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Sample records for a1 remnant ratio

  1. The utility of the apolipoprotein A1 remnant ratio in predicting incidence coronary heart disease in a primary prevention cohort: The Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    May, Heidi T; Nelson, John R; Lirette, Seth T; Kulkarni, Krishnaji R; Anderson, Jeffrey L; Griswold, Michael E; Horne, Benjamin D; Correa, Adolfo; Muhlestein, Joseph B

    2016-05-01

    Dyslipidemia plays a significant role in the progression of cardiovascular disease. The apolipoprotein (apo) A1 remnant ratio (apo A1/VLDL3-C + IDL-C) has recently been shown to be a strong predictor of death/myocardial infarction risk among women >50 years undergoing angiography. However, whether this ratio is associated with coronary heart disease risk among other populations is unknown. We evaluated the apo A1 remnant ratio and its components for coronary heart disease incidence. Observational. Participants (N = 4722) of the Jackson Heart Study were evaluated. Baseline clinical characteristics and lipoprotein subfractions (Vertical Auto Profile method) were collected. Cox hazard regression analysis, adjusted by standard cardiovascular risk factors, was utilized to determine associations of lipoproteins with coronary heart disease. Those with new-onset coronary heart disease were older, diabetic, smokers, had less education, used more lipid-lowering medication, and had a more atherogenic lipoprotein profile. After adjustment, the apo A1 remnant ratio (hazard ratio = 0.67 per 1-SD, p = 0.002) was strongly associated with coronary heart disease incidence. This association appears to be driven by the IDL-C denominator (hazard ratio = 1.23 per 1-SD, p = 0.007). Remnants (hazard ratio = 1.21 per 1-SD, p = 0.017), but not apo A1 (hazard ratio = 0.85 per 1-SD, p = 0.121) or VLDL3-C (hazard ratio = 1.13 per 1-SD, p = 0.120) were associated with coronary heart disease. Standard lipids were not associated with coronary heart disease incidence. We found the apo A1 remnant ratio to be strongly associated with coronary heart disease. This ratio appears to better stratify risk than standard lipids, apo A1, and remnants among a primary prevention cohort of African Americans. Its utility requires further study as a lipoprotein management target for risk reduction. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  2. Diced Remnant

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-06-05

    This MOC image shows blocky remnants of a material that was once more laterally extensive on the floor of an impact crater located northwest of Herschel Crater on Mars. Large ripples of windblown sediment have accumulated around and between the blocks

  3. ORTHO-TO-PARA RATIO STUDIES OF SHOCKED H{sub 2} GAS IN THE TWO SUPERNOVA REMNANTS IC 443 AND HB 21

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, Jong-Ho; Moon, Dae-Sik; Lee, Ho-Gyu, E-mail: jhshinn@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: hglee@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: moon@astro.utoronto.ca

    2012-11-01

    We present near-infrared (2.5-5.0 {mu}m) spectral studies of shocked H{sub 2} gas in two supernova remnants, IC 443 and HB 21, which are well known for their interactions with nearby molecular clouds. The observations were performed with the Infrared Camera aboard the AKARI satellite. At the energy range 7000 K {approx}< E({upsilon},J) {approx}< 20,000 K, the shocked H{sub 2} gas in IC 443 shows an ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) of 2.4{sup +0.3} {sub -0.2}, which is significantly lower than the equilibrium value 3, suggesting the existence of non-equilibrium OPR. The shocked gas in HB 21 also indicates a potential non-equilibrium OPRmore » in the range of 1.8-2.0. The level populations are well described by the power-law thermal admixture model with a single OPR, where the temperature integration range is 1000-4000 K. We conclude that the obtained non-equilibrium OPR probably originates from the reformed H{sub 2} gas of dissociative J-shocks, considering several factors such as the shock combination requirement, the line ratios, and the possibility that H{sub 2} gas can form on grains with a non-equilibrium OPR. We also investigate C-shocks and partially dissociative J-shocks as the origin of the non-equilibrium OPR. However, we find that they are incompatible with the observed ionic emission lines for which dissociative J-shocks are required to explain. The difference in the collision energy of H atoms on grain surfaces would give rise to the observed difference between the OPRs of IC 443 and HB 21, if dissociative J-shocks are responsible for the H{sub 2} emission. Our study suggests that dissociative J-shocks can produce shocked H{sub 2} gas with a non-equilibrium OPR.« less

  4. Surgical Reconstruction with the Remnant Ligament Improves Joint Position Sense as well as Functional Ankle Instability: A 1-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Iwao, Kamizato; Masataka, Deie; Kohei, Fukuhara

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Chronic functional instability—characterized by repeated ankle inversion sprains and a subjective sensation of instability—is one of the most common residual disabilities after an inversion sprain. However, whether surgical reconstruction improves sensorimotor control has not been reported to date. The purpose of this study was to assess functional improvement of chronic ankle instability after surgical reconstruction using the remnant ligament. Materials and Methods. We performed 10 cases in the intervention group and 20 healthy individuals as the control group. Before and after surgical reconstruction, we evaluated joint position sense and functional ankle instability by means of a questionnaire. Results and Discussion. There was a statistically significant difference between the control and intervention groups before surgical reconstruction. Three months after surgery in the intervention group, the joint position sense was significantly different from those found preoperatively. Before surgery, the mean score of functional ankle instability in the intervention group was almost twice as low. Three months after surgery, however, the score significantly increased. The results showed that surgical reconstruction using the remnant ligament was effective not only for improving mechanical retensioning but also for ameliorating joint position sense and functional ankle instability. PMID:25401146

  5. The Utility of the Remnant Kidney Volume/Body Surface Area Ratio and Tumor Diameter as Predictors of Postoperative Degree of Renal Functional Decline in Patients With Renal Cell Carcinoma Treated by Radical Nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Sejima, Takehiro; Yamaguchi, Noriya; Iwamoto, Hideto; Masago, Toshihiko; Morizane, Shuichi; Ono, Koji; Koumi, Tsutomu; Honda, Masashi; Takenaka, Atsushi

    2015-08-01

    To characterize the preoperative factors affecting renal cell carcinoma patients as predictive of post-radical nephrectomy (RN) mild (M-decline) or severe (S-decline) renal functional decline and to elucidate the histopathologic features of the resected normal kidney cortex, as well as the occurrence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in both M-decline and S-decline patients. M-decline and S-decline were categorized as a percentage of postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate decline of <20 and of >40, respectively. The preoperative factors analyzed were patient demographics, comorbidities, and radiographic findings, including remnant kidney status and tumor size. The factors based on postoperative information analyzed were tumor and normal cortex pathology and CVD events. In 175 patient cohort, 21 and 32 cases were categorized as M-decline and S-decline, respectively. Absence of comorbidities, larger remnant kidney volume (RKV)/body surface area (BSA) ratio, and larger tumor diameter were significantly predictive of M-decline, whereas smaller tumor diameter was significantly predictive of S-decline. The global glomerulosclerosis extent in nephrectomized normal cortex of S-decline cases was significantly higher than in other types of cases. No CVD event was observed in M-decline cases. This is the first report to identify the RKV/BSA ratio as a promising predictor of post-RN degree of renal functional decline. Post-RN prevention of life-threatening outcomes according to preoperative and postoperative information, including the degree of post-RN renal functional decline and histopathology of the nephrectomized normal cortex, should be considerable in future urological tasks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Aerodynamic performance of a 1.25-pressure-ratio axial-flow fan stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. D.; Steinke, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Aerodynamic design parameters and overall and blade-element performances of a 1.25-pressure-ratio fan stage are reported. Detailed radial surveys were made over the stable operating flow range at rotative speeds from 70 to 120 percent of design speed. At design speed, the measured stage peak efficiency of 0.872 occurred at a weight flow of 34.92 kilograms per second and a pressure ratio of 1.242. Stage stall margin is about 20 percent based on the peak efficiency and stall conditions. The overall peak efficiency for the rotor was 0.911. The overall stage performance showed no significant change when the stators were positioned at 1, 2, or 4 chords downstream of the rotor.

  7. The Ratio of Estimated Average Glucose to Fasting Plasma Glucose Level Is Superior to Glycated Albumin, Hemoglobin A1c, Fructosamine, and GA/A1c Ratio for Assessing β-Cell Function in Childhood Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Ji Woo; Fujii, Tatsuyoshi; Fujii, Noriyoshi; Choi, Jong Weon

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study investigated the use of the estimated average glucose to fasting plasma glucose ratio (eAG/fPG ratio) to screen for β-cell function in pediatric diabetes. Methods. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), glycated albumin (GA), fructosamine, insulin, and C-peptide levels were measured. The ratio of GA to HbA1c (GA/A1c ratio) was calculated, and the homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β) was determined. Results. Median values of C-peptide, insulin, and HOMA-β levels were significantly higher in patients with an increased eAG/fPG ratio than in those with a decreased eAG/fPG ratio. C-peptide and HOMA-β levels were more closely correlated with the eAG/fPG ratio than with GA, HbA1c, the GA/A1c ratio, and fructosamine. In contrast, body mass index was significantly associated with GA, GA/A1c ratio, and fructosamine, but not with the eAG/fPG ratio and HbA1c levels. To test the diagnostic accuracies of the eAG/fPG ratio for identifying HOMA-β > 30.0% in patients with type 2 diabetes, the area under the ROC curve of the eAG/fPG ratio was significantly larger than that of the GA/A1c ratio [0.877 (95% CI, 0.780–0.942) versus 0.775 (95% CI, 0.664–0.865), P = 0.039]. Conclusions. A measurement of the eAG/fPG ratio may provide helpful information for assessing β-cell function in pediatric patients with diabetes. PMID:25013775

  8. Remnant field detector

    DOEpatents

    Visser, Age T.

    1988-05-03

    A method apparatus for qualitatively detecting remnant magnetic fields in matched pairs of magnet cores. Equal magnitude and oppositely oriented magnetic flux is induced in the magnet cores by oppositely wound primary windings and current source. Identically wound secondary windings generate output voltages in response to the induced flux. The output voltages generated should be of equal magnitude and opposite polarity if there is no remnant field in the cores. The output voltages will be unequal which is detected if either core has a remnant field.

  9. Remnant field detector

    DOEpatents

    Visser, Age T.

    1988-01-01

    A method apparatus for qualitatively detecting remnant magnetic fields in matched pairs of magnet cores. Equal magnitude and oppositely oriented magnetic flux is induced in the magnet cores by oppositely wound primary windings and current source. Identically wound secondary windings generate output voltages in response to the induced flux. The output voltages generated should be of equal magnitude and opposite polarity if there is no remnant field in the cores. The output voltages will be unequal which is detected if either core has a remnant field.

  10. The ratio of glycated albumin to hemoglobin A1c measured in IFCC units accurately represents the glycation gap.

    PubMed

    Akatsuka, Junya; Mochizuki, Mie; Musha, Ikuma; Ohtake, Akira; Kobayashi, Kisho; Kikuchi, Toru; Kikuchi, Nobuyuki; Kawamura, Tomoyuki; Urakami, Tatsuhiko; Sugihara, Shigetaka; Hoshino, Tadao; Amemiya, Shin

    2015-01-01

    The glycation gap (G-gap: difference between measured hemoglobin A1c [A1C] and the value predicted by its regression on the fructosamine level) is stable and associated with diabetic complications. Measuring A1C level in International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) units (A1C-SI; mmol/mol) and National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program units (A1C-NGSP; %) and using glycated albumin (GA) level instead of fructosamine level for calculating the G-gap, we investigated whether the G-gap is better represented by GA/A1C ratio if expressed in SI units (GA/A1C-SI ratio) rather than in NGSP units (GA/A1C-% ratio). We examined 749 Japanese children with type 1 diabetes using simultaneous GA and A1C measurements. Of these, 369 patients were examined more than five times to assess the consistency of the G-gap and the GA/A1C ratio within individuals. The relationship of GA/A1C-% ratio to the corresponding A1C-NGSP was stronger than that of GA/A1C-SI ratio to A1C-IFCC. At enrollment, the inverse relationship between the GA/A1C-SI ratio and G-gap was highly significant (R(2) = 0.95) compared with that between the GA/A1C-% ratio and G-gap (R(2) = 0.69). A highly significant inverse relationship was also observed between the mean GA/A1C-SI ratio and the mean G-gaps obtained individually over time (R(2) = 0.95) compared with that using the corresponding A1C-NGSP (R(2) = 0.67). We conclude that the G-gap is better represented by the GA/A1C-SI ratio. We propose the use of mean GA/A1C-SI ratios easily obtained individually over time as reference values in Japanese children with type 1 diabetes (6.75 ± 0.60 [means ± SD]).

  11. Cervical Chondrocutaneous Branchial Remnants.

    PubMed

    Klockars, Tuomas; Kajosaari, Lauri

    2017-03-01

      Cervical chondrocutaneous branchial remnants are rare malformations usually found in the lower neck. As high as 76% of patients have been reported to have associated anomalies. We review the literature and report a case series of seven patients with cervical cartilaginous remnants.   A retrospective case series of seven patients identified from the electronic hospital records.   Seven patients with cervical chondrocutaneous branchial remnants were identified (six boys and one girl). Only one of the patients had associated anomalies.   A review of the literature revealed no evidence for sinuses or cysts related to cervical chondrocutaneous branchial remnants. Operative treatment can be postponed to a suitable and safe age. There is marked variation in the reported prevalence of associated anomalies, ranging from 11% to 76%.

  12. ANTIMATTER PRODUCTION IN SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kachelriess, M.; Ostapchenko, S.; Tomas, R.

    2011-06-01

    We calculate the energy spectra of cosmic rays (CRs) and their secondaries produced in a supernova remnant (SNR) taking into account the time dependence of the SNR shock. We model the trajectories of charged particles as a random walk with a prescribed diffusion coefficient, accelerating the particles at each shock crossing. Secondary production by CRs colliding with gas is included as a Monte Carlo process. We find that SNRs produce less antimatter than suggested previously: the positron/electron ratio F{sub e}{sup +}/F{sub e}{sup +}{sub +e}{sup -} and the antiproton/proton ratio F{sub p-bar/}F{sub p-bar+p} are a few percent and few x 10{supmore » -5}, respectively. Moreover, the obtained positron/electron ratio decreases with energy, while the antiproton/proton ratio rises at most by a factor of two above 10 GeV.« less

  13. Estimation of glycaemic control in the past month using ratio of glycated albumin to HbA1c.

    PubMed

    Musha, I; Mochizuki, M; Kikuchi, T; Akatsuka, J; Ohtake, A; Kobayashi, K; Kikuchi, N; Kawamura, T; Yokota, I; Urakami, T; Sugihara, S; Amemiya, S

    2018-04-13

    To evaluate comprehensively the use of the glycated albumin to HbA 1c ratio for estimation of glycaemic control in the previous month. A total of 306 children with Type 1 diabetes mellitus underwent ≥10 simultaneous measurements of glycated albumin and HbA 1c . Correlation and concordance rates were examined between HbA 1c measurements taken 1 month apart (ΔHbA 1c ) and glycated albumin/HbA 1c ratio fluctuations were calculated as Z-scores from the cohort value at enrolment of this study cohort (method A) or the percent difference from the individual mean over time (method B). Fluctuations in glycated albumin/HbA 1c ratio (using both methods) were weakly but significantly correlated with ΔHbA 1c , whereas concordance rates were significant for glycaemic deterioration but not for glycaemic improvement. Concordance rates were higher using method B than method A. The glycated albumin/HbA 1c ratio was able to estimate glycaemic deterioration in the previous month, while estimation of glycaemic improvement in the preceding month was limited. Because method B provided a better estimate of recent glycaemic control than method A, the individual mean of several measurements of the glycated albumin/HbA 1c ratio over time may also identify individuals with high or low haemoglobin glycation phenotypes in a given population, such as Japanese children with Type 1 diabetes, thereby allowing more effective diabetes management. © 2018 Diabetes UK.

  14. Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Studer, Andrew J.; Manuel, James R.; Kimpton, Justin A.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of basicity, B (CaO:SiO2 ratio) on the thermal range, concentration, and formation mechanisms of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction-based methodology with subsequent Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis. SFCA and SFCA-I phases are the key bonding materials in iron ore sinter, and improved understanding of the effects of processing parameters such as basicity on their formation and decomposition may assist in improving efficiency of industrial iron ore sintering operations. Increasing basicity significantly increased the thermal range of SFCA-I, from 1363 K to 1533 K (1090 °C to 1260 °C) for a mixture with B = 2.48, to ~1339 K to 1535 K (1066 °C to 1262 °C) for a mixture with B = 3.96, and to ~1323 K to 1593 K (1050 °C to 1320 °C) at B = 4.94. Increasing basicity also increased the amount of SFCA-I formed, from 18 wt pct for the mixture with B = 2.48 to 25 wt pct for the B = 4.94 mixture. Higher basicity of the starting sinter mixture will, therefore, increase the amount of SFCA-I, considered to be more desirable of the two phases. Basicity did not appear to significantly influence the formation mechanism of SFCA-I. It did, however, affect the formation mechanism of SFCA, with the decomposition of SFCA-I coinciding with the formation of a significant amount of additional SFCA in the B = 2.48 and 3.96 mixtures but only a minor amount in the highest basicity mixture. In situ neutron diffraction enabled characterization of the behavior of magnetite after melting of SFCA produced a magnetite plus melt phase assemblage.

  15. Evolution of Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbutina, B.

    2017-12-01

    This book, both a monograph and a graduate textbook, is based on my original research and partly on the materials prepared earlier for the 2007 and 2008 IARS Astrophysics Summer School in Istanbul, AstroMundus course 'Supernovae and Their Remnants' that was held for the first time in 2011 at the Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade, and a graduate course 'Evolution of Supernova Remnants' that I teach at the aforementioned university. The first part Supernovae (introduction, thermonuclear supernovae, core-collapse supernovae) provides introductory information and explains the classification and physics of supernova explosions, while the second part Supernova remnants (introduction, shock waves, cosmic rays and particle acceleration, magnetic fields, synchrotron radiation, hydrodynamic and radio evolution of supernova remnants), which is the field I work in, is more detailed in scope i.e. technical/mathematical. Special attention is paid to details of mathematical derivations that often cannot be found in original works or available literature. Therefore, I believe it can be useful to both, graduate students and researchers interested in the field.

  16. A miniature Rotary Compressor with a 1:10 compression ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, Olly; Tabota, Eugene; Arbon EurIng, Ian; FIMechE, CEng

    2015-08-01

    Micro compressors have applications in medical devices, robotics and “nanosatellites”. The problem of active cooling for photo detectors in “nano-satellites” becomes more important because the majority of space missions target Earth observation, and passive cooling does not provide the required temperatures to achieve the desired SNR levels. Reciprocating compressors used in cryocoolers cause vibrations. VERT Rotors has built an ultralow-vibration rotary compressor with 40mm-long screws, and our prototype delivered 1:10 compression ratio. This “nano” compressor is a non-conventional conical type consisting of an Inner conical screw rotor revolving inside an Outer screw rotor.

  17. Remnants, fuzzballs or wormholes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, Samir D.

    2014-11-01

    The black hole information paradox has caused enormous confusion over four decades. But in recent years, the theorem of quantum strong-subadditivity has sorted out the possible resolutions into three sharp categories: (i) No new physics at r ≫ lp; this necessarily implies remnants/information loss. A realization of remnants is given by a baby universe attached near r 0. (ii) Violation of the "no-hair" theorem by nontrivial effects at the horizon r M. This possibility is realized by fuzzballs in string theory, and gives unitary evaporation. (iii) Having the vacuum at the horizon, but requiring that Hawking quanta at r M3 be somehow identified with degrees of freedom inside the black hole. A model for this "extreme nonlocality" is realized by conjecturing that wormholes connect the radiation quanta to the hole.

  18. Remnants of Lost Geology

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-02-07

    In this NASA Mars Odyssey image of eastern Arabia Terra, remnants of a once vast layered terrain are evident as isolated buttes, mesas, and deeply-filled craters. The origin of the presumed sediments that created the layers is unknown, but those same sediments, now eroded, may be the source of the thick mantle of dust that covers much of Arabia Terra today. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04400

  19. Association of GA/HbA1c ratio and cognitive impairment in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Tomoe; Shimoda, Masashi; Sanada, Junpei; Fushimi, Yoshiro; Hirata, Yurie; Irie, Shintaro; Tanabe, Akihito; Obata, Atsushi; Kimura, Tomohiko; Hirukawa, Hidenori; Kohara, Kenji; Tatsumi, Fuminori; Kamei, Shinji; Nakanishi, Shuhei; Mune, Tomoatsu; Kaku, Kohei; Kaneto, Hideaki

    The aim of this study was to search for factors influencing cognitive impairment and to clarify the association between the fluctuation of blood glucose levels and cognitive impairment in elderly Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes. We recruited 88 relatively elderly subjects (≥65years old) with type 2 diabetes who were hospitalized in Kawasaki Medical School from January 2014 to December 2015. We evaluated the fluctuation of blood glucose levels with glycoalbumin (GA)/hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ratio, and estimated cognitive impairment with Hasegawa dementia scale-revised (HDS-R) score and mini mental state examination (MMSE) score. Multivariate analyses showed that GA/HbA1c ratio and urinary albumin excretion, but not hypoglycemia, were independent determinant factors for cognitive impairment in elderly Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes. The fluctuation of blood glucose levels per se is closely associated with cognitive impairment in elderly subjects with type 2 diabetes even when hypoglycemia is not accompanied. Since it is very easy to calculate GA/HbA1c ratio, we should check this ratio so that we can reduce the fluctuation of blood glucose levels especially in elderly subjects with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cervical Chondrocutaneous Branchial Remnants.

    PubMed

    Ginat, Daniel T; Johnson, Daniel N; Shogan, Andrea; Cipriani, Nicole A

    2018-06-01

    Cervical chondrocutaneous branchial remnants are rare congenital choristomas. These lesions contain a cartilage core surrounded by skin with adnexal structures and subcutaneous fat. Correspondingly, on ultrasound there is a tubular hypoechoic core surrounded by hyperechoic, while on CT there is central intermediate attenuation surrounded by fat attenuation tissues. These features are exemplified in this sine qua non radiology-pathology correlation article. Management includes complete surgical resection and evaluating for potential associated anomalies, such as other branchial apparatus anomalies, as well as cardiac anomalies.

  1. Transfusion of Plasma, Platelets, and Red Blood Cells in a 1:1:1 vs a 1:1:2 Ratio and Mortality in Patients With Severe Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Holcomb, John B.; Tilley, Barbara C.; Baraniuk, Sarah; Fox, Erin E.; Wade, Charles E.; Podbielski, Jeanette M.; del Junco, Deborah J.; Brasel, Karen J.; Bulger, Eileen M.; Callcut, Rachael A.; Cohen, Mitchell Jay; Cotton, Bryan A.; Fabian, Timothy C.; Inaba, Kenji; Kerby, Jeffrey D.; Muskat, Peter; O’Keeffe, Terence; Rizoli, Sandro; Robinson, Bryce R. H.; Scalea, Thomas M.; Schreiber, Martin A.; Stein, Deborah M.; Weinberg, Jordan A.; Callum, Jeannie L.; Hess, John R.; Matijevic, Nena; Miller, Christopher N.; Pittet, Jean-Francois; Hoyt, David B.; Pearson, Gail D.; Leroux, Brian; van Belle, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Severely injured patients experiencing hemorrhagic shock often require massive transfusion. Earlier transfusion with higher blood product ratios (plasma, platelets, and red blood cells), defined as damage control resuscitation, has been associated with improved outcomes; however, there have been no large multicenter clinical trials. OBJECTIVE To determine the effectiveness and safety of transfusing patients with severe trauma and major bleeding using plasma, platelets, and red blood cells in a 1:1:1 ratio compared with a 1:1:2 ratio. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Pragmatic, phase 3, multisite, randomized clinical trial of 680 severely injured patients who arrived at 1 of 12 level I trauma centers in North America directly from the scene and were predicted to require massive transfusion between August 2012 and December 2013. INTERVENTIONS Blood product ratios of 1:1:1 (338 patients) vs 1:1:2 (342 patients) during active resuscitation in addition to all local standard-of-care interventions (uncontrolled). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Primary outcomes were 24-hour and 30-day all-cause mortality. Prespecified ancillary outcomes included time to hemostasis, blood product volumes transfused, complications, incidence of surgical procedures, and functional status. RESULTS No significant differences were detected in mortality at 24 hours (12.7% in 1:1:1 group vs 17.0% in 1:1:2 group; difference, −4.2% [95% CI, −9.6% to 1.1%]; P = .12) or at 30 days (22.4% vs 26.1%, respectively; difference, −3.7% [95% CI, −10.2% to 2.7%]; P = .26). Exsanguination, which was the predominant cause of death within the first 24 hours, was significantly decreased in the 1:1:1 group (9.2% vs 14.6% in 1:1:2 group; difference, −5.4% [95% CI, −10.4% to −0.5%]; P = .03). More patients in the 1:1:1 group achieved hemostasis than in the 1:1:2 group (86% vs 78%, respectively; P = .006). Despite the 1:1:1 group receiving more plasma (median of 7 U vs 5 U, P < .001) and

  2. Investigating the Origin of the Supernova Remnant W49B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, Ryan Matthew; Frank, Kari A.; Dwarkadas, Vikram; Burrows, David N.

    2018-01-01

    W49B is a Galactic supernova remnant whose origin is still debated. Is it the remains of an unusual asymmetric Type 1a supernova or of a jet-driven core collapse supernova? Using the X-ray analysis method, Smoothed Particle Inference (SPI), we dig deeper into understanding the complex properties of SNR W49B. We do this by characterizing the temperatures and abundance ratios throughout the remnant. We will compare the results with a wide variety of supernova nucleosynthesis models in order to constrain the mechanism behind this unusual supernova remnant.

  3. Helium in supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danziger, I. J.; Leibowitz, E.

    1983-02-01

    Observational data for supernova remnants (SNR) which exhibit He abundances exceeding the normal value of 0.10 are examingd. Attention is given to the Crab, Cas A, and Puppis A nebular O, N, and He abundances, sizes, and ages. The overabundances of He and N detected in the Crab and Cas A nebulae are suggested to have arisen from swept-up interstellar matter. Therefore, the He abundances in interstellar matter may be calculated from data on old SNR. However, the Larger and Smaller Magellanic clouds display lowered abundances, which may be due to stratification caused by ionization. The method is useful for SNRs located within 5 mpc of the local group of galaxies.

  4. CSI in Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, You-Hua

    2017-02-01

    Supernovae (SNe) explode in environments that have been significantly modified by the SN progenitors. For core-collapse SNe, the massive progenitors ionize the ambient interstellar medium (ISM) via UV radiation and sweep the ambient ISM via fast stellar winds during the main sequence phase, replenish the surroundings with stellar material via slow winds during the luminous blue variable (LBV) or red supergiant (RSG) phase, and sweep up the circumstellar medium (CSM) via fast winds during the Wolf-Rayet (WR) phase. If a massive progenitor was in a close binary system, the binary interaction could have caused mass ejection in certain preferred directions, such as the orbital plane, and even bipolar outflow/jet. As a massive star finally explodes, the SN ejecta interacts first with the CSM that was ejected and shaped by the star itself. As the newly formed supernova remnant (SNR) expands further, it encounters interstellar structures that were shaped by the progenitor from earlier times. Therefore, the structure and evolution of a SNR is largely dependent on the initial mass and close binarity of the SN progenitor. The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) has an excellent sample of over 50 confirmed SNRs that are well resolved by Hubble Space Telescope, Chandra X-ray Observatory, and Spitzer Space Telescope. These multi-wavelength observations allow us to conduct stellar forensics in SNRs and understand the wide variety of morphologies and physical properties of SNRs observed.

  5. Further Analysis of Micrometeoroid Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, J.; Bibring, J.-P.; Bunch, T. E.; Radicati di Brozolo, F.; Vassent, B.

    1992-07-01

    suggest an extraterrestrial origin for the impacting particles. The main elements we identified are usually referred to as "chondritic" elements (Na, Mg, Si, S, Ca, and Fe); intrinsic Al is masked by the Al target and Ni is not observed. Furthermore, C and O are present in 90% of the cases, the C/O peak height ratio varying from 0.1 to 3. These extraterrestrial events are now being subjected to an imagery and analytical protocol that includes FESEM (field emission scanning electron microscopy) for high resolution imagery and LIMS (laser ionization mass spectrometry) for molecular identification. Our first results clearly indicate that such small events show crater features analogous to what is observed at larger sizes; they suggest that N can be present in the IDP remnants in which C and O have been identified by EDS analysis (Borg et al. 1992). More results concerning FRECOPA and COMET-1 analysis will be presented, that could imply that the existence of CHON particles could be a general characteristic of cometary material present in the solar cavity, as this signature is found in the environment of P/Halley (PUMA and PIA experiments), in remnants identified on LDEF collectors and in grains from the Giacobinni-Zinner meteor stream. References Bibring J.-P., Borg J., Katchanov A., Langevin Y., Salvetat P., Surkhov Y.A., and Vassent B. (1988) Lunar Planet. Sci. 19, 73-74. Borg J., Bibring J.-P., and Vassent B. (1991) Meteoritics, 26, 4,321. Borg J., Bunch T. and Radicati di Brozolo F. (1992) To be presented at the LDEF 2 meeting.

  6. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-01-06

    For the first time, a multiwavelength three-dimensional reconstruction of a supernova remnant has been created. This visualization of Cassiopeia A, or Cas A, the result of an explosion approximately 330 years ago, uses data from several NASA telescopes.

  7. Remnants of Lost Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    In eastern Arabia Terra, remnants of a once vast layered terrain are evident as isolated buttes, mesas, and deeply-filled craters. The origin of the presumed sediments that created the layers is unknown, but those same sediments, now eroded, may be the source of the thick mantle of dust that covers much of Arabia Terra today.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 20.5, Longitude 50 East (310 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  8. Association of glycated albumin to HbA1c ratio with diabetic retinopathy but not diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Umayahara, Yutaka; Fujita, Yohei; Watanabe, Hirotaka; Kasai, Noriko; Fujiki, Noritaka; Hatazaki, Masahiro; Koga, Masafumi

    2017-04-01

    The ratio of glycated albumin to HbA1c (GA/HbA1c ratio) is a known indicator that reflects fluctuations in plasma glucose. In this study, the association of the GA/HbA1c ratio to diabetic nephropathy and diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes was investigated. Among patients with type 2 diabetes, 613 patients (364 males and 249 females, aged 63.2±12.5, body mass index (BMI) 25.4±4.8kg/m 2 ) were enrolled. Patients with overt proteinuria, reduced renal function, or anemia were excluded. In a comparison between patients with and without diabetic nephropathy, significance was observed in insulin therapy, HbA1c, and GA. In addition, in a comparison between patients with and without diabetic retinopathy, the GA/HbA1c ratio along with insulin therapy, HbA1c, and GA showed significant differences. When the GA/HbA1c ratios were divided into three groups and compared, the rates of diabetic nephropathy did not show any significance, while the rate of diabetic retinopathy increased significantly as the GA/HbA1c ratio increased. In multivariable analyses, while insulin therapy and BMI were the significant independent variables for diabetic nephropathy, insulin therapy and the GA/HbA1c ratios were the significant independent variable for diabetic retinopathy. The GA/HbA1c ratio was associated with diabetic retinopathy, but not with diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. These results suggest that the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy is associated with plasma glucose fluctuations. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. G29.7-0.3: another supernova remnant with an identity crisis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, R. H.; Helfand, D. J.; Szymkowiak, A. E.

    1983-01-01

    New radio and X-ray observations of the galactic supernova remnant G29.7-0.3 show that it is composed of two spectrally distinct components: a steep-spectrum, incomplete shell 3 arcmin in extent enclosing a flat-spectrum, X-ray emitting region 30 arcsec across. Thus, G29.7-0.3 joins the ranks of supernova remnants which exhibit a combination of Crab-like and shell remnant attributes. The Crab-like core has the highest ratio of X-ray radio luminosity of all the Crab-like remnants observed to date, suggesting that it is an extremely young object.

  10. The apolipoprotein B/A1 ratio is associated with reactive oxygen metabolites and endothelial dysfunction in statin-treated patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Emoto, Takuo; Sawada, Takahiro; Morimoto, Natsumi; Tenjin, Takako; Wakimoto, Taku; Ikeda, Fumie; Sato, Chiaki; Terashita, Daisuke; Mizoguchi, Taiji; Mizuguchi, Takao; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Yosuke; Kim, Sushi-Ku; Takarada, Akira; Yokoyama, Mitsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    The prognostic significance of the apolipoprotein B/A1 (ApoB/A1) ratio in statintreated patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the association of the ApoB/A1 ratio with oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in these patients. We enrolled 62 consecutive statin-treated patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Their lipid profiles, diacron-reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs), as a marker of oxidative stress, flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), as a marker of vascular endothelial function, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, as a marker of inflammation, were measured. Our study population comprised 44 men and 18 women (mean age, 70.5 ± 2.5 years). The ApoB/A1 ratio was positively correlated with the results of the d-ROMs test (p=0.004, r=0.36) and CRP level (p=0.02, r=0.30) and negatively correlated with the %FMD (p=0.005, r=-0.40). A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the most powerful predictive factor for the d-ROMs was the ApoB/A1 ratio (p=0.026). We therefore divided patients into two groups according to the cutoff point reported by the INTERHEART study: a low ApoB/A1 ratio (<0.641, n=26) and a high ApoB/A1 ratio (>0.641, n=36). The patients with a high ApoB/A1 ratio had higher levels of d-ROMs and CRP, and tended to have a lower %FMD. The ApoB/A1 ratio was associated with the d-ROMs, a marker of oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, and could be useful as a residual atherosclerotic risk marker to help prevent CAD in statin-treated patients.

  11. Constraints on black hole remnants

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, S.B.

    1994-01-15

    One possible fate of information lost to black holes is its preservation in black hole remnants. It is argued that a type of effective field theory describes such remnants (generically referred to as informons). The general structure of such a theory is investigated and the infinite pair production problem is revisited. A toy model for remnants clarifies some of the basic issues; in particular, infinite remnant production is not suppressed simply by the large internal volumes as proposed in cornucopion scenarios. Criteria for avoiding infinite production are stated in terms of couplings in the effective theory. Such instabilities remain amore » problem barring what would be described in that theory as a strong coupling conspiracy. The relation to Euclidean calculations of cornucopion production is sketched, and potential flaws in that analysis are outlined. However, it is quite plausible that pair production of ordinary black holes (e.g., Reissner-Noerdstrom or others) is suppressed due to strong effective couplings. It also remains an open possibility that a microsopic dynamics can be found yielding an appropriate strongly coupled effective theory of neutral informons without infinite pair production.« less

  12. The Glycated Albumin (GA) to HbA1c Ratio Reflects Shorter-Term Glycemic Control than GA: Analysis of Patients with Fulminant Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Koga, Masafumi; Inada, Shinya; Nakao, Taisei; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Kasayama, Soji

    2017-01-01

    Glycated albumin (GA) reflects shorter-term glycemic control than HbA1c. We have reported that HbA1c is paradoxically increased in diabetic patients whose glycemic control deteriorated before ameliorating. In this study, we analyzed paradoxical increases of glycemic control indicators after treatment in patients with fulminant type 1 diabetes (FT1D). We also investigated whether the GA/HbA1c ratio may reflect shorter-term glycemic control than GA. Five FT1D patients whose post-treatment HbA1c and GA levels were measured were enrolled. We also used a formula to estimate HbA1c and GA from the fictitious models of changes in plasma glucose in FT1D patients. In this model, the periods during which HbA1c, GA, and the GA/HbA1c ratio were higher than at the first visit were compared. In addition, the half-life for the GA/HbA1c ratio was calculated in accordance with the half-lives for HbA1c and GA (36 and 14 days, respectively). In all FT1D patients, HbA1c levels 2-4 weeks after treatment were increased, with three patients (60%) experiencing an increase of GA levels. In contrast, an increase of the GA/HbA1c ratio was observed in only one patient. In all of the different models of changes in plasma glucose in FT1D patients, the length of time during which the values were higher than at the first visit was in the order of HbA1c > GA > GA/HbA1c ratio. The half-life for the GA/HbA1c ratio was 9 days, shorter than GA. These findings suggest that the GA/HbA1c ratio reflects shorter-term glycemic control than GA. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Einstein Observations of Galactic supernova remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seward, Frederick D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper summarizes the observations of Galactic supernova remnants with the imaging detectors of the Einstein Observatory. X-ray surface brightness contours of 47 remnants are shown together with gray-scale pictures. Count rates for these remnants have been derived and are listed for the HRI, IPC, and MPC detectors.

  14. HI Absorption in Merger Remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Veileux, Sylvain; Baker, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) pass through a luminous starburst phase, followed by a dust-enshrouded AGN phase, and finally evolve into optically bright "naked" quasars once they shed their gas/dust reservoirs through powerful wind events. We present the results of our recent 21- cm HI survey of 21 merger remnants with the Green Bank Telescope. These remnants were selected from the QUEST (Quasar/ULIRG Evolution Study) sample of ULIRGs and PG quasars; our targets are all bolometrically dominated by AGN and sample all phases of the proposed ULIRG -> IR-excess quasar -> optical quasar sequence. We explore whether there is an evolutionary connection between ULIRGs and quasars by looking for the occurrence of HI absorption tracing neutral gas outflows; our results will allow us to identify where along the sequence the majority of a merger's gas reservoir is expelled.

  15. Effect of rotor design tip speed on noise of a 1.21 pressure ratio model fan under static conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeffler, I. J.; Lieblein, S.; Stockman, N. O.

    1973-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented for a reverberant-field noise investigation of three fan stages designed for the same overall total pressure ratio of 1.21 at different rotor tip speeds (750, 900, and 1050 ft/sec). The stages were tested statically in a 15-inch-diameter model lift fan installed in a wing pod located in the test section of a wind tunnel. Although the fan stages produced essentially the same design pressure ratio, marked differences were observed in the variation of fan noise with fan operating speed. At design speed, the forward-radiated sound power level was approximately the same for the 750 ft/sec and 900 ft/sec stages. For the 1050 ft/sec stage, the design-speed forward-radiated power level was about 7 db higher due to the generation of multiple pure tone noise.

  16. Effect of rotor design tip speed on noise of a 1.21 pressure ratio model fan under static conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeffler, I. J.; Lieblein, S.; Stockman, N. O.

    1973-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented for a reverberant-field noise investigation of three fan stages designed for the same overall total pressure ratio of 1.21 at different rotor tip speeds (750, 900, and 1050 fps). The stages were tested statically in a 15-in.-dia model lift fan installed in a wing pod located in the test section of a wind tunnel. Although the fan stages produced essentially the same design pressure ratio, marked differences were observed in the variation of fan noise with fan operating speed. At design speed, the forward-radiated sound power level was approximately the same for the 750 and 900 fps stages. For the 1050 fps stage, the design-speed forward-radiated power level was about 7 dB higher due to the generation of multiple pure tone noise.

  17. The Magellanic Cloud supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dopita, M. A.

    1984-09-01

    The first supernova remnant (SNR) in the Magellanic Clouds was discovered by Mathewson and Healey (1964). Surveys for SNR in the Magellanic Clouds are discussed, taking into account the selection procedure initially used, current optical selection criteria for SNR, the launching of the Einstein Observatory, and the information obtainable by a detailed study of the discovered SNR. Attention is also given to the oxygen-rich SNR, the nonradiative shock SNR, the evolved radiative SNR, and conclusions based on the obtained results.

  18. The glycated albumin to HbA1c ratio is elevated in patients with fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus with onset during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Koga, Masafumi; Shimizu, Ikki; Murai, Jun; Saito, Hiroshi; Kasayama, Soji; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Imagawa, Akihisa; Hanafusa, Toshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus (FT1DM) develops as a result of very rapid and almost complete destruction of pancreatic β cell. The most common form of type 1 diabetes mellitus with onset during pregnancy has been shown to be FT1DM at least in Japan. We previously reported that the ratio of glycated albumin (GA) to HbA1c (GA/HbA1c ratio) is elevated in FT1DM patients at the diagnosis. In the present study, we investigated whether the GA/HbA1c ratio is also elevated in FT1DM with onset during pregnancy (P-FT1DM). The study subjects consisted of 7 patients with P-FT1DM. Ten patients with untreated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) discovered during pregnancy (P-T2DM) and 9 non-pregnant women with untreated T2DM (NP-T2DM) were used as controls. All study patients satisfied HbA1c < 8.7%, the diagnostic criteria for FT1DM. The GA/HbA1c ratio in the P-FT1DM patients at the diagnosis was significantly higher than that in the P-T2DM patients and the NP-T2DM patients. The GA/HbA1c ratio was ≥ 3.0 in all P-FT1DM patients, whereas it was < 3.0 in 8 of 10 P-T2DM patients and all NP-T2DM patients. The GA/HbA1c ratio was also elevated in P-FT1DM patients at the diagnosis compared with T2DM with or without pregnancy.

  19. Optical Emission Associated with the Galactic Supernova Remnant G179.0+2.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    How, Thomas G.; Fesen, Robert A.; Neustadt, Jack M. M.; Black, Christine S.; Outters, Nicolas

    2018-04-01

    Narrow passband optical images of the large Galactic supernova remnant G179.0+2.6 reveal a faint but nearly complete emission shell dominated by strong [O 3] 4959,5007 Å line emission. The remnant's optical emission, which consists of both diffuse and filamentary features, is brightest along its southern and northeastern limbs. Deep Hα images detect little coincidence emission indicating an unusually high [O 3]/Hα emission ratio for such a large and apparently old remnant. Low-dispersion optical spectra of several regions confirm large [O 3]/Hα line ratios with typical values around 10. The dominance of [O 3] emission for the majority of the remnant's optical filaments suggests shock velocities above 100 km s-1 are present throughout most of the remnant, likely reflecting a relatively low density ambient ISM. The remnant's unusually strong [O 3] emission adds to the remnant's interesting set of properties which include a thick radio emission shell, radial polarization of its radio emission like that typically seen in young supernova remnants, and an unusually slow-rotating gamma-ray pulsar with a characteristic spin-down age ≃ 50 kyr.

  20. Association of Apolipoprotein B/Apolipoprotein A1 Ratio and Coronary Artery Stenosis and Plaques Detected by Multi-Detector Computed Tomography in Healthy Population

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Chang Hee; Hwang, Jenie Yoonoo; Shin, Mi Seon; Yu, Ji Hee; Kim, Eun Hee; Bae, Sung Jin; Yang, Dong Hyun; Kang, Joon-Won; Park, Joong-Yeol; Kim, Hong-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Despite the noninvasiveness and accuracy of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), its use as a routine screening tool for occult coronary atherosclerosis is unclear. We investigated whether the ratio of apolipoprotein B (apoB) to apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1), an indicator of the balance between atherogenic and atheroprotective cholesterol transport could predict occult coronary atherosclerosis detected by MDCT. We collected the data of 1,401 subjects (877 men and 524 women) who participated in a routine health screening examination of Asan Medical Center. Significant coronary artery stenosis defined as > 50% stenosis was detected in 114 subjects (8.1%). An increase in apoB/A1 quartiles was associated with increased percentages of subjects with significant coronary stenosis and noncalcified plaques (NCAP). After adjustment for confounding variables, each 0.1 increase in serum apoB/A1 was significantly associated with increased odds ratios (ORs) for coronary stenosis and NCAP of 1.23 and 1.18, respectively. The optimal apoB/A1 ratio cut off value for MDCT detection of significant coronary stenosis was 0.58, which had a sensitivity of 70.2% and a specificity of 48.2% (area under the curve, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.58-0.63, P < 0.001). Our results indicate that apoB/A1 ratio is a good indicator of occult coronary atherosclerosis detected by coronary MDCT. PMID:23678262

  1. Association of apolipoprotein b/apolipoprotein A1 ratio and coronary artery stenosis and plaques detected by multi-detector computed tomography in healthy population.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chang Hee; Hwang, Jenie Yoonoo; Shin, Mi Seon; Yu, Ji Hee; Kim, Eun Hee; Bae, Sung Jin; Yang, Dong Hyun; Kang, Joon-Won; Park, Joong-Yeol; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Lee, Woo Je

    2013-05-01

    Despite the noninvasiveness and accuracy of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), its use as a routine screening tool for occult coronary atherosclerosis is unclear. We investigated whether the ratio of apolipoprotein B (apoB) to apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1), an indicator of the balance between atherogenic and atheroprotective cholesterol transport could predict occult coronary atherosclerosis detected by MDCT. We collected the data of 1,401 subjects (877 men and 524 women) who participated in a routine health screening examination of Asan Medical Center. Significant coronary artery stenosis defined as > 50% stenosis was detected in 114 subjects (8.1%). An increase in apoB/A1 quartiles was associated with increased percentages of subjects with significant coronary stenosis and noncalcified plaques (NCAP). After adjustment for confounding variables, each 0.1 increase in serum apoB/A1 was significantly associated with increased odds ratios (ORs) for coronary stenosis and NCAP of 1.23 and 1.18, respectively. The optimal apoB/A1 ratio cut off value for MDCT detection of significant coronary stenosis was 0.58, which had a sensitivity of 70.2% and a specificity of 48.2% (area under the curve, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.58-0.63, P < 0.001). Our results indicate that apoB/A1 ratio is a good indicator of occult coronary atherosclerosis detected by coronary MDCT.

  2. Ruprecht 3: An old star cluster remnant?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavani, D. B.; Bica, E.; Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.

    2003-02-01

    2MASS J and H photometry and integrated spectroscopy are employed to study the nature of the poorly populated compact concentration of stars Ruprecht 3, which was previously catalogued as an open cluster. The integrated spectrum remarkably resembles that of a moderately metal-rich globular cluster. The distribution of the object stars in the colour-magnitude diagram is compatible with that of a 1.5 +/- 0.5 Gyr open cluster or older, depending on whether the bluer stars are interpreted as turnoff stars or blue stragglers, respectively. We derive for the object a distance from the Sun dsun = 0.72 +0.04-0.03 kpc and a colour excess E(B-V) = 0.04. Although a globular cluster remnant cannot be ruled out, the integrated spectrum resemblance to that of a globular cluster probably reflects a stochastic effect owing to the few brighter stars. The structural and photometric properties of Ruprecht 3 are compatible with what would be expected for an intermediate-age open cluster remnant. Based on observations made at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan, Argentina.

  3. Combined use of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-1 ratio prior to elective coronary angiography and oral glucose tolerance tests.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhu-zhi; Geng, Deng-feng; Luo, Jin-gang; Wang, Jing-feng

    2011-11-01

    The study aimed to investigate the predictive value of the combination of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and apolipoprotein B (apoB)/apoA-1 ratio for the outcomes of coronary angiography (CAG), echocardiography and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs). Hs-CRP, apoB, apoA-1, and the profiles of CAG, echocardiography and OGTTs as well as traditional risk factors were measured in 1757 cardiology patients. Hs-CRP or apoB/apoA-1 ratio was significantly correlated with the presence and severity of angiographic profiles, the levels of left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, LV mass and LV mass index, and the presence of abnormal glucose metabolism. The combination of hs-CRP and apoB/apoA-1 ratio had greater correlation with abnormal glucose metabolism than its individual components in patients with normal fasting glucose, and was an independent predictor for coronary artery disease. The combination of hs-CRP and apoB/apoA-1 ratio may be a strong predictor for coronary artery disease and abnormal glucose metabolism. Copyright © 2011 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Overall and blade element performance of a 1.20 pressure ratio fan stage with rotor blades reset -7 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, G. W., Jr.; Kovich, G.

    1976-01-01

    A 51-cm-diam model of a fan stage for short haul aircraft was tested in a single stage compressor research facility. The rotor blades were set 7 deg toward the axial direction (opened) from the design setting angle. Surveys of the air flow conditions ahead of the rotor, between the rotor and stator, and behind the stator were made over the stable operating range of the stage. At the design speed and a weight flow of 30.9 kg/sec, the stage pressure ratio and efficiency were 1.205 and 0.85, respectively. The design speed rotor peak efficiency of 0.90 occurred at a flow rate of 32.5 kg/sec.

  5. Numerical relativity simulations of neutron star merger remnants using conservative mesh refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Tim; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Ujevic, Maximiliano; Brügmann, Bernd

    2015-06-01

    We study equal- and unequal-mass neutron star mergers by means of new numerical relativity simulations in which the general relativistic hydrodynamics solver employs an algorithm that guarantees mass conservation across the refinement levels of the computational mesh. We consider eight binary configurations with total mass M =2.7 M⊙, mass ratios q =1 and q =1.16 , four different equations of state (EOSs) and one configuration with a stiff EOS, M =2.5 M⊙ and q =1.5 , which is one of the largest mass ratios simulated in numerical relativity to date. We focus on the postmerger dynamics and study the merger remnant, the dynamical ejecta, and the postmerger gravitational wave spectrum. Although most of the merger remnants are a hypermassive neutron star collapsing to a black hole+disk system on dynamical time scales, stiff EOSs can eventually produce a stable massive neutron star. During the merger process and on very short time scales, about ˜10-3- 10-2M⊙ of material become unbound with kinetic energies ˜1050 erg . Ejecta are mostly emitted around the orbital plane and favored by large mass ratios and softer EOS. The postmerger wave spectrum is mainly characterized by the nonaxisymmetric oscillations of the remnant neutron star. The stiff EOS configuration consisting of a 1.5 M⊙ and a 1.0 M⊙ neutron star, simulated here for the first time, shows a rather peculiar dynamics. During merger the companion star is very deformed; about ˜0.03 M⊙ of the rest mass becomes unbound from the tidal tail due to the torque generated by the two-core inner structure. The merger remnant is a stable neutron star surrounded by a massive accretion disk of rest mass ˜0.3 M⊙. This and similar configurations might be particularly interesting for electromagnetic counterparts. Comparing results obtained with and without the conservative mesh refinement algorithm, we find that postmerger simulations can be affected by systematic errors if mass conservation is not enforced in the

  6. Neutron Stars in Supernova Remnants and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    We discuss a concept of off-centred cavity supernova explosion as applied to neutron star/supernova remnant associations and show how this concept could be used to preclude the anti-humane decapitating the Duck (G5.4-1.2 + G5.27-0.9) and dismembering the Swan (Cygnus Loop), as well as to search for a stellar remnant associated with the supernova remnant RCW86.

  7. Modelling Hard Gamma-Ray Emission from Supernova Remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baring, Matthew

    2000-01-01

    The observation by the CANGAROO experiment of TeV emission from SN 1006, in conjunction with several instances of non-thermal X-ray emission from supernova remnants, has led to inferences of super-TeV electrons in these extended sources. While this is sufficient to propel the theoretical community in their modelling of particle acceleration and associated radiation, the anticipated emergence in the next decade of a number of new experiments probing the TeV and sub-TeV bands provides further substantial motivation for modellers. In particular, the quest for obtaining unambiguous gamma-ray signatures of cosmic ray ion acceleration defines a "Holy Grail" for observers and theorists alike. This review summarizes theoretical developments in the prediction of MeV-TeV gamma-rays from supernova remnants over the last five years, focusing on how global properties of models can impact, and be impacted by, hard gamma-ray observational programs, thereby probing the supernova remnant environment. Properties of central consideration include the maximum energy of accelerated particles, the density of the unshocked interstellar medium, the ambient magnetic field, and the relativistic electron-to-proton ratio. Criteria for determining good candidate remnants for observability in the TeV band are identified.

  8. Modelling Hard Gamma-Ray Emission from Supernova Remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baring, Matthew G.

    1999-01-01

    The observation by the CANGAROO (Collaboration of Australia and Nippon Gamma Ray Observatory at Outback) experiment of TeV emission from SN 1006, in conjunction with several instances of non-thermal X-ray emission from supernova remnants, has led to inferences of super-TeV electrons in these extended sources. While this is sufficient to propel the theoretical community in their modelling of particle acceleration and associated radiation, the anticipated emergence in the next decade of a number of new experiments probing the TeV and sub-TeV bands provides further substantial motivation for modellers. In particular, the quest for obtaining unambiguous gamma-ray signatures of cosmic ray ion acceleration defines a "Holy Grail" for observers and theorists alike. This review summarizes theoretical developments in the prediction of MeV-TeV gamma-rays from supernova remnants over the last five years, focusing on how global properties of models can impact, and be impacted by, hard gamma-ray observational programs, thereby probing the supernova remnant environment. Properties of central consideration include the maximum energy of accelerated particles, the density of the unshocked interstellar medium, the ambient magnetic field, and the relativistic electron-to-proton ratio. Criteria for determining good candidate remnants for observability in the TeV band are identified.

  9. Supernova Remnant Science with AXIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Brian J.; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; AXIS Science Team

    2018-01-01

    We present an overview of the supernova remnant (SNR) science that will be achieved with the Advanced X-ray Imaging Satellite (AXIS). AXIS follows in the footsteps of the spectacularly successful Chandra X-ray Observatory with similar or higher angular resolution and an order of magnitude more collecting area in the 0.3-10 keV band. These capabilities enable major advances in several areas of SNR science. These include, but are not limited to: 1) a more thorough spatial mapping of the ejecta products of both intermediate-mass and iron-group elements in core-collapse and Type Ia SNRs, particularly in remnants with a small diameter. The iron-group elements, specifically Cr, Mn, and Ni, are extremely important for constraining the explosion mechanism for SNe, but are generally weak and difficult to detect with Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku. 2) Studying the interface of a shock wave with the ambient ISM/CSM to constrain the degree of particle heating and acceleration at shock fronts. Chandra has only provided upper limits on shock precursor emission, and a detailed study of the thermal and nonthermal emission at the shock with greatly increased photon count rates will constrain the properties of the immediate post-shock plasma. 3) A high spatial resolution X-ray observatory will continue to build on the legacy begun by Chandra of studying the proper motion of young remnants. Directly measuring the dynamics of an SNR's evolution is crucial for understanding the explosion mechanism, and with the order of magnitude increase collecting area, we can measure the expansion of individual elemental species in the ejecta. 4) We will greatly increase the statistics of SNRs in nearby galaxies, going much faster and deeper than Chandra's observations. The increased depth of coverage would allow us to do spectroscopy in places where it was previously possible only to do rudimentary statistics. We can compare the local SNR population with the local star-formation rates for galaxies

  10. Supernova Remnant W49B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Release date Dec. 30, 2009 In the supernova remnant W49B, Suzaku found another fossil fireball. It detected X-rays produced when heavily ionized iron atoms recapture an electron. This view combines infrared images from the ground (red, green) with X-ray data from NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory (blue). Credit: Caltech/SSC/J. Rho and T. Jarrett and NASA/CXC/SSC/J. Keohane et al. To learn more about this image go to: www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/astro-e2/news/fossil-fireballs... NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is home to the nation's largest organization of combined scientists, engineers and technologists that build spacecraft, instruments and new technology to study the Earth, the sun, our solar system, and the universe.

  11. Neutron stars in supernova remnants and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvaramadze, V.

    We propose a new approach for studying the neutron star/supernova remnant associations, based on the idea that the supernova remnants can be products of an off-centered supernova explosion in a preexisting bubble created by the wind of a moving massive star. A cavity supernova explosion of a moving star results in a considerable offset of the neutron star birth-place from the geometrical center of the supernova remnant. Therefore: a) the high transverse velocities inferred for a number of neutron stars through their association with supernova remnants can be reduced; b) the proper motion vector of a neutron star should not necessarily point away from the geometrical center of the associated supernova remnant. Taking into account these two facts allow us to enlarge the circle of possible neutron star/supernova remnant associations, and could significantly affect the results of previous studies of associations. The possibilities of our approach are illustrated with some examples. We also show that the concept of an off-centered cavity supernova explosion could be used to explain the peculiar structures of a number of supernova remnants and for searches for stellar remnants possibly associated with them.

  12. 27 CFR 19.389 - Remnants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remnants. 19.389 Section 19.389 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Manufacture of Articles Bottling, Packaging, and Removal of Products § 19.389 Remnants. Where incident to...

  13. Comparison of the efficacy of rosuvastatin versus atorvastatin in reducing apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-1 ratio in patients with acute coronary syndrome: results of the CENTAURUS study.

    PubMed

    Lablanche, Jean-Marc; Leone, Attilio; Merkely, Bela; Morais, João; Alonso, Joaquim; Santini, Massimo; Eha, Jaan; Demil, Nacima; Licour, Muriel; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2010-03-01

    The mechanism underlying statin-induced event reduction in patients with acute coronary syndrome remains unclear. To assess the efficacy of rosuvastatin 20mg versus atorvastatin 80 mg in reducing the apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-1 (apoB/apoA-1) ratio at 3 months. Non-inferiority of rosuvastatin 20mg versus atorvastatin 80 mg in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol at 1 and 3 months was also assessed. Patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome were enrolled into this randomized, double blind, parallel-group trial. In total, 753 patients (369, rosuvastatin 20mg; 384, atorvastatin 80 mg) were included in the intention-to-treat analysis; 478 patients (226, rosuvastatin 20mg; 252, atorvastatin 80 mg) were included in the per-protocol analysis. Rosuvastatin 20mg was more effective than atorvastatin 80 mg in decreasing apoB/apoA-1 ratio at 1 month (-44.4% vs -42.9%, p=0.02) but not at 3 months (both -44.4%, p=0.87). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased by approximately 50% after 1 and 3 months in both groups. Non-inferiority of rosuvastatin 20mg versus atorvastatin 80 mg was demonstrated at 1 month (difference, -0.3% [95% confidence interval, -2.7; +2.1]), but not at 3 months (+1.0% [-1.6; 3.5]) (intention-to-treat analysis). In the per-protocol analysis, non-inferiority of rosuvastatin 20mg was demonstrated at both 1 (-0.7% [-3.5; 2.0]) and 3 (-0.5% [-3.5; 2.5]) months. In patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome, rosuvastatin 20mg decreased apoB/apoA-1 ratio at 1 month more than atorvastatin 80 mg. No difference could be shown at 3 months; thus, the primary endpoint was not met.

  14. Effect of Hashimoto thyroiditis on low-dose radioactive-iodine remnant ablation.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyungju; Choi, June Young; Moon, Jae Hoon; Park, Hyo Jin; Lee, Won Woo; Lee, Kyu Eun

    2016-04-01

    Radioactive-iodine remnant ablation is an integral part of the papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) treatment. Although a minimum dose is usually recommended, there is controversy as to whether the low-dose (1100 MBq) radioactive-iodine remnant ablation is adequate for selected patients. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 691 patients. Patients with no remnant thyroid on the follow-up whole body scan and low stimulated thyroglobulin (sTg) level (<2.0 ng/mL) were deemed as successful treatment cases. Initial low-dose radioactive-iodine remnant ablation was successful in 431 patients (62.3%). Multivariate analysis demonstrated a negative correlation between successful radioactive-iodine remnant ablation and coexisting Hashimoto thyroiditis based on histopathology diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] = 3.23; p < .001) as well as elevated preablation sTg (OR = 1.24; p < .001). Our data suggest that coexisting Hashimoto thyroiditis and elevated sTg are negative predictive factors for successful low-dose radioactive-iodine remnant ablation treatment. An appropriate risk-adjusted approach may improve the efficacy of radioactive-iodine remnant ablation treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E730-E735, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Remnant Cholesterol Elicits Arterial Wall Inflammation and a Multilevel Cellular Immune Response in Humans.

    PubMed

    Bernelot Moens, Sophie J; Verweij, Simone L; Schnitzler, Johan G; Stiekema, Lotte C A; Bos, Merijn; Langsted, Anne; Kuijk, Carlijn; Bekkering, Siroon; Voermans, Carlijn; Verberne, Hein J; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Stroes, Erik S G; Kroon, Jeffrey

    2017-05-01

    Mendelian randomization studies revealed a causal role for remnant cholesterol in cardiovascular disease. Remnant particles accumulate in the arterial wall, potentially propagating local and systemic inflammation. We evaluated the impact of remnant cholesterol on arterial wall inflammation, circulating monocytes, and bone marrow in patients with familial dysbetalipoproteinemia (FD). Arterial wall inflammation and bone marrow activity were measured using 18 F-FDG PET/CT. Monocyte phenotype was assessed with flow cytometry. The correlation between remnant levels and hematopoietic activity was validated in the CGPS (Copenhagen General Population Study). We found a 1.2-fold increase of 18 F-FDG uptake in the arterial wall in patients with FD (n=17, age 60±8 years, remnant cholesterol: 3.26 [2.07-5.71]) compared with controls (n=17, age 61±8 years, remnant cholesterol 0.29 [0.27-0.40]; P <0.001). Monocytes from patients with FD showed increased lipid accumulation (lipid-positive monocytes: Patients with FD 92% [86-95], controls 76% [66-81], P =0.001, with an increase in lipid droplets per monocyte), and a higher expression of surface integrins (CD11b, CD11c, and CD18). Patients with FD also exhibited monocytosis and leukocytosis, accompanied by a 1.2-fold increase of 18 F-FDG uptake in bone marrow. In addition, we found a strong correlation between remnant levels and leukocyte counts in the CGPS (n=103 953, P for trend 5×10-276). In vitro experiments substantiated that remnant cholesterol accumulates in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells coinciding with myeloid skewing. Patients with FD have increased arterial wall and cellular inflammation. These findings imply an important inflammatory component to the atherogenicity of remnant cholesterol, contributing to the increased cardiovascular disease risk in patients with FD. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Pacific Ocean-wide profile of CYP1A1 expression, stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios, and organic contaminant burden in sperm whale skin biopsies.

    PubMed

    Godard-Codding, Céline A J; Clark, Rebecca; Fossi, Maria Cristina; Marsili, Letizia; Maltese, Silvia; West, Adam G; Valenzuela, Luciano; Rowntree, Victoria; Polyak, Ildiko; Cannon, John C; Pinkerton, Kim; Rubio-Cisneros, Nadia; Mesnick, Sarah L; Cox, Stephen B; Kerr, Iain; Payne, Roger; Stegeman, John J

    2011-03-01

    Ocean pollution affects marine organisms and ecosystems as well as humans. The International Oceanographic Commission recommends ocean health monitoring programs to investigate the presence of marine contaminants and the health of threatened species and the use of multiple and early-warning biomarker approaches. We explored the hypothesis that biomarker and contaminant analyses in skin biopsies of the threatened sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) could reveal geographical trends in exposure on an oceanwide scale. We analyzed cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) expression (by immunohistochemistry), stable nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios (as general indicators of trophic position and latitude, respectively), and contaminant burdens in skin biopsies to explore regional trends in the Pacific Ocean. Biomarker analyses revealed significant regional differences within the Pacific Ocean. CYP1A1 expression was highest in whales from the Galapagos, a United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization World Heritage marine reserve, and was lowest in the sampling sites farthest away from continents. We examined the possible influence of the whales' sex, diet, or range and other parameters on regional variation in CYP1A1 expression, but data were inconclusive. In general, CYP1A1 expression was not significantly correlated with contaminant burdens in blubber. However, small sample sizes precluded detailed chemical analyses, and power to detect significant associations was limited. Our large-scale monitoring study was successful at identifying regional differences in CYP1A1 expression, providing a baseline for this known biomarker of exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists. However, we could not identify factors that explained this variation. Future oceanwide CYP1A1 expression profiles in cetacean skin biopsies are warranted and could reveal whether globally distributed chemicals occur at biochemically relevant concentrations on a global basis, which may

  17. Pacific Ocean–Wide Profile of CYP1A1 Expression, Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Ratios, and Organic Contaminant Burden in Sperm Whale Skin Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Godard-Codding, Céline A.J.; Clark, Rebecca; Fossi, Maria Cristina; Marsili, Letizia; Maltese, Silvia; West, Adam G.; Valenzuela, Luciano; Rowntree, Victoria; Polyak, Ildiko; Cannon, John C.; Pinkerton, Kim; Rubio-Cisneros, Nadia; Mesnick, Sarah L.; Cox, Stephen B.; Kerr, Iain; Payne, Roger; Stegeman, John J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Ocean pollution affects marine organisms and ecosystems as well as humans. The International Oceanographic Commission recommends ocean health monitoring programs to investigate the presence of marine contaminants and the health of threatened species and the use of multiple and early-warning biomarker approaches. Objective We explored the hypothesis that biomarker and contaminant analyses in skin biopsies of the threatened sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) could reveal geographical trends in exposure on an oceanwide scale. Methods We analyzed cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) expression (by immunohistochemistry), stable nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios (as general indicators of trophic position and latitude, respectively), and contaminant burdens in skin biopsies to explore regional trends in the Pacific Ocean. Results Biomarker analyses revealed significant regional differences within the Pacific Ocean. CYP1A1 expression was highest in whales from the Galapagos, a United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization World Heritage marine reserve, and was lowest in the sampling sites farthest away from continents. We examined the possible influence of the whales’ sex, diet, or range and other parameters on regional variation in CYP1A1 expression, but data were inconclusive. In general, CYP1A1 expression was not significantly correlated with contaminant burdens in blubber. However, small sample sizes precluded detailed chemical analyses, and power to detect significant associations was limited. Conclusions Our large-scale monitoring study was successful at identifying regional differences in CYP1A1 expression, providing a baseline for this known biomarker of exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists. However, we could not identify factors that explained this variation. Future oceanwide CYP1A1 expression profiles in cetacean skin biopsies are warranted and could reveal whether globally distributed chemicals occur at biochemically

  18. Further analysis of LDEF FRECOPA micrometeroid remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borg, J.; Bunch, T. E.; Radicatidibrozolo, Filippo

    1992-01-01

    Experiments dedicated to the detection of interplanetary dust particles (IDP's) were exposed within the FRECOPA payload, installed on the face of the LDEF directly opposed to the velocity vector (west facing direction, location B3). We were mainly interested in the analysis of hypervelocity impact features of sizes less than or = 10 microns, found in thick Al targets devoted to the research of impact features. In the 15 craters found in the scanned area (approximately 4 sq. cm), the chemical analysis suggests an extraterrestrial origin for the impacting particles. The main elements we identified are usually refered to as chondrite elements: Na, Mg, Si, S, Ca, and Fe are found in various proportions, intrinsic Al being masked by the Al target; we notice a strong depletion in Ni, never observed in our samples. Furthermore, C and O are present in 90 percent of the cases; the C/O peak height ratio varies from 0.1 to 3. Impactor simulations by light gas gun hypervelocity impact experiments have shown that meaningful biogenic element and compound information maybe obtained from IDP residues below impacts of critical velocities, that are less than or = 4 km/sec for particles larger than 100 microns in diameter. Our results obtained for the smaller size fraction IDP's suggest that at such sizes, the critical velocity could be higher by a factor of 2 or 3, as chemical analysis of the remnants were possible in all the identified impact craters, performed on targets possibly hit at velocities greater than or = 7.5 km/s, which is the spacecraft velocity. These samples are now subjected to an imagery and analytical protocol that includes FESEM (field emission scanning electron microscopy) and LIMS (laser ionization mass spectrometry). The LIMS analyses were performed using the LIMA-ZA instrument. Results are presented, clearly indicating that such small events show crater features analogous to what is observed at larger sizes; our first analytical results, obtained for 2 events

  19. Transfusion of plasma, platelets, and red blood cells in a 1:1:1 vs a 1:1:2 ratio and mortality in patients with severe trauma: the PROPPR randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Holcomb, John B; Tilley, Barbara C; Baraniuk, Sarah; Fox, Erin E; Wade, Charles E; Podbielski, Jeanette M; del Junco, Deborah J; Brasel, Karen J; Bulger, Eileen M; Callcut, Rachael A; Cohen, Mitchell Jay; Cotton, Bryan A; Fabian, Timothy C; Inaba, Kenji; Kerby, Jeffrey D; Muskat, Peter; O'Keeffe, Terence; Rizoli, Sandro; Robinson, Bryce R H; Scalea, Thomas M; Schreiber, Martin A; Stein, Deborah M; Weinberg, Jordan A; Callum, Jeannie L; Hess, John R; Matijevic, Nena; Miller, Christopher N; Pittet, Jean-Francois; Hoyt, David B; Pearson, Gail D; Leroux, Brian; van Belle, Gerald

    2015-02-03

    Severely injured patients experiencing hemorrhagic shock often require massive transfusion. Earlier transfusion with higher blood product ratios (plasma, platelets, and red blood cells), defined as damage control resuscitation, has been associated with improved outcomes; however, there have been no large multicenter clinical trials. To determine the effectiveness and safety of transfusing patients with severe trauma and major bleeding using plasma, platelets, and red blood cells in a 1:1:1 ratio compared with a 1:1:2 ratio. Pragmatic, phase 3, multisite, randomized clinical trial of 680 severely injured patients who arrived at 1 of 12 level I trauma centers in North America directly from the scene and were predicted to require massive transfusion between August 2012 and December 2013. Blood product ratios of 1:1:1 (338 patients) vs 1:1:2 (342 patients) during active resuscitation in addition to all local standard-of-care interventions (uncontrolled). Primary outcomes were 24-hour and 30-day all-cause mortality. Prespecified ancillary outcomes included time to hemostasis, blood product volumes transfused, complications, incidence of surgical procedures, and functional status. No significant differences were detected in mortality at 24 hours (12.7% in 1:1:1 group vs 17.0% in 1:1:2 group; difference, -4.2% [95% CI, -9.6% to 1.1%]; P = .12) or at 30 days (22.4% vs 26.1%, respectively; difference, -3.7% [95% CI, -10.2% to 2.7%]; P = .26). Exsanguination, which was the predominant cause of death within the first 24 hours, was significantly decreased in the 1:1:1 group (9.2% vs 14.6% in 1:1:2 group; difference, -5.4% [95% CI, -10.4% to -0.5%]; P = .03). More patients in the 1:1:1 group achieved hemostasis than in the 1:1:2 group (86% vs 78%, respectively; P = .006). Despite the 1:1:1 group receiving more plasma (median of 7 U vs 5 U, P < .001) and platelets (12 U vs 6 U, P < .001) and similar amounts of red blood cells (9 U) over the first 24 hours

  20. Congenital esophageal stenosis owing to tracheobronchial remnants

    PubMed Central

    Rebelo, Priscila Guyt; Ormonde, João Victor C.; Ormonde, João Baptista C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To emphasize the need of an accurate diagnosis of congenital esophageal stenosis due to tracheobronchial remnants, since its treatment differs from other types of congenital narrowing. CASE DESCRIPTION Four cases of lower congenital esophageal stenosis due to tracheobronchial remnants, whose definitive diagnosis was made by histopathology. Except for the last case, in which a concomitant anti-reflux surgery was not performed, all had a favorable outcome after resection and anastomosis of the esophagus. COMMENTS The congenital esophageal stenosis is an intrinsic narrowing of the organâ€(tm)s wall associated with its structural malformation. The condition can be caused by tracheobronchial remnants, fibromuscular stenosis or membranous diaphragm and the first symptom is dysphagia after the introduction of solid food in the diet. The first-choice treatment to tracheobronchial remnants cases is the surgical resection and end-to-end anastomosis of the esophagus. PMID:24142326

  1. Congenital esophageal stenosis owing to tracheobronchial remnants.

    PubMed

    Rebelo, Priscila Guyt; Ormonde, João Victor C; Ormonde Filho, João Baptista C

    2013-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To emphasize the need of an accurate diagnosis of congenital esophageal stenosis due to tracheobronchial remnants, since its treatment differs from other types of congenital narrowing. CASE DESCRIPTION Four cases of lower congenital esophageal stenosis due to tracheobronchial remnants, whose definitive diagnosis was made by histopathology. Except for the last case, in which a concomitant anti-reflux surgery was not performed, all had a favorable outcome after resection and anastomosis of the esophagus. COMMENTS The congenital esophageal stenosis is an intrinsic narrowing of the organ's wall associated with its structural malformation. The condition can be caused by tracheobronchial remnants, fibromuscular stenosis or membranous diaphragm and the first symptom is dysphagia after the introduction of solid food in the diet. The first-choice treatment to tracheobronchial remnants cases is the surgical resection and end-to-end anastomosis of the esophagus.

  2. X-ray spectra of supernova remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szymkowiak, A. E.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray spectra were obtained from fields in three supernova remnants with the solid state spectrometer of the HEAO 2 satellite. These spectra, which contain lines from K-shell transitions of several abundant elements with atomic numbers between 10 and 22, were compared with various models, including some of spectra that would be produced by adiabatic phase remnants when the time-dependence of the ionization is considered.

  3. A Model of the Vela Supernova Remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvaramadze, Vasilii

    2000-10-01

    A model of the Vela supernova remnant (SNR) based on a cavity explosion of a supernova (SN) star is proposed. It is suggested that the general structure of the remnant is determined by the interaction of the SN blast wave with a massive shell created by the SN progenitor (15-20 M_solar) star. A possible origin of the nebula of hard X-ray emission detected around the Vela pulsar is discussed.

