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Sample records for a1-3galactosyltransferase knockout pig

  1. Highly efficient generation of GGTA1 biallelic knockout inbred mini-pigs with TALENs.

    PubMed

    Xin, Jige; Yang, Huaqiang; Fan, Nana; Zhao, Bentian; Ouyang, Zhen; Liu, Zhaoming; Zhao, Yu; Li, Xiaoping; Song, Jun; Yang, Yi; Zou, Qingjian; Yan, Quanmei; Zeng, Yangzhi; Lai, Liangxue

    2013-01-01

    Inbred mini-pigs are ideal organ donors for future human xenotransplantations because of their clear genetic background, high homozygosity, and high inbreeding endurance. In this study, we chose fibroblast cells from a highly inbred pig line called Banna mini-pig inbred line (BMI) as donor nuclei for nuclear transfer, combining with transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and successfully generated α-1,3-galactosyltransferase (GGTA1) gene biallelic knockout (KO) pigs. To validate the efficiency of TALEN vectors, in vitro-transcribed TALEN mRNAs were microinjected into one-cell stage parthenogenetically activated porcine embryos. The efficiency of indel mutations at the GGTA1-targeting loci was as high as 73.1% (19/26) among the parthenogenetic blastocysts. TALENs were co-transfected into porcine fetal fibroblasts of BMI with a plasmid containing neomycin gene. The targeting efficiency reached 89.5% (187/209) among the survived cell clones after a 10 d selection. More remarkably 27.8% (58/209) of colonies were biallelic KO. Five fibroblast cell lines with biallelic KO were chosen as nuclear donors for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Three miniature piglets with biallelic mutations of the GGTA1 gene were achieved. Gal epitopes on the surface of cells from all the three biallelic KO piglets were completely absent. The fibroblasts from the GGTA1 null piglets were more resistant to lysis by pooled complement-preserved normal human serum than those from wild-type pigs. These results indicate that a combination of TALENs technology with SCNT can generate biallelic KO pigs directly with high efficiency. The GGTA1 null piglets with inbred features created in this study can provide a new organ source for xenotransplantation research.

  2. Production of heterozygous alpha 1,3-galactosyltransferase (GGTA1) knock-out transgenic miniature pigs expressing human CD39.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kimyung; Shim, Joohyun; Ko, Nayoung; Eom, Heejong; Kim, Jiho; Lee, Jeong-Woong; Jin, Dong-Il; Kim, Hyunil

    2017-04-01

    Production of transgenic pigs for use as xenotransplant donors is a solution to the severe shortage of human organs for transplantation. The first barrier to successful xenotransplantation is hyperacute rejection, a rapid, massive humoral immune response directed against the pig carbohydrate GGTA1 epitope. Platelet activation, adherence, and clumping, all major features of thrombotic microangiopathy, are inevitable results of immune-mediated transplant rejection. Human CD39 rapidly hydrolyzes ATP and ADP to AMP; AMP is hydrolyzed by ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) to adenosine, an anti-thrombotic and cardiovascular protective mediator. In this study, we developed a vector-based strategy for ablation of GGTA1 function and concurrent expression of human CD39 (hCD39). An hCD39 expression cassette was constructed to target exon 4 of GGTA1. We established heterozygous GGTA1 knock-out cell lines expressing hCD39 from pig ear fibroblasts for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). We also described production of heterozygous GGTA1 knock-out piglets expressing hCD39 and analyzed expression and function of the transgene. Human CD39 was expressed in heart, kidney and aorta. Human CD39 knock-in heterozygous ear fibroblast from transgenic cloned pigs, but not in non-transgenic pig's cells. Expression of GGTA1 gene was lower in the knock-in heterozygous ear fibroblast from transgenic pigs compared to the non-transgenic pig's cell. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from the transgenic pigs were more resistant to lysis by pooled complement-preserved normal human serum than that from wild type (WT) pig. Accordingly, GGTA1 mutated piglets expressing hCD39 will provide a new organ source for xenotransplantation research.

  3. An FBXO40 knockout generated by CRISPR/Cas9 causes muscle hypertrophy in pigs without detectable pathological effects.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yunlong; Li, Zhiyuan; Zou, Yunjing; Hao, Haiyang; Li, Ning; Li, Qiuyan

    2018-04-15

    The regulatory function of Fbxo40 has been well characterized in mice. As a key component of the SCF-E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, Fbxo40 induces IRS1 ubiquitination, thus inactivating the IGF1/Akt pathway. The expression of Fbxo40 is restricted to muscle, and mice with an Fbxo40 null mutation exhibit muscle hypertrophy. However, the function of FBXO40 has not been elucidated in pigs, and it is not known whether FBXO40 mutations affect their health. We therefore generated FBXO40 knockout pigs using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology. CRISPR/Cas9 technology was combined with G418 selection, making it possible to generate donor cells at an efficiency of 75.86%. In muscle from FBXO40 knockout pigs, IRS1 levels were higher, and the IGF1/Akt pathway was stimulated. Mutant animals also had approximately 4% more muscle mass compared to WT controls. The knockout pigs developed normally and no pathological changes were found in major organs. These results demonstrate that FBXO40 is a promising candidate gene for improving production traits in agricultural livestock and for developing therapeutic interventions for muscle diseases. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Generation of α1,3-galactosyltransferase and cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase gene double-knockout pigs

    PubMed Central

    MIYAGAWA, Shuji; MATSUNARI, Hitomi; WATANABE, Masahito; NAKANO, Kazuaki; UMEYAMA, Kazuhiro; SAKAI, Rieko; TAKAYANAGI, Shuko; TAKEISHI, Toki; FUKUDA, Tooru; YASHIMA, Sayaka; MAEDA, Akira; EGUCHI, Hiroshi; OKUYAMA, Hiroomi; NAGAYA, Masaki; NAGASHIMA, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are new tools for producing gene knockout (KO) animals. The current study reports produced genetically modified pigs, in which two endogenous genes were knocked out. Porcine fibroblast cell lines were derived from homozygous α1,3-galactosyltransferase (GalT) KO pigs. These cells were subjected to an additional KO for the cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH) gene. A pair of ZFN-encoding mRNAs targeting exon 8 of the CMAH gene was used to generate the heterozygous CMAH KO cells, from which cloned pigs were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). One of the cloned pigs obtained was re-cloned after additional KO of the remaining CMAH allele using the same ZFN-encoding mRNAs to generate GalT/CMAH-double homozygous KO pigs. On the other hand, the use of TALEN-encoding mRNAs targeting exon 7 of the CMAH gene resulted in efficient generation of homozygous CMAH KO cells. These cells were used for SCNT to produce cloned pigs homozygous for a double GalT/CMAH KO. These results demonstrate that the combination of TALEN-encoding mRNA, in vitro selection of the nuclear donor cells and SCNT provides a robust method for generating KO pigs. PMID:26227017

  5. Generation of α1,3-galactosyltransferase and cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase gene double-knockout pigs.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Shuji; Matsunari, Hitomi; Watanabe, Masahito; Nakano, Kazuaki; Umeyama, Kazuhiro; Sakai, Rieko; Takayanagi, Shuko; Takeishi, Toki; Fukuda, Tooru; Yashima, Sayaka; Maeda, Akira; Eguchi, Hiroshi; Okuyama, Hiroomi; Nagaya, Masaki; Nagashima, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are new tools for producing gene knockout (KO) animals. The current study reports produced genetically modified pigs, in which two endogenous genes were knocked out. Porcine fibroblast cell lines were derived from homozygous α1,3-galactosyltransferase (GalT) KO pigs. These cells were subjected to an additional KO for the cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH) gene. A pair of ZFN-encoding mRNAs targeting exon 8 of the CMAH gene was used to generate the heterozygous CMAH KO cells, from which cloned pigs were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). One of the cloned pigs obtained was re-cloned after additional KO of the remaining CMAH allele using the same ZFN-encoding mRNAs to generate GalT/CMAH-double homozygous KO pigs. On the other hand, the use of TALEN-encoding mRNAs targeting exon 7 of the CMAH gene resulted in efficient generation of homozygous CMAH KO cells. These cells were used for SCNT to produce cloned pigs homozygous for a double GalT/CMAH KO. These results demonstrate that the combination of TALEN-encoding mRNA, in vitro selection of the nuclear donor cells and SCNT provides a robust method for generating KO pigs.

  6. Efficient generation of P53 biallelic knockout Diannan miniature pigs via TALENs and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Shen, Youfeng; Xu, Kaixiang; Yuan, Zaimei; Guo, Jianxiong; Zhao, Heng; Zhang, Xuezeng; Zhao, Lu; Qing, Yubo; Li, Honghui; Pan, Weirong; Jia, Baoyu; Zhao, Hong-Ye; Wei, Hong-Jiang

    2017-11-03

    Pigs have many features that make them attractive as biomedical models for various diseases, including cancer. P53 is an important tumor suppressor gene that exerts a central role in protecting cells from oncogenic transformation and is mutated in a large number of human cancers. P53 mutations occur in almost every type of tumor and in over 50% of all tumors. In a recent publication, pigs with a mutated P53 gene were generated that resulted in lymphoma and renal and osteogenic tumors. However, approximately 80% of human tumors have dysfunctional P53. A P53-deficient pig model is still required to elucidate. Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) were designed to target porcine P53 exon 4. The targeting activity was evaluated using a luciferase SSA recombination assay. P53 biallelic knockout (KO) cell lines were established from single-cell colonies of fetal fibroblasts derived from Diannan miniature pigs followed by electroporation with TALENs plasmids. One cell line was selected as the donor cell line for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) for the generation of P53 KO pigs. P53 KO stillborn fetuses and living piglets were obtained. Gene typing of the collected cloned individuals was performed by T7EI assay and sequencing. Fibroblast cells from Diannan miniature piglets with a P53 biallelic knockout or wild type were analyzed for the P53 response to doxorubicin treatment by confocal microscopy and western blotting. The luciferase SSA recombination assay revealed that the targeting activities of the designed TALENs were 55.35-fold higher than those of the control. Eight cell lines (8/19) were mutated for P53, and five of them were biallelic knockouts. One of the biallelic knockout cell lines was selected as nuclear donor cells for SCNT. The cloned embryos were transferred into five recipient gilts, three of them becoming pregnant. Five live fetuses were obtained from one surrogate by caesarean section after 38 days of gestation for genotyping

  7. Isozygous and selectable marker-free MSTN knockout cloned pigs generated by the combined use of CRISPR/Cas9 and Cre/LoxP.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yanzhen; Hua, Zaidong; Liu, Ximei; Hua, Wenjun; Ren, Hongyan; Xiao, Hongwei; Zhang, Liping; Li, Li; Wang, Zhirui; Laible, Götz; Wang, Yan; Dong, Faming; Zheng, Xinmin

    2016-08-17

    Predictable, clean genetic modification (GM) in livestock is important for reliable phenotyping and biosafety. Here we reported the generation of isozygous, functional myostatin (MSTN) knockout cloned pigs free of selectable marker gene (SMG) by CRISPR/Cas9 and Cre/LoxP. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated homologous recombination (HR) was exploited to knock out (KO) one allele of MSTN in pig primary cells. Cre recombinase was then used to excise the SMG with an efficiency of 82.7%. The SMG-free non-EGFP cells were isolated by flow cytometery and immediately used as donor nuclei for nuclear transfer. A total of 685 reconstructed embryos were transferred into three surrogates with one delivering two male live piglets. Molecular testing verified the mono-allelic MSTN KO and SMG deletion in these cloned pigs. Western blots showed approximately 50% decrease in MSTN and concurrent increased expression of myogenic genes in muscle. Histological examination revealed the enhanced myofiber quantity but myofiber size remained unaltered. Ultrasonic detection showed the increased longissimus muscle size and decreased backfat thickness. Precision editing of pig MSTN gene has generated isozygous, SMG-free MSTN KO cloned founders, which guaranteed a reliable route for elite livestock production and a strategy to minimize potential biological risks.

  8. Production of cloned NIBS (Nippon Institute for Biological Science) and α-1, 3-galactosyltransferase knockout MGH miniature pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer using the NIBS breed as surrogates.

    PubMed

    Shimatsu, Yoshiki; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Horii, Wataru; Hirakata, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Yuji; Waki, Shiori; Sano, Junichi; Saitoh, Toshiki; Sahara, Hisashi; Shimizu, Akira; Yazawa, Hajime; Sachs, David H; Nunoya, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear transfer (NT) technologies offer a means for producing the genetically modified pigs necessary to develop swine models for mechanistic studies of disease processes as well as to serve as organ donors for xenotransplantation. Most previous studies have used commercial pigs as surrogates. In this study, we established a cloning technique for miniature pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using Nippon Institute for Biological Science (NIBS) miniature pigs as surrogates. Moreover, utilizing this technique, we have successfully produced an α-1, 3-galactosyltransferase knockout (GalT-KO) miniature swine. Fibroblasts procured from a NIBS miniature pig fetus were injected into 1312 enucleated oocytes. The cloned embryos were transferred to 11 surrogates of which five successfully delivered 13 cloned offspring; the production efficiency was 1.0% (13/1312). In a second experiment, lung fibroblasts obtained from neonatal GalT-KO MGH miniature swine were used as donor cells and 1953 cloned embryos were transferred to 12 surrogates. Six cloned offspring were born from five surrogates, a production efficiency of 0.3% (6/1953). These results demonstrate successful establishment of a miniature pig cloning technique by SCNT using NIBS miniature pigs as surrogates. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of successful production of GalT-KO miniature swine using miniature swine surrogates. This technique could help to ensure a stable supply of the cloned pigs through the use of miniature pig surrogates and could expand production in countries with limited space or in facilities with special regulations such as specific pathogen-free or good laboratory practice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Production of cloned NIBS (Nippon Institute for Biological Science) and α-1, 3-galactosyltransferase knockout MGH miniature pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer using the NIBS breed as surrogates

    PubMed Central

    Shimatsu, Yoshiki; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Horii, Wataru; Hirakata, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Yuji; Waki, Shiori; Sano, Junichi; Saitoh, Toshiki; Sahara, Hisashi; Shimizu, Akira; Yazawa, Hajime; Sachs, David H.; Nunoya, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    Background Nuclear transfer (NT) technologies offer a means for producing the genetically modified pigs necessary to develop swine models for mechanistic studies of disease processes as well as to serve as organ donors for xenotransplantation. Most previous studies have used commercial pigs as surrogates. Method and Results In this study, we established a cloning technique for miniature pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using Nippon Institute for Biological Science (NIBS) miniature pigs as surrogates. Moreover, utilizing this technique, we have successfully produced an α-1, 3-galactosyltransferase knockout (GalT-KO) miniature swine. Fibroblasts procured from a NIBS miniature pig fetus were injected into 1312 enucleated oocytes. The cloned embryos were transferred to 11 surrogates of which five successfully delivered 13 cloned offspring; the production efficiency was 1.0% (13/1312). In a second experiment, lung fibroblasts obtained from neonatal GalT-KO MGH miniature swine were used as donor cells and 1953 cloned embryos were transferred to 12 surrogates. Six cloned offspring were born from five surrogates, a production efficiency of 0.3% (6/1953). Conclusions These results demonstrate successful establishment of a miniature pig cloning technique by SCNT using NIBS miniature pigs as surrogates. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of successful production of GalT-KO miniature swine using miniature swine surrogates. This technique could help to ensure a stable supply of the cloned pigs through the use of miniature pig surrogates and could expand production in countries with limited space or in facilities with special regulations such as specific pathogen-free or good laboratory practice. PMID:23581451

  10. Gal knockout and beyond.

    PubMed

    Zhong, R

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Galalpha1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAc (Gal) knockout (k/o) pigs have been developed using genetic cloning technologies. This remarkable achievement has generated great enthusiasm in xenotransplantation studies. This review summarizes the current status of nonhuman primate experiments using Gal k/o pig organs. Briefly, when Gal k/o pig organs are transplanted into primates, hyperacute rejection does not occur. Although graft survival has been prolonged up to a few months in some cases, the overall results were not better than those using Gal-positive pig organs with human complement regulatory protein transgenes. Gal k/o pig kidneys rapidly developed rejection which was associated with increased anti-non-Gal antibodies. Although the precise mechanisms of Gal k/o pig organ rejection are not clear, it could result from incomplete deletion of Gal, up-regulation of new antigen (non-Gal antigen) and/or production of non-Gal antibodies. Future work in xenotransplantation should place emphasis on further modification of donors, such as combining human complement regulatory genes with Gal k/o, deleting non-Gal antigens and adding protective/surviving genes or a gene that inhibits coagulation. Induction of donor-specific T- and B-cell tolerance and promotion of accommodation are also warranted.

  11. Kidneys From α1,3-Galactosyltransferase Knockout/Human Heme Oxygenase-1/Human A20 Transgenic Pigs Are Protected From Rejection During Ex Vivo Perfusion With Human Blood.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Hellen E; Petersen, Björn; Ramackers, Wolf; Petkov, Stoyan; Herrmann, Doris; Hauschild-Quintern, Janet; Lucas-Hahn, Andrea; Hassel, Petra; Ziegler, Maren; Baars, Wiebke; Bergmann, Sabine; Schwinzer, Reinhard; Winkler, Michael; Niemann, Heiner

    2015-07-01

    Multiple modifications of the porcine genome are required to prevent rejection after pig-to-primate xenotransplantation. Here, we produced pigs with a knockout of the α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene (GGTA1-KO) combined with transgenic expression of the human anti-apoptotic/anti-inflammatory molecules heme oxygenase-1 and A20, and investigated their xenoprotective properties. The GGTA1-KO/human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1)/human A20 (hA20) transgenic pigs were produced in a stepwise approach using zinc finger nuclease vectors targeting the GGTA1 gene and a Sleeping Beauty vector coding for hA20. Two piglets were analyzed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry, and sequencing. The biological function of the genetic modifications was tested in a (51)Chromium release assay and by ex vivo kidney perfusions with human blood. Disruption of the GGTA1 gene by deletion of few basepairs was demonstrated in GGTA1-KO/hHO-1/hA20 transgenic pigs. The hHO-1 and hA20 mRNA expression was confirmed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Ex vivo perfusion of 2 transgenic kidneys was feasible for the maximum experimental time of 240 minutes without symptoms of rejection. Results indicate that GGTA1-KO/hHO-1/hA20 transgenic pigs are a promising model to alleviate rejection and ischemia-reperfusion damage in porcine xenografts and could serve as a background for further genetic modifications toward the production of a donor pig that is clinically relevant for xenotransplantation.

  12. Kidneys From α1,3-Galactosyltransferase Knockout/Human Heme Oxygenase-1/Human A20 Transgenic Pigs Are Protected From Rejection During Ex Vivo Perfusion With Human Blood

    PubMed Central

    Ahrens, Hellen E.; Petersen, Björn; Ramackers, Wolf; Petkov, Stoyan; Herrmann, Doris; Hauschild-Quintern, Janet; Lucas-Hahn, Andrea; Hassel, Petra; Ziegler, Maren; Baars, Wiebke; Bergmann, Sabine; Schwinzer, Reinhard; Winkler, Michael; Niemann, Heiner

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple modifications of the porcine genome are required to prevent rejection after pig-to-primate xenotransplantation. Here, we produced pigs with a knockout of the α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene (GGTA1-KO) combined with transgenic expression of the human anti-apoptotic/anti-inflammatory molecules heme oxygenase-1 and A20, and investigated their xenoprotective properties. Methods The GGTA1-KO/human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1)/human A20 (hA20) transgenic pigs were produced in a stepwise approach using zinc finger nuclease vectors targeting the GGTA1 gene and a Sleeping Beauty vector coding for hA20. Two piglets were analyzed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry, and sequencing. The biological function of the genetic modifications was tested in a 51Chromium release assay and by ex vivo kidney perfusions with human blood. Results Disruption of the GGTA1 gene by deletion of few basepairs was demonstrated in GGTA1-KO/hHO-1/hA20 transgenic pigs. The hHO-1 and hA20 mRNA expression was confirmed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Ex vivo perfusion of 2 transgenic kidneys was feasible for the maximum experimental time of 240 minutes without symptoms of rejection. Conclusions Results indicate that GGTA1-KO/hHO-1/hA20 transgenic pigs are a promising model to alleviate rejection and ischemia-reperfusion damage in porcine xenografts and could serve as a background for further genetic modifications toward the production of a donor pig that is clinically relevant for xenotransplantation. PMID:27500225

  13. Lymphocyte signaling: beyond knockouts.

    PubMed

    Saveliev, Alexander; Tybulewicz, Victor L J

    2009-04-01

    The analysis of lymphocyte signaling was greatly enhanced by the advent of gene targeting, which allows the selective inactivation of a single gene. Although this gene 'knockout' approach is often informative, in many cases, the phenotype resulting from gene ablation might not provide a complete picture of the function of the corresponding protein. If a protein has multiple functions within a single or several signaling pathways, or stabilizes other proteins in a complex, the phenotypic consequences of a gene knockout may manifest as a combination of several different perturbations. In these cases, gene targeting to 'knock in' subtle point mutations might provide more accurate insight into protein function. However, to be informative, such mutations must be carefully based on structural and biophysical data.

  14. Lymphocyte signaling : beyond knockouts

    PubMed Central

    Saveliev, Alexander; Tybulewicz, Victor L. J.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of lymphocyte signaling was greatly enhanced by the advent of gene targeting, which allows the selective inactivation of a single gene. Whereas this gene ‘knockout’ approach is often informative, in many cases the phenotype resulting from gene ablation might not provide a complete picture of the function of the corresponding protein. If a protein has multiple functions within a single or several signaling pathways, or stabilizes other proteins in a complex, the phenotypic consequences of a gene knockout may manifest as a combination of several different perturbations. In these cases, gene targeting to ‘knockin’ subtle point mutations might provide more accurate insight into protein function. However, to be informative, such mutations must be carefully designed based on structural and biophysical data. PMID:19295633

  15. Knockout beyond the dripline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorso, A.; Charity, R. J.; Kumar, R.; Salvioni, G.

    2015-02-01

    In this contribution, we will describe neutron and proton removal from 9C and 7Be which are two particularly interesting nuclei entering the nucleo-synthesis pp-chain [1, 2]. Neutron and proton removal reactions have been used in the past twenty years to probe the single-particle structure of exotic nuclei. The core parallel-momentum distribution can give information on the angular momentum and spin of the nucleon initial state while the total removal cross section is sensitive to the asymptotic part of the initial wave function and also to the reaction mechanism. Because knockout is a peripheral reaction from which the Asymptotic Normalization Constant (ANC) of the single-particle wave function can be extracted, it has been used as an indirect method to obtain the rate of reactions like 8B ( p ,γ)9C or 7Be ( p ,γ)8B . Nucleon removal has recently been applied by the HiRA collaboration [3] to situations in which the remaining "core" is beyond the drip line, such as 8C and 6Be , unbound by one or more protons, and whose excitation-energy spectrum can be obtained by the invariant-mass method. By gating on the ground-state peak, "core" parallel-momentum distributions and total knockout cross sections have been obtained similar to previous studies with well-bound "cores". In addition for each projectile, knock out to final bound states has also been obtained in several cases. We will report on the theoretical description and comparison to this experimental data for a few cases for which advances in the accuracy of the transfer-to-the continuum model [4, 5] have been made [6]. These include the use, when available, of "ab-initio" overlaps for the initial state [7] and in particular their ANC values [8]. Also, the construction of a nucleus-target folding potential for the treatment of the core-target S-matrix [9] using for the cores "ab-initio" densities [10] and state-of-the-art n-9Be optical potentials [11]. Preliminary results and open problems will be discussed.

  16. Production of α1,3-galactosyltransferase and cytidine monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase gene double-deficient pigs by CRISPR/Cas9 and handmade cloning.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hanchao; Zhao, Chengjiang; Xiang, Xi; Li, Yong; Zhao, Yanli; Li, Zesong; Pan, Dengke; Dai, Yifan; Hara, Hidetaka; Cooper, David K C; Cai, Zhiming; Mou, Lisha

    2017-02-16

    Gene-knockout pigs hold great promise as a solution to the shortage of organs from donor animals for xenotransplantation. Several groups have generated gene-knockout pigs via clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Herein, we adopted a simple and micromanipulator-free method, handmade cloning (HMC) instead of SCNT, to generate double gene-knockout pigs. First, we applied the CRISPR/Cas9 system to target α1,3-galactosyltransferase (GGTA1) and cytidine monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH) genes simultaneously in porcine fetal fibroblast cells (PFFs), which were derived from wild-type Chinese domestic miniature Wuzhishan pigs. Cell colonies were obtained by screening and were identified by Surveyor assay and sequencing. Next, we chose the GGTA1/CMAH double-knockout (DKO) cells for HMC to produce piglets. As a result, we obtained 11 live bi-allelic GGTA1/CMAH DKO piglets with the identical phenotype. Compared to cells from GGTA1-knockout pigs, human antibody binding and antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity were significantly reduced in cells from GGTA1/CMAH DKO pigs, which demonstrated that our pigs would exhibit reduced humoral rejection in xenotransplantation. These data suggested that the combination of CRISPR/Cas9 and HMC technology provided an efficient and new strategy for producing pigs with multiple genetic modifications.

  17. Generation of knockout rabbits using transcription activator-like effector nucleases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Fan, Nana; Song, Jun; Zhong, Juan; Guo, Xiaogang; Tian, Weihua; Zhang, Quanjun; Cui, Fenggong; Li, Li; Newsome, Philip N; Frampton, Jon; Esteban, Miguel A; Lai, Liangxue

    2014-01-01

    Zinc-finger nucleases and transcription activator-like effector nucleases are novel gene-editing platforms contributing to redefine the boundaries of modern biological research. They are composed of a non-specific cleavage domain and a tailor made DNA-binding module, which enables a broad range of genetic modifications by inducing efficient DNA double-strand breaks at desired loci. Among other remarkable uses, these nucleases have been employed to produce gene knockouts in mid-size and large animals, such as rabbits and pigs, respectively. This approach is cost effective, relatively quick, and can produce invaluable models for human disease studies, biotechnology or agricultural purposes. Here we describe a protocol for the efficient generation of knockout rabbits using transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and a perspective of the field.

  18. PigGIS: Pig Genomic Informatics System

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Jue; Guo, Yiran; Li, Heng; Hu, Yafeng; Song, Fei; Huang, Xin; Kristiensen, Karsten; Bolund, Lars; Wang, Jun

    2007-01-01

    Pig Genomic Information System (PigGIS) is a web-based depository of pig (Sus scrofa) genomic learning mainly engineered for biomedical research to locate pig genes from their human homologs and position single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in different pig populations. It utilizes a variety of sequence data, including whole genome shotgun (WGS) reads and expressed sequence tags (ESTs), and achieves a successful mapping solution to the low-coverage genome problem. With the data presently available, we have identified a total of 15 700 pig consensus sequences covering 18.5 Mb of the homologous human exons. We have also recovered 18 700 SNPs and 20 800 unique 60mer oligonucleotide probes for future pig genome analyses. PigGIS can be freely accessed via the web at and . PMID:17090590

  19. Efficient modification of the myostatin gene in porcine somatic cells and generation of knockout piglets.

    PubMed

    Rao, Shengbin; Fujimura, Tatsuya; Matsunari, Hitomi; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Nakano, Kazuaki; Watanabe, Masahito; Asano, Yoshinori; Kitagawa, Eri; Yamamoto, Takashi; Nagashima, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator of myogenesis, and disruption of its function causes increased muscle mass in various species. Here, we report the generation of MSTN-knockout (KO) pigs using genome editing technology combined with somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) with non-repeat-variable di-residue variations, called Platinum TALEN, was highly efficient in modifying genes in porcine somatic cells, which were then used for SCNT to create MSTN KO piglets. These piglets exhibited a double-muscled phenotype, possessing a higher body weight and longissimus muscle mass measuring 170% that of wild-type piglets, with double the number of muscle fibers. These results demonstrate that loss of MSTN increases muscle mass in pigs, which may help increase pork production for consumption in the future. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Gene targeting and cloning in pigs using fetal liver derived cells.

    PubMed

    Waghmare, Sanjeev K; Estrada, Jose; Reyes, Luz; Li, Ping; Ivary, Bess; Sidner, Richard A; Burlak, Chris; Tector, A Joseph

    2011-12-01

    Since there are no pig embryonic stem cells, pig genetic engineering is done in fetal fibroblasts that remain totipotent for only 3 to 5 wk. Nuclear donor cells that remain totipotent for longer periods of time would facilitate complicated genetic engineering in pigs. The goal of this study was to test the feasibility of using fetal liver-derived cells (FLDC) to perform gene targeting, and create a genetic knockout pig. FLDC were isolated and processed using a human liver stem cell protocol. Single copy α-1,3-galactosyl transferase knockout (GTKO) FLDCs were created using electroporation and neomycin resistant colonies were screened using PCR. Homozygous GTKO cells were created through loss of heterozygosity mutations in single GTKO FLDCs. Double GTKO FLDCs were used in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to create GTKO pigs. FLDCs grew for more than 80 population doublings, maintaining normal karyotype. Gene targeting and loss of heterozygosity mutations produced homozygous GTKO FLDCs. FLDCs used in SCNT gave rise to homozygous GTKO pigs. FDLCs can be used in gene targeting and SCNT to produce genetically modified pigs. The increased life span in culture compared to fetal fibroblasts may facilitate genetic engineering in the pig. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Proton Knock-Out in Hall A

    SciTech Connect

    Kees de Jager

    Proton knock-out is studied in a broad program in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. The first experiment performed in Hall A studied the {sup 16}O(e,e'p) reaction. Since then proton knock-out experiments have studied a variety of aspects of that reaction, from single-nucleon properties to its mechanism, such as final-state interactions and two-body currents, in nuclei from {sup 2}H to {sup 16}O. In this review the results of this program will be summarized and an outlook given of future accomplishments.

  2. The guinea pig ileum lacks the direct, high-potency, M(2)-muscarinic, contractile mechanism characteristic of the mouse ileum.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Michael T; Matsui, Minoru; Ostrom, Rennolds S; Ehlert, Frederick J

    2009-10-01

    We explored whether the M(2) muscarinic receptor in the guinea pig ileum elicits a highly potent, direct-contractile response, like that from the M(3) muscarinic receptor knockout mouse. First, we characterized the irreversible receptor-blocking activity of 4-DAMP mustard in ileum from muscarinic receptor knockout mice to verify its M(3) selectivity. Then, we used 4-DAMP mustard to inactivate M(3) responses in the guinea pig ileum to attempt to reveal direct, M(2) receptor-mediated contractions. The muscarinic agonist, oxotremorine-M, elicited potent contractions in ileum from wild-type, M(2) receptor knockout, and M(3) receptor knockout mice characterized by negative log EC(50) (pEC (50)) values +/- SEM of 6.75 +/- 0.03, 6.26 +/- 0.05, and 6.99 +/- 0.08, respectively. The corresponding E (max) values in wild-type and M(2) receptor knockout mice were approximately the same, but that in the M(3) receptor knockout mouse was only 36% of wild type. Following 4-DAMP mustard treatment, the concentration-response curve of oxotremorine-M in wild-type ileum resembled that of the M(3) knockout mouse in terms of its pEC (50), E (max), and inhibition by selective muscarinic antagonists. Thus, 4-DAMP mustard treatment appears to inactivate M(3) responses selectively and renders the muscarinic contractile behavior of the wild-type ileum similar to that of the M(3) knockout mouse. Following 4-DAMP mustard treatment, the contractile response of the guinea pig ileum to oxotremorine-M exhibited low potency and a competitive-antagonism profile consistent with an M(3) response. The guinea pig ileum, therefore, lacks a direct, highly potent, M(2)-contractile component but may have a direct, lower potency M(2) component.

  3. Knockout of exogenous EGFP gene in porcine somatic cells using zinc-finger nucleases

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Masahito; Department of Life Sciences, School of Agriculture, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571; Umeyama, Kazuhiro

    2010-11-05

    Research highlights: {yields} EGFP gene integrated in porcine somatic cells could be knocked out using the ZFN-KO system. {yields} ZFNs induced targeted mutations in porcine primary cultured cells. {yields} Complete absence of EGFP fluorescence was confirmed in ZFN-treated cells. -- Abstract: Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) are expected as a powerful tool for generating gene knockouts in laboratory and domestic animals. Currently, it is unclear whether this technology can be utilized for knocking-out genes in pigs. Here, we investigated whether knockout (KO) events in which ZFNs recognize and cleave a target sequence occur in porcine primary cultured somatic cells that harbor themore » exogenous enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. ZFN-encoding mRNA designed to target the EGFP gene was introduced by electroporation into the cell. Using the Surveyor nuclease assay and flow cytometric analysis, we confirmed ZFN-induced cleavage of the target sequence and the disappearance of EGFP fluorescence expression in ZFN-treated cells. In addition, sequence analysis revealed that ZFN-induced mutations such as base substitution, deletion, or insertion were generated in the ZFN cleavage site of EGFP-expression negative cells that were cloned from ZFN-treated cells, thereby showing it was possible to disrupt (i.e., knock out) the function of the EGFP gene in porcine somatic cells. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence that the ZFN-KO system can be applied to pigs. These findings may open a new avenue to the creation of gene KO pigs using ZFN-treated cells and somatic cell nuclear transfer.« less

  4. Universal statistics of the knockout tournament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seung Ki; Yi, Il Gu; Park, Hye Jin; Kim, Beom Jun

    2013-11-01

    We study statistics of the knockout tournament, where only the winner of a fixture progresses to the next. We assign a real number called competitiveness to each contestant and find that the resulting distribution of prize money follows a power law with an exponent close to unity if the competitiveness is a stable quantity and a decisive factor to win a match. Otherwise, the distribution is found narrow. The existing observation of power law distributions in various kinds of real sports tournaments therefore suggests that the rules of those games are constructed in such a way that it is possible to understand the games in terms of the contestants' inherent characteristics of competitiveness.

  5. [Preliminary exploration on knockout drops (Meng Han Agents)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z

    1996-05-01

    This author points out, based on relevant materials, that knockout drops were vertigo powder. Due to homophonic reasons in Chinese language, the term "mingxuan" was transliterated into the former Chinese term (menghan). Knockout drops for medicinal use were merely made up of compound recipes containing stramonium flowers. The knockout drops in old fictions and opera books were powder of stramonium flower. The ingredients and application of such recipes are discussed here, the anti-remedies for such recipes are also mentioned.

  6. HEPATIC FUNCTION AFTER GENETICALLY-ENGINEERED PIG LIVER TRANSPLANTATION IN BABOONS

    PubMed Central

    Ekser, Burcin; Echeverri, Gabriel J.; Hassett, Andrea Cortese; Yazer, Mark H.; Long, Cassandra; Meyer, Michael; Ezzelarab, Mohamed; Lin, Chih Che; Hara, Hidetaka; van der Windt, Dirk J.; Dons, Eefje M.; Phelps, Carol; Ayares, David; Cooper, David K.C.; Gridelli, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Background If ‘bridging’ to allotransplantation is to be achieved by a pig liver xenograft, adequate hepatic function needs to be assured. Methods We have studied hepatic function in baboons after transplantation of livers from α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GTKO,n=1) or GTKO pigs transgenic for CD46 (GTKO/CD46,n=5). Monitoring was by liver function tests and coagulation parameters. Pig-specific proteins in the baboon serum/plasma were identified by Western blot. In 4 baboons, coagulation factors were measured. The results were compared with values from healthy humans, baboons, and pigs. Results Recipient baboons died or were euthanized after 4-7 days following internal bleeding associated with profound thrombocytopenia. However, parameters of liver function, including coagulation, remained in the near-normal range, except for some cholestasis. Western blot demonstrated that pig proteins (albumin, fibrinogen, haptoglobin, plasminogen) were produced by the liver from day 1. Production of several pig coagulation factors was confirmed. Conclusions After the transplantation of genetically-engineered pig livers into baboons (1) many parameters of hepatic function, including coagulation, were normal or near-normal; (2) there was evidence for production of pig proteins, including coagulation factors, and (3) these appeared to function adequately in baboons, though inter-species compatibility of such proteins remains to be confirmed. PMID:20606605

  7. Production of CMAH Knockout Preimplantation Embryos Derived From Immortalized Porcine Cells Via TALE Nucleases.

    PubMed

    Moon, JoonHo; Lee, Choongil; Kim, Su Jin; Choi, Ji-Yei; Lee, Byeong Chun; Kim, Jin-Soo; Jang, Goo

    2014-05-27

    Although noncancerous immortalized cell lines have been developed by introducing genes into human and murine somatic cells, such cell lines have not been available in large domesticated animals like pigs. For immortalizing porcine cells, primary porcine fetal fibroblasts were isolated and cultured using the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene. After selecting cells with neomycin for 2 weeks, outgrowing colonized cells were picked up and subcultured for expansion. Immortalized cells were cultured for more than 9 months without changing their doubling time (~24 hours) or their diameter (< 20 µm) while control cells became replicatively senescent during the same period. Even a single cell expanded to confluence in 100 mm dishes. Furthermore, to knockout the CMAH gene, designed plasmids encoding a transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALENs) pairs were transfected into the immortalized cells. Each single colony was analyzed by the mutation-sensitive T7 endonuclease I assay, fluorescent PCR, and dideoxy sequencing to obtain three independent clonal populations of cells that contained biallelic modifications. One CMAH knockout clone was chosen and used for somatic cell nuclear transfer. Cloned embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. In conclusion, we demonstrated that immortalized porcine fibroblasts were successfully established using the human hTERT gene, and the TALENs enabled biallelic gene disruptions in these immortalized cells.

  8. Production of CMAH Knockout Preimplantation Embryos Derived From Immortalized Porcine Cells Via TALE Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Moon, JoonHo; Lee, Choongil; Kim, Su Jin; Choi, Ji-Yei; Lee, Byeong Chun; Kim, Jin-Soo; Jang, Goo

    2014-01-01

    Although noncancerous immortalized cell lines have been developed by introducing genes into human and murine somatic cells, such cell lines have not been available in large domesticated animals like pigs. For immortalizing porcine cells, primary porcine fetal fibroblasts were isolated and cultured using the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene. After selecting cells with neomycin for 2 weeks, outgrowing colonized cells were picked up and subcultured for expansion. Immortalized cells were cultured for more than 9 months without changing their doubling time (~24 hours) or their diameter (< 20 µm) while control cells became replicatively senescent during the same period. Even a single cell expanded to confluence in 100 mm dishes. Furthermore, to knockout the CMAH gene, designed plasmids encoding a transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALENs) pairs were transfected into the immortalized cells. Each single colony was analyzed by the mutation-sensitive T7 endonuclease I assay, fluorescent PCR, and dideoxy sequencing to obtain three independent clonal populations of cells that contained biallelic modifications. One CMAH knockout clone was chosen and used for somatic cell nuclear transfer. Cloned embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. In conclusion, we demonstrated that immortalized porcine fibroblasts were successfully established using the human hTERT gene, and the TALENs enabled biallelic gene disruptions in these immortalized cells. PMID:24866481

  9. Pig in the Middle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Sophie

    2000-01-01

    Explores themes relating to human transition as they appear in "Charlotte's Web" and four other stories using pigs as a subject. Discusses the motifs common to all these texts that recur in the film "Babe." Considers how the cycle of life and death is ceaseless, and pigs symbolize the necessary transitions that people must all…

  10. Cysticercosis in the pig.

    PubMed

    de Aluja, A S

    2008-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is still an important parasitosis in rural pigs in many developing countries, México among them. The main causes for the persistence of this condition are lack of hygiene in the rural communities, lack of education of the animal owners, lack of control in the trade of pigs and their meat and lack of conscientious meat inspection. The pig production systems in the marginated areas of Mexico are briefly mentioned and it is stressed that among the important reasons for the persistence of the reproductive cycle of Taenia solium is the fact that appropriate toilet facilities in village dwellings are not mandatory. The diagnostic methods of cysticercosis in the living pigs and in their meat are discussed and the degenerative stages of the larvae as well as methods to test their viability are explained. The treatment of infected pigs and their meat is discussed. Recommendations for control programmes are given.

  11. Universal statistics of the knockout tournament

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Seung Ki; Yi, Il Gu; Park, Hye Jin; Kim, Beom Jun

    2013-01-01

    We study statistics of the knockout tournament, where only the winner of a fixture progresses to the next. We assign a real number called competitiveness to each contestant and find that the resulting distribution of prize money follows a power law with an exponent close to unity if the competitiveness is a stable quantity and a decisive factor to win a match. Otherwise, the distribution is found narrow. The existing observation of power law distributions in various kinds of real sports tournaments therefore suggests that the rules of those games are constructed in such a way that it is possible to understand the games in terms of the contestants' inherent characteristics of competitiveness. PMID:24217406

  12. Interrater agreement of an observational tool to code knockouts and technical knockouts in mixed martial arts.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, David W; Hutchison, Michael G; Cusimano, Michael D; Singh, Tanveer; Li, Luke

    2014-09-01

    Interrater agreement evaluation of a tool to document and code the situational factors and mechanisms of knockouts (KOs) and technical knockouts (TKOs) in mixed martial arts (MMA). Retrospective case series. Professional MMA matches from the Ultimate Fighting Championship-2006-2012. Two nonmedically trained independent raters. The MMA Knockout Tool (MMA-KT) consists of 20 factors and captures and codes information on match characteristics, situational context preceding KOs and TKOs, as well as describing competitor states during these outcomes. The MMA-KT also evaluates the mechanism of action and subsequent events surrounding a KO. The 2 raters coded 125 unique events for a total of 250 events. The 8 factors of Part A had an average κ of 0.87 (SD = 0.10; range = 0.65-0.98); 7 were considered "substantial" agreement and 1 "moderate." Part B consists of 12 factors with an average κ of 0.84 (SD = 0.16; range = 0.59-1.0); 7 classified as "substantial" agreement, 4 "moderate," and 1 "fair." The majority of the factors in the MMA-KT demonstrated substantial interrater agreement, with an average κ of 0.86 (SD = 0.13; range = 0.59-1.0). The MMA-KT is a reliable tool to extract and code relevant information to investigate the situational factors and mechanism of KOs and TKOs in MMA competitions.

  13. Knockout of Cytidine Monophospho-N-Acetylneuraminic Acid (CMP-NeuAc) Hydroxylase From Porcine Endothelial Cells by a CRISPR System.

    PubMed

    Sakai, R; Esaki, Y; Hasuwa, H; Ikawa, M; Lo, P; Matsuura, R; Nakahata, K; Zenitani, M; Asada, M; Maeda, A; Eguchi, H; Okuyama, H; Miyagawa, S

    2016-05-01

    We attempted to knock out the expression of Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D) antigens through the use of a CRISPR (clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeat)/Cas9 system for pig cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH). Plasmids expressing hCas9 and sgRNA for pCMAH were prepared by ligating oligos into the BbsI site of pX330. The N-terminal and C-terminal EGFP coding regions overlapping 482 bp were PCR-amplified and placed under a ubiquitous CAG promoter. The approximately 400-bp genomic fragments containing the sgRNA target sequence of pCMAH were placed into the multi-cloning sites flanked by the EGFP fragments. The pCAG-EGxxFP-target was mixed with pX330 with/without the sgRNA sequences and then introduced into HEK293T cells. Four oligos and primers, gSO1, gSO3, gSO4, and gSO8, were nominated from 8 candidates. Among them, gSO1 showed the best efficiency. Pig endothelial cells (PECs) from an α-Gal knockout pig were then used to examine the changes in the expression of the H-D antigen by the knockout of the CMAH genome by the pX330-gS01. Changes in the expression of the H-D antigen in the PECs with the CRISPR (gS01) were clear in comparison with those in the parental cells, on the basis of FACS analysis data. The expression of the H-D antigen can be knocked out by use of the CRISPR system for pCMAH, thus confirming that this system is a very convenient system for producing knockout pigs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of a Markerless Knockout Method for Actinobacillus succinogenes

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Rajasi V.; Schindler, Bryan D.; McPherson, Nikolas R.; Tiwari, Kanupriya

    2014-01-01

    Actinobacillus succinogenes is one of the best natural succinate-producing organisms, but it still needs engineering to further increase succinate yield and productivity. In this study, we developed a markerless knockout method for A. succinogenes using natural transformation or electroporation. The Escherichia coli isocitrate dehydrogenase gene with flanking flippase recognition target sites was used as the positive selection marker, making use of A. succinogenes's auxotrophy for glutamate to select for growth on isocitrate. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae flippase recombinase (Flp) was used to remove the selection marker, allowing its reuse. Finally, the plasmid expressing flp was cured using acridine orange. We demonstrate that at least two consecutive deletions can be introduced into the same strain using this approach, that no more than a total of 1 kb of DNA is needed on each side of the selection cassette to protect from exonuclease activity during transformation, and that no more than 200 bp of homologous DNA is needed on each side for efficient recombination. We also demonstrate that electroporation can be used as an alternative transformation method to obtain knockout mutants and that an enriched defined medium can be used for direct selection of knockout mutants on agar plates with high efficiency. Single-knockout mutants of the fumarate reductase and of the pyruvate formate lyase-encoding genes were obtained using this knockout strategy. Double-knockout mutants were also obtained by deleting the citrate lyase-, β-galactosidase-, and aconitase-encoding genes in the pyruvate formate lyase knockout mutant strain. PMID:24610845

  15. Development of a markerless knockout method for Actinobacillus succinogenes.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rajasi V; Schindler, Bryan D; McPherson, Nikolas R; Tiwari, Kanupriya; Vieille, Claire

    2014-05-01

    Actinobacillus succinogenes is one of the best natural succinate-producing organisms, but it still needs engineering to further increase succinate yield and productivity. In this study, we developed a markerless knockout method for A. succinogenes using natural transformation or electroporation. The Escherichia coli isocitrate dehydrogenase gene with flanking flippase recognition target sites was used as the positive selection marker, making use of A. succinogenes's auxotrophy for glutamate to select for growth on isocitrate. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae flippase recombinase (Flp) was used to remove the selection marker, allowing its reuse. Finally, the plasmid expressing flp was cured using acridine orange. We demonstrate that at least two consecutive deletions can be introduced into the same strain using this approach, that no more than a total of 1 kb of DNA is needed on each side of the selection cassette to protect from exonuclease activity during transformation, and that no more than 200 bp of homologous DNA is needed on each side for efficient recombination. We also demonstrate that electroporation can be used as an alternative transformation method to obtain knockout mutants and that an enriched defined medium can be used for direct selection of knockout mutants on agar plates with high efficiency. Single-knockout mutants of the fumarate reductase and of the pyruvate formate lyase-encoding genes were obtained using this knockout strategy. Double-knockout mutants were also obtained by deleting the citrate lyase-, β-galactosidase-, and aconitase-encoding genes in the pyruvate formate lyase knockout mutant strain.

  16. Production and Breeding of Transgenic Cloned Pigs Expressing Human CD73.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Chan; Lee, Haesun; Oh, Keon Bong; Hwang, In-Sul; Yang, Hyeon; Park, Mi-Ryung; Ock, Sun-A; Woo, Jae-Seok; Im, Gi-Sun; Hwang, Seongsoo

    2017-06-01

    One of the reasons to causing blood coagulation in the tissue of xenografted organs was known to incompatibility of the blood coagulation and anti-coagulation regulatory system between TG pigs and primates. Thus, overexpression of human CD73 (hCD73) in the pig endothelial cells is considered as a method to reduce coagulopathy after pig-to-non-human-primate xenotransplantation. This study was performed to produce and breed transgenic pigs expressing hCD73 for the studies immune rejection responses and could provide a successful application of xenotransplantation. The transgenic cells were constructed an hCD73 expression vector under control porcine Icam2 promoter (pIcam2-hCD73) and established donor cell lines expressing hCD73. The numbers of transferred reconstructed embryos were 127 ± 18.9. The pregnancy and delivery rate of surrogates were 8/18 (44%) and 3/18 (16%). The total number of delivered cloned pigs were 10 (2 alive, 7 mummy, and 1 died after birth). Among them, three live hCD73-pigs were successfully delivered by Caesarean section, but one was dead after birth. The two hCD73 TG cloned pigs had normal reproductive ability. They mated with wild type (WT) MGH (Massachusetts General Hospital) female sows and produced totally 16 piglets. Among them, 5 piglets were identified as hCD73 TG pigs. In conclusion, we successfully generated the hCD73 transgenic cloned pigs and produced their litters by natural mating. It can be possible to use a mate for the production of multiple transgenic pigs such as α-1,3-galactosyltransferase knock-out /hCD46 for xenotransplantation.

  17. A Chimera Analysis of Prestin Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cheatham, Mary Ann; Low-Zeddies, Sharon; Naik, Khurram; Edge, Roxanne; Zheng, Jing; Anderson, Charles T.; Dallos, Peter

    2009-01-01

    A chimera is a genetic composite containing a unique mix of cells derived from more than one zygote. This mouse model allows one to learn how cells of contrasting genotype functionally interact in vivo. Here we investigate the effect that different proportions of prestin-containing outer hair cells (OHC) have on cochlear amplification. In order to address this issue, we developed a prestin chimeric mouse in which both ROSA26 wildtype (WT) and prestin knockout (KO) genotypes are present in a single cochlea. The WT ROSA26 mice express a cell marker, allowing one to identify cells originating from the WT genome. Examination of cochlear tissue indicated that prestin chimeric mice demonstrate a mosaic in which mutant and normal OHCs interleave along the cochlear partition, similar to all other chimeric mouse models. The anatomical distribution of prestin-containing OHCs was compared with physiological data including thresholds and tuning curves for the compound action potential (CAP) recorded in anesthetized mice. Analysis of these measures did not reveal mixed phenotypes in which the distribution of prestin-containing OHCs impacted sensitivity and frequency selectivity to different degrees. However, by reducing the number of prestin-containing OHCs, phenotypes intermediate between WT and KO response patterns were obtained. Accordingly, we demonstrate a proportional reduction in sensitivity and in the tip length of CAP tuning curves as the number of OHCs derived from the KO genome increases, i.e., genotype ratio and phenotype are closely related. PMID:19776286

  18. Mycotoxic nephropathy in pigs*

    PubMed Central

    Elling, F.; Møller, T.

    1973-01-01

    In Denmark a nephropathy in pigs characterized by tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis has been identified frequently during the last 5 decades in the course of meat inspection in slaughterhouses. The disease was first described by Larsen, who recognized the connexion between feeding mouldy rye to pigs and the development of the nephropathy. In this study kidneys were examined from 19 pigs coming from a farm with an outbreak of nephropathy. The barley fed to the pigs was contaminated with the mycotoxin ochratoxin A. Histological examination revealed different degrees of change ranging from slight regressive changes in the tubular epithelium and periglomerular and interstitial fibrosis to tubular atrophy, thickened basement membranes, glomerular sclerosis, and marked fibrosis. These differences were considered to be due to differences in the length of time of exposure to the mouldy barley and differences in the amount of mycotoxin consumed by the individual pig. However, it will be necessary to carry out experiments using crystalline ochratoxin A in order to prove such a relationship. Mycotoxins have also been suggested as etiological factors in Balkan nephropathy in man, which in the initial stages is characterized by tubular lesions similar to those seen in mycotoxic nephropathy in pigs. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:4546872

  19. A STAT-1 Knockout Mouse Model for Machupo Virus Pathogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-14

    hemorrhagic fever viruses, including Ebola, Marburg, Junín, and Crimean - Congo Hemorrhagic Fever viruses [11-14...Akerstrom S, Klingstrom J, Mirazimi A: Crimean - Congo hemorrhagic fever virus infection is lethal for adult type I interferon receptor-knockout mice. J...Shieh WJ, Camus G, Stroher U, Zaki S, Jones SM: Pathogenesis and immune response of Crimean - Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in a STAT-1 knockout

  20. Genetically-engineered pig-to-baboon liver xenotransplantation: histopathology of xenografts and native organs.

    PubMed

    Ekser, Burcin; Klein, Edwin; He, Jing; Stolz, Donna B; Echeverri, Gabriel J; Long, Cassandra; Lin, Chih Che; Ezzelarab, Mohamed; Hara, Hidetaka; Veroux, Massimiliano; Ayares, David; Cooper, David K C; Gridelli, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation was carried out in baboons using wild-type (WT, n = 1) or genetically-engineered pigs (α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout, GTKO), n = 1; GTKO pigs transgenic for human CD46, n = 7) and a clinically-acceptable immunosuppressive regimen. Biopsies were obtained from the WT pig liver pre-Tx and at 30 min, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h post-transplantation. Biopsies of genetically-engineered livers were obtained pre-Tx, 2 h after reperfusion and at necropsy (4-7 days after transplantation). Tissues were examined by light, confocal, and electron microscopy. All major native organs were also examined. The WT pig liver underwent hyperacute rejection. After genetically-engineered pig liver transplantation, hyperacute rejection did not occur. Survival was limited to 4-7 days due to repeated spontaneous bleeding in the liver and native organs (as a result of profound thrombocytopenia) which necessitated euthanasia. At 2 h, graft histology was largely normal. At necropsy, genetically-engineered pig livers showed hemorrhagic necrosis, platelet aggregation, platelet-fibrin thrombi, monocyte/macrophage margination mainly in liver sinusoids, and vascular endothelial cell hypertrophy, confirmed by confocal and electron microscopy. Immunohistochemistry showed minimal deposition of IgM, and almost absence of IgG, C3, C4d, C5b-9, and of a cellular infiltrate, suggesting that neither antibody- nor cell-mediated rejection played a major role.

  1. A Review of Gene Knockout Strategies for Microbial Cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Phooi Wah; Chua, Pooi San; Chong, Shiue Kee; Mohamad, Mohd Saberi; Choon, Yee Wen; Deris, Safaai; Omatu, Sigeru; Corchado, Juan Manuel; Chan, Weng Howe; Rahim, Raha Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the effects of genetic modification is difficult due to the complexity of metabolic net- works. Various gene knockout strategies have been utilised to deactivate specific genes in order to determine the effects of these genes on the function of microbes. Deactivation of genes can lead to deletion of certain proteins and functions. Through these strategies, the associated function of a deleted gene can be identified from the metabolic networks. The main aim of this paper is to review the available techniques in gene knockout strategies for microbial cells. The review is done in terms of their methodology, recent applications in microbial cells. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques are compared and discuss and the related patents are also listed as well. Traditionally, gene knockout is done through wet lab (in vivo) techniques, which were conducted through laboratory experiments. However, these techniques are costly and time consuming. Hence, various dry lab (in silico) techniques, where are conducted using computational approaches, have been developed to surmount these problem. The development of numerous techniques for gene knockout in microbial cells has brought many advancements in the study of gene functions. Based on the literatures, we found that the gene knockout strategies currently used are sensibly implemented with regard to their benefits.

  2. Cathepsin K knockout alleviates aging-induced cardiac dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yinan; Robinson, Timothy J; Cao, Yongtao; Shi, Guo-Ping; Ren, Jun; Nair, Sreejayan

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It has previously been shown that protein levels of cathepsin K, a lysosomal cysteine protease, are elevated in the failing heart and that genetic ablation of cathepsin K protects against pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction. Here we test the hypothesis that cathepsin K knockout alleviates age-dependent decline in cardiac function. Cardiac geometry, contractile function, intracellular Ca2+ properties, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis were evaluated using echocardiography, fura-2 technique, immunohistochemistry, Western blot and TUNEL staining, respectively. Aged (24-month-old) mice exhibited significant cardiac remodeling (enlarged chamber size, wall thickness, myocyte cross-sectional area, and fibrosis), decreased cardiac contractility, prolonged relengthening along with compromised intracellular Ca2+ release compared to young (6-month-old) mice, which were attenuated in the cathepsin K knockout mice. Cellular markers of senescence, including cardiac lipofuscin, p21 and p16, were lower in the aged-cathepsin K knockout mice compared to their wild-type counterpart. Mechanistically, cathepsin K knockout mice attenuated an age-induced increase in cardiomyocyte apoptosis and nuclear translocation of mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). In cultured H9c2 cells, doxorubicin stimulated premature senescence and apoptosis. Silencing of cathepsin K blocked the doxorubicin-induced translocation of AIF from the mitochondria to the nuclei. Collectively, these results suggest that cathepsin K knockout attenuates age-related decline in cardiac function via suppressing caspase-dependent and caspase-independent apoptosis. PMID:25692548

  3. Pigs as laboratory animals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The pig is increasingly popular as a laboratory animal either as the target species in its own right or as a model for humans in biomedical science. As an intelligent, social animal it has a complex behavioral repertoire reminiscent of its ancestor, the wild boar. Within a laboratory setting, the pi...

  4. Wildlife Photography - Wild Pigs

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-08

    A wild pig finds food in the underbrush at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The center shares a border with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. More than 330 native and migratory bird species, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles call Kennedy and the wildlife refuge home.

  5. Wildlife Photography - Wild Pigs

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-08

    Two baby pigs dig in the underbrush at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The center shares a border with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. More than 330 native and migratory bird species, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles call Kennedy and the wildlife refuge home.

  6. Wildlife Photography - Wild Pigs

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-08

    A baby pig stands in the underbrush near a bog at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The center shares a border with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. More than 330 native and migratory bird species, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles call Kennedy and the wildlife refuge home.

  7. Wildlife Photography - Wild Pigs

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-08

    A baby pig digs in the underbrush at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The center shares a border with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. More than 330 native and migratory bird species, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles call Kennedy and the wildlife refuge home.

  8. A Simple "Pig" Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    Our pig game involves a series of tosses of a die with the possibility of a player's score improving with each additional toss. With each additional toss, however, there is also the chance of losing the entire score accumulated so far. Two different strategies for deciding how many tosses a player should attempt are developed and then compared in…

  9. St. Paul's Pig Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Penny Folley

    1982-01-01

    Describes a guinea pig (cavy) breeding and management program developed as part of an elementary school science curriculum. Includes comments on show competitions (sponsored by the American Rabbit Breeders Association) to measure the success of the breeding program and to enable children to experience the business world. (Author/JN)

  10. Transgenic and gene knockout mice in gastric cancer research

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yannan; Yu, Yingyan

    2017-01-01

    Mouse models are useful tool for carcinogenic study. They will greatly enrich the understanding of pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms for gastric cancer. However, only few of mice could develop gastric cancer spontaneously. With the development and improvement of gene transfer technology, investigators created a variety of transgenic and knockout/knockin mouse models of gastric cancer, such as INS-GAS mice and gastrin knockout mice. Combined with helicobacter infection and carcinogens treatment, these transgenic/knockout/knockin mice developed precancerous or cancerous lesions, which are proper for gene function study or experimental therapy. Here we review the progression of genetically engineered mouse models on gastric cancer research, and emphasize the effects of chemical carcinogens or infectious factors on carcinogenesis of genetically modified mouse. We also emphasize the histological examination on mouse stomach. We expect to provide researchers with some inspirations on this field. PMID:27713138

  11. Creation of miniature pig model of human Waardenburg syndrome type 2A by ENU mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Hai, Tang; Guo, Weiwei; Yao, Jing; Cao, Chunwei; Luo, Ailing; Qi, Meng; Wang, Xianlong; Wang, Xiao; Huang, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Hongyong; Wang, Dayu; Shang, Haitao; Hong, Qianlong; Zhang, Rui; Jia, Qitao; Zheng, Qiantao; Qin, Guosong; Li, Yongshun; Zhang, Tao; Jin, Weiwu; Chen, Zheng-Yi; Wang, Hongmei; Zhou, Qi; Meng, Anming; Wei, Hong; Yang, Shiming; Zhao, Jianguo

    2017-11-01

    Human Waardenburg syndrome 2A (WS2A) is a dominant hearing loss (HL) syndrome caused by mutations in the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) gene. In mouse models with MITF mutations, WS2A is transmitted in a recessive pattern, which limits the study of hearing loss (HL) pathology. In the current study, we performed ENU (ethylnitrosourea) mutagenesis that resulted in substituting a conserved lysine with a serine (p. L247S) in the DNA-binding domain of the MITF gene to generate a novel miniature pig model of WS2A. The heterozygous mutant pig (MITF +/L247S ) exhibits a dominant form of profound HL and hypopigmentation in skin, hair, and iris, accompanied by degeneration of stria vascularis (SV), fused hair cells, and the absence of endocochlear potential, which indicate the pathology of human WS2A. Besides hypopigmentation and bilateral HL, the homozygous mutant pig (MITF L247S/L247S ) and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated MITF bi-allelic knockout pigs both exhibited anophthalmia. Three WS2 patients carrying MITF mutations adjacent to the corresponding region were also identified. The pig models resemble the clinical symptom and molecular pathology of human WS2A patients perfectly, which will provide new clues for better understanding the etiology and development of novel treatment strategies for human HL.

  12. Cathepsin K Knockout Alleviates Pressure Overload–Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yinan; Xu, Xihui; Shi, Guo-Ping; Chicco, Adam J.; Ren, Jun; Nair, Sreejayan

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from human and animal studies has documented elevated levels of lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin K in failing hearts. Here, we hypothesized that ablation of cathepsin K mitigates pressure overload–induced cardiac hypertrophy. Cathepsin K knockout mice and their wild-type littermates were subjected to abdominal aortic constriction, resulting in cardiac remodeling (heart weight, cardiomyocyte size, left ventricular wall thickness, and end diastolic and end systolic dimensions) and decreased fractional shortening, the effects of which were significantly attenuated or ablated by cathepsin K knockout. Pressure overload dampened cardiomyocyte contractile function along with decreased resting Ca2+ levels and delayed Ca2+ clearance, which were partly resolved by cathepsin K knockout. Cardiac mammalian target of rapamycin and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) signaling cascades were upregulated by pressure overload, the effects of which were attenuated by cathepsin K knockout. In cultured H9c2 myoblast cells, silencing of cathepsin K blunted, whereas cathepsin K transfection mimicked phenylephrine–induced hypertrophic response, along with elevated phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin and ERK. In addition, cathepsin K protein levels were markedly elevated in human hearts of end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy. Collectively, our data suggest that cathepsin K ablation mitigates pressure overload–induced hypertrophy, possibly via inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin and ERK pathways. PMID:23529168

  13. Hepatic changes in metabolic gene expression in old ghrelin and ghrelin receptor knockout mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ghrelin knockout (GKO) and ghrelin receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor) knockout (GHSRKO) mice exhibit enhanced insulin sensitivity, but the mechanism is unclear. Insulin sensitivity declines with age and is inversely associated with accumulation of lipid in liver, a key glucoregulatory ...

  14. Technology And Pregnant Pigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    One of the interesting things about aerospace spinoff is the way it keeps cropping up in uncommon applications unimaginably remote from the original technology. For example, the pig pregnancy detector. The pig pregnancy detector? City folk may be surprised to learn that there is such a thing-and wonder why. The why is because it is a sow's job to produce piglets and farmers can't afford to keep those who don't; it costs about a half-dollar a day in feed, labor and facilities, and even in small herds that's intolerable. So the barren sow must go. Until recently, the best method of determining pig pregnancy was "eyeballing," daily visual examination over a period of time. The problem with eyeballing is that pregnancy is not evident until well advanced; when there is no pregnancy, the farmer learns too late that he has been feeding a sow that won't give him a litter. Advancing technology provided an answer: the quick, easy-to-use, accurate automatic detector for early evaluation of pregnancy status. Among the most popular of these devices are Scanopreg and Scanoprobe, to whose development NASA technology contributed. Scanopreg is an ultrasonic system which detects pregnancy about 30 days after breeding, long before eyeballing can provide an answer. The companion Scanoprobe is a dual-function unit which not only determines pregnancy but also gives farmers an analysis of a hog's meat-fat ratio, an important factor in breeding. Only a short time on the market, Scanopreg and Scanoprobe have already found wide acceptance among meat producers because they rapidly repay their cost.

  15. Deconstructing mammalian reproduction: using knockouts to define fertility pathways.

    PubMed

    Roy, Angshumoy; Matzuk, Martin M

    2006-02-01

    Reproduction is the sine qua non for the propagation of species and continuation of life. It is a complex biological process that is regulated by multiple factors during the reproductive life of an organism. Over the past decade, the molecular mechanisms regulating reproduction in mammals have been rapidly unraveled by the study of a vast number of mouse gene knockouts with impaired fertility. The use of reverse genetics to generate null mutants in mice through targeted disruption of specific genes has enabled researchers to identify essential regulators of spermatogenesis and oogenesis in vivo and model human disorders affecting reproduction. This review focuses on the merits, utility, and the variations of the knockout technology in studies of reproduction in mammals.

  16. Urea transporter knockout mice and their renal phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Robert A; Yang, Baoxue

    2014-01-01

    Urea transporter gene knockout mice have been created for the study of the urine-concentrating mechanism. The major findings in studies of the renal phenotype of these mice are as follows: (1) Urea accumulation in the inner medullary interstitium is dependent on intrarenal urea recycling mediated by urea transporters; (2) urea transporters are essential for preventing urea-induced osmotic diuresis and thus for water conservation; (3) NaCl concentration in the inner medullary interstitium is not significantly affected by the absence of IMCD, descending limb of Henle and descending vasa recta urea transporters. Studies in urea transporter knockout mouse models have highlighted the essential role of urea for producing maximally concentrated urine.

  17. The Pig--Pet, Pork or Sacrifice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Arthur

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the various roles of the pig in children's books, including E. B. White's CHARLOTTE'S WEB and Nina Bawden's PEPPERMINT PIG. Notes that, although pigs are often used as metaphors for greed, gluttony, and squalor, the portrayal of pigs in children's literature is typically positive. (MM)

  18. 33 CFR 154.2104 - Pigging system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pigging system. 154.2104 Section... Facilities-Vcs Design and Installation § 154.2104 Pigging system. (a) If a pigging system is used to clear... system (VCS), the pigging system must be designed with the following safety features: (1) A bypass loop...

  19. Morphological observation of the stria vascularis in midkine and pleiotrophin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Sone, Michihiko; Muramatsu, Hisako; Muramatsu, Takashi; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2011-02-01

    Midkine and Pleiotrophin are low molecular weight basic proteins with closely related structures and serve as growth/differentiation factors. They have been reported to be expressed in the cochlea during the embryonic and perinatal periods. In the present study, we focused on the roles of midkine and pleiotrophin in the stria vascularis and investigated morphological changes using mice deficient in these genes. Midkine knockout, pleiotrophin knockout, and double knockout mice were used and compared to wild-type mice. Auditory brain stem responses (ABRs) and cochlear blood flows were measured in each type of mice. Pathological changes in the stria vascularis were examined by light microscopy, including immunohistochemical staining with anti-Kir4.1 antibody, and electron microscopy. Hearing thresholds examined by ABRs were significantly higher in midkine knockout and pleiotrophin knockout mice than in wild-type mice. Double knockout mice showed higher thresholds compared to midkine knockout and pleiotrophin knockout mice. Blood flow in the lateral walls did not significantly differ and light microscopy examination showed an almost normal appearance of the stria vascularis in these knockout mice. However, the expression of Kir4.1 was weak in the knockout mice and severe vacuolar degeneration was observed by electron microscopy in the intermediate cells of the double knockout mice. The present study demonstrates that midkine and pleiotrophin play some roles for the morphological maintenance of intermediate cell in the stria vascularis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Arsanilic acid blindness in pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Menges, R.W.; Kintner, L.D.; Selby, L.A.

    1970-06-01

    Blindness in pigs that were given an overdosage of arsanilic acid is reported. A 0.0375% level of arsanilic acid was fed to 640 pigs for 90 days beginning when the animals were 3 months old. Approximately one month after the start of feeding, partial or complete blindness was observed in 50 of the pigs. Clinical signs, pathologic findings and the chemical analysis of hair are discussed. The level of arsanilic acid used was that recommended for the control of swine dysentery, to be fed for only five or six days. The overdosage resulted from a misunderstanding between the farmer andmore » the feed mill.« less

  1. Preclinical electrogastrography in experimental pigs

    PubMed Central

    Květina, Jaroslav; Varayil, Jithinraj Edakkanambeth; Ali, Shahzad Marghoob; Kuneš, Martin; Bureš, Jan; Tachecí, Ilja; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Kopáčová, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    Surface electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive means of recording gastric myoelectric activity or slow waves from cutaneous leads placed over the stomach. This paper provides a comprehensive review of preclinical EGG. Our group recently set up and worked out the methods for EGG in experimental pigs. We gained our initial experience in the use of EGG in assessment of porcine gastric myoelectric activity after volume challenge and after intragastric administration of itopride and erythromycin. The mean dominant frequency in pigs is comparable with that found in humans. EGG in experimental pigs is feasible. Experimental EGG is an important basis for further preclinical projects in pharmacology and toxicology. PMID:21217873

  2. Fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase deficient pigs are a novel large animal model of metabolic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Hickey, Raymond D.; Mao, Shennen A.; Glorioso, Jaime; Lillegard, Joseph B.; Fisher, James E.; Amiot, Bruce; Rinaldo, Piero; Harding, Cary O.; Marler, Ronald; Finegold, Milton J.; Grompe, Markus; Nyberg, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary tyrosinemia type I (HT1) is caused by deficiency in fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH), an enzyme that catalyzes the last step of tyrosine metabolism. The most severe form of the disease presents acutely during infancy, and is characterized by severe liver involvement, most commonly resulting in death if untreated. Generation of FAH+/− pigs was previously accomplished by adeno-associated virus-mediated gene knockout in fibroblasts and somatic cell nuclear transfer. Subsequently, these animals were outbred and crossed to produce the first FAH−/− pigs. FAH-deficiency produced a lethal defect in utero that was corrected by administration of 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzyol)-1,3 cyclohexanedione (NTBC) throughout pregnancy. Animals on NTBC were phenotypically normal at birth; however, animals were euthanized approximately four weeks after withdrawal of NTBC due to clinical decline and physical examination findings of severe liver injury and encephalopthy consistent with acute liver failure. Biochemical and histological analyses, characterized by diffuse and severe hepatocellular damage, confirmed the diagnosis of severe liver injury. FAH−/− pigs provide the first genetically engineered large animal model of a metabolic liver disorder. Future applications of FAH−/− pigs include discovery research as a large animal model of HT1 and spontaneous acute liver failure, and preclinical testing of efficacy of liver cell therapies, including transplantation of hepatocytes, liver stem cells, and pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes. PMID:24879068

  3. Investigation of the disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers in mainland China by simulation experiment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Linhai; Xu, Guoyan; Li, Qingguang; Hou, Bo; Hu, Wuyang; Wang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Dead pigs are a major waste by-product of pig farming. Thus, safe disposal of dead pigs is important to the protection of consumer health and the ecological environment by preventing marketing of slaughtered and processed dead pigs and improper dumping of dead pigs. In this study, a probability model was constructed for the disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers by selecting factors affecting disposal. To that end, we drew on the definition and meaning of behavior probability based on survey data collected from 654 pig farmers in Funing County, Jiangsu Province, China. Moreover, the role of influencing factors in pig farmers' behavioral choices regarding the disposal of dead pigs was simulated by simulation experiment. The results indicated that years of farming had a positive impact on pig farmers' choice of negative disposal of dead pigs. Moreover, there was not a simple linear relationship between scale of farming and pig farmers' behavioral choices related to the disposal of dead pigs. The probability for farmers to choose the safe disposal of dead pigs increased with the improvement of their knowledge of government policies and relevant laws and regulations. Pig farmers' behavioral choice about the disposal of dead pigs was also affected by government subsidy policies, regulation, and punishment. Government regulation and punishment were more effective than subsidy. The findings of our simulation experiment provide important decision-making support for the governance in preventing the marketing of dead pigs at the source.

