross-validation study. Significantly, the association of SNP in folate transporters (SLC46A1 rs37514694 and rs739439; SLC19A1 rs3788199) with HDL was identified in our study. Conclusions Given recent literature on the role of niacin in the biogenesis of HDL, focus on status and metabolism of B-vitamins and metabolites of eccentric cleavage of β-carotene with lipid metabolism is exciting for future study. PMID:23656756

  2. Reduced adiponectin expression after high-fat diet is associated with selective up-regulation of ALDH1A1 and further retinoic acid receptor signaling in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Landrier, Jean-Francois; Kasiri, Elnaz; Karkeni, Esma; Mihály, Johanna; Béke, Gabriella; Weiss, Kathrin; Lucas, Renata; Aydemir, Gamze; Salles, Jérome; Walrand, Stéphane; de Lera, Angel R.; Rühl, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived adipokine with potent antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antiatherogenic activity. Long-term, high-fat diet results in gain of body weight, adiposity, further inflammatory-based cardiovascular diseases, and reduced adiponectin secretion. Vitamin A derivatives/retinoids are involved in several of these processes, which mainly take place in white adipose tissue (WAT). In this study, we examined adiponectin expression as a function of dietary high-fat and high–vitamin A conditions in mice. A decrease of adiponectin expression in addition to an up-regulation of aldehyde dehydrogenase A1 (ALDH1A1), retinoid signaling, and retinoic acid response element signaling was selectively observed in WAT of mice fed a normal–vitamin A, high-fat diet. Reduced adiponectin expression in WAT was also observed in mice fed a high–vitamin A diet. Adipocyte cell culture revealed that endogenous and synthetic retinoic acid receptor (RAR)α- and RARγ-selective agonists, as well as a synthetic retinoid X receptor agonist, efficiently reduced adiponectin expression, whereas ALDH1A1 expression only increased with RAR agonists. We conclude that reduced adiponectin expression under high-fat dietary conditions is dependent on 1) increased ALDH1A1 expression in adipocytes, which does not increase all-trans-retinoic acid levels; 2) further RAR ligand–induced, WAT-selective, increased retinoic acid response element–mediated signaling; and 3) RAR ligand–dependent reduction of adiponectin expression.—Landrier, J.-F., Kasiri, E., Karkeni, E., Mihály, J., Béke, G., Weiss, K., Lucas, R., Aydemir, G., Salles, J., Walrand, S., de Lera, A. R., Rühl, R. Reduced adiponectin expression after high-fat diet is associated with selective up-regulation of ALDH1A1 and further retinoic acid receptor signaling in adipose tissue. PMID:27729412

  3. Selected variants of the steroid-5-alpha-reductase isoforms SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 and the sex steroid hormone receptors ESR1, ESR2 and PGR: no association with female pattern hair loss identified.

    PubMed

    Redler, Silke; Tazi-Ahnini, Rachid; Drichel, Dmitriy; Birch, Mary P; Brockschmidt, Felix F; Dobson, Kathy; Giehl, Kathrin A; Refke, Melanie; Kluck, Nadine; Kruse, Roland; Lutz, Gerhard; Wolff, Hans; Böhm, Markus; Becker, Tim; Nöthen, Markus M; Betz, Regina C; Messenger, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a common disorder with a complex mode of inheritance. Although understanding of its etiopathogenesis is incomplete, an interaction between genetic and hormonal factors is assumed to be important. The involvement of an androgen-dependent pathway and sex steroid hormones is the most likely hypothesis. We therefore selected a total of 21 variants from the steroid-5-alpha-reductase isoforms SRD5A1 and SRD5A2, the sex steroid hormone receptors ESR1, ESR2 (oestrogen receptor) and PGR (progesterone receptor) and genotyped these in a case-control sample of 198 patients (145 UK; 53 German patients) and 329 controls (179 UK; 150 German). None of these variants showed any significant association, either in the overall UK and German samples or in the subgroup analyses. In summary, the present results, while based on a limited selection of gene variants, do not point to the involvement of SRD5A1, SRD5A2, ESR1, ESR2 or PGR in FPHL. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. The orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 attenuates oxidative stress-induced β cells apoptosis via up-regulation of glutathione peroxidase 1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yingfeng; Xie, Fangyu; Qin, Dandan; Zong, Chen; Han, Feng; Pu, Zeqing; Liu, Dong; Li, Xia; Zhang, Yuchao; Liu, Yuantao; Wang, Xiangdong

    2018-06-15

    Our previous study showed that NR4A1 protects against oxidative stress-induced cell apoptosis. However, the targets downstream of NR4A1 are incompletely known. Glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) is the most common antioxidant enzyme in the glutathione peroxidase class. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether GPX1 is a mediator of the protective effects of NR4A1 in pancreatic β cells. A pancreatic β cell line, MIN6, was used to generate NR4A1 over-expression cell line. GPX1 expression and GPX1 promoter trans-activation in these cells was determined. These cells were then treated with H 2 O 2 , and the active caspase3 level was determined. NR4A1 over-expression in MIN6 cells resulted in increased GPX1 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Dual luciferase assay showed that NR4A1 over-expression was able to enhance the trans-activation of GPX1 promoter, and the critical regulatory elements were narrowed down between 0 to -2000 bp in GPX1 promoter with a putative NR4A1 binding site (-273 to -268). ChIP assays demonstrated that NR4A1 physically associates with the GPX1 promoter. Over-expression of GPX1 reduced the active level of Caspase3 after H 2 O 2 treatment. NR4A1 increases the expression of GPX1 by enhancing the trans-activation of GPX1 promoter through binding to the putative binding site on GPX1 promoter. NR4A1 potentially protects pancreatic β cells against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by increasing GPX1 expression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. ABA Renewal Involves Enhancements in Both GluA2-Lacking AMPA Receptor Activity and GluA1 Phosphorylation in the Lateral Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sungmo; Kim, Jihye; An, Bobae; Lee, Hyun Woo; Lee, Seungbok; Kim, Hyun; Lee, Justin C.; Lee, Sukwon; Choi, Sukwoo

    2014-01-01

    Fear renewal, the context-specific relapse of fear following fear extinction, is a leading animal model of post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) and fear-related disorders. Although fear extinction can diminish fear responses, this effect is restricted to the context where the extinction is carried out, and the extinguished fear strongly relapses when assessed in the original acquisition context (ABA renewal) or in a context distinct from the conditioning and extinction contexts (ABC renewal). We have previously identified Ser831 phosphorylation of GluA1 subunit in the lateral amygdala (LA) as a key molecular mechanism for ABC renewal. However, molecular mechanisms underlying ABA renewal remain to be elucidated. Here, we found that both the excitatory synaptic efficacy and GluA2-lacking AMPAR activity at thalamic input synapses onto the LA (T-LA synapses) were enhanced upon ABA renewal. GluA2-lacking AMPAR activity was also increased during low-threshold potentiation, a potential cellular substrate of renewal, at T-LA synapses. The microinjection of 1-naphtylacetyl-spermine (NASPM), a selective blocker of GluA2-lacking AMPARs, into the LA attenuated ABA renewal, suggesting a critical role of GluA2-lacking AMPARs in ABA renewal. We also found that Ser831 phosphorylation of GluA1 in the LA was increased upon ABA renewal. We developed a short peptide mimicking the Ser831-containing C-tail region of GluA1, which can be phosphorylated upon renewal (GluA1S); thus, the phosphorylated GluA1S may compete with Ser831-phosphorylated GluA1. This GluA1S peptide blocked the low-threshold potentiation when dialyzed into a recorded neuron. The microinjection of a cell-permeable form of GluA1S peptide into the LA attenuated ABA renewal. In support of the GluA1S experiments, a GluA1D peptide (in which the serine at 831 is replaced with a phosphomimetic amino acid, aspartate) attenuated ABA renewal when microinjected into the LA. These findings suggest that enhancements in both the

  6. ABA renewal involves enhancements in both GluA2-lacking AMPA receptor activity and GluA1 phosphorylation in the lateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyungjoon; Song, Beomjong; Kim, Jeongyeon; Hong, Ingie; Song, Sangho; Lee, Junuk; Park, Sungmo; Kim, Jihye; An, Bobae; Lee, Hyun Woo; Lee, Seungbok; Kim, Hyun; Lee, Justin C; Lee, Sukwon; Choi, Sukwoo

    2014-01-01

    Fear renewal, the context-specific relapse of fear following fear extinction, is a leading animal model of post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) and fear-related disorders. Although fear extinction can diminish fear responses, this effect is restricted to the context where the extinction is carried out, and the extinguished fear strongly relapses when assessed in the original acquisition context (ABA renewal) or in a context distinct from the conditioning and extinction contexts (ABC renewal). We have previously identified Ser831 phosphorylation of GluA1 subunit in the lateral amygdala (LA) as a key molecular mechanism for ABC renewal. However, molecular mechanisms underlying ABA renewal remain to be elucidated. Here, we found that both the excitatory synaptic efficacy and GluA2-lacking AMPAR activity at thalamic input synapses onto the LA (T-LA synapses) were enhanced upon ABA renewal. GluA2-lacking AMPAR activity was also increased during low-threshold potentiation, a potential cellular substrate of renewal, at T-LA synapses. The microinjection of 1-naphtylacetyl-spermine (NASPM), a selective blocker of GluA2-lacking AMPARs, into the LA attenuated ABA renewal, suggesting a critical role of GluA2-lacking AMPARs in ABA renewal. We also found that Ser831 phosphorylation of GluA1 in the LA was increased upon ABA renewal. We developed a short peptide mimicking the Ser831-containing C-tail region of GluA1, which can be phosphorylated upon renewal (GluA1S); thus, the phosphorylated GluA1S may compete with Ser831-phosphorylated GluA1. This GluA1S peptide blocked the low-threshold potentiation when dialyzed into a recorded neuron. The microinjection of a cell-permeable form of GluA1S peptide into the LA attenuated ABA renewal. In support of the GluA1S experiments, a GluA1D peptide (in which the serine at 831 is replaced with a phosphomimetic amino acid, aspartate) attenuated ABA renewal when microinjected into the LA. These findings suggest that enhancements in both the

  7. Upregulation of adenosine A1 receptors facilitates sinoatrial node dysfunction in chronic canine heart failure by exacerbating nodal conduction abnormalities revealed by novel dual-sided intramural optical mapping.

    PubMed

    Lou, Qing; Hansen, Brian J; Fedorenko, Olga; Csepe, Thomas A; Kalyanasundaram, Anuradha; Li, Ning; Hage, Lori T; Glukhov, Alexey V; Billman, George E; Weiss, Raul; Mohler, Peter J; Györke, Sándor; Biesiadecki, Brandon J; Carnes, Cynthia A; Fedorov, Vadim V

    2014-07-22

    Although sinoatrial node (SAN) dysfunction is a hallmark of human heart failure (HF), the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We aimed to examine the role of adenosine in SAN dysfunction and tachy-brady arrhythmias in chronic HF. We applied multiple approaches to characterize SAN structure, SAN function, and adenosine A1 receptor expression in control (n=17) and 4-month tachypacing-induced chronic HF (n=18) dogs. Novel intramural optical mapping of coronary-perfused right atrial preparations revealed that adenosine (10 μmol/L) markedly prolonged postpacing SAN conduction time in HF by 206 ± 99 milliseconds (versus 66 ± 21 milliseconds in controls; P=0.02). Adenosine induced SAN intranodal conduction block or microreentry in 6 of 8 dogs with HF versus 0 of 7 controls (P=0.007). Adenosine-induced SAN conduction abnormalities and automaticity depression caused postpacing atrial pauses in HF versus control dogs (17.1 ± 28.9 versus 1.5 ± 1.3 seconds; P<0.001). Furthermore, 10 μmol/L adenosine shortened atrial repolarization and led to pacing-induced atrial fibrillation in 6 of 7 HF versus 0 of 7 control dogs (P=0.002). Adenosine-induced SAN dysfunction and atrial fibrillation were abolished or prevented by adenosine A1 receptor antagonists (50 μmol/L theophylline/1 μmol/L 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine). Adenosine A1 receptor protein expression was significantly upregulated during HF in the SAN (by 47 ± 19%) and surrounding atrial myocardium (by 90 ± 40%). Interstitial fibrosis was significantly increased within the SAN in HF versus control dogs (38 ± 4% versus 23 ± 4%; P<0.001). In chronic HF, adenosine A1 receptor upregulation in SAN pacemaker and atrial cardiomyocytes may increase cardiac sensitivity to adenosine. This effect may exacerbate conduction abnormalities in the structurally impaired SAN, leading to SAN dysfunction, and potentiate atrial repolarization shortening, thereby facilitating atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation may

  8. Adenosine-Induced Atrial Fibrillation: Localized Reentrant Drivers in Lateral Right Atria due to Heterogeneous Expression of Adenosine A1 Receptors and GIRK4 Subunits in the Human Heart.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Csepe, Thomas A; Hansen, Brian J; Sul, Lidiya V; Kalyanasundaram, Anuradha; Zakharkin, Stanislav O; Zhao, Jichao; Guha, Avirup; Van Wagoner, David R; Kilic, Ahmet; Mohler, Peter J; Janssen, Paul M L; Biesiadecki, Brandon J; Hummel, John D; Weiss, Raul; Fedorov, Vadim V

    2016-08-09

    Adenosine provokes atrial fibrillation (AF) with a higher activation frequency in right atria (RA) versus left atria (LA) in patients, but the underlying molecular and functional substrates are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that adenosine-induced AF is driven by localized reentry in RA areas with highest expression of adenosine A1 receptor and its downstream GIRK (G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels) channels (IK,Ado). We applied biatrial optical mapping and immunoblot mapping of various atrial regions to reveal the mechanism of adenosine-induced AF in explanted failing and nonfailing human hearts (n=37). Optical mapping of coronary-perfused atria (n=24) revealed that adenosine perfusion (10-100 µmol/L) produced more significant shortening of action potential durations in RA (from 290±45 to 239±41 ms, 17.3±10.4%; P<0.01) than LA (from 307±24 to 286±23 ms, 6.7±6.6%; P<0.01). In 10 hearts, adenosine induced AF (317±116 s) that, when sustained (≥2 minutes), was primarily maintained by 1 to 2 localized reentrant drivers in lateral RA. Tertiapin (10-100 nmol/L), a selective GIRK channel blocker, counteracted adenosine-induced action potential duration shortening and prevented AF induction. Immunoblotting showed that the superior/middle lateral RA had significantly higher adenosine A1 receptor (2.7±1.7-fold; P<0.01) and GIRK4 (1.7±0.8-fold; P<0.05) protein expression than lateral/posterior LA. This study revealed a 3-fold RA-to-LA adenosine A1 receptor protein expression gradient in the human heart, leading to significantly greater RA versus LA repolarization sensitivity in response to adenosine. Sustained adenosine-induced AF is maintained by reentrant drivers localized in lateral RA regions with the highest adenosine A1 receptor/GIRK4 expression. Selective atrial GIRK channel blockade may effectively treat AF during conditions with increased endogenous adenosine. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Rats fed soy protein isolate (SPI) have impaired hepatic CYP1A1 induction by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as a result of interference with aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consumption of soy diet has been found to reduce cancer incidence in animals and is associated with reduced cancer risk in humans. Previously, we have demonstrated that female Sprague-Dawley rats fed purified AIN-93G diets with soy protein isolate (SPI) as the sole protein source had reduced CYP1A1 ...

  10. Influence of Genetic Ancestry on INDEL Markers of NFKβ1, CASP8, PAR1, IL4 and CYP19A1 Genes in Leprosy Patients.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Pablo; Salgado, Claudio; Santos, Ney Pereira Carneiro; Santos, Sidney; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ândrea

    2015-01-01

    Leprosy is an insidious infectious disease caused by the obligate intracellular bacteria Mycobacterium leprae, and host genetic factors can modulate the immune response and generate distinct categories of leprosy susceptibility that are also influenced by genetic ancestry. We investigated the possible effects of CYP19A1 [rs11575899], NFKβ1 [rs28362491], IL1α [rs3783553], CASP8 [rs3834129], UGT1A1 [rs8175347], PAR1 [rs11267092], CYP2E1 [INDEL 96pb] and IL4 [rs79071878] genes in a group of 141 leprosy patients and 180 healthy individuals. The INDELs were typed by PCR Multiplex in ABI PRISM 3130 and analyzed with GeneMapper ID v3.2. The NFKβ1, CASP8, PAR1 and IL4 INDELs were associated with leprosy susceptibility, while NFKβ1, CASP8, PAR1 and CYP19A1 were associated with the MB (Multibacilary) clinical form of leprosy. NFKβ1 [rs28362491], CASP8 [rs3834129], PAR1 [rs11267092] and IL4 [rs79071878] genes are potential markers for susceptibility to leprosy development, while the INDELs in NFKβ1, CASP8, PAR1 and CYP19A1 (rs11575899) are potential markers for the severe clinical form MB. Moreover, all of these markers are influenced by genetic ancestry, and European contribution increases the risk to leprosy development, in other hand an increase in African contribution generates protection against leprosy.

  11. The pregnane X receptor down‐regulates organic cation transporter 1 (SLC22A1) in human hepatocytes by competing for (“squelching”) SRC‐1 coactivator

    PubMed Central

    Hyrsova, Lucie; Smutny, Tomas; Carazo, Alejandro; Moravcik, Stefan; Mandikova, Jana; Trejtnar, Frantisek; Gerbal‐Chaloin, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose The organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) transports cationic drugs into hepatocytes. The high hepatic expression of OCT1 is controlled by the HNF4α and USF transcription factors. Pregnane X receptor (PXR) mediates induction of the principal xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and transporters in the liver. Here, we have assessed the down‐regulation of OCT1 expression by PXR activation. Experimental Approach We used primary human hepatocytes and related cell lines to measure OCT1 expression and activity, by assaying MPP+ accumulation. Western blotting, qRT‐PCR, the OCT1 promoter gene reporter constructs and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were also used. Key Results OCT1 mRNA in human hepatocytes was down‐regulated along with reduced [3H]MPP+ accumulation in differentiated HepaRG cells after treatment with rifampicin. Rifampicin and hyperforin as well as the constitutively active PXR mutant T248D suppressed activity of the 1.8 kb OCT1 promoter construct in gene reporter assays. Silencing of both PXR and HNF4α in HepaRG cells blocked the PXR ligand‐mediated down‐regulation of OCT1 expression. The mutation of HNF4α and USF1 (E‐box) responsive elements reversed the PXR‐mediated inhibition in gene reporter assays. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that PXR activation sequestrates the SRC‐1 coactivator from the HNF4α response element and E‐box of the OCT1 promoter. Consistent with these findings, exogenous overexpression of the SRC‐1, but not the PGC1α coactivator, relieved the PXR‐mediated repression of OCT1 transactivation. Conclusions and Implications PXR ligands reduced the HNF4α‐mediated and USF‐mediated transactivation of OCT1 gene expression by competing for SRC‐1 and decreased delivery of a model OCT1 substrate into hepatocytes. PMID:26920453

  12. Triclosan activates aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent apoptosis and affects Cyp1a1 and Cyp1b1 expression in mouse neocortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Szychowski, Konrad A; Wnuk, Agnieszka; Kajta, Małgorzata; Wójtowicz, Anna K

    2016-11-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial agent that is used extensively in personal care and in sanitizing products, such as soaps, toothpastes, and hair products. A number of studies have revealed the presence of TCS in human tissues, such as fat, liver and brain, in addition to blood and breast milk. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of TCS on AhR and Cyp1a1/Cyp1b1 signaling in mouse neocortical neurons in primary cultures. In addition to the use of selective ligands and siRNAs, expression levels of mRNA and proteins as well as caspase-3 activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release have been measured. We also studied the involvement of the AhR in TCS-induced LDH release and caspase-3 activation as well as the effect of TCS on ROS generation. Cultures of neocortical neurons were prepared from Swiss mouse embryos on day 15/16 of gestation. The cells were cultured in phenol red-free Neurobasal medium with B27 and glutamine, and the neurons were exposed to 1 and 10µM TCS. Our experiments showed that the expression of AhR and Cyp1a1 mRNA decreased in cells exposed to 10µM TCS for 3 or 6h. In the case of Cyp1b1, mRNA expression remained unchanged compared with the control group following 3h of exposure to TCS, but after 6h, the mRNA expression of Cyp1b1 was decreased. Our results confirmed that the AhR is involved in the TCS mechanism of action, and our data demonstrated that after the cells were transfected with AhR siRNA, the cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic properties of TCS were decreased. The decrease in Cyp1a1 mRNA and protein expression levels accompanied by a decrease in its activity. The stimulation of Cyp1a1 activity produced by the application of an AhR agonist (βNF) was attenuated by TCS, whereas the addition of AhR antagonist (αNF) reversed the inhibitory effects of TCS. In our experiments, TCS diminished Cyp1b1 mRNA and enhanced its protein expression. In case of Cyp1a1 we observed

  13. The 5-HT1A/1B-receptor agonist eltoprazine increases both catecholamine release in the prefrontal cortex and dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and decreases motivation for reward and "waiting" impulsivity, but increases "stopping" impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Korte, S Mechiel; Prins, Jolanda; Van den Bergh, Filip S; Oosting, Ronald S; Dupree, Rudy; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Westphal, Koen G C; Olivier, Berend; Denys, Damiaan A; Garland, Alexis; Güntürkün, Onur

    2017-01-05

    The 5-HT 1A/1B -receptor agonist eltoprazine has a behavioral drug signature that resembles that of a variety of psychostimulant drugs, despite the differences in receptor binding profile. These psychostimulants are effective in treating impulsivity disorders, most likely because they increase norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) levels in the prefrontal cortex. Both amphetamine and methylphenidate, however, also increase dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), which has a significant role in motivation, pleasure, and reward. How eltoprazine affects monoamine release in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and the NAc is unknown. It is also unknown whether eltoprazine affects different forms of impulsivity and brain reward mechanisms. Therefore, in the present study, we investigate the effects of eltoprazine in rats in the following sequence: 1) the activity of the monoaminergic systems using in vivo microdialysis, 2) motivation for reward measured using the intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure, and finally, 3) "waiting" impulsivity in the delay-aversion task, and the "stopping" impulsivity in the stop-signal task. The microdialysis studies clearly showed that eltoprazine increased DA and NE release in both the mPFC and OFC, but only increased DA concentration in the NAc. In contrast, eltoprazine decreased 5-HT release in the mPFC and NAc (undetectable in the OFC). Remarkably, eltoprazine decreased impulsive choice, but increased impulsive action. Furthermore, brain stimulation was less rewarding following eltoprazine treatment. These results further support the long-standing hypothesis that "waiting" and "stopping" impulsivity are regulated by distinct neural circuits, because 5-HT 1A/1B -receptor activation decreases impulsive choice, but increases impulsive action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of PCB 126 and PCB 153 on secretion of steroid hormones and mRNA expression of steroidogenic genes (STAR, HSD3B, CYP19A1) and estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ) in prehierarchical chicken ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Sechman, Andrzej; Batoryna, Marta; Antos, Piotr A; Hrabia, Anna

    2016-12-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the in vitro effects of dioxin-like PCB 126 and non-dioxin-like PCB 153 on basal and ovine LH (oLH)-stimulated testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) secretion and expression of steroidogenic genes (STAR, HSD3B and CYP19A1) and estrogen receptors α (ERα) and β (ERβ) in white (WF) and yellowish (YF) prehierarchical follicles of the hen ovary. Steroid concentrations in a medium and gene expression in follicles following 6h of exposition were determined by RIA and real-time qPCR, respectively. Both PCBs increased basal and oLH-stimulated T secretion by the WF follicles. PCB 126 reduced basal E2 secretion by the WF follicles. PCB 153 elevated but PCB 126 reduced oLH-stimulated E2 secretion by the prehierarchical follicles. PCB 126 increased basal STAR and HSD3B and reduced CYP19A1 mRNA expression in these follicles. PCB 153 increased basal expression of STAR and HSD3B in YF follicles, but diminished HSD3B mRNA levels in the WF. The studied PCBs had an opposite effect on basal and oLH-stimulated CYP19A1 mRNA expression in prehierarchical follicles. Both PCBs modulated basal and inhibited oLH-stimulated ERα and ERβ gene expression in the prehierarchical follicles. In conclusion, data of the current study demonstrate the congener-specific effects of PCBs on sex steroid secretion by prehierarchical follicles of the chicken ovary, which are at least partly related to STAR, HSD3B and CYP19A1 gene expression. It is suggested that PCBs, by influencing follicular steroidogenesis and expression of estrogen receptors, may impair development and selection of yellowish follicles to the preovulatory hierarchy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bile Acid-regulated Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor-α (PPARα) Activity Underlies Circadian Expression of Intestinal Peptide Absorption Transporter PepT1/Slc15a1*

    PubMed Central

    Okamura, Ayako; Koyanagi, Satoru; Dilxiat, Adila; Kusunose, Naoki; Chen, Jia Jun; Matsunaga, Naoya; Shibata, Shigenobu; Ohdo, Shigehiro

    2014-01-01

    Digested proteins are mainly absorbed as small peptides composed of two or three amino acids. The intestinal absorption of small peptides is mediated via only one transport system: the proton-coupled peptide transporter-1 (PepT1) encoded from the soluble carrier protein Slc15a1. In mammals, intestinal expression of PepT1/Slc15a1 oscillates during the daily feeding cycle. Although the oscillation in the intestinal expression of PepT1/Slc15a1 is suggested to be controlled by molecular components of circadian clock, we demonstrated here that bile acids regulated the oscillation of PepT1/Slc15a1 expression through modulating the activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). Nocturnally active mice mainly consumed their food during the dark phase. PPARα activated the intestinal expression of Slc15a1 mRNA during the light period, and protein levels of PepT1 peaked before the start of the dark phase. After food intake, bile acids accumulated in intestinal epithelial cells. Intestinal accumulated bile acids interfered with recruitment of co-transcriptional activator CREB-binding protein/p300 on the promoter region of Slc15a1 gene, thereby suppressing PPARα-mediated transactivation of Slc15a1. The time-dependent suppression of PPARα-mediated transactivation by bile acids caused an oscillation in the intestinal expression of PepT1/Slc15a1 during the daily feeding cycle that led to circadian changes in the intestinal absorption of small peptides. These findings suggest a molecular clock-independent mechanism by which bile acid-regulated PPARα activity governs the circadian expression of intestinal peptide transporter. PMID:25016014

  16. Association of the ACE, GSTM1, IL-6, NOS3, and CYP1A1 polymorphisms with susceptibility of mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in Chinese children

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jie; Zhang, Wen; Shen, Li; Yang, Xiaomeng; Liu, Yi; Gai, Zhongtao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and the clinical presentation of mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) varies widely. Genetic variability affecting the host response may also influence the susceptibility to MPP. Several studies have investigated the association between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of some genes and the risks of CAP; however, the results were inconsistent. Here, we investigated the association of 5 functional genes and the risks of MPP, including ACE (rs4340), GSTM1 (Ins/del), IL-6 (rs1800795), NOS3 (rs1799983), and CYP1A1 (rs2606345) in a total of 715 subjects (415 cases, 300 controls) by using tetra-primer allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Sanger sequencing. The gene–gene interactions were analyzed using the Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction and cumulative genetic risk score approaches. Our results showed that 3 SNPs of ACE rs4340, IL-6 rs1800795, and NOS3 rs1799983 were significantly associated with the risks of MPP, while no differences were observed in genotype frequencies of GSTM1 (Ins/del) and CYP1A1 rs2606345 between both groups. The combinations of ACE rs4340D/NOS3 rs1799983T/CYP1A1 rs2606345G and ACE rs4340D/NOS3 rs1799983T contribute to the genetic susceptibility of MPP in Chinese children. PMID:28403117

  17. Enhanced long-term and impaired short-term spatial memory in GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit knockout mice: evidence for a dual-process memory model.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, David J; Good, Mark A; Skelton, Kathryn; Sprengel, Rolf; Seeburg, Peter H; Rawlins, J Nicholas P; Bannerman, David M

    2009-06-01

    The GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit is a key mediator of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and is especially important for a rapidly-induced, short-lasting form of potentiation. GluA1 gene deletion impairs hippocampus-dependent, spatial working memory, but spares hippocampus-dependent spatial reference memory. These findings may reflect the necessity of GluA1-dependent synaptic plasticity for short-term memory of recently visited places, but not for the ability to form long-term associations between a particular spatial location and an outcome. This hypothesis is in concordance with the theory that short-term and long-term memory depend on dissociable psychological processes. In this study we tested GluA1-/- mice on both short-term and long-term spatial memory using a simple novelty preference task. Mice were given a series of repeated exposures to a particular spatial location (the arm of a Y-maze) before their preference for a novel spatial location (the unvisited arm of the maze) over the familiar spatial location was assessed. GluA1-/- mice were impaired if the interval between the trials was short (1 min), but showed enhanced spatial memory if the interval between the trials was long (24 h). This enhancement was caused by the interval between the exposure trials rather than the interval prior to the test, thus demonstrating enhanced learning and not simply enhanced performance or expression of memory. This seemingly paradoxical enhancement of hippocampus-dependent spatial learning may be caused by GluA1 gene deletion reducing the detrimental effects of short-term memory on subsequent long-term learning. Thus, these results support a dual-process model of memory in which short-term and long-term memory are separate and sometimes competitive processes.

  18. The Frog Skin-Derived Antimicrobial Peptide Esculentin-1a(1-21)NH2 Promotes the Migration of Human HaCaT Keratinocytes in an EGF Receptor-Dependent Manner: A Novel Promoter of Human Skin Wound Healing?

    PubMed

    Di Grazia, Antonio; Cappiello, Floriana; Imanishi, Akiko; Mastrofrancesco, Arianna; Picardo, Mauro; Paus, Ralf; Mangoni, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    One of the many functions of skin is to protect the organism against a wide range of pathogens. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced by the skin epithelium provide an effective chemical shield against microbial pathogens. However, whereas antibacterial/antifungal activities of AMPs have been extensively characterized, much less is known regarding their wound healing-modulatory properties. By using an in vitro re-epithelialisation assay employing special cell-culture inserts, we detected that a derivative of the frog-skin AMP esculentin-1a, named esculentin-1a(1-21)NH2, significantly stimulates migration of immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) over a wide range of peptide concentrations (0.025-4 μM), and this notably more efficiently than human cathelicidin (LL-37). This activity is preserved in primary human epidermal keratinocytes. By using appropriate inhibitors and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay we found that the peptide-induced cell migration involves activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and STAT3 protein. These results suggest that esculentin-1a(1-21)NH2 now deserves to be tested in standard wound healing assays as a novel candidate promoter of skin re-epithelialisation. The established ability of esculentin-1a(1-21)NH2 to kill microbes without harming mammalian cells, namely its high anti-Pseudomonal activity, makes this AMP a particularly attractive candidate wound healing promoter, especially in the management of chronic, often Pseudomonas-infected, skin ulcers.

  19. Genetic variation in the CYP1A1 gene is related to circulating PCB118 levels in a population-based sample

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, Lars; Penell, Johanna; Syvänen, Anne-Christine

    2014-08-15

    Several of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), i.e. the dioxin-like PCBs, are known to induce the P450 enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 by activating the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ah)-receptor. We evaluated if circulating levels of PCBs in a population sample were related to genetic variation in the genes encoding these CYPs. In the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (1016 subjects all aged 70), 21 SNPs in the CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 genes were genotyped. Sixteen PCB congeners were analysed by high-resolution chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/ HRMS). Of the investigated relationships between SNPsmore » in the CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 and six PCBs (congeners 118, 126, 156, 169, 170 and 206) that captures >80% of the variation of all PCBs measured, only the relationship between CYP1A1 rs2470893 was significantly related to PCB118 levels following strict adjustment for multiple testing (p=0.00011). However, there were several additional SNPs in the CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 that showed nominally significant associations with PCB118 levels (p-values in the 0.003–0.05 range). Further, several SNPs in the CYP1B1 gene were related to both PCB156 and PCB206 with p-values in the 0.005–0.05 range. Very few associations with p<0.05 were seen for PCB126, PCB169 or PCB170. Genetic variation in the CYP1A1 was related to circulating PCB118 levels in the general elderly population. Genetic variation in CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 might also be associated with other PCBs. - Highlights: • We studied the relationship between PCBs and the genetic variation in the CYP genes. • Cross sectional data from a cohort of elderly were analysed. • The PCB levels were evaluated versus 21 SNPs in three CYP genes. • PCB 118 was related to variation in the CYP1A1 gene.« less

  20. [Genetic association between the reduced amplitude of the P300 and the allele A1 of the gene which codifies the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) as possible biological markers for alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Nácher, V

    Over the last twenty years much work has been done to study the P300 in alcoholism. A systematically reduced amplitude, both in patients and in populations at risk (children of alcoholics) was found. Besides, studies on twins indicate that the waves of the evoked potentials are under genetic control. Furthermore, advances in molecular genetic techniques have clarified the part played by the allele A1 of the gene which codifies the D2 dopamine receptor in alcoholism. Only in recent years have studies been published relating them and in these they are considered to be risk markers for alcoholism. However, contradictory results have been obtained. The objective of this study is to review part of the literature and find evidence for and against the characteristics observed in the P300 and the possible part played by the DRD2 gene in the aetiology of alcoholism and the relationship between them. At the same time we consider the most relevant theoretical aspects of the role played by dopamine in the central nervous system, since some studies have shown that it is involved in the generation of P300 and reinforcement due to alcohol consumptions. Finally, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages that should be taken into account when considering the low amplitude of P300 and the presence of the A1 allele as diagnostic markers to identify populations at risk and thus avoid appearance of the disorder.

  1. Metformin inhibits 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced breast carcinogenesis and adduct formation in human breast cells by inhibiting the cytochrome P4501A1/aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Maayah, Zaid H.; Ghebeh, Hazem; Alhaider, Abdulqader A.

    2015-04-15

    Recent studies have established that metformin (MET), an oral anti-diabetic drug, possesses antioxidant activity and is effective against different types of cancer in several carcinogen-induced animal models and cell lines. However, whether MET can protect against breast cancer has not been reported before. Therefore, the overall objectives of the present study are to elucidate the potential chemopreventive effect of MET in non-cancerous human breast MCF10A cells and explore the underlying mechanism involved, specifically the role of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1)/aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway. Transformation of the MCF10A cells into initiated breast cancer cells with DNA adduct formation was conducted usingmore » 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), an AhR ligand. The chemopreventive effect of MET against DMBA-induced breast carcinogenesis was evidenced by the capability of MET to restore the induction of the mRNA levels of basic excision repair genes, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1 (APE1), and the level of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Interestingly, the inhibition of DMBA-induced DNA adduct formation was associated with proportional decrease in CYP1A1 and in NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) gene expression. Mechanistically, the involvements of AhR and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in the MET-mediated inhibition of DMBA-induced CYP1A1 and NQO1 gene expression were evidenced by the ability of MET to inhibit DMBA-induced xenobiotic responsive element and antioxidant responsive element luciferase reporter gene expression which suggests an AhR- and Nrf2-dependent transcriptional control. However, the inability of MET to bind to AhR suggests that MET is not an AhR ligand. In conclusion, the present work shows a strong evidence that MET inhibits the DMBA-mediated carcinogenicity and adduct formation by inhibiting the expression of CYP1A1 through an AhR ligand

  2. Genetic variants of SULT1A1 and XRCC1 genes and risk of lung cancer in Bangladeshi population.

    PubMed

    Tasnim, Tasnova; Al-Mamun, Mir Md Abdullah; Nahid, Noor Ahmed; Islam, Md Reazul; Apu, Mohd Nazmul Hasan; Bushra, Most Umme; Rabbi, Sikder Nahidul Islam; Nahar, Zabun; Chowdhury, Jakir Ahmed; Ahmed, Maizbha Uddin; Islam, Mohammad Safiqul; Hasnat, Abul

    2017-11-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most frequently occurring cancers throughout the world as well as in Bangladesh. This study aimed to correlate the prognostic and/or predictive value of functional polymorphisms in SULT1A1 (rs9282861) and XRCC1 (rs25487) genes and lung cancer risk in Bangladeshi population. A case-control study was conducted which comprises 202 lung cancer patients and 242 healthy volunteers taking into account the age, sex, and smoking status. After isolation of genomic DNA, genotyping was done by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method and the lung cancer risk was evaluated as odds ratio that was adjusted for age, sex, and smoking status. A significant association was found between SULT1A1 rs9282861 and XRCC1 rs25487 polymorphisms and lung cancer risk. In case of rs9282861 polymorphism, Arg/His (adjusted odds ratio = 5.06, 95% confidence interval = 3.05-8.41, p < 0.05) and His/His (adjusted odds ratio = 3.88, 95% confidence interval = 2.20-6.82, p < 0.05) genotypes were strongly associated with increased risk of lung cancer in comparison to the Arg/Arg genotype. In case of rs25487 polymorphism, Arg/Gln heterozygote (adjusted odds ratio = 4.57, 95% confidence interval = 2.79-7.46, p < 0.05) and Gln/Gln mutant homozygote (adjusted odds ratio = 4.99, 95% confidence interval = 2.66-9.36, p < 0.05) were also found to be significantly associated with increased risk of lung cancer. This study demonstrates that the presence of His allele and Gln allele in case of SULT1A1 rs9282861 and XRCC1 rs25487, respectively, involve in lung cancer prognosis in Bangladeshi population.