  4. Administration of a co-crystal of tramadol and celecoxib in a 1:1 molecular ratio produces synergistic antinociceptive effects in a postoperative pain model in rats.

    PubMed

    Merlos, Manuel; Portillo-Salido, Enrique; Brenchat, Alex; Aubel, Bertrand; Buxens, Jordi; Fisas, Angels; Codony, Xavier; Romero, Luz; Zamanillo, Daniel; Vela, José Miguel

    2018-06-19

    Drug combination for the treatment of pain is common clinical practice. Co-crystal of Tramadol-Celecoxib (CTC) consists of two active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), namely the atypical opioid tramadol and the preferential cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib, at a 1:1 molecular ratio. In this study, a non-formulated 'raw' form of CTC administered in suspension (referred to as ctc susp ) was compared with both tramadol and celecoxib alone in a rat plantar incision postoperative pain model. For comparison, the strong opioids morphine and oxycodone, and a tramadol plus acetaminophen combination at a molecular ratio of 1:17 were also tested. Isobolographic analyses showed that ctc susp exerted synergistic mechanical antiallodynic (experimental ED 50 =2.0±0.5mg/kg, i.p.; theoretical ED 50 =3.8±0.4mg/kg, i.p.) and thermal (experimental ED 50 =2.3±0.5mg/kg, i.p.; theoretical ED 50 =9.8±0.8mg/kg, i.p.) antihyperalgesic effects in the postoperative pain model. In contrast, the tramadol and acetaminophen combination showed antagonistic effects on both mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. No synergies between tramadol and celecoxib on locomotor activity, motor coordination, ulceration potential and gastrointestinal transit were observed after the administration of ctc susp . Overall, rat efficacy and safety data revealed that ctc susp provided synergistic analgesic effects compared with each API alone, without enhancing adverse effects. Moreover, ctc susp showed similar efficacy but improved safety ratio (80, measured as gastrointestinal transit vs postoperative pain ED 50 ratios) compared with the strong opioids morphine (2.5) and oxycodone (5.8). The overall in vivo profile of ctc susp supports the further investigation of CTC in the clinical management of moderate-to-severe acute pain as an alternative to strong opioids. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. The First Reported Infrared Emission from the SN1006 Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, P. Frank; Williams, Brian J.; Blair, William P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Long, Knox S.; Raymond, John C.; Reynolds, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    We report results of infrared imaging and spectroscopic observations of the SN 1006 remnant, carried out with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The 24 m image from MIPS clearly shows faint filamentary emission along the northwest rim of the remnant shell, nearly coincident with the Balmer filaments that delineate the present position of the expanding shock. The 24 m emission traces the Balmer filaments almost perfectly, but lies a few arcsec within, indicating an origin in interstellar dust heated by the shock. Subsequent decline in the IR behind the shock is presumably due largely to grain destruction through sputtering. The emission drops far more rapidly than current models predict, however, even for a higher proportion of small grains than would be found closer to the Galactic plane. The rapid drop may result in part from a grain density that has always been lowera relic effect from an earlier epoch when the shock was encountering a lower densitybut higher grain destruction rates still seem to be required. Spectra from three positions along the NW filament from the IRS instrument all show only a featureless continuum, consistent with thermal emission from warm dust. The dust-to-gas mass ratio in the pre-shock interstellar medium is lower than that expected for the Galactic ISM-as has also been observed in the analysis of IR emission from other SNRs but whose cause remains unclear. As with other SNIa remnants, SN1006 shows no evidence for dust grain formation in the supernova ejecta.

  6. Effects of rosuvastatin and atorvastatin on the apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-1 ratio in patients with an acute coronary syndrome: The CENTAURUS trial design.

    PubMed

    Lablanche, Jean-Marc; Danchin, Nicolas; Farnier, Michel; Tedgui, Alain; Vicaut, Eric; Alonso, Joaquim; Crean, Peter; Leone, Attilio; Morais, Joa; Santini, Massimo; Licour, Muriel; Farah, Mohamed; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2008-06-01

    The mechanism underlying rapid, statin-induced event reduction in patients with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains to be clarified. The primary objective is to compare the efficacy of rosuvastatin 20 mg/day and atorvastatin 80 mg/day in reducing the apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-1 (apoB/apoA-1) ratio at three months, in ACS patients. Secondary objectives include a comparison of the effects of early-started rosuvastatin and placebo on inflammatory markers. This is a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study. Patients with non-ST-segment elevation ACS, symptom onset less than 48 h before admission, and for whom a percutaneous coronary intervention is planned, are eligible for inclusion and are randomized into three groups (G1, G2 and G3). The study comprises two double-blind periods. Period 1 starts at hospital admission and lasts until Day 0 (discharge or less or equal to 6 days after admission); patients in G1 receive one tablet of rosuvastatin 20 mg/day and patients in G2 and G3 receive one matching placebo tablet per day. Period 2 starts at Day 0 and lasts for three months; patients in G1 continue to receive rosuvastatin 20 mg/day, patients in G2 receive rosuvastatin 20 mg/day and patients in G3 receive atorvastatin 80 mg/day. Recruitment of 1075 patients will ensure an 80 power to detect a 3% difference in percentage change in the apoB/apoA-1 ratio and a 20% difference in percentage change in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Inclusion phase is complete; results will be reported at a later date. This is the first trial investigating the effect of statins on apolipoproteins in ACS patients.

  7. Glycated hemoglobin A1c level is associated with high urinary albumin/creatinine ratio in non-diabetic adult population.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seok Hui; Park, Jong Won; Do, Jun Young; Cho, Kyu Hyang

    2016-09-01

    Regarding the association between glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and microvascular complications, high HbA1c level in participants without diabetes mellitus (DM) may be associated with a high urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR). Twelve thousand seven hundred and seventy four participants without DM were included in this study. The participants were divided into three groups according to HbA1c levels: a Low group (<5.7%), Middle group (5.7-6.0%), and High group (>6.0%). A high UACR was defined as UACR ≥3.9 mg/g for men and UACR ≥7.5 mg/g for women. The proportions of participants with a high UACR in the Low, Middle, and High groups were 22.4%, 27.9%, and 38.1%, respectively. Both univariate and multivariate analyses showed that logUACR was greatest in the High group compared to the other groups. For participants without metabolic syndrome (MetS), the proportions of participants with high UACR and logUACR values were greatest in the High group compared to the other groups. For participants with MetS, no differences were found for proportions of participants with high UACR and logUACR values in the Low, Middle, and High groups. Non-DM participants with relatively high HbA1c levels should be closely monitored for UACR, especially if participants do not have MetS. KEY MESSAGES HbA1c level was positively associated with the proportion of participants with a high UACR and logUACR in participants without DM. For participants without MetS, the proportion of participants with a high UACR was greater in the High group than in the other groups and logUACR was greatest in the High group compared to the other groups. For participants with MetS, there were significant associations between HbA1c and the proportion of participants with a high UACR as a categorical variable or logUACR as a continuous variable, but the statistical significance of this finding was weak. No differences were found for proportions of participants with high UACR and logUACR values

  8. Acoustic and aerodynamic performance of a 1.83 meter (6 foot) diameter 1.2 pressure ratio fan (QF-6). [for short takeoff aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, R. P.; Lucas, J. G.; Stakolich, E. G.

    1974-01-01

    A 1.2-pressure-ratio, 1.83-meter-(6-ft-) diameter experimental fan stage with characteristics suitable for use in STOL aircraft engines was tested for acoustic and aerodynamic performance. The design incorporated features for low noise, including absence of inlet guide vanes, low rotor-blade-tip speed, low aerodynamic blade loading, and long axial spacing between the rotor and stator rows. The stage was run with four nozzles of different area. The perceived noise along a 152.4 meter (500-ft) sideline was rear-quadrant dominated with a maximum design-point level of 103.9 PNdb. The acoustic 1/3-octave results were analytically separated into broadband and pure-tone components. It was found that the stage noise levels generally increase with a decrease in nozzle area, with this increase observed primarily in the broadband noise component. A stall condition was documented acoustically with a 90-percent-of-design-area nozzle.

  9. Usefulness of the plasma glucose concentration-to-HbA1c ratio in predicting clinical outcomes during acute illness with extreme hyperglycaemia.

    PubMed

    Su, Y-W; Hsu, C-Y; Guo, Y-W; Chen, H-S

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the correlation between the plasma glucose-to-glycated haemoglobin ratio (GAR) and clinical outcome during acute illness. This retrospective observational cohort study enrolled 661 patients who visited the emergency department of our hospital between 1 July 2008 and 30 September 2010 with plasma glucose concentrations>500mg/dL. Systolic blood pressure, heart rate, white blood cells, neutrophils, haematocrit, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, liver function and plasma glucose concentration were recorded at the initial presentation to the emergency department. Data on glycated haemoglobin over the preceding 6 months were reviewed from our hospital database. The glucose-to-HbA 1c ratio (GAR) was calculated as the plasma glucose concentration divided by glycated haemoglobin. The GAR of those who died was significantly higher than that of the survivors (81.0±25.9 vs 67.6±25.0; P<0.001). There was a trend towards a higher 90-day mortality rate in patients with higher GARs (log-rank test P<0.0001 for trend). On multivariate Cox regression analysis, the GAR was significantly related to 90-day mortality (hazard ratio [HR] for 1 standard deviation [SD] change: 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-1.63; P<0.001), but not to plasma glucose (HR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.70-1.13; P=0.328). Rates of intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mechanical ventilator use were also higher in those with higher GARs. GAR independently predicted 90-day mortality, ICU admission and use of mechanical ventilation. It was also a better predictor of patient outcomes than plasma glucose alone in patients with extremely high glucose levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Measuring the Symmetry of Supernova Remnants in the Radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Jennifer; Lopez, Laura A.

    2017-01-01

    Nearly 300 supernova remnants (SNRs) are known in the MIlky Way galaxy, and they offer an important means to study the explosions and interactions of supernovae at sub-pc scales. In this poster, we present analysis of the morphology of Galactic SNRs at radio wavelengths. Specifically, we measure the symmetry of several tens of SNRs in 6- and 20-cm Very Large Array images using a multipole expansion technique, the power-ratio method. We explore how the SNRs' morphology changes as a function of their size and estimated dynamical ages, with the aim of probing how SNR shapes evolve with time.

  11. 16 CFR 303.13 - Sale of remnants and products made of remnants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.13... information as “remnants of undetermined fiber content.” (2) Where such remnants of fabrics are displayed for... conjunction with such display, stating with respect to required fiber content disclosure that the goods are...

  12. Galactic Supernova Remnant Candidates Discovered by THOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Loren; Wang, Yuan; Bihr, Simon; Rugel, Michael; Beuther, Henrik; THOR Team

    2018-01-01

    There is a considerable deficiency in the number of known supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Galaxy compared to that expected. Searches for extended low-surface brightness radio sources may find new Galactic SNRs, but confusion with the much larger population of HII regions makes identifying such features challenging. SNRs can, however, be separated from HII regions using their significantly lower mid-infrared (MIR) to radio continuum intensity ratios. We use the combination of high-resolution 1-2 GHz continuum data from The HI, OH, Recombination line survey of the Milky Way (THOR) and lower-resolution VLA 1.4 GHz Galactic Plane Survey (VGPS) continuum data, together with MIR data from the Spitzer GLIMPSE, Spitzer MIPSGAL, and WISE surveys to identify SNR candidates. To ensure that the candidates are not being confused with HII regions, we exclude radio continuum sources from the WISE Catalog of Galactic HII Regions, which contains all known and candidate H II regions in the Galaxy. We locate 76 new Galactic SNR candidates in the THOR and VGPS combined survey area of 67.4deg>l>17.5deg, |b|<1.25deg and measure the radio flux density for 52 previously-known SNRs. The candidate SNRs have a similar spatial distribution to the known SNRs, although we note a large number of new candidates near l=30deg, the tangent point of the Scutum spiral arm. The candidates are on average smaller in angle compared to the known regions, 6.4'+/-4.7' versus 11.0'+/-7.8', and have lower integrated flux densities. If the 76 candidates are confirmed as true SNRs, for example using radio polarization measurements or by deriving radio spectral indices, this would more than double the number of known Galactic SNRs in the survey area. This large increase would still, however, leave a discrepancy between the known and expected SNR populations of about a factor of two.

  13. Temperature relaxation in supernova remnants, revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Itoh, H.

    1984-01-01

    Some supernova remnants are expanding into a partially neutral medium. The neutral atoms which are engulfed by the fast blast shock are collisionally ionized to eject low-energy secondary electrons. Calculations are conducted of the temperature relaxation through Coulomb collisions among the secondary electrons, the shocked electrons, and the ions, assuming that the three species have Maxwellian velocity distributions. The results are applied to a self-similar blast wave. If the efficiency of collisionless electron heating at the shock front is high in young remnants such as Tycho, the secondary electrons may be much cooler than both the shocked electrons and the ions. In this case, the emergent X-ray continuum spectrum will have a two-temperature, or a power-law, appearance. This effect may have been observed in the bright rim of the remnant of SN 1006.

  14. RXTE Observation of the Tycho Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    The, Lih-Sin

    1998-01-01

    SN1006 [4] and Cas A [1, 9] supernova remnants have been shown convincingly to have a hard X-ray power-law continuum. This continuum is thought to be the synchrotron radiation from accelerated electrons of approx. 100 TeV at the shock fronts. Our goal of AO2 RXTE observation is to detect the hard X-ray continuum and to determine the nature of the continuum from Tycho SNR. A detection of a power-law continuum from Tycho SNR can strongly argue for SNRs are the source of cosmic rays with the first order Fermi acceleration as the energizing process. We report the results of our AO2 RXTE 1 x 10(exp 5) sec observation of Tycho SNR. We detect two components of the X-ray spectrum from Tycho SNR both at better than 3 omega confidence. The best two component models are: bremsstrahlung (kT=2.67 +/- 0.13 keV) + bremsstrahlung (kT=7.07 +/- 2.21/1.72 keV) or bremsstrahlung (kT=2.36 +/- 0.21/0.57 keV) + power-law (gamma=2.58 +/- 0.12/0.09 ). This result is an improvement compaxed with the previous most sensitive X-ray measurements by Ginga which shows Tycho's observed X-ray continuum requires a two-component model to yield acceptable fits with the hard component parameters being highly uncertain. Our RXTE measurements constrain all parameter within 3o, ranges. However, we cannot yet distinguish between thermal and nonthermal models for the hard component. In the followings, we describe what we accomplished in the period covered by the grant proposal.

  15. Fan Performance From Duct Rake Instrumentation on a 1.294 Pressure Ratio, 725 ft/sec Tip Speed Turbofan Simulator Using Vaned Passage Casing Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fite, E. Brian

    2006-01-01

    A 1.294 pressure ratio, 725 ft/sec tip speed, variable pitch low noise fan was designed and tested in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-foot Wind Tunnel. The design included a casing treatment that used recirculation to extend the fan stall line and provide an acceptable operating range. Overall aerodynamic experimental results are presented for this low tip speed, low noise fan without casing treatment as well as using several variants of the casing treatment that moved the air extraction and insertion axial locations. Measurements were made to assess effects on performance, operability, and noise. An unusual instability was discovered near the design operating line and is documented in the fan operating range. Measurements were made to compare stall margin improvements as well as measure the performance impact of the casing treatments. Experimental results in the presence of simulated inlet distortion, via screens, are presented for the baseline and recirculation casing treatment configurations. Estimates are made for the quantity of recirculation weight flow based on limited instrumentation in the recirculation system along with discussion of results and conclusions

  16. Acoustic and aerodynamic performance of a 1.83-meter (6-ft) diameter 1.25-pressure-ratio fan (QF-8)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, R. P.; Lucas, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    A 1.25-pressure-ratio 1.83-meter (6-ft) tip diameter experimental fan stage with characteristics suitable for engine application on STOL aircraft was tested for acoustic and aerodynamic performance. The design incorporated proven features for low noise, including absence of inlet guide vanes, low rotor blade tip speed, low aerodynamic blade loading, and long axial spacing between the rotor and stator blade rows. The fan was operated with five exhaust nozzle areas. The stage noise levels generally increased with a decrease in nozzle area. Separation of the acoustic one-third octave results into broadband and pure-tone components showed the broadband noise to be greater than the corresponding pure-tone components. The sideline perceived noise was highest in the rear quadrants. The acoustic results of QF-8 were compared with those of two similar STOL application fans in the test series. The QF-8 had somewhat higher relative noise levels than those of the other two fans. The aerodynamic results of QF-8 and the other two fans were compared with corresponding results from 50.8-cm (20-in.) diam scale models of these fans and design values. Although the results for the full-scale and scale models of the other two fans were in reasonable agreement for each design, the full-scale fan QF-8 results showed poor performance compared with corresponding model results and design expectations. Facility effects of the full-scale fan QF-8 installation were considered in analyzing this discrepancy.

  17. Acoustic testing of a 1.5 pressure ratio low tip speed fan with casing tip bleed (QEP Fan B scale model)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazin, S. B.; Minzner, W. R.; Paas, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    A scale model of the bypass flow region of a 1.5 pressure ratio, single stage, low tip speed fan was tested with a rotor tip casing bleed slot to determine its effects on noise generation. The bleed slot was located 1/2 inch (1.3 cm) upstream of the rotor leading edge and was configured to be a continuous opening around the circumference. The bleed manifold system was operated over a range of bleed rates corresponding to as much as 6% of the fan flow at approach thrust and 4.25% of the fan flow at takeoff thrust. Acoustic results indicate that a bleed rate of 4% of the fan flow reduces the fan maximum approach 200 foot (61.0 m) sideline PNL 0.5 PNdB and the corresponding takeoff thrust noise 1.1 PNdB below the level with zero bleed. However, comparison of the standard casing (no bleed slot) and the slotted bleed casing with zero bleed shows that the bleed slot itself caused a noise increase.

  18. Acoustic testing of a 1.5 pressure ratio low tip speed fan with a serrated rotor (QEP fan B scale model). [reduction of engine noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazin, S. B.; Paas, J. E.; Minzner, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    A scale model of the bypass flow region of a 1.5 pressure ratio, single stage, low tip speed fan was tested with a serrated rotor leading edge to determine its effects on noise generation. The serrated rotor was produced by cutting teeth into the leading edge of the nominal rotor blades. The effects of speed and exhaust nozzle area on the scale models noise characteristics were investigated with both the nominal rotor and serrated rotor. Acoustic results indicate the serrations reduced front quadrant PNL's at takeoff power. In particular, the 200 foot (61.0 m) sideline noise was reduced from 3 to 4 PNdb at 40 deg for nominal and large nozzle operation. However, the rear quadrant maximum sideline PNL's were increased 1.5 to 3 PNdb at approach thust and up to 2 PNdb at takeoff thust with these serrated rotor blades. The configuration with the serrated rotor produced the lowest maximum 200 foot (61.0 m) sideline PNL for any given thust when the large nozzle (116% of design area) was employed.

  19. A distance estimate to the Cygnus Loop based on the distances to two stars located within the remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesen, Robert A.; Neustadt, Jack M. M.; Black, Christine S.; Milisavljevic, Dan

    2018-04-01

    Underlying nearly every quantitative discussion of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant is uncertainty about its distance. Here, we present optical images and spectra of nebulosities around two stars whose mass-loss material appears to have interacted with the remnant's expanding shock front and thus can be used to estimate the Cygnus Loop's distance. Narrow passband images reveal a small emission-line nebula surrounding an M4 red giant near the remnant's eastern nebula NGC 6992. Optical spectra of the nebula show it to be shock-heated with significantly higher electron densities than seen in the remnant's filaments. This along with a bow-shaped morphology suggests it is likely red giant mass-loss material shocked and accelerated by passage of the Cygnus Loop's blast wave. We also identify a B7 V star located along the remnant's northwestern limb, which also appears to have interacted with the remnant's shock wave. It lies within a small arc of nebulosity in an unusually complex region of curved and distorted filaments along the remnant's northern shock front suggestive of a localized disturbance of the shock front due to the B star's stellar winds. Based on the assumption that these two stars lie inside the remnant, combined with an estimated distance to a molecular cloud situated along the remnant's western limb, we propose a distance to the Cygnus Loop of 1.0 ± 0.2 kpc. Although larger than several recent estimates of 500-800 pc, a distance ≃1 kpc helps resolve difficulties with the remnant's postshock cosmic ray and gas pressure ratio and estimated supernova explosion energy.

  20. Performance of a 1.15-pressure-ratio axial-flow fan stage with a blade tip solidity of 0.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborn, W. M.; Steinke, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The overall and blade-element performance of a low-solidity, low-pressure-ratio, low-tip-speed fan stage is presented over the stable operating range at rotative speeds from 90 to 120 percent of design speed. At design speed a stage peak efficiency of 0.836 was obtained at a weight flow of 30.27 kilograms per second and a pressure ratio of 1.111. The pressure ratio was less than design pressure ratio, and the design energy input into the rotor was not achieved. A mismatch of the rotor and stator blade elements resulted due to the lower than design pressure ratio of the rotor.

  1. The Cygnus Loop: An Older Supernova Remnant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straka, William

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Cygnus Loop, one of brightest and most easily studied of the older "remnant nebulae" of supernova outbursts. Discusses some of the historical events surrounding the discovery and measurement of the Cygnus Loop and makes some projections on its future. (TW)

  2. Galactic supernova remnant candidates discovered by THOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, L. D.; Wang, Y.; Bihr, S.; Rugel, M.; Beuther, H.; Bigiel, F.; Churchwell, E.; Glover, S. C. O.; Goodman, A. A.; Henning, Th.; Heyer, M.; Klessen, R. S.; Linz, H.; Longmore, S. N.; Menten, K. M.; Ott, J.; Roy, N.; Soler, J. D.; Stil, J. M.; Urquhart, J. S.

    2017-09-01

    Context. There is a considerable deficiency in the number of known supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Galaxy compared to that expected. This deficiency is thought to be caused by a lack of sensitive radio continuum data. Searches for extended low-surface brightness radio sources may find new Galactic SNRs, but confusion with the much larger population of H II regions makes identifying such features challenging. SNRs can, however, be separated from H II regions using their significantly lower mid-infrared (MIR) to radio continuum intensity ratios. Aims: Our goal is to find missing SNR candidates in the Galactic disk by locating extended radio continuum sources that lack MIR counterparts. Methods: We use the combination of high-resolution 1-2 GHz continuum data from The HI, OH, Recombination line survey of the Milky Way (THOR) and lower-resolution VLA 1.4 GHz Galactic Plane Survey (VGPS) continuum data, together with MIR data from the Spitzer GLIMPSE, Spitzer MIPSGAL, and WISE surveys to identify SNR candidates. To ensure that the candidates are not being confused with H II regions, we exclude radio continuum sources from the WISE Catalog of Galactic H II Regions, which contains all known and candidate H II regions in the Galaxy. Results: We locate 76 new Galactic SNR candidates in the THOR and VGPS combined survey area of 67.4° > ℓ > 17.5°, | b | ≤ 1.25° and measure the radio flux density for 52 previously-known SNRs. The candidate SNRs have a similar spatial distribution to the known SNRs, although we note a large number of new candidates near ℓ ≃ 30°, the tangent point of the Scutum spiral arm. The candidates are on average smaller in angle compared to the known regions, 6.4' ± 4.7' versus 11.0' ± 7.8', and have lower integrated flux densities. Conclusions: The THOR survey shows that sensitive radio continuum data can discover a large number of SNR candidates, and that these candidates can be efficiently identified using the combination of radio and

  3. Geonic black holes and remnants in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity.

    PubMed

    Olmo, Gonzalo J; Rubiera-Garcia, D; Sanchis-Alepuz, Helios

    We show that electrically charged solutions within the Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld theory of gravity replace the central singularity by a wormhole supported by the electric field. As a result, the total energy associated with the electric field is finite and similar to that found in the Born-Infeld electromagnetic theory. When a certain charge-to-mass ratio is satisfied, in the lowest part of the mass and charge spectrum the event horizon disappears, yielding stable remnants. We argue that quantum effects in the matter sector can lower the mass of these remnants from the Planck scale down to the TeV scale.

  4. Performance of a 1.57 pressure-ratio transonic fan stage with a screen-induced 90 deg circumferential inlet flow distortion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanger, N. L.

    1976-01-01

    A transonic fan stage having a design pressure ratio of 1.57 was tested with a 90 degree circumferential distortion imposed on the inlet flow. The rotor diameter was approximately 50.8 cm, and the design pressure ratio was 1.60 at a tip speed of 425 m/sec. Overall performance at 70 and 100 percent of design speed showed a loss of stall pressure ratio and flow range at design speed and no significant loss in stall pressure ratio at 70 percent of design speed. Detailed flow measurements are presented to show the rotor-upstream flow interactions and the attenuation and amplification properties through the stage.

  5. Imagery and spectroscopy of supernova remnants and H-2 regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufour, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Research activities relating to supernova remnants were summarized. The topics reviewed include: progenitor stars of supernova remnants, UV/optical/radio/X-ray imagery of selected regions in the Cygnus Loop, UV/optical spectroscopy of the Cygnus Loop spur, and extragalactic supernova remnant spectra.

  6. Shocks in Dense Clouds in the Vela Supernova Remnant: FUSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, Joy; Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have obtained 8 LWRS FUSE spectra to study a recently identified interaction of the Vela supernova remnant with a dense cloud region along its western edge. The goal is to quantify the temperature, ionization, density, and abundance characteristics associated with this shock/dense cloud interface by means of UV absorption line studies. Our detection of high-velocity absorption line C I at +90 to +130 km/s with IUE toward a narrow region interior to the Vela SNR strongly suggests the Vela supernova remnant is interacting with a dense ISM or molecular cloud. The shock/dense cloud interface is suggested by (1) the rarity of detection of high-velocity C I seen in IUE spectra, (2) its very limited spatial distribution in the remnant, and (3) a marked decrease in X-ray emission in the region immediately west of the position of these stars where one also finds a 100 micron emission ridge in IRAS images. We have investigated the shock physics and general properties of this interaction region through a focussed UV absorption line study using FUSE spectra. We have FUSE data on OVI absorption lines observed toward 8 stars behind the Vela supernova remnant (SNR). We compare the OVI observations with IUE observations of CIV absorption toward the same stars. Most of the stars, which are all B stars, have complex continua making the extraction of absorption lines difficult. Three of the stars, HD 72088, HD 72089 and HD 72350, however, are rapid rotators (v sin i less than 100 km/s) making the derivation of absorption column densities much easier. We have measured OVI and CIV column densities for the "main component" (i.e. the low velocity component) for these stars. In addition, by removing the H2 line at 1032.35A (121.6 km/s relative to OVI), we find high velocity components of OVI at approximately 150 km/s that we attribute to the shock in the Vela SNR. The column density ratios and magnitudes are compared to both steady shock models and results of hydrodynamical SNR

  7. Reproducibility over a 1-month period of 1H-MR spectroscopic imaging NAA/Cr ratios in clinically stable multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Mostert, J P; Blaauw, Y; Koch, M W; Kuiper, A J; Hoogduin, J M; De Keyser, J

    2008-08-01

    N-acetylaspartate/creatine (NAA/Cr) ratios, assessed with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, are increasingly used as a surrogate marker for axonal dysfunction and degeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS). The purpose of this study was to test short-time reproducibility of NAA/Cr ratios in patients with clinically stable MS. In 35 MS patients we analysed NAA/Cr ratios obtained with (1)H-MR spectroscopic imaging at the centrum semiovale either with lateral ventricles partially included (group 1; n=15) or more cranially with no ventricles included (group 2; n=20). To test short-term reproducibility of the NAA/Cr measurements, patients were scanned twice 4 weeks apart. We determined mean NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios of 12 grey matter and 24 white matter voxels. Mean NAA/Cr ratios of both the white and grey matter did not change after 4 weeks. Overall 4-week reproducibility of the NAA/Cr ratio, expressed as coefficient of variation, was 4.8% for grey matter and 3.5% for white matter. Reproducibility of cranial scanning of the ventricles was slightly better than with cerebrospinal fluid included. Our study shows good short-term reproducibility of NAA/Cr ratio measurements in the centrum semiovale, which supports the reliability of this technique for longitudinal studies.

  8. The structure of common-envelope remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Philip D.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the structure and evolution of the remnants of common-envelope evolution in binary star systems. In a common-envelope phase, two stars become engulfed in a gaseous envelope and, under the influence of drag forces, spiral to smaller separations. They may merge to form a single star or the envelope may be ejected to leave the stars in a shorter period orbit. This process explains the short orbital periods of many observed binary systems, such as cataclysmic variables and low-mass X-ray binary systems. Despite the importance of these systems, and of common-envelope evolution to their formation, it remains poorly understood. Specifically, we are unable to confidently predict the outcome of a common-envelope phase from the properties at its onset. After presenting a review of work on stellar evolution, binary systems, common-envelope evolution and the computer programs used, we describe the results of three computational projects on common-envelope evolution. Our work specifically relates to the methods and prescriptions which are used for predicting the outcome. We use the Cambridge stellar-evolution code STARS to produce detailed models of the structure and evolution of remnants of common-envelope evolution. We compare different assumptions about the uncertain end-of-common envelope structure and envelope mass of remnants which successfully eject their common envelopes. In the first project, we use detailed remnant models to investigate whether planetary nebulae are predicted after common-envelope phases initiated by low-mass red giants. We focus on the requirement that a remnant evolves rapidly enough to photoionize the nebula and compare the predictions for different ideas about the structure at the end of a common-envelope phase. We find that planetary nebulae are possible for some prescriptions for the end-of-common envelope structure. In our second contribution, we compute a large set of single-star models and fit new formulae to the core radii of

  9. Improved optical spectrophotometry of supernova remnants in M33

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, W. P.; Kirshner, R. P.

    1985-01-01

    Optical spectra of SNRs in M33 have been used to investigate abundance gradients and SNR evolution in this galaxy. Abundances of O, N, and S are derived from the spectra using new shock models by Dopita et al. (1984). The results for N and S show abundance gradients similar to those in NGC 300 and the Galaxy. The O abundances may be affected by possible contamination from H II regions and low-velocity shocks. Electron densities derived from the forbidden S II 6717 A/6731 A line ratio are used with a pressure equilibrium argument to estimate the initial explosion energy for each SNR. Evolutionary models for the remnants are investigated, and the distribution of the number of remnants with diameter is found to be consistent with free expansion of the SNRs to diameters of about 26 pc. The results may also be consistent with Sedov evolution if the ranges of initial supernova energies and surrounding interstellar medium densities are large enough.

  10. Substitution of Liothyronine at a 1:5 Ratio for a Portion of Levothyroxine: Effect on Fatigue, Symptoms of Depression, and Working Memory Versus Treatment with Levothyroxine Alone

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Tom; Lavis, Victor R.; Meininger, Janet Ck.; Kapadia, Asha S.; Stafford, Linda F.

    2006-01-01

    Background This study was planned at a time when important questions were being raised about the adequacy of using one hormone to treat hypothyroidism instead of two. Methods This trial attempted to replicate prior findings which suggested that substituting 12.5 μg of liothyronine for 50 μg of levothyroxine might improve mood, cognition, and physical symptoms in patients with primary hypothyroidism. Additionally, this trial aimed to extend the above findings to fatigue and to assess for differential effects in subjects with low and high fatigue at baseline. A randomized, double-blind, two-period, crossover design was used. Thirty subjects stabilized on levothyroxine (L-T4) at an endocrinology and diabetes clinic were recruited. Sequence one received their standard L-T4 dose in one capsule and placebo in another. Sequence two received their usual L-T4 dose minus 50 μg in one capsule and 10 μg of liothyronine (L-T3) in the other. At the end of the first six weeks, subjects were crossed over. T tests were used to assess carry-over and treatment effects. Results Twenty-seven subjects completed the trial. Mean L-T4 dose was 121 μg/d (± 26.0) at baseline. There were no significant differences in fatigue and symptoms of depression between treatments. Measures of working memory were unchanged. While on substitution treatment, free thyroxine index was reduced by 0.7 (p<0.001), total serum thyroxine was reduced by 3.0 μg/dl (p<0.001), and total serum triiodothyronine was increased by 20.5 ng/dl (p=0.004). Conclusions With regard to the outcomes measured, substitution of L-T3 at a 1:5 ratio for a portion of baseline L-T4 was no better than treatment with the original dose of L-T4 alone. PMID:16006298

  11. New Candidate Supernova Remnants in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, P. F.; Lewinter, R.

    1992-12-01

    We have surveyed six 30(') times 30(') fields in the Small Magellanic Cloud, using the Curtis Schmidt telescope at CTIO with a Thomson CCD, to search for previously undetected supernova remnants (SNRs). Narrow-band images are obtained in lines of [S II] (lambda lambda \\ 6716,31), Hα , and a nearby continuum band. The ratio of [S II]/Hα \\ emission discriminates well between shock-heated material charcteristic of SNRs and photo-ionized material such as H II regions. This technique has proved highly effective in surveys of other galaxies (e.g. Long et al., Ap J Supp, 72, 61). Deep emission-line images and a continuum band closely matched in wavelength enable us to subtract virtually the entire stellar contribution and thus achieve high sensitivity to faint, diffuse emission. We have identified 13 objects, all of which have [S II]/Hα \\ ratios > 0.4\\ and a full or partial shell-like morphology, making them extremely strong SNR candidates. Several other diffuse objects have high [S II]/Hα \\ ratios, and many of these may also be SNRs. Compared with the 12 previously known remnants of Mathewson et al., (Ap J Supp 51, 345; 55, 189), the new candidates are generally larger and have lower surface brightness. An investigation of the cumulative number vs diameter relation for our larger sample indicates a slope significantly steeper than the value near unity originally found by Mathewson et al., and is more consistent with standard models for SNR evolution. Selection effects may well have led to an excess of small, bright objects in the earlier samples. This work was supported in part by NSF grant AST-9114935 and by the W.M. Keck Foundation through the Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium.

  12. Structure of merger remnants. I - Bulgeless progenitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernquist, Lars

    1992-01-01

    The study examines mergers of identical galaxies consisting of self-gravitating disks and halos in the context of the suggestion that such events may form elliptical galaxies. It is shown that the luminous remnants of such mergers do indeed share many common properties with observed ellipticals. Specifically, the end states of the simulations considered rotate slowly in regions of relatively high surface density, having typical values of less than about 0.2 there. Morphologically, the remnants display a variety of structures, including shells and loops comprising loosely bound material and boxy and disky isophotes. The luminous matter is well-fitted by ellipsoidal generalizations of Hernquists's (1990, 1992) model for elliptical galaxies, implying that the surface brightness profiles are essentially de Vaucouleurs-like over a large radial interval. It is proposed that mergers of pure stellar disks do not represent an attractive mechanism for the production of massive elliptical galaxies.

  13. Explosive Remnants of War in Stability Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    strategic partner capacity building, global ERW and Counter-IED (C-IED) efforts, while adhering to global Mine /UXO awareness efforts. 15. NUMBER OF...PAGES 139 14. SUBJECT TERMS Explosive Remnants of War—Collection Point (ERW - CP), Landmine, Anti- Personnel Mine , Mine Action, Cluster Munitions...strategic partner capacity building, global ERW and Counter- IED (C-IED) efforts, while adhering to global Mine /UXO awareness efforts. vi THIS PAGE

  14. Neutron Star/supernova Remnant Associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    We propose a new approach for studying the neutron star/supernova remnant associations, based on the idea that the (diffuse) supernova remnants (SNRs) can be products of an off-centred supernova (SN) explosion in a preexisting bubble created by the wind of a moving massive star. A cavity SN explosion of a moving star results in a considerable offset of the neutron star (NS) birth-place from the geometrical centre of the SNR. Therefore: a) the high transverse velocities inferred for a number of NSs (e.g. PSR B 1610-50, PSR B 1757-24, SGR 0525-66) through their association with SNRs can be reduced; b) the proper motion vector of a NS should not necessarily point away from the geometrical centre of the associated SNR. Taking into account of these two facts allow us to enlarge the circle of possible NS/SNR associations, and could significantly affect the results of previous studies of NS/SNR associations. The possibilities of our approach are illustrated with the example of the association between PSR B 1706-44 and SNR G 343.1-2.3. We show that this association could be real if both objects are the remnants of a SN exploded within a mushroom-like cavity (created by the SN progenitor wind breaking out of the parent molecular cloud and expanding into an intercloud medium of a much less density). We also show that the SN explosion sites in some middle-aged (shell-like) SNRs could be marked by (compact) nebulae of thermal X-ray emission. The possible detection of such nebulae within middle-aged SNRs could be used for the re-estimation of implied transverse velocities of known NSs or for the search of new stellar remnants possibly associated with these SNRs.

  15. Subpubic sinus: a remnant of cloaca.

    PubMed

    Chou, T D; Chu, C C; Diau, G Y; Chiang, J H

    1995-05-01

    A 14-month-old girl had purulent discharge from a sinus over the subpubic region for 2 weeks. Radiography and voiding cystourethrography revealed a 4.5 cm. long fistula extending to the retropubic region without any connection to the lower urinary tract. The fistula was excised. Histological findings revealed that the fistula had 3 different types of epithelium: stratified squamous, transitional and columnar. Clinical and pathological findings indicated that the sinus was most likely a remnant of the cloaca.

  16. Supernova remnants in the GC region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asvarov, Abdul

    2016-07-01

    Along with the central Black hole the processes of active star formation play very important role in the energetics of the Galactic center region. The SNe and their remnants (SNRs) are the main ingredients of the processes of star formation. SNRs are also the sources of electromagnetic radiation of all wavelengths from the optical to hard gamma rays. In the presented work we consider the physics of supernova remnants evolving in extreme environmental conditions which are typical for the region of the Galactic center. Because of the high density and strong inhomogeneity of the surrounding medium these objects remain practically invisible at almost all wavelengths. We model evolution of SNR taking into account the pressure of the surrounding medium and the gravitational field of the matter (stars, compact clouds, dark matter) inside the remnant. As it is well established, considerable portion of the kinetic energy of the SNR can be converted into the cosmic ray particles by diffusive shock acceleration mechanism. Therefore the effect of particle acceleration is also included in the model (with the effectiveness of acceleration as a free parameter). Using the observed radiation fluxes at different wavelengths we attempt to obtain limits on the parameters of the model of the Galactic Center, namely, the frequency of star birth, the average density of the matter and radiation field, etc.

  17. The first Fermi LAT supernova remnant catalog

    DOE PAGES

    Acero, F.

    2016-05-16

    To uniformly determine the properties of supernova remnants (SNRs) at high energies, we have developed the first systematic survey at energies from 1 to 100 GeV using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Based on the spatial overlap of sources detected at GeV energies with SNRs known from radio surveys, we classify 30 sources as likely GeV SNRs. We also report 14 marginal associations and 245 flux upper limits. A mock catalog in which the positions of known remnants are scrambled in Galactic longitude, allows us to determine an upper limit of 22% on the number of GeV candidatesmore » falsely identified as SNRs. We have also developed a method to estimate spectral and spatial systematic errors arising from the diffuse interstellar emission model, a key component of all Galactic Fermi LAT analyses. By studying remnants uniformly in aggregate, we measure the GeV properties common to these objects and provide a crucial context for the detailed modeling of individual SNRs. Combining our GeV results with multiwavelength (MW) data, including radio, X-ray, and TeV, demonstrates the need for improvements to previously sufficient, simple models describing the GeV and radio emission from these objects. As a result, we model the GeV and MW emission from SNRs in aggregate to constrain their maximal contribution to observed Galactic cosmic rays.« less

  18. THE FIRST FERMI LAT SUPERNOVA REMNANT CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Acero, F.; Ballet, J.; Ackermann, M.

    2016-05-01

    To uniformly determine the properties of supernova remnants (SNRs) at high energies, we have developed the first systematic survey at energies from 1 to 100 GeV using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Based on the spatial overlap of sources detected at GeV energies with SNRs known from radio surveys, we classify 30 sources as likely GeV SNRs. We also report 14 marginal associations and 245 flux upper limits. A mock catalog in which the positions of known remnants are scrambled in Galactic longitude allows us to determine an upper limit of 22% on the number of GeV candidates falsely identifiedmore » as SNRs. We have also developed a method to estimate spectral and spatial systematic errors arising from the diffuse interstellar emission model, a key component of all Galactic Fermi LAT analyses. By studying remnants uniformly in aggregate, we measure the GeV properties common to these objects and provide a crucial context for the detailed modeling of individual SNRs. Combining our GeV results with multiwavelength (MW) data, including radio, X-ray, and TeV, we demonstrate the need for improvements to previously sufficient, simple models describing the GeV and radio emission from these objects. We model the GeV and MW emission from SNRs in aggregate to constrain their maximal contribution to observed Galactic cosmic rays.« less

  19. Shocked Clouds in the Vela Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, Joy S.; Slavin, Jonathan D.

    2004-01-01

    Unusually strong high-excitation C I has been detected in eleven lines of sight through the Vela supernova remnant by means of UV absorption-line studies of IUE data. Most of these lines of sight lie near the western edge of the X-ray bright region of the supernova remnant in a spatially distinct band approximately 1deg by 4deg oriented approximately north/south. The high-excitation C I (denoted C I*) is interpreted as evidence of a complex of shocked dense clouds inside the supernova remnant, due to the high pressures indicated in this region. To further analyze the properties of this region of C I*, we present new HIRES-processed IRAS data of the entire Vela SNR. A temperature map calculated from the HIRES IRAS data, based on a two-component dust model, reveals the signature of hot dust at several locations in the SNR. The hot dust is anti-correlated spatially with X-ray emission as revealed by ROSAT, as would be expected for a dusty medium interacting with a shock wave. The regions of hot dust are strongly correlated with optical filaments, supporting a scenario of dense clouds interior to the SNR that have been shocked and are now cooling behind the supernova blast wave. With few exceptions, the lines of sight to the strong C I* pass through regions of hot dust and optical filaments. Possible mechanisms for the production of the anomalously large columns of C I and C I* are discussed. Dense clouds on the back western hemisphere of the remnant may explain the relatively low X-ray emission in the western portion of the Vela supernova remnant due to the slower forward shock velocity in regions where the shock has encountered the dense clouds. An alternate explanation for the presence of neutral, excited state, and ionized species along the same line of sight may be a magnetic precusor that heats and compresses the gas ahead of the shock.

  20. Effects of reset stators and a rotating, grooved stator hub on performance of a 1.92-pressure-ratio compressor stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, G. W., Jr.; Urasek, D. C.; Reid, L.

    1977-01-01

    The overall performance and blade-element performance of a transonic fan stage are presented for two modified test configurations and are compared with the unmodified stage. Tests were conducted with reset stators 2 deg open and reset stators with a rotating grooved stator hub. Detailed radial and circumferential (behind stator) surveys of the flow conditions were made over the stable operating range at rotative speeds of 70, 90, and 100 percent of design speed. Reset stator blade tests indicated a small increase in stage efficiency, pressure ratio, and maximum weight flow at each speed. Performance with reset stators and a rotating, grooved stator hub resulted in an additional increase in stage efficiency and pressure ratio at all speeds. The rotating grooved stator hub reduced hub losses considerably.

  1. Evaluation of glycated albumin (GA) and GA/HbA1c ratio for diagnosis of diabetes and glycemic control: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Yazdanpanah, Sara; Rabiee, Mohammad; Tahriri, Mohammadreza; Abdolrahim, Mojgan; Rajab, Asadollah; Jazayeri, Hossein E; Tayebi, Lobat

    2017-06-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by chronic high blood glucose concentrations (hyperglycemia). When it is left untreated or improperly managed, it can lead to acute complications including diabetic ketoacidosis and non-ketotic hyperosmolar coma. In addition, possible long-term complications include impotence, nerve damage, stroke, chronic kidney failure, cardiovascular disease, foot ulcers, and retinopathy. Historically, universal methods to measure glycemic control for the diagnosis of diabetes included fasting plasma glucose level (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose (2HP), and random plasma glucose. However, these measurements did not provide information about glycemic control over a long period of time. To address this problem, there has been a switch in the past decade to diagnosing diabetes and its severity through measurement of blood glycated proteins such as Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and glycated albumin (GA). Diagnosis and evaluation of diabetes using glycated proteins has many advantages including high accuracy of glycemic control over a period of time. Currently, common laboratory methods used to measure glycated proteins are high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), immunoassay, and electrophoresis. HbA1c is one of the most important diagnostic factors for diabetes. However, some reports indicate that HbA1c is not a suitable marker to determine glycemic control in all diabetic patients. GA, which is not influenced by changes in the lifespan of erythrocytes, is thought to be a good alternative indicator of glycemic control in diabetic patients. Here, we review the literature that has investigated the suitability of HbA1c, GA and GA:HbA1c as indicators of long-term glycemic control and demonstrate the importance of selecting the appropriate glycated protein based on the patient's health status in order to provide useful and modern point-of-care monitoring and treatment.

  2. Runaway companions of supernova remnants with Gaia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boubert, Douglas; Fraser, Morgan; Evans, N. Wyn

    2018-04-01

    It is expected that most massive stars have companions and thus that some core-collapse supernovae should have a runaway companion. The precise astrometry and photometry provided by Gaia allows for the systematic discovery of these runaway companions. We combine a prior on the properties of runaway stars from binary evolution with data from TGAS and APASS to search for runaway stars within ten nearby supernova remnants. We strongly confirm the existing candidate HD 37424 in S147, propose the Be star BD+50 3188 to be associated with HB 21, and suggest tentative candidates for the Cygnus and Monoceros Loops.

  3. Does the tibial remnant of the anterior cruciate ligament promote ligamentization?

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Ill; Kim, Byoung Min; Kho, Duk Hwan; Kwon, Sai Won; Kim, Hyeung June; Hwang, Hyun Ryong

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the difference in ligamentization between the remnant-preserving (RP) and remnant-sacrificing (RS) techniques in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A retrospective comparative study was carried out on 98 patients undergoing ACL reconstruction using either an RP (n=56) or RS (n=42) technique. MRI was performed at one of four time points postoperatively, and the signal intensity of the ACL graft was analyzed using the signal to noise quotient (SNQ) ratio and inter-bundle high signal intensity, along with an analysis of the survival rate of remnant tissue. The mean SNQ ratio of grafted tendons in the RP group was significantly higher than that seen in the RS group in the proximal and middle regions two to four months after surgery (P<0.05) and was significantly lower than that seen in the RS group in all regions at 12 -18months (P<0.05). The inter-bundle high signal intensity was observed more frequently in the RP group (73.7%) at two to four months. Tibial remnants were observed on postoperative MRI regardless of when MRI was conducted. The ACL graft of the RP group showed higher signal intensity in the early stage and lower signal intensity in the late stage compared to that of the RS group. The ligamentization of grafts in the RP group proceeded more quickly. Preserving the remnant in ACL reconstruction appears to have a positive effect on ligamentization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. ASCA observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud supernova remnant sample: Typing supernovae from their remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, John P.; Hayashi, Ichizo; Helfand, David; Hwang, Una; Itoh, Masayuki; Kirshner, Robert; Koyama, Katsuji; Markert, Thomas; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Woo, Jonathan

    1995-01-01

    We present our first results from a study of the supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using data from ASCA. The three remnants we have analyzed to date, 0509-67.5, 0519-69.0, and N103B, are among the smallest, and presumably also the youngest, in the Cloud. The X-ray spectra of these SNRs show strong K alpha emission lines of silicon, sulfur, argon, and calcium with no evidence for corresponding lines of oxygen, neon, or magnesium. The dominant feature in the spectra is a broad blend of emission lines around 1 keV which we attribute to L-shell emission lines of iron. Model calculations (Nomoto, Thielemann, & Yokoi 1984) show that the major products of nucleosynthesis in Type Ia supernovae (SNs) are the elements from silicon to iron, as observed here. The calculated nucleosynthetic yields from Type Ib and II SNs are shown to be qualitatively inconsistent with the data. We conclude that the SNs which produced these remnants were of Type Ia. This finding also confirms earlier suggestions that the class of Balmer-dominated remnants arise from Type Ia SN explosions. Based on these early results from the LMC SNR sample, we find that roughly one-half of the SNRs produced in the LMC within the last approximately 1500 yr came from Type Ia SNs.

  5. Overall and blade element performance of a 1.20-pressure-ratio fan stage with rotor blades reset -5 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, G. W., Jr.; Osborn, W. M.; Moore, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    A 51-cm-diam model of a fan stage for a short haul aircraft was tested in a single stage-compressor research facility. The rotor blades were set 5 deg toward the axial direction (opened) from design setting angle. Surveys of the air flow conditions ahead of the rotor, between the rotor and stator, and behind the stator were made over the stable operating range of the stage. At the design speed of 213.3 m/sec and a weight flow of 31.5 kg/sec, the stage pressure ratio and efficiency were 1.195 and 0.88, respectively. The design speed rotor peak efficiency of 0.91 occurred at the same flow rate.

  6. HTR-PROTEUS Pebble Bed Experimental Program Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3: Hexagonal Close Packing with a 1:2 Moderator-to-Fuel Pebble Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Barbara H. Dolphin; James W. Sterbentz

    2013-03-01

    In its deployment as a pebble bed reactor (PBR) critical facility from 1992 to 1996, the PROTEUS facility was designated as HTR-PROTEUS. This experimental program was performed as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for Low Enriched HTGRs. Within this project, critical experiments were conducted for graphite moderated LEU systems to determine core reactivity, flux and power profiles, reaction-rate ratios, the worth of control rods, both in-core and reflector based, the worth of burnable poisons, kinetic parameters, and the effects of moisture ingress on these parameters.more » Four benchmark experiments were evaluated in this report: Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3. These core configurations represent the hexagonal close packing (HCP) configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS experiment with a moderator-to-fuel pebble ratio of 1:2. Core 1 represents the only configuration utilizing ZEBRA control rods. Cores 1A, 2, and 3 use withdrawable, hollow, stainless steel control rods. Cores 1 and 1A are similar except for the use of different control rods; Core 1A also has one less layer of pebbles (21 layers instead of 22). Core 2 retains the first 16 layers of pebbles from Cores 1 and 1A and has 16 layers of moderator pebbles stacked above the fueled layers. Core 3 retains the first 17 layers of pebbles but has polyethylene rods inserted between pebbles to simulate water ingress. The additional partial pebble layer (layer 18) for Core 3 was not included as it was used for core operations and not the reported critical configuration. Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3 were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments.« less

  7. HTR-PROTEUS Pebble Bed Experimental Program Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3: Hexagonal Close Packing with a 1:2 Moderator-to-Fuel Pebble Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Barbara H. Dolphin; James W. Sterbentz

    2012-03-01

    In its deployment as a pebble bed reactor (PBR) critical facility from 1992 to 1996, the PROTEUS facility was designated as HTR-PROTEUS. This experimental program was performed as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for Low Enriched HTGRs. Within this project, critical experiments were conducted for graphite moderated LEU systems to determine core reactivity, flux and power profiles, reaction-rate ratios, the worth of control rods, both in-core and reflector based, the worth of burnable poisons, kinetic parameters, and the effects of moisture ingress on these parameters.more » Four benchmark experiments were evaluated in this report: Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3. These core configurations represent the hexagonal close packing (HCP) configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS experiment with a moderator-to-fuel pebble ratio of 1:2. Core 1 represents the only configuration utilizing ZEBRA control rods. Cores 1A, 2, and 3 use withdrawable, hollow, stainless steel control rods. Cores 1 and 1A are similar except for the use of different control rods; Core 1A also has one less layer of pebbles (21 layers instead of 22). Core 2 retains the first 16 layers of pebbles from Cores 1 and 1A and has 16 layers of moderator pebbles stacked above the fueled layers. Core 3 retains the first 17 layers of pebbles but has polyethylene rods inserted between pebbles to simulate water ingress. The additional partial pebble layer (layer 18) for Core 3 was not included as it was used for core operations and not the reported critical configuration. Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3 were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments.« less

  8. Color Composite Image of the Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image is a color composite of the supernova remnant E0102-72: x-ray (blue), optical (green), and radio (red). E0102-72 is the remnant of a star that exploded in a nearby galaxy known as the Small Magellanic Cloud. The star exploded outward at speeds in excess of 20 million kilometers per hour (12 million mph) and collided with surrounding gas. This collision produced two shock waves, or cosmic sonic booms, one traveling outward, and the other rebounding back into the material ejected by the explosion. The radio image, shown in red, was made using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The radio waves are due to extremely high-energy electrons spiraling around magnetic field lines in the gas and trace the outward moving shock wave. The Chandra X-ray Observatory image, shown in blue, shows gas that has been heated to millions of degrees by the rebounding, or reverse shock wave. The x-ray data show that this gas is rich in oxygen and neon. These elements were created by nuclear reactions inside the star and hurled into space by the supernova. The Hubble Space Telescope optical image, shown in green, shows dense clumps of oxygen gas that have 'cooled' to about 30,000 degrees. Photo Credit: X-ray (NASA/CXC/SAO); optical (NASA/HST): radio: (ACTA)

  9. HTR-PROTEUS PEBBLE BED EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM CORE 4: RANDOM PACKING WITH A 1:1 MODERATOR-TO-FUEL PEBBLE RATIO

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Leland M. Montierth

    2013-03-01

    In its deployment as a pebble bed reactor (PBR) critical facility from 1992 to 1996, the PROTEUS facility was designated as HTR-PROTEUS. This experimental program was performed as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for Low Enriched HTGRs. Within this project, critical experiments were conducted for graphite moderated LEU systems to determine core reactivity, flux and power profiles, reaction-rate ratios, the worth of control rods, both in-core and reflector based, the worth of burnable poisons, kinetic parameters, and the effects of moisture ingress on these parameters.more » One benchmark experiment was evaluated in this report: Core 4. Core 4 represents the only configuration with random pebble packing in the HTR-PROTEUS series of experiments, and has a moderator-to-fuel pebble ratio of 1:1. Three random configurations were performed. The initial configuration, Core 4.1, was rejected because the method for pebble loading, separate delivery tubes for the moderator and fuel pebbles, may not have been completely random; this core loading was rejected by the experimenters. Cores 4.2 and 4.3 were loaded using a single delivery tube, eliminating the possibility for systematic ordering effects. The second and third cores differed slightly in the quantity of pebbles loaded (40 each of moderator and fuel pebbles), stacked height of the pebbles in the core cavity (0.02 m), withdrawn distance of the stainless steel control rods (20 mm), and withdrawn distance of the autorod (30 mm). The 34 coolant channels in the upper axial reflector and the 33 coolant channels in the lower axial reflector were open. Additionally, the axial graphite fillers used in all other HTR-PROTEUS configurations to create a 12-sided core cavity were not used in the randomly packed cores. Instead, graphite fillers were placed on the cavity floor, creating a funnel-like base, to discourage

  10. HTR-proteus pebble bed experimental program core 4: random packing with a 1:1 moderator-to-fuel pebble ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Bess, John D.; Montierth, Leland M.; Sterbentz, James W.

    2014-03-01

    In its deployment as a pebble bed reactor (PBR) critical facility from 1992 to 1996, the PROTEUS facility was designated as HTR-PROTEUS. This experimental program was performed as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for Low Enriched HTGRs. Within this project, critical experiments were conducted for graphite moderated LEU systems to determine core reactivity, flux and power profiles, reaction-rate ratios, the worth of control rods, both in-core and reflector based, the worth of burnable poisons, kinetic parameters, and the effects of moisture ingress on these parameters.more » One benchmark experiment was evaluated in this report: Core 4. Core 4 represents the only configuration with random pebble packing in the HTR-PROTEUS series of experiments, and has a moderator-to-fuel pebble ratio of 1:1. Three random configurations were performed. The initial configuration, Core 4.1, was rejected because the method for pebble loading, separate delivery tubes for the moderator and fuel pebbles, may not have been completely random; this core loading was rejected by the experimenters. Cores 4.2 and 4.3 were loaded using a single delivery tube, eliminating the possibility for systematic ordering effects. The second and third cores differed slightly in the quantity of pebbles loaded (40 each of moderator and fuel pebbles), stacked height of the pebbles in the core cavity (0.02 m), withdrawn distance of the stainless steel control rods (20 mm), and withdrawn distance of the autorod (30 mm). The 34 coolant channels in the upper axial reflector and the 33 coolant channels in the lower axial reflector were open. Additionally, the axial graphite fillers used in all other HTR-PROTEUS configurations to create a 12-sided core cavity were not used in the randomly packed cores. Instead, graphite fillers were placed on the cavity floor, creating a funnel-like base, to discourage

  11. Noise data from tests of a 1.83 meter (6-ft-) diameter variable-pitch 1.2-pressure-ratio fan (QF-9)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, F. W.; Wazyniak, J. A.; Friedman, R.

    1975-01-01

    Acoustic and aerodynamic data for a 1.83-meter (6-ft.) diameter fan suitable for a quiet engine for short-takeoff-and-landing (STOL) aircraft are documented. The QF-9 rotor blades had an adjustable pitch feature which provided a means for testing at several rotor blade setting angles, including one for reverse thrust. The fan stage incorporated features for low noise. Far-field noise around the fan was measured without acoustic suppression over a range of operating conditions for six different rotor blade setting angles in the forward thrust configuration, and for one in the reverse configuration. Complete results of one-third-octave band analysis of the data are presented in tabular form. Also included are power spectra, data referred to the source, and sideline perceived noise levels.

  12. Diploid endosperm formation in Tulipa spp. and identification of a 1:1 maternal-to-paternal genome ratio in endosperms of T. gesneriana L.

    PubMed

    Mizuochi, Hitoshi; Matsuzaki, Hironori; Moue, Takehiko; Okazaki, Keiichi

    2009-03-01

    Most Liliaceae plants have the tetrasporic Fritillaria-type embryo sac and normally form diploid embryos and pentaploid endosperms derived from a 4:1 maternal-to-paternal genome ratio (4m:1p) after double fertilization. Here we characterize embryo sac and endosperm formation in Tulipa spp. of Liliaceae. Chromosome analysis using seeds derived from 2x x 2x crosses of Tulipa gesneriana (2n = 2x = 24) identified diploid chromosome number in the endosperm. Similarly, flow cytometric analysis confirmed diploid endosperm formation in T. gesneriana, T. fosteriana (2n = 2x = 24) and T. greigii (2n = 2x = 24). To further study the possible mechanism of diploid endosperm formation, we made interploidy crosses of triploid (2n = 3x = 36) x diploid in which aneuploid seeds with various chromosome numbers (2n = 25-36) were produced. Again, flow cytometric analysis confirmed the same ploidy level in both embryos and endosperms at all aneuploidy levels, suggesting that only a single haploid polar nucleus contributes to endosperm formation at fertilization. Histological observation further confirmed the physical separation of two polar nuclei by a large vacuole in the Fritillaria-type embryo sac of T. gesneriana that appeared to prevent the fusion of the two polar nuclei that originated at the micropylar and chalazal ends before fertilization. Taken together, these results indicate that diploid endosperms (1m:1p) are normally formed in Tulipa spp. by fusion of the micropylar polar nucleus (n) and a spermatid (n) but not by normal triple fusion. We also show that tulip endosperm partially overcomes the triploid block mechanism that occurs in interploidy crosses. Based on these observations, the possible role of triple nuclear fusion in double fertilization is discussed.

  13. Evidence for the Stochastic Acceleration of Secondary Antiprotons by Supernova Remnants

    SciTech Connect

    Cholis, Ilias; Hooper, Dan; Linden, Tim

    2017-01-16

    The antiproton-to-proton ratio in the cosmic-ray spectrum is a sensitive probe of new physics. Using recent measurements of the cosmic-ray antiproton and proton fluxes in the energy range of 1-1000 GeV, we study the contribution to themore » $$\\bar{p}/p$$ ratio from secondary antiprotons that are produced and subsequently accelerated within individual supernova remnants. We consider several well-motivated models for cosmic-ray propagation in the interstellar medium and marginalize our results over the uncertainties related to the antiproton production cross section and the time-, charge-, and energy-dependent effects of solar modulation. We find that the increase in the $$\\bar{p}/p$$ ratio observed at rigidities above $$\\sim$$ 100 GV cannot be accounted for within the context of conventional cosmic-ray propagation models, but is consistent with scenarios in which cosmic-ray antiprotons are produced and subsequently accelerated by shocks within a given supernova remnant. In light of this, the acceleration of secondary cosmic rays in supernova remnants is predicted to substantially contribute to the cosmic-ray positron spectrum, accounting for a significant fraction of the observed positron excess.« less

  14. Functional and morphological changes in pancreatic remnant after pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wen-Liang; Su, Cheng-Hsi; Shyr, Yi-Ming; Chen, Tien-Hua; Lee, Rheun-Chuan; Tai, Ling-Chen; Wu, Chew-Wun; Lui, Wing-Yiu

    2007-11-01

    Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency has been reported to be more common in pancreaticogastrostomy (PG) than in pancreaticojejunostomy (PJ) after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). This study aimed to evaluate the long-term outcome after PD between these 2 groups. We evaluated the long-term functional status of 42 surviving patients diagnosed with periampullary lesions who underwent PJ or PG after PD and followed up for more than 1 year. Among these, 23 patients underwent PJ and 19 patients underwent PG. To compare the 2 groups, we analyzed the (1) pancreatic exocrine insufficiency by questioning the presence or absence of steatorrhea, (2) pancreatic endocrine function by measuring glycohemoglobin A1c, fasting blood glucose, and history of new-onset diabetes, (3) nutritional status by measuring serum total protein, albumin, cholesterol, and triglyceride, (4) gastric emptying time, (5) panendoscopic findings, (6) changes of pancreatic duct diameter by computed tomography, and (7) relaparotomy rate. The mean follow-up time for PG and PJ were 37 +/- 23 and 103 +/- 52 months, respectively (P < 0.05). A total of 52.4% patients developed pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, and 11.9% had new-onset diabetes. There was no significant difference between PJ and PG groups. A significantly improved postoperative nutritional state regarding serum total protein and albumin were noticed in both groups. There was no significant difference in terms of gastric emptying time, positive panendoscopic findings, and changes in pancreatic duct diameter. The pancreatic remnant-related relaparotomy rate was higher in the PJ group as compared with the PG group (17.4% vs 0%; P = 0.056). There is no significant difference in pancreatic exocrine or endocrine insufficiency, gastric emptying time, and positive panendoscopic findings between PJ and PG. Pancreaticojejunostomy was associated with a higher pancreatic remnant-related relaparotomy rate; however, because of a shorter follow-up in the PG group, a

  15. On Neutron Star/Supernova Remnant Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    It is pointed out that a cavity supernova (SN) explosion of a moving massive star could result in a significant offset of the neutron star (NS) birth-place from the geometrical centre of the supernova remnant (SNR). Therefore: a) the high implied transverse velocities of a number of NSs (e.g. PSR B1610-50, PSR B1706-44, PSR B1757-24, SGR 0526-66) could be reduced; b) the proper motion vector of a NS should not necessarily point away from the geometrical centre of the associated SNR; c) the circle of possible NS/SNR associations could be enlarged. An observational test is discussed, which could provide a determination of the true birth-places of NSs associated with middle-aged SNRs, and thereby provide more reliable estimates of their transverse velocities.

  16. A Python Calculator for Supernova Remnant Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, D. A.; Williams, J. E.

    2017-05-01

    A freely available Python code for modeling supernova remnant (SNR) evolution has been created. This software is intended for two purposes: to understand SNR evolution and to use in modeling observations of SNR for obtaining good estimates of SNR properties. It includes all phases for the standard path of evolution for spherically symmetric SNRs. In addition, alternate evolutionary models are available, including evolution in a cloudy ISM, the fractional energy-loss model, and evolution in a hot low-density ISM. The graphical interface takes in various parameters and produces outputs such as shock radius and velocity versus time, as well as SNR surface brightness profile and spectrum. Some interesting properties of SNR evolution are demonstrated using the program.

  17. Benner's remnants: culture, tradition and everyday understanding.

    PubMed

    Paley, John

    2002-06-01

    Benner's account of meaning and embodiment in nursing depends on a theory which she has never fully articulated, although she makes numerous allusions to it. Behind the background of shared meanings hovers something called 'culture', which provides each individual with meaning, determines what counts as real for her, and actively hands down interpretation-laden practices. This view is based, Benner claims, on the Heideggerian assumption that the meaning and organization of a culture precedes individual meaning-giving activity. I explore Benner's implicit view of culture, drawing on her published work over 15 years, and offer an appraisal of it. In doing so, I attempt to make sense of some rather strange remarks Benner has recently made about 'remnants' of Cartesian and Kantian thinking being found in the everyday understandings of people with asthma. The concept of culture is developed with reference to both Benner's own work and that of the anthropologist, Clifford Geertz, whose work she frequently cites. Having identified the principal tenets of what we might conveniently call the Benner-Geertz theory, I proceed to interrogate the theory, using the recent anthropological literature -- and, in particular, materialist attacks on the idea of culture as a system of meanings -- in order to cast doubt on it. I also review, very briefly, an alternative way of understanding 'culture', which is not vulnerable to the same criticisms. Benner's implicit theory of culture is revealed, somewhat ironically, as an inverted form of Cartesian dualism. Its intellectual provenance is not Heidegger, who appears to reject it, but the sort of American sociology associated with Talcott Parsons. As a corollary, it is suggested that Benner's 'remnants' analogy cannot be justified, and that the idea of Cartesian and Kantian concepts permeating Western culture, infecting both the providers and receivers of health care, is a myth.

  18. Kepler Supernova Remnant: A View from Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-06

    This image represents a view of NASA Kepler supernova remnant taken in X-rays, visible light, and infrared radiation, indicating that the bubble of gas that makes up the supernova remnant appears different in various types of light. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA06909

  19. Correlation between plasma concentration ratios of SN-38 glucuronide and SN-38 and neutropenia induction in patients with colorectal cancer and wild-type UGT1A1 gene

    PubMed Central

    HIROSE, KOICHI; KOZU, CHIHIRO; YAMASHITA, KOSHIRO; MARUO, EIJI; KITAMURA, MIZUHO; HASEGAWA, JUNICHI; OMODA, KEI; MURAKAMI, TERUO; MAEDA, YORINOBU

    2011-01-01

    In irinotecan (CPT-11)-based chemotherapy, neutropenia and diarrhea are often induced. In the present study, the clinical significance of the concentration ratios of 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38) glucuronide (SN-38G) and SN-38 in the plasma in predicting CPT-11-induced neutropenia was examined. A total of 17 patients with colorectal cancer and wild-type UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)1A1 gene were enrolled and treated with CPT-11 as part of the FOLFIRI regimen [CPT-11 and fluorouracil (5-FU)]. Blood was taken exactly 15 min following a 2-h continuous infusion of CPT-11. Plasma concentrations of SN-38, SN-38G and CPT-11 were determined by a modified high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The median, maximum and minimum values of plasma SN-38G/SN-38 ratios were 4.25, 7.09 and 1.03, respectively, indicating that UGT activities are variable among patients with the wild-type UGT1A1 gene. The plasma SN-38G/SN-38 ratios decreased with an increase in the trial numbers of chemotherapy (r=0.741, p=0.000669), suggesting that CPT-11 treatment suppresses UGT activity, and the low plasma SN-38G/SN-38 ratios resulted in the induction of greater neutropenia. However, in this analysis, 2 clearly separated regression lines were observed between plasma SN-38G/SN-38 ratios and neutropenia induction. In conclusion, UGT activity involved in SN-38 metabolism is variable among patients with the wild-type UGT1A1 gene, and each CPT-11 treatment suppresses UGT activity. One-point determination of the plasma SN-38G/SN-38 ratio may provide indications for the prediction of CPT-11-induced neutropenia and adjustment of the optimal dose, although further studies are required. PMID:22740978

  20. [Recurrent neck abscess due to a branchial cleft remnant].

    PubMed

    Kruijff, Schelto; Mastboom, Walter J; Vriens, Menno R; Sidhu, Stan B; Delbridge, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Abscesses arising from a third or fourth branchial cleft remnant are uncommon clinical entities and are often not recognised in a timely manner. In a 33-year-old female patient with a recurrent abscess in the left side of her neck, the cause turned out to be a fistula in the third branchial cleft remnant. She was treated initially with antibiotics and prednisone without adequate results. When the abscess was finally surgically drained, she became very ill and was admitted to the ICU with sepsis and multiple organ failure. She was discharged from hospital after six weeks. Four months later, a third-branchial cleft remnant was found during pharyngoscopy, immediately after which the cleft remnant fistula was excised and an ipsilateral hemi-thyroidectomy was performed. In young patients with recurring peri-thyroidal abscesses, a branchial cleft remnant should be considered a causative factor; this could avoid high morbidity and a delay in the appropriate treatment.

  1. Interstellar and Ejecta Dust in the Cas A Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arendt, Richard G.; Dwek, Eli; Kober, Gladys; Rho, Jonghee; Hwang, Una

    2013-01-01

    The ejecta of the Cas A supernova remnant has a complex morphology, consisting of dense fast-moving line emitting knots and diffuse X-ray emitting regions that have encountered the reverse shock, as well as more slowly expanding, unshocked regions of the ejecta. Using the Spitzer 5-35 micron IRS data cube, and Herschel 70, 100, and 160 micron PACS data, we decompose the infrared emission from the remnant into distinct spectral components associated with the different regions of the ejecta. Such decomposition allows the association of different dust species with ejecta layers that underwent distinct nuclear burning histories, and determination of the dust heating mechanisms. Our decomposition identified three characteristic dust spectra. The first, most luminous one, exhibits strong emission features at approx. 9 and 21 micron, and a weaker 12 micron feature, and is closely associated with the ejecta knots that have strong [Ar II] 6.99 micron and [Ar III] 8.99 micron emission lines. The dust features can be reproduced by magnesium silicate grains with relatively low MgO-to-SiO2 ratios. A second, very different dust spectrum that has no indication of any silicate features, is best fit by Al2O3 dust and is found in association with ejecta having strong [Ne II] 12.8 micron and [Ne III] 15.6 micron emission lines. A third characteristic dust spectrum shows features that best matched by magnesium silicates with relatively high MgO-to-SiO2 ratio. This dust is primarily associated with the X-ray emitting shocked ejecta and the shocked interstellar/circumstellar material. All three spectral components include an additional featureless cold dust component of unknown composition. Colder dust of indeterminate composition is associated with [Si II] 34.8 micron emission from the interior of the SNR, where the reverse shock has not yet swept up and heated the ejecta. The dust mass giving rise to the warm dust component is about approx. 0.1solar M. However, most of the dust mass

  2. Three Great Eyes on Kepler's Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Composite

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chandra X-Ray Data (blue) Chandra X-Ray Data (green)Hubble Telescope (visible-light)Spitzer Telescope (infrared)

    NASA's three Great Observatories -- the Hubble Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Chandra X-ray Observatory -- joined forces to probe the expanding remains of a supernova, called Kepler's supernova remnant, first seen 400 years ago by sky watchers, including astronomer Johannes Kepler.

    The combined image unveils a bubble-shaped shroud of gas and dust that is 14 light-years wide and is expanding at 4 million miles per hour (2,000 kilometers per second). Observations from each telescope highlight distinct features of the supernova remnant, a fast-moving shell of iron-rich material from the exploded star, surrounded by an expanding shock wave that is sweeping up interstellar gas and dust.

    Each color in this image represents a different region of the electromagnetic spectrum, from X-rays to infrared light. These diverse colors are shown in the panel of photographs below the composite image. The X-ray and infrared data cannot be seen with the human eye. By color-coding those data and combining them with Hubble's visible-light view, astronomers are presenting a more complete picture of the supernova remnant.

    Visible-light images from the Hubble telescope (colored yellow) reveal where the supernova shock wave is slamming into the densest regions of surrounding gas. The bright glowing knots are dense clumps from instabilities that form behind the shock wave. The Hubble data also show thin filaments of gas that look like rippled sheets seen edge-on. These filaments reveal where the shock wave is encountering lower-density, more uniform interstellar material.