  4. Generation of GHR-modified pigs as Laron syndrome models via a dual-sgRNAs/Cas9 system and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Honghao; Long, Weihu; Zhang, Xuezeng; Xu, Kaixiang; Guo, Jianxiong; Zhao, Heng; Li, Honghui; Qing, Yubo; Pan, Weirong; Jia, Baoyu; Zhao, Hong-Ye; Huang, Xingxu; Wei, Hong-Jiang

    2018-02-27

    Laron syndrome is an autosomal disease resulting from mutations in the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene. The only therapeutic treatment for Laron syndrome is recombinant insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), which has been shown to have various side effects. The improved Laron syndrome models are important for better understanding the pathogenesis of the disease and developing corresponding therapeutics. Pigs have become attractive biomedical models for human condition due to similarities in anatomy, physiology, and metabolism relative to humans, which could serve as an appropriate model for Laron syndrome. To further improve the GHR knockout (GHRKO) efficiency and explore the feasibility of precise DNA deletion at targeted sites, the dual-sgRNAs/Cas9 system was designed to target GHR exon 3 in pig fetal fibroblasts (PFFs). The vectors encoding sgRNAs and Cas9 were co-transfected into PFFs by electroporation and GHRKO cell lines were established by single cell cloning culture. Two biallelic knockout cell lines were selected as the donor cell line for somatic cell nuclear transfer for the generation of GHRKO pigs. The genotype of colonies, cloned fetuses and piglets were identified by T7 endonuclease I (T7ENI) assay and sequencing. The GHR expression in the fibroblasts and piglets was analyzed by confocal microscopy, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR), western blotting (WB) and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. The phenotype of GHRKO pigs was recapitulated through level detection of IGF-I and glucose, and measurement of body weight and body size. GHRKO F1 generation were generated by crossing with wild-type pigs, and their genotype was detected by T7ENI assay and sequencing. GHRKO F2 generation was obtained via self-cross of GHRKO F1 pigs. Their genotypes of GHRKO F2 generation was also detected by Sanger sequencing. In total, 19 of 20 single-cell colonies exhibited biallelic modified GHR (95%), and the efficiency of DNA deletion mediated by dual

  5. Guinea pig models of asthma.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Alice E; Mazzone, Stuart B

    2014-12-01

    Described in this unit are methods for establishing guinea pig models of asthma. Sufficient detail is provided to enable investigators to study bronchoconstriction, cough, airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, and remodeling. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Robust and Sensitive Analysis of Mouse Knockout Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Karp, Natasha A.; Melvin, David; Mott, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    A significant challenge of in-vivo studies is the identification of phenotypes with a method that is robust and reliable. The challenge arises from practical issues that lead to experimental designs which are not ideal. Breeding issues, particularly in the presence of fertility or fecundity problems, frequently lead to data being collected in multiple batches. This problem is acute in high throughput phenotyping programs. In addition, in a high throughput environment operational issues lead to controls not being measured on the same day as knockouts. We highlight how application of traditional methods, such as a Student’s t-Test or a 2-way ANOVA, in these situations give flawed results and should not be used. We explore the use of mixed models using worked examples from Sanger Mouse Genome Project focusing on Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry data for the analysis of mouse knockout data and compare to a reference range approach. We show that mixed model analysis is more sensitive and less prone to artefacts allowing the discovery of subtle quantitative phenotypes essential for correlating a gene’s function to human disease. We demonstrate how a mixed model approach has the additional advantage of being able to include covariates, such as body weight, to separate effect of genotype from these covariates. This is a particular issue in knockout studies, where body weight is a common phenotype and will enhance the precision of assigning phenotypes and the subsequent selection of lines for secondary phenotyping. The use of mixed models with in-vivo studies has value not only in improving the quality and sensitivity of the data analysis but also ethically as a method suitable for small batches which reduces the breeding burden of a colony. This will reduce the use of animals, increase throughput, and decrease cost whilst improving the quality and depth of knowledge gained. PMID:23300663

  7. Pituitary-adrenal responses to oxotremorine and acute stress in male and female M1 muscarinic receptor knockout mice: comparisons to M2 muscarinic receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, M E; Rubin, R T; McKlveen, J M; Karwoski, T E; Fulton, B A; Czambel, R K

    2008-05-01

    Both within the brain and in the periphery, M(1) muscarinic receptors function primarily as postsynaptic receptors and M(2) muscarinic receptors function primarily as presynaptic autoreceptors. In addition to classical parasympathetic effectors, cholinergic stimulation of central muscarinic receptors influences the release of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone. We previously reported that oxotremorine administration to male and female M(2) receptor knockout and wild-type mice increased ACTH to a significantly greater degree in knockout males compared to all other groups, and that M(2) knockout mice of both sexes were significantly more responsive to the mild stress of saline injection than were wild-type mice. These results accord with the primary function of M(2) receptors as presynaptic autoreceptors. In the present study, we explored the role of the M(1) receptor in pituitary-adrenal responses to oxotremorine and saline in male and female M(1) knockout and wild-type mice. Because these mice responded differently to the mild stress of saline injection than did the M(2) knockout and wild-type mice, we also determined hormone responses to restraint stress in both M(1) and M(2) knockout and wild-type mice. Male and female M(1) knockout and wild-type mice were equally unresponsive to the stress of saline injection. Oxotremorine increased both ACTH and corticosterone in M(1) wild-type mice to a significantly greater degree than in knockout mice. In both M(1) knockout and wild-type animals, ACTH responses were greater in males compared to females, and corticosterone responses were greater in females compared to males. Hormone responses to restraint stress were increased in M(2) knockout mice and decreased in M(1) knockout mice compared to their wild-type counterparts. These findings suggest that M(1) and M(2) muscarinic receptor subtypes differentially influence male and female pituitary-adrenal responses to cholinergic stimulation and stress. The

  8. Hair-Cell Mechanotransduction Persists in TRP Channel Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Niksch, Paul D.; Webber, Roxanna M.; Garcia-Gonzalez, Miguel; Watnick, Terry; Zhou, Jing; Vollrath, Melissa A.; Corey, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the TRP superfamily of ion channels mediate mechanosensation in some organisms, and have been suggested as candidates for the mechanotransduction channel in vertebrate hair cells. Some TRP channels can be ruled out based on lack of an inner ear phenotype in knockout animals or pore properties not similar to the hair-cell channel. Such studies have excluded Trpv4, Trpa1, Trpml3, Trpm1, Trpm3, Trpc1, Trpc3, Trpc5, and Trpc6. However, others remain reasonable candidates. We used data from an RNA-seq analysis of gene expression in hair cells as well as data on TRP channel conductance to narrow the candidate group. We then characterized mice lacking functional Trpm2, Pkd2, Pkd2l1, Pkd2l2 and Pkd1l3, using scanning electron microscopy, auditory brainstem response, permeant dye accumulation, and single-cell electrophysiology. In all of these TRP-deficient mice, and in double and triple knockouts, mechanotransduction persisted. Together with published studies, these results argue against the participation of any of the 33 mouse TRP channels in hair cell transduction. PMID:27196058

  9. Core features of frontotemporal dementia recapitulated in progranulin knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshal, N.; Dearborn, J.T.; Wozniak, D.F.; Cairns, N.J.

    2011-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is typified by behavioral and cognitive changes manifested as altered social comportment and impaired memory performance. To investigate the neurodegenerative consequences of progranulin gene (GRN) mutations, which cause an inherited form of FTD, we used previously generated progranulin knockout mice (Grn-/-). Specifically, we characterized two cohorts of early and later middle-age wild type and knockout mice using a battery of tests to assess neurological integrity and behavioral phenotypes analogous to FTD. The Grn-/- mice exhibited reduced social engagement and learning and memory deficits. Immunohistochemical approaches were used to demonstrate the presence of lesions characteristic of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with GRN mutation including ubiquitination, microgliosis, and reactive astrocytosis, the pathological substrate of FTD. Importantly, Grn-/- mice also have decreased overall survival compared to Grn+/+ mice. These data suggest that the Grn-/- mouse reproduces some core features of FTD with respect to behavior, pathology, and survival. This murine model may serve as a valuable in vivo model of FTLD with GRN mutation through which molecular mechanisms underlying the disease can be further dissected. PMID:21933710

  10. Efficient CRISPR/Cas9-based gene knockout in watermelon.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shouwei; Jiang, Linjian; Gao, Qiang; Zhang, Jie; Zong, Mei; Zhang, Haiying; Ren, Yi; Guo, Shaogui; Gong, Guoyi; Liu, Fan; Xu, Yong

    2017-03-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 system can precisely edit genomic sequence and effectively create knockout mutations in T0 generation watermelon plants. Genome editing offers great advantage to reveal gene function and generate agronomically important mutations to crops. Recently, RNA-guided genome editing system using the type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein 9 (Cas9) has been applied to several plant species, achieving successful targeted mutagenesis. Here, we report the genome of watermelon, an important fruit crop, can also be precisely edited by CRISPR/Cas9 system. ClPDS, phytoene desaturase in watermelon, was selected as the target gene because its mutant bears evident albino phenotype. CRISPR/Cas9 system performed genome editing, such as insertions or deletions at the expected position, in transfected watermelon protoplast cells. More importantly, all transgenic watermelon plants harbored ClPDS mutations and showed clear or mosaic albino phenotype, indicating that CRISPR/Cas9 system has technically 100% of genome editing efficiency in transgenic watermelon lines. Furthermore, there were very likely no off-target mutations, indicated by examining regions that were highly homologous to sgRNA sequences. Our results show that CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful tool to effectively create knockout mutations in watermelon.

  11. TAM receptor knockout mice are susceptible to retinal autoimmune induction.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fei; Li, Qiutang; Ke, Yan; Lu, Qingjun; Han, Lixia; Kaplan, Henry J; Shao, Hui; Lu, Qingxian

    2011-06-16

    TAM receptors are expressed mainly by dendritic cells and macrophages in the immune system, and mice lacking TAM receptors develop systemic autoimmune diseases because of inefficient negative control of the cytokine signaling in those cells. This study aims to test the susceptibility of the TAM triple knockout (tko) mice to the retina-specific autoantigen to develop experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU). TAM tko mice that were or were not immunized with interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) peptides were evaluated for retinal infiltration of the macrophages and CD3(+) T cells by immunohistochemistry, spontaneous activation of CD4(+) T cells, and memory T cells by flow cytometry and proliferation of IRBP-specific CD4(+) T cells by [(3)H]thymidine incorporation assay. Ocular inflammation induced by IRBP peptide immunization and specific T cell transfer were observed clinically by funduscopy and confirmed by histology. Tko mice were found to have less naive, but more activated, memory T cells, among which were exhibited high sensitivity to ocular IRBP autoantigens. Immunization with a low dose of IRBP and adoptive transfer of small numbers of IRBP-specific T cells from immunized tko mice caused the infiltration of lymphocytes, including CD3(+) T cells, into the tko retina. Mice without TAM receptor spontaneously develop IRBP-specific CD4(+) T cells and are more susceptible to retinal autoantigen immunization. This TAM knockout mouse line provides an animal model with which to study the role of antigen-presenting cells in the development of T cell-mediated uveitis.

  12. Fractionating spatial memory with glutamate receptor subunit-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Bannerman, David M

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, the contribution that different glutamate receptor subtypes and subunits make to spatial learning and memory has been studied extensively using genetically modified mice in which key proteins are knocked out. This has revealed dissociations between different aspects of spatial memory that were not previously apparent from lesion studies. For example, studies with GluA1 AMPAR [AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid) receptor] subunit-knockout mice have revealed the presence of a GluA1-dependent, non-associative short-term memory mechanism that is important for performance on spatial working memory tasks, and a GluA1-independent, long-term associative memory mechanism which underlies performance on spatial reference memory tasks. Within this framework we have also studied the contributions of different GluN2-containing NMDARs [NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors] to spatial memory. Studies with GluN2 NMDAR mutants have revealed different contributions from GluN2A- and GluN2B-containing NMDARs to spatial learning. Furthermore, comparison of forebrain- and hippocampus-specific GluN2B-knockout mice has demonstrated that both hippocampal and extra-hippocampal NMDARs make important contributions to spatial memory performance.

  13. Congenital myopathy associated with the triadin knockout syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Redhage, Keeley R.; Tester, David J.; Ackerman, Michael J.; Selcen, Duygu

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Triadin is a component of the calcium release complex of cardiac and skeletal muscle. Our objective was to analyze the skeletal muscle phenotype of the triadin knockout syndrome. Methods: We performed clinical evaluation, analyzed morphologic features by light and electron microscopy, and immunolocalized triadin in skeletal muscle. Results: A 6-year-old boy with lifelong muscle weakness had a triadin knockout syndrome caused by compound heterozygous null mutations in triadin. Light microscopy of a deltoid muscle specimen shows multiple small abnormal spaces in all muscle fibers. Triadin immunoreactivity is absent from type 1 fibers and barely detectable in type 2 fibers. Electron microscopy reveals focally distributed dilation and degeneration of the lateral cisterns of the sarcoplasmic reticulum and loss of the triadin anchors from the preserved lateral cisterns. Conclusions: Absence of triadin in humans can result in a congenital myopathy associated with profound pathologic alterations in components of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Why only some triadin-deficient patients develop a skeletal muscle phenotype remains an unsolved question. PMID:28202702

  14. Norepinephrine Transporter Heterozygous Knockout Mice Exhibit Altered Transport and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fentress, HM; Klar, R; Krueger, JK; Sabb, T; Redmon, SN; Wallace, NM; Shirey-Rice, JK; Hahn, MK

    2013-01-01

    The norepinephrine (NE) transporter (NET) regulates synaptic NE availability for noradrenergic signaling in the brain and sympathetic nervous system. Although genetic variation leading to a loss of NET expression has been implicated in psychiatric and cardiovascular disorders, complete NET deficiency has not been found in people, limiting the utility of NET knockout mice as a model for genetically-driven NET dysfunction. Here, we investigate NET expression in NET heterozygous knockout male mice (NET+/−), demonstrating that they display an ~50% reduction in NET protein levels. Surprisingly, these mice display no significant deficit in NET activity, assessed in hippocampal and cortical synaptosomes. We found that this compensation in NET activity was due to enhanced activity of surface-resident transporters, as opposed to surface recruitment of NET protein or compensation through other transport mechanisms, including serotonin, dopamine or organic cation transporters. We hypothesize that loss of NET protein in the NET+/− mouse establishes an activated state of existing, surface NET proteins. NET+/− mice exhibit increased anxiety in the open field and light-dark box and display deficits in reversal learning in the Morris Water Maze. These data suggest recovery of near basal activity in NET+/− mice appears to be insufficient to limit anxiety responses or support cognitive performance that might involve noradrenergic neurotransmission. The NET+/− mice represent a unique model to study the loss and resultant compensatory changes in NET that may be relevant to behavior and physiology in human NET deficiency disorders. PMID:24102798

  15. Proton-induced knockout reactions with polarized and unpolarized beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakasa, T.; Ogata, K.; Noro, T.

    2017-09-01

    Proton-induced knockout reactions provide a direct means of studying the single particle or cluster structures of target nuclei. In addition, these knockout reactions are expected to play a unique role in investigations of the effects of the nuclear medium on nucleon-nucleon interactions as well as the properties of nucleons and mesons. However, due to the nature of hadron probes, these reactions can suffer significant disturbances from the nuclear surroundings and the quantitative theoretical treatment of such processes can also be challenging. In this article, we review the experimental and theoretical progress in this field, particularly focusing on the use of these reactions as a spectroscopic tool and as a way to examine the medium modification of nucleon-nucleon interactions. With regard to the former aspect, the review presents a semi-quantitative evaluation of these reactions based on existing experimental data. In terms of the latter point, we introduce a significant body of evidence that suggests, although does not conclusively prove, the existence of medium effects. In addition, this paper also provides information and comments on other related subjects.

  16. Generation and characterisation of a parkin-Pacrg knockout mouse line and a Pacrg knockout mouse line.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Sarah E M; Aumann, Timothy D; Taylor, Juliet M; Riseley, Jessica R; Li, Ruili; Mann, Jeffrey R; Tomas, Doris; Lockhart, Paul J

    2018-05-14

    Mutations in PARK2 (parkin) can result in Parkinson's disease (PD). Parkin shares a bidirectional promoter with parkin coregulated gene (PACRG) and the transcriptional start sites are separated by only ~200 bp. Bidirectionally regulated genes have been shown to function in common biological pathways. Mice lacking parkin have largely failed to recapitulate the dopaminergic neuronal loss and movement impairments seen in individuals with parkin-mediated PD. We aimed to investigate the function of PACRG and test the hypothesis that parkin and PACRG function in a common pathway by generating and characterizing two novel knockout mouse lines harbouring loss of both parkin and Pacrg or Pacrg alone. Successful modification of the targeted allele was confirmed at the genomic, transcriptional and steady state protein levels for both genes. At 18-20 months of age, there were no significant differences in the behaviour of parental and mutant lines when assessed by openfield, rotarod and balance beam. Subsequent neuropathological examination suggested there was no gross abnormality of the dopaminergic system in the substantia nigra and no significant difference in the number of dopaminergic neurons in either knockout model compared to wildtype mice.

  17. Mercury toxicosis in the pig

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, W.J.C.

    1965-01-01

    Research was conducted using 12 pigs assigned in pairs to the following groups: (1) control, (2) 2 mg. mercuric chloride (HgCl/sub 2/) per kilogram ration, (3) 20 mg, HgCl/sub 2/ per kilogram ration, (4) 100 mg. HgCl/sub 2/ per kilogram ration, (5) 200 mg. HgCl/sub 2/ per kilogram ration, and (6) 2 Gm. HgCl/sub 2/ per kilogram ration. Signs of clinical disturbance developed on the 5th day in both animals fed the high level of HgCl/sub 2/. One of the pigs fed 200 mg. per kilogram ration had signs of acute illness on day 19 and died. Clinical signs includedmore » anorexia, staggering gait, emaciation, and diarrhea. None of the remaining pigs became clinically ill. Gross lesions noted in the clinically affected pigs included a paleness of the renal cortex, generalized hemorrhages, and a pseudomembrane formation in the colon. Microscopic lesions included neuronal necrosis and vacuolation, necrosis and regeneration of renal parenchymal tissue, and focal hepatic coagulation necrosis. Individual susceptibility appeared to be an important factor in mercuric chloride toxicosis in the pig, since there was little correlation between the amount of mercuric chloride ingestion per unit of body weight and the degree of toxicosis.« less

  18. Relative axial myopia in Egr-1 (ZENK) knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Schippert, Ruth; Burkhardt, Eva; Feldkaemper, Marita; Schaeffel, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Experiments in chickens have implicated the transcription factor ZENK (also known as Egr-1, NGFI-A, zif268, tis8, cef5, and Krox24) in the feedback mechanisms for visual control of axial eye growth and myopia development. ZENK is upregulated in retinal glucagon amacrine cells when axial eye growth is inhibited by positive spectacle lens wear and is downregulated when it is enhanced by negative spectacle lens wear, suggesting that ZENK may be linked to an inhibitory signal for axial eye growth. This study was undertaken to determine whether a Egr-1(-/-) knockout mouse mutant, lacking ZENK completely, has longer eyes and more myopic refraction, than do Egr-1(+/)(-) heterozygous and Egr-1(+/+) wild-type mice with near-identical genetic backgrounds. Eye growth and refractive development were tracked from day P28 to P98. Corneal radius of curvature was measured with infrared photokeratometry, refractive state with infrared photoretinoscopy, and ocular dimensions with low-coherence interferometry. As a functional vision test, grating acuity was determined in an automated optomotor task. The abundance of ZENK protein in the retina was quantified by immunohistochemistry. Egr-1 knockout mice had longer eyes and a relative myopic shift in refraction, with additional minor effects on anterior chamber depth and corneal radius of curvature. Paraxial schematic eye modeling suggested changes in the optics of the crystalline lens as well. With increasing age, the differences between mutant and wild-type mice declined, although the differences in refraction persisted over the observation period. Grating acuity was not affected by the lack of the Egr-1 protein during development. Although it has been shown that different mouse strains may have differently large eyes, the present study shows that a specific gene knockout can produce relative myopia, compared with the wild-type with near-identical genetic background. Further experiments are needed to determine whether the observed

  19. Knockout of Foxp2 disrupts vocal development in mice.

    PubMed

    Castellucci, Gregg A; McGinley, Matthew J; McCormick, David A

    2016-03-16

    The FOXP2 gene is important for the development of proper speech motor control in humans. However, the role of the gene in general vocal behavior in other mammals, including mice, is unclear. Here, we track the vocal development of Foxp2 heterozygous knockout (Foxp2+/-) mice and their wildtype (WT) littermates from juvenile to adult ages, and observe severe abnormalities in the courtship song of Foxp2+/- mice. In comparison to their WT littermates, Foxp2+/- mice vocalized less, produced shorter syllable sequences, and possessed an abnormal syllable inventory. In addition, Foxp2+/- song also exhibited irregular rhythmic structure, and its development did not follow the consistent trajectories observed in WT vocalizations. These results demonstrate that the Foxp2 gene is critical for normal vocal behavior in juvenile and adult mice, and that Foxp2 mutant mice may provide a tractable model system for the study of the gene's role in general vocal motor control.

  20. Normal Taste Acceptance and Preference of PANX1 Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Tordoff, Michael G; Aleman, Tiffany R; Ellis, Hillary T; Ohmoto, Makoto; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Shestopalov, Val I; Mitchell, Claire H; Foskett, J Kevin; Poole, Rachel L

    2015-09-01

    Taste compounds detected by G protein-coupled receptors on the apical surface of Type 2 taste cells initiate an intracellular molecular cascade culminating in the release of ATP. It has been suggested that this ATP release is accomplished by pannexin 1 (PANX1). However, we report here that PANX1 knockout mice do not differ from wild-type controls in response to representative taste solutions, measured using 5-s brief-access tests or 48-h two-bottle choice tests. This implies that PANX1 is unnecessary for taste detection and consequently that ATP release from Type 2 taste cells does not require PANX1. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. SAMHD1 knockout mice: modeling retrovirus restriction in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li

    2013-11-20

    The host dNTP hydrolase SAMHD1 acts as a viral restriction factor to inhibit the replication of several retroviruses and DNA viruses in non-cycling human immune cells. However, understanding the physiological role of mammalian SAMHD1 has been elusive due to the lack of an animal model. Two recent studies reported the generation of samhd1 knockout mouse models for investigating the restriction of HIV-1 vectors and endogenous retroviruses in vivo. Both studies suggest that SAMHD1 is important for regulating the intracellular dNTP pool and the intrinsic immunity against retroviral infection, despite different outcomes of HIV-1 vector transduction in these mouse models. Here I discuss the significance of these new findings and the future directions in studying SAMHD1-mediated retroviral restriction.

  2. Vulnerability to mild predator stress in serotonin transporter knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Adamec, Robert; Burton, Paul; Blundell, Jacqueline; Murphy, Dennis L; Holmes, Andrew

    2006-06-03

    Effect of predator stress on rat and mouse anxiety-like behavior may model aspects of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A single cat exposure of wild type (C57, CFW) mice can produce lasting anxiety-like effects in the elevated plus maze, light/dark box tests and startle. In addition, female but not male C57 mice are made more anxious in the plus maze by exposure to predator odors alone, suggesting differential vulnerability to predator stressors of differing intensity. There is a link between genetic variation in the serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) and anxiety in humans. This prompted the generation of SERT knockout mice [see Holmes A, Murphy DL, Crawley, JN. Biol Psychiatry 2003;54(10):953-9]. Present work used these mice to determine if there was a link between vulnerability to the anxiogenic effects of predator odors and abnormalities of 5-HT transmission induced by a life long reduction in 5-HT reuptake. Wild type (WT, C57 background), heterozygous (SERT +/-, HET) mice and homozygous knockout (SERT -/-, KO) were assigned to handled control groups or groups exposed for 10 min to a large testing room rich in cat odor. One week after handling or room exposure, anxiety testing took place in the dark phase of the light/dark cycle, in red light. Predator odor exposure was selectively anxiogenic in the plus maze and light/dark box tests in SERT -/- mice. Exposure to predator odor did not potentiate startle. Findings suggest a role for abnormalities in 5-HT transmission in vulnerability to some of the lasting anxiogenic effects of species relevant stressors and possibly in vulnerability to PTSD.

  3. Transcriptional control of behavior: Engrailed knockout changes cockroach escape trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Booth, David; Marie, Bruno; Domenici, Paolo; Blagburn, Jonathan M; Bacon, Jonathan P

    2009-01-01

    The cerci of the cockroach are covered with identified sensory hairs, which detect air movements. The sensory neurons which innervate these hairs synapse with giant interneurons (GIs) in the terminal ganglion which in turn synapse with interneurons and leg motorneurons in thoracic ganglia. This neural circuit mediates the animal's escape behavior. The transcription factor Engrailed (En) is expressed only in the medially born sensory neurons, which suggested it could work as a positional determinant of sensory neuron identity. Previously, we used dsRNA interference to abolish En expression, and found that the axonal arborization and synaptic outputs of an identified En-positive sensory neuron changed so that it came to resemble a nearby En-negative cell, which was itself unaffected. We thus demonstrated directly that En controls synaptic choice, as well as axon projections. Is escape behavior affected as a result of this mis-wiring? We recently showed that adult cockroaches keep each escape unpredictable by running along one of a set of preferred escape trajectories (ETs) at fixed angles from the direction of the threatening stimulus. The probability of selecting a particular ET is influenced by wind direction. In this present study we show that early instar juvenile cockroaches also use those same ETs. En knockout significantly perturbs the animals' perception of posterior wind, altering the choice of ETs to one more appropriate for anterior wind. This is the first time that it has been shown that knockout of a transcription factor controlling synaptic connectivity can alter the perception of a directional stimulus. PMID:19494140

  4. Bioelectric Characterization of Epithelia from Neonatal CFTR Knockout Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, John T.; Tyler, Scott R.; Zhang, Yulong; Lee, Ben J.; Liu, Xiaoming; Sun, Xingshen; Sui, Hongshu; Liang, Bo; Luo, Meihui; Xie, Weiliang; Yi, Yaling; Zhou, Weihong; Song, Yi; Keiser, Nicholas; Wang, Kai; de Jonge, Hugo R.

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening, recessive, multiorgan genetic disorder caused by the loss of CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel function found in many types of epithelia. Animal models that recapitulate the human disease phenotype are critical to understanding pathophysiology in CF and developing therapies. CFTR knockout ferrets manifest many of the phenotypes observed in the human disease, including lung infections, pancreatic disease and diabetes, liver disease, malnutrition, and meconium ileus. In the present study, we have characterized abnormalities in the bioelectric properties of the trachea, stomach, intestine, and gallbladder of newborn CF ferrets. Short-circuit current (ISC) analysis of CF and wild-type (WT) tracheas revealed the following similarities and differences: (1) amiloride-sensitive sodium currents were similar between genotypes; (2) responses to 4,4′-diisothiocyano-2,2′-stilbene disulphonic acid were 3.3-fold greater in CF animals, suggesting elevated baseline chloride transport through non-CFTR channels in a subset of CF animals; and (3) a lack of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)/forskolin–stimulated and N-(2-Naphthalenyl)-((3,5-dibromo-2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)methylene)glycine hydrazide (GlyH-101)–inhibited currents in CF animals due to the lack of CFTR. CFTR mRNA was present throughout all levels of the WT ferret and IBMX/forskolin–inducible ISC was only observed in WT animals. However, despite the lack of CFTR function in the knockout ferret, the luminal pH of the CF ferret gallbladder, stomach, and intestines was not significantly changed relative to WT. The WT stomach and gallbladder exhibited significantly enhanced IBMX/forskolin ISC responses and inhibition by GlyH-101 relative to CF samples. These findings demonstrate that multiple organs affected by disease in the CF ferret have bioelectric abnormalities consistent with the lack of cAMP-mediated chloride transport. PMID:23782101

  5. Preaxial Polydactyly in Sost/Sostdc1 Double Knockouts

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, C M; Collette, N M; Loots, G G

    2011-07-29

    In the United States, {approx}5% are born with congenital birth defects due to abnormal function of cellular processes and interactions. Sclerosteosis, a rare autosomal recessive disease, causes hyperostosis of the axial and appendicular skeleton, and patients present radial deviation, digit syndactyly, nail dysplasia, and overall high bone mineral density. Sclerosteosis is due to a loss of function of sclerostin (Sost). Sost is a Wnt (abbrev.) antagonist; when mutated, nonfunctional Sost results in hyperactive osteoblast activity which leads to abnormal high bone mass. Previous studies have shown that Sost overexpression in transgenic mice causes reduced bone mineral density and a varietymore » of limb phenotypes ranging from lost, fused, and split phalanges. Consistent with clinical manifestations of Sclerosteosis, Sost knockout mice exhibit increased generalized bone mineral density and syndactyly of the digits. Sostdc1 is a paralog of Sost that has also been described as an antagonist of Wnt signaling, in developing tooth buds. Unlike Sost knockouts, Sostdc1 null mice do not display any limb abnormalities. To determine if Sost and Sostdc1 have redundant functions during limb patterning, we examined Sost; Sostdc1 mice determined that they exhibit a novel preaxial polydactyly phenotype with a low penetrance. LacZ staining, skeletal preparations, and in situ hybridization experiments were used to help characterize this novel phenotype and understand how this phenotype develops. We find Sost and Sostdc1 to have complementary expression patterns during limb development, and the loss of their expression alters the transcription of several key limb regulators, such as Fgf8, Shh and Grem.« less

  6. Peptidomic analysis of the neurolysin-knockout mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Castro, Leandro M; Cavalcanti, Diogo M L P; Araujo, Christiane B; Rioli, Vanessa; Icimoto, Marcelo Y; Gozzo, Fábio C; Juliano, Maria; Juliano, Luiz; Oliveira, Vitor; Ferro, Emer S

    2014-12-05

    A large number of intracellular peptides are constantly produced following protein degradation by the proteasome. A few of these peptides function in cell signaling and regulate protein-protein interactions. Neurolysin (Nln) is a structurally defined and biochemically well-characterized endooligopeptidase, and its subcellular distribution and biological activity in the vertebrate brain have been previously investigated. However, the contribution of Nln to peptide metabolism in vivo is poorly understood. In this study, we used quantitative mass spectrometry to investigate the brain peptidome of Nln-knockout mice. An additional in vitro digestion assay with recombinant Nln was also performed to confirm the identification of the substrates and/or products of Nln. Altogether, the data presented suggest that Nln is a key enzyme in the in vivo degradation of only a few peptides derived from proenkephalin, such as Met-enkephalin and octapeptide. Nln was found to have only a minor contribution to the intracellular peptide metabolism in the entire mouse brain. However, further studies appear necessary to investigate the contribution of Nln to the peptide metabolism in specific areas of the murine brain. Neurolysin was first identified in the synaptic membranes of the rat brain in the middle 80's by Frederic Checler and colleagues. Neurolysin was well characterized biochemically, and its brain distribution has been confirmed by immunohistochemical methods. The neurolysin contribution to the central and peripheral neurotensin-mediated functions in vivo has been delineated through inhibitor-based pharmacological approaches, but its genuine contribution to the physiological inactivation of neuropeptides remains to be firmly established. As a result, the main significance of this work is the first characterization of the brain peptidome of the neurolysin-knockout mouse. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics, mass spectrometry and peptidomics, Cancun 2013

  7. Norepinephrine transporter heterozygous knockout mice exhibit altered transport and behavior.

    PubMed

    Fentress, H M; Klar, R; Krueger, J J; Sabb, T; Redmon, S N; Wallace, N M; Shirey-Rice, J K; Hahn, M K

    2013-11-01

    The norepinephrine (NE) transporter (NET) regulates synaptic NE availability for noradrenergic signaling in the brain and sympathetic nervous system. Although genetic variation leading to a loss of NET expression has been implicated in psychiatric and cardiovascular disorders, complete NET deficiency has not been found in people, limiting the utility of NET knockout mice as a model for genetically driven NET dysfunction. Here, we investigate NET expression in NET heterozygous knockout male mice (NET(+/-) ), demonstrating that they display an approximately 50% reduction in NET protein levels. Surprisingly, these mice display no significant deficit in NET activity assessed in hippocampal and cortical synaptosomes. We found that this compensation in NET activity was due to enhanced activity of surface-resident transporters, as opposed to surface recruitment of NET protein or compensation through other transport mechanisms, including serotonin, dopamine or organic cation transporters. We hypothesize that loss of NET protein in the NET(+/-) mouse establishes an activated state of existing surface NET proteins. The NET(+/-) mice exhibit increased anxiety in the open field and light-dark box and display deficits in reversal learning in the Morris water maze. These data suggest that recovery of near basal activity in NET(+/-) mice appears to be insufficient to limit anxiety responses or support cognitive performance that might involve noradrenergic neurotransmission. The NET(+/-) mice represent a unique model to study the loss and resultant compensatory changes in NET that may be relevant to behavior and physiology in human NET deficiency disorders. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  8. Running Promotes Wakefulness and Increases Cataplexy in Orexin Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    España, Rodrigo A.; McCormack, Sarah L.; Mochizuki, Takatoshi; Scammell, Thomas E.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objective: People with narcolepsy and mice lacking orexin/hypocretin have disrupted sleep/wake behavior and reduced physical activity. Our objective was to identify physiologic mechanisms through which orexin deficiency reduces locomotor activity. Design: We examined spontaneous wheel running activity and its relationship to sleep/wake behavior in wild type (WT) and orexin knockout (KO) mice. Additionally, given that physical activity promotes alertness, we also studied whether orexin deficiency reduces the wake-promoting effects of exercise. Measurements and Results: Orexin KO mice ran 42% less than WT mice. Their ability to run appeared normal as they initiated running as often as WT mice and ran at normal speeds. However, their running bouts were considerably shorter, and they often had cataplexy or quick transitions into sleep after running. Wheel running increased the total amount of wakefulness in WT and orexin KO mice similarly, however, KO mice continued to have moderately fragmented sleep/wake behavior. Wheel running also doubled the amount of cataplexy by increasing the probability of transitioning into cataplexy. Conclusions: Orexin KO mice run significantly less than normal, likely due to sleepiness, imminent cataplexy, or a reduced motivation to run. Orexin is not required for the wake-promoting effects of wheel running given that both WT and KO mice had similar increases in wakefulness with running wheels. In addition, the clear increase in cataplexy with wheel running suggests the possibility that positive emotions or reward can trigger murine cataplexy, similar to that seen in people and dogs with narcolepsy. Citation: España RA; McCormack SL; Mochizuki T; Scammell TE. Running promotes wakefulness and increases cataplexy in orexin knockout mice. SLEEP 2007;30(11):1417-1425. PMID:18041476

  9. Abnormal Sleep/Wake Dynamics in Orexin Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Diniz Behn, Cecilia G.; Klerman, Elizabeth B.; Mochizuki, Takatoshi; Lin, Shih-Chieh; Scammell, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: Narcolepsy with cataplexy is caused by a loss of orexin (hypocretin) signaling, but the physiologic mechanisms that result in poor maintenance of wakefulness and fragmented sleep remain unknown. Conventional scoring of sleep cannot reveal much about the process of transitioning between states or the variations within states. We developed an EEG spectral analysis technique to determine whether the state instability in a mouse model of narcolepsy reflects abnormal sleep or wake states, faster movements between states, or abnormal transitions between states. Design: We analyzed sleep recordings in orexin knockout (OXKO) mice and wild type (WT) littermates using a state space analysis technique. This non-categorical approach allows quantitative and unbiased examination of sleep/wake states and state transitions. Measurements and Results: OXKO mice spent less time in deep, delta-rich NREM sleep and in active, theta-rich wake and instead spent more time near the transition zones between states. In addition, while in the midst of what should be stable wake, OXKO mice initiated rapid changes into NREM sleep with high velocities normally seen only in transition regions. Consequently, state transitions were much more frequent and rapid even though the EEG progressions during state transitions were normal. Conclusions: State space analysis enables visualization of the boundaries between sleep and wake and shows that narcoleptic mice have less distinct and more labile states of sleep and wakefulness. These observations provide new perspectives on the abnormal state dynamics resulting from disrupted orexin signaling and highlight the usefulness of state space analysis in understanding narcolepsy and other sleep disorders. Citation: Diniz Behn CG; Klerman EB; Mochizuki T; Lin S; Scammell TE. Abnormal sleep/wake dynamics in orexin knockout mice. SLEEP 2010;33(3):297-306. PMID:20337187

  10. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 Knockout Abrogates Radiation Induced Pulmonary Inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallahan, Dennis E.; Virudachalam, Subbulakshmi

    1997-06-01

    Increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1; CD54) is induced by exposure to ionizing radiation. The lung was used as a model to study the role of ICAM-1 in the pathogenesis of the radiation-induced inflammation-like response. ICAM-1 expression increased in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium and not in the endothelium of larger pulmonary vessels following treatment of mice with thoracic irradiation. To quantify radiation-induced ICAM-1 expression, we utilized fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of anti-ICAM-1 antibody labeling of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells from human cadaver donors (HMVEC-L cells). Fluorochrome conjugates and UV microscopy were used to quantify the fluorescence intensity of ICAM in the irradiated lung. These studies showed a dose- and time-dependent increase in ICAM-1 expression in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium. Peak expression occurred at 24 h, while threshold dose was as low as 2 Gy. To determine whether ICAM-1 is required for inflammatory cell infiltration into the irradiated lung, the anti-ICAM-1 blocking antibody was administered by tail vein injection to mice following thoracic irradiation. Inflammatory cells were quantified by immunofluorescence for leukocyte common antigen (CD45). Mice treated with the anti-ICAM-1 blocking antibody showed attenuation of inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung in response to ionizing radiation exposure. To verify the requirement of ICAM-1 in the inflammation-like radiation response, we utilized the ICAM-1 knockout mouse. ICAM-1 was not expressed in the lungs of ICAM-1-deficient mice following treatment with thoracic irradiation. ICAM-1 knockout mice had no increase in the inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung in response to thoracic irradiation. These studies demonstrate a radiation dose-dependent increase in ICAM-1 expression in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium, and show that ICAM-1 is required for inflammatory cell infiltration

  11. Single allele Lmbrd1 knockout results in cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Linda Tzu-Ling; Lin, Chieh-Liang; Pan, Kuei-Hsiang; Tzen, Kai-Yuan; Su, Ming-Jai; Tsai, Chia-Ti; Li, Yi-Han; Li, Pai-Chi; Chiang, Fu-Tien; Chang, Shin C; Chang, Ming-Fu

    2018-06-01

    LMBD1 protein, a type IV-B plasma membrane protein possessing nine putative trans-membrane domains, was previously demonstrated at cellular level to play a critical part in the signaling cascade of insulin receptor through its involvement in regulating clathrin-mediated endocytosis. However, at physiological level, the significance of LMBD1 protein in cardiac development remains unclear. To understand the role of Lmbrd1 gene involved in the cardiac function, heterozygous knockout mice were used as an animal model system. The pathological outcomes were analyzed by micro-positron emission tomography, ECG acquisition, cardiac ultrasound, and immunohistochemistry. By studying the heterozygous knockout of Lmbrd1 (Lmbrd1 +/- ), we discovered that lack of Lmbrd1 not only resulted in the increase of cardiac-glucose uptake, pathological consequences were also observed. Here, we have distinguished that Lmbrd1 +/- is sufficient in causing cardiac diseases through a pathway independent of the recessive vitamin B 12 cblF cobalamin transport defect. Lmbrd1 +/- mice exhibited an increase in myocardial glucose uptake and insulin receptor signaling that is insensitive to the administration of additional insulin. Pathological symptoms such as cardiac hypertrophy, ventricular tissue fibrosis, along with the increase of heart rate and cardiac muscle contractility were observed. As Lmbrd1 +/- mice aged, the decrease in ejection fraction and fraction shortening showed signs of ventricular function deterioration. The results suggested that Lmbrd1 gene not only plays a significant role in mediating the energy homeostasis in cardiac tissue, it may also be a key factor in the regulation of cardiac function in mice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Bioelectric characterization of epithelia from neonatal CFTR knockout ferrets.

    PubMed

    Fisher, John T; Tyler, Scott R; Zhang, Yulong; Lee, Ben J; Liu, Xiaoming; Sun, Xingshen; Sui, Hongshu; Liang, Bo; Luo, Meihui; Xie, Weiliang; Yi, Yaling; Zhou, Weihong; Song, Yi; Keiser, Nicholas; Wang, Kai; de Jonge, Hugo R; Engelhardt, John F

    2013-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening, recessive, multiorgan genetic disorder caused by the loss of CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel function found in many types of epithelia. Animal models that recapitulate the human disease phenotype are critical to understanding pathophysiology in CF and developing therapies. CFTR knockout ferrets manifest many of the phenotypes observed in the human disease, including lung infections, pancreatic disease and diabetes, liver disease, malnutrition, and meconium ileus. In the present study, we have characterized abnormalities in the bioelectric properties of the trachea, stomach, intestine, and gallbladder of newborn CF ferrets. Short-circuit current (ISC) analysis of CF and wild-type (WT) tracheas revealed the following similarities and differences: (1) amiloride-sensitive sodium currents were similar between genotypes; (2) responses to 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbene disulphonic acid were 3.3-fold greater in CF animals, suggesting elevated baseline chloride transport through non-CFTR channels in a subset of CF animals; and (3) a lack of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)/forskolin-stimulated and N-(2-Naphthalenyl)-((3,5-dibromo-2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)methylene)glycine hydrazide (GlyH-101)-inhibited currents in CF animals due to the lack of CFTR. CFTR mRNA was present throughout all levels of the WT ferret and IBMX/forskolin-inducible ISC was only observed in WT animals. However, despite the lack of CFTR function in the knockout ferret, the luminal pH of the CF ferret gallbladder, stomach, and intestines was not significantly changed relative to WT. The WT stomach and gallbladder exhibited significantly enhanced IBMX/forskolin ISC responses and inhibition by GlyH-101 relative to CF samples. These findings demonstrate that multiple organs affected by disease in the CF ferret have bioelectric abnormalities consistent with the lack of cAMP-mediated chloride transport.

  13. [Spontaneous neoplasms in guinea pigs].

    PubMed

    Khar'kovskaia, N A; Khrustalev, S A; Vasil'eva, N N

    1977-01-01

    The authors present an analysis of the data of foreign literature and the results of their personal studies of spontaneous neoplasms in 40 guinea pigs of national breeding observed during observed during a 5-year period. In 4 of them malignant tumors were diagnosed-lympholeucosis (2 cases), dermoid ovarian cysts and also cancer and adenoma of the adrenal cortex (in one animal). The neoplasms described developed in guinea pigs, aged over 4 years, and they are referred to as mostly common tumors in this species of animals.

  14. Reduced Extinction of Hippocampal-Dependent Memories in CPEB Knockout Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zearfoss, N. Ruth; Richter, Joel D.; Berger-Sweeney, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    CPEB is a sequence-specific RNA binding protein that regulates translation at synapses. In neurons of CPEB knockout mice, synaptic efficacy is reduced. Here, we have performed a battery of behavioral tests and find that relative to wild-type animals, CPEB knockout mice, although similar on many baseline behaviors, have reduced extinction of…

  15. Pig has no uncoupling protein 1.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lianjie; Shi, Jia; Cao, Lingbo; Xu, Guli; Hu, Chingyuan; Wang, Chong

    2017-06-10

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is critical for mammal's survival in the cold environment. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is responsible for the non-shivering thermogenesis in the BAT. Pig is important economically as a meat-producing livestock. However, whether BAT or more precisely UCP1 protein exists in pig remains a controversy. The objective of this study was to ascertain whether pig has UCP1 protein. In this study, we used rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique to obtain the UCP1 mRNA 3' end sequence, confirmed only exons 1 and 2 of the UCP1 gene are transcribed in the pig. Then we cloned the pig UCP1 gene exons 1 and 2, and expressed the UCP1 protein from the truncated pig gene using E. coli BL21. We used the expressed pig UCP1 protein as antigen for antibody production in a rabbit. We could not detect any UCP1 protein expression in different pig adipose tissues by the specific pig UCP1 antibody, while our antibody can detect the cloned pig UCP1 as well as the mice adipose UCP1 protein. This result shows although exons 1 and 2 of the pig UCP1 gene were transcribed but not translated in the pig adipose tissue. Furthermore, we detected no uncoupled respiration in the isolated pig adipocytes. Thus, these results unequivocally demonstrate that pig has no UCP1 protein. Our results have resolved the controversy of whether pigs have the brown adipose tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. IMMUNOLOGIC AND PHYSIOLOGIC OBSERVATIONS IN BABOONS WITH LIFE-SUPPORTING GENETICALLY-ENGINEERED PIG KIDNEY GRAFTS

    PubMed Central

    Iwase, Hayato; Hara, Hidetaka; Ezzelarab, Mohamed; Li, Tao; Zhang, Zhongqiang; Gao, Bingsi; Liu, Hong; Long, Cassandra; Wang, Yi; Cassano, Amy; Klein, Edwin; Phelps, Carol; Ayares, David; Humar, Abhinav; Wijkstrom, Martin; Cooper, David KC

    2017-01-01

    Background Genetically-engineered pigs could provide a source of kidneys for clinical transplantation. The two longest kidney graft survivals reported to date have been 136 days and 310 days, but graft survival >30 days has been unusual until recently. Methods Donor pigs (n=4) were on an α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GTKO)/human complement-regulatory protein (CD46) background (GTKO/CD46). In addition, the pigs were transgenic for at least one human coagulation-regulatory protein. Two baboons received a kidney from a 6-gene pig (Group A) and two from a 3-gene pig (Group B). Immunosuppressive therapy was identical in all 4 cases, and consisted of anti-thymoglobulin (ATG) + anti-CD20mAb (induction) and anti-CD40mAb + rapamycin + corticosteroids (maintenance). Anti-TNF-α and anti-IL-6R mAbs were administered to reduce the inflammatory response. Baboons were followed by clinical/laboratory monitoring of immune/coagulation/inflammatory/physiological parameters. At biopsy or euthanasia, the grafts were examined by microscopy. Results The two Group A baboons remained healthy with normal renal function >7 and >8 months, respectively, but then developed infectious complications. However, no features of a consumptive coagulopathy, e.g., thrombocytopenia, reduction of fibrinogen, or of a protein-losing nephropathy were observed. There was no evidence of an elicited anti-pig antibody response, and histology of biopsies taken at approximately 4, 6, and 7 months and at necropsy showed no significant abnormalities. In contrast, both Group B baboons developed features of a consumptive coagulopathy and required euthanasia on day 12. Conclusions The combination of (i) a graft from a specific 6-gene genetically-modified pig, (ii) an effective immunosuppressive regimen, and (iii) anti-inflammatory therapy prevented immune injury, a protein-losing nephropathy, and coagulation dysfunction for >7 months. Although the number of experiments is very limited, our impression is

  17. Immunological and physiological observations in baboons with life-supporting genetically engineered pig kidney grafts.

    PubMed

    Iwase, Hayato; Hara, Hidetaka; Ezzelarab, Mohamed; Li, Tao; Zhang, Zhongqiang; Gao, Bingsi; Liu, Hong; Long, Cassandra; Wang, Yi; Cassano, Amy; Klein, Edwin; Phelps, Carol; Ayares, David; Humar, Abhinav; Wijkstrom, Martin; Cooper, David K C

    2017-03-01

    Genetically engineered pigs could provide a source of kidneys for clinical transplantation. The two longest kidney graft survivals reported to date have been 136 and 310 days, but graft survival >30 days has been unusual until recently. Donor pigs (n=4) were on an α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GTKO)/human complement regulatory protein (CD46) background (GTKO/CD46). In addition, the pigs were transgenic for at least one human coagulation regulatory protein. Two baboons received a kidney from a six-gene pig (GroupA) and two from a three-gene pig (GroupB). Immunosuppressive therapy was identical in all four cases and consisted of anti-thymoglobulin (ATG)+anti-CD20mAb (induction) and anti-CD40mAb+rapamycin+corticosteroids (maintenance). Anti-TNF-α and anti-IL-6R mAbs were administered to reduce the inflammatory response. Baboons were followed by clinical/laboratory monitoring of immune/coagulation/inflammatory/physiological parameters. At biopsy or euthanasia, the grafts were examined by microscopy. The two GroupA baboons remained healthy with normal renal function >7 and >8 months, respectively, but then developed infectious complications. However, no features of a consumptive coagulopathy, eg, thrombocytopenia and reduction of fibrinogen, or of a protein-losing nephropathy were observed. There was no evidence of an elicited anti-pig antibody response, and histology of biopsies taken at approximately 4, 6, and 7 months and at necropsy showed no significant abnormalities. In contrast, both GroupB baboons developed features of a consumptive coagulopathy and required euthanasia on day 12. The combination of (i) a graft from a specific six-gene genetically modified pig, (ii) an effective immunosuppressive regimen, and (iii) anti-inflammatory therapy prevented immune injury, a protein-losing nephropathy, and coagulation dysfunction for >7 months. Although the number of experiments is very limited, our impression is that expression of human endothelial

  18. Generation of α-1,3-galactosyltransferase knocked-out transgenic cloned pigs with knocked-in five human genes.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Dae-Jin; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Hwang, In-Sul; Kim, Dong-Ern; Kim, Hyung-Joo; Kim, Jang-Seong; Lee, Kichoon; Im, Gi-Sun; Lee, Jeong-Woong; Hwang, Seongsoo

    2017-02-01

    Recent progress in genetic manipulation of pigs designated for xenotransplantation ha6s shown considerable promise on xenograft survival in primates. However, genetic modification of multiple genes in donor pigs by knock-out and knock-in technologies, aiming to enhance immunological tolerance against transplanted organs in the recipients, has not been evaluated for health issues of donor pigs. We produced transgenic Massachusetts General Hospital piglets by knocking-out the α-1,3-galactosyltransferase (GT) gene and by simultaneously knocking-in an expression cassette containing five different human genes including, DAF, CD39, TFPI, C1 inhibitor (C1-INH), and TNFAIP3 (A20) [GT -(DAF/CD39/TFPI/C1-INH/TNFAIP3)/+ ] that are connected by 2A peptide cleavage sequences to release individual proteins from a single translational product. All five individual protein products were successfully produced as determined by western blotting of umbilical cords from the newborn transgenic pigs. Although gross observation and histological examination revealed no significant pathological abnormality in transgenic piglets, hematological examination found that the transgenic piglets had abnormally low numbers of platelets and WBCs, including neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and lymphocytes. However, transgenic piglets had similar numbers of RBC and values of parameters related to RBC compared to the control littermate piglets. These data suggest that transgenic expression of those human genes in pigs impaired hematopoiesis except for erythropoiesis. In conclusion, our data suggest that transgenic expression of up to five different genes can be efficiently achieved and provide the basis for determining optimal dosages of transgene expression and combinations of the transgenes to warrant production of transgenic donor pigs without health issues.

  19. Final-state interactions in two-nucleon knockout reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colle, Camille; Cosyn, Wim; Ryckebusch, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Background: Exclusive two-nucleon knockout after electroexcitation of nuclei [A (e ,e'N N ) in brief] is considered to be a primary source of information about short-range correlations (SRCs) in nuclei. For a proper interpretation of the data, final-state interactions (FSIs) need to be theoretically controlled. Purpose: Our goal is to quantify the role of FSI effects in exclusive A (e ,e'p N ) reactions for four target nuclei representative of the whole mass region. Our focus is on processes that are SRC driven. We investigate the role of FSIs for two characteristic detector setups corresponding to "small" and "large" coverage of the available phase space. Method: Use is made of a factorized expression for the A (e ,e'p N ) cross section that is proportional to the two-body center-of-mass (c.m.) momentum distribution of close-proximity pairs. The A (e ,e'p p ) and A (e ,e'p n ) reactions for the target nuclei 12C,27Al,56Fe, and 208Pb are investigated. The elastic attenuation mechanisms in the FSIs are included using the relativistic multiple-scattering Glauber approximation (RMSGA). Single-charge exchange (SCX) reactions are also included. We introduce the nuclear transparency TAp N, defined as the ratio of exclusive (e ,e'p N ) cross sections on nuclei to those on "free" nucleon pairs, as a measure for the aggregated effect of FSIs in p N knockout reactions from nucleus A . A toy model is introduced in order to gain a better understanding of the A dependence of TAp N. Results: The transparency TAp N drops from 0.2 -0.3 for 12C to 0.04 -0.07 for 208Pb. For all considered kinematics, the mass dependence of TAp N can be captured by the power law TAp N∝A-λ with 0.4 ≲λ ≲0.5 . Apart from an overall reduction factor, we find that FSIs only modestly affect the distinct features of SRC-driven A (e ,e'p N ) which are dictated by the c.m. distribution of close-proximity pairs. Conclusion: The SCX mechanisms represent a relatively small (order of a few percent

  20. Altered Sleep Homeostasis in Rev-erbα Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mang, Géraldine M.; La Spada, Francesco; Emmenegger, Yann; Chappuis, Sylvie; Ripperger, Jürgen A.; Albrecht, Urs; Franken, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: The nuclear receptor REV-ERBα is a potent, constitutive transcriptional repressor critical for the regulation of key circadian and metabolic genes. Recently, REV-ERBα's involvement in learning, neurogenesis, mood, and dopamine turnover was demonstrated suggesting a specific role in central nervous system functioning. We have previously shown that the brain expression of several core clock genes, including Rev-erbα, is modulated by sleep loss. We here test the consequences of a loss of REV-ERBα on the homeostatic regulation of sleep. Methods: EEG/EMG signals were recorded in Rev-erbα knockout (KO) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates during baseline, sleep deprivation, and recovery. Cortical gene expression measurements after sleep deprivation were contrasted to baseline. Results: Although baseline sleep/wake duration was remarkably similar, KO mice showed an advance of the sleep/wake distribution relative to the light-dark cycle. After sleep onset in baseline and after sleep deprivation, both EEG delta power (1–4 Hz) and sleep consolidation were reduced in KO mice indicating a slower increase of homeostatic sleep need during wakefulness. This slower increase might relate to the smaller increase in theta and gamma power observed in the waking EEG prior to sleep onset under both conditions. Indeed, the increased theta activity during wakefulness predicted delta power in subsequent NREM sleep. Lack of Rev-erbα increased Bmal1, Npas2, Clock, and Fabp7 expression, confirming the direct regulation of these genes by REV-ERBα also in the brain. Conclusions: Our results add further proof to the notion that clock genes are involved in sleep homeostasis. Because accumulating evidence directly links REV-ERBα to dopamine signaling the altered homeostatic regulation of sleep reported here are discussed in that context. Citation: Mang GM, La Spada F, Emmenegger Y, Chappuis S, Ripperger JA, Albrecht U, Franken P. Altered sleep homeostasis in Rev

  1. A Simple Model for Learning Improvement: Weigh Pig, Feed Pig, Weigh Pig. Occasional Paper #23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulcher, Keston H.; Good, Megan R.; Coleman, Chris M.; Smith, Kristen L.

    2014-01-01

    Assessing learning does not by itself result in increased student accomplishment, much like a pig never fattened up because it was weighed. Indeed, recent research shows that while institutions are more regularly engaging in assessment, they have little to show in the way of stronger student performance. This paper clarifies how assessment results…

  2. Metabolomic phenotyping of a cloned pig model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pigs are widely used as models for human physiological changes in intervention studies, because of the close resemblance between human and porcine physiology and the high degree of experimental control when using an animal model. Cloned animals have, in principle, identical genotypes and possibly also phenotypes and this offer an extra level of experimental control which could possibly make them a desirable tool for intervention studies. Therefore, in the present study, we address how phenotype and phenotypic variation is affected by cloning, through comparison of cloned pigs and normal outbred pigs. Results The metabolic phenotype of cloned pigs (n = 5) was for the first time elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic analysis of multiple bio-fluids including plasma, bile and urine. The metabolic phenotype of the cloned pigs was compared with normal outbred pigs (n = 6) by multivariate data analysis, which revealed differences in the metabolic phenotypes. Plasma lactate was higher for cloned vs control pigs, while multiple metabolites were altered in the bile. However a lower inter-individual variability for cloned pigs compared with control pigs could not be established. Conclusions From the present study we conclude that cloned and normal outbred pigs are phenotypically different. However, it cannot be concluded that the use of cloned animals will reduce the inter-individual variation in intervention studies, though this is based on a limited number of animals. PMID:21859467

  3. Pigs taking wing with transposons and recombinases

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Karl J; Carlson, Daniel F; Fahrenkrug, Scott C

    2007-01-01

    Swine production has been an important part of our lives since the late Mesolithic or early Neolithic periods, and ranks number one in world meat production. Pig production also contributes to high-value-added medical markets in the form of pharmaceuticals, heart valves, and surgical materials. Genetic engineering, including the addition of exogenous genetic material or manipulation of the endogenous genome, holds great promise for changing pig phenotypes for agricultural and medical applications. Although the first transgenic pigs were described in 1985, poor survival of manipulated embryos; inefficiencies in the integration, transmission, and expression of transgenes; and expensive husbandry costs have impeded the widespread application of pig genetic engineering. Sequencing of the pig genome and advances in reproductive technologies have rejuvenated efforts to apply transgenesis to swine. Pigs provide a compelling new resource for the directed production of pharmaceutical proteins and the provision of cells, vascular grafts, and organs for xenotransplantation. Additionally, given remarkable similarities in the physiology and size of people and pigs, swine will increasingly provide large animal models of human disease where rodent models are insufficient. We review the challenges facing pig transgenesis and discuss the utility of transposases and recombinases for enhancing the success and sophistication of pig genetic engineering. 'The paradise of my fancy is one where pigs have wings.' (GK Chesterton). PMID:18047690

  4. Immune Response in Male Guinea Pigs Infected with the Guinea Pig Inclusion Conjunctivitis Agent of Chlamydia Psittaci

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Dist, ibution I Availability Codes Avail and/or Dist Special IMMUNE RESPONSE IN MALE GUINEA PIGS INFECTED WITH THE GUINEA PIG INCLUSION...CONJUNCTIVITIS AGENT OF CHLAM"DIA PSITTA CI At >- ~tu IMMUNE RESPONSE IN MALE GUINEA PIGS INFECTED WITH THE GUINEA PIG INCLUSION CONJUNCTIVITIS AGENT OF...Stock .................................................................... 15 Infection of Guinea Pigs with GPIC

  5. Gastrointestinal pathology in juvenile and adult CFTR-knockout ferrets.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xingshen; Olivier, Alicia K; Yi, Yaling; Pope, Christopher E; Hayden, Hillary S; Liang, Bo; Sui, Hongshu; Zhou, Weihong; Hager, Kyle R; Zhang, Yulong; Liu, Xiaoming; Yan, Ziying; Fisher, John T; Keiser, Nicholas W; Song, Yi; Tyler, Scott R; Goeken, J Adam; Kinyon, Joann M; Radey, Matthew C; Fligg, Danielle; Wang, Xiaoyan; Xie, Weiliang; Lynch, Thomas J; Kaminsky, Paul M; Brittnacher, Mitchell J; Miller, Samuel I; Parekh, Kalpaj; Meyerholz, David K; Hoffman, Lucas R; Frana, Timothy; Stewart, Zoe A; Engelhardt, John F

    2014-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multiorgan disease caused by loss of a functional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel in many epithelia of the body. Here we report the pathology observed in the gastrointestinal organs of juvenile to adult CFTR-knockout ferrets. CF gastrointestinal manifestations included gastric ulceration, intestinal bacterial overgrowth with villous atrophy, and rectal prolapse. Metagenomic phylogenetic analysis of fecal microbiota by deep sequencing revealed considerable genotype-independent microbial diversity between animals, with the majority of taxa overlapping between CF and non-CF pairs. CF hepatic manifestations were variable, but included steatosis, necrosis, biliary hyperplasia, and biliary fibrosis. Gallbladder cystic mucosal hyperplasia was commonly found in 67% of CF animals. The majority of CF animals (85%) had pancreatic abnormalities, including extensive fibrosis, loss of exocrine pancreas, and islet disorganization. Interestingly, 2 of 13 CF animals retained predominantly normal pancreatic histology (84% to 94%) at time of death. Fecal elastase-1 levels from these CF animals were similar to non-CF controls, whereas all other CF animals evaluated were pancreatic insufficient (<2 μg elastase-1 per gram of feces). These findings suggest that genetic factors likely influence the extent of exocrine pancreas disease in CF ferrets and have implications for the etiology of pancreatic sufficiency in CF patients. In summary, these studies demonstrate that the CF ferret model develops gastrointestinal pathology similar to CF patients. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Gastrointestinal Pathology in Juvenile and Adult CFTR-Knockout Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xingshen; Olivier, Alicia K.; Yi, Yaling; Pope, Christopher E.; Hayden, Hillary S.; Liang, Bo; Sui, Hongshu; Zhou, Weihong; Hager, Kyle R.; Zhang, Yulong; Liu, Xiaoming; Yan, Ziying; Fisher, John T.; Keiser, Nicholas W.; Song, Yi; Tyler, Scott R.; Goeken, J. Adam; Kinyon, Joann M.; Radey, Matthew C.; Fligg, Danielle; Wang, Xiaoyan; Xie, Weiliang; Lynch, Thomas J.; Kaminsky, Paul M.; Brittnacher, Mitchell J.; Miller, Samuel I.; Parekh, Kalpaj; Meyerholz, David K.; Hoffman, Lucas R.; Frana, Timothy; Stewart, Zoe A.; Engelhardt, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multiorgan disease caused by loss of a functional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel in many epithelia of the body. Here we report the pathology observed in the gastrointestinal organs of juvenile to adult CFTR-knockout ferrets. CF gastrointestinal manifestations included gastric ulceration, intestinal bacterial overgrowth with villous atrophy, and rectal prolapse. Metagenomic phylogenetic analysis of fecal microbiota by deep sequencing revealed considerable genotype-independent microbial diversity between animals, with the majority of taxa overlapping between CF and non-CF pairs. CF hepatic manifestations were variable, but included steatosis, necrosis, biliary hyperplasia, and biliary fibrosis. Gallbladder cystic mucosal hyperplasia was commonly found in 67% of CF animals. The majority of CF animals (85%) had pancreatic abnormalities, including extensive fibrosis, loss of exocrine pancreas, and islet disorganization. Interestingly, 2 of 13 CF animals retained predominantly normal pancreatic histology (84% to 94%) at time of death. Fecal elastase-1 levels from these CF animals were similar to non-CF controls, whereas all other CF animals evaluated were pancreatic insufficient (<2 μg elastase-1 per gram of feces). These findings suggest that genetic factors likely influence the extent of exocrine pancreas disease in CF ferrets and have implications for the etiology of pancreatic sufficiency in CF patients. In summary, these studies demonstrate that the CF ferret model develops gastrointestinal pathology similar to CF patients. PMID:24637292

  7. Knockout of Foxp2 disrupts vocal development in mice

    PubMed Central

    Castellucci, Gregg A.; McGinley, Matthew J.; McCormick, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The FOXP2 gene is important for the development of proper speech motor control in humans. However, the role of the gene in general vocal behavior in other mammals, including mice, is unclear. Here, we track the vocal development of Foxp2 heterozygous knockout (Foxp2+/−) mice and their wildtype (WT) littermates from juvenile to adult ages, and observe severe abnormalities in the courtship song of Foxp2+/− mice. In comparison to their WT littermates, Foxp2+/− mice vocalized less, produced shorter syllable sequences, and possessed an abnormal syllable inventory. In addition, Foxp2+/− song also exhibited irregular rhythmic structure, and its development did not follow the consistent trajectories observed in WT vocalizations. These results demonstrate that the Foxp2 gene is critical for normal vocal behavior in juvenile and adult mice, and that Foxp2 mutant mice may provide a tractable model system for the study of the gene’s role in general vocal motor control. PMID:26980647

  8. Improved microarray methods for profiling the yeast knockout strain collection

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Daniel S.; Pan, Xuewen; Ooi, Siew Loon; Peyser, Brian D.; Spencer, Forrest A.; Irizarry, Rafael A.; Boeke, Jef D.

    2005-01-01

    A remarkable feature of the Yeast Knockout strain collection is the presence of two unique 20mer TAG sequences in almost every strain. In principle, the relative abundances of strains in a complex mixture can be profiled swiftly and quantitatively by amplifying these sequences and hybridizing them to microarrays, but TAG microarrays have not been widely used. Here, we introduce a TAG microarray design with sophisticated controls and describe a robust method for hybridizing high concentrations of dye-labeled TAGs in single-stranded form. We also highlight the importance of avoiding PCR contamination and provide procedures for detection and eradication. Validation experiments using these methods yielded false positive (FP) and false negative (FN) rates for individual TAG detection of 3–6% and 15–18%, respectively. Analysis demonstrated that cross-hybridization was the chief source of FPs, while TAG amplification defects were the main cause of FNs. The materials, protocols, data and associated software described here comprise a suite of experimental resources that should facilitate the use of TAG microarrays for a wide variety of genetic screens. PMID:15994458

  9. Biochemistry and physiology of hexose-6-phosphate knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Zielinska, Agnieszka E; Walker, Elizabeth A; Stewart, Paul M; Lavery, Gareth G

    2011-04-10

    Hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) has emerged as an important factor in setting the redox status of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen. An important role of H6PDH is to generate a high NADPH/NADP(+) ratio which permits 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) to act as an oxo-reductase, catalyzing the activation of glucocorticoids (GCs). In H6PDH knockout mice 11β-HSD1 assumes dehydrogenase activity and inactivates GCs, rendering the target cell relatively GC insensitive. Consequently, H6PDHKO mice have a phenotype consistent with defects in the permissive and adaptive actions of GCs upon physiology. H6PDHKO mice have also offered an insight into muscle physiology as they also present with a severe vacuolating myopathy, abnormalities of glucose homeostasis and activation of the unfolded protein response due to ER stress, and a number of mechanisms driving this phenotype are thought to be involved. This article will review what we understand of the redox control of GC hormone metabolism regulated by H6PDH, and how H6PDHKO mice have allowed an in-depth understanding of its potentially novel, GC-independent roles in muscle physiology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Modeling fragile X syndrome in the Fmr1 knockout mouse

    PubMed Central

    Kazdoba, Tatiana M.; Leach, Prescott T.; Silverman, Jill L.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is a commonly inherited form of intellectual disability and one of the leading genetic causes for autism spectrum disorder. Clinical symptoms of FXS can include impaired cognition, anxiety, hyperactivity, social phobia, and repetitive behaviors. FXS is caused by a CGG repeat mutation which expands a region on the X chromosome containing the FMR1 gene. In FXS, a full mutation (> 200 repeats) leads to hypermethylation of FMR1, an epigenetic mechanism that effectively silences FMR1 gene expression and reduces levels of the FMR1 gene product, fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP is an RNA-binding protein that is important for the regulation of protein expression. In an effort to further understand how loss of FMR1 and FMRP contribute to FXS symptomology, several FXS animal models have been created. The most well characterized rodent model is the Fmr1 knockout (KO) mouse, which lacks FMRP protein due to a disruption in its Fmr1 gene. Here, we review the behavioral phenotyping of the Fmr1 KO mouse to date, and discuss the clinical relevance of this mouse model to the human FXS condition. While much remains to be learned about FXS, the Fmr1 KO mouse is a valuable tool for understanding the repercussions of functional loss of FMRP and assessing the efficacy of pharmacological compounds in ameliorating the molecular and behavioral phenotypes relevant to FXS. PMID:25606362

  11. Amygdala lesions reduce cataplexy in orexin knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Christian R; Oishi, Yo; Mochizuki, Takatoshi; Peever, John H; Scammell, Thomas E

    2013-06-05

    Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive sleepiness and cataplexy, sudden episodes of muscle weakness during waking that are thought to be an intrusion of rapid eye movement sleep muscle atonia into wakefulness. One of the most striking aspects of cataplexy is that it is often triggered by strong, generally positive emotions, but little is known about the neural pathways through which positive emotions trigger muscle atonia. We hypothesized that the amygdala is functionally important for cataplexy because the amygdala has a role in processing emotional stimuli and it contains neurons that are active during cataplexy. Using anterograde and retrograde tracing in mice, we found that GABAergic neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala heavily innervate neurons that maintain waking muscle tone such as those in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, lateral pontine tegmentum, locus ceruleus, and dorsal raphe. We then found that bilateral, excitotoxic lesions of the amygdala markedly reduced cataplexy in orexin knock-out mice, a model of narcolepsy. These lesions did not alter basic sleep-wake behavior but substantially reduced the triggering of cataplexy. Lesions also reduced the cataplexy events triggered by conditions associated with high arousal and positive emotions (i.e., wheel running and chocolate). These observations demonstrate that the amygdala is a functionally important part of the circuitry underlying cataplexy and suggest that increased amygdala activity in response to emotional stimuli could directly trigger cataplexy by inhibiting brainstem regions that suppress muscle atonia.

  12. Running promotes wakefulness and increases cataplexy in orexin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    España, Rodrigo A; McCormack, Sarah L; Mochizuki, Takatoshi; Scammell, Thomas E

    2007-11-01

    People with narcolepsy and mice lacking orexin/hypocretin have disrupted sleep/wake behavior and reduced physical activity. Our objective was to identify physiologic mechanisms through which orexin deficiency reduces locomotor activity. We examined spontaneous wheel running activity and its relationship to sleep/wake behavior in wild type (WT) and orexin knockout (KO) mice. Additionally, given that physical activity promotes alertness, we also studied whether orexin deficiency reduces the wake-promoting effects of exercise. Orexin KO mice ran 42% less than WT mice. Their ability to run appeared normal as they initiated running as often as WT mice and ran at normal speeds. However, their running bouts were considerably shorter, and they often had cataplexy or quick transitions into sleep after running. Wheel running increased the total amount of wakefulness in WT and orexin KO mice similarly, however, KO mice continued to have moderately fragmented sleep/wake behavior. Wheel running also doubled the amount of cataplexy by increasing the probability of transitioning into cataplexy. Orexin KO mice run significantly less than normal, likely due to sleepiness, imminent cataplexy, or a reduced motivation to run. Orexin is not required for the wake-promoting effects of wheel running given that both WT and KO mice had similar increases in wakefulness with running wheels. In addition, the clear increase in cataplexy with wheel running suggests the possibility that positive emotions or reward can trigger murine cataplexy, similar to that seen in people and dogs with narcolepsy.

  13. Abnormal sleep/wake dynamics in orexin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Diniz Behn, Cecilia G; Klerman, Elizabeth B; Mochizuki, Takatoshi; Lin, Shih-Chieh; Scammell, Thomas E

    2010-03-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is caused by a loss of orexin (hypocretin) signaling, but the physiologic mechanisms that result in poor maintenance of wakefulness and fragmented sleep remain unknown. Conventional scoring of sleep cannot reveal much about the process of transitioning between states or the variations within states. We developed an EEG spectral analysis technique to determine whether the state instability in a mouse model of narcolepsy reflects abnormal sleep or wake states, faster movements between states, or abnormal transitions between states. We analyzed sleep recordings in orexin knockout (OXKO) mice and wild type (WT) littermates using a state space analysis technique. This non-categorical approach allows quantitative and unbiased examination of sleep/wake states and state transitions. OXKO mice spent less time in deep, delta-rich NREM sleep and in active, theta-rich wake and instead spent more time near the transition zones between states. In addition, while in the midst of what should be stable wake, OXKO mice initiated rapid changes into NREM sleep with high velocities normally seen only in transition regions. Consequently, state transitions were much more frequent and rapid even though the EEG progressions during state transitions were normal. State space analysis enables visualization of the boundaries between sleep and wake and shows that narcoleptic mice have less distinct and more labile states of sleep and wakefulness. These observations provide new perspectives on the abnormal state dynamics resulting from disrupted orexin signaling and highlight the usefulness of state space analysis in understanding narcolepsy and other sleep disorders.

  14. Sensorimotor development in neonatal progesterone receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Willing, Jari; Wagner, Christine K

    2014-01-01

    Early exposure to steroid hormones can permanently and dramatically alter neural development. This is best understood in the organizational effects of hormones during development of brain regions involved in reproductive behaviors or neuroendocrine function. However, recent evidence strongly suggests that steroid hormones play a vital role in shaping brain regions involved in cognitive behavior such as the cerebral cortex. The most abundantly expressed steroid hormone receptor in the developing rodent cortex is the progesterone receptor (PR). In the rat, PR is initially expressed in the developmentally-critical subplate at E18, and subsequently in laminas V and II/III through the first three postnatal weeks (Quadros et al. [2007] J Comp Neurol 504:42-56; Lopez & Wagner [2009]: J Comp Neurol 512:124-139), coinciding with significant periods of dendritic maturation, the arrival of afferents and synaptogenesis. In the present study, we investigated PR expression in the neonatal mouse somatosensory cortex. Additionally, to investigate the potential role of PR in developing cortex, we examined sensorimotor function in the first two postnatal weeks in PR knockout mice and their wildtype (WT) and heterozygous (HZ) counterparts. While the three genotypes were similar in most regards, PRKO and HZ mice lost the rooting reflex 2-3 days earlier than WT mice. These studies represent the first developmental behavioral assessment of PRKO mice and suggest PR expression may play an important role in the maturation of cortical connectivity and sensorimotor integration. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Bone growth and turnover in progesterone receptor knockout mice.