  3. Adenosine-Induced Atrial Fibrillation: Localized Reentrant Drivers in Lateral Right Atria due to Heterogeneous Expression of Adenosine A1 Receptors and GIRK4 Subunits in the Human Heart

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Csepe, Thomas A.; Hansen, Brian J.; Sul, Lidiya V.; Kalyanasundaram, Anuradha; Zakharkin, Stanislav O.; Zhao, Jichao; Guha, Avirup; Van Wagoner, David R.; Kilic, Ahmet; Mohler, Peter J; Janssen, Paul ML; Biesiadecki, Brandon; Hummel, John D; Weiss, Raul; Fedorov, Vadim V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Adenosine provokes atrial fibrillation (AF) with a higher activation frequency in right atria (RA) versus left atria (LA) in patients, but the underlying molecular and functional substrates are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that adenosine-induced AF is driven by localized reentry in RA areas with highest expression of adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) and its downstream GIRK channels (IK,Ado). Methods We applied bi-atrial optical mapping and immunoblot mapping of various atrial regions to reveal the mechanism of adenosine-induced AF in explanted failing and non-failing human hearts (n=37). Results Optical mapping of coronary-perfused atria (n=24) revealed that adenosine perfusion (10–100μM) produced more significant shortening of action potential durations (APD80) in RA (from 290±45ms to 239±41ms, 17.3±10.4%; p<0.01) than LA (from 307±24ms to 286±23ms, 6.7±6.6%; p<0.01). In ten hearts, adenosine induced AF (317±116 sec) that, when sustained (≥2 min), was primarily maintained by one/two localized reentrant drivers in lateral RA. Tertiapin (10–100nM), a selective GIRK channel blocker, counteracted adenosine-induced APD shortening and prevented AF induction. Immunoblotting showed that the superior/middle lateral RA had significantly higher A1R (2.7±1.7 fold; p<0.01) and GIRK4 (1.7±0.8 fold; p<0.05) protein expression than lateral/posterior LA. Conclusions This study revealed a three-fold RA-to-LA A1R protein expression gradient in the human heart, leading to significantly greater RA vs. LA repolarization sensitivity in response to adenosine. Sustained adenosine-induced AF is maintained by reentrant drivers localized in lateral RA regions with the highest A1R/GIRK4 expression. Selective atrial GIRK channel blockade may effectively treat AF during conditions with increased endogenous adenosine. PMID:27462069

  4. Insulin receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, C.R.; Harrison, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the procedure in insulin receptors. Part B: Clinical assessment, biological responses, and comparison to the IGF-1 receptor. Topics covered include: Insulin and IGF-1 receptors, Clinical assessment of receptor functions, and Biological responses.

  5. The Vγ9Vδ2 T Cell Antigen Receptor and Butyrophilin-3 A1: Models of Interaction, the Possibility of Co-Evolution, and the Case of Dendritic Epidermal T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Karunakaran, Mohindar M.; Herrmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Most circulating human gamma delta T cells are Vγ9Vδ2 T cells. Their hallmark is the expression of T cell antigen receptors (TCR) whose γ-chains show a Vγ9-JP (Vγ2-Jγ1.2) rearrangement and are paired with Vδ2-containing δ-chains, a dominant TCR configuration, which until recently seemed to occur in primates only. Vγ9Vδ2 T cells respond to phosphoantigens (PAg) such as (E)-4-Hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP), which is produced by many pathogens and isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), which accumulates in certain tumors or cells treated with aminobisphosphonates such as zoledronate. A prerequisite for PAg-induced activation is the contact of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells with cells expressing butyrophilin-3 A1 (BTN3A1). We will first critically review models of how BTN3 might act in PAg-mediated Vγ9Vδ2 T cell activation and then address putative co-evolution of Vγ9, Vδ2, and BTN3 genes. In those rodent and lagomorphs used as animal models, all three genes are lost but a data-base analysis showed that they emerged together with placental mammals. A strong concomitant conservation of functional Vγ9, Vδ2, and BTN3 genes in other species suggests co-evolution of these three genes. A detailed analysis was performed for the new world camelid alpaca (Vicugna pacos). It provides an excellent candidate for a non-primate species with presumably functional Vγ9Vδ2 T cells since TCR rearrangements share features characteristic for PAg-reactive primate Vγ9Vδ2 TCR and proposed PAg-binding sites of BTN3A1 have been conserved. Finally, we analyze the possible functional relationship between the butyrophilin-family member Skint1 and the γδ TCR-V genes used by murine dendritic epithelial T cells (DETC). Among placental mammals, we identify five rodents, the cow, a bat, and the cape golden mole as the only species concomitantly possessing potentially functional homologs of murine Vγ3, Vδ4 genes, and Skint1 gene and suggest to search for DETC like cells in these

  6. Activation of liver X receptor decreases atherosclerosis in Ldlr⁻/⁻ mice in the absence of ATP-binding cassette transporters A1 and G1 in myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Kappus, Mojdeh S; Murphy, Andrew J; Abramowicz, Sandra; Ntonga, Vusisizwe; Welch, Carrie L; Tall, Alan R; Westerterp, Marit

    2014-02-01

    Liver X receptor (LXR) activators decrease atherosclerosis in mice. LXR activators (1) directly upregulate genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport and (2) exert anti-inflammatory effects mediated by transrepression of nuclear factor-κB target genes. We investigated whether myeloid cell deficiency of ATP-binding cassette transporters A1 and G1 (ABCA1/G1), principal targets of LXR that promote macrophage cholesterol efflux and initiate reverse cholesterol transport, would abolish the beneficial effects of LXR activation on atherosclerosis. LXR activator T0901317 substantially reduced inflammatory gene expression in macrophages lacking ABCA1/G1. Ldlr(-/-) mice were transplanted with Abca1(-/-)Abcg1(-/-) or wild-type bone marrow (BM) and fed a Western-type diet for 6 weeks with or without T0901317 supplementation. Abca1/g1 BM deficiency increased atherosclerotic lesion complexity and inflammatory cell infiltration into the adventitia and myocardium. T0901317 markedly decreased lesion area, complexity, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the Abca1(-/-)Abcg1(-/-) BM-transplanted mice. To investigate whether this was because of macrophage Abca1/g1 deficiency, Ldlr(-/-) mice were transplanted with LysmCreAbca1(fl/fl)Abcg1(fl/fl) or Abca1(fl/fl)Abcg1(fl/fl) BM and fed Western-type diet with or without the more specific LXR agonist GW3965 for 12 weeks. GW3965 decreased lesion size in both groups, and the decrease was more prominent in the LysmCreAbca1(fl/fl)Abcg1(fl/fl) group. The results suggest that anti-inflammatory effects of LXR activators are of key importance to their antiatherosclerotic effects in vivo independent of cholesterol efflux pathways mediated by macrophage ABCA1/G1. This has implications for the development of LXR activators that lack adverse effects on lipogenic genes while maintaining the ability to transrepress inflammatory genes.

  7. Functional coupling between adenosine A1 receptors and G-proteins in rat and postmortem human brain membranes determined with conventional guanosine-5'-O-(3-[35S]thio)triphosphate ([35S]GTPγS) binding or [35S]GTPγS/immunoprecipitation assay.

    PubMed

    Odagaki, Yuji; Kinoshita, Masakazu; Ota, Toshio; Meana, J Javier; Callado, Luis F; Matsuoka, Isao; García-Sevilla, Jesús A

    2018-06-01

    Adenosine signaling plays a complex role in multiple physiological processes in the brain, and its dysfunction has been implicated in pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia and affective disorders. In the present study, the coupling between adenosine A 1 receptor and G-protein was assessed by means of two [ 35 S]GTPγS binding assays, i.e., conventional filtration method and [ 35 S]GTPγS binding/immunoprecipitation in rat and human brain membranes. The latter method provides information about adenosine A 1 receptor-mediated Gα i-3 activation in rat as well as human brain membranes. On the other hand, adenosine-stimulated [ 35 S]GTPγS binding determined with conventional assay derives from functional activation of Gα i/o proteins (not restricted only to Gα i-3 ) coupled to adenosine A 1 receptors. The determination of adenosine concentrations in the samples used in the present study indicates the possibility that the assay mixture under our experimental conditions contains residual endogenous adenosine at nanomolar concentrations, which was also suggested by the results on the effects of adenosine receptor antagonists on basal [ 35 S]GTPγS binding level. The effects of adenosine deaminase (ADA) on basal binding also support the presence of adenosine. Nevertheless, the varied patterns of ADA discouraged us from adding ADA into assay medium routinely. The concentration-dependent increases elicited by adenosine were determined in 40 subjects without any neuropsychiatric disorders. The increases in %E max values determined by conventional assay according to aging and postmortem delay should be taken into account in future studies focusing on the effects of psychiatric disorders on adenosine A 1 receptor/G-protein interaction in postmortem human brain tissue.

  8. Molecular Analysis of the SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 Genes in Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia with Regard to Metabolic Parameters and Selected Hormone Levels

    PubMed Central

    Rył, Aleksandra; Rotter, Iwona; Grzywacz, Anna; Małecka, Iwona; Skonieczna-Żydecka, Karolina; Grzesiak, Katarzyna; Słojewski, Marcin; Szylińska, Aleksandra; Sipak-Szmigiel, Olimpia; Piasecka, Małgorzata; Walczakiewicz, Kinga; Laszczyńska, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has not so far been fully explicated. However, it is assumed that changes in the levels of hormones associated with aging can contribute to the development of prostatic hyperplasia. Dihydrotestosterone combines with the androgen receptor (AR) proteins of the prostate gland. Enzyme activity is based on two isoenzymes: type 1 and type 2. 5α-reductase type 1 is encoded by the SRD5A1 gene, and type 2 is encoded by the SRD5A2 gene. The aim of our study was to determine the frequency of the SRD5A1 (rs6884552, rs3797177) and SRD5A2 (rs523349, rs12470143) genes’ polymorphisms, and to assess the relationships between the genotypes of the tested mutations, and the levels of biochemical and hormonal parameters in patients with BPH. Material and Methods: The study involved 299 men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. We determined the serum levels of particular biochemical parameters—fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides (TG)—by the spectrophotometric method, using ready reagent kits. The ELISA method was used to determine the levels of the following hormonal parameters and proteins: total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), insulin (I), luteinizing hormone (LH), and sex hormone binding protein (SHBG). Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed. Genotyping was performed by real-time PCR. Results: We analyzed the relationships between the incidence of particular diseases and the genotypes of the SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 polymorphisms among patients with BPH. The BPH patients with the CC genotype of the SRD5A2 rs523349 and rs12470143 polymorphisms were considerably less frequently diagnosed with metabolic syndrome (MetS) (p = 0.022 and p = 0.023 respectively). Our analysis revealed that homozygotes with the CC of the SDR5A2 rs12470143 polymorphism had visibly higher HDL levels than those with the TT and CT genotypes (p = 0

  9. Molecular Analysis of the SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 Genes in Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia with Regard to Metabolic Parameters and Selected Hormone Levels.

    PubMed

    Rył, Aleksandra; Rotter, Iwona; Grzywacz, Anna; Małecka, Iwona; Skonieczna-Żydecka, Karolina; Grzesiak, Katarzyna; Słojewski, Marcin; Szylińska, Aleksandra; Sipak-Szmigiel, Olimpia; Piasecka, Małgorzata; Walczakiewicz, Kinga; Laszczyńska, Maria

    2017-10-30

    Introduction : The etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has not so far been fully explicated. However, it is assumed that changes in the levels of hormones associated with aging can contribute to the development of prostatic hyperplasia. Dihydrotestosterone combines with the androgen receptor (AR) proteins of the prostate gland. Enzyme activity is based on two isoenzymes: type 1 and type 2. 5α-reductase type 1 is encoded by the SRD5A1 gene, and type 2 is encoded by the SRD5A2 gene. The aim of our study was to determine the frequency of the SRD5A1 (rs6884552, rs3797177) and SRD5A2 (rs523349, rs12470143) genes' polymorphisms, and to assess the relationships between the genotypes of the tested mutations, and the levels of biochemical and hormonal parameters in patients with BPH. Material and Methods : The study involved 299 men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. We determined the serum levels of particular biochemical parameters-fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides (TG)-by the spectrophotometric method, using ready reagent kits. The ELISA method was used to determine the levels of the following hormonal parameters and proteins: total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), insulin (I), luteinizing hormone (LH), and sex hormone binding protein (SHBG). Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed. Genotyping was performed by real-time PCR. Results : We analyzed the relationships between the incidence of particular diseases and the genotypes of the SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 polymorphisms among patients with BPH. The BPH patients with the CC genotype of the SRD5A2 rs523349 and rs12470143 polymorphisms were considerably less frequently diagnosed with metabolic syndrome (MetS) ( p = 0.022 and p = 0.023 respectively). Our analysis revealed that homozygotes with the CC of the SDR5A2 rs12470143 polymorphism had visibly higher HDL levels than those with the TT and CT genotypes ( p = 0

  10. Interactions between COL5A1 Gene and Risk of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture.

    PubMed

    Lulińska-Kuklik, Ewelina; Rahim, Masouda; Domańska-Senderowska, Daria; Ficek, Krzysztof; Michałowska-Sawczyn, Monika; Moska, Waldemar; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Brzeziański, Michał; Brzeziańska-Lasota, Ewa; Cięszczyk, Paweł; September, Alison V

    2018-06-01

    Collagen alpha-1(V) chain, encoded by the COL5A1 gene, plays a crucial role in abundant fibrillar collagens supporting many tissues in the body containing type I collagen and appears to regulate the association between heterotypic fibers composed of both type I and type V collagen occurring among others in muscles, tendons and ligaments. Taking this fact into consideration we decided to examine the association between COL5A1 rs12722 and rs13946 polymorphisms, individually and as inferred haplotypes, with anterior cruciate ligament rupture risk (ACLR) in professional soccer players. A total of 134 male professional soccer players with surgically diagnosed primary anterior cruciate ligament ruptures and 211 apparently healthy male professional soccer players, who were without any self-reported history of ligament or tendon injury, were included in the study. Both the cases and the healthy controls were recruited from the same soccer teams, of a similar age category, and had a comparable level of exposure to anterior cruciate ligament injury. Genomic DNA was extracted from oral epithelial cells using GenElute Mammalian Genomic DNA MiniprepKit. All samples were genotyped for the rs12722 and rs13946 polymorphisms using a Rotor-Gene realtime polymerase chain reaction. Statistically significant differences in the genotype frequencies for the COL5A1 rs13946 polymorphisms in dominant modes of inheritance occurred (p = 0.039). Statistically significant differences were documented only in the dominant model under the representation tendency of the C-C haplotype in the ACLR group compared to controls (p = 0.038). Our results suggest that variation in the COL5A1 gene may be one of the non-modifiable factors associated with the ACL injury in professional soccer players. The C-C rs12722-rs13946 haplotype provides a protective effect against the ACL tear.

  11. Interaction between the SLC19A1 gene and maternal first trimester fever on offspring neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Pei, Lijun; Zhu, Huiping; Ye, Rongwei; Wu, Jilei; Liu, Jianmeng; Ren, Aiguo; Li, Zhiwen; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have indicated that the reduced folate carrier gene (SLC19A1) is associated with an increased risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the interaction between the SLC19A1 gene variant and maternal fever exposure and NTD risk remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the risk for NTDs was influenced by the interactions between the SLC19A1 (rs1051266) variant and maternal first trimester fever. We investigated the potential interaction between maternal first trimester fever and maternal or offspring SLC19A1 polymorphism through a population-based case-control study. One hundred and four nuclear families with NTDs and 100 control families with nonmal newborns were included in the study. SLC19A1 polymorphism was determined using polymerase chain reaction-restricted fragment length polymorphism. Mothers who had the GG/GA genotype and first trimester fever had an elevated risk of NTDs (adjusted odds ratio, 11.73; 95% confidence interval, 3.02-45.58) as compared to absence of maternal first trimester fever and AA genotype after adjusting for maternal education, paternal education, and age, and had a significant interactive coefficient (γ = 3.17) between maternal GG/GA genotype and first trimester fever. However, there was no interaction between offspring's GG/GA genotype and maternal first trimester fever (the interactive coefficient γ = 0.97) after adjusting for confounding factors. Our findings suggested that the risk of NTDs was potentially influenced by a gene-environment interaction between maternal SLC19A1 rs1051266 GG/GA genotype and first trimester fever. Maternal GG/GA genotype may strengthen the effect of maternal fever exposure on NTD risk in this Chinese population. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Vector-averaged gravity-induced changes in cell signaling and vitamin D receptor activity in MG-63 cells are reversed by a 1,25-(OH)2D3 analog, EB1089

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, R.; Smith, C. L.; Weigel, N. L.

    2002-01-01

    Skeletal unloading in an animal hindlimb suspension model and microgravity experienced by astronauts or as a result of prolonged bed rest causes site-specific losses in bone mineral density of 1%-2% per month. This is accompanied by reductions in circulating levels of 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3), the active metabolite of vitamin D. 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3), the ligand for the vitamin D receptor (VDR), is important for calcium absorption and plays a role in differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. To examine the responses of cells to activators of the VDR in a simulated microgravity environment, we used slow-turning lateral vessels (STLVs) in a rotating cell culture system. We found that, similar to cells grown in microgravity, MG-63 cells grown in the STLVs produce less osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, and collagen Ialpha1 mRNA and are less responsive to 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3). In addition, expression of VDR was reduced. Moreover, growth in the STLV caused activation of the stress-activated protein kinase pathway (SAPK), a kinase that inhibits VDR activity. In contrast, the 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) analog, EB1089, was able to compensate for some of the STLV-associated responses by reducing SAPK activity, elevating VDR levels, and increasing expression of osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase. These studies suggest that, not only does simulated microgravity reduce differentiation of MG-63 cells, but the activity of the VDR, an important regulator of bone metabolism, is reduced. Use of potent, less calcemic analogs of 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) may aid in overcoming this defect. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Inc.

  13. Survival and Injury Outcome After TBI: Influence of Pre- and Post-Exposure to Caffeine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    A1Rs. This notion is supported by findings that TBI in A1R knockout mice led to lethal status epilepticus (SE) (Kochanek et al., 2006). Likewise, A1R...G.E., Dixon, C.E., Schnermann, J., Jackson, E.K., 2006. Adenosine A1 receptor knockout mice develop lethal status epilepti- cus after experimental

  14. Polymorphism Thr160Thr in SRD5A1, involved in the progesterone metabolism, modifies postmenopausal breast cancer risk associated with menopausal hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Hein, R; Abbas, S; Seibold, P; Salazar, R; Flesch-Janys, D; Chang-Claude, J

    2012-01-01

    Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) is associated with an increased breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women, with combined estrogen-progestagen therapy posing a greater risk than estrogen monotherapy. However, few studies focused on potential effect modification of MHT-associated breast cancer risk by genetic polymorphisms in the progesterone metabolism. We assessed effect modification of MHT use by five coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the progesterone metabolizing enzymes AKR1C3 (rs7741), AKR1C4 (rs3829125, rs17134592), and SRD5A1 (rs248793, rs3736316) using a two-center population-based case-control study from Germany with 2,502 postmenopausal breast cancer patients and 4,833 matched controls. An empirical-Bayes procedure that tests for interaction using a weighted combination of the prospective and the retrospective case-control estimators as well as standard prospective logistic regression were applied to assess multiplicative statistical interaction between polymorphisms and duration of MHT use with regard to breast cancer risk assuming a log-additive mode of inheritance. No genetic marginal effects were observed. Breast cancer risk associated with duration of combined therapy was significantly modified by SRD5A1_rs3736316, showing a reduced risk elevation in carriers of the minor allele (p (interaction,empirical-Bayes) = 0.006 using the empirical-Bayes method, p (interaction,logistic regression) = 0.013 using logistic regression). The risk associated with duration of use of monotherapy was increased by AKR1C3_rs7741 in minor allele carriers (p (interaction,empirical-Bayes) = 0.083, p (interaction,logistic regression) = 0.029) and decreased in minor allele carriers of two SNPs in AKR1C4 (rs3829125: p (interaction,empirical-Bayes) = 0.07, p (interaction,logistic regression) = 0.021; rs17134592: p (interaction,empirical-Bayes) = 0.101, p (interaction,logistic regression) = 0.038). After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing only SRD5A1_rs

  15. [CYP7A1 gene polymorphism and the characteristics of dyslipidemias in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease concurrent with hypothyroidism].

    PubMed

    Zhaldak, D A; Melekhovets, O K; Orlovskyi, V F

    To investigate the association of the polymorphic variants -204A > C (rs 3808607) in the CYP7A1 gene with the development of dyslipidemias in healthy individuals, in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and in those with NAFLD concurrent with hypothyroidism. DNA samples and lipidograms were examined in 180 patients, including 60 healthy individuals (Group 1), 60 patients with hypothyroidism concurrent with NAFLD (Group 2), and 60 patients with NAFLD (Group 3). All the patients underwent ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland and abdominal cavity organs; FibroMax scores were calculated. All the study groups most frequently showed a homozygous AA genotype (86.6% of cases in Group 1, 80% in Group 2, and 83.3% in Group 3). The development of NAFLD in CC genotype carriers is characterized by the most pronounced changes in lipid metabolism (atherogenic index (AI), 7.32 in Group 3) compared to the genotypes AA (AI, 4.56 in Group 2 and 1.73 in Group 1) and CC (AI, 6.43 in Group 2 and 2.52 in Group 1) in functional insufficiency of thyroid hormones and relative normal conditions. The analysis of the relationship of polymorphic variants CYP7A1 rs 38088607 to lipid metabolic disturbances in the study groups showed that the significantly higher levels of atherogenic cholesterol fractions were determined in the CC genotype compared to AA genotype carriers and they did not depend on the presence of NAFLD and hypothyroidism. The findings make it possible to consider the AA homozygous genotype of variant mutation CYP7A1 rs 38088607 as protective against dyslipidemia. However, in functional insufficiency of thyroid hormones, the level of triglycerides is significantly higher in both genotypes, which suggests that hypothyroidism plays an essential role in the development of dyslipidemia and NAFLD.

  16. The two-state dimer receptor model: a general model for receptor dimers.

    PubMed

    Franco, Rafael; Casadó, Vicent; Mallol, Josefa; Ferrada, Carla; Ferré, Sergi; Fuxe, Kjell; Cortés, Antoni; Ciruela, Francisco; Lluis, Carmen; Canela, Enric I

    2006-06-01

    Nonlinear Scatchard plots are often found for agonist binding to G-protein-coupled receptors. Because there is clear evidence of receptor dimerization, these nonlinear Scatchard plots can reflect cooperativity on agonist binding to the two binding sites in the dimer. According to this, the "two-state dimer receptor model" has been recently derived. In this article, the performance of the model has been analyzed in fitting data of agonist binding to A(1) adenosine receptors, which are an example of receptor displaying concave downward Scatchard plots. Analysis of agonist/antagonist competition data for dopamine D(1) receptors using the two-state dimer receptor model has also been performed. Although fitting to the two-state dimer receptor model was similar to the fitting to the "two-independent-site receptor model", the former is simpler, and a discrimination test selects the two-state dimer receptor model as the best. This model was also very robust in fitting data of estrogen binding to the estrogen receptor, for which Scatchard plots are concave upward. On the one hand, the model would predict the already demonstrated existence of estrogen receptor dimers. On the other hand, the model would predict that concave upward Scatchard plots reflect positive cooperativity, which can be neither predicted nor explained by assuming the existence of two different affinity states. In summary, the two-state dimer receptor model is good for fitting data of binding to dimeric receptors displaying either linear, concave upward, or concave downward Scatchard plots.

  17. A1C

    MedlinePlus

    A1C is a blood test for type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. It measures your average blood glucose, or blood sugar, level over the past 3 ... A1C alone or in combination with other diabetes tests to make a diagnosis. They also use the ...

  18. A1C test

    MedlinePlus

    ... every 3 or 6 months is recommended. Normal Results The following are the results when A1C is ... meaning of your specific test results. What Abnormal Results Mean An abnormal result means that you have ...

  19. HUMAN HtrA1 IN THE ARCHIVED EYES WITH AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chi-Chao; Shen, Defen; Zhou, Min; Ross, Robert J.; Ding, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Kang; Green, W. Richard; Tuo, Jingsheng

    2007-01-01

    Purpose HtrA1 belongs to the high temperature requirement factor A family of serine proteases, which are involved in protein quality control and cell fate. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs11200638, in the promoter of HtrA1 at chromosome 10q26 is reported as a likely causal variant for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The SNP is located in the regulatory region and increases production of HtrA1 protein. This study investigates HtrA1 expression and SNP genotypes in archived ocular slides with AMD. Methods Macular, nonretinal, and peripheral retinal cells were microdissected from archived slides from 57 eyes with AMD and 16 age-matched, non-AMD controls. HtrA1 rs11200638 SNP genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. HtrA1 transcripts were measured using real-time reverse transcriptase–PCR. HtrA1 protein expression was evaluated using avidin-biotin complex immunohistochemistry. Results HtrA1 (G/A) SNP was successfully genotyped in 52 AMD cases and 13 non-AMD subjects. The frequencies of the risk allele (A) were 55 of 104 (52.9%) and 8 of 26 (30.8%) in AMD and control groups, respectively. HtrA1 mRNA was detected in normal peripheral and macular retinas, higher in the periphery than maculae. HtrA1 mRNA was much higher in the macula and a lot lower in the periphery of the AMD eyes as compared to control eyes. HtrA1 protein was expressed in normal retinal vascular endothelia and retinal pigment epithelia. Intense immunoreaction against HtrA1 was found in AMD lesions, slightly more in wet than dry AMD lesions. Conclusion This study successfully analyzes HtrA1 SNP and transcript expression in microdissected cells from archived paraffin fixed slides. Up-regulation of HtrA1 is detected in the macular lesions of AMD eyes. The data further suggest that rs11200638 in HtrA1 promoter is associated with AMD development. PMID:18427598

  20. The LDL receptor.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Joseph L; Brown, Michael S

    2009-04-01

    In this article, the history of the LDL receptor is recounted by its codiscoverers. Their early work on the LDL receptor explained a genetic cause of heart attacks and led to new ways of thinking about cholesterol metabolism. The LDL receptor discovery also introduced three general concepts to cell biology: receptor-mediated endocytosis, receptor recycling, and feedback regulation of receptors. The latter concept provides the mechanism by which statins selectively lower plasma LDL, reducing heart attacks and prolonging life.

  1. Effect of UGT1A1, UGT1A3, DIO1 and DIO2 polymorphisms on L-thyroxine doses required for TSH suppression in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Ana B; Vargens, Daniela D; Barros Filho, Mateus de Camargo; Bulzico, Daniel A; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Meirelles, Ricardo M R; Paula, Daniela P; Neves, Ronaldo R S; Pessoa, Cencita N; Struchine, Claudio J; Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the impact of genetic polymorphisms in uridine 5'-glucuronosylytansferases UGT1A1 and UGT1A3 and iodothyronine-deiodinases types 1 and 2 on levothyroxine (T4 ; 3,5,3',5'-triiodo-L-thyronine) dose requirement for suppression of thyrotropin (TSH) secretion in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Patients (n = 268) submitted to total thyroidectomy and ablation by (131) I, under T4 therapy for at least 6 months were recruited in three public institutions in Brazil. Multivariate regression modelling was applied to assess the association of T4 dosing with polymorphisms in UGT1A1 (rs8175347), UGT1A3 (rs3806596 and rs1983023), DIO1 (rs11206244 and rs2235544) and DIO2 (rs225014 and rs12885300), demographic and clinical variables. A regression model including UGT1A haplotypes, age, gender, body weight and serum TSH concentration accounted for 39% of the inter-individual variation in the T4 dosage. The association of T4 dose with UGT1A haplotype is attributed to reduced UGT1A1 expression and T4 glucuronidation in liver of carriers of low expression UGT1A1 rs8175347 alleles. The DIO1 and DIO2 genotypes had no influence of T4 dosage. UGT1A haplotypes associate with T4 dosage in DTC patients, but the effect accounts for only 2% of the total variability and recommendation of pre-emptive UGT1A genotyping is not warranted. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. Effect of UGT1A1, UGT1A3, DIO1 and DIO2 polymorphisms on L-thyroxine doses required for TSH suppression in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Ana B; Vargens, Daniela D; Barros Filho, Mateus de Camargo; Bulzico, Daniel A; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Meirelles, Ricardo M R; Paula, Daniela P; Neves, Ronaldo R S; Pessoa, Cencita N; Struchine, Claudio J; Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme

    2014-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the impact of genetic polymorphisms in uridine 5′-glucuronosylytansferases UGT1A1 and UGT1A3 and iodothyronine-deiodinases types 1 and 2 on levothyroxine (T4; 3,5,3′,5′-triiodo-L-thyronine) dose requirement for suppression of thyrotropin (TSH) secretion in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Methods Patients (n = 268) submitted to total thyroidectomy and ablation by 131I, under T4 therapy for at least 6 months were recruited in three public institutions in Brazil. Multivariate regression modelling was applied to assess the association of T4 dosing with polymorphisms in UGT1A1 (rs8175347), UGT1A3 (rs3806596 and rs1983023), DIO1 (rs11206244 and rs2235544) and DIO2 (rs225014 and rs12885300), demographic and clinical variables. Results A regression model including UGT1A haplotypes, age, gender, body weight and serum TSH concentration accounted for 39% of the inter-individual variation in the T4 dosage. The association of T4 dose with UGT1A haplotype is attributed to reduced UGT1A1 expression and T4 glucuronidation in liver of carriers of low expression UGT1A1 rs8175347 alleles. The DIO1 and DIO2 genotypes had no influence of T4 dosage. Conclusion UGT1A haplotypes associate with T4 dosage in DTC patients, but the effect accounts for only 2% of the total variability and recommendation of pre-emptive UGT1A genotyping is not warranted. PMID:24910925

  3. Hepatic Overexpression of Endothelial Lipase Lowers HDL (High-Density Lipoprotein) but Maintains Reverse Cholesterol Transport in Mice: Role of SR-BI (Scavenger Receptor Class B Type I)/ABCA1 (ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1)-Dependent Pathways.

    PubMed

    Takiguchi, Shunichi; Ayaori, Makoto; Yakushiji, Emi; Nishida, Takafumi; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Makoto; Iizuka, Maki; Uto-Kondo, Harumi; Terao, Yoshio; Yogo, Makiko; Komatsu, Tomohiro; Ogura, Masatsune; Ikewaki, Katsunori

    2018-05-10

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is a major mechanism by which HDL (high-density lipoprotein) protects against atherosclerosis. Endothelial lipase (EL) reportedly reduces HDL levels, which, in theory, would increase atherosclerosis. However, it remains unclear whether EL affects RCT in vivo. Adenoviral vectors expressing EL or luciferase were intravenously injected into mice, and a macrophage RCT assay was performed. As expected, hepatic EL overexpression markedly reduced HDL levels. In parallel, plasma 3 H-cholesterol counts from the EL-expressing mice decreased by 85% compared with control. Surprisingly, there was no difference in fecal 3 H-cholesterol excretion between the groups. Kinetic studies revealed increased catabolism/hepatic uptake of 3 HDL-cholesteryl ether, resulting in no change in fecal HDL-cholesteryl ester excretion in the mice. To explore underlying mechanisms for the preservation of RCT despite low HDL levels in the EL-expressing mice, we investigated the effects of hepatic SR-BI (scavenger receptor class B type I) knockdown. RCT assay revealed that knockdown of SR-BI alone reduced fecal excretion of macrophage-derived 3 H-cholesterol. Interestingly, hepatic EL overexpression under SR-BI inhibition further attenuated fecal tracer counts as compared with control. Finally, we observed that EL overexpression enhanced in vivo RCT under pharmacological inhibition of hepatic ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) by probucol. Hepatic EL expression compensates for reduced macrophage-derived cholesterol efflux to plasma because of low HDL levels by promoting cholesterol excretion to bile/feces via an SR-BI pathway, maintaining overall RCT in vivo. In contrast, EL-modified HDL might negatively regulate RCT via hepatic ABCA1. Despite extreme hypoalphalipoproteinemia, RCT is maintained in EL-expressing mice via SR-BI/ABCA1-dependent pathways. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Ionotropic and metabotropic receptor mediated airway sensory nerve activation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Goo; Kollarik, Marian; Chuaychoo, Benjamas; Undem, Bradley J

    2004-01-01

    There are several receptors capable of inducing activating generator potentials in cough-associated afferent terminals in the airways. The chemical receptors leading to generator potentials can be subclassified into ionotropic and metabotropic types. An ionotropic receptor has an agonist-binding domain, and also serves directly as an ion channel that is opened upon binding of the agonist. Examples of ionotropic receptors found in airway sensory nerve terminals include receptors for serotonin (5-HT3 receptors), ATP (P2X receptors), acetylcholine (nicotinic receptors), receptors for capsaicin and related vanilloids (TRPV1 receptors), and acid receptors (acid sensing ion channels). Afferent nerve terminals can also be depolarized via activation of metabotropic or G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Among the GPCRs that can lead to activation of airway afferent fibers include bradykinin B2 and adenosine A1 receptors. The signaling events leading to GPCR-mediated membrane depolarization are more complex than that seen with ionotropic receptors. The GPCR-mediated effects are thought to occur through classical second messenger systems such as activation of phospholipase C. This may lead to membrane depolarization through interaction with specific ionotropic receptors (such as TRPV1) and/or various types of calcium activated channels.

  5. No association between polymorphisms and haplotypes of COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes and osteoporotic fracture in postmenopausal Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei-wei; He, Jin-wei; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Chun; Gu, Jie-mei; Yue, Hua; Ke, Yao-hua; Hu, Yun-qiu; Fu, Wen-zhen; Li, Miao; Liu, Yu-juan; Zhang, Zhen-lin

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To study whether genetic polymorphisms of COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes affected the onset of fracture in postmenopausal Chinese women. Methods: SNPs in COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes were identified via direct sequencing in 32 unrelated postmenopausal Chinese women. Ten SNPs were genotyped in 1252 postmenopausal Chinese women. The associations were examined using both single-SNP and haplotype tests using logistic regression. Results: Twenty four (4 novel) and 28 (7 novel) SNPs were identified in COL1A1 and COL1A2 gene, respectively. The distribution frequencies of 2 SNPs in COL1A1 (rs2075554 and rs2586494) and 3 SNPs in COL1A2 (rs42517, rs1801182, and rs42524) were significantly different from those documented for the European Caucasian population. No significant difference was observed between fracture and control groups with respect to allele frequency or genotype distribution in 9 selected SNPs and haplotype. No significant association was found between fragility fracture and each SNP or haplotype. The results remained the same after additional corrections for other risk factors such as weight, height, and bone mineral density. Conclusion: Our results show no association between common genetic variations of COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes and fracture, suggesting the complex genetic background of osteoporotic fractures. PMID:21602843

  6. Receptor-receptor interactions within receptor mosaics. Impact on neuropsychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Fuxe, K; Marcellino, D; Rivera, A; Diaz-Cabiale, Z; Filip, M; Gago, B; Roberts, D C S; Langel, U; Genedani, S; Ferraro, L; de la Calle, A; Narvaez, J; Tanganelli, S; Woods, A; Agnati, L F

    2008-08-01

    Future therapies for diseases associated with altered dopaminergic signaling, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia and drug addiction or drug dependence may substantially build on the existence of intramembrane receptor-receptor interactions within dopamine receptor containing receptor mosaics (RM; dimeric or high-order receptor oligomers) where it is believed that the dopamine D(2) receptor may operate as the 'hub receptor' within these complexes. The constitutive adenosine A(2A)/dopamine D(2) RM, located in the dorsal striato-pallidal GABA neurons, are of particular interest in view of the demonstrated antagonistic A(2A)/D(2) interaction within these heteromers; an interaction that led to the suggestion and later demonstration that A(2A) antagonists could be used as novel anti-Parkinsonian drugs. Based on the likely existence of A(2A)/D(2)/mGluR5 RM located both extrasynaptically on striato-pallidal GABA neurons and on cortico-striatal glutamate terminals, multiple receptor-receptor interactions within this RM involving synergism between A(2A)/mGluR5 to counteract D(2) signaling, has led to the proposal of using combined mGluR5 and A(2A) antagonists as a future anti-Parkinsonian treatment. Based on the same RM in the ventral striato-pallidal GABA pathways, novel strategies for the treatment of schizophrenia, building on the idea that A(2A) agonists and/or mGluR5 agonists will help reduce the increased dopaminergic signaling associated with this disease, have been suggested. Such treatment may ensure the proper glutamatergic drive from the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus to the prefrontal cortex, one which is believed to be reduced in schizophrenia due to a dominance of D(2)-like signaling in the ventral striatum. Recently, A(2A) receptors also have been shown to counteract the locomotor and sensitizing actions of cocaine and increases in A(2A) receptors have also been observed in the nucleus accumbens after extended cocaine self-administration, probably

  7. The Role of Adenosine Receptors in Psychostimulant Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Ballesteros-Yáñez, Inmaculada; Castillo, Carlos A.; Merighi, Stefania; Gessi, Stefania

    2018-01-01

    Adenosine receptors (AR) are a family of G-protein coupled receptors, comprised of four members, named A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 receptors, found widely distributed in almost all human body tissues and organs. To date, they are known to participate in a large variety of physiopathological responses, which include vasodilation, pain, and inflammation. In particular, in the central nervous system (CNS), adenosine acts as a neuromodulator, exerting different functions depending on the type of AR and consequent cellular signaling involved. In terms of molecular pathways and second messengers involved, A1 and A3 receptors inhibit adenylyl cyclase (AC), through Gi/o proteins, while A2A and A2B receptors stimulate it through Gs proteins. In the CNS, A1 receptors are widely distributed in the cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum, A2A receptors are localized mainly in the striatum and olfactory bulb, while A2B and A3 receptors are found at low levels of expression. In addition, AR are able to form heteromers, both among themselves (e.g., A1/A2A), as well as with other subtypes (e.g., A2A/D2), opening a whole range of possibilities in the field of the pharmacology of AR. Nowadays, we know that adenosine, by acting on adenosine A1 and A2A receptors, is known to antagonistically modulate dopaminergic neurotransmission and therefore reward systems, being A1 receptors colocalized in heteromeric complexes with D1 receptors, and A2A receptors with D2 receptors. This review documents the present state of knowledge of the contribution of AR, particularly A1 and A2A, to psychostimulants-mediated effects, including locomotor activity, discrimination, seeking and reward, and discuss their therapeutic relevance to psychostimulant addiction. Studies presented in this review reinforce the potential of A1 agonists as an effective strategy to counteract psychostimulant-induced effects. Furthermore, different experimental data support the hypothesis that A2A/D2 heterodimers are partly responsible

  8. Cooperative ethylene receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qian; Wen, Chi-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    The gaseous plant hormone ethylene is perceived by a family of five ethylene receptor members in the dicotyledonous model plant Arabidopsis. Genetic and biochemical studies suggest that the ethylene response is suppressed by ethylene receptor complexes, but the biochemical nature of the receptor signal is unknown. Without appropriate biochemical measures to trace the ethylene receptor signal and quantify the signal strength, the biological significance of the modulation of ethylene responses by multiple ethylene receptors has yet to be fully addressed. Nevertheless, the ethylene receptor signal strength can be reflected by degrees in alteration of various ethylene response phenotypes and in expression levels of ethylene-inducible genes. This mini-review highlights studies that have advanced our understanding of cooperative ethylene receptor signaling. PMID:22827938

  9. Purines and Neuronal Excitability: Links to the Ketogenic Diet

    PubMed Central

    Masino, SA; Kawamura, M; Ruskin, DN; Geiger, JD; Boison, D

    2011-01-01

    ATP and adenosine are purines that play dual roles in cell metabolism and neuronal signaling. Acting at the A1 receptor (A1R) subtype, adenosine acts directly on neurons to inhibit excitability and is a powerful endogenous neuroprotective and anticonvulsant molecule. Previous research showed an increase in ATP and other cell energy parameters when an animal is administered a ketogenic diet, an established metabolic therapy to reduce epileptic seizures, but the relationship among purines, neuronal excitability and the ketogenic diet was unclear. Recent work in vivo and in vitro tested the specific hypothesis that adenosine acting at A1Rs is a key mechanism underlying the success of ketogenic diet therapy and yielded direct evidence linking A1Rs to the antiepileptic effects of a ketogenic diet. Specifically, an in vitro mimic of a ketogenic diet revealed an A1R-dependent metabolic autocrine hyperpolarization of hippocampal neurons. In parallel, applying the ketogenic diet in vivo to transgenic mouse models with spontaneous electrographic seizures revealed that intact A1Rs are necessary for the seizure-suppressing effects of the diet. This is the first direct in vivo evidence linking A1Rs to the antiepileptic effects of a ketogenic diet. Other predictions of the relationship between purines and the ketogenic diet are discussed. Taken together, recent research on the role of purines may offer new opportunities for metabolic therapy and insight into its underlying mechanisms. PMID:21880467

  10. Purines and neuronal excitability: links to the ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Masino, S A; Kawamura, M; Ruskin, D N; Geiger, J D; Boison, D

    2012-07-01

    ATP and adenosine are purines that play dual roles in cell metabolism and neuronal signaling. Acting at the A(1) receptor (A(1)R) subtype, adenosine acts directly on neurons to inhibit excitability and is a powerful endogenous neuroprotective and anticonvulsant molecule. Previous research showed an increase in ATP and other cell energy parameters when an animal is administered a ketogenic diet, an established metabolic therapy to reduce epileptic seizures, but the relationship among purines, neuronal excitability and the ketogenic diet was unclear. Recent work in vivo and in vitro tested the specific hypothesis that adenosine acting at A(1)Rs is a key mechanism underlying the success of ketogenic diet therapy and yielded direct evidence linking A(1)Rs to the antiepileptic effects of a ketogenic diet. Specifically, an in vitro mimic of a ketogenic diet revealed an A(1)R-dependent metabolic autocrine hyperpolarization of hippocampal neurons. In parallel, applying the ketogenic diet in vivo to transgenic mouse models with spontaneous electrographic seizures revealed that intact A(1)Rs are necessary for the seizure-suppressing effects of the diet. This is the first direct in vivo evidence linking A(1)Rs to the antiepileptic effects of a ketogenic diet. Other predictions of the relationship between purines and the ketogenic diet are discussed. Taken together, recent research on the role of purines may offer new opportunities for metabolic therapy and insight into its underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Support of positive association in family-based genetic analysis between COL27A1 and Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiguo; Yu, Xiaoxia; Xu, Quanchen; Cui, Jiajia; Yi, Mingji; Zhang, Xinhua; Ge, Yinlin; Ma, Xu

    2015-08-03

    Recently, a genome-wide association study has indicated associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the Collagen Type XXVII Alpha 1 gene (COL27A1) and Tourette syndrome in several ethnic populations. To clarify the global relevance of the previously identified SNPs in the development of Tourette syndrome, the associations between polymorphisms in COL27A1 and Tourette syndrome were assessed in Chinese trios. PCR-directed sequencing was used to evaluate the genetic contributions of three SNPs in COL27A1(rs4979356, rs4979357 and rs7868992) using haplotype relative risk (HRR) and transmission disequilibrium tests (TDT) with a total of 260 Tourette syndrome trios. The family-based association was significant between Tourette syndrome and rs4979356 (TDT: χ2 = 4.804, P = 0.033; HRR = 1.75, P = 0.002; HHRR = 1.32, P = 0.027), and transmission disequilibrium was suspected for rs4979357 (TDT: χ2 = 3.969, P = 0.053; HRR = 1.84, P = 0.001; HHRR = 1.29, P = 0.044). No statistically significant allele transfer was found for rs7868992 (TDT: χ2 = 2.177, P = 0.158). Although the TDT results did not remain significant after applying the conservative Bonferroni correction (p = 0.005), the significant positive HRR analysis confirmed the possibility of showing transmission disequilibrium, which provides evidence for an involvement of COL27A1in the development of TS. However, these results need to be verified with larger datasets from different populations.