    The Spitzer telescope shows microscopic dust particles (colored red) that have been heated by the

  3. Three Great Eyes on Kepler Supernova Remnant

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-06

    NASA's three Great Observatories -- the Hubble Space Telescope, the SpitzerSpace Telescope, and the Chandra X-ray Observatory -- joined forces to probe theexpanding remains of a supernova, called Kepler's supernova remnant, first seen 400 years ago by sky watchers, including astronomer Johannes Kepler. The combined image unveils a bubble-shaped shroud of gas and dust that is 14light-years wide and is expanding at 4 million miles per hour (2,000 kilometersper second). Observations from each telescope highlight distinct features of thesupernova remnant, a fast-moving shell of iron-rich material from the explodedstar, surrounded by an expanding shock wave that is sweeping up interstellar gasand dust. Each color in this image represents a different region of the electromagneticspectrum, from X-rays to infrared light. These diverse colors are shown in thepanel of photographs below the composite image. The X-ray and infrared datacannot be seen with the human eye. By color-coding those data and combining themwith Hubble's visible-light view, astronomers are presenting a more completepicture of the supernova remnant. Visible-light images from the Hubble telescope (colored yellow) reveal where the supernova shock wave is slamming into the densest regions of surrounding gas.The bright glowing knots are dense clumps from instabilities that form behindthe shock wave. The Hubble data also show thin filaments of gas that look likerippled sheets seen edge-on. These filaments reveal where the shock wave isencountering lower-density, more uniform interstellar material. The Spitzer telescope shows microscopic dust particles (colored red) that havebeen heated by the supernova shock wave. The dust re-radiates the shock wave'senergy as infrared light. The Spitzer data are brightest in the regionssurrounding those seen in detail by the Hubble telescope. The Chandra X-ray data show regions of very hot gas, and extremely high-energyparticles. The hottest gas (higher-energy X-rays, colored

  4. Normalization of pH level and gastric mucosa after eradication of H. pylori in the remnant stomach.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shunji; Matsukura, Norio; Matsuda, Noriko; Tsuchiya, Shinichi; Naito, Zenya; Tajiri, Takashi

    2008-12-01

    The Updated Sydney System (USS) is used to evaluate chronic gastritis and chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) due to H. pylori infection. Here, we investigated USS scores and gastric juice pH levels in H. pylori infection-positive or -eradicated patients with remnant stomach after surgery. Gastric juice pH levels were measured using pH test-tape in 197 patients (112 H. pylori-positive and 85 H. pylori-negative after eradication) who had undergone distal gastrectomy and conventional H. pylori eradication therapy. In H. pylori infection-positive remnant stomach cases, gastric juice pH showed a reverse correlation with pepsinogen I/II ratio, and H. pylori infection-negative patients following eradication showed associations with the degree of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia at both the anastomosis and in the corpus. Further, pH levels in these patients were normalized time depending after the eradication in the remnant stomach. Eradication therapy for the remnant stomach contributes to the possible improvement of stomach conditions by controlling the pH level of gastric juice. This effect will be protective against the risk of secondary stomach carcinogenesis in the remnant stomach.

  5. Comparing Neutron Star Kicks to Supernova Remnant Asymmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Holland-Ashford, Tyler; Lopez, Laura A.; Auchettl, Katie

    2017-07-20

    Supernova explosions are inherently asymmetric and can accelerate new-born neutron stars (NSs) to hundreds of km s{sup −1}. Two prevailing theories to explain NS kicks are ejecta asymmetries (e.g., conservation of momentum between NS and ejecta) and anisotropic neutrino emission. Observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) can give us insights into the mechanism that generates these NS kicks. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between NS kick velocities and the X-ray morphologies of 18 SNRs observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Röntgen Satellite ( ROSAT ). We measure SNR asymmetries using the power-ratio method (a multipole expansion technique),more » focusing on the dipole, quadrupole, and octupole power ratios. Our results show no correlation between the magnitude of the power ratios and NS kick velocities, but we find that for Cas A and G292.0+1.8, whose emission traces the ejecta distribution, their NSs are preferentially moving opposite to the bulk of the X-ray emission. In addition, we find a similar result for PKS 1209–51, CTB 109, and Puppis A; however, their emission is dominated by circumstellar/interstellar material, so their asymmetries may not reflect their ejecta distributions. Our results are consistent with the theory that NS kicks are a consequence of ejecta asymmetries as opposed to anisotropic neutrino emission. In the future, additional observations to measure NS proper motions within ejecta-dominated SNRs are necessary to robustly constrain the NS kick mechanism.« less

  6. Magnetic Field Amplification in Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Siyao; Lazarian, Alex

    2017-12-01

    Based on the new findings on the turbulent dynamo in Xu & Lazarian, we examine the magnetic field amplification in the context of supernova remnants. Due to the strong ion-neutral collisional damping in the weakly ionized interstellar medium, the dynamo in the preshock turbulence remains in the damping kinematic regime, which leads to a linear-in-time growth of the magnetic field strength. The resultant magnetic field structure enables effective diffusion upstream and shock acceleration of cosmic rays to energies above the “knee.” Differently, the nonlinear dynamo in the postshock turbulence leads to a linear-in-time growth of the magnetic energy due to the turbulent magnetic diffusion. Given a weak initial field strength in the postshock region, the magnetic field saturates at a significant distance from the shock front as a result of the inefficiency of the nonlinear dynamo. This result is in a good agreement with existing numerical simulations and well explains the X-ray spots detected far behind the shock front.

  7. Radio emission from embryonic superluminous supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omand, Conor M. B.; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Murase, Kohta

    2018-02-01

    It has been widely argued that Type-I superluminous supernovae (SLSNe-I) are driven by powerful central engines with a long-lasting energy injection after the core-collapse of massive progenitors. One of the popular hypotheses is that the hidden engines are fast-rotating pulsars with a magnetic field of B ˜ 1013-1015 G. Murase, Kashiyama & Mészáros proposed that quasi-steady radio/submm emission from non-thermal electron-positron pairs in nascent pulsar wind nebulae can be used as a relevant counterpart of such pulsar-driven supernovae (SNe). In this work, focusing on the nascent SLSN-I remnants, we examine constraints that can be placed by radio emission. We show that the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimetre Array can detect the radio nebula from SNe at DL ˜ 1 Gpc in a few years after the explosion, while the Jansky Very Large Array can also detect the counterpart in a few decades. The proposed radio follow-up observation could solve the parameter degeneracy in the pulsar-driven SN model for optical/UV light curves, and could also give us clues to young neutron star scenarios for SLSNe-I and fast radio bursts.

  8. Revised Distances to 21 Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranasinghe, S.; Leahy, D. A.

    2018-05-01

    We carry out a comprehensive study of H I 21 cm line observations and 13CO line observations of 21 supernova remnants (SNRs). The aim of the study is to search for H I absorption features to obtain kinematic distances in a consistent manner. The 21 SNRs are in the region of sky covered by the Very Large Array Galactic Plane Survey (H I 21 cm observations) and Galactic Ring Survey (13CO line observations). We obtain revised distances for 10 SNRs based on new evidence in the H I and 13CO observations. We revise distances for the other 11 SNRs based on an updated rotation curve and new error analysis. The mean change in distance for the 21 SNRs is ≃25%, i.e., a change of 1.5 kpc compared to a mean distance for the sample of 6.4 kpc. This has a significant impact on interpretation of the physical state of these SNRs. For example, using a Sedov model, age and explosion energy scale as the square of distance, and inferred ISM density scales as distance.

  9. Predicting gravitational lensing by stellar remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Alexander J.; Stefano, R. Di; Lépine, S.; Urama, J.; Pham, D.; Baker, C.

    2018-03-01

    Gravitational lensing provides a means to measure mass that does not rely on detecting and analysing light from the lens itself. Compact objects are ideal gravitational lenses, because they have relatively large masses and are dim. In this paper, we describe the prospects for predicting lensing events generated by the local population of compact objects, consisting of 250 neutron stars, five black holes, and ≈35 000 white dwarfs. By focusing on a population of nearby compact objects with measured proper motions and known distances from us, we can measure their masses by studying the characteristics of any lensing event they generate. Here, we concentrate on shifts in the position of a background source due to lensing by a foreground compact object. With Hubble Space Telescope, JWST, and Gaia, measurable centroid shifts caused by lensing are relatively frequent occurrences. We find that 30-50 detectable events per decade are expected for white dwarfs. Because relatively few neutron stars and black holes have measured distances and proper motions, it is more difficult to compute realistic rates for them. However, we show that at least one isolated neutron star has likely produced detectable events during the past several decades. This work is particularly relevant to the upcoming data releases by the Gaia mission and also to data that will be collected by JWST. Monitoring predicted microlensing events will not only help to determine the masses of compact objects, but will also potentially discover dim companions to these stellar remnants, including orbiting exoplanets.

  10. The Population of Supernova Remnants in M51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Knox S.; Blair, William P.; Kuntz, K. D.; Winkler, P. Frank

    2017-08-01

    The nearby, actively star-forming, nearly face-on spiral galaxy, M51 (NGC 5194/5), has been the site of four supernovae since 1941. As a result it should have a rich population of young supernova remnants (SNRs). Here we describe a search for optical SNRs in M51 among the 298 X-ray sources discovered inside the D25 contour in deep Chandra observations. The search uses interference filter images obtained with the WFC3 on Hubble Space Telescope and more recent images from GMOS on Gemini North. Of 80 emission nebulae identified in the HST images as SNR candidates based on elevated [SII]: Ha ratios compared to HII regions, 40 have X-ray counterparts. The diameters of the SNRs and SNR candidates detected with HST are systematically smaller than seen in SNR populations of other galaxies at comparable distances. However, this is most likely an instrumental effect, which our ongoing analysis of the new GMOS images will correct. At that point, we will be able to make of fair multi-wavelength comparison of the SNR population in M51 with other nearby, actively star-forming spiral galaxies, such as M83 and NGC6946.

  11. Detail, corner pilaster remnant, gable return on facade, Our Corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, corner pilaster remnant, gable return on facade, Our Corner Saloon, view to northeast (210mm lens with electronic flash fill) - Our Corner Saloon, 301 First Street, Eureka, Humboldt County, CA

  12. FEATURE C. MACHINE GUN POSITION WITH REMNANT OF MOUNT, VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE C. MACHINE GUN POSITION WITH REMNANT OF MOUNT, VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Battery-Machine Gun Positions, South of Point Cruz Road & west of Coral Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  13. Supernova remnants and diffuse ionized gas in M31

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walterbos, Rene; Braun, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Researchers have compiled an initial list of radio/optical supernova remnants (SNRs) in M31, by searching for radio identifications of emission-line sources with a high (SII)/H alpha ratio (greater than 0.60). The (SII) filter included both sulfur lines and the H alpha filter did not include (NII). This search revealed 11 SNRs, of which only two were known. In addition, researchers detected radio emission from 3 SNRs that were identified in previous optical surveys (D'Odorico et al., 1980), but that were outside the charge coupled device (CCD) fields. The 14 objects only include the most obvious candidates, but a full search is in progress and the researchers expect to find several more SNRs. Also not all optical SNRs show detectable radio emission and a pure optical list of SNR candidates based only on the ratio of (SII)/H alpha emission contains many more objects. Two conclusions are apparent. First, the radio properties of the SNRs in M31 are quite similar to those of Galactic SNRs as is illustrated. The brightnesses are not systematically lower as has been suggested in the past (Dickel and D'Odorico, 1984). Second, the slope of the relation is close to -2; this slope is expected from the intrinsic dependence between surface brightness and diameter. The radio luminosity of the SNRs does not seem to depend strongly on diameter, or age, contrary to model predictions. Selection effects, however, play an important role in these plots. The CCD images show widespread diffuse ionized gas with a ratio of (SII)/H alpha that is higher than that of discrete HII regions. Discrete HII regions typically show ratios between 0.2 to 0.3, while the diffuse gas in the arms consistently shows ratios of 0.5. Researchers can trace this gas across the spiral arms to emission measures below 5 pc cm (-6). Its properties seem to be similar to that of the diffuse gas in the solar neighborhood.

  14. Gamma-Ray Observations of Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, James

    2000-04-01

    Despite the growing evidence for shock acceleration of electrons in supernova remnants (SNR), there is still no direct evidence pointing unambiguously to SNR as sources of cosmic-ray nuclei. Observations of nonthermal synchrotron emission in the limbs of a number of shell-type SNR (SN1006, Tycho, Cas A, IC443, RCW86, and Kepler) provide convincing evidence for acceleration of electrons to energies greater than 10 TeV (Allen 1999). The CANGAROO group has now reported significant VHE gamma-ray emission from SN1006 (Tanimori et al. 1998) and RXJ1713-3946, and the HEGRA group has reported preliminary evidence for TeV emission from Cas A (Pülhofer et al. 1999); all of these measurements are consistent with the expected level of inverse-Compton emission in these objects. Following the predictions of an observable π^0-decay signal from nearby SNRs (e.g., Drury, Aharonian and Volk 1994) the discovery of >100 MeV emission from the direction of a number of SNR by the EGRET experiment (Esposito et al. 1996) and possible evidence for a π^0 component (Gaisser, Protheroe and Stanev 1996) led to some initial optimism that evidence for a SNR origin of cosmic-ray nuclei had been obtained. However, 200 GeV to 100 TeV measurements revealed no significant emission implying either a significantly steeper source spectrum than the canonical ~ E-2.1, a spectral cutoff below the knee energy in these sources, or that a re-interpretation of the EGRET results was required. I will discuss these results, as well as the considerable promise of future gamma-ray experiments to determine the sources of galactic cosmic-ray nuclei and to provide quantitative information about the acceleration mechanisms.

  15. Hydrodynamic Simulations of Kepler's Supernova Remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Jessica; Blondin, John; Borkowski, Kazik; Reynolds, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    Kepler’s supernova remnant contains unusual features that strongly suggest an origin in a single-degenerate Type Ia explosion, including anisotropic circumstellar medium (CSM), a strong brightness gradient, and spatially varying expansion proper motions. We present 3Dhydrodynamic simulations to test a picture in which Kepler's progenitor binary emitted a strong asymmetric wind, densest in the orbital plane, while the system moved at high velocity through the ISM. We simulate the creation of the presupernova environment as well as the supernova blast wave, using the VH-1 grid-based hydrodynamics code. We first modeled an anisotropic wind to create an asymmetric bowshock around the progenitor, then the blast wave from thesupernova. The final simulation places both previous model pieces onto a single grid and allows the blast wave to expand into the bowshock. Models were completed on a Yin-Yang grids with matching angular resolutions. By manipulating parameters that control the asymmetry of the system, we attempted to find conditions that recreated the current state of Kepler. We analyzed these models by comparing images of Kepler from the Chandra X-ray Observatory to line-of-sight projections from the model results. We also present comparisons of simulated expansion velocities with recent observations of X-ray proper motions from Chandra images. We were able to produce models that contained similar features to those seen in Kepler. We find the greatest resemblance to Kepler images with a presupernova wind with an equator-to-pole density contrast of 3 and a moderately disk-like CSM at a 5° angle between equatorial plane and system motion.

  16. Investigating Galactic Supernova Remnant Candidates Using LOFAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driessen, Laura N.; Domček, Vladimír; Vink, Jacco; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Arias, Maria; Gelfand, Joseph D.

    2018-06-01

    We investigate six supernova remnant (SNR) candidates—G51.21+0.11, G52.37–0.70, G53.07+0.49, G53.41+0.03, G53.84–0.75, and the possible shell around G54.1+0.3—in the Galactic plane using newly acquired Low-Frequency Array High-band Antenna observations, as well as archival Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope and Very Large Array Galactic Plane Survey mosaics. We find that G52.37–0.70, G53.84–0.75, and the possible shell around pulsar wind nebula G54.1+0.3 are unlikely to be SNRs, while G53.07+0.49 remains a candidate SNR. G51.21+0.11 has a spectral index of α = ‑ 0.7 ± 0.21, but lacks X-ray observations and as such requires further investigation to confirm its nature. We confirm one candidate, G53.41+0.03, as a new SNR because it has a shell-like morphology, a radio spectral index of α = ‑ 0.6 ± 0.2 and it has the X-ray spectral characteristics of a 1000–8000 year old SNR. The X-ray analysis was performed using archival XMM-Newton observations, which show that G53.41+0.03 has strong emission lines and is best characterized by a nonequilibrium ionization model, consistent with an SNR interpretation. Deep Arecibo radio telescope searches for a pulsar associated with G53.41+0.03 resulted in no detection, but placed stringent upper limits on the flux density of such a source if it was beamed toward Earth.

  17. A Chandra X-Ray Survey of Ejecta in the Cassiopeia A Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Una; Laming, J. Martin

    2011-01-01

    We present a survey of the X-ray emitting ejecta in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant based on an extensive analysis of over 6000 spectral regions extracted on 2.5-10" angular scales using the Chandra 1 Ms observation. We interpret these results in the context of hydrodynamical models for the evolution of the remnant. The distributions of fitted temperature and ionization age are highly peaked and suggest that the ejecta were subjected to multiple secondary shocks. Based on the fitted emission measure and element abundances, and an estimate of the emitting volume, we derive masses for the X-ray emitting ejecta as well as showing the distribution of the mass of various elements over the remnant. The total shocked Fe mass appears to be roughly 0.14 Solar Mass, which accounts for nearly all of the mass expected in Fe ejecta. We find two populations of Fe ejecta, that associated with normal Si-burning and that associated with alpha-rich freeze-out, with a mass ratio of approximately 2:1. Surprisingly, essentially all of this Fe (both components) is well outside the central regions of the SNR, presumably having been ejected by hydrodynamic instabilities during the explosion. We discuss this, and its implications for the neutron star kick.

  18. G0.9 + 0.1 and the emerging class of composite supernova remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfand, D. J.; Becker, R. H.

    1987-01-01

    High-resolution, multifrequency maps of a bright extended radio source near the Galactic center have revealed it to be a classic example of a composite supernova remnant. A steep-spectrum shell of emission, about 8 arcmin in diameter, surrounds a flat-spectrum, highly polarized Crab-like core about 2 arcmin across. The two components have equal flux densities at about 6 cm, marking this source as having the highest core-to-shell ratio among the about 10 composite remnants identified to date. X-ray and far-infrared data on the source are used to constrain the energetics and evolutionary state of the remnant and its putative central pulsar. It is argued that the total energy contained in the Crab-like components requires that the pulsars powering them were all born with periods shorter than 50 ms, and that if a substantial number of neutron stars with slow initial rotation rates exist, their birthplaces have not yet been found.

  19. Supernova Remnant Observations with Micro-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, Enectali

    Micro-X is a sounding rocket payload that combines an X-ray microcalorimeter with an imaging mirror to offer breakthrough science from high spectral resolution observations of extended X-ray sources. This payload has been in design and development for the last five years and is now completely built and undergoing integration; its first flight will be in November, 2012, as part of our current NASA award. This four-year follow-on proposal seeks funding for: (1) analysis of the first flight data, (2) the second flight and its data analysis, (3) development of payload upgrades and launch of the third flight, and (4) third flight data analysis. The scientific payload consists of a Transition Edge Sensor (TES) microcalorimeter array at the focus of a flight-proven conical imaging mirror. Micro-X capitalizes on three decades of NASA investment in the development of microcalorimeters and X-ray imaging optics. Micro-X offers a unique combination of bandpass, collecting area, and spectral and angular resolution. The spectral resolution goal across the 0.2 - 3.0 keV band is 2 - 4 eV Full-Width at Half Maximum (FWHM). The measured angular resolution of the mirror is 2.4 arcminute Half-Power Diameter (HPD). The effective area of the mirror, 300 square centimeters at 1 keV, is sufficient to provide observations of unprecedented quality of several astrophysical X-ray sources, even in a brief sounding rocket exposure of 300 sec. Our scientific program for this proposal will focus on supernova remnants (SNRs), whose spatial extent has made high-energy resolution observations with grating instruments extremely challenging. X-ray observations of SNRs with microcalorimeters will enable the study of the detailed atomic physics of the plasma; the determination of temperature, turbulence, and elemental abundances; and in conjunction with historical data, full three dimensional mapping of the kinematics of the remnant. These capabilities will open new avenues towards understanding the

  20. Healing Potential of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Remnant Stump.

    PubMed

    Trocan, Ilie; Ceausu, Raluca A; Jitariu, Andreea A; Haragus, Horia; Damian, Gratian; Raica, Marius

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the microstructural architecture and cellular differentiation of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) stumps in different stages after injury, as this could augment graft biointegration. The histological appearance and immunoreaction for cluster of differentiation 34 antigen (CD34) of 54 biopsies from 27 remnants were compared to 10 biopsies from 5 normal cruciate ligaments. CD34 reaction in endothelial cells, fibroblasts and fibrocytes was consistently positive in small synovial vessels. Remnants also exhibited CD34(+) cells among collagen fibers. Blood vessel density varied between specimens. The mean vascular microdensity was 43 per ×200 field in remnants compared to 15.2 in controls. A total of 94.44% of remnant ACL samples had significant hyperplasia of stellate and fusiform stromal cells, CD34(+); 22.4% had developed capillary vessels inside the ligament; 33% exhibited ongoing angiogenesis. Significant differences exist between torn and intact ACL regarding microvascularization. The remnants contain stellate stromal cells and CD34(+) fibrocytes, and display angiogenesis both at synovia as well as in the ligament itself. These findings underline the potential contribution to neoligament healing when remnants are preserved. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  1. Black hole remnants and the information loss paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P.; Ong, Y. C.; Yeom, D.-h.

    2015-11-01

    Forty years after the discovery of Hawking radiation, its exact nature remains elusive. If Hawking radiation does not carry any information out from the ever shrinking black hole, it seems that unitarity is violated once the black hole completely evaporates. On the other hand, attempts to recover information via quantum entanglement lead to the firewall controversy. Amid the confusions, the possibility that black hole evaporation stops with a "remnant" has remained unpopular and is often dismissed due to some "undesired properties" of such an object. Nevertheless, as in any scientific debate, the pros and cons of any proposal must be carefully scrutinized. We fill in the void of the literature by providing a timely review of various types of black hole remnants, and provide some new thoughts regarding the challenges that black hole remnants face in the context of the information loss paradox and its latest incarnation, namely the firewall controversy. The importance of understanding the role of curvature singularity is also emphasized, after all there remains a possibility that the singularity cannot be cured even by quantum gravity. In this context a black hole remnant conveniently serves as a cosmic censor. We conclude that a remnant remains a possible end state of Hawking evaporation, and if it contains large interior geometry, may help to ameliorate the information loss paradox and the firewall controversy. We hope that this will raise some interests in the community to investigate remnants more critically but also more thoroughly.

  2. Duty-cycle and energetics of remnant radio-loud AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Ross J.

    2018-05-01

    Deriving the energetics of remnant and restarted active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is much more challenging than for active sources due to the complexity in accurately determining the time since the nucleus switched-off. I resolve this problem using a new approach that combines spectral ageing and dynamical models to tightly constrain the energetics and duty-cycles of dying sources. Fitting the shape of the integrated radio spectrum yields the fraction of the source age the nucleus is active; this, in addition to the flux density, source size, axis ratio, and properties of the host environment, provides a constraint on dynamical models describing the remnant radio source. This technique is used to derive the intrinsic properties of the well-studied remnant radio source B2 0924+30. This object is found to spend 50_{-12}^{+14} Myr in the active phase and a further 28_{-5}^{+6} Myr in the quiescent phase, have a jet kinetic power of 3.6_{-1.7}^{+3.0}× 10^{37} W, and a lobe magnetic field strength below equipartition at the 8σ level. The integrated spectra of restarted and intermittent radio sources are found to yield a `steep-shallow' shape when the previous outburst occurred within 100 Myr. The duty-cycle of B2 0924+30 is hence constrained to be δ < 0.15 by fitting the shortest time to the previous comparable outburst that does not appreciably modify the remnant spectrum. The time-averaged feedback energy imparted by AGNs into their host galaxy environments can in this manner be quantified.

  3. Toward the Understanding of the Physical Origin of Recombining Plasma in the Supernova Remnant IC 443

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Hideaki; Tanaka, Takaaki; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Okon, Hiromichi; Tsuru, Takeshi Go

    2017-12-01

    We perform a spatially resolved spectroscopic analysis of X-ray emission from the supernova remnant (SNR) IC 443 with Suzaku. All of the spectra are well reproduced by a model consisting of a collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE) and two recombining plasma (RP) components. Although previous X-ray studies found an RP in the northeastern region, this is the first report on RPs in the other parts of the remnant. The electron temperature, kT e , of the CIE component is almost uniform at ∼0.2 keV across the remnant. The CIE plasma has metal abundances consistent with solar and is concentrated toward the rim of the remnant, suggesting that it is of shocked interstellar medium origin. The two RP components have different kT e : one in the range of 0.16–0.28 keV and the other in the range of 0.48–0.67 keV. The electron temperatures of both RP components decrease toward the southeast, where the SNR shock is known to be interacting with a molecular cloud. We also find the normalization ratio of the lower-kT e RP to higher-kT e RP components increases toward the southeast. Both results suggest the X-ray emitting plasma in the southeastern region is significantly cooled by some mechanism. One of the plausible cooling mechanisms is a thermal conduction between the hot plasma and the molecular cloud. If the cooling proceeds faster than the recombination timescale of the plasma, the same mechanism can account for the recombining plasma as well.

  4. Spectroscopic mapping of the physical properties of supernova remnant N 49

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauletti, D.; Copetti, M. V. F.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Physical conditions inside a supernova remnant can vary significantly between different positions. However, typical observational data of supernova remnants are integrated data or contemplate specific portions of the remnant. Aims: We study the spatial variation in the physical properties of the N 49 supernova remnant based on a spectroscopic mapping of the whole nebula. Methods: Long-slit spectra were obtained with the slit (~4' × 1.03″) aligned along the east-west direction from 29 different positions spaced by 2″ in declination. A total of 3248 1D spectra were extracted from sections of 2″ of the 2D spectra. More than 60 emission lines in the range 3550 Å to 8920 Å were measured in these spectra. Maps of the fluxes and of intensity ratios of these emission lines were built with a spatial resolution of 2″ × 2″. Results: An electron density map has been obtained using the [S II] λ6716 /λ6731 line ratio. Values vary from ~500 cm-3 at the northeast region to more than 3500 cm-3 at the southeast border. We calculated the electron temperature using line ratio sensors for the ions S+, O++, O+, and N+. Values are about 3.6 × 104 K for the O++ sensor and about 1.1 × 104 K for other sensors. The Hα/Hβ ratio map presents a ring structure with higher values that may result from collisional excitation of hydrogen. We detected an area with high values of [N II] λ6583/Hα extending from the remnant center to its northeastern border, which may be indicating an overabundance of nitrogen in the area due to contamination by the progenitor star. We found a radial dependence in many line intensity ratio maps. We observed an increase toward the remnant borders of the intensity ratio of any two lines in which the numerator comes before in the sequence [O III] λ5007, [O III] λ4363, [Ar III] λ7136, [Ne III] λ3869, [O II] λ7325, [O II] λ3727, He II λ4686, Hβ λ4861, [N II] λ6583, He I λ6678, [S II] λ6731, [S II] λ6716, [O I] λ6300, [Ca II]

  5. Mills' ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baricz, Árpád

    2008-04-01

    In this paper we study the monotonicity properties of some functions involving the Mills' ratio of the standard normal law. From these we deduce some new functional inequalities involving the Mills' ratio, and we show that the Mills' ratio is strictly completely monotonic. At the end of this paper we present some Turán-type inequalities for Mills' ratio.

  6. Pyroclastic Flow Remnants at Shiveluch Volcano

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    NASA image acquired February 25, 2011 Pyroclastic flows are some of the most fearsome hazards posed by erupting volcanoes. These avalanches of superheated ash, gas, and rock are responsible for some of the most famous volcanic disasters in history, including the burial of the ancient Roman city of Pompei and the destruction of Saint-Pierre in 1902. More recently, pyroclastic flows from Mount Merapi in Indonesia caused most of the casualties during the volcano’s 2010 eruption. The intense heat—over 1,000° Celsius (1800° Fahrenheit)—the terrific speed—up to 720 kilometers (450 miles) per hour—and the mixture of toxic gases all contribute to the deadly potential. Pyroclastic flows can incinerate, burn, or asphyxiate people who cannot get out of the flow path. This false-color satellite image from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on the Terra satellite shows the remnants of a large pyroclastic flow on the slopes of Shiveluch Volcano. Fortunately, no one was hurt during the eruption and flow in the sparsely-populated area. ASTER detected heat from the flow during or shortly after an event on January 25, 2011. Note how the heat signatures from January line up with the dark surface deposits visible on February 25; those deposits cover more than 10 square kilometers (4 square miles). Light brown ash covers the snow above the flow deposits, and a tiny plume rises from Shiveluch’s growing lava dome. Vegetation surrounding the volcano is colored dark red. NASA Earth Observatory image by Robert Simmon, using data from the NASA/GSFC/METI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team. Caption by Robert Simmon. Instrument: Terra - ASTER Credit: NASA Earth Observatory NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific

  7. X-Ray Emission from Supernova Remnants.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sackville Hamilton, Andrew James

    1984-12-01

    This thesis deals with the x-ray spectra of supernova remnants (SNRs), and in particular the x-ray spectra of the two young Type I SNRs SN1006 and Tycho. Firstly an extensive grid of nonequilibrium model spectra of SNRs in the adiabatic blast wave stage of evolution is computed, and numerous diagnostics of the state and composi- tion of the blast wave plasma are plotted over parameter space. It is demonstrated that the spectrum of an adiabatic blast wave is a good approximation to several other model SNR structures in which emission is dominated by gas undergoing quasi steady state ioni- zation near a shock front, including the one-fluid isothermal blast wave similarity solution, and the reverse shock similarity solution advocated by Chevalier for the early evolution of Type I SNe. None of these structures appears able to account for the observed spectra of SN1006 or Tycho. A new similarity solution for the early time evolution of uniform ejecta moving into an external medium is presented. It is argued that the x-ray spectra of SN1006 and Tycho are consistent with emission mainly from a reverse shock into 1.4M(,o) of initially uniform density SN ejecta consisting of pure heavy elements, moving into a uniform medium. Satisfactory fits to the observed spectra are obtained with a two layer structure of ejecta, an outer layer of unprocessed material, and an inner layer of mixed processed heavy elements. The structure of ejecta inferred is similar for both SN1006 and Tycho, the marked difference between the two spectra being attributed largely to the lower density of the ambient medium around SN1006. The results are consistent with the theory of Type I SNe as exploded white dwarfs, and resolve the apparent problems of too little iron, and too much total mass, deduced by other authors from earlier analyses of the x-ray emission of SN1006 and Tycho. Various salient aspects of the physics of a shock-heated pure heavy element plasma are discussed.

  8. On the Foundation of Equipartition in Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urošević, Dejan; Pavlović, Marko Z.; Arbutina, Bojan

    2018-03-01

    A widely accepted paradigm is that equipartition (eqp) between the energy density of cosmic rays (CRs) and the energy density of the magnetic field cannot be sustained in supernova remnants (SNRs). However, our 3D hydrodynamic supercomputer simulations, coupled with a nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration model, provide evidence that eqp may be established at the end of the Sedov phase of evolution in which most SNRs spend the longest portions of their lives. We introduce the term “constant partition” for any constant ratio between the CR energy density and the energy density of the magnetic field in an SNR, while the term “equipartition” should be reserved for the case of approximately the same values of the energy density (also, it is constant partition in the order of magnitude) of ultra-relativistic electrons only (or CRs in total) and the energy density of the magnetic field. Our simulations suggest that this approximate constant partition exists in all but the youngest SNRs. We speculate that since evolved SNRs at the end of the Sedov phase of evolution can reach eqp between CRs and magnetic fields, they may be responsible for initializing this type of eqp in the interstellar medium. Additionally, we show that eqp between the electron component of CRs and the magnetic field may be used for calculating the magnetic field strength directly from observations of synchrotron emission from SNRs. The values of magnetic field strengths in SNRs given here are approximately 2.5 times lower than values calculated by Arbutina et al.

  9. Fermi-LAT Observations of Supernova Remnants Kesteven 79

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auchettl, Katie; Slane, Patrick; Castro, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we report on the detection of γ-ray emission coincident with the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) Kesteven 79 (Kes 79). We analyzed approximately 52 months of data obtained with the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Kes 79 is thought to be interacting with adjacent molecular clouds, based on the presence of strong 12CO J = 1 → 0 and HCO+ J = 1 → 0 emission and the detection of 1720 MHz line emission toward the east of the remnant. Acceleration of cosmic rays is expected to occur at SNR shocks, and SNRs interacting with dense molecular clouds provide a good testing ground for detecting and analyzing the production of γ-rays from the decay of π0 into two γ-ray photons. This analysis investigates γ-ray emission coincident with Kes 79, which has a detection significance of ~7σ. Additionally, we present an investigation of the spatial and spectral characteristics of Kes 79 using multiple archival XMM-Newton observations of this remnant. We determine the global X-ray properties of Kes 79 and estimate the ambient density across the remnant. We also performed a similar analysis for Galactic SNR Kesteven 78 (Kes 78), but due to large uncertainties in the γ-ray background model, no conclusion can be made about an excess of GeV γ-ray associated with the remnant.

  10. High-Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Galactic Supernova Remnant Puppis A with the XMM-Newton RGS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsuda, Satoru; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Mori, Koji; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Petre, Robert; Yamada, Shinya; Akamatsu, Hiroki; Konami, Saori; Tamagawa, Toru

    2012-01-01

    We present high-resolution X-ray spectra of cloud-shock interaction regions in the eastern and northern rims of the Galactic supernova remnant Puppis A, using the Reflection Grating Spectrometer onboard the XMM-Newton satellite. A number of emission lines including K(alpha) triplets of He-like N, O , and Ne are clearly resolved for the first time. Intensity ratios of forbidden to resonance lines in the triplets are found to be higher than predictions by thermal emission models having plausible plasma parameters. The anomalous line ratios cannot be reproduced by effects of resonance scattering, recombination, or inner-shell ionization processes, but could be explained by charge-exchange emission that should arise at interfaces between the cold/warm clouds and the hot plasma. Our observations thus provide observational support for charge-exchange X-ray emission in supernova remnants.

  11. Predonation Volume of Future Remnant Cortical Kidney Helps Predict Postdonation Renal Function in Live Kidney Donors.

    PubMed

    Fananapazir, Ghaneh; Benzl, Robert; Corwin, Michael T; Chen, Ling-Xin; Sageshima, Junichiro; Stewart, Susan L; Troppmann, Christoph

    2018-07-01

    Purpose To determine whether the predonation computed tomography (CT)-based volume of the future remnant kidney is predictive of postdonation renal function in living kidney donors. Materials and Methods This institutional review board-approved, retrospective, HIPAA-compliant study included 126 live kidney donors who had undergone predonation renal CT between January 2007 and December 2014 as well as 2-year postdonation measurement of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The whole kidney volume and cortical volume of the future remnant kidney were measured and standardized for body surface area (BSA). Bivariate linear associations between the ratios of whole kidney volume to BSA and cortical volume to BSA were obtained. A linear regression model for 2-year postdonation eGFR that incorporated donor age, sex, and either whole kidney volume-to-BSA ratio or cortical volume-to-BSA ratio was created, and the coefficient of determination (R 2 ) for the model was calculated. Factors not statistically additive in assessing 2-year eGFR were removed by using backward elimination, and the coefficient of determination for this parsimonious model was calculated. Results Correlation was slightly better for cortical volume-to-BSA ratio than for whole kidney volume-to-BSA ratio (r = 0.48 vs r = 0.44, respectively). The linear regression model incorporating all donor factors had an R 2 of 0.66. The only factors that were significantly additive to the equation were cortical volume-to-BSA ratio and predonation eGFR (P = .01 and P < .01, respectively), and the final parsimonious linear regression model incorporating these two variables explained almost the same amount of variance (R 2 = 0.65) as did the full model. Conclusion The cortical volume of the future remnant kidney helped predict postdonation eGFR at 2 years. The cortical volume-to-BSA ratio should thus be considered for addition as an important variable to living kidney donor evaluation and selection guidelines.

  12. Kinematics of the Galactic Supernova Remnant G109.1-1.0 (CTB 109)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Cruces, M.; Rosado, M.; Fuentes-Carrera, I.; Ambrocio-Cruz, P.

    2018-01-01

    We present direct images in the H α and [S II] λλ6717,6731 Å lines of the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G109.1-1.0 (CTB 109). We confirm that the filaments detected are the optical counterpart of the X-ray and radio SNR due to their high [S II]/H α line ratios. We study for the first time the kinematics of the optical counterpart of SNR CTB 109 using the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer PUMA. We estimate a systemic velocity of VLSR = -50 ± 6 km s-1 for this remnant and an expansion velocity of Vexp = 230 ± 5 km s-1. From this velocity and taking into account previous studies of the kinematics of objects at that Galactic longitude, we derive a distance to SNR CTB 109 of 3.1 ± 0.2 kpc, locating it in the Perseus arm. Using the [S II] λ6717/[S II] λ6731 line ratio, we find an electronic density value around ne = 580 cm-3. Considering that this remnant is evolving in a low-density medium with higher-density cloudlets responsible for the optical emission, we determine the age and energy deposited in the ISM by the supernova explosion (E0) in both the Sedov-Taylor phase and the radiative phase. For both cases, the age is thousands of years and E0 is rather typical of SNRs containing simple pulsars, so that the energy released to the ISM cannot be used to distinguish between SNRs hosting typical pulsars from those hosting powerful magnetars, like CTB 109.

  13. Study of the photon remnant in resolved photoproduction at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.; Mikunas, D.; Musgrave, B.; Repond, J.; Stanek, R.; Talaga, R. L.; Zhang, H.; Ayad, R.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, P.; Cara Romeo, G.; Castellini, G.; Chiarini, M.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Corradi, M.; Gialas, I.; Giusti, P.; Iacobucci, G.; Laurenti, G.; Levi, G.; Margotti, A.; Massam, T.; Nania, R.; Nemoz, C.; Palmonari, F.; Polini, A.; Sartorelli, G.; Timellini, R.; Zamora Garcia, Y.; Zichichi, A.; Bargende, A.; Crittenden, J.; Desch, K.; Diekmann, B.; Doeker, T.; Eckert, M.; Feld, L.; Frey, A.; Geerts, M.; Geitz, G.; Grothe, M.; Haas, T.; Hartmann, H.; Heinloth, K.; Hilger, E.; Jakob, H.-P.; Katz, U. F.; Mari, S. M.; Mass, A.; Mengel, S.; Mollen, J.; Paul, E.; Rembser, Ch; Schramm, D.; Stamm, J.; Wedemeyer, R.; Campbell-Robson, S.; Cassidy, A.; Dyce, N.; Foster, B.; George, S.; Gilmore, R.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Llewellyn, T. J.; Morgado, C. J. S.; Norman, D. J. P.; O'Mara, J. A.; Tapper, R. J.; Wilson, S. S.; Yoshida, R.; Rau, R. R.; Arneodo, M.; Iannotti, L.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Bernstein, A.; Caldwell, A.; Cartiglia, N.; Parsons, J. A.; Ritz, S.; Sciulli, F.; Straub, P. B.; Wai, L.; Yang, S.; Zhu, Q.; Borzemski, P.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Zachara, M.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bednarek, B.; Jeleń, K.; Kisielewska, D.; Kowalski, T.; Rulikowska-Zarȩbska, E.; Suszycki, L.; Zajaç, J.; Kotański, A.; Przybycień, M.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Behrens, U.; Beier, H.; Bienlein, J. K.; Coldewey, C.; Deppe, O.; Desler, K.; Drews, G.; Flasiński, M.; Gilkinson, D. J.; Glasman, C.; Göttlicher, P.; Große-Knetter, J.; Gutjahr, B.; Hain, W.; Hasell, D.; Heßling, H.; Iga, Y.; Joos, P.; Kasemann, M.; Klanner, R.; Koch, W.; Köpke, L.; Kötz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Labs, J.; Ladage, A.; Löhr, B.; Löwe, M.; Lüke, D.; Mainusch, J.; Mańczak, O.; Monteiro, T.; Ng, J. S. T.; Nickel, S.; Notz, D.; Ohrenberg, K.; Roco, M.; Rohde, M.; Roldán, J.; Schneekloth, U.; Schulz, W.; Selonke, F.; Stiliaris, E.; Surrow, B.; Voß, T.; Westphal, D.; Wolf, G.; Youngman, C.; Zhou, J. F.; Grabosch, H. J.; Kharchilava, A.; Leich, A.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Meyer, A.; Schlenstedt, S.; Wulff, N.; Barbagli, G.; Pelfer, P.; Anzivino, G.; Maccarrone, G.; De Pasquale, S.; Votano, L.; Bamberger, A.; Eisenhardt, S.; Freidhof, A.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Schroeder, J.; Trefzger, T.; Brook, N. H.; Bussey, P. J.; Doyle, A. T.; Fleck, J. I.; Saxon, D. H.; Utley, M. L.; Wilson, A. S.; Dannemann, A.; Holm, U.; Horstmann, D.; Neumann, T.; Sinkus, R.; Wick, K.; Badura, E.; Burow, B. D.; Hagge, L.; Lohrmann, E.; Milewski, J.; Nakahata, M.; Pavel, N.; Poelz, G.; Schott, W.; Zetsche, F.; Bacon, T. C.; Butterworth, I.; Gallo, E.; Harris, V. L.; Hung, B. Y. H.; Long, K. R.; Miller, D. B.; Morawitz, P. P. O.; Prinias, A.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Whitfield, A. F.; Mallik, U.; McCliment, E.; Wang, M. Z.; Wang, S. M.; Wu, J. T.; Zhang, Y.; Cloth, P.; Filges, D.; An, S. H.; Hong, S. M.; Nam, S. W.; Park, S. K.; Suh, M. H.; Yon, S. H.; Imlay, R.; Kartik, S.; Kim, H.-J.; McNeil, R. R.; Metcalf, W.; Nadendla, V. K.; Barreiro, F.; Cases, G.; Fernandez, J. P.; Graciani, R.; Hernández, J. M.; Hervás, L.; Labarga, L.; Martinez, M.; del Peso, J.; Puga, J.; Terron, J.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Smith, G. R.; Corriveau, F.; Hanna, D. S.; Hartmann, J.; Hung, L. W.; Lim, J. N.; Matthews, C. G.; Patel, P. M.; Sinclair, L. E.; Stairs, D. G.; St. Laurent, M.; Ullmann, R.; Zacek, G.; Bashkirov, V.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Stifutkin, A.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Ermolov, P. F.; Gladilin, L. K.; Golubkov, Y. A.; Kobrin, V. D.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Savin, A. A.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Solomin, A. N.; Zotov, N. P.; Botje, M.; Chlebana, F.; Dake, A.; Engelen, J.; de Kamps, M.; Kooijman, P.; Kruse, A.; Tiecke, H.; Verkerke, W.; Vreeswijk, M.; Wiggers, L.; de Wolf, E.; van Woudenberg, R.; Acosta, D.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Honscheid, K.; Li, C.; Ling, T. Y.; McLean, K. W.; Murray, W. N.; Park, I. H.; Romanowski, T. A.; Seidlein, R.; Bailey, D. S.; Byrne, A.; Cashmore, R. J.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Harnew, N.; Lancaster, M.; Lindemann, L.; McFall, J. D.; Nath, C.; Noyes, V. A.; Quadt, A.; Tickner, J. R.; Uijterwaal, H.; Walczak, R.; Waters, D. S.; Wilson, F. F.; Yip, T.; Abbiendi, G.; Bertolin, A.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; Dal Corso, F.; De Giorgi, M.; Dosselli, U.; Limentani, S.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Stanco, L.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; Bulmahn, J.; Butterworth, J. M.; Feild, R. G.; Oh, B. Y.; Whitmore, J. J.; D'Agostini, G.; Marini, G.; Nigro, A.; Tassi, E.; Hart, J. C.; McCubbin, N. A.; Prytz, K.; Shah, T. P.; Short, T. L.; Barberis, E.; Dubbs, T.; Heusch, C.; Van Hook, M.; Hubbard, B.; Lockman, W.; Rahn, J. T.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Seiden, A.; Biltzinger, J.; Seifert, R. J.; Schwarzer, O.; Walenta, A. H.; Zech, G.; Abramowicz, H.; Briskin, G.; Dagan, S.; Levy, A.; Hasegawa, T.; Hazumi, M.; Ishii, T.; Kuze, M.; Mine, S.; Nagasawa, Y.; Nakao, M.; Suzuki, I.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Chiba, M.; Hamatsu, R.; Hirose, T.; Homma, K.; Kitamura, S.; Nakamitsu, Y.; Yamauchi, K.; Cirio, R.; Costa, M.; Ferrero, M. I.; Lamberti, L.; Maselli, S.; Peroni, C.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Dardo, M.; Bailey, D. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Benard, F.; Brkic, M.; Crombie, M. B.; Gingrich, D. M.; Hartner, G. F.; Joo, K. K.; Levman, G. M.; Martin, J. F.; Orr, R. S.; Sampson, C. R.; Teuscher, R. J.; Catterall, C. D.; Jones, T. W.; Kaziewicz, P. B.; Lane, J. B.; Saunders, R. L.; Shulman, J.; Blankenship, K.; Lu, B.; Mo, L. W.; Bogusz, W.; Charchuła, K.; Ciborowski, J.; Gajewski, J.; Grzelak, G.; Kasprzak, M.; Krzyżanowski, M.; Muchorowski, K.; Nowak, R. J.; Pawlak, J. M.; Tymieniecka, T.; Wróblewski, A. K.; Zakrzewski, J. A.; Żarnecki, A. F.; Adamus, M.; Eisenberg, Y.; Karshon, U.; Revel, D.; Zer-Zion, D.; Ali, I.; Badgett, W. F.; Behrens, B.; Dasu, S.; Fordham, C.; Foudas, C.; Goussiou, A.; Loveless, R. J.; Reeder, D. D.; Silverstein, S.; Smith, W. H.; Vaiciulis, A.; Wodarczyk, M.; Tsurugai, T.; Bhadra, S.; Cardy, M. L.; Fagerstroem, C.-P.; Frisken, W. R.; Furutani, K. M.; Khakzad, M.; Schmidke, W. B.; ZEUS Collaboration

    1995-02-01

    Photoproduction at HERA is studied in ep collisions, with the ZEUS detector, for γp centre-of-mass energies ranging from 130-270 GeV. A sample of events with two high- pT jets ( pT > 6 GeV, η < 1.6) and a third cluster in the approximate direction of the electron beam is isolated using a clustering algorithm. These events are mostly due to resolved photoproduction. The third cluster is identified as the photon remnant. Its properties, such as the transverse and longitudinal energy flows around the axis of the cluster, are consistent with those commonly attributed to jets, and in particular with those found for the two jets in these events. The mean value of the photon remnant pT with respect to the beam axis is measured to be 2.1 ± 0.2 GeV, which demonstrates substantial mean transverse momenta for the photon remnant.

  14. A Central Source in the Supernova Remnant Kes 79

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seward, F.; Slane, P.; Smith, R.; Sun, M.

    2002-04-01

    Kes 79 (G33.6+0.1) was observed 31 July 2001 for 30 ks with the Chandra ACIS-I instrument. This remnant, in the constellation Aquila, lies in the galactic plane at a distance of ~10 kpc. The 11^' angular diameter implies an age of a few thousand years. The morphology shows faint outer and bright inner shells. The Chandra image reveals, for the first time, a point-like source at the center of the remnant. This source has a black body spectrum with kT = 0.5 keV. No regular pulsations were found at periods greater than 6.4 s (the ACIS integration time is 3.2 s). No surrounding synchrotron emission wass detected. The X-ray luminosity is 7 × 10^33 erg/s, about 1% the luminosity of the entire remnant. The source may be similar to the one at the center of Cas A.

  15. A HIRES analysis of the FIR emission of supernova remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhong

    1994-01-01

    The high resolution (HiRes) algorithm has been used to analyze the far infrared emission of shocked gas and dust in supernova remnants. In the case of supernova remnant IC 443, we find a very good match between the resolved features in the deconvolved images and the emissions of shocked gas mapped in other wavelengths (lines of H2, CO, HCO+, and HI). Dust emission is also found to be surrounding hot bubbles of supernova remnants which are seen in soft X-ray maps. Optical spectroscopy on the emission of the shocked gas suggests a close correlation between the FIR color and local shock speed, which is a strong function of the ambient (preshock) gas density. These provide a potentially effective way to identify regions of strong shock interaction, and thus facilitate studies of kinematics and energetics in the interstellar medium.

  16. Pressure-Distribution Measurements at Large Angles of Pitch on Fins of Different Span-Chord Ratio on a 1/40-Scale Model of the U. S. Airship "Akron."

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mchugh, James G

    1937-01-01

    Report presents the results of pressure-distribution measurements on a 1/40-scale model of the U. S. Airship "Akron" conducted in the NACA 20-foot wind tunnel. The measurements were made on the starboard fin of each of four sets of horizontal tail surfaces, all of approximately the same area but differing in span-chord ratio, for five angles of pitch varying from 11.6 degrees to 34 degrees, for four elevator angles, and at air speeds ranging from 56 to 77 miles per hour. Pressures were also measured at 13 stations along the rear half of the port side of the hull at one elevator setting for the same five angles of pitch and at an air speed of approximately 91 miles per hour. The normal force on the fin and the moment of forces about the fin root were determined. The results indicate that, ignoring the effect on drag, it would be advantageous from structural considerations to use a fin of lower span-chord ratio than that used on the "Akron."

  17. Case report of bilateral cervical chondrocutaneous branchial remnants.

    PubMed

    Braun, Hannes; Hofmann, Thiemo; Wolfgruber, Herwig; Anderhuber, Wolfgang; Beham, Alfred; Stammberger, Heinz

    2003-01-01

    Cervical chondrocutaneous branchial remnants are rare and not well known lesions. Histologically the lesion per definition presents as a Choristoma. Choristoma is the pathohistological term for a developmental tumor-like anomaly consisting of tissues foreign to the site at which it is located. Treatment is complete surgical removal as promptly as possible in order to get an exact histopathological diagnosis. A case of a 4-month-old boy with cervical chondrocutaneous branchial remnants anterior to the sternocleidomastoid muscles on both sides is presented. According to literature search this appears to be the second case published on such a bilateral lesion.

  18. X-ray spectroscopic observations and modeling of supernova remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The X-ray observations of young remnants and their theoretical interpretation are described. A number of questions concerning the nature of the blast wave interaction with the interstellar gas and grains and of atomic processes in these hot plasmas are considered. It is concluded that future X-ray spectrometers with high collecting area, moderate spectral resolution and good spatial resolution can make important contributions to the understanding of supernova remnants in the Milky Way and neighboring galaxies and of their role in the global chemical and dynamical evolution of the interstellar medium.

  19. Genetically elevated non-fasting triglycerides and calculated remnant cholesterol as causal risk factors for myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Anders Berg; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; West, Anders Sode; Grande, Peer; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2013-06-01

    Elevated non-fasting triglycerides mark elevated levels of remnant cholesterol. Using a Mendelian randomization approach, we tested whether genetically increased remnant cholesterol in hypertriglyceridaemia due to genetic variation in the apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) associates with an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI). We resequenced the core promoter and coding regions of APOA5 in individuals with the lowest 1% (n = 95) and highest 2% (n = 190) triglyceride levels in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS, n = 10 391). Genetic variants which differed in frequency between the two extreme triglyceride groups (c.-1131T > C, S19W, and c.*31C > T; P-value: 0.06 to <0.001), thus suggesting an effect on triglyceride levels, were genotyped in the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS), the CCHS, and the Copenhagen Ischemic Heart Disease Study (CIHDS), comprising a total of 5705 MI cases and 54 408 controls. Genotype combinations of these common variants associated with increases in non-fasting triglycerides and calculated remnant cholesterol of, respectively, up to 68% (1.10 mmol/L) and 56% (0.40 mmol/L) (P < 0.001), and with a corresponding odds ratio for MI of 1.87 (95% confidence interval: 1.25-2.81). Using APOA5 genotypes in instrumental variable analysis, the observational hazard ratio for a doubling in non-fasting triglycerides was 1.57 (1.32-2.68) compared with a causal genetic odds ratio of 1.94 (1.40-1.85) (P for comparison = 0.28). For calculated remnant cholesterol, the corresponding values were 1.67(1.38-2.02) observational and 2.23(1.48-3.35) causal (P for comparison = 0.21). These data are consistent with a causal association between elevated levels of remnant cholesterol in hypertriglyceridaemia and an increased risk of MI. Limitations include that remnants were not measured directly, and that APOA5 genetic variants may influence other lipoprotein parameters.

  20. Bat use of remnant old-growth redwood stands

    Treesearch

    William J. Zielinski; Steven T. Gellman

    1999-01-01

    Most of the old-growth redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) in Calfornia has been cut; regenerating forests will probably never resemble those that were harvested, and what old growth remains on private land occurs in small, isolated remnant patches. The landscapes in which these stands occur differ so markedly from their original condition that their...

  1. 22. Detail of remnants of winch and motor on remains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Detail of remnants of winch and motor on remains of machinery house platform east of drawspan; note cables (still connected to drawspan) coming off the winding drum; view to north. - Summer Street Bridge, Spanning Reserved Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  2. Infection of internal umbilical remnant in foals by Clostridium sordellii.

    PubMed

    Ortega, J; Daft, B; Assis, R A; Kinde, H; Anthenill, L; Odani, J; Uzal, F A

    2007-05-01

    Omphalitis and the resulting septicemia contribute to perinatal mortality in several animal species. In foals, the most important causes of omphalitis are Escherichia coli and Streptococcus zooepidemicus. However to date, no information has been published about the role of Clostridium sordellii in these infections. In this paper, we describe 8 cases of perinatal mortality in foals associated with internal umbilical remnant infection by C. sordellii. The foals studied were between 12 and 21 days old at the time of death, and various breeds were represented in the group. Five of the foals were male and 3 were female. The diagnosis was established on the basis of the detection of C. sordellii by 3 methods (culture, fluorescent antibody test, and immunohistochemistry) and on gross and histopathologic findings. All foals had acute peritonitis, and the internal umbilical remnant was thickened by edema, hemorrhage, and fibrosis. A moderate amount of serosanguinous fluid with fibrin strands was present in the pericardial sac and pleural cavity. Histopathologically, the urachus and umbilical arterial walls were thickened by edema and exhibited hemorrhage, fibrin, and leukocytic infiltration. Gram-positive bacterial rods were observed in subepithelial areas of the urachus, the adventicia of umbilical arteries, and interstitium of the internal umbilical remnant. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that C. sordellii should be considered in the differential diagnosis for infections of the internal umbilical remnant in foals.

  3. Meteorological Station, interior with collapsed roof showing remnant wooden equipment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Meteorological Station, interior with collapsed roof showing remnant wooden equipment switch box on east wall; view southeast - Fort McKinley, Meteorological Station, East side of Weymouth Way, approximately 225 feet south of Cove Side Drive, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  4. Remnant Geometric Hall Response in a Quantum Quench.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Justin H; Song, Justin C W; Refael, Gil

    2016-12-02

    Out-of-equilibrium systems can host phenomena that transcend the usual restrictions of equilibrium systems. Here, we unveil how out-of-equilibrium states, prepared via a quantum quench in a two-band system, can exhibit a nonzero Hall-type current-a remnant Hall response-even when the instantaneous Hamiltonian is time reversal symmetric (in contrast to equilibrium Hall currents). Interestingly, the remnant Hall response arises from the coherent dynamics of the wave function that retain a remnant of its quantum geometry postquench, and can be traced to processes beyond linear response. Quenches in two-band Dirac systems are natural venues for realizing remnant Hall currents, which exist when either mirror or time-reversal symmetry are broken (before or after the quench). Its long time persistence, sensitivity to symmetry breaking, and decoherence-type relaxation processes allow it to be used as a sensitive diagnostic of the complex out-of-equilibrium dynamics readily controlled and probed in cold-atomic optical lattice experiments.

  5. On The Origin Of Two-Shell Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvaramadze, Vasilii

    2007-07-01

    The proper motion of massive stars could cause them to explode far from the geometric centers of their wind-driven bubbles and thereby could affect the symmetry of the resulting diffuse supernova remnants (SNRs). We use this fact to explain the origin of SNRs consisting of two partially overlapping shells (e.g. Cygnus Loop, 3C 400.2, etc.).

  6. 8. VIEW OF REMNANTS OF COULTERVILLE ROAD BELOW FORESTA. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF REMNANTS OF COULTERVILLE ROAD BELOW FORESTA. NOTE ASPHALT AT LEFT CENTER. NOTE RETAINING WALL AT RIGHT REAR. LOOKING NW. GIS: N-37 42 40.6 / W-119 43 27.6 - Coulterville Road, Between Foresta & All-Weather Highway, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  7. Constraining the number of compact remnants near Sgr A*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deegan, Patrick; Nayakshin, Sergei

    2007-05-01

    Due to dynamical friction stellar mass black holes and neutron stars are expected to form high-density cusps in the inner parsec of our Galaxy. These compact remnants, expected to number around 20000, may be accreting cold dense gas present there, and give rise to potentially observable X-ray emission. Here we build a simple but detailed time-dependent model of such emission. The possibility that these accretion flows are radiatively inefficient is taken into account and brings in some uncertainty in the conclusions. Despite this uncertainty, we find that at least several X-ray sources of this nature should be detectable with Chandra at any one time. Turning this issue around, we also ask a question of what current observational constraints might be telling us about the total number of compact remnants. In our `best guess' model, a cusp of ~40000 remnants overpredicts the number of discrete sources and the total X-ray luminosity of the inner parsec, and is hence ruled out. In the most radiatively inefficient scenario that we consider, the radiative efficiency is set to be as small as ɛ = 10-5. In this rather unlikely scenario, a cusp of ~40000 black holes would be allowed by the data, but several individual sources should still be visible. Future observations of the distribution and orbits of the cold ionized gas in the inner parsec of our Galaxy will put tighter constraints on the cusp of compact remnants.

  8. 6. OLD AND NEW TIOGA ROAD. NOTE REMNANTS OF OLD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. OLD AND NEW TIOGA ROAD. NOTE REMNANTS OF OLD ROAD ON LEFT. NOTE ROAD CUT ON CANYON WALL IN CENTER REAR. LOOKING NNE. GIS: N-37 56 19.5 / W-119 13 53.3 - Tioga Road, Between Crane Flat & Tioga Pass, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  9. 14. DETAIL OF REMNANTS OF WASTE GATE FRAME OF SPILLWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL OF REMNANTS OF WASTE GATE FRAME OF SPILLWAY AND INLET OF PIPE CULVERT UNDER NORTHERLY END OF SPILLWAY APRON; VIEW TO WEST. - Blackstone Canal Millbury Segment, Beginning northwest of State Route 146 & McCracken Road, running along west side of Route 146, Millbury, Worcester County, MA

  10. 15. CYLINDRICAL FISH SCALER Remnants of the wire screen remain, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. CYLINDRICAL FISH SCALER Remnants of the wire screen remain, through which the fish tumbled as the cylinder revolved. Note geared ring around cylinder, and the small drive shaft by which it was driven. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  11. Hot interstellar tunnels. 1: Simulation of interacting supernova remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B. W.

    1976-01-01

    The theory required to build a numerical simulation of interacting supernova remnants is developed. The hot cavities within a population of remnants will become connected, with varying ease and speed, for a variety of assumed conditions in the outer shells of old remnants. Apparently neither radiative cooling nor thermal conduction in a large-scale galactic magnetic field can destroy hot cavity regions, if they grow, faster than they are reheated by supernova shock waves, but interstellar mass motions disrupt the contiguity of extensive cavities necessary for the dispersal of these shocks over a wide volume. Monte Carlo simulations show that a quasi-equilibrium is reached in the test space within 10 million yrs of the first supernova and is characterized by an average cavity filling fraction of the interstellar volume. Aspects of this equilibrium are discussed for a range of supernova rates. Two predictions are not confirmed within this range: critical growth of hot regions to encompass the entire medium, and the efficient quenching of a remnant's expansion by interaction with other cavities.

  12. Cervical chondrocutaneous branchial remnants--report of 17 cases.

    PubMed

    Begovic, Ninoslav; Simic, Radoje; Vlahovic, Aleksandar; Kravljanac, Djordje; Djuricic, Slavisa; Mijovic, Tanja

    2014-11-01

    Cervical chondrocutaneous branchial remnants are congenital, benign and rare neck masses. These anomalies are limited in the literature, reported mostly as case reports. Cervical chondrocutaneous branchial remnant is always present at birth, and the lesion is usually unilateral. Understanding and treatment of cervical chondrocutaneous branchial remnants requires knowledge of the related embryology. From January 2005 to December 2008, 17 patients with mean age of 32 months (range from 2 months to 15 years) with CCBRs were treated at the Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Burns at the Institute for Mother and Child Health Care, Belgrade, Serbia. The following objections were recorded: sex, lesion side, surgical data, associated malformations and pathohistology findings. There were 7 females and 10 males, 4 with bilateral presences. Five children had associated anomalies, as follows: vesicoureteral reflux, atrial and ventricular septal defect, ventricular septal defect, branchiootorenal syndrome and preauricular sinus. There was a positive family history in one patient. Fifteen patients (88%) were treated with complete surgical excision and no connections with deep underlying structures of the neck were found. There were no complications at surgery. No recurrence was found during follow-up. Histopathology analysis revealed both, hyaline and elastic cartilage. Cervical chondrocutaneous branchial remnants are rare anomalies arising from branchial arch, probably originally from remnants of first or second arch. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice. From our experience, we suggest surgical treatment early in childhood because of esthetic reason, simplicity of the intervention and low complication rate. Also, the abdominal ultrasound and cardiac examination is recommended because of associated anomalies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular Environment and an X-Ray Spectroscopy of Supernova Remnant Kesteven 78

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ping; Chen, Yang

    2011-12-01

    We investigate the molecular environment of the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) Kesteven 78 and perform an XMM-Newton X-ray spectroscopic study for the northeastern edge of the remnant. SNR Kes 78 is found to interact with the molecular clouds (MCs) at a systemic local standard of rest velocity of 81 km s-1. At around this velocity, the SNR appears to contact a long molecular strip in the northeast and a large cloud in the east as revealed in the 13CO line, which may be responsible for the radio brightness peak and the OH maser, respectively. The 12CO-line bright region morphologically matches the eastern bright radio shell in general, and the SNR is consistent in extent with a CO cavity. Broadened 12CO-line profiles discerned in the eastern maser region and the western clumpy molecular arc and the elevated 12CO (J = 2-1)/(J = 1-0) ratios along the SNR boundary may be signatures of shock perturbation in the molecular gas. The SNR-MC association places the SNR at a kinematic distance of 4.8 kpc. The X-rays arising from the northeastern radio shell are emitted by underionized hot (~1.5 keV), low-density (~0.1 cm-3) plasma with solar abundance, and the plasma may be of intercloud origin. The age of the remnant is inferred to be about 6 kyr. The size of the molecular cavity in Kes 78 implies an initial mass around 22 M ⊙ for the progenitor.

  14. Studying white dwarf merger remnants with FLASH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenks, Malia

    2017-01-01

    There is still uncertainty as to the progenitor systems of type Ia supernova (SN Ia). Both single and double degenerate systems have been suggested as progenitors. In a double degenerate system a merger between the two white dwarfs, with total mass at or exceeding the Chandrasekhar mass, leads to the supernova. If the explosion occurs during the merging process it is a violent merger. If an explosion doesn't occur while the stars merge the system becomes a white dwarf of unstable mass. For mergers of this type with differing starting masses it has been shown that during the viscous evolution carbon burning starts far from the center and stably converts the star to oxygen and neon. In this case the star will eventually collapse to a neutron star and not produce an SN Ia. The case of similar mass mergers has been much less explored. Using the results of a smooth particle hydrodynamic merger we simulate the viscous evolution of models of different mass ratios with FLASH. These simulations test if a similar mass merger can lead to an SN Ia, and begin to probe where the transition from similar to dissimilar mass occurs.

  15. High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of the supernova remnant N132D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Una; Hughes, John P.; Canizares, Claude R.; Markert, Thomas H.

    1993-01-01

    A joint nonequilibrium ionization analysis of spectral data from the Einstein Observatory of the SNR N132D in the LMC is presented on the basis of data from the Focal Plane Crystal Spectrometer (FPCS) and the Solid State Spectrometer (SSS), and lower spectral resolution data from the IPC and the Monitor Proportional Counter (MPC). The FPCS detected individual emission lines of O VII, O VIII, Ne IX, Ne X, Fe XVII, and possibly Fe XX. Measured line widths for the oxygen lines suggest Doppler broadening that is roughly consistent with optically measured expansion velocities of 2250 km/s. At the SSS/IPC temperature, FPCS flux ratios constrain the O/Fe abundance to be at least 1.9 times its solar value and the O/Ne abundance to be 0.2-1.0 times its solar value. Models for remnants with progenitor masses of 20 and 25 solar masses are completely consistent with the data, while remnants with progenitor masses of 13 and 15 solar masses can be made consistent if the progenitors are required to eject a large fraction of their iron cores.

  16. Remnant cholesterol predicts periprocedural myocardial injury following percutaneous coronary intervention in poorly-controlled type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Rui-Xiang; Li, Sha; Zhang, Min-Zhou; Li, Xiao-Lin; Zhu, Cheng-Gang; Guo, Yuan-Lin; Zhang, Yan; Li, Jian-Jun

    2017-08-01

    Remnant cholesterol (RC) is receiving increasing attention regarding its relation to cardiovascular risk. Whether RC is associated with periprocedural myocardial injury (PMI) following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is currently unknown. We prospectively enrolled 1182 consecutive T2D patients who were scheduled for PCI but with baseline normal preprocedural cardiac troponin I (cTnI). Patients were divided according to their glycemic control status: group A [glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)<7%, n=563] and group B (HbA1c≥7%, n=619). PMI was evaluated by cTnI analysis within 24h. The associations of preprocedural RC and the RC to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (RC/HDL-C) with PMI were investigated. The associations of RC and RC/HDL-C with PMI were observed in group B (both p<0.05) but not in group A (both p>0.05). Patients in group B, a 1-SD increase of RC produced 30% and 32% increased risk for postprocedural cTnI>3× upper limit of normal (ULN) and >5×ULN, respectively. The odds ratios for RC/HDL-C were the highest compared with any cholesterol fractions including total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)/HDL-C, nonHDL-C/HDL-C, and triglyceride/HDL-C with 1.43 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.88] for >3× ULN and 1.49 (95% CI: 1.13-1.97) for >5× ULN. However, no such associations were found in group A. Furthermore, patients with RC >27.46mg/dL (third tertile) [RC≤14.15mg/dL (first tertile) as reference] were associated with a 1.57-fold and 2-fold increased risk for >3× ULN and >5× ULN in group B, respectively. RC and RC/HDL-C might be valuable, independent predictors for PMI in poorly-controlled diabetic patients undergoing PCI. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. 84 gigahertz observations of five Crab-like supernova remnants

    SciTech Connect

    Salter, C. J.; Reynolds, S. P.; Hogg, D. E.

    1989-03-01

    Flux density measurements at 3.6 mm have been made to extend the frequency coverage for three Crablike remnants and two Crablike components within remnants whose large-scale morphologies show shell-type structure. All five objects show flat, polarized, nonthermal radio spectra and associated X-ray emission characteristic of this class. The flux density is found to be lower than expected on the basis of an extrapolation of the spectrum from lower frequencies. If this is due to steepening caused by evolutionary effects, severe constraints can be put on the characteristics of the objects showing spectral steepening: all must be less than 2000 yrmore » old, and the supernovae in which they were born must all have had very unusual properties. 30 refs.« less

  18. Dynamics of supernova remnants in the Galactic centre.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortolas, E.; Mapelli, M.; Spera, M.

    The Galactic centre (GC) is a unique place to study the extreme dynamical processes occurring near a super-massive black hole (SMBH). Here we simulate a large set of binaries orbiting the SMBH while the primary member undergoes a supernova (SN) explosion, in order to study the impact of SN kicks on the orbits of stars and dark remnants in the GC. We find that SN explosions are efficient in scattering neutron stars and other light stars on new (mostly eccentric) orbits, while black holes (BHs) tend to retain memory of the orbit of their progenitor star. SN kicks are thus unable to eject BHs from the GC: a cusp of dark remnants may be lurking in the central parsec of our Galaxy.

  19. Distant Supernova Remnant Imaged by Chandra's High Resolution Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-09-01

    The High Resolution Camera (HRC), one of the two X-ray cameras on NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, was placed into the focus for the first time on Monday, August 30. The first target was LMC X-1, a point-like source of X rays in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The Large Magellanic Cloud, a companion galaxy to the Milky Way, is 160,000 light years from Earth. After checking the focus with LMC X-1, Chandra observed N132D, a remnant of an exploded star in the Large Magellanic Cloud. "These were preliminary test observations," emphasized Dr. Stephen Murray, of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, principal investigator for the High Resolution Camera. "But we are very pleased with the results. All indications are that the HRC will produce X-ray images of unprecedented clarity." The N132D image shows a highly structured remnant, or shell, of 10-million-degree gas that is 80 light years across. Such a shell in the vicinity of the Sun would encompass more than fifty nearby stars. The amount of material in the N132D hot gas remnant is equal to that of 600 suns. The N132D supernova remnant appears to be colliding with a giant molecular cloud, which produces the brightening on the southern rim of the remnant. The molecular cloud, visible with a radio telescope, has the mass of 300,000 suns. The relatively weak x-radiation on the upper left shows that the shock wave is expanding into a less dense region on the edge of the molecular cloud. A number of small circular structures are visible in the central regions and a hint of a large circular loop can be seen in the upper part of the remnant. Whether the peculiar shape of the supernova remnant can be fully explained in terms of these effects, or whether they point to a peculiar cylindrically shaped explosion remains to be seen. -more- "The image is so rich in structure that it will take a while to sort out what is really going on," Murray said. "It could be multiple supernovas, or absorbing clouds in the vicinity of the

  20. Is the Eagle Nebula powered by a hidden supernova remnant ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulanger, Francois

    2008-10-01

    Spitzer observations of the Eagle nebula (M16) reveal the presence of a large (8 pc diameter) shell of dust heated to anomalously high temperatures. Modeling of dust excitation shows that the shell emission cannot be powered by the cluster UV radiation but that it can be accounted for by collisionally heated dust in a young (a few 1000 yrs) supernova remnant. We have re-analyzed deep Chandra observations that show diffuse emission consistent with this hypothesis, but also with galactic ridge emission. We propose a 50 ksec XMM observation to probe the spatial extent of the diffuse X-ray emission beyond the Spitzer shell. Absence of emission outside of this shell will strongly support the supernova remnant interpretation

  1. A comparison of models for supernova remnants including cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyesung; Drury, L. O'C.

    1992-11-01

    A simplified model which can follow the dynamical evolution of a supernova remnant including the acceleration of cosmic rays without carrying out full numerical simulations has been proposed by Drury, Markiewicz, & Voelk in 1989. To explore the accuracy and the merits of using such a model, we have recalculated with the simplified code the evolution of the supernova remnants considered in Jones & Kang, in which more detailed and accurate numerical simulations were done using a full hydrodynamic code based on the two-fluid approximation. For the total energy transferred to cosmic rays the two codes are in good agreement, the acceleration efficiency being the same within a factor of 2 or so. The dependence of the results of the two codes on the closure parameters for the two-fluid approximation is also qualitatively similar. The agreement is somewhat degraded in those cases where the shock is smoothed out by the cosmic rays.

  2. Radio emission from supernova remnants in a cloudy interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blandford, R. D.; Cowie, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    The van der Laan (1962) theory of SNR radio emission is modified in light of the inhomogeneity of the interstellar medium, and in order to allow for particle acceleration in shock fronts. It is proposed that most of the radio emission in 10-20 pc radius SNRs originates in cold interstellar clouds that have been crushed by the high pressure hot gas within the expanding remnant. Under these circumstances, simple reacceleration of ambient interstellar cosmic ray electrons can account for the surface brightness-diameter distribution of observed remnants, with the additional, relativistic particle energy compensating for the decreased filling factor of the radio-emitting regions. Warm interstellar gas, at about 8000 K, may also be compressed within very large SNRs (of radius of 30-100 pc) and account for both the giant radio loops, when these SNRs are seen individually, and the anomalously bright galactic nonthermal radio background, which may be the superposition of a number of such features.

  3. Intestinal obstruction caused by omphalomesenteric duct remnant: usefulness of laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Bueno Lledó, J; Serralta Serra, A; Planeéis Roig, M; Dobón Giménez, F; Ibáñez Palacín, F; Rodero Rodero, R

    2003-10-01

    The anomalies related to omphalomesenteric duct remnant constitute an uncommon cause of intestinal obstruction, of which Meckel"s diverticulum and its variants represent the most important clinical presentation. In most cases they are asymptomatic and usually affect young patients. When symptomatic, they usually present episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding or acute abdomen syndromes caused by strangulation of intestinal loops as a result of fibrous intraabdominal remnants or inflammation produced by the diverticulum. In most cases, the unexpected presence of these alterations makes intraoperative diagnosis necessary. Treatment is surgical and consists in exeresis of the diverticulum or the fibrous band causing the clinical picture. We report two cases of persistence of the vitelline duct resolved by laparoscopic approach.