    SciTech Connect

    Rickard, David J.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Evans, Glenda

    2008-05-01

    The role of progesterone receptor (PR) signaling in skeletal metabolism is controversial. To address whether signaling through the PR is necessary for normal bone growth and turnover, we performed histomorphometric and mCT analyses of bone from homozygous female PR knockout (PRKO) mice at 6, 12, and 26 weeks of age. These mice possess a null mutation of the PR locus, which blocks the gene expression of A and B isoforms of PR. Body weight gain, uterine weight gain and tibia longitudinal bone growth was normal in PRKO mice. In contrast, total and cortical bone mass were increased in long bonesmore » of post-pubertal (12 and 26-week-old) PRKO mice, whereas cancellous bone mass was normal in the tibia but increased in the humerus. The striking 57% decrease in cancellous bone from the proximal tibia metaphysis which occurred between 6 and 26 weeks in WT mice was abolished in PRKO mice. The improved bone balance in aging PRKO mice was associated with elevated bone formation and a tendency toward reduced osteoclast perimeter. Taken together, these findings suggest that PR signaling in mice attenuates the accumulation of cortical bone mass during adolescence and is required for early age-related loss of cancellous bone.« less

  16. Behavioral and neuroanatomical abnormalities in pleiotrophin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Krellman, Jason W; Ruiz, Henry H; Marciano, Veronica A; Mondrow, Bracha; Croll, Susan D

    2014-01-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is an extracellular matrix-associated protein with neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects that is involved in a variety of neurodevelopmental processes. Data regarding the cognitive-behavioral and neuroanatomical phenotype of pleiotrophin knockout (KO) mice is limited. The purpose of this study was to more fully characterize this phenotype, with emphasis on the domains of learning and memory, cognitive-behavioral flexibility, exploratory behavior and anxiety, social behavior, and the neuronal and vascular microstructure of the lateral entorhinal cortex (EC). PTN KOs exhibited cognitive rigidity, heightened anxiety, behavioral reticence in novel contexts and novel social interactions suggestive of neophobia, and lamina-specific decreases in neuronal area and increases in neuronal density in the lateral EC. Initial learning of spatial and other associative tasks, as well as vascular density in the lateral EC, was normal in the KOs. These data suggest that the absence of PTN in vivo is associated with disruption of specific cognitive and affective processes, raising the possibility that further study of PTN KOs might have implications for the study of human disorders with similar features.

  17. Sodium Accumulation in SERCA Knockout-Induced Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liren; Louch, William E.; Niederer, Steven A.; Aronsen, Jan M.; Christensen, Geir; Sejersted, Ole M.; Smith, Nicolas P.

    2012-01-01

    In cardiomyocytes, a major decrease in the level of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) can severely impair systolic and diastolic functions. In mice with cardiomyocyte-specific conditional excision of the Serca2 gene (SERCA2 KO), end-stage heart failure developed between four and seven weeks after gene deletion combined with [Na+]i elevation and intracellular acidosis. In this study, to investigate the underpinning changes in Ca2+ dynamics and metabolic homeostasis, we developed data-driven mathematical models of Ca2+ dynamics in the ventricular myocytes of the control, four-week, and seven-week SERCA2 knockout (KO) mice. The seven-week KO model showed that elevated [Na+]i was due to increased Na+ influxes through the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) and the Na+/H+ exchanger, with the latter exacerbated by intracellular acidosis. Furthermore, NCX upregulation in the seven-week KO model resulted in increased ATP consumption for ion transport. Na+ accumulation in the SERCA KO due to NCX upregulation and intracellular acidosis potentially play a role in the development of heart failure, by initiating a reinforcing cycle involving: a mismatch between ATP demand and supply; an increasingly compromised metabolism; a decreased pHi; and, finally, an even greater [Na+]i elevation. PMID:22824267

  18. Reduced extinction of hippocampal-dependent memories in CPEB knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Berger-Sweeney, Joanne; Zearfoss, N Ruth; Richter, Joel D

    2006-01-01

    CPEB is a sequence-specific RNA binding protein that regulates translation at synapses. In neurons of CPEB knockout mice, synaptic efficacy is reduced. Here, we have performed a battery of behavioral tests and find that relative to wild-type animals, CPEB knockout mice, although similar on many baseline behaviors, have reduced extinction of memories on two hippocampal-dependent tasks. A corresponding microarray analysis reveals that about 0.14% of hippocampal genes have an altered expression in the CPEB knockout mouse. These data suggest that CPEB-dependent local protein synthesis may be an important cellular mechanism underlying extinction of hippocampal-dependent memories.

  19. Exploring pig raising in Bangladesh: implications for public health interventions.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Nazmun; Uddin, Main; Sarkar, Rouha Anamika; Gurley, Emily S; Uddin Khan, M Salah; Hossain, M Jahangir; Sultana, Rebeca; Luby, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    Pigs are intermediate hosts and potential reservoirs of a number of pathogens that can infect humans. The objectives of this manuscript are to understand pig raising patterns in Bangladesh, interactions between pigs and humans, social stigma and discrimination that pig raisers experience and to explore the implications of these findings for public health interventions. The study team conducted an exploratory qualitative study by interviewing backyard pig raisers and nomadic herders (n=34), observing daily interactions between pigs and humans (n=18) and drawing seasonal diagrams (n=6) with herders to understand the reasons for movement of nomadic herds. Pig raisers had regular close interaction with pigs. They often touched, caressed and fed their pigs which exposed them to pigs' saliva and feces. Herders took their pigs close to human settlements for scavenging. Other domestic animals and poultry shared food and sleeping and scavenging places with pigs. Since pigs are taboo in Islam, a majority of Muslims rejected pig raising and stigmatized pig raisers. This study identified several potential ways for pigs to transmit infectious agents to humans in Bangladesh. Poverty and stigmatization of pig raisers make it difficult to implement health interventions to reduce the risk of such transmissions. Interventions that offer social support to reduce stigma and highlight economic benefits of disease control might interest of pig raisers in accepting interventions targeting pig borne zoonoses.

  20. Decomposition Rate and Pattern in Hanging Pigs.

    PubMed

    Lynch-Aird, Jeanne; Moffatt, Colin; Simmons, Tal

    2015-09-01

    Accurate prediction of the postmortem interval requires an understanding of the decomposition process and the factors acting upon it. A controlled experiment, over 60 days at an outdoor site in the northwest of England, used 20 freshly killed pigs (Sus scrofa) as human analogues to study decomposition rate and pattern. Ten pigs were hung off the ground and ten placed on the surface. Observed differences in the decomposition pattern required a new decomposition scoring scale to be produced for the hanging pigs to enable comparisons with the surface pigs. The difference in the rate of decomposition between hanging and surface pigs was statistically significant (p=0.001). Hanging pigs reached advanced decomposition stages sooner, but lagged behind during the early stages. This delay is believed to result from lower variety and quantity of insects, due to restricted beetle access to the aerial carcass, and/or writhing maggots falling from the carcass. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Pig manure treatment by filtration.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Zygmunt; Makara, Agnieszka; Matýsek, Dalibor; Hoffmann, Józef; Hoffmann, Krystyna

    2013-01-01

    A study of new pig manure treatment and filtration process was carried out. The advantage of the worked out technology is the method of incorporation of crystalline phase into solid organic part of manure. The obtained new solid phase of manure contains about 50% of crystalline phase forming a filtration aid that enables high effectiveness of manure filtration. The filtration rate of manure separation into solid and liquid fractions with pressure filter may achieve 1300-3000 kg/m(2)/h. The method makes it possible to maintain an overall average pollutant removal performance 90% for the chemical oxygen demand COD, > 99% for the suspended solids SS, to 47% for the total nitrogen content. The obtained results showed that the proposed technology being efficient and simple offers a possible solution to pig manure problems.

  2. Association between microbiological and serological prevalence of human pathogenic Yersinia spp. in pigs and pig batches.

    PubMed

    Vanantwerpen, Gerty; Berkvens, Dirk; De Zutter, Lieven; Houf, Kurt

    2015-07-09

    Pigs are the main reservoir of human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica, and the microbiological and serological prevalence of this pathogen differs between pig farms. The infection status of pig batches at moment of slaughter is unknown while it is a possibility to classify batches. A relation between the presence of human pathogenic Yersinia spp. and the presence of antibodies could help to predict the infection of the pigs prior to slaughter. Pigs from 100 different batches were sampled. Tonsils and pieces of diaphragm were collected from 7047 pigs (on average 70 pigs per batch). The tonsils were analyzed using a direct plating method and the meat juice collected from the pieces of diaphragm was analyzed by Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay. The microbiological and serological results were compared using a mixed-effects logistic regression at pig and batch level. Yersinia spp. were found in 2031 (28.8%) pigs, antibodies were present in 4692 (66.6%) pigs. According to the logistic regression, there was no relation at pig level between the presence of Yersinia spp. in tonsils and the presence of antibodies. Contrarily, at batch level, a mean activity value of 37 Optical Density (OD)% indicated a Yersinia spp. positive farm and the microbiological prevalence in pig batches could be estimated before shipment to the slaughterhouse. This offers the opportunity to classify batches based on their potential risk to contaminate carcasses with human pathogenic Yersinia spp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animalsmore » were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.« less

  4. Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs and jaundice among pig handlers in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Haider, N; Khan, M S U; Hossain, M B; Sazzad, H M S; Rahman, M Z; Ahmed, F; Zeidner, N S

    2017-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of viral hepatitis in humans. Pigs may act as a reservoir of HEV, and pig handlers were frequently identified with a higher prevalence of antibodies to HEV. The objectives of this study were to identify evidence of HEV infection in pigs and compare the history of jaundice between pig handlers and people not exposed to pigs and pork. Blood and faecal samples were collected from 100 pigs derived from three slaughterhouses in the Gazipur district of Bangladesh from January to June, 2011. We also interviewed 200 pig handlers and 250 non-exposed people who did not eat pork or handled pigs in the past 2 years. We tested the pig sera for HEV-specific antibodies using a competitive ELISA and pig faecal samples for HEV RNA using real-time RT-PCR. Of 100 pig sera, 82% (n = 82) had detectable antibody against HEV. Of the 200 pig handlers, 28% (56/200) demonstrated jaundice within the past 2 years, whereas only 17% (43/250) of controls had a history of jaundice (p < .05). Compared to non-exposed people, those who slaughtered pigs (31% versus 15%, p < .001), reared pigs (37% versus 20%, p < .001), butchered pigs (35% versus 19%, p < .001) or involved in pork transportation (28% versus 13%, p < .001) were more likely to be affected with jaundice in the preceding 2 years. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, exposure to pigs (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2-3.9) and age (OR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.95-0.99) was significantly associated with jaundice in the past 2 years. Pigs in Bangladesh demonstrated evidence of HEV infection, and a history of jaundice was significantly more frequent in pig handlers. Identifying and genotyping HEV in pigs and pig handlers may provide further evidence of the pig's role in zoonotic HEV transmission in Bangladesh. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Dcdc2 knockout mice display exacerbated developmental disruptions following knockdown of Dcx

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Yin, Xiuyin; Rosen, Glenn; Gabel, Lisa; Guadiana, Sarah M.; Sarkisian, Matthew R; Galaburda, Albert M.; LoTurco, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    The dyslexia-associated gene DCDC2 is a member of the DCX family of genes known to play roles in neurogenesis, neuronal migration and differentiation. Here we report the first phenotypic analysis of a Dcdc2 knockout mouse. Comparisons between Dcdc2 knockout mice and wild type littermates revealed no significant differences in neuronal migration, neocortical lamination, neuronal cilliogenesis or dendritic differentiation. Considering previous studies showing genetic interactions and potential functional redundancy among members of the DCX family, we tested whether decreasing Dcx expression by RNAi would differentially impair neurodevelopment in Dcdc2 knockouts and wild type mice. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that deficits in neuronal migration, and dendritic growth caused by RNAi of Dcx were more severe in Dcdc2 knockouts than in wild type mice with the same transfection. These results indicate that Dcdc2 is not required for neurogenesis, neuronal migration or differentiation in mice, but may have partial functional redundancy with Dcx. PMID:21689730

  6. INDUCTION OF MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN ESTROGEN RECEPTOR-ALPHA KNOCKOUT MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mammary glands from the estrogen receptor knockout ( ERKO) mouse do not undergo ductal morphogenesis or alveolar development. Disrupted Er signaling may result in reduced estrogen-responsive gene products in the mammary gland or reduced mammotropic hormones that contribute t...

  7. Knock-Outs, Stick-Outs, Cut-Outs: Clipping Paths Separate Objects from Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Bradley

    1998-01-01

    Outlines a six-step process that allows computer operators, using Photoshop software, to create "knock-outs" to precisely define the path that will serve to separate the object from the background. (SR)

  8. Female preproenkephalin-knockout mice display altered emotional responses

    PubMed Central

    Ragnauth, A.; Schuller, A.; Morgan, M.; Chan, J.; Ogawa, S.; Pintar, J.; Bodnar, R. J.; Pfaff, D. W.

    2001-01-01

    The endogenous opioid system has been implicated in sexual behavior, palatable intake, fear, and anxiety. The present study examined whether ovariectomized female transgenic preproenkephalin-knockout (PPEKO) mice and their wild-type and heterozygous controls displayed alterations in fear and anxiety paradigms, sucrose intake, and lordotic behavior. To examine stability of responding, three squads of the genotypes were tested across seasons over a 20-month period. In a fear-conditioning paradigm, PPEKO mice significantly increased freezing to both fear and fear + shock stimuli relative to controls. In the open field, PPEKO mice spent significantly less time and traversed significantly less distance in the center of an open field than wild-type controls. Further, PPEKO mice spent significantly less time and tended to be less active on the light side of a dark–light chamber than controls, indicating that deletion of the enkephalin gene resulted in exaggerated responses to fear or anxiety-provoking environments. These selective deficits were observed consistently across testing squads spanning 20 months and different seasons. In contrast, PPEKO mice failed to differ from corresponding controls in sucrose, chow, or water intake across a range (0.0001–20%) of sucrose concentrations and failed to differ in either lordotic or female approach to male behaviors when primed with estradiol and progesterone, thereby arguing strongly for the selectivity of a fear and anxiety deficit which was not caused by generalized and nonspecific debilitation. These transgenic data strongly suggest that opioids, and particularly enkephalin gene products, are acting naturally to inhibit fear and anxiety. PMID:11172058

  9. Altered Sleep Homeostasis in Rev-erbα Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Mang, Géraldine M; La Spada, Francesco; Emmenegger, Yann; Chappuis, Sylvie; Ripperger, Jürgen A; Albrecht, Urs; Franken, Paul

    2016-03-01

    The nuclear receptor REV-ERBα is a potent, constitutive transcriptional repressor critical for the regulation of key circadian and metabolic genes. Recently, REV-ERBα's involvement in learning, neurogenesis, mood, and dopamine turnover was demonstrated suggesting a specific role in central nervous system functioning. We have previously shown that the brain expression of several core clock genes, including Rev-erbα, is modulated by sleep loss. We here test the consequences of a loss of REV-ERBα on the homeostatic regulation of sleep. EEG/EMG signals were recorded in Rev-erbα knockout (KO) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates during baseline, sleep deprivation, and recovery. Cortical gene expression measurements after sleep deprivation were contrasted to baseline. Although baseline sleep/wake duration was remarkably similar, KO mice showed an advance of the sleep/wake distribution relative to the light-dark cycle. After sleep onset in baseline and after sleep deprivation, both EEG delta power (1-4 Hz) and sleep consolidation were reduced in KO mice indicating a slower increase of homeostatic sleep need during wakefulness. This slower increase might relate to the smaller increase in theta and gamma power observed in the waking EEG prior to sleep onset under both conditions. Indeed, the increased theta activity during wakefulness predicted delta power in subsequent NREM sleep. Lack of Rev-erbα increased Bmal1, Npas2, Clock, and Fabp7 expression, confirming the direct regulation of these genes by REV-ERBα also in the brain. Our results add further proof to the notion that clock genes are involved in sleep homeostasis. Because accumulating evidence directly links REV-ERBα to dopamine signaling the altered homeostatic regulation of sleep reported here are discussed in that context. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  10. Salty taste deficits in CALHM1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Tordoff, Michael G; Ellis, Hillary T; Aleman, Tiffany R; Downing, Arnelle; Marambaud, Philippe; Foskett, J Kevin; Dana, Rachel M; McCaughey, Stuart A

    2014-07-01

    Genetic ablation of calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate from Type 2 taste cells, severely compromises the behavioral and electrophysiological responses to tastes detected by G protein-coupled receptors, such as sweet and bitter. However, the contribution of CALHM1 to salty taste perception is less clear. Here, we evaluated several salty taste-related phenotypes of CALHM1 knockout (KO) mice and their wild-type (WT) controls: 1) In a conditioned aversion test, CALHM1 WT and KO mice had similar NaCl avoidance thresholds. 2) In two-bottle choice tests, CALHM1 WT mice showed the classic inverted U-shaped NaCl concentration-preference function but CALHM1 KO mice had a blunted peak response. 3) In brief-access tests, CALHM1 KO mice showed less avoidance than did WT mice of high concentrations of NaCl, KCl, NH(4)Cl, and sodium lactate (NaLac). Amiloride further ameliorated the NaCl avoidance of CALHM1 KO mice, so that lick rates to a mixture of 1000 mM NaCl + 10 µM amiloride were statistically indistinguishable from those to water. 4) Relative to WT mice, CALHM1 KO mice had reduced chorda tympani nerve activity elicited by oral application of NaCl, NaLac, and sucrose but normal responses to HCl and NH(4)Cl. Chorda tympani responses to NaCl and NaLac were amiloride sensitive in WT but not KO mice. These results reinforce others demonstrating that multiple transduction pathways make complex, concentration-dependent contributions to salty taste perception. One of these pathways depends on CALHM1 to detect hypertonic NaCl in the mouth and signal the aversive taste of concentrated salt. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Salty Taste Deficits in CALHM1 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Hillary T.; Aleman, Tiffany R.; Downing, Arnelle; Marambaud, Philippe; Foskett, J. Kevin; Dana, Rachel M.; McCaughey, Stuart A.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic ablation of calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate from Type 2 taste cells, severely compromises the behavioral and electrophysiological responses to tastes detected by G protein–coupled receptors, such as sweet and bitter. However, the contribution of CALHM1 to salty taste perception is less clear. Here, we evaluated several salty taste–related phenotypes of CALHM1 knockout (KO) mice and their wild-type (WT) controls: 1) In a conditioned aversion test, CALHM1 WT and KO mice had similar NaCl avoidance thresholds. 2) In two-bottle choice tests, CALHM1 WT mice showed the classic inverted U-shaped NaCl concentration-preference function but CALHM1 KO mice had a blunted peak response. 3) In brief-access tests, CALHM1 KO mice showed less avoidance than did WT mice of high concentrations of NaCl, KCl, NH4Cl, and sodium lactate (NaLac). Amiloride further ameliorated the NaCl avoidance of CALHM1 KO mice, so that lick rates to a mixture of 1000mM NaCl + 10 µM amiloride were statistically indistinguishable from those to water. 4) Relative to WT mice, CALHM1 KO mice had reduced chorda tympani nerve activity elicited by oral application of NaCl, NaLac, and sucrose but normal responses to HCl and NH4Cl. Chorda tympani responses to NaCl and NaLac were amiloride sensitive in WT but not KO mice. These results reinforce others demonstrating that multiple transduction pathways make complex, concentration-dependent contributions to salty taste perception. One of these pathways depends on CALHM1 to detect hypertonic NaCl in the mouth and signal the aversive taste of concentrated salt. PMID:24846212

  12. Elevated body temperature during sleep in orexin knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Mochizuki, Takatoshi; Klerman, Elizabeth B.; Sakurai, Takeshi; Scammell, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    Core body temperature (Tb) is influenced by many physiological factors, including behavioral state, locomotor activity, and biological rhythms. To determine the relative roles of these factors, we examined Tb in orexin knockout (KO) mice, which have a narcolepsy-like phenotype with severe sleep-wake fragmentation. Because orexin is thought to promote heat production during wakefulness, we hypothesized that orexin KO mice would have lower Tb while awake. Surprisingly, the Tb of orexin KO mice was 0.4°C higher than wild-type (WT) littermates during the dark period. Orexin KO mice had normal diurnal variations in Tb, but the ultradian rhythms of Tb, locomotor activity, and wakefulness were markedly reduced. During sustained wakefulness, Tb was the same in both groups. During the first 15 min of spontaneous sleep, the Tb of WT mice decreased by 1.0°C, but Tb in orexin KO mice decreased only 0.4°C. Even during intense recovery sleep after 8 hr of sleep deprivation, the Tb of orexin KO mice remained 0.7°C higher than in WT mice. This blunted fall in Tb during sleep may be due to inadequate activation of heat loss mechanisms or sustained activity in heat-generating systems. These observations reveal an unexpected role for orexin in thermoregulation. In addition, because heat loss is an essential aspect of sleep, the blunted fall in Tb of orexin KO mice may provide an explanation for the fragmented sleep of narcolepsy. PMID:16556901

  13. Feeding-elicited cataplexy in orexin knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Erika L.; Baumann, Christian R.; Cano, Georgina; Scammell, Thomas E.; Mochizuki, Takatoshi

    2009-01-01

    Mice lacking orexin/hypocretin signaling have sudden episodes of atonia and paralysis during active wakefulness. These events strongly resemble cataplexy, episodes of sudden muscle weakness triggered by strong positive emotions in people with narcolepsy, but it remains unknown whether murine cataplexy is triggered by positive emotions. To determine whether positive emotions elicit murine cataplexy, we placed orexin knockout (KO) mice on a scheduled feeding protocol with regular or highly palatable food. Baseline sleep/wake behavior was recorded with ad lib regular chow. Mice were then placed on a scheduled feeding protocol in which they received 60% of their normal amount of chow 3 hr after dark onset for the next 10 days. Wild-type and KO mice rapidly entrained to scheduled feeding with regular chow, with more wake and locomotor activity prior to the feeding time. On day 10 of scheduled feeding, orexin KO mice had slightly more cataplexy during the food-anticipation period and more cataplexy in the second half of the dark period, when they may have been foraging for residual food. To test whether more palatable food increases cataplexy, mice were then switched to scheduled feeding with an isocaloric amount of Froot Loops, a food often used as a reward in behavioral studies. With this highly palatable food, orexin KO mice had much more cataplexy during the food-anticipation period and throughout the dark period. The increase in cataplexy with scheduled feeding, especially with highly palatable food, suggests that positive emotions may trigger cataplexy in mice, just as in people with narcolepsy. Establishing this connection helps validate orexin KO mice as an excellent model of human narcolepsy and provides an opportunity to better understand the mechanisms that trigger cataplexy. PMID:19362119

  14. Separating genetic and hemodynamic defects in neuropilin 1 knockout embryos.

    PubMed

    Jones, Elizabeth A V; Yuan, Li; Breant, Christine; Watts, Ryan J; Eichmann, Anne

    2008-08-01

    Targeted inactivation of genes involved in murine cardiovascular development frequently leads to abnormalities in blood flow. As blood fluid dynamics play a crucial role in shaping vessel morphology, the presence of flow defects generally prohibits the precise assignment of the role of the mutated gene product in the vasculature. In this study, we show how to distinguish between genetic defects caused by targeted inactivation of the neuropilin 1 (Nrp1) receptor and hemodynamic defects occurring in homozygous knockout embryos. Our analysis of a Nrp1 null allele bred onto a C57BL/6 background shows that vessel remodeling defects occur concomitantly with the onset of blood flow and cause death of homozygous mutants at E10.5. Using mouse embryo culture, we establish that hemodynamic defects are already present at E8.5 and continuous circulation is never established in homozygous mutants. The geometry of yolk sac blood vessels is altered and remodeling into yolk sac arteries and veins does not occur. To separate flow-induced deficiencies from those caused by the Nrp1 mutation, we arrested blood flow in cultured wild-type and mutant embryos and followed their vascular development. We find that loss of Nrp1 function rather than flow induces the altered geometry of the capillary plexus. Endothelial cell migration, but not replication, is altered in Nrp1 mutants. Gene expression analysis of endothelial cells isolated from freshly dissected wild-type and mutants and after culture in no-flow conditions showed down-regulation of the arterial marker genes connexin 40 and ephrin B2 related to the loss of Nrp1 function. This method allows genetic defects caused by loss-of-function of a gene important for cardiovascular development to be isolated even in the presence of hemodynamic defects.

  15. Increased anxiety-related behaviour in Hint1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Varadarajulu, Jeeva; Lebar, Maria; Krishnamoorthy, Gurumoorthy; Habelt, Sonja; Lu, Jia; Bernard Weinstein, I; Li, Haiyang; Holsboer, Florian; Turck, Christoph W; Touma, Chadi

    2011-07-07

    Several reports have implicated a role for the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein-1 (Hint1) in psychiatric disorders. We have studied the emotional behaviour of male Hint1 knockout (Hint1 KO) mice in a battery of tests and performed biochemical analyses on brain tissue. The behavioural analysis revealed that Hint1 KO mice exhibit an increased emotionality phenotype compared to wildtype (WT) mice, while no significant differences in locomotion or general exploratory activity were noted. In the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test, the Hint1 KO animals entered the open arms of the apparatus less often than WT littermates. Similarly, in the dark-light box test, Hint1 KO mice spent less time in the lit compartment and the number of entries were reduced, which further confirmed an increased anxiety-related behaviour. Moreover, the Hint1 KO animals showed significantly more struggling and less floating behaviour in the forced swim test (FST), indicating an increased emotional arousal in aversive situations. Hint1 is known as a protein kinase C (PKC) interacting protein. Western blot analysis showed that PKCγ expression was elevated in Hint1 KO compared to WT mice. Interestingly, PKCγ mRNA levels of the two groups did not show a significant difference, implying a post-transcriptional PKCγ regulation. In addition, PKC enzymatic activity was increased in Hint1 KO compared to WT mice. In summary, our results indicate a role for Hint1 and PKCγ in modulating anxiety-related and stress-coping behaviour in mice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Autism-related behavioral abnormalities in synapsin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Greco, Barbara; Managò, Francesca; Tucci, Valter; Kao, Hung-Teh; Valtorta, Flavia; Benfenati, Fabio

    2013-08-15

    Several synaptic genes predisposing to autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) have been identified. Nonsense and missense mutations in the SYN1 gene encoding for Synapsin I have been identified in families segregating for idiopathic epilepsy and ASD and genetic mapping analyses have identified variations in the SYN2 gene as significantly contributing to epilepsy predisposition. Synapsins (Syn I/II/III) are a multigene family of synaptic vesicle-associated phosphoproteins playing multiple roles in synaptic development, transmission and plasticity. Lack of SynI and/or SynII triggers a strong epileptic phenotype in mice associated with mild cognitive impairments that are also present in the non-epileptic SynIII(-/-) mice. SynII(-/-) and SynIII(-/-) mice also display schizophrenia-like traits, suggesting that Syns could be involved in the regulation of social behavior. Here, we studied social interaction and novelty, social recognition and social dominance, social transmission of food preference and social memory in groups of male SynI(-/-), SynII(-/-) and SynIII(-/-) mice before and after the appearance of the epileptic phenotype and compared their performances with control mice. We found that deletion of Syn isoforms widely impairs social behaviors and repetitive behaviors, resulting in ASD-related phenotypes. SynI or SynIII deletion altered social behavior, whereas SynII deletion extensively impaired various aspects of social behavior and memory, altered exploration of a novel environment and increased self-grooming. Social impairments of SynI(-/-) and SynII(-/-) mice were evident also before the onset of seizures. The results demonstrate an involvement of Syns in generation of the behavioral traits of ASD and identify Syn knockout mice as a useful experimental model of ASD and epilepsy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Behavioural characterization of vitamin D receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Burne, Thomas H J; McGrath, John J; Eyles, Darryl W; Mackay-Sim, Alan

    2005-02-28

    Vitamin D (calcitriol) is a nuclear transcription regulator acting via a nuclear hormone receptor (VDR). In addition to its role in the regulation of calcium and phosphate homeostasis and in bone formation, Vitamin D is also thought to be involved in brain function. The aim of this study was to behaviourally phenotype VDR knockout mice. We characterized the behaviour of VDR null mutant mice and wildtype littermate controls by subjecting them to a range of tests including a primary behavioural screen (using the SHIRPA protocol), rotarod, gait analysis, Y-maze, marble burying test, bedding test, holeboard test, elevated plus maze, open field test and prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response. There were no effects of genotype on most of the scores from the SHIRPA protocol except that VDR -/- mice had alopecia, were shorter and weighed less than VDR +/+ mice. VDR -/- mice had a shorter gait as well as impairments on the rotarod, in the bedding test and impaired habituation in both the open field and on the acoustic startle response. The VDR -/- mice had normal acoustic startle responses but had impaired PPI at long (256 ms) but not short (64 ms) prepulse to pulse intervals. The VDR -/- mice were less active in the open field and buried fewer marbles in the marble burying test. However, there were no differences in the time spent on the open arms of the elevated plus maze or in working memory as assessed by repeat arm entries on the Y-maze. Therefore, it appears that VDR -/- mice have muscular and motor impairments that significantly affects locomotor behaviour but seemingly no impairments in cognition as indicated by exploration, working memory or anxiety.

  18. RNaseT2 knockout rats exhibit hippocampal neuropathology and deficits in memory.

    PubMed

    Sinkevicius, Kerstin W; Morrison, Thomas R; Kulkarni, Praveen; Caffrey Cagliostro, Martha K; Iriah, Sade; Malmberg, Samantha; Sabrick, Julia; Honeycutt, Jennifer A; Askew, Kim L; Trivedi, Malav; Ferris, Craig F

    2018-06-27

    RNASET2 deficiency in humans is associated with infant cystic leukoencephalopathy, which causes psychomotor impairment, spasticity and epilepsy. A zebrafish mutant model suggests that loss of RNASET2 function leads to neurodegeneration due to the accumulation of non-degraded RNA in the lysosomes. The goal of this study was to characterize the first rodent model of RNASET2 deficiency. The brains of 3- and 12-month-old RNaseT2 knockout rats were studied using multiple magnetic resonance imaging modalities and behavioral tests. While T1- and T2-weighted images of RNaseT2 knockout rats exhibited no evidence of cystic lesions, the prefrontal cortex and hippocampal complex were enlarged in knockout animals. Diffusion-weighted imaging showed altered anisotropy and putative gray matter changes in the hippocampal complex of the RNaseT2 knockout rats. Immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) showed the presence of hippocampal neuroinflammation. Decreased levels of lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2) and elevated acid phosphatase and β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) activities indicated that the RNASET2 knockout rats likely had altered lysosomal function and potential defects in autophagy. Object recognition tests confirmed that RNaseT2 knockout rats exhibited memory deficits. However, the Barnes maze, and balance beam and rotarod tests indicated there were no differences in spatial memory or motor impairments, respectively. Overall, patients with RNASET2 deficiency exhibited a more severe neurodegeneration phenotype than was observed in the RNaseT2 knockout rats. However, the vulnerability of the knockout rat hippocampus as evidenced by neuroinflammation, altered lysosomal function and cognitive defects indicates that this is still a useful in vivo model to study RNASET2 function. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Adaptive bi-level programming for optimal gene knockouts for targeted overproduction under phenotypic constraints.

    PubMed

    Ren, Shaogang; Zeng, Bo; Qian, Xiaoning

    2013-01-01

    Optimization procedures to identify gene knockouts for targeted biochemical overproduction have been widely in use in modern metabolic engineering. Flux balance analysis (FBA) framework has provided conceptual simplifications for genome-scale dynamic analysis at steady states. Based on FBA, many current optimization methods for targeted bio-productions have been developed under the maximum cell growth assumption. The optimization problem to derive gene knockout strategies recently has been formulated as a bi-level programming problem in OptKnock for maximum targeted bio-productions with maximum growth rates. However, it has been shown that knockout mutants in fact reach the steady states with the minimization of metabolic adjustment (MOMA) from the corresponding wild-type strains instead of having maximal growth rates after genetic or metabolic intervention. In this work, we propose a new bi-level computational framework--MOMAKnock--which can derive robust knockout strategies under the MOMA flux distribution approximation. In this new bi-level optimization framework, we aim to maximize the production of targeted chemicals by identifying candidate knockout genes or reactions under phenotypic constraints approximated by the MOMA assumption. Hence, the targeted chemical production is the primary objective of MOMAKnock while the MOMA assumption is formulated as the inner problem of constraining the knockout metabolic flux to be as close as possible to the steady-state phenotypes of wide-type strains. As this new inner problem becomes a quadratic programming problem, a novel adaptive piecewise linearization algorithm is developed in this paper to obtain the exact optimal solution to this new bi-level integer quadratic programming problem for MOMAKnock. Our new MOMAKnock model and the adaptive piecewise linearization solution algorithm are tested with a small E. coli core metabolic network and a large-scale iAF1260 E. coli metabolic network. The derived knockout

  20. Growth hormone receptor-deficient pigs resemble the pathophysiology of human Laron syndrome and reveal altered activation of signaling cascades in the liver.

    PubMed

    Hinrichs, Arne; Kessler, Barbara; Kurome, Mayuko; Blutke, Andreas; Kemter, Elisabeth; Bernau, Maren; Scholz, Armin M; Rathkolb, Birgit; Renner, Simone; Bultmann, Sebastian; Leonhardt, Heinrich; de Angelis, Martin Hrabĕ; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Hoeflich, Andreas; Blum, Werner F; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Wanke, Rüdiger; Dahlhoff, Maik; Wolf, Eckhard

    2018-05-01

    Laron syndrome (LS) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder in humans caused by loss-of-function mutations of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene. To establish a large animal model for LS, pigs with GHR knockout (KO) mutations were generated and characterized. CRISPR/Cas9 technology was applied to mutate exon 3 of the GHR gene in porcine zygotes. Two heterozygous founder sows with a 1-bp or 7-bp insertion in GHR exon 3 were obtained, and their heterozygous F1 offspring were intercrossed to produce GHR-KO, heterozygous GHR mutant, and wild-type pigs. Since the latter two groups were not significantly different in any parameter investigated, they were pooled as the GHR expressing control group. The characterization program included body and organ growth, body composition, endocrine and clinical-chemical parameters, as well as signaling studies in liver tissue. GHR-KO pigs lacked GHR and had markedly reduced serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) levels and reduced IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) activity but increased IGFBP2 levels. Serum GH concentrations were significantly elevated compared with control pigs. GHR-KO pigs had a normal birth weight. Growth retardation became significant at the age of five weeks. At the age of six months, the body weight of GHR-KO pigs was reduced by 60% compared with controls. Most organ weights of GHR-KO pigs were reduced proportionally to body weight. However, the weights of liver, kidneys, and heart were disproportionately reduced, while the relative brain weight was almost doubled. GHR-KO pigs had a markedly increased percentage of total body fat relative to body weight and displayed transient juvenile hypoglycemia along with decreased serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Analysis of insulin receptor related signaling in the liver of adult fasted pigs revealed increased phosphorylation of IRS1 and PI3K. In agreement with the loss of GHR, phosphorylation of STAT5 was significantly reduced. In contrast, phosphorylation

  1. Pyviko: an automated Python tool to design gene knockouts in complex viruses with overlapping genes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Louis J; Strebel, Klaus

    2017-01-07

    Gene knockouts are a common tool used to study gene function in various organisms. However, designing gene knockouts is complicated in viruses, which frequently contain sequences that code for multiple overlapping genes. Designing mutants that can be traced by the creation of new or elimination of existing restriction sites further compounds the difficulty in experimental design of knockouts of overlapping genes. While software is available to rapidly identify restriction sites in a given nucleotide sequence, no existing software addresses experimental design of mutations involving multiple overlapping amino acid sequences in generating gene knockouts. Pyviko performed well on a test set of over 240,000 gene pairs collected from viral genomes deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information Nucleotide database, identifying a point mutation which added a premature stop codon within the first 20 codons of the target gene in 93.2% of all tested gene-overprinted gene pairs. This shows that Pyviko can be used successfully in a wide variety of contexts to facilitate the molecular cloning and study of viral overprinted genes. Pyviko is an extensible and intuitive Python tool for designing knockouts of overlapping genes. Freely available as both a Python package and a web-based interface ( http://louiejtaylor.github.io/pyViKO/ ), Pyviko simplifies the experimental design of gene knockouts in complex viruses with overlapping genes.

  2. Genetically edited pigs lacking CD163 show no resistance following infection with the African swine fever virus isolate, Georgia 2007/1.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Luca; Gaudreault, Natasha N; Whitworth, Kristen M; Murgia, Maria V; Nietfeld, Jerome C; Mileham, Alan; Samuel, Melissa; Wells, Kevin D; Prather, Randall S; Rowland, Raymond R R

    2017-01-15

    African swine fever is a highly contagious, often fatal disease of swine for which there is no vaccine or other curative treatment. The macrophage marker, CD163, is a putative receptor for African swine fever virus (ASFV). Pigs possessing a complete knockout of CD163 on macrophages were inoculated with Georgia 2007/1, a genotype 2 isolate. Knockout and wild type pen mates became infected and showed no differences in clinical signs, mortality, pathology or viremia. There was also no difference following in vitro infection of macrophages. The results do not rule out the possibility that other ASFV strains utilize CD163, but demonstrate that CD163 is not necessary for infection with the Georgia 2007/1 isolate. This work rules out a significant role for CD163 in ASFV infection and creates opportunities to focus on alternative receptors and entry mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Animal models got you puzzled?: think pig.

    PubMed

    Walters, Eric M; Agca, Yuksel; Ganjam, Venkataseshu; Evans, Tim

    2011-12-01

    Swine are an excellent large animal model for human health and disease because their size and physiology are similar to humans, in particular, with respect to the skin, heart, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys. In addition, the pig has many emerging technologies that will only enhance the development of the pig as the nonrodent biomedical model of choice. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Sweating Like a Pig: Physics or Irony?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2016-01-01

    In his interesting and informative book "Is That a Fact?," Joe Schwarcz avers that pigs do not sweat and the saying "sweating like a pig" originates in iron smelting. Oblong pieces of hot iron, with a fancied resemblance to a sow with piglets, cool in sand to the dew point of the surrounding air, and hence water condenses on…

  5. Guinea Pigs: Versatile Animals for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Charles R.

    1977-01-01

    Guinea pigs are presented as versatile classroom animals. Suggestions for animal behavior and genetics studies are given. Also included is information concerning sex determination and the breeding of guinea pigs, and hints on keeping these animals in the classroom. References and illustrations complete the article. (MA)

  6. A Homolog Pentameric Complex Dictates Viral Epithelial Tropism, Pathogenicity and Congenital Infection Rate in Guinea Pig Cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Stewart; Choi, K Yeon; Root, Matthew; McGregor, Alistair

    2016-07-01

    In human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), tropism to epithelial and endothelial cells is dependent upon a pentameric complex (PC). Given the structure of the placenta, the PC is potentially an important neutralizing antibody target antigen against congenital infection. The guinea pig is the only small animal model for congenital CMV. Guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) potentially encodes a UL128-131 HCMV PC homolog locus (GP128-GP133). In transient expression studies, GPCMV gH and gL glycoproteins interacted with UL128, UL130 and UL131 homolog proteins (designated GP129 and GP131 and GP133 respectively) to form PC or subcomplexes which were determined by immunoprecipitation reactions directed to gH or gL. A natural GP129 C-terminal deletion mutant (aa 107-179) and a chimeric HCMV UL128 C-terminal domain swap GP129 mutant failed to form PC with other components. GPCMV infection of a newly established guinea pig epithelial cell line required a complete PC and a GP129 mutant virus lacked epithelial tropism and was attenuated in the guinea pig for pathogenicity and had a low congenital transmission rate. Individual knockout of GP131 or 133 genes resulted in loss of viral epithelial tropism. A GP128 mutant virus retained epithelial tropism and GP128 was determined not to be a PC component. A series of GPCMV mutants demonstrated that gO was not strictly essential for epithelial infection whereas gB and the PC were essential. Ectopic expression of a GP129 cDNA in a GP129 mutant virus restored epithelial tropism, pathogenicity and congenital infection. Overall, GPCMV forms a PC similar to HCMV which enables evaluation of PC based vaccine strategies in the guinea pig model.

  7. A Homolog Pentameric Complex Dictates Viral Epithelial Tropism, Pathogenicity and Congenital Infection Rate in Guinea Pig Cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Alistair

    2016-01-01

    In human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), tropism to epithelial and endothelial cells is dependent upon a pentameric complex (PC). Given the structure of the placenta, the PC is potentially an important neutralizing antibody target antigen against congenital infection. The guinea pig is the only small animal model for congenital CMV. Guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) potentially encodes a UL128-131 HCMV PC homolog locus (GP128-GP133). In transient expression studies, GPCMV gH and gL glycoproteins interacted with UL128, UL130 and UL131 homolog proteins (designated GP129 and GP131 and GP133 respectively) to form PC or subcomplexes which were determined by immunoprecipitation reactions directed to gH or gL. A natural GP129 C-terminal deletion mutant (aa 107–179) and a chimeric HCMV UL128 C-terminal domain swap GP129 mutant failed to form PC with other components. GPCMV infection of a newly established guinea pig epithelial cell line required a complete PC and a GP129 mutant virus lacked epithelial tropism and was attenuated in the guinea pig for pathogenicity and had a low congenital transmission rate. Individual knockout of GP131 or 133 genes resulted in loss of viral epithelial tropism. A GP128 mutant virus retained epithelial tropism and GP128 was determined not to be a PC component. A series of GPCMV mutants demonstrated that gO was not strictly essential for epithelial infection whereas gB and the PC were essential. Ectopic expression of a GP129 cDNA in a GP129 mutant virus restored epithelial tropism, pathogenicity and congenital infection. Overall, GPCMV forms a PC similar to HCMV which enables evaluation of PC based vaccine strategies in the guinea pig model. PMID:27387220

  8. Sildenafil restores endothelial function in the apolipoprotein E knockout mouse

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory process of the arterial walls and is initiated by endothelial dysfunction accompanied by an imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). Sildenafil, a selective phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitor used for erectile dysfunction, exerts its cardiovascular effects by enhancing the effects of NO. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sildenafil on endothelial function and atherosclerosis progression in apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE−/−) mice. Methods ApoE−/− mice treated with sildenafil (Viagra®, 40 mg/kg/day, for 3 weeks, by oral gavage) were compared to the untreated apoE−/− and the wild-type (WT) mice. Aortic rings were used to evaluate the relaxation responses to acetylcholine (ACh) in all of the groups. In a separate set of experiments, the roles of NO and ROS in the relaxation response to ACh were evaluated by incubating the aortic rings with L-NAME (NO synthase inhibitor) or apocynin (NADPH oxidase inhibitor). In addition, the atherosclerotic lesions were quantified and superoxide production was assessed. Results Sildenafil restored the vasodilator response to acetylcholine (ACh) in the aortic rings of the apoE−/− mice. Treatment with L-NAME abolished the vasodilator responses to ACh in all three groups of mice and revealed an augmented participation of NO in the endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the sildenafil-treated animals. The normalized endothelial function in sildenafil-treated apoE−/− mice was unaffected by apocynin highlighting the low levels of ROS production in these animals. Moreover, morphological analysis showed that sildenafil treatment caused approximately a 40% decrease in plaque deposition in the aorta. Conclusion This is the first study demonstrating the beneficial effects of chronic treatment with sildenafil on endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis in a model of spontaneous hypercholesterolemia. These data

  9. Behavioral and Electrophysiological Characterization of Dyt1 Heterozygous Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yokoi, Fumiaki; Chen, Huan-Xin; Dang, Mai Tu; Cheetham, Chad C.; Campbell, Susan L.; Roper, Steven N.; Sweatt, J. David; Li, Yuqing

    2015-01-01

    DYT1 dystonia is an inherited movement disorder caused by mutations in DYT1 (TOR1A), which codes for torsinA. Most of the patients have a trinucleotide deletion (ΔGAG) corresponding to a glutamic acid in the C-terminal region (torsinAΔE). Dyt1 ΔGAG heterozygous knock-in (KI) mice, which mimic ΔGAG mutation in the endogenous gene, exhibit motor deficits and deceased frequency of spontaneous excitatory post-synaptic currents (sEPSCs) and normal theta-burst-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal CA1 region. Although Dyt1 KI mice show decreased hippocampal torsinA levels, it is not clear whether the decreased torsinA level itself affects the synaptic plasticity or torsinAΔE does it. To analyze the effect of partial torsinA loss on motor behaviors and synaptic transmission, Dyt1 heterozygous knock-out (KO) mice were examined as a model of a frame-shift DYT1 mutation in patients. Consistent with Dyt1 KI mice, Dyt1 heterozygous KO mice showed motor deficits in the beam-walking test. Dyt1 heterozygous KO mice showed decreased hippocampal torsinA levels lower than those in Dyt1 KI mice. Reduced sEPSCs and normal miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents (mEPSCs) were also observed in the acute hippocampal brain slices from Dyt1 heterozygous KO mice, suggesting that the partial loss of torsinA function in Dyt1 KI mice causes action potential-dependent neurotransmitter release deficits. On the other hand, Dyt1 heterozygous KO mice showed enhanced hippocampal LTP, normal input-output relations and paired pulse ratios in the extracellular field recordings. The results suggest that maintaining an appropriate torsinA level is important to sustain normal motor performance, synaptic transmission and plasticity. Developing therapeutics to restore a normal torsinA level may help to prevent and treat the symptoms in DYT1 dystonia. PMID:25799505

  10. Behavioral and electrophysiological characterization of Dyt1 heterozygous knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Fumiaki; Chen, Huan-Xin; Dang, Mai Tu; Cheetham, Chad C; Campbell, Susan L; Roper, Steven N; Sweatt, J David; Li, Yuqing

    2015-01-01

    DYT1 dystonia is an inherited movement disorder caused by mutations in DYT1 (TOR1A), which codes for torsinA. Most of the patients have a trinucleotide deletion (ΔGAG) corresponding to a glutamic acid in the C-terminal region (torsinA(ΔE)). Dyt1 ΔGAG heterozygous knock-in (KI) mice, which mimic ΔGAG mutation in the endogenous gene, exhibit motor deficits and deceased frequency of spontaneous excitatory post-synaptic currents (sEPSCs) and normal theta-burst-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal CA1 region. Although Dyt1 KI mice show decreased hippocampal torsinA levels, it is not clear whether the decreased torsinA level itself affects the synaptic plasticity or torsinA(ΔE) does it. To analyze the effect of partial torsinA loss on motor behaviors and synaptic transmission, Dyt1 heterozygous knock-out (KO) mice were examined as a model of a frame-shift DYT1 mutation in patients. Consistent with Dyt1 KI mice, Dyt1 heterozygous KO mice showed motor deficits in the beam-walking test. Dyt1 heterozygous KO mice showed decreased hippocampal torsinA levels lower than those in Dyt1 KI mice. Reduced sEPSCs and normal miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents (mEPSCs) were also observed in the acute hippocampal brain slices from Dyt1 heterozygous KO mice, suggesting that the partial loss of torsinA function in Dyt1 KI mice causes action potential-dependent neurotransmitter release deficits. On the other hand, Dyt1 heterozygous KO mice showed enhanced hippocampal LTP, normal input-output relations and paired pulse ratios in the extracellular field recordings. The results suggest that maintaining an appropriate torsinA level is important to sustain normal motor performance, synaptic transmission and plasticity. Developing therapeutics to restore a normal torsinA level may help to prevent and treat the symptoms in DYT1 dystonia.

  11. Endocrine tumours in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Künzel, Frank; Mayer, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    Functional endocrine tumours have long been thought to be rare in guinea pigs, although conditions such as hyperthyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism have been documented with increasing frequency so the prevalence of hormonal disorders may have been underestimated. Both the clinical signs and diagnosis of hyperthyroidism in guinea pigs appear to be very similar to those described in feline hyperthyroidism, and methimazole has been proven to be a practical therapy option. Hyperadrenocorticism has been confirmed in several guinea pigs with an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test using saliva as a non-invasive sample matrix; trilostane has been successfully used to treat a guinea pig with hyperadrenocorticism. Insulinomas have only rarely been documented in guinea pigs and one animal was effectively treated with diazoxide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Wild pig populations in the National Parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Francis J.

    1981-05-01

    Populations of introduced European wild boar, feral pigs, and combinations of both types (all Sus scrola L.) inhabit thirteen areas in the National Park Service system. All parks have relatively stable populations, with the exception of Great Smoky Mountains National Park, which reported a rapidly expanding wild boar population. Suspected and documented impacts were apparently related to pig densities and sensitivity of the ecosystem; the three largest units with dense wild pig populations reported the most damage. Overall, wild pigs are a relatively minor problem for the Park Service; however, problems are severe in at least three parks, and there is potential for invasion of wild boars into several additional parks in the Appalachian Mountains. More specific information is needed on numbers of wild pigs and their impacts in the various parks.

  13. A Review of Pain Assessment in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ison, Sarah H.; Clutton, R. Eddie; Di Giminiani, Pierpaolo; Rutherford, Kenneth M. D.

    2016-01-01

    There is a moral obligation to minimize pain in pigs used for human benefit. In livestock production, pigs experience pain caused by management procedures, e.g., castration and tail docking, injuries from fighting or poor housing conditions, “management diseases” like mastitis or streptococcal meningitis, and at parturition. Pigs used in biomedical research undergo procedures that are regarded as painful in humans, but do not receive similar levels of analgesia, and pet pigs also experience potentially painful conditions. In all contexts, accurate pain assessment is a prerequisite in (a) the estimation of the welfare consequences of noxious interventions and (b) the development of more effective pain mitigation strategies. This narrative review identifies the sources of pain in pigs, discusses the various assessment measures currently available, and proposes directions for future investigation. PMID:27965968

  14. Guinea Pig Ciliary Muscle Development

    PubMed Central

    Pucker, Andrew D.; Carpenter, Ashley R.; McHugh, Kirk M.; Mutti, Donald O.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to develop a method for quantifying guinea pig ciliary muscle volume (CMV) and to determine its relationship to age and ocular biometric measurements. Methods Six albino guinea pigs eyes were collected at each of five ages (n=30 eyes). Retinoscopy and photography were used to document refractive error, eye size, and eye shape. Serial sections through the excised eyes were made and then labeled with an α-smooth muscle actin antibody. The CM was then visualized with an Olympus BX51 microscope, reconstructed with Stereo Investigator (MBF Bioscience) and analyzed using Neurolucida Explorer (MBF Bioscience). Full (using all sections) and partial (using a subset of sections) reconstruction methods were used to determine CMV. Results There was no significant difference between the full and partial volume determination methods (P = 0.86). The mean CMV of the 1, 10, 20, 30, and 90-day old eyes was 0.40 ± 0.16 mm3, 0.48 ± 0.13 mm3, 0.67 ± 0.15 mm3, 0.86 ± 0.35 mm3, and 1.09 ± 0.63 mm3, respectively. CMV was significantly correlated with log age (P = 0.001), ocular length (P = 0.003), limbal circumference (P = 0.01), and equatorial diameter (P = 0.003). It was not correlated with refractive error (P = 0.73) or eye shape (P = 0.60). Multivariate regression determined that biometric variables were not significantly associated with CMV after adjustment for age. Conclusions Three-dimensional reconstruction was an effective means of determining CMV. These data provide evidence that CM growth occurs with age in tandem with eye size in normal albino guinea pigs. Additional work is needed to determine the relationship between CMV and abnormal ocular growth. PMID:24901488

  15. Neuron-specific (pro)renin receptor knockout prevents the development of salt-sensitive hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wencheng; Peng, Hua; Mehaffey, Eamonn P.; Kimball, Christie D.; Grobe, Justin L.; van Gool, Jeanette M.G.; Sullivan, Michelle N.; Earley, Scott; Danser, A.H. Jan; Ichihara, Atsuhiro; Feng, Yumei

    2013-01-01

    The (pro)renin receptor, which binds both renin and prorenin, is a newly discovered component of the renin angiotensin system that is highly expressed in the central nervous system. The significance of brain PRRs in mediating local angiotensin II formation and regulating blood pressure remains unclear. The current study was performed to test the hypothesis that PRR-mediated, non-proteolytic activation of prorenin is the main source of angiotensin II in the brain. Thus, PRR knockout in the brain is expected to prevent angiotensin II formation and development of deoxycorticosterone acetate salt induced hypertension. A neuron-specific PRR (ATP6AP2) knockout mouse model was generated using the Cre-LoxP system. Physiological parameters were recorded by telemetry. (Pro)renin receptor expression, detected by immunostaining and RT-PCR, was significantly decreased in the brains of knockout compared with wide-type mice. Intracerebroventricular infusion of mouse prorenin increased blood pressure and angiotensin II formation in wild type mice. This hypertensive response was abolished in (pro)renin receptor knockout mice in association with a reduction in angiotensin II levels. Deoxycorticosterone acetate salt increased (pro)renin receptor expression and angiotensin II formation in the brains of wild-type mice, an effect that was attenuated in (pro)renin receptor knockout mice. (Pro)renin receptor knockout in neurons prevented the development of Deoxycorticosterone acetate salt-induced hypertension as well as activation of cardiac and vasomotor sympathetic tone. In conclusion, non-proteolytic activation of prorenin through binding to the PRR mediates angiotensin II formation in the brain. Neuron-specific PRR knockout prevents the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate salt-induced hypertension, possibly through diminished angiotensin II formation. PMID:24246383

  16. Phenotypic assessment of THC discriminative stimulus properties in fatty acid amide hydrolase knockout and wildtype mice.

    PubMed

    Walentiny, D Matthew; Vann, Robert E; Wiley, Jenny L

    2015-06-01

    A number of studies have examined the ability of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide to elicit Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-like subjective effects, as modeled through the THC discrimination paradigm. In the present study, we compared transgenic mice lacking fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme primarily responsible for anandamide catabolism, to wildtype counterparts in a THC discrimination procedure. THC (5.6 mg/kg) served as a discriminative stimulus in both genotypes, with similar THC dose-response curves between groups. Anandamide fully substituted for THC in FAAH knockout, but not wildtype, mice. Conversely, the metabolically stable anandamide analog O-1812 fully substituted in both groups, but was more potent in knockouts. The CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant dose-dependently attenuated THC generalization in both groups and anandamide substitution in FAAH knockouts. Pharmacological inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary catabolic enzyme for the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), with JZL184 resulted in full substitution for THC in FAAH knockout mice and nearly full substitution in wildtypes. Quantification of brain endocannabinoid levels revealed expected elevations in anandamide in FAAH knockout mice compared to wildtypes and equipotent dose-dependent elevations in 2-AG following JZL184 administration. Dual inhibition of FAAH and MAGL with JZL195 resulted in roughly equipotent increases in THC-appropriate responding in both groups. While the notable similarity in THC's discriminative stimulus effects across genotype suggests that the increased baseline brain anandamide levels (as seen in FAAH knockout mice) do not alter THC's subjective effects, FAAH knockout mice are more sensitive to the THC-like effects of pharmacologically induced increases in anandamide and MAGL inhibition (e.g., JZL184). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Myostatin knockout using zinc-finger nucleases promotes proliferation of ovine primary satellite cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Salabi, Fatemeh; Nazari, Mahmood; Chen, Qing; Nimal, Jonathan; Tong, Jianming; Cao, Wen G

    2014-12-20

    Myostatin (MSTN) has previously been shown to negatively regulate the proliferation and differentiation of skeletal muscle cells. Satellite cells are quiescent muscle stem cells that promote muscle growth and repair. Because the mechanism of MSTN in the biology of satellite cells is not well understood, this study was conducted to generate MSTN mono-allelic knockout satellite cells using the zinc-finger nuclease mRNA (MSTN-KO ZFN mRNA) and also to investigate the effect of this disruption on the proliferation and differentiation of sheep primary satellite cells (PSCs). Nineteen biallelic and four mono-allelic knockout cell clones were obtained after sequence analysis. The homologous mono-allelic knockout cells with 5-bp deletion were used to further evaluations. The results demonstrated that mono-allelic knockout of MSTN gene leads to translation inhibition. Real-time quantitative PCR results indicated that knockout of MSTN contributed to an increase in CDK2 and follistatin and a decrease in p21 at the transcript level in proliferation conditions. Moreover, MSTN knockout significantly increased the proliferation of mutant clones (P < 0.01). Consistent with the observed increase in CDK2 and decrease in p21 in cells lacking MSTN, cell cycle analysis showed that MSTN negatively regulated the G1 to S progression. In addition, knockout of myostatin resulted in a remarkable increase in MyoD and MyoG expression under differentiating conditions but had no effect on Myf5 expression. These results expanded our understanding of the regulation mechanism of MSTN. Furthermore, the MSTN-KO ZFN mRNA system in PSCs could be used to generate transgenic sheep in the future.

  18. Diseases of guinea-pigs.

    PubMed

    Sebesteny, A

    1976-05-22

    Information on diseases of guinea-pigs is generally available in research institutes and breeding establishments. When dealing with an individual patient it is tempting to extrapolate from this pool of information, without realising that a number of factors can affect the disease situation in a colony which need not apply to the individual animal kept as a pet--or vice versa. Thus diseases may appear as an explosive outbreak in a group of cavies kept under uniform conditions while a single animal may be exposed to amateur management (Townsend 1975) and suffer in consequence. The diseases generally encountered in this species are dealt with here as they appear clinically.

  19. Stockperson attitudes toward pig euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Rault, J-L; Holyoake, T; Coleman, G

    2017-02-01

    Euthanasia is a necessary act for any facility keeping live animals. Nevertheless, the crucial role and responsibility of the stockperson in deciding and conducting on-farm euthanasia has been overlooked. Stockperson characteristics and knowledge that lead to appropriate decision-making and the skills to competently perform the procedure remain to be identified. An important component of the stockperson's characteristics that predict behavior is the stockperson's attitudes. This preliminary study investigated the factors that influence stockperson attitudes toward the practice of on-farm euthanasia in the pork industry. A total of 120 stockpeople from 10 Australian pig farms (ranging in size from 50 to 4,754 sows and from 2 to 32 employees) completed a questionnaire based on focus group input to assess their attitudes toward euthanasia and decision processes. Factors identified included stockperson attitudes and attributes (empathy affect, empathy attribution, feeling bad about euthanizing, and negative attitudes to pigs), beliefs about the working environment (perceived time constraints and relying on others), and factors related to decision-making (comfortable with euthanasia, trouble deciding and avoid if possible, confidence, insufficient knowledge, seeking knowledge, and using sources to get advice). Numerous significant correlations were found between these variables. Furthermore, regression analyses showed confidence as the only significant predictor of being comfortable with euthanasia (12.5% of the variance; < 0.001); insufficient knowledge and empathy attribution both as predictors of trouble deciding and avoid if possible (15.1% of the variance; = 0.001 and = 0.032, respectively); and empathy affect, insufficient knowledge, and perceived time constraints as predictors of feeling bad about euthanizing (23.2% of the variance; < 0.001, = 0.006, and = 0.022, respectively). Stockpeople reported seeking more knowledge if they had not euthanized an animal

  20. Cultural and Economic Motivation of Pig Raising Practices in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Nazmun; Uddin, Main; Gurley, Emily S; Jahangir Hossain, M; Sultana, Rebeca; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-12-01

    The interactions that pig raisers in Bangladesh have with their pigs could increase the risk of zoonotic disease transmission. Since raising pigs is a cultural taboo to Muslims, we aimed at understanding the motivation for raising pigs and resulting practices that could pose the risk of transmitting disease from pigs to humans in Bangladesh, a predominantly Muslim country. These understandings could help identify acceptable strategies to reduce the risk of disease transmission from pigs to people. To achieve this objective, we conducted 34 in-depth interviews among pig herders and backyard pig raisers in eight districts of Bangladesh. Informants explained that pig raising is an old tradition, embedded in cultural and religious beliefs and practices, the primary livelihood of pig herders, and a supplemental income of backyard pig raisers. To secure additional income, pig raisers sell feces, liver, bile, and other pig parts often used as traditional medicine. Pig raisers have limited economic ability to change the current practices that may put them at risk of exposure to diseases from their pigs. An intervention that improves their financial situation and reduces the risk of zoonotic disease may be of interest to pig raisers.

  1. Cultural and Economic Motivation of Pig Raising Practices in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Nazmun; Uddin, Main; Gurley, Emily S.; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Sultana, Rebeca; Luby, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    The interactions that pig raisers in Bangladesh have with their pigs could increase the risk of zoonotic disease transmission. Since raising pigs is a cultural taboo to Muslims, we aimed at understanding the motivation for raising pigs and resulting practices that could pose the risk of transmitting disease from pigs to humans in Bangladesh, a predominantly Muslim country. These understandings could help identify acceptable strategies to reduce the risk of disease transmission from pigs to people. To achieve this objective, we conducted 34 in-depth interviews among pig herders and backyard pig raisers in eight districts of Bangladesh. Informants explained that pig raising is an old tradition, embedded in cultural and religious beliefs and practices, the primary livelihood of pig herders, and a supplemental income of backyard pig raisers. To secure additional income, pig raisers sell feces, liver, bile, and other pig parts often used as traditional medicine. Pig raisers have limited economic ability to change the current practices that may put them at risk of exposure to diseases from their pigs. An intervention that improves their financial situation and reduces the risk of zoonotic disease may be of interest to pig raisers. PMID:26122206

  2. 9 CFR 113.38 - Guinea pig safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guinea pig safety test. 113.38 Section... Standard Procedures § 113.38 Guinea pig safety test. The guinea pig safety test provided in this section... be injected either intramuscularly or subcutaneously into each of two guinea pigs and the animals...

  3. 9 CFR 113.38 - Guinea pig safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Guinea pig safety test. 113.38 Section... Standard Procedures § 113.38 Guinea pig safety test. The guinea pig safety test provided in this section... be injected either intramuscularly or subcutaneously into each of two guinea pigs and the animals...

  4. 9 CFR 113.38 - Guinea pig safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Guinea pig safety test. 113.38 Section... Standard Procedures § 113.38 Guinea pig safety test. The guinea pig safety test provided in this section... be injected either intramuscularly or subcutaneously into each of two guinea pigs and the animals...

  5. 9 CFR 113.38 - Guinea pig safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Guinea pig safety test. 113.38 Section... Standard Procedures § 113.38 Guinea pig safety test. The guinea pig safety test provided in this section... be injected either intramuscularly or subcutaneously into each of two guinea pigs and the animals...

  6. 9 CFR 113.38 - Guinea pig safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Guinea pig safety test. 113.38 Section... Standard Procedures § 113.38 Guinea pig safety test. The guinea pig safety test provided in this section... be injected either intramuscularly or subcutaneously into each of two guinea pigs and the animals...

  7. Diacylglycerol Lipase α Knockout Mice Demonstrate Metabolic and Behavioral Phenotypes Similar to Those of Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Powell, David R.; Gay, Jason P.; Wilganowski, Nathaniel; Doree, Deon; Savelieva, Katerina V.; Lanthorn, Thomas H.; Read, Robert; Vogel, Peter; Hansen, Gwenn M.; Brommage, Robert; Ding, Zhi-Ming; Desai, Urvi; Zambrowicz, Brian

    2015-01-01

    After creating >4,650 knockouts (KOs) of independent mouse genes, we screened them by high-throughput phenotyping and found that cannabinoid receptor 1 (Cnr1) KO mice had the same lean phenotype published by others. We asked if our KOs of DAG lipase α or β (Dagla or Daglb), which catalyze biosynthesis of the endocannabinoid (EC) 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), or Napepld, which catalyzes biosynthesis of the EC anandamide, shared the lean phenotype of Cnr1 KO mice. We found that Dagla KO mice, but not Daglb or Napepld KO mice, were among the leanest of 3651 chow-fed KO lines screened. In confirmatory studies, chow- or high fat diet-fed Dagla and Cnr1 KO mice were leaner than wild-type (WT) littermates; when data from multiple cohorts of adult mice were combined, body fat was 47 and 45% lower in Dagla and Cnr1 KO mice, respectively, relative to WT values. By contrast, neither Daglb nor Napepld KO mice were lean. Weanling Dagla KO mice ate less than WT mice and had body weight (BW) similar to pair-fed WT mice, and adult Dagla KO mice had normal activity and VO2 levels, similar to Cnr1 KO mice. Our Dagla and Cnr1 KO mice also had low fasting insulin, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels, and after glucose challenge had normal glucose but very low insulin levels. Dagla and Cnr1 KO mice also showed similar responses to a battery of behavioral tests. These data suggest: (1) the lean phenotype of young Dagla and Cnr1 KO mice is mainly due to hypophagia; (2) in pathways where ECs signal through Cnr1 to regulate food intake and other metabolic and behavioral phenotypes observed in Cnr1 KO mice, Dagla alone provides the 2-AG that serves as the EC signal; and (3) small molecule Dagla inhibitors with a pharmacokinetic profile similar to that of Cnr1 inverse agonists are likely to mirror the ability of these Cnr1 inverse agonists to lower BW and improve glycemic control in obese patients with type 2 diabetes, but may also induce undesirable neuropsychiatric side

  8. Experimental aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Twenhafel, N A; Shaia, C I; Bunton, T E; Shamblin, J D; Wollen, S E; Pitt, L M; Sizemore, D R; Ogg, M M; Johnston, S C

    2015-01-01

    Eight guinea pigs were aerosolized with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) and developed lethal interstitial pneumonia that was distinct from lesions described in guinea pigs challenged subcutaneously, nonhuman primates challenged by the aerosol route, and natural infection in humans. Guinea pigs succumbed with significant pathologic changes primarily restricted to the lungs. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed in many alveolar macrophages. Perivasculitis was noted within the lungs. These changes are unlike those of documented subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs and aerosolized filoviral infections in nonhuman primates and human cases. Similar to findings in subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs, there were only mild lesions in the liver and spleen. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aerosol challenge of guinea pigs with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga). Before choosing this model for use in aerosolized ebolavirus studies, scientists and pathologists should be aware that aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Hybrid pig versus Gottingen minipig-derived cartilage and chondrocytes show pig line-dependent differences.

    PubMed

    Müller, Claudia; Marzahn, Ulrike; Kohl, Benjamin; El Sayed, Karym; Lohan, Anke; Meier, Carola; Ertel, Wolfgang; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula

    2013-11-01

    Minipigs are widely used as a large animal model for cartilage repair. However, many in vitro studies are based on porcine chondrocytes derived from abundantly available premature hybrid pigs. It remains unclear whether pig line-dependent differences exist which could limit the comparability between in vitro and in vivo results using either hybrid or miniature pig articular chondrocytes. Porcine knee joint femoral cartilage was isolated from 3- to 5-month-old hybrid pigs and Göttingen minipigs. Cartilage from both pig lines was analysed for thickness, zonality, cell content, size and proteoglycan deposition. Cultured articular chondrocytes from both pig lines were investigated for gene and/or protein expression of cartilage-specific proteins such as type II collagen, aggrecan, the chondrogenic transcription factor Sox9, non-specific type I collagen and the cell-matrix receptor β1-integrin. Cartilage was significantly thinner in the miniature pig compared to the hybrid pig, but the differences between the medial and lateral femur condyles did not reach a significant level. Knee joint cartilage zone formation started only in the minipig, whereas cellularity and cell diameters were comparable in both pig lines. Blood vessels could be detected in the hybrid pig but not the minipig cartilage. Sulphated proteoglycan deposition was more pronounced in cartilage zones II-IV of both pig lines. Minipig chondrocytes expressed type II and I collagen, Sox9 and β1-integrin at a higher level than hybrid pig chondrocytes. These distinct line-dependent differences should be considered when using hybrid pig-derived chondrocytes for tissue engineering and Göttingen minipigs as a large animal model.

  10. Knockouts of high-ranking males have limited impact on baboon social networks.

    PubMed

    Franz, Mathias; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    Social network structures can crucially impact complex social processes such as collective behaviour or the transmission of information and diseases. However, currently it is poorly understood how social networks change over time. Previous studies on primates suggest that `knockouts' (due to death or dispersal) of high-ranking individuals might be important drivers for structural changes in animal social networks. Here we test this hypothesis using long-term data on a natural population of baboons, examining the effects of 29 natural knockouts of alpha or beta males on adult female social networks. We investigated whether and how knockouts affected (1) changes in grooming and association rates among adult females, and (2) changes in mean degree and global clustering coefficient in these networks. The only significant effect that we found was a decrease in mean degree in grooming networks in the first month after knockouts, but this decrease was rather small, and grooming networks rebounded to baseline levels by the second month after knockouts. Taken together our results indicate that the removal of high-ranking males has only limited or no lasting effects on social networks of adult female baboons. This finding calls into question the hypothesis that the removal of high-ranking individuals has a destabilizing effect on social network structures in social animals.

  11. A Protocol for Multiple Gene Knockout in Mouse Small Intestinal Organoids Using a CRISPR-concatemer.

    PubMed

    Merenda, Alessandra; Andersson-Rolf, Amanda; Mustata, Roxana C; Li, Taibo; Kim, Hyunki; Koo, Bon-Kyoung

    2017-07-12

    CRISPR/Cas9 technology has greatly improved the feasibility and speed of loss-of-function studies that are essential in understanding gene function. In higher eukaryotes, paralogous genes can mask a potential phenotype by compensating the loss of a gene, thus limiting the information that can be obtained from genetic studies relying on single gene knockouts. We have developed a novel, rapid cloning method for guide RNA (gRNA) concatemers in order to create multi-gene knockouts following a single round of transfection in mouse small intestinal organoids. Our strategy allows for the concatemerization of up to four individual gRNAs into a single vector by performing a single Golden Gate shuffling reaction with annealed gRNA oligos and a pre-designed retroviral vector. This allows either the simultaneous knockout of up to four different genes, or increased knockout efficiency following the targeting of one gene by multiple gRNAs. In this protocol, we show in detail how to efficiently clone multiple gRNAs into the retroviral CRISPR-concatemer vector and how to achieve highly efficient electroporation in intestinal organoids. As an example, we show that simultaneous knockout of two pairs of genes encoding negative regulators of the Wnt signaling pathway (Axin1/2 and Rnf43/Znrf3) renders intestinal organoids resistant to the withdrawal of key growth factors.

  12. Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase A Knockout Mice Show Progressive Hearing Loss and Sensitivity to Acoustic Trauma.