  12. Support of positive association in family-based genetic analysis between COL27A1 and Tourette syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shiguo; Yu, Xiaoxia; Xu, Quanchen; Cui, Jiajia; Yi, Mingji; Zhang, Xinhua; Ge, Yinlin; Ma, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a genome-wide association study has indicated associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the Collagen Type XXVII Alpha 1 gene (COL27A1) and Tourette syndrome in several ethnic populations. To clarify the global relevance of the previously identified SNPs in the development of Tourette syndrome, the associations between polymorphisms in COL27A1and Tourette syndrome were assessed in Chinese trios. PCR-directed sequencing was used to evaluate the genetic contributions of three SNPs in COL27A1(rs4979356, rs4979357 and rs7868992) using haplotype relative risk (HRR) and transmission disequilibrium tests (TDT) with a total of 260 Tourette syndrome trios. The family-based association was significant between Tourette syndrome and rs4979356 (TDT: χ2 = 4.804, P = 0.033; HRR = 1.75, P = 0.002; HHRR = 1.32, P = 0.027), and transmission disequilibrium was suspected for rs4979357 (TDT: χ2 = 3.969, P = 0.053; HRR = 1.84, P = 0.001; HHRR = 1.29, P = 0.044). No statistically significant allele transfer was found for rs7868992 (TDT: χ2 = 2.177, P = 0.158). Although the TDT results did not remain significant after applying the conservative Bonferroni correction (p = 0.005), the significant positive HRR analysis confirmed the possibility of showing transmission disequilibrium, which provides evidence for an involvement of COL27A1in the development of TS. However, these results need to be verified with larger datasets from different populations. PMID:26235311

  13. CYP1A1, GCLC, AGT, AGTR1 gene-gene interactions in community-acquired pneumonia pulmonary complications.

    PubMed

    Salnikova, Lyubov E; Smelaya, Tamara V; Golubev, Arkadiy M; Rubanovich, Alexander V; Moroz, Viktor V

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted to establish the possible contribution of functional gene polymorphisms in detoxification/oxidative stress and vascular remodeling pathways to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) susceptibility in the case-control study (350 CAP patients, 432 control subjects) and to predisposition to the development of CAP complications in the prospective study. All subjects were genotyped for 16 polymorphic variants in the 14 genes of xenobiotics detoxification CYP1A1, AhR, GSTM1, GSTT1, ABCB1, redox-status SOD2, CAT, GCLC, and vascular homeostasis ACE, AGT, AGTR1, NOS3, MTHFR, VEGFα. Risk of pulmonary complications (PC) in the single locus analysis was associated with CYP1A1, GCLC and AGTR1 genes. Extra PC (toxic shock syndrome and myocarditis) were not associated with these genes. We evaluated gene-gene interactions using multi-factor dimensionality reduction, and cumulative gene risk score approaches. The final model which included >5 risk alleles in the CYP1A1 (rs2606345, rs4646903, rs1048943), GCLC, AGT, and AGTR1 genes was associated with pleuritis, empyema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, all PC and acute respiratory failure (ARF). We considered CYP1A1, GCLC, AGT, AGTR1 gene set using Set Distiller mode implemented in GeneDecks for discovering gene-set relations via the degree of sharing descriptors within a given gene set. N-acetylcysteine and oxygen were defined by Set Distiller as the best descriptors for the gene set associated in the present study with PC and ARF. Results of the study are in line with literature data and suggest that genetically determined oxidative stress exacerbation may contribute to the progression of lung inflammation.

  14. Painful purinergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Donnelly-Roberts, Diana; McGaraughty, Steve; Shieh, Char-Chang; Honore, Prisca; Jarvis, Michael F

    2008-02-01

    Multiple P2 receptor-mediated mechanisms exist by which ATP can alter nociceptive sensitivity following tissue injury. Evidence from a variety of experimental strategies, including genetic disruption studies and the development of selective antagonists, has indicated that the activation of P2X receptor subtypes, including P2X(3), P2X(2/3), P2X(4) and P2X(7), and P2Y (e.g., P2Y(2)) receptors, can modulate pain. For example, administration of a selective P2X(3) antagonist, A-317491, has been shown to effectively block both hyperalgesia and allodynia in different animal models of pathological pain. Intrathecally delivered antisense oligonucleotides targeting P2X(4) receptors decrease tactile allodynia following nerve injury. Selective antagonists for the P2X(7) receptor also reduce sensitization in animal models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain, providing evidence that purinergic glial-neural interactions are important modulators of noxious sensory neurotransmission. Furthermore, activation of P2Y(2) receptors leads to sensitization of polymodal transient receptor potential-1 receptors. Thus, ATP acting at multiple purinergic receptors, either directly on neurons (e.g., P2X(3), P2X(2/3), and P2Y receptors) or indirectly through neural-glial cell interactions (P2X(4) and P2X(7) receptors), alters nociceptive sensitivity. The development of selective antagonists for some of these P2 receptors has greatly aided investigations into the nociceptive role of ATP. This perspective highlights some of the recent advances to identify selective P2 receptor ligands, which has enhanced the investigation of ATP-related modulation of pain sensitivity.

  15. Bioisosteres of ethyl 8-ethynyl-6-(pyridin-2-yl)-4H-benzo[f]imidazo [1,5-a][1,4]diazepine-3-carboxylate (HZ-166) as novel alpha 2,3 selective potentiators of GABAA receptors: Improved bioavailability enhances anticonvulsant efficacy.

    PubMed

    Witkin, J M; Smith, J L; Ping, X; Gleason, S D; Poe, M M; Li, G; Jin, X; Hobbs, J; Schkeryantz, J M; McDermott, J S; Alatorre, A I; Siemian, J N; Cramer, J W; Airey, D C; Methuku, K R; Tiruveedhula, V V N P B; Jones, T M; Crawford, J; Krambis, M J; Fisher, J L; Cook, J M; Cerne, R

    2018-05-03

    HZ-166 has previously been characterized as an α2,3-selective GABA A receptor modulator with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, and anti-nociceptive properties but reduced motor effects. We discovered a series of ester bioisosteres with reduced metabolic liabilities, leading to improved efficacy as anxiolytic-like compounds in rats. In the present study, we evaluated the anticonvulsant effects KRM-II-81 across several rodent models. In some models we also evaluated key structural analogs. KRM-II-81 suppressed hyper-excitation in a network of cultured cortical neurons without affecting the basal neuronal activity. KRM-II-81 was active against electroshock-induced convulsions in mice, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions in rats, elevations in PTZ-seizure thresholds, and amygdala-kindled seizures in rats with efficacies greater than that of diazepam. KRM-II-81 was also active in the 6 Hz seizure model in mice. Structural analogs of KRM-II-81 but not the ester, HZ-166, were active in all models in which they were evaluated. We further evaluated KRM-II-81 in human cortical epileptic tissue where it was found to significantly-attenuate picrotoxin- and AP-4-induced increases in firing rate across an electrode array. These molecules generally had a wider margin of separation in potencies to produce anticonvulsant effects vs. motor impairment on an inverted screen test than did diazepam. Ester bioisosters of HZ-166 are thus presented as novel agents for the potential treatment of epilepsy acting via selective positive allosteric amplification of GABA A signaling through α2/α3-containing GABA receptors. The in vivo data from the present study can serve as a guide to dosing parameters that predict engagement of central GABA A receptors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Synergistic Action of Presynaptic Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Adenosine Receptors in Developmental Axonal Competition at the Neuromuscular Junction.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Laura; Garcia, Neus; Hurtado, Erica; Simó, Anna; Tomàs, Marta; Lanuza, Maria Angel; Cilleros, Victor; Tomàs, Josep Maria

    2016-01-01

    The development of the nervous system involves the initial overproduction of synapses, which promotes connectivity. Hebbian competition between axons with different activities leads to the loss of roughly half of the overproduced elements and this refines connectivity. We used quantitative immunohistochemistry to investigate, in the postnatal day 7 (P7) to P9 neuromuscular junctions, the involvement of muscarinic receptors (muscarinic acetylcholine autoreceptors and the M1, M2, and M4 subtypes) and adenosine receptors (A1 and A2A subtypes) in the control of axonal elimination after the mouse levator auris longus muscle had been exposed to selective antagonists in vivo. In a previous study we analyzed the role of each of the individual receptors. Here we investigate the additive or occlusive effects of their inhibitors and thus the existence of synergistic activity between the receptors. The main results show that the A2A, M1, M4, and A1 receptors (in this order of ability) delayed axonal elimination at P7. M4 produces some occlusion of the M1 pathway and some addition to the A1 pathway, which suggests that they cooperate. M2 receptors may modulate (by allowing a permissive action) the other receptors, mainly M4 and A1. The continued action of these receptors (now including M2 but not M4) finally promotes axonal loss at P9. All 4 receptors (M2, M1, A1, and A2A, in this order of ability) are necessary. The M4 receptor (which in itself does not affect axon loss) seems to modulate the other receptors. We found a synergistic action between the M1, A1, and A2A receptors, which show an additive effect, whereas the potent M2 effect is largely independent of the other receptors (though can be modulated by M4). At P9, there is a full mutual dependence between the A1 and A2A receptors in regulating axon loss. In summary, postnatal axonal elimination is a regulated multireceptor mechanism that involves the cooperation of several muscarinic and adenosine receptor subtypes.

  17. The insulin receptor.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, S A

    1984-03-01

    Cells are endowed with specific cognitive molecules that function as receptors for hormones, neurotransmitters, and other intercellular messengers. The receptor molecules may be present in the plasma membrane, cytoplasm, or nucleus. When occupied by the messenger, the receptor is coupled to the cellular machinery that responds to the message-bearing molecules. For some hormones the events following attachment of the messenger to the receptor are well known. An example is the generation of cAMP after combination of glucagon with its receptor and the series of steps culminating in activation of phosphorylase. In the case of many other messengers, including insulin, the nature of these coupling steps is not known. Receptors are subject to the regulatory processes of synthesis, degradation, and conformational change; alterations in receptor properties may have significant effects on the qualitative and quantitative responses of the cell to the extracellular messenger. The insulin receptor is located in the plasma membrane, is composed of two pairs of subunits, and has a molecular weight of about 350,000. It is located in cells such as adipocytes, hepatocytes, and skeletal muscle cells as well as in cells not considered to be typical target organ cells. Insulin receptors in nonfetal cells are downregulated by exposure of the cells to high concentrations of insulin. Other factors that regulate insulin binding include muscular exercise, diet, thyroid hormones, glucocorticoids, androgens, estrogens, and cyclic nucleotides. The fetus has high concentrations of insulin receptors in several tissues. These begin to appear early in fetal life and may outnumber those found in adult tissues. Fetal insulin receptors are unusual in that they may not undergo downregulation but may experience the opposite when exposed to insulin in high concentrations. Thus the offspring of a mother with poorly controlled diabetes may be placed in double jeopardy by fetal hyperinsulinemia and

  18. Glucocorticoid receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Onno C; Koorneef, Lisa L; Kroon, Jan

    2018-06-01

    The glucocorticoid hormone cortisol acts throughout the body to support circadian processes and adaptation to stress. The glucocorticoid receptor is the target of cortisol and of synthetic glucocorticoids, which are used widely in the clinic. Both agonism and antagonism of the glucocorticoid receptor may be beneficial in disease, but given the wide expression of the receptor and involvement in various processes, beneficial effects are often accompanied by unwanted side effects. Selective glucocorticoid receptor modulators are ligands that induce a receptor conformation that allows activation of only a subset of downstream signaling pathways. Such molecules thereby combine agonistic and antagonistic properties. Here we discuss the mechanisms underlying selective receptor modulation and their promise in treating diseases in several organ systems where cortisol signaling plays a role. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of adenosine receptors in caffeine tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Holtzman, S.G.; Mante, S.; Minneman, K.P.

    1991-01-01

    Caffeine is a competitive antagonist at adenosine receptors. Receptor up-regulation during chronic drug treatment has been proposed to be the mechanism of tolerance to the behavioral stimulant effects of caffeine. This study reassessed the role of adenosine receptors in caffeine tolerance. Separate groups of rats were given scheduled access to drinking bottles containing plain tap water or a 0.1% solution of caffeine. Daily drug intake averaged 60-75 mg/kg and resulted in complete tolerance to caffeine-induced stimulation of locomotor activity, which could not be surmounted by increasing the dose of caffeine. 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (0.001-1.0 mg/kg) dose dependently decreased the locomotor activity ofmore » caffeine-tolerant rats and their water-treated controls but was 8-fold more potent in the latter group. Caffeine (1.0-10 mg/kg) injected concurrently with 5-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine antagonized the decreases in locomotor activity comparably in both groups. Apparent pA2 values for tolerant and control rats also were comparable: 5.05 and 5.11. Thus, the adenosine-antagonist activity of caffeine was undiminished in tolerant rats. The effects of chronic caffeine administration on parameters of adenosine receptor binding and function were measured in cerebral cortex. There were no differences between brain tissue from control and caffeine-treated rats in number and affinity of adenosine binding sites or in receptor-mediated increases (A2 adenosine receptor) and decreases (A1 adenosine receptor) in cAMP accumulation. These results are consistent with theoretical arguments that changes in receptor density should not affect the potency of a competitive antagonist. Experimental evidence and theoretical considerations indicate that up-regulation of adenosine receptors is not the mechanism of tolerance to caffeine-induced stimulation of locomotor activity.« less

  20. Therapeutic androgen receptor ligands

    PubMed Central

    Allan, George F.; Sui, Zhihua

    2003-01-01

    In the past several years, the concept of tissue-selective nuclear receptor ligands has emerged. This concept has come to fruition with estrogens, with the successful marketing of drugs such as raloxifene. The discovery of raloxifene and other selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) has raised the possibility of generating selective compounds for other pathways, including androgens (that is, selective androgen receptor modulators, or SARMs). PMID:16604181

  1. Association of polymorphisms rs1800012 in COL1A1 with sports-related tendon and ligament injuries: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunguang; Li, Hao; Chen, Kang; Wu, Bing; Liu, Haifeng

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1800012 in COL1A1 might be associated with the susceptibility to sports-related tendon and ligament injuries such as ACL injuries, Achilles tendon injuries, shoulder dislocations and tennis elbow. But the data from different studies have been conflicting. Here we attempted to systematically summarize and clarify the association between the SNP and sports-related tendon and ligament injuries risk. Six eligible studies including 933 cases and 1,381 controls were acquired from PubMed, Web Of Science and Cochrane library databases. Significant association was identified in homozygote model (TT versus GG: OR=0.17, 95%CI 0.08-0.35, PH=0.00) and recessive model (TT versus GT/GG: OR=0.21, 95%CI 0.10-0.44, PH=0.00). Our results indicated that COL1A1 rs1800012 polymorphism may be associated with the reduced risk of sports-related tendon or ligament injuries, especially in ACL injuries, and that rare TT may played as a protective role. PMID:28206959

  2. RECEPTOR MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Source apportionment (receptor) models are mathematical procedures for identifying and quantifying the sources of ambient air pollutants and their effects at a site (the receptor), primarily on the basis of species concentration measurements at the receptor, and generally without...

  3. Neurotransmitter receptors on microglia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huan; Leak, Rehana K; Hu, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    As the resident immune cells in the central nervous system, microglia have long been hypothesised to promote neuroinflammation and exacerbate neurotoxicity. However, this traditional view has undergone recent revision as evidence has accumulated that microglia exert beneficial and detrimental effects depending on activation status, polarisation phenotype and cellular context. A variety of neurotransmitter receptors are expressed on microglia and help mediate the bidirectional communication between neurons and microglia. Here we review data supporting the importance of neurotransmitter receptors on microglia, with a special emphasis on glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), norepinephrine, cannabinoid and acetylcholine receptors. We summarise evidence favouring a significant role for neurotransmitter receptors in modulating microglial activation, phagocytic clearance and phenotypic polarisation. Elucidating the effects of neurotransmitter receptors on microglia and dissecting the underlying mechanisms may help accelerate the discovery of novel drugs that tap the therapeutic potential of microglia. PMID:28959464

  4. Pain-relieving prospects for adenosine receptors and ectonucleotidases

    PubMed Central

    Zylka, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Adenosine receptor agonists have potent antinociceptive effects in diverse preclinical models of chronic pain. In contrast, the efficacy of adenosine or adenosine receptor agonists at treating pain in humans is unclear. Two ectonucleotidases that generate adenosine in nociceptive neurons were recently identified. When injected spinally, these enzymes have long-lasting adenosine A1 receptor (A1R)-dependent antinociceptive effects in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. Furthermore, recent findings indicate that spinal adenosine A2A receptor activation can enduringly inhibit neuropathic pain symptoms. Collectively, these studies suggest the possibility of treating chronic pain in humans by targeting specific adenosine receptor subtypes in anatomically defined regions with agonists or with ectonucleotidases that generate adenosine. PMID:21236731

  5. Evolution of olfactory receptors.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Kara C

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory receptors are a specialized set of receptor cells responsible for the detection of odors. These cells are G protein-coupled receptors and expressed in the cell membranes of olfactory sensory neurons. Once a cell is activated by a ligand, it initiates a signal transduction cascade that produces a nerve impulse to the brain where odor perception is processed. Vertebrate olfactory evolution is characterized by birth-and-death events, a special case of the stochastic continuous time Markov process. Vertebrate fish have three general types of receptor cells (two dedicated to pheromones). Terrestrial animals have different epithelial biology due to the specialized adaptation to detecting airborne odors. Two general classes of olfactory receptor gene reflect the vertebrate marine heritage (Class I) and the derived amphibian, reptile, and mammal terrestrial heritage (Class II). While we know much about olfactory receptor cells, there are still areas where our knowledge is insufficient, such as intra-individual diversity throughout the life time, epigenetic processes acting on olfactory receptors, and association of ligands to specific cells.

  6. Ephs and Ephrins in Cancer: Ephrin-A1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Beauchamp, Amanda; Debinski, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    Ephrin-A1 and its primary receptor, EphA2, are involved in numerous physiological processes and have been intensely studied for their roles in malignancy. Ephrin-Eph signalling is complex on its own and is also cell-type dependent, making elucidation of the exact role of ephrin-A1 in neoplasia challenging. Multiple oncogenic signalling pathways, such as MAP/ERK and PI3K are affected by ephrin-A1, and in some cases evidence suggests the promotion of a specific pathway in one cell or cancer type and inhibition of the same pathway in another type of cell or cancer. EphrinA1 also plays an integral role in angiogenesis and tumor neovascularization. Until recently, studies investigating ephrins focused on the ligands as GPI-anchored proteins that required membrane anchoring or artificial clustering for Eph receptor activation. However, recent studies have demonstrated a functional role for soluble, monomeric ephrin-A1. This review will focus on various forms of ephrin-A1-specific signalling in human malignancy. PMID:22040911

  7. Serotonin Receptors in Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Berumen, Laura Cristina; Rodríguez, Angelina; Miledi, Ricardo; García-Alcocer, Guadalupe

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin is an ancient molecular signal and a recognized neurotransmitter brainwide distributed with particular presence in hippocampus. Almost all serotonin receptor subtypes are expressed in hippocampus, which implicates an intricate modulating system, considering that they can be localized as autosynaptic, presynaptic, and postsynaptic receptors, even colocalized within the same cell and being target of homo- and heterodimerization. Neurons and glia, including immune cells, integrate a functional network that uses several serotonin receptors to regulate their roles in this particular part of the limbic system. PMID:22629209

  8. Acetylcholine receptor antibody

    MedlinePlus

    ... found in the blood of most people with myasthenia gravis . The antibody affects a chemical that sends signals ... Performed This test is used to help diagnose myasthenia gravis . Normal Results Normally, there is no acetylcholine receptor ...

  9. A-1 Test Stand modifications

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-14

    Team members check the progress of a liquid nitrogen cold shock test on the A-1 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center on Sept. 15. The cold shock test is used to confirm the test stand's support system can withstand test conditions, when super-cold rocket engine propellant is piped. The A-1 Test Stand is preparing to conduct tests on the powerpack component of the J-2X rocket engine, beginning in early 2012.

  10. Selective Glucocorticoid Receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    De Bosscher, Karolien

    2010-05-31

    The ancient two-faced Roman god Janus is often used as a metaphor to describe the characteristics of the Glucocorticoid Receptor (NR3C1), which exhibits both a beneficial side, that serves to halt inflammation, and a detrimental side responsible for undesirable effects. However, recent developments suggest that the Glucocorticoid Receptor has many more faces with the potential to express a range of different functionalities, depending on factors that include the tissue type, ligand type, receptor variants, cofactor surroundings and target gene promoters. This behavior of the receptor has made the development of safer ligands, that trigger the expression program of only a desirable subset of genes, a real challenge. Thus more knowledge-based fundamental research is needed to ensure the design and development of selective Glucocorticoid Receptor modulators capable of reaching the clinic. Recent advances in the characterization of novel selective Glucocorticoid Receptor modulators, specifically in the context of anti-inflammatory strategies, will be described in this review. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetics of Taste Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Bosak, Natalia P.; Lin, Cailu; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Ohmoto, Makoto; Reed, Danielle R.; Nelson, Theodore M.

    2016-01-01

    Taste receptors function as one of the interfaces between internal and external milieus. Taste receptors for sweet and umami (T1R [taste receptor, type 1]), bitter (T2R [taste receptor, type 2]), and salty (ENaC [epithelial sodium channel]) have been discovered in the recent years, but transduction mechanisms of sour taste and ENaC-independent salt taste are still poorly understood. In addition to these five main taste qualities, the taste system detects such noncanonical “tastes” as water, fat, and complex carbohydrates, but their reception mechanisms require further research. Variations in taste receptor genes between and within vertebrate species contribute to individual and species differences in taste-related behaviors. These variations are shaped by evolutionary forces and reflect species adaptations to their chemical environments and feeding ecology. Principles of drug discovery can be applied to taste receptors as targets in order to develop novel taste compounds to satisfy demand in better artificial sweeteners, enhancers of sugar and sodium taste, and blockers of bitterness of food ingredients and oral medications. PMID:23886383

  12. Dopamine Receptors and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Coronel, Israel; Florán, Benjamín

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is one of the major neurotransmitters and participates in a number of functions such as motor coordination, emotions, memory, reward mechanism, neuroendocrine regulation etc. DA exerts its effects through five DA receptors that are subdivided in 2 families: D1-like DA receptors (D1 and D5) and the D2-like (D2, D3 and D4). All DA receptors are widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and play an important role in not only in physiological conditions but also pathological scenarios. Abnormalities in the DAergic system and its receptors in the basal ganglia structures are the basis Parkinson’s disease (PD), however DA also participates in other neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington disease (HD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Under pathological conditions reorganization of DAergic system has been observed and most of the times, those changes occur as a mechanism of compensation, but in some cases contributes to worsening the alterations. Here we review the changes that occur on DA transmission and DA receptors (DARs) at both levels expression and signals transduction pathways as a result of neurotoxicity, inflammation and in neurodegenerative processes. The better understanding of the role of DA receptors in neuropathological conditions is crucial for development of novel therapeutic approaches to treat alterations related to neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26425390

  13. Genetic analysis of neuronal ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits

    PubMed Central

    Granger, Adam J; Gray, John A; Lu, Wei; Nicoll, Roger A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In the brain, fast, excitatory synaptic transmission occurs primarily through AMPA- and NMDA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors. These receptors are composed of subunit proteins that determine their biophysical properties and trafficking behaviour. Therefore, determining the function of these subunits and receptor subunit composition is essential for understanding the physiological properties of synaptic transmission. Here, we discuss and evaluate various genetic approaches that have been used to study AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits. These approaches have demonstrated that the GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit is required for activity-dependent trafficking and contributes to basal synaptic transmission, while the GluA2 subunit regulates Ca2+ permeability, homeostasis and trafficking to the synapse under basal conditions. In contrast, the GluN2A and GluN2B NMDA receptor subunits regulate synaptic AMPA receptor content, both during synaptic development and plasticity. Ongoing research in this field is focusing on the molecular interactions and mechanisms that control these functions. To accomplish this, molecular replacement techniques are being used, where native subunits are replaced with receptors containing targeted mutations. In this review, we discuss a single-cell molecular replacement approach which should arguably advance our physiological understanding of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits, but is generally applicable to study of any neuronal protein. PMID:21768264

  14. Genetic analysis of neuronal ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits.

    PubMed

    Granger, Adam J; Gray, John A; Lu, Wei; Nicoll, Roger A

    2011-09-01

    In the brain, fast, excitatory synaptic transmission occurs primarily through AMPA- and NMDA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors. These receptors are composed of subunit proteins that determine their biophysical properties and trafficking behaviour. Therefore, determining the function of these subunits and receptor subunit composition is essential for understanding the physiological properties of synaptic transmission. Here, we discuss and evaluate various genetic approaches that have been used to study AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits. These approaches have demonstrated that the GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit is required for activity-dependent trafficking and contributes to basal synaptic transmission, while the GluA2 subunit regulates Ca(2+) permeability, homeostasis and trafficking to the synapse under basal conditions. In contrast, the GluN2A and GluN2B NMDA receptor subunits regulate synaptic AMPA receptor content, both during synaptic development and plasticity. Ongoing research in this field is focusing on the molecular interactions and mechanisms that control these functions. To accomplish this, molecular replacement techniques are being used, where native subunits are replaced with receptors containing targeted mutations. In this review, we discuss a single-cell molecular replacement approach which should arguably advance our physiological understanding of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits, but is generally applicable to study of any neuronal protein.

  15. CGRP Receptor Biology: Is There More Than One Receptor?

    PubMed

    Hay, Debbie L

    2018-05-25

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has many reported pharmacological actions. Can a single receptor explain all of these? This chapter outlines the molecular nature of reported CGRP binding proteins and their pharmacology. Consideration of whether CGRP has only one or has more receptors is important because of the key role that this peptide plays in migraine. It is widely thought that the calcitonin receptor-like receptor together with receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1) is the only relevant receptor for CGRP. However, some closely related receptors also have high affinity for CGRP and it is still plausible that these play a role in CGRP biology, and in migraine. The calcitonin receptor/RAMP1 complex, which is currently called the AMY 1 receptor, seems to be the most likely candidate but more investigation is needed to determine its role.

  16. Genetic polymorphisms of the CYP1A1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 enzymes and their influence on cardiovascular risk and lipid profile in people who live near a natural gas plant.

    PubMed

    Pašalić, Daria; Marinković, Natalija

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to see whether genetic polymorphisms of the enzymes CYP1A1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 are associated with higher risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and whether they affect lipid profile in 252 subjects living near a natural gas plant, who are likely to be exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Fasting serum concentrations of biochemical parameters were determined with standard methods. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP 1A1 rs4646903, rs1048943, rs4986883, and rs1799814 were genotyped with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFPL), while GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletions were detected with multiplex PCR. Cardiovascular risk was assessed with Framingham risk score, and the subjects divided in two groups: >10% risk and ≤10% risk. The two groups did not differ in the genotype frequencies. MANCOVA analysis, which included lipid parameters, glucose, and BMI with sex, age, hypertension and smoking status as covariates, showed a significant difference between the GSTT1*0 and GSTT1*1 allele carriers (p=0.001). UNIANCOVA with same covariates showed that total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in GSTT1*1 allele carriers than in GSTT1*0 carriers (p<0.001 and p=0.006, respectively). Our findings suggest that CYP1A1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 polymorphisms are not associated with the higher risk of CAD, but that GSTT1 affects lipid profile.

  17. Polymorphisms within the COL5A1 gene and regulators of the extracellular matrix modify the risk of Achilles tendon pathology in a British case-control study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Karryn L; Seale, Kirsten B; El Khoury, Louis Y; Posthumus, Michael; Ribbans, William J; Raleigh, Stuart M; Collins, Malcolm; September, Alison V

    2017-08-01

    Several genetic loci have been associated with risk of Achilles tendon pathology (ATP) within South African and Australian populations. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate eight previously implicated genetic variants in an independent British population. A total of 130 asymptomatic controls (CON) and 112 participants clinically diagnosed with ATP comprising 87 individuals with chronic Achilles tendinopathy (TEN) and 25 with Achilles tendon ruptures (RUP) were included. All participants were genotyped for variants within the COL5A1, MIR608, IL-1β, IL-6 and CASP8 genes. Primary findings implicated COL5A1 and CASP8. Three inferred allele combinations constructed from COL5A1 rs12722, rs3196378 and rs71746744 were identified as risk modifiers. The T-C-D combination was associated with increased risk of ATP (P = 0.023) and RUP (P < 0.001), the C-A-I combination was associated with increased risk of ATP (P = 0.011), TEN (P = 0.011) and RUP (P = 0.011) and the C-C-D combination was associated with decreased risk of ATP (P = 0.011) and RUP (P = 0.004). The CASP8 rs3834129 DD genotype was associated with decreased risk of TEN (P = 0.020, odds ratio: 0.45, 95% confidence interval: 0.22-0.90) and the CASP8 I-G (rs3834129-rs1045485) inferred allele combination was associated with increased risk of TEN (P = 0.031). This study further highlights the importance of polymorphisms within COL5A1 and CASP8 in the aetiology of ATP.

  18. Ionotropic crustacean olfactory receptors.

    PubMed

    Corey, Elizabeth A; Bobkov, Yuriy; Ukhanov, Kirill; Ache, Barry W

    2013-01-01

    The nature of the olfactory receptor in crustaceans, a major group of arthropods, has remained elusive. We report that spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, express ionotropic receptors (IRs), the insect chemosensory variants of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Unlike insects IRs, which are expressed in a specific subset of olfactory cells, two lobster IR subunits are expressed in most, if not all, lobster olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), as confirmed by antibody labeling and in situ hybridization. Ligand-specific ORN responses visualized by calcium imaging are consistent with a restricted expression pattern found for other potential subunits, suggesting that cell-specific expression of uncommon IR subunits determines the ligand sensitivity of individual cells. IRs are the only type of olfactory receptor that we have detected in spiny lobster olfactory tissue, suggesting that they likely mediate olfactory signaling. Given long-standing evidence for G protein-mediated signaling in activation of lobster ORNs, this finding raises the interesting specter that IRs act in concert with second messenger-mediated signaling.

  19. Architecture of Eph receptor clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Himanen, Juha P.; Yermekbayeva, Laila; Janes, Peter W.

    2010-10-04

    Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and their ephrin ligands regulate cell navigation during normal and oncogenic development. Signaling of Ephs is initiated in a multistep process leading to the assembly of higher-order signaling clusters that set off bidirectional signaling in interacting cells. However, the structural and mechanistic details of this assembly remained undefined. Here we present high-resolution structures of the complete EphA2 ectodomain and complexes with ephrin-A1 and A5 as the base unit of an Eph cluster. The structures reveal an elongated architecture with novel Eph/Eph interactions, both within and outside of the Eph ligand-binding domain, that suggest the molecular mechanismmore » underlying Eph/ephrin clustering. Structure-function analysis, by using site-directed mutagenesis and cell-based signaling assays, confirms the importance of the identified oligomerization interfaces for Eph clustering.« less

  20. CONTAMINANT INTERACTIONS WITH STEROID RECEPTORS: EVIDENCE FOR RECEPTOR BINDING.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Steroid receptors are important determinants of endocrine disrupter consequences. As the most frequently proposed mechanism of endocrine-disrupting contaminant (EDC) action, steroid receptors are not only targets of natural steroids but are also commonly sites of nonsteroidal com...

  1. Differential distribution of adenosine receptors in rat cochlea.

    PubMed

    Vlajkovic, Srdjan M; Abi, Shukri; Wang, Carol J H; Housley, Gary D; Thorne, Peter R

    2007-06-01

    Adenosine is a constitutive cell metabolite that can be released from cells via specific bi-directional transporters and is an end-point for nucleotide hydrolysis. In the extracellular space, adenosine becomes a signalling molecule for P1 (adenosine) receptors that modulate physiological responses in a wide range of mammalian tissues. Whereas adenosine signalling has been implicated in the regulation of cochlear blood flow and in cochlear protection from oxidative damage, the potential roles for adenosine signalling in the modulation of sound transduction and auditory neurotransmission have not been established. We have characterised the expression and distribution of adenosine receptors in the rat cochlea. mRNA transcripts for all four subtypes of adenosine receptors (A(1), A(2A), A(2B) and A(3)) were detected in dissected cochlear tissue by using reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction analysis. The protein distribution for the A(1), A(2A) and A(3) receptor subtypes was identified by immunoperoxidase histochemistry and confocal immunofluorescence labelling. These receptors were differentially expressed in the organ of Corti, spiral ganglion neurones, lateral wall tissues and cochlear blood vessels. The distribution of adenosine receptors in sensory and neural tissues and in the vasculature coincided with other elements of purinergic signalling (P2X and P2Y receptors, ectonucleotidases), consistent with the integrative regulation of many physiological processes in the cochlea by extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides. Our study provides a framework for further investigation of adenosine signalling in the inner ear, including putative roles in oxidative stress responses.

  2. [Receptor specificity of human enteroviruses].

    PubMed

    Fadeev, F A; Sergeev, A G; Novoselov, A V

    2008-01-01

    The review presents the currently available data on the receptor specificity of enteroviruses. It discusses whether changes in the receptor specificity of enteroviruses may play a role in their in vitro and in vivo reproduction.