  4. Cosmic Ray and Tev Gamma Ray Generation by Quasar Remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boldt, Elihu; Loewenstein, Michael; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Results from new broadband (radio to X-ray) high-resolution imaging studies of the dormant quasar remnant cores of nearby giant elliptical galaxies are now shown to permit the harboring of compact dynamos capable of generating the highest energy cosmic ray particles and associated curvature radiation of TeV photons. Confirmation would imply a global inflow of interstellar gas all the way to the accretion powered supermassive black hole at the center of the host galaxy.

  5. X-Ray Measured Dynamics of Tycho's Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsuda, Satoru; Petre, Robert; Hughes, John; Hwang, Una; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Hayato, Asami; Mori, Koji; Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    We present X-ray proper-motion measurements of the forward shock and reverse-shocked ejecta in Tycho's supernova remnant, based on three sets of archival Chandra data taken in 2000, 2003, and 2007. We find that the proper motion of the edge of the remnant (i.e., the forward shock and protruding ejecta knots) varies from 0.''20 yr-1 (expansion index m = 0.33, where R = tm ) to 0.''40 yr-1 (m = 0.65) with azimuthal angle in 2000-2007 measurements, and 0.''14 yr-1 (m = 0.26) to 0.''40 yr-1 (m = 0.65) in 2003-2007 measurements. The azimuthal variation of the proper motion and the average expansion index of [approx]0.5 are consistent with those derived from radio observations. We also find proper motion and expansion index of the reverse-shocked ejecta to be 0.''21-0.''31 yr-1 and 0.43-0.64, respectively. From a comparison of the measured m-value with Type Ia supernova evolutionary models, we find a pre-shock ambient density around the remnant of [less, similar]0.2 cm-3.

  6. Kepler Supernova Remnant: A View from Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-06

    This Spitzer false-color image is a composite of data from the 24 micron channel of Spitzer's multiband imaging photometer (red), and three channels of its infrared array camera: 8 micron (yellow), 5.6 micron (blue), and 4.8 micron (green). Stars are most prominent in the two shorter wavelengths, causing them to show up as turquoise. The supernova remnant is most prominent at 24 microns, arising from dust that has been heated by the supernova shock wave, and re-radiated in the infrared. The 8 micron data shows infrared emission from regions closely associated with the optically emitting regions. These are the densest regions being encountered by the shock wave, and probably arose from condensations in the surrounding material that was lost by the supernova star before it exploded. The composite above (PIA06908, PIA06909, and PIA06910) represent views of Kepler's supernova remnant taken in X-rays, visible light, and infrared radiation. Each top panel in the composite above shows the entire remnant. Each color in the composite represents a different region of the electromagnetic spectrum, from X-rays to infrared light. The X-ray and infrared data cannot be seen with the human eye. Astronomers have color-coded those data so they can be seen in these images. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA06910

  7. Fermi Large Area Telescope Detection of Supernova Remnant RCW 86

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Qiang; Huang, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Siming; Zhang, Bing

    2014-04-01

    Using 5.4 yr Fermi Large Area Telescope data, we report the detection of GeV γ-ray emission from the shell-type supernova remnant RCW 86 (G315.4-2.3) with a significance of ~5.1σ. The data slightly favors an extended emission of this supernova remnant. The spectral index of RCW 86 is found to be very hard, Γ ~ 1.4, in the 0.4-300 GeV range. A one-zone leptonic model can well fit the multi-wavelength data from radio to very high energy γ-rays. The very hard GeV γ-ray spectrum and the inferred low gas density seem to disfavor a hadronic origin for the γ-rays. The γ-ray behavior of RCW 86 is very similar to several other TeV shell-type supernova remnants, e.g., RX J1713.7-3946, RX J0852.0-4622, SN 1006, and HESS J1731-347.

  8. Search for Nonthermal X-Rays from Supernova Remnant Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petre, R.; Keohane, J.; Hwang, U.; Allen, G.; Gotthelf, E.

    The demonstration by ASCA that the nonthermal X-ray emission from the rim of SN1006 is synchrotron emission from TeV electrons, produced in the same environment responsible for cosmic ray protons and nuclei (Koyama et al. 1995, Nature 378, 255), has stimulated a search for nonthermal X-rays from other remnants. Nonthermal emission has subsequently been found to arise in the shells of at least two other remnants, Cas A and IC 443. In Cas A, a hard tail is detected using ASCA, XTE, and OSSE to energies exceeding 100 keV; the shape of the spectrum rules out all mechanisms except synchrotron radiation. In IC 443, the previously known hard emission has been shown using ASCA to be isolated to a small region along the rim of the remnant, where the shock is interacting most strongly with a molecular cloud. Nonthermal X-ray emission is thought to arise here by enhanced cosmic ray production associated with the shock/cloud interaction (Keohane et al. 1997, ApJ in press). We describe the properties of the nonthermal emission in SN1006, Cas A, and IC 443, and discuss the status of our search for nonthermal emission associated with the shocks of other Galactic and LMC SNR's.

  9. Time evolution of gamma rays from supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaggero, Daniele; Zandanel, Fabio; Cristofari, Pierre; Gabici, Stefano

    2018-04-01

    We present a systematic phenomenological study focused on the time evolution of the non-thermal radiation - from radio waves to gamma rays - emitted by typical supernova remnants via hadronic and leptonic mechanisms, for two classes of progenitors: thermonuclear and core-collapse. To this aim, we develop a numerical tool designed to model the evolution of the cosmic ray spectrum inside a supernova remnant, and compute the associated multi-wavelength emission. We demonstrate the potential of this tool in the context of future population studies based on large collection of high-energy gamma-ray data. We discuss and explore the relevant parameter space involved in the problem, and focus in particular on their impact on the maximum energy of accelerated particles, in order to study the effectiveness and duration of the PeVatron phase. We outline the crucial role of the ambient medium through which the shock propagates during the remnant evolution. In particular, we point out the role of dense clumps in creating a significant hardening in the hadronic gamma-ray spectrum.

  10. Current status in remnant gastric cancer after distal gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ohira, Masaichi; Toyokawa, Takahiro; Sakurai, Katsunobu; Kubo, Naoshi; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Muguruma, Kazuya; Yashiro, Masakazu; Onoda, Naoyoshi; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2016-01-01

    Remnant gastric cancer (RGC) and gastric stump cancer after distal gastrectomy (DG) are recognized as the same clinical entity. In this review, the current knowledges as well as the non-settled issues of RGC are presented. Duodenogastric reflux and denervation of the gastric mucosa are considered as the two main factors responsible for the development of RGC after benign disease. On the other hand, some precancerous circumstances which already have existed at the time of initial surgery, such as atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia, are the main factors associated with RGC after gastric cancer. Although eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in remnant stomach is promising, it is still uncertain whether it can reduce the risk of carcinogenesis. Periodic endoscopic surveillance after DG was reported useful in detecting RGC at an early stage, which offers a chance to undergo minimally invasive endoscopic treatment or laparoscopic surgery and leads to an improved prognosis in RGC patients. Future challenges may be expected to elucidate the benefit of eradication of H. pylori in the remnant stomach if it could reduce the risk for RGC, to build an optimal endoscopic surveillance strategy after DG by stratifying the risk for development of RGC, and to develop a specific staging system for RGC for the standardization of the treatment by prospecting the prognosis. PMID:26937131

  11. Dance into the fire: dust survival inside supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micelotta, Elisabetta R.; Dwek, Eli; Slavin, Jonathan D.

    2016-06-01

    Core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are important sources of interstellar dust, potentially capable of producing 1 M_{⊙}) of dust in their explosively expelled ejecta. However, unlike other dust sources, the dust has to survive the passage of the reverse shock, generated by the interaction of the supernova blast wave with its surrounding medium. Knowledge of the net amount of dust produced by CCSNe is crucial for understanding the origin and evolution of dust in the local and high-redshift universe. Our goal is to identify the dust destruction mechanisms in the ejecta, and derive the net amount of dust that survives the passage of the reverse shock. To do so, we have developed analytical models for the evolution of a supernova blast wave and of the reverse shock, and the simultaneous processing of the dust inside the cavity of the supernova remnant. We have applied our models to the special case of the clumpy ejecta of the remnant of Cassiopeia A (Cas A), assuming that the dust (silicates and carbon grains) resides in cool oxygen-rich ejecta clumps which are uniformly distributed within the remnant and surrounded by a hot X-ray emitting plasma (smooth ejecta). The passage of the reverse shock through the clumps gives rise to a relative gas-grain motion and also destroys the clumps. While residing in the ejecta clouds, dust is processed via kinetic sputtering, which is terminated either when the grains escape the clumps, or when the clumps are destroyed by the reverse shock. In either case, grain destruction proceeds thereafter by thermal sputtering in the hot shocked smooth ejecta. We find that 12 and 16 percent of silicate and carbon dust, respectively, survive the passage of the reverse shock by the time the shock has reached the center of the remnant. These fractions depend on the morphology of the ejecta and the medium into which the remnant is expanding, as well as the composition and size distribution of the grains that formed in the ejecta. Results will

  12. Radio to Gamma-Ray Emission from Shell-Type Supernova Remnants: Predictions from Non-Linear Shock Acceleration Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baring, Matthew G.; Ellison, Donald C.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Grenier, Isabelle A.; Goret, Philippe

    1998-01-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) are widely believed to be the principal source of galactic cosmic rays, produced by diffusive shock acceleration in the environs of the remnant's expanding blast wave. Such energetic particles can produce gamma-rays and lower energy photons via interactions with the ambient plasma. The recently reported observation of TeV gamma-rays from SN1006 by the CANGAROO Collaboration, combined with the fact that several unidentified EGRET sources have been associated with known radio/optical/X-ray-emitting remnants, provides powerful motivation for studying gamma-ray emission from SNRs. In this paper, we present results from a Monte Carlo simulation of non-linear shock structure and acceleration coupled with photon emission in shell-like SNRs. These non-linearities are a by-product of the dynamical influence of the accelerated cosmic rays on the shocked plasma and result in distributions of cosmic rays which deviate from pure power-laws. Such deviations are crucial to acceleration efficiency considerations and impact photon intensities and spectral shapes at all energies, producing GeV/TeV intensity ratios that are quite different from test particle predictions.

  13. Intermediate-mass black holes from Population III remnants in the first galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Taeho; Tanaka, Takamitsu L.; Perna, Rosalba; Haiman, Zoltán

    2016-08-01

    We report the formation of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) in suites of numerical N-body simulations of Population III remnant black holes (BHs) embedded in gas-rich protogalaxies at redshifts z ≳ 10. We model the effects of gas drag on the BHs' orbits, and allow BHs to grow via gas accretion, including a mode of hyper-Eddington accretion in which photon trapping and rapid gas inflow suppress any negative radiative feedback. Most initial BH configurations lead to the formation of one (but never more than one) IMBH in the centre of the protogalaxy, reaching a mass of 103-5 M⊙ through hyper-Eddington growth. Our results suggest a viable pathway to forming the earliest massive BHs in the centres of early galaxies. We also find that the nuclear IMBH typically captures a stellar-mass BH companion, making these systems observable in gravitational waves as extreme mass-ratio inspirals with eLISA.

  14. Viable Cancer Cells in the Remnant Stomach are a Potential Source of Peritoneal Metastasis after Curative Distal Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Murata, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Kaida, Sachiko; Ishida, Mitsuaki; Kodama, Hirokazu; Takebayashi, Katsushi; Shimizu, Tomoharu; Miyake, Toru; Tani, Tohru; Kushima, Ryoji; Tani, Masaji

    2016-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying peritoneal metastasis (PM) after curative gastrectomy for gastric cancer (GC) are not well elucidated. This study assessed whether viable cancer cells, including cancer stemlike cells (CSCs), were present in the remnant stomach immediately before gastrointestinal (GI) tract reconstruction because these could be a source of PM after gastrectomy. Saline fluid used for remnant stomach lumen irrigation before GI reconstruction was prospectively collected from 142 consecutive patients undergoing distal gastrectomy for GC and cytologically examined. Proliferative activity (Ki67 staining) and stemness (expression of the CSC surface markers CD44s or CD44v6) were evaluated in detected cancer cells. Viable cancer cells were detected in 33 (23.2 %) of the 142 remnant stomachs. These cells formed clusters and stained positively for Ki67, indicating proliferation. Cancer cells in remnant stomachs and surface cancer cells in primary GCs from 10 (30.3 %) of these 33 cases also stained positively for CD44s or CD44v6. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, advanced cancer (odds ratio [OR], 4.65; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.32-16.4; P = 0.017), tumor size of 40 mm or larger (OR, 3.78; 95 % CI, 1.12-12.8; P = 0.033), and histologic differentiation (OR, 3.10; 95 % CI, 1.30-7.40; P = 0.011) were associated independently with the presence of cancer cells in the remnant stomach. Viable, proliferative, and clustered cancer cells, including CSCs, were found in remnant gastric lumens immediately before GI reconstruction, indicating a possible cellular source of PM after curative gastrectomy for GC. Dissemination of gastric contents into the peritoneal cavity should be avoided during GI reconstruction.

  15. OXYGEN-RICH SUPERNOVA REMNANT IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the tattered debris of a star that exploded 3,000 years ago as a supernova. This supernova remnant, called N132D, lies 169,000 light-years away in the satellite galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud. A Hubble Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 image of the inner regions of the supernova remnant shows the complex collisions that take place as fast moving ejecta slam into cool, dense interstellar clouds. This level of detail in the expanding filaments could only be seen previously in much closer supernova remnants. Now, Hubble's capabilities extend the detailed study of supernovae out to the distance of a neighboring galaxy. Material thrown out from the interior of the exploded star at velocities of more than four million miles per hour (2,000 kilometers per second) plows into neighboring clouds to create luminescent shock fronts. The blue-green filaments in the image correspond to oxygen-rich gas ejected from the core of the star. The oxygen-rich filaments glow as they pass through a network of shock fronts reflected off dense interstellar clouds that surrounded the exploded star. These dense clouds, which appear as reddish filaments, also glow as the shock wave from the supernova crushes and heats the clouds. Supernova remnants provide a rare opportunity to observe directly the interiors of stars far more massive than our Sun. The precursor star to this remnant, which was located slightly below and left of center in the image, is estimated to have been 25 times the mass of our Sun. These stars 'cook' heavier elements through nuclear fusion, including oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, iron etc., and the titanic supernova explosions scatter this material back into space where it is used to create new generations of stars. This is the mechanism by which the gas and dust that formed our solar system became enriched with the elements that sustain life on this planet. Hubble spectroscopic observations will be used to determine the exact

  16. MERGERS OF UNEQUAL-MASS GALAXIES: SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARY EVOLUTION AND STRUCTURE OF MERGER REMNANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Preto, Miguel; Berentzen, Ingo

    Galaxy centers are residing places for supermassive black holes (SMBHs). Galaxy mergers bring SMBHs close together to form gravitationally bound binary systems, which, if able to coalesce in less than a Hubble time, would be one of the most promising sources of gravitational waves (GWs) for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna. In spherical galaxy models, SMBH binaries stall at a separation of approximately 1 pc, leading to the 'final parsec problem' (FPP). On the other hand, it has been shown that merger-induced triaxiality of the remnant in equal-mass mergers is capable of supporting a constant supply of stars on themore » so-called centrophilic orbits that interact with the binary and thus avoid the FPP. In this paper, using a set of direct N-body simulations of mergers of initially spherically symmetric galaxies with different mass ratios, we show that the merger-induced triaxiality is also able to drive unequal-mass SMBH binaries to coalescence. The binary hardening rates are high and depend only weakly on the mass ratios of SMBHs for a wide range of mass ratios q. There is, however, an abrupt transition in the hardening rates for mergers with mass ratios somewhere between q {approx} 0.05 and 0.1, resulting from the monotonic decrease of merger-induced triaxiality with mass ratio q, as the secondary galaxy becomes too small and light to significantly perturb the primary, i.e., the more massive one. The hardening rates are significantly higher for galaxies having steep cusps in comparison with those having shallow cups at centers. The evolution of the binary SMBH leads to relatively shallower inner slopes at the centers of the merger remnants. The stellar mass displaced by the SMBH binary on its way to coalescence is {approx}1-5 times the combined mass of binary SMBHs. The coalescence timescales for SMBH binary with mass {approx}10{sup 6} M{sub Sun} are less than 1 Gyr and for those at the upper end of SMBH masses 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} are 1-2 Gyr for less

  17. Ten years of experience with third and fourth branchial remnants.

    PubMed

    Liberman, Moishe; Kay, Saundra; Emil, Sherif; Flageole, Hélène; Nguyen, Luong T; Tewfik, Ted L; Oudjhane, Kamal; Laberge, Jean-Martin

    2002-05-01

    Third and fourth branchial remnants may result in cysts and abscesses that are in close contact with the thyroid gland. These anomalies are rare and often present diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The charts of patients diagnosed with a branchial anomaly between July 1991 and July 2001 at the Montreal Children's Hospital were reviewed. All cases of third and fourth branchial remnants or pyriform sinus fistulae were identified. Clinical presentation, imaging, treatment, and outcome were recorded. Eight patients with a third or fourth branchial anomaly were identified and ranged in age from birth to 13 years. All anomalies were left sided. Presenting symptoms consisted of an asymptomatic cervical mass (n = 1), an infected mass (n = 5), neonatal respiratory distress (n = 1), and 1 incidental cyst found on magnetic resonance imaging. Ultrasonography was useful in suggesting the diagnosis in 7 cases. Barium swallow was performed in 3 patients with 2 positive results. Pharyngoscopy results showed the internal opening in 2 of 7 patients. A portion of the thyroid gland was resected in 6 patients. One patient has not yet undergone a definitive procedure. There was 1 recurrence in a patient whose pathology did not confirm a branchial remnant. The diagnosis and management of pyriform sinus anomalies are challenging. Ultrasound scan, computed tomography scan, barium swallow, and pharyngoscopy are all useful. The portion of thyroid involved in the fistula must be excised en bloc with the inflammatory mass, and the tract should be ligated at the level of the pharynx to minimize recurrence. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  18. Observations of TeV Gamma Rays from Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, James H.

    1994-12-01

    Measurements of the gamma ray flux from a number of supernova remnants (SNRs) at energies above 250 GeV have been made with the Whipple Imaging air \\v Cerenkov detector. Observation of the gamma ray emission of SNRs at energies above 1 GeV should provide a sensitive test of shock acceleration models of particle acceleration in SNRs. Gamma-ray luminosities of supernova remnants are well constrained by the observed supernova rate and the cosmic ray flux if supernovae are indeed the source of cosmic rays. Drury et al. (Astron. Astrophys. 287, 959 (1994)) predict that the luminosity of nearby Sedov-phase SNRs should be observable by the Whipple telescope. In this model, diffusive shock acceleration produces energetic charged particles which interact with the ambient medium forming gamma rays. There is an indication that a number of unidentified EGRET sources may correspond to supernova remnants (G. Kanbach, private communication), although at these energies (>100 MeV) the diffuse background is somewhat uncertain. Measurements of the gamma-ray flux with the Whipple instrument have a similar sensitivity to the EGRET detector for a source spectral index of 2.15, and less sensitivity to diffuse background. A number of observations of SNRs including: Tycho, W66, IC443, and others have been made. Currently for Tycho an upper limit of 9times 10(-12) cm(-2) sec(-1) is obtained. The status of these observations will be presented, and it will be shown that these measurements combined with the EGRET observations are beginning to provide a useful constraint on models of cosmic ray origin. Gamma-ray observations may also be used to constrain models of particle acceleration in SNRs exhibiting pulser-powered synchrotron nebula (plerions). The status of observations of this class of objects, including the Crab nebula, will also be presented. Supported in part by the U.S. Dept. of Energy.

  19. Search for gamma ray lines from supernovae and supernova remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chupp, E. L.; Forrest, D. J.; Suri, A. N.; Adams, R.; Tsai, C.

    1974-01-01

    A gamma ray monitor with a NaI crystal shielded with a cup-shaped CsI cover was contained in the rotating wheel compartment of the OSO-7 spacecraft for measuring the gamma ray spectra from 0.3 to 10 MeV in search for gamma ray lines from a possible remnant in the Gum Nebula and the apparent Type I supernovae in NGC5253. A brief analysis of data yielded no positive indications for X-rays, gamma ray lines, or continuum from these sources.

  20. Detection of explosive remnants of war by neutron thermalisation.

    PubMed

    Brooks, F D; Drosg, M; Smit, F D; Wikner, C

    2012-01-01

    The HYDAD-D landmine detector (Brooks and Drosg, 2005) has been modified and field-tested for 17 months in a variety of soil conditions. Test objects containing about the same mass of hydrogen (20g) as small explosive remnants of war, such as antipersonnel landmines, were detected with efficiency 100% when buried at cover depths up to 10cm. The false alarm rate under the same conditions was 9%. Plots of detection efficiency versus false alarm rate are presented. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Haemangiosarcoma in the uterine remnant of a spayed female dog.

    PubMed

    Wenzlow, N; Tivers, M S; Selmic, L E; Scurrell, E J; Baines, S J; Smith, K C

    2009-09-01

    A 11-year-old, female, spayed greyhound was presented with a haemorrhagic discharge from the vulva. Clinical examination, vaginoscopy and a computed tomography scan showed an irregular egg-sized mass in the region of the cervix and uterine stump. An endoscopic grab biopsy (incisional) suggested a malignant mesenchymal tumour. Following this, surgical excision of the cranial vagina, cervix and the uterine remnant was performed. The final diagnosis of haemangiosarcoma was based on histological examination of the larger excisional biopsy specimen and was confirmed by positive immunolabelling of the neoplastic endothelial cells for the von Willebrand factor.

  2. A 3D View of a Supernova Remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-06-01

    The outlined regions mark the 57 knots in Tycho selected by the authors for velocity measurements. Magenta regions have redshifted line-of-sight velocities (moving away from us); cyan regions have blueshifted light-of-sight velocities (moving toward us). [Williams et al. 2017]The Tycho supernova remnant was first observed in the year 1572. Nearly 450 years later, astronomers have now used X-ray observations of Tycho to build the first-ever 3D map of a Type Ia supernova remnant.Signs of ExplosionsSupernova remnants are spectacular structures formed by the ejecta of stellar explosions as they expand outwards into the surrounding interstellar medium.One peculiarity of these remnants is that they often exhibit asymmetries in their appearance and motion. Is this because the ejecta are expanding into a nonuniform interstellar medium? Or was the explosion itself asymmetric? The best way we can explore this question is with detailed observations of the remnants.Histograms of the velocity in distribution of the knots in the X (green), Y (blue) and Z (red) directions (+Z is away from the observer). They show no evidence for asymmetric expansion of the knots. [Williams et al. 2017]Enter TychoTo this end, a team of scientists led by Brian Williams (Space Telescope Science Institute and NASA Goddard SFC) has worked to map out the 3D velocities of the ejecta in the Tycho supernova remnant. Tycho is a Type Ia supernova thought to be caused by the thermonuclear explosion of a white dwarf in a binary system that was destabilized by mass transfer from its companion.After 450 years of expansion, the remnant now has the morphological appearance of a roughly circular cloud of clumpy ejecta. The forward shock wave from the supernova, however, is known to have twice the velocity on one side of the shell as on the other.To better understand this asymmetry, Williams and collaborators selected a total of 57 knots in Tychos ejecta, spread out around the remnant. They then used 12 years of

  3. Exploring properties of high-density matter through remnants of neutron-star mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauswein, Andreas; Stergioulas, Nikolaos; Janka, Hans-Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Remnants of neutron-star mergers are essentially massive, hot, differentially rotating neutron stars, which are initially strongly oscillating. As such they represent a unique probe for high-density matter because the oscillations are detectable via gravitational-wave measurements and are strongly dependent on the equation of state. The impact of the equation of state for instance is apparent in the frequency of the dominant oscillation mode of the remnant. For a fixed total binary mass a tight relation between the dominant postmerger oscillation frequency and the radii of nonrotating neutron stars exists. Inferring observationally the dominant postmerger frequency thus determines neutron star radii with high accuracy of the order of a few hundred meters. By considering symmetric and asymmetric binaries of the same chirp mass, we show that the knowledge of the binary mass ratio is not critical for this kind of radius measurements. We perform simulations which show that initial intrinsic neutron star rotation is unlikely to affect this method of constraining the high-density equation of state. We also summarize different possibilities about how the postmerger gravitational-wave emission can be employed to deduce the maximum mass of nonrotating neutron stars. We clarify the nature of the three most prominent features of the postmerger gravitational-wave spectrum and argue that the merger remnant can be considered to be a single, isolated, self-gravitating object that can be described by concepts of asteroseismology. We sketch how the consideration of the strength of secondary gravitational-wave peaks leads to a classification scheme of the gravitational-wave emission and postmerger dynamics. The understanding of the different mechanisms shaping the gravitational-wave signal yields a physically motivated analytic model of the gravitational-wave emission, which may form the basis for template-based gravitational-wave data analysis. We explore the observational

  4. Energetics and Birth Rates of Supernova Remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, D. A.

    2017-03-01

    Published X-ray emission properties for a sample of 50 supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) are used as input for SNR evolution modeling calculations. The forward shock emission is modeled to obtain the initial explosion energy, age, and circumstellar medium density for each SNR in the sample. The resulting age distribution yields a SNR birthrate of 1/(500 yr) for the LMC. The explosion energy distribution is well fit by a log-normal distribution, with a most-probable explosion energy of 0.5× {10}51 erg, with a 1σ dispersion by a factor of 3 in energy. The circumstellar medium density distribution is broader than the explosion energy distribution, with a most-probable density of ˜0.1 cm-3. The shape of the density distribution can be fit with a log-normal distribution, with incompleteness at high density caused by the shorter evolution times of SNRs.

  5. Remnant trees affect species composition but not structure of tropical second-growth forest.

    PubMed

    Sandor, Manette E; Chazdon, Robin L

    2014-01-01

    Remnant trees, spared from cutting when tropical forests are cleared for agriculture or grazing, act as nuclei of forest regeneration following field abandonment. Previous studies on remnant trees were primarily conducted in active pasture or old fields abandoned in the previous 2-3 years, and focused on structure and species richness of regenerating forest, but not species composition. Our study is among the first to investigate the effects of remnant trees on neighborhood forest structure, biodiversity, and species composition 20 years post-abandonment. We compared the woody vegetation around individual remnant trees to nearby plots without remnant trees in the same second-growth forests ("control plots"). Forest structure beneath remnant trees did not differ significantly from control plots. Species richness and species diversity were significantly higher around remnant trees. The species composition around remnant trees differed significantly from control plots and more closely resembled the species composition of nearby old-growth forest. The proportion of old-growth specialists and generalists around remnant trees was significantly greater than in control plots. Although previous studies show that remnant trees may initially accelerate secondary forest growth, we found no evidence that they locally affect stem density, basal area, and seedling density at later stages of regrowth. Remnant trees do, however, have a clear effect on the species diversity, composition, and ecological groups of the surrounding woody vegetation, even after 20 years of forest regeneration. To accelerate the return of diversity and old-growth forest species into regrowing forest on abandoned land, landowners should be encouraged to retain remnant trees in agricultural or pastoral fields.

  6. Remnant Trees Affect Species Composition but Not Structure of Tropical Second-Growth Forest

    PubMed Central

    Sandor, Manette E.; Chazdon, Robin L.

    2014-01-01

    Remnant trees, spared from cutting when tropical forests are cleared for agriculture or grazing, act as nuclei of forest regeneration following field abandonment. Previous studies on remnant trees were primarily conducted in active pasture or old fields abandoned in the previous 2–3 years, and focused on structure and species richness of regenerating forest, but not species composition. Our study is among the first to investigate the effects of remnant trees on neighborhood forest structure, biodiversity, and species composition 20 years post-abandonment. We compared the woody vegetation around individual remnant trees to nearby plots without remnant trees in the same second-growth forests (“control plots”). Forest structure beneath remnant trees did not differ significantly from control plots. Species richness and species diversity were significantly higher around remnant trees. The species composition around remnant trees differed significantly from control plots and more closely resembled the species composition of nearby old-growth forest. The proportion of old-growth specialists and generalists around remnant trees was significantly greater than in control plots. Although previous studies show that remnant trees may initially accelerate secondary forest growth, we found no evidence that they locally affect stem density, basal area, and seedling density at later stages of regrowth. Remnant trees do, however, have a clear effect on the species diversity, composition, and ecological groups of the surrounding woody vegetation, even after 20 years of forest regeneration. To accelerate the return of diversity and old-growth forest species into regrowing forest on abandoned land, landowners should be encouraged to retain remnant trees in agricultural or pastoral fields. PMID:24454700

  7. Searches for Continuous Gravitational Waves from Nine Young Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Alemic, A.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J. S.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barbet, M.; Barclay, S.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Bauer, Th. S.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Benacquista, M.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, Sukanta; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchman, S.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C.; Colombini, M.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Cutler, C.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dartez, L.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Dominguez, E.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edo, T.; Edwards, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fuentes-Tapia, S.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L. Á.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Gossler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Gräf, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C. J.; Guo, X.; Gushwa, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M.; Heinzel, G.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Islas, G.; Isler, J. C.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; Jang, H.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Ji, Y.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; K, Haris; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, H.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kéfélian, F.; Keiser, G. M.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, N. G.; Kim, N.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J.; Koehlenbeck, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Larson, S.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Lazzaro, C.; Le, J.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B.; Lewis, J.; Li, T. G. F.; Libbrecht, K.; Libson, A.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J.; Lubinski, M. J.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macarthur, J.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña na-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R.; Mageswaran, M.; Maglione, C.; Mailand, K.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McLin, K.; McWilliams, S.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Meinders, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohanty, S. D.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moore, B.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nagy, M. F.; Nardecchia, I.; Nash, T.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, I.; Neri, M.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A. H.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, R.; O'Reilly, B.; Ortega, W.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C.; Pai, A.; Pai, S.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patrick, Z.; Pedraza, M.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J.; Poggiani, R.; Post, A.; Poteomkin, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E.; Quiroga, G.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Rácz, I.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajalakshmi, G.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Reula, O.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sannibale, V.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Sawadsky, A.; Scheuer, J.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith-Lefebvre, N. D.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Staley, A.; Stebbins, J.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Steplewski, S.; Stevenson, S.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B.; Szczepanczyk, M.; Szeifert, G.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Tellez, G.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Tse, M.; Tshilumba, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; van den Broeck, C.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Heijningen, J.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vincent-Finley, R.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wilkinson, C.; Williams, L.; Williams, R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Xie, S.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, Q.; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S.; Zweizig, J.

    2015-11-01

    We describe directed searches for continuous gravitational waves (GWs) in data from the sixth Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) science data run. The targets were nine young supernova remnants not associated with pulsars; eight of the remnants are associated with non-pulsing suspected neutron stars. One target's parameters are uncertain enough to warrant two searches, for a total of 10. Each search covered a broad band of frequencies and first and second frequency derivatives for a fixed sky direction. The searches coherently integrated data from the two LIGO interferometers over time spans from 5.3-25.3 days using the matched-filtering {F}-statistic. We found no evidence of GW signals. We set 95% confidence upper limits as strong (low) as 4 × 10-25 on intrinsic strain, 2 × 10-7 on fiducial ellipticity, and 4 × 10-5 on r-mode amplitude. These beat the indirect limits from energy conservation and are within the range of theoretical predictions for neutron-star ellipticities and r-mode amplitudes.

  8. Destruction of Interstellar Dust in Evolving Supernova Remnant Shock Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, Jonathan D.; Dwek, Eli; Jones, Anthony P.

    2015-01-01

    Supernova generated shock waves are responsible for most of the destruction of dust grains in the interstellar medium (ISM). Calculations of the dust destruction timescale have so far been carried out using plane parallel steady shocks, however that approximation breaks down when the destruction timescale becomes longer than that for the evolution of the supernova remnant (SNR) shock. In this paper we present new calculations of grain destruction in evolving, radiative SNRs. To facilitate comparison with the previous study by Jones et al. (1996), we adopt the same dust properties as in that paper. We find that the efficiencies of grain destruction are most divergent from those for a steady shock when the thermal history of a shocked gas parcel in the SNR differs significantly from that behind a steady shock. This occurs in shocks with velocities 200 km s(exp -1) for which the remnant is just beginning to go radiative. Assuming SNRs evolve in a warm phase dominated ISM, we find dust destruction timescales are increased by a factor of approximately 2 compared to those of Jones et al. (1996), who assumed a hot gas dominated ISM. Recent estimates of supernova rates and ISM mass lead to another factor of approximately 3 increase in the destruction timescales, resulting in a silicate grain destruction timescale of approximately 2-3 Gyr. These increases, while not able resolve the problem of the discrepant timescales for silicate grain destruction and creation, are an important step towards understanding the origin, and evolution of dust in the ISM.

  9. Dust in Supernovae and Supernova Remnants II: Processing and Survival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micelotta, E. R.; Matsuura, M.; Sarangi, A.

    2018-03-01

    Observations have recently shown that supernovae are efficient dust factories, as predicted for a long time by theoretical models. The rapid evolution of their stellar progenitors combined with their efficiency in precipitating refractory elements from the gas phase into dust grains make supernovae the major potential suppliers of dust in the early Universe, where more conventional sources like Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars did not have time to evolve. However, dust yields inferred from observations of young supernovae or derived from models do not reflect the net amount of supernova-condensed dust able to be expelled from the remnants and reach the interstellar medium. The cavity where the dust is formed and initially resides is crossed by the high velocity reverse shock which is generated by the pressure of the circumstellar material shocked by the expanding supernova blast wave. Depending on grain composition and initial size, processing by the reverse shock may lead to substantial dust erosion and even complete destruction. The goal of this review is to present the state of the art about processing and survival of dust inside supernova remnants, in terms of theoretical modelling and comparison to observations.

  10. Planck intermediate results: XXXI. Microwave survey of Galactic supernova remnants

    DOE PAGES

    Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; ...

    2016-02-09

    The all-sky Planck survey in 9 frequency bands was used in this paper to search for emission from all 274 known Galactic supernova remnants. Of these, 16 were detected in at least two Planck frequencies. The radio-through-microwave spectral energy distributions were compiled to determine the mechanism for microwave emission. In only one case, IC 443, is there high-frequency emission clearly from dust associated with the supernova remnant. In all cases, the low-frequency emission is from synchrotron radiation. As predicted for a population of relativistic particles with energy distribution that extends continuously to high energies, a single power law is evidentmore » for many sources, including the Crab and PKS 1209-51/52. A decrease in flux density relative to the extrapolation of radio emission is evident in several sources. Their spectral energy distributions can be approximated as broken power laws, S ν ∝ ν -α, with the spectral index, α, increasing by 0.5–1 above a break frequency in the range 10–60 GHz. Finally, the break could be due to synchrotron losses.« less

  11. Left Behind: A Bound Remnant from a White Dwarf Supernova?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Saurabh

    2017-08-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) have enormous importance to cosmology and astrophysics, but their progenitors and explosion mechanisms are not understood in detail. Recently, observations and theoretical models have suggested that not all thermonuclear white-dwarf supernova explosions are normal SN Ia. In particular, type Iax supernovae (peculiar cousins to SN Ia), are thought to be exploding white dwarfs that are not completely disrupted, leaving behind a bound remnant. In deep and serendipitous HST pre-explosion data, we have discovered a luminous, blue progenitor system for the type Iax SN 2012Z in NGC 1309, which we interpret as a helium-star donor to the exploding white dwarf. HST observations of SN 2012Z in 2016, when the supernova light was expected to have faded away, still show a source at the location, as expected in our model where the pre-explosion flux was coming from the companion. However, the 2016 data also show a surprise: an excess flux compared to the progenitor system. Our proposed observations here will help unravel the mystery of that excess flux: is it from the bound ex-white dwarf remnant? Or is it from the shocked companion star that has been bombarded by supernova ejecta? Either of these possibilities would provide key new evidence as to the nature of these white dwarf supernovae.

  12. NASA's Fermi Proves Supernova Remnants Produce Cosmic Rays

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    The W44 supernova remnant is nestled within and interacting with the molecular cloud that formed its parent star. Fermi's LAT detects GeV gamma rays (magenta) produced when the gas is bombarded by cosmic rays, primarily protons. Radio observations (yellow) from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array near Socorro, N.M., and infrared (red) data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope reveal filamentary structures in the remnant's shell. Blue shows X-ray emission mapped by the Germany-led ROSAT mission. To read more go to: 1.usa.gov/14V14qi NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram Credit: NASA/DOE/Fermi LAT Collaboration, NRAO/AUI, JPL-Caltech, ROSAT

  13. Pancreatic Cancer Arising From the Remnant Pancreas: Is It a Local Recurrence or New Primary Lesion?

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Daisuke; Chikamoto, Akira; Masuda, Toshiro; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Imai, Katsunori; Yamashita, Yo-Ichi; Reber, Howard A; Baba, Hideo

    2017-10-01

    Local recurrence of pancreatic cancer (PC) can occur in the pancreatic remnant. In addition, new primary PC can develop in the remnant. There are limited data available regarding this so-called remnant PC. The aim of this review was to describe the characteristics and therapeutic strategy regarding remnant PC. A literature search was performed using Medline published in English according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The incidence of remnant PC has been reported to be 3% to 5%. It is difficult to distinguish local recurrence from new primary PC. Genetic diagnosis such as Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog mutation may resolve this problem. For patients with remnant PC, repeated pancreatectomy can be performed. Residual total pancreatectomy is the most common procedure. Recent studies have described the safety of the operation because of recent surgical progress and perioperative care. The patients with remnant PC without distant metastasis have shown good long-term outcomes, especially those who underwent repeated pancreatectomy. Adjuvant chemotherapy may contribute to longer survival. In conclusion, this review found that both local recurrence and new primary PC can develop in the pancreatic remnant. Repeated pancreatectomy for the remnant PC is a feasible procedure and can prolong patient survival.

  14. Spatially Resolved X-ray Spectroscopy of the Large Magellanic Cloud Supernova Remnant N132D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plucinsky, Paul; Sharda, Piyush; Gaetz, Terrance; Kashyap, Vinay

    2018-01-01

    We perform detailed X-ray spectroscopy of the brightest Supernova Remnant (SNR), N132D, in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using observations taken by the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) on the Chandra X-ray Observatory (Chandra). By studying the spectra of regions on the well-defined rim running from NW to NE, we determine an average abundance set for O, Ne, Mg, Si, S and Fe for the local LMC environment. We note that the elements other than Fe and Ne show significant trends across this region, implying they cannot be approximated by a single, constant value. We characterize the blast wave properties and find a simple plane parallel shock model is sufficient to explain the X-ray spectrum of the forward shock moving into ambient LMC material, with a shock velocity near 800 km/s and a shock age of 600-1100 years. We find evidence of enhanced Si near the western blast wave which would imply an asymmetric explosion. We fit a region near the central, optical O-rich knots which exhibits enhanced abundances of O, Ne, Mg, Si, and Fe. Comparison to nucleosynthesis models of the ratios of these elements indicates a progenitor mass of 28-35 solar masses, consistent with most previous estimates. Lastly, we find an intriguing presence of a very hot plasma with a temperature of ~4.5 keV (assuming a non-equilibrium ionization model) to explain the Fe-K emission which is centrally concentrated in the lower half of the remnant.

  15. Maternal Diet Supplementation with n-6/n-3 Essential Fatty Acids in a 1.2 : 1.0 Ratio Attenuates Metabolic Dysfunction in MSG-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Josiane Morais; Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; Palma-Rigo, Kesia; Alves, Vander Silva; Fabricio, Gabriel Sergio; Pavanello, Audrei; Franco, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva; Ribeiro, Tatiane Aparecida; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergílio; Banafé, Elton Guntendeorfer; Martin, Clayton Antunes; Mathias, Paulo Cezar de Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) prevent cardiometabolic diseases. We aimed to study whether a diet supplemented with a mixture of n-6/n-3 PUFAs, during perinatal life, attenuates outcomes of long-term metabolic dysfunction in prediabetic and obese mice. Seventy-day-old virgin female mice were mated. From the conception day, dams were fed a diet supplemented with sunflower oil and flaxseed powder (containing an n-6/n-3 PUFAs ratio of 1.2 : 1.0) throughout pregnancy and lactation, while control dams received a commercial diet. Newborn mice were treated with monosodium L-glutamate (MSG, 4 mg g−1 body weight per day) for the first 5 days of age. A batch of weaned pups was sacrificed to quantify the brain and pancreas total lipids; another batch were fed a commercial diet until 90 days of age, where glucose homeostasis and glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS) as well as retroperitoneal fat and Lee index were assessed. MSG-treated mice developed obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, pancreatic islet dysfunction, and higher fat stores. Maternal flaxseed diet-supplementation decreased n-6/n-3 PUFAs ratio in the brain and pancreas and blocked glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, GIIS impairment, and obesity development. The n-6/n-3 essential PUFAs in a ratio of 1.2 : 1.0 supplemented in maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation prevent metabolic dysfunction in MSG-obesity model. PMID:28050167

  16. Discovery of X-Ray-Emitting O-Ne-Mg-Rich Ejecta in the Galactic Supernova Remnant Puppis A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsuda, Satoru; Hwang, Una; Petre, Robert; Park, Sangwook; Mori, Koji; Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    We report on the discovery of X-ray-emitting O-Ne-Mg-rich ejecta in the middle-aged Galactic O-rich supernova remnant Puppis A with Chandra and XMM-Newton. We use line ratios to identify a low-ionization filament running parallel to the northeastern edge of the remnant that requires super-solar abundances, particularly for O, Ne, and Mg, which we interpret to be from O-Ne-Mg-rich ejecta. Abundance ratios of Ne/O, Mg/O, and Fe/O are measured to be [approx]2, [approx]2, and <0.3 times the solar values. Our spatially resolved spectral analysis from the northeastern rim to the western rim otherwise reveals sub-solar abundances consistent with those in the interstellar medium. The filament is coincident with several optically emitting O-rich knots with high velocities. If these are physically related, the filament would be a peculiar fragment of ejecta. On the other hand, the morphology of the filament suggests that it may trace ejecta heated by a shock reflected strongly off the dense ambient clouds near the northeastern rim.

  17. Compact binary merger and kilonova: outflows from remnant disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Tuan; Gu, Wei-Min; Liu, Tong; Kumar, Rajiv; Mu, Hui-Jun; Song, Cui-Ying

    2018-05-01

    Outflows launched from a remnant disc of compact binary merger may have essential contribution to the kilonova emission. Numerical calculations are conducted in this work to study the structure of accretion flows and outflows. By the incorporation of limited-energy advection in the hyper-accretion discs, outflows occur naturally from accretion flows due to imbalance between the viscous heating and the sum of the advective and radiative cooling. Following this spirit, we revisit the properties of the merger outflow ejecta. Our results show that around 10-3 ˜ 10-1 M⊙ of the disc mass can be launched as powerful outflows. The amount of unbound mass varies with the disc mass and the viscosity. The outflow-contributed peak luminosity is around 1040 ˜ 1041 erg s-1. Such a scenario can account for the observed kilonovae associated with short gamma-ray bursts, including the recent event AT2017gfo (GW170817).

  18. NASA Sees Typhoon Soudelor's Remnants Over Eastern China

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    On August 9 at 03:00 UTC (Aug. 8 at 11 p.m. EDT) the MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite passed over the remnant clouds of Typhoon Soudelor when it was over eastern China. By 22:35 UTC (6:35 p.m. EDT) on August 8, 2015, Typhoon Soudelor had made landfall in eastern China and was rapidly dissipating. Maximum sustained winds had dropped to 45 knots (51.7 mph/83.3 kph) after landfall, making it a tropical storm. Image credit: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team/Jeff Schmaltz..NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  19. SN1987A: The Birth of a Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCray, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This grant was intended to support the development of theoretical models needed to interpret and understand the observations by the Hubble Space Telescope and the Chandra X-ray telescope of the rapidly developing remnant of Supernova 1987A. In addition, we carried out a few investigations of related topics. The project was spectacularly successful. The models that we developed provide the definitive framework for predicting and interpreting this phenomenon. Following is a list of publications based on our work. Some of these papers include results of both theoretical modeling supported by this project and also analysis of data supported by the Space Telescope Science Institute and the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We first list papers published in refereed journals, then conference proceedings and book chapters, and also an educational web site.

  20. Diffuse remnants of supernova explosions of moving massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    The modification of the ambient interstellar medium by the wind of massive stars (the progenitors of most of supernovae) results in that the structure and evolution of diffuse supernova remnants (SNRs) significantly deviate from those derived from standard models of SNRs based of the Sedov-Taylor solution. The stellar proper motion and the regular interstellar magnetic field affect the symmetry of the processed medium and cause the SNR to be non-spherically-symmetric. We show that taking into account these effects allows us to explain the diverse morphologies of the known SNRs (the particular attention is paid to the elongated axisymmetric SNRs and the SNRs consisting of two partially overlapping shells) and to infer the ``true" supernova explosion sites in some peculiar SNRs (therefore to search for new neutron stars associated with them).

  1. Approximate supernova remnant dynamics with cosmic ray production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voelk, H. J.; Drury, L. O.; Dorfi, E. A.

    1985-01-01

    Supernova explosions are the most violent and energetic events in the galaxy and have long been considered probably sources of Cosmic Rays. Recent shock acceleration models treating the Cosmic Rays (CR's) as test particles nb a prescribed Supernova Remnant (SNR) evolution, indeed indicate an approximate power law momentum distribution f sub source (p) approximation p(-a) for the particles ultimately injected into the Interstellar Medium (ISM). This spectrum extends almost to the momentum p = 1 million GeV/c, where the break in the observed spectrum occurs. The calculated power law index approximately less than 4.2 agrees with that inferred for the galactic CR sources. The absolute CR intensity can however not be well determined in such a test particle approximation.

  2. New selection effect in statistical investigations of supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allakhverdiev, A. O.; Guseinov, O. Kh.; Kasumov, F. K.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of H II regions on the parameters of supernova remnants (SNR) is investigated. It has been shown that the projection of such regions on the SNRs leads to: a) local changes of morphological structure of young shell-type SNRs and b) considerable distortions of integral parameters of evolved shell-type SNRs (with D > 10 pc) and plerions, up to their complete undetectability on the background of classical and gigantic H II regions. A new selection effect, in fact, arises from these factors connected with additional limitations made by the real structure of the interstellar medium on the statistical investigations of SNRs. The influence of this effect on the statistical completeness of objects has been estimated.

  3. Grain Destruction in a Supernova Remnant Shock Wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, John C.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Williams, Brian J.; Blair, William P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Sankrit, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Dust grains are sputtered away in the hot gas behind shock fronts in supernova remnants, gradually enriching the gas phase with refractory elements. We have measured emission in C IV (lambda)1550 from C atoms sputtered from dust in the gas behind a non-radiative shock wave in the northern Cygnus Loop. Overall, the intensity observed behind the shock agrees approximately with predictions from model calculations that match the Spitzer 24 micron and the X-ray intensity profiles. Thus these observations confirm the overall picture of dust destruction in SNR shocks and the sputtering rates used in models. However, there is a discrepancy in that the CIV intensity 10'' behind the shock is too high compared to the intensities at the shock and 25'' behind it. Variations in the density, hydrogen neutral fraction and the dust properties over parsec scales in the pre- shock medium limit our ability to test dust destruction models in detail.

  4. Unraveling the Origin of Overionized Plasma in the Galactic Supernova Remnant W49B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Sarah; Lopez, L. A.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Castro, D.; Yamaguchi, H.; Slane, P. O.; Smith, R. K.

    2013-04-01

    In this presentation, I present maps of overionized plasma in the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) W49B based on a recent 220 ks Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer observation. Overionized plasmas (those where ions are stripped of more electrons than they should be for a given electron temperature) have been found recently in several SNRs, and the physical origin of the rapid cooling necessary to produce them remains uncertain. To assess the cooling scenario responsible for overionization, we performed a spatially-resolved spectroscopic analysis of W49B, measuring the elec- tron temperature by modeling the bremsstrahlung continuum and comparing it to the temperature given by the flux ratio of He-like to H-like lines of sulfur, argon, and calcium. Using these results, we find that the west region of W49B is the most overionized, with a gradient of increasing overionization from East to West. As the ejecta expansion is impeded by molecular material in the east but not in the west, our overionization maps suggest the dominant cooling mechanism is adiabatic expansion of the hot plasma instead of thermal conduction. Furthermore, we find calcium has the greatest degree of overionization relative to argon and sulfur; this result arises because calcium has a longer recombination timescale. Thus, we caution that measurement of overionization is dependent on which elements one employs in their line ratio analysis.

  5. Stapler vs suture closure of pancreatic remnant after distal pancreatectomy: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Lv, Ran; Wang, Xianfa; Mou, Yiping; Cai, Xiujun; Herr, Ingrid

    2010-10-01

    Suture closure and stapler closure of the pancreatic remnant after distal pancreatectomy are the techniques used most often. The ideal choice remains a matter of debate. Five bibliographic databases covering 1970 to July 2009 were searched. Sixteen articles met the inclusion criteria. Stapler closure was performed in 671 patients, while suture closure was conducted in 1,615 patients. The pancreatic fistula rate ranged from 0% to 40.0% for stapler closure of the pancreatic stump and from 9.3% to 45.7% for the suture closure technique. There were no significant difference between the stapler and suture closure groups with respect to the pancreatic fistula formation rate (22.1% vs 31.2%; odds ratio, .85; 95% confidence interval, .66-1.08), although there was a trend toward favoring stapler closure. In 4 studies including 437 patients, stapler closure was associated with a trend (not statistically significant) toward a reduction in intra-abdominal abscess (odds ratio, .53; 95% confidence interval, .24-1.15). No significant differences occur between suture and stapler closure with respect to the pancreatic fistula or intra-abdominal abscess after distal pancreatectomy, though there is a trend favoring stapler closure. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The X-Ray Spectrum of the Supernova Remnant 1E 0102-72.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, Andrew P.; Behar, Ehud; Kahn, Steven M.; denHerder, Jan Willem; vanderHeyden, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    In this letter we present the soft X-ray (5-35A) spectrum of the supernova remnant (SNR) IE 0102-72.3 in the Small Magellanic Cloud, acquired by the reflection grating spectrometer (RGS) aboard ESA's XMM-Newton Observatory. This extended-source X-ray spectrum of unprecedented spectral resolution (lambda/Delta(lambda) approx. 300) permits, for the first time, unabiguous identification and measurement of isolated emission lines and line complexes alike. The diagnostic power of performing spectroscopy using groups of emission lines from single ions is exemplified. In particular, the bright Lyman and helium series lines for light elements (C VI, O VII, O VIII, Ne IX, Ne X and possibly Mg XI & Mg XII) show peculiar ratios, where the values [1s - np] / [1s - (n + l)p] are systematically weaker than expected for electron impact excitation. These measured ratios resemble signatures of recombining or charge exchanging plasmas. We argue that charge exchange, given its large cross section and evidence for inhomogeneous media within the SNR, is a likely mechanism for the observed emission. Also. the well known temperature diagnostics G(T(sub e)) = (i + f)/r of helium- like triplets (O VII & Ne IX) indicate high temperatures, well above the maximum emission temperature T(sub m) for each ion, and consistent with a purely ionizing plasma. The density diagnostics R(n(sub e)) = f / i meanwhile, are consistent with the low density limit, as expected.

  7. DESTRUCTION OF INTERSTELLAR DUST IN EVOLVING SUPERNOVA REMNANT SHOCK WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Slavin, Jonathan D.; Dwek, Eli; Jones, Anthony P., E-mail: jslavin@cfa.harvard.edu

    2015-04-10

    Supernova generated shock waves are responsible for most of the destruction of dust grains in the interstellar medium (ISM). Calculations of the dust destruction timescale have so far been carried out using plane parallel steady shocks, however, that approximation breaks down when the destruction timescale becomes longer than that for the evolution of the supernova remnant (SNR) shock. In this paper we present new calculations of grain destruction in evolving, radiative SNRs. To facilitate comparison with the previous study by Jones et al., we adopt the same dust properties as in that paper. We find that the efficiencies of grainmore » destruction are most divergent from those for a steady shock when the thermal history of a shocked gas parcel in the SNR differs significantly from that behind a steady shock. This occurs in shocks with velocities ≳200 km s{sup −1} for which the remnant is just beginning to go radiative. Assuming SNRs evolve in a warm phase dominated ISM, we find dust destruction timescales are increased by a factor of ∼2 compared to those of Jones et al., who assumed a hot gas dominated ISM. Recent estimates of supernova rates and ISM mass lead to another factor of ∼3 increase in the destruction timescales, resulting in a silicate grain destruction timescale of ∼2–3 Gyr. These increases, while not able to resolve the problem of the discrepant timescales for silicate grain destruction and creation, are an important step toward understanding the origin and evolution of dust in the ISM.« less

  8. Supernova Remnant W49B and Its Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, H.; Tian, W. W.; Zuo, P.

    2014-10-01

    We study gamma-ray supernova remnant (SNR) W49B and its environment using recent radio and infrared data. Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph low resolution data of W49B shows shocked excitation lines of H2 (0,0) S(0)-S(7) from the SNR-molecular cloud interaction. The H2 gas is composed of two components with temperatures of ~260 K and ~1060 K, respectively. Various spectral lines from atomic and ionic particles are detected toward W49B. We suggest that the ionic phase has an electron density of ~500 cm-3 and a temperature of ~104 K by the spectral line diagnoses. The mid- and far-infrared data from MSX, Spitzer, and Herschel reveal a 151 ± 20 K hot dust component with a mass of 7.5 ± 6.6 × 10-4 M ⊙ and a 45 ± 4 K warm dust component with a mass of 6.4 ± 3.2 M ⊙. The hot dust is likely from materials swept up by the shock of W49B. The warm dust may possibly originate from the evaporation of clouds interacting with W49B. We build the H I absorption spectra of W49B and four nearby H II regions (W49A, G42.90+0.58, G42.43-0.26, and G43.19-0.53) and study the relation between W49B and the surrounding molecular clouds by employing the 2.12 μm infrared and CO data. We therefore obtain a kinematic distance of ~10 kpc for W49B and suggest that the remnant is likely associated with the CO cloud at about 40 km s-1.

  9. SDSS 1240+6710: a partially burnt supernova remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaensicke, Boris

    2016-10-01

    We have recently (Kepler et al. 2016, Science 352, 6281, April 1 issue) identified SDSSJ124043.01+671034.68 as a white dwarf with most peculiar characterstics. Instead of the usual hydrogen or helium, its atmosphere is composed almost purely of oxygen, the only other trace elements detected are neon, magnesium, and silicon; and it has a large transverse velocity of 340km/s. The relatively low mass, 0.6Msun, and the non-detection of carbon strongly argue against SDSSJ1240+6710 being a canonical oxygen-neon core formed from the evolution of a single progenitor star with a mass of 6.5-10Msun. The detection of silicon suggests that the progenitor of this white dwarf may have initiated oxygen-burning, and we argue that SDSSJ1240+6710 is the partially burnt remnant of an unusual thermonuclear supernova, of which a variety have been discovered by the ongoing large transient surveys. We propose to obtain COS ultraviolet spectroscopy of SDSSJ1240+6710 to measure (1) the abundances of phosphorus and sulfur, two other products of oxygen-burning, (2) significantly improve the upper limits on hydrogen (from Ly alpha) and carbon (1330/1335A resonance lines), (3) probe for traces of other nuclear burning, including nitrogen, iron, and nickel, and (4) accurately measure its effective temperature and mass. SDSSJ1240+6710 provides so far the unique opportunity to test the predictions of the rapidly growing number of theoretical stellar explosion models producing gravitationally bound remnants.

  10. Hubble Space Telescope Image, Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The colorful streamers that float across the sky in this photo taken by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) were created by the universe's biggest firecracker, the titanic supernova explosion of a massive star. The light from the exploding star reached Earth 320 years ago, nearly a century before the United States celebrated its birth with a bang. The dead star's shredded remains are called Cassiopeia A, or 'Cas A' for short. Cas A is the youngest known supernova remnant in our Milky Way Galaxy and resides 10,000 light-years away in the constellation Cassiopeia, so the star actually blew up 10,000 years before the light reached Earth in the late 1600s. This HST image of Cas A shows for the first time that the debris is arranged into thousands of small, cooling knots of gas. This material eventually will be recycled into building new generations of stars and planets. Our own Sun and planets are constructed from the debris of supernovae that exploded billions of years ago. This photo shows the upper rim of the super nova remnant's expanding shell. Near the top of the image are dozens of tiny clumps of matter. Each small clump, originally just a small fragment of the star, is tens of times larger than the diameter of our solar system. The colors highlight parts of the debris where chemical elements are glowing. The dark blue fragments, for example, are richest in oxygen; the red material is rich in sulfur. The images were taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 in January 2000 and January 2002. Image Credit: NASA and HST team (Stoics/AURA). Acknowledgment: R. Fesen (Darmouth) and J. Morse ( Univ. of Colorado).

  11. Integral Field Spectroscopy of the Merger Remnant NGC 7252

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, John; Husemann, Bernd; Kuntschner, Harald; Martín-Navarro, Ignacio

    2018-01-01

    The merging of galaxies is a key aspect of the hierarchical ΛCDM Universe. The formation of massive quiescent elliptical galaxies may be explained through the merger of two star-forming disc galaxies. Despite nearly a century of effort, our understanding of this complex transformational process is remains incomplete and requires diligent observational study.NGC 7252 is one of the nearest starbursting major-merger galaxy remnants, formed about 1 Gyr after the collision of presumably two disc galaxies. It is therefore an ideal laboratory to study the underlying processes involved in transformation of two disc galaxies to an elliptical galaxy via a merger.We obtained wide-field IFU spectroscopy with the VLT-VIMOS integral-field spectrograph covering the central 50’’ × 50’’ of NGC 7252 to map the stellar and ionized gas kinematics, and the distribution and conditions of the ionized gas, revealing the extent of ongoing star formation and recent star formation history.Contrary to previous studies we find the inner gas disc not to be counter-rotating with respect to the overall stellar angular momentum. However, the stellar kinematics appear to be complex with a superposition of at least two nearly perpendicular angular momentum components. The host galaxy is still blue with g - i ~ 0.8 with an ongoing star formation rate of 2.2 ± 0.6 Msun/yr, placing NGC 7252 close to the blue cloud of galaxies and consistent with a disc-like molecular depletion time of ~2 Gyr.Although NGC 7252 appears as a fading starburst galaxy at the center, the elliptical-like major merger remnant appears to active, inconsistent with a fast quenching scenario. NGC 7252 may take several Gyr to reach the red sequence of galaxies unless star formation becomes quenched by either AGN feedback or inefficient gas conversion, leading to an H I-rich elliptical galaxy.

  12. Black hole remnants in Hayward solutions and noncommutative effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdipour, S. Hamid; Ahmadi, M. H.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the final stages of the black hole evaporation for Hayward solutions. Our results show that the behavior of Hawking's radiation changes considerably at the small radii regime such that the black hole does not evaporate completely and a stable remnant is left. We show that stability conditions hold for the Hayward solutions found in the Einstein gravity coupled with nonlinear electrodynamics. We analyze the effect that an inspired model of the noncommutativity of spacetime can have on the thermodynamics of Hayward spacetimes. This has been done by applying the noncommutative effects to the non-rotating and rotating Hayward black holes. In this setup, all point structures get replaced by smeared distributions owing to this inspired approach. The noncommutative effects result in a colder black hole in the small radii regime as Hayward's free parameter g increases. As well as the effects of noncommutativity and the rotation factor, the configuration of the remnant can be substantially affected by the parameter g. However, in the rotating solution it is not so sensitive to g with respect to the non-rotating case. As a consequence, Hayward's parameter, the noncommutativity and the rotation may raise the minimum value of energy for the possible formation of black holes in TeV-scale collisions. This observation can be used as a potential explanation for the absence of black holes in the current energy scales produced at particle colliders. However, it is also found that if extra dimensions do exist, then the possibility of the black hole production at energy scales accessible at the LHC for large numbers of extra dimensions will be larger.

  13. Predicted TeV Gamma-ray Spectra and Images of Shell Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, S. P.

    1999-04-01

    One supernova remnant, SN 1006, is now known to produce synchrotron X-rays (Koyama et al., 1995, Nature, 378, 255), requiring 100 TeV electrons. SN 1006 has also been seen in TeV gamma rays (Tanimori et al., 1998, ApJ, 497, L25), almost certainly due to cosmic-microwave-background photons being upscattered by those same electrons. Other young supernova remnants should also produce high-energy electrons, even if their X-ray synchrotron emission is swamped by conventional thermal X-ray emission. Upper limits to the maximum energy of shock-accelerated electrons can be found for those remnants by requiring that their synchrotron spectrum steepen enough to fall below observed thermal X-rays (Reynolds and Keohane 1999, ApJ, submitted). For those upper-limit spectra, I present predicted TeV inverse-Compton spectra and images for assumed values of the mean remnant magnetic field. Ground-based TeV gamma-ray observations of remnants may be able to put even more severe limits on the presence of highly energetic electrons in remnants, raising problems for conventional theories of galactic cosmic-ray production in supernova remnants. Detections will immediately confirm that SN 1006 is not alone, and will give mean remnant magnetic field strengths.

  14. An X-Ray and Radio Study of the Varying Expansion Velocities in Tycho's Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Brian J.; Chomiuk, Laura; Hewitt, John W.; Blondin, John M.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Petre, Robert; Reynolds, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    We present newly obtained X-ray and radio observations of Tycho's supernova remnant using Chandra and the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array in 2015 and 2013/14, respectively. When combined with earlier epoch observations by these instruments, we now have time baselines for expansion measurements of the remnant of 12-15 year in the X-rays and 30 year in the radio. The remnant's large angular size allows for proper motion measurements at many locations around the periphery of the blast wave. We find, consistent with earlier measurements, a clear gradient in the expansion velocity of the remnant, despite its round shape. The proper motions on the western and southwestern sides of the remnant are about a factor of two higher than those in the east and northeast. We showed in an earlier work that this is related to an offset of the explosion site from the geometric center of the remnant due to a density gradient in the ISM, and using our refined measurements reported here, we find that this offset is approximately 23'' towards the northeast. An explosion center offset in such a circular remnant has implications for searches for progenitor companions in other remnants.

  15. Supernova Remnant Kes 17: An Efficient Cosmic Ray Accelerator inside a Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfand, Joseph; Slane, Patrick; Hughes, John; Temim, Tea; Castro, Daniel; Rakowski, Cara

    Supernova remnant are believed to be the dominant source of cosmic rays protons below the "knee" in the energy spectrum. However, relatively few supernova remnants have been identified as efficient producers of cosmic ray protons. In this talk, I will present evidence that the production of cosmic ray protons is required to explain the broadband non-thermal spectrum of supernova remnant Kes 17 (SNR G304.6+0.1). Evidence for efficient cosmic ray acceleration in Kes 17 supports recent theoretical work concluding that the strong magnetic field, turbulence, and clumpy nature of molecular clouds enhance cosmic ray production in supernova remnants. While additional observations are needed to confirm this interpretation, further study of Kes 17 and similar sources are important for understanding how cosmic rays are accelerated in supernova remnants.

  16. Is Remnant Preservation Truly Beneficial to Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Healing? Clinical and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evaluations of Remnant-Preserved Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Naraoka, Takuya; Kimura, Yuka; Tsuda, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Yuji; Ishibashi, Yasuyuki

    2017-04-01

    Remnant-preserved anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction was introduced to improve clinical outcomes and biological healing. However, the effects of remnant preservation and the influence of the delay from injury until reconstruction on the outcomes of this technique are still uncertain. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purposes of this study were to evaluate whether remnant preservation improved the clinical outcomes and graft incorporation of ACL reconstruction and to examine the influence of the delay between ACL injury and reconstruction on the usefulness of remnant preservation. We hypothesized that remnant preservation improves clinical results and accelerates graft incorporation and that its effect is dependent on the delay between ACL injury and reconstruction. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A total of 151 consecutive patients who underwent double-bundle ACL reconstruction using a semitendinosus graft were enrolled in this study: 74 knees underwent ACL reconstruction without a remnant (or the remnant was <25% of the intra-articular portion of the graft; NR group), while 77 knees underwent ACL reconstruction with remnant preservation (RP group). These were divided into 4 subgroups based on the time from injury to surgery: phase 1 was <3 weeks (n = 24), phase 2 was 3 to less than 8 weeks (n = 70), phase 3 was 8 to 20 weeks (n = 32), and phase 4 was >20 weeks (n = 25). Clinical measurements, including KT-1000 arthrometer side-to-side anterior tibial translation measurements, were assessed at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after reconstruction. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluations of graft maturation and graft-tunnel integration of the anteromedial and posterolateral bundles were assessed at 3, 6, and 12 months after reconstruction. There was no difference in side-to-side anterior tibial translation between the NR and RP groups. There was also no difference in graft maturation between the 2 groups. Furthermore, the time from ACL injury until reconstruction did

  17. A Spectroscopic Study of the Rich Supernova Remnant Population in M83

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, P. Frank; Blair, William P.; Long, Knox S.

    2017-04-01

    We report the results from a spectrophotometric study sampling the ≳ 300 candidate supernova remnants (SNRs) in M83 identified through optical imaging with Magellan/IMACS and Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3. Of the 118 candidates identified based on a high [S II] λλ 6716, 6731 to Hα emission ratio, 117 show spectroscopic signatures of shock-heated gas, confirming them as SNRs—the largest uniform set of SNR spectra for any galaxy. Spectra of 22 objects with a high [O III] λ5007 to Hα emission ratio, selected in an attempt to identify young ejecta-dominated SNRs like Cas A, reveal only one (previously reported) object with the broad (≳ 1000 {km} {{{s}}}-1) emission lines characteristic of ejecta-dominated SNRs, beyond the known SN1957D remnant. The other 20 [O III]-selected candidates include planetary nebulae, compact H II regions, and one background QSO. Although our spectroscopic sample includes 22 SNRs smaller than 11 pc, none of the other objects show broad emission lines; instead their spectra stem from relatively slow (˜ 200 {km} {{{s}}}-1) radiative shocks propagating into the metal-rich interstellar medium of M83. With six SNe in the past century, one might expect more of M83's small-diameter SNRs to show evidence of ejecta; this appears not to be the case. We attribute their absence to several factors, including that SNRs expanding into a dense medium evolve quickly to the ISM-dominated phase, and that SNRs expanding into regions already evacuated by earlier SNe are probably very faint. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), and Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil).

  18. Dust Destruction in the Supernova Remnant N49: Additional WiFeS Integral Field data AnalysisRachel Quigley, Rachael Huxford, Parviz Ghavamian, Mike Dopita

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, Rachel; Ghavamian, Parviz

    2018-01-01

    Abstract:The supernova remnant N49, located in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), is widely researched because of its relatively young age and its location near a dense, dusty molecular cloud in the interstellar medium (ISM). N49 has entered into its radiative phase more quickly than to be expected for the age of this remnant. As a consequence, N49 is showing signs that the diffuse hot interior is starting to cool and recombine. Using existing integral field spectra of SNR N49, different Fe emission lines and other spectral lines were extracted via python tools, following a similar approach to Dopita et al. (2016). At optical wavelengths, the dependence of [OIII]5007/4363 ratio on shock velocity is evident. This diagnostic is important because the [OIII]-emitting zone in low-velocity shocks of the cooling post-shock gas is hot. As the shock velocity increases, the temperature indicated by the [OIII] parameter falls. The dependence of Fe depletion lines on shock velocity is rather weak. Using [FeIII]:[OIII] diagnostic, the properties of dust destruction and production of dust in the SNR can be determined. Using this method, line ratios for other emission lines can be compared to the MAPPINGS predictions of Allen et al. (2008) to study the range of shock speeds present in the supernova remnant, where radiative shocks are driven into interstellar gas.

  19. Bile reflux of the remnant stomach following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: an etiology of chronic abdominal pain treated with remnant gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Vella, Erika La; Hovorka, Zach; Yarbrough, Donald E; McQuitty, Elizabeth

    2017-08-01

    Bile reflux gastritis of the remnant stomach following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) causing chronic abdominal pain has not been reported. We report a series of symptomatic patients with remnant gastritis treated effectively with remnant gastrectomy (RG). The objective was to report our experience with bile reflux remnant gastritis after RYGB and our outcomes following RG. Community teaching hospital. All patients undergoing RG were retrospectively reviewed for presenting symptoms, diagnostic workup, pathology, complications, and symptom resolution. Nineteen patients underwent RG for bile reflux gastritis at a mean of 4.4 years (52.3 mo, range 8.5-124 mo) after RYGB. All patients were female and presented with pain, primarily epigastric (18/19; 95%), and described as burning (11/19; 58%), with 10 (53%) reporting nausea. Endoscopy was performed preoperatively on all patients with successful remnant inspection in 13 (68%), using push endoscopy (n = 10) or operative assist (n = 3), with 12 (of 13; 92%) biopsy-positive for reactive gastropathy. Seventeen (90%) completed a hepatobiliary scintigraphy scan with 100% positivity demonstrating bile reflux across the pylorus. Surgical approach was laparoscopic or robotic in 18 (95%) with a hospital length of stay of 2.7 days (range 0-12 d), with no major complications or readmissions. Pathology of the remnant confirmed reactive gastropathy in 90% (n = 17). Ninety percent of patients (n = 17) reported sustained symptom resolution, and 11% of patients (n = 2) remained symptomatic at last follow-up. We followed all patients for a mean of 6.6 years (1-194 mo). Bile reflux gastritis of the remnant stomach is a new consideration for chronic abdominal pain months to years following RYGB. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy imaging and endoscopic biopsy are highly suggestive. RG is safe and effective treatment. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Organic molecules, ions, and rare isotopologues in the remnant of the stellar-merger candidate, CK Vulpeculae (Nova 1670)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiński, T.; Menten, K. M.; Tylenda, R.; Karakas, A.; Belloche, A.; Patel, N. A.

    2017-11-01

    Context. CK Vulpeculae (CK Vul) is an enigmatic star whose outburst was observed in 1670-72. A stellar-merger event was proposed to explain its ancient eruption. Aims: We aim to investigate the composition of the molecular gas recently discovered in the remnant of CK Vul. Deriving the chemical, elemental, and isotopic composition is crucial for identifying the nature of the object and obtaining clues on its progenitor(s). Methods: We observed millimeter and submillimeter-wave spectra of CK Vul using the IRAM 30 m and APEX telescopes. Radiative-transfer modeling of the observed molecular features was performed to yield isotopic ratios for various elements. Results: The spectra of CK Vul reveal a very rich molecular environment of low excitation (Tex ≲ 12 K). Atomic carbon and twenty-seven different molecules, including two ions, were identified. They range from simple diatomic to complex polyatomic species of up to seven atoms large. The chemical composition of the molecular gas is indicative of carbon and nitrogen-driven chemistry but oxides are also present. Additionally, the abundance of fluorine may be enhanced. The spectra are rich in isotopologues that are very rare in most known sources. All stable isotopes of C, N, O, Si, and S are observed and their isotopic ratios are derived. Conclusions: The composition of the remnant's molecular gas is most peculiar and gives rise to a very unique millimeter and submillimeter spectrum. The observation of ions and complex molecules suggests the presence of a photoionizing source but its nature (a central star or shocks) remains unknown. The elemental and isotopic composition of the gas cannot be easily reconciled with standard stellar nucleosynthesis but processing in hot CNO cycles and partial helium burning can explain most of the chemical peculiarities. The isotopic ratios of CK Vul are remarkably close to those of presolar "nova grains" but the link of Nova 1670 to objects responsible for these grains is unclear

  1. Stellar and planetary remnants in digital sky surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girven, Jonathan

    Large scale digital sky surveys have produced an unprecedented volume of uniform data covering both vast proportions of the sky and a wide range of wavelength, from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared. The challenge facing astronomers today is how to use this multitude of information to extract trends, outliers and and rare objects. For example, a large sample of single white dwarf stars has the potential to probe the Galaxy through the luminosity function. The aim of this work was to study stellar and planetary remnants in these surveys. In the last few decades, it has been shown that a handful of white dwarfs have remnants of planetary systems around them, in the form of a dusty disc. These are currently providing the best constraints on the composition of extra-solar planetary systems. Finding significant numbers of dusty discs is only possible in large scale digital sky surveys. I ultilised the SDSS DR7 and colour-colour diagrams to and DA white dwarfs from optical photometry. This nearly doubled the number of spectroscopically confirmed DA white dwarfs in the SDSS compared with DR4 [Eisenstein et al., 2006], and introduced nearly 10; 000 photometric-only DA white dwarf candidates. I further cross-matched our white dwarf catalogue with UKIDSS LAS DR8 to carry out the currently largest and deepest untargeted search for low-mass companions to, and dust discs around, DA white dwarfs. Simultaneously, I analyzed Spitzer observations of 15 white dwarfs with metal-polluted atmospheres, all but one having helium-dominated atmospheres. Three of these stars were found to have an infrared excess consistent with a dusty disc. I used the total sample to estimate a typical disc lifetime of log[tdisc(yr)] = 5:6+1:1, which is compatible with the relatively large range estimated from different theoretical models. Subdwarf population synthesis models predicted a vast population of subdwarfs with F to K-type companions, produced in the effcient RLOF formation channel. I used a

  2. The surviving companions in type Ia supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li-Qing; Meng, Xiang-Cun; Han, Zhan-Wen

    2017-08-01

    The single-degenerate (SD) model is one of the most popular progenitor models of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), in which the companion star can survive after an SN Ia explosion and show peculiar properties. Therefore, searching for the surviving companion in type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs) is a potential method to verify the SD model. In the SN 1604 remnant (Kepler’s SNR), although Chandra X-ray observation suggests that the progenitor is most likely a WD+AGB system, a the surviving companion has not been found. One possible reason is rapid rotation of the white dwarf (WD), causing explosion of the WD to be delayed for a spin-down timescale, and then the companion evolved into a WD before the supernova explosion, so the companion is too dim to be detected. We aim to verify this possible explanation by carrying out binary evolution calculations. In this paper, we use Eggleton’s stellar evolution code to calculate the evolution of binaries consisting of a WD+red giant (RG). We assume that the rapidly rotating WD can continuously increase its mass when its mass exceeds the Chandrasekhar mass limit ({M}{{Ch}}=1.378 {M}⊙ ) until the mass-transfer rate decreases to be lower than a critical value. Eventually, we obtain the final masses of a WD in the range 1.378 M ⊙ to 2.707 M ⊙. We also show that if the spin-down time is less than 106 yr, the companion star will be very bright and easily observed; but if the spin-down time is as long as ˜ 107 yr, the luminosities of the surviving companion would be lower than the detection limit. Our simulation provides guidance in hunting for the surviving companion stars in SNRs, and the fact that no surviving companion has been found in Kepler’s SNR may not be definite evidence disfavoring the SD origin of Kepler’s SN.