    PubMed

    Alqudah, Safa; Chertoff, Mark; Durham, Dianne; Moskovitz, Jackob; Staecker, Hinrich; Peppi, Marcello

    2018-06-21

    Methionine sulfoxide reductases (MsrA and MsrB) protect the biological activity of proteins from oxidative modifications to methionine residues and are important for protecting against the pathological effects of neurodegenerative diseases. In the current study, we characterized the auditory phenotype of the MsrA knockout mouse. Young MsrA knockout mice showed small high-frequency threshold elevations for auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emission compared to those of wild-type mice, which progressively worsened in older MsrA knockout mice. MsrA knockout mice showed an increased sensitivity to noise at young and older ages, suggesting that MsrA is part of a mechanism that protects the cochlea from acoustic damage. MsrA mRNA in the cochlea was increased following acoustic stimulation. Finally, expression of mRNA MsrB1 was compromised at 6 months old, but not in younger MsrA knockout mice (compared to controls). The identification of MsrA in the cochlea as a protective mediator from both early onset hearing loss and acoustic trauma expands our understanding of the pathways that may induce protection from acoustic trauma and foster further studies on how to prevent the damaging effect of noise exposure through Msr-based therapy. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Disease phenotype of a ferret CFTR-knockout model of cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xingshen; Sui, Hongshu; Fisher, John T.; Yan, Ziying; Liu, Xiaoming; Cho, Hyung-Ju; Joo, Nam Soo; Zhang, Yulong; Zhou, Weihong; Yi, Yaling; Kinyon, Joann M.; Lei-Butters, Diana C.; Griffin, Michelle A.; Naumann, Paul; Luo, Meihui; Ascher, Jill; Wang, Kai; Frana, Timothy; Wine, Jeffrey J.; Meyerholz, David K.; Engelhardt, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a recessive disease that affects multiple organs. It is caused by mutations in CFTR. Animal modeling of this disease has been challenging, with species- and strain-specific differences in organ biology and CFTR function influencing the emergence of disease pathology. Here, we report the phenotype of a CFTR-knockout ferret model of CF. Neonatal CFTR-knockout ferrets demonstrated many of the characteristics of human CF disease, including defective airway chloride transport and submucosal gland fluid secretion; variably penetrant meconium ileus (MI); pancreatic, liver, and vas deferens disease; and a predisposition to lung infection in the early postnatal period. Severe malabsorption by the gastrointestinal (GI) tract was the primary cause of death in CFTR-knockout kits that escaped MI. Elevated liver function tests in CFTR-knockout kits were corrected by oral administration of ursodeoxycholic acid, and the addition of an oral proton-pump inhibitor improved weight gain and survival. To overcome the limitations imposed by the severe intestinal phenotype, we cloned 4 gut-corrected transgenic CFTR-knockout kits that expressed ferret CFTR specifically in the intestine. One clone passed feces normally and demonstrated no detectable ferret CFTR expression in the lung or liver. The animals described in this study are likely to be useful tools for dissecting CF disease pathogenesis and developing treatments. PMID:20739752

  14. Disease phenotype of a ferret CFTR-knockout model of cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xingshen; Sui, Hongshu; Fisher, John T; Yan, Ziying; Liu, Xiaoming; Cho, Hyung-Ju; Joo, Nam Soo; Zhang, Yulong; Zhou, Weihong; Yi, Yaling; Kinyon, Joann M; Lei-Butters, Diana C; Griffin, Michelle A; Naumann, Paul; Luo, Meihui; Ascher, Jill; Wang, Kai; Frana, Timothy; Wine, Jeffrey J; Meyerholz, David K; Engelhardt, John F

    2010-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a recessive disease that affects multiple organs. It is caused by mutations in CFTR. Animal modeling of this disease has been challenging, with species- and strain-specific differences in organ biology and CFTR function influencing the emergence of disease pathology. Here, we report the phenotype of a CFTR-knockout ferret model of CF. Neonatal CFTR-knockout ferrets demonstrated many of the characteristics of human CF disease, including defective airway chloride transport and submucosal gland fluid secretion; variably penetrant meconium ileus (MI); pancreatic, liver, and vas deferens disease; and a predisposition to lung infection in the early postnatal period. Severe malabsorption by the gastrointestinal (GI) tract was the primary cause of death in CFTR-knockout kits that escaped MI. Elevated liver function tests in CFTR-knockout kits were corrected by oral administration of ursodeoxycholic acid, and the addition of an oral proton-pump inhibitor improved weight gain and survival. To overcome the limitations imposed by the severe intestinal phenotype, we cloned 4 gut-corrected transgenic CFTR-knockout kits that expressed ferret CFTR specifically in the intestine. One clone passed feces normally and demonstrated no detectable ferret CFTR expression in the lung or liver. The animals described in this study are likely to be useful tools for dissecting CF disease pathogenesis and developing treatments.

  15. Enhanced serotonin response in the hippocampus of Galphaz protein knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Oleskevich, Sharon; Leck, Kwong-Joo; Matthaei, Klaus; Hendry, Ian A

    2005-06-21

    The serotonin-1A [5-hydroxytryptamine 1A (5HT1A)] receptor is important for emotional and homeostatic processes in the central nervous system. In the hippocampus, the 5HT1A receptor couples to inhibitory Gi/o proteins to decrease pyramidal cell excitability. Here we investigate the 5HT1A receptor in a mouse deficient in the alpha-subunit of Gz protein (Galphaz knock-out). Behavioural tests showed heightened anxiety and depression-like behaviour in the Galphaz knock-out mice. Whole-cell recording in CA1 pyramidal neurons showed a significantly greater 5HT1A receptor-mediated potassium current in Galphaz knock-out mice. The effect was independent of 5HT4 receptors as the slow after-hyperpolarization was unaffected and a slow depolarization was absent in the Galphaz knock-out mice. Other receptors linked to Gi/o proteins [gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor (GABAB), adenosine A1 and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors] were not affected in Galphaz knock-out mice. These results suggest that the 5HT1A receptor may be linked to Galphaz protein, as reported previously in cell culture but shown here in an intact neural network.

  16. Excess dietary cobalt in pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Huck, D.W.; Clawson, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    Five experiments were conducted, in which 240 growing finishing pigs were used, to determine the level of Cobalt (Co) which is toxic. Pigs tolerated up to 200 mg/kg of Co when added to corn-soybean meal diets containing 82 to 178 mg/kg of iron. The addition of 400 or 600 mg/kg of Co caused anorexia, growth depression, stiff-leggedness, humped back, incoordination and extreme muscular tremors. Serum and organ levels of Co were greatly increased and serum and organ levels of iron (Fe) were significantly reduced by added dietary cobalt. The addition of .5 or 1.0% methionine to the diet completely alleviatedmore » the toxic affects caused by the 600 mg level of Co and restored serum Fe to near normal levels. The addition of Fe, manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) in combination at levels of 200, 400 and 400 mg/kg, respectively, also alleviated the growth depression caused by the 400 mg level of Co and higher levels of Fe, Mn and Zn (200, 600 and 600 mg/kg) partially restored feed intake and growth when 600 mg of Co was fed. Iron alone was not effective in overcoming the growth depression caused by 400 or 600 mg/kg of dietary cobalt. 31 references, 1 figure, 11 tables.« less

  17. Glucose metabolism in pigs expressing human genes under an insulin promoter.

    PubMed

    Wijkstrom, Martin; Bottino, Rita; Iwase, Hayoto; Hara, Hidetaka; Ekser, Burcin; van der Windt, Dirk; Long, Cassandra; Toledo, Frederico G S; Phelps, Carol J; Trucco, Massimo; Cooper, David K C; Ayares, David

    2015-01-01

    Xenotransplantation of porcine islets can reverse diabetes in non-human primates. The remaining hurdles for clinical application include safe and effective T-cell-directed immunosuppression, but protection against the innate immune system and coagulation dysfunction may be more difficult to achieve. Islet-targeted genetic manipulation of islet-source pigs represents a powerful tool to protect against graft loss. However, whether these genetic alterations would impair islet function is unknown. On a background of α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GTKO)/human (h)CD46, additional genes (hCD39, human tissue factor pathway inhibitor, porcine CTLA4-Ig) were inserted in different combinations under an insulin promoter to promote expression in islets (confirmed by immunofluorescence). Seven pigs were tested for baseline and glucose/arginine-challenged levels of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon. This preliminary study did not show definite evidence of β-cell deficiencies, even when three transgenes were expressed under the insulin promoter. Of seven animals, all were normoglycemic at fasting, and five of seven had normal glucose disposal rates after challenge. All animals exhibited insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon responses to both glucose and arginine challenge; however, significant interindividual variation was observed. Multiple islet-targeted transgenic expression was not associated with an overtly detrimental effect on islet function, suggesting that complex genetic constructs designed for islet protection warrants further testing in islet xenotransplantation models. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Anatomic Peculiarities of Pig and Human Liver.

    PubMed

    Nykonenko, Andriy; Vávra, Petr; Zonča, Pavel

    2017-02-01

    Many investigations on surgical methods and medical treatment are currently done on pigs. This is possible because the pig is sufficiently close genetically to humans. In recent years, progress in liver surgery has opened new possibilities in surgical treatment of liver diseases. Because the methods are relatively novel, various improvements are still needed, and it is thus helpful to conduct experimental surgeries on pig livers. We reviewed the literature to compare the anatomic and functional features of pig and human livers, information that will be of great importance for improving surgical techniques. During the literature review, we used various sources, such as PubMed, Scopus, and veterinary journals. Our results were summarized in diagrams to facilitate understanding of the vascular structure and biliary systems. We conclude that, although the shapes of the human and pig livers are quite different, the pig liver is divided into the same number of segments as the human liver, which also shows a common structure of the vascular system. Thus, with the anatomic and structural features of the pig liver taken into account, this animal model can be used in experimental hepatic surgery.

  19. Islet xenotransplantation from genetically engineered pigs.

    PubMed

    Nagaraju, Santosh; Bottino, Rita; Wijkstrom, Martin; Hara, Hidetaka; Trucco, Massimo; Cooper, David K C

    2013-12-01

    Pigs have emerged as potential sources of islets for clinical transplantation. Wild-type porcine islets (adult and neonatal) transplanted into the portal vein have successfully reversed diabetes in nonhuman primates. However, there is a rapid loss of the transplanted islets on exposure to blood, known as the instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction (IBMIR), as well as a T-cell response that leads to rejection of the graft. Genetically modified pig islets offer a number of potential advantages, particularly with regard to reducing the IBMIR-related graft loss and protecting the islets from the primate immune response. Emerging data indicate that transgenes specifically targeted to pig β cells using an insulin promoter (in order to maximize target tissue expression while limiting host effects) can be achieved without significant effects on the pig's glucose metabolism. Experience with the transplantation of islets from genetically engineered pigs into nonhuman primates is steadily increasing, and has involved the deletion of pig antigenic targets to reduce the primate humoral response, the expression of transgenes for human complement-regulatory and coagulation-regulatory proteins, and manipulations to reduce the effect of the T-cell response. There is increasing evidence of the advantages of using genetically engineered pigs as sources of islets for future clinical trials.

  20. Continuous odour measurement from fattening pig units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romain, Anne-Claude; Nicolas, Jacques; Cobut, Pierre; Delva, Julien; Nicks, Baudouin; Philippe, François-Xavier

    2013-10-01

    A study in experimental slatted-system fattening pig units was conducted with the aim of estimating the odour emission factor (in ou s.pig-1), which can subsequently be used in dispersion models to assess the odour annoyance zone. Dynamic olfactometry measurements carried out at different development stages of pigs showed a logical trend of the mean assessed odour emission factor with the pig mass. However, the variation within the same mass class was much larger than variation between classes. Possible causes of such variation were identified as the evolution of ventilation rate during the day and the circadian rhythm of pig. To be able to monitor continuously the daily variation of the odour, an electronic nose was used with suitable regression model calibrated against olfactometric measurements. After appropriate validation check, the electronic nose proved to be convenient, as a complementary tool to dynamic olfactometry, to record the daily variation of the odour emission factor in the pig barn. It was demonstrated that, in the controlled conditions of the experimental pens, the daily variation of the odour emission rate could be mainly attributed to the sole influence of the circadian rhythm of pig. As a consequence, determining a representative odour emission factor in a real case cannot be based on a snapshot odour sampling.

  1. Guinea Pig Chymase Is Leucine-specific

    PubMed Central

    Caughey, George H.; Beauchamp, Jeremy; Schlatter, Daniel; Raymond, Wilfred W.; Trivedi, Neil N.; Banner, David; Mauser, Harald; Fingerle, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    To explore guinea pigs as models of chymase biology, we cloned and expressed the guinea pig ortholog of human chymase. In contrast to rats and mice, guinea pigs appear to express just one chymase, which belongs to the α clade, like primate chymases and mouse mast cell protease-5. The guinea pig enzyme autolyzes at Leu residues in the loop where human chymase autolyzes at Phe. In addition, guinea pig α-chymase selects P1 Leu in a combinatorial peptide library and cleaves Ala-Ala-Pro-Leu-4-nitroanilide but has negligible activity toward substrates with P1 Phe and does not cleave angiotensin I. This contrasts with human chymase, which cleaves after Phe or Tyr, prefers P1 Phe in peptidyl 4-nitroanilides, and avidly hydrolyzes angiotensin I at Phe8 to generate bioactive angiotensin II. The guinea pig enzyme also is inactivated more effectively by α1-antichymotrypsin, which features P1 Leu in the reactive loop. Unlike mouse, rat, and hamster α-chymases, guinea pig chymase lacks elastase-like preference for P1 Val or Ala. Partially humanized A216G guinea pig chymase acquires human-like P1 Phe- and angiotensin-cleaving capacity. Molecular models suggest that the wild type active site is crowded by the Ala216 side chain, which potentially blocks access by bulky P1 aromatic residues. On the other hand, the guinea pig pocket is deeper than in Val-selective chymases, explaining the preference for the longer aliphatic side chain of Leu. These findings are evidence that chymase-like peptidase specificity is sensitive to small changes in structure and provide the first example of a vertebrate Leu-selective peptidase. PMID:18353771

  2. Cloning and functional characterization of the guinea pig apoptosis inhibitor protein Survivin.

    PubMed

    Habtemichael, Negusse; Wünsch, Desiree; Bier, Carolin; Tillmann, Sarah; Unruhe, Britta; Frauenknecht, Katrin; Heinrich, Ulf-Rüdiger; Mann, Wolf J; Stauber, Roland H; Knauer, Shirley K

    2010-12-01

    The guinea pig is widely used as a model to study (patho)physiological processes, such as neurodegenerative disorders. Survivin's dual function as an apoptosis inhibitor and a mitotic regulator is crucial not only for ordered development but its modulation seems crucial also under disease conditions. However, data on the expression and function of the guinea pig Survivin protein (Survivin(Gp)) are currently lacking. Here, we here report the cloning and functional characterization of Survivin(Gp). The respective cDNA was cloned from spleen mRNA, containing a 426 bp open reading frame encoding for a protein of 142aa. Survivin(Gp) displays a high homology to the human and murine orthologue, especially in domains critical for function, such as binding sites for chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) proteins and the nuclear export signal (NES). Notably, phylogenetic analyses revealed that Survivin(Gp) is more related to humans than to rodents. Ectopic expression studies of a Survivin(Gp)-GFP fusion confirmed its dynamic intracellular localization, analogous to the human and murine counterparts. In interphase cells, Survivin(Gp)-GFP was predominantly cytoplasmic and accumulated in the nucleus following export inhibition with leptomycin B (LMB). A typical CPC protein localization during mitosis was observed for Survivin(Gp)-GFP. Microinjection experiments together with genetic knockout demonstrated that the NES is essential for the anti-apoptotic and regulatory role of Survivin(Gp) during cell division. In vivo protein interaction assays further demonstrated its dimerization with human Survivin and its interaction with human CPC proteins. Importantly, RNAi-depletion studies show that Survivin(Gp) can fully substitute for human Survivin as an apoptosis inhibitor and a mitotic effector. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and western blotting were employed to detect Survivin expression in guinea pig tissues. Besides its expression in proliferating tissues, such as

  3. Generating gene knockout rats by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Chang; Huang, Guanyi; Ashton, Charles; Li, Ping; Ying, Qi-Long

    2013-01-01

    We describe here a detailed protocol for generating gene knockout rats by homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells. This protocol comprises the following procedures: derivation and expansion of rat ES cells, construction of gene-targeting vectors, generation of gene-targeted rat ES cells and, finally, production of gene-targeted rats. The major differences between this protocol and the classical mouse gene-targeting protocol include ES cell culture methods, drug selection scheme, colony picking and screening strategies. This ES cell–based gene-targeting technique allows sophisticated genetic modifications to be performed in the rat, as many laboratories have been doing in the mouse for the past two decades. Recently we used this protocol to generate Tp53 (also known as p53) gene knockout rats. The entire process requires ~1 year to complete, from derivation of ES cells to generation of knockout rats. PMID:21637202

  4. ON THE CARCINORESISTANCE OF THE GUINEA PIG. PART I. SPONTANEOUS TUMORS IN THE GUINEA PIG,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Among the rodents, the guinea pig is known for its great carcino-resistance. In analyzing this phenomenon, it is best to study on the one hand the...spontaneous tumors of the guinea pig and on the other, the experimental tumors that one can obtain in the same animal. In this first work, only the spontaneous tumors of the guinea pig are studied. (Author)

  5. Proteomic Identification of Non-Gal Antibody Targets After Pig-to-Primate Cardiac Xenotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Guerard W.; Stalboerger, Paul G.; Davila, Eduardo; Heppelmann, Carrie J.; Gazi, Mozammel H.; McGregor, Hugh C. J.; LaBreche, Peter T.; Davies, William R.; Rao, Vinay P.; Oi, Keiji; Tazelaar, Henry D.; Logan, John S.; McGregor, Christopher G. A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Experience with non-antigenic galactose α1,3 galactose (αGal) polymers and development of αGal deficient pigs has reduced or eliminated the significance of this antigen in xenograft rejection. Despite these advances, delayed xenograft rejection (DXR) continues to occur most likely due to antibody responses to non-Gal endothelial cell (EC) antigens. Methods To gauge the diversity of the non-Gal antibody response we used antibody derived from CD46 transgenic heterotopic cardiac xenografts performed without T-cell immunosuppression, Group A (n = 4) and Gal knockout (GT-KO) heart transplants under tacrolimus and sirolimus immunosuppression, Group B (n = 8). Non-Gal antibody was measured by flow cytometry and by Western blots using GT-KO EC membrane antigens. A nanoLC/MS/MS analysis of proteins recovered from 2D gels was used to identify target antigens. Results Group A recipients exhibited a mixed cellular and humoral rejection. Group B recipients mainly exhibited classical DXR. Western blot analysis showed a non-Gal antibody response induced by GT+ and GT-KO hearts to an overlapping set of pig aortic EC membrane antigens. Proteomic analysis identified 14 potential target antigens but failed to define several immunodominant targets. Conclusions These experiments indicate that the non-Gal antibody response is directed to a number of stress response and inflammation related pig EC antigens and a few undefined targets. Further analysis of these antibody specificities using alternative methods is required to more fully define the repertoire of non-Gal antibody responses. PMID:18957049

  6. Effect of knockout of α2δ-1 on action potentials in mouse sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Margas, Wojciech; Ferron, Laurent; Nieto-Rostro, Manuela; Schwartz, Arnold; Dolphin, Annette C

    2016-08-05

    Gene deletion of the voltage-gated calcium channel auxiliary subunit α2δ-1 has been shown previously to have a cardiovascular phenotype, and a reduction in mechano- and cold sensitivity, coupled with delayed development of neuropathic allodynia. We have also previously shown that dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron calcium channel currents were significantly reduced in α2δ-1 knockout mice. To extend our findings in these sensory neurons, we have examined here the properties of action potentials (APs) in DRG neurons from α2δ-1 knockout mice in comparison to their wild-type (WT) littermates, in order to dissect how the calcium channels that are affected by α2δ-1 knockout are involved in setting the duration of individual APs and their firing frequency. Our main findings are that there is reduced Ca(2+) entry on single AP stimulation, particularly in the axon proximal segment, reduced AP duration and reduced firing frequency to a 400 ms stimulation in α2δ-1 knockout neurons, consistent with the expected role of voltage-gated calcium channels in these events. Furthermore, lower intracellular Ca(2+) buffering also resulted in reduced AP duration, and a lower frequency of AP firing in WT neurons, mimicking the effect of α2δ-1 knockout. By contrast, we did not obtain any consistent evidence for the involvement of Ca(2+)-activation of large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) and small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels in these events. In conclusion, the reduced Ca(2+) elevation as a result of single AP stimulation is likely to result from the reduced duration of the AP in α2δ-1 knockout sensory neurons.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolution brings Ca(2+) and ATP together to control life and death'. © 2016 The Authors.

  7. Evaluation and Design of Genome-Wide CRISPR/SpCas9 Knockout Screens

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Traver; Tong, Amy Hin Yan; Chan, Katie; Van Leeuwen, Jolanda; Seetharaman, Ashwin; Aregger, Michael; Chandrashekhar, Megha; Hustedt, Nicole; Seth, Sahil; Noonan, Avery; Habsid, Andrea; Sizova, Olga; Nedyalkova, Lyudmila; Climie, Ryan; Tworzyanski, Leanne; Lawson, Keith; Sartori, Maria Augusta; Alibeh, Sabriyeh; Tieu, David; Masud, Sanna; Mero, Patricia; Weiss, Alexander; Brown, Kevin R.; Usaj, Matej; Billmann, Maximilian; Rahman, Mahfuzur; Costanzo, Michael; Myers, Chad L.; Andrews, Brenda J.; Boone, Charles; Durocher, Daniel; Moffat, Jason

    2017-01-01

    The adaptation of CRISPR/SpCas9 technology to mammalian cell lines is transforming the study of human functional genomics. Pooled libraries of CRISPR guide RNAs (gRNAs) targeting human protein-coding genes and encoded in viral vectors have been used to systematically create gene knockouts in a variety of human cancer and immortalized cell lines, in an effort to identify whether these knockouts cause cellular fitness defects. Previous work has shown that CRISPR screens are more sensitive and specific than pooled-library shRNA screens in similar assays, but currently there exists significant variability across CRISPR library designs and experimental protocols. In this study, we reanalyze 17 genome-scale knockout screens in human cell lines from three research groups, using three different genome-scale gRNA libraries. Using the Bayesian Analysis of Gene Essentiality algorithm to identify essential genes, we refine and expand our previously defined set of human core essential genes from 360 to 684 genes. We use this expanded set of reference core essential genes, CEG2, plus empirical data from six CRISPR knockout screens to guide the design of a sequence-optimized gRNA library, the Toronto KnockOut version 3.0 (TKOv3) library. We then demonstrate the high effectiveness of the library relative to reference sets of essential and nonessential genes, as well as other screens using similar approaches. The optimized TKOv3 library, combined with the CEG2 reference set, provide an efficient, highly optimized platform for performing and assessing gene knockout screens in human cell lines. PMID:28655737

  8. Glutaminyl Cyclase Knock-out Mice Exhibit Slight Hypothyroidism but No Hypogonadism

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Stephan; Kohlmann, Stephanie; Bäuscher, Christoph; Sedlmeier, Reinhard; Koch, Birgit; Eichentopf, Rico; Becker, Andreas; Cynis, Holger; Hoffmann, Torsten; Berg, Sabine; Freyse, Ernst-Joachim; von Hörsten, Stephan; Rossner, Steffen; Graubner, Sigrid; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Glutaminyl cyclases (QCs) catalyze the formation of pyroglutamate (pGlu) residues at the N terminus of peptides and proteins. Hypothalamic pGlu hormones, such as thyrotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone are essential for regulation of metabolism and fertility in the hypothalamic pituitary thyroid and gonadal axes, respectively. Here, we analyzed the consequences of constitutive genetic QC ablation on endocrine functions and on the behavior of adult mice. Adult homozygous QC knock-out mice are fertile and behave indistinguishably from wild type mice in tests of motor function, cognition, general activity, and ingestion behavior. The QC knock-out results in a dramatic drop of enzyme activity in the brain, especially in hypothalamus and in plasma. Other peripheral organs like liver and spleen still contain QC activity, which is most likely caused by its homolog isoQC. The serum gonadotropin-releasing hormone, TSH, and testosterone concentrations were not changed by QC depletion. The serum thyroxine was decreased by 24% in homozygous QC knock-out animals, suggesting a mild hypothyroidism. QC knock-out mice were indistinguishable from wild type with regard to blood glucose and glucose tolerance, thus differing from reports of thyrotropin-releasing hormone knock-out mice significantly. The results suggest a significant formation of the hypothalamic pGlu hormones by alternative mechanisms, like spontaneous cyclization or conversion by isoQC. The different effects of QC depletion on the hypothalamic pituitary thyroid and gonadal axes might indicate slightly different modes of substrate conversion of both enzymes. The absence of significant abnormalities in QC knock-out mice suggests the presence of a therapeutic window for suppression of QC activity in current drug development. PMID:21330373

  9. Altered Sleep and Affect in the Neurotensin Receptor 1 Knockout Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Karrie; Winrow, Christopher J.; Gotter, Anthony L.; Millstein, Joshua; Arbuzova, Janna; Brunner, Joseph; Kasarskis, Andrew; Vitaterna, Martha H.; Renger, John J.; Turek, Fred W.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective: Sleep and mood disorders have long been understood to have strong genetic components, and there is considerable comorbidity of sleep abnormalities and mood disorders, suggesting the involvement of common genetic pathways. Here, we examine a candidate gene implicated in the regulation of both sleep and affective behavior using a knockout mouse model. Design: Previously, we identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for REM sleep amount, REM sleep bout number, and wake amount in a genetically segregating population of mice. Here, we show that traits mapping to this QTL correlated with an expression QTL for neurotensin receptor 1 (Ntsr1), a receptor for neurotensin, a ligand known to be involved in several psychiatric disorders. We examined sleep as well as behaviors indicative of anxiety and depression in the NTSR1 knockout mouse. Measurements and Results: NTSR1 knockouts had a lower percentage of sleep time spent in REM sleep in the dark phase and a larger diurnal variation in REM sleep duration than wild types under baseline conditions. Following sleep deprivation, NTSR1 knockouts exhibited more wake and less NREM rebound sleep. NTSR1 knockouts also showed increased anxious and despair behaviors. Conclusions: Here we illustrate a link between expression of the Ntsr1 gene and sleep traits previously associated with a particular QTL. We also demonstrate a relationship between Ntsr1 and anxiety and despair behaviors. Given the considerable evidence that anxiety and depression are closely linked with abnormalities in sleep, the data presented here provide further evidence that neurotensin and Ntsr1 may be a component of a pathway involved in both sleep and mood disorders. Citation: Fitzpatrick K; Winrow CJ; Gotter AL; Millstein J; Arbuzova J; Brunner J; Kasarskis A; Vitaterna MH; Renger JJ; Turek FW. Altered sleep and affect in the neurotensin receptor 1 knockout mouse. SLEEP 2012;35(7):949-956. PMID:22754041

  10. Hyperactivity of newborn Pten knock-out neurons results from increased excitatory synaptic drive.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael R; DeSpenza, Tyrone; Li, Meijie; Gulledge, Allan T; Luikart, Bryan W

    2015-01-21

    Developing neurons must regulate morphology, intrinsic excitability, and synaptogenesis to form neural circuits. When these processes go awry, disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or epilepsy, may result. The phosphatase Pten is mutated in some patients having ASD and seizures, suggesting that its mutation disrupts neurological function in part through increasing neuronal activity. Supporting this idea, neuronal knock-out of Pten in mice can cause macrocephaly, behavioral changes similar to ASD, and seizures. However, the mechanisms through which excitability is enhanced following Pten depletion are unclear. Previous studies have separately shown that Pten-depleted neurons can drive seizures, receive elevated excitatory synaptic input, and have abnormal dendrites. We therefore tested the hypothesis that developing Pten-depleted neurons are hyperactive due to increased excitatory synaptogenesis using electrophysiology, calcium imaging, morphological analyses, and modeling. This was accomplished by coinjecting retroviruses to either "birthdate" or birthdate and knock-out Pten in granule neurons of the murine neonatal dentate gyrus. We found that Pten knock-out neurons, despite a rapid onset of hypertrophy, were more active in vivo. Pten knock-out neurons fired at more hyperpolarized membrane potentials, displayed greater peak spike rates, and were more sensitive to depolarizing synaptic input. The increased sensitivity of Pten knock-out neurons was due, in part, to a higher density of synapses located more proximal to the soma. We determined that increased synaptic drive was sufficient to drive hypertrophic Pten knock-out neurons beyond their altered action potential threshold. Thus, our work contributes a developmental mechanism for the increased activity of Pten-depleted neurons. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/350943-17$15.00/0.

  11. TRPV2 KNOCKOUT MICE ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO PERINATAL LETHALITY BUT DISPLAY NORMAL THERMAL AND MECHANICAL NOCICEPTION

    PubMed Central

    Park, Una; Vastani, Nisha; Guan, Yun; Raja, Srinivasa N.; Koltzenburg, Martin; Caterina, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    TRPV2 is a nonselective cation channel expressed prominently in medium- to large-diameter sensory neurons that can be activated by extreme heat (>52°C). These features suggest that TRPV2 might be a transducer of noxious heat in vivo. TRPV2 can also be activated by hypoosmolarity or cell stretch, suggesting potential roles in mechanotransduction. To address the physiological functions of TRPV2 in somatosensation, we generated TRPV2 knockout mice and examined their behavioral and electrophysiological responses to heat and mechanical stimuli. TRPV2 knockout mice showed reduced embryonic weight and perinatal viability. As adults, surviving knockout mice also exhibited a slightly reduced body weight. TRPV2 knockout mice showed normal behavioral responses to noxious heat over a broad range of temperatures and normal responses to punctate mechanical stimuli, both in the basal state and under hyperalgesic conditions such as peripheral inflammation and L5 spinal nerve ligation. Moreover, behavioral assays of TRPV1/TRPV2 double knockout mice or of TRPV2 knockout mice treated with resiniferatoxin to desensitize TRPV1-expressing afferents revealed no thermosensory consequences of TRPV2 absence. In line with behavioral findings, electrophysiological recordings from skin afferents showed that C-fiber responses to heat and C- and Aδ-fiber responses to noxious mechanical stimuli were unimpaired in the absence of TRPV2. The prevalence of thermosensitive Aδ-fibers was too low to permit comparison between genotypes. Thus, TRPV2 is important for perinatal viability but is not essential for heat or mechanical nociception or hypersensitivity in the adult mouse. PMID:21832173

  12. Effects of HAb18G/CD147 knockout on hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro using a novel zinc-finger nuclease-targeted gene knockout approach.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Wei; Yang, Xiang-Min; Tang, Juan; Wang, Shi-Jie; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Jiang, Jian-Li

    2015-03-01

    HAb18G/CD147 belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and predominantly functions as an inducer of matrix metalloproteinase secretion for tumor invasion and metastasis. This study was designed to investigate the effects of HAb18G/CD147 knockout on hepatocellular carcinoma cells using zinc-finger nuclease (ZFNs)-targeted gene knockout approach. The HCC cell line SMMC-7721 was used for ZFNs-targeted cleavage of the HAb18G/CD147 gene. RT-PCR and Western blot assays were used to detect HAb18G/CD147 expression. HAb18G phenotypic changes following HAb18G/CD147 knockout in SMMC-K7721 cells were assessed using tumor cell adhesion, invasion, migration and colony formation and flow cytometric assays. These data demonstrated that tumor cell adhesion, invasion, migration, and colony formation capabilities of SMMC-K7721 were significantly reduced compared to parental cells or SMMC-7721 with re-expression of HAb18G/CD147 protein transfected with HAb18G/CD147 cDNA. Moreover, knockout of HAb18G/CD147 expression also induced SMMC-K7721 cells to undergo apoptosis compared to SMMC-7721 and SMMC-R7721 (P < 0.01). Molecularly, protein expression of p53 was induced in these cells, but re-expression of HAb18G/CD147 reduced p53 levels in SMMC-R7721 cells, possibly through inhibition of the PI3K-Akt-MDM2 signaling pathway. The findings provide a novel insight into the mechanisms underlying HAb18G/CD147-induced progression of HCC cells.

  13. Horizontal gene transfer does not occur between sFat-1 transgenic pigs and nontransgenic pigs.

    PubMed

    Tang, M X; Zheng, X M; Hou, J; Qian, L L; Jiang, S W; Cui, W T; Li, K

    2013-03-01

    We previously generated and characterized synthesized fatty acid desaturase-1 (sFat-1) transgenic pigs that had increased concentrations of ω-3 unsaturated fatty acid in their meat. The objective was to assess whether the inserted foreign gene in sFat-1 transgenic pigs was able to transfer and integrate into the genome of nontransgenic pigs by suckling or mating. Tests for suckling-mediated horizontal gene transfer (HGT) included sFat-1 transgenic sows nursing nontransgenic piglets and sFat-1 transgenic piglets suckling nontransgenic sows. Tests for mating-mediated HGT were performed by male sFat-1 transgenic pigs mated with nontransgenic females and female sFat-1 transgenic pigs mated with nontransgenic males. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the sFat-1 gene fragment in various tissues sampled from nontransgenic pigs. The foreign target gene sFat-1 was not detected in the genomic DNA of various tissues and organs sampled from nontransgenic pigs. Therefore, we concluded that HGT from transgenic pigs to wild type pigs via suckling or mating was unlikely. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Differential cytokine expression in skin graft healing in inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Most, D; Efron, D T; Shi, H P; Tantry, U S; Barbul, A

    2001-10-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and its product, nitric oxide, have been shown to play important roles in wound biology. The present study was performed to investigate the role of iNOS in modulating the cytokine cascade during the complex process of skin graft wound healing.Fifteen iNOS-knockout mice and 15 wild-type C57BL/6J mice were subjected to autogenous 1-cm2 intrascapular full-thickness skin grafts. Three animals in each group were killed on postoperative days 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14. Specimens were then analyzed using nonisotopic in situ hybridization versus mRNA of tumor growth factor-beta1, vascular endothelial growth factor, iNOS, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and basic fibroblast growth factor, as well as positive and negative control probes. Positive cells in both grafts and wound beds were counted using a Leica microgrid. Scar thickness was measured with a Leica micrometer. Data were analyzed using the unpaired Student's t test. Expression of iNOS was 2- to 4-fold higher in knockout mice than in wild-type mice on postoperative days 5, 7, and 14. Expression of eNOS was 2- to 2.5-fold higher in knockout mice than in wild-type mice on postoperative days 5 and 7. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression was 2- to 7-fold higher in knockout mice than in wild-type mice on all postoperative days. In contrast, expression levels of angiogenic/fibrogenic cytokines (vascular endothelial growth factor, basis fibroblast growth factor, and tumor growth factor-beta1) were 2.5- to 4-fold higher in wild-type mice than in knockout mice. Scars were 1.5- to 2.5-fold thicker in knockout mice than in wild-type mice at all time points. All of the above results represent statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). Significantly different patterns of cytokine expression were seen in knockout and wild-type mice. Although the scar layer was thicker in knockout mice, it showed much greater infiltration with inflammatory cells. These

  15. Adaptive bi-level programming for optimal gene knockouts for targeted overproduction under phenotypic constraints

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Optimization procedures to identify gene knockouts for targeted biochemical overproduction have been widely in use in modern metabolic engineering. Flux balance analysis (FBA) framework has provided conceptual simplifications for genome-scale dynamic analysis at steady states. Based on FBA, many current optimization methods for targeted bio-productions have been developed under the maximum cell growth assumption. The optimization problem to derive gene knockout strategies recently has been formulated as a bi-level programming problem in OptKnock for maximum targeted bio-productions with maximum growth rates. However, it has been shown that knockout mutants in fact reach the steady states with the minimization of metabolic adjustment (MOMA) from the corresponding wild-type strains instead of having maximal growth rates after genetic or metabolic intervention. In this work, we propose a new bi-level computational framework--MOMAKnock--which can derive robust knockout strategies under the MOMA flux distribution approximation. Methods In this new bi-level optimization framework, we aim to maximize the production of targeted chemicals by identifying candidate knockout genes or reactions under phenotypic constraints approximated by the MOMA assumption. Hence, the targeted chemical production is the primary objective of MOMAKnock while the MOMA assumption is formulated as the inner problem of constraining the knockout metabolic flux to be as close as possible to the steady-state phenotypes of wide-type strains. As this new inner problem becomes a quadratic programming problem, a novel adaptive piecewise linearization algorithm is developed in this paper to obtain the exact optimal solution to this new bi-level integer quadratic programming problem for MOMAKnock. Results Our new MOMAKnock model and the adaptive piecewise linearization solution algorithm are tested with a small E. coli core metabolic network and a large-scale iAF1260 E. coli metabolic network

  16. Population of positive-parity states in {sup 53}Sc through one-proton knockout.

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, S.; Gade, A.; Janssens, R. V. F.

    2010-02-01

    The one-proton knockout reaction {sup 9}Be({sup 54}Ti,{sup 53}Sc+{gamma})X at 72 MeV/nucleon has been measured. The location of the first 3/2{sup -} state at 2110(3) keV was confirmed, and new {gamma}-ray transitions were observed at 1111(2), 1273(2), 1539(4), and 2495(5) keV. Large spectroscopic strength to excited states in {sup 53}Sc was found and attributed to the knockout of sd-shell protons.

  17. Population of positive-parity states in {sup 53}Sc through one-proton knockout

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, S.; Gade, A.; Brown, B. A.

    2010-02-15

    The one-proton knockout reaction {sup 9}Be({sup 54}Ti,{sup 53}Sc+{gamma})X at 72 MeV/nucleon has been measured. The location of the first 3/2{sup -} state at 2110(3) keV was confirmed, and new {gamma}-ray transitions were observed at 1111(2), 1273(2), 1539(4), and 2495(5) keV. Large spectroscopic strength to excited states in {sup 53}Sc was found and attributed to the knockout of sd-shell protons.

  18. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Language: English (US) Español ...

  19. The Pig Olfactory Brain: A Primer

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Sanford; Osterberg, Stephen K.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that pigs are reputed to have excellent olfactory abilities, few studies have examined regions of the pig brain involved in the sense of smell. The present study provides an overview of the olfactory bulb, anterior olfactory nucleus, and piriform cortex of adult pigs using several approaches. Nissl, myelin, and Golgi stains were used to produce a general overview of the organization of the regions and confocal microscopy was employed to examine 1) projection neurons, 2) GABAergic local circuit neurons that express somatostatin, parvalbumin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, or calretinin, 3) neuromodulatory fibers (cholinergic and serotonergic), and 4) glia (astrocytes and microglia). The findings revealed that pig olfactory structures are quite large, highly organized and follow the general patterns observed in mammals. PMID:26936231

  20. Abnormalities of hair structure and skin histology derived from CRISPR/Cas9-based knockout of phospholipase C-delta 1 in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Min; Liu, Wei; Jia, Jun-Shuang; Chen, Bang-Zhu; Chen, Heng-Wei; Liu, Yu; Bie, Ya-Nan; Gu, Peng; Sun, Yan; Xiao, Dong; Gu, Wei-Wang

    2018-05-25

    Hairless mice have been widely applied in skin-related researches, while hairless pigs will be an ideal model for skin-related study and other biomedical researches because of the similarity of skin structure with humans. The previous study revealed that hairlessness phenotype in nude mice is caused by insufficient expression of phospholipase C-delta 1 (PLCD1), an essential molecule downstream of Foxn1, which encouraged us to generate PLCD1-deficient pigs. In this study, we plan to firstly produce PLCD1 knockout (KO) mice by CRISPR/Cas9 technology, which will lay a solid foundation for the generation of hairless PLCD1 KO pigs. Generation of PLCD1 sgRNAs and Cas 9 mRNA was performed as described (Shao in Nat Protoc 9:2493-2512, 2014). PLCD1-modified mice (F0) were generated via co-microinjection of PLCD1-sgRNA and Cas9 mRNA into the cytoplasm of C57BL/6J zygotes. Homozygous PLCD1-deficient mice (F1) were obtained by intercrossing of F0 mice with the similar mutation. PLCD1-modified mice (F0) showed progressive hair loss after birth and the genotype of CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutations in exon 2 of PLCD1 locus, suggesting the sgRNA is effective to cause mutations that lead to hair growth defect. Homozygous PLCD1-deficient mice (F1) displayed baldness in abdomen and hair sparse in dorsa. Histological abnormalities of the reduced number of hair follicles, irregularly arranged and curved hair follicles, epidermal hyperplasia and disturbed differentiation of epidermis were observed in the PLCD1-deficient mice. Moreover, the expression level of PLCD1 was significantly decreased, while the expression levels of other genes (i.e., Krt1, Krt5, Krt13, loricrin and involucrin) involved in the differentiation of hair follicle were remarkerably increased in skin tissues of PLCD1-deficient mice. In conclusion, we achieve PLCD1 KO mice by CRISPR/Cas9 technology, which provide a new animal model for hair development research, although homozygotes don't display completely hairless

  1. Assessing pig body language: agreement and consistency between pig farmers, veterinarians, and animal activists.

    PubMed

    Wemelsfelder, F; Hunter, A E; Paul, E S; Lawrence, A B

    2012-10-01

    This study investigates the interobserver and intraobserver reliability of qualitative behavior assessments (QBA) of individual pigs by 3 observer groups selected for their diverging backgrounds, experience, and views of pigs. Qualitative behavior assessment is a "whole animal" assessment approach that characterizes the demeanor of an animal as an expressive body language, using descriptors such as relaxed, anxious, or content. This paper addresses the concern that use of such descriptors in animal science may be prone to distortion by observer-related bias. Using a free-choice profiling methodology, 12 pig farmers, 10 large animal veterinarians, and 10 animal protectionists were instructed to describe and score the behavioral expressions of 10 individual pigs (sus scrofa) in 2 repeat sets of 10 video clips, showing these pigs in interaction with a human female. They were also asked to fill in a questionnaire gauging their experiences with and views on pigs. Pig scores were analyzed with generalized procrustes analysis and effect of treatment on these scores with ANOVA. Questionnaire scores were analyzed with a χ(2) test or ANOVA. Observers achieved consensus both within and among observer groups (P < 0.001), identifying 2 main dimensions of pig expression (dim1: playful/confident-cautious/timid; dim2: aggressive/nervous-relaxed/bored), on which pig scores for different observer groups were highly correlated (pearson r > 0.90). The 3 groups also repeated their assessments of individual pigs with high precision (r > 0.85). Animal protectionists used a wider quantitative range in scoring individual pigs on dimension 2 than the other groups (P < 0.001); however, this difference did not distort the strong overall consistency of characterizations by observers of individual pigs. Questionnaire results indicated observer groups to differ in various ways, such as daily and lifetime contact with pigs (P < 0.001), some aspects of affection and empathy for pigs (P < 0

  2. The respiratory immune system of pigs.

    PubMed

    Pabst, R

    1996-11-01

    Respiratory tract infections with bacteria like Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae are extremely common in pigs and are of major veterinary relevance. The respiratory tract can be divided into the upper part, consisting of the nose, pharynx, larynx and trachea, and the lower part, consisting of the different parts of the lung. After bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) had been established for pigs, interest grew in the unspecific parts of the immune system of the respiratory tract (such as macrophages, mast cells, the mucociliary function) and the specific immune system, consisting of the different lymphocyte subsets. In contrast to the rodent and human lung, the lung of the pig contains large numbers of intravascular macrophages with a high clearance capacity. The main focus of this paper is the localization, subset composition and quantification of lymphocytes in the pig lung: the intravascular and interstitial pool and the lymphocytes in the bronchial epithelium and lamina propria including bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue form the major compartments. In the BAL only a small proportion of nucleated cells are lymphocytes. The effects of age, antigen exposition, immunization and infection on the lymphocyte distribution in the pig lung are presented. In addition to veterinary aspects, the lung of pigs can also serve as a model for diseases in humans.

  3. Sweating Like a Pig: Physics or Irony?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2016-03-01

    In his interesting and informative book Is That a Fact?, Joe Schwarcz avers that pigs do not sweat and the saying "sweating like a pig" originates in iron smelting. Oblong pieces of hot iron, with a fancied resemblance to a sow with piglets, cool in sand to the dew point of the surrounding air, and hence water condenses on the "pig." But this explanation, which I have seen on the Internet, lacks a few caveats. It implies that molten iron, solidifying and cooling, anywhere, anytime, accretes liquid water, as if this were a special property of cooling iron. Set aside that real pigs sweat perceptibly from their snouts; kiss a pig and verify for yourself. Pigs also sweat imperceptibly. Imperceptible (insensible) perspiration is water vapor from the skin and lungs exuded without sensible condensation. That from humans is about 1 liter/day. Sweat is 99% liquid water, NaCl the dominant solute, secreted quickly, sometimes profusely, by subcutaneous sweat glands in response to thermal stress, in contrast to the slow, continuous diffusion of water vapor through skin.

  4. Using guinea pigs in studies relevant to asthma and COPD

    PubMed Central

    Canning, Brendan J.; Chou, Yangling

    2010-01-01

    The guinea pig has been the most commonly used small animal species in preclinical studies related to asthma and COPD. The primary advantages of the guinea pig are the similar potencies and efficacies of agonists and antagonists in human and guinea pig airways and the many similarities in physiological processes, especially airway autonomic control and the response to allergen. The primary disadvantages to using guinea pigs are the lack of transgenic methods, limited numbers of guinea pig strains for comparative studies and a prominent axon reflex that is unlikely to be present in human airways. These attributes and various models developed in guinea pigs are discussed. PMID:18462968

  5. Quasi-free Proton Knockout Reactions on the Oxygen Isotopic Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atar, Leyla; Aumann, Thomas; Bertulani, Carlos; Paschalis, Stefanos; R3B Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    It is well known from electron-induced knockout data that the single-particle (SP) strength is reduced to about 60-70% for stable nuclei in comparison to the independent particle model due to the presence of short- and long-range correlations. This finding has been confirmed by nuclear knockout reactions using stable and exotic beams, however, with a strong dependency on the proton-neutron asymmetry. The observed strong reduction of SP cross sections for the deeply bound valence nucleons in asymmetric nuclei is theoretically not understood. To understand this dependency quantitatively a complementary approach, quasi-free (QF) knockout reactions in inverse kinematics, is introduced. We have performed a systematic study of spectroscopic strength of oxygen isotopes using QF (p,2p) knockout reactions in complete kinematics at the R3B/LAND setup at GSI with secondary beams containing 13-24O. The oxygen isotopic chain covers a large variation of separ ation energies, which allow a systematic study of SF with respect to isospin asymmetry. We will present results on the (p,2p) cross sections for the entire oxygen isotopic chain obtained from a single experiment. By comparison with the Eikonal reaction theory the SF and reduction factors will be presented. The work is supported by GSI-TU Darmstadt cooperation and BMBF project 05P15RDFN1.

  6. Manifestation of α clustering in 10Be via α -knockout reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Mengjiao; Yoshida, Kazuki; Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko; Ogata, Kazuyuki

    2018-04-01

    Background: Proton-induced α -knockout reactions may allow direct experimental observation of α clustering in nuclei. This is obtained by relating the theoretical descriptions of clustering states to the experimental reaction observables. It is desired to introduce microscopic structure models into the theoretical frameworks for α -knockout reactions. Purpose: Our goal is to probe the α clustering in the 10Be nucleus by proton-induced α -knockout reaction observables. Method: We adopt an extended version of the Tohsaki-Horiuchi-Schuck-Röpke wave function of 10Be and integrate it with the distorted-wave impulse approximation framework for the calculation of (p ,p α ) -knockout reactions. Results: We make the first calculation for the 10Be(p ,p α )6He reaction at 250 MeV by implementing a microscopic α -cluster wave function, and we predict the triple-differential cross section (TDX). Furthermore, by constructing artificial states of the target nucleus 10Be with compact or dilute spatial distributions, the TDX is found to be highly sensitive to the extent of clustering in the target nuclei. Conclusions: These results provide reliable manifestation of α clustering in 10Be.

  7. Blueberries reduce lipid peroxidation and boost antioxidant enzymes in apoe knockout mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ApoE knockout (ApoE-/-) mice fed AIN-93G diet (CD) formulated to contain 1 % freeze-dried whole wild blueberries (CD1 percent BB) were found to have significantly less atherosclerotic lesions in aorta. Biomarkers of lipid peroxidation, including F2-isoprostanes, hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODEs) ...

  8. SPERM MOTILITY IN HSF1 KNOCKOUT MICE AFTER HEAT SHOCK IS ASSOCIATED WITH FERTILITY DEFICITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPERM MOTILITY IN HSF1 KNOCKOUT MICE AFTER HEAT SHOCK IS ASSOCIATED WITH FERTILITY DEFICITS. L.F. Strader*, S.D. Perreault, J.C. Luft*, and D.J. Dix*. US EPA/ORD, Reproductive Toxicology Div., Research Triangle Park, NC
    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) protect cells from environm...

  9. Distribution of Nidogen in the Murine Eye and Ocular Phenotype of the Nidogen-1 Knockout Mouse

    PubMed Central

    May, Christian Albrecht

    2012-01-01

    Distribution and lack of nidogen-1, part of numerous basement membranes, were studied in the mouse eye. For that purpose, eyes of C57BL/6 and nidogen-1 knockout mice were stained immunohistochemically for nidogen-1, and intraocular pressure measurements and light- and electron microscopy were used to study the nidogen-1 knockout animals. In normal mice, nidogen-1 was present in many basement membranes, but showed irregularities underneath the corneal epithelium, in Bruch's membrane and in the iris. Homozygous knockout of nidogen-1 in the mouse showed only mild pathological changes. In the anterior eye segment, small interruptions were noted in the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium without further consequences. In the posterior eye segment, interruptions of the inner limiting membrane led to small retinal ectopias and subsequent changes in the optic nerve. In summary, the knockout of nidogen-1 showed mild but significant morphological changes pointing to the importance of this protein which can in part, but not completely; be replaced by nidogen-2. PMID:24555126

  10. Exacerbated febrile responses to LPS, but not turpentine, in TNF double receptor-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Leon, L R; Kozak, W; Peschon, J; Kluger, M J

    1997-02-01

    We examined the effects of injections of systemic [lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 2.5 mg/kg or 50 pg/kg ip] or local (turpentine, 100 microl sc) inflammatory stimuli on fever, motor activity, body weight, and food intake in tumor necrosis factor (TNF) double receptor (TNFR)-knockout mice. A high dose of LPS resulted in exacerbated fevers in TNFR-knockout mice compared with wild-type mice for the early phase of fever (3-15 h); the late phase of fever (16-24 h) and fevers to a low dose of LPS were similar in both groups. Motor activity, body weight, and food intake were similarly reduced in both groups of mice after LPS administration. In response to turpentine, TNFR-knockout and wild-type mice developed virtually identical responses to all variables monitored. These results suggest that 1) TNF modulates fevers to LPS dose dependently, 2) TNF does not modulate fevers to a subcutaneous injection of turpentine, and 3) knockout mice may develop cytokine redundancy in the regulation of the acute phase response to intraperitoneally injected LPS or subcutaneously injected turpentine.

  11. Serotonin Transporter Knockout Rats Show Improved Strategy Set-Shifting and Reduced Latent Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nonkes, Lourens J. P.; van de Vondervoort, Ilse I. G. M.; de Leeuw, Mark J. C.; Wijlaars, Linda P.; Maes, Joseph H. R.; Homberg, Judith R.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is a cognitive process depending on prefrontal areas allowing adaptive responses to environmental changes. Serotonin transporter knockout (5-HTT[superscript -/-]) rodents show improved reversal learning in addition to orbitofrontal cortex changes. Another form of behavioral flexibility, extradimensional strategy set-shifting…

  12. The importance of immunohistochemical analyses in evaluating the phenotype of Kv channel knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Menegola, Milena; Clark, Eliana; Trimmer, James S

    2012-06-01

    To gain insights into the phenotype of voltage-gated potassium (Kv)1.1 and Kv4.2 knockout mice, we used immunohistochemistry to analyze the expression of component principal or α subunits and auxiliary subunits of neuronal Kv channels in knockout mouse brains. Genetic ablation of the Kv1.1 α subunit did not result in compensatory changes in the expression levels or subcellular distribution of related ion channel subunits in hippocampal medial perforant path and mossy fiber nerve terminals, where high levels of Kv1.1 are normally expressed. Genetic ablation of the Kv4.2 α subunit did not result in altered neuronal cytoarchitecture of the hippocampus. Although Kv4.2 knockout mice did not exhibit compensatory changes in the expression levels or subcellular distribution of the related Kv4.3 α subunit, we found dramatic decreases in the cellular and subcellular expression of specific Kv channel interacting proteins (KChIPs) that reflected their degree of association and colocalization with Kv4.2 in wild-type mouse and rat brains. These studies highlight the insights that can be gained by performing detailed immunohistochemical analyses of Kv channel knockout mouse brains. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.

  13. Highly Efficient Genome Editing via CRISPR/Cas9 to Create Clock Gene Knockout Cells.

    PubMed

    Korge, Sandra; Grudziecki, Astrid; Kramer, Achim

    2015-10-01

    Targeted genome editing using CRISPR/Cas9 is a relatively new, revolutionary technology allowing for efficient and directed alterations of the genome. It has been widely used for loss-of-function studies in animals and cell lines but has not yet been used to study circadian rhythms. Here, we describe the application of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing for the generation of an F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 3 (Fbxl3) knockout in a human cell line. Genomic alterations at the Fbxl3 locus occurred with very high efficiency (70%-100%) and specificity at both alleles, resulting in insertions and deletions that led to premature stop codons and hence FBXL3 knockout. Fbxl3 knockout cells displayed low amplitude and long period oscillations of Bmal1-luciferase reporter activity as well as increased CRY1 protein stability in line with previously published phenotypes for Fbxl3 knockout in mice. Thus, CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing should be highly valuable for studying circadian rhythms not only in human cells but also in classic model systems as well as nonmodel organisms. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. Effects of blueberries in prevention of atherosclerosis in apoe knockout mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ApoE knockout (ApoE-/-) mice were fed AIN-93G diet (CD) or CD formulated to contain 1% freeze-dried whole wild blueberries (CD1% BB). Mice were sacrificed after 20 weeks on the specified diet. Atherosclerotic lesions in aortic sinus were determined by staining cryosections (10 µm) with Oil Red O. Th...

  15. Olivocochlear neuron central anatomy is normal in alpha 9 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Brown, M Christian; Vetter, Douglas E

    2009-03-01

    Olivocochlear (OC) neurons were studied in a transgenic mouse with deletion of the alpha 9 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit. In this alpha 9 knockout mouse, the peripheral effects of OC stimulation are lacking and the peripheral terminals of OC neurons under outer hair cells have abnormal morphology. To account for this mouse's apparently normal hearing, it has been proposed to have central compensation via collateral branches to the cochlear nucleus. We tested this idea by staining OC neurons for acetylcholinesterase and examining their morphology in knockout mice, wild-type mice of the same background strain, and CBA/CaJ mice. Knockout mice had normal OC systems in terms of numbers of OC neurons, dendritic patterns, and numbers of branches to the cochlear nucleus. The branch terminations were mainly to edge regions and to a lesser extent the core of the cochlear nucleus, and were similar among the strains in terms of the distribution and staining density. These data demonstrate that there are no obvious changes in the central morphology of the OC neurons in alpha 9 knockout mice and make less attractive the idea that there is central compensation for deletion of the peripheral receptor in these mice.

  16. Knockout of Eva1a leads to rapid development of heart failure by impairing autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shu; Lin, Xin; Li, Ge; Shen, Xue; Niu, Di; Lu, Guang; Fu, Xin; Chen, Yingyu; Cui, Ming; Bai, Yun

    2017-01-01

    EVA1A (Eva-1 homologue A) is a novel lysosome and endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein that can regulate cell autophagy and apoptosis. Eva1a is expressed in the myocardium, but its function in myocytes has not yet been investigated. Therefore, we generated inducible, cardiomyocyte-specific Eva1a knockout mice with an aim to determine the role of Eva1a in cardiac remodelling in the adult heart. Data from experiments showed that loss of Eva1a in the adult heart increased cardiac fibrosis, promoted cardiac hypertrophy, and led to cardiomyopathy and death. Further investigation suggested that this effect was associated with impaired autophagy and increased apoptosis in Eva1a knockout hearts. Moreover, knockout of Eva1a activated Mtor signalling and the subsequent inhibition of autophagy. In addition, Eva1a knockout hearts showed disorganized sarcomere structure and mitochondrial misalignment and aggregation, leading to the lack of ATP generation. Collectively, these data demonstrated that Eva1a improves cardiac function and inhibits cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis by increasing autophagy. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that Eva1a may have an important role in maintaining cardiac homeostasis. PMID:28151473

  17. Knock-out of a mitochondrial sirtuin protects neurons from degeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Sangaletti, Rachele; D'Amico, Massimo; Grant, Jeff; Della-Morte, David; Bianchi, Laura

    2017-08-01

    Sirtuins are NAD⁺-dependent deacetylases, lipoamidases, and ADP-ribosyltransferases that link cellular metabolism to multiple intracellular pathways that influence processes as diverse as cell survival, longevity, and cancer growth. Sirtuins influence the extent of neuronal death in stroke. However, different sirtuins appear to have opposite roles in neuronal protection. In Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that knock-out of mitochondrial sirtuin sir-2.3, homologous to mammalian SIRT4, is protective in both chemical ischemia and hyperactive channel induced necrosis. Furthermore, the protective effect of sir-2.3 knock-out is enhanced by block of glycolysis and eliminated by a null mutation in daf-16/FOXO transcription factor, supporting the involvement of the insulin/IGF pathway. However, data in Caenorhabditis elegans cell culture suggest that the effects of sir-2.3 knock-out act downstream of the DAF-2/IGF-1 receptor. Analysis of ROS in sir-2.3 knock-out reveals that ROS become elevated in this mutant under ischemic conditions in dietary deprivation (DD), but to a lesser extent than in wild type, suggesting more robust activation of a ROS scavenging system in this mutant in the absence of food. This work suggests a deleterious role of SIRT4 during ischemic processes in mammals that must be further investigated and reveals a novel pathway that can be targeted for the design of therapies aimed at protecting neurons from death in ischemic conditions.

  18. Knock-out of a mitochondrial sirtuin protects neurons from degeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Sangaletti, Rachele; Grant, Jeff; Della-Morte, David

    2017-01-01

    Sirtuins are NAD⁺-dependent deacetylases, lipoamidases, and ADP-ribosyltransferases that link cellular metabolism to multiple intracellular pathways that influence processes as diverse as cell survival, longevity, and cancer growth. Sirtuins influence the extent of neuronal death in stroke. However, different sirtuins appear to have opposite roles in neuronal protection. In Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that knock-out of mitochondrial sirtuin sir-2.3, homologous to mammalian SIRT4, is protective in both chemical ischemia and hyperactive channel induced necrosis. Furthermore, the protective effect of sir-2.3 knock-out is enhanced by block of glycolysis and eliminated by a null mutation in daf-16/FOXO transcription factor, supporting the involvement of the insulin/IGF pathway. However, data in Caenorhabditis elegans cell culture suggest that the effects of sir-2.3 knock-out act downstream of the DAF-2/IGF-1 receptor. Analysis of ROS in sir-2.3 knock-out reveals that ROS become elevated in this mutant under ischemic conditions in dietary deprivation (DD), but to a lesser extent than in wild type, suggesting more robust activation of a ROS scavenging system in this mutant in the absence of food. This work suggests a deleterious role of SIRT4 during ischemic processes in mammals that must be further investigated and reveals a novel pathway that can be targeted for the design of therapies aimed at protecting neurons from death in ischemic conditions. PMID:28820880

  19. [Establishment of L-periaxin gene knock-out RSC96 cell line].

    PubMed

    Liang, Min; Peng, Tingting; Shi, Yawei

    2016-12-25

    Periaxin, a protein of noncompact myelin, is specifically expressed in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). There are two protein isoform L-periaxin and S-Periaxin by alternative splicing of periaxin gene, playing an important role in the initiation of myelin formation. So far, 18 different mutation sites in L-periaxin gene have been found to induce the peripheral demyelinating neurological charcot-marie-tooth diseases subtype 4F (CMT4F). The technique of activation of transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENS) was used to knock out the L-periaxin gene in RSC 96 cell line of Rattus. According to the design principle, the knock-out site of L-periaxin was assured to NLS domain of L-periaxin, which is target sequence of left and right arms of TALEN. The knock-out vectors of TALEN-L and TALEN-R were established and transfected into RSC96 cell. After puromycin screening, L-periaxin was knocked out successfully in RSC96 cell, which is confirmed by DNA sequence. The mutation efficiency is 21.6%. S-periaxin, not L-periaxin can be detected by Western blotting in L-periaxin gene knock-out RSC96 cell. The cell growth rate was decreased and the number of cells in G1 increased and decreased in S phase in L-periaxin gene knock-out RSC96 cell by flow cytometry and MTT assay.

  20. Optimal knockout strategies in genome-scale metabolic networks using particle swarm optimization.

    PubMed

    Nair, Govind; Jungreuthmayer, Christian; Zanghellini, Jürgen

    2017-02-01

    Knockout strategies, particularly the concept of constrained minimal cut sets (cMCSs), are an important part of the arsenal of tools used in manipulating metabolic networks. Given a specific design, cMCSs can be calculated even in genome-scale networks. We would however like to find not only the optimal intervention strategy for a given design but the best possible design too. Our solution (PSOMCS) is to use particle swarm optimization (PSO) along with the direct calculation of cMCSs from the stoichiometric matrix to obtain optimal designs satisfying multiple objectives. To illustrate the working of PSOMCS, we apply it to a toy network. Next we show its superiority by comparing its performance against other comparable methods on a medium sized E. coli core metabolic network. PSOMCS not only finds solutions comparable to previously published results but also it is orders of magnitude faster. Finally, we use PSOMCS to predict knockouts satisfying multiple objectives in a genome-scale metabolic model of E. coli and compare it with OptKnock and RobustKnock. PSOMCS finds competitive knockout strategies and designs compared to other current methods and is in some cases significantly faster. It can be used in identifying knockouts which will force optimal desired behaviors in large and genome scale metabolic networks. It will be even more useful as larger metabolic models of industrially relevant organisms become available.

  1. Brief Report: Altered Social Behavior in Isolation-Reared "Fmr1" Knockout Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzer, Andrew M.; Roth, Alexandra K.; Nawrocki, Lauren; Wrenn, Craige C.; Valdovinos, Maria G.

    2013-01-01

    Social behavior abnormalities in Fragile X syndrome (FXS) are characterized by social withdrawal, anxiety, and deficits in social cognition. To assess these deficits, a model of FXS, the "Fmr1" knockout mouse ("Fmr1" KO), has been utilized. This mouse model has a null mutation in the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene ("Fmr1") and displays…

  2. A Genetic Analysis of Taoyuan Pig and Its Phylogenetic Relationship to Eurasian Pig Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kuan-Yi; Li, Kuang-Ti; Cheng, Chun-Chun; Chen, Chia-Hsuan; Hung, Chien-Yi; Ju, Yu-Ten

    2015-01-01

    Taoyuan pig is a native Taiwan breed. According to the historical record, the breed was first introduced to Taiwan from Guangdong province, Southern China, around 1877. The breed played an important role in Taiwan’s early swine industry. It was classified as an indigenous breed in 1986. After 1987, a conserved population of Taoyuan pig was collected and reared in isolation. In this study, mitochondrial DNA sequences and 18 microsatellite markers were used to investigate maternal lineage and genetic diversity within the Taoyuan pig population. Population differentiation among Taoyuan, Asian type, and European type pig breeds was also evaluated using differentiation indices. Only one D-loop haplotype of the Taoyuan pig was found. It clustered with Lower Changjiang River Basin and Central China Type pig breeds. Based on the polymorphism of microsatellite markers, a positive fixation index value (FIS) indicates that the conserved Taoyuan population suffers from inbreeding. In addition, high FST values (>0.2105) were obtained, revealing high differentiation among these breeds. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling showed a clear geometric structure among 7 breeds. Together these results indicate that maternally Taoyuan pig originated in the Lower Changjiang River Basin and Central China; however, since being introduced to Taiwan differentiation has occurred. In addition, Taoyuan pig has lost genetic diversity in both its mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. PMID:25656199

  3. The vascular supply of the thymus in the guinea-pig and pig

    PubMed Central

    Olson, I. A.; Poste, Mary E.

    1973-01-01

    A study of the blood supply of the thymus using intravascular carbon or silver shows that the pig and guinea-pig possess a more extensive vascular system than the current model taken from work on the mouse. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3 PMID:4120933

  4. Production of alpha 1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-deficient pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer: a novel selection method for gal alpha 1,3-Gal antigen-deficient cells.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Tatsuya; Takahagi, Yoichi; Shigehisa, Tamotsu; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Miyagawa, Shuji; Shirakura, Ryota; Murakami, Hiroshi

    2008-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to isolate alpha 1,3-galactosyltransferase (GalGT)-gene double knockout (DKO) cells using a novel simple method of cell selection method. To obtain GalGT-DKO cells, GalGT-gene single knockout (SKO) fetal fibroblast cells were cultured for three to nine passages and GalGT-null cells were separated using a biotin-labeled IB4 lectin attached to streptavidin-coated magnetic beads. After 15-17 days of additional cultivation, seven GalGT-DKO cell colonies were obtained from a total of 2.5 x 10(7) GalGT-SKO cells. A total of 926 somatic nuclear transferred embryos reconstructed with the DKO cells were transferred into eight recipient pigs, producing four farrowed, three liveborns, and six stillborns. Absence of GalGT gene in the cloned pigs was confirmed by PCR and Southern blotting. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that alphaGal antigens were not present in the cells of the cloned DKO pigs.

  5. Pig and guinea pig skin as surrogates for human in vitro penetration studies: a quantitative review.

    PubMed

    Barbero, Ana M; Frasch, H Frederick

    2009-02-01

    Both human and animal skin in vitro models are used to predict percutaneous penetration in humans. The objective of this review is a quantitative comparison of permeability and lag time measurements between human and animal skin, including an evaluation of the intra and inter species variability. We limit our focus to domestic pig and rodent guinea pig skin as surrogates for human skin, and consider only studies in which both animal and human penetration of a given chemical were measured jointly in the same lab. When the in vitro permeability of pig and human skin were compared, the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (r) was 0.88 (P<0.0001), with an intra species average coefficient of variation of skin permeability of 21% for pig and 35% for human, and an inter species average coefficient of variation of 37% for the set of studied compounds (n=41). The lag times of pig skin and human skin did not correlate (r=0.35, P=0.26). When the in vitro permeability of guinea pig and human skin were compared, r=0.96 (P<0.0001), with an average intra species coefficient of variation of 19% for guinea pig and 24% for human, and an inter species coefficient of variation of permeability of 41% for the set of studied compounds (n=15). Lag times of guinea pig and human skin correlated (r=0.90, P<0.0001, n=12). When permeability data was not reported a factor of difference (FOD) of animal to human skin was calculated for pig skin (n=50) and guinea pig skin (n=25). For pig skin, 80% of measurements fell within the range 0.3pig skin, 65% fell within that range. Both pig and guinea pig are good models for human skin permeability and have less variability than the human skin model. The skin model of choice will depend on the final purpose of the study and the compound under investigation.

  6. Genetically-modified pig mesenchymal stromal cells: xenoantigenicity and effect on human T-cell xenoresponses.

    PubMed

    Ezzelarab, Mohamed; Ezzelarab, Corin; Wilhite, Tyler; Kumar, Goutham; Hara, Hidetaka; Ayares, David; Cooper, David K C

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are being investigated as immunomodulatory therapy in the field of transplantation, particularly islet transplantation. While MSC can regenerate across species barriers, the immunoregulatory influence of genetically modified pig MSC (pMSC) on the human and non-human primate T-cell responses has not been studied. Mesenchymal stromal cells from wild-type (WT), α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene knockout (GTKO) and GTKO pigs transgenic for the human complement-regulatory protein CD46 (GTKO/CD46) were isolated and tested for differentiation. Antibody binding and T-cell responses to WT and GTKO pMSC in comparison with GTKO pig aortic endothelial cells (pAEC) were investigated. The expression of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class II (SLA II) was tested. Costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 mRNA levels were measured. Human T-cell proliferation and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to GTKO and GTKO/CD46 pMSC in comparison with human MSC (hMSC) were evaluated. α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene knockout and GTKO/CD46 pMSC isolation and differentiation were achieved in vitro. Binding of human antibodies and T-cell responses were lower to GTKO than those to WT pMSC. Human and baboon (naïve and sensitized) antibody binding were significantly lower to GTKO pMSC than to GTKO pAEC. Before activation, <1% of GTKO pMSC expressed SLA II, compared with 2.5% of GTKO pAEC. After pig interferon-gamma (pIFN-γ) activation, 99% of GTKO pAEC upregulated SLA II expression, compared with 49% of GTKO pMSC. Only 3% of GTKO pMSC expressed CD80 compared with 80% of GTKO pAEC without activation. After pIFN-γ activation, GTKO pAEC upregulated CD86 mRNA level stronger than GTKO pMSC. The human CD4(+) T-cell response to GTKO pMSC was significantly weaker than that to GTKO pAEC, even after pIFN-γ activation. More than 99% of GTKO/CD46 pMSC expressed hCD46. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and CD4(+) T-cell responses to GTKO and GTKO/CD46

  7. Knockout mutations of insulin-like peptide genes enhance sexual receptivity in Drosophila virgin females.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazuki; Sakai, Takaomi

    2016-01-01

    In the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, females take the initiative to mate successfully because they decide whether to mate or not. However, little is known about the molecular and neuronal mechanisms regulating sexual receptivity in virgin females. Genetic tools available in Drosophila are useful for identifying molecules and neural circuits involved in the regulation of sexual receptivity. We previously demonstrated that insulin-producing cells (IPCs) in the female brain are critical to the regulation of female sexual receptivity. Ablation and inactivation of IPCs enhance female sexual receptivity, suggesting that neurosecretion from IPCs inhibits female sexual receptivity. IPCs produce and release insulin-like peptides (Ilps) that modulate various biological processes such as metabolism, growth, lifespan and behaviors. Here, we report a novel role of the Ilps in sexual behavior in Drosophila virgin females. Compared with wild-type females, females with knockout mutations of Ilps showed a high mating success rate toward wild-type males, whereas wild-type males courted wild-type and Ilp-knockout females to the same extent. Wild-type receptive females retard their movement during male courtship and this reduced female mobility allows males to copulate. Thus, it was anticipated that knockout mutations of Ilps would reduce general locomotion. However, the locomotor activity in Ilp-knockout females was significantly higher than that in wild-type females. Thus, our findings indicate that the high mating success rate in Ilp-knockout females is caused by their enhanced sexual receptivity, but not by improvement of their sex appeal or by general sluggishness.

  8. Altered sleep and affect in the neurotensin receptor 1 knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Karrie; Winrow, Christopher J; Gotter, Anthony L; Millstein, Joshua; Arbuzova, Janna; Brunner, Joseph; Kasarskis, Andrew; Vitaterna, Martha H; Renger, John J; Turek, Fred W

    2012-07-01

    Sleep and mood disorders have long been understood to have strong genetic components, and there is considerable comorbidity of sleep abnormalities and mood disorders, suggesting the involvement of common genetic pathways. Here, we examine a candidate gene implicated in the regulation of both sleep and affective behavior using a knockout mouse model. Previously, we identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for REM sleep amount, REM sleep bout number, and wake amount in a genetically segregating population of mice. Here, we show that traits mapping to this QTL correlated with an expression QTL for neurotensin receptor 1 (Ntsr1), a receptor for neurotensin, a ligand known to be involved in several psychiatric disorders. We examined sleep as well as behaviors indicative of anxiety and depression in the NTSR1 knockout mouse. NTSR1 knockouts had a lower percentage of sleep time spent in REM sleep in the dark phase and a larger diurnal variation in REM sleep duration than wild types under baseline conditions. Following sleep deprivation, NTSR1 knockouts exhibited more wake and less NREM rebound sleep. NTSR1 knockouts also showed increased anxious and despair behaviors. Here we illustrate a link between expression of the Ntsr1 gene and sleep traits previously associated with a particular QTL. We also demonstrate a relationship between Ntsr1 and anxiety and despair behaviors. Given the considerable evidence that anxiety and depression are closely linked with abnormalities in sleep, the data presented here provide further evidence that neurotensin and Ntsr1 may be a component of a pathway involved in both sleep and mood disorders.