  3. Synaptic Neurotransmitter-Gated Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Smart, Trevor G.; Paoletti, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Since the discovery of the major excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and their receptors in the brain, many have deliberated over their likely structures and how these may relate to function. This was initially satisfied by the determination of the first amino acid sequences of the Cys-loop receptors that recognized acetylcholine, serotonin, GABA, and glycine, followed later by similar determinations for the glutamate receptors, comprising non-NMDA and NMDA subtypes. The last decade has seen a rapid advance resulting in the first structures of Cys-loop receptors, related bacterial and molluscan homologs, and glutamate receptors, determined down to atomic resolution. This now provides a basis for determining not just the complete structures of these important receptor classes, but also for understanding how various domains and residues interact during agonist binding, receptor activation, and channel opening, including allosteric modulation. This article reviews our current understanding of these mechanisms for the Cys-loop and glutamate receptor families. PMID:22233560

  4. A-1 Test Stand work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    A structural steel beam to support the new thrust measurement system on the A-1 Test Stand at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center is lifted to waiting employees for installation. The beam is part of the thrust takeout structure needed to support the new measurement system. Four such beams have been installed at the stand in preparation for installation of the system in upcoming weeks. Operators are preparing the stand for testing the next generation of rocket engines for the U.S. space program.

  5. TLX: An elusive receptor.

    PubMed

    Benod, Cindy; Villagomez, Rosa; Webb, Paul

    2016-03-01

    TLX (tailless receptor) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and belongs to a class of nuclear receptors for which no endogenous or synthetic ligands have yet been identified. TLX is a promising therapeutic target in neurological disorders and brain tumors. Thus, regulatory ligands for TLX need to be identified to complete the validation of TLX as a useful target and would serve as chemical probes to pursue the study of this receptor in disease models. It has recently been proved that TLX is druggable. However, to identify potent and specific TLX ligands with desirable biological activity, a deeper understanding of where ligands bind, how they alter TLX conformation and of the mechanism by which TLX mediates the transcription of its target genes is needed. While TLX is in the process of escaping from orphanhood, future ligand design needs to progress in parallel with improved understanding of (i) the binding cavity or surfaces to target with small molecules on the TLX ligand binding domain and (ii) the nature of the TLX coregulators in particular cell and disease contexts. Both of these topics are discussed in this review. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Functional Characterization of Odorant Receptors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-07

    94 IFINAL REPORT 9/1/92-11/30/93 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Functional Characterization of Odorant Receptors DAAL03-92-G-0390 6. AUTHOR(S...characterization of odorant receptors have developed in two directions. One direction is concerned with the characterization of the ligand specificity of... receptor have been replaced by the equivalent regions of odorant receptor 1-15 (Buck and Axel, 1991), thus forming a chimaeric seven transmembrane domain

  7. Monoamine Transporters as Ionotropic Receptors.

    PubMed

    De Felice, Louis J

    2017-04-01

    It is well established that glutamate and GABA signal through both ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Conversely, it is thought that, with one exception, monoamines (dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine) signal via metabotropic receptors. Given their capacity to generate fast-acting currents, I suggest that the monoamine transporters should be considered as ionotropic receptors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. A-1 Test Stand work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Employees at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center work to maneuver a structural steam beam into place on the A-1 Test Stand on Jan. 13. The beam was one of several needed to form the thrust takeout structure that will support a new thrust measurement system being installed on the stand for future rocket engine testing. Once lifted onto the stand, the beams had to be hoisted into place through the center of the test stand, with only two inches of clearance on each side. The new thrust measurement system represents a state-of-the-art upgrade from the equipment installed more than 40 years ago when the test stand was first constructed.

  9. Nuclear receptors in pancreatic tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Damaskos, Christos; Garmpis, Nikolaos; Karatzas, Theodore; Kostakis, Ioannis D; Nikolidakis, Lampros; Kostakis, Alkiviadis; Kouraklis, Gregory

    2014-12-01

    This review focuses on nuclear receptors expressed in pancreatic cancer. An extensive search of articles published up to March 2013 was conducted using the MEDLINE database. The key words used were "pancreatic cancer", "molecular receptors" and "growth factors". A total of 112 articles referred to pancreatic cancer, molecular receptors and/or growth factors were included. Receptors of growth factors, such as the epithelial growth factor receptor, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and others, such as integrin α5β1, somatostatin receptors, the death receptor 5, claudin, notch receptors, mesothelin receptors, follicle-stimulating hormone receptors, the MUC1 receptor, the adrenomedullin receptor, the farnesoid X receptor, the transferrin receptor, sigma-2 receptors, the chemokine receptor CXCR4, the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, the ephrine A2 receptor, the GRIA3 receptor, the RON receptor and the angiotensin II receptor AT-1 are expressed in pancreatic tumor cells. These molecules are implicated in tumor growth, apoptosis, angiogenesis, metastasis etc. After identifying the molecular receptors associated with the pancreatic cancer, many more target molecules playing important roles in tumor pathophysiology and senescence-associated signal transduction in cancer cells will be identified. This may have a significant influence on diagnosis, therapy and prognosis of pancreatic cancer. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  10. Ephrin-A1/EphA4-mediated adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jellinghaus, Stefanie; Poitz, David M; Ende, Georg; Augstein, Antje; Weinert, Sönke; Stütz, Beryl; Braun-Dullaeus, Rüdiger C; Pasquale, Elena B; Strasser, Ruth H

    2013-10-01

    The Eph receptors represent the largest family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Both Eph receptors and their ephrin ligands are cell-surface proteins, and they typically mediate cell-to-cell communication by interacting at sites of intercellular contact. The major aim of the present study was to investigate the involvement of EphA4-ephrin-A1 interaction in monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, as this process is a crucial step during the initiation and progression of the atherosclerotic plaque. Immunohistochemical analysis of human atherosclerotic plaques revealed expression of EphA4 receptor and ephrin-A1 ligand in major cell types within the plaque. Short-time stimulation of endothelial cells with the soluble ligand ephrin-A1 leads to a fourfold increase in adhesion of human monocytes to endothelial cells. In addition, ephrin-A1 further increases monocyte adhesion to already inflamed endothelial cells. EphrinA1 mediates its effect on monocyte adhesion via the activated receptor EphA4. This ephrinA1/EphA4 induced process involves the activation of the Rho signaling pathway and does not require active transcription. Rho activation downstream of EphA4 leads to increased polymerization of actin filaments in endothelial cells. This process was shown to be crucial for the proadhesive effect of ephrin-A1. The results of the present study show that ephrin-A1-induced EphA4 forward signaling promotes monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells via activation of RhoA and subsequent stress-fiber formation by a non-transcriptional mechanism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Tachykinin receptors and the airways.

    PubMed

    Frossard, N; Advenier, C

    1991-01-01

    The tachykinins, substance P, neurokinin A and neurokinin B, belong to a structural family of peptides. In mammalian airways, substance P and neurokinin A are colocalized to afferent C-fibres. Substance P-containing fibres are close to bronchial epithelium, smooth muscle, mucus glands and blood vessels. Sensory neuropeptides may be released locally, possibly as a result of a local reflex, and produce bronchial obstruction through activation of specific receptors on these various tissues. Three types of tachykinin receptors, namely NK-1, NK-2 and NK-3 receptors, have been characterized by preferential activation by substance P, neurokinin A and neurokinin B respectively. NK-1 and NK-2 receptors were recently cloned. The determination of receptor types involved in the effects of tachykinins in the airways has been done with synthetic agonists and antagonists binding specifically to NK-1, NK-2 and NK-3 receptors. Although the existence of species differences, the conclusion that bronchial smooth muscle contraction is mainly related to activation of NK-2 receptors on bronchial smooth muscle cell has been drawn. The hypothesis of a NK-2 receptor subclassification has been proposed with NK-2A receptor subtype in the guinea-pig airways. Other effects in the airways are related to stimulation of NK-1 receptors on mucus cells, vessels, epithelium and inflammatory cells. A non-receptor-mediated mechanism is also involved in the effect of substance P on inflammatory cells and mast cells.

  12. Taste Receptor Genes

    PubMed Central

    Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2009-01-01

    In the past several years, tremendous progress has been achieved with the discovery and characterization of vertebrate taste receptors from the T1R and T2R families, which are involved in recognition of bitter, sweet, and umami taste stimuli. Individual differences in taste, at least in some cases, can be attributed to allelic variants of the T1R and T2R genes. Progress with understanding how T1R and T2R receptors interact with taste stimuli and with identifying their patterns of expression in taste cells sheds light on coding of taste information by the nervous system. Candidate mechanisms for detection of salts, acids, fat, complex carbohydrates, and water have also been proposed, but further studies are needed to prove their identity. PMID:17444812

  13. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, Elina A.; Vonarbourg, Cedric

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal homeostasis results from a complex mutualism between gut microbiota and host cells. Defining the molecular network regulating such mutualism is currently of increasing interest, as its deregulation is reported to lead to increased susceptibility to infections, chronic inflammatory bowel diseases and cancer. Until now, the focus has been on the mechanism, by which the composition of indigenous microbiota shapes the immune system. In a recent study, we have shown that dietary compounds have also the ability to affect innate immune system. This regulation involves aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a sensor of plant-derived phytochemicals, which mediates the maintenance of Retinoic acid related orphan receptor γ t-expressing innate lymphoid cells (RORγt+ ILC) in the gut and consequently formation of postnatal lymphoid follicles. Thus, AhR represents the first evidence of a molecular link between diet and immunity at intestinal mucosal surfaces. PMID:22909905

  14. The interleukin-4 receptor: signal transduction by a hematopoietin receptor.

    PubMed

    Keegan, A D; Pierce, J H

    1994-02-01

    Over the last several years, the receptors for numerous cytokines have been molecularly characterized. Analysis of their amino acid sequences shows that some of these receptors bear certain motifs in their extracellular domains that define a family of receptors called the Hematopoietin receptor superfamily. Significant advances in characterizing the structure, function, and mechanisms of signal transduction have been made for several members of this family. The purpose of this review is to discuss the recent advances made for one of the family members, the interleukin (IL) 4 receptor. Other receptor systems have recently been reviewed elsewhere. The IL-4 receptor consists of, at the minimum, the cloned 140 kDa IL-4-binding chain with the potential for associating with other chains. The IL-4 receptor transduces its signal by activating a tyrosine kinase that phosphorylates cellular substrates, including the receptor itself, and the 170 kDa substrate called 4PS. Phosphorylated 4PS interacts with the SH2 domain of the enzyme PI-3'-kinase and increases its enzymatic activity. These early events in the IL-4 receptor initiated signaling pathway may trigger a series of signals that will ultimately lead to an IL-4 specific biologic outcome.

  15. A Receptor on Acid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiuyan; Tesmer, John J G

    2017-01-26

    Wacker et al. report the crystal structure of LSD in complex with one of its major targets in the brain, the 5-HT 2B receptor, the first such structure for any psychedelic drug. The results shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying its ability to induce hallucinations with greater duration and potency than closely related compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Metformin and insulin receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Vigneri, R.; Gullo, D.; Pezzino, V.

    The authors evaluated the effect of metformin (N,N-dimethylbiguanide), a biguanide known to be less toxic than phenformin, on insulin binding to its receptors, both in vitro and in vivo. Specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding to cultured IM-9 human lymphocytes and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells was determined after preincubation with metformin. Specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding to circulating monocytes was also evaluated in six controls, eight obese subjects, and six obese type II diabetic patients before and after a short-term treatment with metformin. Plasma insulin levels and blood glucose were also measured on both occasions. Metformin significantly increased insulin binding in vitromore » to both IM-9 lymphocytes and MCF-7 cells; the maximum increment was 47.1% and 38.0%, respectively. Metformin treatment significantly increased insulin binding in vivo to monocytes of obese subjects and diabetic patients. Scatchard analysis indicated that the increased binding was mainly due to an increase in receptor capacity. Insulin binding to monocytes of normal controls was unchanged after metformin as were insulin levels in all groups; blood glucose was significantly reduced after metformin only in diabetic patients. These data indicate that metformin increases insulin binding to its receptors in vitro and in vivo. The effect in vivo is observed in obese subjects and in obese type II diabetic patients, paralleling the clinical effectiveness of this antidiabetic agent, and is not due to receptor regulation by circulating insulin, since no variation in insulin levels was recorded.« less

  17. Marijuana, receptors and immunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Friedman, H; Klein, T W; Newton, C; Daaka, Y

    1995-01-01

    THC, the major psychoactive component of marijuana, has been shown both in humans and experimental animals to have immunomodulatory properties. For example, marijuana smokers may show impaired immunological functions, including deficiency of blood leukocyte blastogenesis to mitogens. Detailed studies with mice have shown that animals given THC can show marked immunomodulation, including suppression of antibody formation, deficient cytokine production, etc. However, recent studies have also shown that lymphoid cells evince enhanced production or release or IL1, but suppression of IL2 and interferon production. Such lymphoid cells treated in vitro with THC also show suppressed blastogenesis to antigens and mitogens, suppressed NK activity, etc. In contrast, it has recently been shown that THC can enhance production or release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This includes release of these cytokines from macrophages, including augmented release of IL1, TNF alpha, and IL6 activity. Susceptibility of mice to infection with opportunistic organisms such as L. pneumophila has been found and this increased susceptibility can be modulated by THC. A toxic shock-like death to Legionella has been induced by THC treatment given one day before and one day after infection. Receptors to THC have been detected in the brain as well as in peripheral tissues, including lymphoid cells. Thus, immunomodulation induced by THC may be related to receptor effects as well as unrelated to such receptors. It is clear that THC and other cannabinoids are excellent tools for studying the mechanisms of immune modulation, especially altered susceptibility to microbial infection.

  18. Adenosine A2A receptors and depression.

    PubMed

    El Yacoubi, Malika; Costentin, Jean; Vaugeois, Jean-Marie

    2003-12-09

    Adenosine and its analogues have been shown to induce "behavioral despair" in animal models believed to be relevant to depression. Recent data have shown that selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonists (e.g., SCH 58261, ZM241385, and KW6002) or genetic inactivation of the receptor was effective in reversing signs of behavioral despair in the tail suspension and forced swim tests, two screening procedures predictive of antidepressant activity. A2A antagonists were active in the tail suspension test using either mice previously screened for having high immobility scores or mice that were selectively bred for their spontaneous "helplessness" in this test. At stimulant doses, caffeine, a nonselective A1/A2A receptor antagonist, was effective in the forced swim test. The authors have hypothesized that the antidepressant-like effect of selective A2A antagonists is linked to an interaction with dopaminergic transmission, possibly in the frontal cortex. In support of this idea, administration of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol prevented antidepressant-like effects elicited by SCH 58261 in the forced swim test (putatively involving cortex), whereas it had no effect on stimulant motor effects of SCH 58261 (putatively linked to ventral striatum). The interaction profile of caffeine with haloperidol differed markedly from that of SCH 58261 in the forced swim and motor activity tests. Therefore, a clear-cut antidepressant-like effect could not be ascribed to caffeine. In conclusion, available data support the proposition that a selective blockade of the adenosine A2A receptor may be an interesting target for the development of effective antidepressant agents.

  19. Evolutionary Analysis of Functional Divergence among Chemokine Receptors, Decoy Receptors, and Viral Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Daiyasu, Hiromi; Nemoto, Wataru; Toh, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Chemokine receptors (CKRs) function in the inflammatory response and in vertebrate homeostasis. Decoy and viral receptors are two types of CKR homologs with modified functions from those of the typical CKRs. The decoy receptors are able to bind ligands without signaling. On the other hand, the viral receptors show constitutive signaling without ligands. We examined the sites related to the functional difference. At first, the decoy and viral receptors were each classified into five groups, based on the molecular phylogenetic analysis. A multiple amino acid sequence alignment between each group and the CKRs was then constructed. The difference in the amino acid composition between the group and the CKRs was evaluated as the Kullback–Leibler (KL) information value at each alignment site. The KL information value is considered to reflect the difference in the functional constraints at the site. The sites with the top 5% of KL information values were selected and mapped on the structure of a CKR. The comparisons with decoy receptor groups revealed that the detected sites were biased on the intracellular side. In contrast, the sites detected from the comparisons with viral receptor groups were found on both the extracellular and intracellular sides. More sites were found in the ligand binding pocket in the analyses of the viral receptor groups, as compared to the decoy receptor groups. Some of the detected sites were located in the GPCR motifs. For example, the DRY motif of the decoy receptors was often degraded, although the motif of the viral receptors was basically conserved. The observations for the viral receptor groups suggested that the constraints in the pocket region are loose and that the sites on the intracellular side are different from those for the decoy receptors, which may be related to the constitutive signaling activity of the viral receptors. PMID:22855685

  20. Evolutionary Analysis of Functional Divergence among Chemokine Receptors, Decoy Receptors, and Viral Receptors.

    PubMed

    Daiyasu, Hiromi; Nemoto, Wataru; Toh, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Chemokine receptors (CKRs) function in the inflammatory response and in vertebrate homeostasis. Decoy and viral receptors are two types of CKR homologs with modified functions from those of the typical CKRs. The decoy receptors are able to bind ligands without signaling. On the other hand, the viral receptors show constitutive signaling without ligands. We examined the sites related to the functional difference. At first, the decoy and viral receptors were each classified into five groups, based on the molecular phylogenetic analysis. A multiple amino acid sequence alignment between each group and the CKRs was then constructed. The difference in the amino acid composition between the group and the CKRs was evaluated as the Kullback-Leibler (KL) information value at each alignment site. The KL information value is considered to reflect the difference in the functional constraints at the site. The sites with the top 5% of KL information values were selected and mapped on the structure of a CKR. The comparisons with decoy receptor groups revealed that the detected sites were biased on the intracellular side. In contrast, the sites detected from the comparisons with viral receptor groups were found on both the extracellular and intracellular sides. More sites were found in the ligand binding pocket in the analyses of the viral receptor groups, as compared to the decoy receptor groups. Some of the detected sites were located in the GPCR motifs. For example, the DRY motif of the decoy receptors was often degraded, although the motif of the viral receptors was basically conserved. The observations for the viral receptor groups suggested that the constraints in the pocket region are loose and that the sites on the intracellular side are different from those for the decoy receptors, which may be related to the constitutive signaling activity of the viral receptors.

  1. Translating 5-HT receptor pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Sanger, G J

    2009-12-01

    Since metoclopramide was first described (in 1964) there have been several attempts to develop compounds which retained gastrointestinal prokinetic activity (via 5-HT(4) receptor activation) but without the limiting side effects associated with dopamine D(2) receptor antagonism. Early compounds (mosapride, cisapride, renzapride, tegaserod) were identified before several of the 5-HT receptors were even described (including 5-HT(4) and 5-HT(2B)), whereas prucalopride came later. Several compounds were hampered by non-selectivity, introducing cardiac liability (cisapride: activity at human Ether-a-go-go Related Gene) or potentially, a reduced intestinal prokinetic activity caused by activity at a second 5-HT receptor (renzapride: antagonism at the 5-HT(3) receptor; tegaserod: antagonism at the 5-HT(2B) receptor). Poor intrinsic activity at gastrointestinal 5-HT(4) receptors has also been an issue (mosapride, tegaserod). Perhaps prucalopride has now achieved the profile of good selectivity of action and high intrinsic activity at intestinal 5-HT(4) receptors, without clinically-meaningful actions on 5-HT(4) receptors in the heart. The progress of this compound for treatment of chronic constipation, as well as competitor molecules such as ATI-7505 and TD-5108, will now be followed with interest as each attempts to differentiate themselves from each other. Perhaps at last, 5-HT(4) receptor agonists are being given the chance to show what they can do.

  2. Adenosine A2B and A3 receptor location at the mouse neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Neus; Priego, Mercedes; Hurtado, Erica; Obis, Teresa; Santafe, Manel M; Tomàs, Marta; Lanuza, Maria Angel; Tomàs, Josep

    2014-07-01

    To date, four subtypes of adenosine receptors have been cloned (A(1)R, A(2A)R, A(2B)R, and A(3)R). In a previous study we used confocal immunocytochemistry to identify A(1)R and A(2A)R receptors at mouse neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). The data shows that these receptors are localized differently in the three cells (muscle, nerve and glia) that configure the NMJs. A(1)R localizes in the terminal teloglial Schwann cell and nerve terminal, whereas A(2A)R localizes in the postsynaptic muscle and in the axon and nerve terminal. Here, we use Western blotting to investigate the presence of A(2B)R and A(3)R receptors in striated muscle and immunohistochemistry to localize them in the three cells of the adult neuromuscular synapse. The data show that A(2B)R and A(3)R receptors are present in the nerve terminal and muscle cells at the NMJs. Neither A(2B)R nor A(3)R receptors are localized in the Schwann cells. Thus, the four subtypes of adenosine receptors are present in the motor endings. The presence of these receptors in the neuromuscular synapse allows the receptors to be involved in the modulation of transmitter release. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  3. Targeting Androgen Receptor-Driven Resistance to CYP17A1 Inhibitors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE September 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 21 Aug 2014 - 20 Aug...Page Cover Page…………………………………………………………. 1 Standard Form 298………………………………………………… 2 Table...frequency by NGS. Report: We obtained three BAC clones covering ~150Mb of the coding and flanking regions for AR. Two clones were from the

  4. Targeting Androgen Receptor-Driven Resistance to CYP17A1 Inhibitors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    unlimited The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not be construed as an official Department of...chemo- and radiotherapies that are efficacious against primary, androgen sensitive (AS)-CaP. CR-CaP progresses to metastatic disease in local lymph... AR ) protein, called AR -V, is directly responsible for malignancy of CR-CaP, and moreover, that ENZ or ABI treatment actually enhances production of AR

  5. Fc-receptor induced cell spreading during frustrated phagocytosis in J774A.1 macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovari, Daniel; Curtis, Jennifer; Wei, Wenbin

    2014-03-01

    Phagocytosis is the process where by cells engulf foreign particles. It is the primary mechanism through which macrophages and neutrophils (white blood cells) eliminate pathogens and debris from the body. The behavior is the result of a cascade of chemical and mechanical cues, which result in the actin-driven expansion of the cell's membrane around its target. For macrophages undergoing Fc-mediated phagocytosis, we show that above a minimum threshold the spreading rate and maximum cell-target contact area are independent of the target's opsonin density. Qualitatively, macrophage phagocytic spreading is similar to the spreading of other cell types (e.g. fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and Dict.d.). Early spreading is most likely the result of ``passive'' alignment of the cell to the target surface. This is followed by an active expansion period driven by actin. Finally upon reaching a maximum contact area, typically 2-3 times the size of ``non-activated'' cells, macrophages often undergo a period of rapid contraction not reported in other cell types. We hypothesize that this, as yet unexplained, transition may be specific to the chemical and mechanical machinery associated with phagocytosis. This work was funded by NSF grant PHYS 0848797 and NSF grant DMR 0820382.

  6. Nuclear Receptors in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Skerrett, Rebecca; Malm, Tarja; Landreth, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear receptors have generated substantial interest in the past decade as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Despite years of effort, effective treatments for progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease and ALS remain elusive, making non-classical drug targets such as nuclear receptors an attractive alternative. A substantial literature in mouse models of disease and several clinical trials have investigated the role of nuclear receptors in various neurodegenerative disorders, most prominently AD. These studies have met with mixed results, yet the majority of studies in mouse models report positive outcomes. The mechanisms by which nuclear receptor agonists affect disease pathology remain unclear. Deciphering the complex signaling underlying nuclear receptor action in neurodegenerative diseases is essential for understanding this variability in preclinical studies, and for the successful translation of nuclear receptor agonists into clinical therapies. PMID:24874548

  7. RECEPTORS ON IMMUNOCOMPETENT CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Davie, Joseph M.; Paul, William E.

    1971-01-01

    Nonimmunized guinea pigs possess rare lymphocytes which bind sufficient 2,4-dinitrophenyl-guinea pig albumin-125I (DNP-GPA) to their surface to be detected by short-term radioautography. The cells occur in the lymph nodes, spleen, peripheral blood, and bone marrow with a frequency of ∼40/100,000 lymphocytes, but are absent from the thymus. The receptors of these cells are largely specific for the haptenic group (ε-DNP-L-lysine) as shown by inhibition of DNP-GPA-125I binding with ε-DNP-L-lysine and with DNP bovine serum albumin (DNP-BSA). Furthermore, these cells specifically adsorb to agarose beads to which either DNP-GPA, DNP-BSA, or DNP-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) has been covalently linked. This hapten specific depletion of DNP-GPA-125I antigen-binding cells (ABC) correlates with a similar diminution in the capacity of adsorbed populations to transfer primary responsiveness to DNP-KLH to irradiated syngeneic recipients. Fluoresceinated anti-immunoglobulin binds to the surface of some guinea pig lymphocytes, and all DNP-GPA-125I ABC, as shown by a double-label technique. The great majority of DNP-GPA ABC and human γ-globulin ABC possess surface Ig molecules of the γ2 heavy chain class. Preincubation of cell suspensions with anti-γ2 antibody markedly diminishes the number of DNP-GPA-125I ABC which are detected, strongly suggesting that the receptors of these cells are immunoglobulin molecules, most of which possess γ2 heavy chains. The specificity characteristics of DNP-GPA-125I ABC are strikingly different from those of cells mediating a cellular immune response to DNP-GPA, indicating major differences in the specificity and nature of the receptors of these cell types. PMID:4934503

  8. Solubilization of active opiate receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Simonds, W F; Koski, G; Streaty, R A; Hjelmeland, L M; Klee, W A

    1980-01-01

    Receptors that reversibly bind opiates and opioid peptides have been solubilized from brain and neuroblastoma-glioma hybrid cell NG108-15 membranes. Active receptors are specifically solubilized with a new type of detergent 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate, which is a zwitterionic derivative of cholic acid. The solubilized receptor complexes behave as large molecules with a Stokes radius of 70 A and contain protein as an essential constituent. PMID:6254034

  9. Engineering Chimeric Antigen Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Kulemzin, S. V.; Kuznetsova, V. V.; Mamonkin, M.; Taranin, A. V.; Gorchakov, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are recombinant protein molecules that redirect cytotoxic lymphocytes toward malignant and other target cells. The high feasibility of manufacturing CAR-modified lymphocytes for the therapy of cancer has spurred the development and optimization of new CAR T cells directed against a broad range of target antigens. In this review, we describe the main structural and functional elements constituting a CAR, discuss the roles of these elements in modulating the anti-tumor activity of CAR T cells, and highlight alternative approaches to CAR engineering. PMID:28461969

  10. Basic pharmacology of NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Gonda, Xenia

    2012-01-01

    NMDA receptors are ionotropic receptors mediating glutamatergic neurotransmission and play a role in several basic functions in the central nervous system, from regulating neurodevelopment and synaptic plasticity, learning and memory formation, cognitive processes, rhythm generation necessary for locomotor activity and breathing, and excitotoxicity. Due to their complex involvement in the above processes, NMDA receptors have been established to play a role in the etiopathology of several neuropsychiatric disorders such as ischaemia and traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative disorders, pain syndromes, addiction, affective disorders and such neurodevelopmental disorders as autism or schizophrenia. NMDA receptors contain multiple types of subunits with distinct functional and pharmacological properties making the picture more complex. These receptors also offer multiple binding sites to be targeted with pharmacons, however, early broad-spectrum NMDA receptor antagonists had limited clinical use due to their intolerable adverse effect profile. The discovery of several types of subunit selective NMDA receptor antagonists may offer valuable therapeutic possibilities for several disorders, with improved clinical efficacy and decreased side effects. However, in spite of our increasing knowledge concerning the involvement of NMDA receptors in pathological processes, molecules with a selective action, tolerable side effect profile and good clinical efficacy are still only in clinical development in the majority of cases. Nevertheless, NMDA receptors offer a novel opportunity in the treatment of various neuropsychiatric conditions.

  11. Neurotrophin receptor structure and interactions.

    PubMed

    Yano, H; Chao, M V

    2000-03-01

    Although ligand-induced dimerization or oligomerization of receptors is a well established mechanism of growth factor signaling, increasing evidence indicates that biological responses are often mediated by receptor trans-signaling mechanisms involving two or more receptor systems. These include G protein-coupled receptors, cytokine, growth factor and trophic factor receptors. Greater flexibility is provided when different signaling pathways are merged through multiple receptor signaling systems. Trophic factors exemplified by NGF and its family members, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) all utilize increased tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular substrates to mediate neuronal cell survival. Actions of the NGF family of neurotrophins are not only dictated by ras activation through the Trk family of receptor tyrosine kinases, but also a survival pathway defined by phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase activity (Yao and Cooper, 1995), which gives rise to phosphoinositide intermediates that activate the serine/threonine kinase Akt/PKB (Dudek et al., 1997). Induction of the serine-threonine kinase activity is critical for cell survival, as well as cell proliferation. Hence, for many trophic factors, multiple proteins constitute a functional multisubunit receptor complex that activates ras-dependent and ras-independent intracellular signaling. The NGF receptors provide an example of bidirectional crosstalk. In the presence of TrkA receptors, p75 can participate in the formation of high affinity binding sites and enhanced neurotrophin responsiveness leading to a survival or differentiation signal. In the absence of TrkA receptors, p75 can generate, in only specific cell populations, a death signal. These activities include the induction of NF kappa B (Carter et al., 1996); the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide (Dobrowsky et al., 1995); and the pro-apoptotic functions attributed to p75. Receptors are generally drawn and viewed as

  12. Adenosine receptor desensitization and trafficking.

    PubMed

    Mundell, Stuart; Kelly, Eamonn

    2011-05-01

    As with the majority of G-protein-coupled receptors, all four of the adenosine receptor subtypes are known to undergo agonist-induced regulation in the form of desensitization and trafficking. These processes can limit the ability of adenosine receptors to couple to intracellular signalling pathways and thus reduce the ability of adenosine receptor agonists as well as endogenous adenosine to produce cellular responses. In addition, since adenosine receptors couple to multiple signalling pathways, these pathways may desensitize differentially, while the desensitization of one pathway could even trigger signalling via another. Thus, the overall picture of adenosine receptor regulation can be complex. For all adenosine receptor subtypes, there is evidence to implicate arrestins in agonist-induced desensitization and trafficking, but there is also evidence for other possible forms of regulation, including second messenger-dependent kinase regulation, heterologous effects involving G proteins, and the involvement of non-clathrin trafficking pathways such as caveolae. In this review, the evidence implicating these mechanisms is summarized for each adenosine receptor subtype, and we also discuss those issues of adenosine receptor regulation that remain to be resolved as well as likely directions for future research in this field. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Multifaceted Mineralocorticoid Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Sanchez, Elise; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E.

    2015-01-01

    The primary adrenal cortical steroid hormones, aldosterone, and the glucocorticoids cortisol and corticosterone, act through the structurally similar mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). Aldosterone is crucial for fluid, electrolyte, and hemodynamic homeostasis and tissue repair; the significantly more abundant glucocorticoids are indispensable for energy homeostasis, appropriate responses to stress, and limiting inflammation. Steroid receptors initiate gene transcription for proteins that effect their actions as well as rapid non-genomic effects through classical cell signaling pathways. GR and MR are expressed in many tissues types, often in the same cells, where they interact at molecular and functional levels, at times in synergy, others in opposition. Thus the appropriate balance of MR and GR activation is crucial for homeostasis. MR has the same binding affinity for aldosterone, cortisol, and corticosterone. Glucocorticoids activate MR in most tissues at basal levels and GR at stress levels. Inactivation of cortisol and corticosterone by 11β-HSD2 allows aldosterone to activate MR within aldosterone target cells and limits activation of the GR. Under most conditions, 11β-HSD1 acts as a reductase and activates cortisol/corticosterone, amplifying circulating levels. 11β-HSD1 and MR antagonists mitigate inappropriate activation of MR under conditions of oxidative stress that contributes to the pathophysiology of the cardiometabolic syndrome; however, MR antagonists decrease normal MR/GR functional interactions, a particular concern for neurons mediating cognition, memory, and affect. PMID:24944027

  14. Axonal GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Federico F; Marty, Alain; Stell, Brandon M

    2008-09-01

    Type A GABA receptors (GABA(A)Rs) are well established as the main inhibitory receptors in the mature mammalian forebrain. In recent years, evidence has accumulated showing that GABA(A)Rs are prevalent not only in the somatodendritic compartment of CNS neurons, but also in their axonal compartment. Evidence for axonal GABA(A)Rs includes new immunohistochemical and immunogold data: direct recording from single axonal terminals; and effects of local applications of GABA(A)R modulators on action potential generation, on axonal calcium signalling, and on neurotransmitter release. Strikingly, whereas presynaptic GABA(A)Rs have long been considered inhibitory, the new studies in the mammalian brain mostly indicate an excitatory action. Depending on the neuron that is under study, axonal GABA(A)Rs can be activated by ambient GABA, by GABA spillover, or by an autocrine action, to increase either action potential firing and/or transmitter release. In certain neurons, the excitatory effects of axonal GABA(A)Rs persist into adulthood. Altogether, axonal GABA(A)Rs appear as potent neuronal modulators of the mammalian CNS.

  15. The soluble leptin receptor.

    PubMed

    Schaab, Michael; Kratzsch, Juergen

    2015-10-01

    The adipokine leptin realizes signal transduction via four different leptin receptor (OB-R) isoforms. The amount of functionally active OB-R, however, is affected by constitutive shedding of the extracellular domain. The product of the cleavage process, the so-called soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), is the main binding protein for leptin in human blood and modulates its bioavailability. Concentrations of sOB-R are differentially regulated in metabolic disorders, such as type 1 diabetes mellitus or obesity, and can, therefore, enhance or reduce leptin sensitivity. Lipotoxicity and apoptosis increase OB-R cleavage via ADAM10-dependent mechanisms. In contrast, although increased sOB-R concentrations seem to directly inhibit leptin effects, reduced amounts of sOB-R may reflect decreased membrane expression of OB-R. These findings, in part, explain alterations of leptin sensitivity that are associated with changes in serum sOB-R concentrations seen in metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Kinin receptor classification.

    PubMed

    Regoli, D; Jukic, D; Tousignant, C; Rhaleb, N E

    1992-01-01

    Apparent affinities of kinin agonists and antagonists were determined in terms of pD2 and pA2 respectively, on three isolated smooth muscles: rabbit jugular vein (Rb.J.V.), rabbit aorta (Rb.A.) and guinea pig ileum (G.P.I.). Both kinin agonists and antagonists were evaluated for their ability to induce the release of histamine from rat mastocytes. Our results indicate that the kininase I metabolites (desArg9-BK and desArg10-KD) were inactive on Rb.J.V. and G.P.I. (B2 preparations) and were full agonists on Rb.A. (B1) while [Tyr(Me)8]-BK and [Hyp3,Tyr(Me)8]-BK were inactive on Rb.A. and maintain a high affinity on Rb.J.V. and G.P.I. In addition, [Hyp3]-BK was a potent agonist on Rb.J.V. (pD2 = 8.88) and was of a moderate affinity on G.P.I. (pD2 = 7.27). On the other hand, the affinity of [Aib7]-BK was identical to that of BK on G.P.I. (pD2 = 7.90) but drastically reduced in Rb.J.V. (pD2 = 6.28). Conctractile effects of kinins in the Rb.J.V. and G.P.I. were reduced or eliminated by B2 receptor antagonists but at different concentration levels (e.g. DArg[Hyp3,DPhe7,Leu8]-BK showed pA2 values of 8.86 on Rb.J.V., but only 6.77 on G.P.I. DArg[Hyp3,Gly6,Leu8]BK showed high affinity on Rb.J.V. (pA2 = 7.60) but was a full agonist on G.P.I. Conversely, DArg[Tyr3,DPhe7,Leu8,BK] showed high agonistic activity on Rb.J.V. (pD2 = 8.30, alpha E = 1.0) and showed a pA2 value of 6.80 on G.P.I. All compounds (agonists and antagonists) were quite potent on histamine release induced in rat mastocytes. [Arg1(Tos),Hyp3,Thi5,DTic7,Oic8]-BK and DArg[Hyp3,Thi5,DTic7,Oic8]-BK showed almost similar pA2 values on both Rb.J.V. and G.P.I., but were inactive on Rb.A. (B1). These results suggest that kinins act on at least four functional sites: B1 (Rb.A.), B2A (Rb.J.V.), B2B (G.P.I.) and BH. However, there is no clear evidence of a kinin receptor on rat mast cells and the release of histamine may simply be a non-receptor phenomenon. Our data also show that B2A and B2B receptor subtypes might

  17. Glucocorticoid Regulation of the Vitamin D Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Alejandro A.; Trump, Donald L.; Johnson, Candace S.

    2010-01-01

    Many studies indicate calcitriol has potent anti-tumor activity in different types of cancers. However, high levels of vitamin D can produce hypercalcemia in some patients. Glucocorticoids are used to ameliorate hypercalcemia and to enhance calcitriol anti-tumor activity. Calcitriol in combination with the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex) increased vitamin D receptor (VDR) protein levels and ligand binding in squamous cell carcinoma VII (SCC). In this study we found that both calcitriol and Dex induce VDR- and glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-mediated transcription respectively, indicating both hormone receptors are active in SCC. Pre-treatment with Dex increases VDR-mediated transcription at the human CYP24A1 promoter. Whereas, pre-treatment with other steroid hormones, including dihydrotestosterone and R1881, has no effect on VDR-mediated transcription. Real-time PCR indicates treatment with Dex increases Vdr transcripts in a time-dependent manner, suggesting Dex may directly regulate expression of Vdr. Numerous putative glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) were found in the Vdr gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay demonstrated GR binding at several putative GREs located within the mouse Vdr gene. However, none of the putative GREs studied increase GR-mediated transcription in luciferase reporter assays. In an attempt to identify the response element responsible for Vdr transcript regulation, future studies will continue to analyze newly identified GREs more distal from the Vdr gene promoter. PMID:20398752

  18. IgA Fc receptors.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Renato C; Van De Winkel, Jan G J

    2003-01-01

    The IgA receptor family comprises a number of surface receptors including the polymeric Ig receptor involved in epithelial transport of IgA/IgM, the myeloid specific IgA Fc receptor (FcalphaRI or CD89), the Fcalpha/muR, and at least two alternative IgA receptors. These are the asialoglycoprotein receptor and the transferrin receptor, which have been implicated in IgA catabolism, and tissue IgA deposition. In this review we focus on the biology of FcalphaRI (CD89). FcalphaRI is expressed on neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, and Kupffer cells. This receptor represents a heterogeneously glycosylated transmembrane protein that binds both IgA subclasses with low affinity. A single gene encoding FcalphaRI has been isolated, which is located within the leukocyte receptor cluster on chromosome 19. The FcalphaRI alpha chain lacks canonical signal transduction domains but can associate with the FcR gamma-chain that bears an activation motif (ITAM) in the cytoplasmic domain, allowing activatory functions. FcalphaRI expressed alone mediates endocytosis and recyling of IgA. No FcalphaRI homologue has been defined in the mouse, and progress in defining the in vivo role of FcalphaRI has been made using human FcalphaRI transgenic (Tg) mice. FcalphaRI-Tg mice demonstrated FcalphaRI expression on Kupffer cells and so defined a key role for the receptor in mucosal defense. The receptor functions as a second line of antibacterial defense involving serum IgA rather than secretory IgA. Studies in FcalphaRI-Tg mice, furthermore, defined an essential role for soluble FcalphaRI in the development of IgA nephropathy by formation of circulating IgA-FcalphaRI complexes. Finally, recent work points out a role for human IgA in treatment of infectious and neoplastic diseases.