  3. Importance of riparian remnants for frog species diversity in a highly fragmented rainforest.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Mendoza, Clara; Pineda, Eduardo

    2010-12-23

    Tropical forests undergo continuous transformation to other land uses, resulting in landscapes typified by forest fragments surrounded by anthropogenic habitats. Small forest fragments, specifically strip-shaped remnants flanking streams (referred to as riparian remnants), can be particularly important for the maintenance and conservation of biodiversity within highly fragmented forests. We compared frog species diversity between riparian remnants, other forest fragments and cattle pastures in a tropical landscape in Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. We found similar species richness in the three habitats studied and a similar assemblage structure between riparian remnants and forest fragments, although species composition differed by 50 per cent. Frog abundance was halved in riparian remnants compared with forest fragments, but was twice that found in pastures. Our results suggest that riparian remnants play an important role in maintaining a portion of frog species diversity in a highly fragmented forest, particularly during environmentally stressful (hot and dry) periods. In this regard, however, the role of riparian remnants is complementary, rather than substitutive, with respect to the function of other forest fragments within the fragmented forest.

  4. G65.2+5.7: A Thermal Composite Supernova Remnant with a Cool Shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, R. L.; Kuntz, K. D.; Petre, R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents archival ROSAT PSPC observations of the G65.2+5.7 supernova remnant (also known as G65.3+5.7). Little material obscures this remnant and so it was well observed, even at the softest end of ROSATs bandpass (approx. 0.11 to 0.28 keV). These soft X-ray images reveal the remnant s centrally-filled morphology which, in combination with existing radio frequency observations, places G65.2+5.7 in the thermal composite (mixed morphology) class of supernova remnants. Not only might G65.2+5.7 be the oldest known thermal composite supernova remnant, but owing to its optically revealed cool, dense shell, this remnant supports the proposal that thermal composite supernova remnants lack X-ray bright shells because they have evolved beyond the adiabatic phase. These observations also reveal a slightly extended point source centered on RA = l9(sup h) 36(sup m) 46(sup s). dec = 30 deg.40 min.07 sec.and extending 6.5 arc min in radius in the band 67 map. The source of this emission has yet to be discovered, as there is no known pulsar at this location.

  5. Stapler versus scalpel resection followed by hand-sewn closure of the pancreatic remnant for distal pancreatectomy.

    PubMed

    Probst, Pascal; Hüttner, Felix J; Klaiber, Ulla; Knebel, Phillip; Ulrich, Alexis; Büchler, Markus W; Diener, Markus K

    2015-11-06

    Resections of the pancreatic body and tail reaching to the left of the superior mesenteric vein are defined as distal pancreatectomy. Most distal pancreatectomies are elective treatments for chronic pancreatitis, benign or malignant diseases, and they have high morbidity rates of up to 40%. Pancreatic fistula formation is the main source of postoperative morbidity, associated with numerous further complications. Researchers have proposed several surgical resection and closure techniques of the pancreatic remnant in an attempt to reduce these complications. The two most common techniques are scalpel resection followed by hand-sewn closure of the pancreatic remnant and stapler resection and closure. To compare the rates of pancreatic fistula in people undergoing distal pancreatectomy using scalpel resection followed by hand-sewn closure of the pancreatic remnant versus stapler resection and closure. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biosis and Science Citation Index from database inception to October 2015. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing stapler versus scalpel resection followed by hand-sewn closure of the pancreatic remnant for distal pancreatectomy (irrespective of language or publication status). Two authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and extracted the data. Taking into consideration the clinical heterogeneity between the trials (e.g. different endpoint definitions), we analysed data using a random-effects model with Review Manager (RevMan), calculating risk ratio (RR) or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). In two eligible trials, a total of 381 participants underwent distal pancreatic resection and were randomised to closure of the pancreatic remnant either with stapler (n = 191) or scalpel resection followed by hand-sewn closure (n = 190). One was a single centre pilot RCT and the other was a multicentre blinded RCT. The single centre pilot RCT

  6. Hangup effect in unequal mass binary black hole mergers and further studies of their gravitational radiation and remnant properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, James; Lousto, Carlos O.

    2018-04-01

    We present the results of 74 new simulations of nonprecessing spinning black hole binaries with mass ratios q =m1/m2 in the range 1 /7 ≤q ≤1 and individual spins covering the parameter space -0.95 ≤α1 ,2≤0.95 . We supplement those runs with 107 previous simulations to study the hangup effect in black hole mergers, i.e. the delay or prompt merger of spinning holes with respect to nonspinning binaries. We perform the numerical evolution for typically the last ten orbits before the merger and down to the formation of the final remnant black hole. This allows us to study the hangup effect for unequal mass binaries leading us to identify the spin variable that controls the number of orbits before merger as S→ hu.L ^ , where S→ hu=(1 +1/2 m/2 m1 )S→ 1+(1 +1/2 m/1 m2 )S→ 2 . We also combine the total results of those 181 simulations to obtain improved fitting formulas for the remnant final black hole mass, spin and recoil velocity as well as for the peak luminosity and peak frequency of the gravitational strain, and find new correlations among them. This accurate new set of simulations enhances the number of available numerical relativity waveforms available for parameter estimation of gravitational wave observations.

  7. Influence of the Roof Movement Control Method on the Stability of Remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adach-Pawelus, Karolina

    2017-12-01

    In the underground mines, there are geological and mining situations that necessitate leaving behind remnants in the mining field. Remnants, in the form of small, irregular parcels, are usually separated in the case of: significant problems with maintaining roof stability, high rockburst hazard, the occurrence of complex geological conditions and for random reasons (ore remnants), as well as for economic reasons (undisturbed rock remnants). Remnants left in the mining field become sites of high stress values concentration and may affect the rock in their vicinity. The values of stress inside the remnant and its vicinity, as well as the stability of the remnant, largely depend on the roof movement control method used in the mining field. The article presents the results of the numerical analysis of the influence of roof movement control method on remnant stability and the geomechanical situation in the mining field. The numerical analysis was conducted for the geological and mining conditions characteristic of Polish underground copper mines owned by KGHM Polska Miedz S.A. Numerical simulations were performed in a plane strain state by means of Phase 2 v. 8.0 software, based on the finite element method. The behaviour of remnant and rock mass in its vicinity was simulated in the subsequent steps of the room and pillar mining system for three types of roof movement control method: roof deflection, dry backfill and hydraulic backfill. The parameters of the rock mass accepted for numerical modelling were calculated by means of RocLab software on the basis of the Hoek-Brown classification. The Mohr-Coulomb strength criterion was applied.

  8. CHARACTERISTICS OF EPIRETINAL MEMBRANE REMNANT EDGE BY OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY AFTER PARS PLANA VITRECTOMY.

    PubMed

    Gaber, Raouf; You, Qi Sheng; Muftuoglu, Ilkay Kilic; Alam, Mostafa; Tsai, Frank F; Mendoza, Nadia; Freeman, William R

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the incidence, characteristics, and the progression of epiretinal membrane (ERM) remnant edge seen by optical coherence tomography after ERM peeling. A retrospective chart review was conducted for 86 eyes of 85 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with ERM and underwent pars plana vitrectomy for epiretinal membrane peeling between 2013 and 2014. Data collected and analyzed included age, gender, preoperative and postoperative visual acuity, use of indocyanine green dye to stain internal limiting membrane, tamponade used after vitrectomy, ERM edge boundaries, presence of cystoid macular edema, and central foveal thickness. An ERM remnant edge was detected in 33/86 study eyes (38.4%) at the first postoperative optical coherence tomography scan. Compared with those without an ERM remnant, patients with an ERM remnant after surgery were significantly older at baseline and had a higher incidence of ERM recurrence at their last visit. They were not significantly different in terms of gender, preoperative and postoperative visual acuity, reduction of central foveal thickness from baseline, proportion of eyes with preoperative ERM elevation on optical coherence tomography, presence of macular edema before surgery, intraoperative use of indocyanine green staining for ILM peeling, or tamponade used. Based on the edge morphology, we classified the ERM remnant into three types: Type 1 was flat and blended with the retina (14/33 eyes, 42.4%), Type 2 was flat but stepped (17/33 eyes, 51.5%), and Type 3 was elevated (2/33 eyes, 6.0%). A significantly higher risk of ERM recurrence was seen in Type 2 and Type 3 ERM remnants (75% and 100%, respectively) than Type 1 ERM remnants (10%). An ERM remnant edge was detected by optical coherence tomography after ERM peeling in 38.4% of eyes. The presence of a postoperative ERM edge was associated with a higher risk of ERM recurrence, particularly in Type 2 and Type 3 ERM remnants.

  9. Long-term follow-up of nutritional status, pancreatic function, and morphological changes of the pancreatic remnant after pancreatic tumor resection in children.

    PubMed

    Sugito, Kiminobu; Furuya, Takeshi; Kaneda, Hide; Masuko, Takayuki; Ohashi, Kensuke; Inoue, Mikiya; Ikeda, Taro; Koshinaga, Tsugumichi; Tomita, Ryouichi; Maebayashi, Toshiya

    2012-05-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine nutritional status, pancreatic function, and morphological changes of the pancreatic remnant after pancreatic tumor resection in children. The nutritional status was evaluated by the patterns of growth. Pancreatic function was evaluated by using a questionnaire, the Bristol stool form chart, the serum levels of fasting blood glucose, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Morphological changes of the pancreatic remnant were evaluated by computed tomography, magnetic resonance image, or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. The present study consisted of 6 patients with pancreatic tumor (5 solid pseudopapillary tumors of the pancreas and 1 pancreatoblastoma) who underwent the following operations: tumor enucleation (3), distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy (1), and pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PPPD [2]). The serum levels of HbA1c have been gradually elevated in 2 patients with PPPD. A significant decrease in pancreatic parenchymal thickness and dilatation of the main pancreatic duct were observed in 2 patients with PPPD. Endocrine pancreatic insufficiency after PPPD may be explainable by obstructive pancreatitis after operation. Taking together the results of pancreatic endocrine function and morphological changes of pancreatic remnant after PPPD, tumor enucleation should be considered as surgical approach in children with pancreas head tumor whenever possible.

  10. DEM L241, A SUPERNOVA REMNANT CONTAINING A HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARY

    SciTech Connect

    Seward, F. D.; Charles, P. A.; Foster, D. L.

    2012-11-10

    A Chandra observation of the Large Magellanic Cloud supernova remnant DEM L241 reveals an interior unresolved source which is probably an accretion-powered binary. The optical counterpart is an O5III(f) star making this a high-mass X-ray binary with an orbital period likely to be of the order of tens of days. Emission from the remnant interior is thermal and spectral information is used to derive density and mass of the hot material. Elongation of the remnant is unusual and possible causes of this are discussed. The precursor star probably had mass >25 M {sub Sun}.

  11. Mucocele of the cystic duct remnant after orthotopic liver transplant: a problem revisited.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Suvadip; Das, Debasish; Hudson, Mark; Bassendine, Margaret Fiona; Scott, John; Oppong, Kofi Ernest; Sen, Gourab; French, Jeremy J

    2011-06-01

    Mucocele of the cystic duct remnant is an uncommon hepatobiliary complication of a liver transplant. Current practice usually involves either excising the cystic duct, or incorporating the distal end of the transected cystic duct into the suture line of the biliary anastomosis to ensure drainage. We report a patient who developed cystic duct remnant mucocele after the latter approach was adopted. We believe that this is likely related to delayed anastomotic stricturing, which prevented draining from the remnant cystic duct. We also discuss the incidence, pathology, investigations, and treatment of this condition.

  12. Acceleration of cosmic rays in supernova-remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorfi, E. A.; Drury, L. O.

    1985-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that supernova-explosions are the dominant source of cosmic rays up to an energy of 10 to the 14th power eV/nucleon. Moreover, these high energy particles provide a major contribution to the energy density of the interstellar medium (ISM) and should therefore be included in calculations of interstellar dynamic phenomena. For the following the first order Fermi mechanism in shock waves are considered to be the main acceleration mechanism. The influence of this process is twofold; first, if the process is efficient (and in fact this is the cas) it will modify the dynamics and evolution of a supernova-remnant (SNR), and secondly, the existence of a significant high energy component changes the overall picture of the ISM. The complexity of the underlying physics prevented detailed investigations of the full non-linear selfconsistent problem. For example, in the context of the energy balance of the ISM it has not been investigated how much energy of a SN-explosion can be transfered to cosmic rays in a time-dependent selfconsistent model. Nevertheless, a lot of progress was made on many aspects of the acceleration mechanism.

  13. Venus - Possible Remnants of a Meteoroid in Lakshmi Region

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-11-26

    This full resolution mosaiced image covers an area of approximately 100 kilometers by 120 kilometers (62 by 74 miles) and is located in the Lakshmi region of Venus at 47 degrees north latitude and 334 east longitude. Due to the dense Venusian atmosphere, primary impact craters of less than a 3 kilometer (2 mile) diameter are nonexistent. The dark circular region and associated central bright feature in this image are thought to be the remnants of a meteoroid smaller than the size necessary to create an impact crater entering the atmosphere at a low velocity (approximately 350 meters/second.) The central bright feature appears to be a cluster of small secondary impacts, ejecta and debris from the original meteor that broke up in the atmosphere. Even though most of the meteorite did not hit the surface, the atmospheric shock wave could be great enough to modify the surrounding region. One explanation for this radar dark circular formation, called dark margins, could be that the shock wave was energetic enough to pulverize the surface (smooth surfaces generally appear radar dark.) Another explanation is that the surface could be blanketed by a fine material that was formed by the original meteor's breakup through the atmosphere. More than half of the impact craters on Venus have associated dark margins, and most of these are prominently located left of center of the crater. This is another effect which could be caused by the dense atmosphere of Venus. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00477

  14. Venus - Possible Remnants of a Meteoroid in Lakshmi Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This full resolution mosaiced image covers an area of approximately 100 kilometers by 120 kilometers (62 by 74 miles) and is located in the Lakshmi region of Venus at 47 degrees north latitude and 334 east longitude. Due to the dense Venusian atmosphere, primary impact craters of less than a 3 kilometer (2 mile) diameter are nonexistent. The dark circular region and associated central bright feature in this image are thought to be the remnants of a meteoroid smaller than the size necessary to create an impact crater entering the atmosphere at a low velocity (approximately 350 meters/second.) The central bright feature appears to be a cluster of small secondary impacts, ejecta and debris from the original meteor that broke up in the atmosphere. Even though most of the meteorite did not hit the surface, the atmospheric shock wave could be great enough to modify the surrounding region. One explanation for this radar dark circular formation, called dark margins, could be that the shock wave was energetic enough to pulverize the surface (smooth surfaces generally appear radar dark.) Another explanation is that the surface could be blanketed by a fine material that was formed by the original meteor's breakup through the atmosphere. More than half of the impact craters on Venus have associated dark margins, and most of these are prominently located left of center of the crater. This is another effect which could be caused by the dense atmosphere of Venus.

  15. Infrared Emission from Supernova Remnants: Formation and Destruction of Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Brian J.; Temim, Tea

    2016-09-01

    We review the observations of dust emission in supernova remnants (SNRs) and supernovae (SNe). Theoretical calculations suggest that SNe, particularly core-collapse, should make significant quantities of dust, perhaps as much as a solar mass. Observations of extragalactic SNe have yet to find anywhere near this amount, but this may be the result of observational limitations. SN 1987A, in the process of transitioning from a SN to an SNR, does show signs of a significant amount of dust forming in its ejecta, but whether this dust will survive the passage of the reverse shock to be injected into the ISM is unknown. IR observations of SNRs have not turned up significant quantities of dust, and the dust that is observed is generally swept up by the forward shock, rather than created in the ejecta. Because the shock waves also destroy dust in the ISM, we explore the question of whether SNe might be net destroyers, rather than net creators of dust in the universe.

  16. Infrared Emission from Supernova Remnants: Formation and Destruction of Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Brian J.; Temim, Tea

    We review the observations of dust emission in supernova remnants (SNRs) and supernovae (SNe). Theoretical calculations suggest that SNe, particularly core-collapse, should make significant quantities of dust, perhaps as much as a solar mass. Observations of extragalactic SNe have yet to find anywhere near this amount, but this may be the result of observational limitations. SN 1987A, in the process of transitioning from a SN to an SNR, does show signs of a significant amount of dust forming in its ejecta, but whether this dust will survive the passage of the reverse shock to be injected into the ISM is unknown. IR observations of SNRs have not turned up significant quantities of dust, and the dust that is observed is generally swept up by the forward shock, rather than created in the ejecta. Because the shock waves also destroy dust in the ISM, we explore the question of whether SNe might be net destroyers, rather than net creators of dust in the universe.

  17. The Fate of the Compact Remnant in Neutron Star Mergers

    DOE PAGES

    Fryer, Chris L.; Belczynski, Krzysztoff; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; ...

    2015-10-06

    Neutron star (binary neutron star and neutron star - black hole) mergers are believed to produce short-duration gamma-ray bursts. They are also believed to be the dominant source of gravitational waves to be detected by the advanced LIGO and the dominant source of the heavy r-process elements in the universe. Whether or not these mergers produce short-duration GRBs depends sensitively on the fate of the core of the remnant (whether, and how quickly, it forms a black hole). In this paper, we combine the results of merger calculations and equation of state studies to determine the fate of the coresmore » of neutron star mergers. Using population studies, we can determine the distribution of these fates to compare to observations. We find that black hole cores form quickly only for equations of state that predict maximum non-rotating neutron star masses below 2.3-2.4 solar masses. If quick black hole formation is essential in producing gamma-ray bursts, LIGO observed rates compared to GRB rates could be used to constrain the equation of state for dense nuclear matter.« less

  18. Evolution of Supernova Remnants Near the Galactic Center

    SciTech Connect

    Yalinewich, A.; Piran, T.; Sari, R.

    Supernovae near the Galactic center (GC) evolve differently from regular Galactic supernovae. This is mainly due to the environment into which the supernova remnants (SNRs) propagate. SNRs near the GC propagate into a wind swept environment with a velocity directed away from the GC, and a graded density profile. This causes these SNRs to be non-spherical, and to evolve faster than their Galactic counterparts. We develop an analytic theory for the evolution of explosions within a stellar wind, and verify it using a hydrodynamic code. We show that such explosions can evolve in one of three possible morphologies. Using thesemore » results we discuss the association between the two SNRs (SGR East and SGR A’s bipolar radio/X-ray lobes) and the two neutron stars (the Cannonball and SGR J1745-2900) near the GC. We show that, given the morphologies of the SNR and positions of the neutron stars, the only possible association is between SGR A’s bipolar radio/X-ray lobes and SGR J1745-2900. If a compact object was created in the explosion of SGR East, it remains undetected, and the SNR of the supernova that created the Cannonball has already disappeared.« less

  19. The Fate of the Compact Remnant in Neutron Star Mergers

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, Chris L.; Belczynski, Krzysztoff; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    Neutron star (binary neutron star and neutron star - black hole) mergers are believed to produce short-duration gamma-ray bursts. They are also believed to be the dominant source of gravitational waves to be detected by the advanced LIGO and the dominant source of the heavy r-process elements in the universe. Whether or not these mergers produce short-duration GRBs depends sensitively on the fate of the core of the remnant (whether, and how quickly, it forms a black hole). In this paper, we combine the results of merger calculations and equation of state studies to determine the fate of the coresmore » of neutron star mergers. Using population studies, we can determine the distribution of these fates to compare to observations. We find that black hole cores form quickly only for equations of state that predict maximum non-rotating neutron star masses below 2.3-2.4 solar masses. If quick black hole formation is essential in producing gamma-ray bursts, LIGO observed rates compared to GRB rates could be used to constrain the equation of state for dense nuclear matter.« less

  20. Ultrahigh energy cosmic ray nuclei from remnants of dead quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncada, Roberto J.; Colon, Rafael A.; Guerra, Juan J.; O'Dowd, Matthew J.; Anchordoqui, Luis A.

    2017-03-01

    We re-examine the possibility of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays being accelerated in nearby dormant quasars. We particularize our study to heavy nuclei to accommodate the spectrum and nuclear composition recently reported by the Pierre Auger Collaboration. Particle acceleration is driven by the Blandford-Znajek mechanism, which wires the dormant spinning black holes as Faraday unipolar dynamos. We demonstrate that energy losses are dominated by photonuclear interactions on the ambient photon fields. We argue that the local dark fossils of the past quasar activity can be classified on the basis of how source parameters (mass of the central engine and photon background surrounding the accelerator) impact the photonuclear interaction. In this classification it is possible to distinguish two unequivocal type of sources: those in which nuclei are completely photodisintegrated before escaping the acceleration region and those in which photopion production is the major energy damping mechanism. We further argue that the secondary nucleons from the photodisintegrated nuclei (which have a steep spectral index at injection) can populate the energy region below ;the ankle; feature in the cosmic ray spectrum, whereas heavy and medium mass nuclei (with a harder spectral index) populate the energy region beyond ;the ankle;, all the way to the high energy end of the spectrum. In addition, we show that five potential quasar remnants from our cosmic backyard correlate with the hot-spot observed by the Telescope Array.

  1. Pervasive Defaunation of Forest Remnants in a Tropical Biodiversity Hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Canale, Gustavo R.; Peres, Carlos A.; Guidorizzi, Carlos E.; Gatto, Cassiano A. Ferreira; Kierulff, Maria Cecília M.

    2012-01-01

    Tropical deforestation and forest fragmentation are among the most important biodiversity conservation issues worldwide, yet local extinctions of millions of animal and plant populations stranded in unprotected forest remnants remain poorly explained. Here, we report unprecedented rates of local extinctions of medium to large-bodied mammals in one of the world's most important tropical biodiversity hotspots. We scrutinized 8,846 person-years of local knowledge to derive patch occupancy data for 18 mammal species within 196 forest patches across a 252,669-km2 study region of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We uncovered a staggering rate of local extinctions in the mammal fauna, with only 767 from a possible 3,528 populations still persisting. On average, forest patches retained 3.9 out of 18 potential species occupancies, and geographic ranges had contracted to 0–14.4% of their former distributions, including five large-bodied species that had been extirpated at a regional scale. Forest fragments were highly accessible to hunters and exposed to edge effects and fires, thereby severely diminishing the predictive power of species-area relationships, with the power model explaining only ∼9% of the variation in species richness per patch. Hence, conventional species-area curves provided over-optimistic estimates of species persistence in that most forest fragments had lost species at a much faster rate than predicted by habitat loss alone. PMID:22905103

  2. Pulsar Wind Nebulae, Space Velocities and Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The original proposal for this LTSA grant was for X-ray studies of pulsars, and especially pulsar wind nebulae and what they could tell us about pulsar properties, especially their space velocities. By any metric, this program has been very successful. No fewer than 14 papers on directly related topics (and several dozen more on related topics) have been published in refereed journals with the PI as lead or co-author, all observational results that have had significant impact on the field. These include the first X-ray detection of the "Duck" pulsar, a clear demonstration that estimated pulsar ages can be off by over an order of magnitude (via observations of the young supernova remnant G11.2-0.3) and the detection of the first pulsar wind nebula around a millisecond pulsar. These publications have also resulted in 4 press releases. Moreover, they also represent the thesis work of two PhD students at MIT (Froney Crawford and Mike Pivovaroff) and one postdoctoral fellow, Bryan Gaensler, now Assistant Professor at Harvard.

  3. The Origin of the Iron-rich Knot in Tycho’s Supernova Remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Hughes, John P.; Badenes, Carles; Bravo, Eduardo; Seitenzahl, Ivo R.; Martínez-Rodríguez, Héctor; Park, Sangwook; Petre, Robert

    2017-01-01

    X-ray observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) allow us to investigate the chemical inhomogeneity of ejecta, offering unique insight into the nucleosynthesis in supernova explosions. Here we present detailed imaging and spectroscopic studies of the “Fe knot” located along the eastern rim of the Type Ia SNR Tycho (SN 1572) using Suzaku and Chandra long-exposure data. Surprisingly, the Suzaku spectrum of this knot shows no emission from Cr, Mn, or Ni, which is unusual for the Fe-rich regions in this SNR. Within the framework of the canonical delayed-detonation models for SN Ia, the observed mass ratios {M}{Cr}/{M}{Fe}< 0.023, {M}{Mn}/{M}{Fe}< 0.012, and {M}{Ni}/{M}{Fe}< 0.029 (at 90% confidence) can only be achieved for a peak temperature of (5.3-5.7) × {10}9 K and a neutron excess of ≲ 2.0× {10}-3. These constraints rule out the deep, dense core of a Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf as the origin of the Fe knot and favor either incomplete Si burning or an α-rich freeze-out regime, probably close to the boundary. An explosive He burning regime is a possible alternative, although this hypothesis is in conflict with the main properties of this SNR.

  4. X-Ray Emission from a Merger Remnant, NGC 7252 (the ``Atoms-for-Peace'' Galaxy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awaki, Hisamitsu; Matsumoto, Hironori; Tomida, Hiroshi

    2002-03-01

    We observed a nearby merger remnant NGC 7252 with the X-ray satellite ASCA and detected X-ray emission with the X-ray flux of (1.8+/-0.3)×10-13 ergs s-1 cm-2 in the 0.5-10 keV band. This corresponds to the X-ray luminosity of 8.1×1040 ergs s-1. The X-ray emission is well described with a two-component model: a soft component with kT=0.72+/-0.13 keV and a hard component with kT>5.1 keV. Although NGC 7252 is referred to as a dynamically young protoelliptical, the 0.5-4 keV luminosity of the soft component is about 2×1040 ergs s-1, which is low for an early-type galaxy. The ratio of LX/LFIR suggests that the soft component originated from the hot gas due to star formation. Its low luminosity can be explained by the gas ejection from the galaxy as galaxy winds. Our observation reveals the existence of hard X-ray emission with the 2-10 keV luminosity of 5.6×1040 ergs s-1. This may indicate the existence of nuclear activity or an intermediate-mass black hole in NGC 7252.

  5. The Origin of the Iron-Rich Knot in Tycho's Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Hughes, John P.; Badenes, Carles; Bravo, Eduardo; Seitenzahl, Ivo R.; Martinez-Rodriguez, Hector; Park, Sangwook; Petre, Robert

    2017-01-01

    X-ray observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) allow us to investigate the chemical inhomogeneity of ejecta, offering unique insight into the nucleosynthesis in supernova explosions. Here we present detailed imaging and spectroscopic studies of the Fe knot located along the eastern rim of the Type Ia SNR Tycho ( SN 1572) using Suzaku and Chandra long-exposure data. Surprisingly, the Suzaku spectrum of this knot shows no emission from Cr, Mn, or Ni, which is unusual for the Fe-rich regions in this SNR. Within the framework of the canonical delayed-detonation models for SN Ia, the observed mass ratios M(sub Cr)/M(sub Fe) is less than 0.023, M(sub Mn)/M(sub Fe) is less than 0.012, and M(sub Ni)/M(sub Fe) is less than 0.029 (at 90% confidence) can only be achieved for a peak temperature of (5.3 - 5.7) x 10(exp. 9) K and a neutron excess of approximately less than 2.0 x 10(exp. -3). These constraints rule out the deep, dense core of a Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf as the origin of the Fe knot and favor either incomplete Si burning or an Alpha-rich freeze-out regime, probably close to the boundary. An explosive He burning regime is a possible alternative, although this hypothesis is in conflict with the main properties of this SNR.

  6. Polarized Balmer line emission from supernova remnant shock waves efficiently accelerating cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoda, Jiro; Ohira, Yutaka; Yamazaki, Ryo; Laming, J. Martin; Katsuda, Satoru

    2018-01-01

    Linearly polarized Balmer line emissions from supernova remnant shocks are studied taking into account the energy loss of the shock owing to the production of non-thermal particles. The polarization degree depends on the downstream temperature and the velocity difference between upstream and downstream regions. The former is derived once the line width of the broad component of the H α emission is observed. Then, the observation of the polarization degree tells us the latter. At the same time, the estimated value of the velocity difference independently predicts adiabatic downstream temperature that is derived from Rankine Hugoniot relations for adiabatic shocks. If the actually observed downstream temperature is lower than the adiabatic temperature, there is a missing thermal energy which is consumed for particle acceleration. It is shown that a larger energy-loss rate leads to more highly polarized H α emission. Furthermore, we find that polarized intensity ratio of H β to H α also depends on the energy-loss rate and that it is independent of uncertain quantities such as electron temperature, the effect of Lyman line trapping and our line of sight.

  7. Tori sequences as remnants of multiple accreting periods of Kerr SMBHs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Super-massive black holes (SMBHs) hosted in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) can be characterized by multi-accreting periods as the attractors interact with the environment during their life-time. These multi-accretion episodes should leave traces in the matter orbiting the attractor. Counterrotating and even misaligned structures orbiting around the SMBHs would be consequences of these episodes. Our task in this work is to consider situations where such accretions occur and to trace their remnants represented by several toroidal accreting fluids, corotating or counterrotating relative to the central Kerr attractor, and created in various regimes during the evolution of matter configurations around SMBHs. We focus particularly on the emergence of matter instabilities, i.e., tori collisions, accretion onto the central Kerr black hole, or creation of jet-like structures (proto-jets). Each orbiting configuration is governed by the general relativistic hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluid. We prove that sequences of configurations and hot points, where an instability occurs, characterize the Kerr SMBHs, depending mainly on their spin-mass ratios. The occurrence of tori accretion or collision are strongly constrained by the fluid rotation with respect to the central black hole and the relative rotation with respect to each other. Our investigation provides characteristic of attractors where traces of multi-accreting episodes can be found and observed.

  8. Thermal and Nonthermal X-ray Emission from the Forward Shock in Tycho's Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Una; Decourchelle, Anne; Holt, Stephen S.; Petre, Robert; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present Chandra CCD images of Tycho's supernova remnant that delineate its outer shock, seen as a thin, smooth rim along the straight northeastern edge and most of the circular western half. The images also show that the Si and S ejecta are highly clumpy, and have reached the forward shock at numerous locations. Most of the X-ray spectra that we examine along the rim show line emission from Si and S, which in some cases must come from ejecta; the continuum is well represented by either thermal or nonthermal models. In the case that the continuum is assumed to be thermal, the temperatures at the rim are all similar at about 2 keV, and the ionization ages are very low because of the overall weakness of the line emission. Assuming shock velocities inferred from radio and X-ray expansion measurements, these temperatures are substantially below those expected for equilibration of the electron and ion temperatures; electron to mean temperature ratios of approximately less than 0.1 - 0.2 indicate at most modest collisionless heating of the electrons at the shock. The nonthermal contribution to these spectra may be important, however, and may account for as many as half of the counts in the 4-6 keV energy range, based on an extrapolation of the hard X-ray spectrum above 10 keV.

  9. Functional and morphological evolution of remnant pancreas after resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Shin-Young; Park, Keun-Myoung; Shin, Woo Young; Choe, Yun-Mee; Hur, Yoon-Seok; Lee, Keon-Young; Ahn, Seung-Ik

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Functional and morphological evolution of remnant pancreas after resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma is investigated. The medical records of 45 patients who had undergone radical resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma from March 2010 to September 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. There were 34 patients in the pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) group and 10 patients in the distal pancreatectomy (DP) group. One patient received total pancreatectomy. The endocrine function was measured using the glucose tolerance index (GTI), which was derived by dividing daily maximum serum glucose fluctuation by daily minimum glucose. Remnant pancreas volume (RPV) was estimated by considering pancreas body and tail as a column, and head as an ellipsoid, respectively. The pancreatic atrophic index (PAI) was defined as the ratio of pancreatic duct width to total pancreas width. Representative indices of each patient were compared before and after resection up to 2 years postoperatively. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve of GTI for diagnosing DM was 0.823 (95% confidence interval, 0.699–0.948, P < .001). Overall, GTI increased on postoperative day 1 (POD#1, mean ± standard deviation, 1.79 ± 1.40 vs preoperative, 1.02 ± 1.41; P = .001), and then decreased by day 7 (0.89 ± 1.16 vs POD#1, P < .001). In the PD group, the GTI on POD#14 became lower than preoperative (0.51 ± 0.38 vs 0.96 ± 1.37; P = .03). PAI in the PD group was significantly lower at 1 month postoperatively (0.22 ± 0.12 vs preoperative, 0.38 ± 0.18; P < .001). In the PD group, RPV was significantly lower at 1 month postoperatively (25.3 ± 18.3 cm3 vs preoperative, 32.4 ± 20.1 cm3; P = .02), due to the resolution of pancreatic duct dilatation. RPV of the DP group showed no significant change. GTI was negatively related to RPV preoperatively (r = –0.317, P = .04), but this correlation disappeared

  10. 3D Simulations of Supernova Remnants from Type Ia Supernova Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Heather; Reynolds, S. P.; Frohlich, C.; Blondin, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe) originate from thermonuclear explosions of white dwarfs. A great deal is still unknown about the explosion mechanisms, particularly the degree of asymmetry. However, Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs) can bear the imprint of asymmetry long after the explosion. A SNR of interest is G1.9+0.3, the youngest Galactic SNR, which demonstrates an unusual spatial distribution of elements in the ejecta. While its X-ray spectrum is dominated by synchrotron emission, spectral lines of highly ionized Si, S, and Fe are seen in a few locations, with Fe near the edge of the remnant and with strongly varying Fe/Si ratios. An asymmetric explosion within the white dwarf progenitor may be necessary to explain these unusual features of G1.9+0.3, in particular the shocked Fe at large radii. We use the VH-1 hydrodynamics code to evolve initial Type Ia explosion models in 1, 2, and 3 dimensions at an age of 100 seconds provided by other researchers to study asymmetry, the ignition properties, and the nucleosynthesis resulting from these explosions. We follow the evolution of these models interacting with a uniform external medium to a few hundred years in age. We find the abundance and location of ejecta elements from our models to be inconsistent with the observations of G1.9+0.3; while our models show asymmetric element distributions, we find no tendency for iron-group elements to be found beyond intermediate-mass elements, or for significant iron to be reverse-shocked at all at the age of G1.9+0.3. We compare the amounts of shocked iron-group and intermediate-mass elements as a function of time in the different models. Some new kind of explosion asymmetry may be required to explain G1.9+0.3. This work was performed as part of NC State University's Undergraduate Research in Computational Astrophysics (URCA) program, an REU program supported by the National Science Foundation through award AST-1032736.

  11. Functional and morphological evolution of remnant pancreas after resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Park, Shin-Young; Park, Keun-Myoung; Shin, Woo Young; Choe, Yun-Mee; Hur, Yoon-Seok; Lee, Keon-Young; Ahn, Seung-Ik

    2017-07-01

    Functional and morphological evolution of remnant pancreas after resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma is investigated.The medical records of 45 patients who had undergone radical resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma from March 2010 to September 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. There were 34 patients in the pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) group and 10 patients in the distal pancreatectomy (DP) group. One patient received total pancreatectomy. The endocrine function was measured using the glucose tolerance index (GTI), which was derived by dividing daily maximum serum glucose fluctuation by daily minimum glucose. Remnant pancreas volume (RPV) was estimated by considering pancreas body and tail as a column, and head as an ellipsoid, respectively. The pancreatic atrophic index (PAI) was defined as the ratio of pancreatic duct width to total pancreas width. Representative indices of each patient were compared before and after resection up to 2 years postoperatively.The area under receiver operating characteristic curve of GTI for diagnosing DM was 0.823 (95% confidence interval, 0.699-0.948, P < .001). Overall, GTI increased on postoperative day 1 (POD#1, mean ± standard deviation, 1.79 ± 1.40 vs preoperative, 1.02 ± 1.41; P = .001), and then decreased by day 7 (0.89 ± 1.16 vs POD#1, P < .001). In the PD group, the GTI on POD#14 became lower than preoperative (0.51 ± 0.38 vs 0.96 ± 1.37; P = .03). PAI in the PD group was significantly lower at 1 month postoperatively (0.22 ± 0.12 vs preoperative, 0.38 ± 0.18; P < .001). In the PD group, RPV was significantly lower at 1 month postoperatively (25.3 ± 18.3 cm vs preoperative, 32.4 ± 20.1 cm; P = .02), due to the resolution of pancreatic duct dilatation. RPV of the DP group showed no significant change. GTI was negatively related to RPV preoperatively (r = -0.317, P = .04), but this correlation disappeared postoperatively (r = -0

  12. A Chandra Study of Supernova Remnants in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenck, Andrew Corey

    2017-08-01

    In the first part of this thesis we measure the interstellar abundances for the elements O, Ne, Mg, Si, and Fe in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), based on the observational data of sixteen supernova remnants (SNRs) in the LMC as available in the public archive of the Chandra X-ray Observatory (Chandra). We find lower abundances than previous measurements based on a similar method using data obtained with the Advanced Satellite for Astrophysics and Cosmology (ASCA). We discuss the origins of the discrepancy between our Chandra and the previous ASCA measurements. We conclude that our measurements are generally more reliable than the ASCA results thanks to the high-resolution imaging spectroscopy with our Chandra data, although there remain some systematic uncertainties due to the use of different spectral modelings between the previous work and ours. We also discuss our results in comparison with the LMC abundance measurements based on optical observations of stars. The second part of this thesis is a detailed study of a core-collapse SNR B0049-73.6 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). Based on our deep Chandra observation, we detect metal-rich ejecta features extending out to the outermost boundary of B0049-73.6, which were not seen in the previous data. We find that the central nebula is dominated by emission from reverse-shocked ejecta material enriched in O, Ne, Mg, and Si. O-rich ejecta distribution is relatively smooth throughout the central nebula. In contrast the Si-rich material is highly structured. These results suggest that B0049-73.6 was produced by an asymmetric core-collapse explosion of a massive star. The estimated abundance ratios among these ejecta elements are in plausible agreement with the nucleosynthesis products from the explosion of a 13-15M. progenitor. We reveal that the central ring-like (in projection) ejecta nebula extends to ˜9 pc from the SNR center. This suggests that the contact discontinuity (CD) may be located at a further

  13. Implications of supernova remnant origin model of galactic cosmic rays on gamma rays from young supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banik, Prabir; Bhadra, Arunava

    2017-06-01

    It is widely believed that Galactic cosmic rays are originated in supernova remnants (SNRs), where they are accelerated by a diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) process in supernova blast waves driven by expanding SNRs. In recent theoretical developments of the DSA theory in SNRs, protons are expected to accelerate in SNRs at least up to the knee energy. If SNRs are the true generators of cosmic rays, they should accelerate not only protons but also heavier nuclei with the right proportions, and the maximum energy of the heavier nuclei should be the atomic number (Z ) times the mass of the proton. In this work, we investigate the implications of the acceleration of heavier nuclei in SNRs on energetic gamma rays produced in the hadronic interaction of cosmic rays with ambient matter. Our findings suggest that the energy conversion efficiency has to be nearly double for the mixed cosmic ray composition compared to that of pure protons to explain observations. In addition, the gamma-ray flux above a few tens of TeV would be significantly higher if cosmic ray particles could attain energies Z times the knee energy in lieu of 200 TeV, as suggested earlier for nonamplified magnetic fields. The two stated maximum energy paradigms will be discriminated in the future by upcoming gamma-ray experiments like the Cherenkov telescope array (CTA).

  14. OT2_jhewitt_2: Understanding Shock Oxygen Chemistry in Interacting Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, J.

    2011-09-01

    Supernova remnants interacting with dense moelcular clouds provide astrochemical laboratories to study heating and cooling of the dense ISM, shock chemistry, destruction and sputtering of dust, and the reformation of molecules. Water is expected to be a major coolant for shocks into dense gas, yet the number of remnants in which IR lines of hydroxyl and water are detected is very limited. We propose Herschel PACS, SPIRE and HIFI observations of three remnants with particularly high shocked gas densities, high dust and IR line luinosities, and extreme ionization environments. The scientific objectives of this proposal are: (1) to determine the abundance and excitation of oxygen-bearing molecules, and (2) to study the effects of variable ionization sources on oxygen chemistry in dense molecular gas shocked by powerful supernova remnant blast waves.

  15. Analyzing Data Remnant Remains on User Devices to Determine Probative Artifacts in Cloud Environment.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Abdulghani Ali; Xue Li, Chua

    2018-01-01

    Cloud storage service allows users to store their data online, so that they can remotely access, maintain, manage, and back up data from anywhere via the Internet. Although helpful, this storage creates a challenge to digital forensic investigators and practitioners in collecting, identifying, acquiring, and preserving evidential data. This study proposes an investigation scheme for analyzing data remnants and determining probative artifacts in a cloud environment. Using pCloud as a case study, this research collected the data remnants available on end-user device storage following the storing, uploading, and accessing of data in the cloud storage. Data remnants are collected from several sources, including client software files, directory listing, prefetch, registry, network PCAP, browser, and memory and link files. Results demonstrate that the collected remnants data are beneficial in determining a sufficient number of artifacts about the investigated cybercrime. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Excitation and Disruption of a Giant Molecular Cloud by the Sepurnova Remnant 3C 391

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reach, W. T.; Rho, J.

    1998-01-01

    The ambient molecular gas at the distance of the remnant comprises a giant molecular cloud whose edge is closely parallel to a ridge of bright non-thermal radio continuum, which evidently delineates the blast-wave into the cloud.

  17. Supernova Remnant Kes 17: An Efficient Cosmic Ray Accelerator inside a Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfand, Joseph D.; Castro, Daniel; Slane, Patrick O.; Temim, Tea; Hughes, John P.; Rakowski, Cara

    2013-11-01

    The supernova remnant Kes 17 (SNR G304.6+0.1) is one of a few but growing number of remnants detected across the electromagnetic spectrum. In this paper, we analyze recent radio, X-ray, and γ-ray observations of this object, determining that efficient cosmic ray acceleration is required to explain its broadband non-thermal spectrum. These observations also suggest that Kes 17 is expanding inside a molecular cloud, though our determination of its age depends on whether thermal conduction or clump evaporation is primarily responsible for its center-filled thermal X-ray morphology. Evidence for efficient cosmic ray acceleration in Kes 17 supports recent theoretical work concluding that the strong magnetic field, turbulence, and clumpy nature of molecular clouds enhance cosmic ray production in supernova remnants. While additional observations are needed to confirm this interpretation, further study of Kes 17 is important for understanding how cosmic rays are accelerated in supernova remnants.

  18. Expansion of Kes 73, a shell supernova remnant containing a magnetar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkowski, Kazimierz

    2014-09-01

    Formation and evolution of highly magnetized neutron stars (magnetars) remain poorly understood. We can learn about magnetars by studying their remnants. Kes 73 is a young supernova remnant containing a magnetar. But basic properties of Kes 73, including its age, remain poorly known. We propose a third-epoch observation of Kes 73 with Chandra. When combined with the 2000 and 2006 observations, this will allow for determination of the remnant's age through expansion rate measurements. We will also search for spatial variations in expansion rate that will help in understanding of the remnant's dynamics. New observations will also be used to determine abundances of heavy-element supernova ejecta, placing further constraints on the supernova that produced Kes 73.

  19. Exploring the X-ray Morphology of the Supernova Remnant Kes 27 using Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwarkadas, Vikram; Dewey, D.

    2013-04-01

    Kesteven 27 is a member of the class of thermal composite or mixed-morphology remnants, which can show thermal X-ray emission extending all the way in towards the center. The Chandra image shows two incomplete shell-like features in the north-eastern half, with brightness fading towards the southwest. The X-ray and radio structure led Chen et al. (2008) to suggest that the morphology represents a supernova remnant expanding in a windblown bubble. The two X-ray rings represent the outer shock of the supernova remnant, and a reflected shock arising from collision with a dense shell. Using numerical simulations followed by a computation of the X-ray emission, we explore this possibility. Our initial modeling suggests that the scenario discussed by Chen et al. (2008) may not work. We suggest and discuss modifications to this scenario that may be able to reproduce the observed morphology, and the implications for thermal composite remnants.

  20. 30 Dor B - A supernova remnant in a star formation region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, You-Hua; Kennicutt, Robert C., Jr.; Schommer, Robert A.; Laff, Joshua

    1992-01-01

    The supernova remnant 30 Dor B is embedded in an H II region around the OB association LH 99, and has been suggested to be a Crab-type remnant. To determine the spatial extent and kinematic properties of this supernova remnant, long-slit echelle observations were obtained in the H-alpha and forbidden N II lines, along with imaging Fabry-Perot observations in the H-alpha line. It is found that 30 Dor B is partially obscured by a dark cloud with which the supernova remnant also interacts. The size of 30 Dor B is much larger than previously thought, making it much older than the Crab Nebula. If the progenitor of the supernova was formed coevally with LH 99, then it would have been more massive than the O3 members of the OB association.

  1. Are supernova remnants quasi-parallel or quasi-perpendicular accelerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, S. R.; Leckband, J. A.; Cairns, I. H.

    1989-01-01

    Observations of shock waves in the solar system which show a pronounced difference in the plasma wave and particle environment depending on whether the shock is propagating along or perpendicular to the interplanetary magnetic field are discussed. Theories for particle acceleration developed for quasi-parallel and quasi-perpendicular shocks, when extended to the interstellar medium suggest that the relativistic electrons in radio supernova remnants are accelerated by either the Q parallel or Q perpendicular mechanisms. A model for the galactic magnetic field and published maps of supernova remnants were used to search for a dependence of structure on the angle Phi. Results show no tendency for the remnants as a whole to favor the relationship expected for either mechanism, although individual sources resemble model remnants of one or the other acceleration process.

  2. Evidence for increased chylomicron remnants in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Burggraaf, Benjamin; van Breukelen-van der Stoep, Deborah F; van Zeben, Jendé; van der Meulen, Noelle; van de Geijn, Gert-Jan M; Liem, Anho; Valdivielso, Pedro; Rioja Villodres, José; Ramírez-Bollero, José; van der Zwan, Ellen; Castro Cabezas, Manuel

    2018-02-01

    Levels of apolipoprotein (apo) B48 may be increased in conditions associated with systemic inflammation and increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We aimed to evaluate apo B48 levels in patients with RA in relation to subclinical atherosclerosis. Patients with RA (without CVD) and controls without RA but with high CVD risk (based on the presence of diabetes mellitus or a history of CVD) and healthy controls were included in this cross-sectional study. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) was measured as a surrogate for vascular damage. In total, 312 patients with RA, 65 controls with high CVD risk and 36 healthy controls were included. Patients with RA had the highest mean apo B48 (10.00 ± 6.65 mg/L) compared to controls with high CVD risk and healthy controls (8.37 ± 5.16 and 5.22 ± 2.46, P < .001). Triglycerides levels were comparable with controls. In RA, apo B48 correlated positively with triglycerides (r = .645; P < .001) but not with cIMT. However, in RA subjects not using lipid or blood pressure lowering medication, a weak correlation was found with cIMT (r = .157; P = .014). RA patients in the highest apo B48 tertile were more often rheumatoid factor positive and anti-CCP positive compared to the lowest tertile. Rheumatoid arthritis patients have higher levels of apo B48 compared to controls with high CVD risk and healthy controls, with normal levels of triglycerides. This accumulation of atherogenic chylomicron remnants may contribute to the elevated CVD risk in RA patients. © 2017 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  3. On The Origin Of Two-Shell Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    2006-08-01

    It is known that proper motion of massive stars causes them to explode far from the geometric centers of their wind-driven bubbles and thereby affects the symmetry of the resulting diffuse supernova remnants (SNRs). We use this fact to explain the origin of SNRs consisting of two partially overlapping shells (e.g. 3C 400.2, Cygnus Loop, Kes32, etc.), whose unusual morphology is usually treated in terms of the collision (or superposition) of two separate SNRs or breakout phenomena in a region with a density discontinuity. We propose that a SNR of this type is a natural consequence of an off-centered cavity supernova (SN) explosion of a moving massive star, which ended its evolution near the edge of the main-sequence (MS) wind-driven bubble. Our proposal implies that one of the shells is the former MS bubble reenergized by the SN blast wave. The second shell, however, could originate in two somewhat different ways, depending on the initial mass of the SN progenitor star. It could be a shell swept-up by the SN blast wave expanding through the unperturbed ambient interstellar medium if the massive star ends its evolution as a red supergiant (RSG). Or it could be the remainder of a pre-existing shell (adjacent to the MS bubble) swept-up by the fast progenitor's wind during the late evolutionary phases if after the RSG phase the star evolves through the Wolf-Rayet phase. In both cases the resulting (two-shell) SNR should be associated only with one (young) neutron star (thus one can somewhat improve the statistics of neutron star/SNR associations since the two-shell SNRs are quite numerous). We discuss several criteria to discern the SNRs formed by SN explosion after the RSG or WR phase.

  4. NASA's Hubble Sees A New Supernova Remnant Light Up

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-10

    NASA image release June 10, 2011 Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope are witnessing the unprecedented transition of a supernova to a supernova remnant, where light from an exploding star in a neighboring galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud, reached Earth in February 1987. Named Supernova 1987A, it was the closest supernova explosion witnessed in almost 400 years. The supernova's close proximity to Earth has allowed astronomers to study it in detail as it evolves. Now, the supernova debris, which has faded over the years, is brightening. This means that a different power source has begun to light the debris. The debris of SN 1987A is beginning to impact the surrounding ring, creating powerful shock waves that generate X-rays observed with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. Those X-rays are illuminating the supernova debris and shock heating is making it glow in visible light. The results are being reported in the June 9, 2011, issue of the journal Nature by a team including Robert Kirshner of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA), who leads a long-term study of SN 1987A with Hubble. Since its launch in 1990, the Hubble telescope has provided a continuous record of the changes in SN 1987A. Credit: NASA, ESA, and P. Challis (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  5. Nest Predation by Commensal Rodents in Urban Bushland Remnants.

    PubMed

    Smith, Helen M; Dickman, Chris R; Banks, Peter B

    2016-01-01

    Exotic predators are a major threat to native wildlife in many parts of the world. Developing and implementing effective strategies to mitigate their effects requires robust quantitative data so that management can be evidence-based, yet in many ecosystems this is missing. Birds in particular have been severely impacted by exotic mammalian predators, and a plethora of studies on islands record predation of bird eggs, fledglings and adults by exotic species such as rodents, stoats and cats. By comparison, few studies have examined nest predation around mainland urban centres which often act as dispersal hubs, especially for commensal species such as rodents. Here, we experimentally examine nest predation rates in habitat patches with varying black rat (Rattus rattus) densities in Sydney, Australia and test whether these exotic rats have the effects expected of exotic predators using effect size benchmarks. In the case where black rats have replaced native Rattus spp., we expected that black rats, being more arboreal than native Rattus spp., would be a significant source of predation on birds because they can readily access the arboreal niche where many birds nest. We tested this idea using above-ground artificial nests to represent those of typical small bird species such as the New Holland honeyeater (Phylidonyris novaehollandiae). We found that fewer eggs were depredated by rodents on sites where we removed black rats compared to unmanipulated sites, and that the effect size calculated from the total number of eggs surviving beyond the typical incubation period was similar to that expected for an exotic predator. Our results suggest that, although Australian birds have co-evolved with native Rattus species, in the case where black rats have replaced native Rattus species, exotic black rats appear to pose an additive source of predation on birds in remnant habitats, most likely due to their ability to climb more efficiently than their native counterparts

  6. Nest Predation by Commensal Rodents in Urban Bushland Remnants

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Exotic predators are a major threat to native wildlife in many parts of the world. Developing and implementing effective strategies to mitigate their effects requires robust quantitative data so that management can be evidence-based, yet in many ecosystems this is missing. Birds in particular have been severely impacted by exotic mammalian predators, and a plethora of studies on islands record predation of bird eggs, fledglings and adults by exotic species such as rodents, stoats and cats. By comparison, few studies have examined nest predation around mainland urban centres which often act as dispersal hubs, especially for commensal species such as rodents. Here, we experimentally examine nest predation rates in habitat patches with varying black rat (Rattus rattus) densities in Sydney, Australia and test whether these exotic rats have the effects expected of exotic predators using effect size benchmarks. In the case where black rats have replaced native Rattus spp., we expected that black rats, being more arboreal than native Rattus spp., would be a significant source of predation on birds because they can readily access the arboreal niche where many birds nest. We tested this idea using above-ground artificial nests to represent those of typical small bird species such as the New Holland honeyeater (Phylidonyris novaehollandiae). We found that fewer eggs were depredated by rodents on sites where we removed black rats compared to unmanipulated sites, and that the effect size calculated from the total number of eggs surviving beyond the typical incubation period was similar to that expected for an exotic predator. Our results suggest that, although Australian birds have co-evolved with native Rattus species, in the case where black rats have replaced native Rattus species, exotic black rats appear to pose an additive source of predation on birds in remnant habitats, most likely due to their ability to climb more efficiently than their native counterparts

  7. Morphologic evaluation of remnant anterior cruciate ligament bundles after injury with three-dimensional computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Nobuo; Ochi, Mitsuo; Takazawa, Kobun; Ishifuro, Minoru; Deie, Masataka; Nakamae, Atsuo; Kamei, Goki

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the morphological patterns of remnant anterior cruciate ligament bundles after injury (ACL remnant) on three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) and compare them with those on arthroscopy. Sixty-three patients (33 males and 30 females; mean age 25.2 ± 10.1 years) who had undergone primary ACL reconstruction between March 2011 and December 2012 were included in this study. The average durations between traumas and 3DCT and between 3DCT and surgery were 101.7 ± 87.2 and 38.2 ± 38.7 days, respectively. ACL remnants were classified into four morphological patterns on 3DCT. 3DCT findings were compared with arthroscopic findings with and without probing. The morphological patterns of the ACL remnants on 3DCT were well matched with those on arthroscopy without probing (the concordance rate was 77.8%). However, the concordance rate was reduced to 49.2% when arthroscopic probing was used to confirm the femoral attachment of ACL remnants (p ≤ 0.05). This study demonstrates that the morphological patterns of ACL remnants on 3DCT were well matched with those on arthroscopy without probing. Therefore, the technique can be useful for preoperative planning of the ACL reconstruction or informed consent to the patients. However, for definitive diagnosis, arthroscopic probing is required. IV.

  8. Remnant radio-loud AGN in the Herschel-ATLAS field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahatma, V. H.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Williams, W. L.; Brienza, M.; Brüggen, M.; Croston, J. H.; Gurkan, G.; Harwood, J. J.; Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Morganti, R.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Shimwell, T. W.; Tasse, C.

    2018-04-01

    Only a small fraction of observed active galactic nuclei (AGN) display large-scale radio emission associated with jets, yet these radio-loud AGN have become increasingly important in models of galaxy evolution. In determining the dynamics and energetics of the radio sources over cosmic time, a key question concerns what happens when their jets switch off. The resulting `remnant' radio-loud AGN have been surprisingly evasive in past radio surveys, and therefore statistical information on the population of radio-loud AGN in their dying phase is limited. In this paper, with the recent developments of Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR) and the Very Large Array, we are able to provide a systematically selected sample of remnant radio-loud AGN in the Herschel-ATLAS field. Using a simple core-detection method, we constrain the upper limit on the fraction of remnants in our radio-loud AGN sample to 9 per cent, implying that the extended lobe emission fades rapidly once the core/jets turn off. We also find that our remnant sample has a wide range of spectral indices (-1.5≤slant α ^{1400}_{150}≤slant -0.5), confirming that the lobes of some remnants may possess flat spectra at low frequencies just as active sources do. We suggest that, even with the unprecedented sensitivity of LOFAR, our sample may still only contain the youngest of the remnant population.

  9. Chandra Detection of a Pulsar Wind Nebula Associated With Supernova Remnant 3C 396

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olbert, C. M.; Keohane, J. W.; Arnaud, K. A.; Dyer, K. K.; Reynolds, S. P.; Safi-Harb, S.

    2003-01-01

    We present a 100 ks observation of the Galactic supernova remnant 3C396 (G39.2-0.3) with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory that we compare to a 20cm map of the remnant from the Very Large Array. In the Chandra images, a nonthermal nebula containing an embedded pointlike source is apparent near the center of the remnant which we interpret as a synchrotron pulsar wind nebula surrounding a yet undetected pulsar. From the 2-10 keV spectrum for the nebula (N(sub H) = 5.3 plus or minus 0.9 x 10(exp 22) per square centimeter, GAMMA =1.5 plus or minus 0.3) we derive an unabsorbed x-ray flux of S(sub z)=1.62 x 10(exp -12) erg per square centimeter per second, and from this we estimate the spin-down power of the neutron star to be E(sup dot) = 7.2 x 10(exp 36) ergs per second. The central nebula is morphologically complex, showing bent, extended structure. The radio and X-ray shells of the remnant correlate poorly on large scales, particularly on the eastern half of the remnant, which appears very faint in X-ray images. At both radio and X-ray wavelengths the western half of the remnant is substantially brighter than the east.

  10. ROSAT PSPC and HRI Observations of Supernova Remnant G292.0+1.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, John P.

    1999-01-01

    The supernova remnant G292.0+1.8 was observed by the ROSAT PSPC for 18 ksec as part of this grant. Considerable effort was put into the analysis of the PSPC spectra. The major work went into nonequilibrium ionization joint spectral fits with the Einstein SSS and EXOSAT ME data which indicated that the two spatial regions of this remnant (a central bar and a plateau region covering a larger extent) had similar abundances, but different excitation conditions (temperature and ionization state), an important conclusion, if true. Unfortunately as this work was being finished, new ASCA data revealed the presence of a previously unknown, spectrally hard X-ray source near the center of the remnant which contaminated the SSS and ME data and as a consequence made our detailed spectral analysis done up until then un-publishable. We searched for evidence of this hard source in the PSPC data both spectrally and using timing searches (for a pulsar), but found nothing significant. ROSAT HRI data were also obtained on this remnant. These data were compared to the Einstein HRI data to search for evidence of spectral variations with position and possible expansion of the X-ray remnant. One feature in the remnant appears to have changed in brightness although it is not clear what is the cause of the change. No evidence for the hard ASCA source was apparent in the HRI data.

  11. Kinematics of the Ultra-High-Velocity Gas in the Expanding Molecular Shell Adjacent to the W44 Supernova Remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Masaya; Oka, Tomoharu; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Nomura, Mariko; Takekawa, Shunya; Iwata, Yuhei; Tokuyama, Sekito; Tanabe, Keisuke; Tsujimoto, Shiho; Furusawa, Maiko

    2017-01-01

    High-velocity compact cloud (HVCC) is a peculiar category of molecular clouds detected in the central molecular zone of our Galaxy (Oka et al. 1998, 2007, and 2012). They are characterized by compact appearances (d < 5 pc) and very large velocity widths (Δ V > 50 km s-1). Some of them show high CO J=3-2/J=1-0 intensity ratios (>= 1.5), indicating that they consist of dense and warm molecular gas. Dispite a number of efforts, we have not reached a comprehensive interpretation of HVCCs. Recently, we detected an extraordinaly broad velocity width feature, the `Bullet', in the molecular cloud interacting with the W44 supernova remnant. The Bullet shares essential properties with HVCCs. Because of its proximity, a close inspection of the Bullet must contribute to the understanding of HVCCs.

  12. Asymmetric expansion of the youngest Galactic supernova remnant G1.9+0.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Stephen P.

    2016-06-01

    The youngest Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G1.9+0.3, produced by a (probable) Type Ia SN that exploded around CE 1900, is strongly asymmetric at radio wavelengths, with a single bright maximum in its shell, but exhibits a bilaterally symmetric morphology in X-rays. It has been difficult to understand the origin of these contrasting morphologies. We present the results of expansion measurements of G1.9+0.3 that illuminate the origin of the radio asymmetry. These measurements are based on a comparison of our 2015 400-ks Chandra observation with earlier Chandra observations, including a 1-Ms observation in 2011. The mean expansion rate from 2011 to 2015 is 0.58% per yr, in agreement with previous measurements. We also confirm that the expansion decreases radially away from the remnant's center along the major E-W axis, from 0.77% per yr to 0.53% per yr. Large variations in expansion are also present along the minor N-S axis, but expansion there is strongly asymmetric and varies on small spatial scales. We use the “Demons” method to study the complex motions within G1.9+0.3. This method provides a nonparametric way for measuring these motions globally. We find motions varying by a factor of 5, from 0.09" to 0.44" per year. The slowest shocks are in the north, at the outer boundary of the bright radio emission, with speeds there as low as 3,600 km/s (for an assumed distance of 8.5 kpc), much less than the average shock speed of 12,000 km/s. Such strong deceleration of the northern blast wave most likely arises from the collision of SN ejecta with a much denser than average ambient medium there. The presence of this asymmetric ambient medium naturally explains the radio asymmetry. The SN ejecta have also been strongly decelerated in the N, but they expand faster than the blast wave. In several locations, significant morphological changes and strongly nonradial motions are apparent. The spatially-integrated X-ray flux continues to increase with time. As with Kepler

  13. Isotopic Ratio, Isotonic Ratio, Isobaric Ratio and Shannon Information Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chun-Wang; Wei, Hui-Ling

    2014-11-01

    The isoscaling and the isobaric yield ratio difference (IBD) probes, both of which are constructed by yield ratio of fragment, provide cancelation of parameters. The information entropy theory is introduced to explain the physical meaning of the isoscaling and IBD probes. The similarity between the isoscaling and IBD results is found, i.e., the information uncertainty determined by the IBD method equals to β - α determined by the isoscaling (α (β) is the parameter fitted from the isotopic (isotonic) yield ratio).

  14. Fruit availability drives the distribution of a folivorous-frugivorous primate within a large forest remnant.

    PubMed

    Camaratta, Danielle; Chaves, Óscar M; Bicca-Marques, Júlio César

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the ecological factors that influence the presence, abundance, and distribution of species within their habitats is critical for ensuring their long-term conservation. In the case of primary consumers, such as most primates, the availability and richness of plant foods are considered key drivers of population density at these variables influence the spatial distribution of social units within a finer, habitat patch level scale. We tested the hypothesis that the spatiotemporal availability and richness of plant foods, drive the spatial distribution of brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) at a fine spatial scale. We established five line transects (2.6-4.3 km long) to census the population of brown howlers in Morro São Pedro, a 1,200 ha Atlantic forest remnant in southern Brazil, every 2 weeks from January to June 2015. We used data from tree inventories performed in sighting and control plots, and phenological surveys of 17 top food tree species to estimate bi-weekly food availability. We recorded a total of 95 sightings. The number of sightings per sampling period ranged from 2 to 12. The availability of fruit (ripe and unripe) was higher in sighting than in control plots, whereas leaf availability and the richness of food tree species was similar. We conclude that the spatial distribution of fruiting trees and the availability of fruit drive the pattern of habitat use, and spacing of brown howler groups in Morro São Pedro. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Future remnant liver function as predictive factor for the hypertrophy response after portal vein embolization.

    PubMed

    Cieslak, Kasia P; Huisman, Floor; Bais, Thomas; Bennink, Roelof J; van Lienden, Krijn P; Verheij, Joanne; Besselink, Marc G; Busch, Olivier R C; van Gulik, Thomas M

    2017-07-01

    Preoperative portal vein embolization is widely used to increase the future remnant liver. Identification of nonresponders to portal vein embolization is essential because these patients may benefit from associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS), which induces a more powerful hypertrophy response. 99m Tc-mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy is a quantitative method for assessment of future remnant liver function with a calculated cutoff value for the prediction of postoperative liver failure. The aim of this study was to analyze future remnant liver function before portal vein embolization to predict sufficient functional hypertrophy response after portal vein embolization. Sixty-three patients who underwent preoperative portal vein embolization and computed tomography imaging were included. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy was performed to determine pre-portal vein embolization and post-portal vein embolization future remnant liver function. Receiver operator characteristic analysis of pre-portal vein embolization future remnant liver function was performed to identify patients who would meet the post-portal vein embolization cutoff value for sufficient function (ie, 2.7%/min/m 2 ). Mean pre-portal vein embolization future remnant liver function was 1.80% ± 0.45%/min/m 2 and increased to 2.89% ± 0.97%/min/m 2 post-portal vein embolization. Receiver operator characteristic analysis in 33 patients who did not receive chemotherapy revealed that a pre-portal vein embolization future remnant liver function of ≥1.72%/min/m 2 was able to identify patients who would meet the safe future remnant liver function cutoff value 3 weeks after portal vein embolization (area under the curve = 0.820). The predictive value was less pronounced in 30 patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (area under the curve = 0.618). A total of 45 of 63 patients underwent liver resection, of whom 5 of 45 developed postoperative liver failure

  16. On the population of remnant Fanaroff-Riley type II radio galaxies and implications for radio source dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfrey, L. E. H.; Morganti, R.; Brienza, M.

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this work is two-fold: (1) to quantify the occurrence of ultrasteep spectrum remnant Fanaroff-Riley type II (FRII) radio galaxies in a 74 MHz flux-limited sample, and (2) perform Monte Carlo simulations of the population of active and remnant FRII radio galaxies to confront models of remnant lobe evolution, and to provide guidance for further investigation of remnant radio galaxies. We find that fewer than 2 per cent of FRII radio galaxies with S74 MHz > 1.5 Jy are candidate ultrasteep spectrum remnants, where we define ultrasteep spectrum as α _74 MHz^1400 MHz > 1.2. Our Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that models involving Sedov-like expansion in the remnant phase, resulting in rapid adiabatic energy losses, are consistent with this upper limit, and predict the existence of nearly twice as many remnants with normal (not ultrasteep) spectra in the observed frequency range as there are ultrasteep spectrum remnants. This model also predicts an ultrasteep remnant fraction approaching 10 per cent at redshifts z < 0.5. Importantly, this model implies the lobes remain overpressured with respect to the ambient medium well after their active lifetime, in contrast with existing observational evidence that many FRII radio galaxy lobes reach pressure equilibrium with the external medium whilst still in the active phase. The predicted age distribution of remnants is a steeply decreasing function of age. In other words, young remnants are expected to be much more common than old remnants in flux-limited samples. For this reason, incorporating higher frequency data ≳5 GHz will be of great benefit to future studies of the remnant population.

  17. Salt sensitivity of tubuloglomerular feedback in the early remnant kidney

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prabhleen

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported internephron heterogeneity in the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) response 1 wk after subtotal nephrectomy (STN), with 50% of STN nephrons exhibiting anomalous TGF (Singh P, Deng A, Blantz RC, Thomson SC. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 296: F1158–F1165, 2009). Presently, we tested the theory that anomalous TGF is an adaptation of the STN kidney to facilitate increased distal delivery when NaCl balance forces the per-nephron NaCl excretion to high levels. To this end, the effect of dietary NaCl on the TGF response was tested by micropuncture in STN and sham-operated Wistar rats. An NaCl-deficient (LS) or high-salt NaCl diet (HS; 1% NaCl in drinking water) was started on day 0 after STN or sham surgery. Micropuncture followed 8 days later with measurements of single-nephron GFR (SNGFR), proximal reabsorption, and tubular stop-flow pressure (PSF) obtained at both extremes of TGF activation, while TGF was manipulated by microperfusing Henle's loop (LOH) from the late proximal tubule. Activating TGF caused SNGFR to decline by similar amounts in Sham-LS, Sham-HS and STN-LS [ΔSNGFR (nl/min) = −16 ± 2, −11 ± 3, −11 ± 2; P = not significant by Tukey]. Activating TGF in STN-HS actually increased SNGFR by 5 ± 2 nl/min (P < 0.0005 vs. each other group by Tukey). HS had no effect on the PSF response to LOH perfusion in sham [ΔPSF (mmHg) = −9.6 ± 1.1 vs. −9.8 ± 1.0] but eliminated the PSF response in STN (+0.3 ± 0.9 vs. −5.7 ± 1.0, P = 0.0002). An HS diet leads to anomalous TGF in the early remnant kidney, which facilitates NaCl and fluid delivery to the distal nephron. PMID:24259514

  18. Supernova Remnants in the UWIFE and UWISH2 Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong-Hyun; Koo, Bon-Chul; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2016-06-01

    We have searched for near-infrared [Fe II] (1.644 µm) and H2 1-0 S(1) (2.122 µm) emission features associated with Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) using the narrow-band imaging surveys UWIFE/ UWISH2 (UKIRT Widefield Infrared Survey for [Fe II] / H2). Both surveys cover about 180 square degrees of the first Galactic quadrant (7° < l < 62°; -1.5° < b < +1.5°), and a total of 79 SNRs are falling in the survey area among the currently known 294 Galactic SNRs. The images show diffuse structures as deep as the surface brightness limit of 10-19 W m-2 arcsec-2 which is comparable with a 5σ detection limit of point sources of 18 mag. In order to inspect the narrow-band features, we subtracted H and K-band continuum images obtained from the UKIDSS GPS (UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey of the Galactic Plane) from the [Fe II] and H2 narrow-band images, respectively. By this time, we have found 19 [Fe II]- and 18 H2-emitting SNRs, and these are likely to increase in future as we inspect the images in more detail. Some of the SNRs show bright, complex, and interesting structures that have never been reported in previous studies. Since [Fe II] and H2 lines trace dense atomic and molecular gases associated with SNR shocks, our results can help us understand the environment and evolution of individual SNRs. Among the SNRs showing both [Fe II] and H2 emission lines, some SNRs show the “[Fe II]-H2 reversal” phenomenon, i.e., the H2 emission features are detected outside the [Fe II] emission boundary. This is opposite to the standard picture: If the shocks are driven by the same blast wave, we expect the H2 filaments to be closer to the explosion center than the [Fe II] filaments. In this presentation, we show several examples of such SNRs detected in our study, and present high resolution (R ˜ 40,000) H and K-band spectra of H2 emission features obtained by using IGRINS (Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph).

  19. Supernova Remnants in the UWIFE and UWISH2 Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    We have searched for near-infrared [Fe II] (1.644 μm) and H2 1-0 S(1) (2.122 μm) emission features associated with Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) using the narrow-band imaging surveys UWIFE/ UWISH2 (UKIRT Widefield Infrared Survey for [Fe II] / H2 ). Both surveys cover about 180 square degrees of the first Galactic quadrant (7 {circ} < l < 62 {circ} ; -1.5 {circ} < b < +1.5 {circ} ), and a total of 79 SNRs are falling in the survey area among the currently known 294 Galactic SNRs. The images show diffuse structures as deep as the surface brightness limit of 10^(-19) W m^(-2) arcsec^(-2) which is comparable with a 5σ detection limit of point sources of 18 mag. In order to inspect the narrow-band features, we subtracted H and K-band continuum images obtained from the UKIDSS GPS (UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey of the Galactic Plane) from the [Fe II] and H2 narrow-band images, respectively. By this time, we have found 19 [Fe II]- and 18 H2 -emitting SNRs, and these are likely to increase in future as we inspect the images in more detail. Some of the SNRs show bright, complex, and interesting structures that have never been reported in previous studies. Since [Fe II] and H2 lines trace dense atomic and molecular gases associated with SNR shocks, our results can help us understand the environment and evolution of individual SNRs. Among the SNRs showing both [Fe II] and H2 emission lines, some SNRs show the “[Fe II]-H2 reversal” phenomenon, i.e., the H2 emission features are detected outside the [Fe II] emission boundary. This is opposite to the standard picture: If the shocks are driven by the same blast wave, we expect the H2 filaments to be closer to the explosion center than the [Fe II] filaments. In this presentation, we show several examples of such SNRs detected in our study, and present high resolution (R 40,000) H and K-band spectra of H2 emission features obtained by using IGRINS (Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph).