  9. Global Nav1.7 Knockout Mice Recapitulate the Phenotype of Human Congenital Indifference to Pain

    PubMed Central

    Gingras, Jacinthe; Smith, Sarah; Matson, David J.; Johnson, Danielle; Nye, Kim; Couture, Lauren; Feric, Elma; Yin, Ruoyuan; Moyer, Bryan D.; Peterson, Matthew L.; Rottman, James B.; Beiler, Rudolph J.; Malmberg, Annika B.; McDonough, Stefan I.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical genetic studies have shown that loss of Nav1.7 function leads to the complete loss of acute pain perception. The global deletion is reported lethal in mice, however, and studies of mice with promoter-specific deletions of Nav1.7 have suggested that the role of Nav1.7 in pain transduction depends on the precise form of pain. We developed genetic and animal husbandry strategies that overcame the neonatal-lethal phenotype and enabled construction of a global Nav1.7 knockout mouse. Knockouts were anatomically normal, reached adulthood, and had phenotype wholly analogous to human congenital indifference to pain (CIP): compared to littermates, knockouts showed no defects in mechanical sensitivity or overall movement yet were completely insensitive to painful tactile, thermal, and chemical stimuli and were anosmic. Knockouts also showed no painful behaviors resulting from peripheral injection of nonselective sodium channel activators, did not develop complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced thermal hyperalgesia, and were insensitive to intra-dermal histamine injection. Tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium current recorded from cell bodies of isolated sensory neurons and the mechanically-evoked spiking of C-fibers in a skin-nerve preparation each were reduced but not eliminated in tissue from knockouts compared to littermates. Results support a role for Nav1.7 that is conserved between rodents and humans and suggest several possibly translatable biomarkers for the study of Nav1.7-targeted therapeutics. Results further suggest that Nav1.7 may retain its key role in persistent as well as acute forms of pain. PMID:25188265

  10. Oxygenated drinking water enhances immune activity in pigs and increases immune responses of pigs during Salmonella typhimurium infection.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Lee, Jin-A; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2012-12-01

    It has been considered that drinking oxygenated water improves oxygen availability, which may increase vitality and improve immune functions. The present study evaluated the effects of oxygenated drinking water on immune function in pigs. Continuous drinking of oxygenated water markedly increased peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation, interleukin-1β expression level and the CD4(+):CD8(+) cell ratio in pigs. During Salmonella Typhimurium infection, total leukocytes and relative cytokines expression levels were significantly increased in pigs consuming oxygenated water compared with pigs consuming tap water. These findings suggest that oxygenated drinking water enhances immune activity in pigs and increases immune responses of pigs during S. Typhimurium Infection.

  11. A description of smallholder pig production systems in eastern Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Edwina E C; Geong, Maria; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2015-03-01

    Pig farming is a common practice among smallholder farmers in Nusa Tenggara Timur province (NTT), eastern Indonesia. To understand their production systems a survey of smallholder pig farmers was conducted. Eighteen villages were randomly selected across West Timor, Flores and Sumba islands, and 289 pig farmers were interviewed. Information on pig management, biosecurity practices, pig movements and knowledge of pig health and disease, specifically classical swine fever was collected. The mean number of pigs per herd was 5.0 (not including piglets), and total marketable herd size (pigs≥two months of age) did not differ significantly between islands (P=0.215). Chickens (71%) and dogs (62%) were the most commonly kept animal species in addition to pigs. Pigs were mainly kept as a secondary income source (69%) and 83% of farmers owned at least one sow. Seventy-four percent (74%) of pigs were housed in a kandang (small bamboo pen) and 25% were tethered. Pig feeds were primarily locally sourced agricultural products (93%). The majority of farmers had no knowledge of classical swine fever (91%) and biosecurity practices were minimal. Forty-five percent (45%) reported to consuming a pig when it died and 74% failed to report cases of sick or dead pigs to appropriate authorities. Sixty-five percent (65%) of farmers reported that a veterinarian or animal health worker had never visited their village. Backyard slaughter was common practice (55%), with meat mainly used for home consumption (89%). Most (73%) farmers purchased pigs in order to raise the animal on their farm with 36% purchasing at least one pig within the last year. Predominantly fattener pigs (34%) were given as gifts for celebratory events, most commonly for funerals (32%), traditional ceremonies (27%) and marriages (10%). For improved productivity of this traditional low-input system, research incorporating farming training and improved knowledge on pig disease and biosecurity needs to be integrated with

  12. The effect of long or chopped straw on pig behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lahrmann, H P; Oxholm, L C; Steinmetz, H; Nielsen, M B F; D'Eath, R B

    2015-05-01

    In the EU, pigs must have permanent access to manipulable materials such as straw, rope, wood, etc. Long straw can fulfil this function, but can increase labour requirements for cleaning pens, and result in problems with blocked slatted floors and slurry systems. Chopped straw might be more practical, but what is the effect on pigs' behaviour of using chopped straw instead of long straw? Commercial pigs in 1/3 slatted, 2/3 solid pens of 15 pigs were provided with either 100 g/pig per day of long straw (20 pens) or of chopped straw (19 pens). Behavioural observations were made of three focal pigs per pen (one from each of small, medium and large weight tertiles) for one full day between 0600 and 2300 h at each of ~40 and ~80 kg. The time spent rooting/investigating overall (709 s/pig per hour at 40 kg to 533 s/pig per hour at 80 kg), or directed to the straw/solid floor (497 s/pig per hour at 40 kg to 343 s/pig per hour at 80 kg), was not affected by straw length but reduced with age. Time spent investigating other pigs (83 s/pig per hour at 40 kg), the slatted floor (57 s/pig per hour) or pen fixtures (21 s/pig per hour) was not affected by age or straw length. Aggressive behaviour was infrequent, but lasted about twice as long in pens with chopped straw (2.3 s/pig per hour at 40 kg) compared with pens with long straw (1.0 s/pig per hour at 40 kg, P=0.060). There were no significant effects of straw length on tail or ear lesions, but shoulders were significantly more likely to have minor scratches with chopped straw (P=0.031), which may reflect the higher levels of aggression. Smaller pigs showed more rooting/investigatory behaviour, and in particular directed towards the straw/solid floor and the slatted floor than their larger pen-mates. Females exhibited more straw and pen fixture-directed behaviour than males. There were no effects of pig size or sex on behaviour directed towards other pigs. In summary, pigs spent similar amounts of time interacting with straw

  13. Estimation of body composition of pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, C.L.; Cornelius, S.G.

    A study was conducted to evaluate the use of deuterium oxide (D2O) for in vivo estimation of body composition of diverse types of pigs. Obese (Ob, 30) and contemporary Hampshire X Yorkshire (C, 30) types of pigs used in the study were managed and fed under typical management regimens. Indwelling catheters were placed in a jugular vein of 6 Ob and 6 C pigs at 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 wk of age. The D2O was infused (.5 g/kg body weight) as a .9% NaCl solution into the jugular catheter. Blood samples were taken immediately before and at .25,more » 1, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h after the D2O infusion and D2O concentration in blood water was determined. Pigs were subsequently killed by euthanasia injection. Contents of the gastrointestinal tract were removed and the empty body was then frozen and later ground and sampled for subsequent analyses. Ground body tissue samples were analyzed for water, fat, N, fat-free organic matter and ash. Pig type, age and the type X age interaction were significant sources of variation in live weight, D2O pool size and all empty body components, as well as all fat-free empty body components. Relationships between age and live weight or weight of empty body components, and between live weight, empty body weight, empty body water or D2O space and weight of empty components were highly significant but influenced, in most cases, by pig type. The results of this study suggested that, although relationships between D2O space and body component weights were highly significant, they were influenced by pig type and were little better than live weight for the estimation of body composition.« less

  14. Empirical analysis of pig welfare levels and their impact on pig breeding efficiency-Based on 773 pig farmers' survey data.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanling; Wu, Nanjun; Xu, Rong; Li, Liqing; Zhou, Wei; Zhou, Xianjun

    2017-01-01

    Few studies of the pig production efficiency are from the perspective of animal welfare. Therefore, this study conducted a comprehensive evaluation of pig welfare levels based on survey data from 773 pig farmers from 23 counties in the Chinese provinces of Hunan, Zhejiang, Guangdong, Guizhou, and Shanxi. This study used the Delphi method, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA)-Tobit regression model to analyze farmers' pig production efficiency and its influencing factors. This paper found that most farmers' pig production efficiency is low, and the DEA is invalid. Only 2.9% of pig farmers' who breed pigs are at the optimal level in terms of welfare, and their production efficiency is relatively high. In contrast, 49.34% of the farmers are at the medium welfare level, and compared with the farmers at the optimal welfare level, these farmers' pig production efficiency is low. Additionally, the farmers' age, gender, and number of years of experience with pig breeding have a significant effect. Furthermore, the scale of pig breeding and feeding type, the agriculture facilities for the central treatment of waste in local areas, and the availability of local agricultural science and technology personnel have a considerable influence on pig production efficiency.

  15. Pig but not Human Interferon-γ Initiates Human Cell-Mediated Rejection of Pig Tissue in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, Parvez; Murray, Allan G.; McNiff, Jennifer M.; Lorber, Marc I.; Askenase, Philip W.; Bothwell, Alfred L. M.; Pober, Jordan S.

    1997-08-01

    Split-thickness pig skin was transplanted on severe combined immunodeficient mice so that pig dermal microvessels spontaneously inosculated with mouse microvessels and functioned to perfuse the grafts. Pig endothelial cells in the healed grafts constitutively expressed class I and class II major histocompatibility complex molecules. Major histocompatibility complex molecule expression could be further increased by intradermal injection of pig interferon-γ (IFN-γ ) but not human IFN-γ or tumor necrosis factor. Grafts injected with pig IFN-γ also developed a sparse infiltrate of mouse neutrophils and eosinophils without evidence of injury. Introduction of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells into the animals by intraperitoneal inoculation resulted in sparse perivascular mononuclear cell infiltrates in the grafts confined to the pig dermis. Injection of pig skin grafts on mice that received human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with pig IFN-γ (but not human IFN-γ or heat-inactivated pig IFN-γ ) induced human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and macrophages to more extensively infiltrate the pig skin grafts and injure pig dermal microvessels. These findings suggest that human T cell-mediated rejection of xenotransplanted pig organs may be prevented if cellular sources of pig interferon (e.g., passenger lymphocytes) are eliminated from the graft.

  16. Artificial insemination in pigs today.

    PubMed

    Knox, R V

    2016-01-01

    Use of artificial insemination (AI) for breeding pigs has been instrumental for facilitating global improvements in fertility, genetics, labor, and herd health. The establishment of AI centers for management of boars and production of semen has allowed for selection of boars for fertility and sperm production using in vitro and in vivo measures. Today, boars can be managed for production of 20 to 40 traditional AI doses containing 2.5 to 3.0 billion motile sperm in 75 to 100 mL of extender or 40 to 60 doses with 1.5 to 2.0 billion sperm in similar or reduced volumes for use in cervical or intrauterine AI. Regardless of the sperm dose, in liquid form, extenders are designed to sustain sperm fertility for 3 to 7 days. On farm, AI is the predominant form for commercial sow breeding and relies on manual detection of estrus with sows receiving two cervical or two intrauterine inseminations of the traditional or low sperm doses on each day detected in standing estrus. New approaches for increasing rates of genetic improvement through use of AI are aimed at methods to continue to lower the number of sperm in an AI dose and reducing the number of inseminations through use of a single, fixed-time AI after ovulation induction. Both approaches allow greater selection pressure for economically important swine traits in the sires and help extend the genetic advantages through AI on to more production farms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cloning of pigs from somatic cells and its prospects.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Akira

    2002-01-01

    The technology of somatic cell cloning in pigs is valuable for agricultural and therapeutic purposes. This paper will focus on the current methods of cloning pigs, including our successful microinjection#10; of somatic cell nuclei and its application. #10;

  18. Reston virus in domestic pigs in China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yangyang; Zhang, Wen; Cui, Li; Hua, Xiuguo; Wang, Meng; Zeng, Qiaoying

    2014-05-01

    Historically, Reston virus (RESTV) has been found to be associated with outbreaks of disease only in nonhuman primates. Its spread to domestic pigs was reported for the first time in 2008. In this study, we report the discovery, molecular detection, and phylogenetic analysis of Reston virus (RESTV) in domestic pigs in China. A total of 137 spleen specimens from pigs that died after showing typical clinical signs of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), and for which infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was confirmed by RT-PCR, were collected from three farms in Shanghai from February to September 2011. Of these samples, 2.92 % (4/137) were found to be positive for RESTV. All of the positive piglets were under the age of 8 weeks and were co-infected with PRRSV. Sequences were found that shared 96.1 %-98.9 % sequence similarity with those of two RESTV variants that had been discovered previously in domestic pigs and cynomolgus macaques from the Philippines. We therefore conclude that RESTV was present in domestic pigs in Shanghai, China.

  19. A review of pig pathology in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Richard Trevor; Swai, Emmanuel

    2013-08-01

    The approximately 1.58 million pigs in Tanzania represent 3.7% of the national population of quadruped meat-producing animals. Pigs are kept mainly by small producers who own 99.5% of the national stock in units that average 3.04 animals (range 2-48). Government policy has had little practical application. African swine fever, foot-and-mouth disease and Cysticercosis are important diseases. The first two are notifiable diseases under Tanzania legislation; the last has widespread distribution and relevance as a major zoonosis. Ascariasis (Ascaris suum), hydatidosis (Echinococcus granulosus), leptospirosis (Leptospira interrogans) and thermophilic Campylobacter are other zoonoses associated with pigs. Gastrointestinal helminths and external parasites, especially Sarcoptes scabiei, are common. Risk factors associated with cysticercosis for humans working with pigs or eating their meat include the free-range or semi-confined management systems, the use of rivers or ponds as a source of water, lack of household sanitation, informal home slaughter, pork not being inspected at slaughter slabs and undercooked and barbecued meat. Pigs are a minor component of Tanzania's livestock sector but there is potential for increasing their contribution to human welfare. Prospects are enhanced by the shorter life cycle, greater number of young produced per year and the possibility of producing high-quality animal protein at a lower cost than meat produced by cattle and small ruminants.

  20. Biotechnology. Perseverance leads to cloned pig in Japan.

    PubMed

    Pennisi, E; Normile, D

    2000-08-18

    Low success rates and unpredictable results have plagued cloning researchers, particularly those trying to clone pigs. Now, on page 1188, Japanese researchers offer the first scientific report of a cloned pig, named Xena, raising hopes that pigs could one day provide an unlimited supply of organs for transplantation thanks to their close physiological relationship to humans. But this week those hopes were dealt a blow by more evidence suggesting that pig retroviruses can infect human cells.

  1. Describing the role of Drosophila melanogaster ABC transporters in insecticide biology using CRISPR-Cas9 knockouts.

    PubMed

    Denecke, Shane; Fusetto, Roberto; Batterham, Philip

    2017-12-01

    ABC transporters have a well-established role in drug resistance, effluxing xenobiotics from cells and tissues within the organism. More recently, research has been dedicated to understanding the role insect ABC transporters play in insecticide toxicity, but progress in understanding the contribution of specific transporters has been hampered by the lack of functional genetic tools. Here, we report knockouts of three Drosophila melanogaster ABC transporter genes, Mdr49, Mdr50, and Mdr65, that are homologous to the well-studied mammalian ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein). Each knockout mutant was created in the same wild type background and tested against a panel of insecticides representing different chemical classes. Mdr65 knockouts were more susceptible to all neuroactive insecticides tested, but Mdr49 and Mdr50 knockouts showed increased susceptibility or resistance depending on the insecticide used. Mdr65 was chosen for further analysis. Calculation of LC 50 values for the Mdr65 knockout allowed the substrate specificity of this transporter to be examined. No obvious distinguishing structural features were shared among MDR65 substrates. A role for Mdr65 in insecticide transport was confirmed by testing the capacity of the knockout to synergize with the ABC inhibitor verapamil and by measuring the levels of insecticide retained in the body of knockout flies. These data unambiguously establish the influence of ABC transporters on the capacity of wild type D. melanogaster to tolerate insecticide exposure and suggest that both tissue and substrate specificity underpin this capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Malignant transformation of guinea pig cells after exposure to ultraviolet-irradiated guinea pig cytomegalovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Isom, H.C.; Mummaw, J.; Kreider, J.W.

    1983-04-30

    Guinea pig cells were malignantly transformed in vitro by ultraviolet (uv)-irradiated guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV). When guinea pig hepatocyte monolayers were infected with uv-irradiated GPCMV, three continuous epithelioid cell lines which grew in soft agarose were established. Two independently derived GPCMV-transformed liver cells and a cell line derived from a soft agarose clone of one of these lines induced invasive tumors when inoculated subcutaneously or intraperitoneally into nude mice. The tumors were sarcomas possibly derived from hepatic stroma or sinusoid. Transformed cell lines were also established after infection of guinea pig hepatocyte monolayers with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) or simian virusmore » 40 (SV40). These cell lines also formed colonies in soft agarose and induced sarcomas in nude mice. It is concluded that (i) GPCMV can malignantly transform guinea pig cells; (ii) cloning of GPCMV-transformed cells in soft agarose produced cells that induced tumors with a shorter latency period but with no alteration in growth rate or final tumor size; and (iii) the tumors produced by GPCMV-and HCMV-transformed guinea pig cells were more similar to each other in growth rate than to those induced by SV40-transformed guinea pig cells.« less

  3. Oral Salmonella challenge alters feed preference in newly weaned pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Common industry practice is to segregate sick pigs; however, the same diet is provided. Due to the higher nutrient demand of the activated immune system, we hypothesized pigs would choose diets differing in nutrient content during an immune challenge when given choices. This study examined pig feed ...

  4. Pathogenicity of 2 Porcine Deltacoronavirus Strains in Gnotobiotic Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hui; Eyerly, Bryan; Lu, Zhongyan; Chepngeno, Juliet

    2015-01-01

    To verify whether porcine deltacoronavirus infection induces disease, we inoculated gnotobiotic pigs with 2 virus strains (OH-FD22 and OH-FD100) identified by 2 specific reverse transcription PCRs. At 21–120 h postinoculation, pigs exhibited severe diarrhea, vomiting, fecal shedding of virus, and severe atrophic enteritis. These findings confirm that these 2 strains are enteropathogenic in pigs. PMID:25811229

  5. Development of a Guinea Pig Lung Deposition Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    Development of a Guinea Pig Lung Deposition Model Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. January...4 Figure 2. Particle deposition in the lung of the guinea pig via endotracheal breathing...Particle deposition in the lungs of guinea pigs via nasal breathing. ......................................... 12 v PREFACE The research work

  6. Global Gene Expression Profiling in PAI-1 Knockout Murine Heart and Kidney: Molecular Basis of Cardiac-Selective Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Asish K.; Murphy, Sheila B.; Kishore, Raj; Vaughan, Douglas E.

    2013-01-01

    Fibrosis is defined as an abnormal matrix remodeling due to excessive synthesis and accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins in tissues during wound healing or in response to chemical, mechanical and immunological stresses. At present, there is no effective therapy for organ fibrosis. Previous studies demonstrated that aged plasminogen activator inhibitor-1(PAI-1) knockout mice develop spontaneously cardiac-selective fibrosis without affecting any other organs. We hypothesized that differential expressions of profibrotic and antifibrotic genes in PAI-1 knockout hearts and unaffected organs lead to cardiac selective fibrosis. In order to address this prediction, we have used a genome-wide gene expression profiling of transcripts derived from aged PAI-1 knockout hearts and kidneys. The variations of global gene expression profiling were compared within four groups: wildtype heart vs. knockout heart; wildtype kidney vs. knockout kidney; knockout heart vs. knockout kidney and wildtype heart vs. wildtype kidney. Analysis of illumina-based microarray data revealed that several genes involved in different biological processes such as immune system processing, response to stress, cytokine signaling, cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, matrix organization and transcriptional regulation were affected in hearts and kidneys by the absence of PAI-1, a potent inhibitor of urokinase and tissue-type plasminogen activator. Importantly, the expressions of a number of genes, involved in profibrotic pathways including Ankrd1, Pi16, Egr1, Scx, Timp1, Timp2, Klf6, Loxl1 and Klotho, were deregulated in PAI-1 knockout hearts compared to wildtype hearts and PAI-1 knockout kidneys. While the levels of Ankrd1, Pi16 and Timp1 proteins were elevated during EndMT, the level of Timp4 protein was decreased. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report on the influence of PAI-1 on global gene expression profiling in the heart and kidney and its implication in fibrogenesis and

  7. EXPRESSION OF NeuGc ON PIG CORNEAS AND ITS POTENTIAL SIGNIFICANCE IN PIG CORNEAL XENOTRANSPLANTATION

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Whayoung; Miyagawa, Yuko; Long, Cassandra; Ekser, Burcin; Walters, Eric; Ramsoondar, Jagdeece; Ayares, David; Tector, A. Joseph; Cooper, David K. C.; Hara, Hidetaka

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Pigs expressing neither galactose-α1,3-galactose (Gal) nor N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) take xenotransplantation one step closer to the clinic. Our aims were (i) to document the lack of NeuGc expression on corneas and aortas, and cultured endothelial cells (aortic [AECs]; corneal [CECs]) of GTKO/NeuGcKO pigs, and (ii) to investigate whether the absence of NeuGc reduced human antibody binding to the tissues and cells. Methods Wild-type (WT), GTKO, and GTKO/NeuGcKO pig were used for the study. Human tissues and cultured cells were negative controls. Immunofluorescence staining was performed using anti-Gal and anti-NeuGc antibodies, and to determine human IgM and IgG binding to tissues. Flow cytometric analysis was used to determine Gal and NeuGc expression on cultured CECs and AECs and to measure human IgM/IgG binding to these cells. Results Both Gal and NeuGc were detected on WT pig corneas and aortas. Although GTKO pigs expressed NeuGc, neither human nor GTKO/NeuGcKO pigs expressed Gal or NeuGc. Human IgM/IgG binding to corneas and aortas from GTKO and GTKO/NeuGcKO pigs was reduced compared to binding to WT pigs. Human antibody binding to GTKO/NeuGcKO AECs was significantly less than to GTKO AECs, but there was no significant difference in binding between GTKO and GTKO/NeuGcKO CECs. Conclusions The absence of NeuGc on GTKO aortic tissue and AECs is associated with reduced human antibody binding, and possibly will provide better outcome in clinical xenotransplantation using vascularized organs. For clinical corneal xenotransplantation, the absence of NeuGc expression on GTKO/NeuGcKO pig corneas may not prove an advantage over GTKO corneas. PMID:26418433

  8. Impact of test sensitivity and specificity on pig producer incentives to control Mycobacterium avium infections in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    van Wagenberg, Coen P A; Backus, Gé B C; Wisselink, Henk J; van der Vorst, Jack G A J; Urlings, Bert A P

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we analyze the impact of the sensitivity and specificity of a Mycobacterium avium (Ma) test on pig producer incentives to control Ma in finishing pigs. A possible Ma control system which includes a serodiagnostic test and a penalty on finishing pigs in herds detected with Ma infection was modelled. Using a dynamic optimization model and a grid search of deliveries of herds from pig producers to slaughterhouse, optimal control measures for pig producers and optimal penalty values for deliveries with increased Ma risk were identified for different sensitivity and specificity values. Results showed that higher sensitivity and lower specificity induced use of more intense control measures and resulted in higher pig producer costs and lower Ma seroprevalence. The minimal penalty value needed to comply with a threshold for Ma seroprevalence in finishing pigs at slaughter was lower at higher sensitivity and lower specificity. With imperfect specificity a larger sample size decreased pig producer incentives to control Ma seroprevalence, because the higher number of false positives resulted in an increased probability of rejecting a batch of finishing pigs irrespective of whether the pig producer applied control measures. We conclude that test sensitivity and specificity must be considered in incentive system design to induce pig producers to control Ma in finishing pigs with minimum negative effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Validation of microinjection methods for generating knockout mice by CRISPR/Cas-mediated genome engineering.

    PubMed

    Horii, Takuro; Arai, Yuji; Yamazaki, Miho; Morita, Sumiyo; Kimura, Mika; Itoh, Masahiro; Abe, Yumiko; Hatada, Izuho

    2014-03-28

    The CRISPR/Cas system, in which the Cas9 endonuclease and a guide RNA complementary to the target are sufficient for RNA-guided cleavage of the target DNA, is a powerful new approach recently developed for targeted gene disruption in various animal models. However, there is little verification of microinjection methods for generating knockout mice using this approach. Here, we report the verification of microinjection methods of the CRISPR/Cas system. We compared three methods for injection: (1) injection of DNA into the pronucleus, (2) injection of RNA into the pronucleus, and (3) injection of RNA into the cytoplasm. We found that injection of RNA into the cytoplasm was the most efficient method in terms of the numbers of viable blastocyst stage embryos and full-term pups generated. This method also showed the best overall knockout efficiency.

  10. A norm knockout method on indirect reciprocity to reveal indispensable norms

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Okada, Isamu; Uchida, Satoshi; Sasaki, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Although various norms for reciprocity-based cooperation have been suggested that are evolutionarily stable against invasion from free riders, the process of alternation of norms and the role of diversified norms remain unclear in the evolution of cooperation. We clarify the co-evolutionary dynamics of norms and cooperation in indirect reciprocity and also identify the indispensable norms for the evolution of cooperation. Inspired by the gene knockout method, a genetic engineering technique, we developed the norm knockout method and clarified the norms necessary for the establishment of cooperation. The results of numerical investigations revealed that the majority of norms gradually transitioned to tolerant norms after defectors are eliminated by strict norms. Furthermore, no cooperation emerges when specific norms that are intolerant to defectors are knocked out. PMID:28276485

  11. Critical period plasticity is disrupted in the barrel cortex of Fmr1 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Harlow, Emily G.; Till, Sally M.; Russell, Theron A.; Wijetunge, Lasani S.; Kind, Peter; Contractor, Anis

    2010-01-01

    Summary Alterations in sensory processing constitute prominent symptoms of Fragile X syndrome; however, little is known about how disrupted synaptic and circuit development in sensory cortex contributes to these deficits. To investigate how the loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) impacts the development of cortical synapses, we examined excitatory thalamocortical synapses in somatosensory cortex during the perinatal critical period in Fmr1 knockout mice. FMRP ablation resulted in dysregulation of glutamatergic signaling maturation. The fraction of silent synapses persisting to later developmental times was increased, there was a temporal delay in the window for synaptic plasticity, while other forms of developmental plasticity were not altered in Fmr1 knockout mice. Our results indicate that FMRP is required for the normal developmental progression of synaptic maturation, and loss of this important RNA binding protein impacts the timing of the critical period for layer IV synaptic plasticity. PMID:20159451

  12. Knockout and fragmentation reactions using a broad range of tin isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. L.; Benlliure, J.; Bertulani, C. A.; Vargas, J.; Ayyad, Y.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Atkinson, J.; Aumann, T.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Boretzky, K.; Caamaño, M.; Casarejos, E.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Díaz-Cortes, J.; Fernández, P. Díaz; Estrade, A.; Geissel, H.; Kelić-Heil, A.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Mostazo, M.; Paradela, C.; Pérez-Loureiro, D.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Takechi, M.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J. S.

    2017-09-01

    Production cross sections of residual nuclei obtained by knockout and fragmentation reactions of different tin isotopes accelerated at 1 A GeV have been measured with the fragment separator (FRS) at GSI, Darmstadt. The new measurements are used to investigate the neutron-excess dependence of the neutron- and proton-knockout cross sections. These cross sections are compared to Glauber model calculations coupled to a nuclear de-excitation code in order to investigate the role of the remnant excitations. This bench marking shows an overestimation of the cross sections for the removal of deeply bound nucleons. A phenomenological increase in the excitation energy induced in the remnants produced in these cases allows us to reproduce the measured cross sections.

  13. A norm knockout method on indirect reciprocity to reveal indispensable norms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Okada, Isamu; Uchida, Satoshi; Sasaki, Tatsuya

    2017-03-01

    Although various norms for reciprocity-based cooperation have been suggested that are evolutionarily stable against invasion from free riders, the process of alternation of norms and the role of diversified norms remain unclear in the evolution of cooperation. We clarify the co-evolutionary dynamics of norms and cooperation in indirect reciprocity and also identify the indispensable norms for the evolution of cooperation. Inspired by the gene knockout method, a genetic engineering technique, we developed the norm knockout method and clarified the norms necessary for the establishment of cooperation. The results of numerical investigations revealed that the majority of norms gradually transitioned to tolerant norms after defectors are eliminated by strict norms. Furthermore, no cooperation emerges when specific norms that are intolerant to defectors are knocked out.

  14. Dual gene activation and knockout screen reveals directional dependencies in genetic networks. | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Understanding the direction of information flow is essential for characterizing how genetic networks affect phenotypes. However, methods to find genetic interactions largely fail to reveal directional dependencies. We combine two orthogonal Cas9 proteins from Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus to carry out a dual screen in which one gene is activated while a second gene is deleted in the same cell. We analyze the quantitative effects of activation and knockout to calculate genetic interaction and directionality scores for each gene pair.

  15. Effects of vitamin D receptor knockout on cornea epithelium gap junctions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaowen; Watsky, Mitchell A

    2014-05-06

    Gap junctions are present in all corneal cell types and have been shown to have a critical role in cell phenotype determination. Vitamin D has been shown to influence cell differentiation, and recent work demonstrates the presence of vitamin D in the ocular anterior segment. This study measured and compared gap junction diffusion coefficients among different cornea epithelium phenotypes and in keratocytes using a noninvasive technique, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), and examined the influence of vitamin D receptor (VDR) knockout on epithelial gap junction communication in intact corneas. Previous gap junction studies in cornea epithelium and keratocytes were performed using cultured cells or ex vivo invasive techniques. These invasive techniques were unable to measure diffusion coefficients and likely were disruptive to normal cell physiology. Corneas from VDR knockout and control mice were stained with 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA). Gap junction diffusion coefficients of the corneal epithelium phenotypes and of keratocytes, residing in intact corneas, were detected using FRAP. Diffusion coefficients equaled 18.7, 9.8, 5.6, and 4.2 μm(2)/s for superficial squamous cells, middle wing cells, basal cells, and keratocytes, respectively. Corneal thickness, superficial cell size, and the superficial squamous cell diffusion coefficient of 10-week-old VDR knockout mice were significantly lower than those of control mice (P < 0.01). The superficial cell diffusion coefficient of heterozygous mice was significantly lower than control mice (P < 0.05). Our results demonstrate differences in gap junction dye spread among the epithelial cell phenotypes, mirroring the epithelial developmental axis. The VDR knockout influences previously unreported cell-to-cell communication in superficial epithelium.

  16. Ascl1 (Mash1) Knockout Perturbs Differentiation of Nonneuronal Cells in Olfactory Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Woochan; Wildner, Hendrik; Schwob, James E.

    2012-01-01

    The embryonic olfactory epithelium (OE) generates only a very few olfactory sensory neurons when the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, ASCL1 (previously known as MASH1) is eliminated by gene mutation. We have closely examined the structure and composition of the OE of knockout mice and found that the absence of neurons dramatically affects the differentiation of multiple other epithelial cell types as well. The most prominent effect is observed within the two known populations of stem and progenitor cells of the epithelium. The emergence of horizontal basal cells, a multipotent progenitor population in the adult epithelium, is anomalous in the Ascl1 knockout mice. The differentiation of globose basal cells, another multipotent progenitor population in the adult OE, is also aberrant. All of the persisting globose basal cells are marked by SOX2 expression, suggesting a prominent role for SOX2 in progenitors upstream of Ascl1. However, NOTCH1-expressing basal cells are absent from the knockout; since NOTCH1 signaling normally acts to suppress Ascl1 via HES1 and drives sustentacular (Sus) cell differentiation during adult epithelial regeneration, its absence suggests reciprocity between neurogenesis and the differentiation of Sus cells. Indeed, the Sus cells of the mutant mice express a markedly lower level of HES1, strengthening that notion of reciprocity. Duct/gland development appears normal. Finally, the expression of cKIT by basal cells is also undetectable, except in those small patches where neurogenesis escapes the effects of Ascl1 knockout and neurons are born. Thus, persistent neurogenic failure distorts the differentiation of multiple other cell types in the olfactory epithelium. PMID:23284756

  17. CARD9 knockout ameliorates myocardial dysfunction associated with high fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Cao, Li; Qin, Xing; Peterson, Matthew R; Haller, Samantha E; Wilson, Kayla A; Hu, Nan; Lin, Xin; Nair, Sreejayan; Ren, Jun; He, Guanglong

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation which plays a critical role in the development of cardiovascular dysfunction. Because the adaptor protein caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9) in macrophages regulates innate immune responses via activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, we hypothesize that CARD9 mediates the pro-inflammatory signaling associated with obesity en route to myocardial dysfunction. C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and CARD9(-/-) mice were fed normal diet (ND, 12% fat) or a high fat diet (HFD, 45% fat) for 5months. At the end of 5-month HFD feeding, cardiac function was evaluated using echocardiography. Cardiomyocytes were isolated and contractile properties were measured. Immunofluorescence was performed to detect macrophage infiltration in the heart. Heart tissue homogenates, plasma, and supernatants from isolated macrophages were collected to measure the concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines using ELISA kits. Western immunoblotting analyses were performed on heart tissue homogenates and isolated macrophages to explore the underlying signaling mechanism(s). CARD9 knockout alleviated HFD-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, prevented myocardial dysfunction with preserved cardiac fractional shortening and cardiomyocyte contractile properties. CARD9 knockout also significantly decreased the number of infiltrated macrophages in the heart with reduced myocardium-, plasma-, and macrophage-derived cytokines including IL-6, IL-1β and TNFα. Finally, CARD9 knockout abrogated the increase of p38 MAPK phosphorylation, the decrease of LC3BII/LC3BI ratio and the up-regulation of p62 expression in the heart induced by HFD feeding and restored cardiac autophagy signaling. In conclusion, CARD9 knockout ameliorates myocardial dysfunction associated with HFD-induced obesity, potentially through reduction of macrophage infiltration, suppression of p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and preservation of autophagy in the heart

  18. Differential gene expression in Ndph-knockout mice in retinal development.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Nikolaus F; Luhmann, Ulrich F O; Feil, Silke; Berger, Wolfgang

    2009-02-01

    Mutations in the NDP gene impair angiogenesis in the eyes of patients diagnosed with a type of blindness belonging to the group of exudative vitreoretinopathies. This study was conducted to investigate the differential gene expression caused by the absence of Norrin (the NDP protein) in the developing mouse retina and to elucidate early pathogenic events. A comparative gene expression analysis was performed on postnatal day (p)7 retinas from a knockout mouse model for Norrie disease using gene microarrays. Subsequently, results were verified by quantitative real-time PCR analyses. Immunohistochemistry was performed for the vascular permeability marker plasmalemma vesicle associated protein (Plvap). Our study identified expression differences in Ndph(y/-) versus wild-type mice retinas at p7. Gene transcription of the neutral amino acid transporter Slc38a5, apolipoprotein D (ApoD), and angiotensin II receptor-like 1 (Agtrl1) was decreased in the knockout mouse, whereas transcript levels of adrenomedullin (Adm) and of the plasmalemma vesicle associated protein (Plvap) were increased in comparison to the wild-type. In addition, ectopic expression of Plvap was found in the developing retinal vasculature of Norrin-knockout mice on the protein level. These data provide molecular evidence for a role of Norrin in the development of the retinal vasculature. Expression of two genes, Plvap and Slc38a5, is considerably altered in retinal development of Norrin-knockout mice and may reflect or contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. In particular, ectopic expression of Plvap is consistent with hallmark disease symptoms in mice and humans.

  19. Abnormal cerebellar development and Purkinje cell defects in Lgl1-Pax2 conditional knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Hou, Congzhe; Ding, Lingcui; Zhang, Jian; Jin, Yecheng; Sun, Chen; Li, Zhenzu; Sun, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Tingting; Zhang, Aizhen; Li, Huashun; Gao, Jiangang

    2014-11-01

    Lgl1 was initially identified as a tumour suppressor in flies and is characterised as a key regulator of epithelial polarity and asymmetric cell division. A previous study indicated that More-Cre-mediated Lgl1 knockout mice exhibited significant brain dysplasia and died within 24h after birth. To overcome early neonatal lethality, we generated Lgl1 conditional knockout mice mediated by Pax2-Cre, which is expressed in almost all cells in the cerebellum, and we examined the functions of Lgl1 in the cerebellum. Impaired motor coordination was detected in the mutant mice. Consistent with this abnormal behaviour, homozygous mice possessed a smaller cerebellum with fewer lobes, reduced granule precursor cell (GPC) proliferation, decreased Purkinje cell (PC) quantity and dendritic dysplasia. Loss of Lgl1 in the cerebellum led to hyperproliferation and impaired differentiation of neural progenitors in ventricular zone. Based on the TUNEL assay, we observed increased apoptosis in the cerebellum of mutant mice. We proposed that impaired differentiation and increased apoptosis may contribute to decreased PC quantity. To clarify the effect of Lgl1 on cerebellar granule cells, we used Math1-Cre to specifically delete Lgl1 in granule cells. Interestingly, the Lgl1-Math1 conditional knockout mice exhibited normal proliferation of GPCs and cerebellar development. Thus, we speculated that the reduction in the proliferation of GPCs in Lgl1-Pax2 conditional knockout mice may be secondary to the decreased number of PCs, which secrete the mitogenic factor Sonic hedgehog to regulate GPC proliferation. Taken together, these findings suggest that Lgl1 plays a key role in cerebellar development and folia formation by regulating the development of PCs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Kv4.2 Knockout Mice Have Hippocampal-Dependent Learning and Memory Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugo, Joaquin N.; Brewster, Amy L.; Spencer, Corinne M.; Anderson, Anne E.

    2012-01-01

    Kv4.2 channels contribute to the transient, outward K[superscript +] current (A-type current) in hippocampal dendrites, and modulation of this current substantially alters dendritic excitability. Using Kv4.2 knockout (KO) mice, we examined the role of Kv4.2 in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. We found that Kv4.2 KO mice showed a deficit…

  1. Acute food deprivation reverses morphine-induced locomotion deficits in M5 muscarinic receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Steidl, Stephan; Lee, Esther; Wasserman, David; Yeomans, John S

    2013-09-01

    Lesions of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT), one of two sources of cholinergic input to the ventral tegmental area (VTA), block conditioned place preference (CPP) for morphine in drug-naïve rats. M5 muscarinic cholinergic receptors, expressed by midbrain dopamine neurons, are critical for the ability of morphine to increase nucleus accumbens dopamine levels and locomotion, and for morphine CPP. This suggests that M5-mediated PPT cholinergic inputs to VTA dopamine neurons critically contribute to morphine-induced dopamine activation, reward and locomotion. In the current study we tested whether food deprivation, which reduces PPT contribution to morphine CPP in rats, could also reduce M5 contributions to morphine-induced locomotion in mice. Acute 18-h food deprivation reversed the phenotypic differences usually seen between non-deprived wild-type and M5 knockout mice. That is, food deprivation increased morphine-induced locomotion in M5 knockout mice but reduced morphine-induced locomotion in wild-type mice. Food deprivation increased saline-induced locomotion equally in wild-type and M5 knockout mice. Based on these findings, we suggest that food deprivation reduces the contribution of M5-mediated PPT cholinergic inputs to the VTA in morphine-induced locomotion and increases the contribution of a PPT-independent pathway. The contributions of cholinergic, dopaminergic and GABAergic neurons to the effects of acute food deprivation are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Identifying Key Networks Linked to Light-Independent Photoreceptor Degeneration in Visual Arrestin 1 Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hwa Sun; Huang, Shun-Ping; Lee, Eun-Jin; Craft, Cheryl Mae

    2018-01-01

    When visual arrestin 1 (ARR1, S-antigen, 48 KDa protein) was genetically knocked out in mice (original Arr1 -/- , designated Arr1 -/-A ), rod photoreceptors degenerated in a light-dependent manner. Subsequently, a light-independent cone dystrophy was identified with minimal rod death in ARR1 knockout mice (Arr1 -/-A Arr4 +/+ , designated Arr1 -/-B ), which were F2 littermates from breeding the original Arr1 -/-A and cone arrestin knockout 4 (Arr4 -/- ) mice. To resolve the genetic and phenotypic differences between the two ARR1 knockouts, we performed Affymetrix™ exon array analysis to focus on the potential differential gene expression profile and to explore the molecular and cellular pathways leading to this observed susceptibility to cone dystrophy in Arr1 -/-B compared to Arr1 -/-A or control Arr1 +/+ Arr4 +/+ (wild type [WT]). Only in the Arr1 -/-B retina did we observe an up-regulation of retinal transcripts involved in the immune response, inflammatory response and JAK-STAT signaling molecules, OSMRβ and phosphorylation of STAT3. Of these responses, the complement system was significantly higher, and a variety of inflammatory responses by complement regulation and anti-inflammatory cytokine or factors were identified in Arr1 -/-B retinal transcripts. This discovery supports that Arr1 -/-B has a distinct genetic background from Arr1 -/-A that results in alterations in its retinal phenotype leading to susceptibility to cone degeneration induced by inappropriate inflammatory and immune responses.

  3. Optimizing sgRNA structure to improve CRISPR-Cas9 knockout efficiency.

    PubMed

    Dang, Ying; Jia, Gengxiang; Choi, Jennie; Ma, Hongming; Anaya, Edgar; Ye, Chunting; Shankar, Premlata; Wu, Haoquan

    2015-12-15

    Single-guide RNA (sgRNA) is one of the two key components of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 genome-editing system. The current commonly used sgRNA structure has a shortened duplex compared with the native bacterial CRISPR RNA (crRNA)-transactivating crRNA (tracrRNA) duplex and contains a continuous sequence of thymines, which is the pause signal for RNA polymerase III and thus could potentially reduce transcription efficiency. Here, we systematically investigate the effect of these two elements on knockout efficiency and showed that modifying the sgRNA structure by extending the duplex length and mutating the fourth thymine of the continuous sequence of thymines to cytosine or guanine significantly, and sometimes dramatically, improves knockout efficiency in cells. In addition, the optimized sgRNA structure also significantly increases the efficiency of more challenging genome-editing procedures, such as gene deletion, which is important for inducing a loss of function in non-coding genes. By a systematic investigation of sgRNA structure we find that extending the duplex by approximately 5 bp combined with mutating the continuous sequence of thymines at position 4 to cytosine or guanine significantly increases gene knockout efficiency in CRISPR-Cas9-based genome editing experiments.

  4. [Construction of EZH2 Knockout Animal Model by CRISPR/Cas9 Technology].

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanrong; Zhao, Dan; Zhou, Qinghua; Liu, Zhe

    2018-05-20

    It has been proven that CRISPR/Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated 9) system was the modern gene-editing technology through the constitutive expression of nucleases Cas9 in the mammalian, which binds to the specific site in the genome mediated by single-guide RNA (sgRNA) at desired genomic loci. The aim of this study is that the animal model of EZH2 gene knockout was constructed using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. In this study, we designed two single-guide RNAs targeting the Exon3 and Exon4 of EZH2 gene. Then, their gene-targeting efficiency were detected by SURVEYOR assay. The lentivirus was perfused into the lungs of mice by using a bronchial tube and detected by immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR. The experimental results of NIH-3T3 cells verify that the designed sgEZH2 can efficiently effect the cleavage of target DNA by Cas9 in vitro. The immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR results showed that the EZH2 expression in experimental group was significantly decreased in the mouse lung tissue. The study successfully designed two sgRNA which can play a knock-out EZH2 function. An EZH2 knockout animal model was successfully constructed by CRISPR/Cas9 system, and it will be an effective animal model for studying the functions and mechanisms of EZH2.

  5. FANCA knockout in human embryonic stem cells causes a severe growth disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Vanuytsel, Kim; Cai, Qing; Nair, Nisha; Khurana, Satish; Shetty, Swati; Vermeesch, Joris R; Ordovas, Laura; Verfaillie, Catherine M

    2014-09-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive bone marrow failure (BMF) during childhood, aside from numerous congenital abnormalities. FA mouse models have been generated; however, they do not fully mimic the hematopoietic phenotype. As there is mounting evidence that the hematopoietic impairment starts already in utero, a human pluripotent stem cell model would constitute a more appropriate system to investigate the mechanisms underlying BMF in FA and its developmental basis. Using zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) technology, we have created a knockout of FANCA in human embryonic stem cells (hESC). We introduced a selection cassette into exon 2 thereby disrupting the FANCA coding sequence and found that whereas mono-allelically targeted cells retain an unaltered proliferation potential, disruption of the second allele causes a severe growth disadvantage. As a result, heterogeneous cultures arise due to the presence of cells still carrying an unaffected FANCA allele, quickly outgrowing the knockout cells. When pure cultures of FANCA knockout hESC are pursued either through selection or single cell cloning, this rapidly results in growth arrest and such cultures cannot be maintained. These data highlight the importance of a functional FA pathway at the pluripotent stem cell stage. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Retinoid-related orphan receptor γ (RORγ) adult induced knockout mice develop lymphoblastic lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Liljevald, Maria; Rehnberg, Maria; Söderberg, Magnus; Ramnegård, Marie; Börjesson, Jenny; Luciani, Donatella; Krutrök, Nina; Brändén, Lena; Johansson, Camilla; Xu, Xiufeng; Bjursell, Mikael; Sjögren, Anna-Karin; Hornberg, Jorrit; Andersson, Ulf; Keeling, David; Jirholt, Johan

    2016-11-01

    RORγ is a nuclear hormone receptor which controls polarization of naive CD4 + T-cells into proinflammatory Th17 cells. Pharmacological antagonism of RORγ has therapeutic potential for autoimmune diseases; however, this mechanism may potentially carry target-related safety risks, as mice deficient in Rorc, the gene encoding RORγ, develop T-cell lymphoma with 50% frequency. Due to the requirement of RORγ during development, the Rorc knockout (KO) animals lack secondary lymphoid organs and have a dysregulation in the generation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We wanted to extend the evaluation of RORγ deficiency to address the question whether lymphomas, similar to those observed in the Rorc KO, would develop in an animal with an otherwise intact adult immune system. Accordingly, we designed a conditional RORγ knockout mouse (Rorc CKO) where the Rorc locus could be deleted in adult animals. Based on these studies we can confirm that these animals also develop lymphoma in a similar time frame as embryonic Rorc knockouts. This study also suggests that in animals where the gene deletion is incomplete, the thymus undergoes a rapid selection process replacing Rorc deficient cells with remnant thymocytes carrying a functional Rorc locus and that subsequently, these animals do not develop lymphoblastic lymphoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapid construction of a whole-genome transposon insertion collection for Shewanella oneidensis by Knockout Sudoku.

    PubMed

    Baym, Michael; Shaket, Lev; Anzai, Isao A; Adesina, Oluwakemi; Barstow, Buz

    2016-11-10

    Whole-genome knockout collections are invaluable for connecting gene sequence to function, yet traditionally, their construction has required an extraordinary technical effort. Here we report a method for the construction and purification of a curated whole-genome collection of single-gene transposon disruption mutants termed Knockout Sudoku. Using simple combinatorial pooling, a highly oversampled collection of mutants is condensed into a next-generation sequencing library in a single day, a 30- to 100-fold improvement over prior methods. The identities of the mutants in the collection are then solved by a probabilistic algorithm that uses internal self-consistency within the sequencing data set, followed by rapid algorithmically guided condensation to a minimal representative set of mutants, validation, and curation. Starting from a progenitor collection of 39,918 mutants, we compile a quality-controlled knockout collection of the electroactive microbe Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 containing representatives for 3,667 genes that is functionally validated by high-throughput kinetic measurements of quinone reduction.

  8. Probing short-range correlations in asymmetric nuclei with quasi-free pair knockout reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Sam; Ryckebusch, Jan; Cosyn, Wim; Waets, Andreas

    2018-02-01

    Short-range correlations (SRC) in asymmetric nuclei with an unusual neutron-to-proton ratio can be studied with quasi-free two-nucleon knockout processes following the collision between accelerated ions and a proton target. We derive an approximate factorized cross section for those SRC-driven p (A ,p‧N1N2) reactions. Our reaction model hinges on the factorization properties of SRC-driven A (e ,e‧N1N2) reactions for which strong indications are found in theory-experiment comparisons. In order to put our model to the test we compare its predictions with results of 12C (p ,p‧ pn) measurements conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and find a fair agreement. The model can also reproduce characteristic features of SRC-driven two-nucleon knockout reactions, like back-to-back emission of the correlated nucleons. We study the asymmetry dependence of nuclear SRC by providing predictions for the ratio of proton-proton to proton-neutron knockout cross sections for the carbon isotopes 9-15C thereby covering neutron excess values (N - Z) / Z between -0.5 and +0.5.

  9. Gadd45b knockout mice exhibit selective deficits in hippocampus-dependent long-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Prescott T.; Poplawski, Shane G.; Kenney, Justin W.; Hoffman, Barbara; Liebermann, Dan A.; Abel, Ted; Gould, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible β (Gadd45b) has been shown to be involved in DNA demethylation and may be important for cognitive processes. Gadd45b is abnormally expressed in subjects with autism and psychosis, two disorders associated with cognitive deficits. Furthermore, several high-throughput screens have identified Gadd45b as a candidate plasticity-related gene. However, a direct demonstration of a link between Gadd45b and memory has not been established. The current studies first determined whether expression of the Gadd45 family of genes was affected by contextual fear conditioning. Gadd45b, and to a lesser extent Gadd45g, were up-regulated in the hippocampus following contextual fear conditioning, whereas Gadd45a was not. Next, Gadd45b knockout mice were tested for contextual and cued fear conditioning. Gadd45b knockout mice exhibited a significant deficit in long-term contextual fear conditioning; however, they displayed normal levels of short-term contextual fear conditioning. No differences between Gadd45b knockout and wild-type mice were observed in cued fear conditioning. Because cued fear conditioning is hippocampus independent, while contextual fear conditioning is hippocampus dependent, the current studies suggest that Gadd45b may be important for long-term hippocampus-dependent memory storage. Therefore, Gadd45b may be a novel therapeutic target for the cognitive deficits associated with many neurodevelopmental, neurological, and psychiatric disorders. PMID:22802593

  10. Txnip ablation reduces vascular smooth muscle cell inflammation and ameliorates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Byon, Chang Hyun; Han, Tieyan; Wu, Judy; Hui, Simon T

    2015-08-01

    Inflammation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is intimately linked to atherosclerosis and other vascular inflammatory disease. Thioredoxin interacting protein (Txnip) is a key regulator of cellular sulfhydryl redox and a mediator of inflammasome activation. The goals of the present study were to examine the impact of Txnip ablation on inflammatory response to oxidative stress in VSMC and to determine the effect of Txnip ablation on atherosclerosis in vivo. Using cultured VSMC, we showed that ablation of Txnip reduced cellular oxidative stress and increased protection from oxidative stress when challenged with oxidized phospholipids and hydrogen peroxide. Correspondingly, expression of inflammatory markers and adhesion molecules were diminished in both VSMC and macrophages from Txnip knockout mice. The blunted inflammatory response was associated with a decrease in NF-ĸB nuclear translocation. Loss of Txnip in VSMC also led to a dramatic reduction in macrophage adhesion to VSMC. In vivo data from Txnip-ApoE double knockout mice showed that Txnip ablation led to 49% reduction in atherosclerotic lesion in the aortic root and 71% reduction in the abdominal aorta, compared to control ApoE knockout mice. Our data show that Txnip plays an important role in oxidative inflammatory response and atherosclerotic lesion development in mice. The atheroprotective effect of Txnip ablation implicates that modulation of Txnip expression may serve as a potential target for intervention of atherosclerosis and inflammatory vascular disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impaired fear extinction learning in adult heterozygous BDNF knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Psotta, Laura; Lessmann, Volkmar; Endres, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a crucial regulator of neuroplasticity, which underlies learning and memory processes in different brain areas. To investigate the role of BDNF in the extinction of amygdala-dependent cued fear memories, we analyzed fear extinction learning in heterozygous BDNF knock-out mice, which possess a reduction of endogenous BDNF protein levels to ~50% of wild-type animals. Since BDNF expression has been shown to decline with aging of animals, we tested the performance in extinction learning of these mice at 2 months (young adults) and 7 months (older adults) of age. The present study shows that older adult heterozygous BDNF knock-out mice, which have a chronic 50% lack of BDNF, also possess a deficit in the acquisition of extinction memory, while extinction learning remains unaffected in young adult heterozygous BDNF knock-out mice. This deficit in extinction learning is accompanied by a reduction of BDNF protein in the hippocampus, amygdala and the prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Preliminary Characterization of a Leptin Receptor Knockout Rat Created by CRISPR/Cas9 System.

    PubMed

    Bao, Dan; Ma, Yuanwu; Zhang, Xu; Guan, Feifei; Chen, Wei; Gao, Kai; Qin, Chuan; Zhang, Lianfeng

    2015-11-05

    Leptin receptor, which is encoded by the diabetes (db) gene and is highly expressed in the choroid plexus, regulatesenergy homeostasis, the balance between food intake and energy expenditure, fertility and bone mass. Here, using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, we created the leptin receptor knockout rat. Homozygous leptin receptor null rats are characterized by obesity, hyperphagia, hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia. Due to long-term poor glycemic control, the leptin receptor knockout rats also develop some diabetic complications such as pancreatic, hepatic and renal lesions. In addition, the leptin receptor knockout rats show a significant decrease in bone volume and bone mineral density of the femur compared with their wild-type littermates. Our model has rescued some deficiency of the existing rodent models, such as the transient hyperglycemia of db/db mice in the C57BL/6J genetic background and the delayed onset of glucose intolerance in the Zucker rats, and it is proven to be a useful animal model for biomedical and pharmacological research on obesity and diabetes.

  13. The effect of PDIA3 gene knockout on the mucosal immune function in IBS rats.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Zhao-Meng; Wang, Xiao-Teng; Zhang, Lu; Tao, Li-Yuan; Lv, Bin

    2015-01-01

    To observe the changes of intestinal inflammation on PDIA3 gene knockout IBS rats and its effect on immune function. 36 SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: the control group (n = 8); IBS- empty virus group (IBS-GFP, which); IBS-PDIA3 knockout group (n = 12); IBS- the control group (n = 12). After modeling, colon and ileocecal tissue pathology in each group were observed separately. Changes of immune and inflammatory markers were measured. At the same time, ultrastructural changes in each group were observed by electron microscopy. Compared with the IBS control group, inflammation was reduced significantly in IBS-PDIA3 knockout group. IgE, IL-4 and IL-9 and the level of intestinal trypsin type were decreased significantly. Furthermore, mast cell degranulation and PAR 2 receptor reduced significantly. PDIA3 may play an important role in the development of IBS by mediating through immune responses of mucosal abnormalities. However, the mechanism needs to be confirmed in further study.

  14. Avian influenza H9N2 seroprevalence among pig population and pig farm staff in Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Song; Zhou, Yufa; Zhao, Yuxin; Li, Wenbo; Song, Wengang; Miao, Zengmin

    2015-03-01

    Shandong province of China has a large number of pig farms with the semi-enclosed houses, allowing crowds of wild birds to seek food in the pig houses. As the carriers of avian influenza virus (AIV), these wild birds can easily pass the viruses to the pigs and even the occupational swine-exposed workers. However, thus far, serological investigation concerning H9N2 AIV in pig population and pig farm staff in Shandong is sparse. To better understand the prevalence of H9N2 AIV in pig population and pig farm staff in Shandong, the serum samples of pigs and occupational pig-exposed workers were collected and tested for the antibodies for H9N2 AIV by both hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and micro-neutralization (MN) assays. When using the antibody titers ≥40 as cut-off value, 106 (HI: 106/2176, 4.87%) and 84 (MN: 84/2176, 3.86%) serum samples of pigs were tested positive, respectively; 6 (HI: 6/287, 2.09%) and 4 (MN: 4/287, 1.39%) serum samples of the pig farm staff were positive, respectively; however, serum samples from the control humans were tested negative in both HI and MN assays. These findings revealed that there were H9N2 AIV infections in pig population and pig farm staff in Shandong, China. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to conduct the long-term surveillance of AIV in pig population and the pig farm staff.

  15. Prolactin family of the guinea pig, Cavia porcellus.

    PubMed

    Alam, S M Khorshed; Konno, Toshihiro; Rumi, M A Karim; Dong, Yafeng; Weiner, Carl P; Soares, Michael J

    2010-08-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a multifunctional hormone with prominent roles in regulating growth and reproduction. The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) has been extensively used in endocrine and reproduction research. Thus far, the PRL cDNA and protein have not been isolated from the guinea pig. In the present study, we used information derived from the public guinea pig genome database as a tool for identifying guinea pig PRL and PRL-related proteins. Guinea pig PRL exhibits prominent nucleotide and amino acid sequence differences when compared with PRLs of other eutherian mammals. In contrast, guinea pig GH is highly conserved. Expression of PRL and GH in the guinea pig is prominent in the anterior pituitary, similar to known expression patterns of PRL and GH for other species. Two additional guinea pig cDNAs were identified and termed PRL-related proteins (PRLRP1, PRLRP2). They exhibited a more distant relationship to PRL and their expression was restricted to the placenta. Recombinant guinea pig PRL protein was generated and shown to be biologically active in the PRL-responsive Nb2 lymphoma cell bioassay. In contrast, recombinant guinea pig PRLRP1 protein did not exhibit PRL-like bioactivity. In summary, we have developed a new set of research tools for investigating the biology of the PRL family in an important animal model, the guinea pig.

  16. Protection of Lassa Virus-Infected Guinea Pigs with Lassa-Immune Plasma of Guinea Pig, Primate, and Human Origin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    DTICCS OCT 19 1983ora o ek Viroly 12-93-102 (1963) Protection of Lassa Virus-infected Guinea Pigs With Lassa-Immune Plasma of Guinea Pig , Primate...siotrain 13 guinea pigs were infected with a lethal dose of Lassa virus and treated with various Lassa-immune plasmas obtained from guinea pigs , primates...plaque-forming units (PFU) neutralization index (LNI). All guinea pigs treated with immune plasma 6 mI/kg/treatment on days 0, 3, and 6 after virus

  17. Improving the efficiency of CHO cell line generation using glutamine synthetase gene knockout cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lianchun; Kadura, Ibrahim; Krebs, Lara E; Hatfield, Christopher C; Shaw, Margaret M; Frye, Christopher C

    2012-04-01

    Although Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, with their unique characteristics, have become a major workhorse for the manufacture of therapeutic recombinant proteins, one of the major challenges in CHO cell line generation (CLG) is how to efficiently identify those rare, high-producing clones among a large population of low- and non-productive clones. It is not unusual that several hundred individual clones need to be screened for the identification of a commercial clonal cell line with acceptable productivity and growth profile making the cell line appropriate for commercial application. This inefficiency makes the process of CLG both time consuming and laborious. Currently, there are two main CHO expression systems, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR)-based methotrexate (MTX) selection and glutamine synthetase (GS)-based methionine sulfoximine (MSX) selection, that have been in wide industrial use. Since selection of recombinant cell lines in the GS-CHO system is based on the balance between the expression of the GS gene introduced by the expression plasmid and the addition of the GS inhibitor, L-MSX, the expression of GS from the endogenous GS gene in parental CHOK1SV cells will likely interfere with the selection process. To study endogenous GS expression's potential impact on selection efficiency, GS-knockout CHOK1SV cell lines were generated using the zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) technology designed to specifically target the endogenous CHO GS gene. The high efficiency (∼2%) of bi-allelic modification on the CHO GS gene supports the unique advantages of the ZFN technology, especially in CHO cells. GS enzyme function disruption was confirmed by the observation of glutamine-dependent growth of all GS-knockout cell lines. Full evaluation of the GS-knockout cell lines in a standard industrial cell culture process was performed. Bulk culture productivity improved two- to three-fold through the use of GS-knockout cells as parent cells. The selection stringency was

  18. Experimental evidence of hepatitis A virus infection in pigs.

    PubMed

    Song, Young-Jo; Park, Woo-Jung; Park, Byung-Joo; Kwak, Sang-Woo; Kim, Yong-Hyeon; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Sang-Won; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kang, Young-Sun; Park, Choi-Kyu; Song, Jae-Young; Choi, In-Soo

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is the leading cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide, with HAV infection being restricted to humans and nonhuman primates. In this study, HAV infection status was serologically determined in domestic pigs and experimental infections of HAV were attempted to verify HAV infectivity in pigs. Antibodies specific to HAV or HAV-like agents were detected in 3.5% of serum samples collected from pigs in swine farms. When the pigs were infected intravenously with 2 × 10(5) 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 ) of HAV, shedding of the virus in feces, viremia, and seroconversion were detected. In pigs orally infected with the same quantity of HAV, viral shedding was detected only in feces. HAV genomic RNA was detected in the liver and bile of intravenously infected pigs, but only in the bile of orally infected pigs. In further experiments, pigs were intravenously infected with 6 × 10(5) TCID50 of HAV. Shedding of HAV in feces, along with viremia and seroconversion, were confirmed in infected pigs but not in sentinel pigs. HAV genomic RNA was detected in the liver, bile, spleen, lymph node, and kidney of the infected pigs. HAV antigenomic RNA was detected in the spleen of one HAV-infected pig, suggesting HAV replication in splenic cells. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed in the livers of infected pigs but not in controls. This is the first experimental evidence to demonstrate that human HAV strains can infect pigs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Chlamydia prevalence in Polish pig herds.

    PubMed

    Rypuła, K; Kumala, A; Płoneczka-Janeczko, K; Karuga-Kuźniewska, E; Dudek, K; Chorbiński, P

    2016-09-01

    Chlamydiae are frequently encountered intracellular Gram-negative bacteria. In pigs, these bacteria in combination with other pathogens contribute to the induction of a multi-aetiological syndrome. One of the major characteristics of Chlamydia spp. is their ability to cause prolonged, often subclinical infections. While the economic consequences of Chlamydia spp. infections in pig farms are not fully established, we know that reproductive disorders and other syndromes correlated with Chlamydia infection can lead to financial loss as a result of a reduction in pork production. Additionally, Chlamydia spp. presents a potential zoonotic hazard, therefore determining the prevalence of Chlamydia in pig populations is critical. In the present study 97 pig herds from Poland were involved. To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia PCR and CFT tests were used. In total 797 vaginal samples, 797 conjunctival samples, and 235 serum samples were collected and tested. The study took place from 2011 to 2014. We found Chlamydia spp. present in 71·2% of all tested farms. The percentage of animals testing positive on any given farm varied from 20% to 100%.

  20. A GWAS of teat number in pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Number of functional teats is an important trait in commercial swine production. As litter size continues to increase, the number of teats must also increase to supply nutrition to all piglets. The pig displays considerable variation for number of teats; therefore, a genome-wide association (GWA) an...

  1. Updating Taenia asiatica in humans and pigs.

    PubMed

    Galán-Puchades, M Teresa; Fuentes, Màrius V

    2016-11-01

    An epidemiological study on taeniasis and cysticercosis in northern India has recently updated the epidemiology of Taenia asiatica. Practically, all the detected cases of taeniasis were caused by T. asiatica, cited for the first time in humans in that country. The finding widens the geographical distribution of T. asiatica, a species wrongly considered an exclusive South-Eastern Asian parasite. Due to the introduction of molecular techniques in Taenia diagnosis, the species is slowly showing its true distribution. A human Taenia species with cosmopolitan hosts (the same as the other two Taenia species) but limited to a specific geographical area and not affected by globalisation would certainly be hard to believe. Regarding cysticercosis, there is a remarkable finding concerning T. asiatica pig cysticercosis, specifically the presence of the cysticercus of T. asiatica not only in the liver (its preferential infection site) but also in muscle. This is the first time that the cysticercus of T. asiatica has been found in muscle in a naturally infected pig. This fact is actually relevant since people are at a greater risk of becoming infected by T. asiatica than previously expected since the liver is no longer the only site of pig infection. The Taenia species causing Taenia saginata-like taeniasis around the world, as well as pig and human cysticercosis, should always be molecularly confirmed since T. asiatica could be involved.

  2. Novel Pestivirus Species in Pigs, Austria, 2015.

    PubMed

    Lamp, Benjamin; Schwarz, Lukas; Högler, Sandra; Riedel, Christiane; Sinn, Leonie; Rebel-Bauder, Barbara; Weissenböck, Herbert; Ladinig, Andrea; Rümenapf, Till

    2017-07-01

    A novel pestivirus species was discovered in a piglet-producing farm in Austria during virologic examinations of congenital tremor cases. The emergence of this novel pestivirus species, provisionally termed Linda virus, in domestic pigs may have implications for classical swine fever virus surveillance and porcine health management.

  3. Arrangement of Renal Arteries in Guinea Pig.

    PubMed

    Mazensky, David; Flesarova, Slavka

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe origin, localization, and variations of renal arteries in guinea pig. The study was carried out on 26 adult guinea pigs. We prepared corrosion casts of the guinea pig arterial system. Batson's corrosion casting kit no. 17 was used as the casting medium. In 57.7% of specimens, a. renalis dextra was present as a single vessel with different level of its origin from aorta abdominalis. In 38.5% of specimens, two aa. renales dextrae were present with variable origin and arrangement. The presence of three aa. renales dextrae we found in one specimen. In 76.9% of specimens, a. renalis sinistra was present as a single vessel with different level of its origin from aorta abdominalis and variable arrangement. In 23.1% of specimens, we found two aa. renales sinistrae with variable origin and arrangement. The anatomical knowledge of the renal arteries, and its variations are of extreme importance for the surgeon that approaches the retroperitoneal region in several experiments, results of which are extrapolated in human. This is the first work dealing with the description of renal arteries arrangement in guinea pig. Anat Rec, 300:556-559, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Novel Pestivirus Species in Pigs, Austria, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Lukas; Högler, Sandra; Riedel, Christiane; Sinn, Leonie; Rebel-Bauder, Barbara; Weissenböck, Herbert; Ladinig, Andrea; Rümenapf, Till

    2017-01-01

    A novel pestivirus species was discovered in a piglet-producing farm in Austria during virologic examinations of congenital tremor cases. The emergence of this novel pestivirus species, provisionally termed Linda virus, in domestic pigs may have implications for classical swine fever virus surveillance and porcine health management. PMID:28628456

  5. ECG telemetry in conscious guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Ruppert, Sabine; Vormberge, Thomas; Igl, Bernd-Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    During preclinical drug development, monitoring of the electrocardiogram (ECG) is an important part of cardiac safety assessment. To detect potential pro-arrhythmic liabilities of a drug candidate and for internal decision-making during early stage drug development an in vivo model in small animals with translatability to human cardiac function is required. Over the last years, modifications/improvements regarding animal housing, ECG electrode placement, and data evaluation have been introduced into an established model for ECG recordings using telemetry in conscious, freely moving guinea pigs. Pharmacological validation using selected reference compounds affecting different mechanisms relevant for cardiac electrophysiology (quinidine, flecainide, atenolol, dl-sotalol, dofetilide, nifedipine, moxifloxacin) was conducted and findings were compared with results obtained in telemetered Beagle dogs. Under standardized conditions, reliable ECG data with low variability allowing largely automated evaluation were obtained from the telemetered guinea pig model. The model is sensitive to compounds blocking cardiac sodium channels, hERG K(+) channels and calcium channels, and appears to be even more sensitive to β-blockers as observed in dogs at rest. QT interval correction according to Bazett and Sarma appears to be appropriate methods in conscious guinea pigs. Overall, the telemetered guinea pig is a suitable model for the conduct of early stage preclinical ECG assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. W5 - If Pigs Could Fly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Trina

    2012-10-01

    Centripetal force seems to be a challenge for students and we are typically using stoppers, string, tubes and slotted masses (that always crash to the floor). But if we use a toy that reminds them of an amusement park ride, we can get the message across and have some fun. Come and see if pigs can fly!

  7. Thyroid Hormone Receptor α- and β-Knockout Xenopus tropicalis Tadpoles Reveal Subtype-Specific Roles During Development.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Keisuke; Tazawa, Ichiro; Yaoita, Yoshio

    2018-02-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) binds TH receptor α (TRα) and β (TRβ) to induce amphibian metamorphosis. Whereas TH signaling has been well studied, functional differences between TRα and TRβ during this process have not been characterized. To understand how each TR contributes to metamorphosis, we generated TRα- and TRβ-knockout tadpoles of Xenopus tropicalis and examined developmental abnormalities, histology of the tail and intestine, and messenger RNA expression of genes encoding extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes. In TRβ-knockout tadpoles, tail regression was delayed significantly and a healthy notochord was observed even 5 days after the initiation of tail shortening (stage 62), whereas in the tails of wild-type and TRα-knockout tadpoles, the notochord disappeared after ∼1 day. The messenger RNA expression levels of genes encoding extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes (MMP2, MMP9TH, MMP13, MMP14, and FAPα) were obviously reduced in the tail tip of TRβ-knockout tadpoles, with the shortening tail. The reduction in olfactory nerve length and head narrowing by gill absorption were also affected. Hind limb growth and intestinal shortening were not compromised in TRβ-knockout tadpoles, whereas tail regression and olfactory nerve shortening appeared to proceed normally in TRα-knockout tadpoles, except for the precocious development of hind limbs. Our results demonstrated the distinct roles of TRα and TRβ in hind limb growth and tail regression, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  8. Adeno-associated virus transformation into the normal miniature pig and the normal guinea pigs cochlea via scala tympani.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xunbei; Wu, Nan; Zhang, Yue; Guo, Weiwei; Lin, Chang; Yang, Shiming

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the expression of the miniature pig cochlea after AAV1 transfect into the cochlea via round window membrane (RWM). Twenty miniature pigs are equally divided into four experimental groups. Twelve miniature pigs are equally divided into four control groups. Each pig was transfected with the AAV1 in the experimental group via RWM and each pig was transduced with the artificial perilymph in the control group. The expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) was observed at 2 weeks, 3 weeks and 4 weeks, respectively. Likewise, AAV1 was delivered into the guinea pigs cochleas using the same method, and the results were compared with that of the miniature pigs. The expression was mainly in the inner hair cells of the miniature pig. The expression of GFP began to appear at 2 weeks, reached the peak at 3 weeks. It also expressed in Hensen's cells, inner pillar cells, outer pillar cells, spiral limbus, and spiral ligament. In the meanwhile, AAV1 was delivered into guinea pig cochlea via the same method, and AAV1 was also expressed in the inner hair cells. But the expression peaked at 2 weeks, and the efficiency of the inner hair cell transfection was higher than that of the pig. AAV1 can be transformed into miniature pig cochlea via scala tympani by the RWM method efficiently.

  9. Creating genetically modified pigs by using nuclear transfer

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Liangxue; Prather, Randall S

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear transfer (NT) is a procedure by which genetically identical individuals can be created. The technology of pig somatic NT, including in vitro maturation of oocytes, isolation and treatment of donor cells, artificial activation of reconstructed oocytes, embryo culture and embryo transfer, has been intensively studied in recent years, resulting in birth of cloned pigs in many labs. While it provides an efficient method for producing transgenic pigs, more importantly, it is the only way to produce gene-targeted pigs. So far pig cloning has been successfully used to produce transgenic pigs expressing the green fluorescence protein, expand transgenic pig groups and create gene targeted pigs which are deficient of alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase. The production of pigs with genetic modification by NT is now in the transition from investigation to practical use. Although the efficiency of somatic cell NT in pig, when measured as development to term as a proportion of oocytes used, is not high, it is anticipated that the ability of making specific modifications to the swine genome will result in this technology having a large impact not only on medicine but also on agriculture. PMID:14613542

  10. Tests of cryogenic pigs for use in liquefied gas pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hipple, D. L.; Oneal, W. C.

    1982-09-01

    Pipeline pigs are a key element in the design of a proposed spill test facility whose purpose is to evaluate the hazards of large spills of liquefied gaseous fuels (LGFs). A long pipe runs from the LGF storage tanks to the spill point; to produce a rapid spill, the pipe is filled with LGF and a pig will be pneumatically driven through the pipe to force out the LGF quickly and cleanly. Several pig designs were tested in a 6 inch diameter, 420 foot long pipe to evaluate their performance at liquid-nitrogen temperature and compare it with their performance at ambient temperature. For each test, the pig was placed in one end of the pipe and either water or liquid nitrogen was put into the pipe in front of the pig. Then pressurized drive gas, either nitrogen or helium, was admitted to the pipe behind the pig to push the pig and the fluid ahead of it out the exit nozzle. For some tests, the drive gas supply was shut off when the pig was part way through the pipe as a method of velocity control; in these cases, the pressurized gas trapped behind the pig continued to expand until it pushed the pig the remaining distance out of the pipe.