  19. [Molecular receptors of taste agents].

    PubMed

    Giliarov, D A; Sakharova, T A; Buzdin, A A

    2009-01-01

    All representatives of higher eukaryotes can probably differentially perceive nutrients and poisonous substances. Molecular mechanisms of transduction of taste information have been best studied for mammals and for the fruit fly Drosophila. Here, we consider receptor mechanisms and conjugated primary signal processes of stimulation of taste receptor cells by stimuli of various taste modalities.

  20. The changing world of G protein-coupled receptors: from monomers to dimers and receptor mosaics with allosteric receptor-receptor interactions.

    PubMed

    Fuxe, Kjell; Marcellino, Daniel; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel Oscar; Frankowska, Malgorzata; Ferraro, Luca; Guidolin, Diego; Ciruela, Francisco; Agnati, Luigi F

    2010-10-01

    Based on indications of direct physical interactions between neuropeptide and monoamine receptors in the early 1980s, the term receptor-receptor interactions was introduced and later on the term receptor heteromerization in the early 1990s. Allosteric mechanisms allow an integrative activity to emerge either intramolecularly in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) monomers or intermolecularly via receptor-receptor interactions in GPCR homodimers, heterodimers, and receptor mosaics. Stable heteromers of Class A receptors may be formed that involve strong high energy arginine-phosphate electrostatic interactions. These receptor-receptor interactions markedly increase the repertoire of GPCR recognition, signaling and trafficking in which the minimal signaling unit in the GPCR homomers appears to be one receptor and one G protein. GPCR homomers and GPCR assemblies are not isolated but also directly interact with other proteins to form horizontal molecular networks at the plasma membrane.

  1. PM SOURCE APPORTIONMENT/RECEPTOR MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Source apportionment (receptor) models are mathematical procedures for identifying and quantifying the sources of ambient air pollutants and their effects at a site (the receptor), primarily on the basis of species concentration measurements at the receptor, and generally without...

  2. Allosteric Modulation of Chemoattractant Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Allegretti, Marcello; Cesta, Maria Candida; Locati, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Chemoattractants control selective leukocyte homing via interactions with a dedicated family of related G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Emerging evidence indicates that the signaling activity of these receptors, as for other GPCR, is influenced by allosteric modulators, which interact with the receptor in a binding site distinct from the binding site of the agonist and modulate the receptor signaling activity in response to the orthosteric ligand. Allosteric modulators have a number of potential advantages over orthosteric agonists/antagonists as therapeutic agents and offer unprecedented opportunities to identify extremely selective drug leads. Here, we resume evidence of allosterism in the context of chemoattractant receptors, discussing in particular its functional impact on functional selectivity and probe/concentration dependence of orthosteric ligands activities. PMID:27199992

  3. Dopamine Receptors and Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hisahara, Shin; Shimohama, Shun

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive extrapyramidal motor disorder. Pathologically, this disease is characterized by the selective dopaminergic (DAergic) neuronal degeneration in the substantia nigra. Correcting the DA deficiency in PD with levodopa (L-dopa) significantly attenuates the motor symptoms; however, its effectiveness often declines, and L-dopa-related adverse effects emerge after long-term treatment. Nowadays, DA receptor agonists are useful medication even regarded as first choice to delay the starting of L-dopa therapy. In advanced stage of PD, they are also used as adjunct therapy together with L-dopa. DA receptor agonists act by stimulation of presynaptic and postsynaptic DA receptors. Despite the usefulness, they could be causative drugs for valvulopathy and nonmotor complication such as DA dysregulation syndrome (DDS). In this paper, physiological characteristics of DA receptor familyare discussed. We also discuss the validity, benefits, and specific adverse effects of pharmaceutical DA receptor agonist. PMID:25954517

  4. Entry of Botulinum Neurotoxin Subtypes A1 and A2 into Neurons.

    PubMed

    Kroken, Abby R; Blum, Faith C; Zuverink, Madison; Barbieri, Joseph T

    2017-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most toxic proteins for humans but also are common therapies for neurological diseases. BoNTs are dichain toxins, comprising an N-terminal catalytic domain (LC) disulfide bond linked to a C-terminal heavy chain (HC) which includes a translocation domain (H N ) and a receptor binding domain (H C ). Recently, the BoNT serotype A (BoNT/A) subtypes A1 and A2 were reported to possess similar potencies but different rates of cellular intoxication and pathology in a mouse model of botulism. The current study measured H C A1 and H C A2 entry into rat primary neurons and cultured Neuro2A cells. We found that there were two sequential steps during the association of BoNT/A with neurons. The initial step was ganglioside dependent, while the subsequent step involved association with synaptic vesicles. H C A1 and H C A2 entered the same population of synaptic vesicles and entered cells at similar rates. The primary difference was that H C A2 had a higher degree of receptor occupancy for cells and neurons than HcA1. Thus, H C A2 and H C A1 share receptors and entry pathway but differ in their affinity for receptor. The initial interaction of H C A1 and H C A2 with neurons may contribute to the unique pathologies of BoNT/A1 and BoNT/A2 in mouse models. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Tyrosine Phosphorylation of the Pioneer Transcription Factor FoxA1 Promotes Activation of Estrogen Signaling.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Noritaka; Shibazaki, Misato; Yamada, Chiaki; Anzai, Erina; Morii, Mariko; Nakayama, Yuji; Kuga, Takahisa; Hashimoto, Yuuki; Tomonaga, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2017-06-01

    The pioneer transcription factor FoxA1 plays an important role in estrogen signaling by opening closed chromatin and promoting recruitment of the estrogen receptor to its target regions in DNA. In this study, we analyzed tyrosine phosphorylation of FoxA1 by the non-receptor-type tyrosine kinase c-Abl. c-Abl was shown to phosphorylate FoxA1 at multiple sites, especially in the N- and C-terminal regions. Tyr429 and Tyr464 were identified as the major phosphorylation sites in the FoxA1 C-terminal region. The phosphomimetic and nonphosphorylatable FoxA1 mutants were generated by glutamic acid and phenylalanine substitutions at these tyrosine residues, respectively. The phosphomimetic FoxA1 promoted the activation of estrogen signaling, whereas the nonphosphorylatable FoxA1 suppressed its activation. Stimulation with the epidermal growth factor, which activates c-Abl, enhanced the activation of estrogen signaling. In contrast, the c-Abl inhibitor imatinib reduced its activation. The phosphomimetic FoxA1 mutant showed a higher affinity toward histone H3 than the wild-type. These results suggest that c-Abl-mediated phosphorylation of FoxA1 promotes the activation of estrogen signaling by inducing its binding to histones. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1453-1461, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Variant ionotropic glutamate receptors as chemosensory receptors in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Benton, Richard; Vannice, Kirsten S.; Gomez-Diaz, Carolina; Vosshall, Leslie B.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) mediate neuronal communication at synapses throughout vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems. We have characterized a novel family of iGluR-related genes in Drosophila, which we name Ionotropic Receptors (IRs). These receptors do not belong to the well-described Kainate, AMPA, or NMDA classes of iGluRs, and have divergent ligand-binding domains that lack their characteristic glutamate-interacting residues. IRs are expressed in a combinatorial fashion in sensory neurons that respond to many distinct odors but do not express either insect odorant receptors (ORs) or gustatory receptors (GRs). IR proteins accumulate in sensory dendrites and not at synapses. Mis-expression of IRs induces novel odor responses in ectopic neurons. Together, these results lead us to propose that the IRs comprise a novel family of chemosensory receptors. Conservation of IR/iGluR-related proteins in bacteria, plants, and animals suggests that this receptor family represents an evolutionarily ancient mechanism for sensing both internal and external chemical cues. PMID:19135896

  7. Entry of Botulinum Neurotoxin Subtypes A1 and A2 into Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kroken, Abby R.; Blum, Faith C.; Zuverink, Madison

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most toxic proteins for humans but also are common therapies for neurological diseases. BoNTs are dichain toxins, comprising an N-terminal catalytic domain (LC) disulfide bond linked to a C-terminal heavy chain (HC) which includes a translocation domain (HN) and a receptor binding domain (HC). Recently, the BoNT serotype A (BoNT/A) subtypes A1 and A2 were reported to possess similar potencies but different rates of cellular intoxication and pathology in a mouse model of botulism. The current study measured HCA1 and HCA2 entry into rat primary neurons and cultured Neuro2A cells. We found that there were two sequential steps during the association of BoNT/A with neurons. The initial step was ganglioside dependent, while the subsequent step involved association with synaptic vesicles. HCA1 and HCA2 entered the same population of synaptic vesicles and entered cells at similar rates. The primary difference was that HCA2 had a higher degree of receptor occupancy for cells and neurons than HcA1. Thus, HCA2 and HCA1 share receptors and entry pathway but differ in their affinity for receptor. The initial interaction of HCA1 and HCA2 with neurons may contribute to the unique pathologies of BoNT/A1 and BoNT/A2 in mouse models. PMID:27795365

  8. Inhibitory Ah Receptor-Androgen Receptor Crosstalk in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    Balk,S.P. Selection for androgen receptor mutations in prostate cancers treated with androgen antagonist. Cancer Res. 59:2511-2515, 1999. 5. Ris...expression, 24-hydroxylase activity, and inhibition of growth hydrocarbon receptor modulators ( SARMs ) for treatment of breast by lca,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3...Safe, A. McDougal, M.S. Gupta, K. Ramamoorthy, Selective Ah [20] D.M. Peehl, R.J. Skowronski, G.K. Leung, S.T. Wong, T.A. Stamey, receptor modulators

  9. Estrogen-related receptor β (ERRβ) – renaissance receptor or receptor renaissance?

    PubMed Central

    Divekar, Shailaja D.; Tiek, Deanna M.; Fernandez, Aileen; Riggins, Rebecca B.

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) are founding members of the orphan nuclear receptor (ONR) subgroup of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Twenty-seven years of study have yet to identify cognate ligands for the ERRs, though they have firmly placed ERRα and ERRγ at the intersection of cellular metabolism and oncogenesis. The pace of discovery for novel functions of ERRβ, however, has until recently been somewhat slower than that of its family members. ERRβ has also been largely ignored in summaries and perspectives of the ONR literature. Here, we provide an overview of established and emerging knowledge of ERRβ in mouse, man, and other species, highlighting unique aspects of ERRβ biology that set it apart from the other two estrogen-related receptors, with a focus on the impact of alternative splicing on the structure and function of this receptor. PMID:27507929

  10. Angiotensin II receptors in testes

    SciTech Connect

    Millan, M.A.; Aguilera, G.

    Receptors for angiotensin II (AII) were identified and characterized in testes of rats and several primate species. Autoradiographic analysis of the binding of 125I-labeled (Sar1,Ile8)AII to rat, rhesus monkey, cebus monkey, and human testicular slide-mounted frozen sections indicated specific binding to Leydig cells in the interstitium. In rat collagenase-dispersed interstitial cells fractionated by Percoll gradient, AII receptor content was parallel to that of hCG receptors, confirming that the AII receptors are in the Leydig cells. In rat dispersed Leydig cells, binding was specific for AII and its analogs and of high affinity (Kd, 4.8 nM), with a receptor concentration ofmore » 15 fmol/10(6) cells. Studies of AII receptors in rat testes during development reveals the presence of high receptor density in newborn rats which decreases toward the adult age (4934 +/- 309, 1460 +/- 228, 772 +/- 169, and 82 +/- 12 fmol/mg protein at 5, 15, 20, and 30 days of age, respectively) with no change in affinity. At all ages receptors were located in the interstitium, and the decrease in binding was parallel to the decrease in the interstitial to tubular ratio observed with age. AII receptor properties in membrane-rich fractions from prepuberal testes were similar in the rat and rhesus monkey. Binding was time and temperature dependent, reaching a plateau at 60 min at 37 C, and was increased by divalent cations, EGTA, and dithiothreitol up to 0.5 mM. In membranes from prepuberal monkey testes, AII receptors were specific for AII analogs and of high affinity (Kd, 4.2 nM) with a receptor concentration of 7599 +/- 1342 fmol/mg protein. The presence of AII receptors in Leydig cells in rat and primate testes in conjunction with reports of the presence of other components of the renin-angiotensin system in the testes suggests that the peptide has a physiological role in testicular function.« less

  11. In search of selective P2 receptor ligands: interaction of dihydropyridine derivatives at recombinant rat P2X(2) receptors.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, K A; Kim, Y C; King, B F

    2000-07-03

    1,4-Dihydropyridines are regarded as privileged structures for drug design, i.e. they tend to bind to a wide variety of receptor sites. We have shown that upon appropriate manipulation of the substituent groups on a 1,4-dihydropyridine template, high affinity and selectivity for the A(3) subtype of adenosine receptors ('P1 receptors') may be attained. In the present study we have begun to extend this approach to P2 receptors which are activated by ATP and other nucleotides. Nicardipine, a representative dihydropyridine, used otherwise as an L-type calcium channel blocker, was shown to be an antagonist at recombinant rat P2X(2) (IC(50)=25 microM) and P2X(4) (IC(50) approximately 220 microM) receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Thus, this class of compounds represents a suitable lead for enhancement of affinity through chemical synthesis. In an attempt to modify the 1,4-dihydropyridine structure with a predicted P2 receptor recognition moiety, we have replaced one of the ester groups with a negatively charged phosphonate group. Several 4-phenyl-5-phosphonato-1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives, MRS 2154 (2, 6-dimethyl), MRS 2155 (6-methyl-2-phenyl), and MRS 2156 (2-methyl-6-phenyl), were synthesized through three component condensation reactions. These derivatives were not pure antagonists of the effects of ATP at P2X(2) receptors, rather were either inactive (MRS 2156) or potentiated the effects of ATP in a concentration-dependent manner (MRS 2154 in the 0.3-10 microM range and MRS 2155 at >1 microM). Antagonism of the effects of ATP at P2X(2) receptor superimposed on the potentiation was also observed at >10 microM (MRS 2154) or 0.3-1 microM (MRS 2155). Thus, while a conventional dihydropyridine, nicardipine, was found to antagonize rat P2X(2) receptors ninefold more potently than P2X(4) receptors, the effects of novel, anionic 5-phosphonate analogues at the receptor were more complex.

  12. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/labtests/hemoglobina1chba1ctest.html Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) Test To use the sharing features on this page, ... enable JavaScript. What is a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test? A hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test measures the amount ...

  13. Signaling Pathways of Purinergic Receptors and Their Interactions with Cholinergic and Adrenergic Pathways in the Lacrimal Gland

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, Robin R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Purinergic receptors play a key role in the function of the lacrimal gland (LG) as P1 purinergic receptors A1, A2A, and A2B, P2X1–7 receptors, and many of the P2Y receptors are expressed. Methods: This review examines the current knowledge of purinergic receptors in the LG as well as the signaling pathways activated by these receptors. Results: These receptors are expressed on the acinar, ductal, and myoepithelial cells. Considerable crosstalk exists between the pathways activated by P2X7 receptors with those activated by M3 muscarinic or α1D adrenergic receptors. The mechanism of the crosstalk between P2X7 and M3 muscarinic receptors differs from that of the crosstalk between P2X7 and α1D adrenergic receptors. Conclusions: Understanding purinergic receptors and how they modulate protein secretion could play a key role in normal and pathological responses of the LG. PMID:27463365

  14. Polymorphism rs1385129 Within Glut1 Gene SLC2A1 Is Linked to Poor CD4+ T Cell Recovery in Antiretroviral-Treated HIV+ Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Jesse J. R.; Cherry, Catherine L.; Murphy, Nicholas M.; Sada-Ovalle, Isabel; Hussain, Tabinda; Palchaudhuri, Riya; Martinson, Jeffrey; Landay, Alan L.; Billah, Baki; Crowe, Suzanne M.; Palmer, Clovis S.

    2018-01-01

    Untreated HIV infection is associated with progressive CD4+ T cell depletion, which is generally recovered with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). However, a significant proportion of cART-treated individuals have poor CD4+ T cell reconstitution. We investigated associations between HIV disease progression and CD4+ T cell glucose transporter-1 (Glut1) expression. We also investigated the association between these variables and specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the Glut1 regulatory gene AKT (rs1130214, rs2494732, rs1130233, and rs3730358) and in the Glut1-expressing gene SLC2A1 (rs1385129 and rs841853) and antisense RNA 1 region SLC2A1-AS1 (rs710218). High CD4+Glut1+ T cell percentage is associated with rapid CD4+ T cell decline in HIV-positive treatment-naïve individuals and poor T cell recovery in HIV-positive individuals on cART. Evidence suggests that poor CD4+ T cell recovery in treated HIV-positive individuals is linked to the homozygous genotype (GG) associated with SLC2A1 SNP rs1385129 when compared to those with a recessive allele (GA/AA) (odds ratio = 4.67; P = 0.04). Furthermore, poor response to therapy is less likely among Australian participants when compared against American participants (odds ratio: 0.12; P = 0.01) despite there being no difference in prevalence of a specific genotype for any of the SNPs analyzed between nationalities. Finally, CD4+Glut1+ T cell percentage is elevated among those with a homozygous dominant genotype for SNPs rs1385129 (GG) and rs710218 (AA) when compared to those with a recessive allele (GA/AA and AT/TT respectively) (P < 0.04). The heterozygous genotype associated with AKT SNP 1130214 (GT) had a higher CD4+Glut1+ T cell percentage when compared to the dominant homozygous genotype (GG) (P = 0.0068). The frequency of circulating CD4+Glut1+ T cells and the rs1385129 SLC2A1 SNP may predict the rate of HIV disease progression and CD4+ T cell recovery in untreated and

  15. 46 CFR 147A.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose. 147A.1 Section 147A.1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION General § 147A.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to prescribe the requirements for shipboard...

  16. 46 CFR 147A.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purpose. 147A.1 Section 147A.1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION General § 147A.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to prescribe the requirements for shipboard...

  17. 46 CFR 147A.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 147A.1 Section 147A.1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION General § 147A.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to prescribe the requirements for shipboard...

  18. 46 CFR 147A.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 147A.1 Section 147A.1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION General § 147A.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to prescribe the requirements for shipboard...

  19. 46 CFR 147A.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 147A.1 Section 147A.1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION General § 147A.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to prescribe the requirements for shipboard...

  20. 42 CFR 2a.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability. 2a.1 Section 2a.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.1 Applicability. (a) Section 303(a) of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 242a...

  1. 42 CFR 2a.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability. 2a.1 Section 2a.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.1 Applicability. (a) Section 303(a) of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 242a...

  2. 42 CFR 2a.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applicability. 2a.1 Section 2a.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.1 Applicability. (a) Section 303(a) of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 242a...

  3. 18 CFR 3a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 3a.1 Section 3a.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.1 Purpose. This part 3a describes the...

  4. 18 CFR 3a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Purpose. 3a.1 Section 3a.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.1 Purpose. This part 3a describes the...

  5. 18 CFR 3a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Purpose. 3a.1 Section 3a.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.1 Purpose. This part 3a describes the...

  6. 18 CFR 3a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Purpose. 3a.1 Section 3a.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.1 Purpose. This part 3a describes the...

  7. Recombinant soluble adenovirus receptor

    DOEpatents

    Freimuth, Paul I.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are isolated polypeptides from human CAR (coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor) protein which bind adenovirus. Specifically disclosed are amino acid sequences which corresponds to adenovirus binding domain D1 and the entire extracellular domain of human CAR protein comprising D1 and D2. In other aspects, the disclosure relates to nucleic acid sequences encoding these domains as well as expression vectors which encode the domains and bacterial cells containing such vectors. Also disclosed is an isolated fusion protein comprised of the D1 polypeptide sequence fused to a polypeptide sequence which facilitates folding of D1 into a functional, soluble domain when expressed in bacteria. The functional D1 domain finds application for example in a therapeutic method for treating a patient infected with a virus which binds to D1, and also in a method for identifying an antiviral compound which interferes with viral attachment. Also included is a method for specifically targeting a cell for infection by a virus which binds to D1.

  8. Protection against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity to neostriatal dopaminergic neurons by adenosine receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Delle Donne, K T; Sonsalla, P K

    1994-12-01

    Methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurotoxicity to nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in experimental animals appears to have a glutamatergic component because blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors prevents the neuropathologic consequences. Because adenosine affords neuroprotection against various forms of glutamate-mediated neuronal damage, the present studies were performed to investigate whether adenosine plays a protective role in METH-induced toxicity. METH-induced decrements in neostriatal dopamine content and tyrosine hydroxylase activity in mice were potentiated by concurrent treatment with caffeine, a nonselective adenosine antagonist that blocks both A1 and A2 adenosine receptors. In contrast, chronic treatment of mice with caffeine through their drinking water for 4 weeks, which increased the number of adenosine A1 receptors in the neostriatum and frontal cortex, followed by drug washout, prevented the neurochemical changes produced by the treatment of mice with METH treatment. In contrast, this treatment did not prevent 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Furthermore, concurrent administration of cyclopentyladenosine, an adenosine A1 receptor agonist, attenuated the METH-induced neurochemical changes. This protection by cyclopentyladenosine was blocked by cyclopentyltheophylline, an A1 receptor antagonist. These results indicate that activation of A1 receptors can protect against METH-induced neurotoxicity in mice.

  9. L-glutamate Receptor In Paramecium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal-Martínez, Juan; Ortega-Soto, Arturo

    2004-09-01

    Behavioral, electrophysiological and biochemical experiments were performed in order to establish the presence of a glutamate receptor in the ciliate Paramecium. It was found that an AMPA/KA receptor is functionally expressed in Paramecium and that this receptor is immunologically and fillogenetically related to the AMPA/KA receptor present in vertebrates.

  10. History of retinoic acid receptors.

    PubMed

    Benbrook, Doris M; Chambon, Pierre; Rochette-Egly, Cécile; Asson-Batres, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of retinoic acid receptors arose from research into how vitamins are essential for life. Early studies indicated that Vitamin A was metabolized into an active factor, retinoic acid (RA), which regulates RNA and protein expression in cells. Each step forward in our understanding of retinoic acid in human health was accomplished by the development and application of new technologies. Development cDNA cloning techniques and discovery of nuclear receptors for steroid hormones provided the basis for identification of two classes of retinoic acid receptors, RARs and RXRs, each of which has three isoforms, α, β and ɣ. DNA manipulation and crystallographic studies revealed that the receptors contain discrete functional domains responsible for binding to DNA, ligands and cofactors. Ligand binding was shown to induce conformational changes in the receptors that cause release of corepressors and recruitment of coactivators to create functional complexes that are bound to consensus promoter DNA sequences called retinoic acid response elements (RAREs) and that cause opening of chromatin and transcription of adjacent genes. Homologous recombination technology allowed the development of mice lacking expression of retinoic acid receptors, individually or in various combinations, which demonstrated that the receptors exhibit vital, but redundant, functions in fetal development and in vision, reproduction, and other functions required for maintenance of adult life. More recent advancements in sequencing and proteomic technologies reveal the complexity of retinoic acid receptor involvement in cellular function through regulation of gene expression and kinase activity. Future directions will require systems biology approaches to decipher how these integrated networks affect human stem cells, health, and disease.

  11. Xenobiotics and the Glucocorticoid Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Gulliver, Linda S M, E-mail: linda.gulliver@otago.

    Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) is present in virtually every human cell type. Representing a nuclear receptor superfamily, GR has several different isoforms essentially acting as ligand-dependent transcription factors, regulating glucocorticoid-responsive gene expression in both a positive and a negative manner. Although the natural ligand of the Glucocorticoid Receptor, glucocorticoids (GC) represent only some of the multiple ligands for GR. Xenobiotics, ubiquitous in the environment, bind to GR and are also capable of activating or repressing GR gene expression, thereby modulating GR cell and tissue-specific downstream effects in a multitude of ways that include responses to inflammatory, allergic, metabolic, neoplastic and autoimmunemore » processes. Many xenobiotics, if inadequately metabolized by xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and not wholly eliminated, could have deleterious toxic effects with potentially lethal consequences. This review examines GR, the genomic and non-genomic actions of natural and synthetic GC and the body's handling of xenobiotic compounds, before reviewing what is presently known about GR's interactions with many of the more commonly encountered and some of the less well known GR-associated xenobiotics. GR promiscuity and crosstalk with other signaling pathways is discussed, alongside novel roles for GR that include mood disorder and addiction. A knowledge of GR interactions with xenobiotics is increasingly relevant when considering aging populations and the related prevalence of neoplastic disease, together with growing concerns around human exposure to mixtures of chemicals in the environment. Furthermore, escalating rates of obesity, Type 2 diabetes; autoimmune, allergy, addiction and mood disorder-related pathologies, require novel targeted interventions and GR appears a promising pharmacological candidate. - Highlights: • Biological impact of xenobiotics acting through Glucocorticoid Receptor. • Promiscuity of Glucocorticoid

  12. [The receptor theory of atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Likhoded, V G; Bondarenko, V M; Gintsburg, A L

    2010-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacteria can interact with Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and induce atheroma formation. The risk of atherosclerosis is decreased in case of TLR4 mutation. Other bacterial ligands and endogenous ligands of TLRs can also be involved in induction of atherogenesis. The general concept of atherosclerosis pathogentsis is presented. According to this concept atherogenesis can be initiated by some reactions resulting from interaction of exogenous and endogenous microbial ligands with Toll-like receptors.

  13. Serotonin is an endogenous regulator of intestinal CYP1A1 via AhR.

    PubMed

    Manzella, Christopher; Singhal, Megha; Alrefai, Waddah A; Saksena, Seema; Dudeja, Pradeep K; Gill, Ravinder K

    2018-04-17

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a nuclear receptor that controls xenobiotic detoxification via induction of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and regulates immune responses in the intestine. Metabolites of L-tryptophan activate AhR, which confers protection against intestinal inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that serotonin (5-HT) is an endogenous activator of AhR in intestinal epithelial cells. Treatment of Caco-2 monolayers with 5-HT induced CYP1A1 mRNA in a time- and concentration-dependent manner and also stimulated CYP1A1 activity. CYP1A1 induction by 5-HT was dependent upon uptake via serotonin transporter (SERT). Antagonism of AhR and knockdown of AhR and its binding partner aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) attenuated CYP1A1 induction by 5-HT. Activation of AhR was evident by its nuclear translocation after 5-HT treatment and by induction of an AhR-responsive luciferase reporter. In vivo studies showed a dramatic decrease in CYP1A1 expression and other AhR target genes in SERT KO ileal mucosa by microarray analysis. These results suggest that intracellular accumulation of 5-HT via SERT induces CYP1A1 expression via AhR in intestinal epithelial cells, and SERT deficiency in vivo impairs activation of AhR. Our studies provide a novel link between the serotonergic and AhR pathways which has implications in xenobiotic metabolism and intestinal inflammation.

  14. Nuclear Receptors, RXR, and the Big Bang.

    PubMed

    Evans, Ronald M; Mangelsdorf, David J

    2014-03-27

    Isolation of genes encoding the receptors for steroids, retinoids, vitamin D, and thyroid hormone and their structural and functional analysis revealed an evolutionarily conserved template for nuclear hormone receptors. This discovery sparked identification of numerous genes encoding related proteins, termed orphan receptors. Characterization of these orphan receptors and, in particular, of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) positioned nuclear receptors at the epicenter of the "Big Bang" of molecular endocrinology. This Review provides a personal perspective on nuclear receptors and explores their integrated and coordinated signaling networks that are essential for multicellular life, highlighting the RXR heterodimer and its associated ligands and transcriptional mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Formation and stability of synaptic receptor domains.

    PubMed

    Haselwandter, Christoph A; Calamai, Martino; Kardar, Mehran; Triller, Antoine; da Silveira, Rava Azeredo

    2011-06-10

    Neurotransmitter receptor molecules, concentrated in postsynaptic domains along with scaffold and a number of other molecules, are key regulators of signal transmission across synapses. Combining experiment and theory, we develop a quantitative description of synaptic receptor domains in terms of a reaction-diffusion model. We show that interactions between only receptors and scaffolds, together with the rapid diffusion of receptors on the cell membrane, are sufficient for the formation and stable characteristic size of synaptic receptor domains. Our work reconciles long-term stability of synaptic receptor domains with rapid turnover and diffusion of individual receptors, and suggests novel mechanisms for a form of short-term, postsynaptic plasticity.

  16. Insulin release: the receptor hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Malaisse, Willy J

    2014-07-01

    It is currently believed that the stimulation of insulin release by nutrient secretagogues reflects their capacity to act as fuel in pancreatic islet beta cells. In this review, it is proposed that such a fuel concept is not incompatible with a receptor hypothesis postulating the participation of cell-surface receptors in the recognition of selected nutrients as insulinotropic agents. Pursuant to this, attention is drawn to such matters as the anomeric specificity of the beta cell secretory response to D-glucose and its perturbation in diabetes mellitus, the insulinotropic action of artificial sweeteners, the possible role of bitter taste receptors in the stimulation of insulin secretion by L-glucose pentaacetate, the recently documented presence of cell-surface sweet taste receptors in insulin-producing cells, the multimodal signalling process resulting from the activation of these latter receptors, and the presence in beta cells of a sweet taste receptor mediating the fructose-induced potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

  17. Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1a1 Null Mice Are Sensitive to Cholestatic Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youcai; Csanaky, Iván L.; Cheng, Xingguo; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2012-01-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 (Oatp1a1) is predominantly expressed in livers of mice and is thought to transport bile acids (BAs) from blood into liver. Because Oatp1a1 expression is markedly decreased in mice after bile duct ligation (BDL). We hypothesized that Oatp1a1-null mice would be protected against liver injury during BDL-induced cholestasis due largely to reduced hepatic uptake of BAs. To evaluate this hypothesis, BDL surgeries were performed in both male wild-type (WT) and Oatp1a1-null mice. At 24 h after BDL, Oatp1a1-null mice showed higher serum alanine aminotransferase levels and more severe liver injury than WT mice, and all Oatp1a1-null mice died within 4 days after BDL, whereas all WT mice survived. At 24 h after BDL, surprisingly Oatp1a1-null mice had higher total BA concentrations in livers than WT mice, suggesting that loss of Oatp1a1 did not prevent BA accumulation in the liver. In addition, secondary BAs dramatically increased in serum of Oatp1a1-null BDL mice but not in WT BDL mice. Oatp1a1-null BDL mice had similar basolateral BA uptake (Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and Oatp1b2) and BA-efflux (multidrug resistance–associated protein [Mrp]-3, Mrp4, and organic solute transporter α/β) transporters, as well as BA-synthetic enzyme (Cyp7a1) in livers as WT BDL mice. Hepatic expression of small heterodimer partner Cyp3a11, Cyp4a14, and Nqo1, which are target genes of farnesoid X receptor, pregnane X receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, and NF-E2-related factor 2, respectively, were increased in WT BDL mice but not in Oatp1a1-null BDL mice. These results demonstrate that loss of Oatp1a1 function exacerbates cholestatic liver injury in mice and suggest that Oatp1a1 plays a unique role in liver adaptive responses to obstructive cholestasis. PMID:22461449

  18. Trifunctional Agents as a Design Strategy for Tailoring Ligand Properties: Irreversible Inhibitors of A1 Adenosine Receptors†

    PubMed Central

    Boring, Daniel L.; Ji, Xiao-Duo; Zimmet, Jeff; Taylor, Kirk E.; Stiles, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    The 1,3-phenylene diisothiocyanate conjugate of XAC (8-[4-[[[[(2-aminoethyl)amino]carbonyl]methyl]-oxy]phenyl]-l,3-dipropylxanthine, a potent A1 selective adenosine antagonist) has been characterized as an irreversible inhibitor of A1 adenosine receptors. To further extend this work, a series of analogues were prepared containing a third substituent in the phenyl isothiocyanate ring, incorporated to modify the physiochemical or spectroscopic properties of the conjugate. Symmetrical trifunctional cross-linking reagents bearing two isothiocyanate groups were prepared as general intermediates for cross-linking functionalized congeners and receptors. Xanthine isothiocyanate derivatives containing hydrophilic, fluorescent, or reactive substituents, linked via an amide, thiourea, or methylene group in the 5-position, were synthesized and found to be irreversible inhibitors of A1 adenosine receptors. The effects of the 5-substituent on water solubility and on the A1/A2 selectivity ratio derived from binding assays in rat brain membranes were examined. Inhibition of binding of [3H]-N6-(2-phenylisopropyl)-adenosine and [3H]CGS21680 (2-[[2-[4-(2-carboxyethyl)phenyl]ethyl]amino]adenosine-5′-N-ethylcarboxamide) at central A1 and A2 adenosine receptors, respectively, was measured. A conjugate of XAC and 1,3,5-triisothiocyanatobenzene was 894-fold selective for A1 receptors. Reporter groups, such as fluorescent dyes and a spin-label, were included as chain substituents in the irreversibly binding analogues, which were designed for spectroscopic assays, histochemical characterization, and biochemical characterization of the receptor protein. PMID:1868116

  19. Fibroblast growth factor receptors in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuwei; Ding, Zhongyang

    2017-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors are growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, exerting their roles in embryogenesis, tissue homeostasis, and development of breast cancer. Recent genetic studies have identified some subtypes of fibroblast growth factor receptors as strong genetic loci associated with breast cancer. In this article, we review the recent epidemiological findings and experiment results of fibroblast growth factor receptors in breast cancer. First, we summarized the structure and physiological function of fibroblast growth factor receptors in humans. Then, we discussed the common genetic variations in fibroblast growth factor receptors that affect breast cancer risk. In addition, we also introduced the potential roles of each fibroblast growth factor receptors isoform in breast cancer. Finally, we explored the potential therapeutics targeting fibroblast growth factor receptors for breast cancer. Based on the biological mechanisms of fibroblast growth factor receptors leading to the pathogenesis in breast cancer, targeting fibroblast growth factor receptors may provide new opportunities for breast cancer therapeutic strategies.

  20. Trigeminal Medullary Dorsal Horn Neurons Activated by Nasal Stimulation Coexpress AMPA, NMDA, and NK1 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    McCulloch, P. F.; DiNovo, K. M.; Westerhaus, D. J.; Vizinas, T. A.; Peevey, J. F.; Lach, M. A.; Czarnocki, P.

    2013-01-01

    Afferent information initiating the cardiorespiratory responses during nasal stimulation projects from the nasal passages to neurons within the trigeminal medullary dorsal horn (MDH) via the anterior ethmoidal nerve (AEN). Central AEN terminals are thought to release glutamate to activate the MDH neurons. This study was designed to determine which neurotransmitter receptors (AMPA, kainate, or NMDA glutamate receptor subtypes or the Substance P receptor NK1) are expressed by these activated MDH neurons. Fos was used as a neuronal marker of activated neurons, and immunohistochemistry combined with epifluorescent microscopy was used to determine which neurotransmitter receptor subunits were coexpressed by activated MDH neurons. Results indicate that, during nasal stimulation with ammonia vapors in urethane-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats, activated neurons within the superficial MDH coexpress the AMPA glutamate receptor subunits GluA1 (95.8%) and GluA2/3 (88.2%), the NMDA glutamate receptor subunits GluN1 (89.1%) and GluN2A (41.4%), and NK1 receptors (64.0%). It is therefore likely that during nasal stimulation the central terminals of the AEN release glutamate and substance P that then produces activation of these MDH neurons. The involvement of AMPA and NMDA receptors may mediate fast and slow neurotransmission, respectively, while NK1 receptor involvement may indicate activation of a nociceptive pathway. PMID:24967301

  1. Identification of Putative Chemosensory Receptor Genes from the Athetis dissimilis Antennal Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Junfeng; Song, Yueqin; Li, Wenliang; Shi, Jie; Wang, Zhenying

    2016-01-01

    Olfaction plays a crucial role in insect population survival and reproduction. Identification of the genes associated with the olfactory system, without the doubt will promote studying the insect chemical communication system. In this study, RNA-seq technology was used to sequence the antennae transcriptome of Athetis dissimilis, an emerging crop pest in China with limited genomic information, with the purpose of identifying the gene set involved in olfactory recognition. Analysis of the transcriptome of female and male antennae generated 13.74 Gb clean reads in total from which 98,001 unigenes were assembled, and 25,930 unigenes were annotated. Total of 60 olfactory receptors (ORs), 18 gustatory receptors (GRs), and 12 ionotropic receptors (IRs) were identified by Blast and sequence similarity analyzes. One obligated olfactory receptor co-receptor (Orco) and four conserved sex pheromone receptors (PRs) were annotated in 60 ORs. Among the putative GRs, five genes (AdisGR1, 6, 7, 8 and 94) clustered in the sugar receptor family, and two genes (AdisGR3 and 93) involved in CO2 detection were identified. Finally, AdisIR8a.1 and AdisIR8a.2 co-receptors were identified in the group of candidate IRs. Furthermore, expression levels of these chemosensory receptor genes in female and male antennae were analyzed by mapping the Illumina reads. PMID:26812239

  2. Adenosine receptors and caffeine in retinopathy of prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiang-Fan; Zhang, Shuya; Zhou, Rong; Lin, Zhenlang; Cai, Xiaohong; Lin, Jing; Huo, Yuqing; Liu, Xiaoling

    2017-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a major cause of childhood blindness in the world and is caused by oxygen-induced damage to the developing retinal vasculature, resulting in hyperoxia-induced vaso-obliteration and subsequent delayed retinal vascularization and hypoxia-induced pathological neovascularization driven by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway in retina. Current anti-VEGF therapy has shown some effective in a clinical trial, but is associated with the unintended effects on delayed eye growth and retinal vasculature development of preterm infants. Notably, cellular responses to hypoxia are characterized by robust increases in extracellular adenosine production and the markedly induced adenosine receptors, which provide a novel target for preferential control of pathological angiogenesis without affecting normal vascular development. Here, we review the experimental evidence in support of adenosine receptor-based therapeutic strategy for ROP, including the aberrant adenosine signaling in oxygen-induced retinopathy and the role of three adenosine receptor subtypes (A1R, A2AR, A2BR) in development and treatment of ROP using oxygen-induced retinopathy models. The clinical and initial animal evidence that implicate the therapeutic effect of caffeine (a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist) in treatment of ROP are highlighted. Lastly, we discussed the translational potential as well therapeutic advantage of adenosine receptor- and caffeine-based therapy for ROR and possibly other proliferative retinopathy. PMID:28088487

  3. Adenosine receptors and caffeine in retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiang-Fan; Zhang, Shuya; Zhou, Rong; Lin, Zhenlang; Cai, Xiaohong; Lin, Jing; Huo, Yuqing; Liu, Xiaoling

    2017-06-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a major cause of childhood blindness in the world and is caused by oxygen-induced damage to the developing retinal vasculature, resulting in hyperoxia-induced vaso-obliteration and subsequent delayed retinal vascularization and hypoxia-induced pathological neovascularization driven by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway in retina. Current anti-VEGF therapy has shown some effective in a clinical trial, but is associated with the unintended effects on delayed eye growth and retinal vasculature development of preterm infants. Notably, cellular responses to hypoxia are characterized by robust increases in extracellular adenosine production and the markedly induced adenosine receptors, which provide a novel target for preferential control of pathological angiogenesis without affecting normal vascular development. Here, we review the experimental evidence in support of adenosine receptor-based therapeutic strategy for ROP, including the aberrant adenosine signaling in oxygen-induced retinopathy and the role of three adenosine receptor subtypes (A 1 R, A 2A R, A 2B R) in development and treatment of ROP using oxygen-induced retinopathy models. The clinical and initial animal evidence that implicate the therapeutic effect of caffeine (a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist) in treatment of ROP are highlighted. Lastly, we discussed the translational potential as well therapeutic advantage of adenosine receptor- and caffeine-based therapy for ROR and possibly other proliferative retinopathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Gravity receptors and responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Allan H.