  20. X-ray spectroscopy of the mixed morphology supernova remnant W 28 with XMM-Newton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Ryoko; Bamba, Aya; Ishida, Manabu; Yamazaki, Ryo; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Kohri, Kazunori; Pühlhofer, Gerd; Wagner, Stefan J.; Sawada, Makoto

    2014-06-01

    We report on spatially resolved X-ray spectroscopy of the north-eastern part of the mixed morphology supernova remnant (SNR) W 28 with XMM-Newton. The observed field of view includes a prominent and twisted shell emission forming the edge of this SNR as well as part of the center-filled X-ray emission brightening toward the south-west edge of the field of view. The shell region spectra are in general represented by an optically thin thermal plasma emission in collisional ionization equilibrium with a temperature of ˜ 0.3 keV and a density of ˜ 10 cm-3, which is much higher than the density obtained for inner parts. In contrast, we detected no significant X-ray flux from one of the TeV γ-ray peaks with an upper-limit flux of 2.1 × 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1 in the 2-10 keV band. The large flux ratio of TeV to X-ray, larger than 16, and the spatial coincidence of the molecular cloud and the TeV γ-ray emission site indicate that the TeV γ-ray of W 28 is π0-decay emission originating from collisions between accelerated protons and molecular cloud protons. Comparing the spectrum in the TeV band and the X-ray upper limit, we obtained a weak upper limit on the magnetic field strength B ≲ 1500 μG.

  1. Supernova remnants in M33: X-ray properties as observed by XMM-Newton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garofali, Kristen; Williams, Benjamin F.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Wold, Brian; Haberl, Frank; Long, Knox S.; Blair, William P.; Pannuti, Thomas G.; Winkler, P. Frank; Gross, Jacob

    2017-11-01

    We have carried out a study of the X-ray properties of the supernova remnant (SNR) population in M33 with XMM-Newton, comprising deep observations of eight fields in M33 covering all of the area within the D25 contours, and with a typical luminosity of 7.1 × 1034 erg s-1 (0.2-2.0 keV). Here, we report our work to characterize the X-ray properties of the previously identified SNRs in M33, as well as our search for new X-ray detected SNRs. With our deep observations and large field of view we have detected 105 SNRs at the 3σ level, of which 54 SNRs are newly detected in X-rays, and three are newly discovered SNRs. Combining XMM-Newton data with deep Chandra survey data allows detailed spectral fitting of 15 SNRs, for which we have measured temperatures, ionization time-scales and individual abundances. This large sample of SNRs allows us to construct an X-ray luminosity function, and compare its shape to luminosity functions from host galaxies of differing metallicities and star formation rates to look for environmental effects on SNR properties. We conclude that while metallicity may play a role in SNR population characteristics, differing star formation histories on short time-scales, and small-scale environmental effects appear to cause more significant differences between X-ray luminosity distributions. In addition, we analyse the X-ray detectability of SNRs, and find that in M33 SNRs with higher [S II]/H α ratios, as well as those with smaller galactocentric distances, are more detectable in X-rays.

  2. Observational Evidence for High Neutronization in Supernova Remnants: Implications for Type Ia Supernova Progenitors

    SciTech Connect

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Héctor; Badenes, Carles; Andrews, Brett

    The physical process whereby a carbon–oxygen white dwarf explodes as a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) remains highly uncertain. The degree of neutronization in SN Ia ejecta holds clues to this process because it depends on the mass and the metallicity of the stellar progenitor, and on the thermodynamic history prior to the explosion. We report on a new method to determine ejecta neutronization using Ca and S lines in the X-ray spectra of Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs). Applying this method to Suzaku data of Tycho, Kepler , 3C 397, and G337.2−0.7 in the Milky Way, and N103B inmore » the Large Magellanic Cloud, we find that the neutronization of the ejecta in N103B is comparable to that of Tycho and Kepler , which suggests that progenitor metallicity is not the only source of neutronization in SNe Ia. We then use a grid of SN Ia explosion models to infer the metallicities of the stellar progenitors of our SNRs. The implied metallicities of 3C 397, G337.2−0.7, and N103B are major outliers compared to the local stellar metallicity distribution functions, indicating that progenitor metallicity can be ruled out as the origin of neutronization for these SNRs. Although the relationship between ejecta neutronization and equivalent progenitor metallicity is subject to uncertainties stemming from the {sup 12}C + {sup 16}O reaction rate, which affects the Ca/S mass ratio, our main results are not sensitive to these details.« less

  3. Dust Processing in Supernova Remnants: Spitzer MIPS SED and IRS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewitt, John W.; Petre, Robert; Katsuda Satoru; Andersen, M.; Rho, J.; Reach, W. T.; Bernard, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer MIPS SED and IRS observations of 14 Galactic Supernova Remnants previously identified in the GLIMPSE survey. We find evidence for SNR/molecular cloud interaction through detection of [OI] emission, ionic lines, and emission from molecular hydrogen. Through black-body fitting of the MIPS SEDs we find the large grains to be warm, 29-66 K. The dust emission is modeled using the DUSTEM code and a three component dust model composed of populations of big grains, very small grains, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We find the dust to be moderately heated, typically by 30-100 times the interstellar radiation field. The source of the radiation is likely hydrogen recombination, where the excitation of hydrogen occurred in the shock front. The ratio of very small grains to big grains is found for most of the molecular interacting SNRs to be higher than that found in the plane of the Milky Way, typically by a factor of 2--3. We suggest that dust shattering is responsible for the relative over-abundance of small grains, in agreement with prediction from dust destruction models. However, two of the SNRs are best fit with a very low abundance of carbon grains to silicate grains and with a very high radiation field. A likely reason for the low abundance of small carbon grains is sputtering. We find evidence for silicate emission at 20 $\\mu$m in their SEDs, indicating that they are young SNRs based on the strong radiation field necessary to reproduce the observed SEDs.

  4. Optimal future liver remnant in patients treated with extensive preoperative chemotherapy for colorectal liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Shindoh, Junichi; Tzeng, Ching-Wei D; Aloia, Thomas A; Curley, Steven A; Zimmitti, Giuseppe; Wei, Steven H; Huang, Steven Y; Mahvash, Armeen; Gupta, Sanjay; Wallace, Michael J; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas

    2013-08-01

    Patients with colorectal liver metastases (CLM) are increasingly treated with preoperative chemotherapy. Chemotherapy associated liver injury is associated with postoperative hepatic insufficiency (PHI) and mortality. The adequate minimum future liver remnant (FLR) volume in patients treated with extensive chemotherapy remains unknown. All patients with standardized FLR > 20 %, who underwent extended right hepatectomy for CLM from 1993-2011, were divided into three cohorts by chemotherapy duration: no chemotherapy (NC, n = 30), short duration (SD, ≤12 weeks, n = 78), long duration (LD, >12 weeks, n = 86). PHI and mortality were compared by using uni-/multivariate analyses. Optimal FLR for LD chemotherapy was determined using a minimum p-value approach. A total of 194 patients met inclusion criteria. LD chemotherapy was significantly associated with PHI (NC + SD 3.7 vs. LD 16.3%, p = 0.006). Ninety-day mortality rates were 0 % in NC, 1.3 % in SD, and 2.3% in LD patients, respectively (p = 0.95). In patients with FLR > 30 %, PHI occurred in only two patients (both LD, 2/20, 10 %), but all patients with FLR > 30 % survived. The best cutoff of FLR for preventing PHI after chemotherapy >12 weeks was estimated as >30 %. Both LD chemotherapy (odds ratio [OR] 5.4, p = 0.004) and FLR ≤ 30 % (OR 6.3, p = 0.019) were independent predictors of PHI. Preoperative chemotherapy >12 weeks increases the risk of PHI after extended right hepatectomy. In patients treated with long-duration chemotherapy, FLR > 30 % reduces the rate of PHI and may provide enough functional reserve for clinical rescue if PHI develops.

  5. Cool DZ white dwarfs II: compositions and evolution of old remnant planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollands, M. A.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Koester, D.

    2018-06-01

    In a previous study, we analysed the spectra of 230 cool (Teff < 9000 K) white dwarfs exhibiting strong metal contamination, measuring abundances for Ca, Mg, Fe and in some cases Na, Cr, Ti, or Ni. Here, we interpret these abundances in terms of the accretion of debris from extrasolar planetesimals, and infer parent body compositions ranging from crust-like (rich in Ca and Ti) to core-like (rich in Fe and Ni). In particular, two white dwarfs, SDSS J0823+0546 and SDSS J0741+3146, which show log [Fe/Ca] > 1.9 dex, and Fe to Ni ratios similar to the bulk Earth, have accreted by far the most core-like exoplanetesimals discovered to date. With cooling ages in the range 1-8 Gyr, these white dwarfs are among the oldest stellar remnants in the Milky Way, making it possible to probe the long-term evolution of their ancient planetary systems. From the decrease in maximum abundances as a function of cooling age, we find evidence that the arrival rate of material on to the white dwarfs decreases by three orders of magnitude over a ≃ 6.5 Gyr span in white dwarf cooling ages, indicating that the mass-reservoirs of post-main sequence planetary systems are depleted on a ≃ 1 Gyr e-folding time-scale. Finally, we find that two white dwarfs in our sample are members of wide binaries, and both exhibit atypically high abundances, thus providing strong evidence that distant binary companions can dynamically perturb white dwarf planetary systems.

  6. The presence of dysplastic nevus remnants in malignant melanomas. A population-based study of 551 malignant melanomas.

    PubMed

    Hastrup, N; Osterlind, A; Drzewiecki, K T; Hou-Jensen, K

    1991-08-01

    We examined 512 malignant melanomas, representing all newly diagnosed cutaneous malignant melanomas, excluding lentigo maligna melanomas, from the period October 1, 1982 to March 31, 1985 occurring in the region of eastern Denmark in patients aged 20-79 years for the presence of dysplastic nevus remnants. Criteria for the diagnosis of a dysplastic nevus remnant include all the following changes (a) lentiginous or epithelioid melanocyte hyperplasia, (b) cytologic melanocyte atypia, (c) eosinophilic fibroplasia, (d) lamellar fibroplasia, and (e) lymphocytic infiltration in the dermis. Dysplastic nevus remnants were found in association with 34 (7%) of the evaluable 512 malignant melanomas. Fourteen (41%) of the remnants were of compound nevus type. In nine (27%) of the remnants, atypia was pronounced. Most (62%) dysplastic nevus remnants were contiguous to thin superficial spreading melanomas. We conclude from this population-based study that about 7% of malignant melanomas arise in prior dysplastic nevi.

  7. Chandra Observations and Models of the Mixed Morphology Supernova Remnant W44: Global Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, R. L.; Kuntz, K. D.; Petre, R.

    2004-01-01

    We report on the Chandra observations of the archetypical mixed morphology (or thermal composite) supernova remnant, W44. As with other mixed morphology remnants, W44's projected center is bright in thermal X-rays. It has an obvious radio shell, but no discernable X-ray shell. In addition, X-ray bright knots dot W44's image. The spectral analysis of the Chandra data show that the remnant s hot, bright projected center is metal-rich and that the bright knots are regions of comparatively elevated elemental abundances. Neon is among the affected elements, suggesting that ejecta contributes to the abundance trends. Furthermore, some of the emitting iron atoms appear to be underionized with respect to the other ions, providing the first potential X-ray evidence for dust destruction in a supernova remnant. We use the Chandra data to test the following explanations for W44's X-ray bright center: 1.) entropy mixing due to bulk mixing or thermal conduction, 2.) evaporation of swept up clouds, and 3.) a metallicity gradient, possibly due to dust destruction and ejecta enrichment. In these tests, we assume that the remnant has evolved beyond the adiabatic evolutionary stage, which explains the X-ray dimness of the shell. The entropy mixed model spectrum was tested against the Chandra spectrum for the remnant's projected center and found to be a good match. The evaporating clouds model was constrained by the finding that the ionization parameters of the bright knots are similar to those of the surrounding regions. While both the entropy mixed and the evaporating clouds models are known to predict centrally bright X-ray morphologies, their predictions fall short of the observed brightness gradient. The resulting brightness gap can be largely filled in by emission from the extra metals in and near the remnant's projected center. The preponderance of evidence (including that drawn from other studies) suggests that W44's remarkable morphology can be attributed to dust destruction

  8. GBT Observations of Radio Recombination Line Emission Associated with Supernova Remnants W28 and W44

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, John W.; Yusef-Zadeh, F.

    2006-06-01

    Since the 1970's weak radio recombination line(RRL) emission has been observed toward several supernova remnants. It has remained unclear if this emission is in fact associated with these remnants or due to intervening sources such as extended HII envelopes along the line of sight. To explore the origin of this emitting gas we have recently undertaken Green Bank Telescope (GBT) observations of prominent supernova remnants W28 and W44 which are well-known to be interacting with molecular clouds. Eight alpha and beta RRL transitions were mapped at C-Band (4-6 GHz) with 2.5' resolution. Maps cover 0.5 and 0.25 square degrees of W28 and W44, respectively, permitting comparison with the distribution of X-rays, Radio, and H-alpha emission. Both remnants are observed to have a mixed-morphology: a radio-continuum shell centrally-filled by thermal X-rays. We find the observed velocity of RRL emission is near the systemic velocity of both remnants as traced by OH(1720 MHz) masers. Preliminary results are presented exploring the association of the RRL-emitting gas with these interacting supernova remants and implications for the origins of the hot thermal X-ray plasma that fills their centers. Support for this work was provided by the NSF through The GBT Student Support Program from the NRAO.

  9. The Role of Small Woodland Remnants on Ground Dwelling Insect Conservation in Chaco Serrano, Central Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, María Laura; Fernández, María Guadalupe; Molina, Silvia Itati; Valladares, Graciela

    2013-01-01

    Many terrestrial ecosystems are changing due to extensive land use and habitat fragmentation, posing a major threat to biodiversity. In this study, the effects of patch size, isolation, and edge/interior localization on the ground dwelling insect communities in the Chaco Serrano woodland remnants in central Argentina were examined. Sampling was carried out in December 2003 and March 2004 in nine remnants (0.57 to 1000 hectares) using pitfall traps. In total, 7071 individuals representing 12 orders and 79 families were recorded. The taxonomic composition of these communities was linked to remnant size. Insect abundance increased (as did their richness, albeit marginally) as remnant area decreased, with no significant effects of isolation or edge/interior localization on abundance, richness, or diversity. No differential area effects were observed when abundance and richness of predators, scavengers, and herbivores were compared. Thus, ground insect communities in fragmented Chaco Serrano seem to respond mainly to patch level, rather than to within-patch (edge effects) or landscape (isolation) level variables. These results suggest that small Chaco Serrano remnants, by supporting larger ground-dwelling insect assemblages, may play an important role from a conservation viewpoint. PMID:23902409

  10. The role of small woodland remnants on ground dwelling insect conservation in Chaco Serrano, Central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Moreno, María Laura; Fernández, María Guadalupe; Molina, Silvia Itati; Valladares, Graciela

    2013-01-01

    Many terrestrial ecosystems are changing due to extensive land use and habitat fragmentation, posing a major threat to biodiversity. In this study, the effects of patch size, isolation, and edge/interior localization on the ground dwelling insect communities in the Chaco Serrano woodland remnants in central Argentina were examined. Sampling was carried out in December 2003 and March 2004 in nine remnants (0.57 to 1000 hectares) using pitfall traps. In total, 7071 individuals representing 12 orders and 79 families were recorded. The taxonomic composition of these communities was linked to remnant size. Insect abundance increased (as did their richness, albeit marginally) as remnant area decreased, with no significant effects of isolation or edge/interior localization on abundance, richness, or diversity. No differential area effects were observed when abundance and richness of predators, scavengers, and herbivores were compared. Thus, ground insect communities in fragmented Chaco Serrano seem to respond mainly to patch level, rather than to within-patch (edge effects) or landscape (isolation) level variables. These results suggest that small Chaco Serrano remnants, by supporting larger ground-dwelling insect assemblages, may play an important role from a conservation viewpoint.

  11. How high energy fluxes may affect Rayleigh–Taylor instability growth in young supernova remnants

    SciTech Connect

    Kuranz, Carolyn C.; Park, Hye -Sook; Huntington, Channing M.

    Here, energy-transport effects can alter the structure that develops as a supernova evolves into a supernova remnant. The Rayleigh–Taylor instability is thought to produce structure at the interface between the stellar ejecta and the circumstellar matter, based on simple models and hydrodynamic simulations. Here we report experimental results from the National Ignition Facility to explore how large energy fluxes, which are present in supernovae, affect this structure. We observed a reduction in Rayleigh–Taylor growth. In analyzing the comparison with supernova SN1993J, a Type II supernova, we found that the energy fluxes produced by heat conduction appear to be larger thanmore » the radiative energy fluxes, and large enough to have dramatic consequences. No reported astrophysical simulations have included radiation and heat conduction self-consistently in modeling supernova remnants and these dynamics should be noted in the understanding of young supernova remnants.« less

  12. Olive oil increases the magnitude of postprandial chylomicron remnants compared to milk fat and safflower oil.

    PubMed

    Higashi, K; Ishikawa, T; Shige, H; Tomiyasu, K; Yoshida, H; Ito, T; Nakajima, K; Yonemura, A; Sawada, S; Nakamura, H

    1997-10-01

    The acute effects of olive oil, milk fat and safflower oil on postprandial lipemia and remnant lipoprotein metabolism were investigated. Eight Healthy male volunteers randomly underwent three types of oral fat-vitamin A loading tests. The test drink was a mixture of retinyl palmitate (RP)(50,000 IU of aqueous vitamin A/m2 body surface area) and one of the three types of oils (40 g of fat/m2 body surface area): olive oil (70.7% oleic acid of total fatty acids); milk fat (69.3% saturated fatty acid); safflower oil (74.2% linoleic acid). Olive oil significantly increased plasma triacylglycerol and RP concentrations 4 hours after fat loading, as compared to other fats. Increases of remnant like particle concentrations were higher after olive oil than after the other two fats. These results show that olive oil increases the magnitude of postprandial chylomicrons and chylomicron remnants compared to milk fat and safflower oil.

  13. Bridging the gap between supernovae and their remnants through multi-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, S.; Miceli, M.; Petruk, O.

    2017-02-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) are diffuse extended sources characterized by a complex morphology and a non-uniform distribution of ejecta. Such a morphology reflects pristine structures and features of the progenitor supernova (SN) and the early interaction of the SN blast wave with the inhomogeneous circumstellar medium (CSM). Deciphering the observations of SNRs might open the possibility to investigate the physical properties of both the interacting ejecta and the shocked CSM. This requires accurate numerical models which describe the evolution from the SN explosion to the remnant development and which connect the emission properties of the remnants to the progenitor SNe. Here we show how multi-dimensional SN-SNR hydrodynamic models have been very effective in deciphering observations of SNR Cassiopeia A and SN 1987A, thus unveiling the structure of ejecta in the immediate aftermath of the SN explosion and constraining the 3D pre-supernova structure and geometry of the environment surrounding the progenitor SN.

  14. Optical emission from a fast shock wave - The remnants of Tycho's supernova and SN 1006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalier, R. A.; Raymond, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    The faint optical filaments in Tycho's supernova remnant appear to be emission from a shock front moving at 5600 km/s. The intensity of the hydrogen lines, the absence of forbidden lines of heavy elements in the spectrum, and the width of the filaments are explained by a model in which a collisionless shock wave is moving into partially neutral gas. The presence of the neutral gas can be used to set an upper limit of approximately 5 x 10 to the 47th power ergs to the energy in ionizing radiation emitted by a Type I supernova. The patchy neutral gas is probably part of the warm neutral component of the interstellar medium. The existing information on the remnant of SN 1006 indicates that its emission is similar in nature to that from Tycho's remnant.

  15. A Study of Supernova Remnants with Center-Filled X-Ray Morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slane, Patrick O.

    1997-01-01

    CTA 1 is a center-filled supernova remnant (SNR) whose morphology and spectrum indicate the presence of a central pulsar, a synchrotron nebula, and a thermal component associated with the expansion of the blast wave into the interstellar medium. The centrally bright emission surrounds the position of a faint point source of x-rays observed with the ROSAT PSPC. Here we report on ASCA observations that confirm the nonthermal nature of the diffuse emission from the central regions of the remnant. We also present evidence for weak thermal emission that appears to increase in strength toward the outer boundary of the SNR. Thus, CTA 1 appears to be an x-ray composite remnant. Both the aftermath of the explosive supernova event and the energetic compact core are observable.

  16. Recent Progress on Supernova Remnants - Progenitors, Evolution, Cosmic-ray Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamba, A.

    2017-10-01

    Supernova remnants supplies heavy elements, kinetic and thermal energies, and cosmic rays, into the universe, and are the key sources to make the diversity of the universe. On the other hand, we do not know the fundamental issues of supernova remnants, such as (1) what their main progenitors are, (2) how they evolve into the realistic (non-uniform) interstellar space, and (3) which type of supernova remnants can accelerate cosmic rays to the knee energy. Recent X-ray studies with XMM-Newton, Chandra, Suzaku, NuSTAR, and Hitomi, progressed understandings of these issues, and found that each issue connect others tightly. In this paper, we will overview these progresses with focusing the above three topics, and discuss what we should do next.

  17. G306.3-0.9: A Newly Discovered Young Galactic Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Mark T.; Loi, Syheh T.; Murphy, Tara; Miller, Jon M.; Maitra, Dipankar; Gueltekin, Kayhan; Gehrels, Neil; Kennea, Jamie A.; Siegel, Michael H.; Gelbord, Jonathan; hide

    2013-01-01

    We present X-ray and radio observations of the new Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G306.3-0.9, recently discovered by Swift. Chandra imaging reveals a complex morphology, dominated by a bright shock. The X-ray spectrum is broadly consistent with a young SNR in the Sedov phase, implying an age of 2500 yr for a distance of 8 kpc, plausibly identifying this as one of the 20 youngest Galactic SNRs. Australia Telescope Compact Array imaging reveals a prominent ridge of radio emission that correlates with the X-ray emission. We find a flux density of 160 mJy at 1 GHz, which is the lowest radio flux recorded for a Galactic SNR to date. The remnant is also detected at 24µm, indicating the presence of irradiated warm dust. The data reveal no compelling evidence for the presence of a compact stellar remnant.

  18. Probing the Reverse Shock in an Oxygen-Rich Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor); Gaetz, Terrance J.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this proposal was to examine the O VI emission at three positions around the X-ray bright ring of the remnant in order to investigate the relation between the O VI emission, the X-ray O VII and O VIII emission, and the optical [O III] emission, and how these vary around the rim of the remnant. So far, only one Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) pointing at the remnant has been performed, together with the background pointing needed to subtract the diffuse scattered light from nearby O stars. The data were recalibrated using the CalFUSE calibration pipeline, but the emission is faint enough that hand processing will be needed for this pointing to optimize the extraction. Rereduction of the data is underway. A postdoctoral fellow has also been hired, and in part she will assist with the analysis.

  19. Parameterizing the Supernova Engine and Its Effect on Remnants and Basic Yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryer, Chris L.; Andrews, Sydney; Even, Wesley; Heger, Alex; Safi-Harb, Samar

    2018-03-01

    Core-collapse supernova science is now entering an era in which engine models are beginning to make both qualitative and, in some cases, quantitative predictions. Although the evidence in support of the convective engine for core-collapse supernova continues to grow, it is difficult to place quantitative constraints on this engine. Some studies have made specific predictions for the remnant distribution from the convective engine, but the results differ between different groups. Here we use a broad parameterization for the supernova engine to understand the differences between distinct studies. With this broader set of models, we place error bars on the remnant mass and basic yields from the uncertainties in the explosive engine. We find that, even with only three progenitors and a narrow range of explosion energies, we can produce a wide range of remnant masses and nucleosynthetic yields.

  20. Identification of the membrane remnants of transferrin receptor with domain-specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Baynes, R D; Shih, Y J; Hudson, B G; Cook, J D

    1994-03-01

    Tissue culture studies with K562 and HL60 cells have demonstrated the production of a soluble form of transferrin receptor identical to that identified in human serum. The present study was undertaken to search for membrane remnants of the truncated receptor with peptide antibodies specific for the extracellular and cytoplasmic domain of transferrin receptor. In cell membranes, a 105K remnant was identified that is consistent with truncation of one extracellular domain monomer of the transferrin receptor. In the exosomal fraction of the culture supernatant, a smaller 20K remnant consistent with truncation of both extracellular domains was also demonstrated. These findings provide evidence that soluble receptor is the product of proteolytic cleavage of intact membrane-bound transferrin receptor. Prior studies showing that the concentration of the extracellular domain in exosomes remained stable during incubation in culture supernatant suggest that this cleavage possibly occurs intracellularly.

  1. Small intestinal obstruction by remnants of the omphalomesenteric duct: findings on contrast enema.

    PubMed

    Fenton, L Z; Buonomo, C; Share, J C; Chung, T

    2000-03-01

    We reviewed the contrast enema examinations and medical records of six patients with small intestinal obstruction due to omphalomesenteric duct remnant to evaluate for characteristic imaging findings. In five out of the six patients the point of obstruction was demonstrated on the enema; in three patients, the characteristic "beak" of a volvulus was seen, either in the terminal ileum or cecum. In three patients, there was medial deviation of the cecum. The characteristic radiographic features of volvulus at the cecum or terminal ileum and medial deviation of the cecum should suggest persistence of an omphalomesenteric duct remnant as the etiology of obstruction in a child less than 2 years of age. The appearance of omphalomesenteric duct remnant obstruction on enema examination, though not specific, is characteristic and should be familiar to pediatric radiologists.

  2. On the search for Galactic supernova remnant PeVatrons with current TeV instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristofari, P.; Gabici, S.; Terrier, R.; Humensky, T. B.

    2018-06-01

    The supernova remnant hypothesis for the origin of Galactic cosmic rays has passed several tests, but the firm identification of a supernova remnant pevatron, considered to be a decisive step to prove the hypothesis, is still missing. While a lot of hope has been placed in next-generation instruments operating in the multi-TeV range, it is possible that current gamma-ray instruments, operating in the TeV range, could pinpoint these objects or, most likely, identify a number of promising targets for instruments of next generation. Starting from the assumption that supernova remnants are indeed the sources of Galactic cosmic rays, and therefore must be pevatrons for some fraction of their lifetime, we investigate the ability of current instruments to detect such objects, or to identify the most promising candidates.

  3. Gravitational waves from remnant massive neutron stars of binary neutron star merger: Viscous hydrodynamics effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Masaru; Kiuchi, Kenta

    2017-06-01

    Employing a simplified version of the Israel-Stewart formalism of general-relativistic shear-viscous hydrodynamics, we explore the evolution of a remnant massive neutron star of binary neutron star merger and pay special attention to the resulting gravitational waveforms. We find that for the plausible values of the so-called viscous alpha parameter of the order 10-2 the degree of the differential rotation in the remnant massive neutron star is significantly reduced in the viscous time scale, ≲5 ms . Associated with this, the degree of nonaxisymmetric deformation is also reduced quickly, and as a consequence, the amplitude of quasiperiodic gravitational waves emitted also decays in the viscous time scale. Our results indicate that for modeling the evolution of the merger remnants of binary neutron stars we would have to take into account magnetohydrodynamics effects, which in nature could provide the viscous effects.

  4. How high energy fluxes may affect Rayleigh–Taylor instability growth in young supernova remnants

    DOE PAGES

    Kuranz, Carolyn C.; Park, Hye -Sook; Huntington, Channing M.; ...

    2018-04-19

    Here, energy-transport effects can alter the structure that develops as a supernova evolves into a supernova remnant. The Rayleigh–Taylor instability is thought to produce structure at the interface between the stellar ejecta and the circumstellar matter, based on simple models and hydrodynamic simulations. Here we report experimental results from the National Ignition Facility to explore how large energy fluxes, which are present in supernovae, affect this structure. We observed a reduction in Rayleigh–Taylor growth. In analyzing the comparison with supernova SN1993J, a Type II supernova, we found that the energy fluxes produced by heat conduction appear to be larger thanmore » the radiative energy fluxes, and large enough to have dramatic consequences. No reported astrophysical simulations have included radiation and heat conduction self-consistently in modeling supernova remnants and these dynamics should be noted in the understanding of young supernova remnants.« less

  5. G25.5 + 0.2 - A very young galactic supernova remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowan, John J.; Ekers, R. D.; Goss, W. M.; Sramek, R. A.; Roberts, Douglas A.

    1989-01-01

    Radio emission has been detected from a compact source which satisfies the criteria for a very young galactic supernova remnant. The source, G25.5 + 0.2 has a partially-filled shell structure, a total integrated flux density at 20 cm of 315 mJy, and a flat spectrum between 2 and 20 cm. Observations at 843 and 327 MHz indicate thermal absorption at low frequencies with a turnover in the spectrum near 1 GHz. It is suggested that the lower limit for the age of the supernova remnant is 25 yr, while the upper limit is about 100 yr. It is concluded that G25.5 + 0.2 could be the youngest known supernova remnant in the Galaxy.

  6. Three cases of laparoscopic total gastrectomy with intracorporeal esophagojejunostomy for gastric cancer in remnant stomach.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yu; Mou, Yi-Ping; Chen, Ke; Xu, Xiao-Wu; Cai, Jia-Qin; Wu, Di; Zhou, Yu-Cheng

    2014-11-13

    Gastric cancer in remnant stomach is a rare tumor but with poor prognosis. Compared with conventional open surgery, laparoscopic gastrectomy has potential benefits for these patients due to advantages resulting from its minimally invasive approach. Herein, we report on three patients with gastric cancer in remnant stomach who underwent laparoscopic total gastrectomy with intracorporeal esophagojejunostomy successfully. The operative time was 280, 250 and 225 minutes, the estimated blood loss was 100, 80 and 50 ml and the length of postoperative hospital stay was seven, eight and nine days respectively. Our experience has suggested that laparoscopic total gastrectomy with intracorporeal esophagojejunostomy can be a safe, feasible and promising option for patients with gastric cancer in remnant stomach.

  7. A Newly Discovered Supernova Remnant and MSH 11-62 and 3C58

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slane, Patrick O.

    2000-01-01

    CTA 1 is a center-filled supernova remnant (SNR) whose morphology and spectrum indicate the presence of a central pulsar, a synchrotron nebula, and a thermal component associated with the expansion of the blast wave into the interstellar medium. The centrally bright emission surrounds the position of a faint point source of X-rays observed with the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC). Here we report on Advanced Spacecraft for Cosmology Astrophysics (ASCA) observations that confirm the nonthermal nature of the diffuse emission from the central regions of the remnant. We also present evidence for weak thermal emission that appears to increase in strength toward the outer boundary of the SNR. Thus, CTA 1 appears to be an X-ray composite remnant. Both the aftermath of the explosive supernova event and the energetic compact core are observable.

  8. The Impact of Progenitor Mass Loss on the Dynamical and Spectral Evolution of Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patnaude, Daniel J.; Lee, Shiu-Hang; Slane, Patrick O.; Badenes, Carles; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Ellison, Donald C.; Milisavljevic, Dan

    2017-11-01

    There is now substantial evidence that the progenitors of some core-collapse supernovae undergo enhanced or extreme mass loss prior to explosion. The imprint of this mass loss is observed in the spectra and dynamics of the expanding blast wave on timescales of days to years after core collapse, and the effects on the spectral and dynamical evolution may linger long after the supernova has evolved into the remnant stage. In this paper, we present, for the first time, largely self-consistent end-to-end simulations for the evolution of a massive star from the pre-main sequence, up to and through core collapse, and into the remnant phase. We present three models and compare and contrast how the progenitor mass-loss history impacts the dynamics and spectral evolution of the supernovae and supernova remnants. We study a model that only includes steady mass loss, a model with enhanced mass loss over a period of ˜5000 yr prior to core collapse, and a model with extreme mass loss over a period of ˜500 yr prior to core collapse. The models are not meant to address any particular supernova or supernova remnant, but rather to highlight the important role that the progenitor evolution plays in the observable qualities of supernovae and supernova remnants. Through comparisons of these three different progenitor evolution scenarios, we find that the mass loss in late stages (during and after core carbon burning) can have a profound impact on the dynamics and spectral evolution of the supernova remnant centuries after core collapse.

  9. INTERACTION BETWEEN THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT HB 3 AND THE NEARBY STAR-FORMING REGION W3

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xin; Yang, Ji; Fang, Min

    We performed millimeter observations of CO lines toward the supernova remnant (SNR) HB 3. Substantial molecular gas around −45 km s{sup −1} is detected in the conjunction region between the SNR HB 3 and the nearby W3 complex. This molecular gas is distributed along the radio continuum shell of the remnant. Furthermore, the shocked molecular gas indicated by line wing broadening features is also distributed along the radio shell and inside it. By both morphological correspondence and dynamical evidence, we confirm that the SNR HB 3 interacts with the −45 km s{sup −1} molecular cloud (MC), in essence, with the nearby H ii region/MC complexmore » W3. The redshifted line wing broadening features indicate that the remnant is located at the nearside of the MC. With this association, we could place the remnant at the same distance as the W3/W4 complex, which is 1.95 ± 0.04 kpc. The spatial distribution of aggregated young stellar object candidates shows a correlation with the shocked molecular strip associated with the remnant. We also find a binary clump of CO at ( l = 132.°94, b = 1.°12) around −51.5 km s{sup −1} inside the projected extent of the remnant, and it is associated with significant mid-infrared emission. The binary system also has a tail structure resembling the tidal tails of interacting galaxies. According to the analysis of CO emission lines, the larger clump in this binary system is about stable, and the smaller clump is significantly disturbed.« less

  10. The surrounding landscape influences the diversity of leaf-litter ants in riparian cloud forest remnants.

    PubMed

    García-Martínez, Miguel Á; Valenzuela-González, Jorge E; Escobar-Sarria, Federico; López-Barrera, Fabiola; Castaño-Meneses, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Riparian vegetation is a distinctive and ecologically important element of landscapes worldwide. However, the relative influence of the surrounding landscape on the conservation of the biodiversity of riparian remnants in human-modified tropical landscapes is poorly understood. We studied the surrounding landscape to evaluate its influence on leaf-litter-ant alpha and beta diversity in riparian remnants in the tropical montane cloud forest region of central Veracruz, Mexico. Sampling was carried out in 12 sites with riparian vegetation during both rainy (2011) and dry (2012) seasons. Ten leaf-litter samples were collected along a 100-m transect per site and processed with Berlese-Tullgren funnels and Winkler sacks. Using remotely-sensed and ground-collected data, we characterized the landscape around each site according to nine land cover types and computed metrics of landscape composition and configuration. We collected a total of 8,684 ant individuals belonging to 53 species, 22 genera, 11 tribes, and 7 subfamilies. Species richness and the diversity of Shannon and Simpson increased significantly in remnants immersed in landscapes with a high percentage of riparian land cover and a low percentage of land covers with areas reforested with Pinus, cattle pastures, and human settlements and infrastructure. The composition of ant assemblages was a function of the percentage of riparian land cover in the landscape. This study found evidence that leaf-litter ants, a highly specialized guild of arthropods, are mainly impacted by landscape composition and the configuration of the focal remnant. Maintaining or improving the surrounding landscape quality of riparian vegetation remnants can stimulate the movement of biodiversity among forest and riparian remnants and foster the provision of ecosystem services by these ecosystems. Effective outcomes may be achieved by considering scientific knowledge during the early stages of riparian policy formulation, in addition to

  11. The surrounding landscape influences the diversity of leaf-litter ants in riparian cloud forest remnants

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela-González, Jorge E.; Escobar-Sarria, Federico; López-Barrera, Fabiola; Castaño-Meneses, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Riparian vegetation is a distinctive and ecologically important element of landscapes worldwide. However, the relative influence of the surrounding landscape on the conservation of the biodiversity of riparian remnants in human-modified tropical landscapes is poorly understood. We studied the surrounding landscape to evaluate its influence on leaf-litter-ant alpha and beta diversity in riparian remnants in the tropical montane cloud forest region of central Veracruz, Mexico. Sampling was carried out in 12 sites with riparian vegetation during both rainy (2011) and dry (2012) seasons. Ten leaf-litter samples were collected along a 100-m transect per site and processed with Berlese-Tullgren funnels and Winkler sacks. Using remotely-sensed and ground-collected data, we characterized the landscape around each site according to nine land cover types and computed metrics of landscape composition and configuration. We collected a total of 8,684 ant individuals belonging to 53 species, 22 genera, 11 tribes, and 7 subfamilies. Species richness and the diversity of Shannon and Simpson increased significantly in remnants immersed in landscapes with a high percentage of riparian land cover and a low percentage of land covers with areas reforested with Pinus, cattle pastures, and human settlements and infrastructure. The composition of ant assemblages was a function of the percentage of riparian land cover in the landscape. This study found evidence that leaf-litter ants, a highly specialized guild of arthropods, are mainly impacted by landscape composition and the configuration of the focal remnant. Maintaining or improving the surrounding landscape quality of riparian vegetation remnants can stimulate the movement of biodiversity among forest and riparian remnants and foster the provision of ecosystem services by these ecosystems. Effective outcomes may be achieved by considering scientific knowledge during the early stages of riparian policy formulation, in addition to

  12. Agricultural Intensification Exacerbates Spillover Effects on Soil Biogeochemistry in Adjacent Forest Remnants

    PubMed Central

    Didham, Raphael K.; Barker, Gary M.; Bartlam, Scott; Deakin, Elizabeth L.; Denmead, Lisa H.; Fisk, Louise M.; Peters, Jennifer M. R.; Tylianakis, Jason M.; Wright, Hannah R.; Schipper, Louis A.

    2015-01-01

    Land-use intensification is a central element in proposed strategies to address global food security. One rationale for accepting the negative consequences of land-use intensification for farmland biodiversity is that it could ‘spare’ further expansion of agriculture into remaining natural habitats. However, in many regions of the world the only natural habitats that can be spared are fragments within landscapes dominated by agriculture. Therefore, land-sparing arguments hinge on land-use intensification having low spillover effects into adjacent protected areas, otherwise net conservation gains will diminish with increasing intensification. We test, for the first time, whether the degree of spillover from farmland into adjacent natural habitats scales in magnitude with increasing land-use intensity. We identified a continuous land-use intensity gradient across pastoral farming systems in New Zealand (based on 13 components of farmer input and soil biogeochemistry variables), and measured cumulative off-site spillover effects of fertilisers and livestock on soil biogeochemistry in 21 adjacent forest remnants. Ten of 11 measured soil properties differed significantly between remnants and intact-forest reference sites, for both fenced and unfenced remnants, at both edge and interior. For seven variables, the magnitude of effects scaled significantly with magnitude of surrounding land-use intensity, through complex interactions with fencing and edge effects. In particular, total C, total N, δ15N, total P and heavy-metal contaminants of phosphate fertilizers (Cd and U) increased significantly within remnants in response to increasing land-use intensity, and these effects were exacerbated in unfenced relative to fenced remnants. This suggests movement of livestock into surrounding natural habitats is a significant component of agricultural spillover, but pervasive changes in soil biogeochemistry still occur through nutrient spillover channels alone, even in fenced

  13. The influence of massive black hole binaries on the morphology of merger remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortolas, E.; Gualandris, A.; Dotti, M.; Read, J. I.

    2018-06-01

    Massive black hole (MBH) binaries, formed as a result of galaxy mergers, are expected to harden by dynamical friction and three-body stellar scatterings, until emission of gravitational waves (GWs) leads to their final coalescence. According to recent simulations, MBH binaries can efficiently harden via stellar encounters only when the host geometry is triaxial, even if only modestly, as angular momentum diffusion allows an efficient repopulation of the binary loss cone. In this paper, we carry out a suite of N-body simulations of equal-mass galaxy collisions, varying the initial orbits and density profiles for the merging galaxies and running simulations both with and without central MBHs. We find that the presence of an MBH binary in the remnant makes the system nearly oblate, aligned with the galaxy merger plane, within a radius enclosing 100 MBH masses. We never find binary hosts to be prolate on any scale. The decaying MBHs slightly enhance the tangential anisotropy in the centre of the remnant due to angular momentum injection and the slingshot ejection of stars on nearly radial orbits. This latter effect results in about 1 per cent of the remnant stars being expelled from the galactic nucleus. Finally, we do not find any strong connection between the remnant morphology and the binary hardening rate, which depends only on the inner density slope of the remnant galaxy. Our results suggest that MBH binaries are able to coalesce within a few Gyr, even if the binary is found to partially erase the merger-induced triaxiality from the remnant.

  14. Angiographic and epidemiological characteristics associated with aneurysm remnants after microsurgical clipping

    PubMed Central

    Dellaretti, Marcos; da Silva Martins, Warley Carvalho; Dourado, Jules Carlos; Faglioni, Wilson; Quadros, Ricardo Souza; de Souza Moraes, Vítor Vieira; de Souza Filho, Carlos Batista Alves

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite new techniques for the treatment of cerebral aneurysms, the percentage of aneurysm remnants after surgical intervention seems to be relatively constant. The objective of this study was to assess angiographic and epidemiological features associated with aneurysm remnants after microsurgical clipping. Methods: This study was conducted from February 2009 to August 2012 on a series of 90 patients with 105 aneurysms referred to the Santa Casa of Belo Horizonte who were surgically treated and angiographically controlled. Results: Surgical clipping was considered incomplete in 13.3% of the aneurysms. The mean age of cases with an aneurysm remnant was 57.5 years, whereas the mean age without aneurysm remnant was 49.7 years (P = 0.02). Aneurysm remnants were detected more frequently on the internal carotid artery, nevertheless, no statistically significant differences were verified when comparing the locations. Aneurysm size in the preoperative angiography verified that the mean size of aneurysms operated was 6.56 mm, such that in cases showing a postoperative remnant, the mean size was 9.7 mm and in cases with complete clipping it was 6.08 mm (P = 0.02). Postoperative angiography showed that, in cases with residual aneurysm, the number of clips used was higher – a mean of 1.8 for complete clipping and 3.1 for incomplete clipping (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Aneurysm size and patient age showed significant correlations with residual intracranial aneurysm. The mean number of clips used was higher in cases with incomplete occlusion. PMID:28904825

  15. Two evolved supernova remnants with newly identified Fe-rich cores in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavanagh, P. J.; Sasaki, M.; Bozzetto, L. M.; Points, S. D.; Crawford, E. J.; Dickel, J.; Filipović, M. D.; Haberl, F.; Maggi, P.; Whelan, E. T.

    2016-02-01

    Aims: We present a multi-wavelength analysis of the evolved supernova remnants MCSNR J0506-7025 and MCSNR J0527-7104 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Methods: We used observational data from XMM-Newton, the Australian Telescope Compact Array, and the Magellanic Cloud Emission Line Survey to study their broad-band emission and used Spitzer and H I data to gain a picture of the environment into which the remnants are expanding. We performed a multi-wavelength morphological study and detailed radio and X-ray spectral analyses to determine their physical characteristics. Results: Both remnants were found to have bright X-ray cores, dominated by Fe L-shell emission, which is consistent with reverse shock-heated ejecta with determined Fe masses in agreement with Type Ia explosion yields. A soft X-ray shell, which is consistent with swept-up interstellar medium, was observed in MCSNR J0506-7025, suggestive of a remnant in the Sedov phase. Using the spectral fit results and the Sedov self-similar solution, we estimated the age of MCSNR J0506-7025 to be ~16-28 kyr, with an initial explosion energy of (0.07-0.84) × 1051 erg. A soft shell was absent in MCSNR J0527-7104, with only ejecta emission visible in an extremely elongated morphology that extends beyond the optical shell. We suggest that the blast wave has broken out into a low density cavity, allowing the shock heated ejecta to escape. We find that the radio spectral index of MCSNR J0506-7025 is consistent with the standard -0.5 for supernova remnants. Radio polarisation at 6 cm indicates a higher degree of polarisation along the western front and at the eastern knot with a mean fractional polarisation across the remnant of P ≅ (20 ± 6)%. Conclusions: The detection of Fe-rich ejecta in the remnants suggests that both resulted from Type Ia explosions. The newly identified Fe-rich cores in MCSNR J0506-7025 and MCSNR J0527-7104 make them members of the expanding class of evolved Fe-rich remnants in the Magellanic Clouds

  16. QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF THE HYPOTHESIS THAT BL LACERTAE OBJECTS ARE QSO REMNANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Borra, E. F.

    2014-11-20

    We evaluate with numerical simulations the hypothesis that BL Lacertae objects (BLLs) are the remnants of quasi-stellar objects. This hypothesis is based on their highly peculiar redshift evolution. They have a comoving space density that increases with decreasing redshift, contrary to all other active galactic nuclei. We assume that relativistic jets are below detection in young radio-quiet quasars and increase in strength with cosmic time so that they eventually are detected as BLLs. Our numerical simulations fit very well the observed redshift distributions of BLLs. There are strong indications that only the high-synchrotron-peaked BLLs could be QSO remnants.

  17. Hemiacidrin irrigations to dissolve stone remnants after nephrolithotomy. Problems with solution flow.

    PubMed

    Rodman, J S; Reckler, J M; Israel, A R

    1981-08-01

    Following surgery for branched renal calculi, hemiacidrin irrigation may be useful to dissolve any residual stones. Struvite, the mineral in these stones, is itself an alkaline buffer and can raise the pH of the irrigating solution rendering it ineffective. Large volumes of hemiacidrin must reach the stone remnants or they are unlikely to dissolve. Two cases are described in which creative positioning of the patient or the irrigation catheters was necessary to permit adequate amounts of hemiacidrin to reach and dissolve stone remnants.

  18. Onion-shell model for cosmic ray electrons and radio synchrotron emission in supernova remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, R.; Drury, L. O.; Voelk, H. J.; Bogdan, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    The spectrum of cosmic ray electrons, accelerated in the shock front of a supernova remnant (SNR), is calculated in the test-particle approximation using an onion-shell model. Particle diffusion within the evolving remnant is explicity taken into account. The particle spectrum becomes steeper with increasing radius as well as SNR age. Simple models of the magnetic field distribution allow a prediction of the intensity and spectrum of radio synchrotron emission and their radial variation. The agreement with existing observations is satisfactory in several SNR's but fails in other cases. Radiative cooling may be an important effect, especially in SNR's exploding in a dense interstellar medium.

  19. Maximum Energies of Shock-Accelerated Electrons in Young Shell Supernova Remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Stephen P.; Keohane, Jonathan W.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Young supernova remnants (SNRs) are often assumed to be the source of cosmic rays up to energies approaching the slight steepening in the cosmic ray spectrum at around 1000 TeV, known as the "knee." We show that the observed X-ray emission of 14 radio-bright shell remnants, including all five historical shells, can be used to put limits on E(sub max), the energy at which the electron energy distribution must steepen from its slope at radio-emitting energies. Most of the remnants show thermal spectra, so any synchrotron component must fall below the observed X-ray fluxes. We obtain upper limits on E(sub max) by considering the most rapid physically plausible cutoff in the relativistic electron distribution, an exponential, which is as sharp or sharper than found in any more elaborate models. This maximally curved model then gives us the highest possible E(sub max) consistent with not exceeding observed X-rays. Our results are thus independent of particular models for the electron spectrum in SNRs. Assuming homogeneous emitting volumes with a constant magnetic field strength of 10 uG, no object could reach 1000 TeV, and only one, Kes 73, has an upper limit on E(sub max), above 100 TeV. All the other remnants have limits at or below 80 TeV. E(sub max) is probably set by the finite remnant lifetime rather than by synchrotron losses for remnants younger than a few thousand years, so that an observed electron steepening should be accompanied by steepening at the same energy for protons. More complicated, inhomogeneous models could allow higher values of E(sub max) in parts of the remnant, but the emission-weighted average value, that characteristic of typical electrons, should obey these limits. The young remnants are not expected to improve much over their remaining lives at producing the highest energy Galactic cosmic rays; if they cannot, this picture of cosmic-ray origin may need major alteration.

  20. Surprisingly high-pressure shocks in the supernova remnant IC 443

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorhouse, A.; Brand, P. W. J. L.; Geballe, T. R.; Burton, M. G.

    1991-01-01

    The intensities of several lines of molecular hydrogen have been measured from two regions of the supernova-remnant/molecular-cloud shock in IC 443. The lines measured have upper-state energies ranging from 7000 K to 23,000 K. Their relative intensities differ in the two regions, but are consistent with those predicted from the post-shock regions of simple jump-type shocks of different pressure. The pressures so derived are far higher than the pressure in the supernova remnant itself, and a possible reason for this discrepancy is discussed.

  1. Surveying the South Pole-Aitken basin magnetic anomaly for remnant impactor metallic iron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahill, Joshua T.S.; Hagerty, Justin J.; Lawrence, David M.; Klima, Rachel L.; Blewett, David T.

    2014-01-01

    The Moon has areas of magnetized crust ("magnetic anomalies"), the origins of which are poorly constrained. A magnetic anomaly near the northern rim of South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin was recently postulated to originate from remnant metallic iron emplaced by the SPA basin-forming impactor. Here, we remotely examine the regolith of this SPA magnetic anomaly with a combination of Clementine and Lunar Prospector derived iron maps for any evidence of enhanced metallic iron content. We find that these data sets do not definitively detect the hypothesized remnant metallic iron within the upper tens of centimeters of the lunar regolith.

  2. The effect of remnant forest on insect successional response in tropical fire-impacted peatland: A bi-taxa comparison

    PubMed Central

    Neoh, Kok-Boon; Bong, Lee-Jin; Muhammad, Ahmad; Itoh, Masayuki; Kozan, Osamu; Takematsu, Yoko; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Fire has become a common feature in tropical drained peatlands, and it may have detrimental impacts on the overall biodiversity of the forest ecosystem. We investigated the effect of fire on termite and ant assemblages and the importance of remnant forest in restoring species diversity in fire-impacted tropical peat swamp forests. The species loss of both termites and ants was as high as 50% in some fire-impacted peats compared to remnant forests, but in most cases the species richness for termites and ants was statistically equal along the land uses surveyed. However, a pronounced difference in functional group composition of termites was detected. In particular, sites close to remnant forests contained two additional termite feeding groups so that they shared a similar composition structure with remnant forests but were significantly different from sites distant from remnant forests. In general, ants were resilient to fire, and the similarity index showed a high degree of similarity among ant communities in all land uses surveyed. The Shannon diversity index for termites and ants decreased with increasing distance from the remnant forests and level of ecological degradation. Peat vegetation variables and ecological degradation were important in shaping termite and ant communities in the tropical peatlands, but their relative importance was not significant in fire-impacted peats regardless of distance from the remnant forests. This study highlights the importance of remnant forests as a biodiversity repository and natural buffer that can enhance species diversity and recolonization of forest-adapted species. PMID:28334021

  3. The effect of remnant forest on insect successional response in tropical fire-impacted peatland: A bi-taxa comparison.

    PubMed

    Neoh, Kok-Boon; Bong, Lee-Jin; Muhammad, Ahmad; Itoh, Masayuki; Kozan, Osamu; Takematsu, Yoko; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Fire has become a common feature in tropical drained peatlands, and it may have detrimental impacts on the overall biodiversity of the forest ecosystem. We investigated the effect of fire on termite and ant assemblages and the importance of remnant forest in restoring species diversity in fire-impacted tropical peat swamp forests. The species loss of both termites and ants was as high as 50% in some fire-impacted peats compared to remnant forests, but in most cases the species richness for termites and ants was statistically equal along the land uses surveyed. However, a pronounced difference in functional group composition of termites was detected. In particular, sites close to remnant forests contained two additional termite feeding groups so that they shared a similar composition structure with remnant forests but were significantly different from sites distant from remnant forests. In general, ants were resilient to fire, and the similarity index showed a high degree of similarity among ant communities in all land uses surveyed. The Shannon diversity index for termites and ants decreased with increasing distance from the remnant forests and level of ecological degradation. Peat vegetation variables and ecological degradation were important in shaping termite and ant communities in the tropical peatlands, but their relative importance was not significant in fire-impacted peats regardless of distance from the remnant forests. This study highlights the importance of remnant forests as a biodiversity repository and natural buffer that can enhance species diversity and recolonization of forest-adapted species.

  4. Newly Formed Dust in the Core-Collapse Supernova Remnant E0102

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Bethany; Sandstrom, Karin; Bolatto, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    The mechanism of interstellar dust formation is a matter of continuing debate. In the very early universe, some high redshift galaxies are observed to have a substantial amount of dust. This has led to the suggestion that core collapse supernovae must be the producers of much of the dust in the universe. However, most observed supernova remnants (SNRs) in the local universe have measured dust yields far below the necessary levels. Cassiopeia A and SN 1987A are exceptions--in these young remnants, Herschel Space Observatory observations found large quantities of newly-formed dust. In these two cases, the SNR is young enough that the reverse shock has not yet interacted with most of the newly formed dust. To study supernova dust production, we observe SNR 1E0102.2-7219, which is approximately 1000 years old with a reverse shock that has only reached into a small part of its ejecta making it an excellent candidate to search for newly formed dust that has not yet been destroyed by those shocks. Using Herschel data, we carefully model the background around the remnant to remove emission that is unrelated to the SNR. We then measure the mass, temperature, and chemical composition of the dust by fitting the spectral energy distribution. Our findings reveal a substantial amount of previously undetected cold dust in the remnant, suggesting that indeed core collapse supernovae may host substantial amounts of newly formed dust, at least prior to the passage of the reverse shock.

  5. X-ray emission from reverse-shocked ejecta in supernova remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cioffi, Denis F.; Mckee, Christopher F.

    1990-01-01

    A simple physical model of the dynamics of a young supernova remnant is used to derive a straightforward kinematical description of the reverse shock. With suitable approximations, formulae can then be developed to give the X-ray emission of the reverse-shocked ejecta. The results are found to agree favorably with observations of SN1006.

  6. Bat activity at remnant oak trees in California Central Coast vineyards

    Treesearch

    William D. Tietje; Ted Weller; Christopher C. Yim

    2015-01-01

    During 1990 to 2013, the area planted with wine grapes increased nearly 4.5 times in San Luis Obispo County. Much of this development occurred on open oak savanna with scattered oak (Quercus spp.) trees. Remnant trees are retained in some vineyards, but their value to biodiversity retention has not been quantified. During April to September 2014,...

  7. AN X-RAY INVESTIGATION OF THREE SUPERNOVA REMNANTS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Klimek, Matthew D.; Points, S. D.; Smith, R. C.

    2010-12-20

    We have investigated three supernova remnants (SNRs) in the LMC using multi-wavelength data. These SNRs are generally fainter than the known sample (see Section 4) and may represent a previously missed population. One of our SNRs is the second LMC remnant analyzed which is larger than any Galactic remnant for which a definite size has been established. The analysis of such a large remnant contributes to the understanding of the population of highly evolved SNRs. We have obtained X-ray images and spectra of three of these recently identified SNRs using the XMM-Newton observatory. These data, in conjunction with pre-existing opticalmore » emission-line images and spectra, were used to determine the physical conditions of the optical- and X-ray-emitting gas in the SNRs. We have compared the morphologies of the SNRs in the different wavebands. The physical properties of the warm ionized shell were determined from the H{alpha} surface brightness and the SNR expansion velocity. The X-ray spectra were fit with a thermal plasma model and the physical conditions of the hot gas were derived from the model fits. Finally, we have compared our observations with simulations of SNR evolution.« less

  8. Remnant fire disturbed montane longleaf pine forest in west central georgia

    Treesearch

    Robert Carter; Andrew J. Londo

    2006-01-01

    Fire disturbed ecosystems are characteristic of the Southeastern Coastal Plain of the United States. Less well known are fire disturbed mountainous regions of the Piedmont and Appalachian region that support longleaf pine (Pinus palustris P. Mill.) ecosystems. The Pine Mountain Range in the Piedmont of west central Georgia has remnant longleaf pine...

  9. Effect of adhesive remnant removal on enamel topography after bracket debonding

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Larissa Adrian Meira; Valdrighi, Heloísa Cristina; Vedovello, Mario; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: At orthodontic treatment completion, knowledge about the effects of adhesive remnant removal on enamel is paramount. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at assessing the effect of different adhesive remnant removal methods on enamel topography (ESI) and surface roughness (Ra) after bracket debonding and polishing. METHODS: A total of 50 human premolars were selected and divided into five groups according to the method used for adhesive remnant removal: high speed tungsten carbide bur (TCB), Sof-Lex discs (SL), adhesive removing plier (PL), ultrasound (US) and Fiberglass burs (FB). Metal brackets were bonded with Transbond XT, stored at 37oC for 24 hours before debonding with adhesive removing plier. Subsequently, removal methods were carried out followed by polishing with pumice paste. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted with pre-bonding, post-debonding and post-polishing analyses. Results were submitted to statistical analysis with F test (ANOVA) and Tukey's (Ra) as well as with Kruskal-Wallis and Bonferroni tests (ESI) (P < 0.05). RESULTS: US Ra and ESI were significantly greater than TCB, SL, PL and FB. Polishing minimized Ra and ESI in the SL and FB groups. CONCLUSION: Adhesive remnant removal with SL and FB associated with polishing are recommended due to causing little damage to the enamel. PMID:25628087

  10. Species composition and structure of regenerated and remnant forest patches within an urban landscape

    Treesearch

    Wayne C. Zipperer

    2002-01-01

    Regenerated and remnant forest patches were inventoried in Syracuse, New York, USA to determine differences in structure, species composition, human disturbances, and landscape context. Patches had similar mean stem diameter, total stem density, and total basal areas, but differed with respect to diameter distribution, disturbance regime, landscape context, and...

  11. Reverse intestinal rotation: a rare case of volvulus around a vitelline duct remnant

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Stephan; Kaczynski, Jakub; Hrobar, Petr; Collins, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    We present a rare case of reverse intestinal rotation with volvulus around a Meckel's diverticulum attached to a vitelline duct remnant. The diagnosis was established by CT. The patient was treated with exploratory laparotomy and small bowel resection. The patient made a full recovery and was discharged home on the seventh postoperative day. PMID:25246458

  12. Supernova remnant S 147 and its associated neutron star(s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    2006-07-01

    The supernova remnant S 147 harbors the pulsar PSR J 0538+2817 whose characteristic age is more than an order of magnitude greater than the kinematic age of the system (inferred from the angular offset of the pulsar from the geometric center of the supernova remnant and the pulsar proper motion). To reconcile this discrepancy we propose that PSR J 0538+2817 could be the stellar remnant of the first supernova explosion in a massive binary system and therefore could be as old as its characteristic age. Our proposal implies that S 147 is the diffuse remnant of the second supernova explosion (that disrupted the binary system) and that a much younger second neutron star (not necessarily manifesting itself as a radio pulsar) should be associated with S 147. We use the existing observational data on the system to suggest that the progenitor of the supernova that formed S 147 was a Wolf-Rayet star (so that the supernova explosion occurred within a wind bubble surrounded by a massive shell) and to constrain the parameters of the binary system. We also restrict the magnitude and direction of the kick velocity received by the young neutron star at birth and find that the kick vector should not strongly deviate from the orbital plane of the binary system.

  13. Search for Remnant Water Ice from Past Glacial Climates on Mars: The Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, W. C.; Prettyman, T. H.; Maurice, S.; Lawrence, D. J.; Pathare, A.; Milliken, R. E.; Travis, B. J.

    2011-03-01

    We find at least three likely target locations of presently existing deposits of buried "bulk" water ice that may be remnants of multiple episodes of dirty ice precipitation events at low to mid-martian latitudes driven by climate changes during the last 1 to 10 Ma.

  14. Rapid re-brightening of the red nova V4332 Sgr remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goranskij, V. P.; Zharova, A. V.; Barsukova, E. A.; Valeev, A. F.

    2018-06-01

    V4332 Sgr is a luminous red nova exploded in 1994. We perform CCD BVRcIc photometry of its remnant since 2003, and medium resolution spectroscopy since 2005 using Russian 6 m telescope BTA, SAO 1 m Zeiss telescope and smaller telescopes of SAI Crimean Station.

  15. Do remnant old-growth trees accelerate rates of succession in mature Douglas-fir forests?

    Treesearch

    William S. Keeton; Jerry F. Franklin

    2005-01-01

    Biological legacies left by natural disturbances provide ecological functions throughout forest stand development, but their influences on processes of ecological succession are not completely understood. We investigated the successional role of one type of biological legacy: remnant old-growth trees persisting in mature Pseudotsuga menziesii (...

  16. Numerical Simulations of Supernova Remnant Evolution in a Cloudy Interstellar Medium

    SciTech Connect

    Slavin, Jonathan D.; Smith, Randall K.; Foster, Adam

    The mixed morphology class of supernova remnants has centrally peaked X-ray emission along with a shell-like morphology in radio emission. White and Long proposed that these remnants are evolving in a cloudy medium wherein the clouds are evaporated via thermal conduction once being overrun by the expanding shock. Their analytical model made detailed predictions regarding temperature, density, and emission profiles as well as shock evolution. We present numerical hydrodynamical models in 2D and 3D including thermal conduction, testing the White and Long model and presenting results for the evolution and emission from remnants evolving in a cloudy medium. We findmore » that, while certain general results of the White and Long model hold, such as the way the remnants expand and the flattening of the X-ray surface brightness distribution, in detail there are substantial differences. In particular we find that the X-ray luminosity is dominated by emission from shocked cloud gas early on, leading to a bright peak, which then declines and flattens as evaporation becomes more important. In addition, the effects of thermal conduction on the intercloud gas, which is not included in the White and Long model, are important and lead to further flattening of the X-ray brightness profile as well as lower X-ray emission temperatures.« less

  17. Energy Dependence of Synchrotron X-Ray Rims in Tycho's Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Aaron; Williams, Brian J.; Petre, Robert; Ressler, Sean M.; Reynolds, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Several young supernova remnants exhibit thin X-ray bright rims of synchrotron radiation at their forward shocks. Thin rims require strong magnetic field amplification beyond simple shock compression if rim widths are only limited by electron energy losses. But, magnetic field damping behind the shock could produce similarly thin rims with less extreme field amplification. Variation of rim width with energy may thus discriminate between competing influences on rim widths. We measured rim widths around Tycho's supernova remnant in 5 energy bands using an archival 750 ks Chandra observation. Rims narrow with increasing energy and are well described by either loss-limited or damped scenarios, so X-ray rim width-energy dependence does not uniquely specify a model. But, radio counterparts to thin rims are not loss-limited and better reflect magnetic field structure. Joint radio and X-ray modeling favors magnetic damping in Tycho's SNR with damping lengths approximately 1-5% of remnant radius and magnetic field strengths approximately 50-400 micron G assuming Bohm diffusion. X-ray rim widths are approximately 1% of remnant radius, somewhat smaller than inferred damping lengths. Electron energy losses are important in all models of X-ray rims, suggesting that the distinction between loss-limited and damped models is blurred in soft X-rays. All loss-limited and damping models require magnetic fields approximately greater than 20 micron G, arming the necessity of magnetic field amplification beyond simple compression.

  18. Cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) possess pharyngeal pouch remnants originating from different primordia.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Teppei; Ichii, Osamu; Irie, Takao; Mizoguchi, Tatsuya; Shinohara, Akio; Kouguchi, Hirokazu; Sunden, Yuji; Otsuka-Kanazawa, Saori; Ali Elewa, Yaser Hosny; Koshimoto, Chihiro; Nagasaki, Ken-Ichi; Kon, Yasuhiro

    2018-06-01

    Pharyngeal pouches in mammals develop into specific derivatives. If the differentiation of the pharyngeal pouches is anomalous, their remnants can result in cysts, sinuses, and fistulae in the differentiated organs or around the neck. In the present study, we found several pharyngeal pouch remnants, such as cystic structures in thymus and parathyroid gland and fossulae extended from the piriform fossa, in the inbred cotton rats maintained at Hokkaido Institute of Public Health (HIS/Hiph) and University of Miyazaki (HIS/Mz). In HIS/Hiph, the fossulae extended from the apex of the piriform fossa into the thyroid glands and were lined with stratified squamous and cuboidal epithelium. Calcitonin-positive C-cells were present within their epithelium in HIS/Hiph. In contrast, the fossulae of HIS/Mz ran outside the thyroid glands toward the parathyroid glands; they were lined with columnar ciliated epithelium and a few goblet cells, but had no C-cells, which was consistent with the cystic structures in the thymus and the parathyroid gland. These results indicated that the fossulae were a remnant of the ultimobranchial body in HIS/Hiph and of the thymopharyngeal duct in HIS/Mz. Thus, the fossulae of the piriform fossa resembled the piriform sinus fistula in human. In conclusion, cotton rats frequently possessed pharyngeal pouch remnants, including the piriform sinus fistula, and therefore, might serve as a novel model to elucidate the mechanisms of pharyngeal pouch development.

  19. Very high-resolution observations of compact radio sources in the directions of supernova remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geldzahler, B. J.; Shaffer, D. B.

    1981-01-01

    Compact radio sources whose positions lie within the outlines of supernova remnants may be the stellar remnants of supernova explosions and, if they are related to the supernova remnants, may be used to explore the nature of any morphological connection between the Galactic and extragalactic radio sources. Three such compact sources, G 127.11+0.54, CL 4, and 2051+433, have been observed at 10.65 GHz with an array of very long baseline interferometers having elements in the USA and West Germany. The radio source 2051+433 was also observed briefly at 5.01 GHz. The measured size of CL 4 at 10.65 GHz is about 0.0005 arcsec and seems to be dominated by the effects of interstellar scattering. No fringes were seen in 2051+433, and results indicate there is no compact component of 2051+433 smaller than 0.001 arcsec radiating at 10.65 GHz above a level of about 50 mJy. The possibility is presented that G 127.11+0.54 is a Galactic object. It is found to consist of two components separated by about 0.002 arcsec and oriented perpendicular to both the radio bridge of the supernova remnant G 127.1+0.5 and the underlying optical image. G 127.11+0.54, if Galactic, lies at the extreme low-luminosity end of an apparent continuum of Galactic and extragalactic compact radio source luminosities.

  20. Kepler Supernova Remnant: A View from Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-06

    The images indicate that the bubble of gas that makes up the supernova remnant appears different in various types of light. Chandra reveals the hottest gas [colored blue and colored green], which radiates in X-rays. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA06908

  1. Clinical outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer in remnant stomach or gastric tube.

    PubMed

    Nishide, N; Ono, H; Kakushima, N; Takizawa, K; Tanaka, M; Matsubayashi, H; Yamaguchi, Y

    2012-06-01

    Little information exists regarding the optimal treatment of early gastric cancer (EGC) in a remnant stomach or gastric tube. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and clinical outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for EGC in a remnant stomach and gastric tube. Between September 2002 and December 2009, ESD was performed in 62 lesions in 59 patients with EGC in a remnant stomach (48 lesions) or gastric tube (14 lesions). Clinicopathological data were retrieved retrospectively to assess the en bloc resection rate, complications, and outcomes. Treatment results were assessed according to the indications for endoscopic resection, and were compared with those of ESD performed in a whole stomach during the same study period. The en bloc resection rates for lesions within the standard and expanded indication were 100 % and 93 %, respectively. Postoperative bleeding occurred in five patients (8 %). The perforation rate was significantly higher (18 %, 11 /62) than that of ESD in a whole stomach (5 %, 69 /1479). Among the perforation cases, eight lesions involved the anastomotic site or stump line, and ulcerative changes were observed in five lesions. The 3-year overall survival rate was 85 %, with eight deaths due to other causes and no deaths from gastric cancer. A high en bloc resection rate was achieved by ESD for EGC in a remnant stomach or gastric tube; however, this procedure is still technically demanding due to the high complication rate of perforation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. LOFAR discovery of a 700-kpc remnant radio galaxy at low redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brienza, M.; Godfrey, L.; Morganti, R.; Vilchez, N.; Maddox, N.; Murgia, M.; Orru, E.; Shulevski, A.; Best, P. N.; Brüggen, M.; Harwood, J. J.; Jamrozy, M.; Jarvis, M. J.; Mahony, E. K.; McKean, J.; Röttgering, H. J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Remnant radio galaxies represent the final dying phase of radio galaxy evolution in which the jets are no longer active. Remnants are rare in flux-limited samples, comprising at most a few percent. As a result of their rarity and because they are difficult to identify, this dying phase remains poorly understood and the luminosity evolution is largely unconstrained. Aims: Here we present the discovery and detailed analysis of a large (700 kpc) remnant radio galaxy with a low surface brightness that has been identified in LOFAR images at 150 MHz. Methods: By combining LOFAR data with new follow-up Westerbork observations and archival data at higher frequencies, we investigated the source morphology and spectral properties from 116 to 4850 MHz. By modelling the radio spectrum, we probed characteristic timescales of the radio activity. Results: The source has a relatively smooth, diffuse, amorphous appearance together with a very weak central compact core that is associated with the host galaxy located at z = 0.051. From our ageing and morphological analysis it is clear that the nuclear engine is currently switched off or, at most, active at a very low power state. We find that the source has remained visible in the remnant phase for about 60 Myr, significantly longer than its active phase of 15 Myr, despite being located outside a cluster. The host galaxy is currently interacting with another galaxy located at a projected separation of 15 kpc and a radial velocity offset of ~ 300 km s-1. This interaction may have played a role in the triggering and/or shut-down of the radio jets. Conclusions: The spectral shape of this remnant radio galaxy differs from most of the previously identified remnant sources, which show steep or curved spectra at low to intermediate frequencies. Our results demonstrate that remnant radio galaxies can show a wide range of evolutionary paths and spectral properties. In light of this finding and in preparation for new-generation deep

  3. Hepatic venous pressure gradient after portal vein embolization: An accurate predictor of future liver remnant hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Mohkam, Kayvan; Rode, Agnès; Darnis, Benjamin; Manichon, Anne-Frédérique; Boussel, Loïc; Ducerf, Christian; Merle, Philippe; Lesurtel, Mickaël; Mabrut, Jean-Yves

    2018-05-09

    The impact of portal hemodynamic variations after portal vein embolization on liver regeneration remains unknown. We studied the correlation between the parameters of hepatic venous pressure measured before and after portal vein embolization and future hypertrophy of the liver remnant after portal vein embolization. Between 2014 and 2017, we reviewed patients who were eligible for major hepatectomy and who had portal vein embolization. Patients had undergone simultaneous measurement of portal venous pressure and hepatic venous pressure gradient before and after portal vein embolization by direct puncture of portal vein and inferior vena cava. We assessed these parameters to predict future liver remnant hypertrophy. Twenty-six patients were included. After portal vein embolization, median portal venous pressure (range) increased from 15 (9-24) to 19 (10-27) mm Hg and hepatic venous pressure gradient increased from 5 (0-12) to 8 (0-14) mm Hg. Median future liver remnant volume (range) was 513 (299-933) mL before portal vein embolization versus 724 (499-1279) mL 3 weeks after portal vein embolization, representing a 35% (7.4-83.6) median hypertrophy. Post-portal vein embolization hepatic venous pressure gradient was the most accurate parameter to predict failure of future liver remnant to reach a 30% hypertrophy (c-statistic: 0.882 [95% CI: 0.727-1.000], P < 0.001). A cut-off value of post-portal vein embolization hepatic venous pressure gradient of 8 mm Hg showed a sensitivity of 91% (95% CI: 57%-99%), specificity of 80% (95% CI: 52%-96%), positive predictive value of 77% (95% CI: 46%-95%) and negative predictive value of 92.3% (95% CI: 64.0%-99.8%). On multivariate analysis, post-portal vein embolization hepatic venous pressure gradient and previous chemotherapy were identified as predictors of impaired future liver remnant hypertrophy. Post-portal vein embolization hepatic venous pressure gradient is a simple and reproducible tool which accurately predicts future

  4. The Golden Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Hartley

    2004-01-01

    The Golden Ratio is sometimes called the "Golden Section" or the "Divine Proportion", in which three points: A, B, and C, divide a line in this proportion if AC/AB = AB/BC. "Donald in Mathmagicland" includes a section about the Golden Ratio and the ratios within a five-pointed star or pentagram. This article presents two computing exercises that…

  5. Deep Radio Imaging with MERLIN of the Supernova Remnants in M82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muxlow, T. W. B.; Pedlar, A.; Riley, J. D.; McDonald, A. R.; Beswick, R. J.; Wills, K. A.