  11. Structure, dynamics and movement patterns of the Australian pig industry.

    PubMed

    East, I J; Davis, J; Sergeant, E S G; Garner, M G

    2014-03-01

    To assess management practices and movement patterns that could influence the establishment and spread of exotic animal diseases (EAD) in pigs in Australia. A literature review of published information and a telephone survey of 370 pig producers owning >10 pigs who were registered with the PigPass national vendor declaration scheme. The movement and marketing patterns of Australian pig producers interviewed were divided into two groups based predominantly on the size of the herd. Major pig producers maintain closed herds, use artificial insemination and market direct to abattoirs. Smaller producers continue to purchase from saleyards and market to other farms, abattoirs and through saleyards in an apparently opportunistic fashion. The role of saleyards in the Australian pig industry continues to decline, with 92% of all pigs marketed directly from farm to abattoir. This survey described movement patterns that will assist in modelling the potential spread of EAD in the Australian pig industry. Continued movement towards vertical integration and closed herds in the Australian pig industry effectively divides the industry into a number of compartments that mitigate against the widespread dissemination of disease to farms adopting these practices. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  12. Use of released pigs as sentinels for Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Graham; Whitford, Jackie; Young, Nigel

    2002-10-01

    Identifying the presence of bovine tuberculosis (TB; Mycobacterium bovis) in wildlife is crucial in guiding management aimed at eradicating the disease from New Zealand. Unfortunately, surveys of the principal wildlife host, the introduced brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), require large samples (> 95% of the population) before they can provide reasonable confidence that the disease is absent. In this study, we tested the feasibility of using a more wide-ranging species, feral pig (Sus scrofa), as an alternative sentinel capable of indicating TB presence. In January 2000, 17 pigs in four groups were released into a forested area with a low density of possums in which TB was known to be present. The pigs were radiotracked at 2 wk intervals from February to October 2000, and some of them were killed and necropsied at various intervals after release. Of the 15 pigs successfully recovered and necropsied, one killed 2 mo after release had no gross lesions typical of TB, and the only other pig killed at that time had greatly enlarged mandibular lymph nodes. The remainder were killed at longer intervals after release and all had gross lesions typical of TB. Mycobacterium bovis was isolated from all 15 pigs by mycobacterial culture. Home range sizes of pigs varied widely and increased with the length of time the pigs were in the forest, with minimum convex polygon range-size estimates averaging 10.7 km2 (range 4.7-20.3 km2) for the pigs killed after 6 mo. A 6 km radius around the kill site of each pig would have encompassed 95% of all of their previous locations at which they could have become infected. However, one pig shifted 35 km, highlighting the main limitation of using unmarked feral pigs as sentinels. This trial indicates use of resident and/or released free-ranging pigs is a feasible alternative to direct prevalence surveys of possums for detecting TB presence.

  13. Microarray analysis of retinal gene expression in Egr-1 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Schippert, Ruth; Schaeffel, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Purpose We found earlier that 42 day-old Egr-1 knockout mice had longer eyes and a more myopic refractive error compared to their wild-types. To identify genes that could be responsible for the temporarily enhanced axial eye growth, a microarray analysis was performed in knockout and wild-type mice at the postnatal ages of 30 and 42 days. Methods The retinas of homozygous and wild-type Egr-1 knockout mice (Taconic, Ry, Denmark) were prepared for RNA isolation (RNeasy Mini Kit, Qiagen) at the age of 30 or 42 days, respectively (n=12 each). Three retinas were pooled and labeled cRNA was made. The samples were hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Arrays. Hybridization signals were calculated using GC-RMA normalization. Genes were identified as differentially expressed if they showed a fold-change (FC) of at least 1.5 and a p-value <0.05. A false-discovery rate of 5% was applied. Ten genes with potential biologic relevance were examined further with semiquantitative real-time RT–PCR. Results Comparing mRNA expression levels between wild-type and homozygous Egr-1 knockout mice, we found 73 differentially expressed genes at the age of 30 days and 135 genes at the age of 42 days. Testing for differences in gene expression between the two ages (30 versus 42 days), 54 genes were differently expressed in wild-type mice and 215 genes in homozygous animals. Based on three networks proposed by Ingenuity pathway analysis software, nine differently expressed genes in the homozygous Egr-1 knockout mice were chosen for further validation by real-time RT–PCR, three genes in each network. In addition, the gene that was most prominently regulated in the knockout mice, compared to wild-type, at both 30 days and 42 days of age (protocadherin beta-9 [Pcdhb9]), was tested with real-time RT–PCR. Changes in four of the ten genes could be confirmed by real-time RT–PCR: nuclear prelamin A recognition factor (Narf), oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (Ogdh), selenium binding

  14. Microarray analysis of retinal gene expression in Egr-1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Schippert, Ruth; Schaeffel, Frank; Feldkaemper, Marita Pauline

    2009-12-10

    We found earlier that 42 day-old Egr-1 knockout mice had longer eyes and a more myopic refractive error compared to their wild-types. To identify genes that could be responsible for the temporarily enhanced axial eye growth, a microarray analysis was performed in knockout and wild-type mice at the postnatal ages of 30 and 42 days. The retinas of homozygous and wild-type Egr-1 knockout mice (Taconic, Ry, Denmark) were prepared for RNA isolation (RNeasy Mini Kit, Qiagen) at the age of 30 or 42 days, respectively (n=12 each). Three retinas were pooled and labeled cRNA was made. The samples were hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Arrays. Hybridization signals were calculated using GC-RMA normalization. Genes were identified as differentially expressed if they showed a fold-change (FC) of at least 1.5 and a p-value <0.05. A false-discovery rate of 5% was applied. Ten genes with potential biologic relevance were examined further with semiquantitative real-time RT-PCR. Comparing mRNA expression levels between wild-type and homozygous Egr-1 knockout mice, we found 73 differentially expressed genes at the age of 30 days and 135 genes at the age of 42 days. Testing for differences in gene expression between the two ages (30 versus 42 days), 54 genes were differently expressed in wild-type mice and 215 genes in homozygous animals. Based on three networks proposed by Ingenuity pathway analysis software, nine differently expressed genes in the homozygous Egr-1 knockout mice were chosen for further validation by real-time RT-PCR, three genes in each network. In addition, the gene that was most prominently regulated in the knockout mice, compared to wild-type, at both 30 days and 42 days of age (protocadherin beta-9 [Pcdhb9]), was tested with real-time RT-PCR. Changes in four of the ten genes could be confirmed by real-time RT-PCR: nuclear prelamin A recognition factor (Narf), oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (Ogdh), selenium binding protein 1 (Selenbp1), and Pcdhb9

  15. Generating double knockout mice to model genetic intervention for diabetic cardiomyopathy in humans.

    PubMed

    Chavali, Vishalakshi; Nandi, Shyam Sundar; Singh, Shree Ram; Mishra, Paras Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a rapidly increasing disease that enhances the chances of heart failure twofold to fourfold (as compared to age and sex matched nondiabetics) and becomes a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. There are two broad classifications of diabetes: type1 diabetes (T1D) and type2 diabetes (T2D). Several mice models mimic both T1D and T2D in humans. However, the genetic intervention to ameliorate diabetic cardiomyopathy in these mice often requires creating double knockout (DKO). In order to assess the therapeutic potential of a gene, that specific gene is either overexpressed (transgenic expression) or abrogated (knockout) in the diabetic mice. If the genetic mice model for diabetes is used, it is necessary to create DKO with transgenic/knockout of the target gene to investigate the specific role of that gene in pathological cardiac remodeling in diabetics. One of the important genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling in diabetes is matrix metalloproteinase-9 (Mmp9). Mmp9 is a collagenase that remains latent in healthy hearts but induced in diabetic hearts. Activated Mmp9 degrades extracellular matrix (ECM) and increases matrix turnover causing cardiac fibrosis that leads to heart failure. Insulin2 mutant (Ins2+/-) Akita is a genetic model for T1D that becomes diabetic spontaneously at the age of 3-4 weeks and show robust hyperglycemia at the age of 10-12 weeks. It is a chronic model of T1D. In Ins2+/- Akita, Mmp9 is induced. To investigate the specific role of Mmp9 in diabetic hearts, it is necessary to create diabetic mice where Mmp9 gene is deleted. Here, we describe the method to generate Ins2+/-/Mmp9-/- (DKO) mice to determine whether the abrogation of Mmp9 ameliorates diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  16. Cardiac-Specific Knockout of ETA Receptor Mitigates Paraquat-Induced Cardiac Contractile Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaxing; Lu, Songhe; Zheng, Qijun; Hu, Nan; Yu, Wenjun; Li, Na; Liu, Min; Gao, Beilei; Zhang, Guoyong; Zhang, Yingmei; Wang, Haichang

    2016-07-01

    Paraquat (1,1'-dim ethyl-4-4'-bipyridinium dichloride), a highly toxic quaternary ammonium herbicide widely used in agriculture, exerts potent toxic prooxidant effects resulting in multi-organ failure including the lung and heart although the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Recent evidence suggests possible involvement of endothelin system in paraquat-induced acute lung injury. This study was designed to examine the role of endothelin receptor A (ETA) in paraquat-induced cardiac contractile and mitochondrial injury. Wild-type (WT) and cardiac-specific ETA receptor knockout mice were challenged to paraquat (45 mg/kg, i.p.) for 48 h prior to the assessment of echocardiographic, cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties, as well as apoptosis and mitochondrial damage. Levels of the mitochondrial proteins for biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation including UCP2, HSP90 and PGC1α were evaluated. Our results revealed that paraquat elicited cardiac enlargement, mechanical anomalies including compromised echocardiographic parameters (elevated left ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic diameters as well as reduced factional shortening), suppressed cardiomyocyte contractile function, intracellular Ca(2+) handling, overt apoptosis and mitochondrial damage. ETA receptor knockout itself failed to affect myocardial function, apoptosis, mitochondrial integrity and mitochondrial protein expression. However, ETA receptor knockout ablated or significantly attenuated paraquat-induced cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) defect, apoptosis and mitochondrial damage. Taken together, these findings revealed that endothelin system in particular the ETA receptor may be involved in paraquat-induced toxic myocardial contractile anomalies possibly related to apoptosis and mitochondrial damage.

  17. Enhanced rhamnolipid production in Burkholderia thailandensis transposon knockout strains deficient in polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthesis.

    PubMed

    Funston, Scott J; Tsaousi, Konstantina; Smyth, Thomas J; Twigg, Matthew S; Marchant, Roger; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2017-12-01

    Microbially produced rhamnolipids have significant commercial potential; however, the main bacterial producer, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is an opportunistic human pathogen, which limits biotechnological exploitation. The non-pathogenic species Burkholderia thailandensis produces rhamnolipids; however, yield is relatively low. The aim of this study was to determine whether rhamnolipid production could be increased in Burkholderia thailandensis through mutation of genes responsible for the synthesis of the storage material polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), thereby increasing cellular resources for the production of rhamnolipids. Potential PHA target genes were identified in B. thailandensis through comparison with known function genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Multiple knockout strains for the phbA, phbB and phbC genes were obtained and their growth characteristics and rhamnolipid and PHA production determined. The wild-type strain and an rhamnolipid (RL)-deficient strain were used as controls. Three knockout strains (ΔphbA1, ΔphbB1 and ΔphbC1) with the best enhancement of rhamnolipid production were selected for detailed study. ΔphbB1 produced the highest level of purified RL (3.78 g l -1 ) compared to the wild-type strain (1.28 g l -1 ). In ΔphbB1, the proportion of mono-rhamnolipid was also increased compared to the wild-type strain. The production of PHA was reduced by at least 80% in all three phb mutant strains, although never completely eliminated. These results suggest that, in contrast to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, knockout of the PHA synthesis pathway in Burkholderia thailandensis could be used to increase rhamnolipid production. The evidence of residual PHA production in the phb mutant strains suggests B. thailandensis possesses a secondary unelucidated PHA synthesis pathway.

  18. Voluntary exercise prevents the obese and diabetic metabolic syndrome of the melanocortin-4 receptor knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Haskell-Luevano, Carrie; Schaub, Jay W; Andreasen, Amy; Haskell, Kim R; Moore, Marcus C; Koerper, Lorraine M; Rouzaud, Francois; Baker, Henry V; Millard, William J; Walter, Glenn; Litherland, S A; Xiang, Zhimin

    2009-02-01

    Exercise is a mechanism for maintenance of body weight in humans. Morbidly obese human patients have been shown to possess single nucleotide polymorphisms in the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R). MC4R knockout mice have been well characterized as a genetic model that possesses phenotypic metabolic disorders, including obesity, hyperphagia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperleptinemia, similar to those observed in humans possessing dysfunctional hMC4Rs. Using this model, we examined the effect of voluntary exercise of MC4R knockout mice that were allowed access to a running wheel for a duration of 8 wk. Physiological parameters that were measured included body weight, body composition of fat and lean mass, food consumption, body length, and blood levels of cholesterol and nonfasted glucose, insulin, and leptin. At the termination of the experiment, hypothalamic mRNA expression levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AGRP), proopiomelanocortin (POMC), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), orexin, brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), phosphatase with tensin homology (Pten), melanocortin-3 receptor (MC3R), and NPY-Y1R were determined. In addition, islet cell distribution and function in the pancreas were examined. In the exercising MC4R knockout mice, the pancreatic islet cell morphology and other physiological parameters resembled those observed in the wild-type littermate controls. Gene expression profiles identified exercise as having a significant effect on hypothalamic POMC, orexin, and MC3R levels. Genotype had a significant effect on AGRP, POMC, CART, and NPY-Y1R, with an exercise and genotype interaction effect on NPY gene expression. These data support the hypothesis that voluntary exercise can prevent the genetic predisposition of melanocortin-4 receptor-associated obesity and diabetes.

  19. Generation of beta-lactoglobulin knock-out goats using CRISPR/Cas9

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wenjun; Wan, Yongjie; Guo, Rihong; Deng, Mingtian; Deng, Kaiping; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Goat’s milk, considered a substitute for cow’s milk, has a high nutritional value. However, goat’s milk contains various allergens, predominantly β-lactoglobulin (BLG). In this study, we employed the CRISPR/Cas9 system to target the BLG locus in goat fibroblasts for sgRNA optimization and generate BLG knock-out goats through co-injection of Cas9 mRNA and small guide RNAs (sgRNAs) into goat embryos at the one-cell stage. We firstly tested sgRNA editing efficiencies in goat fibroblast cells, and approximately 8.00%–9.09% of the cells were modified in single sgRNA-guided targeting experiment. Among the kids, the genome-targeting efficiencies of single sgRNA were 12.5% (10 ng/μL sg1) and 0% (10 ng/μL sg2) and efficiencies of dual sgRNAs were 25.0% (25 ng/μL sg2+sg3 group) and 28.6% (50 ng/μL sg2+sg3 group). Relative expression of BLG in BLG knock-out goat mammary glands significantly (p < 0.01) decreased as well as other milk protein coding genes, such as CSN1S1, CSN1S2, CSN2, CSN3 and LALBA (p < 0.05). As expected, BLG protein had been abolished in the milk of the BLG knock-out goat. In addition, most of the targeted kids were chimeric (3/4), and their various body tissues were edited simultaneously. Our study thus provides a basis for optimizing the quality of goat milk, which can be applied to biomedical and agricultural research. PMID:29016691

  20. Comprehensive phenotypic analysis of knockout mice deficient in cyclin G1 and cyclin G2

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Shouichi; Ikeda, Jun-ichiro; Naito, Yoko; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Sasakura, Towa; Fukushima, Kohshiro; Nishikawa, Yukihiro; Ota, Kaori; Kato, Yorika; Wang, Mian; Torigata, Kosuke; Kasama, Takashi; Uchihashi, Toshihiro; Miura, Daisaku; Yabuta, Norikazu; Morii, Eiichi; Nojima, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin G1 (CycG1) and Cyclin G2 (CycG2) play similar roles during the DNA damage response (DDR), but their detailed roles remain elusive. To investigate their distinct roles, we generated knockout mice deficient in CycG1 (G1KO) or CycG2 (G2KO), as well as double knockout mice (DKO) deficient in both proteins. All knockouts developed normally and were fertile. Generation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from these mice revealed that G2KO MEFs, but not G1KO or DKO MEFs, were resistant to DNA damage insults caused by camptothecin and ionizing radiation (IR) and underwent cell cycle arrest. CycG2, but not CycG1, co-localized with γH2AX foci in the nucleus after γ-IR, and γH2AX-mediated DNA repair and dephosphorylation of CHK2 were delayed in G2KO MEFs. H2AX associated with CycG1, CycG2, and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), suggesting that γH2AX affects the function of PP2A via direct interaction with its B’γ subunit. Furthermore, expression of CycG2, but not CycG1, was abnormal in various cancer cell lines. Kaplan–Meier curves based on TCGA data disclosed that head and neck cancer patients with reduced CycG2 expression have poorer clinical prognoses. Taken together, our data suggest that reduced CycG2 expression could be useful as a novel prognostic marker of cancer. PMID:27982046

  1. Haloperidol inhibits the development of atherosclerotic lesions in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, Ronald J; Nahon, Joya E; Reuwer, Anne Q; Van Eck, Miranda; Hoekstra, Menno

    2015-05-01

    Antipsychotic drugs have been shown to modulate the expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a key factor in the anti-atherogenic reverse cholesterol transport process, in vitro. Here we evaluated the potential of the typical antipsychotic drug haloperidol to modulate the cholesterol efflux function of macrophages in vitro and their susceptibility to atherosclerosis in vivo. Thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages were used for in vitro studies. Hyperlipidaemic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor knockout mice were implanted with a haloperidol-containing pellet and subsequently fed a Western-type diet for 5 weeks to induce the development of atherosclerotic lesions in vivo. Haloperidol induced a 54% decrease in the mRNA expression of ABCA1 in peritoneal macrophages. This coincided with a 30% decrease in the capacity of macrophages to efflux cholesterol to apolipoprotein A1. Haloperidol treatment stimulated the expression of ABCA1 (+51%) and other genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport, that is, CYP7A1 (+98%) in livers of LDL receptor knockout mice. No change in splenic ABCA1 expression was noted. However, the average size of the atherosclerotic size was significantly smaller (-31%) in the context of a mildly more atherogenic metabolic phenotype upon haloperidol treatment. More importantly, haloperidol markedly lowered MCP-1 expression (-70%) and secretion (-28%) by peritoneal macrophages. Haloperidol treatment lowered the susceptibility of hyperlipidaemic LDL receptor knockout mice to develop atherosclerotic lesions. Our findings suggest that the beneficial effect of haloperidol on atherosclerosis susceptibility can be attributed to its ability to inhibit macrophage chemotaxis. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. Haloperidol inhibits the development of atherosclerotic lesions in LDL receptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    van der Sluis, Ronald J; Nahon, Joya E; Reuwer, Anne Q; Van Eck, Miranda; Hoekstra, Menno

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Antipsychotic drugs have been shown to modulate the expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a key factor in the anti-atherogenic reverse cholesterol transport process, in vitro. Here we evaluated the potential of the typical antipsychotic drug haloperidol to modulate the cholesterol efflux function of macrophages in vitro and their susceptibility to atherosclerosis in vivo. Experimental Approach Thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages were used for in vitro studies. Hyperlipidaemic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor knockout mice were implanted with a haloperidol-containing pellet and subsequently fed a Western-type diet for 5 weeks to induce the development of atherosclerotic lesions in vivo. Key Results Haloperidol induced a 54% decrease in the mRNA expression of ABCA1 in peritoneal macrophages. This coincided with a 30% decrease in the capacity of macrophages to efflux cholesterol to apolipoprotein A1. Haloperidol treatment stimulated the expression of ABCA1 (+51%) and other genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport, that is, CYP7A1 (+98%) in livers of LDL receptor knockout mice. No change in splenic ABCA1 expression was noted. However, the average size of the atherosclerotic size was significantly smaller (−31%) in the context of a mildly more atherogenic metabolic phenotype upon haloperidol treatment. More importantly, haloperidol markedly lowered MCP-1 expression (−70%) and secretion (−28%) by peritoneal macrophages. Conclusions and Implications Haloperidol treatment lowered the susceptibility of hyperlipidaemic LDL receptor knockout mice to develop atherosclerotic lesions. Our findings suggest that the beneficial effect of haloperidol on atherosclerosis susceptibility can be attributed to its ability to inhibit macrophage chemotaxis. PMID:25572138

  3. ANTXR2 Knock-Out Does Not Result in the Development of Hypertension in Rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Yuan, Wen; Li, Jing; Yang, Lei; Cai, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Our recent genetic study as well as robust evidences reported by previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have indicated that the single nucleotide polymorphism rs16998073, located near gene anthrax toxin receptor 2 (ANTXR2), was significantly associated with hypertension in Asians and Europeans. The aim of the present study was to determine whether ANTXR2 is the causal gene of hypertension at the 4q21 locus using an ANTXR2 knock-out model. Relative expression of ANTXR2 in Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. ANTXR2 knock-out rats were created using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing and blood pressure values were measured in ANTXR2 -/- and wild type (WT) rats by tail-cuff method and carotid arterial catheterization method. Neither the mRNA nor protein levels of ANTXR2 were significantly different between tissues from SHRs and WKYs. To create ANTXR2 -/- rats, 67 base pairs were deleted in exon 1 of ANTXR2 using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing. ANTXR2 protein decreased significantly in aortas of ANTXR2 -/- rats, suggesting sufficient efficiency of ANTXR2 knock-out in this model. However, ANTXR2 -/- rats exhibited nearly the same blood pressure as WT rats at baseline conditions as well as during Angiotensin II (400ng/kg/min) infusion or high-salt diet treatment. These findings suggest that ANTXR2 might not be associated with hypertension and thus further functional analysis is warranted to identify the causal gene at this locus. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2016. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Generation of ER{alpha}-floxed and knockout mice using the Cre/LoxP system

    SciTech Connect

    Antonson, P., E-mail: per.antonson@ki.se; Omoto, Y.; Humire, P.

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ER{alpha} floxed and knockout mice were generated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Disruption of the ER{alpha} gene results in sterility in both male and female mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ER{alpha}{sup -/-} mice have ovaries with hemorrhagic follicles and hypoplastic uterus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Female ER{alpha}{sup -/-} mice develop obesity. -- Abstract: Estrogen receptor alpha (ER{alpha}) is a nuclear receptor that regulates a range of physiological processes in response to estrogens. In order to study its biological role, we generated a floxed ER{alpha} mouse line that can be used to knock out ER{alpha} in selected tissues by using the Cre/LoxP system. In this study, we established amore » new ER{alpha} knockout mouse line by crossing the floxed ER{alpha} mice with Cre deleter mice. Here we show that genetic disruption of the ER{alpha} gene in all tissues results in sterility in both male and female mice. Histological examination of uterus and ovaries revealed a dramatically atrophic uterus and hemorrhagic cysts in the ovary. These results suggest that infertility in female mice is the result of functional defects of the reproductive tract. Moreover, female knockout mice are hyperglycemic, develop obesity and at the age of 4 months the body weight of these mice was more than 20% higher compared to wild type littermates and this difference increased over time. Our results demonstrate that ER{alpha} is necessary for reproductive tract development and has important functions as a regulator of metabolism in females.« less

  5. Object recognition impairment in Fmr1 knockout mice is reversed by amphetamine: involvement of dopamine in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Ventura, R; Pascucci, T; Catania, M V; Musumeci, S A; Puglisi-Allegra, S

    2004-09-01

    Fragile X syndrome is an X-linked form of mental retardation including, among others, symptoms such as stereotypic behaviour, hyperactivity, hyperarousal, and cognitive deficits. We hypothesized that hyperactivity and/or compromised attentional, cognitive functions may lead to impaired performance in cognitive tasks in Fmr1 knockout mice, the most widely used animal model of fragile X syndrome, and suggested that psychostimulant treatment may improve performance by acting on one or both components. Since hyperactivity and cognitive functions have been suggested to depend on striatal and prefrontal cortex dopaminergic dysfunction, we assessed whether amphetamine produced beneficial, positive effects by acting on dopaminergic corticostriatal systems. Our results show that Fmr1 knockout mice are not able to discriminate between a familiar object and a novel one in the object recognition test, thus showing a clear-cut cognitive impairment that, to date, has been difficult to demonstrate in other cognitive tasks. Amphetamine improved performance of Fmr1 knockout mice, leading to enhanced ability to discriminate novel versus familiar objects, without significantly affecting locomotor activity. In agreement with behavioural data, amphetamine produced a greater increase in dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex of Fmr1 knockout compared with the wild-type mice, while a weak striatal dopaminergic response was observed in Fmr1 knockout mice. Our data support the view that the psychostimulant ameliorates performance in Fmr1 knockout mice by improving merely cognitive functions through its action on prefrontal cortical dopamine, irrespective of its action on motor hyperactivity. These results indicate that prefrontal cortical dopamine plays a major role in cognitive impairments characterizing Fmr1 knockout mice, thus pointing to an important aetiological factor in the fragile X syndrome.

  6. Knockout of the Na,K-ATPase α2-isoform in cardiac myocytes delays pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Rindler, Tara N.; Lasko, Valerie M.; Nieman, Michelle L.; Okada, Motoi; Lorenz, John N.

    2013-01-01

    The α2-isoform of the Na,K-ATPase (α2) is the minor isoform of the Na,K-ATPase expressed in the cardiovascular system and is thought to play a critical role in the regulation of cardiovascular hemodynamics. However, the organ system/cell type expressing α2 that is required for this regulation has not been fully defined. The present study uses a heart-specific knockout of α2 to further define the tissue-specific role of α2 in the regulation of cardiovascular hemodynamics. To accomplish this, we developed a mouse model using the Cre/loxP system to generate a tissue-specific knockout of α2 in the heart using β-myosin heavy chain Cre. We have achieved a 90% knockout of α2 expression in the heart of the knockout mice. Interestingly, the heart-specific knockout mice exhibit normal basal cardiac function and systolic blood pressure, and in addition, these mice develop ACTH-induced hypertension in response to ACTH treatment similar to control mice. Surprisingly, the heart-specific knockout mice display delayed onset of cardiac dysfunction compared with control mice in response to pressure overload induced by transverse aortic constriction; however, the heart-specific knockout mice deteriorated to control levels by 9 wk post-transverse aortic constriction. These results suggest that heart expression of α2 does not play a role in the regulation of basal cardiovascular function or blood pressure; however, heart expression of α2 plays a role in the hypertrophic response to pressure overload. This study further emphasizes that the tissue localization of α2 determines its unique roles in the regulation of cardiovascular function. PMID:23436327

  7. Multiple nucleon knockout by Coulomb dissociation in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Norbury, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1988-01-01

    The Coulomb dissociation contributions to fragmentation cross sections in relativistic heavy ion collisions, where more than one nucleon is removed, are estimated using the Weizsacker-Williams method of virtual quanta. Photonuclear cross sections taken from experimental results were used to fold into target photon number spectra calculated with the Weizsacker-Williams method. Calculations for several projectile target combinations over a wide range of charge numbers, and a wide range of incident projectile energies, are reported. These results suggest that multiple nucleon knockout by the Coulomb field may be of negligible importance in galactic heavy ion studies for projectiles lighter than Fe-56.

  8. Wip1 knockout inhibits the proliferation and enhances the migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yiting; State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Key Laboratory of Farm Animal Genetic Resources and Germplasm Innovation of Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193; Liu, Lan

    2015-06-10

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), a unique population of multipotent adult progenitor cells originally found in bone marrow (BM), are extremely useful for multifunctional therapeutic approaches. However, the growth arrest and premature senescence of MSCs in vitro prevent the in-depth characterization of these cells. In addition, the regulatory factors involved in MSCs migration remain largely unknown. Given that protein phosphorylation is associated with the processes of MSCs proliferation and migration, we focused on wild-type p53-inducible phosphatase-1 (Wip1), a well-studied modulator of phosphorylation, in this study. Our results showed that Wip1 knockout significantly inhibited MSCs proliferation and induced G2-phase cell-cycle arrest bymore » reducing cyclinB1 expression. Compared with WT-MSCs, Wip1{sup −/−} MSCs displayed premature growth arrest after six passages in culture. Transwell and scratch assays revealed that Wip1{sup −/−} MSCs migrate more effectively than WT-MSCs. Moreover, the enhanced migratory response of Wip1{sup −/−} MSCs may be attributed to increases in the induction of Rac1-GTP activity, the pAKT/AKT ratio, the rearrangement of filamentous-actin (f-actin), and filopodia formation. Based on these results, we then examined the effect of treatment with a PI3K/AKT and Rac1 inhibitor, both of which impaired the migratory activity of MSCs. Therefore, we propose that the PI3K/AKT/Rac1 signaling axis mediates the Wip1 knockout-induced migration of MSCs. Our findings indicate that the principal function of Wip1 in MSCs transformation is the maintenance of proliferative capacity. Nevertheless, knocking out Wip1 increases the migratory capacity of MSCs. This dual effect of Wip1 provides the potential for purposeful routing of MSCs. - Highlights: • Wip1 knockout inhibited MSCs proliferation through reducing cyclinB1 expression. • Wip1{sup −/−} MSCs displayed premature growth arrest in vitro after six passages. • Knocking out Wip1

  9. Structure of Sn 107 studied through single-neutron knockout reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Cerizza, G.; Ayres, A.; Jones, K. L.

    2016-02-04

    The neutron-deficient nucleus Sn-107 has been studied by using the one-neutron knockout reaction. By measuring the decay gamma rays and momentum distributions of reaction residues, the spins of the ground, 5/2 +, and first-excited, 7/2 +, states of Sn-107 have been assigned by comparisons to eikonal-model reaction calculations. We also observed limits on the inclusive and exclusive cross sections and transitions due to neutron removals from below the N = 50 closed shell have been observed. New excited states up to 5.5 MeV in Sn-107 have been identified.

  10. Characterization of the Serratia marcescens SdeCDE multidrug efflux pump studied via gene knockout mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Begic, Sanela; Worobec, Elizabeth A

    2008-05-01

    Serratia marcescens is an important nosocomial agent having high antibiotic resistance. A major mechanism for S. marcescens antibiotic resistance is active efflux. To ascertain the substrate specificity of the S. marcescens SdeCDE efflux pump, we constructed pump gene deletion mutants. sdeCDE knockout strains showed no change in antibiotic susceptibility in comparison with the parental strains for any of the substrates, with the exception of novobiocin. In addition, novobiocin was the only antibiotic to be accumulated by sdeCDE-deficient strains. Based on the substrates used in our study, we conclude that SdeCDE is a Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division family pump with limited substrate specificity.

  11. Generation of Stable Knockout Mammalian Cells by TALEN-Mediated Locus-Specific Gene Editing.

    PubMed

    Mahata, Barun; Biswas, Kaushik

    2017-01-01

    Precise and targeted genome editing using Transcription Activator-Like Effector Endonucleases (TALENs) has been widely used and proven to be an extremely effective and specific knockout strategy in both cultured cells and animal models. The current chapter describes a protocol for the construction and generation of TALENs using serial and hierarchical digestion and ligation steps, and using the synthesized TALEN pairs to achieve locus-specific targeted gene editing in mammalian cell lines using a modified clonal selection strategy in an easy and cost-efficient manner.

  12. Impairments in the Initiation of Maternal Behavior in Oxytocin Receptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Megan E.; deCárdenas, Emily J.; Lee, Heon-Jin; Caldwell, Heather K.

    2014-01-01

    Oxytocin (Oxt) acting through its single receptor subtype, the Oxtr, is important for the coordination of physiology and behavior associated with parturition and maternal care. Knockout mouse models have been helpful in exploring the contributions of Oxt to maternal behavior, including total body Oxt knockout (Oxt −/−) mice, forebrain conditional Oxtr knockout (Oxtr FB/FB) mice, and total body Oxtr knockout (Oxtr −/−) mice. Since Oxtr −/− mice are unable to lactate, maternal behavior has only been examined in virgin females, or in dams within a few hours of parturition, and there have been no studies that have examined their anxiety-like and depression-like behavior following parturition. To improve our understanding of how the absence of Oxt signaling affects maternal behavior, mood and anxiety, we designed a study using Oxtr −/− mice that separated nursing behavior from other aspects of maternal care, such as licking and grooming by thelectomizing (i.e. removing the nipples) of Oxtr +/+ mice and sham-thelectomizing Oxtr −/− mice, and pairing both genotypes with a wet nurse. We then measured pup abandonment, maternal behavior, and postpartum anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors. We hypothesized that genetic disruption of the Oxtr would impact maternal care, mood and anxiety. Specifically, we predicted that Oxtr −/− dams would have impaired maternal care and increased anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors in the postpartum period. We found that Oxtr −/− dams had significantly higher levels of pup abandonment compared to controls, which is consistent with previous work in Oxtr FB/FB mice. Interestingly, Oxtr −/− dams that initiated maternal care did not differ from wildtype controls in measures of maternal behavior. We also did not find any evidence of altered anxiety-like or depressive-like behavior in the postpartum period of Oxtr −/− dams. Thus, our data suggest that Oxt lowers the threshold for the initiation of

  13. Influenza A (H5N1) Viruses from Pigs, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Nidom, Chairul A.; Takano, Ryo; Yamada, Shinya; Sakai-Tagawa, Yuko; Daulay, Syafril; Aswadi, Didi; Suzuki, Takashi; Suzuki, Yasuo; Shinya, Kyoko; Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Kiyoko; Muramoto, Yukiko

    2010-01-01

    Pigs have long been considered potential intermediate hosts in which avian influenza viruses can adapt to humans. To determine whether this potential exists for pigs in Indonesia, we conducted surveillance during 2005–2009. We found that 52 pigs in 4 provinces were infected during 2005–2007 but not 2008–2009. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses had been introduced into the pig population in Indonesia on at least 3 occasions. One isolate had acquired the ability to recognize a human-type receptor. No infected pig had influenza-like symptoms, indicating that influenza A (H5N1) viruses can replicate undetected for prolonged periods, facilitating avian virus adaptation to mammalian hosts. Our data suggest that pigs are at risk for infection during outbreaks of influenza virus A (H5N1) and can serve as intermediate hosts in which this avian virus can adapt to mammals. PMID:20875275

  14. Genetically Engineered Pig Models for Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Prather, Randall S.; Lorson, Monique; Ross, Jason W.; Whyte, Jeffrey J.; Walters, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Although pigs are used widely as models of human disease, their utility as models has been enhanced by genetic engineering. Initially, transgenes were added randomly to the genome, but with the application of homologous recombination, zinc finger nucleases, and transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) technologies, now most any genetic change that can be envisioned can be completed. To date these genetic modifications have resulted in animals that have the potential to provide new insights into human diseases for which a good animal model did not exist previously. These new animal models should provide the preclinical data for treatments that are developed for diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, cystic fibrosis, retinitis pigmentosa, spinal muscular atrophy, diabetes, and organ failure. These new models will help to uncover aspects and treatments of these diseases that were otherwise unattainable. The focus of this review is to describe genetically engineered pigs that have resulted in models of human diseases. PMID:25387017

  15. [Digestive disorders in rabbits and guinea pigs].

    PubMed

    Hollmann, P

    1992-12-01

    Numerous digestive tract diseases in pet rabbits and guinea pigs result from both an inherent physiological predisposition and from poor feeding and husbandry. A large proportion of digestive disturbances in rabbits and guinea pigs are secondary to changes in the oral cavity caused by inadequate teeth wear. The required regular trimming of the cheek teeth using a modified spatula and hollow pair of pincers is described and illustrated. The symptoms, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of a selection of digestive disorders, as commonly encountered in small animal practice, are presented. The difficulties of using antibiotics in view of the gram positive intestinal flora and possible dysbacteria, dysentery and enterotoxaemia are considered. Finally, advice on feeding and on the rearing of orphan neonates is given.

  16. Tylosin depletion from edible pig tissues.

    PubMed

    Prats, C; El Korchi, G; Francesch, R; Arboix, M; Pérez, B

    2002-12-01

    The depletion of tylosin from edible pig tissues was studied following 5 days of intramuscular (i.m.) administration of 10 mg/kg of tylosin to 16 crossbreed pigs. Animals were slaughtered at intervals after treatment and samples of muscle, kidney, liver, skin+fat, and injection site were collected and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Seven days after the completion of treatment, the concentration of tylosin in kidney, skin+fat, and at the injection site was higher than the European Union maximal residue limit (MRL) of 100 microg/kg. Tylosin residues in all tissues were below the quantification limit (50 microg/kg) at 10 and 14 days post-treatment.

  17. PIG2LIG-4FUTURE: a database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Ouahabi, A.; Martrat, B.; Lopez, J. F.; Grimalt, J. O.

    2012-04-01

    The ability to simulate the rhythm of abrupt climate changes (ACCs) will depend on the availability of high quality palæoclimate databases with sufficient temporal resolution to make relevant inferences from a human perspective. This study presents the PIG2LIG-4FUTURE database (P2L-4F db). The philosophy behind is to facilitate access to data not only for the scientific community, but also for those outside this community and, in doing so, ensure that the data are as useful as possible to help in answering a challenging key question: What is the risk of ACCs in periods similar to the present one? The P2L-4F db identifies an intra- and inter-event stratigraphy. A breakdown of the events in the PIG (present interglacial, time period from which more information is available and it is reasonably well dated) is defined in order to (2) identify ACCs in the LIG (last interglacial, much less known and dated period) for (4) better evaluation of the likelihood of sudden shifts within warm climate behaviour (i.e. next centuries, FUTURE). For this db, both the PIG and the LIG include deglaciation and interglacial states and they are referred to by means of chronostratigraphy: (i) the PIG refers to the last 19 ka years, i.e. a precessional cycle should be complete within the next 5 ka years; (ii) the LIG is the time span between 133 ka and 109 ka years, i.e. a time slot of 24 ka years, roughly a precessional cycle. The db compiles comprehensive selected palæo-data retrieved from a variety of sources (http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov, http://www.pangaea.de and others) but also instrumental data, to validate reconstructions against observations (e.g. http://data.giss.nasa.gov, http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu, etc). The records included accomplish two simple criteria: they cover the time span of interest, specifically the PIG and the LIG periods, and have sufficient time resolution to distinguish between an ACC and a gradual event. The research has focussed on three main pal

  18. [Experiences with cage combinations for guinea pigs].

    PubMed

    von Zychlinski, J

    1989-01-01

    Special cage units described in 1982 for guinea pigs have been used either as cages for small groups of breeding animals or for caging of growing animals. By using these cages the following advantages have been noted; the cage size can be adapted to number, age and body weight of the animals; aggression and panic are avoided by corners, walls and tunnels; economic use of breeding males by mating with more females.

  19. Guinea pig and chinchilla care and husbandry.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Thomas M; Brown, Cynthia J

    2004-05-01

    This article reviews breeds and coat colors of guinea pigs and chinchillas, their husbandry, care and anatomy. The unusual reproductive physiology and reproductive diseases of these animals are described. We cover nutrition, the potential for disease on poor diets, and the vocalization of hystricomorph rodents. Skills such as handling, sexing, blood collection and drug administration, including antibiotic toxicity are described. The conclusion lists recommended textbooks, pet owner manuals, and websites.

  20. Gnotobiotic pigs-derivation and rearing.

    PubMed

    Miniats, O P; Jol, D

    1978-10-01

    The procurement, rearing, nutrition and microbiological monitoring of gnotobiotic pigs and a method for conditioning of primary, colostrum-deprived, specific pathogen free pigs is described. As compared to the established hysterectomy and closed hysterotomy methods for the derivation of gnotobiotic piglets an alternative approach, open caesarian section with the sow maintained under general halothane-nitrous oxide anaesthesia and the introduction of each fetus into the sterile isolator via a liquid germicidal trap, was found to be more efficient and equally successful in providing viable and microbiologically sterile piglets. Two sterile commercially available milk diets, a special formula for orphan animals and condensed cow's milk, when the latter was supplemented with injectable vitamin E, selenium and iron, proved adequate for satisfactory health of the animals. Two types of pelleted starter rations, sterilized by 4.5 megarads of gamma irradiation, provided adequately for the nutritional needs of older gnotobiotic pigs. Results of microbiological monitoring indicated that the surgical and rearing methods employed were capable of preventing contamination of the animals with bacteria, mycoplasma, yeasts, molds, protozoa and helminths but probably could not exclude occasional vertically transmitted viral infections. Exposure of the animals for four weeks to selected strains of lactobacilli, fecal streptococci and Escherichia coli did not result in visible disease while they were maintained in isolators and conditioned them for transfer into a conventional microbial environment.

  1. Behavioural genetic differences between Chinese and European pigs.

    PubMed

    Chu, Qingpo; Liang, Tingting; Fu, Lingling; Li, Huizhi; Zhou, Bo

    2017-09-01

    Aggression is a heritable trait and genetically related to neurotransmitter-related genes. Behavioural characteristics of some pig breeds are different. To compare the genetic differences between breeds, backtest and aggressive behaviour assessments, and genotyped using Sequenom iPLEX platform were performed in 50 Chinese indigenous Mi pigs and 100 landrace-large white (LLW) cross pigs with 32 SNPs localized in 11 neurotransmitter-related genes. The genetic polymorphisms of 26 SNPs had notable differences (P < 0.05) between Mi and LLW. The most frequent haplotypes were different in DBH, HTR2A, GAD1, HTR2B,MAOA and MAOB genes between Mi and LLW. The mean of backtest scores was significantly lower (P < 0.001) for Mi than LLW pigs. Skin lesion scores were greater (P < 0.01) in LLW pigs than Mi pigs. In this study, we have confirmed that Chinese Mi pigs are less active and less aggressive than European LLW pigs, and the genetic polymorphisms of neurotransmitter-related genes, which have been proved previously associated with aggressive behaviour, have considerable differences between Mi and LLW pigs.

  2. Cross-Fostering Implications for Pig Mortality, Welfare and Performance.

    PubMed

    Calderón Díaz, Julia A; García Manzanilla, Edgar; Diana, Alessia; Boyle, Laura A

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to (1) identify cross-fostering (CF) practices employed on a commercial farm; (2) characterize CF pigs according to litter of origin traits, and (3) investigate the implications of CF practices on pig mortality, performance and welfare. This was an observational study whereby pigs were managed according to normal farming practice. Pigs ( n = 1,016) born within 1 week were classified as non-CF (NCF); CF during the first (CFW1) and second or third (CFW2+) weeks of lactation. Pigs were individually weighed and inspected for the presence of tail (TL), ear (EL) and body lesions (BL) at weaning (7.03 ± 1.61 kg) and at the end of the first (12.9 ± 3.03 kg) and second (31.9 ± 5.50 kg) weaner and grower (66.3 ± 9.12 kg) stages. Mortality was recorded through to slaughter (c. 115 kg). At slaughter, TL were scored and carcass characteristics, presence of pleurisy, enzootic pneumonia, pericarditis and heart condemnations were recorded. 40.8% of CF pigs were CFW1; ANOVA tests revealed these were born to sows with a higher number of piglets born alive than NCF pigs (14.6 ± 2.61 and 12.8 ± 2.68, respectively). The remaining 59.2% of CF pigs were CFW2+; these were, on average, 0.14 kg lighter at birth than NCF pigs. Therefore, a nested case control design was retrospectively applied whereby pigs with complete records to slaughter, were matched for these variables to investigate associations between CF weeks, welfare and performance traits. Growth performance did not differ between CF week ( P > 0.05); however, CFW2+ carcasses were 4.9 kg lighter ( P < 0.05) compared with NCF and CFW1 pigs. EL were more likely in CFW1 compared to NCF and CFW2+ ( P < 0.05) pigs. To investigate the effect of CF week on the risk of mortality, all 1,016 pigs were used. CF pigs were at higher risk of death ( P < 0.05) with similar odds in CFW1 and CFW2+ pigs compared with NCF pigs, although other underlying factors could contribute to this result. Performance and health traits

  3. The role of genetically engineered pigs in xenotransplantation research.

    PubMed

    Cooper, David K C; Ekser, Burcin; Ramsoondar, Jagdeece; Phelps, Carol; Ayares, David

    2016-01-01

    There is a critical shortage in the number of deceased human organs that become available for the purposes of clinical transplantation. This problem might be resolved by the transplantation of organs from pigs genetically engineered to protect them from the human immune response. The pathobiological barriers to successful pig organ transplantation in primates include activation of the innate and adaptive immune systems, coagulation dysregulation and inflammation. Genetic engineering of the pig as an organ source has increased the survival of the transplanted pig heart, kidney, islet and corneal graft in non-human primates (NHPs) from minutes to months or occasionally years. Genetic engineering may also contribute to any physiological barriers that might be identified, as well as to reducing the risks of transfer of a potentially infectious micro-organism with the organ. There are now an estimated 40 or more genetic alterations that have been carried out in pigs, with some pigs expressing five or six manipulations. With the new technology now available, it will become increasingly common for a pig to express even more genetic manipulations, and these could be tested in the pig-to-NHP models to assess their efficacy and benefit. It is therefore likely that clinical trials of pig kidney, heart and islet transplantation will become feasible in the near future. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Whole-genome resequencing reveals candidate mutations for pig prolificacy.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Ting; Zhang, Meng-Meng; Li, Qi-Gang; Tang, Hui; Zhang, Li-Fan; Wang, Ke-Jun; Zhu, Mu-Zhen; Lu, Yun-Feng; Bao, Hai-Gang; Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Li, Qiu-Yan; Wu, Ke-Liang; Wu, Chang-Xin

    2017-12-20

    Changes in pig fertility have occurred as a result of domestication, but are not understood at the level of genetic variation. To identify variations potentially responsible for prolificacy, we sequenced the genomes of the highly prolific Taihu pig breed and four control breeds. Genes involved in embryogenesis and morphogenesis were targeted in the Taihu pig, consistent with the morphological differences observed between the Taihu pig and others during pregnancy. Additionally, excessive functional non-coding mutations have been specifically fixed or nearly fixed in the Taihu pig. We focused attention on an oestrogen response element (ERE) within the first intron of the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type-1B gene ( BMPR1B ) that overlaps with a known quantitative trait locus (QTL) for pig fecundity. Using 242 pigs from 30 different breeds, we confirmed that the genotype of the ERE was nearly fixed in the Taihu pig. ERE function was assessed by luciferase assays, examination of histological sections, chromatin immunoprecipitation, quantitative polymerase chain reactions, and western blots. The results suggest that the ERE may control pig prolificacy via the cis-regulation of BMPR1B expression. This study provides new insight into changes in reproductive performance and highlights the role of non-coding mutations in generating phenotypic diversity between breeds. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Spatial analysis and characteristics of pig farming in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Linard, Catherine; Chinson, Pornpiroon; Kasemsuwan, Suwicha; Visser, Marjolein; Gaughan, Andrea E; Epprech, Michael; Robinson, Timothy P; Gilbert, Marius

    2016-10-06

    In Thailand, pig production intensified significantly during the last decade, with many economic, epidemiological and environmental implications. Strategies toward more sustainable future developments are currently investigated, and these could be informed by a detailed assessment of the main trends in the pig sector, and on how different production systems are geographically distributed. This study had two main objectives. First, we aimed to describe the main trends and geographic patterns of pig production systems in Thailand in terms of pig type (native, breeding, and fattening pigs), farm scales (smallholder and large-scale farming systems) and type of farming systems (farrow-to-finish, nursery, and finishing systems) based on a very detailed 2010 census. Second, we aimed to study the statistical spatial association between these different types of pig farming distribution and a set of spatial variables describing access to feed and markets. Over the last decades, pig population gradually increased, with a continuously increasing number of pigs per holder, suggesting a continuing intensification of the sector. The different pig-production systems showed very contrasted geographical distributions. The spatial distribution of large-scale pig farms corresponds with that of commercial pig breeds, and spatial analysis conducted using Random Forest distribution models indicated that these were concentrated in lowland urban or peri-urban areas, close to means of transportation, facilitating supply to major markets such as provincial capitals and the Bangkok Metropolitan region. Conversely the smallholders were distributed throughout the country, with higher densities located in highland, remote, and rural areas, where they supply local rural markets. A limitation of the study was that pig farming systems were defined from the number of animals per farm, resulting in their possible misclassification, but this should have a limited impact on the main patterns revealed

  6. Replication, pathogenicity, shedding, and transmission of Zaire ebolavirus in pigs.

    PubMed

    Kobinger, Gary P; Leung, Anders; Neufeld, James; Richardson, Jason S; Falzarano, Darryl; Smith, Greg; Tierney, Kevin; Patel, Ami; Weingartl, Hana M

    2011-07-15

    (See the editorial commentary by Bausch, on pages 179-81.) Reston ebolavirus was recently detected in pigs in the Philippines. Specific antibodies were found in pig farmers, indicating exposure to the virus. This important observation raises the possibility that pigs may be susceptible to Ebola virus infection, including from other species, such as Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV), and can transmit to other susceptible hosts. This study investigated whether ZEBOV, a species commonly reemerging in central Africa, can replicate and induce disease in pigs and can be transmitted to naive animals. Domesticated Landrace pigs were challenged through mucosal exposure with a total of 1 ×10(6) plaque-forming units of ZEBOV and monitored for virus replication, shedding, and pathogenesis. Using similar conditions, virus transmission from infected to naive animals was evaluated in a second set of pigs. Following mucosal exposure, pigs replicated ZEBOV to high titers (reaching 10(7) median tissue culture infective doses/mL), mainly in the respiratory tract, and developed severe lung pathology. Shedding from the oronasal mucosa was detected for up to 14 days after infection, and transmission was confirmed in all naive pigs cohabiting with inoculated animals. These results shed light on the susceptibility of pigs to ZEBOV infection and identify an unexpected site of virus amplification and shedding linked to transmission of infectious virus.

  7. Genetic diversity, breed composition and admixture of Kenyan domestic pigs.

    PubMed

    Mujibi, Fidalis Denis; Okoth, Edward; Cheruiyot, Evans K; Onzere, Cynthia; Bishop, Richard P; Fèvre, Eric M; Thomas, Lian; Masembe, Charles; Plastow, Graham; Rothschild, Max

    2018-01-01

    The genetic diversity of African pigs, whether domestic or wild has not been widely studied and there is very limited published information available. Available data suggests that African domestic pigs originate from different domestication centers as opposed to international commercial breeds. We evaluated two domestic pig populations in Western Kenya, in order to characterize the genetic diversity, breed composition and admixture of the pigs in an area known to be endemic for African swine fever (ASF). One of the reasons for characterizing these specific populations is the fact that a proportion of indigenous pigs have tested ASF virus (ASFv) positive but do not present with clinical symptoms of disease indicating some form of tolerance to infection. Pigs were genotyped using either the porcine SNP60 or SNP80 chip. Village pigs were sourced from Busia and Homabay counties in Kenya. Because bush pigs (Potamochoerus larvatus) and warthogs (Phacochoerus spp.) are known to be tolerant to ASFv infection (exhibiting no clinical symptoms despite infection), they were included in the study to assess whether domestic pigs have similar genomic signatures. Additionally, samples representing European wild boar and international commercial breeds were included as references, given their potential contribution to the genetic make-up of the target domestic populations. The data indicate that village pigs in Busia are a non-homogenous admixed population with significant introgression of genes from international commercial breeds. Pigs from Homabay by contrast, represent a homogenous population with a "local indigenous' composition that is distinct from the international breeds, and clusters more closely with the European wild boar than African wild pigs. Interestingly, village pigs from Busia that tested negative by PCR for ASFv genotype IX, had significantly higher local ancestry (>54%) compared to those testing positive, which contained more commercial breed gene introgression

  8. [Quantitative changes of main components of erythrocyte membranes which define architectonics of cells under pttg gene knockout].

    PubMed

    Kaniuka, O P; Filiak, Ie Z; Kulachkovs'kyĭ, O R; Osyp, Iu L; Sybirna, N O

    2014-01-01

    A pttg gene knockout affects the functional state of erythron in mice which could be associated with structural changes in the structure of erythrocyte membranes. The pttg gene knockout causes a significant modification of fatty acids composition of erythrocyte membrane lipids by reducing the content of palmitic acid and increasing of polyunsaturated fatty acids amount by 18%. Analyzing the erythrocyte surface architectonics of mice under pttg gene knockout, it was found that on the background of reduction of the functionally complete biconcave discs population one could observe an increase of the number of transformed cells at different degeneration stages. Researches have shown that in mice with a pttg gene knockout compared with a control group of animals cytoskeletal protein--beta-spectrin was reduced by 17.03%. However, there is a reduction of membrane protein band 3 by 33.04%, simultaneously the content of anion transport protein band 4.5 increases by 35.2% and protein band 4.2 by 32.1%. The lectin blot analysis has helped to reveal changes in the structure of the carbohydrate determinants of erythrocyte membrane glycoproteins under conditions of directed pttg gene inactivation, accompanied by changes in the type of communication, which joins the terminal residue in carbohydrate determinant of glycoproteins. Thus, a significant redistribution of protein and fatty acids contents in erythrocyte membranes that manifested in the increase of the deformed shape of red blood cells is observed underpttg gene knockout.

  9. A decade of pig genome sequencing: a window on pig domestication and evolution.

    PubMed

    Groenen, Martien A M

    2016-03-29

    Insight into how genomes change and adapt due to selection addresses key questions in evolutionary biology and in domestication of animals and plants by humans. In that regard, the pig and its close relatives found in Africa and Eurasia represent an excellent group of species that enables studies of the effect of both natural and human-mediated selection on the genome. The recent completion of the draft genome sequence of a domestic pig and the development of next-generation sequencing technology during the past decade have created unprecedented possibilities to address these questions in great detail. In this paper, I review recent whole-genome sequencing studies in the pig and closely-related species that provide insight into the demography, admixture and selection of these species and, in particular, how domestication and subsequent selection of Sus scrofa have shaped the genomes of these animals.

  10. Effects of Increasing Space Allowance by Removing a Pig or Gate Adjustment on Finishing Pig Growth Performance.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Corey B; Holder, Cheyenne J; Wu, Fanghou; Woodworth, Jason C; DeRouchey, Joel M; Tokach, Mike D; Goodband, Robert D; Dritz, Steve S

    2018-05-03

    A total of 256 pigs (initially 55.9 ± 4.88 kg) were used in a 71-d study to determine the effects of increasing space allowance and pig removal on pig growth performance. Pens of pigs were blocked by body weight (BW) and allotted to one of four space allowance treatments, initially with 8 pigs per pen and 8 pens per treatment. First two treatments included pens with 0.91 m2 per pig or 0.63 m2 per pig for the entire study; two additional treatments initially provided 0.63 m2 per pig, but either a gate was adjusted on d 28, 45, and 62 or the heaviest pig in the pen was removed from the pen on d 28 and 45 to provide more space and keep pigs in accordance with their predicted minimum space requirement [(m2) = 0.0336 × (BW, kg)0.67]. From d 0 to 14 (56 to 69 kg), there was no effect of stocking density observed for average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and gain:feed (G:F). From d 14 to 28 (69 to 83 kg), pigs provided 0.91 m2 had increased (P < 0.05) ADG and G:F compared with those allowed 0.63 m2. Pigs provided 0.91 m2 were marginally heavier (P = 0.081) on d 28 and had greater ADFI (P = 0.025) during d 28 to 45 than those provided 0.63 m2 or those that had the heaviest pig removed. From d 45 to 62 (98 to 116 kg), pigs provided 0.91 m2 were heavier (P < 0.01) than all others, while pigs provided 0.63 m2 had reduced ADFI compared to other treatments. From d 62 to 71 (116 to 124 kg), pigs provided 0.91 m2 and those with space adjustment treatments had greater (P < 0.05) ADG and ADFI than those provided 0.63 m2. Overall (56 to 124 kg), pigs provided 0.91 m2 had increased (P = 0.001) ADG compared with those allowed 0.63 m2 with pigs provided space adjustments intermediate. In summary, pigs with 0.91 m2 grew faster and consumed more feed than pigs restricted in space. As pigs reached the critical k value, gate adjustments and pig removals affected growth similarly. As pigs grew to the predicted space requirement and were subsequently allowed more

  11. The combinational use of CRISPR/Cas9-based gene editing and targeted toxin technology enables efficient biallelic knockout of the α-1,3-galactosyltransferase gene in porcine embryonic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Sato, Masahiro; Miyoshi, Kazuchika; Nagao, Yozo; Nishi, Yohei; Ohtsuka, Masato; Nakamura, Shingo; Sakurai, Takayuki; Watanabe, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    The recent development of the type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system has enabled genome editing of mammalian genomes including those of mice and human; however, its applicability and efficiency in the pig have not been studied in depth. Here, using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, we aimed to destroy the function of the porcine α-1,3-galactosyltransferase (α-GalT) gene (GGTA1) whose product is responsible for the synthesis of the α-Gal epitope, a causative agent for hyperacute rejection upon pig-to-human xenotransplantation. Porcine embryonic fibroblasts were transfected with a Cas9 expression vector and guide RNA specifically designed to target GGTA1. At 4 days after transfection, the cells were incubated with IB4 conjugated with saporin (IB4SAP), which eliminates α-Gal epitope-expressing cells. Therefore, the cells surviving after IB4SAP treatment would be those negative for α-Gal epitope expression, which in turn indicates the generation of GGTA1 biallelic knockout (KO) cells. Of the 1.0 × 10(6) cells transfected, 10-33 colonies survived after IB4SAP treatment, and almost all colonies (approximately 90%) were negative for staining with red fluorescence-labeled IB4. Sequencing of the mutated portion of GGTA1 revealed a frameshift of the α-GalT protein. Porcine blastocysts derived from the somatic cell nuclear transfer of these α-Gal epitope-negative cells also lacked the α-Gal epitope on their surface. These results demonstrated that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can efficiently induce the biallelic conversion of GGTA1 in the resulting somatic cells and is thus a promising tool for the creation of KO cloned piglets. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout mice exhibit placental P4 overproduction and delayed parturition

    PubMed Central

    Naruse, Mie; Ono, Ryuichi; Irie, Masahito; Nakamura, Kenji; Furuse, Tamio; Hino, Toshiaki; Oda, Kanako; Kashimura, Misho; Yamada, Ikuko; Wakana, Shigeharu; Yokoyama, Minesuke; Ishino, Fumitoshi; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    Sirh7/Ldoc1 [sushi-ichi retrotransposon homolog 7/leucine zipper, downregulated in cancer 1, also called mammalian retrotransposon-derived 7 (Mart7)] is one of the newly acquired genes from LTR retrotransposons in eutherian mammals. Interestingly, Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited abnormal placental cell differentiation/maturation, leading to an overproduction of placental progesterone (P4) and placental lactogen 1 (PL1) from trophoblast giant cells (TGCs). The placenta is an organ that is essential for mammalian viviparity and plays a major endocrinological role during pregnancy in addition to providing nutrients and oxygen to the fetus. P4 is an essential hormone in the preparation and maintenance of pregnancy and the determination of the timing of parturition in mammals; however, the biological significance of placental P4 in rodents is not properly recognized. Here, we demonstrate that mouse placentas do produce P4 in mid-gestation, coincident with a temporal reduction in ovarian P4, suggesting that it plays a role in the protection of the conceptuses specifically in this period. Pregnant Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout females also displayed delayed parturition associated with a low pup weaning rate. All these results suggest that Sirh7/Ldoc1 has undergone positive selection during eutherian evolution as a eutherian-specific acquired gene because it impacts reproductive fitness via the regulation of placental endocrine function. PMID:25468940

  13. Beta2-adrenergic activity modulates vascular tone regulation in lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Manzini, S; Pinna, C; Busnelli, M; Cinquanta, P; Rigamonti, E; Ganzetti, G S; Dellera, F; Sala, A; Calabresi, L; Franceschini, G; Parolini, C; Chiesa, G

    2015-11-01

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency is associated with hypoalphalipoproteinemia, generally a predisposing factor for premature coronary heart disease. The evidence of accelerated atherosclerosis in LCAT-deficient subjects is however controversial. In this study, the effect of LCAT deficiency on vascular tone and endothelial function was investigated in LCAT knockout mice, which reproduce the human lipoprotein phenotype. Aortas from wild-type (Lcat(wt)) and LCAT knockout (Lcat(KO)) mice exposed to noradrenaline showed reduced contractility in Lcat(KO) mice (P<0.005), whereas acetylcholine exposure showed a lower NO-dependent relaxation in Lcat(KO) mice (P<0.05). Quantitative PCR and Western blotting analyses suggested an adequate eNOS expression in Lcat(KO) mouse aortas. Real-time PCR analysis indicated increased expression of β2-adrenergic receptors vs wild-type mice. Aorta stimulation with noradrenaline in the presence of propranolol, to abolish the β-mediated relaxation, showed the same contractile response in the two mouse lines. Furthermore, propranolol pretreatment of mouse aortas exposed to L-NAME prevented the difference in responses between Lcat(wt) and Lcat(KO) mice. The results indicate that LCAT deficiency leads to increased β2-adrenergic relaxation and to a consequently decreased NO-mediated vasodilation that can be reversed to guarantee a correct vascular tone. The present study suggests that LCAT deficiency is not associated with an impaired vascular reactivity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Beta2-adrenergic activity modulates vascular tone regulation in lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Manzini, S.; Pinna, C.; Busnelli, M.; Cinquanta, P.; Rigamonti, E.; Ganzetti, G.S.; Dellera, F.; Sala, A.; Calabresi, L.; Franceschini, G.; Parolini, C.; Chiesa, G.

    2015-01-01

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency is associated with hypoalphalipoproteinemia, generally a predisposing factor for premature coronary heart disease. The evidence of accelerated atherosclerosis in LCAT-deficient subjects is however controversial. In this study, the effect of LCAT deficiency on vascular tone and endothelial function was investigated in LCAT knockout mice, which reproduce the human lipoprotein phenotype. Aortas from wild-type (Lcatwt) and LCAT knockout (LcatKO) mice exposed to noradrenaline showed reduced contractility in LcatKO mice (P < 0.005), whereas acetylcholine exposure showed a lower NO-dependent relaxation in LcatKO mice (P < 0.05). Quantitative PCR and Western blotting analyses suggested an adequate eNOS expression in LcatKO mouse aortas. Real-time PCR analysis indicated increased expression of β2-adrenergic receptors vs wild-type mice. Aorta stimulation with noradrenaline in the presence of propranolol, to abolish the β-mediated relaxation, showed the same contractile response in the two mouse lines. Furthermore, propranolol pretreatment of mouse aortas exposed to L-NAME prevented the difference in responses between Lcatwt and LcatKO mice. The results indicate that LCAT deficiency leads to increased β2-adrenergic relaxation and to a consequently decreased NO-mediated vasodilation that can be reversed to guarantee a correct vascular tone. The present study suggests that LCAT deficiency is not associated with an impaired vascular reactivity. PMID:26254103

  15. Hydrolase BioH knockout in E. coli enables efficient fatty acid methyl ester bioprocessing.

    PubMed

    Kadisch, Marvin; Schmid, Andreas; Bühler, Bruno

    2017-03-01

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) originating from plant oils are most interesting renewable feedstocks for biofuels and bio-based materials. FAMEs can also be produced and/or functionalized by engineered microbes to give access to, e.g., polymer building blocks. Yet, they are often subject to hydrolysis yielding free fatty acids, which typically are degraded by microbes. We identified BioH as the key enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of medium-chain length FAME derivatives in different E. coli K-12 strains. E. coli ΔbioH strains showed up to 22-fold reduced FAME hydrolysis rates in comparison with respective wild-type strains. Knockout strains showed, beside the expected biotin auxotrophy, unchanged growth behavior and biocatalytic activity. Thus, high specific rates (~80 U g CDW -1 ) for terminal FAME oxyfunctionalization catalyzed by a recombinant alkane monooxygenase could be combined with reduced hydrolysis. Biotransformations in process-relevant two-liquid phase systems profited from reduced fatty acid accumulation and/or reduced substrate loss via free fatty acid metabolization. The BioH knockout strategy was beneficial in all tested strains, although its effect was found to differ according to specific strain properties, such as FAME hydrolysis and FFA degradation activities. BioH or functional analogs can be found in virtually all microorganisms, making bioH deletion a broadly applicable strategy for efficient microbial bioprocessing involving FAMEs.

  16. Molecular mechanisms of liver ischemia reperfusion injury: Insights from transgenic knockout models

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Gourab; Fuller, Barry J; Davidson, Brian R

    2013-01-01

    Ischemia reperfusion injury is a major obstacle in liver resection and liver transplantation surgery. Understanding the mechanisms of liver ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) and developing strategies to counteract this injury will therefore reduce acute complications in hepatic resection and transplantation, as well as expanding the potential pool of usable donor grafts. The initial liver injury is initiated by reactive oxygen species which cause direct cellular injury and also activate a cascade of molecular mediators leading to microvascular changes, increased apoptosis and acute inflammatory changes with increased hepatocyte necrosis. Some adaptive pathways are activated during reperfusion that reduce the reperfusion injury. IRI involves a complex interplay between neutrophils, natural killer T-cells cells, CD4+ T cell subtypes, cytokines, nitric oxide synthases, haem oxygenase-1, survival kinases such as the signal transducer and activator of transcription, Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases/Akt and nuclear factor κβ pathways. Transgenic animals, particularly genetic knockout models, have become a powerful tool at elucidating mechanisms of liver ischaemia reperfusion injury and are complementary to pharmacological studies. Targeted disruption of the protein at the genetic level is more specific and maintained than pharmacological inhibitors or stimulants of the same protein. This article reviews the evidence from knockout models of liver IRI about the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying liver IRI. PMID:23555157

  17. Hydrogenated pyrene: Statistical single-carbon loss below the knockout threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Michael; Giacomozzi, Linda; Gatchell, Michael; de Ruette, Nathalie; Stockett, Mark H.; Schmidt, Henning T.; Cederquist, Henrik; Zettergren, Henning

    2016-04-01

    An ongoing discussion revolves around the question of what effect hydrogenation has on carbon backbone fragmentation in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In order to shed more light on this issue, we have measured absolute single carbon loss cross sections in collisions between native or hydrogenated pyrene cations (C16H+10+m, m = 0, 6, 16) and He as functions of center-of-mass energies down to 20 eV. Classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations give further insight into energy transfer processes and also yield m-dependent threshold energies for prompt (femtoseconds) carbon knockout. Such fast, non-statistical fragmentation processes dominate CHx-loss for native pyrene (m = 0), while much slower statistical fragmentation processes contribute significantly to single-carbon loss for the hydrogenated molecules (m = 6 and m = 16). The latter is shown by measurements of large CHx-loss cross sections far below the MD knockout thresholds for C16H+16 and C16H+26. Contribution to the "Atomic Cluster Collisions (7th International Symposium)", edited by Gerardo Delgado Barrio, Andrey Solov'Yov, Pablo Villarreal, Rita Prosmiti.

  18. A Convenient Cas9-based Conditional Knockout Strategy for Simultaneously Targeting Multiple Genes in Mouse.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiang; Du, Yinan; He, Xueyan; Huang, Xingxu; Shi, Yun S

    2017-03-31

    The most powerful way to probe protein function is to characterize the consequence of its deletion. Compared to conventional gene knockout (KO), conditional knockout (cKO) provides an advanced gene targeting strategy with which gene deletion can be performed in a spatially and temporally restricted manner. However, for most species that are amphiploid, the widely used Cre-flox conditional KO (cKO) system would need targeting loci in both alleles to be loxP flanked, which in practice, requires time and labor consuming breeding. This is considerably significant when one is dealing with multiple genes. CRISPR/Cas9 genome modulation system is advantaged in its capability in targeting multiple sites simultaneously. Here we propose a strategy that could achieve conditional KO of multiple genes in mouse with Cre recombinase dependent Cas9 expression. By transgenic construction of loxP-stop-loxP (LSL) controlled Cas9 (LSL-Cas9) together with sgRNAs targeting EGFP, we showed that the fluorescence molecule could be eliminated in a Cre-dependent manner. We further verified the efficacy of this novel strategy to target multiple sites by deleting c-Maf and MafB simultaneously in macrophages specifically. Compared to the traditional Cre-flox cKO strategy, this sgRNAs-LSL-Cas9 cKO system is simpler and faster, and would make conditional manipulation of multiple genes feasible.

  19. Characterization of a Bacillus subtilis surfactin synthetase knockout and antimicrobial activity analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongxia; Qu, Xiaoxu; Gao, Ling; Zhao, Shengming; Lu, Zhaoxin; Zhang, Chong; Bie, Xiaomei

    2016-11-10

    Gene knockout is an important approach to improve the production of antimicrobial compounds. B. subtilis PB2-LS10, derived from B. subtilis PB2-L by a surfactin synthetase (srf) genes knockout, exhibits stronger inhibitory action than its parental strain against all tested pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The antimicrobial extracts produced by B. subtilis PB2-L and B. subtilis PB2-LS10 respectively were characterized by the high-resolution LC-ESI-MS. To provide further insight into the distinct antimicrobial activities, we investigated the impact of the srf genes deletion on the growth and gene transcriptional profile of the strains. The mutant strain grew quickly and reached stationary phase 2h earlier than the wild-type. Prominent expression changes in the modified strain involved genes that were essential to metabolic pathways and processes. Genes related to amino acid transport, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and protein export were up-regulated in strain PB2-LS10. However, amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and fatty acid metabolism were repressed. Because of its excellent antimicrobial activity, strain PB2-LS10 has potential for use in food preservation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prediction of reaction knockouts to maximize succinate production by Actinobacillus succinogenes

    PubMed Central

    Nag, Ambarish; St. John, Peter C.; Crowley, Michael F.

    2018-01-01

    Succinate is a precursor of multiple commodity chemicals and bio-based succinate production is an active area of industrial bioengineering research. One of the most important microbial strains for bio-based production of succinate is the capnophilic gram-negative bacterium Actinobacillus succinogenes, which naturally produces succinate by a mixed-acid fermentative pathway. To engineer A. succinogenes to improve succinate yields during mixed acid fermentation, it is important to have a detailed understanding of the metabolic flux distribution in A. succinogenes when grown in suitable media. To this end, we have developed a detailed stoichiometric model of the A. succinogenes central metabolism that includes the biosynthetic pathways for the main components of biomass—namely glycogen, amino acids, DNA, RNA, lipids and UDP-N-Acetyl-α-D-glucosamine. We have validated our model by comparing model predictions generated via flux balance analysis with experimental results on mixed acid fermentation. Moreover, we have used the model to predict single and double reaction knockouts to maximize succinate production while maintaining growth viability. According to our model, succinate production can be maximized by knocking out either of the reactions catalyzed by the PTA (phosphate acetyltransferase) and ACK (acetyl kinase) enzymes, whereas the double knockouts of PEPCK (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) and PTA or PEPCK and ACK enzymes are the most effective in increasing succinate production. PMID:29381705

  1. Prediction of reaction knockouts to maximize succinate production by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

    PubMed

    Nag, Ambarish; St John, Peter C; Crowley, Michael F; Bomble, Yannick J

    2018-01-01

    Succinate is a precursor of multiple commodity chemicals and bio-based succinate production is an active area of industrial bioengineering research. One of the most important microbial strains for bio-based production of succinate is the capnophilic gram-negative bacterium Actinobacillus succinogenes, which naturally produces succinate by a mixed-acid fermentative pathway. To engineer A. succinogenes to improve succinate yields during mixed acid fermentation, it is important to have a detailed understanding of the metabolic flux distribution in A. succinogenes when grown in suitable media. To this end, we have developed a detailed stoichiometric model of the A. succinogenes central metabolism that includes the biosynthetic pathways for the main components of biomass-namely glycogen, amino acids, DNA, RNA, lipids and UDP-N-Acetyl-α-D-glucosamine. We have validated our model by comparing model predictions generated via flux balance analysis with experimental results on mixed acid fermentation. Moreover, we have used the model to predict single and double reaction knockouts to maximize succinate production while maintaining growth viability. According to our model, succinate production can be maximized by knocking out either of the reactions catalyzed by the PTA (phosphate acetyltransferase) and ACK (acetyl kinase) enzymes, whereas the double knockouts of PEPCK (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) and PTA or PEPCK and ACK enzymes are the most effective in increasing succinate production.