    1989-01-01

    The overall process of gravity sensing and response processes in plants may be divided conveniently into at least four components or stages: Stimulus susception (a physical event, characteristically the input to the G receptor system of environmental information about the G force magnitude, its vector direction, or both); information perception (an influence of susception on some biological structure or process that can be described as the transformation of environmental information into a biologicallly meaningful change); information transport (the export, if required, of an influence (often chemical) to cells and organs other than those at the sensor location); and biological response (almost always (in plants) a growth change of some kind). Some analysts of the process identify, between information perception and information transport, an additional stage, transduction, which would emphasize the importance of a transformation from one form of information to another, for example from mechanical statolith displacement to an electric, chemical, or other alteration that was its indirect result. These four (or five) stages are temporally sequential. Even if all that occurs at each stage can not be confidently identified, it seems evident that during transduction and transport, matters dealt with are found relatively late in the information flow rather than at the perception stage. As more and more is learned about the roles played by plant hormones which condition the G responses, the mechanism(s) of perception which should be are not necessarily better understood. However, if by asking the right questions and being lucky with experiments perhaps the discovery of how some process (such as sedimentation of protoplasmic organelles) dictates what happens down stream in the information flow sequence may be made.

  5. Induction and expression of GluA1 (GluR-A)-independent LTP in the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Romberg, Carola; Raffel, Joel; Martin, Lucy; Sprengel, Rolf; Seeburg, Peter H; Rawlins, J Nicholas P; Bannerman, David M; Paulsen, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal CA3–CA1 synapses is thought to be mediated, at least in part, by an increase in the postsynaptic surface expression of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole proprionic acid (AMPA) receptors induced by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation. While this process was originally attributed to the regulated synaptic insertion of GluA1 (GluR-A) subunit-containing AMPA receptors, recent evidence suggests that regulated synaptic trafficking of GluA2 subunits might also contribute to one or several phases of potentiation. However, it has so far been difficult to separate these two mechanisms experimentally. Here we used genetically modified mice lacking the GluA1 subunit (Gria1−/− mice) to investigate GluA1-independent mechanisms of LTP at CA3–CA1 synapses in transverse hippocampal slices. An extracellular, paired theta-burst stimulation paradigm induced a robust GluA1-independent form of LTP lacking the early, rapidly decaying component characteristic of LTP in wild-type mice. This GluA1-independent form of LTP was attenuated by inhibitors of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and protein kinase C (PKC), two enzymes known to regulate GluA2 surface expression. Furthermore, the induction of GluA1-independent potentiation required the activation of GluN2B (NR2B) subunit-containing NMDA receptors. Our findings support and extend the evidence that LTP at hippocampal CA3–CA1 synapses comprises a rapidly decaying, GluA1-dependent component and a more sustained, GluA1-independent component, induced and expressed via a separate mechanism involving GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors, neuronal nitric oxide synthase and PKC. PMID:19302150

  6. Stress induces pain transition by potentiation of AMPA receptor phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Li, Changsheng; Yang, Ya; Liu, Sufang; Fang, Huaqiang; Zhang, Yong; Furmanski, Orion; Skinner, John; Xing, Ying; Johns, Roger A; Huganir, Richard L; Tao, Feng

    2014-10-08

    Chronic postsurgical pain is a serious issue in clinical practice. After surgery, patients experience ongoing pain or become sensitive to incident, normally nonpainful stimulation. The intensity and duration of postsurgical pain vary. However, it is unclear how the transition from acute to chronic pain occurs. Here we showed that social defeat stress enhanced plantar incision-induced AMPA receptor GluA1 phosphorylation at the Ser831 site in the spinal cord and greatly prolonged plantar incision-induced pain. Interestingly, targeted mutation of the GluA1 phosphorylation site Ser831 significantly inhibited stress-induced prolongation of incisional pain. In addition, stress hormones enhanced GluA1 phosphorylation and AMPA receptor-mediated electrical activity in the spinal cord. Subthreshold stimulation induced spinal long-term potentiation in GluA1 phosphomimetic mutant mice, but not in wild-type mice. Therefore, spinal AMPA receptor phosphorylation contributes to the mechanisms underlying stress-induced pain transition. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3413737-10$15.00/0.

  7. Combined Angiotensin Receptor Antagonism and Neprilysin Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Hubers, Scott A.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure affects approximately 5.7 million people in the United States alone. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers, and aldosterone antagonists have improved mortality in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, but mortality remains high. In July 2015, the FDA approved the first of a new class of drugs for the treatment of heart failure; valsartan/sacubitril (formerly known as LCZ696 and currently marketed by Novartis as Entresto) combines the angiotensin receptor blocker valsartan and the neprilysin inhibitor prodrug sacubitril in a 1:1 ratio in a sodium supramolecular complex. Sacubitril is converted by esterases to LBQ657, which inhibits neprilysin, the enzyme responsible for the degradation of the natriuretic peptides and many other vasoactive peptides. Thus, this combined angiotensin receptor antagonist and neprilysin inhibitor addresses two of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of heart failure - activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and decreased sensitivity to natriuretic peptides. In the Prospective comparison of ARNI with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in Heart Failure (PARADIGM-HF) trial, valsartan/sacubitril significantly reduced mortality and hospitalization for heart failure, as well as blood pressure, compared to enalapril in patients with heart failure, reduced ejection fraction, and an elevated circulating level of brain natriuretic peptide or N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide. Ongoing clinical trials are evaluating the role of valsartan/sacubitril in the treatment of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and hypertension. We review here the mechanisms of action of valsartan/sacubitril, the pharmacologic properties of the drug, and its efficacy and safety in the treatment of heart failure and hypertension. PMID:26976916

  8. Metabolic products of linalool and modulation of GABAA receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanos, Sinem; Elsharif, Shaimaa A.; Janzen, Dieter; Buettner, Andrea; Villmann, Carmen

    2017-06-01

    Terpenoids are major subcomponents in aroma substances which harbor sedative physiological potential. We have demonstrated that various monoterpenoids such as the acyclic linalool enhance GABAergic currents in an allosteric manner in vitro upon overexpression of inhibitory a1b2 GABAA receptors in various expression systems. However, in plants or humans, i.e. following intake via inhalation or ingestion, linalool undergoes metabolic modifications including oxygenation and acetylation, which may affect the modulatory efficacy of the generated linalool derivatives. Here, we analyzed the modulatory potential of linalool derivatives at a1b2g2 GABAA receptors upon transient overexpression. Following receptor expression control, electrophysiological recordings in a whole cell configuration were used to determine the chloride influx upon co-application of GABA EC5-10 together with the modulatory substance. Our results show that only oxygenated linalool metabolites at carbon 8 positively affect GABAergic currents whereas derivatives hydroxylated or carboxylated at carbon 8 were rather ineffective. Acetylated linalool derivatives resulted in non-significant changes of GABAergic currents. We can conclude that metabolism of linalool reduces its positive allosteric potential at GABAA receptors compared to the significant potentiation effects of the parent molecule linalool itself.

  9. Ocular Purine Receptors as Drug Targets in the Eye

    PubMed Central

    Civan, Mortimer M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Agonists and antagonists of various subtypes of G protein coupled adenosine receptors (ARs), P2Y receptors (P2YRs), and ATP-gated P2X receptor ion channels (P2XRs) are under consideration as agents for the treatment of ocular diseases, including glaucoma and dry eye. Numerous nucleoside and nonnucleoside modulators of the receptors are available as research tools and potential therapeutic molecules. Three of the 4 subtypes of ARs have been exploited with clinical candidate molecules for treatment of the eye: A1, A2A, and A3. An A1AR agonist is in clinical trials for glaucoma, A2AAR reduces neuroinflammation, A3AR protects retinal ganglion cells from apoptosis, and both A3AR agonists and antagonists had been reported to lower intraocular pressure (IOP). Extracellular concentrations of endogenous nucleotides, including dinucleoside polyphosphates, are increased in pathological states, activating P2Y and P2XRs throughout the eye. P2YR agonists, including P2Y2 and P2Y6, lower IOP. Antagonists of the P2X7R prevent the ATP-induced neuronal apoptosis in the retina. Thus, modulators of the purinome in the eye might be a source of new therapies for ocular diseases. PMID:27574786

  10. Ocular Purine Receptors as Drug Targets in the Eye.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Kenneth A; Civan, Mortimer M

    2016-10-01

    Agonists and antagonists of various subtypes of G protein coupled adenosine receptors (ARs), P2Y receptors (P2YRs), and ATP-gated P2X receptor ion channels (P2XRs) are under consideration as agents for the treatment of ocular diseases, including glaucoma and dry eye. Numerous nucleoside and nonnucleoside modulators of the receptors are available as research tools and potential therapeutic molecules. Three of the 4 subtypes of ARs have been exploited with clinical candidate molecules for treatment of the eye: A 1 , A 2A , and A 3 . An A 1 AR agonist is in clinical trials for glaucoma, A 2A AR reduces neuroinflammation, A 3 AR protects retinal ganglion cells from apoptosis, and both A 3 AR agonists and antagonists had been reported to lower intraocular pressure (IOP). Extracellular concentrations of endogenous nucleotides, including dinucleoside polyphosphates, are increased in pathological states, activating P2Y and P2XRs throughout the eye. P2YR agonists, including P2Y 2 and P2Y 6 , lower IOP. Antagonists of the P2X7R prevent the ATP-induced neuronal apoptosis in the retina. Thus, modulators of the purinome in the eye might be a source of new therapies for ocular diseases.

  11. Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) – focus on receptor-receptor-interactions and their physiological and pathophysiological impact

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with four members, PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, playing critical functions in hemostasis, thrombosis, embryonic development, wound healing, inflammation and cancer progression. PARs are characterized by a unique activation mechanism involving receptor cleavage by different proteinases at specific sites within the extracellular amino-terminus and the exposure of amino-terminal “tethered ligand“ domains that bind to and activate the cleaved receptors. After activation, the PAR family members are able to stimulate complex intracellular signalling networks via classical G protein-mediated pathways and beta-arrestin signalling. In addition, different receptor crosstalk mechanisms critically contribute to a high diversity of PAR signal transduction and receptor-trafficking processes that result in multiple physiological effects. In this review, we summarize current information about PAR-initiated physical and functional receptor interactions and their physiological and pathological roles. We focus especially on PAR homo- and heterodimerization, transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and receptor serine/threonine kinases (RSTKs), communication with other GPCRs, toll-like receptors and NOD-like receptors, ion channel receptors, and on PAR association with cargo receptors. In addition, we discuss the suitability of these receptor interaction mechanisms as targets for modulating PAR signalling in disease. PMID:24215724

  12. Ionotropic glutamate receptors: regulation by G-protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Asheebo; Dingledine, Raymond

    2013-04-01

    The function of many ion channels is under dynamic control by coincident activation of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), particularly those coupled to the Gαs and Gαq family members. Such regulation is typically dependent on the subunit composition of the ionotropic receptor or channel as well as the GPCR subtype and the cell-specific panoply of signaling pathways available. Because GPCRs and ion channels are so highly represented among targets of U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs, functional cross-talk between these drug target classes is likely to underlie many therapeutic and adverse effects of marketed drugs. GPCRs engage a myriad of signaling pathways that involve protein kinases A and C (PKC) and, through PKC and interaction with β-arrestin, Src kinase, and hence the mitogen-activated-protein-kinase cascades. We focus here on the control of ionotropic glutamate receptor function by GPCR signaling because this form of regulation can influence the strength of synaptic plasticity. The amino acid residues phosphorylated by specific kinases have been securely identified in many ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptor subunits, but which of these sites are GPCR targets is less well known even when the kinase has been identified. N-methyl-d-aspartate, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, and heteromeric kainate receptors are all downstream targets of GPCR signaling pathways. The details of GPCR-iGlu receptor cross-talk should inform a better understanding of how synaptic transmission is regulated and lead to new therapeutic strategies for neuropsychiatric disorders.

  13. The Mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) leucokinin Receptor is a Multiligand Receptor for the three Aedes kinins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-07

    receptors for the three Aedes kinins. Keywords: insect GPCR (G protein-coupled receptor ) (myo)kinin receptor ... receptor 57 © 2005 The Royal Entomological Society, Insect Molecular Biology , 14 , 55–67 58 P. V. Pietrantonio et al. © 2005 The... receptor 59 © 2005 The Royal Entomological Society, Insect Molecular Biology , 14 , 55–67 further support to the role of this receptor

  14. Cross-communication between Gi and Gs in a G-protein-coupled receptor heterotetramer guided by a receptor C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Gemma; Cordomí, Arnau; Brugarolas, Marc; Moreno, Estefanía; Aguinaga, David; Pérez-Benito, Laura; Ferre, Sergi; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Lluís, Carme; Pardo, Leonardo; McCormick, Peter J; Franco, Rafael

    2018-02-28

    G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) heteromeric complexes have distinct properties from homomeric GPCRs, giving rise to new receptor functionalities. Adenosine receptors (A 1 R or A 2A R) can form A 1 R-A 2A R heteromers (A 1 -A 2A Het), and their activation leads to canonical G-protein-dependent (adenylate cyclase mediated) and -independent (β-arrestin mediated) signaling. Adenosine has different affinities for A 1 R and A 2A R, allowing the heteromeric receptor to detect its concentration by integrating the downstream G i - and G s -dependent signals. cAMP accumulation and β-arrestin recruitment assays have shown that, within the complex, activation of A 2A R impedes signaling via A 1 R. We examined the mechanism by which A 1 -A 2A Het integrates G i - and G s -dependent signals. A 1 R blockade by A 2A R in the A 1 -A 2A Het is not observed in the absence of A 2A R activation by agonists, in the absence of the C-terminal domain of A 2A R, or in the presence of synthetic peptides that disrupt the heteromer interface of A 1 -A 2A Het, indicating that signaling mediated by A 1 R and A 2A R is controlled by both G i and G s proteins. We identified a new mechanism of signal transduction that implies a cross-communication between G i and G s proteins guided by the C-terminal tail of the A 2A R. This mechanism provides the molecular basis for the operation of the A 1 -A 2A Het as an adenosine concentration-sensing device that modulates the signals originating at both A 1 R and A 2A R.

  15. 32 CFR 169a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 169a.1 Section 169a.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM... Department of Defense (DoD) to determine whether needed commercial activities (CAs) should be accomplished by...

  16. 32 CFR 169a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Purpose. 169a.1 Section 169a.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM... Department of Defense (DoD) to determine whether needed commercial activities (CAs) should be accomplished by...

  17. 32 CFR 169a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Purpose. 169a.1 Section 169a.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM... Department of Defense (DoD) to determine whether needed commercial activities (CAs) should be accomplished by...

  18. 32 CFR 168a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 168a.1 Section 168a.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND... National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Fellowships, as required by 10 U.S.C. 2191. (b...

  19. 32 CFR 169a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Purpose. 169a.1 Section 169a.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM... Department of Defense (DoD) to determine whether needed commercial activities (CAs) should be accomplished by...

  20. 32 CFR 168a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Purpose. 168a.1 Section 168a.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND... National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Fellowships, as required by 10 U.S.C. 2191. (b...

  1. 42 CFR 54a.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... 290aa, et seq., which are administered by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. This part does not apply to direct funding under any such authorities for only mental health services... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 54a.1 Section 54a.1 Public Health PUBLIC...

  2. 42 CFR 54a.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... 290aa, et seq., which are administered by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. This part does not apply to direct funding under any such authorities for only mental health services... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scope. 54a.1 Section 54a.1 Public Health PUBLIC...

  3. 42 CFR 54a.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... 290aa, et seq., which are administered by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. This part does not apply to direct funding under any such authorities for only mental health services... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scope. 54a.1 Section 54a.1 Public Health PUBLIC...

  4. 42 CFR 2a.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... research on mental health, including research on the use and effect of alcohol and other psychoactive drugs... engaged in research on mental health including research on the use and effect of alcohol and other... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability. 2a.1 Section 2a.1 Public Health...

  5. 42 CFR 54a.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... 290aa, et seq., which are administered by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. This part does not apply to direct funding under any such authorities for only mental health services... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scope. 54a.1 Section 54a.1 Public Health PUBLIC...

  6. 42 CFR 54a.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... 290aa, et seq., which are administered by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. This part does not apply to direct funding under any such authorities for only mental health services... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scope. 54a.1 Section 54a.1 Public Health PUBLIC...

  7. 42 CFR 2a.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... research on mental health, including research on the use and effect of alcohol and other psychoactive drugs... engaged in research on mental health including research on the use and effect of alcohol and other... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability. 2a.1 Section 2a.1 Public Health...

  8. 32 CFR 237a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 237a.1 Section 237a.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PUBLIC AFFAIRS... with industry on (1) public affairs matters in general, (2) industry-sponsored events, and (3...

  9. Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1C

    MedlinePlus

    ... levels can be high if diabetes is not well controlled. Why Are Hemoglobin A1c Tests Done? When a child has diabetes, hemoglobin A1c levels are followed to see how well medicines are working. If a child with diabetes ...

  10. Receptor-mediated cell mechanosensing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yunfeng; Ju, Lining; Rushdi, Muaz; Ge, Chenghao; Zhu, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Mechanosensing describes the ability of a cell to sense mechanical cues of its microenvironment, including not only all components of force, stress, and strain but also substrate rigidity, topology, and adhesiveness. This ability is crucial for the cell to respond to the surrounding mechanical cues and adapt to the changing environment. Examples of responses and adaptation include (de)activation, proliferation/apoptosis, and (de)differentiation. Receptor-mediated cell mechanosensing is a multistep process that is initiated by binding of cell surface receptors to their ligands on the extracellular matrix or the surface of adjacent cells. Mechanical cues are presented by the ligand and received by the receptor at the binding interface; but their transmission over space and time and their conversion into biochemical signals may involve other domains and additional molecules. In this review, a four-step model is described for the receptor-mediated cell mechanosensing process. Platelet glycoprotein Ib, T-cell receptor, and integrins are used as examples to illustrate the key concepts and players in this process. PMID:28954860

  11. Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors & CNS Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bowie, Derek

    2008-01-01

    Disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) are complex disease states that represent a major challenge for modern medicine. Although etiology is often unknown, it is established that multiple factors such as defects in genetics and/or epigenetics, the environment as well as imbalance in neurotransmitter receptor systems are all at play in determining an individual’s susceptibility to disease. Gene therapy is currently not available and therefore, most conditions are treated with pharmacological agents that modify neurotransmitter receptor signaling. Here, I provide a review of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) and the roles they fulfill in numerous CNS disorders. Specifically, I argue that our understanding of iGluRs has reached a critical turning point to permit, for the first time, a comprehensive re-evaluation of their role in the cause of disease. I illustrate this by highlighting how defects in AMPA receptor trafficking are important to Fragile X mental retardation and ectopic expression of kainate (KA) receptor synapses contributes to the pathology of temporal lobe epilepsy. Finally, I discuss how parallel advances in studies of other neurotransmitter systems may allow pharmacologists to work towards a cure for many CNS disorders rather than developing drugs to treat their symptoms. PMID:18537642

  12. Candesartan cilexetil: an angiotensin II receptor blocker.

    PubMed

    Stoukides, C A; McVoy, H J; Kaul, A F

    1999-12-01

    To summarize and critique the medical literature on candesartan cilexetil, an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB). MEDLINE searches (January 1966-January 1999) and manufacturer prescribing literature were used to identify articles on candesartan cilexetil. Bibliographies were also reviewed for germane articles. Study and review articles describing the chemistry, human pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, placebo-controlled trials, comparative trials, and clinical application of candesartan cilexetil based on the published literature and premarketing clinical trials were reviewed. All literature on the use of candesartan cilexetil for treating hypertension and congestive heart failure were included. ARBs are a new class of drugs with increasing use in treating hypertension. Studies are ongoing to determine the role of these agents in preventing remodeling after myocardial infarction and in patients with congestive heart failure. Candesartan cilexetil is among the newest drugs in the class that includes losartan, irbesartan, and valsartan. Candesartan cilexetil has more than 1000 times more affinity for the angiotensin II, type AT1 receptor ARBs, and the binding affinity and competitive angiotensin II receptor antagonism is stronger than that of losartan. Clinical studies in patients with hypertension have demonstrated that candesartan cilexetil, in doses of 4-16 mg, is more effective in reducing sitting diastolic blood pressure than are placebo and losartan 50 mg. Candesartan cilexetil has demonstrated reductions in blood pressure comparable to those of enalapril, with the rate of adverse events greater in the enalapril group. Dosage adjustments are not necessary in elderly patients or in patients with mild hepatic or renal dysfunction. In diabetic patients, blood glucose, hemoglobinA1c, and serum lipids are not affected. The clinical studies demonstrated that the adverse effect profile of candesartan cilexetil was similar to that of placebo and there

  13. TAM receptor signaling in development.

    PubMed

    Burstyn-Cohen, Tal

    2017-01-01

    TYRO3, AXL and MERTK comprise the TAM family of receptor protein tyrosine kinases. Activated by their ligands, protein S (PROS1) and growth-arrest-specific 6 (GAS6), they mediate numerous cellular functions throughout development and adulthood. Expressed by a myriad of cell types and tissues, they have been implicated in homeostatic regulation of the immune, nervous, vascular, bone and reproductive systems. The loss-of-function of TAM signaling in adult tissues culminates in the destruction of tissue homeostasis and diseased states, while TAM gain-of-function in various tumors promotes cancer phenotypes. Combinatorial ligand-receptor interactions may elicit different molecular and cellular responses. Many of the TAM regulatory functions are essentially developmental, taking place both during embryogenesis and postnatally. This review highlights current knowledge on the role of TAM receptors and their ligands during these developmental processes in the immune, nervous, vascular and reproductive systems.

  14. Chemokine receptor antagonists: part 2.

    PubMed

    Pease, James E; Horuk, Richard

    2009-02-01

    The first part of this two-part review discussed approaches to generating antagonists for some of the CC chemokine receptors, including CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, and CCR4. This second part of the series concludes the review by describing antagonists for CCR5, CCR8, CCR9, CXCR3, CXCR4, and promiscuous antagonists. Chemokine receptor antagonists have found mixed success as therapeutics. Although one antagonist--maraviroc, a CCR5 inhibitor to treat AIDS--has been registered as an approved drug, this is the only success so far. There have been many failures in the clinic and we discuss the idea of promiscuous receptor antagonists as an alternative approach.

  15. COL5A1 gene variants previously associated with reduced soft tissue injury risk are associated with elite athlete status in rugby.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Shane M; Kilduff, Liam P; Erskine, Robert M; Day, Stephen H; Stebbings, Georgina K; Cook, Christian J; Raleigh, Stuart M; Bennett, Mark A; Wang, Guan; Collins, Malcolm; Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Williams, Alun G

    2017-11-14

    Two common single nucleotide polymorphisms within the COL5A1 gene (SNPs; rs12722 C/T and rs3196378 C/A) have previously been associated with tendon and ligament pathologies. Given the high incidence of tendon and ligament injuries in elite rugby athletes, we hypothesised that both SNPs would be associated with career success. In 1105 participants (RugbyGene project), comprising 460 elite rugby union (RU), 88 elite rugby league athletes and 565 non-athlete controls, DNA was collected and genotyped for the COL5A1 rs12722 and rs3196378 variants using real-time PCR. For rs12722, the injury-protective CC genotype and C allele were more common in all athletes (21% and 47%, respectively) and RU athletes (22% and 48%) than in controls (16% and 41%, P ≤ 0.01). For rs3196378, the CC genotype and C allele were overrepresented in all athletes (23% and 48%) and RU athletes (24% and 49%) compared with controls (16% and 41%, P ≤ 0.02). The CC genotype in particular was overrepresented in the back and centres (24%) compared with controls, with more than twice the odds (OR = 2.25, P = 0.006) of possessing the injury-protective CC genotype. Furthermore, when considering both SNPs simultaneously, the CC-CC SNP-SNP combination and C-C inferred allele combination were higher in all the athlete groups (≥18% and ≥43%) compared with controls (13% and 40%; P = 0.01). However, no genotype differences were identified for either SNP when RU playing positions were compared directly with each other. It appears that the C alleles, CC genotypes and resulting combinations of both rs12722 and rs3196378 are beneficial for rugby athletes to achieve elite status and carriage of these variants may impart an inherited resistance against soft tissue injury, despite exposure to the high-risk environment of elite rugby. These data have implications for the management of inter-individual differences in injury risk amongst elite athletes.

  16. The calcium receptor and calcimimetics.

    PubMed

    Wada, M; Nagano, N; Nemeth, E F

    1999-07-01

    Parathyroid cells can sense small changes in plasma Ca2+ levels by virtue of a cell surface Ca2+ receptor. Calcimimetics are newly synthesized compounds that act as agonists or positive allosteric modulators at the Ca2+ receptor and can suppress parathyroid hormone secretion. The first-generation calcimimetic, NPS R-568, has undergone clinical trials in primary hyperparathyroidism and in hyperparathyroidism secondary to chronic renal insufficiency. The data accumulated so far demonstrate that calcimimetics have potential as therapeutic agents for hyperparathyroidism and related bone diseases such as osteitis fibrosa.

  17. Glycosylation of immunoglobulin A influences its receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Basset, C; Devauchelle, V; Durand, V; Jamin, C; Pennec, Y L; Youinou, P; Dueymes, M

    1999-12-01

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA), which is heavily glycosylated, interacts with a variety of receptors, e.g. the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R), which binds terminal galactose residues, and the Fcalpha receptor (FcalphaRI). It has thus been proposed that elevated serum levels of IgA in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) are caused by its defective clearance. To test this hypothesis, we developed a method (based on sialyl transferases eluted from a hepatoma cell line) to increase the amount of sialic acid (SA) on IgA, and used a battery of IgA1- and IgA2-specific glycosidases to reduce this amount. Binding of IgA1 and IgA2 to ASGP-R and FcalphaRI was found to be sugar dependent because oversialylated IgA bound less than native or desialylated IgA. However, individual sugars did not play a direct role in this binding. Given that IgA are oversialylated in pSS, defective clearance of IgA may indeed be ascribed to an excess of SA in IgA1 and IgA2.

  18. Fractionating spatial memory with glutamate receptor subunit-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Bannerman, David M

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, the contribution that different glutamate receptor subtypes and subunits make to spatial learning and memory has been studied extensively using genetically modified mice in which key proteins are knocked out. This has revealed dissociations between different aspects of spatial memory that were not previously apparent from lesion studies. For example, studies with GluA1 AMPAR [AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid) receptor] subunit-knockout mice have revealed the presence of a GluA1-dependent, non-associative short-term memory mechanism that is important for performance on spatial working memory tasks, and a GluA1-independent, long-term associative memory mechanism which underlies performance on spatial reference memory tasks. Within this framework we have also studied the contributions of different GluN2-containing NMDARs [NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors] to spatial memory. Studies with GluN2 NMDAR mutants have revealed different contributions from GluN2A- and GluN2B-containing NMDARs to spatial learning. Furthermore, comparison of forebrain- and hippocampus-specific GluN2B-knockout mice has demonstrated that both hippocampal and extra-hippocampal NMDARs make important contributions to spatial memory performance.

  19. 32 CFR 168a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.1 Purpose. This part: (a) Establishes guidelines for the award of National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Fellowships, as required by 10 U.S.C. 2191. (b...

  20. 32 CFR 168a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.1 Purpose. This part: (a) Establishes guidelines for the award of National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Fellowships, as required by 10 U.S.C. 2191. (b...

  1. 32 CFR 168a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.1 Purpose. This part: (a) Establishes guidelines for the award of National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Fellowships, as required by 10 U.S.C. 2191. (b...

  2. 32 CFR 352a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DEFENSE FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING SERVICE (DFAS) § 352a.1 Purpose. Pursuant to the authority vested in the... Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS) as an Agency of the Department of Defense with responsibilities...

  3. A-1 modification work under way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Phil Schemanski of Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne removes equipment inside the thrust drum on the A-1 Test Stand as part of a comprehensive modification project to prepare for testing the new J-2X engine.

  4. THE SHARK RECTAL GLAND MODEL: A CHAMPION OF RECEPTOR MEDIATED CHLORIDE SECRETION THROUGH CFTR

    PubMed Central

    FORREST, JOHN N.

    2016-01-01

    The dogfish shark salt gland was predicted by Smith and discovered by Burger at the Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory in Salisbury Cove, Maine. It is an epithelial organ in the intestine composed of tubules that serve a single function: the secretion of hypertonic NaCl. Many G protein receptors are present on the basolateral surface of these tubules, including stimulatory receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide, adenosine A2, growth hormone releasing hormone, and inhibitory receptors for somatostatin and adenosine A1. An entirely different class of stimulatory receptors is present as C-type natriuretic peptide receptors. Each stimulatory receptor evokes powerful NaCl secretion. G protein receptors bind to Gαs to activate the catalytic unit of adenylate cyclase to form cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and protein kinase A that phosphorylates the regulatory domain of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, opening the channel. The C-type natriuretic peptide receptor stimulates by activating guanylate cyclase and endogenous cyclic guanosine monophosphate which inhibits type 3 phosphodiesterase, the enzyme that breaks down cAMP, thereby elevating cAMP and activating the protein kinase A pathway. PMID:28066051

  5. Pharmacological endothelin receptor interaction does not occur in veins from ET(B) receptor deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Thakali, Keshari; Galligan, James J; Fink, Gregory D; Gariepy, Cheryl E; Watts, Stephanie W

    2008-07-01

    Heterodimerization of G-protein coupled receptors can alter receptor pharmacology. ET A and ET B receptors heterodimerize when co-expressed in heterologous expression lines. We hypothesized that ET A and ET B receptors heterodimerize and pharmacologically interact in vena cava from wild-type (WT) but not ET B receptor deficient (sl/sl) rats. Pharmacological endothelin receptor interaction was assessed by comparing ET-1-induced contraction in rings of rat thoracic aorta and thoracic vena cava from male Sprague Dawley rats under control conditions, ET A receptor blockade (atrasentan, 10 nM), ET B receptor blockade (BQ-788, 100 nM) or ET B receptor desensitization (Sarafotoxin 6c, 100 nM) and ET A plus ET B receptor blockade or ET A receptor blockade plus ET B receptor desensitization. In addition, similar pharmacological ET receptor antagonism experiments were performed in rat thoracic aorta and vena cava from WT and sl/sl rats. ET A but not ET B receptor blockade or ET B receptor desensitization inhibited aortic and venous ET-1-induced contraction. In vena cava but not aorta, when ET B receptors were blocked (BQ-788, 100 nM) or desensitized (S6c, 100 nM), atrasentan caused a greater inhibition of ET-1-induced contraction. Vena cava from WT but not sl/sl rats exhibited similar pharmacological ET receptor interaction. Immunocytochemistry was performed on freshly dissociated aortic and venous vascular smooth muscle cells to determine localization of ET A and ET B receptors. ET A and ET B receptors qualitatively co-localized more strongly to the plasma membrane of aortic compared to venous vascular smooth muscle cells. Our data suggest that pharmacological ET A and ET B receptor interaction may be dependent on the presence of functional ET B receptors and independent of receptor location.

  6. Selective regulation of nuclear orphan receptors 4A by adenosine receptor subtypes in human mast cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Paine, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear orphan receptors 4A (NR4A) are early responsive genes that belong to the superfamily of hormone receptors and comprise NR4A1, NR4A2 and NR4A3. They have been associated to transcriptional activation of multiple genes involved in inflammation, apoptosis and cell cycle control. Here, we establish a link between NR4As and adenosine, a paradoxical inflammatory molecule that can contribute to persistence of inflammation or mediate inflammatory shutdown. Transcriptomics screening of the human mast cell-line HMC-1 revealed a sharp induction of transcriptionally active NR4A2 and NR4A3 by the adenosine analogue NECA. The concomitant treatment of NECA and the adenosine receptor A2A (A2AAR) selective antagonist SCH-58261 exaggerated this effect, suggesting that upregulation of these factors in mast cells is mediated by other AR subtypes (A2B and A3) and that A2AAR activation counteracts NR4A2 and NR4A3 induction. In agreement with this, A2AAR-silencing amplified NR4A induction by NECA. Interestingly, a similar A2AAR modulatory effect was observed on ERK1/2 phosphorylation because A2AAR blockage exacerbated NECA-mediated phosphorylation of ERK1/2. In addition, PKC or MEK1/2 inhibition prevented ERK1/2 phosphorylation and antagonized AR-mediated induction of NR4A2 and NR4A3, suggesting the involvement of these kinases in AR to NR4A signaling. Finally, we observed that selective A2AAR activation with CGS-21680 blocked PMA-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and modulated the overexpression of functional nuclear orphan receptors 4A. Taken together, these results establish a novel PKC/ERK/nuclear orphan receptors 4A axis for adenosinergic signaling in mast cells, which can be modulated by A2AAR activation, not only in the context of adenosine but of other mast cell activating stimuli as well. PMID:21234122

  7. Brain Region-Specific Effects of cGMP-Dependent Kinase II Knockout on AMPA Receptor Trafficking and Animal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Seonil; Pick, Joseph E.; Abera, Sinedu; Khatri, Latika; Ferreira, Danielle D. P.; Sathler, Matheus F.; Morison, Sage L.; Hofmann, Franz; Ziff, Edward B.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation of GluA1, a subunit of AMPA receptors (AMPARs), is critical for AMPAR synaptic trafficking and control of synaptic transmission. cGMP-dependent protein kinase II (cGKII) mediates this phosphorylation, and cGKII knockout (KO) affects GluA1 phosphorylation and alters animal behavior. Notably, GluA1 phosphorylation in the KO…

  8. Modulation of AMPA receptor mediated current by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in layer I neurons of rat prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Bo; Luo, Dong; Yang, Jie; Xu, Xiao-Yan; Zhu, Bing-Lin; Wang, Xue-Feng; Yan, Zhen; Chen, Guo-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Layer I neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) exhibit extensive synaptic connections with deep layer neurons, implying their important role in the neural circuit. Study demonstrates that activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) increases excitatory neurotransmission in this layer. Here we found that nicotine selectively increased the amplitude of AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated current and AMPA/NMDA ratio, while without effect on NMDA receptor-mediated current. The augmentation of AMPAR current by nicotine was inhibited by a selective α7-nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA) and intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA. In addition, nicotinic effect on mEPSC or paired-pulse ratio was also prevented by MLA. Moreover, an enhanced inward rectification of AMPAR current by nicotine suggested a functional role of calcium permeable and GluA1 containing AMPAR. Consistently, nicotine enhancement of AMPAR current was inhibited by a selective calcium-permeable AMPAR inhibitor IEM-1460. Finally, the intracellular inclusion of synthetic peptide designed to block GluA1 subunit of AMPAR at CAMKII, PKC or PKA phosphorylation site, as well as corresponding kinase inhibitor, blocked nicotinic augmentation of AMPA/NMDA ratio. These results have revealed that nicotine increases AMPAR current by modulating the phosphorylation state of GluA1 which is dependent on α7-nAChR and intracellular calcium. PMID:26370265

  9. Mechanism for the activation of glutamate receptors

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists at the NIH have used a technique called cryo-electron microscopy to determine a molecular mechanism for the activation and desensitization of ionotropic glutamate receptors, a prominent class of neurotransmitter receptors in the brain and spina

  10. MiR-608, pre-miR-124-1 and pre-miR26a-1 polymorphisms modify susceptibility and recurrence-free survival in surgically resected CRC individuals.