    An 8 day MERLIN deep integration at 5GHz of the central region of the starburst galaxy M82 has been used to investigate the radio structure of a number of supernova remnants in unprecedented detail revealing new shells and partial shell structures for the first time. In addition, by comparing the new deep 2002 image with an astrometrically aligned image from 36 hours of data taken in 1992, it has been possible to directly measure the expansion velocities of 4 of the most compact remnants in M82. For the two most compact remnants, 41.95+575 and 43.31+592, expansion velocities of 2800 ± 300 km s-1 and 8750 ± 400 km s-1 have been derived. These confirm and refine the measured expansion velocities which have been derived from VLBI multi-epoch studies. For remnants 43.18+583 and 44.01+596, expansion velocities of 10500 ± 750 km s -1 and 2400 ± 250 km s-1 have been measured for the first time. In addition, the peak of the radio emission for SNR 45.17+612 has moved between the two epochs implying velocities around 7500km s-1. The relatively compact remnants in M82 are thus found to be expanding over a wide range of velocities which appear unrelated to their size. The new 2002 map is the most sensitive high-resolution image yet made of M82, achieving an rms noise level of 17µJy beam-1. This establishes a first epoch for subsequent deep studies of expansion velocities for many SNR within M82.

  6. Endocrown restorations: Influence of dental remnant and restorative material on stress distribution.

    PubMed

    Tribst, João Paulo Mendes; Dal Piva, Amanda Maria de Oliveira; Madruga, Camila Ferreira Leite; Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Borges, Alexandre Luiz Souto; Bresciani, Eduardo; de Melo, Renata Marques

    2018-06-20

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the stress distribution in a tooth/restoration system according to the factors "amount of dental remnant" (3 levels) and "restorative material" (2 levels). Three endodontically treated maxillary molars were modeled with CAD software for conducting non-linear finite element analysis (FEA), each with a determined amount of dental remnant of 1.5, 3, or 4.5mm. Models were duplicated, and half received restorations in lithium disilicate (IPS e.max CAD), while the other half received leucite ceramic restorations (IPS Empress CAD), both from Ivoclar Vivadent (Schaan, Liechtenstein). The solids were imported to analysis software (ANSYS 17.2, ANSYS Inc., Houston, TX, USA) in STEP format. All contacts involving the resin cement were considered no-separation, whereas between teeth and fixation cylinder, the contact was considered perfectly bonded. The mechanical properties of each structure were reported, and the materials were considered isotropic, linearly elastic, and homogeneous. An axial load (300N) was applied at the occlusal surface (triploidism area). Results were determined by colorimetric graphs of maximum principal stress (MPS) on tooth remnant, cement line, and restoration. MPS revealed that both factors influenced the stress distribution for all structures; the higher the material's elastic modulus, the higher the stress concentration on the restoration and the lower the stress concentration on the cement line. Moreover, the greater the dental crown remnant, the higher the stress concentration on the restoration. Thus, the remaining dental tissue should always be preserved. In situations in which few dental remnants are available, the thicker the restoration, the higher the concentration of stresses in its structure, protecting the adhesive interface from potential adhesive failures. Results are more promising when the endocrown is fabricated with lithium disilicate ceramic. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials

  7. The evolving instability of the remnant Larsen B Ice Shelf and its tributary glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazendar, Ala; Borstad, Christopher P.; Scheuchl, Bernd; Rignot, Eric; Seroussi, Helene

    2015-06-01

    Following the 2002 disintegration of the northern and central parts of the Larsen B Ice Shelf, the tributary glaciers of the southern surviving part initially appeared relatively unchanged and hence assumed to be buttressed sufficiently by the remnant ice shelf. Here, we modify this perception with observations from IceBridge altimetry and InSAR-inferred ice flow speeds. Our analyses show that the surfaces of Leppard and Flask glaciers directly upstream from their grounding lines lowered by 15 to 20 m in the period 2002-2011. The thinning appears to be dynamic as the flow of both glaciers and the remnant ice shelf accelerated in the same period. Flask Glacier started accelerating even before the 2002 disintegration, increasing its flow speed by ∼55% between 1997 and 2012. Starbuck Glacier meanwhile did not change much. We hypothesize that the different evolutions of the three glaciers are related to their dissimilar bed topographies and degrees of grounding. We apply numerical modeling and data assimilation that show these changes to be accompanied by a reduction in the buttressing afforded by the remnant ice shelf, a weakening of the shear zones between its flow units and an increase in its fracture. The fast flowing northwestern part of the remnant ice shelf exhibits increasing fragmentation, while the stagnant southeastern part seems to be prone to the formation of large rifts, some of which we show have delimited successive calving events. A large rift only 12 km downstream from the grounding line is currently traversing the stagnant part of the ice shelf, defining the likely front of the next large calving event. We propose that the flow acceleration, ice front retreat and enhanced fracture of the remnant Larsen B Ice Shelf presage its approaching demise.

  8. Searching for the Remnants of Southern Seas: Cassini Observations of the South Pole of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stofan, Ellen R.; Aharonson, O.; Hayes, A. G.; Kirk, R.; Lopes, R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Lucas, A.; Lunine, J. I.; Malaska, M.; Radebaugh, J.; Stiles, B. W.; Turtle, E. P.; Wall, S. D.; Wood, C. A.; Cassini Radar Team

    2012-10-01

    The north polar region of Titan is home to three large seas along with hundreds of smaller lakes, while the south pole apparently has only two partially filled basins of liquid hydrocarbons. Aharonson et al. [2009] has suggested that cycles analogous to Croll-Milankovich cycles on Earth cause long-term cyclic transfer of hydrocarbons from pole to pole, with the north pole now containing the bulk of the liquids. Less than 50,000 years ago, the cycle would have been reversed, suggesting that the south polar region should contain remnants of southern seas. To identify such seas, we search for features enclosed by an apparent remnant shoreline, with an interior region of smooth (radar-dark) plains. Two such features can be readily identified, each with areal extents of over 100,000 km2, along with several other possible candidate remnant seas or large lakes. One of the possible seas now contains Ontario Lacus. Analysis of the morphologic and topographic characteristics of the two candidate remnant seas can help constrain the possible depth and basin characteristics of the northern seas, as well as possible rates of surface modification in the time since the seas have (largely) dried up. In addition, analysis of the radar characteristics of the remnant sea basins may help us to determine if such processes also acted at equatorial regions where evidence of rainfall [Turtle et al., 2011] and a possible lake has recently been presented [Griffith et al., 2012], and at the more homogeneous mid-latitudes on Titan. References: Aharonson, O. et al., Nature Geoscience 2, 851-854; Griffith, C. et al., Nature 486, 237-239; Turtle, E.P. et al., Science 331, 1414-1417.

  9. THE ABSENCE OF EX-COMPANIONS IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Di Stefano, R.; Kilic, Mukremin, E-mail: rd@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: kilic@ou.edu

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) play important roles in our study of the expansion and acceleration of the universe, but because we do not know the exact nature or natures of the progenitors, there is a systematic uncertainty that must be resolved if SNe Ia are to become more precise cosmic probes. No progenitor system has ever been identified either in the pre- or post-explosion images of a Ia event. There have been recent claims for and against the detection of ex-companion stars in several SNe Ia remnants. These studies, however, usually ignore the angular momentum gain of the progenitormore » white dwarf (WD), which leads to a spin-up phase and a subsequent spin-down phase before explosion. For spin-down timescales greater than 10{sup 5} years, the donor star could be too dim to detect by the time of explosion. Here we revisit the current limits on ex-companion stars to SNR 0509-67.5, a 400-year-old remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud. If the effects of possible angular momentum gain on the WD are included, a wide range of single-degenerate progenitor models are allowed for this remnant. We demonstrate that the current absence of evidence for ex-companion stars in this remnant, as well as other SNe Ia remnants, does not necessarily provide the evidence of absence for ex-companions. We discuss potential ways to identify such ex-companion stars through deep imaging observations.« less

  10. Housing Shortages in Urban Regions: Aggressive Interactions at Tree Hollows in Forest Remnants

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Adrian; Major, Richard E.; Taylor, Charlotte E.

    2013-01-01

    Urbanisation typically results in a reduction of hollow-bearing trees and an increase in the density of particularly species, potentially resulting in an increased level of competition as cavity-nesting species compete for a limited resource. To improve understanding of hollow usage between urban cavity-nesting species in Australia, particularly parrots, we investigated how the hollow-using assemblage, visitation rate, diversity and number of interactions varied between hollows within urban remnant forest and continuous forest. Motion-activated video cameras were installed, via roped access to the canopy, and hollow usage was monitored at 61 hollows over a two-year period. Tree hollows within urban remnants had a significantly different assemblage of visitors to those in continuous forest as well as a higher rate of visitation than hollows within continuous forest, with the rainbow lorikeet making significantly more visitations than any other taxa. Hollows within urban remnants were characterised by significantly higher usage rates and significantly more aggressive interactions than hollows within continuous forest, with parrots responsible for almost all interactions. Within urban remnants, high rates of hollow visitation and both interspecific and intraspecific interactions observed at tree hollows suggest the number of available optimal hollows may be limiting. Understanding the usage of urban remnant hollows by wildlife, as well as the role of parrots as a potential flagship for the conservation of tree-hollows, is vital to prevent a decrease in the diversity of urban fauna, particularly as other less competitive species risk being outcompeted by abundant native species. PMID:23555657

  11. Near-Infrared [Fe II] and H2 Study of the Galactic Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong-Hyun; Koo, Bon-Chul; Lee, Jae-Joon; Jaffe, Daniel T.; Burton, Michael G.; Ryder, Stuart D.

    2018-01-01

    We have searched for near-infrared (NIR) [Fe II] (1.644 μm) and H2 1-0 S(1) (2.122 μm) emission features associated with Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) using the narrow-band imaging surveys UWIFE / UWISH2 (UKIRT Widefield Infrared Survey for [Fe II] / H2). Both surveys cover about 180 square degrees of the first Galactic quadrant (7° < l < 65° -1.3° < b < +1.3°), and a total of 79 SNRs are falling in the survey area. We have found 19 [Fe II]- and 19 H2-emitting SNRs, giving a detection rate of 24%. Eleven SNRs show both emission features. Some of the SNRs show bright, complex, and interesting structures that have never been reported in previous studies. The brightest SNR in the both emission is W49B, contributing ~70% of the total [Fe II] luminosity of the detected SNRs. The total [Fe II] luminosity, however, is considerably less than what we would expect from the SN rate of our Galaxy.Among the SNRs showing both [Fe II] and H2 emission lines, some SNRs show the “[Fe II]-H2 reversal” phenomenon, i.e., the H2 emission features are detected outside the [Fe II] emission boundary. We carried out high resolution (R~40,000) NIR H- and K-band spectroscopy of the five SNRs showing the [Fe II]-H2 reversal (G11.2-0.3, KES 73, W44, 3C 396, W49B) using IGRINS (Immersion GRating INfrared Spectrograph). Various ro-vibrational H2 lines have been detected, which are used to derive the kinematic distances to the SNRs and to investigate the origin of the H2 emission. The detected H2 lines show broad line width (> 10 km s-1) and line flux ratios of thermal excitation. We discuss the origin of the extended H2 emission features beyond the the [Fe II] emission boundary.

  12. The effect of oral protease administration in the rat remnant kidney model.

    PubMed

    Sebeková, K; Dämmrich, J; Krivosíková, Z; Heidland, A

    1999-12-01

    It has been demonstrated that intraperitoneal administration of proteolytic enzymes ameliorates the progression of renal diseases in various animal models. In the present study, we employed the rat remnant kidney model to study the effectiveness of oral administration of proteases. Twenty male Wistar rats underwent sham operation (CTRL), while 25 were subjected to 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 NX). Rats were randomised into placebo (PL) (2 ml tap water/day by gavage), or Phlogenzym (E; fixed mixture of trypsin 2.42 mg, bromelain 4.54 mg, and rutozid 5.04 mg added as antioxidant, in 2 ml tap water daily by gavage) treated group. Duration of the study was 45 days. Rats were pair-fed. Enzyme treatment exerted salutary effects on various functional and morphological parameters. Proteinuria was higher in both 5/6 NX group rats throughout the study. Administration of proteases ameliorated its rise effectively (data at sacrifice: CTRL-PL 6.27 +/- 1.25, CTRL-E 9.27 +/- 0.99, 5/6 NX-PL 74.04 +/- 21.33, 5/6 NX-E 39.09 +/- 7.93 mg/24 h; P < 0.01). Increased urinary excretion of the fibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF-beta 1) was improved, too (CTRL-PL 0.349 +/- 0.051, CTRL-E 0.693 +/- 0.230, 5/6 NX-PL 3.044 +/- 0.540, 5/6 NX-E 1.390 +/- 0.238 ng/mumol creatinine; P < 0.05). At sacrifice, tubulointerstitial fibrosis was less pronounced in E-treated rats. Correspondingly, the volume fraction of tubulointerstitial tissue in the renal cortex was improved in 5/6 NX-E rats (CTRL-PL 9.9 +/- 0.2, CTRL-E 10.0 +/- 0.2, 5/6 NX-PL 17.9 +/- 1.8, 5/6 NX-E 13.8 +/- 0.9%; P < 0.05). The protein/DNA ratio in isolated glomeruli and tubules, as an estimate of glomerular matrix accumulation and hypertrophy of tubules, was enhanced in 5/6 NX groups and a tendency towards lower values was observed after E treatment. Renal function as evaluated by serum creatinine and urea levels was not influenced by the enzyme therapy. No between-group differences in blood pressure were observed. In

  13. A new supernova remnant candidate in the UWIFE [Fe II] line survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yesol; Koo, Bon-Chul

    2016-06-01

    We report the discovery of a new supernova remnant (SNR) candidate in the narrow-band [Fe II] 1.644 um line imaging survey UWIFE (UKIRT Widefield Infrared Survey for Fe). UWIFE covers the first quadrant of the Galactic plane (7degrees < l < 62degrees, |b| < 1.5degrees), and, by visual inspection, we have found ~300 extended Ionized Fe objects (IFOs) in the survey area. Most of IFOs are associated with SNRs, young stellar objects, HII regions, and planetary nebulae. But about 12% of IFOs are not associated with any known astronomical objects, and the SNR candidate, IFO J183740.829-061452.41 (hereafter IFO J183740) is one of those. IFO J183740 is a 6`-long, faint, arc-like filament with small-scale irregular structures. It appears to be a portion of a circular loop, but the rest of the loop is not seen in [Fe II] emission. It is found to coincide with a well-defined radio continuum arc. The radio arc has a complicated morphology, and IFO J183740 coincides with the bright inner part of the radio arc. Hydrogen recombination lines have been detected toward the radio arc from low-resolution surveys, so it has been known as an HII region (G25.8+0.2) at a kinematic distance of 6.5 kpc. But the inside of this radio arc is filled with soft X-rays, while, just outside the arc to the north, there is hard X-ray nebula harboring a young pulsar. Therefore, the nature of this arc-like structure seen in radio and [Fe II] emission is uncertain. In this presentation, we present the results of follow-up spectroscopic study of IFO J183740 using IGRINS (Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph) which is high spectral resolution (R~40,000) spectrograph covering H and K-bands, simultaneously. We have found that the [Fe II] filaments are both spatially and kinematically distinct from the HII filaments. The intensity ratios of [Fe II] to Brγ lines suggest that the HII filaments are photoionized while the [Fe II] filaments are shock-ionized, which supports the SNR origin for IFO J183740. We

  14. Coronagraphic imaging of pre-main-sequence stars: Remnant evvelopes of star formation seen in reflection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakajima, Tadashi; Golimowski, David A.

    1995-01-01

    We have obtained R- and I-band coronagraphic images of the vicinities of 11 pre-main sequence (PMS) stars to search for faint, small-scale reflection nebulae. The inner radius of the search and the field of view are 1.9 arcsec and 1x1 arcmin, respectively. Reflection nebulae were imaged around RY Tau, T Tau,DG Tau, SU Aur, AB Aur, FU Ori, and Z CMa. No nebulae were detected around HBC 347, GG Tau, V773 Tau, and V830 Tau. Categorically speaking, most of the classical T Tauri program stars and all the FU Orionis-type program stars are associated with the reflection nebulae, while none of the weak-line T Tauri program stars are associated with nebulae. The detected nebulae range in size from 250 to 37 000 AU. From the brightness ratios of the stars and nebulae, we obtain a lower limit to the visual extinction of PMS star light through the nebulae of (A(sub V))(sub neb) = 0.1. The lower limits of masses and volume densities of the nebulae associated with the classical T Tauri stars are 10(exp-6) Solar mass and N(sub H) = 10(exp 5)/cu cm, respectively. Lower limits for the nebulae around FU Orionis stars are 10(exp -5) Solar mass and n(sub H) = 10 (exp 5)/cu cm, respectively. Some reflection nebulae may trace the illuminated surfaces of the optically thick dust nebulae, so these mass estimates are not stringent. All the PMS stars with associated nebulae are strong far-infrared emitters. Both the far-infrared emission and the reflection nebulae appear to originate from the remnant envelopes of star formation. The 100 micrometers emitting regions of SU Aur and FU Ori are likely to be cospatial with the reflection nebulae. A spatial discontinuity between FU Ori and its reflection nebula may explain the dip in the far-infrared spectral energy distribution at 60 micrometers. The warped, disk-like nebulae around T Tau and Z CMa are aligned with and embrace the inner star/circumstellar disk systems. The arc-shaped nebula around DG Tau may be in contact with the coaligned inner

  15. X-raying supernova remnants in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, P.; Hirschi, R.; Haberl, F.; Vasilopoulos, G.; Pietsch, W.; Greiner, J.; Kavanagh, J. P.; Sasaki, M.; Bozzetto, M. L.; Filipovic, M. D.; Points, S. D.; Chu, Y.-H.; Dickel, J.; Ehle, M.; Williams, R.

    2016-06-01

    The Magellanic Clouds (MCs) offer an ideal laboratory for the study of the SNR population in star-forming galaxies, since they are relatively nearby and free of large absorption. Both the LMC and SMC have been targeted by large XMM-Newton surveys, which, combined with archival observations, provide the best dataset to systematically study the X-ray emission of their numerous SNRs (˜ 60 in the LMC, ˜ 20 in the SMC). In this talk, I will highlight the results from this homogeneous analysis, which allows for the first time meaningful comparisons of temperature, chemical composition, and luminosity of SNRs in the MCs. The SNRs can be used as probes of their host galaxies: We measured chemical abundances in the hot phase of the LMC, and constrained the ratio of core-collapse to type Ia SN rates. The X-ray luminosity function of SNRs in the MCs are compared to those in other Local Group galaxies with different metallicities and star formation properties. Finally, we present a new population of evolved type Ia SNRs that was discovered recently in the MCs via their iron-rich X-ray emission.

  16. Structural determination of glucosylceramides in the distillation remnants of shochu, the Japanese traditional liquor, and its production by Aspergillus kawachii.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Miyo; Tsuge, Keisuke; Jayakody, Lahiru N; Urano, Yoshitaka; Sawada, Kazutaka; Inaba, Shigeki; Nagao, Koji; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2012-11-21

    Shochu is traditional Japanese liquor produced from various crops and fungi Aspergillus kawachi or A. awamorii . The amount of unutilized shochu distillation remnants is increasing because of the recent prohibition of ocean dumping of these remnants. In this Article, we first describe the structures of glucosylceramides contained in shochu distillation remnants by fragment ion analysis using ESI-tandem mass spectrometry. Shochu distillation remnant produced from barley contained glucosylceramides d18:2/C16:0h, d18:2/C20:0h, d19:2/C18:1h, and d18:2/C18:0h. Koji (barley fermented with A. kawachii) contained the same glucosylceramides. Shochu distillation remnants produced from rice contained glucosylceramides d18:2/C18:0h and d19:2/C18:1h. The culture broth of A. kawachii contained glucosylceramides d19:2/C18:1h and d19:2/C18:0h. These results indicate that the glucosylceramides contained in crops and those produced by A. kawachii transfer through the processes of fermentation with yeast and distillation to the shochu distillation remnant. This information will enable utilization of shochu distillation remnants and koji as novel sources of sphingolipids.

  17. AN X-RAY AND RADIO STUDY OF THE VARYING EXPANSION VELOCITIES IN TYCHO’S SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Brian J.; Chomiuk, Laura; Hewitt, John W.

    2016-06-01

    We present newly obtained X-ray and radio observations of Tycho’s supernova remnant using Chandra and the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array in 2015 and 2013/14, respectively. When combined with earlier epoch observations by these instruments, we now have time baselines for expansion measurements of the remnant of 12–15 years in the X-rays and 30 years in the radio. The remnant’s large angular size allows for proper motion measurements at many locations around the periphery of the blast wave. Consistent with earlier measurements, we find a clear gradient in the expansion velocity of the remnant, despite its round shape. Themore » proper motions on the western and southwestern sides of the remnant are about a factor of two higher than those in the east and northeast. We showed in an earlier work that this is related to an offset of the explosion site from the geometric center of the remnant due to a density gradient in the ISM, and using our refined measurements reported here, we find that this offset is ∼23″ toward the northeast. An explosion center offset in such a circular remnant has implications for searches for progenitor companions in other remnants.« less

  18. Radioiodine remnant ablation in differentiated thyroid cancer after combined endogenous and exogenous TSH stimulation.

    PubMed

    Vrachimis, A; Schober, O; Riemann, B

    2012-01-01

    Radioiodine remnant ablation (RRA) after (near-)total thyroidectomy (TE) is a key element in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The use of exogenous TSH stimulation (rhTSH) prior to RRA has shown promising results as compared to conventional thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW). As yet, the efficacy of RRA after brief THW and single rhTSH administration has not been assessed. The study sample comprised 147 patients with DTC referred to our center between May 2008 and September 2010. All patients received TE with subsequent RRA. None of these 147 patients had evidence of distant metastasis. 93 patients had endogenous TSH stimulation 4-5 weeks after surgery (group I) and twenty-six received two rhTSH injections (group II). 28 patients were treated with a single rhTSH injection after a brief THW (group III). RRA-Efficacy was assessed three months after therapy by diagnostic whole-body scan and measurement of the tumour marker thyroglobulin (Tg) under TSH stimulation. Three categories of success were defined for remnant ablation. Based on the definition of successful remnant ablation no visible uptake and a Tg ≤ 2.0 ng/ml (category 1) was seen in 62/93 patients in group I, in 17/26 patients in group II (p = n.s.) and in 12/28 patients in group III (p < 0.05). Visible radioiodine uptake and a Tg ≤ 2.0 ng/ml (category 2) was seen in 16/28 patients of group III and thus significantly more frequent than in group I (28/93 patients) (p < 0.01). However, patients in group III (16/28 patients) and group II (8/26 patients) showed no significant difference in this category (p = n.s.). Visible radioiodine uptake and a Tg > 2.0 ng/ml (category 3) was found in 3/93 patients in group I and 1/26 patients in group II but in no patient in group III. The third strategy of remnant ablation using a single injection of rhTSH after a brief THW period resulted in a significant higher rate of patients with residual uptake in the thyroid bed and a Tg level below 2 ng/ml three

  19. Sleeve Gastrectomy: Correlation of Long-Term Results with Remnant Morphology and Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Tassinari, Daniele; Berta, Rossana D; Nannipieri, Monica; Giusti, Patrizia; Di Paolo, Luca; Guarino, Daniela; Anselmino, Marco

    2017-11-01

    Remnant dimension is considered one of the crucial elements determining the success of sleeve gastrectomy (SG), and dilation of the gastric fundus is often believed to be the main cause of failure. The main outcome of this study is to find correlations between remnant morphology in the immediate post-operative stage, its dilation in years, and the long-term results. The second purpose aims to correlate preoperative eating disorders, taste alteration, hunger perception, and early satiety with post-SG results. Remnant morphology was evaluated, in the immediate post-operative stage and over the years (≥2 years), through X-ray of the oesophagus-stomach-duodenum calculating the surface in anteroposterior (AP) and right anterior oblique projection (RAO). Presurgery diagnosis of eating disorders and their evaluation through "Eating Disorder Inventory-3" (EDI3) during follow-up were performed. Change in taste perception, sense of appetite, and early satiety were evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups: "failed SGs (EWL<50%) and "efficient SGs" (EWL >50%). There were a total of 50 patients (37 F, 13 M), with mean age 52 years, preoperative weight 131 ± 21.8 kg, and BMI 47.4 ± 6.8 kg/m 2 . Post-operative remnant mean dimensions overlapped between the two groups. On a long-term basis, an increase of 57.2 and 48.4% was documented in the AP and RAO areas respectively. In "failed" SGs, dilation was significantly superior to "efficient" SGs (AP area 70.2 vs 46.1%; RAO area 59.3 vs 39%; body width 102% vs 41.7%). Preoperative eating disorders were more present in efficient SGs than in failed SGs with the exception of sweet eating. There were no significant changes to taste perception during follow-up. Fifty-two percent of efficient SGs vs 26% of failed SGs reported a persistent lack of sense of hunger; similarly, 92.5 vs 78% declared the persistence of a sense of early satiety. The two groups did not statistically differ as far as all the variables of the EDI3

  20. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer in the remnant stomach after gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Satoru; Oda, Ichiro; Makazu, Makomo; Haruyama, Shin; Abe, Seiichiro; Suzuki, Haruhisa; Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Nakajima, Takeshi; Kushima, Ryoji; Saito, Yutaka

    2013-07-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early gastric cancer (EGC) after surgical gastrectomy is a technically difficult procedure because of the limited working space in the remnant stomach as well as the presence of severe gastric fibrosis and staples under the suture line. We evaluated clinical results including long-term outcomes to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of ESD for EGC in the remnant stomach of patients after gastrectomy. Retrospective study. National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. We investigated patients undergoing ESD for EGC in the remnant stomach from 1997 to 2011. We examined the patient characteristics, endoscopic findings, technical results, adverse events, and histopathologic results including curability and evaluations of Helicobacter pylori gastritis in addition to the rates of local recurrence, metachronous gastric cancer, overall survival, and cause-specific survival. A total of 128 consecutive patients with 139 lesions had previously undergone 87 distal (68%), 25 proximal (19.5%) and 16 pylorus-preserving gastrectomies (12.5%). The median period from the original gastrectomy to the subsequent ESD for EGC in the remnant stomach was 5.7 years (range 0.6-51 years), the median tumor size was 13 mm (range 1-60 mm), and the median procedure time was 60 minutes (range 15-310 minutes). There were 131 en bloc resections (94%), with curative resections achieved for 109 lesions (78%); 22 lesions (16%) resulted in non-curative resections, and 8 lesions (6%) had only a horizontal margin positive or had inconclusive results. A total of 118 patients (92%) were assessed as H pylori gastritis-positive, with 7 patients (5%) negative. Adverse events included 2 cases of delayed bleeding (1.4%) and 2 perforations (1.4%), with 1 patient requiring emergency surgery. The 5-year overall and cause-specific survival rates were 87.3% and 100%, respectively, during a median follow-up period of 4.5 years (range 0-13.7 years), with no deaths from

  1. Chylomicron remnants and nonesterified fatty acids differ in their ability to inhibit genes involved in lipogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Kohan, Alison B; Qing, Yang; Cyphert, Holly A; Tso, Patrick; Salati, Lisa M

    2011-02-01

    Primary hepatocytes treated with nonesterified PUFA have been used as a model for analyzing the inhibitory effects of dietary polyunsaturated fats on lipogenic gene expression. Although nonesterified fatty acids play an important signaling role in starvation, they do not completely recapitulate the mechanism of dietary fat presentation to the liver, which is delivered via chylomicron remnants. To test the effect of remnant TG on lipogenic enzyme expression, chylomicron remnants were generated from the lymph of rats intubated with either safflower oil or lard. The remnants were added to the medium of primary rat hepatocytes in culture and the accumulation of mRNA for genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism was measured. Both PUFA-enriched remnants and nonesterified PUFA inhibited the expression and maturation of sterol response element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and the expression of lipogenic genes regulated by this transcription factor. These remnants also inhibited the expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), a gene regulated at post-transcriptional steps. In contrast, PUFA-enriched remnants did not inhibit the accumulation of mRNA for malic enzyme, glucokinase, and L-pyruvate kinase, whereas nonesterified fatty acids caused a decrease in these mRNA. These genes are regulated independently of SREBP-1c. SFA-enriched remnants did not inhibit lipogenic gene expression, which is consistent with a lack of inhibition of lipogenesis by dietary saturated fats. Thus, the inhibitory action of dietary polyunsaturated fats on lipogenesis involves a direct action of chylomicron remnants on the liver.

  2. Putative Nanobacteria Represent Physiological Remnants and Culture By-Products of Normal Calcium Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Young, John D.; Young, Lena; Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Young, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Putative living entities called nanobacteria (NB) are unusual for their small sizes (50–500 nm), pleomorphic nature, and accumulation of hydroxyapatite (HAP), and have been implicated in numerous diseases involving extraskeletal calcification. By adding precipitating ions to cell culture medium containing serum, mineral nanoparticles are generated that are morphologically and chemically identical to the so-called NB. These nanoparticles are shown here to be formed of amorphous mineral complexes containing calcium as well as other ions like carbonate, which then rapidly acquire phosphate, forming HAP. The main constituent proteins of serum-derived NB are albumin, fetuin-A, and apolipoprotein A1, but their involvement appears circumstantial since so-called NB from different body fluids harbor other proteins. Accordingly, by passage through various culture media, the protein composition of these particles can be modulated. Immunoblotting experiments reveal that antibodies deemed specific for NB react in fact with either albumin, fetuin-A, or both, indicating that previous studies using these reagents may have detected these serum proteins from the same as well as different species, with human tissue nanoparticles presumably absorbing bovine serum antigens from the culture medium. Both fetal bovine serum and human serum, used earlier by other investigators as sources of NB, paradoxically inhibit the formation of these entities, and this inhibition is trypsin-sensitive, indicating a role for proteins in this inhibitory process. Fetuin-A, and to a lesser degree albumin, inhibit nanoparticle formation, an inhibition that is overcome with time, ending with formation of the so-called NB. Together, these data demonstrate that NB are most likely formed by calcium or apatite crystallization inhibitors that are somehow overwhelmed by excess calcium or calcium phosphate found in culture medium or in body fluids, thereby becoming seeds for calcification. The structures

  3. Ratios and effect size.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jasper

    2017-10-01

    Responding to a related pair of measurements is often expressed as a single discrimination ratio. Authors have used various discrimination ratios; yet, little information exists to guide their choice. A second use of ratios is to correct for the influence of a nuisance variable on the measurement of interest. I examine 4 discrimination ratios using simulated data sets. Three ratios, of the form a/(a + b), b/(a + b), and (a - b)/(a + b), introduced distortions to their raw data. The fourth ratio, (b - a)/b largely avoided such distortions and was the most sensitive at detecting statistical differences. Effect size statistics were also often improved with a correction ratio. Gustatory sensory preconditioning experiments involved measurement of rats' sucrose and saline consumption; these flavors served as either a target flavor or a control flavor and were counterbalanced across rats. However, sensory preconditioning was often masked by a bias for sucrose over saline. Sucrose and saline consumption scores were multiplied by the ratio of the overall consumption to the consumption of that flavor alone, which corrected the bias. The general utility of discrimination and correction ratios for data treatment is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Completing the evolution of supernova remnants and their bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, Jonathan D.; Cox, Donald P.

    1992-01-01

    The filling fraction of hot gas in the ISM is reexamined with new calculations of the very long term evolution of SNRs and their fossil hot bubbles. Results are presented of a 1D numerical solution of the evolution of an SNR in a homogeneous medium with a nonthermal pressure corresponding to a 5-micro-G magnetic field and density of 0.2/cu cm. Comparison is made with a control simulation having no magnetic field pressure. It is found that the evolutions, once they have become radiative, differ in several significant ways, while both differ appreciably from qualitative pictures presented in the past. Over most of the evolution of either case, the hot bubble in the interior occupies only a small fraction of the shocked volume, the remainder in a thick shell of slightly compressed material. Column densities and radial distributions of O VI, N V, C IV, and Si IV as well as examples of absorption profiles for their strong UV lines are presented.

  5. Discovery of recombining plasma from the faintest GeV supernova remnant HB 21 and a possible scenario for cosmic rays escaping from supernova remnant shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hiromasa; Bamba, Aya; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Furuta, Yoshihiro; Sawada, Makoto; Yamazaki, Ryo; Koyama, Katsuji

    2018-06-01

    We present an X-ray study of the GeV gamma-ray supernova remnant (SNR) HB 21 with Suzaku. HB 21 is interacting with molecular clouds, and is the faintest in the GeV band among known GeV SNRs. We discovered strong radiative recombination continua of Si and S from the center of the remnant, which provide direct evidence of a recombining plasma (RP). The total emission can be explained with the RP and ionizing plasma components. The electron temperature and recombination timescale of the RP component were estimated as 0.17 (0.15-0.18) keV and 3.2 (2.0-4.8) × 1011 s cm-3, respectively. The estimated age of the RP (˜170 kyr) is the longest among known recombining GeV SNRs, because of a very low density of electrons (˜0.05 cm-3). We have examined the dependencies of GeV spectral indices on each of RP ages and SNR diameters for nine recombining GeV SNRs. Both showed possible positive correlations, indicating that both the parameters can be good indicators of properties of accelerated protons, for instance the degree of escape from SNR shocks. A possible scenario for a process of proton escape is introduced: interaction with molecular clouds makes weaker magnetic turbulence and cosmic-ray protons escape, simultaneously cooling down the thermal electrons and generating an RP.

  6. Species diversity of remnant calcareous grasslands in south eastern Germany depends on litter cover and landscape structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Stephanie; Huber, Birgit; Stahl, Silvia; Schmid, Christoph; Reisch, Christoph

    2017-08-01

    Species diversity depends on, often interfering, multiple ecological drivers. Comprehensive approaches are hence needed to understand the mechanisms determining species diversity. In this study, we analysed the impact of vegetation structure, soil properties and fragmentation on the plant species diversity of remnant calcareous grasslands, therefore, in a comparative approach. We determined plant species diversity of 18 calcareous grasslands in south eastern Germany including all species and grassland specialists separately. Furthermore, we analysed the spatial structure of the grasslands as a result of fragmentation during the last 150 years (habitat area, distance to the nearest calcareous grassland and connectivity in 1830 and 2013). We also collected data concerning the vegetation structure (height of the vegetation, cover of bare soil, grass and litter) and the soil properties (content of phosphorous and potassium, ratio of carbon and nitrogen) of the grassland patches. Data were analysed using Bayesian multiple regressions. We observed a habitat loss of nearly 80% and increasing isolation between grasslands since 1830. In the Bayesian multiple regressions the species diversity of the studied grasslands depended negatively on cover of litter and to a lower degree on the distance to the nearest calcareous grassland in 2013, whereas soil properties had no significant impact. Our study supports the observation that vegetation structure, which strongly depends on land use, is often more important for the species richness of calcareous grasslands than fragmentation or soil properties. Even small and isolated grasslands may, therefore, contribute significantly to the conservation of species diversity, when they are still grazed.

  7. Compression Ratio Adjuster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akkerman, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    New mechanism alters compression ratio of internal-combustion engine according to load so that engine operates at top fuel efficiency. Ordinary gasoline, diesel and gas engines with their fixed compression ratios are inefficient at partial load and at low-speed full load. Mechanism ensures engines operate as efficiently under these conditions as they do at highload and high speed.

  8. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayne, C. K.; Smith, D. H.

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers.

  9. Age-Related Differences in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Remnant Vascular-Derived Cells.

    PubMed

    Uefuji, Atsuo; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Matsushita, Takehiko; Ueha, Takeshi; Zhang, Shurong; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Kuroda, Ryosuke

    2014-06-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) does not heal spontaneously after injury, and patients of different ages respond differently to treatment. CD34+ stem/progenitor cells derived from the ACL remnant and associated tissues contribute to tendon-bone healing, but the relationship between age and the ACL's healing potential has not been clarified. The ACL remnant and associated tissues from adolescent patients have more CD34+ cells, and this population of cells from younger patients exhibits a higher potential for proliferation and differentiation in vitro. Descriptive laboratory study. Ruptured ACL remnants and associated tissues were harvested from 28 patients (mean age, 24.6 ± 1.6 years) who had undergone primary arthroscopic ACL reconstruction. Patients were divided into 3 patient groups by age: 10-19 years (teens group; n = 10), 20-29 years (20s group; n = 10), and ≥30 years (30s group; n = 8). The ACL remnant cells were characterized using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Expansion potential was evaluated using population doubling (PD), and multilineage differentiation potential was assessed and compared. The FACS analysis showed numerous CD34+ cells in the teens group compared with the 30s group (mean, 25.4% ± 7.9% vs 16.9% ± 3.9%, respectively; P = .044). The PD results indicated that the teens group had a significantly higher expansion potential than the 30s group at passage 3 (mean, 3.3 ± 0.2 vs 2.8 ± 0.2, respectively; P = .039). Young ACL remnant cells had a higher potential for osteogenic differentiation according to alkaline phosphatase activity (teens group, 169.5 ± 37.9 × 10 ng/mL vs 30s group, 64.9 ± 14.6 × 10 ng/mL; P = .029) and osteocalcin gene expression (teens group, 1.0 ± 0.25 vs 30s group, 0.39 ± 0.01; P = .01). In addition, the teens group displayed a higher differentiation potential to angiogenic lineages (acetylated low-density lipoprotein/Ulex europaeus lectin-stained cell counts) than other groups (teens group, 15

  10. Evolution and Spectrum of the Radio Emission of Tycho's Supernova Remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinyaikin, E. N.

    2018-02-01

    The radio spectrum of Tycho's Supernova Remnant is constructed at frequencies 12.6-143 000 MHz for epoch 2010.3, taking into account the secular decrease in the radio flux density of the remnant at the rate d = -(0.46 ± 0.03)%/year: S_ν ^{3C10} (t = 2010.3) = (43.1 ± 1.8 Jy)(ν [GHz])^{ - (0.592 ± 0.019) + (0.041 ± 0.012)log (ν [GHz])} . The spectrum has positive curvature. The presence of a low-frequency turnover in the spectrum of the radio source 3C10 with its maximum at 7.7 MHz is predicted, due to absorption in the interstellar medium in the direction toward the source.

  11. High resolution observations of Cassiopeia A at meter wavelengths. [pulsar source in supernova remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutton, L. K.; Clark, T. A.; Erickson, W. C.; Resch, G. M.; Vandenberg, N. R.; Knowles, S. H.; Youmans, A. B.

    1974-01-01

    Very long baseline interferometric (VLBI) observations of the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A, at 74 MHz with a 12,000-wavelength baseline and at 111 MHz with a 18,500-wavelength baseline, are reported. The fringe amplitudes are strongly varying on a time scale of about 15 to 30 minutes. The location of the extra source must lie outside the supernova remnant shell possibly associated with a concentration of emission north of the shell, or lying outside the gap in the northeastern side of the shell. The flux and spectral index deduced for the compact source depend on the assumed size, with a range of 100 Jy to 500 Jy at 74 MHz. If the source is associated with the supernova explosion, it must have been traveling at least 5000 km s/2.

  12. The Peculiar, Asymmetric Core-Collapse Supernova Remnant G350.1-0.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Stephen

    2017-09-01

    We propose a 200 ks observation of one of the most peculiar supernova remnants known: G350.1-0.3. This mysterious object resembles no other known SNR in radio or X-rays, It contains a compact central object (CCO) which may or may not be related. Previous spectral analyses are contradictory, but there appears to be strong iron emission and an extreme overabundance of nickel. Age estimates suggest it could be as young as 600 years old. Our proposed observation should be able to measure expansion since 2009, confirming or refuting the age estimate, and will allow spectroscopy on small scales to confirm enhanced abundances and search for shocked ambient material and nonthermal emission. If the CCO originated at the remnant center, its motion will also be detected.

  13. Onion-shell model of cosmic ray acceleration in supernova remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdan, T. J.; Volk, H. J.

    1983-01-01

    A method is devised to approximate the spatially averaged momentum distribution function for the accelerated particles at the end of the active lifetime of a supernova remnant. The analysis is confined to the test particle approximation and adiabatic losses are oversimplified, but unsteady shock motion, evolving shock strength, and non-uniform gas flow effects on the accelerated particle spectrum are included. Monoenergetic protons are injected at the shock front. It is found that the dominant effect on the resultant accelerated particle spectrum is a changing spectral index with shock strength. High energy particles are produced in early phases, and the resultant distribution function is a slowly varying power law over several orders of magnitude, independent of the specific details of the supernova remnant.

  14. Investigating the galactic Supernova Remnant Kes 78 with XMM-Newton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miceli, M.; Bamba, A.; Orlando, S.; Bocchino, F.

    2016-06-01

    The galactic supernova remnant Kes 78 is associated with a HESS gamma-ray source and its X-ray emission has been recently revealed by Suzaku observations which have found indications for a hard X-ray component in the spectra. We analyzed an XMM-Newton EPIC observation of Kes 78 and studied the spatial distribution of the physical and chemical properties of the X-ray emitting plasma. The EPIC data unveiled a very complex morphology for the soft X-ray emission. We performed image analysis and spatially resolved spectral analysis finding indications for the interaction of the remnant with a local molecular cloud. Finally, we investigated the origin of the hard X-ray emitting component.

  15. Supernova remnant evolution in wind bubbles: A closer look at Kes 27

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwarkadas, V. V.; Dewey, D.

    2013-03-01

    Massive Stars (>8M⊙) lose mass in the form of strong winds. These winds accumulate around the star, forming wind-blown bubbles. When the star explodes as a supernova (SN), the resulting shock wave expands within this wind-blown bubble, rather than the interstellar medium. The properties of the resulting remnant, its dynamics and kinematics, the morphology, and the resulting evolution, are shaped by the structure and properties of the wind-blown bubble. In this article we focus on Kes 27, a supernova remnant (SNR) that has been proposed by [1] to be evolving in a wind-blown bubble, explore its properties, and investigate whether the X-Ray properties could be ascribed to evolution of a SNR in a wind-blown bubble. Our initial model does not support the scenario proposed by [1], due to the fact that the reflected shock is expanding into much lower densities.

  16. Investigating the Galactic supernova remnant Kes 78 with XMM-Newton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miceli, Marco; Bamba, Aya; Orlando, Salvatore; Bocchino, Fabrizio

    2016-06-01

    The galactic supernova remnant Kes 78 is associated with a HESS gamma-ray source and its X-ray emission has been recently revealed by Suzaku observations which have found indications for a hard X-ray component in the spectra. We analyzed an XMM-Newton EPIC observation of Kes 78 and studied the spatial distribution of the physical and chemical properties of the X-ray emitting plasma. The EPIC data unveiled a very complex morphology for the soft X-ray emission. We performed image analysis and spatially resolved spectral analysis finding indications for the interaction of the remnant with a local molecular cloud. Finally, we investigated the origin of the hard X-ray emitting component.

  17. Recombining plasma in the remnant of a core-collapsed supernova, Kes 17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washino, Ryosaku; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Tanaka, Takaaki; Kawabata Nobukawa, Kumiko; Koyama, Katsuji

    2016-06-01

    We report on Suzaku results concerning Kes 17, a Galactic mixed-morphology supernova remnant. The X-ray spectrum of the whole Kes 17 is well explained by a pure thermal plasma, in which we found Lyα of Al XIII and Heα of Al XII, Ar XVII, and Ca XIX lines for the first time. The abundance pattern and the plasma mass suggest that Kes 17 is a remnant of a core-collapsed supernova of a 25-30 M⊙ progenitor star. The X-ray spectrum of the north region is expressed by a recombining plasma. The origin would be due to the cooling of electrons by thermal conduction to molecular clouds located near the north region.

  18. High Energy Observational Investigations of Supernova Remnants and their Interactions with Surroundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Chung-Yue

    2013-09-01

    Here we review the effort of Fermi Asian Network (FAN) in exploring the supernova remnants (SNRs) with state-of-art high energy observatories, including Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and Chandra X-ray Observatory, in the period of 2011- 2012. Utilizing the data from Fermi LAT, we have discovered the GeV emission at the position of the Galactic SNR Kes 17 which provides evidence for the hadronic acceleration. Our study also sheds light on the propagation of cosmic rays from their acceleration site to the intersteller medium. We have also launched an identification campaign of SNR candidates in the Milky Way, in which a new SNR G308.3-1.4 have been uncovered with our Chandra observation. Apart from the remnant, we have also discovered an associated compact object at its center. The multiwavelength properties of this X-ray source suggest it can possibly be the compact binary that survived a supernova explosion.

  19. Fermi Large Area Telescope Detection Of The Young Supernova Remnant Tycho

    DOE PAGES

    Giordano, F.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Ballet, J.; ...

    2011-12-07

    After almost three years of data taking in sky survey mode, the Fermi -LAT has detected γ-ray emission toward the Tycho’s Supernova Remnant (SNR). The Tycho SNR is among the youngest remnants in the Galaxy, originating from a Type Ia Supernova in AD 1572. The γ-ray integral flux from 400 MeV up to 100 GeV has been measured to be (3.5±1.1stat±0.7syst)×10 -9 cm -2s -1 with a photon index of 2.3±0.2stat±0.1syst. A simple model consistent with TeV, X-ray and radio data is sufficient to explain the observed emission as originating from π 0-decays as a result of cosmicray acceleration andmore » interaction with the ambient medium.« less

  20. Former food products safety: microbiological quality and computer vision evaluation of packaging remnants contamination.

    PubMed

    Tretola, M; Di Rosa, A R; Tirloni, E; Ottoboni, M; Giromini, C; Leone, F; Bernardi, C E M; Dell'Orto, V; Chiofalo, V; Pinotti, L

    2017-08-01

    The use of alternative feed ingredients in farm animal's diets can be an interesting choice from several standpoints, including safety. In this respect, this study investigated the safety features of selected former food products (FFPs) intended for animal nutrition produced in the framework of the IZS PLV 06/14 RC project by an FFP processing plant. Six FFP samples, both mash and pelleted, were analysed for the enumeration of total viable count (TVC) (ISO 4833), Enterobacteriaceae (ISO 21528-1), Escherichia coli (ISO 16649-1), coagulase-positive Staphylococci (CPS) (ISO 6888), presumptive Bacillus cereus and its spores (ISO 7932), sulphite-reducing Clostridia (ISO 7937), yeasts and moulds (ISO 21527-1), and the presence in 25 g of Salmonella spp. (ISO 6579). On the same samples, the presence of undesired ingredients, which can be identified as remnants of packaging materials, was evaluated by two different methods: stereomicroscopy according to published methods; and stereomicroscopy coupled with a computer vision system (IRIS Visual Analyzer VA400). All FFPs analysed were safe from a microbiological point of view. TVC was limited and Salmonella was always absent. When remnants of packaging materials were considered, the contamination level was below 0.08% (w/w). Of note, packaging remnants were found mainly from the 1-mm sieve mesh fractions. Finally, the innovative computer vision system demonstrated the possibility of rapid detection for the presence of packaging remnants in FFPs when combined with a stereomicroscope. In conclusion, the FFPs analysed in the present study can be considered safe, even though some improvements in FFP processing in the feeding plant can be useful in further reducing their microbial loads and impurity.

  1. Bats in a Farming Landscape Benefit from Linear Remnants and Unimproved Pastures

    PubMed Central

    Lentini, Pia E.; Gibbons, Philip; Fischer, Joern; Law, Brad; Hanspach, Jan; Martin, Tara G.

    2012-01-01

    Schemes designed to make farming landscapes less hostile to wildlife have been questioned because target taxa do not always respond in the expected manner. Microbats are often overlooked in this process, yet persist in agricultural landscapes and exert top-down control of crop pests. We investigated the relationship between microbats and measures commonly incorporated into agri-environment schemes, to derive management recommendations for their ongoing conservation. We used acoustic detectors to quantify bat species richness, activity, and feeding in 32 linear remnants and adjacent fields across an agricultural region of New South Wales, Australia. Nocturnal arthropods were simultaneously trapped using black-light traps. We recorded 91,969 bat calls, 17,277 of which could be attributed to one of the 13 taxa recorded, and 491 calls contained feeding buzzes. The linear remnants supported higher bat activity than the fields, but species richness and feeding activity did not significantly differ. We trapped a mean 87.6 g (±17.6 g SE) of arthropods per night, but found no differences in biomass between land uses. Wider linear remnants with intact native vegetation supported more bat species, as did those adjacent to unsealed, as opposed to sealed roads. Fields of unimproved native pastures, with more retained scattered trees and associated hollows and logs, supported the greatest bat species richness and activity. We conclude that the juxtaposition of linear remnants of intact vegetation and scattered trees in fields, coupled with less-intensive land uses such as unimproved pastures will benefit bat communities in agricultural landscapes, and should be incorporated into agri-environment schemes. In contrast, sealed roads may act as a deterrent. The “wildlife friendly farming” vs “land sparing” debate has so far primarily focussed on birds, but here we have found evidence that the integration of both approaches could particularly benefit bats. PMID:23155378

  2. An explanation of the formation of the peculiar periphery of Tycho's supernova remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jun; Yu, Huan; Zhang, Li

    2018-02-01

    Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR) has a periphery that clearly deviates from a spherical shape, based on X-ray and radio observations. The forward shock from the south-east to the north of the remnant has a deformed outline with a depression in the east, although in the west it is generally round and smooth. Moreover, at some locations in the shell, the supernova ejecta is located close to the forward shock, resulting in protrusions. Using 3D hydrodynamical simulations, we studied the dynamical evolution of the supernova ejecta in an inhomogeneous medium and the formation process of the profile of the forward shock. In order to reproduce the peculiar periphery of the remnant, we propose a model in which the supernova ejecta has evolved in a cavity blown by a latitude-dependent outflow. The results indicate that the depression to the east and the protrusion to the south-east on the observed periphery of the remnant can be generally reproduced if we assume a wind bubble driven by an anisotropic wind with a mass-loss rate of ˜10-7 M⊙ yr-1, a pole velocity of ˜100 km s-1, a duration of ˜105 yr prior to the supernova explosion, and a spatial velocity of ˜30 km s-1 of the progenitor with respect to the circumstellar medium. In conclusion, an explanation of the peculiar shape of the periphery of Tycho's SNR is that the supernova ejecta evolved in the cavity driven by a latitude-dependent wind.

  3. Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of the supernova remnant HESS J1731-347

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rui-zhi; Zhang, Xiao; Yuan, Qiang; Liu, Siming

    2014-07-01

    Context. HESS J1731-347 has been identified as one of the few TeV-bright shell-type supernova remnants (SNRs). These remnants are dominated by nonthermal emission, and the nature of TeV emission has been continuously debated for nearly a decade. Aims: We carry out the detailed modeling of the radio to γ-ray spectrum of HESS J1731-347 to constrain the magnetic field and energetic particles sources, which we compare with those of the other TeV-bright shell-type SNRs explored before. Methods: Four years of data from Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations for regions around this remnant are analyzed, leading to no detection correlated with the source discovered in the TeV band. The Markov chain Monte Carlo method is used to constrain parameters of one-zone models for the overall emission spectrum. Results: Based on the 99.9% upper limits of fluxes in the GeV range, one-zone hadronic models with an energetic proton spectral slope greater than 1.8 can be ruled out, which favors a leptonic origin for the γ-ray emission, making this remnant a sibling of the brightest TeV SNR RX J1713.7-3946, the Vela Junior SNR RX J0852.0-4622, and RCW 86. The best-fit leptonic model has an electron spectral slope of 1.8 and a magnetic field of ~30 μG, which is at least a factor of 2 higher than those of RX J1713.7-3946 and RX J0852.0-4622, posing a challenge to the distance estimate and/or the energy equipartition between energetic electrons and the magnetic field of this source. A measurement of the shock speed will address this challenge and has implications on the magnetic field evolution and electron acceleration driven by shocks of SNRs.

  4. Cutaneous remnants of the vitellointestinal duct: a clinico-pathological study of 19 cases

    PubMed Central

    Heatley, M K; Mirakhur, M

    1988-01-01

    The presence of cutaneous vitellointestinal duct remnants was confirmed histologically in 19 cases in the period 1970-1984. These lesions occurred mostly in males (16 males, 3 females), and 80% in children under the age of five years. One case was identified in an adult, suggesting that these lesions may in some cases cause little inconvenience, and that their true incidence is underestimated. PMID:3266043

  5. Exploring the Diffuse X-ray Emission of Supernova Remnant Kesteven 69 with XMM-Newton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Kyoung-Ae; Hui, Chung Yue

    2013-06-01

    We have investigated the X-ray emission from the shock-heated plasma of the Galactic supernova remnant Kesteven 69 with XMM-Newton. Assuming the plasma is at collisional ionization equilibrium, a plasma temperature and a column absorption are found to be kT ~ 0.62 keV and NH ~ 2.85 ×10^22 cm-2 respectively by imaging spectroscopy. Together with the deduced emission measure, we place constraints on its Sedov parameters.

  6. Multi-dimensional simulations of the expanding supernova remnant of SN 1987A

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, T. M.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Reville, B.

    The expanding remnant from SN 1987A is an excellent laboratory for investigating the physics of supernovae explosions. There is still a large number of outstanding questions, such as the reason for the asymmetric radio morphology, the structure of the pre-supernova environment, and the efficiency of particle acceleration at the supernova shock. We explore these questions using three-dimensional simulations of the expanding remnant between days 820 and 10,000 after the supernova. We combine a hydrodynamical simulation with semi-analytic treatments of diffusive shock acceleration and magnetic field amplification to derive radio emission as part of an inverse problem. Simulations show that anmore » asymmetric explosion, combined with magnetic field amplification at the expanding shock, is able to replicate the persistent one-sided radio morphology of the remnant. We use an asymmetric Truelove and McKee progenitor with an envelope mass of 10 M {sub ☉} and an energy of 1.5 × 10{sup 44} J. A termination shock in the progenitor's stellar wind at a distance of 0.''43-0.''51 provides a good fit to the turn on of radio emission around day 1200. For the H II region, a minimum distance of 0.''63 ± 0.''01 and maximum particle number density of (7.11 ± 1.78) × 10{sup 7} m{sup –3} produces a good fit to the evolving average radius and velocity of the expanding shocks from day 2000 to day 7000 after explosion. The model predicts a noticeable reduction, and possibly a temporary reversal, in the asymmetric radio morphology of the remnant after day 7000, when the forward shock left the eastern lobe of the equatorial ring.« less

  7. Unveiling the spatial structure of the overionized plasma in the supernova remnant W49B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xin; Miceli, Marco; Bocchino, Fabrizio; Orlando, Salvatore; Chen, Yang

    2011-07-01

    W49B is a mixed-morphology supernova remnant with thermal X-ray emission dominated by the ejecta. In this remnant, the presence of overionized plasma has been directly established, with information about its spatial structure. However, the physical origin of the overionized plasma in W49B has not yet been understood. We investigate this intriguing issue through a 2D hydrodynamic model that takes into account, for the first time, the mixing of ejecta with the inhomogeneous circumstellar and interstellar medium, the thermal conduction, the radiative losses from optically thin plasma and the deviations from equilibrium of ionization induced by plasma dynamics. The model was set up on the basis of the observational results. We found that the thermal conduction plays an important role in the evolution of W49B, inducing the evaporation of the circumstellar ring-like cloud (whose presence has been deduced from previous observations) that mingles with the surrounding hot medium, cooling down the shocked plasma, and pushes the ejecta backwards to the centre of the remnant, forming there a jet-like structure. During the evolution, a large region of overionized plasma forms within the remnant. The overionized plasma originates from the rapid cooling of the hot plasma originally heated by the shock reflected from the dense ring-like cloud. In particular, we found two different ways for the rapid cooling of plasma to appear: (i) the mixing of relatively cold and dense material evaporated from the ring with the hot shocked plasma and (ii) the rapid adiabatic expansion of the ejecta. The spatial distribution of the radiative recombination continuum predicted by the numerical model is in good agreement with that observed.

  8. EVIDENCE FOR PARTICLE ACCELERATION TO THE KNEE OF THE COSMIC RAY SPECTRUM IN TYCHO'S SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksen, Kristoffer A.; Hughes, John P.; Badenes, Carles

    2011-02-20

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) have long been assumed to be the source of cosmic rays (CRs) up to the 'knee' of the CR spectrum at 10{sup 15} eV, accelerating particles to relativistic energies in their blast waves by the process of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA). Since CR nuclei do not radiate efficiently, their presence must be inferred indirectly. Previous theoretical calculations and X-ray observations show that CR acceleration significantly modifies the structure of the SNR and greatly amplifies the interstellar magnetic field. We present new, deep X-ray observations of the remnant of Tycho's supernova (SN 1572, henceforth Tycho), which reveal amore » previously unknown, strikingly ordered pattern of non-thermal high-emissivity stripes in the projected interior of the remnant, with spacing that corresponds to the gyroradii of 10{sup 14}-10{sup 15} eV protons. Spectroscopy of the stripes shows the plasma to be highly turbulent on the (smaller) scale of the Larmor radii of TeV energy electrons. Models of the shock amplification of magnetic fields produce structure on the scale of the gyroradius of the highest energy CRs present, but they do not predict the highly ordered pattern we observe. We interpret the stripes as evidence for acceleration of particles to near the knee of the CR spectrum in regions of enhanced magnetic turbulence, while the observed highly ordered pattern of these features provides a new challenge to models of DSA.« less

  9. The supernova - supernova remnant connection through multi-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, S.; Miceli, M.; Petruk, O.; Ono, M.

    2017-10-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) are diffuse extended sources often characterized by a rather complex morphology and a highly non-uniform distribution of ejecta. General consensus is that such a morphology reflects, on one hand, pristine structures and features of the progenitor supernova (SN) explosion and, on the other hand, the early interaction of the SN blast wave with the inhomogeneous circumstellar medium (CSM) formed in the latest stages of the progenitor star's evolution. Deciphering X-ray observations of SNRs, therefore, might open the possibility to reconstruct the ejecta structure as it was soon after the SN explosion and the structure and geometry of the medium immediately surrounding the progenitor star. This requires accurate and detailed models which describe the evolution from the on-set of the SN to the full remnant development and which connect the X-ray emission properties of the remnants to the progenitor SNe. Here we show how multi-dimensional SN-SNR magnetohydrodynamic models have been very effective in deciphering X-ray observations of SNR Cassiopeia A and SN 1987A. This has allowed us to unveil the average structure of ejecta in the immediate aftermath of the SN explosion and to constrain the 3D pre-supernova structure and geometry of the environment surrounding the progenitor SN.

  10. An ASCA Study of the Composite Supernova Remnant G18.95-1.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrus, Ilana

    2000-01-01

    This is the final report on the work done on Supernova Remnant (SNR) G18-95-1.1. The data were taken on April, 2. 1998 and delivered a couple of months later to the Principal Investigator (PI: Dr. Ilana Harrus). We received a CD-ROM containing the results of the standard processing pipeline and all the files needed for the analysis. We have analyzed the data and presented a poster on this object at the 194th American Astronomical Society Meeting in Chicago (June 1999). A copy of the poster is appended to this report. The poster presentation triggered several discussions and we are summarizing the analysis results and those discussions in a paper to be submitted soon to the Astrophysical Journal. We have appended the draft of the paper to this report. It must be noted that the paper is still in its early stages. In particular more work is needed in the physical implications of the results of the spectral analysis and in the comparison with theoretical models to understand the curious morphology of the remnant. The project should be completed within the next two months. Attachment: "ASCA study of the centrally-peaked thermal supernova remnant: G18.95-1.1".

  11. A progenitor binary and an ejected mass donor remnant of faint type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geier, S.; Marsh, T. R.; Wang, B.; Dunlap, B.; Barlow, B. N.; Schaffenroth, V.; Chen, X.; Irrgang, A.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Ziegerer, E.; Kupfer, T.; Miszalski, B.; Heber, U.; Han, Z.; Shporer, A.; Telting, J. H.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Østensen, R. H.; O'Toole, S. J.; Napiwotzki, R.

    2013-06-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) are the most important standard candles for measuring the expansion history of the universe. The thermonuclear explosion of a white dwarf can explain their observed properties, but neither the progenitor systems nor any stellar remnants have been conclusively identified. Underluminous SN Ia have been proposed to originate from a so-called double-detonation of a white dwarf. After a critical amount of helium is deposited on the surface through accretion from a close companion, the helium is ignited causing a detonation wave that triggers the explosion of the white dwarf itself. We have discovered both shallow transits and eclipses in the tight binary system CD-30°11223 composed of a carbon/oxygen white dwarf and a hot helium star, allowing us to determine its component masses and fundamental parameters. In the future the system will transfer mass from the helium star to the white dwarf. Modelling this process we find that the detonation in the accreted helium layer is sufficiently strong to trigger the explosion of the core. The helium star will then be ejected at such high velocity that it will escape the Galaxy. The predicted properties of this remnant are an excellent match to the so-called hypervelocity star US 708, a hot, helium-rich star moving at more than 750 km s-1, sufficient for it to leave the Galaxy. The identification of both progenitor and remnant provides a consistent picture of the formation and evolution of underluminous SNIa.

  12. Structure of stable binary neutron star merger remnants: Role of initial spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastaun, W.; Ciolfi, R.; Endrizzi, A.; Giacomazzo, B.

    2017-08-01

    We present general relativistic numerical simulations of binary neutron star (BNS) mergers with different initial spin configurations. We focus on models with stars of mass 1.4 M⊙ each, which employ the equation of state (EOS) by Shen, Horowitz, and Teige, and which result in stable NSs as merger remnants. For comparison, we consider two irrotational equal mass (M =1.35 M⊙) and unequal mass (M =1.29 , 1.42 M⊙ ) BNS models using the APR4 EOS, which result in a supramassive merger remnant. We present visualizations of the fluid flow and temperature distribution and find a strong impact of the spin on vortex structure and nonaxisymmetric deformation. We compute the radial mass distribution and the rotation profile in the equatorial plane using recently developed measures independent of spatial gauge, revealing slowly rotating cores that can be well approximated by the cores of spherical stars. We also study the influence of the spin on the inspiral phase and the gravitational wave (GW) signal. Using a newly developed analysis method, we further show that gravitational waveforms from BNS mergers can exhibit one or more phase jumps after merger, which occur together with minima of the strain amplitude. We provide a natural explanation in terms of the remnant's quadrupole moment, and show that cancellation effects due to phase jumps can have a strong impact on the GW power spectrum. Finally, we discuss the impact of the spin on the amount of ejected matter.

  13. Kepler's Supernova Remnant: A View from Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    Each top panel in the composite above shows the entire remnant. Each color in the composite represents a different region of the electromagnetic spectrum, from X-rays to infrared light. The X-ray and infrared data cannot be seen with the human eye. Astronomers have color-coded those data so they can be seen in these images.

    The bottom panels are close-up views of the remnant. In the bottom, center image, Hubble sees fine details in the brightest, densest areas of gas. The region seen in these images is outlined in the top, center panel.

    The images indicate that the bubble of gas that makes up the supernova remnant appears different in various types of light. Chandra reveals the hottest gas [colored blue and colored green], which radiates in X-rays. The blue color represents the higher-energy gas; the green, the lower-energy gas. Hubble shows the brightest, densest gas [colored yellow], which appears in visible light. Spitzer unveils heated dust [colored red], which radiates in infrared light.

  14. Premium campground with lake view - pingo remnants as preferred Mesolithic settlement sites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüser, Andreas; Enters, Dirk; Wolters, Steffen

    2016-04-01

    Pingo remnants are typical but not always easily visible landscape features in northwestern Germany and the Netherlands. Some of them are still small lakes but present-day land-use mostly disguises the existence of formerly water-filled depressions. In addition the circular wall structures have often been leveled by agricultural activities in modern times. However, according to estimates several hundreds pingo remnants bearing witness to Weichselian periglacial conditions can still be found in East Frisia and in the area between the rivers Elbe and Weser. Preliminary paleoecological investigations have shown that the majority of them were water-filled until Neolithic times making them a potential campground of preference for the Mesolithic population. In addition to wind shelter behind wall structures or dunes, Mesolithic hunter-gatherer communities could have used here both aquatic and terrestrial food resources. We investigated three of these pingo remnants in northwestern Germany using a multi-proxy approach combining an iterative archaeological site analysis with sediment core studies including geochemical and biological proxies. Our results show that Mesolithic artifacts are often concentrated close to open water bodies. The sediment cores obtained cover the time span from the late Palaeolithic to modern times. Excellent preservation conditions and a moderate sedimentation rate during the Mesolithic enables environmental change to be reconstructed.

  15. Explaining the morphology of supernova remnant (SNR) 1987A with the jittering jets explosion mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bear, Ealeal; Soker, Noam

    2018-07-01

    We find that the remnant of supernova (SN) 1987A shares some morphological features with four supernova remnants (SNRs) that have signatures of shaping by jets, and from that we strengthen the claim that jets played a crucial role in the explosion of SN 1987A. Some of the morphological features appear also in planetary nebulae (PNe) where jets are observed. The clumpy ejecta brings us to support the claim that the jittering jets explosion mechanism can account for the structure of the remnant of SN 1987A, i.e. SNR 1987A. We conduct a preliminary attempt to quantify the fluctuations in the angular momentum of the mass that is accreted on to the newly born neutron star via an accretion disc or belt. The accretion disc/belt launches jets that explode core collapse supernovae (CCSNe). The relaxation time of the accretion disc/belt is comparable to the duration of a typicalfigu jet-launching episode in the jittering jets explosion mechanism, and hence the disc/belt has no time to relax. We suggest that this might explain the two unequal opposite jets that later lead to the unequal sides of the elongated structures in some SNRs of CCSNe. We reiterate our earlier call for a paradigm shift from a neutrino-driven explosion to a jet-driven explosion of CCSNe.

  16. X-ray studies of supernova remnants: A different view of supernova explosions

    PubMed Central

    Badenes, Carles

    2010-01-01

    The unprecedented spatial and spectral resolutions of Chandra have revolutionized our view of the X-ray emission from supernova remnants. The excellent datasets accumulated on young, ejecta-dominated objects like Cas A or Tycho present a unique opportunity to study at the same time the chemical and physical structure of the explosion debris and the characteristics of the circumstellar medium sculpted by the progenitor before the explosion. Supernova remnants can thus put strong constraints on fundamental aspects of both supernova explosion physics and stellar evolution scenarios for supernova progenitors. This view of the supernova phenomenon is completely independent of, and complementary to, the study of distant extragalactic supernovae at optical wavelengths. The calibration of these two techniques has recently become possible thanks to the detection and spectroscopic follow-up of supernova light echoes. In this paper, I review the most relevant results on supernova remnants obtained during the first decade of Chandra and the impact that these results have had on open issues in supernova research. PMID:20404206

  17. A broadband study of the emission from the composite supernova remnant MSH 11-62

    DOE PAGES

    Slane, Patrick; Hughes, John P.; Temim, Tea; ...

    2012-03-30

    MSH 11-62 (G291.0-0.1) is a composite supernova remnant for which radio and X-ray observations have identified the remnant shell as well as its central pulsar wind nebula. Our observations suggest a relatively young system expanding into a low-density region. We present a study of MSH 11-62 using observations with the Chandra, XMM -Newton, and Fermi observatories, along with radio observations from the Australia Telescope Compact Array. We also identify a compact X-ray source that appears to be the putative pulsar that powers the nebula, and show that the X-ray spectrum of the nebula bears the signature of synchrotron losses asmore » particles diffuse into the outer nebula. Using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope, we identify γ-ray emission originating from MSH 11-62. Furthermore, with density constraints from the new X-ray measurements of the remnant, we model the evolution of the composite system in order to constrain the properties of the underlying pulsar and the origin of the γ-ray emission.« less

  18. Fermi-Lat and WMAP Observations of the Puppis a Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewitt, John William; Grondin, M. H.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Reposeur, T.; Ballet, J.; Tanaka, T.

    2012-01-01

    We report the detection of GeV gamma-ray emission from the supernova remnant Puppis A with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Puppis A is among the faintest supernova remnants yet detected at GeV energies, with a luminosity of only 2.7×10(exp 34) (D/2.2 kpc)(exp 2) erg s(exp -1) between 1 and 100 GeV. The gamma-ray emission from the remnant is spatially extended, with a morphology matching that of the radio and X-ray emission, and is well described by a simple power law with an index of 2.1. We attempt to model the broadband spectral energy distribution, from radio to gamma-rays, using standard nonthermal emission mechanisms. To constrain the relativistic electron population we use 7 years of WMAP data to extend the radio spectrum up to 93 GHz. Both leptonic and hadronic dominated models can reproduce the nonthermal spectral energy distribution, requiring a total content of cosmic ray (CR) electrons and protons accelerated in Puppis A of at least WCR is approx. (1 - 5)×10 (exp 49) erg.

  19. A deep optical imaging study of the nebular remnants of classical novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavin, A. J.; O'Brien, T. J.; Dunlop, J. S.

    1995-09-01

    An optical imaging study of old nova remnants has revealed previously unobserved features in the shells of 13 classical novae - DQ Her, FH Ser, HR Del, GK Per, V1500 Cyg, T Aur, V533 Her, NQ Vul, V476 Cyg, DK Lac, LV Vul, RW UMi and V450 Cyg. These data indicate a possible correlation between nova speed class and the ellipticity of the resulting remnants - those of faster novae tend to comprise randomly distributed clumps of ejecta superposed on spherically symmetric diffuse material, whilst slower novae produce more structured ellipsoidal remnants with at least one and sometimes several rings of enhanced emission. By measuring the extent of the resolved shells and combining this information with previously published ejection speeds, we use expansion parallax to estimate distances for the 13 novae. Whilst we are able to deduce new information about every nova, it is notable that these observations include the first detections of shells around the old novae V450 Cyg and NQ Vul, and that velocity-resolved images of FH Ser and DQ Her have enabled us to estimate their orbital inclinations. Our observations of DQ Her also show that the main ellipsoidal shell is constricted by three rings and surrounded by a faint halo; this halo contains long tails extending outwards from bright knots, perhaps indicating that during or after outburst a fast inner wind has broken through the fractured principal shell.

  20. High Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy and Imaging of Supernova Remnant N132D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Ehud; Rasmussen, Andrew; Griffiths, R. Gareth; Dennerl, Konrad; Audard, Marc; Aschenbach, Bernd

    2000-01-01

    The observation of the supernova remnant N132D by the scientific instruments on board the XMM-Newton satellite is presented. The X-rays from N132D are dispersed into a detailed line-rich spectrum using the Reflection Grating Spectrometers. Spectral lines of C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe are identified. Images of the remnant, in narrow wavelength bands, produced by the European Photon Imaging Cameras reveal a complex spatial structure of the ionic distribution. While K - shell Fe seems to originate near the centre, all of the other ions are observed along the shell. An emission excess of O(6+) over O(7+) is detected on the northeastern edge of the remnant. This can be a sign of hot ionising conditions, or it can reflect a relatively cool region. Spectral fitting of the CCD spectrum suggests high temperatures in this region, but a detailed analysis of the atomic processes involved in producing the O(6+) spectral lines leads to the conclusion that the intensities of these lines alone cannot provide a conclusive distinction between the two scenarios.

  1. A Broadband Study of the Emission from the Composite Supernova Remnant MSH 11-62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slane, Patrick; Hughes, John P.; Temim, Tea; Rousseau, Romain; Castro, Daniel; Foight, Dillon; Gaensler, B. M.; Funk, Stefan; Lemoine-Goumard, Marianne; Gelfand, Joseph D.; hide

    2012-01-01

    MSH 11-62 (G29U)-Q.1) is a composite supernova remnant for which radio and X-ray observations have identified the remnant shell as well as its central pulsar wind nebula. The observations suggest a relatively young system expanding into a low-density region. Here, we present a study of MSH ll-62 using observations with the Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Fermi observatories, along with radio observations from the Australia Telescope Compact Array. We identify a compact X-ray source that appears to be the putative pulsar that powers the nebula, and show that the X-ray spectrum of the nebula bears the signature of synchrotron losses as particles diffuse into the outer nebula. Using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope, we identify gamma-ray emission originating from MSH 11-62. With density constraints from the new X-ray measurements of the remnant, we model the evolution of the composite system in order to constrain the properties of the underlying pulsar and the origin of the gamma-ray emission.

  2. A population of isolated hard X-ray sources near the supernova remnant Kes 69

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocchino, F.; Bykov, A. M.; Chen, Y.; Krassilchtchikov, A. M.; Levenfish, K. P.; Miceli, M.; Pavlov, G. G.; Uvarov, Yu. A.; Zhou, X.

    2012-05-01

    Recent X-ray observations of the supernova remnant (SNR) IC 443 interacting with molecular clouds detected a new population of hard X-ray sources related to the remnant itself, which has been proposed to be fast ejecta fragments propagating within the dense environment. Encouraged by these studies, we obtained a deep XMM-Newton observation of the SNR Kes 69, which also shows signs of a shock-cloud interaction. We report on the detection of 18 hard X-ray sources in the field of Kes 69, which is a number sognificantly higher than expected for the Galactic source population in the field. The sources are spatially correlated with CO emission from the cloud in the remnant environment. The spectra of 3 of the 18 sources can be described as hard power-laws with photon indices smaller than two plus line emission associated with K-shell transitions. We discuss the two most promising scenarios for the interpretation of the sources, namely fast ejecta fragments (as in IC 443) and cataclysmic variables. While most of the observational evidence is consistent with the former interpretation, we cannot rule out the latter.