  2. Romk1 Knockout Mice Do Not Produce Bartter Phenotype but Exhibit Impaired K Excretion*

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ke; Yan, Qingshang; Lu, Ming; Wan, Laxiang; Hu, Haiyan; Guo, Junhua; Boulpaep, Emile; Wang, WenHui; Giebisch, Gerhard; Hebert, Steven C.; Wang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Romk knock-out mice show a similar phenotype to Bartter syndrome of salt wasting and dehydration due to reduced Na-K-2Cl-cotransporter activity. At least three ROMK isoforms have been identified in the kidney; however, unique functions of any of the isoforms in nephron segments are still poorly understood. We have generated a mouse deficient only in Romk1 by selective deletion of the Romk1-specific first exon using an ES cell Cre-LoxP strategy and examined the renal phenotypes, ion transporter expression, ROMK channel activity, and localization under normal and high K intake. Unlike Romk−/− mice, there was no Bartter phenotype with reduced NKCC2 activity and increased NCC expression in Romk1−/− mice. The small conductance K channel (SK) activity showed no difference of channel properties or gating in the collecting tubule between Romk1+/+ and Romk1−/− mice. High K intake increased SK channel number per patch and increased the ROMK channel intensity in the apical membrane of the collecting tubule in Romk1+/+, but such regulation by high K intake was diminished with significant hyperkalemia in Romk1−/− mice. We conclude that 1) animal knockouts of ROMK1 do not produce Bartter phenotype. 2) There is no functional linking of ROMK1 and NKCC2 in the TAL. 3) ROMK1 is critical in response to high K intake-stimulated K+ secretion in the collecting tubule. PMID:26728465

  3. Romk1 Knockout Mice Do Not Produce Bartter Phenotype but Exhibit Impaired K Excretion.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ke; Yan, Qingshang; Lu, Ming; Wan, Laxiang; Hu, Haiyan; Guo, Junhua; Boulpaep, Emile; Wang, WenHui; Giebisch, Gerhard; Hebert, Steven C; Wang, Tong

    2016-03-04

    Romk knock-out mice show a similar phenotype to Bartter syndrome of salt wasting and dehydration due to reduced Na-K-2Cl-cotransporter activity. At least three ROMK isoforms have been identified in the kidney; however, unique functions of any of the isoforms in nephron segments are still poorly understood. We have generated a mouse deficient only in Romk1 by selective deletion of the Romk1-specific first exon using an ES cell Cre-LoxP strategy and examined the renal phenotypes, ion transporter expression, ROMK channel activity, and localization under normal and high K intake. Unlike Romk(-/-) mice, there was no Bartter phenotype with reduced NKCC2 activity and increased NCC expression in Romk1(-/-) mice. The small conductance K channel (SK) activity showed no difference of channel properties or gating in the collecting tubule between Romk1(+/+) and Romk1(-/-) mice. High K intake increased SK channel number per patch and increased the ROMK channel intensity in the apical membrane of the collecting tubule in Romk1(+/+), but such regulation by high K intake was diminished with significant hyperkalemia in Romk1(-/-) mice. We conclude that 1) animal knockouts of ROMK1 do not produce Bartter phenotype. 2) There is no functional linking of ROMK1 and NKCC2 in the TAL. 3) ROMK1 is critical in response to high K intake-stimulated K(+) secretion in the collecting tubule. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Effect of KnockOut serum replacement on germ cell development of immature testis tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Cai, Chunhong; Wu, Xin; Cheng, Yanxia; Lin, Tao; Wei, Guanghui; He, Dawei

    2016-01-15

    To compare KnockOut serum replacement (KSR) and fetal bovine serum (FBS) for the development of germ cells. Testicular tissues from Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured for 4 weeks in culture media supplemented with FBS or KSR. Tissue area was measured at the beginning and end of the culturing period. Testicular histology, development of the germ cells, and the diameter of seminiferous tubules were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. After 4 weeks in culture, apoptosis and expression of the stage-specific spermatogenesis marker genes Kit, Sycp3, and Crisp1 were assayed. Tissues cultured in KSR-supplemented media were able to sustain growth and gradually increase seminiferous tubule diameter during the culture period. In addition, spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, and round spermatids were observed after 4 weeks in culture, and reverse transcription-PCR confirmed expression of the marker genes. In comparison, tissues cultured in FBS-supplemented media showed dwindling testicular organization, necrotic seminiferous tubules, and expression of Kit, but inconsistent expression of Sycp3 and Crisp1 KnockOut serum replacement outperforms FBS as a growth media supplements for culturing immature spermatogonial tissue culture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. β2-Adrenergic Receptor Knockout Mice Exhibit A Diabetic Retinopathy Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Youde; Zhang, Qiuhua; Liu, Li; Tang, Jie; Kern, Timothy S.; Steinle, Jena J.

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable evidence from our lab and others for a functional link between β-adrenergic receptor and insulin receptor signaling pathways in retina. Furthermore, we hypothesize that this link may contribute to lesions similar to diabetic retinopathy in that the loss of adrenergic input observed in diabetic retinopathy may disrupt normal anti-apoptotic insulin signaling, leading to retinal cell death. Our studies included assessment of neural retina function (ERG), vascular degeneration, and Müller glial cells (which express only β1 and β2-adrenergic receptor subtypes). In the current study, we produced β2-adrenergic receptor knockout mice to examine this deletion on retinal neurons and vasculature, and to identify specific pathways through which β2-adrenergic receptor modulates insulin signaling. As predicted from our hypothesis, β2-adrenergic receptor knockout mice display certain features similar to diabetic retinopathy. In addition, loss of β2-adrenergic input resulted in an increase in TNFα, a key inhibitor of insulin receptor signaling. Increased TNFα may be associated with insulin-dependent production of the anti-apoptotic factor, Akt. Since the effects occurred in vivo under normal glucose conditions, we postulate that aspects of the diabetic retinopathy phenotype might be triggered by loss of β2-adrenergic receptor signaling. PMID:23894672

  6. Conditional knockout of retinal determination genes in differentiating cells in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Jin, Meng; Eblimit, Aiden; Pulikkathara, Merlyn; Corr, Stuart; Chen, Rui; Mardon, Graeme

    2016-08-01

    Conditional gene knockout in postmitotic cells is a valuable technique which allows the study of gene function with spatiotemporal control. Surprisingly, in contrast to its long-term and extensive use in mouse studies, this technology is lacking in Drosophila. Here, we use a novel method for generating complete loss of eyes absent (eya) or sine oculis (so) function in postmitotic cells posterior to the morphogenetic furrow (MF). Specifically, genomic rescue constructs with flippase recognition target (FRT) sequences flanking essential exons are used to generate conditional null alleles. By removing gene function in differentiating cells, we show that eya and so are dispensable for larval photoreceptor differentiation, but are required for differentiation during pupal development. Both eya and so are necessary for photoreceptor survival and the apoptosis caused by loss of eya or so function is likely a secondary consequence of inappropriate differentiation. We also confirm their requirement for cone cell development and reveal a novel role in interommatidial bristle (IOB) formation. In addition, so is required for normal eye disc morphology. This is the first report of a knockout method to study eya and so function in postmitotic cells. This technology will open the door to a large array of new functional studies in virtually any tissue and at any stage of development or in adults. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  7. Dlgap1 knockout mice exhibit alterations of the postsynaptic density and selective reductions in sociability.

    PubMed

    Coba, M P; Ramaker, M J; Ho, E V; Thompson, S L; Komiyama, N H; Grant, S G N; Knowles, J A; Dulawa, S C

    2018-02-02

    The scaffold protein DLGAP1 is localized at the post-synaptic density (PSD) of glutamatergic neurons and is a component of supramolecular protein complexes organized by PSD95. Gain-of-function variants of DLGAP1 have been associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), while haploinsufficient variants have been linked to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia in human genetic studies. We tested male and female Dlgap1 wild type (WT), heterozygous (HT), and knockout (KO) mice in a battery of behavioral tests: open field, dig, splash, prepulse inhibition, forced swim, nest building, social approach, and sucrose preference. We also used biochemical approaches to examine the role of DLGAP1 in the organization of PSD protein complexes. Dlgap1 KO mice were most notable for disruption of protein interactions in the PSD, and deficits in sociability. Other behavioral measures were largely unaffected. Our data suggest that Dlgap1 knockout leads to PSD disruption and reduced sociability, consistent with reports of DLGAP1 haploinsufficient variants in schizophrenia and ASD.

  8. Phenotypic screening of hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 4-{gamma} receptor knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdin, Anna Karin; Surve, Vikas V.; Joensson, Marie

    2006-10-20

    Using the mouse as a model organism in pharmaceutical research presents unique advantages as its physiology in many ways resembles the human physiology, it also has a relatively short generation time, low breeding and maintenance costs, and is available in a wide variety of inbred strains. The ability to genetically modify mouse embryonic stem cells to generate mouse models that better mimic human disease is another advantage. In the present study, a comprehensive phenotypic screening protocol is applied to elucidate the phenotype of a novel mouse knockout model of hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 4-{gamma}. HNF4-{gamma} is expressed in the kidneys,more » gut, pancreas, and testis. First level of the screen is aimed at general health, morphologic appearance, normal cage behaviour, and gross neurological functions. The second level of the screen looks at metabolic characteristics and lung function. The third level of the screen investigates behaviour more in-depth and the fourth level consists of a thorough pathological characterisation, blood chemistry, haematology, and bone marrow analysis. When compared with littermate wild-type mice (HNF4-{gamma}{sup +/+}), the HNF4-{gamma} knockout (HNF4-{gamma}{sup -/-}) mice had lowered energy expenditure and locomotor activity during night time that resulted in a higher body weight despite having reduced intake of food and water. HNF4-{gamma}{sup -/-} mice were less inclined to build nest and were found to spend more time in a passive state during the forced swim test.« less

  9. Obese Neuronal PPARγ Knockout Mice Are Leptin Sensitive but Show Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Fertility.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Marina O; Sharma, Shweta; Kim, Sun; Rickert, Emily; Hsueh, Katherine; Hwang, Vicky; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Webster, Nicholas J G

    2017-01-01

    The peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is expressed in the hypothalamus in areas involved in energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism. In this study, we created a deletion of PPARγ brain-knockout (BKO) in mature neurons in female mice to investigate its involvement in metabolism and reproduction. We observed that there was no difference in age at puberty onset between female BKOs and littermate controls, but the BKOs gave smaller litters when mated and fewer oocytes when ovulated. The female BKO mice had regular cycles but showed an increase in the number of cycles with prolonged estrus. The mice also had increased luteinizing hormone (LH) levels during the LH surge and histological examination showed hemorrhagic corpora lutea. The mice were challenged with a 60% high-fat diet (HFD). Metabolically, the female BKO mice showed normal body weight, glucose and insulin tolerance, and leptin levels but were protected from obesity-induced leptin resistance. The neuronal knockout also prevented the reduction in estrous cycles due to the HFD. Examination of ovarian histology showed a decrease in the number of primary and secondary follicles in both genotypes due to the HFD, but the BKO ovaries showed an increase in the number of hemorrhagic follicles. In summary, our results show that neuronal PPARγ is required for optimal female fertility but is also involved in the adverse effects of diet-induced obesity by creating leptin resistance potentially through induction of the repressor Socs3. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society.

  10. Knockout silkworms reveal a dispensable role for juvenile hormones in holometabolous life cycle

    PubMed Central

    Daimon, Takaaki; Uchibori, Miwa; Nakao, Hajime; Sezutsu, Hideki; Shinoda, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    Insect juvenile hormones (JHs) prevent precocious metamorphosis and allow larvae to undergo multiple rounds of status quo molts. However, the roles of JHs during the embryonic and very early larval stages have not been fully understood. We generated and characterized knockout silkworms (Bombyx mori) with null mutations in JH biosynthesis or JH receptor genes using genome-editing tools. We found that embryonic growth and morphogenesis are largely independent of JHs in Bombyx and that, even in the absence of JHs or JH signaling, pupal characters are not formed in first- or second-instar larvae, and precocious metamorphosis is induced after the second instar at the earliest. We also show by mosaic analysis that a pupal specifier gene broad, which is dramatically up-regulated in the late stage of the last larval instar, is essential for pupal commitment in the epidermis. Importantly, the mRNA expression level of broad, which is thought to be repressed by JHs, remained at very low basal levels during the early larval instars of JH-deficient or JH signaling-deficient knockouts. Therefore, our study suggests that the long-accepted paradigm that JHs maintain the juvenile status throughout larval life should be revised because the larval status can be maintained by a JH-independent mechanism in very early larval instars. We propose that the lack of competence for metamorphosis during the early larval stages may result from the absence of an unidentified broad-inducing factor, i.e., a competence factor. PMID:26195792

  11. Lack of Neuropathy-Related Phenotypes in Hint1 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Seburn, Kevin L.; Morelli, Kathryn H.; Jordanova, Albena; Burgess, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in HINT1, the gene encoding histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1), cause a recessively inherited peripheral neuropathy that involves primarily motor dysfunction and is usually associated with neuromyotonia, i.e. prolonged muscle contraction resulting from hyperexcitability of the peripheral nerve. Because these mutations are hypothesized to cause loss of function, we analyzed Hint1 knockout mice for their relevance as a disease model. Mice lacking Hint1 were normal in appearance and in behavioral tests or motor performance, although they moved slower and for a smaller fraction of time than wild-type (WT) mice in an open field arena. Muscles, neuromuscular junctions, and nodes of Ranvier are anatomically normal and did not show evidence of degeneration or regeneration. Axon numbers and myelination in peripheral nerves were normal at 4 and 13 months of age. Axons were slightly smaller than those in WT mice at 4 months of age, but this did not cause a decrease in conduction velocity, and no differences in axon diameters were detected at 13 months. Using electromyography, we were unable to detect neuromyotonia, even using supra-physiological stimuli and stressors such as reduced temperature or 3,4 diaminopyridine to block potassium channels. Therefore, we conclude that Hint1 knockout mice may be useful for studying the biochemical activities of HINT1, but these mice do not provide a disease model or a means for investigating the basis of HINT1-associated neuropathy and neuromyotonia. PMID:24918641

  12. Fmr1 and Nlgn3 knockout rats: novel tools for investigating autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Shannon M; Green, Jennie R; Veeraragavan, Surabi; Yuva, Lisa; McCoy, Aaron; Wu, Yumei; Warren, Joe; Little, Lara; Ji, Diana; Cui, Xiaoxia; Weinstein, Edward; Paylor, Richard

    2014-04-01

    Animal models are critical for gaining insights into autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Despite their apparent advantages to mice for neural studies, rats have not been widely used for disorders of the human CNS, such as ASD, for the lack of convenient genome manipulation tools. Here we describe two of the first transgenic rat models for ASD, developed using zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) methodologies, and their initial behavioral assessment using a rapid juvenile test battery. A syndromic and nonsyndromic rat model for ASD were created as two separate knockout rat lines with heritable disruptions in the genes encoding Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) and Neuroligin3 (NLGN3). FMRP, a protein with numerous proposed functions including regulation of mRNA and synaptic protein synthesis, and NLGN3, a member of the neuroligin synaptic cell-adhesion protein family, have been implicated in human ASD. Juvenile subjects from both knockout rat lines exhibited abnormalities in ASD-relevant phenotypes including juvenile play, perseverative behaviors, and sensorimotor gating. These data provide important first evidence regarding the utility of rats as genetic models for investigating ASD-relevant genes.

  13. Characterization of nasal potential difference in cftr knockout and F508del-CFTR mice.

    PubMed

    Saussereau, Emilie Lyne; Roussel, Delphine; Diallo, Siradiou; Debarbieux, Laurent; Edelman, Aleksander; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Treatments designed to correct cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) defects must first be evaluated in preclinical experiments in the mouse model of cystic fibrosis (CF). Mice nasal mucosa mimics the bioelectric defect seen in humans. The use of nasal potential difference (V(TE)) to assess ionic transport is a powerful test evaluating the restoration of CFTR function. Nasal V(TE) in CF mice must be well characterized for correct interpretation. We performed V(TE) measurements in large-scale studies of two mouse models of CF--B6;129 cftr knockout and FVB F508del-CFTR--and their respective wild-type (WT) littermates. We assessed the repeatability of the test for cftr knockout mice and defined cutoff points distinguishing between WT and F508del-CFTR mice. We determined the typical V(TE) values for CF and WT mice and demonstrated the existence of residual CFTR activity in F508del-CFTR mice. We characterized intra-animal variability in B6;129 mice and defined the cutoff points for F508del-CFTR chloride secretion rescue. Hyperpolarization of more than -2.15 mV after perfusion with a low-concentration Cl(-) solution was considered to indicate a normal response. These data will make it possible to interpret changes in nasal V(TE) in mouse models of CF, in future preclinical studies.

  14. Transcriptional and phenotypic comparisons of Ppara knockout and siRNA knockdown mice

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, Angus T.; Dai, Xudong; Spencer, Andrew G.; Reppen, Tom; Menzie, Ann; Roesch, Paula L.; He, Yudong; Caguyong, Michelle J.; Bloomer, Sherri; Herweijer, Hans; Wolff, Jon A.; Hagstrom, James E.; Lewis, David L.; Linsley, Peter S.; Ulrich, Roger G.

    2006-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has great potential as a tool for studying gene function in mammals. However, the specificity and magnitude of the in vivo response to RNAi remains to be fully characterized. A molecular and phenotypic comparison of a genetic knockout mouse and the corresponding knockdown version would help clarify the utility of the RNAi approach. Here, we used hydrodynamic delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to knockdown peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (Ppara), a gene that is central to the regulation of fatty acid metabolism. We found that Ppara knockdown in the liver results in a transcript profile and metabolic phenotype that is comparable to those of Ppara−/− mice. Combining the profiles from mice treated with the PPARα agonist fenofibrate, we confirmed the specificity of the RNAi response and identified candidate genes proximal to PPARα regulation. Ppara knockdown animals developed hypoglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia, phenotypes observed in Ppara−/− mice. In contrast to Ppara−/− mice, fasting was not required to uncover these phenotypes. Together, these data validate the utility of the RNAi approach and suggest that siRNA can be used as a complement to classical knockout technology in gene function studies. PMID:16945951

  15. Dopamine transporter and vesicular monoamine transporter knockout mice : implications for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Miller, G W; Wang, Y M; Gainetdinov, R R; Caron, M G

    2001-01-01

    One of the most valuable methods for understanding the function of a particular protein is the generation of animals that have had the gene encoding for the protein of interest disrupted, commonly known as a "quo;knockout"quo; or null mutant. By incorporating a sequence of DNA (typically encoding antibiotic resistance to aid in the selection of the mutant gene) into embryonic stem cells by homologous recombination, the normal transcription of the gene is effectively blocked (Fig. 1). Since a particular protein is encoded by two copies of a gene, it is necessary to have the gene on both alleles "quo;knocked out."quo; This is performed by cross-breeding animals with one affected allele (heterozygote) to generate offspring that have inherited two mutant alleles (homozygote). This procedure has been used to generate animals lacking either the plasma membrane dopamine transporter (DAT; Fig. 2) or the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2; Fig. 3). Both DAT and VMAT2 are essential for dopamine homeostasis and are thought to participate in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (1-5). Fig. 1. Maps of the targeting vector and the mock construct. The mouse genomic fragment (clone 11) was isolated from a Stratagene 129 SvJ library by standard colony hybridization using a PCR probe from the 5' end of rat cDNA. The restriction site abbreviations are as follows: H, HindIII; N, NotI; Sc, SacI; Sn, SnaI; X, XbaI; and Xh, XhoI. The region between HindIII and SnaI on clone 11 containing the coding sequence from transmembrane domains 3 and 4 of VMAT2 was deleted and replaced with PGK-neo. The 3' fragment of clone 11 was reserved as an external probe for Southern analysis. To facilitate PCR screening of embryonic stem cell clones, a mock construct containing the SnaI/XbaI fragment and part of the Neo cassette was generated as a positive control. pPNT and pGEM4Z were used to construct knockout and mock vectors, respectively. (Reproduced with permission from ref. 1). Fig. 2. DAT and

  16. Prediction of reaction knockouts to maximize succinate production by Actinobacillus succinogenes

    DOE PAGES

    Nag, Ambarish; St. John, Peter C.; Crowley, Michael F.; ...

    2018-01-30

    Succinate is a precursor of multiple commodity chemicals and bio-based succinate production is an active area of industrial bioengineering research. One of the most important microbial strains for bio-based production of succinate is the capnophilic gram-negative bacterium Actinobacillus succinogenes, which naturally produces succinate by a mixed-acid fermentative pathway. To engineer A. succinogenes to improve succinate yields during mixed acid fermentation, it is important to have a detailed understanding of the metabolic flux distribution in A. succinogenes when grown in suitable media. To this end, we have developed a detailed stoichiometric model of the A. succinogenes central metabolism that includes themore » biosynthetic pathways for the main components of biomass - namely glycogen, amino acids, DNA, RNA, lipids and UDP-N-Acetyl-a-D-glucosamine. We have validated our model by comparing model predictions generated via flux balance analysis with experimental results on mixed acid fermentation. Moreover, we have used the model to predict single and double reaction knockouts to maximize succinate production while maintaining growth viability. According to our model, succinate production can be maximized by knocking out either of the reactions catalyzed by the PTA (phosphate acetyltransferase) and ACK (acetyl kinase) enzymes, whereas the double knockouts of PEPCK (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) and PTA or PEPCK and ACK enzymes are the most effective in increasing succinate production.« less

  17. Prediction of reaction knockouts to maximize succinate production by Actinobacillus succinogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Nag, Ambarish; St. John, Peter C.; Crowley, Michael F.

    Succinate is a precursor of multiple commodity chemicals and bio-based succinate production is an active area of industrial bioengineering research. One of the most important microbial strains for bio-based production of succinate is the capnophilic gram-negative bacterium Actinobacillus succinogenes, which naturally produces succinate by a mixed-acid fermentative pathway. To engineer A. succinogenes to improve succinate yields during mixed acid fermentation, it is important to have a detailed understanding of the metabolic flux distribution in A. succinogenes when grown in suitable media. To this end, we have developed a detailed stoichiometric model of the A. succinogenes central metabolism that includes themore » biosynthetic pathways for the main components of biomass - namely glycogen, amino acids, DNA, RNA, lipids and UDP-N-Acetyl-a-D-glucosamine. We have validated our model by comparing model predictions generated via flux balance analysis with experimental results on mixed acid fermentation. Moreover, we have used the model to predict single and double reaction knockouts to maximize succinate production while maintaining growth viability. According to our model, succinate production can be maximized by knocking out either of the reactions catalyzed by the PTA (phosphate acetyltransferase) and ACK (acetyl kinase) enzymes, whereas the double knockouts of PEPCK (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) and PTA or PEPCK and ACK enzymes are the most effective in increasing succinate production.« less

  18. A Knockout Experiment: Disciplinary Divides and Experimental Skill in Animal Behaviour Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Nicole C.

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1990s, a set of new techniques for manipulating mouse DNA allowed researchers to ‘knock out’ specific genes and observe the effects of removing them on a live mouse. In animal behaviour genetics, questions about how to deploy these techniques to study the molecular basis of behaviour became quite controversial, with a number of key methodological issues dissecting the interdisciplinary research field along disciplinary lines. This paper examines debates that took place during the 1990s between a predominately North American group of molecular biologists and animal behaviourists around how to design, conduct, and interpret behavioural knockout experiments. Drawing from and extending Harry Collins’s work on how research communities negotiate what counts as a ‘well-done experiment,’ I argue that the positions practitioners took on questions of experimental skill reflected not only the experimental traditions they were trained in but also their differing ontological and epistemological commitments. Different assumptions about the nature of gene action, eg., were tied to different positions in the knockout mouse debates on how to implement experimental controls. I conclude by showing that examining representations of skill in the context of a community’s knowledge commitments sheds light on some of the contradictory ways in which contemporary animal behaviour geneticists talk about their own laboratory work as a highly skilled endeavour that also could be mechanised, as easy to perform and yet difficult to perform well. PMID:26090739

  19. Pathogenicty and immune prophylaxis of cag pathogenicity island gene knockout homogenic mutants

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Huan-Jian; Xue, Jing; Bai, Yang; Wang, Ji-De; Zhang, Ya-Li; Zhou, Dian-Yuan

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the role of cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) in the pathogenicity and immune prophylaxis of H pylori infection. METHODS: Three pairs of H pylori including 3 strains of cagPAI positive wildtype bacteria and their cagPAI knockout homogenic mutants were utilized. H pylori binding to the gastric epithelial cells was analyzed by flow cytometry assays. Apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells induced by H pylori was determined by ELISA assay. Prophylaxis effect of the wildtype and mutant strains was compared by immunization with the sonicate of the bacteria into mice model. RESULTS: No difference was found in the apoptasis between cagPAI positive and knockout H pylori strains in respective of the ability in the binding to gastric epithelial cells as well as the induction of apoptosis. Both types of the bacteria were able to protect the mice from the infection of H pylori after immunization, with no difference between them regarding to the protection rate as well as the stimulation of the proliferation of splenocytes of the mice. CONCLUSION: The role of cagPAI in the pathogenicity and prophylaxis of H pylori infection remains to be cleared. PMID:15484302

  20. Gene targeting in mosquito cells: a demonstration of 'knockout' technology in extrachromosomal gene arrays

    PubMed Central

    Eggleston, Paul; Zhao, Yuguang

    2001-01-01

    Background Gene targeting would offer a number of advantages over current transposon-based strategies for insect transformation. These include freedom from both position effects associated with quasi-random integration and concerns over transgene instability mediated by endogenous transposases, independence from phylogenetic restrictions on transposon mobility and the ability to generate gene knockouts. Results We describe here our initial investigations of gene targeting in the mosquito. The target site was a hygromycin resistance gene, stably maintained as part of an extrachromosomal array. Using a promoter-trap strategy to enrich for targeted events, a neomycin resistance gene was integrated into the target site. This resulted in knockout of hygromycin resistance concurrent with the expression of high levels of neomycin resistance from the resident promoter. PCR amplification of the targeted site generated a product that was specific to the targeted cell line and consistent with precise integration of the neomycin resistance gene into the 5' end of the hygromycin resistance gene. Sequencing of the PCR product and Southern analysis of cellular DNA subsequently confirmed this molecular structure. Conclusions These experiments provide the first demonstration of gene targeting in mosquito tissue and show that mosquito cells possess the necessary machinery to bring about precise integration of exogenous sequences through homologous recombination. Further development of these procedures and their extension to chromosomally located targets hold much promise for the exploitation of gene targeting in a wide range of medically and economically important insect species. PMID:11513755

  1. Immune malfunction in the GPR39 zinc receptor of knockout mice: Its relationship to depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Młyniec, Katarzyna; Trojan, Ewa; Ślusarczyk, Joanna; Głombik, Katarzyna; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Skrzeszewski, Jakub; Siwek, Agata; Holst, Birgitte; Nowak, Gabriel

    2016-02-15

    Depression is a serious psychiatric disorder affecting not only the monaminergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic neurosystems, but also the immune system. Patients suffering from depression show disturbance in the immune parameters as well as increased susceptibility to infections. Zinc is well known as an anti-inflammatory agent, and its link with depression has been proved, zinc deficiency causing depression- and anxiety-like behavior with immune malfunction. It has been discovered that trace-element zinc acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system via zinc receptor GPR39. In this study we investigated whether GPR39 knockout would cause depressive-like behavior as measured by the forced swim test, and whether these changes would coexist with immune malfunction. In GPR39 knockout mice versus a wild-type control we found: i) depressive-like behavior; ii) significantly reduced thymus weight; (iii) reduced cell viability of splenocytes; iv) reduced proliferative response of splenocytes; and v) increased IL-6 production of splenocytes after ConA stimulation and decreased IL-1b and IL-6 release after LPS stimulation. The results indicate depressive-like behavior in GPR39 KO animals with an immune response similar to that observed in depressive disorder. Here for the first time we show immunological changes under GPR39-deficient conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Impairment of Hepcidin Upregulation by Lipopolysaccharide in the Interleukin-6 Knockout Mouse Brain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fa-Li; Hou, Hui-Min; Yin, Zhi-Nan; Chang, Lan; Li, Fe-Mi; Chen, Y-J; Ke, Ya; Qian, Zhong-Ming

    2017-01-01

    To find out whether the Interleukin-6 (IL-6)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway is involved in the expression of hepcidin in the mouse brain in vivo , we investigated the phosphorylation of STAT3, as well as the expression of hepcidin mRNA, ferroportin 1 (Fpn1) and ferritin light chain (Ft-L) proteins in the cortex and hippocampus of LPS-treated wild type (IL-6+/+) and IL-6 knockout (IL-6-/-) mice. We demonstrated that IL-6 knockout could significantly reduce the response of hepcidin mRNA, phospho-STAT3, Fpn1 and Ft-L protein expression to LPS treatment, in both the cortex and hippocampus of mice. Also, Stattic, an inhibitor of STAT3, significantly reduced the expression of phospho-STAT3 and hepcidin mRNA in the cortex and hippocampus of the LPS-treated wild type mice. These findings provide in vivo evidence for the involvement of the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway in the expression of hepcidin.

  3. Gene knockout of tau expression does not contribute to the pathogenesis of prion disease.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Victoria A; Klemm, Helen M; Welton, Jeremy M; Masters, Colin L; Crouch, Peter; Cappai, Roberto; Ciccotosto, Giuseppe D

    2011-11-01

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are a group of fatal and transmissible disorders affecting the central nervous system of humans and animals. The principal agent of prion disease transmission and pathogenesis is proposed to be an abnormal protease-resistant isoform of the normal cellular prion protein. The microtubule-associated protein tau is elevated in patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. To determine whether tau expression contributes to prion disease pathogenesis, tau knockout and control wild-type mice were infected with the M1000 strain of mouse-adapted human prions. Immunohistochemical analysis for total tau expression in prion-infected wild-type mice indicated tau aggregation in the cytoplasm of a subpopulation of neurons in regions associated with spongiform change. Western immunoblot analysis of brain homogenates revealed a decrease in total tau immunoreactivity and epitope-specific changes in tau phosphorylation. No significant difference in incubation period or other disease features were observed between tau knockout and wild-type mice with clinical prion disease. These results demonstrate that, in this model of prion disease, tau does not contribute to the pathogenesis of prion disease and that changes in the tau protein profile observed in mice with clinical prion disease occurs as a consequence of the prion-induced pathogenesis.

  4. Knockout silkworms reveal a dispensable role for juvenile hormones in holometabolous life cycle.

    PubMed

    Daimon, Takaaki; Uchibori, Miwa; Nakao, Hajime; Sezutsu, Hideki; Shinoda, Tetsuro

    2015-08-04

    Insect juvenile hormones (JHs) prevent precocious metamorphosis and allow larvae to undergo multiple rounds of status quo molts. However, the roles of JHs during the embryonic and very early larval stages have not been fully understood. We generated and characterized knockout silkworms (Bombyx mori) with null mutations in JH biosynthesis or JH receptor genes using genome-editing tools. We found that embryonic growth and morphogenesis are largely independent of JHs in Bombyx and that, even in the absence of JHs or JH signaling, pupal characters are not formed in first- or second-instar larvae, and precocious metamorphosis is induced after the second instar at the earliest. We also show by mosaic analysis that a pupal specifier gene broad, which is dramatically up-regulated in the late stage of the last larval instar, is essential for pupal commitment in the epidermis. Importantly, the mRNA expression level of broad, which is thought to be repressed by JHs, remained at very low basal levels during the early larval instars of JH-deficient or JH signaling-deficient knockouts. Therefore, our study suggests that the long-accepted paradigm that JHs maintain the juvenile status throughout larval life should be revised because the larval status can be maintained by a JH-independent mechanism in very early larval instars. We propose that the lack of competence for metamorphosis during the early larval stages may result from the absence of an unidentified broad-inducing factor, i.e., a competence factor.

  5. Effects of major histocompatibility complex class II knockout on mouse bone mechanical properties during development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simske, Steven J.; Bateman, Ted A.; Smith, Erin E.; Ferguson, Virginia L.; Chapes, Stephen K.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the effect of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) knockout on the development of the mouse peripheral skeleton. These C2D mice had less skeletal development at 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age compared to wild-type C57BL/6J (B6) male mice. The C2D mice had decreased femur mechanical, geometric and compositional measurements compared to wild type mice at each of these ages. C2D femur stiffness (S), peak force in 3-pt bending (Pm), and mineral mass (Min-M) were 74%, 64% and 66%, respectively, of corresponding B6 values at 8 weeks of age. Similar differences were measured at 12 weeks (for which C2D femoral S, Pm and Min-M were 71%, 72% and 73%, respectively, of corresponding B6 values) and at 16 weeks (for which C2D femoral S, Pm and Min-M were 80%, 66% and 61%, respectively, of corresponding B6 values). MHC II knockout delays the development of adult bone properties and is accompanied by lower body mass compared to wild-type controls.

  6. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine self-administration is abolished in serotonin transporter knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Trigo, José Manuel; Renoir, Thibault; Lanfumey, Laurence; Hamon, Michel; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Robledo, Patricia; Maldonado, Rafael

    2007-09-15

    The neurobiological mechanism underlying the reinforcing effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine the contribution of the serotonin transporter (SERT) in MDMA self-administration behavior by using knockout (KO) mice deficient in SERT. Knockout mice and wild-type (WT) littermates were trained to acquire intravenous self-administration of MDMA (0, .03, .06, .125, and .25 mg/kg/infusion) on a fixed ratio 1 (FR1) schedule of reinforcement. Additional groups of mice were trained to obtain food and water to rule out operant responding impairments. Microdialysis studies were performed to evaluate dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) extracellular levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC), respectively, after acute MDMA (10 mg/kg). None of the MDMA doses tested maintained intravenous self-administration in KO animals, whereas WT mice acquired responding for MDMA. Acquisition of operant responding for food and water was delayed in KO mice, but no differences between genotypes were observed on the last day of training. MDMA increased DA extracellular levels to a similar extent in the NAC of WT and KO mice. Conversely, extracellular concentrations of 5-HT in the PFC were increased following MDMA only in WT mice. These findings provide evidence for the specific involvement of SERT in MDMA reinforcing properties.

  7. A Knockout Experiment: Disciplinary Divides and Experimental Skill in Animal Behaviour Genetics.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Nicole C

    2015-07-01

    In the early 1990s, a set of new techniques for manipulating mouse DNA allowed researchers to 'knock out' specific genes and observe the effects of removing them on a live mouse. In animal behaviour genetics, questions about how to deploy these techniques to study the molecular basis of behaviour became quite controversial, with a number of key methodological issues dissecting the interdisciplinary research field along disciplinary lines. This paper examines debates that took place during the 1990s between a predominately North American group of molecular biologists and animal behaviourists around how to design, conduct, and interpret behavioural knockout experiments. Drawing from and extending Harry Collins's work on how research communities negotiate what counts as a 'well-done experiment,' I argue that the positions practitioners took on questions of experimental skill reflected not only the experimental traditions they were trained in but also their differing ontological and epistemological commitments. Different assumptions about the nature of gene action, eg., were tied to different positions in the knockout mouse debates on how to implement experimental controls. I conclude by showing that examining representations of skill in the context of a community's knowledge commitments sheds light on some of the contradictory ways in which contemporary animal behaviour geneticists talk about their own laboratory work as a highly skilled endeavour that also could be mechanised, as easy to perform and yet difficult to perform well.

  8. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knockout of NANOG and NANOGP8 decreases the malignant potential of prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Norihiko; Nimura, Keisuke; Nagano, Hiromichi; Yamaguchi, Sohei; Nonomura, Norio; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2015-09-08

    NANOG expression in prostate cancer is highly correlated with cancer stem cell characteristics and resistance to androgen deprivation. However, it is not clear whether NANOG or its pseudogenes contribute to the malignant potential of cancer. We established NANOG- and NANOGP8-knockout DU145 prostate cancer cell lines using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Knockouts of NANOG and NANOGP8 significantly attenuated malignant potential, including sphere formation, anchorage-independent growth, migration capability, and drug resistance, compared to parental DU145 cells. NANOG and NANOGP8 knockout did not inhibit in vitro cell proliferation, but in vivo tumorigenic potential decreased significantly. These phenotypes were recovered in NANOG- and NANOGP8-rescued cell lines. These results indicate that NANOG and NANOGP8 proteins are expressed in prostate cancer cell lines, and NANOG and NANOGP8 equally contribute to the high malignant potential of prostate cancer.

  9. Skeletal muscle-specific HMG-CoA reductase knockout mice exhibit rhabdomyolysis: A model for statin-induced myopathy.

    PubMed

    Osaki, Yoshinori; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Miyahara, Shoko; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Ishii, Akiko; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yatoh, Shigeru; Takahashi, Akimitsu; Yahagi, Naoya; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Sone, Hirohito; Ohashi, Ken; Ishibashi, Shun; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2015-10-23

    HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonic acid (MVA); this is the rate-limiting enzyme of the mevalonate pathway that synthesizes cholesterol. Statins, HMGCR inhibitors, are widely used as cholesterol-reducing drugs. However, statin-induced myopathy is the most adverse side effect of statins. To eludicate the mechanisms underlying statin the myotoxicity and HMGCR function in the skeletal muscle, we developed the skeletal muscle-specific HMGCR knockout mice. Knockout mice exhibited postnatal myopathy with elevated serum creatine kinase levels and necrosis. Myopathy in knockout mice was completely rescued by the oral administration of MVA. These results suggest that skeletal muscle toxicity caused by statins is dependent on the deficiencies of HMGCR enzyme activity and downstream metabolites of the mevalonate pathway in skeletal muscles rather than the liver or other organs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Energy and nutrient cycling in pig production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, Peter J.

    United States pig production is centered in Iowa and is a major influence on the economic and ecological condition of that community. A pig production system includes buildings, equipment, production of feed ingredients, feed processing, and nutrient management. Although feed is the largest single input into a pig production system, nearly 30% of the non-solar energy use of a conventional--mechanically ventilated buildings with liquid manure handling--pig production system is associated with constructing and operating the pig facility. Using bedded hoop barns for gestating sows and grow-finish pigs reduces construction resource use and construction costs of pig production systems. The hoop based systems also requires approximately 40% less non-solar energy to operate as the conventional system although hoop barn-based systems may require more feed. The total non-solar energy input associated with one 136 kg pig produced in a conventional farrow-to-finish system in Iowa and fed a typical corn-soybean meal diet that includes synthetic lysine and exogenous phytase is 967.9 MJ. Consuming the non-solar energy results in emissions of 79.8 kg CO2 equivalents. Alternatively producing the same pig in a system using bedded hoop barns for gestating sows and grow-finish pigs requires 939.8 MJ/pig and results in emission of 70.2 kg CO2 equivalents, a reduction of 3 and 12% respectively. Hoop barn-based swine production systems can be managed to use similar or less resources than conventional confinement systems. As we strive to optimally allocate non-solar energy reserves and limited resources, support for examining and improving alternative systems is warranted.

  11. Identifying factors contributing to slow growth in pigs.

    PubMed

    He, Y; Deen, J; Shurson, G C; Wang, L; Chen, C; Keisler, D H; Li, Y Z

    2016-05-01

    Pigs that grow slower than their contemporaries can cause complications for animal welfare and profitability. This study was conducted to investigate factors that may contribute to slow growth of pigs. Pigs ( = 440) farrowed by 65 sows were monitored from birth to market. Pigs were categorized as slow, average, and fast growers based on market weight adjusted to 170 d of age (slow growers were <105 kg, average growers were between 105 and 125 kg, and fast growers were >125 kg). Blood samples were collected from 48 focal pigs at 9 and 21 wk of age and analyzed for hormone and free AA concentrations. Data were analyzed using the Mixed and Logistic procedures of SAS. Slow-growing pigs accounted for 10% of pigs marketed, average growers accounted for 49% of pigs marketed, and fast growers accounted for 41% of pigs marketed. Compared with fast growers, slow growers were lighter at birth ( < 0.01), at weaning ( < 0.01), and at nursery exit ( < 0.01) and had less backfat ( < 0.01) and smaller loin muscle area ( < 0.01) at marketing at 21 wk of age. Slow growers had lower plasma concentrations of IGF-1 ( = 0.03) and insulin ( < 0.001) during the nursery period and lower concentrations of leptin ( < 0.001) and insulin ( < 0.001) during the finishing period compared with average and fast growers. Serum concentrations of several essential, nonessential, and total free AA were less for slow growers during both the nursery and finishing periods compared with average and fast growers. Gilts were more likely to become slow growers than barrows (odds ratio = 2.17, 95% confidence interval = 1.19 to 3.96, = 0.01). Litter size and parity of the pigs' dam were not associated with slow growth. These results suggest that low concentrations of IGF-1, insulin, leptin, and AA may contribute to or be associated with slow growth in pigs.

  12. Investigation of Influenza Virus Polymerase Activity in Pig Cells

    PubMed Central

    Moncorgé, Olivier; Long, Jason S.; Cauldwell, Anna V.; Zhou, Hongbo; Lycett, Samantha J.

    2013-01-01

    Reassortant influenza viruses with combinations of avian, human, and/or swine genomic segments have been detected frequently in pigs. As a consequence, pigs have been accused of being a “mixing vessel” for influenza viruses. This implies that pig cells support transcription and replication of avian influenza viruses, in contrast to human cells, in which most avian influenza virus polymerases display limited activity. Although influenza virus polymerase activity has been studied in human and avian cells for many years by use of a minigenome assay, similar investigations in pig cells have not been reported. We developed the first minigenome assay for pig cells and compared the activities of polymerases of avian or human influenza virus origin in pig, human, and avian cells. We also investigated in pig cells the consequences of some known mammalian host range determinants that enhance influenza virus polymerase activity in human cells, such as PB2 mutations E627K, D701N, G590S/Q591R, and T271A. The two typical avian influenza virus polymerases used in this study were poorly active in pig cells, similar to what is seen in human cells, and mutations that adapt the avian influenza virus polymerase for human cells also increased activity in pig cells. In contrast, a different pattern was observed in avian cells. Finally, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 polymerase activity was tested because this subtype has been reported to replicate only poorly in pigs. H5N1 polymerase was active in swine cells, suggesting that other barriers restrict these viruses from becoming endemic in pigs. PMID:23077313

  13. Changes in the expression of neurotransmitter receptors in Parkin and DJ-1 knockout mice--A quantitative multireceptor study.

    PubMed

    Cremer, J N; Amunts, K; Schleicher, A; Palomero-Gallagher, N; Piel, M; Rösch, F; Zilles, K

    2015-12-17

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a well-characterized neurological disorder with regard to its neuropathological and symptomatic appearance. At the genetic level, mutations of particular genes, e.g. Parkin and DJ-1, were found in human hereditary PD with early onset. Neurotransmitter receptors constitute decisive elements in neural signal transduction. Furthermore, since they are often altered in neurological and psychiatric diseases, receptors have been successful targets for pharmacological agents. However, the consequences of PD-associated gene mutations on the expression of transmitter receptors are largely unknown. Therefore, we studied the expression of 16 different receptor binding sites of the neurotransmitters glutamate, GABA, acetylcholine, adrenaline, serotonin, dopamine and adenosine by means of quantitative receptor autoradiography in Parkin and DJ-1 knockout mice. These knockout mice exhibit electrophysiological and behavioral deficits, but do not show the typical dopaminergic cell loss. We demonstrated differential changes of binding site densities in eleven brain regions. Most prominently, we found an up-regulation of GABA(B) and kainate receptor densities in numerous cortical areas of Parkin and DJ-1 knockout mice, as well as increased NMDA but decreased AMPA receptor densities in different brain regions of the Parkin knockout mice. The alterations of three different glutamate receptor types may indicate the potential relevance of the glutamatergic system in the pathogenesis of PD. Furthermore, the cholinergic M1, M2 and nicotinic receptors as well as the adrenergic α2 and the adenosine A(2A) receptors showed differentially increased densities in Parkin and DJ-1 knockout mice. Taken together, knockout of the PD-associated genes Parkin or DJ-1 results in differential changes of neurotransmitter receptor densities, highlighting a possible role of altered non-dopaminergic, and in particular of glutamatergic neurotransmission in PD pathogenesis. Copyright

  14. [Upregulation of P2X3 receptors in dorsal root ganglion of TRPV1 knockout female mice].

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiao; Shi, Xiao-Han; Huang, Li-Bin; Rong, Wei-Fang; Ma, Bei

    2014-08-25

    The study was aimed to investigate the changes in mechanical pain threshold in the condition of chronic inflammatory pain after transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) gene was knockout. Hind-paw intraplantar injection of complete freund's adjuvant (CFA, 20 μL) produced peripheral inflammation in wild-type and TRPV1 knockout female mice. The mechanical pain thresholds were measured during the 8 days after injection and pre-injection by using Von-Frey hair. Nine days after injection, mice were killed and the differences of expression of c-Fos and P2X3 receptor in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cord dorsal horn were examined by Western blotting between the two groups. Compared with that in wild-type mice, the mechanical pain threshold was increased significantly in TRPV1 knockout mice (P < 0.05); 3 days after CFA injection, the baseline mechanical pain threshold in the TRPV1 knockout mice group was significantly higher than that in the wild-type mice group (P < 0.05); The result of Western blotting showed that the expression of c-Fos protein both in DRG and spinal cord dorsal horn of TRPV1 knockout mice group was decreased significantly compared with that in wild-type mice group (P < 0.01, P < 0.05), while the expression of P2X3 receptor in DRG of TRPV1 knockout mice group was increased significantly compared with that in wild-type mice group (P < 0.05). Our findings indicate that TRPV1 may influence the peripheral mechanical pain threshold by mediating the expression of c-Fos protein both in DRG and spinal cord dorsal horn and changing the expression of P2X3 receptor in DRG.

  15. CRISPR/Cas9 knockout of HAS2 in rat chondrosarcoma chondrocytes demonstrates the requirement of hyaluronan for aggrecan retention

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi; Askew, Emily B.; Knudson, Cheryl B.; Knudson, Warren

    2016-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) plays an essential role in cartilage where it functions to retain aggrecan. Previous studies have suggested that aggrecan is anchored indirectly to the plasma membrane of chondrocytes via its binding to cell-associated HA. However, reagents used to test these observations such as hyaluronidase and HA oligosaccharides are short term and may have side activities that complicate interpretation. Using the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing approach, a model system was developed by generating HA-deficient chondrocyte cell lines. HA synthase-2 (Has2)-specific single guide RNA was introduced into two different variant lines of rat chondrosarcoma chondrocytes; knockout clones were isolated and characterized. Two other members of the HA synthase gene family were expressed at very low relative copy number but showed no compensatory response in the Has2 knockouts. Wild type chondrocytes of both variants exhibited large pericellular matrices or coats extending from the plasma membrane. Addition of purified aggrecan monomer expanded the size of these coats as the proteoglycan became retained within the pericellular matrix. Has2 knockout chondrocytes lost all capacity to assemble a particle-excluding pericellular matrix and more importantly, no matrices formed around the knockout cells following the addition of purified aggrecan. When grown as pellet cultures so as to generate a bioengineered neocartilage tissue, the Has2 knockout chondrocytes assumed a tightly-compacted morphology as compared to the wild type cells. When knockout chondrocytes were transduced with Adeno-ZsGreen1-mycHas2, the cell-associated pericellular matrices were restored including the capacity to bind and incorporate additional exogenous aggrecan into the matrix. These results suggest that HA is essential for aggrecan retention and maintaining cell separation during tissue formation. PMID:27094859

  16. The Expression of TALEN before Fertilization Provides a Rapid Knock-Out Phenotype in Xenopus laevis Founder Embryos.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Kei; Suzuki, Ken-Ichi T; Suzuki, Miyuki; Sakane, Yuto; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Herberg, Sarah; Simeone, Angela; Simpson, David; Jullien, Jerome; Yamamoto, Takashi; Gurdon, J B

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in genome editing using programmable nucleases have revolutionized gene targeting in various organisms. Successful gene knock-out has been shown in Xenopus, a widely used model organism, although a system enabling less mosaic knock-out in founder embryos (F0) needs to be explored in order to judge phenotypes in the F0 generation. Here, we injected modified highly active transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) mRNA to oocytes at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage, followed by in vitro maturation and intracytoplasmic sperm injection, to achieve a full knock-out in F0 embryos. Unlike conventional injection methods to fertilized embryos, the injection of TALEN mRNA into GV oocytes allows expression of nucleases before fertilization, enabling them to work from an earlier stage. Using this procedure, most of developed embryos showed full knock-out phenotypes of the pigmentation gene tyrosinase and/or embryonic lethal gene pax6 in the founder generation. In addition, our method permitted a large 1 kb deletion. Thus, we describe nearly complete gene knock-out phenotypes in Xenopus laevis F0 embryos. The presented method will help to accelerate the production of knock-out frogs since we can bypass an extra generation of about 1 year in Xenopus laevis. Meantime, our method provides a unique opportunity to rapidly test the developmental effects of disrupting those genes that do not permit growth to an adult able to reproduce. In addition, the protocol shown here is considerably less invasive than the previously used host transfer since our protocol does not require surgery. The experimental scheme presented is potentially applicable to other organisms such as mammals and fish to resolve common issues of mosaicism in founders.

  17. Gap Junctional Coupling in Lenses from α8 Connexin Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Baldo, George J.; Gong, Xiaohua; Martinez-Wittinghan, Francisco J.; Kumar, Nalin M.; Gilula, Norton B.; Mathias, Richard T.

    2001-01-01

    Lens fiber cell gap junctions contain α3 (Cx46) and α8 (Cx50) connexins. To examine the roles of the two different connexins in lens physiology, we have genetically engineered mice lacking either α3 or α8 connexin. Intracellular impedance studies of these lenses were used to measure junctional conductance and its sensitivity to intracellular pH. In Gong et al. 1998, we described results from α3 connexin knockout lenses. Here, we present original data from α8 connexin knockout lenses and a comparison with the previous results. The lens has two functionally distinct domains of fiber cell coupling. In wild-type mouse lenses, the outer shell of differentiating fibers (see 1, DF) has an average coupling conductance per area of cell–cell contact of ∼1 S/cm2, which falls to near zero when the cytoplasm is acidified. In the inner core of mature fibers (see 1, MF), the average coupling conductance is ∼0.4 S/cm2, and is insensitive to acidification of the cytoplasm. Both connexin isoforms appear to contribute about equally in the DF since the coupling conductance for either heterozygous knockout (+/−) was ∼70% of normal and 30–40% of the normal for both −/− lenses. However, their contribution to the MF was different. About 50% of the normal coupling conductance was found in the MF of α3 +/− lenses. In contrast, the coupling of MF in the α8 +/− lenses was the same as normal. Moreover, no coupling was detected in the MF of α3 −/− lenses. Together, these results suggest that α3 connexin alone is responsible for coupling MF. The pH- sensitive gating of DF junctions was about the same in wild-type and α3 connexin −/− lenses. However, in α8 −/− lenses, the pure α3 connexin junctions did not gate closed in the response to acidification. Since α3 connexin contributes about half the coupling conductance in DF of wild-type lenses, and that conductance goes to zero when the cytoplasmic pH drops, it appears α8 connexin regulates the gating

  18. Human knockouts and phenotypic analysis in a cohort with a high rate of consanguinity

    PubMed Central

    Saleheen, Danish; Natarajan, Pradeep; Armean, Irina M.; Zhao, Wei; Rasheed, Asif; Khetarpal, Sumeet; Won, Hong-Hee; Karczewski, Konrad J.; O’Donnell-Luria, Anne H.; Samocha, Kaitlin E.; Weisburd, Benjamin; Gupta, Namrata; Zaidi, Mozzam; Samuel, Maria; Imran, Atif; Abbas, Shahid; Majeed, Faisal; Ishaq, Madiha; Akhtar, Saba; Trindade, Kevin; Mucksavage, Megan; Qamar, Nadeem; Zaman, Khan Shah; Yaqoob, Zia; Saghir, Tahir; Rizvi, Syed Nadeem Hasan; Memon, Anis; Mallick, Nadeem Hayyat; Ishaq, Mohammad; Rasheed, Syed Zahed; Memon, Fazal-ur-Rehman; Mahmood, Khalid; Ahmed, Naveeduddin; Do, Ron; Krauss, Ronald M.; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Gabriel, Stacey; Lander, Eric S.; Daly, Mark J.; Frossard, Philippe; Danesh, John; Rader, Daniel J.; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2017-01-01

    A major goal of biomedicine is to understand the function of every gene in the human genome.1 Loss-of-function (LoF) mutations can disrupt both copies of a given gene in humans and phenotypic analysis of such ‘human knockouts’ can provide insight into gene function. Consanguineous unions are more likely to result in offspring who carry LoF mutations in a homozygous state. In Pakistan, consanguinity rates are notably high.2 Here, we sequenced the protein-coding regions of 10,503 adult participants in the Pakistan Risk of Myocardial Infarction Study (PROMIS) designed to understand the determinants of cardiometabolic diseases in South Asians.3 We identified individuals carrying predicted LoF (pLoF) mutations in the homozygous state, and performed phenotypic analysis involving >200 biochemical and disease traits. We enumerated 49,138 rare (<1 % minor allele frequency) pLoF mutations. These pLoF mutations are predicted to knock out 1,317 genes in at least one participant. Homozygosity for pLoF mutations at PLAG27 was associated with absent enzymatic activity of soluble lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2; at CYP2F1, with higher plasma interleukin-8 concentrations; at TREH, with lower concentrations of apoB-containing lipoprotein subfractions; at either A3GALT2 or NRG4, with markedly reduced plasma insulin C-peptide concentrations; and at SLC9A3R1, with mediators of calcium and phosphate signaling. Finally, APOC3 is a gene which retards clearance of plasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and where heterozygous deficiency confers protection against coronary heart disease.4,5 In Pakistan, we now observe APOC3 homozygous pLoF carriers; we recalled these knockout humans and challenged with an oral fat load. Compared with wild-type family members, APOC3 knockouts displayed marked blunting of the usual post-prandial rise in plasma triglycerides. Overall, these observations provide a roadmap for a ‘human knockout project’, a systematic effort to understand the

  19. Human knockouts and phenotypic analysis in a cohort with a high rate of consanguinity.

    PubMed

    Saleheen, Danish; Natarajan, Pradeep; Armean, Irina M; Zhao, Wei; Rasheed, Asif; Khetarpal, Sumeet A; Won, Hong-Hee; Karczewski, Konrad J; O'Donnell-Luria, Anne H; Samocha, Kaitlin E; Weisburd, Benjamin; Gupta, Namrata; Zaidi, Mozzam; Samuel, Maria; Imran, Atif; Abbas, Shahid; Majeed, Faisal; Ishaq, Madiha; Akhtar, Saba; Trindade, Kevin; Mucksavage, Megan; Qamar, Nadeem; Zaman, Khan Shah; Yaqoob, Zia; Saghir, Tahir; Rizvi, Syed Nadeem Hasan; Memon, Anis; Hayyat Mallick, Nadeem; Ishaq, Mohammad; Rasheed, Syed Zahed; Memon, Fazal-Ur-Rehman; Mahmood, Khalid; Ahmed, Naveeduddin; Do, Ron; Krauss, Ronald M; MacArthur, Daniel G; Gabriel, Stacey; Lander, Eric S; Daly, Mark J; Frossard, Philippe; Danesh, John; Rader, Daniel J; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2017-04-12

    A major goal of biomedicine is to understand the function of every gene in the human genome. Loss-of-function mutations can disrupt both copies of a given gene in humans and phenotypic analysis of such 'human knockouts' can provide insight into gene function. Consanguineous unions are more likely to result in offspring carrying homozygous loss-of-function mutations. In Pakistan, consanguinity rates are notably high. Here we sequence the protein-coding regions of 10,503 adult participants in the Pakistan Risk of Myocardial Infarction Study (PROMIS), designed to understand the determinants of cardiometabolic diseases in individuals from South Asia. We identified individuals carrying homozygous predicted loss-of-function (pLoF) mutations, and performed phenotypic analysis involving more than 200 biochemical and disease traits. We enumerated 49,138 rare (<1% minor allele frequency) pLoF mutations. These pLoF mutations are estimated to knock out 1,317 genes, each in at least one participant. Homozygosity for pLoF mutations at PLA2G7 was associated with absent enzymatic activity of soluble lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2; at CYP2F1, with higher plasma interleukin-8 concentrations; at TREH, with lower concentrations of apoB-containing lipoprotein subfractions; at either A3GALT2 or NRG4, with markedly reduced plasma insulin C-peptide concentrations; and at SLC9A3R1, with mediators of calcium and phosphate signalling. Heterozygous deficiency of APOC3 has been shown to protect against coronary heart disease; we identified APOC3 homozygous pLoF carriers in our cohort. We recruited these human knockouts and challenged them with an oral fat load. Compared with family members lacking the mutation, individuals with APOC3 knocked out displayed marked blunting of the usual post-prandial rise in plasma triglycerides. Overall, these observations provide a roadmap for a 'human knockout project', a systematic effort to understand the phenotypic consequences of complete

  20. RNA-seq reveals transcriptome changes in goats following myostatin gene knockout

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Bei; Zhou, Shiwei; Zhu, Haijing; Qu, Lei; Wang, Xiaolong

    2017-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a powerful negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass in mammalian species that is primarily expressed in skeletal muscles, and mutations of its encoding gene can result in the double-muscling trait. In this study, the CRISPR/Cas9 technique was used to edit MSTN in Shaanbei Cashmere goats and generate knockout animals. RNA sequencing was used to determine and compare the transcriptome profiles of the muscles from three wild-type (WT) goats, three fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) knockout goats (FGF5+/- group) and three goats with disrupted expression of both the FGF5 and MSTN genes (FM+/- group). The sequence reads were obtained using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 system and mapped to the Capra hircus reference genome using TopHat (v2.0.9). In total, 68.93, 62.04 and 66.26 million clean sequencing reads were obtained from the WT, FM+/- and FGF5+/- groups, respectively. There were 201 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the WT and FGF5+/- groups, with 86 down- and 115 up-regulated genes in the FGF5+/- group. Between the WT and FM+/- groups, 121 DEGs were identified, including 81 down- and 40 up-regulated genes in the FM+/- group. A total of 198 DEGs were detected between the FGF5+/- group and FM+/- group, with 128 down- and 70 up-regulated genes in the FM+/- group. At the transcriptome level, we found substantial changes in genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, such as stearoyl-CoA dehydrogenase, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase 2, ELOVL fatty acid elongase 6 and fatty acid synthase, suggesting that the expression levels of these genes may be directly regulated by MSTN and that these genes are likely downstream targets of MSTN with potential roles in lipid metabolism in goats. Moreover, five randomly selected DEGs were further validated with qRT-PCR, and the results were consistent with the transcriptome analysis. The present study provides insight into the unique transcriptome profile of the

  1. Genetic Rescue of Glycosylation-deficient Fgf23 in the Galnt3 Knockout Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Amie K.; Padgett, Leah R.; Allen, Matthew R.; Clinkenbeard, Erica L.; Sarpa, Nicole M.; White, Kenneth E.; Econs, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a hormone that inhibits renal phosphate reabsorption and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D biosynthesis. The FGF23 subtilisin-like proprotein convertase recognition sequence (176RHTR179↓) is protected by O-glycosylation through ppGalNAc-T3 (GALNT3) activity. Thus, inactivating GALNT3 mutations render FGF23 susceptible to proteolysis, thereby reducing circulating intact hormone levels and leading to hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis. To further delineate the role of glycosylation in the Fgf23 function, we generated an inducible FGF23 transgenic mouse expressing human mutant FGF23 (R176Q and R179Q) found in patients with autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR) and bred this animal to Galnt3 knockout mice, a model of familial tumoral calcinosis. Due to the low intact Fgf23 level, Galnt3 knockout mice with wild-type Fgf23 alleles were hyperphosphatemic. In contrast, carriers of the mutant FGF23 transgene, regardless of Galnt3 mutation status, had significantly higher serum intact FGF23, resulting in severe hypophosphatemia. Importantly, serum phosphorus and FGF23 were comparable between transgenic mice with or without normal Galnt3 alleles. To determine whether the presence of the ADHR mutation could improve biochemical and skeletal abnormalities in Galnt3-null mice, these mice were also mated to Fgf23 knock-in mice, carrying heterozygous or homozygous R176Q ADHR Fgf23 mutations. The knock-in mice with functional Galnt3 had normal Fgf23 but were slightly hypophosphatemic. The stabilized Fgf23 ADHR allele reversed the Galnt3-null phenotype and normalized total Fgf23, serum phosphorus, and bone Fgf23 mRNA. However, the skeletal phenotype was unaffected. In summary, these data demonstrate that O-glycosylation by ppGaINAc-T3 is only necessary for proper secretion of intact Fgf23 and, once secreted, does not affect Fgf23 function. Furthermore, the more stable Fgf23 ADHR mutant protein could normalize serum phosphorus in

  2. Genetic rescue of glycosylation-deficient Fgf23 in the Galnt3 knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Shoji; Gray, Amie K; Padgett, Leah R; Allen, Matthew R; Clinkenbeard, Erica L; Sarpa, Nicole M; White, Kenneth E; Econs, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a hormone that inhibits renal phosphate reabsorption and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D biosynthesis. The FGF23 subtilisin-like proprotein convertase recognition sequence ((176)RHTR(179)↓) is protected by O-glycosylation through ppGalNAc-T3 (GALNT3) activity. Thus, inactivating GALNT3 mutations render FGF23 susceptible to proteolysis, thereby reducing circulating intact hormone levels and leading to hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis. To further delineate the role of glycosylation in the Fgf23 function, we generated an inducible FGF23 transgenic mouse expressing human mutant FGF23 (R176Q and R179Q) found in patients with autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR) and bred this animal to Galnt3 knockout mice, a model of familial tumoral calcinosis. Due to the low intact Fgf23 level, Galnt3 knockout mice with wild-type Fgf23 alleles were hyperphosphatemic. In contrast, carriers of the mutant FGF23 transgene, regardless of Galnt3 mutation status, had significantly higher serum intact FGF23, resulting in severe hypophosphatemia. Importantly, serum phosphorus and FGF23 were comparable between transgenic mice with or without normal Galnt3 alleles. To determine whether the presence of the ADHR mutation could improve biochemical and skeletal abnormalities in Galnt3-null mice, these mice were also mated to Fgf23 knock-in mice, carrying heterozygous or homozygous R176Q ADHR Fgf23 mutations. The knock-in mice with functional Galnt3 had normal Fgf23 but were slightly hypophosphatemic. The stabilized Fgf23 ADHR allele reversed the Galnt3-null phenotype and normalized total Fgf23, serum phosphorus, and bone Fgf23 mRNA. However, the skeletal phenotype was unaffected. In summary, these data demonstrate that O-glycosylation by ppGaINAc-T3 is only necessary for proper secretion of intact Fgf23 and, once secreted, does not affect Fgf23 function. Furthermore, the more stable Fgf23 ADHR mutant protein could normalize serum phosphorus

  3. Hypervitaminosis D mediates compensatory Ca2+ hyperabsorption in TRPV5 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Renkema, Kirsten Y; Nijenhuis, Tom; van der Eerden, Bram C J; van der Kemp, Annemiete W C M; Weinans, Harrie; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M; Bindels, René J M; Hoenderop, Joost G J

    2005-11-01

    Vitamin D plays an important role in Ca(2+) homeostasis by controlling Ca(2+) (re)absorption in intestine, kidney, and bone. The epithelial Ca(2+) channel TRPV5 mediates the Ca(2+) entry step in active Ca(2+) reabsorption. TRPV5 knockout (TRPV5(-/-)) mice show impaired Ca(2+) reabsorption, hypercalciuria, hypervitaminosis D, and intestinal hyperabsorption of Ca(2+). Moreover, these mice demonstrate upregulation of intestinal TRPV6 and calbindin-D(9K) expression compared with wild-type mice. For addressing the role of the observed hypervitaminosis D in the maintenance of Ca(2+) homeostasis and the regulation of expression levels of the Ca(2+) transport proteins in kidney and intestine, TRPV5/25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3)-1alpha-hydroxylase double knockout (TRPV5(-/-)/1alpha-OHase(-/-)) mice, which show undetectable serum 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) levels, were generated. TRPV5(-/-)/1alpha-OHase(-/-) mice displayed a significant hypocalcemia compared with wild-type mice (1.10 +/- 0.02 and 2.54 +/- 0.01 mM, respectively; P < 0.05). mRNA levels of renal calbindin-D(28K) (7 +/- 2%), calbindin-D(9K) (32 +/- 4%), Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (12 +/- 2%), and intestinal TRPV6 (40 +/- 8%) and calbindin-D(9K) (26 +/- 4%) expression levels were decreased compared with wild-type mice. Hyperparathyroidism and rickets were present in TRPV5(-/-)/1alpha-OHase(-/-) mice, more pronounced than observed in single TRPV5 or 1alpha-OHase knockout mice. It is interesting that a renal Ca(2+) leak, as demonstrated in TRPV5(-/-) mice, persisted in TRPV5(-/-)/1alpha-OHase(-/-) mice, but a compensatory upregulation of intestinal Ca(2+) transporters was abolished. In conclusion, the elevation of serum 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) levels in TRPV5(-/-) mice is responsible for the upregulation of intestinal Ca(2+) transporters and Ca(2+) hyperabsorption. Hypervitaminosis D, therefore, is of crucial importance to maintain normocalcemia in impaired Ca(2+) reabsorption in TRPV5(-/-) mice.

  4. [Effects of aquaporin-4 gene knockout on behavior changes and cerebral morphology during aging in mice].

    PubMed

    Su, Shengan; Lu, Yunbi; Zhang, Weiping

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the effects of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) gene knockout on the behavior changes and cerebral morphology during aging in mice,and to compare that of young and aged mice between AQP4 knockout mice (AQP4(-/-)) and wild type mice (AQP4(+/+)). Fifty-eight CD-1 mice were divided into four groups: young (2-3 months old) AQP4(-/-), aged (17-19 months old) AQP4(-/-), young AQP4(+/+) and aged AQP4(+/+). The activity levels and exploring behavior of mice were tested in open field. The neurons were stained with toluidine blue and NeuN, the astrocytes and microglia were stained with GFAP and Iba-1, respectively. The morphological changes of neuron, astrocyte and microglia were then analyzed. Compared with young mice, the total walking distance in open field of aged AQP4(+/+) mice and aged AQP4(-/-) mice decreased 41.2% and 44.1%, respectively (P<0.05); while there was no difference in the ratio of distance and retention time in the central area of open field. The density of neuron in cortex of aged AQP4(+/+) mice and aged AQP4(-/-) mice decreased 19.6% and 15.8%, respectively (P<0.05), while there was no difference in the thickness of neuron cell body in hippocampus CA1 region. The density of astrocyte in hippocampus CA3 region of aged AQP4(+/+) mice and aged AQP4(-/-) mice increased 57.7% and 64.3%, respectively (P<0.001), while there was no difference in the area of astrocyte. The area of microglia in hippocampus CA3 region of aged AQP4(+/+) mice and aged AQP4(-/-) mice increased 46.9% and 52.0%, respectively (P<0.01), while there was no difference in the density of microglia. Compared with AQP4(+/+) mice, the young and aged AQP4(-/-) mice showed smaller area of astrocyte in hippocampus CA3 region, reduced 18.0% in young mice and 23.6% in aged mice. There was no difference between AQP4(+/+) mice and AQP4(-/-) mice for other observed indexes. AQP4 may be involved in change of astrocyte and astrocyte-related behaviors during aging. AQP4 gene knockout may have limited

  5. Comparative effects of chlorpyrifos in wild type and cannabinoid Cb1 receptor knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Baireddy, Praveena; Liu, Jing; Hinsdale, Myron

    2011-11-15

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) modulate neurotransmission by inhibiting the release of a variety of neurotransmitters. The cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55.212-2 (WIN) can modulate organophosphorus (OP) anticholinesterase toxicity in rats, presumably by inhibiting acetylcholine (ACh) release. Some OP anticholinesterases also inhibit eCB-degrading enzymes. We studied the effects of the OP insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) on cholinergic signs of toxicity, cholinesterase activity and ACh release in tissues from wild type (+/+) and cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout (-/-) mice. Mice of both genotypes (n = 5-6/treatment group) were challenged with CPF (300 mg/kg, 2 ml/kg in peanut oil, sc) and evaluated for functional and neurochemicalmore » changes. Both genotypes exhibited similar cholinergic signs and cholinesterase inhibition (82-95% at 48 h after dosing) in cortex, cerebellum and heart. WIN reduced depolarization-induced ACh release in vitro in hippocampal slices from wild type mice, but had no effect in hippocampal slices from knockouts or in striatal slices from either genotype. Chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO, 100 {mu}M) reduced release in hippocampal slices from both genotypes in vitro, but with a greater reduction in tissues from wild types (21% vs 12%). CPO had no significant in vitro effect on ACh release in striatum. CPF reduced ACh release in hippocampus from both genotypes ex vivo, but reduction was again significantly greater in tissues from wild types (52% vs 36%). In striatum, CPF led to a similar reduction (20-23%) in tissues from both genotypes. Thus, while CB1 deletion in mice had little influence on the expression of acute toxicity following CPF, CPF- or CPO-induced changes in ACh release appeared sensitive to modulation by CB1-mediated eCB signaling in a brain-regional manner. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C57Bl/6 mice showed dose-related cholinergic toxicity following subcutaneous chlorpyrifos exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wild type and

  6. Pharmacokinetics of tilmicosin in healthy pigs and in pigs experimentally infected with Haemophilus parasuis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Zhao, Li; Liu, Yonghong; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Xianqiang

    2017-12-31

    A comparative in vivo pharmacokinetic (PK) study of tilmicosin (TIL) was conducted in 6 crossbred healthy pigs and 6 crossbred pigs infected with Haemophilus ( H .) parasuis following oral administration of a single 40 mg/kg dose. The infected model was established by intranasal inoculation and confirmed by clinical signs, blood biochemistry, and microscopic examinations. Plasma TIL concentrations were determined by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method with ultraviolet detection at 285 nm. PK parameters were calculated by using WinNonlin software. After TIL administration, the main PK parameters of TIL in healthy and H. parasuis -infected pigs were as follows: Area under the concentration-time curve, maximal drug concentration, half-life of the absorption phase, half-life of the distribution phase, and half-life of the elimination phase were 34.86 ± 9.69 vs. 28.73 ± 6.18 μgㆍh/mL, 1.77 ± 0.33 vs. 1.67 ± 0.28 μg/mL, 2.27 ± 0.45 vs. 2.24 ± 0.44 h, 5.35 ± 1.40 vs. 4.61 ± 0.35 h, and 43.53 ± 8.17 vs. 42.05 ± 9.36 h, respectively. These results of this exploratory study suggest that there were no significant differences between the PK profiles of TIL in the healthy and H. parasuis -infected pigs.

  7. Presence of Clostridium difficile in pig faecal samples and wild animal species associated with pig farms.

    PubMed

    Andrés-Lasheras, S; Bolea, R; Mainar-Jaime, R C; Kuijper, E; Sevilla, E; Martín-Burriel, I; Chirino-Trejo, M

    2017-02-01

    To determine the presence of Clostridium difficile on fattening pig farms in north-eastern Spain. Twenty-seven farms were sampled. Pools of pig faecal samples (n = 210), samples of intestinal content from common farm pest species (n = 95) and environment-related samples (n = 93) were collected. Isolates were tested for toxin genes of C. difficile, and typed by PCR-ribotyping and toxinotyping. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of six antimicrobial agents were determined using Etest. Thirty-four isolates were obtained from 12 farms, and 30 (88·2%) had toxin genes. Seven ribotypes were identified. Ribotype 078 and its variant 126 were predominant (52·9%). The same ribotypes were isolated from different animal species on the same farm. None of the isolates were resistant to metronidazole or vancomycin. Clostridium difficile was common within the pig farm environment. Most of the positive samples came from pest species or were pest-related environmental samples. Pest species were colonized with toxigenic and antimicrobial-resistant C. difficile strains of the same ribotypes that are found in humans and pigs. Rodents and pigeons may transmit toxigenic and antimicrobial-resistant C. difficile strains that are of the same ribotypes as those occuring in humans. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. [Progress and application prospect of pig induced pluripotent stem cells].

    PubMed

    Yan, Yi-Bo; Zhang, Yan-Li; Qi, Wei-Wei; Wan, Yong-Jie; Fan, Yi-Xuan; Wang, Feng

    2011-04-01

    Pig has always been the focus of establishing a big ungulate animal ES cell lines because of its convenient source, genetic similarity with humans, and their importance in animal husbandry, but little development is achieved. Induced pluripotent stem cells technology creates a new method of reprogramming somatic cells to pluripotent state. As the pig iPS cells is established and perfected, pig ES cells will be established in the coming years. The pig iPS cells will give a hint on other livestock ES cells. On the other hand, pig iPS cells can be used to improve the efficiency of transgenic cloning pigs to conduct effective breeding and conservation of breeds. It is particularly important that the pig iPS cells can provide new model for human medical research, a new donor cells for human tissue and organ engineering, and have extensive and far-reaching impact on the biomedical field. Here, we briefly review the major progress of iPS cells, and emphasize current state of pig iPS cells and its application prospect in biomedicine and animal husbandry in order to provide a useful reference for researchers working in this area.