    PubMed

    Ying, Hou-Qun; Peng, Hong-Xin; He, Bang-Shun; Pan, Yu-Qin; Wang, Feng; Sun, Hui-Ling; Liu, Xian; Chen, Jie; Lin, Kang; Wang, Shu-Kui

    2016-11-15

    Genetic variation within microRNA (miRNA) may result in its abnormal folding or aberrant expression, contributing to colorectal turmorigenesis and metastasis. However, the association of six polymorphisms (miR-608 rs4919510, miR-499a rs3746444, miR-146a rs2910164, pre-miR-143 rs41291957, pre-miR-124-1 rs531564 and pre-miR-26a-1 rs7372209) with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, therapeutic response and survival remains unclear. A retrospective study was carried out to investigate the association in 1358 0-III stage resected CRC patients and 1079 healthy controls using Sequenom's MassARRAY platform. The results showed that rs4919510 was significantly associated with a decreased susceptibility to CRC in co-dominant, allele and recessive genetic models, and the protective role of rs4919510 allele G and genotype GG was more pronounced among stage 0-II cases; significant association between rs531564 and poor RFS was observed in cases undergoing adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy in co-dominant, allele and dominant models; moreover, there was a positive association between rs7372209 and recurrence-free survival in stage II cases in co-dominant and over-dominant models; additionally, a cumulative effect of rs531564 and rs7372209 at-risk genotypes with hazard ratio at 1.30 and 1.95 for one and two at-risk genotypes was examined in stage II cases, respectively. Our findings indicated that rs4919510 allele G and genotype GG were protective factors for 0-II stage CRC, rs7372209 and rs531564 could decrease RFS in II stage individuals and resected CRC patients receiving adjuvant chemo-radiology.

  11. Macronutrient intakes and serum oestrogen, and interaction with polymorphisms in CYP19A1 and HSD17B1 genes: a cross-sectional study in postmenopausal Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Sahoko; Naito, Mariko; Kawai, Sayo; Okada, Rieko; Nagata, Chisato; Hosono, Satoyo; Nishida, Yuichiro; Takashima, Naoyuki; Suzuki, Sadao; Shimoshikiryo, Ippei; Mikami, Haruo; Uemura, Hirokazu; Kuriyama, Nagato; Ohnaka, Keizo; Kubo, Michiaki; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Hideo; Wakai, Kenji

    2017-09-01

    Although higher circulating levels of oestrogen are related to postmenopausal breast cancer risk, limited information is available regarding effects of diet on endogenous oestrogen. Thus, we examined associations between macronutrient intakes and serum oestrogen with consideration of polymorphisms in oestrogen-metabolising genes. In this cross-sectional study, 784 naturally menopaused Japanese women aged 47-69 years were selected from participants of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. We documented dietary intakes, measured serum concentrations of oestrone (E1) and oestradiol (E2) and genotyped polymorphisms in oestrogen-metabolising CYP19A1 (rs4441215 and rs936306) and HSD17B1 (rs605059) genes. Trends and interactions were examined using linear regression models. In addition, we calculated the ratios of the oestrogen concentrations of the second to the highest quartiles (Q2-Q4) of dietary intake to those of the lowest quartiles (Q1). After adjustment for potential confounders, E2 was significantly associated with intake of carbohydrate and noodles; ratios of Q4 v. Q1 were 1·15 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·28) and 1·15 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·26), respectively. In contrast, E2 levels were inversely associated with intake of total energy, SFA and n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA); ratios of Q4 v. Q1 were 0·90 (95 % CI 0·82, 0·99), 0·89 (95 % CI 0·81, 0·98) and 0·91 (95 % CI 0·83, 1·00), respectively. In stratified analysis by polymorphisms, the rs605059 genotype of HSD17B1 significantly modified associations of E2 with intake of n-3 HUFA and fish; the associations were limited to those with the CC genotype. Macronutrient intakes were associated with serum E2 level, and these associations may be modified by HSD17B1 polymorphism in postmenopausal women.

  12. Serum transferrin receptor in polycythemia.

    PubMed

    Manteiga, R; Remacha, A F; Sardà, M P; Ubeda, J

    1998-10-01

    We measured serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) levels in 22 patients with polycythemia vera and in 26 cases of secondary polycythemia. In our study, raised sTfR levels in both polycythemia groups were related to iron deficiency.

  13. Steroid receptor coupling becomes nuclear.

    PubMed

    Galigniana, Mario D

    2012-06-22

    In this issue of Chemistry & Biology, Grossman et al. report a study on aldosterone-dependent nuclear translocation of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). They analyze the dependency of MR retrotransport, DNA-binding, and transcriptional activity on Hsp90 and demonstrate that MR dimerization is a nuclear event. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. New ligands for melanocortin receptors.

    PubMed

    Kaelin, C B; Candille, S I; Yu, B; Jackson, P; Thompson, D A; Nix, M A; Binkley, J; Millhauser, G L; Barsh, G S

    2008-12-01

    Named originally for their effects on peripheral end organs, the melanocortin system controls a diverse set of physiological processes through a series of five G-protein-coupled receptors and several sets of small peptide ligands. The central melanocortin system plays an essential role in homeostatic regulation of body weight, in which two alternative ligands, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and agouti-related protein, stimulate and inhibit receptor signaling in several key brain regions that ultimately affect food intake and energy expenditure. Much of what we know about the relationship between central melanocortin signaling and body weight regulation stems from genetic studies. Comparative genomic studies indicate that melanocortin receptors used for controlling pigmentation and body weight regulation existed more than 500 million years ago in primitive vertebrates, but that fine-grained control of melanocortin receptors through neuropeptides and endogenous antagonists developed more recently. Recent studies based on dog coat-color genetics revealed a new class of melanocortin ligands, the beta-defensins, which reveal the potential for cross talk between the melanocortin and the immune systems.

  15. Olfactory receptor antagonism between odorants

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Yuki; Omura, Masayo; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Touhara, Kazushige

    2004-01-01

    The detection of thousands of volatile odorants is mediated by several hundreds of different G protein-coupled olfactory receptors (ORs). The main strategy in encoding odorant identities is a combinatorial receptor code scheme in that different odorants are recognized by different sets of ORs. Despite increasing information on agonist–OR combinations, little is known about the antagonism of ORs in the mammalian olfactory system. Here we show that odorants inhibit odorant responses of OR(s), evidence of antagonism between odorants at the receptor level. The antagonism was demonstrated in a heterologous OR-expression system and in single olfactory neurons that expressed a given OR, and was also visualized at the level of the olfactory epithelium. Dual functions of odorants as an agonist and an antagonist to ORs indicate a new aspect in the receptor code determination for odorant mixtures that often give rise to novel perceptual qualities that are not present in each component. The current study also provides insight into strategies to modulate perceived odorant quality. PMID:14685265

  16. Evolution of neurotransmitter receptor systems.

    PubMed

    Venter, J C; di Porzio, U; Robinson, D A; Shreeve, S M; Lai, J; Kerlavage, A R; Fracek, S P; Lentes, K U; Fraser, C M

    1988-01-01

    The presence of hormones, neurotransmitters, their receptors and biosynthetic and degradative enzymes is clearly not only associated with the present and the recent past but with the past several hundred million years. Evidence is mounting which indicates substantial conservation of protein structure and function of these receptors and enzymes over these tremendous periods of time. These findings indicate that the evolution and development of the nervous system was not dependent upon the formation of new or better transmitter substances, receptor proteins, transducers and effector proteins but involved better utilization of these highly developed elements in creating advanced and refined circuitry. This is not a new concept; it is one that is now substantiated by increasingly sophisticated studies. In a 1953 article discussing chemical aspects of evolution (Danielli, 1953) Danielli quotes Medawar, "... endocrine evolution is not an evolution of hormones but an evolution of the uses to which they are put; an evolution not, to put it crudely, of chemical formulae but of reactivities, reaction patterns and tissue competences." To also quote Danielli, "In terms of comparative biochemistry, one must ask to what extent the evolution of these reactivities, reaction patterns and competences is conditional upon the evolution of methods of synthesis of new proteins, etc., and to what extent the proteins, etc., are always within the synthetic competence of an organism. In the latter case evolution is the history of changing uses of molecules, and not of changing synthetic abilities." (Danielli, 1953). Figure 4 outlines a phylogenetic tree together with an indication of where evidence exists for both the enzymes that determine the biosynthesis and metabolism of the cholinergic and adrenergic transmitters and their specific cholinergic and adrenergic receptors. This figure illustrates a number of important points. For example, the evidence appears to show that the transmitters

  17. CB2 receptors in reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Maccarrone, M

    2007-01-01

    Cannabinoids have been always identified as harmful drugs because of their negative effects on male and female reproduction. The discovery of the ‘endocannabinoid system (ECS)', composed of bioactive lipids (endocannabinoids), their receptors and their metabolic enzymes, and the generation of mouse models missing cannabinoid receptors or other elements of the ECS, has enabled a wealth of information on the significance of endocannabinoid signalling in multiple reproductive events: Sertoli cell survival, spermatogenesis, placentation, fertilization, preimplantation embryo development, implantation and postimplantation embryonic growth. These studies have also opened new perspectives in clinical applications, pointing to the ECS as a new target for correcting infertility and for improving reproductive health in humans. This review will focus on the involvement of type-2 cannabinoid (CB2) receptors in reproductive biology, covering both the male and female sides. It will also discuss the potential relevance of the immunological activity of CB2 at the maternal/foetal interface, as well as the distinctiveness of CB2 versus type-1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptors that might be exploited for a receptor subtype-specific regulation of fertility. In this context, the different signalling pathways triggered by CB1 and CB2 (especially those controlling the intracellular tone of nitric oxide), the different activation of CB1 and CB2 by endogenous agonists (like anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and the different localization of CB1 and CB2 within membrane subdomains, termed ‘lipid rafts', will be discussed. It is hoped that CB2-dependent endocannabinoid signalling might become a useful target for correcting infertility, in both men and women. PMID:17828289

  18. Molecular properties of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    HAGA, Tatsuya

    2013-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, which comprise five subtypes (M1-M5 receptors), are expressed in both the CNS and PNS (particularly the target organs of parasympathetic neurons). M1-M5 receptors are integral membrane proteins with seven transmembrane segments, bind with acetylcholine (ACh) in the extracellular phase, and thereafter interact with and activate GTP-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) in the intracellular phase: M1, M3, and M5 receptors interact with Gq-type G proteins, and M2 and M4 receptors with Gi/Go-type G proteins. Activated G proteins initiate a number of intracellular signal transduction systems. Agonist-bound muscarinic receptors are phosphorylated by G protein-coupled receptor kinases, which initiate their desensitization through uncoupling from G proteins, receptor internalization, and receptor breakdown (down regulation). Recently the crystal structures of M2 and M3 receptors were determined and are expected to contribute to the development of drugs targeted to muscarinic receptors. This paper summarizes the molecular properties of muscarinic receptors with reference to the historical background and bias to studies performed in our laboratories. PMID:23759942

  19. The Physiology and Biochemistry of Receptors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer, Judy A., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    The syllabus for a refresher course on the physiology and biochemistry of receptors (presented at the 1983 American Physiological Society meeting) is provided. Topics considered include receptor regulation, structural/functional aspects of receptors for insulin and insulin-like growth factors, calcium channel inhibitors, and role of lipoprotein…

  20. Structure and organization of heteromeric AMPA-type glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Herguedas, Beatriz; García-Nafría, Javier; Cais, Ondrej; Fernández-Leiro, Rafael; Krieger, James; Ho, Hinze; Greger, Ingo H

    2016-04-29

    AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs), which are central mediators of rapid neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity, predominantly exist as heteromers of the subunits GluA1 to GluA4. Here we report the first AMPAR heteromer structures, which deviate substantially from existing GluA2 homomer structures. Crystal structures of the GluA2/3 and GluA2/4 N-terminal domains reveal a novel compact conformation with an alternating arrangement of the four subunits around a central axis. This organization is confirmed by cysteine cross-linking in full-length receptors, and it permitted us to determine the structure of an intact GluA2/3 receptor by cryogenic electron microscopy. Two models in the ligand-free state, at resolutions of 8.25 and 10.3 angstroms, exhibit substantial vertical compression and close associations between domain layers, reminiscent of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Model 1 resembles a resting state and model 2 a desensitized state, thus providing snapshots of gating transitions in the nominal absence of ligand. Our data reveal organizational features of heteromeric AMPARs and provide a framework to decipher AMPAR architecture and signaling. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Minoxidil-induced hair growth is mediated by adenosine in cultured dermal papilla cells: possible involvement of sulfonylurea receptor 2B as a target of minoxidil.

    PubMed

    Li, M; Marubayashi, A; Nakaya, Y; Fukui, K; Arase, S

    2001-12-01

    The mechanism by which minoxidil, an adenosine-triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener, induces hypertrichosis remains to be elucidated. Minoxidil has been reported to stimulate the production of vascular endothelial growth factor, a possible promoter of hair growth, in cultured dermal papilla cells. The mechanism of production of vascular endothelial growth factor remains unclear, however. We hypothesize that adenosine serves as a mediator of vascular endothelial growth factor production. Minoxidil-induced increases in levels of intracellular Ca(2+) and vascular endothelial growth factor production in cultured dermal papilla cells were found to be inhibited by 8-sulfophenyl theophylline, a specific antagonist for adenosine receptors, suggesting that dermal papilla cells possess adenosine receptors and sulfonylurea receptors, the latter of which is a well-known target receptor for adenosine-triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel openers. The expression of sulfonylurea receptor 2B and of the adenosine A1, A2A, and A2B receptors was detected in dermal papilla cells by means of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. In order to determine which of the adenosine receptor subtypes contribute to minoxidil-induced hair growth, the effects of subtype-specific antagonists for adenosine receptors were investigated. Significant inhibition in increase in intracellular calcium level by minoxidil or adenosine was observed as the result of pretreatment with 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, an antagonist for adenosine A1 receptor, but not by 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargyl-xanthine, an antagonist for adenosine A2 receptor, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor production was blocked by both adenosine A1 and A2 receptor antagonists. These results indicate that the effect of minoxidil is mediated by adenosine, which triggers intracellular signal transduction via both adenosine A1 and A2 receptors, and that the expression of sulfonylurea receptor 2B in

  2. Design of an Insulin Analog with Enhanced Receptor Binding Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ming; Wan, Zhu-li; Whittaker, Linda; Xu, Bin; Phillips, Nelson B.; Katsoyannis, Panayotis G.; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz; Whittaker, Jonathan; Weiss, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Insulin binds with high affinity to the insulin receptor (IR) and with low affinity to the type 1 insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptor (IGFR). Such cross-binding, which reflects homologies within the insulin-IGF signaling system, is of clinical interest in relation to the association between hyperinsulinemia and colorectal cancer. Here, we employ nonstandard mutagenesis to design an insulin analog with enhanced affinity for the IR but reduced affinity for the IGFR. Unnatural amino acids were introduced by chemical synthesis at the N- and C-capping positions of a recognition α-helix (residues A1 and A8). These sites adjoin the hormone-receptor interface as indicated by photocross-linking studies. Specificity is enhanced more than 3-fold on the following: (i) substitution of GlyA1 by d-Ala or d-Leu, and (ii) substitution of ThrA8 by diaminobutyric acid (Dab). The crystal structure of [d-AlaA1,DabA8]insulin, as determined within a T6 zinc hexamer to a resolution of 1.35 Å, is essentially identical to that of human insulin. The nonstandard side chains project into solvent at the edge of a conserved receptor-binding surface shared by insulin and IGF-I. Our results demonstrate that modifications at this edge discriminate between IR and IGFR. Because hyperinsulinemia is typically characterized by a 3-fold increase in integrated postprandial insulin concentrations, we envisage that such insulin analogs may facilitate studies of the initiation and progression of cancer in animal models. Future development of clinical analogs lacking significant IGFR cross-binding may enhance the safety of insulin replacement therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at increased risk of colorectal cancer. PMID:19773552

  3. Last SSME test on A-1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-29

    The Stennis Space Center conducted the final space shuttle main engine test on its A-1 Test Stand Friday. The A-1 Test Stand was the site of the first test on a shuttle main engine in 1975. Stennis will continue testing shuttle main engines on its A-2 Test Stand through the end of the Space Shuttle Program in 2010. The A-1 stand begins a new chapter in its operational history in October. It will be temporarily decommissioned to convert it for testing the J-2X engine, which will power the upper stage of NASA's new crew launch vehicle, the Ares I. Although this ends the stand's work on the Space Shuttle Program, it will soon be used for the rocket that will carry America's next generation human spacecraft, Orion.

  4. Evidence that the adenosine A3 receptor may mediate the protection afforded by preconditioning in the isolated rabbit heart.

    PubMed

    Liu, G S; Richards, S C; Olsson, R A; Mullane, K; Walsh, R S; Downey, J M

    1994-07-01

    Agonists selective for the A1 adenosine receptor mimic the protective effect of ischaemic preconditioning against infarction in the rabbit heart. Unselective adenosine antagonists block this protection but, paradoxically, the A1 adenosine receptor selective antagonist 8-cyclopentyl- 1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) does not. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the newly described A3 adenosine receptor, which has an agonist profile similar to the A1 receptor but is insensitive to DPCPX, might mediate preconditioning. Isolated rabbit hearts perfused with Krebs buffer experienced 30 min of regional ischaemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Infarct size was measured by tetrazolium staining. In control hearts infarction was 32.2(SEM 1.5)% of the risk zone. Preconditioning by 5 min ischaemia and 10 min reperfusion reduced infarct size to 8.8(2.3)%. Replacing the regional ischaemia with 5 min perfusion with 10 microM adenosine or 65 nM N6-[2-(4-aminophenyl)ethyl]adenosine (APNEA), an adenosine A3 receptor agonist, was equally protective. The unselective antagonist 8-p-sulphophenyl theophylline at 100 microM abolished protection by preconditioning, adenosine, and APNEA, but 200 nM DPCPX did not block protection by any of the interventions. Likewise the potent but unselective A3 receptor antagonist 8-(4-carboxyethenylphenyl)-1,3-dipropylxanthine (BW A1433) completely blocked protection from ischaemic preconditioning. Because protection against infarction afforded by ischaemic preconditioning, adenosine, or the A3 receptor agonist APNEA could not be blocked by DPCPX and because the potent A3 receptor antagonist BW A1433 blocked protection from ischaemic preconditioning, these data indicate that the protection of preconditioning is not exclusively mediated by the adenosine A1 receptor in rabbit heart and could involve the A3 receptor.

  5. Prevalence of thyrotropin receptor germline mutations and clinical courses in 89 hyperthyroid patients with diffuse goiter and negative anti-thyrotropin receptor antibodies.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, Eijun; Fukata, Shuji; Hishinuma, Akira; Amino, Nobuyuki; Miyauchi, Akira

    2014-05-01

    We studied the frequency of thyrotropin (TSH) receptor mutations in hyperthyroid patients with diffuse goiter and negative TSH receptor antibodies (TRAb), and the clinical pictures of the hyperthyroid patients in the presence and absence of mutations. From 2003 through 2012, 89 hyperthyroid patients with diffuse goiter and negative TRAb based on a second- or third-generation assay underwent sequence analysis of the TSH receptor gene from peripheral leukocytes. The outcome of hyperthyroidism in patients with a TSH receptor mutation and their affected family members was compared with that in patients without any mutation after a 1-10-year follow-up. Germline mutations of the TSH receptor occurred in 4 of the 89 patients (4.5%), including 3 definitive constitutively activating mutations (L512Q, E575K, and D617Y). The main difference in the clinical outcome of hyperthyroidism was that no patients with a TSH receptor mutation achieved euthyroidism throughout the follow-up, while 23.5% of patients without any mutation entered remission. The progression from subclinical to overt hyperthyroidism was not significantly different between patients with or without a mutation. Meanwhile, 10.3% of TRAb-negative patients without any TSH receptor mutation developed TRAb-positive Graves' hyperthyroidism during the follow-up. The prevalence of nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism with TSH receptor mutations is lower than that of latent Graves' disease in TRAb-negative patients with hyperthyroidism. However, all affected patients with a TSH receptor mutation showed persistent hyperthyroidism regardless of subclinical or overt hyperthyroidism throughout the follow-up.

  6. Specific regulation of thermosensitive lipid droplet fusion by a nuclear hormone receptor pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shiwei; Li, Qi; Kong, Yuanyuan; Wu, Shuang; Cui, Qingpo; Zhang, Mingming; Zhang, Shaobing O.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear receptors play important roles in regulating fat metabolism and energy production in humans. The regulatory functions and endogenous ligands of many nuclear receptors are still unidentified, however. Here, we report that CYP-37A1 (ortholog of human cytochrome P450 CYP4V2), EMB-8 (ortholog of human P450 oxidoreductase POR), and DAF-12 (homolog of human nuclear receptors VDR/LXR) constitute a hormone synthesis and nuclear receptor pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans. This pathway specifically regulates the thermosensitive fusion of fat-storing lipid droplets. CYP-37A1, together with EMB-8, synthesizes a lipophilic hormone not identical to Δ7-dafachronic acid, which represses the fusion-promoting function of DAF-12. CYP-37A1 also negatively regulates thermotolerance and lifespan at high temperature in a DAF-12–dependent manner. Human CYP4V2 can substitute for CYP-37A1 in C. elegans. This finding suggests the existence of a conserved CYP4V2-POR–nuclear receptor pathway that functions in converting multilocular lipid droplets to unilocular ones in human cells; misregulation of this pathway may lead to pathogenic fat storage. PMID:28760992

  7. Specific regulation of thermosensitive lipid droplet fusion by a nuclear hormone receptor pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiwei; Li, Qi; Kong, Yuanyuan; Wu, Shuang; Cui, Qingpo; Zhang, Mingming; Zhang, Shaobing O

    2017-08-15

    Nuclear receptors play important roles in regulating fat metabolism and energy production in humans. The regulatory functions and endogenous ligands of many nuclear receptors are still unidentified, however. Here, we report that CYP-37A1 (ortholog of human cytochrome P450 CYP4V2), EMB-8 (ortholog of human P450 oxidoreductase POR), and DAF-12 (homolog of human nuclear receptors VDR/LXR) constitute a hormone synthesis and nuclear receptor pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans This pathway specifically regulates the thermosensitive fusion of fat-storing lipid droplets. CYP-37A1, together with EMB-8, synthesizes a lipophilic hormone not identical to Δ7-dafachronic acid, which represses the fusion-promoting function of DAF-12. CYP-37A1 also negatively regulates thermotolerance and lifespan at high temperature in a DAF-12-dependent manner. Human CYP4V2 can substitute for CYP-37A1 in C. elegans This finding suggests the existence of a conserved CYP4V2-POR-nuclear receptor pathway that functions in converting multilocular lipid droplets to unilocular ones in human cells; misregulation of this pathway may lead to pathogenic fat storage.

  8. 38 CFR 8a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 8a.1 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE... title to the housing unit for which his or her grant was made. (b) The term Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance (VMLI) means the mortgage protection life insurance authorized for veterans under 38 U.S.C. 2106...

  9. 8 CFR 1274a.1 - Employer requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1274a.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... proceedings. The procedures for hearings before an administrative law judge relating to civil penalties sought... administrative law judge and, to the extent relevant, to cases before an immigration judge or the Board of...

  10. 8 CFR 213a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... BEHALF OF IMMIGRANTS § 213a.1 Definitions. As used in this part, the term: Domicile means the place where... Support Contract Between Sponsor and Household Member, on behalf of the sponsor and intending immigrants. The “household income” may not, however, include the income of an intending immigrant, unless the...

  11. A1C Test and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... per day (fasting or pre-breakfast, pre-lunch, pre-dinner, and bedtime). The straight black line shows an A1C measurement of 7.0 percent. The blue line shows an example of how blood glucose test results might look from self-monitoring four times ...

  12. Sugars, Sweet Taste Receptors, and Brain Responses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Allen A; Owyang, Chung

    2017-06-24

    Sweet taste receptors are composed of a heterodimer of taste 1 receptor member 2 (T1R2) and taste 1 receptor member 3 (T1R3). Accumulating evidence shows that sweet taste receptors are ubiquitous throughout the body, including in the gastrointestinal tract as well as the hypothalamus. These sweet taste receptors are heavily involved in nutrient sensing, monitoring changes in energy stores, and triggering metabolic and behavioral responses to maintain energy balance. Not surprisingly, these pathways are heavily regulated by external and internal factors. Dysfunction in one or more of these pathways may be important in the pathogenesis of common diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  13. AMPA receptor desensitization mutation results in severe developmental phenotypes and early postnatal lethality

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Louisa A.; Russell, Theron A.; Xu, Jian; Wood, Lydia; Shepherd, Gordon M. G.; Contractor, Anis

    2010-01-01

    AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate) recep-tors desensitize rapidly and completely in the continued presence of their endogenous ligand glutamate; however, it is not clear what role AMPA receptor desensitization plays in the brain. We generated a knock-in mouse in which a single amino acid residue, which controls desensitization, was mutated in the GluA2 (GluR2) receptor subunit (GluA2L483Y). This mutation was homozygous lethal. However, mice carrying a single mutated allele, GluA2L483Y/wt, survived past birth, but displayed severe and progressive neurological deficits including seizures and, ultimately, increased mortality. The expression of the AMPA receptor subunits GluA1 and GluA2 was decreased, whereas NMDA receptor protein expression was increased in GluA2L483Y/wt mice. Despite this, basal synaptic transmission and plasticity in the hippocampus were largely unaffected, suggesting that neurons preferentially target receptors to synapses to normalize synaptic weight. We found no gross neuroanatomical alterations in GluA2L483Y/wt mice. Moreover, there was no accumulation of AMPA receptor subunits in intracellular compartments, suggesting that folding and assembly of AMPA receptors are not affected by this mutation. Interestingly, EPSC paired pulse ratios in the CA1 were enhanced without a change in synaptic release probability, demonstrating that postsynaptic receptor properties can contribute to facilitation. The dramatic phenotype observed in this study by the introduction of a single amino acid change demonstrates an essential role in vivo for AMPA receptor desensitization. PMID:20439731

  14. Beyond HbA1c.

    PubMed

    Bloomgarden, Zachary

    2017-12-01

    It can scarcely be denied that the supreme goal of all theory is to make the irreducible basic elements as simple and as few as possible without having to surrender the adequate representation of a single datum of experience. The diaTribe Foundation convened a meeting on the topic of glycemic outcomes beyond HbA1c on 21 July 2017, in Bethesda (MD, USA), focusing on potential uses of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Understanding patterns of glycemia in people with diabetes has long been a focus of approaches to improving treatment, and over the past few years this has become an available modality for clinical practice. Glucose levels are not the only biologic parameters affecting HbA1c levels; HbA1c changes with anemia or, more subtly, with changes in rates of erythrocyte turnover not reflected in hemoglobin levels outside the normal range. Renal disease often is associated with lower HbA1c than would be predicted based on an individual's glycemic levels. Furthermore, HbA1c levels tend to increase with age and are higher in some ethnic groups; for example, people of African ethnicity have higher HbA1c levels than people of Northern European descent. Indeed, we have argued that even as a measure of mean glycemia HbA1c is inherently imprecise. Overall, for some 20% of people with diabetes, HbA1c levels are substantially higher, or substantially lower, than those that would be predicted from mean blood glucose levels. If one recognizes that HbA1c is, at best, a partial measure of mean glycemic exposure, one must surely accept that HbA1c does not reflect variability within a day, from day to day, and from period to period. Many glucose-lowering medicines, particularly the sulfonylureas and insulin, cause hypoglycemia, with consequent negative effects on quality of life and patient-reported outcomes, as well as association with weight gain and adverse macrovascular outcome; hypoglycemia will, of course, not be captured by HbA1c measurement. Based on these

  15. Olfactory receptor neuron profiling using sandalwood odorants.

    PubMed

    Bieri, Stephan; Monastyrskaia, Katherine; Schilling, Boris

    2004-07-01

    The mammalian olfactory system can discriminate between volatile molecules with subtle differences in their molecular structures. Efforts in synthetic chemistry have delivered a myriad of smelling compounds of different qualities as well as many molecules with very similar olfactive properties. One important class of molecules in the fragrance industry are sandalwood odorants. Sandalwood oil and four synthetic sandalwood molecules were selected to study the activation profile of endogenous olfactory receptors when exposed to compounds from the same odorant family. Dissociated rat olfactory receptor neurons were exposed to the sandalwood molecules and the receptor activation studied by monitoring fluxes in the internal calcium concentration. Olfactory receptor neurons were identified that were specifically stimulated by sandalwood compounds. These neurons expressed olfactory receptors that can discriminate between sandalwood odorants with slight differences in their molecular structures. This is the first study in which an important class of perfume compounds was analyzed for its ability to activate endogenous olfactory receptors in olfactory receptor neurons.

  16. Nuclear receptors in bile acid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tiangang; Chiang, John Y. L.

    2013-01-01

    Bile acids are signaling molecules that activate nuclear receptors, such as farnesoid X receptor, pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor, and vitamin D receptor, and play a critical role in the regulation of lipid, glucose, energy, and drug metabolism. These xenobiotic/endobiotic-sensing nuclear receptors regulate phase I oxidation, phase II conjugation, and phase III transport in bile acid and drug metabolism in the digestive system. Integration of bile acid metabolism with drug metabolism controls absorption, transport, and metabolism of nutrients and drugs to maintain metabolic homeostasis and also protects against liver injury, inflammation, and related metabolic diseases, such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, diabetes, and obesity. Bile-acid–based drugs targeting nuclear receptors are in clinical trials for treating cholestatic liver diseases and fatty liver disease. PMID:23330546

  17. Targeting Nuclear Receptors with Marine Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunyan; Li, Qianrong; Li, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are important pharmaceutical targets because they are key regulators of many metabolic and inflammatory diseases, including diabetes, dyslipidemia, cirrhosis, and fibrosis. As ligands play a pivotal role in modulating nuclear receptor activity, the discovery of novel ligands for nuclear receptors represents an interesting and promising therapeutic approach. The search for novel NR agonists and antagonists with enhanced selectivities prompted the exploration of the extraordinary chemical diversity associated with natural products. Recent studies involving nuclear receptors have disclosed a number of natural products as nuclear receptor ligands, serving to re-emphasize the translational possibilities of natural products in drug discovery. In this review, the natural ligands of nuclear receptors will be described with an emphasis on their mechanisms of action and their therapeutic potentials, as well as on strategies to determine potential marine natural products as nuclear receptor modulators. PMID:24473166

  18. Receptor arrays optimized for natural odor statistics.

    PubMed

    Zwicker, David; Murugan, Arvind; Brenner, Michael P

    2016-05-17

    Natural odors typically consist of many molecules at different concentrations. It is unclear how the numerous odorant molecules and their possible mixtures are discriminated by relatively few olfactory receptors. Using an information theoretic model, we show that a receptor array is optimal for this task if it achieves two possibly conflicting goals: (i) Each receptor should respond to half of all odors and (ii) the response of different receptors should be uncorrelated when averaged over odors presented with natural statistics. We use these design principles to predict statistics of the affinities between receptors and odorant molecules for a broad class of odor statistics. We also show that optimal receptor arrays can be tuned to either resolve concentrations well or distinguish mixtures reliably. Finally, we use our results to predict properties of experimentally measured receptor arrays. Our work can thus be used to better understand natural olfaction, and it also suggests ways to improve artificial sensor arrays.

  19. Bioactive terpenoids and flavonoids from ginkgo biloba extract induce the expression of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes through Pregnane X receptor, Constitutive androstane receptor, and Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated pathways

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linhao; Stanton, Joseph D; Tolson, Antonia H; Luo, Yuan; Wang, Hongbing

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The objective of the current study is to investigate the hypothesis that bioactive terpenoids and flavonoids of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) induce human hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and transporters through the selective activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Methods Human primary hepatocyte (HPH), and HepG2 cells are used as in vitro models for enzyme induction and nuclear receptor activation studies. A combination of real-time RT-PCR, transient transfection, and cell-based reporter assays were employed. Results In human primary hepatocytes, real-time PCR analysis showed induction of CYP2B6, CYP3A4, UGT1A1, MDR1, and MRP2 by EGb 761, ginkgolide A (GA) and ginkgolide B (GB), but not by bilobalide (BB) or the flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and tamarixetin) of GBE. Cell-based reporter assays in HepG2 revealed that GA and GB are potent activators of PXR; quercetin and kaempferol activate PXR, CAR, and AhR, whereas BB exerts no effects on these xenobiotic receptors. Notably, the flavonoids induced the expression of UGT1A1 and CYP1A2 in HepG2 cells but not in HPH. Conclusion Our results indicate that terpenoids and flavonoids of GBE exhibit differential induction of DMEs through the selective activation of PXR, CAR, and AhR. PMID:19034627

  20. Cytochrome P450 20A1 in zebrafish: Cloning, regulation and potential involvement in hyperactivity disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Lemaire, Benjamin; Kubota, Akira; O'Meara, Conor M.

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes for which there is no functional information are considered “orphan” CYPs. Previous studies showed that CYP20A1, an orphan, is expressed in human hippocampus and substantia nigra, and in zebrafish (Danio rerio) CYP20A1 maternal transcript occurs in eggs, suggesting involvement in brain and in early development. Moreover, hyperactivity is reported in humans with chromosome 2 microdeletions including CYP20A1. We examined CYP20A1 in zebrafish, including impacts of chemical exposure on expression. Zebrafish CYP20A1 cDNA was cloned, sequenced, and aligned with cloned human CYP20A1 and predicted vertebrate orthologs. CYP20A1s share a highly conserved N-terminal region and unusual sequences inmore » the I-helix and the heme-binding CYP signature motifs. CYP20A1 mRNA expression was observed in adult zebrafish organs including the liver, heart, gonads, spleen and brain, as well as the eye and optic nerve. Putative binding sites in proximal promoter regions of CYP20A1s, and response of zebrafish CYP20A1 to selected nuclear and xenobiotic receptor agonists, point to up-regulation by agents involved in steroid hormone response, cholesterol and lipid metabolism. There also was a dose-dependent reduction of CYP20A1 expression in embryos exposed to environmentally relevant levels of methylmercury. Morpholino knockdown of CYP20A1 in developing zebrafish resulted in behavioral effects, including hyperactivity and a slowing of the optomotor response in larvae. The results suggest that altered expression of CYP20A1 might be part of a mechanism linking methylmercury exposure to neurobehavioral deficits. The expanded information on CYP20A1 brings us closer to “deorphanization”, that is, identifying CYP20A1 functions and its roles in health and disease. - Highlights: • The “orphan” CYP20A1 was cloned from zebrafish and its sequence analyzed. • Knockdown of CYP20A1 reduced an optomotor response and elicited bursts of activity. • Effects

  1. Biology of the TAM receptors.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Greg

    2013-11-01

    The TAM receptors--Tyro3, Axl, and Mer--comprise a unique family of receptor tyrosine kinases, in that as a group they play no essential role in embryonic development. Instead, they function as homeostatic regulators in adult tissues and organ systems that are subject to continuous challenge and renewal throughout life. Their regulatory roles are prominent in the mature immune, reproductive, hematopoietic, vascular, and nervous systems. The TAMs and their ligands--Gas6 and Protein S--are essential for the efficient phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and membranes in these tissues; and in the immune system, they act as pleiotropic inhibitors of the innate inflammatory response to pathogens. Deficiencies in TAM signaling are thought to contribute to chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in humans, and aberrantly elevated TAM signaling is strongly associated with cancer progression, metastasis, and resistance to targeted therapies.

  2. [Ceruloplasmin receptor on human erythrocytes].

    PubMed

    Saenko, E L; Basevich, V V; Iaropolov, A I

    1988-08-01

    The structural fragments of the human ceruloplasmin (CP) molecule and of erythrocyte receptors which provide for the specific interaction of CP with erythrocytes were identified, and their properties were investigated. The interaction of CP with erythrocytes, both intact and treated with neuroaminidase and proteolytic enzymes (trypsin, chymotrypsin, papaine, pronase E) is described. Experiments with CP reception were performed at 4 degrees C, using [125I]CP and [125I]asialo-CP. The parameters of binding were determined in Scatchard plots. It was demonstrated that the specific binding of CP to erythrocyte receptors is determined by its interaction with two structural sites of the carbohydrate moiety of the CP molecule, i.e., the terminal residues of sialic acids and a site, (formula; see text) located at a large distance from the chain terminus.

  3. Ligands for Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Geoffrey T.; Sakai, Ryuichi

    2010-01-01

    Marine-derived small molecules and peptides have played a central role in elaborating pharmacological specificities and neuronal functions of mammalian ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs), the primary mediators of excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS). As well, the pathological sequelae elicited by one class of compounds (the kainoids) constitute a widely-used animal model for human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). New and existing molecules could prove useful as lead compounds for the development of therapeutics for neuropathologies that have aberrant glutamatergic signaling as a central component. In this chapter we discuss natural source origins and pharmacological activities of those marine compounds that target ionotropic glutamate receptors. PMID:19184587

  4. Ligands for Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Geoffrey T.; Sakai, Ryuichi

    Marine-derived small molecules and peptides have played a central role in elaborating pharmacological specificities and neuronal functions of mammalian ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs), the primary mediators of excitatory syn-aptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS). As well, the pathological sequelae elicited by one class of compounds (the kainoids) constitute a widely-used animal model for human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). New and existing molecules could prove useful as lead compounds for the development of therapeutics for neuropathologies that have aberrant glutamatergic signaling as a central component. In this chapter we discuss natural source origins and pharmacological activities of those marine compounds that target ionotropic glutamate receptors.

  5. Aza compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Hung Sui; Yang, Xiao-Qing; McBreen, James

    1998-01-06

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of Li.sup.+ ion in alkali metal batteries.

  6. GPER - novel membrane estrogen receptor

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Margaret A.; Budish, Rebecca A.; Kashyap, Shreya; Lindsey, Sarah H.

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery of the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) presents new challenges and opportunities for understanding the physiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacology of many diseases. This review will focus on the expression and function of GPER in hypertension, kidney disease, atherosclerosis, vascular remodeling, heart failure, reproduction, metabolic disorders, cancer, environmental health, and menopause. Furthermore, this review will highlight the potential of GPER as a therapeutic target. PMID:27154744

  7. Aza compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.Q.; McBreen, J.

    1998-01-06

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of Li{sup +} ion in alkali metal batteries. 3 figs.