  3. Demographic mechanisms underpinning genetic assimilation of remnant groups of a large carnivore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mikle, Nathaniel; Graves, Tabitha A.; Kovach, Ryan P.; Kendall, Katherine C.; Macleod, Amy C.

    2016-01-01

    Current range expansions of large terrestrial carnivores are occurring following human-induced range contraction. Contractions are often incomplete, leaving small remnant groups in refugia throughout the former range. Little is known about the underlying ecological and evolutionary processes that influence how remnant groups are affected during range expansion. We used data from a spatially explicit, long-term genetic sampling effort of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem (NCDE), USA, to identify the demographic processes underlying spatial and temporal patterns of genetic diversity. We conducted parentage analysis to evaluate how reproductive success and dispersal contribute to spatio-temporal patterns of genetic diversity in remnant groups of grizzly bears existing in the southwestern (SW), southeastern (SE) and east-central (EC) regions of the NCDE. A few reproductively dominant individuals and local inbreeding caused low genetic diversity in peripheral regions that may have persisted for multiple generations before eroding rapidly (approx. one generation) during population expansion. Our results highlight that individual-level genetic and reproductive dynamics play critical roles during genetic assimilation, and show that spatial patterns of genetic diversity on the leading edge of an expansion may result from historical demographic patterns that are highly ephemeral.

  4. High-resolution radio and X-ray observations of the supernova remnant W28

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, M. D.; Basart, J. P.; Lamb, R. C.; Becker, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    The present study has the objective to report the first high resolution radio and X-ray observations of the central part of the galactic supernova remnant, W28, taking into account the possible association of the remnant with the unidentified gamma-ray source, 2CG 006-00. This gamma-ray source is approximately two-thirds as bright as the Crab pulsar above 100 MeV, and has a somewhat flatter spectrum. Both the radio and X-ray observations reveal previously unknown aspects of W28 which support the possibility of W28 being a gamma-ray source. The radio data show a flat-spectrum, nonthermal component reminiscent of the Crab Nebula and Vela, both of which are confirmed gamma-ray sources. The X-ray observations reveal a compact source within W28, again suggestive of both the Crab and Vela. If the similarities among W28, the Crab Nebula, and the Vela remnant are valid, the gamma-ray source 2CG 00-00 should be studied for periodicity, the conclusive signature of a compact source of emission.

  5. Explaining the morphology of supernova remnant (SNR) 1987A with the jittering jets explosion mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bear, Ealeal; Soker, Noam

    2018-04-01

    We find that the remnant of supernova (SN) 1987A shares some morphological features with four supernova remnants (SNRs) that have signatures of shaping by jets, and from that we strengthen the claim that jets played a crucial role in the explosion of SN 1987A. Some of the morphological features appear also in planetary nebulae (PNe) where jets are observed. The clumpy ejecta bring us to support the claim that the jittering jets explosion mechanism can account for the structure of the remnant of SN 1987A, i.e., SNR 1987A. We conduct a preliminary attempt to quantify the fluctuations in the angular momentum of the mass that is accreted on to the newly born neutron star via an accretion disk or belt. The accretion disk/belt launches the jets that explode core collapse supernovae (CCSNe). The relaxation time of the accretion disk/belt is comparable to the duration of a typical jet-launching episode in the jittering jets explosion mechanism, and hence the disk/belt has no time to relax. We suggest that this might explain two unequal opposite jets that later lead to unequal sides of the elongated structures in some SNRs of CCSNe. We reiterate our earlier call for a paradigm shift from neutrino-driven explosion to a jet-driven explosion of CCSNe.

  6. Demographic mechanisms underpinning genetic assimilation of remnant groups of a large carnivore

    PubMed Central

    Kovach, Ryan; Kendall, Katherine C.; Macleod, Amy C.

    2016-01-01

    Current range expansions of large terrestrial carnivores are occurring following human-induced range contraction. Contractions are often incomplete, leaving small remnant groups in refugia throughout the former range. Little is known about the underlying ecological and evolutionary processes that influence how remnant groups are affected during range expansion. We used data from a spatially explicit, long-term genetic sampling effort of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem (NCDE), USA, to identify the demographic processes underlying spatial and temporal patterns of genetic diversity. We conducted parentage analysis to evaluate how reproductive success and dispersal contribute to spatio-temporal patterns of genetic diversity in remnant groups of grizzly bears existing in the southwestern (SW), southeastern (SE) and east-central (EC) regions of the NCDE. A few reproductively dominant individuals and local inbreeding caused low genetic diversity in peripheral regions that may have persisted for multiple generations before eroding rapidly (approx. one generation) during population expansion. Our results highlight that individual-level genetic and reproductive dynamics play critical roles during genetic assimilation, and show that spatial patterns of genetic diversity on the leading edge of an expansion may result from historical demographic patterns that are highly ephemeral. PMID:27655768

  7. Incidence of metachronous gastric cancer in the remnant stomach after synchronous multiple cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Isao; Hato, Shinji; Kobatake, Takaya; Ohta, Koji; Kubo, Yoshirou; Nishimura, Rieko; Kurita, Akira

    2014-01-01

    In the preoperative evaluation for gastric cancer, high-resolution endoscopic technologies allow us to detect small accessory lesions. However, it is not known if the gastric remnant after partial gastrectomy for synchronous multiple gastric cancers has a greater risk for metachronous cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of metachronous cancer in this patient subset compared with that after solitary cancer surgery. Data on a consecutive series of 1,281 patients gastrectomized for early gastric cancer from 1991 to 2007 were analyzed retrospectively. The 715 gastric remnants after distal gastrectomy were periodically surveyed by endoscopic examination in Shikoku Cancer Center. Among those surveyed cases, 642 patients were pathologically diagnosed with solitary lesion (SO group) and 73 patients with synchronous multiple lesions (MU group) at the time of the initial surgery. In the follow-up period, 15 patients in the SO group and 3 patients in the MU group were diagnosed as having metachronous cancer in the gastric remnant. The cumulative 4-year incidence rate was 1.9 % in the SO group and 5.5 % in the MU group. The difference did not reach the significant level by the log-rank test. The incidence of metachronous cancer is higher after multiple cancer surgery; however, the difference is not statistically significant.

  8. Variation in diel activity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) associated with a soybean field and coal mine remnant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willand, J.E.; McCravy, K.W.

    2006-01-01

    Diel activities of carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae) associated with a coal mine remnant and surrounding soybean field were studied in west-central Illinois from June through October 2002. A total of 1,402 carabids, representing 29 species and 17 genera, were collected using pitfall traps. Poecilus chalcites (Say) demonstrated roughly equal diurnal and nocturnal activity in June, but greater diurnal activity thereafter. Pterostichus permundus (Say), Cyclotrachelus seximpressus (LeConte), Amara obesa (Say), and Scarites quadriceps Chaudoir showed significant nocturnal activity. Associations between habitat and diel activity were found for three species: P. chalcites associated with the remnant and edge habitats showed greater diurnal activity than those associated with the soybean field; C. seximpressus was most active diurnally in the remnant, and Harpalus pensylvanicus (DeGeer) showed the greatest nocturnal activity in the remnant and edge habitats. We found significant temporal and habitat-related variation in diel activity among carabid species inhabiting agricultural areas in west-central Illinois.

  9. Detection strategies for extreme mass ratio inspirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornish, Neil J.

    2011-05-01

    The capture of compact stellar remnants by galactic black holes provides a unique laboratory for exploring the near-horizon geometry of the Kerr spacetime, or possible departures from general relativity if the central cores prove not to be black holes. The gravitational radiation produced by these extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs) encodes a detailed map of the black hole geometry, and the detection and characterization of these signals is a major scientific goal for the LISA mission. The waveforms produced are very complex, and the signals need to be coherently tracked for tens of thousands of cycles to produce a detection, making EMRI signals one of the most challenging data analysis problems in all of gravitational wave astronomy. Estimates for the number of templates required to perform an exhaustive grid-based matched-filter search for these signals are astronomically large, and far out of reach of current computational resources. Here I describe an alternative approach that employs a hybrid between genetic algorithms and Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques, along with several time-saving techniques for computing the likelihood function. This approach has proven effective at the blind extraction of relatively weak EMRI signals from simulated LISA data sets.

  10. Are we headed towards the defaunation of the last large Atlantic Forest remnants? Poaching activities in one of the largest remnants of the Tabuleiro forests in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sousa, José Adelson C; Srbek-Araujo, Ana C

    2017-03-01

    Hunting is a problem to animal conservation in different parts of the world and it has caused the local extinction of several species. The aim of this study was to characterize the poaching activities in one of the main tabuleiro forest remnants of Brazil, the Linhares-Sooretama Block (LSB). Poaching records from 2010 to 2013 were gathered from the agencies responsible for monitoring and combating environmental crimes in the LSB. A total of 693 records (mean = 173 events/year) were collected involving direct (hunted animals, firearms, handmade firearms, traps, poachers, and various hunting supplies) and indirect (tree stands, baits, and poacher signs) evidences of poaching. No differences in the monthly cumulative number of records were found among years, but the distribution of records differed according to the type of evidence. A total of 40 animal seizure events were recorded involving a total of at least 15 taxa directly affected by poaching (reptiles = 2, birds = 6, mammals = 7) and 75 individuals seized (19 individuals/year). Five of the poached species are threatened. Lowland paca (Cuniculus paca) and armadillos were the most poached mammals in the region. Most of the poachers conduct such activities for fun (entertainment) and/or professionally (commercial hunting). The collected data show an approximately 32% increase in the number of poaching events in the region compared with the historical data available for LSB. It may have resulted from a gradual decrease in protection, both in terms of the number of agents deployed and the levels of effort of the teams, which began in 2009. The data demonstrate that poaching is a significant threat to the conservation of the LSB fauna, as it is in other Atlantic Forest remnants and in other regions of the world. Protection activities must be intensified to effectively combat the impacts of poaching in the LSB region, thereby contributing to the conservation of species in one of the few Atlantic Forest

  11. A Comparative Animal Study of Tendon Grafts Healing After Remnant-Preserving Versus Conventional Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Kan; Chai, Hao; Zhou, Mei; Bai, Jingping

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine if anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction by remnant preservation promotes cell proliferation, vascularization, proprioception recovery, and improved biomechanical properties of the tendon grafts. Material/Methods 75 New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned into the control group (group A), conventional ACL reconstruction group (group B), ACL reconstruction using remnant preservation and graft through remnant sleeve technique group (group C), and ACL reconstruction using remnant preservation and remnant tensioning technique group (group D). The remnant and healing of tendon grafts in groups C and D were observed at 3, 6, and 12 weeks after surgery, and the mRNA expression levels of VEGF, NT-3 and GAP-43 in ACL (group A) or tendon graft samples (groups B, C, and D) were determined by real-time PCR. Tendon graft cell count, microvessel density (MVD), and proprioceptors were determined by H&E staining, CD34, and S-100 immunohistochemical staining. The biomechanical properties of the tendon graft at week 12 in groups B, C, and D were examined by using a tensile strength test. Results Remnant and tendon grafts were not healed at 3, 6, and 12 weeks after the operation in groups C and D. VEGF, NT-3, and GAP-43 mRNA expressions in groups B, C, and D were higher than those in group A (P<0.05), but no significant difference was observed between groups B, C, and D (P>0.05). Furthermore, tendon graft cell count, MVD, proprioception, and biomechanical properties showed no significant differences (P>0.05) among groups B, C, and D at various time points. Conclusions There was no significant difference in cell proliferation, vascularization, proprioception recovery, or biomechanical properties of the tendon grafts between remnant-preserving and conventional ACL reconstruction methods. PMID:27669454

  12. Mesenchymal stem cells reside in anterior cruciate ligament remnants in situ.

    PubMed

    Fu, Weili; Li, Qi; Tang, Xin; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Chenghao; Li, Jian

    2016-07-01

    It has been reported that the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has certain self-healing ability after acute injury or with primary suture repair. Many studies have confirmed that a remnant preservation technique with ACL reconstruction contributes to biological augmentation for ACL healing. However, it remains unclear whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) reside in ACL remnants in situ. The aim of this study was to investigate the methods of culture and identification of MSC derived from the remnants of ACL rupture patients and to analyse these MSC's properties. The cells of ACL remnants from the ACL rupture patients were isolated by the methods of enzymatic digestion and cultured in vitro to the third passage under the microscope to observe their morphology and growth status. The third passage of isolated cells was analysed for the identification of immunophenotype, osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. On the third to fifth days of in vitro culture, a few cells of long fusiform shape appeared and were adherent to the plastic walls. On the sixth to ninth days, cells clustered and colonies were observed. The third passage cells showed uniform cell morphology and good proliferation, with appearance of the typical surface markers of MSC, CD29, CD44, CD90 and CD105. The surface markers of CD34 and CD45 of haematopoietic stem cells were not expressed. Under appropriate conditions of in vitro culture, isolated cells could be differentiated into osteoblasts that deposit mineralised matrix and express early osteogenic markers, adipocytes that accumulate lipid droplets in cytoplasm and chondrocytes that secrete chondrogenic-specific matrix aggrecan and collagen II. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis demonstrated that the specific mRNA expression of osteogenesis, adipogenesis and chondrogenesis increased significantly compared with the control groups at day zero. Stem cells derived in situ from the human ACL stump were successfully isolated

  13. Environmental effects of the Big Rapids dam remnant removal, Big Rapids, Michigan, 2000-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, Denis F.; Rheaume, Stephen J.; Simpson, J. Alan

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the city of Big Rapids, investigated the environmental effects of removal of a dam-foundation remnant and downstream cofferdam from the Muskegon River in Big Rapids, Mich. The USGS applied a multidiscipline approach, which determined the water quality, sediment character, and stream habitat before and after dam removal. Continuous water-quality data and discrete water-quality samples were collected, the movement of suspended and bed sediment were measured, changes in stream habitat were assessed, and streambed elevations were surveyed. Analyses of water upstream and downstream from the dam showed that the dam-foundation remnant did not affect water quality. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations downstream from the dam remnant were depressed for a short period (days) during the beginning of the dam removal, in part because of that removal effort. Sediment transport from July 2000 through March 2002 was 13,800 cubic yards more at the downstream site than the upstream site. This increase in sediment represents the remobilized sediment upstream from the dam, bank erosion when the impoundment was lowered, and contributions from small tributaries between the sites. Five habitat reaches were monitored before and after dam-remnant removal. The reaches consisted of a reference reach (A), upstream from the effects of the impoundment; the impoundment (B); and three sites below the impoundment where habitat changes were expected (C, D, and E, in downstream order). Stream-habitat assessment reaches varied in their responses to the dam-remnant removal. Reference reach A was not affected. In impoundment reach B, Great Lakes and Environmental Assessment Section (GLEAS) Procedure 51 ratings went from fair to excellent. For the three downstream reaches, reach C underwent slight habitat degradation, but ratings remained good; reach D underwent slight habitat degradation with ratings changing from excellent to good; and, in an area

  14. Orchid Bee (Apidae: Euglossini) Communities in Atlantic Forest Remnants and Restored Areas in Paraná State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferronato, M C F; Giangarelli, D C; Mazzaro, D; Uemura, N; Sofia, S H

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we compare orchid bee communities surveyed in four forest remnants of the Atlantic Forest and four reforested areas characterized by seasonal semi-deciduous forest vegetation in different successional stages (mature and secondary vegetation), located in southern Brazil. The sizes of forest remnants and reforested areas varied from 32.1 to 583.9 ha and from 11.3 to 33.3 ha, respectively. All reforested areas were located near one forest remnant. During samplings, totaling nine per study area, euglossine males were attracted to eight scent baits and captured with bait trap and entomological nets. Each forest remnant and its respective reforested area were sampled simultaneously by two collectors. We collected 435 males belonging to nine species of orchid bees distributed in four genera. The number of individuals and species did not differ significantly between different areas, except for a reforested area (size 33.3 ha), which was located far from its respective forest remnant. Our findings also revealed an apparent association between an orchid bee species (Euglossa annectans Dressler 1982) and the most preserved area surveyed in our study, suggesting that this bee is a potential indicator of good habitat quality in recuperating or preserved areas. Our results suggest that reforested habitats located near forest remnants have a higher probability of having reinstated their euglossine communities.

  15. Clinical outcome of using gastric remnant or jejunum or colon conduit in surgery for esophageal carcinoma with previous gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Jun, Wang; Wei, Wen; Weibing, Wu; Jing, Xu; Fuxi, Zhen; Xiaoxiang, Xi; Bihong, Lu; Tong, Zhou; Liang, Chen; Jinhua, Luo

    2017-05-01

    For esophageal carcinoma patients with early gastrectomy, individualized surgical plans-including selection of replacement conduit and operation route based on patient's new lesion and surgical history-can achieve the desired therapeutic effect and improve postoperative life quality. We investigated the outcomes at our institution. The clinical data of 42 esophageal carcinoma patients with early gastrectomy were analyzed retrospectively. Esophagectomy was performed combining replacement with remnant stomach in 16 patients, jejunum in 17, and colon in 9. Esophagectomy combining replacement with gastric remnant got advantages of shorter operation time and less bleeding over that of replacement with jejunum or colon. Gastric remnant group scored higher on the QLQ-C30 questionnaire than jejunum or colon group with respect to overall quality of life, physical function, and social relationships. In QLQ-OES18 questionnaire, the scores of appetite recovery and reflux mitigation were more favorable in remnant stomach group than those in jejunum or colon group. Survival analysis showed no significant difference in survival rate among the patients undergoing replacement with gastric remnant, jejunum, or colon. For esophageal carcinoma patients with early gastrectomy, esophagus-gastric remnant anastomosis possesses advantages of shorter operation time, less surgical trauma, and greater life quality after surgery. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. SN 1987A after 18 Years: Mid-Infrared GEMINI and SPITZER Observations of the Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouchet, Patrice; Dwek, Eli; Danziger, John; Arendt, Richard G.; DeBuizer, James M.; Park, Sangwook; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Challis, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We present high resolution 11.7 and 18.3 micron mid-IR images of SN 1987A obtained on day 6526 since the explosion with the Thermal-Region Camera and Spectrograph (T-ReCS) attached to the Gemini South 8m telescope. The 11.7 micron flux has increased significantly since our last observations on day 6067. The images clearly show that all the emission arises from the equatorial ring (ER). Nearly contemporaneous spectra obtained on day 6184 with the MIPS at 24 micron, on day 6130 with the IRAC in 3.6- 8 micron region, and on day 6190 with the IRS in the 12-37 micron instruments on board the Spitzer Space Telescope's show that the emission consists of thermal emission from silicate dust that condensed out in the red giant wind of the progenitor star. The dust temperature is 1662(sup +18) (sub -12) K, and the emitting dust mass is (2.6(sup +2.0 (sub -1.4)) x 10 (exp -6) M(solar). Lines of [Ne II] 12.82 micron and [Ne III] 15.56 pm are clearly present in the Spitzer spectrum, as well as a weak [Si II] 3 34.8 micron line. We also detect two lines near 26 micron which we tentatively ascribe to [Fe II] 25.99 pm and [0 IV] 25.91 micron. Comparison of the mid-IR Gemini 11.7 micron image with X-ray images obtained by Chandra, UV-optical images obtained by HST, and radio synchrotron images obtained by the ATCA show generally good correlation of the images across all wavelengths. Because of the limited resolution of the mid-IR images we cannot uniquely determine the location. or heating mechanism of the dust giving rise to the emission. The dust could be collisionally heated by the X-ray emitting plasma, providing a unique diagnostic of plasma conditions. Alternatively, the dust could be radiatively heated in the dense UV-optical knots that are overrun by the advancing supernova blast wave. In either case the dust-to-gas mass ratio in the circumstellar medium around the supernova is significantly lower than that in the general interstellar medium of the LMC, suggesting either a

  17. LDL receptor-related protein mediates cell-surface clustering and hepatic sequestration of chylomicron remnants in LDLR-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, K C; Chen, W; Cooper, A D

    2001-06-01

    It has been proposed that in the liver, chylomicron remnants (lipoproteins carrying dietary lipid) may be sequestered before being internalized by hepatocytes. To study this, chylomicron remnants labeled with a fluorescent dye were perfused into isolated livers of LDL receptor-deficient (LDLR-deficient) mice (Ldlr(-/-)) and examined by confocal microscopy. In contrast to livers from normal mice, there was clustering of the chylomicron remnants on the cell surface in the space of DISSE: These remnant clusters colocalized with clusters of LDLR-related protein (LRP) and could be eliminated by low concentrations of receptor-associated protein, an inhibitor of LRP. When competed with ligands of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), the remnant clusters still appeared but were fewer in number, although syndecans (membrane HSPGs) colocalized with the remnant clusters. This suggests that the clustering of remnants is not dependent on syndecans but that the syndecans may modify the binding of remnants. These results establish that sequestration is a novel process, the clustering of remnants in the space of DISSE: The clustering involves remnants binding to the LRP, and this may be stabilized by binding with syndecans, eventually followed by endocytosis.

  18. Does remnant gastric cancer really differ from primary gastric cancer? A systematic review of the literature by the Task Force of Japanese Gastric Cancer Association.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hideaki; Fukagawa, Takeo; Haga, Yoshio; Oba, Koji

    2016-04-01

    Remnant gastric cancer, most frequently defined as cancer detected in the remnant stomach after distal gastrectomy for benign disease and those cases after surgery of gastric cancer at least 5 years after the primary surgery, is often reported as a tumor with poor prognosis. The Task Force of Japanese Gastric Cancer Association for Research Promotion evaluated the clinical impact of remnant gastric cancer by systematically reviewing publications focusing on molecular carcinogenesis, lymph node status, patient survival, and surgical complications. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE with the keywords "remnant," "stomach," and "cancer," revealing 1154 relevant reports published up to the end of December 2014. The mean interval between the initial surgery and the diagnosis of remnant gastric cancer ranged from 10 to 30 years. The incidence of lymph node metastases at the splenic hilum for remnant gastric cancer is not significantly higher than that for primary proximal gastric cancer. Lymph node involvement in the jejunal mesentery is a phenomenon peculiar to remnant gastric cancer after Billroth II reconstruction. Prognosis and postoperative morbidity and mortality rates seem to be comparable to those for primary proximal gastric cancer. The crude 5-year mortality for remnant gastric cancer was 1.08 times higher than that for primary proximal gastric cancer, but this difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, although no prospective cohort study has yet evaluated the clinical significance of remnant gastric cancer, our literature review suggests that remnant gastric cancer does not adversely affect patient prognosis and postoperative course.

  19. A Recipe for Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffett, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Many learners still struggled to appreciate, and understand the difference between, the concepts of fractions and ratio. This is not just a UK phenomenon, which is demonstrated here by the use of a resource developed by the Wisconsin Centre for Education, in association with the Freudenthal Institute of the University of Utrecht, with a group of…

  20. Radius Ratio Rule Rescue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michmerhuizen, Anna; Rose, Karine; Annankra, Wentiirim; Vander Griend, Douglas A.

    2017-01-01

    Making optimal pedagogical and predictive use of the radius ratio rule to distinguish between solid state structures that feature tetrahedral, octahedral and cubic holes requires several updated insights. A comparative analysis of the Born-Landé equation for lattice energy is developed to show that the rock salt structure is a suitable choice for…

  1. Change-in-ratio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udevitz, Mark S.; El-Shaarawi, Abdel H.; Piegorsch, Walter W.

    2002-01-01

    Change-in-ratio (CIR) methods are used to estimate parameters for ecological populations subject to differential removals from population subclasses. Subclasses can be defined according to criteria such as sex, age, or size of individuals. Removals are generally in the form of closely monitored sport or commercial harvests. Estimation is based on observed changes in subclass proportions caused by the removals.

  2. Change-in-ratio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udevitz, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Change-in-ratio (CIR) methods are used to estimate parameters for ecological populations subject to differential removals from population subclasses. Subclasses can be defined according to criteria such as sex, age, or size of individuals. Removals are generally in the form of closely monitored sport or commercial harvests. Estimation is based on observed changes in subclass proportions caused by the removals.

  3. Survival and surgical outcomes of cardiac cancer of the remnant stomach in comparison with primary cardiac cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although cardiac cancer of the remnant stomach and primary cardiac cancer both occur in the same position, their clinical characteristics and outcomes have not been compared previously. The objective of this study was designed to evaluate the prognosis of cardiac cancer of the remnant stomach in comparison with primary cardiac cancer. Methods In this retrospective comparative study, clinical data and prognosis were compared in 48 patients with cardiac cancer of the remnant stomach and 96 patients with primary cardiac cancer who underwent radical resection from January 1995 to June 2007. Clinicopathologic characteristics, survival times, mortality, and complications were analyzed. Results The 5-year survival rate was significantly higher in patients with primary cardiac cancer than in those with cardiac cancer of the remnant stomach (28.4% vs. 16.7%, P = 0.035). Serosal invasion, lymph node metastasis and tumor location were independent prognostic factors for survival. Subgroup analysis, however, showed similar survival rates in patients with primary cardiac cancer and cardiac cancer of the remnant stomach without serosal invasion (25.0% vs. 43.8%, P = 0.214) and without lymph node metastasis (25.0% vs. 38.8%, P = 0.255), as well as similar complication rates (20.8% vs. 11.5%, P = 0.138). Conclusion Although the survival rates after radical resection in patients with cardiac cancer of the remnant stomach were poorer than in those with primary cardiac cancer, they were similar in survival rates when patients without serosal invasion or lymph node metastasis. Therefore, early detection is an important way to improve overall survival in cardiac cancer of the remnant stomach. PMID:24468299

  4. Empagliflozin decreases remnant-like particle cholesterol in type 2 diabetes patients with insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Sachiko

    2017-11-28

    Remnant lipoproteins are thought to be atherogenic. Remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C), which reflects the levels of various kinds of remnant lipoproteins in the blood, has a significant correlation with insulin resistance. In the present study, we measured the effect of empagliflozin (EMPA) on the levels of RLP-C, and investigated whether EMPA-mediated change in RLP-C is associated with a change in insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes patients who have insulin resistance. Patients were allocated to receive a placebo (n = 51) or EMPA (n = 58) as an add-on treatment. Fasting blood samples were collected before and 12 weeks after this intervention. EMPA significantly decreased glycated hemoglobin, bodyweight, systolic blood pressure, plasma triglycerides, liver transaminases and estimated glomerular filtration rate, and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Furthermore, EMPA decreased RLP-C and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. In the placebo group, there were no significant changes in these factors except for slight increases in liver transaminases. Multiple regression analysis showed that the change in homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (P = 0.0102) and the change in alanine aminotransferase (P = 0.0301) were significantly associated with the change in RLP-C in the EMPA group. The change in RLP-C significantly correlated with the change in homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.503, 95% confidence interval 0.199-0.719; P = 0.00241). EMPA decreases RLP-C levels, which is closely associated with amelioration of insulin sensitivity in diabetes patients who have insulin resistance. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. EVOLUTION OF HIGH-ENERGY PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION IN MATURE SHELL-TYPE SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Houdun; Xin, Yuliang; Liu, Siming

    Multi-wavelength observations of mature supernova remnants (SNRs), especially with recent advances in γ -ray astronomy, make it possible to constrain energy distribution of energetic particles within these remnants. In consideration of the SNR origin of Galactic cosmic rays and physics related to particle acceleration and radiative processes, we use a simple one-zone model to fit the nonthermal emission spectra of three shell-type SNRs located within 2° on the sky: RX J1713.7−3946, CTB 37B, and CTB 37A. Although radio images of these three sources all show a shell (or half-shell) structure, their radio, X-ray, and γ -ray spectra are quite different,more » offering an ideal case to explore evolution of energetic particle distribution in SNRs. Our spectral fitting shows that (1) the particle distribution becomes harder with aging of these SNRs, implying a continuous acceleration process, and the particle distributions of CTB 37A and CTB 37B in the GeV range are harder than the hardest distribution that can be produced at a shock via the linear diffusive shock particle acceleration process, so spatial transport may play a role; (2) the energy loss timescale of electrons at the high-energy cutoff due to synchrotron radiation appears to be always a bit (within a factor of a few) shorter than the age of the corresponding remnant, which also requires continuous particle acceleration; (3) double power-law distributions are needed to fit the spectra of CTB 37B and CTB 37A, which may be attributed to shock interaction with molecular clouds.« less

  6. Mass Ejection from the Remnant of a Binary Neutron Star Merger: Viscous-radiation Hydrodynamics Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujibayashi, Sho; Kiuchi, Kenta; Nishimura, Nobuya; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Shibata, Masaru

    2018-06-01

    We perform long-term general relativistic neutrino radiation hydrodynamics simulations (in axisymmetry) for a massive neutron star (MNS) surrounded by a torus, which is a canonical remnant formed after the binary neutron star merger. We take into account the effects of viscosity, which is likely to arise in the merger remnant due to magnetohydrodynamical turbulence. The viscous effect plays key roles for the mass ejection from the remnant in two phases of the evolution. In the first t ≲ 10 ms, a differential rotation state of the MNS is changed to a rigidly rotating state. A shock wave caused by the variation of its quasi-equilibrium state induces significant mass ejection of mass ∼(0.5–2.0) × {10}-2 {M}ȯ for the α-viscosity parameter of 0.01–0.04. For the longer-term evolution with ∼0.1–10 s, a significant fraction of the torus material is ejected. We find that the total mass of the viscosity-driven ejecta (≳ {10}-2 {M}ȯ ) could dominate over that of the dynamical ejecta (≲ {10}-2 {M}ȯ ). The electron fraction, Y e , of the ejecta is always high enough (Y e ≳ 0.25) that this post-merger ejecta is lanthanide-poor; hence, the opacity of the ejecta is likely to be ∼10–100 times lower than that of the dynamical ejecta. This indicates that the electromagnetic signal from the ejecta would be rapidly evolving, bright, and blue if it is observed from a small viewing angle (≲45°) for which the effect of the dynamical ejecta is minor.

  7. Magnetic fields in Supernova Remnants and Pulsar-Wind Nebulae: Deductions from X-ray Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, S. P.

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic field strengths B in synchrotron sources are notoriously difficult to measure. Simple arguments such as equipartition of energy can give values for which the total energy is a minimum, but there is no guarantee that Nature obeys it, or even if so, what particle population (just electrons? electrons plus ions?) should have an energy density comparable to that in magnetic field. However, the operation of synchrotron losses can provide additional information, if those losses are manifested in the synchrotron spectra as steepenings of the spectral-energy distribution above some characteristic frequency often called a "break" (though it is more typically a gradual curvature). A source of known age, if it has been accelerating particles continuously, will have such a break above the energy at which particle radiative lifetimes equal the source age, and this can give B. However, in spatially resolved sources such as supernova remnants (SNRs) and pulsar-wind nebulae (PWNe), systematic advection of particles, if at a known rate, gives a second measure of particle age to compare with radiative lifetimes. In most young SNRs, synchrotron X-rays make a contribution to the X-ray spectrum, and are usually found in thin rims at the remnant edges. If the rims are thin in the radial direction due to electron energy losses, a magnetic-field strength can be estimated. I present recent modeling of this process, along with models in which rims are thin due to decay of magnetic turbulence, and apply them to the remnants of SN 1006 and Tycho. In PWNe, outflows of relativistic plasma behind the pulsar wind termination shock are likely quite inhomogeneous, so magnetic-field estimates based on source lifetimes and assuming spatial uniformity can give misleading values for B. I shall discuss inhomogeneous PWN models and the effects they can have on B estimates.

  8. Paleoenvironmental analyses of an organic deposit from an erosional landscape remnant, Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisner, Wendy R.; Bockheim, James G.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Brown, Thomas A.; Nelson, Frederick E.; Peterson, Kim M.; Jones, Benjamin M.

    2005-01-01

    The dominant landscape process on the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska is the formation and drainage of thaw lakes. Lakes and drained thaw-lake basins account for approximately 75% of the modern surface expression of the Barrow Peninsula. The thaw-lake cycle usually obliterates lacustrine or peat sediments from previous cycles, which could otherwise be used for paleoecological reconstruction of long-term landscape and vegetation changes. Several possible erosional remnants of a former topographic surface that predates the formation of the thaw lakes have been tentatively identified. These remnants are characterized by a higher elevation, a thick organic layer with very high ground ice content in the upper permafrost and a plant community somewhat atypical of the region. Ten soil cores were collected from one site, and one core was intensively sampled for soil organic carbon content, pollen analysis and 14C dating. The lowest level of the organic sediments represents the earliest phase of plant growth and dates to ca. 9000 cal BP. Palynological evidence indicates the presence of mesic shrub tundra (including sedge, birch, willow and heath vegetation), and microfossil indicators point to wetter eutrophic conditions during this period. Carbon accumulation was rapid due to high net primary productivity in a relatively nutrient-rich environment. These results are interpreted as the local response to ameliorating climate during the early Holocene. The middle Holocene portion of the record contains an unconformity, indicating that between 8200 and 4200 cal BP sediments were eroded from the site, presumably in response to wind activity during a drier period centered around 4500 cal BP. The modern vegetation community of the erosional remnant was established after 4200 cal BP and peat growth resumed. During the late Holocene, carbon accumulation rates (CARs) were greatly reduced in response to the combined effects of declining productivity associated with climatic

  9. XMM-Newton studies of the supernova remnant G350.0-2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpova, A.; Shternin, P.; Zyuzin, D.; Danilenko, A.; Shibanov, Yu.

    2016-11-01

    We report the results of XMM-Newton observations of the Galactic mixed-morphology supernova remnant G350.0-2.0. Diffuse thermal X-ray emission fills the north-western part of the remnant surrounded by radio shell-like structures. We did not detect any X-ray counterpart of the latter structures, but found several bright blobs within the diffuse emission. The X-ray spectrum of the most part of the remnant can be described by a collisionally ionized plasma model VAPEC with solar abundances and a temperature of ≈0.8 keV. The solar abundances of plasma indicate that the X-ray emission comes from the shocked interstellar material. The overabundance of Fe was found in some of the bright blobs. We also analysed the brightest point-like X-ray source 1RXS J172653.4-382157 projected on the extended emission. Its spectrum is well described by the two-temperature optically thin thermal plasma model MEKAL typical for cataclysmic variable stars. The cataclysmic variable source nature is supported by the presence of a faint (g ≈ 21) optical source with non-stellar spectral energy distribution at the X-ray position of 1RXS J172653.4-382157. It was detected with the XMM-Newton optical/UV monitor in the U filter and was also found in the archival Hα and optical/near-infrared broad-band sky survey images. On the other hand, the X-ray spectrum is also described by the power law plus thermal component model typical for a rotation powered pulsar. Therefore, the pulsar interpretation of the source cannot be excluded. For this source, we derived the upper limit for the pulsed fraction of 27 per cent.

  10. GW170817 and the Prospect of Forming Supramassive Remnants in Neutron Star Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Peng-Xiong; Jiang, Jin-Liang; Wang, Hao; Jin, Zhi-Ping; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wei, Da-Ming

    2018-05-01

    The gravitational wave data of GW170817 favor the equation of state (EoS) models that predict compact neutron stars (NSs), consistent with the radius constraints from X-ray observations. Motivated by such remarkable progress, we examine the fate of the remnants formed in NS mergers and focus on the roles of the angular momentum and the mass distribution of the binary NSs. In the mass-shedding limit (for which the dimensionless angular momentum equals the Keplerian value, i.e., j = j Kep), the adopted seven EoS models, except for H4 and ALF2, yield supramassive NSs in more than half of the mergers. However, for j ≲ 0.7 j Kep, the presence or absence of a non-negligible fraction of supramassive NSs formed in the mergers depends sensitively on both the EoS and the mass distribution of the binary systems. The NS mergers with a total gravitational mass ≤ 2.6 M ⊙ are found to be able to shed valuable light on both the EoS model and the angular momentum of the remnants if supramassive NSs are still absent. We have also discussed the uncertainty on estimating the maximum gravitational mass of nonrotating NSs (M max) due to the unknown j of the precollapse remnants. With the data of GW170817 and the assumption of the mass loss of 0.03 M ⊙, we have M max < (2.19, 2.32) M ⊙ (90% confidence level) for j = (1.0, 0.8) j Kep, respectively.

  11. Supernova kicks and dynamics of compact remnants in the Galactic Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortolas, Elisa; Mapelli, Michela; Spera, Mario

    2017-08-01

    The Galactic Centre (GC) is a unique place to study the extreme dynamical processes occurring near a supermassive black hole (SMBH). Here, we investigate the role of supernova (SN) explosions occurring in massive binary systems lying in a disc-like structure within the innermost parsec. We use a regularized algorithm to simulate 3 × 104 isolated three-body systems composed of a stellar binary orbiting the SMBH. We start the integration when the primary member undergoes an SN explosion and analyse the impact of SN kicks on the orbits of stars and compact remnants. We find that SN explosions scatter the lighter stars in the pair on completely different orbits, with higher eccentricity and inclination. In contrast, stellar-mass black holes (BHs) and massive stars retain memory of the orbit of their progenitor star. Our results suggest that SN kicks are not sufficient to eject BHs from the GC. We thus predict that all BHs that form in situ in the central parsec of our Galaxy remain in the GC, building up a cluster of dark remnants. In addition, the change of neutron star (NS) orbits induced by SNe may partially account for the observed dearth of NSs in the GC. About 40 per cent of remnants stay bound to the stellar companion after the kick; we expect up to 70 per cent of them might become X-ray binaries through Roche lobe filling. Finally, the eccentricity of some light stars becomes >0.7 as an effect of the SN kick, producing orbits similar to those of the G1 and G2 dusty objects.

  12. Paleoenvironmental analyses of an organic deposit from an erosional landscape remnant, Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Eisner, W R; Bockheim, J G; Hinkel, K M

    2005-01-02

    The dominant landscape process on the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska is the formation and drainage of thaw lakes. Lakes and drained thaw lake basins account for approximately 75% of the modern surface expression of the Barrow Peninsula. The thaw lake cycle usually obliterates lacustrine or peat sediments from previous cycles which could otherwise be used for paleoecological reconstruction of long-term landscape and vegetation changes. Several possible erosional remnants of a former topographic surface that predates the formation of the thaw lakes have been tentatively identified. These remnants are characterized by a higher elevation, a thick organic layer withmore » very high ground ice content in the upper permafrost, and a plant community somewhat atypical of the region. Ten soil cores were collected from one site, and one core was intensively sampled for soil organic carbon content, pollen analysis, and {sup 14}C dating. The lowest level of the organic sediments represents the earliest phase of plant growth and dates to ca. 9000 cal BP. Palynological evidence indicates the presence of mesic shrub tundra (including sedge, birch, willow, and heath vegetation); and microfossil indicators point to wetter eutrophic conditions during this period. Carbon accumulation was rapid due to high net primary productivity in a relatively nutrient-rich environment. These results are interpreted as the local response to ameliorating climate during the early Holocene. The middle Holocene portion of the record contains an unconformity, indicating that between 8200 and 4200 cal BP sediments were eroded from the site, presumably in response to wind activity during a drier period centered around 4500 cal BP. The modern vegetation community of the erosional remnant was established after 4200 cal BP, and peat growth resumed. During the late Holocene, carbon accumulation rates were greatly reduced in response to the combined effects of declining productivity associated with

  13. Infrared emission from the supernova remnant Puppis A: Dust and gas parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arendt, Richard G.; Dwek, Eli; Petre, R

    1989-01-01

    The infrared (IR) spectra of collisionally heated dust at several regions across the supernova remnant (SNR) Puppis A were modelled. Through the comparison of the actual and model spectra, the possible range of gas density and temperature within these areas was narrowed down. From the models, information on the minimum and maximum dust grain sizes and the amount of sputtering which has occurred was found. Finally the mass of gas and dust, the IR luminosity, the effective thickness, and the length of time since the dust was swept up by the SNR were derived for these regions.

  14. VLA observations of the supernova remnant Puppus A at 327 and 1515 MHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubner, G. M.; Braun, R.; Winkler, P. F.; Goss, W. M.

    1991-01-01

    Very Large Array radio images of Puppis A at 327 and 1515 MHz are presented. The observations were performed with the VLA in the C/D and B/C configurations, respectively. The angular resolution is about 77 arcsec x 43 arcsec. The observed radio shell shows signs of interaction between the expanding shock front and the inhomogeneous surrounding medium. An excellent correlation is found between radio and X-ray emission, mainly toward the NE border of the remnant. There is little correspondence between the optical and radio images, suggesting a different origin for the emission. A region of steeper radio spectral index is associated with the highly decelerated eastern periphery.

  15. Temporary ovarian failure in thyroid cancer patients after thyroid remnant ablation with radioactive iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, J.P.; Izembart, M.; Marliac, V.

    We studied ovarian function retrospectively in 66 women who had regular menstrual cycles before undergoing complete thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer and subsequent thyroid remnant ablation with /sup 131/I. Eighteen women developed temporary amenorrhea accompanied by increased serum gonadotropin concentrations during the first year after /sup 131/I therapy. No correlation was found between the radioactive iodine dose absorbed, thyroid uptake before treatment, oral contraceptive use, or thyroid autoimmunity. Only age was a determining factor, with the older women being the most affected. We conclude that radioiodine ablation therapy is followed by transient ovarian failure, especially in older women.

  16. On the origin of cosmic rays. [gamma rays and supernova remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1975-01-01

    Using Recent surveys of molecular clouds and gamma rays in the galaxy, it is possible to determine the distribution of 1 to 10 GeV cosmic-ray nucleons in the galaxy. This distribution appears to be identical to the supernova remnant distribution to within experimental error and provides strong support for the hypothesis that supernovae produce most of the observed cosmic rays. This distribution resembles that of OB associations of average age approximately 30 million years suggesting that cosmic rays are produced by population objects about 30 million years after their birth.

  17. Detection of radio emission from optically identified supernova remnants in M31

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickel, J. R.; Dodorico, S.; Felli, M.; Dopita, M.

    1982-01-01

    The Very Large Array was used to conduct a radio search at a wavelength of 20 cm for ten optically identified supernova remnants (SNRs) in M31. Five SNRs were detected, and for the other objects, upper limits to the emission were determined. On the average, the surface brightness of an SNR in M31 appears to be fainter than that of an SNR in the Galaxy. It is suggested that the median surface brightness at a given diameter is higher in late-type spirals than in Sb systems.

  18. Remnants of semiclassical bistability in the few-photon regime of cavity QED.

    PubMed

    Kerckhoff, Joseph; Armen, Michael A; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2011-11-21

    Broadband homodyne detection of the light transmitted by a Fabry-Perot cavity containing a strongly-coupled (133)Cs atom is used to probe the dynamic optical response in a regime where semiclassical theory predicts bistability but strong quantum corrections should apply. While quantum fluctuations destabilize true equilibrium bistability, our observations confirm the existence of metastable states with finite lifetimes and a hysteretic response is apparent when the optical drive is modulated on comparable timescales. Our experiment elucidates remnant semiclassical behavior in the attojoule (~10 photon) regime of single-atom cavity QED, of potential significance for ultra-low power photonic signal processing. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  19. Analysis of LAC Observations of Clusters of Galaxies and Supernova Remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, J.

    1996-01-01

    The following publications are included and serve as the final report: The X-ray Spectrum of Abell 665; Clusters of Galaxies; Ginga Observation of an Oxygen-rich Supernova Remnant; Ginga Observations of the Coma Cluster and Studies of the Spatial Distribution of Iron; A Measurement of the Hubble Constant from the X-ray Properties and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect of Abell 2218; Non-polytropic Model for the Coma Cluster; and Abundance Gradients in Cooling Flow Clusters: Ginga LAC (Large Area Counter) and Einstein SSS (Solid State Spectrometer) Spectra of A496, A1795, A2142, and A2199.

  20. Regimes of laser-induced periodic surface structure on germanium: radiation remnants and surface plasmons.

    PubMed

    Young, J F; Sipe, J E; van Driel, H M

    1983-08-01

    We present experimental evidence showing that the period of the rippled surface structure induced on germanium by 1.06-microm laser pulses undergoes a discontinuous shift above a certain threshold intensity. The measured shift, as a angle of incidence of the damaging beam, is quantitatively interpreted as a transition between a regime of inhomogeneous melting controlled by radiation-remnant field structures and a regime of ripple formation surface plasmons in an optically thick layer of liquid, metallic germanium formed at the surface.

  1. The remnants in Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter quintessence black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhongwen; Zhang, Li; Zu, Xiaotao

    2014-08-01

    According to the effects of quantum gravity, we investigated the fermion tunneling from the Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter quintessence (RN-dSQ) black hole. The corrected temperature is not only determined by the mass and charge of the black hole, but also depended on the quantum number of the emitted fermion and β, which is a small value representing the effects of quantum gravity. The effects of quantum gravity slowed down the increase of the temperature and led to the remnants of the black hole. We think it is a method to avoid the information loss paradox of black holes.

  2. Soft X-ray emission from the Lupus Loop and Sn 1006 supernova remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, P. F., Jr.; Hearn, D. R.; Richardson, J. A.; Behnken, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    X-ray maps of the Lupus region have been obtained in a raster scan observation from SAS 3. These show the Lupus Loop to be a faint extended source of soft X-rays with a temperature about 2.5 million K. The most prominent feature of the region is the A.D. 1006 supernova remnant, which is unexpectedly bright at 0.2-1.0 keV. One speculative interpretation of the low-energy flux from SN 1006 is as blackbody radiation from a hot neutron star.

  3. FAR-ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRAL IMAGES OF THE VELA SUPERNOVA REMNANT: SUPPLEMENTS AND COMPARISONS WITH OTHER WAVELENGTH IMAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Il-Joong; Seon, Kwang-Il; Han, Wonyong

    We present the improved far-ultraviolet (FUV) emission-line images of the entire Vela supernova remnant (SNR) using newly processed Spectroscopy of Plasma Evolution from Astrophysical Radiation/Far-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (SPEAR/FIMS) data. The incomplete C III {lambda}977 and O VI {lambda}{lambda}1032, 1038 images presented in the previous study are updated to cover the whole region. The C IV {lambda}{lambda}1548, 1551 image with a higher resolution and new images at Si IV {lambda}{lambda}1394, 1403, O IV] {lambda}1404, He II {lambda}1640.5, and O III] {lambda}{lambda}1661, 1666 are also shown. Comparison of emission-line ratios for two enhanced FUV regions reveals that the FUV emissions of themore » east-enhanced FUV region may be affected by nonradiative shocks of another very young SNR, the Vela Jr. SNR (RX J0852.0-4622, G266.6-1.2). This result is the first FUV detection that is likely associated with the Vela Jr. SNR, supporting previous arguments that the Vela Jr. SNR is close to us. The comparison of the improved FUV images with soft X-ray images shows that an FUV filamentary feature forms the boundary of the northeast-southwest asymmetrical sections of the X-ray shell. The southwest FUV features are characterized as the region where the Vela SNR is interacting with slightly denser ambient medium within the dim X-ray southwest section. From a comparison with the H{alpha} image, we identify a ring-like H{alpha} feature overlapped with an extended hot X-ray feature of similar size and two local peaks of C IV emission. Their morphologies are expected when the H{alpha} ring is in direct contact with the near or far side of the Vela SNR.« less

  4. ROSAT HRI and ASCA Observations of the Spiral Galaxy NGC 6946 and its Northeast Complex of Luminous Supernova Remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, E.; Swank, Jean (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of 80 ks ASCA (Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics) and 60 ks ROSAT HRI (High Resolution Image) observations of the face-on spiral galaxy NGC 6946 are presented. The ASCA image is the first observation of this galaxy above approximately 2 keV. Diffuse emission may be present in the inner approximately 4' extending to energies above approximately 2-3 keV. In the HRI data, 14 pointlike sources are detected, the brightest two being a source very close to the nucleus and a source to the northeast that corresponds to a luminous complex of interacting supernova remnants (SNRs). We detect a point source that lies approximately 30" west of the SNR complex but with a luminosity -1115 of the SNR complex. None of the point sources show evidence of strong variability; weak variability would escape our detection. The ASCA spectrum of the SNR complex shows evidence for an emission line at approximately 0.9 keV that could be either Ne IX at approximately 0.915 keV or a blend of ion stages of Fe L-shell emission if the continuum is fitted with a power law. However, a two-component, Raymond-Smith thermal spectrum with no lines gives an equally valid continuum fit and may be more physically plausible given the observed spectrum below 3 keV. Adopting this latter model, we derive a density for the SNR complex of 10-35 cm(exp -3), consistent with estimates inferred from optical emission-line ratios. The complex's extraordinary X-ray luminosity may be related more to the high density of the surrounding medium than to a small but intense interaction region where two of the complex's SNRs are apparently colliding.

  5. Nonrelativistic Perpendicular Shocks Modeling Young Supernova Remnants: Nonstationary Dynamics and Particle Acceleration at Forward and Reverse Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieland, Volkmar; Pohl, Martin; Niemiec, Jacek; Rafighi, Iman; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi

    2016-03-01

    For parameters that are applicable to the conditions at young supernova remnants, we present results of two-dimensional, three-vector (2D3V) particle-in-cell simulations of a non-relativistic plasma shock with a large-scale perpendicular magnetic field inclined at a 45^\\circ angle to the simulation plane to approximate three-dimensional (3D) physics. We developed an improved clean setup that uses the collision of two plasma slabs with different densities and velocities, leading to the development of two distinctive shocks and a contact discontinuity. The shock formation is mediated by Weibel-type filamentation instabilities that generate magnetic turbulence. Cyclic reformation is observed in both shocks with similar period, for which we note global variations due to shock rippling and local variations arising from turbulent current filaments. The shock rippling occurs on spatial and temporal scales produced by the gyro-motions of shock-reflected ions. The drift motion of electrons and ions is not a gradient drift, but is commensurate with {\\boldsymbol{E}}× {\\boldsymbol{B}} drift. We observe a stable supra-thermal tail in the ion spectra, but no electron acceleration because the amplitude of the Buneman modes in the shock foot is insufficient for trapping relativistic electrons. We see no evidence of turbulent reconnection. A comparison with other two-dimensional (2D) simulation results suggests that the plasma beta and the ion-to-electron mass ratio are not decisive for efficient electron acceleration, but the pre-acceleration efficacy might be reduced with respect to the 2D results once 3D effects are fully accounted for. Other microphysical factors may also play a part in limiting the amplitude of the Buneman waves or preventing the return of electrons to the foot region.

  6. Preoperative Cholangitis and Future Liver Remnant Volume Determine the Risk of Liver Failure in Patients Undergoing Resection for Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ribero, Dario; Zimmitti, Giuseppe; Aloia, Thomas A; Shindoh, Junichi; Fabio, Forchino; Amisano, Marco; Passot, Guillaume; Ferrero, Alessandro; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    The highest mortality rates after liver surgery are reported in patients who undergo resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA). In these patients, postoperative death usually follows the development of hepatic insufficiency. We sought to determine the factors associated with postoperative hepatic insufficiency and death due to liver failure in patients undergoing hepatectomy for HCCA. This study included all consecutive patients who underwent hepatectomy with curative intent for HCCA at 2 centers, from 1996 through 2013. Preoperative clinical and operative data were analyzed to identify independent determinants of hepatic insufficiency and liver failure-related death. The study included 133 patients with right or left major (n = 67) or extended (n = 66) hepatectomy. Preoperative biliary drainage was performed in 98 patients and was complicated by cholangitis in 40 cases. In all these patients, cholangitis was controlled before surgery. Major (Dindo III to IV) postoperative complications occurred in 73 patients (55%), with 29 suffering from hepatic insufficiency. Fifteen patients (11%) died within 90 days after surgery, 10 of them from liver failure. On multivariate analysis, predictors of postoperative hepatic insufficiency (all p < 0.05) were preoperative cholangitis (odds ratio [OR] 3.2), future liver remnant (FLR) volume < 30% (OR 3.5), preoperative total bilirubin level >3 mg/dL (OR 4), and albumin level < 3.5 mg/dL (OR 3.3). Only preoperative cholangitis (OR 7.5, p = 0.016) and FLR volume < 30% (OR 7.2, p = 0.019) predicted postoperative liver failure-related death. Preoperative cholangitis and insufficient FLR volume are major determinants of hepatic insufficiency and postoperative liver failure-related death. Given the association between biliary drainage and cholangitis, the preoperative approach to patients with HCCA should be optimized to minimize the risk of cholangitis. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc

  7. Preoperative Cholangitis and Future Liver Remnant Volume Determine the Risk of Liver Failure in Patients Undergoing Resection for Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Aloia, Thomas A; Shindoh, Junichi; Fabio, Forchino; Amisano, Marco; Passot, Guillaume; Ferrero, Alessandro; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Background The highest mortality rates after liver surgery are reported in patients who undergo resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA). In these patients, postoperative death usually follows the development of hepatic insufficiency. We sought to determine the factors associated with postoperative hepatic insufficiency and death due to liver failure in patients undergoing hepatectomy for HCCA. Study Design This study included all consecutive patients who underwent hepatectomy with curative intent for HCCA at two centers from 1996 through 2013. Preoperative clinical and operative data were analyzed to identify independent determinants of i) hepatic insufficiency and ii) liver failure–related death. Results The study included 133 patients with right or left major (n=67) or extended (n=66) hepatectomy. Preoperative biliary drainage was performed in 98 patients and was complicated by cholangitis in 40 cases. In all these patients, cholangitis was controlled before surgery. Major (Dindo III-IV) postoperative complications occurred in 73 patients (55%), with 29 suffering from hepatic insufficiency. Fifteen patients (11%) died within 90 days after surgery, 10 of them of liver failure. On multivariate analysis, predictors of postoperative hepatic insufficiency (all p<0.05) were preoperative cholangitis (odds ratio [OR]=3.2), future liver remnant (FLR) volume <30% (OR=3.5), preoperative total bilirubin level >3 mg/dl (OR=4), and albumin level <3.5 mg/dl (OR=3.3). Only preoperative cholangitis (OR=7.5, p=.016) and FLR volume <30% (OR=7.2, p=.019) predicted postoperative liver failure–related death. Conclusions Preoperative cholangitis and insufficient FLR volume are major determinants of hepatic insufficiency and postoperative liver failure–related death. Given the association between biliary drainage and cholangitis, the preoperative approach to patients with HCCA should be optimized to minimize the risk of cholangitis. PMID:27049784

  8. HR Del REMNANT ANATOMY USING TWO-DIMENSIONAL SPECTRAL DATA AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL PHOTOIONIZATION SHELL MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Moraes, Manoel; Diaz, Marcos

    2009-12-15

    The HR Del nova remnant was observed with the IFU-GMOS at Gemini North. The spatially resolved spectral data cube was used in the kinematic, morphological, and abundance analysis of the ejecta. The line maps show a very clumpy shell with two main symmetric structures. The first one is the outer part of the shell seen in H{alpha}, which forms two rings projected in the sky plane. These ring structures correspond to a closed hourglass shape, first proposed by Harman and O'Brien. The equatorial emission enhancement is caused by the superimposed hourglass structures in the line of sight. The second structuremore » seen only in the [O III] and [N II] maps is located along the polar directions inside the hourglass structure. Abundance gradients between the polar caps and equatorial region were not found. However, the outer part of the shell seems to be less abundant in oxygen and nitrogen than the inner regions. Detailed 2.5-dimensional photoionization modeling of the three-dimensional shell was performed using the mass distribution inferred from the observations and the presence of mass clumps. The resulting model grids are used to constrain the physical properties of the shell as well as the central ionizing source. A sequence of three-dimensional clumpy models including a disk-shaped ionization source is able to reproduce the ionization gradients between polar and equatorial regions of the shell. Differences between shell axial ratios in different lines can also be explained by aspherical illumination. A total shell mass of 9 x 10{sup -4} M {sub sun} is derived from these models. We estimate that 50%-70% of the shell mass is contained in neutral clumps with density contrast up to a factor of 30.« less

  9. Nonthermal X-Ray Emission from the Shell-Type Supernova Remnant G347.3-0.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slane, Patrick O.; Gaensler, Bryan M.; Dame, T. M.; Hughes, John P.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Green, Anne

    2002-01-01

    Recent Advanced Spacecraft for Cosmology Astrophysics (ASCA) observations of G347.3-0.5, a supernova remnant (SNR) discovered in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey, reveal nonthermal emission from a region along the northwestern shell. Here we report on new pointed ASCA observations of G347.3-0.5 that confirm this result for all the bright shell regions and also reveal similar emission, although with slightly different spectral properties, from the remainder of the SNR. Curiously, no thermal X-ray emission is detected anywhere in the remnant. We derive limits on the amount of thermal emitting material present in G347.3-0.5 and present new radio continuum, CO, and infrared results that indicate that the remnant is distant and of moderate age. We show that our observations are broadly consistent with a scenario that has most of the supernova remnant shock wave still within the stellar wind bubble of its progenitor star, while part of it appears to be interacting with denser material. A point source at the center of the remnant has spectral properties similar to those expected for a neutron star and may represent the compact relic of the supernova progenitor.

  10. A comparative study of qualitative and quantitative methods for the assessment of adhesive remnant after bracket debonding.

    PubMed

    Cehreli, S Burcak; Polat-Ozsoy, Omur; Sar, Cagla; Cubukcu, H Evren; Cehreli, Zafer C

    2012-04-01

    The amount of the residual adhesive after bracket debonding is frequently assessed in a qualitative manner, utilizing the adhesive remnant index (ARI). This study aimed to investigate whether quantitative assessment of the adhesive remnant yields more precise results compared to qualitative methods utilizing the 4- and 5-point ARI scales. Twenty debonded brackets were selected. Evaluation and scoring of the adhesive remnant on bracket bases were made consecutively using: 1. qualitative assessment (visual scoring) and 2. quantitative measurement (image analysis) on digital photographs. Image analysis was made on scanning electron micrographs (SEM) and high-precision elemental maps of the adhesive remnant as determined by energy dispersed X-ray spectrometry. Evaluations were made in accordance with the original 4-point and the modified 5-point ARI scales. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated, and the data were evaluated using Friedman test followed by Wilcoxon signed ranks test with Bonferroni correction. ICC statistics indicated high levels of agreement for qualitative visual scoring among examiners. The 4-point ARI scale was compliant with the SEM assessments but indicated significantly less adhesive remnant compared to the results of quantitative elemental mapping. When the 5-point scale was used, both quantitative techniques yielded similar results with those obtained qualitatively. These results indicate that qualitative visual scoring using the ARI is capable of generating similar results with those assessed by quantitative image analysis techniques. In particular, visual scoring with the 5-point ARI scale can yield similar results with both the SEM analysis and elemental mapping.

  11. The many sides of RCW 86: a Type Ia supernova remnant evolving in its progenitor's wind bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broersen, Sjors; Chiotellis, Alexandros; Vink, Jacco; Bamba, Aya

    2014-07-01

    We present the results of a detailed investigation of the Galactic supernova remnant RCW 86 using the XMM-Newton X-ray telescope. RCW 86 is the probable remnant of SN 185 A.D., a supernova that likely exploded inside a wind-blown cavity. We use the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer to derive precise temperatures and ionization ages of the plasma, which are an indication of the interaction history of the remnant with the presumed cavity. We find that the spectra are well fitted by two non-equilibrium ionization models, which enables us to constrain the properties of the ejecta and interstellar matter plasma. Furthermore, we performed a principal component analysis on EPIC MOS and pn data to find regions with particular spectral properties. We present evidence that the shocked ejecta, emitting Fe K and Si line emission, are confined to a shell of approximately 2 pc width with an oblate spheroidal morphology. Using detailed hydrodynamical simulations, we show that general dynamical and emission properties at different portions of the remnant can be well reproduced by a Type Ia supernova that exploded in a non-spherically symmetric wind-blown cavity. We also show that this cavity can be created using general wind properties for a single degenerate system. Our data and simulations provide further evidence that RCW 86 is indeed the remnant of SN 185, and is the likely result of a Type Ia explosion of single degenerate origin.

  12. Intrinsic healing response of the human anterior cruciate ligament: an histological study of reattached ACL remnants.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duy Tan; Ramwadhdoebe, Tamara H; van der Hart, Cor P; Blankevoort, Leendert; Tak, Paul Peter; van Dijk, Cornelis Niek

    2014-02-01

    A reattachment of the tibial remnant of the torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) to the posterior cruciate ligament is sometimes observed during surgery and apparently implies that the human ACL does have a healing response. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this reattachment tissue has similar histological characteristics of a healing response as the medial collateral ligament (MCL), which can heal spontaneously. Standard histology and immunostaining of α-smooth muscle actin and collagen type 3 was performed. The results shows that the reattached tissue has typical characteristics of a healing response: there attached ACL remnant could not be released by forceful traction; microscopy showed that the collagen fibers of the reattached tissue were disorganized with no preferred direction; increased neovascularization; the presence of lipid vacuoles; the mean number of cells within the biopsy tissue was 631±269 cells per mm2; and 68±20% was expressing α-SMA; semi-quantitative analysis of collagen type 3 expression showed that collagen type 3 had an high expression with an average score of 3. In conclusion, this study shows that the human proximal 1/3 ACL has an intrinsic healing response with typical histological characteristics similar to the MCL. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. 9500 Nights of Mid-Infrared Observations of SN 1987A: the birth of the remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchet, Patrice; Danziger, John

    2014-01-01

    The one-in-a-life-time event Supernova SN 1987A, the brightest supernova seen since Kepler's in 1604, has given us a unique opportunity to study the mechanics of a supernova explosion and now to witness the birth of a supernova remnant. A violent encounter is underway between the fastest-moving debris and the circumstellar ring: shocks excite ``hotspots''. ATCA/ANTF, Gemini, VLT, HST, Spitzer, Chandra, and recently ALMA observations have been so far organized to help understanding the several emission mechanisms at work. In the mid-infrared SN 1987A has transformed from a SN with the bulk of its radiation from the ejecta to a SNR whose emission is dominated by the interaction of the blast wave with the surrounding interstellar medium, a process in which kinetic energy is converted into radiative energy. Currently this remnant emission is dominated by material in or near the inner equatorial ring (ER). We give here a brief history of our mid-infrared observations, and present our last data obtained with the SPITZER infrared satellite and the ESO VLT and Gemini telescopes: we show how together with Chandra observations, they contribute to the understanding of this fascinating object. We argue also that our imaging observations suggest that warm dust is still present in the ejecta, and we dispute the presence of huge amount of very cold dust in it, as it has been claimed on the basis of data obtained with the HERSCHELl satellite.

  14. TYCHO SN 1572: A NAKED Ia SUPERNOVA REMNANT WITHOUT AN ASSOCIATED AMBIENT MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, W. W.; Leahy, D. A., E-mail: tww@bao.ac.cn

    The historical supernova remnant (SNR) Tycho SN 1572 originates from the explosion of a normal Type Ia supernova that is believed to have originated from a carbon-oxygen white dwarf in a binary system. We analyze the 21 cm continuum, H I, and {sup 12}CO-line data from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey in the direction of SN 1572 and the surrounding region. We construct H I absorption spectra to SN 1572 and three nearby compact sources. We conclude that SN 1572 has no molecular cloud interaction, which argues against previous claims that a molecular cloud is interacting with the SNR. Thismore » new result does not support a recent claim that dust, newly detected by AKARI, originates from such an SNR-cloud interaction. We suggest that the SNR has a kinematic distance of 2.5-3.0 kpc based on a nonlinear rotational curve model. Very high energy {gamma}-ray emission from the remnant has been detected by the VERITAS telescope, so our result shows that its origin should not be an SNR-cloud interaction. Both radio and X-ray observations support that SN 1572 is an isolated Type Ia SNR.« less

  15. The impact of different interstellar medium structures on the dynamical evolution of supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yueyang; Bao, Biwen; Yang, Chuyuan; Zhang, Li

    2018-05-01

    The dynamical properties of supernova remnants (SNRs) evolving with different interstellar medium structures are investigated through performing extensive two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations in the cylindrical symmetry. Three cases of different interstellar medium structures are considered: the uniform medium, the turbulent medium and the cloudy medium. Large-scale density and magnetic fluctuations are calculated and mapped into the computational domain before simulations. The clouds are set by random distribution in advance. The above configuration allows us to study the time-dependent dynamical properties and morphological evolution of the SNR evolving with different ambient structures, along with the development of the instabilities at the contact discontinuity. Our simulation results indicate that remnant morphology deviates from symmetry if the interstellar medium contains clouds or turbulent density fluctuations. In the cloudy medium case, interactions between the shock wave and clouds lead to clouds' fragmentation. The magnetic field can be greatly enhanced by stretching field lines with a combination of instabilities while the width of amplification region is quite different among the three cases. Moreover, both the width of amplification region and the maximum magnetic-field strength are closely related to the clouds' density.

  16. The Three-Dimensional Expansion of the Ejecta from Tycho's Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Brian J.; Coyle, Nina M.; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Depasquale, Joseph; Seitenzahl, Ivo R.; Hewitt, John W.; Blondin, John M.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Petre, Robert; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present the first 3D measurements of the velocity of various ejecta knots in Tycho's supernova remnant, known to result from a Type Ia explosion. Chandra X-ray observations over a 12 yr baseline from 2003 to 2015 allow us to measure the proper motion of nearly 60 tufts of Si-rich ejecta, giving us the velocity in the plane of the sky. For the line-of-sight velocity, we use two different methods: a nonequilibrium ionization model fit to the strong Si and S lines in the 1.22.8 keV regime, and a fit consisting of a series of Gaussian lines. These methods give consistent results, allowing us to determine the redshift or blueshift of each of the knots. Assuming a distance of 3.5 kpc, we find total velocities that range from 2400 to 6600 km/s, with a mean of 4430 km/s. We find several regions where the ejecta knots have overtaken the forward shock. These regions have proper motions in excess of 6000 km/s. Some SN Ia explosion models predict a velocity asymmetry in the ejecta. We find no such velocity asymmetries in Tycho, and we discuss our findings in light of various explosion models, favoring those delayed-detonation models with relatively vigorous and symmetrical deflagrations. Finally, we compare measurements with models of the remnant's evolution that include both smooth and clumpy ejecta profiles, finding that both ejecta profiles can be accommodated by the observations.

  17. X-ray characteristics of the Lupus Loop and SN 1006 supernova remnants

    SciTech Connect

    Toor, A.

    1980-01-01

    The spatial extent of the Lupus Loop and spectra for the Lupus Loop and SN1006 supernova remnants have been determined with a rocket-borne payload. The Lupus Loop is an extended source of soft X-rays (approx. 300' diam) that shows a correlation between its brightest x-ray and radio-emission regions. Its spectrum is characterized by a temperature of 350 eV. Thus, the Lupus Loop appears similar to Vela X and Cygnus Loop, although much weaker. Emission from SN1006 is spatially unresolved and exhibits a harder spectrum than that of the Lupus Loop. All spectral data (0.2 to 10 keV) from our observationmore » and previous observations are satisfactorily fit with a power law (index = 2.15). This spectral dependence suggests the possibility that a rotating neutron star is the underlying source of the radiated energy although such an interpretation appears inconsistent with the remnant's morphology.« less

  18. The remnant of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) IgD gene

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Pedro J.; Knight, Katherine L.

    2017-01-01

    Although IgD first appeared, along with IgM, in the cartilaginous fishes and has been retained throughout subsequent vertebrate evolution, it has been lost in a diverse group of vertebrate species. We previously showed that, unlike vertebrates that express IgD, the rabbit lacks an IgD (Cδ) gene within 13.5 kb downstream of the IgM gene. We report here that, by conducting BLAST searches of rabbit Ig heavy chain genomic DNA with known mammalian IgD exons, we identified the remnant of the rabbit Cδ gene approximately 21 kb downstream of the IgM gene. The remnant Cδ locus lacks the δCH1 and hinge exons, but contains truncated δCH2 and δCH3 exons, as well as largely intact, but non-functional, secretory and transmembrane exons. In addition, we report that the Cδ gene probably became non-functional in leporids at least prior to the divergence of rabbits and hares ~12 million years ago. PMID:28832642

  19. Search for a Radio Pulsar in the Remnant of Supernova 1987A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.-B.; Dai, S.; Hobbs, G.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Manchester, R. N.; Russell, C. J.; Zanardo, G.; Wu, X.-F.

    2018-06-01

    We have observed the remnant of supernova SN 1987A (SNR 1987A), located in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), to search for periodic and/or transient radio emission with the Parkes 64 m-diameter radio telescope. We found no evidence of a radio pulsar in our periodicity search and derived 8σ upper bounds on the flux density of any such source of 31 μJy at 1.4 GHz and 21 μJy at 3 GHz. Four candidate transient events were detected with greater than 7σ significance, with dispersion measures (DMs) in the range 150 to 840 cm-3 pc. For two of them, we found a second pulse at slightly lower significance. However, we cannot at present conclude that any of these are associated with a pulsar in SNR 1987A. As a check on the system, we also observed PSR B0540-69, a young pulsar which also lies in the LMC. We found eight giant pulses at the DM of this pulsar. We discuss the implications of these results for models of the supernova remnant, neutron star formation and pulsar evolution.

  20. The origin of X-ray protrusions in the VELA supernova remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    We propose a possible explanation for the formation of X-ray protrusions in the Vela SNR, recently observed by the ROSAT X-ray telescope (Aschenbach, Egger & Trumper, 1995, Nature, 373, 587). We suggest that the highly asymmetric shape of the Vela SNR is the result of the interaction of the SN ejecta/shock with the pre-existing wind-driven shell blown-up in a medium with a density gradient (perpendicular to the Galactic plane). The interaction of the radiative (north-east) half of the remnant, approaching towards the Galactic plane, with dense obstacles (cloudlets or wind zones of stars) can produce X-ray "bullets" radially moving beyond the SNR boundary. These "bullets" originate due to the cooling and condensation of a gas swept-up by converging conical shocks arising behind the dense obstacles overtaken by the SN shock. The X-ray protrusions observed in the western part of the remnant might be explained by outflows of hot gas of the SNR's interior emanating through the gaps in the shell. The origin of the X-ray "jet" (Markwardt & Ogelman, 1995, Nature, 375, 40) in the central part of the Vela SNR is also discussed.

  1. High-energy particle acceleration in the shell of a supernova remnant.

    PubMed

    Aharonian, F A; Akhperjanian, A G; Aye, K-M; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Berge, D; Berghaus, P; Bernlöhr, K; Bolz, O; Boisson, C; Borgmeier, C; Breitling, F; Brown, A M; Gordo, J Bussons; Chadwick, P M; Chitnis, V R; Chounet, L-M; Cornils, R; Costamante, L; Degrange, B; Djannati-Ataï, A; Drury, L O'C; Ergin, T; Espigat, P; Feinstein, F; Fleury, P; Fontaine, G; Funk, S; Gallant, Y A; Giebels, B; Gillessen, S; Goret, P; Guy, J; Hadjichristidis, C; Hauser, M; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Holleran, M; Horns, D; De Jager, O C; Jung, I; Khélifi, B; Komin, Nu; Konopelko, A; Latham, I J; Le Gallou, R; Lemoine, M; Lemière, A; Leroy, N; Lohse, T; Marcowith, A; Masterson, C; McComb, T J L; De Naurois, M; Nolan, S J; Noutsos, A; Orford, K J; Osborne, J L; Ouchrif, M; Panter, M; Pelletier, G; Pita, S; Pohl, M; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Raubenheimer, B C; Raue, M; Raux, J; Rayner, S M; Redondo, I; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Ripken, J; Rivoal, M; Rob, L; Rolland, L; Rowell, G; Sahakian, V; Saugé, L; Schlenker, S; Schlickeiser, R; Schuster, C; Schwanke, U; Siewert, M; Sol, H; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Tavernet, J-P; Théoret, C G; Tluczykont, M; Van Der Walt, D J; Vasileiadis, G; Vincent, P; Visser, B; Völk, H J; Wagner, S J

    2004-11-04

    A significant fraction of the energy density of the interstellar medium is in the form of high-energy charged particles (cosmic rays). The origin of these particles remains uncertain. Although it is generally accepted that the only sources capable of supplying the energy required to accelerate the bulk of Galactic cosmic rays are supernova explosions, and even though the mechanism of particle acceleration in expanding supernova remnant (SNR) shocks is thought to be well understood theoretically, unequivocal evidence for the production of high-energy particles in supernova shells has proven remarkably hard to find. Here we report on observations of the SNR RX J1713.7 - 3946 (G347.3 - 0.5), which was discovered by ROSAT in the X-ray spectrum and later claimed as a source of high-energy gamma-rays of TeV energies (1 TeV = 10(12) eV).