  8. Factors Modulating Estrogen Receptor Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-07-01

    public release; distribution unlimited The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author( s ) and should not be...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Activity Factors Modulating Estrogen Receptor 6. AUTHOR( S ) Michael J. Garabedian, Ph.D. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND...ADDRESS(ES) New York University Medical Center New York, New York 10016 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Commander U.S

  9. Autophagy selectivity through receptor clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutenberg, Andrew; Brown, Aidan

    Substrate selectivity in autophagy requires an all-or-none cellular response. We focus on peroxisomes, for which autophagy receptor proteins NBR1 and p62 are well characterized. Using computational models, we explore the hypothesis that physical clustering of autophagy receptor proteins on the peroxisome surface provides an appropriate all-or-none response. We find that larger peroxisomes nucleate NBR1 clusters first, and lose them due to competitive coarsening last, resulting in significant size-selectivity. We then consider a secondary hypothesis that p62 inhibits NBR1 cluster formation. We find that p62 inhibition enhances size-selectivity enough that, even if there is no change of the pexophagy rate, the volume of remaining peroxisomes can significantly decrease. We find that enhanced ubiquitin levels suppress size-selectivity, and that this effect is more pronounced for individual peroxisomes. Sufficient ubiquitin allows receptor clusters to form on even the smallest peroxisomes. We conclude that NBR1 cluster formation provides a viable physical mechanism for all-or-none substrate selectivity in pexophagy. We predict that cluster formation is associated with significant size-selectivity. Now at Simon Fraser University.

  10. Lymphocyte receptors for pertussis toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C.G.; Armstrong, G.D.

    1990-12-01

    We have investigated human T-lymphocyte receptors for pertussis toxin by affinity isolation and photoaffinity labeling procedures. T lymphocytes were obtained from peripheral human blood, surface iodinated, and solubilized in Triton X-100. The iodinated mixture was then passed through pertussis toxin-agarose, and the fractions were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Autoradiography of the fixed, dried gels revealed several bands in the pertussis toxin-bound fraction that were not observed in fractions obtained from histone or fetuin-agarose. Further investigations employed a photoaffinity labeling reagent, sulfosuccinimidyl 2-(p-azido-salicylamido)-1,3'-dithiopropionate, to identify pertussis toxin receptors in freshly isolated peripheral blood monocytic cells, T lymphocytes, andmore » Jurkat cells. In all three cell systems, the pertussis toxin affinity probe specifically labeled a single protein species with an apparent molecular weight of 70,000 that was not observed when the procedure was performed in the presence of excess unmodified pertussis toxin. A protein comparable in molecular weight to the one detected by the photoaffinity labeling technique was also observed among the species that bound to pertussis toxin-agarose. The results suggest that pertussis toxin may bind to a 70,000-Da receptor in human T lymphocytes.« less

  11. Targeting tachykinin receptors in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Henssen, Anton G; Odersky, Andrea; Szymansky, Annabell; Seiler, Marleen; Althoff, Kristina; Beckers, Anneleen; Speleman, Frank; Schäfers, Simon; De Preter, Katleen; Astrahanseff, Kathy; Struck, Joachim; Schramm, Alexander; Eggert, Angelika; Bergmann, Andreas; Schulte, Johannes H

    2017-01-03

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial tumor in children. Despite aggressive multimodal treatment, high-risk neuroblastoma remains a clinical challenge with survival rates below 50%. Adding targeted drugs to first-line therapy regimens is a promising approach to improve survival in these patients. TACR1 activation by substance P has been reported to be mitogenic in cancer cell lines. Tachykinin receptor (TACR1) antagonists are approved for clinical use as an antiemetic remedy since 2003. Tachykinin receptor inhibition has recently been shown to effectively reduce growth of several tumor types. Here, we report that neuroblastoma cell lines express TACR1, and that targeting TACR1 activity significantly reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis in neuroblastoma cell lines. Gene expression profiling revealed that TACR1 inhibition repressed E2F2 and induced TP53 signaling. Treating mice harboring established neuroblastoma xenograft tumors with Aprepitant also significantly reduced tumor burden. Thus, we provide evidence that the targeted inhibition of tachykinin receptor signaling shows therapeutic efficacy in preclinical models for high-risk neuroblastoma.

  12. Azilsartan: Novel Angiotensin Receptor Blocker.

    PubMed

    Dargad, Ramesh R; Parekh, Jai D; Dargad, Rohit R; Kukrety, Shweta

    2016-03-01

    To describe the efficacy and safety profile of the new angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), "Azilsartan Medoxomil", reviewing data available from both clinical and pre-clinical studies. We completed a review of the English literature from PubMed using the keywords- azilsartan medoxomil, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and hypertension. Many clinical trials have been conducted comparing the efficacy of azilsartan with other ARB's and also with the ACEi ramipril. The trials have shown azilsartan to be more effective in reducing the mean 24-hour systolic blood pressure compared to its counterparts. Azilsartan is a recently approved ARB and appears to be more efficacious in reducing blood pressure (BP) than the other ARBs with a similar safety and tolerability profile. Azilsartan's very high affinity to and slow dissociation from the angiotensin 1 receptor (AT1R) along with its inverse agonistic properties make it a very good candidate for clinical effects beyond simple BP control, potentially counteracting cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis and insulin resistance, together with improved reno-protection and atherosclerotic plaque stabilization.

  13. Fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suneel B V S; Narasu, Lakshmi; Gundla, Rambabu; Dayam, Raveendra; J A R P, Sarma

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) play an important role in embryonic development, angiogenesis, wound healing, cell proliferation and differentiation. The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) isoforms have been under intense scrutiny for effective anticancer drug candidates. The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and its receptor (FGFR) provide another pathway that seems critical to monitoring angiogenesis. Recent findings suggest that FGFR mediates signaling, regulates the PKM2 activity, and plays a crucial role in cancer metabolism. The current review also covers the recent findings on the role of FGFR1 in cancer metabolism. This paper reviews the progress, mechanism, and binding modes of recently known kinase inhibitors such as PD173074, SU series and other inhibitors still under clinical development. Some of the structural classes that will be highlighted in this review include Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines, Indolin- 2-one, Pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazine, Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7(8H)-one, and 1,6- Naphthyridin-2(1H)-ones.

  14. Cannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors and tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Smith, Paul F; Zheng, Yiwen

    2016-02-01

    One hypothesis suggests that tinnitus is a form of sensory epilepsy, arising partly from neuronal hyperactivity in auditory regions of the brain such as the cochlear nucleus and inferior colliculus. Although there is currently no effective drug treatment for tinnitus, anti-epileptic drugs are used in some cases as a potential treatment option. There is increasing evidence to suggest that cannabinoid drugs, i.e. cannabinoid receptor agonists, can also have anti-epileptic effects, at least in some cases and in some parts of the brain. It has been reported that cannabinoid CB1 receptors and the endogenous cannabinoid, 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), are expressed in the cochlear nucleus and that they are involved in the regulation of plasticity. This review explores the question of whether cannabinoid receptor agonists are likely to be pro- or anti-epileptic in the cochlear nucleus and therefore whether cannabinoids and Cannabis itself are likely to make tinnitus better or worse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. TMS installation at A-1 Test Stand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-03

    A new thrust measurement system is lifted onto the A-1 Test Stand deck at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in preparation for its installation. The new system is a state-of-the-art upgrade for the testing structure, which is being prepared for testing of next-generation rocket engines. The system was fabricated by Thrust Measurement Systems in Illinois at a cost of about $3.5 million.

  16. Systemic effects of arctic pollutants in beluga whales indicated by CYP1A1 expression.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Joanna Y; Cooke, Suzy R; Moore, Michael J; Martineau, Daniel; Mikaelian, Igor; Metner, Donald A; Lockhart, W Lyle; Stegeman, John J

    2005-11-01

    Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) is induced by exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) such as non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, we examined CYP1A1 protein expression immunohistochemically in multiple organs of beluga whales from two locations in the Arctic and from the St. Lawrence estuary. These beluga populations have some of the lowest (Arctic sites) and highest (St. Lawrence estuary) concentrations of PCBs in blubber of all cetaceans. Samples from these populations might be expected to have different contaminant-induced responses, reflecting their different exposure histories. The pattern and extent of CYP1A1 staining in whales from all three locations were similar to those seen in animal models in which CYP1A has been highly induced, indicating a high-level expression in these whales. CYP1A1 induction has been related to toxic effects of PHAHs or PAHs in some species. In St. Lawrence beluga, the high level of CYP1A1 expression coupled with high levels of contaminants (including CYP1A1 substrates, e.g., PAH procarcinogens potentially activated by CYP1A1) indicates that CYP1A1 could be involved in the development of neoplastic lesions seen in the St. Lawrence beluga population. The systemic high-level expression of CYP1A1 in Arctic beluga suggests that effects of PAHs or PHAHs may be expected in Arctic populations, as well. The high-level expression of CYP1A1 in the Arctic beluga suggests that this species is highly sensitive to CYP1A1 induction by aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists.

  17. Systemic Effects of Arctic Pollutants in Beluga Whales Indicated by CYP1A1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Joanna Y.; Cooke, Suzy R.; Moore, Michael J.; Martineau, Daniel; Mikaelian, Igor; Metner, Donald A.; Lockhart, W. Lyle; Stegeman, John J.

    2005-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) is induced by exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) such as non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, we examined CYP1A1 protein expression immunohistochemically in multiple organs of beluga whales from two locations in the Arctic and from the St. Lawrence estuary. These beluga populations have some of the lowest (Arctic sites) and highest (St. Lawrence estuary) concentrations of PCBs in blubber of all cetaceans. Samples from these populations might be expected to have different contaminant-induced responses, reflecting their different exposure histories. The pattern and extent of CYP1A1 staining in whales from all three locations were similar to those seen in animal models in which CYP1A has been highly induced, indicating a high-level expression in these whales. CYP1A1 induction has been related to toxic effects of PHAHs or PAHs in some species. In St. Lawrence beluga, the high level of CYP1A1 expression coupled with high levels of contaminants (including CYP1A1 substrates, e.g., PAH procarcinogens potentially activated by CYP1A1) indicates that CYP1A1 could be involved in the development of neoplastic lesions seen in the St. Lawrence beluga population. The systemic high-level expression of CYP1A1 in Arctic beluga suggests that effects of PAHs or PHAHs may be expected in Arctic populations, as well. The high-level expression of CYP1A1 in the Arctic beluga suggests that this species is highly sensitive to CYP1A1 induction by aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists. PMID:16263517

  18. Quaternary structure of a G-protein-coupled receptor heterotetramer in complex with Gi and Gs.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Gemma; Cordomí, Arnau; Zelman-Femiak, Monika; Brugarolas, Marc; Moreno, Estefania; Aguinaga, David; Perez-Benito, Laura; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Lluís, Carme; Pardo, Leonardo; García-Sáez, Ana J; McCormick, Peter J; Franco, Rafael

    2016-04-05

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), in the form of monomers or homodimers that bind heterotrimeric G proteins, are fundamental in the transfer of extracellular stimuli to intracellular signaling pathways. Different GPCRs may also interact to form heteromers that are novel signaling units. Despite the exponential growth in the number of solved GPCR crystal structures, the structural properties of heteromers remain unknown. We used single-particle tracking experiments in cells expressing functional adenosine A1-A2A receptors fused to fluorescent proteins to show the loss of Brownian movement of the A1 receptor in the presence of the A2A receptor, and a preponderance of cell surface 2:2 receptor heteromers (dimer of dimers). Using computer modeling, aided by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assays to monitor receptor homomerization and heteromerization and G-protein coupling, we predict the interacting interfaces and propose a quaternary structure of the GPCR tetramer in complex with two G proteins. The combination of results points to a molecular architecture formed by a rhombus-shaped heterotetramer, which is bound to two different interacting heterotrimeric G proteins (Gi and Gs). These novel results constitute an important advance in understanding the molecular intricacies involved in GPCR function.

  19. Probing receptor structure/function with chimeric G-protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Yin, Dezhong; Gavi, Shai; Wang, Hsien-yu; Malbon, Craig C

    2004-06-01

    Owing its name to an image borrowed from Greek mythology, a chimera is seen to represent a new entity created as a composite from existing creatures or, in this case, molecules. Making use of various combinations of three basic domains of the receptors (i.e., exofacial, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic segments) that couple agonist binding into activation of effectors through heterotrimeric G-proteins, molecular pharmacology has probed the basic organization, structure/function relationships of this superfamily of heptahelical receptors. Chimeric G-protein-coupled receptors obviate the need for a particular agonist ligand when the ligand is resistant to purification or, in the case of orphan receptors, is not known. Chimeric receptors created from distant members of the heptahelical receptors enable new strategies in understanding how these receptors transduce agonist binding into receptor activation and may be able to offer insights into the evolution of G-protein-coupled receptors from yeast to humans.

  20. Mechanism and Site of Inhibition of AMPA Receptors: Pairing a Thiadiazole with a 2,3-Benzodiazepine Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    2,3-Benzodiazepine compounds are synthesized as drug candidates for treatment of various neurological disorders involving excessive activity of AMPA receptors. Here we report that pairing a thiadiazole moiety with a 2,3-benzodiazepine scaffold via the N-3 position yields an inhibitor type with >28-fold better potency and selectivity on AMPA receptors than the 2,3-benzodiazepine scaffold alone. Using whole-cell recording, we characterized two thiadiazolyl compounds, that is, one contains a 1,3,4-thiadiazole moiety and the other contains a 1,2,4-thiadiazole-3-one moiety. These compounds exhibit potent, equal inhibition of both the closed-channel and the open-channel conformations of all four homomeric AMPA receptor channels and two GluA2R-containing complex AMPA receptor channels. Furthermore, these compounds bind to the same receptor site as GYKI 52466 does, a site we previously termed as the “M” site. A thiadiazole moiety is thought to occupy more fully the side pocket of the receptor site or the “M” site, thereby generating a stronger, multivalent interaction between the inhibitor and the receptor binding site. We suggest that, as a heterocycle, a thiadiazole can be further modified chemically to produce a new class of even more potent, noncompetitive inhibitors of AMPA receptors. PMID:24313227

  1. Adenosine A2A receptors in ventral striatum, hypothalamus and nociceptive circuitry. Implications for drug addiction, sleep and pain

    PubMed Central

    Ferré, S.; Diamond, I.; Goldberg, S.R.; Yao, L.; Hourani, S.M.O.; Huang, Z.L.; Urade, Y.; Kitchen, I.

    2007-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors localized in the dorsal striatum are considered as a new target for the development of antiparkinsonian drugs. Co-administration of A2A receptor antagonists has shown a significant improvement of the effects of L-DOPA. The present review emphasizes the possible application of A2A receptor antagonists in pathological conditions other than parkinsonism, including drug addiction, sleep disorders and pain. In addition to the dorsal striatum, the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) contains a high density of A2A receptors, which presynaptically and postsynaptically regulate glutamatergic transmission in the cortical glutamatergic projections to the nucleus accumbens. It is currently believed that molecular adaptations of the cortico-accumbens glutamatergic synapses are involved in compulsive drug seeking and relapse. Here we review recent experimental evidence suggesting that A2A antagonists could become new therapeutic agents for drug addiction. Morphological and functional studies have identified lower levels of A2A receptors in brain areas other than the striatum, such as the ventrolateral preoptic area of the hypothalamus, where adenosine plays an important role in sleep regulation. Although initially believed to be mostly dependent on A1 receptors, here we review recent studies that demonstrate that the somnogenic effects of adenosine are largely mediated by hypothalamic A2A receptors. A2A receptor antagonists could therefore be considered as a possible treatment for narcolepsy and other sleep-related disorders. Finally, nociception is another adenosine-regulated neural function previously thought to mostly involve A1 receptors. Although there is some conflicting literature on the effects of agonists and antagonists, which may partly be due to the lack of selectivity of available drugs, the studies in A2A receptor knockout mice suggest that A2A receptor antagonists might have some therapeutic potential in pain states, in particular where

  2. Adenosine A(2A) receptors are necessary and sufficient to trigger memory impairment in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Pagnussat, N; Almeida, A S; Marques, D M; Nunes, F; Chenet, G C; Botton, P H S; Mioranzza, S; Loss, C M; Cunha, R A; Porciúncula, L O

    2015-08-01

    Caffeine (a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist) prevents memory deficits in aging and Alzheimer's disease, an effect mimicked by adenosine A2 A receptor, but not A1 receptor, antagonists. Hence, we investigated the effects of adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists on memory performance and scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. We determined whether A2 A receptors are necessary for the emergence of memory impairments induced by scopolamine and whether A2 A receptor activation triggers memory deficits in naïve mice, using three tests to assess short-term memory, namely the object recognition task, inhibitory avoidance and modified Y-maze. Scopolamine (1.0 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.) impaired short-term memory performance in all three tests and this scopolamine-induced amnesia was prevented by the A2 A receptor antagonist (SCH 58261, 0.1-1.0 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.) and by the A1 receptor antagonist (DPCPX, 0.2-5.0 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.), except in the modified Y-maze where only SCH58261 was effective. Both antagonists were devoid of effects on memory or locomotion in naïve rats. Notably, the activation of A2 A receptors with CGS 21680 (0.1-0.5 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.) before the training session was sufficient to trigger memory impairment in the three tests in naïve mice, and this effect was prevented by SCH 58261 (1.0 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.). Furthermore, i.c.v. administration of CGS 21680 (50 nmol) also impaired recognition memory in the object recognition task. These results show that A2 A receptors are necessary and sufficient to trigger memory impairment and further suggest that A1 receptors might also be selectively engaged to control the cholinergic-driven memory impairment. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Significance of the imidazoline receptors in toxicology.

    PubMed

    Lowry, J A; Brown, J T

    2014-06-01

    The alpha-2 adrenergic (AA-2) receptor agonists and imidazolines are common exposures in the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) National Poison Data System (NPDS). Although the interaction between the AA-2 receptor and imidazoline receptors has been extensively studied, it largely remains unknown to health-care professionals. This review describes these interactions and mechanisms by which agonists affect physiologic responses binding to these receptors. Papers published in English from 1960 to 2013 were retrieved from PubMed. A total of 323 original articles were identified and 173 were included. Background. The toxicity associated with clonidine (e.g., bradycardia, miosis, and hypotension) is largely assumed to be secondary to the functional overlap of the AA-2 receptors and the mu receptors. However, the effects at the AA-2 receptor could not fully account for these symptoms. Subsequently, clonidine was found to produce its pharmacologic effect in the central nervous system (CNS) by interaction not only with the AA-2 receptor but also on selective imidazoline receptors. IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS: Since their discovery, three distinct classes of imidazoline receptors, also known as imidazoline binding sites or imidazoline/guanidinium receptive sites, have been characterized. Imidazoline-1 (I-1) receptors are involved in the hypotensive activity of clonidine and related compounds supporting the idea that the I-1 receptors are upstream from the AA-2 receptor and work in tandem for its effect on blood pressure. Additionally, stimulation of N-type Calcium-2 channels, G-protein inwardly rectifying potassium channel, adenosine receptors, phosphatidyl-choline-specific phospholipase C, and nicotinic receptors have been implicated to be involved. Previous studies have shown that I-1 receptors may also be involved in other physiologic responses beyond cardiac function. Imidazoline-2 (I-2) receptors interact with monoamine oxidase A and monoamine oxidase B

  4. Could the 5-HT1B receptor inverse agonism affect learning consolidation?

    PubMed

    Meneses, A

    2001-03-01

    Diverse evidence indicates that, the 5-HT system might play a role in learning and memory, since it occurs in brain areas mediating such processes and 5-HT drugs modulate them. Hence in this work, in order to explore further 5-HT involvement on learning and memory 5-HT1B receptors' role is investigated. Evidence indicates that SB-224289 (a 5-HT1B receptor inverse agonist) post-training injection facilitated learning consolidation in an associative autoshaping learning task, this effect was partially reversed by GR 127935 (a 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist), but unaffected by MDL 100907 (a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist) or ketanserin (a 5-HT1D/2A/7 receptor antagonist) at low doses. Moreover, SB-224289 antagonized the learning deficit produced by TFMPP (a 5-HT1A/1B/1D/2A/2C receptor agonist), GR 46611 (a 5-HT1A/1B/1D receptor agonist), mCPP (a 5-HT2A/2C/3/7 receptor agonist/antagonist) or GR 127935 (at low dose). SB-224289 did not alter the 8-OH-DPAT (a 5-HT1A/7 receptor agonist) learning facilitatory effect. SB-224289 eliminated the deficit learning produced by the anticholinergic muscarinic scopolamine or the glutamatergic antagonist dizocilpine. Administration of both, GR 127935 (5mg/kg) plus ketanserin (0.01 mg/kg) did not modify learning consolidation; nevertheless, when ketanserin dose was increased (0.1-1.0mg/kg) and SB-224289 dose was maintained constant, a learning facilitation effect was observed. Notably, SB-224289 at 1.0mg/kg potentiated a subeffective dose of the 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist/antagonist mixed GR 127935, which facilitated learning consolidation and this effect was abolished by ketanserin at a higher dose. Collectively, the data confirm and extend the earlier findings with GR 127935 and the effects of non-selective 5-HT(1B) receptor agonists. Clearly 5-HT1B agonists induced a learning deficit which can be reversed with SB-224289. Perhaps more importantly, SB-224289 enhances learning consolidation when given alone and can reverse the deficits

  5. G protein-coupled receptor 30 ligand G-1 increases aryl hydrocarbon receptor signalling by inhibition of tubulin assembly and cell cycle arrest in human MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Tarnow, Patrick; Tralau, Tewes; Luch, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Regulatory crosstalk between the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and oestrogen receptor α (ERα) is well established. Apart from the nuclear receptors ERα and ERβ, oestrogen signalling further involves an unrelated G protein-coupled receptor termed GPR30. In order to investigate potential regulatory crosstalk, this study investigated the influence of G-1 as one of the few GPR30-specific ligands on the AHR regulon in MCF-7 cells. As a well-characterised model system, these human mammary carcinoma cells co-express all three receptors (AHR, ERα and GPR30) and are thus ideally suited to study corresponding regulatory pathway interactions on transcript level. Indeed, treatment with micromolar concentrations of the GPR30-specific agonist G-1 resulted in up-regulation of AHR as well as the transcripts for cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1B1, two well-known targets of the AHR regulon. While this was partly attributable to G-1-mediated inhibition of tubulin assembly and subsequent cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, the effects nevertheless required functional AHR. However, G-1-induced up-regulation of CYP 1A1 was not mediated by GPR30, as G15 antagonist treatment as well as a knockdown of GPR30 and AHR failed to inhibit this effect.

  6. Update on melatonin receptors: IUPHAR Review 20.

    PubMed

    Jockers, Ralf; Delagrange, Philippe; Dubocovich, Margarita L; Markus, Regina P; Renault, Nicolas; Tosini, Gianluca; Cecon, Erika; Zlotos, Darius P

    2016-09-01

    Melatonin receptors are seven transmembrane-spanning proteins belonging to the GPCR superfamily. In mammals, two melatonin receptor subtypes exist - MT1 and MT2 - encoded by the MTNR1A and MTNR1B genes respectively. The current review provides an update on melatonin receptors by the corresponding subcommittee of the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. We will highlight recent developments of melatonin receptor ligands, including radioligands, and give an update on the latest phenotyping results of melatonin receptor knockout mice. The current status and perspectives of the structure of melatonin receptor will be summarized. The physiological importance of melatonin receptor dimers and biologically important and type 2 diabetes-associated genetic variants of melatonin receptors will be discussed. The role of melatonin receptors in physiology and disease will be further exemplified by their functions in the immune system and the CNS. Finally, antioxidant and free radical scavenger properties of melatonin and its relation to melatonin receptors will be critically addressed. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Mediation of tubuloglomerular feedback by adenosine: evidence from mice lacking adenosine 1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Sun, D; Samuelson, L C; Yang, T; Huang, Y; Paliege, A; Saunders, T; Briggs, J; Schnermann, J

    2001-08-14

    Adenosine is a determinant of metabolic control of organ function increasing oxygen supply through the A2 class of adenosine receptors and reducing oxygen demand through A1 adenosine receptors (A1AR). In the kidney, activation of A1AR in afferent glomerular arterioles has been suggested to contribute to tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF), the vasoconstriction elicited by elevations in [NaCl] in the macula densa region of the nephron. To further elucidate the role of A1AR in TGF, we have generated mice in which the entire A1AR coding sequence was deleted by homologous recombination. Homozygous A1AR mutants that do not express A1AR mRNA transcripts and do not respond to A1AR agonists are viable and without gross anatomical abnormalities. Plasma and urinary electrolytes were not different between genotypes. Likewise, arterial blood pressure, heart rates, and glomerular filtration rates were indistinguishable between A1AR(+/+), A1AR(+/-), and A1AR(-/-) mice. TGF responses to an increase in loop of Henle flow rate from 0 to 30 nl/min, whether determined as change of stop flow pressure or early proximal flow rate, were completely abolished in A1AR(-/-) mice (stop flow pressure response, -6.8 +/- 0.55 mmHg and -0.4 +/- 0.2 in A1AR(+/+) and A1AR(-/-) mice; early proximal flow rate response, -3.4 +/- 0.4 nl/min and +0.02 +/- 0.3 nl/min in A1AR(+/+) and A1AR(-/-) mice). Absence of TGF responses in A1AR-deficient mice suggests that adenosine is a required constituent of the juxtaglomerular signaling pathway. A1AR null mutant mice are a promising tool to study the functional role of A1AR in different target tissues.

  8. Differential adipokine receptor expression on circulating leukocyte subsets in lean and obese children.

    PubMed

    Keustermans, Genoveva; van der Heijden, Laila B; Boer, Berlinda; Scholman, Rianne; Nuboer, Roos; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Prakken, Berent; de Jager, Wilco; Kalkhoven, Eric; Janse, Arieke J; Schipper, Henk S

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity prevalence has increased worldwide and is an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The production of inflammatory adipokines by obese adipose tissue contributes to the development of T2D and CVD. While levels of circulating adipokines such as adiponectin and leptin have been established in obese children and adults, the expression of adiponectin and leptin receptors on circulating immune cells can modulate adipokine signalling, but has not been studied so far. Here, we aim to establish the expression of adiponectin and leptin receptors on circulating immune cells in obese children pre and post-lifestyle intervention compared to normal weight control children. 13 obese children before and after a 1-year lifestyle intervention were compared with an age and sex-matched normal weight control group of 15 children. Next to routine clinical and biochemical parameters, circulating adipokines were measured, and flow cytometric analysis of adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 (AdipoR1, AdipoR2) and leptin receptor expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets was performed. Obese children exhibited typical clinical and biochemical characteristics compared to controls, including a higher BMI-SD, blood pressure and circulating leptin levels, combined with a lower insulin sensitivity index (QUICKI). The 1-year lifestyle intervention resulted in stabilization of their BMI-SD. Overall, circulating leukocyte subsets showed distinct adipokine receptor expression profiles. While monocytes expressed high levels of all adipokine receptors, NK and iNKT cells predominantly expressed AdipoR2, and B-lymphocytes and CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte subsets expressed AdipoR2 as well as leptin receptor. Strikingly though, leukocyte subset numbers and adipokine receptor expression profiles were largely similar in obese children and controls. Obese children showed higher naïve B-cell numbers, and pre-intervention also higher numbers of

  9. Release inhibitory receptors activation favours the A2A-adenosine receptor-mediated facilitation of noradrenaline release in isolated rat tail artery

    PubMed Central

    Fresco, Paula; Diniz, Carmen; Queiroz, Glória; Gonçalves, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    Interactions between A2A-adenosine receptors and α2-, A1- and P2- release-inhibitory receptors, on the modulation of noradrenaline release were studied in isolated rat tail artery. Preparations were labelled with [3H]-noradrenaline, superfused with desipramine-containing medium, and stimulated electrically (100 pulses at 5 Hz or 20 pulses at 50 Hz).Blockade of α2-autoreceptors with yohimbine (1 μM) increased tritium overflow elicited by 100 pulses at 5 Hz but not by 20 pulses at 50 Hz.The selective A2A-receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS 21680; 1 – 100 nM) enhanced tritium overflow elicited by 100 pulses at 5 Hz. Yohimbine prevented the effect of CGS 21680, which was restored by the A1-receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA; 100 nM) or by the P2-receptor agonist 2-methylthioadenosine triphosphate (2-MeSATP; 80 μM).CGS 21680 (100 nM) failed to increase tritium overflow elicited by 20 pulses at 50 Hz. The α2-adrenoceptor agonist 5-bromo-6-(2-imidazolin-2-ylamino)-quinoxaline (UK 14304; 30 nM), the A1-receptor agonist CPA (100 nM) or the P2-receptor agonist 2-MeSATP (80 μM) reduced tritium overflow. In the presence of these agonists CGS 21680 elicited a facilitation of tritium overflow.Blockade of potassium channels with tetraethylammonium (TEA; 5 mM) increased tritium overflow elicited by 100 pulses at 5 Hz to values similar to those obtained in the presence of yohimbine but did not prevent the effect of CGS 21680 (100 nM) on tritium overflow.It is concluded that, in isolated rat tail artery, the facilitation of noradrenaline release mediated by A2A-adenosine receptors is favoured by activation of release inhibitory receptors. PMID:12010771

  10. Annexin A1 Complex Mediates Oxytocin Vesicle Transport

    PubMed Central

    Makani, Vishruti; Sultana, Rukhsana; Sie, Khin Sander; Orjiako, Doris; Tatangelo, Marco; Dowling, Abigail; Cai, Jian; Pierce, William; Butterfield, D. Allan; Hill, Jennifer; Park, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Oxytocin is a major neuropeptide that modulates the brain functions involved in social behavior and interaction. Despite of the importance of oxytocin for neural control of social behavior, little is known about the molecular mechanism(s) by which oxytocin secretion in the brain is regulated. Pro-oxytocin is synthesized in the cell bodies of hypothalamic neurons in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei and processed to a 9-amino-acid mature form during post-Golgi transport to the secretion sites at the axon terminals and somatodendritic regions. Oxytocin secreted from the somatodendritic regions diffuses throughout the hypothalamus and its neighboring brain regions. Some oxytocin-positive axons innervate and secrete oxytocin to the brain regions distal to the hypothalamus. Brain oxytocin binds to its receptors in the brain regions involved in social behavior. Oxytocin is also secreted from the axon terminal at the posterior pituitary gland into the blood circulation. We have discovered a new molecular complex consisting of annexin A1 (ANXA1), A-kinase anchor protein 150 (AKAP150), and microtubule motor, that controls the distribution of oxytocin vesicles between the axon and the cell body in a protein kinase A (PKA)- and protein kinase C (PKC)-sensitive manner. ANXA1 showed significant co-localization with oxytocin vesicles. Activation of PKA enhanced the association of kinesin-2 with ANXA1, thus increasing the axon-localization of oxytocin vesicles. Conversely, activation of PKC decreased the binding of kinesin-2 to ANXA1, thus attenuating the axon-localization of oxytocin vesicles. Our study suggests that ANXA1 complex coordinates the actions of PKA and PKC to control the distribution of oxytocin vesicles between the axon and the cell body. PMID:24118254

  11. Differential regulation of GluA1 expression by ketamine and memantine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ke; Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Wei, Zhisheng; Zheng, Yu; Cai, Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Evidence from preclinical and clinical studies shows that ketamine, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, exerts rapid and sustained antidepressant responses. However, ketamine's psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability limit the clinical use of the compound. Interestingly, memantine, another NMDA receptor channel blocker, processes no defined antidepressant property but is much safer and clinical tolerated. Understanding why ketamine but not memantine exhibits rapid antidepressant responses is important to elucidate the cellular signaling underlying the fast antidepressant actions of ketamine and to design a new safer generation of fast-acting antidepressants. Here we show that ketamine but memantine caused a rapid and sustained antidepressant-like responses in forced swim test (FST). Both drugs enhanced GluA1 S845 phosphorylation and potentiated Schaffer collateral-CA1 synaptic transmission. However, ketamine but not memantine elevated the expression of GluA1. Incubating acutely prepared hippocampal slices with ketamine but not memantine enhanced mTOR phosphorylation in a time course parallel to the time course of GluA1 elevation. Our results suggest that distinct properties in regulation of mTOR phosphorylation and synaptic protein expression may underlie the differential effectiveness of ketamine and memantine in their antidepressant responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in Drosophila Development

    PubMed Central

    Sopko, Richelle; Perrimon, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation plays a significant role in a wide range of cellular processes. The Drosophila genome encodes more than 20 receptor tyrosine kinases and extensive studies in the past 20 years have illustrated their diverse roles and complex signaling mechanisms. Although some receptor tyrosine kinases have highly specific functions, others strikingly are used in rather ubiquitous manners. Receptor tyrosine kinases regulate a broad expanse of processes, ranging from cell survival and proliferation to differentiation and patterning. Remarkably, different receptor tyrosine kinases share many of the same effectors and their hierarchical organization is retained in disparate biological contexts. In this comprehensive review, we summarize what is known regarding each receptor tyrosine kinase during Drosophila development. Astonishingly, very little is known for approximately half of all Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinases. PMID:23732470

  13. Acetylcholine receptors in the human retina

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchins, J.B.; Hollyfield, J.G.

    1985-11-01

    Evidence for a population of acetylcholine (ACh) receptors in the human retina is presented. The authors have used the irreversible ligand TH-propylbenzilylcholine mustard (TH-PrBCM) to label muscarinic receptors. TH- or SVI-alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BTx) was used to label putative nicotinic receptors. Muscarinic receptors are apparently present in the inner plexiform layer of the retina. Autoradiographic grain densities are reduced in the presence of saturating concentrations of atropine, quinuclidinyl benzilate or scopolamine; this indicates that TH-PrBCM binding is specific for a population of muscarinic receptors in the human retina. Binding sites for radiolabeled alpha-BTx are found predominantly in the inner plexiform layer ofmore » the retina. Grain densities are reduced in the presence of d-tubocurarine, indicating that alpha-BTx may bind to a pharmacologically relevant nicotinic ACh receptor. This study provides evidence for cholinergic neurotransmission in the human retina.« less

  14. The anatomy of mammalian sweet taste receptors.

    PubMed

    Chéron, Jean-Baptiste; Golebiowski, Jérôme; Antonczak, Serge; Fiorucci, Sébastien

    2017-02-01

    All sweet-tasting compounds are detected by a single G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), the heterodimer T1R2-T1R3, for which no experimental structure is available. The sweet taste receptor is a class C GPCR, and the recently published crystallographic structures of metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) 1 and 5 provide a significant step forward for understanding structure-function relationships within this family. In this article, we recapitulate more than 600 single point site-directed mutations and available structural data to obtain a critical alignment of the sweet taste receptor sequences with respect to other class C GPCRs. Using this alignment, a homology 3D-model of the human sweet taste receptor is built and analyzed to dissect out the role of key residues involved in ligand binding and those responsible for receptor activation. Proteins 2017; 85:332-341. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Regulation of AMPA receptors by phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, A L; Duarte, C B; Carvalho, A P

    2000-10-01

    The AMPA receptors for glutamate are oligomeric structures that mediate fast excitatory responses in the central nervous system. Phosphorylation of AMPA receptors is an important mechanism for short-term modulation of their function, and is thought to play an important role in synaptic plasticity in different brain regions. Recent studies have shown that phosphorylation of AMPA receptors by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and Ca2+- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) potentiates their activity, but phosphorylation of the receptor subunits may also affect their interaction with intracellular proteins, and their expression at the plasma membrane. Phosphorylation of AMPA receptor subunits has also been investigated in relation to processes of synaptic plasticity. This review focuses on recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of regulation of AMPA receptors, and their implications in synaptic plasticity.

  16. Activation of Adenosine A2A Receptors Inhibits Neutrophil Transuroepithelial Migration ▿

    PubMed Central

    Säve, Susanne; Mohlin, Camilla; Vumma, Ravi; Persson, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    Adenosine has been identified as a significant inhibitor of inflammation by acting on adenosine A2A receptors. In this study, we examined the role of adenosine and A2A receptors in the transmigration of human neutrophils across an in vitro model of the transitional bladder urothelium. Human uroepithelial cells (UROtsa) were grown on transwell inserts; uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and neutrophils were added to the transwell system; and the number of migrating neutrophils was evaluated. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry were used to investigate the expression of adenosine receptors, the epithelial adhesion molecule ICAM-1, and the neutrophil integrin CD11b. Levels of proinflammatory interleukin-8 (IL-8) and phosphorylated IκBα were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and Luminex assays, respectively. The neutrophils expressed all four adenosine receptor subtypes (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 receptors), but A3 receptors were not expressed by UROtsa cells. UPEC stimulated neutrophil transuroepithelial migration, which was significantly decreased in response to the specific A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680. The inhibitory effect of CGS 21680 on neutrophil migration was reversed by the A2A receptor antagonist SCH 58261. The production of chemotactic IL-8 and the expression of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1 or CD11b were not significantly affected by CGS 21680. However, a significant decrease in the level of phosporylated IκBα was revealed in response to CGS 21680. In conclusion, UPEC infection in vitro evoked neutrophil migration through a multilayered human uroepithelium. The UPEC-evoked neutrophil transmigration decreased in response to A2A receptor activation, possibly through inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:21646447

  17. Immunohistochemical localization of ionotropic glutamate receptors in the rat red nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Minbay, Zehra; Kocoglu, Sema Serter; Yurtseven, Duygu Gok; Eyigor, Ozhan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine the presence as well as the diverse distribution of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA glutamate receptor subunits in the rat red nucleus. Using adult Sprague-Dawley rats as the experimental animals, immunohistochemistry was performed on 30 µm thick coronal brain sections with antibodies against α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (GluA1-4), kainate (GluK1, GluK2/3, and GluK5), and NMDA (GluN1 and GluN2A) receptor subunits. The results showed that all ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits are expressed in the red nucleus. Specific staining was localized in the neuron bodies and processes. However, the pattern of immunoreactivity and the number of labeled neurons changed depending on the type of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits and the localization of neurons in the red nucleus. The neurons localized in the magnocellular part of the red nucleus were particularly immunopositive for GluA2, GluA4, GluK2/3, GluK5, GluN1, and GluN2A receptor proteins. In the parvocellular part of the red nucleus, ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit immunoreactivity of variable intensity (lightly to moderately stained) was detected in the neurons. These results suggest that red nucleus neurons in rat heterogeneously express ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits to form functional receptor channels. In addition, the likelihood of the coexpression of different subunits in the same subgroup of neurons suggests the formation of receptor channels with diverse structure by way of different subunit combination, and the possibility of various neuronal functions through these channels in the red nucleus. PMID:28027456