  9. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in breeding pigs in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Azzurra; Tagel, Maarja; Must, Kärt; Laine, Miia; Lassen, Brian; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2017-12-11

    Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread occurring parasite infecting warm-blooded animals, including pigs and humans. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies and to evaluate risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity in breeding pigs raised in Estonia. Sera from 382 pigs were tested with a commercial direct agglutination test, using a cut-off titer of 40 for seropositivity, for the presence of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies. Twenty-two (5.8%) of the 382 pigs tested seropositive for T. gondii, and 6 of the 14 herds had at least one seropositive pig. The proportion of seropositive pigs within the herds ranged between 0 and 43%. Gender appeared as a significant factor, with sows having 5.6 times higher odds to be seropositive to T. gondii than boars. Seroprevalence did not increase with age. Anti-T. gondii antibodies were present in a substantial proportion of breeding pig herds in Estonia. On the other hand, the presence of herds without seropositive pigs illustrates that porcine T. gondii infections can be avoided even in a country where the parasite is endemic and common in several other host species.

  10. PIG7 promotes leukemia cell chemosensitivity via lysosomal membrane permeabilization

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Ting; Wu, Yu; Li, Jianjun; Wang, Fangfang; Zheng, Yuhuan; Liu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    PIG7 localizes to lysosomal membrane in leukemia cells. Our previous work has shown that transduction of pig7 into a series of leukemia cell lines did not result in either apoptosis or differentiation of most tested cell lines. Interestingly, it did significantly sensitize these cell lines to chemotherapeutic drugs. Here, we further investigated the mechanism underlying pig7-induced improved sensitivity of acute leukemia cells to chemotherapy. Our results demonstrated that the sensitization effect driven by exogenous pig7 was more effective in drug-resistant leukemia cell lines which had lower endogenous pig7 expression. Overexpression of pig7 did not directly activate the caspase apoptotic pathway, but decreased the lysosomal stability. The expression of pig7 resulted in lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and lysosomal protease (e.g. cathepsin B, D, L) release. Moreover, we also observed increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) induced by pig7. Some autophagy markers such as LC3I/II, ATG5 and Beclin-1, and necroptosis maker MLKL were also stimulated. However, intrinsic antagonism such as serine/cysteine protease inhibitors Spi2A and Cystatin C prevented downstream effectors from triggering leukemia cells, which were only on the “verge of apoptosis”. When combined with chemotherapy, LMP increased and more proteases were released. Once this process was beyond the limit of intrinsic antagonism, it induced programmed cell death cooperatively via caspase-independent and caspase-dependent pathways. PMID:26716897

  11. SARS-associated Coronavirus Transmitted from Human to Pig

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weijun; Yan, Minghua; Yang, Ling; Ding, Boliang; He, Bo; Wang, Yingzhen; Liu, Xiuli; Liu, Chenhui; Zhu, Hui; You, Bo; Huang, Shengyong; Zhang, Jiangguo; Mu, Feng; Xiang, Zhao; Feng, Xiaoli; Wen, Jie; Fang, Jianqiu; Yu, Jun; Yang, Huanming

    2005-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome–associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was isolated from a pig during a survey for possible routes of viral transmission after a SARS epidemic. Sequence and epidemiology analyses suggested that the pig was infected by a SARS-CoV of human origin. PMID:15757562

  12. Validation of QTL in commercial-type pigs at USMARC

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The US Meat Animal Research Center’s commercial swine resource population was a closed population maintained for 10 generations and produced over 40,000 pigs with basic phenotypic measurements. Approximately 3,000 of the most heavily phenotyped pigs as well as all boars used were genotyped with the ...

  13. Development of an animal model of fibrous cholangitis in pigs.

    PubMed

    Lainakis, Nektarios G; Papalois, Apostolos; Agrogiannis, Georgios; Antonopoulos, Constantine N; Michail, Panagiotis; Bastounis, Elias; Patsouris, Efstathios; Felekouras, Evangelos

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a model of fibrous cholangitis in the offspring of gravid domestic pigs through the administration of 1,4-phenylene diisothiocyanate (DITC). Six young domestic pigs and two gravid pigs with their offspring (21 pigs) were used as experimental models and six wild-type animals were used as controls. All pigs were divided into five main groups and five subgroups, according to their developmental stage and time of exposure to DITC. The following histopathological characteristics were quantitatively evaluated on a scale of 0-5: ductal proliferation, periportal fibrosis, inflammatory infiltration, periductal fibrosis and edema, intraluminal fibrosis, duct wall thickening, epithelial apoptosis, and arterial hyperplasia/hypertrophy. Statistically significant differences were observed for most of the histopathological markers between the group of pigs' offspring that received DITC at early gestation and their control group. Moreover, the group of animals that were exposed to the agent at early gestation exhibited significant differences for all histopathological characteristics compared to the animals that were exposed at late gestation. On the other hand, no statistically significant differences were observed between the group of animals that received the agent at late gestation and their healthy controls. Administration of DITC to domestic pigs in early pregnancy may induce histopathological patterns of fibrous cholangitis to their offspring imitating biliary atresia. This model may provide insight to the pathogenesis of the obstructive cholangitis in pigs.

  14. Transmission of Enterocytozoon bieneusi between a child and guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Cama, Vitaliano A; Pearson, Julie; Cabrera, Lilia; Pacheco, Luz; Gilman, Robert; Meyer, Sarah; Ortega, Ynes; Xiao, Lihua

    2007-08-01

    An unusual Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype was found in seven guinea pigs and a 2-year-old child in the same household. The genetic uniqueness of the parasite, its wide occurrence in other guinea pigs in the community, and its absence in other children in the community suggest the possibility of zoonotic transmission of the infection to the study child.

  15. Mycobacterium bovis infection in domestic pigs in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Suzanne S; Crawshaw, Timothy R; Smith, Noel H; Palgrave, Christopher J

    2013-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB), infects a wide range of wild and domestic mammals. Despite a control programme spanning decades, M. bovis infection levels in cattle in Great Britain (GB) have continued to rise over recent years. As the incidence of infection in cattle and wildlife may be linked to that in swine, data relating to infection of pigs identified at slaughter were examined in this study. Between 2007 and 2011, almost all M. bovis-infected pigs originated from farms in the South-West and West-Midland regions of England. The data suggest that pigs raised outdoors or on holdings with poor biosecurity may be more vulnerable to infection with M. bovis. In the majority of cases, the same strains of M. bovis were found in pigs and cattle, despite that fact that direct contact between these species was rarely observed. Genotyping and geographical mapping data indicated that some strains found in pigs may correlate better with those present in badgers, rather than cattle. In consequence, it is proposed that pigs may represent a useful sentinel for M. bovis infection in wildlife in GB. Given the potential implications of this infection for the pig industry, and for the on-going effort to control bovine TB, the importance of understanding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of M. bovis infection, as well as monitoring its prevalence, in pigs should not be underestimated. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Review: Factors affecting fouling in conventional pens for slaughter pigs.

    PubMed

    Larsen, M L V; Bertelsen, M; Pedersen, L J

    2018-02-01

    This review assesses factors affecting fouling in conventional pens for slaughter pigs. Fouling of the pen happens when pigs change their excretory behaviour from occurring in the designated dunging area to the lying area. This can result in a lower hygiene, bad air quality, extra work for the farmer, disturbance of the pigs' resting behaviour and an increase in agonistic interactions. A systematic search was conducted and results narrowed down to 21 articles. Four factors were found to affect fouling directly: insufficient space allowance, the flooring design of the pen, the thermal climate and pigs' earlier experience. Further, these primary factors are affected by secondary factors such as the shape of the pen, the weight of the pigs and especially the heat balance of the pigs, which is affected by several tertiary factors including, for example, temperature, humidity and draught. Results indicate that the most important factor to control when trying to prevent fouling of a pen is the pen climate. An appropriate climate may be accomplished through floor cooling in the designated lying area, sprinklers above the designated dunging area and by ensuring a more optimal ambient temperature curve that also fits the weight of the pigs in different stages of the production. All in all, fouling of the pen in conventional slaughter pigs is a multifactorial problem, but it is important to focus on increasing the comfortability, and especially the climate, of the designated lying area.

  17. Widespread Rotavirus H in Commercially Raised Pigs, United States

    PubMed Central

    Rossow, Kurt; Culhane, Marie; Goyal, Sagar; Collins, Jim; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Nelson, Martha; Ciarlet, Max

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the presence in US pigs of rotavirus H (RVH), identified in pigs in Japan and Brazil. From 204 samples collected during 2006–2009, we identified RVH in 15% of fecal samples from 10 US states, suggesting that RVH has circulated in the United States since 2002, but probably longer. PMID:24960190

  18. The pig X and Y Chromosomes: structure, sequence, and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Benjamin M.; Sargent, Carole A.; Churcher, Carol; Hunt, Toby; Herrero, Javier; Loveland, Jane E.; Dunn, Matt; Louzada, Sandra; Fu, Beiyuan; Chow, William; Gilbert, James; Austin-Guest, Siobhan; Beal, Kathryn; Carvalho-Silva, Denise; Cheng, William; Gordon, Daria; Grafham, Darren; Hardy, Matt; Harley, Jo; Hauser, Heidi; Howden, Philip; Howe, Kerstin; Lachani, Kim; Ellis, Peter J.I.; Kelly, Daniel; Kerry, Giselle; Kerwin, James; Ng, Bee Ling; Threadgold, Glen; Wileman, Thomas; Wood, Jonathan M.D.; Yang, Fengtang; Harrow, Jen; Affara, Nabeel A.; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We have generated an improved assembly and gene annotation of the pig X Chromosome, and a first draft assembly of the pig Y Chromosome, by sequencing BAC and fosmid clones from Duroc animals and incorporating information from optical mapping and fiber-FISH. The X Chromosome carries 1033 annotated genes, 690 of which are protein coding. Gene order closely matches that found in primates (including humans) and carnivores (including cats and dogs), which is inferred to be ancestral. Nevertheless, several protein-coding genes present on the human X Chromosome were absent from the pig, and 38 pig-specific X-chromosomal genes were annotated, 22 of which were olfactory receptors. The pig Y-specific Chromosome sequence generated here comprises 30 megabases (Mb). A 15-Mb subset of this sequence was assembled, revealing two clusters of male-specific low copy number genes, separated by an ampliconic region including the HSFY gene family, which together make up most of the short arm. Both clusters contain palindromes with high sequence identity, presumably maintained by gene conversion. Many of the ancestral X-related genes previously reported in at least one mammalian Y Chromosome are represented either as active genes or partial sequences. This sequencing project has allowed us to identify genes—both single copy and amplified—on the pig Y Chromosome, to compare the pig X and Y Chromosomes for homologous sequences, and thereby to reveal mechanisms underlying pig X and Y Chromosome evolution. PMID:26560630

  19. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BEHAVIORAL AND AUTONOMIC THERMOREGULATION IN THE GUINEA PIG

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study was conducted to correlate the preferred thermal environment of the unrestrained guinea pig with the activity of its thermoregulatory effectors when maintained under a wide range of ambient temperatures (Ta). Eight male guinea pigs were used in a series of experiments o...

  20. A 2-D guinea pig lung proteome map

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Guinea pigs represent an important model for a number of infectious and non-infectious pulmonary diseases. The guinea pig genome has recently been sequenced to full coverage, opening up new research avenues using genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics techniques in this species. In order to furth...

  1. The Guinea Pigs of a Problem-Based Learning Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Sarasvathie; McKenna, Sioux

    2016-01-01

    Participants in a study on learning the clinical aspects of medicine in a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum repeatedly referred to themselves as "Guinea pigs" at the mercy of a curriculum experiment. This article interrogates and problematises the "Guinea pig" identity ascribed to and assumed by the first cohort of…

  2. SOME HISTOCHEMICAL RESPONSES OF GUINEA PIG TISSUES TO COLD,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Guinea pigs weighing approximately 300 gm were kept in a cold room, held at 6C, for two weeks. Various organs were then studied histochemically...Liver glycogen is rapidly used up in cold-exposed guinea pigs . The fate of liver lipids is unknown. Lipids in the cortex of the adrenals appear to

  3. Brevetoxin Depresses Synaptic Transmission in Guinea Pig Hippocampal Slices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Brevetoxin depresses synaptic transmission in guinea pig hippocampal slices. Brain Res Bull 31(1/2) 201-207, 1993.--Extracellular recordings were...obtained from area CA1 of guinea pig hippocampal slices. PbTx-3, a brevetoxin fraction isolated from the red tide dinoflagellate Ptychodiscus brevis, was

  4. Analysis of pig movements across eastern Indonesia, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Edwina E C; Christley, Robert M; Geong, Maria; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2015-03-01

    Knowledge of live animal movement through markets and from farm-to-farm is needed to inform strategies for control of trans-boundary animal diseases (TADs) in south-east Asia, particularly due to consumer preference for fresh meat. In eastern Indonesia a TAD of principal interest for control is classical swine fever (CSF) due to its impacts on smallholder farmers. Pig movement is considered a contributor to failure of current CSF control efforts but pig movement patterns are not well understood. This study investigated movement of live pigs in West Timor, Flores and Sumba islands during 2009-2010, with the aim of informing CSF control policies for Nusa Tenggara Timor province. A market survey of 292 pig sellers and 281 pig buyers across nine live pig markets and a farmer survey across 18 villages with 289 smallholder farmers were conducted and information collected on pig movements. The data obtained was used for social network analysis (SNA) on formal (via a market) and informal (village-to-village) movements using information on trading practices, source and destination locations, and the number of pigs being moved. Both inter- and intra-island movements were identified, however inter-island movement was only observed between Flores and Sumba islands. West Timor and Sumba had highly connected networks where large numbers of villages were directly and indirectly linked through pig movement. Further for West Timor, both formal and informal pig movements linked the capital Kupang, on the eastern end of the island to the western districts bordering East Timor connecting all five districts and demonstrating that informal movement transports pigs over distances similar to formal movement on this island. Sumba had a higher potential for pigs to move to a greater number of sequential locations across the entire island. Flores was found to have a more fragmented network, with pig movements concentrated in its eastern or western regions, influenced by terrain. Markets were

  5. Gastric volvulus in guinea pigs: comparison with other species.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Emily S; Boivin, Gregory P

    2011-07-01

    Gastric volvulus has been documented in several species of animals and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We report 2 cases of gastric volvulus in guinea pigs that died without detection of prior clinical signs. Both guinea pigs were adult female guinea pigs in a breeding colony and had given birth to multiple litters; one was pregnant at the time of death. Gastric rotations of 540° and 360° were identified at necropsy examination. These cases include the first known report of gastric rotation greater than 360° in any species. Although gastric volvulus has been reported to occur in guinea pigs, little is known about its risk factors, etiology, and pathogenesis. We conducted a literature review to compare gastric volvulus between guinea pigs and other species. Copyright 2011 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science

  6. Gastric Volvulus in Guinea Pigs: Comparison with Other Species

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Emily S; Boivin, Gregory P

    2011-01-01

    Gastric volvulus has been documented in several species of animals and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We report 2 cases of gastric volvulus in guinea pigs that died without detection of prior clinical signs. Both guinea pigs were adult female guinea pigs in a breeding colony and had given birth to multiple litters; one was pregnant at the time of death. Gastric rotations of 540° and 360° were identified at necropsy examination. These cases include the first known report of gastric rotation greater than 360° in any species. Although gastric volvulus has been reported to occur in guinea pigs, little is known about its risk factors, etiology, and pathogenesis. We conducted a literature review to compare gastric volvulus between guinea pigs and other species. PMID:21838984

  7. Optical and biometric relationships of the isolated pig crystalline lens.

    PubMed

    Vilupuru, A S; Glasser, A

    2001-07-01

    To investigate the interrelationships between optical and biometric properties of the porcine crystalline lens, to compare these findings with similar relationships found for the human lens and to attempt to fit this data to a geometric model of the optical and biometric properties of the pig lens. Weight, focal length, spherical aberration, surface curvatures, thickness and diameters of 20 isolated pig lenses were measured and equivalent refractive index was calculated. These parameters were compared and used to geometrically model the pig lens. Linear relationships were identified between many of the lens biometric and optical properties. The existence of these relationships allowed a simple geometrical model of the pig lens to be calculated which offers predictions of the optical properties. The linear relationships found and the agreement observed between measured and modeled results suggest that the pig lens confirms to a predictable, preset developmental pattern and that the optical and biometric properties are predictably interrelated.

  8. Pig Farmers' Homes Harbor More Diverse Airborne Bacterial Communities Than Pig Stables or Suburban Homes.

    PubMed

    Vestergaard, Ditte V; Holst, Gitte J; Basinas, Ioannis; Elholm, Grethe; Schlünssen, Vivi; Linneberg, Allan; Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Finster, Kai; Sigsgaard, Torben; Marshall, Ian P G

    2018-01-01

    Airborne bacterial communities are subject to conditions ill-suited to microbial activity and growth. In spite of this, air is an important transfer medium for bacteria, with the bacteria in indoor air having potentially major consequences for the health of a building's occupants. A major example is the decreased diversity and altered composition of indoor airborne microbial communities as a proposed explanation for the increasing prevalence of asthma and allergies worldwide. Previous research has shown that living on a farm confers protection against development of asthma and allergies, with airborne bacteria suggested as playing a role in this protective effect. However, the composition of this beneficial microbial community has still not been identified. We sampled settled airborne dust using a passive dust sampler from Danish pig stables, associated farmers' homes, and from suburban homes (267 samples in total) and carried out quantitative PCR measurements of bacterial abundance and MiSeq sequencing of the V3-V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes found in these samples. Airborne bacteria had a greater diversity and were significantly more abundant in pig stables and farmers' homes than suburban homes (Wilcoxon rank sum test P < 0.05). Moreover, bacterial taxa previously suggested to contribute to a protective effect had significantly higher relative and absolute abundance in pig stables and farmers' homes than in suburban homes (ALDEx2 with P < 0.05), including Firmicutes, Peptostreptococcaceae, Prevotellaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Ruminiclostridium , and Lactobacillus . Pig stables had significantly lower airborne bacterial diversity than farmers' homes, and there was no discernable direct transfer of airborne bacteria from stable to home. This study identifies differences in indoor airborne bacterial communities that may be an important component of this putative protective effect, while showing that pig stables themselves do not appear to

  9. Biomechanical remodeling of obstructed guinea pig jejunum

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jingbo; Liao, Donghua; Yang, Jian; Gregersen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Data on morphological and biomechanical remodeling are needed to understand the mechanisms behind intestinal obstruction. The effect of partial obstruction on mechanical properties with reference to the zero-stress state and on the histomorphological properties of the guinea pig small intestine was determined in this study. Partial obstruction and sham operation were surgically created in mid-jejunum of guinea pigs. The animals survived 2, 4, 7, and 14 days respectively. The age-matched guinea pigs that were not operated served as normal controls. The segment proximal to the obstruction site was used for histological analysis, no-load state and zero-stress state data, and distension test. The segment for distension was immersed in an organ bath and inflated to 10 cmH20. The outer diameter change during the inflation was monitored using a microscope with CCD camera. Circumferential stresses and strains were computed from the diameter, pressure and the zero-stress state data. The opening angle and absolute value of residual strain decreased (P<0.01 and P<0.001) whereas the wall thickness, wall cross-sectional area, and the wall stiffness increased after 7 days obstruction (P<0.05, P<0.01). Histologically, the muscle and submucosa layers, especially the circumferential muscle layer increased in thickness after obstruction. The opening angle and residual strain mainly depended on the thickness of the muscle layer whereas the wall stiffness mainly depended on the thickness of the submucosa layer. In conclusion, the histomorphological and biomechanical properties of small intestine (referenced for the first time to the zero-stress state) remodel proximal to the obstruction site in a time-dependent manner. PMID:20189575

  10. p27(kip1) Knockout enhances collateralization in response to hindlimb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Ankri-Eliahoo, Galit; Weitz, Kevin; Cox, Timothy C; Tang, Gale L

    2016-05-01

    The natural response to arterial occlusive disease is enlargement of collaterals; however, the molecular factors that control collateralization are not well understood. The gene p27(Kip1) (p27) affects human response to arterial injury. Previous studies have shown that overexpression of p27 inhibits vascular endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and angiogenesis. To test the hypothesis that knockout of p27 would improve collateralization in reaction to ischemia, we performed in vivo and in vitro experiments using p27 knockout (p27(-/-)) and wild-type (wt) mice. Hindlimb ischemia was induced by left femoral artery ligation in p27(-/-) and wt (C57BL/6) female mice. The mice underwent weekly laser Doppler perfusion imaging of the footpads until sacrifice on postoperative day 28 followed by microcomputed tomography scanning of both hindlimbs. VSMCs were isolated from p27(-/-) and wt mice and used in migration and gel contraction assays in the absence and presence of the nonspecific matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor BB94. MMP-2 and MMP-9 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in p27(-/-) and wt VSMCs. p27(-/-) mice reperfused more effectively than wt mice by laser Doppler starting from day 7 (ischemic/nonischemic ratio, 0.33 ± 0.02 vs 0.25 ± 0.02; P < .05) and continuing through day 28 (0.45 ± 0.04 vs 0.31 ± 0.04; P < .05). The gracilis collateral diameter was similar for the nonischemic hindlimbs of the p27(-/-) and wt mice, and this collateral pathway increased similarly after ischemia as assessed by microcomputed tomography. However, the p27(-/-) mice significantly enlarged a novel collateral pathway that bridged directly between the femoral artery proximal to the ligation site and the saphenous or popliteal artery distal to the ligation site more than wt mice (158 ± 18.3 vs 82 ± 22 μm; P < .001). p27(-/-) VSMCs migrated more (79% ± 5% vs 56%

  11. The knockout reaction of {sup 15}C on a {sup 9}Be target at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Sadeghi, H., E-mail: H-Sadeghi@araku.ac.ir; Fereidonnejad, R.; Ghambari, M.

    2016-05-15

    In this work, neutron knockout reactions of {sup 15}C on a {sup 9}Be target at energy 103 and 250 MeV/nucleon are studied. Using the Eikonal approximation of the Glauber model, total neutron removal cross sections, the stripping and diffractive cross sections as well as {sup 14}C longitudinal momentum distributions are determined in both {sup 15}C ground state and exited states of the wave function. We compared the results of our calculations with the available experimental data obtained recently. The calculated cross sections of {sup 15}C and {sup 14}C reactions, as well as the momentum distribution are in relatively good agreementmore » with available data.« less

  12. Beijing ambient particle exposure accelerates atherosclerosis in ApoE knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tian; Jia, Guang; Wei, Yongjie; Li, Jiucun

    2013-11-25

    Air pollution is associated with significant adverse health effects including increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However research on the cardiovascular effect of "real-world" exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) in susceptible animal model is very limited. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between Beijing ambient particle exposure and the atherosclerosis development in the apolipoprotein E knockout mice (ApoE(-/-) mice). Two parallel exposure chambers were used for whole body exposure among ApoE knockout mice. One of the chambers was supplied with untreated ambient air (PM group) and the other chamber was treated with ambient air filtered by high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter (FA group). Twenty mice were divided into two groups and exposed to ambient PM (n=10 for PM group) or filtered air (n=10 for FA group) for two months from January 18th to March 18th, 2010. During the exposure, the mass concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 in the two chambers were continuously monitored. Additionally, a receptor source apportionment model of chemical mass balance using 19 organic tracers was applied to determine the contributions of sources on the PM2.5 in terms of natural gas, diesel vehicle, gasoline vehicle, coal burning, vegetable debris, biomass burning and cooking. At the end of the two-month exposure, biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation and lipid metabolism in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and blood samples were determined and the plaque area on the aortic endothelium was quantified. In the experiment, the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in PM chamber were 99.45μg/m(3) and 61.0μg/m(3) respectively, while PM2.5 in FA chamber was 17.6μg/m(3). Source apportionment analysis by organic tracers showed that gasoline vehicle (39.9%) and coal burning (24.3%) emission were the two major sources contributing to the mass concentration of PM2.5 in Beijing. Among the ApoE knockout mice, the PM group were significantly

  13. Independent degeneration of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium in conditional knockout mouse models of choroideremia

    PubMed Central

    Tolmachova, Tanya; Anders, Ross; Abrink, Magnus; Bugeon, Laurence; Dallman, Margaret J.; Futter, Clare E.; Ramalho, José S.; Tonagel, Felix; Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Seeliger, Mathias W.; Huxley, Clare; Seabra, Miguel C.

    2006-01-01

    Choroideremia (CHM) is an X-linked degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), photoreceptors, and choroid, caused by loss of function of the CHM/REP1 gene. REP1 is involved in lipid modification (prenylation) of Rab GTPases, key regulators of intracellular vesicular transport and organelle dynamics. To study the pathogenesis of CHM and to develop a model for assessing gene therapy, we have created a conditional mouse knockout of the Chm gene. Heterozygous-null females exhibit characteristic hallmarks of CHM: progressive degeneration of the photoreceptors, patchy depigmentation of the RPE, and Rab prenylation defects. Using tamoxifen-inducible and tissue-specific Cre expression in combination with floxed Chm alleles, we show that CHM pathogenesis involves independently triggered degeneration of photoreceptors and the RPE, associated with different subsets of defective Rabs. PMID:16410831

  14. Disease Model Discovery from 3,328 Gene Knockouts by The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Meehan, Terrence F.; Conte, Nathalie; West, David B.; Jacobsen, Julius O.; Mason, Jeremy; Warren, Jonathan; Chen, Chao-Kung; Tudose, Ilinca; Relac, Mike; Matthews, Peter; Karp, Natasha; Santos, Luis; Fiegel, Tanja; Ring, Natalie; Westerberg, Henrik; Greenaway, Simon; Sneddon, Duncan; Morgan, Hugh; Codner, Gemma F; Stewart, Michelle E; Brown, James; Horner, Neil; Haendel, Melissa; Washington, Nicole; Mungall, Christopher J.; Reynolds, Corey L; Gallegos, Juan; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Sorg, Tania; Pavlovic, Guillaume; Bower, Lynette R; Moore, Mark; Morse, Iva; Gao, Xiang; Tocchini-Valentini, Glauco P; Obata, Yuichi; Cho, Soo Young; Seong, Je Kyung; Seavitt, John; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Herault, Yann; Wurst, Wolfgang; de Angelis, Martin Hrabe; Lloyd, K.C. Kent; Flenniken, Ann M; Nutter, Lauryl MJ; Newbigging, Susan; McKerlie, Colin; Justice, Monica J.; Murray, Stephen A.; Svenson, Karen L.; Braun, Robert E.; White, Jacqueline K.; Bradley, Allan; Flicek, Paul; Wells, Sara; Skarnes, William C.; Adams, David J.; Parkinson, Helen; Mallon, Ann-Marie; Brown, Steve D.M.; Smedley, Damian

    2017-01-01

    Although next generation sequencing has revolutionised the ability to associate variants with human diseases, diagnostic rates and development of new therapies are still limited by our lack of knowledge of function and pathobiological mechanism for most genes. To address this challenge, the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) is creating a genome- and phenome-wide catalogue of gene function by characterizing new knockout mouse strains across diverse biological systems through a broad set of standardised phenotyping tests, with all mice made readily available to the biomedical community. Analysing the first 3328 genes reveals models for 360 diseases including the first for type C Bernard-Soulier, Bardet-Biedl-5 and Gordon Holmes syndromes. 90% of our phenotype annotations are novel, providing the first functional evidence for 1092 genes and candidates in unsolved diseases such as Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia 3. Finally, we describe our role in variant functional validation with the 100,000 Genomes and other projects. PMID:28650483

  15. Zika virus infection of adult and fetal STAT2 knock-out hamsters.

    PubMed

    Siddharthan, Venkatraman; Van Wettere, Arnaud J; Li, Rong; Miao, Jinxin; Wang, Zhongde; Morrey, John D; Julander, Justin G

    2017-07-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was investigated in adult and fetal STAT2 knock-out (KO) hamsters. Subcutaneous injection of ZIKV of adults resulted in morbidity, mortality, and infection of the uterus, placenta, brain, spinal cord, and testicles, thus providing an opportunity to evaluate congenital ZIKV infection in a second rodent species besides mice. ZIKV-infected cells with morphologies of Sertoli cells and spermatogonia were observed in the testes, which may have implications for sexual transmission and male sterility. Neonates exposed as fetuses to ZIKV at 8 days post-coitus were not smaller than controls. Nevertheless, infectious virus and ZIKV RNA was detected in some, but not all, placentas and fetal brains of KO hamsters. STAT2 KO hamsters may be useful for addressing sexual transmission, pathogenesis, routes of fetal infection, and neurological disease outcomes, and may also be used in antiviral or vaccine studies to identify intervention strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Sortilin 1 knockout alters basal adipose glucose metabolism but not diet-induced obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jibiao; Matye, David J; Wang, Yifeng; Li, Tiangang

    2017-04-01

    Sortilin 1 (Sort1) is a trafficking receptor that has been implicated in the regulation of plasma cholesterol in humans and mice. Here, we use metabolomics and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp approaches to obtain further understanding of the in vivo effects of Sort1 deletion on diet-induced obesity as well as on adipose lipid and glucose metabolism. Results show that Sort1 knockout (KO) does not affect Western diet-induced obesity nor adipose fatty acid and ceramide concentrations. Under the basal fasting state, chow-fed Sort1 KO mice have decreased adipose glycolytic metabolites, but Sort1 deletion does not affect insulin-stimulated tissue glucose uptake during the insulin clamp. These results suggest that Sort1 loss-of-function in vivo does not affect obesity development, but differentially modulates adipose glucose metabolism under fasting and insulin-stimulated states. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  17. Human androgen deficiency: insights gained from androgen receptor knockout mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Kesha; Davey, Rachel A; Zajac, Jeffrey D

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of androgen action is complex. Recently, significant advances have been made into our understanding of how androgens act via the androgen receptor (AR) through the use of genetically modified mouse models. A number of global and tissue-specific AR knockout (ARKO) models have been generated using the Cre-loxP system which allows tissue- and/or cell-specific deletion. These ARKO models have examined a number of sites of androgen action including the cardiovascular system, the immune and hemopoetic system, bone, muscle, adipose tissue, the prostate and the brain. This review focuses on the insights that have been gained into human androgen deficiency through the use of ARKO mouse models at each of these sites of action, and highlights the strengths and limitations of these Cre-loxP mouse models that should be considered to ensure accurate interpretation of the phenotype. PMID:24480924

  18. Nlgn4 knockout induces network hypo-excitability in juvenile mouse somatosensory cortex in vitro.

    PubMed

    Delattre, V; La Mendola, D; Meystre, J; Markram, H; Markram, K

    2013-10-09

    Neuroligins (Nlgns) are postsynaptic cell adhesion molecules that form transynaptic complexes with presynaptic neurexins and regulate synapse maturation and plasticity. We studied the impact of the loss of Nlgn4 on the excitatory and inhibitory circuits in somatosensory cortical slices of juvenile mice by electrically stimulating these circuits using a multi-electrode array and recording the synaptic input to single neurons using the patch-clamp technique. We detected a decreased network response to stimulation in both excitatory and inhibitory circuits of Nlgn4 knock-out animals as compared to wild-type controls, and a decreased excitation-inhibition ratio. These data indicate that Nlgn4 is involved in the regulation of excitatory and inhibitory circuits and contributes to a balanced circuit response to stimulation.

  19. Characterization of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus with a knockout of Bm17.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hongxing; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Wen; Nin, Bin; Wang, Hua; Wang, Xiaochun; Shao, Shihe; Chen, Huiqing; Guo, Zhongjian; Liu, Xiaoyong; Yao, Qin; Chen, Keping

    2012-12-01

    Open reading frame 17 (Bm17) gene of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus is a highly conserved gene in lepidopteran nucleopolyhedroviruses, but its function remains unknown. In this report, transient-expression and superinfection assays indicated that BM17 localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected BmN cells. To determine the role of Bm17 in baculovirus life cycle, we constructed a Bm17 knockout virus and characterized its properties in cells. Analysis of the production and infection of budded virions, the level of viral DNA replication revealed showed that there was no significant difference among the mutant, the control, and the Bm17 repaired virus strains. These results suggest that BM17 is not essential for virus replication in cultured cells.

  20. Efficient gene knock-out and knock-in with transgenic Cas9 in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhaoyu; Ren, Mengda; Wu, Menghua; Dai, Junbiao; Rong, Yikang S; Gao, Guanjun

    2014-03-21

    Bacterial Cas9 nuclease induces site-specific DNA breaks using small gRNA as guides. Cas9 has been successfully introduced into Drosophila for genome editing. Here, we improve the versatility of this method by developing a transgenic system that expresses Cas9 in the Drosophila germline. Using this system, we induced inheritable knock-out mutations by injecting only the gRNA into embryos, achieved highly efficient mutagenesis by expressing gRNA from the promoter of a novel non-coding RNA gene, and recovered homologous recombination-based knock-in of a fluorescent marker at a rate of 4.5% by co-injecting gRNA with a circular DNA donor. Copyright © 2014 Xue et al.

  1. Unilateral flank ovariohysterectomy in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Rozanska, D; Rozanski, P; Orzelski, M; Chlebicka, N; Putowska, K

    2016-11-01

    To describe a simple, minimally invasive method of ovariohysterectomy via a unilateral flank approach in guinea pigs, for use in routine desexing of healthy female guinea pigs or treatment of ovarian cysts. The subjects of this retrospective study were 41 client-owned guinea pigs submitted for routine desexing or treatment of ovarian cysts. They included 16 healthy female guinea pigs aged 8-12 months (Group 1), and 15 females aged from 9 months to 3 years (Group 2), and 10 females aged from 3 to 7 years (Group 3) with different-sized ovarian cysts. Prior to surgery, the animals received clinical examination, blood testing (complete blood count and serum biochemistry profile) and examination of the abdomen using ultrasonography, to assess the condition of the reproductive tract and ensure the guinea pigs were fit for surgery. Ovariohysterectomy was performed via a unilateral flank incision made close to the erector spinae muscle starting approximately 1 cm caudal to the last rib. Both ovaries, uterine horns, and the uterine cervix were localised, ligated, and dissected through this unilateral retroperitoneal incision. Ovariohysterectomy was successfully completed via a single flank incision in 38/41 (93%) guinea pigs. Three guinea pigs with ovarian cysts from Group 3, which were >6 years old died during surgery due to circulatory and respiratory failure under anaesthesia. In the remaining 38 cases, surgery proceeded without complications. A further two guinea pigs from Group 3 were reluctant to move or eat for the first 3 days after surgery but recovered after provision of supportive care. All 38 animals fully recovered and wound healing was normal. This is the first report of ovariohysterectomy via a unilateral flank incision in guinea pigs. This approach is a simple, minimally invasive and safe alternative to the midline or bilateral flank approaches currently used for surgery of the reproductive tract in guinea pigs.

  2. Possible introgression of the VRTN mutation increasing vertebral number, carcass length and teat number from Chinese pigs into European pigs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jie; Huang, Lusheng; Yang, Ming; Fan, Yin; Li, Lin; Fang, Shaoming; Deng, Wenjiang; Cui, Leilei; Zhang, Zhen; Ai, Huashui; Wu, Zhenfang; Gao, Jun; Ren, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Vertnin (VRTN) variants have been associated with the number of thoracic vertebrae in European pigs, but the association has not been evidenced in Chinese indigenous pigs. In this study, we first performed a genome-wide association study in Chinese Erhualian pigs using one VRTN candidate causative mutation and the Illumina Porcine 60K SNP Beadchips. The VRTN mutation is significantly associated with thoracic vertebral number in this population. We further show that the VRTN mutation has pleiotropic and desirable effects on teat number and carcass (body) length across four diverse populations, including Erhualian, White Duroc × Erhualian F2 population, Duroc and Landrace pigs. No association was observed between VRTN genotype and growth and fatness traits in these populations. Therefore, testing for the VRTN mutation in pig breeding schemes would not only increase the number of vertebrae and nipples, but also enlarge body size without undesirable effects on growth and fatness traits, consequently improving pork production. Further, by using whole-genome sequence data, we show that the VRTN mutation was possibly introgressed from Chinese pigs into European pigs. Our results provide another example showing that introgressed Chinese genes greatly contributed to the development and production of modern European pig breeds. PMID:26781738

  3. Assessment of Domestic Pigs, Wild Boars and Feral Hybrid Pigs as Reservoirs of Hepatitis E Virus in Corsica, France.

    PubMed

    Jori, Ferran; Laval, Morgane; Maestrini, Oscar; Casabianca, François; Charrier, François; Pavio, Nicole

    2016-08-20

    In Corsica, extensive pig breeding systems allow frequent interactions between wild boars and domestic pigs, which are suspected to act as reservoirs of several zoonotic diseases including hepatitis E virus (HEV). In this context, 370 sera and 166 liver samples were collected from phenotypically characterized as pure or hybrid wild boars, between 2009 and 2012. In addition, serum and liver from 208 domestic pigs belonging to 30 farms were collected at the abattoir during the end of 2013. Anti-HEV antibodies were detected in 26% (21%-31.6%) of the pure wild boar, 43.5% (31%-56.7%) of hybrid wild boar and 88% (82.6%-91.9%) of the domestic pig sera. In addition, HEV RNA was detected in five wild boars, three hybrid wild boars and two domestic pig livers tested. Our findings provide evidence that both domestic pig and wild boar (pure and hybrid) act as reservoirs of HEV in Corsica, representing an important zoonotic risk for Corsican hunters and farmers but also for the large population of consumers of raw pig liver specialties produced in Corsica. In addition, hybrid wild boars seem to play an important ecological role in the dissemination of HEV between domestic pig and wild boar populations, unnoticed to date, that deserves further investigation.

  4. Antibiotic resistance and molecular characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from backyard-raised pigs and pig workers.

    PubMed

    Momoh, Asabe Halimat; Kwaga, Jacob K P; Bello, Mohammed; Sackey, Anthony K B; Larsen, Anders Rhod

    2018-04-19

    Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal and pathogenic bacterium with impact on public health and livestock industry. The study investigated nasal carriage, antibiotic resistance, and molecular characterization of S. aureus in pigs and pig workers. Nasal swabs from 300 backyard-raised pigs and 101 pig workers were used for the study. Resulting isolates were confirmed using MALDI-TOF MS, tested for antibiotic resistance, and three different multiplex PCRs were used to detect enterotoxin, mecA, spaA, scn, and pvl genes. spa typing was used to annotate the isolates into MLST clonal complexes (CC). Structured questionnaire was used to access possible risk factors for S. aureus carriage. The prevalence of S. aureus in pigs and pig workers were 5.3 and 12.9%, respectively. The isolates were resistant to beta-lactams (97%), tetracycline (62%), sulfonamide (52%), aminoglycoside (20.6%), fluoroquinolone (24%), and mupirocin (3.4%). Twenty seven (93%) of the isolates carried scn, 7(24%) pvl, and 12 (41%) enterotoxin genes, respectively. Questionnaire survey showed medical-related occupation of household members was associated (p < 0.5) with S. aureus carriage. This study suggests the presence of human multidrug resistant strains of S. aureus, high carriage of pvl, and enterotoxin genes, and CC5, CC15, and CC152 were the CC-groups shared among pigs and pig workers.

  5. 12/15-Lipoxygenase Inhibition or Knockout Reduces Warfarin-Associated Hemorrhagic Transformation After Experimental Stroke.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Zheng, Yi; Karatas, Hulya; Wang, Xiaoying; Foerch, Christian; Lo, Eng H; van Leyen, Klaus

    2017-02-01

    For stroke prevention, patients with atrial fibrillation typically receive oral anticoagulation. The commonly used anticoagulant warfarin increases the risk of hemorrhagic transformation (HT) when a stroke occurs; tissue-type plasminogen activator treatment is therefore restricted in these patients. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) inhibition would reduce HT in warfarin-treated mice subjected to experimental stroke. Warfarin was dosed orally in drinking water, and international normalized ratio values were determined using a Coaguchek device. C57BL6J mice or 12/15-LOX knockout mice were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion with 3 hours severe ischemia (model A) or 2 hours ischemia and tissue-type plasminogen activator infusion (model B), with or without the 12/15-LOX inhibitor ML351. Hemoglobin was determined in brain homogenates, and hemorrhage areas on the brain surface and in brain sections were measured. 12/15-LOX expression was detected by immunohistochemistry. Warfarin treatment resulted in reproducible increased international normalized ratio values and significant HT in both models. 12/15-LOX knockout mice suffered less HT after severe ischemia, and ML351 reduced HT in wild-type mice. When normalized to infarct size, ML351 still independently reduced hemorrhage. HT after tissue-type plasminogen activator was similarly reduced by ML351. In addition to its benefits in infarct size reduction, 12/15-LOX inhibition also may independently reduce HT in warfarin-treated mice. ML351 should be further evaluated as stroke treatment in anticoagulated patients suffering a stroke, either alone or in conjunction with tissue-type plasminogen activator. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Knockout of NMDA receptors in parvalbumin interneurons recreates autism-like phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Saunders, John A; Tatard-Leitman, Valerie M; Suh, Jimmy; Billingslea, Eddie N; Roberts, Timothy P; Siegel, Steven J

    2013-04-01

    Autism is a disabling neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social deficits, language impairment, and repetitive behaviors with few effective treatments. New evidence suggests that autism has reliable electrophysiological endophenotypes and that these measures may be caused by n-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) disruption on parvalbumin (PV)-containing interneurons. These findings could be used to create new translational biomarkers. Recent developments have allowed for cell-type selective knockout of NMDARs in order to examine the perturbations caused by disrupting specific circuits. This study examines several electrophysiological and behavioral measures disrupted in autism using a PV-selective reduction in NMDA R1 subunit. Mouse electroencephalograph (EEG) was recorded in response to auditory stimuli. Event-related potential (ERP) component amplitude and latency analysis, social testing, and premating ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) recordings were performed. Correlations were examined between the ERP latency and behavioral measures. The N1 ERP latency was delayed, sociability was reduced, and mating USVs were impaired in PV-selective NMDA Receptor 1 Knockout (NR1 KO) as compared with wild-type mice. There was a significant correlation between N1 latency and sociability but not between N1 latency and premating USV power or T-maze performance. The increases in N1 latency, impaired sociability, and reduced vocalizations in PV-selective NR1 KO mice mimic similar changes found in autism. Electrophysiological changes correlate to reduced sociability, indicating that the local circuit mechanisms controlling N1 latency may be utilized in social function. Therefore, we propose that behavioral and electrophysiological alterations in PV-selective NR1 KO mice may serve as a useful model for therapeutic development in autism. Autism Res 2013, 6: 69-77. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International Society for

  7. Parkin Knockout Inhibits Neuronal Development via Regulation of Proteasomal Degradation of p21.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi Hee; Lee, Hwa-Jeong; Lee, Hye Lim; Son, Dong Ju; Ju, Jung Hoon; Hyun, Byung Kook; Jung, Sung Hee; Song, Ju-Kyoung; Lee, Dong Hun; Hwang, Chul Ju; Han, Sang Bae; Kim, Sanghyeon; Hong, Jin Tae

    2017-01-01

    PARK2 encodes for the E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin and is implicated in the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the neuroprotective role of parkin is well known, the mechanism of PARK2's function in neural stem differentiation has not yet been thoroughly studied. Co-expressions network analysis showed that synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were positively correlated with parkin, but negatively correlated with p21 in human patient brain. We investigated a link between the ubiquitin E3 ligase parkin and proteasomal degradation of p21 for the control of neural stem cell differentiation. We found that the neurogenesis was lowered in PARK2 knockout (KO) mice compared with non-tg mice. Expression of the marker protein for neural cell differentiation such as class III beta tubulin (TUBBIII), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neurofilament, as well as SNAP25 and BDNF, was down regulated in PARK2 KO mice. Associated with the loss of differentiation function, p21 protein was highly accumulated in the neural stem cells of PARK2 KO mice. We discovered that p21 directly binds with parkin and is ubiquitinated by parkin which resulted in the loss of cell differentiation ability. Introduction of p21 shRNA in PARK2 KO mice significantly rescued the differentiation efficacy as well as SNAP25 and BDNF expression. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway is implicated in neurogenesis and p21 degradation. We also defined the decreased p21 ubiquitination and differentiation ability were reversed after treatment with JNK inhibitor, SP600125 in PARK2 KO mice derived neural stem cells. Thus, the present study indicated that parkin knockout inhibits neural stem cell differentiation by JNK-dependent proteasomal degradation of p21.

  8. The Trace Amine 1 receptor knockout mouse: an animal model with relevance to schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wolinsky, T D; Swanson, C J; Smith, K E; Zhong, H; Borowsky, B; Seeman, P; Branchek, T; Gerald, C P

    2007-10-01

    Trace amines have been implicated in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders including depression and schizophrenia. Although long known to modulate neurotransmission indirectly through the release of catecholamines, the identification of the Trace Amine 1 receptor (TA1) offers a mechanism by which trace amines can influence synaptic activity directly. TA1 binds and is activated by trace amines such as beta-phenylethylamine and tyramine. Our pharmacological characterization of mouse TA1 showed that, as in rat and primate, amphetamine is an agonist at this receptor but with surprisingly high potency. Without selective ligands for TA1 that do not also possess catecholamine-releasing properties, however, it has not been possible to study its physiological role in the central nervous system. To that end, a line of mice lacking the TA1 receptor was generated to characterize its contribution to the regulation of behavior. Compared with wild-type littermates, TA1 knockout (KO) mice displayed a deficit in prepulse inhibition. Knockout animals, in which the TA1-agonist influence of amphetamine was absent, showed enhanced sensitivity to the psychomotor-stimulating effect of this drug, which was temporally correlated with significantly larger increases in the release of both dopamine and norepinephrine in the dorsal striatum and associated with a 262% increase in the proportion of striatal high-affinity D2 receptors. TA1 therefore appears to play a modulatory role in catecholaminergic function and represents a potentially novel mechanism for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. Furthermore, the TA1 KO mouse may provide a useful model for the development of treatments for some positive symptoms of schizophrenia.

  9. Use of Natural Transformation To Establish an Easy Knockout Method in Riemerella anatipestifer.

    PubMed

    Liu, MaFeng; Zhang, Li; Huang, Li; Biville, Francis; Zhu, DeKang; Wang, MingShu; Jia, RenYong; Chen, Shun; Sun, KunFeng; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Chen, XiaoYue; Cheng, AnChun

    2017-05-01

    Riemerella anatipestifer is a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae and a major causative agent of duck serositis. Little is known about its genetics and pathogenesis. Several bacteria are competent for natural transformation; however, whether R. anatipestifer is also competent for natural transformation has not been investigated. Here, we showed that R. anatipestifer strain ATCC 11845 can uptake the chromosomal DNA of R. anatipestifer strain RA-CH-1 in all growth phases. Subsequently, a natural transformation-based knockout method was established for R. anatipestifer ATCC 11845. Targeted mutagenesis gave transformation frequencies of ∼10 -5 transformants. Competition assay experiments showed that R. anatipestifer ATCC 11845 preferentially took up its own DNA rather than heterogeneous DNA, such as Escherichia coli DNA. Transformation was less efficient with the shuttle plasmid pLMF03 (transformation frequencies of ∼10 -9 transformants). However, the efficiency of transformation was increased approximately 100-fold using pLMF03 derivatives containing R. anatipestifer DNA fragments (transformation frequencies of ∼10 -7 transformants). Finally, we found that the R. anatipestifer RA-CH-1 strain was also naturally transformable, suggesting that natural competence is widely applicable for this species. The findings described here provide important tools for the genetic manipulation of R. anatipestifer IMPORTANCE Riemerella anatipestifer is an important duck pathogen that belongs to the family Flavobacteriaceae At least 21 different serotypes have been identified. Genetic diversity has been demonstrated among these serotypes. The genetic and pathogenic mechanisms of R. anatipestifer remain largely unknown because no genetic tools are available for this bacterium. At present, natural transformation has been found in some bacteria but not in R. anatipestifer For the first time, we showed that natural transformation occurred in R. anatipestifer ATCC 11845 and R

  10. Parkin Knockout Inhibits Neuronal Development via Regulation of Proteasomal Degradation of p21

    PubMed Central

    Park, Mi Hee; Lee, Hwa-Jeong; Lee, Hye Lim; Son, Dong Ju; Ju, Jung Hoon; Hyun, Byung Kook; Jung, Sung Hee; Song, Ju-Kyoung; Lee, Dong Hun; Hwang, Chul Ju; Han, Sang Bae; Kim, Sanghyeon; Hong, Jin Tae

    2017-01-01

    PARK2 encodes for the E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin and is implicated in the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the neuroprotective role of parkin is well known, the mechanism of PARK2's function in neural stem differentiation has not yet been thoroughly studied. Co-expressions network analysis showed that synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were positively correlated with parkin, but negatively correlated with p21 in human patient brain. We investigated a link between the ubiquitin E3 ligase parkin and proteasomal degradation of p21 for the control of neural stem cell differentiation. We found that the neurogenesis was lowered in PARK2 knockout (KO) mice compared with non-tg mice. Expression of the marker protein for neural cell differentiation such as class III beta tubulin (TUBBIII), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neurofilament, as well as SNAP25 and BDNF, was down regulated in PARK2 KO mice. Associated with the loss of differentiation function, p21 protein was highly accumulated in the neural stem cells of PARK2 KO mice. We discovered that p21 directly binds with parkin and is ubiquitinated by parkin which resulted in the loss of cell differentiation ability. Introduction of p21 shRNA in PARK2 KO mice significantly rescued the differentiation efficacy as well as SNAP25 and BDNF expression. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway is implicated in neurogenesis and p21 degradation. We also defined the decreased p21 ubiquitination and differentiation ability were reversed after treatment with JNK inhibitor, SP600125 in PARK2 KO mice derived neural stem cells. Thus, the present study indicated that parkin knockout inhibits neural stem cell differentiation by JNK-dependent proteasomal degradation of p21. PMID:28656059

  11. Remodeling of repolarization and arrhythmia susceptibility in a myosin-binding protein C knockout mouse model.

    PubMed

    Toib, Amir; Zhang, Chen; Borghetti, Giulia; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Wallner, Markus; Yang, Yijun; Troupes, Constantine D; Kubo, Hajime; Sharp, Thomas E; Feldsott, Eric; Berretta, Remus M; Zalavadia, Neil; Trappanese, Danielle M; Harper, Shavonn; Gross, Polina; Chen, Xiongwen; Mohsin, Sadia; Houser, Steven R

    2017-09-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is one of the most common genetic cardiac diseases and among the leading causes of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the young. The cellular mechanisms leading to SCD in HCM are not well known. Prolongation of the action potential (AP) duration (APD) is a common feature predisposing hypertrophied hearts to SCD. Previous studies have explored the roles of inward Na + and Ca 2+ in the development of HCM, but the role of repolarizing K + currents has not been defined. The objective of this study was to characterize the arrhythmogenic phenotype and cellular electrophysiological properties of mice with HCM, induced by myosin-binding protein C (MyBPC) knockout (KO), and to test the hypothesis that remodeling of repolarizing K + currents causes APD prolongation in MyBPC KO myocytes. We demonstrated that MyBPC KO mice developed severe hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction compared with wild-type (WT) control mice. Telemetric electrocardiographic recordings of awake mice revealed prolongation of the corrected QT interval in the KO compared with WT control mice, with overt ventricular arrhythmias. Whole cell current- and voltage-clamp experiments comparing KO with WT mice demonstrated ventricular myocyte hypertrophy, AP prolongation, and decreased repolarizing K + currents. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed decreased mRNA levels of several key K + channel subunits. In conclusion, decrease in repolarizing K + currents in MyBPC KO ventricular myocytes contributes to AP and corrected QT interval prolongation and could account for the arrhythmia susceptibility. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Ventricular myocytes isolated from the myosin-binding protein C knockout hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mouse model demonstrate decreased repolarizing K + currents and action potential and QT interval prolongation, linking cellular repolarization abnormalities with arrhythmia susceptibility and the risk for sudden cardiac death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2017

  12. Whirlin Replacement Restores the Formation of the USH2 Protein Complex in Whirlin Knockout Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Junhuang; Luo, Ling; Shen, Zuolian; Chiodo, Vince A.; Ambati, Balamurali K.; Hauswirth, William W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Whirlin is the causative gene for Usher syndrome type IID (USH2D), a condition manifested as both retinitis pigmentosa and congenital deafness. Mutations in this gene cause disruption of the USH2 protein complex composed of USH2A and VLGR1 at the periciliary membrane complex (PMC) in photoreceptors. In this study, the adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated whirlin replacement was evaluated as a treatment option. Methods. Murine whirlin cDNA driven by the human rhodopsin kinase promoter (hRK) was packaged as an AAV2/5 vector and delivered into the whirlin knockout retina through subretinal injection. The efficiency, efficacy, and safety of this treatment were examined using immunofluorescent staining, confocal imaging, immunoelectron microscopy, Western blot analysis, histologic analysis, and electroretinogram. Results. The AAV-mediated whirlin expression started at two weeks, reached its maximum level at 10 weeks, and lasted up to six months post injection. The transgenic whirlin product had a molecular size and an expression level comparable to the wild-type. It was distributed at the PMC in both rod and cone photoreceptors from the central to peripheral retina. Importantly, the transgenic whirlin restored the cellular localization and expression level of both USH2A and VLGR1 and did not cause defects in the retinal histology and function in the whirlin knockout mouse. Conclusions. Whirlin transgene recruits USH2A and VLGR1 to the PMC and is sufficient for the formation of the USH2 protein complex in photoreceptors. The combined hRK and AAV gene delivery system could be an effective gene therapy approach to treat retinal degeneration in USH2D patients. PMID:21212183

  13. Conditional N-WASP knockout in mouse brain implicates actin cytoskeleton regulation in hydrocephalus pathology.

    PubMed

    Jain, Neeraj; Lim, Lee Wei; Tan, Wei Ting; George, Bhawana; Makeyev, Eugene; Thanabalu, Thirumaran

    2014-04-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced by the choroid plexus and moved by multi-ciliated ependymal cells through the ventricular system of the vertebrate brain. Defects in the ependymal layer functionality are a common cause of hydrocephalus. N-WASP (Neural-Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Protein) is a brain-enriched regulator of actin cytoskeleton and N-WASP knockout caused embryonic lethality in mice with neural tube and cardiac abnormalities. To shed light on the role of N-WASP in mouse brain development, we generated N-WASP conditional knockout mouse model N-WASP(fl/fl); Nestin-Cre (NKO-Nes). NKO-Nes mice were born with Mendelian ratios but exhibited reduced growth characteristics compared to their littermates containing functional N-WASP alleles. Importantly, all NKO-Nes mice developed cranial deformities due to excessive CSF accumulation and did not survive past weaning. Coronal brain sections of these animals revealed dilated lateral ventricles, defects in ciliogenesis, loss of ependymal layer integrity, reduced thickness of cerebral cortex and aqueductal stenosis. Immunostaining for N-cadherin suggests that ependymal integrity in NKO-Nes mice is lost as compared to normal morphology in the wild-type controls. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy and immunofluorescence analyses of coronal brain sections with anti-acetylated tubulin antibodies revealed the absence of cilia in ventricular walls of NKO-Nes mice indicative of ciliogenesis defects. N-WASP deficiency does not lead to altered expression of N-WASP regulatory proteins, Fyn and Cdc42, which have been previously implicated in hydrocephalus pathology. Taken together, our results suggest that N-WASP plays a critical role in normal brain development and implicate actin cytoskeleton regulation as a vulnerable axis frequently deregulated in hydrocephalus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Aggravated brain damage after hypoxic ischemia in immature adenosine A2A knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Adén, Ulrika; Halldner, Linda; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Dalmau, Ishar; Ledent, Catherine; Fredholm, Bertil B

    2003-03-01

    Cerebral hypoxic ischemia (HI) is an important cause of brain injury in the newborn infant. Adenosine is believed to protect against HI brain damage. However, the roles of the different adenosine receptors are unclear, particularly in young animals. We examined the role of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) using 7-day-old A2A knockout (A2AR(-/-)) mice in a model of HI. HI was induced in 7-day-old CD1 mice by exposure to 8% oxygen for 30 minutes after occlusion of the left common carotid artery. The resulting unilateral focal lesion was evaluated with the use of histopathological scoring and measurements of residual brain areas at 5 days, 3 weeks, and 3 months after HI. Behavioral evaluation of brain injury by locomotor activity, rotarod, and beam-walking test was made 3 weeks and 3 months after HI. Cortical cerebral blood flow, assessed by laser-Doppler flowmetry, and rectal temperature were measured during HI. Reduction in cortical cerebral blood flow during HI and rectal temperature did not differ between wild-type (A2AR(+/+)) and knockout mice. In the A2AR(-/-) animals, brain injury was aggravated compared with wild-type mice. The A2AR(-/-) mice subjected to HI displayed increased forward locomotion and impaired rotarod performance in adulthood compared with A2AR(+/+) mice subjected to HI, whereas beam-walking performance was similarly defective in both groups. These results suggest that, in contrast to the situation in adult animals, A2AR play an important protective role in neonatal HI brain injury.

  15. Inference of gene regulatory networks from genome-wide knockout fitness data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liming; Wang, Xiaodong; Arkin, Adam P.; Samoilov, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Genome-wide fitness is an emerging type of high-throughput biological data generated for individual organisms by creating libraries of knockouts, subjecting them to broad ranges of environmental conditions, and measuring the resulting clone-specific fitnesses. Since fitness is an organism-scale measure of gene regulatory network behaviour, it may offer certain advantages when insights into such phenotypical and functional features are of primary interest over individual gene expression. Previous works have shown that genome-wide fitness data can be used to uncover novel gene regulatory interactions, when compared with results of more conventional gene expression analysis. Yet, to date, few algorithms have been proposed for systematically using genome-wide mutant fitness data for gene regulatory network inference. Results: In this article, we describe a model and propose an inference algorithm for using fitness data from knockout libraries to identify underlying gene regulatory networks. Unlike most prior methods, the presented approach captures not only structural, but also dynamical and non-linear nature of biomolecular systems involved. A state–space model with non-linear basis is used for dynamically describing gene regulatory networks. Network structure is then elucidated by estimating unknown model parameters. Unscented Kalman filter is used to cope with the non-linearities introduced in the model, which also enables the algorithm to run in on-line mode for practical use. Here, we demonstrate that the algorithm provides satisfying results for both synthetic data as well as empirical measurements of GAL network in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and TyrR–LiuR network in bacteria Shewanella oneidensis. Availability: MATLAB code and datasets are available to download at http://www.duke.edu/∼lw174/Fitness.zip and http://genomics.lbl.gov/supplemental/fitness-bioinf/ Contact: wangx@ee.columbia.edu or mssamoilov@lbl.gov Supplementary information

  16. Dysregulation of Uterine Signaling Pathways in Progesterone Receptor-Cre Knockout of Dicer

    PubMed Central

    Andreu-Vieyra, Claudia V.; Kim, Tae Hoon; Jeong, Jae-Wook; Hodgson, Myles C.; Chen, Ruihong; Creighton, Chad J.; Lydon, John P.; Gunaratne, Preethi H.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial-stromal interactions in the uterus are required for normal uterine functions such as pregnancy, and multiple signaling pathways are essential for this process. Although Dicer and microRNA (miRNA) have been implicated in several reproductive processes, the specific roles of Dicer and miRNA in uterine development are not known. To address the roles of miRNA in the regulation of key uterine pathways, we generated a conditional knockout of Dicer in the postnatal uterine epithelium and stroma using progesterone receptor-Cre. These Dicer conditional knockout females are sterile with small uteri, which demonstrate significant defects, including absence of glandular epithelium and enhanced stromal apoptosis, beginning at approximately postnatal d 15, with coincident expression of Cre and deletion of Dicer. Specific miRNA (miR-181c, −200b, −101, let-7d) were down-regulated and corresponding predicted proapoptotic target genes (Bcl2l11, Aldh1a3) were up-regulated, reflecting the apoptotic phenomenon. Although these mice had normal serum hormone levels, critical uterine signaling pathways, including progesterone-responsive genes, Indian hedgehog signaling, and the Wnt/β-catenin canonical pathway, were dysregulated at the mRNA level. Importantly, uterine stromal cell proliferation in response to progesterone was absent, whereas uterine epithelial cell proliferation in response to estradiol was maintained in adult uteri. These data implicate Dicer and appropriate miRNA expression as essential players in the regulation of multiple uterine signaling pathways required for uterine development and appropriate function. PMID:22798293

  17. Progressive hearing loss and degeneration of hair cell stereocilia in taperin gene knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Mo; Wang, Qin; Zhu, Gang-Hua

    The TPRN gene encodes taperin, which is prominently present at the taper region of hair cell stereocilia. Mutations in TPRN have been reported to cause autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness 79(DFNB 79). To investigate the role of taperin in pathogenesis of hearing loss, we generated TPRN knockout mice using TALEN technique. Sanger sequencing confirmed an 11 bp deletion at nucleotide 177–187 in exon 1 of TPRN, which results in a truncated form of taperin protein. Heterozygous TPRN{sup +/−} mice showed apparently normal auditory phenotypes to their wide-type (WT) littermates. Homozygous TPRN{sup −/−} mice exhibited progressive sensorineural hearing loss as reflected bymore » auditory brainstem response to both click and tone burst stimuli at postnatal days 15 (P15), 30 (P30), and 60 (P60). Alex Fluor-594 phalloidin labeling showed no obvious difference in hair cell numbers in the cochlea between TPRN{sup −/−} mice and WT mice under light microscope. However, scanning electronic microscopy revealed progressive degeneration of inner hair cell stereocilia, from apparently normal at postnatal days 3 (P3) to scattered absence at P15 and further to substantial loss at P30. The outer hair cell stereocilia also showed progressive degeneration, though much less severe, Collectively, we conclude that taperin plays an important role in maintenance of hair cell stereocilia. Establishment of TPRN knockout mice enables further investigation into the function of this gene. - Highlights: • TPRN{sup −/−} mice were generated using TALEN technique. • TPRN{sup −/−} mice presented progressive hearing loss. • WT and TPRN{sup −/−} mice showed no difference in hair cell numbers. • TPRN{sup −/−} mice showed progressive degeneration of hair cell stereocilia.« less

  18. Adiponectin knockout accentuates high fat diet-induced obesity and cardiac dysfunction: role of autophagy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Zhang, Yingmei; Turdi, Subat; Ren, Jun

    2013-08-01

    Adiponectin (APN), an adipose-derived adipokine, offers cardioprotective effects although the precise mechanism of action remains unclear. This study was designed to examine the role of APN in high fat diet-induced obesity and cardiac pathology. Adult C57BL/6 wild-type and APN knockout mice were fed a low or high fat diet for 22weeks. After 40day feeding, mice were treated with 2mg/kg rapamycin or vehicle every other day for 42days on respective fat diet. Cardiomyocyte contractile and Ca(2+) transient properties were evaluated. Myocardial function was evaluated using echocardiography. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to evaluate adiposity. Energy expenditure, metabolic rate and physical activity were monitored using a metabolic cage. Lipid deposition, serum triglyceride, glucose tolerance, markers of autophagy and fatty acid metabolism including LC3, p62, Beclin-1, AMPK, mTOR, fatty acid synthase (FAS) were evaluated. High fat diet intake induced obesity, systemic glucose intolerance, cardiac hypertrophy, dampened metabolic ability, cardiac and intracellular Ca(2+) derangements, the effects of which were accentuated by APN knockout. Furthermore, APN deficiency augmented high fat diet-induced upregulation in the autophagy adaptor p62 and the decline in AMPK without affecting high fat diet-induced decrease in LC3II and LC3II-to-LC3I ratio. Neither high fat diet nor APN deficiency altered Beclin-1. Interestingly, rapamycin negated high fat diet-induced/APN-deficiency-accentuated obesity, cardiac hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction as well as AMPK dephosphorylation, mTOR phosphorylation and p62 buildup. Our results collectively revealed that APN deficiency may aggravate high fat diet-induced obesity, metabolic derangement, cardiac hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction possibly through decreased myocardial autophagy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Magel2 knockout mice manifest altered social phenotypes and a deficit in preference for social novelty.

    PubMed

    Fountain, M D; Tao, H; Chen, C-A; Yin, J; Schaaf, C P

    2017-07-01

    MAGEL2 is one of five protein-coding, maternally imprinted, paternally expressed genes in the Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS)-critical domain on chromosome 15q11-q13. Truncating pathogenic variants of MAGEL2 cause Schaaf-Yang syndrome (SHFYNG) (OMIM #615547), a neurodevelopmental disorder related to PWS. Affected individuals manifest a spectrum of neurocognitive and behavioral phenotypes, including intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Magel2 knockout mice carrying a maternally inherited, imprinted wild-type (WT) allele and a paternally inherited Magel2-lacZ knock-in allele, which abolishes endogenous Magel2 gene function, exhibit several features reminiscent of the human Prader-Willi phenotypes, including neonatal growth retardation, excessive weight gain after weaning and increased adiposity in adulthood. They were shown to have altered circadian rhythm, reduced motor activity and reduced fertility. An extensive assessment for autism-like behaviors in this mouse model was warranted, because of the high prevalence of ASD in human patients. The behavior of Magel2 knockout mice and their WT littermates were assayed via open field, elevated plus maze, tube, three-chamber and partition tests. Our studies confirm decreased horizontal activity of male and female mice and increased vertical activity of females, in the open field. Both sexes spent more time in the open arm of the elevated plus maze, suggestive of reductions in anxiety. Both sexes displayed a lack of preference for social novelty, via a lack of discrimination between known and novel partners in the partition test. The in-depth investigation of behavioral profiles caused by Magel2 loss-of-function helps to elucidate the etiology of behavioral phenotypes both for SHFYNG and PWS in general. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  20. Construction of conditional acid ceramidase knockout mice and in vivo effects on oocyte development and fertility.

    PubMed

    Eliyahu, Efrat; Shtraizent, Nataly; Shalgi, Ruth; Schuchman, Edward H

    2012-01-01

    The number of resting follicles in the ovary and their successful maturation during development define the fertile female lifespan. Oocytes, enclosed within follicles, are subject to natural selection, and the majority will undergo apoptosis during prenatal life through adulthood. Our previous studies revealed high levels of the lipid hydrolase, acid ceramidase (AC), in human and mouse oocytes, follicular fluid and cumulus cells. In addition, supplementation of in vitro fertilization media with recombinant AC enhanced the survival of oocytes and preimplantation embryos. Herein we constructed and used a conditional knockout mouse model of AC deficiency (cACKO) to further investigate the role of this enzyme in oocyte survival in vivo. Immunohistochemical staining, activity assays, and western blot analysis revealed that AC expression was high in the ovaries of normal mice, particularly in the theca cells. After induction of the AC gene knockout with tamoxifen (TM), AC levels decreased in ovaries, and ceramide was correspondingly elevated. A novel immunostaining method was developed to visualize follicles at various stages, and together with light microscopic examination, the transition of the follicle from the secondary to antral stage was found to be defective in the absence of AC. Western blot analysis showed elevated BAX and PARP expression in TM-treated cACKO mouse ovaries compared to control animals. In parallel, the levels of BCL-2 and anti-Mullerian hormone, a marker of ovarian reserve, were decreased. In addition to the above, there was a significant decrease in fertility observed in the TM-treated cACKO mice. Together, these data suggest that AC plays an important role in the preservation of fertility by maintaining low ceramide levels and preventing apoptosis of theca cells, thereby promoting survival of the follicle during the transition from the secondary to antral stage. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. ATP-Sensitive K+ Channel Knockout Induces Cardiac Proteome Remodeling Predictive of Heart Disease Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Arrell, D. Kent; Zlatkovic, Jelena; Kane, Garvan C.; Yamada, Satsuki; Terzic, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Forecasting disease susceptibility requires detection of maladaptive signatures prior to onset of overt symptoms. A case-in-point are cardiac ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channelopathies, for which the substrate underlying disease vulnerability remains to be identified. Resolving molecular pathobiology, even for single genetic defects, mandates a systems platform to reliably diagnose disease predisposition. High-throughput proteomic analysis was here integrated with network biology to decode consequences of Kir6.2 KATP channel pore deletion. Differential two-dimensional gel electrophoresis reproducibly resolved > 800 protein species from hearts of asymptomatic wild-type and Kir6.2-knockout counterparts. KATP channel ablation remodeled the cardiac proteome, significantly altering 71 protein spots, from which 102 unique identities were assigned following hybrid linear ion trap quadrupole-Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry. Ontological annotation stratified the KATP channel-dependent protein cohort into a predominant bioenergetic module (63 resolved identities), with additional focused sets representing signaling molecules (6), oxidoreductases (8), chaperones (6), and proteins involved in catabolism (6), cytostructure (8), and transcription and translation (5). Protein interaction mapping, in conjunction with expression level changes, localized a KATP channel-associated subproteome within a nonstochastic scale-free network. Global assessment of the KATP channel deficient environment verified the primary impact on metabolic pathways and revealed overrepresentation of markers associated with cardiovascular disease. Experimental imposition of graded stress precipitated exaggerated structural and functional myocardial defects in the Kir6.2-knockout, decreasing survivorship and validating the forecast of disease susceptibility. Proteomic cartography thus provides an integral view of molecular remodeling in the heart induced by KATP channel deletion, establishing a systems

  2. Adiponectin knockout accentuates high fat diet-induced obesity and cardiac dysfunction: Role of autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rui; Zhang, Yingmei; Turdi, Subat; Ren, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin (APN), an adipose-derived adipokine, offers cardioprotective effects although the precise mechanism of action remains unclear. This study was designed to examine the role of APN in high fat diet-induced obesity and cardiac pathology. Adult C57BL/6 wild-type and APN knockout mice were fed a low or high fat diet for 22 weeks. After 40 day feeding, mice were treated with 2 mg/kg rapamycin or vehicle every other day for 42 days on respective fat diet. Cardiomyocyte contractile and Ca2+ transient properties were evaluated. Myocardial function was evaluated using echocardiography. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to evaluate adiposity. Energy expenditure, metabolic rate and physical activity were monitored using a metabolic cage. Lipid deposition, serum triglyceride, glucose tolerance, markers of autophagy and fatty acid metabolism including LC3, p62, Beclin-1, AMPK, mTOR, fatty acid synthase (FAS) were evaluated. High fat diet intake induced obesity, systemic glucose intolerance, cardiac hypertrophy, dampened metabolic ability, cardiac and intracellular Ca2+ derangements, the effects of which were accentuated by APN knockout. Furthermore, APN deficiency augmented high fat diet-induced upregulation in the autophagy adaptor p62 and the decline in AMPK without affecting high fat diet-induced decrease in LC3II and LC3II-to-LC3I ratio. Neither high fat diet nor APN deficiency altered Beclin-1. Interestingly, rapamycin negated high fat diet-induced/APN-deficiency-accentuated obesity, cardiac hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction as well as AMPK dephosphorylation, mTOR phosphorylation and p62 buildup. Our results collectively revealed that APN deficiency may aggravate high fat diet-induced obesity, metabolic derangement, cardiac hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction possibly through decreased myocardial autophagy. PMID:23524376

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic pigs in Durango State, Mexico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Little is known concerning the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs in Mexico. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 1,077 domestic pigs in Durango, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Two groups (A, B) of pigs were sampled: Group A pigs (n=555) were raised in 3 geo...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. 520....1044b Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of pig pump oral.... (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer 1.15 milliliters of pig pump oral solution (5 milligrams...

  5. 21 CFR 520.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. 520....1044b Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of pig pump oral.... (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer 1.15 milliliters of pig pump oral solution (5 milligrams...

  6. 21 CFR 520.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. 520....1044b Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of pig pump oral.... (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer 1.15 milliliters of pig pump oral solution (5 milligrams...

  7. 21 CFR 520.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. 520....1044b Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of pig pump oral.... (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer 1.15 milliliters of pig pump oral solution (5 milligrams...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. 520....1044b Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of pig pump oral.... (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer 1.15 milliliters of pig pump oral solution (5 milligrams...

  9. EFFECTS OF HEAT AND BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID ON MALE REPRODUCTION IN HEAT SHOCK FACTOR-1 GENE KNOCKOUT MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of heat and bromochloroacetic acid on male reproduction in heat shock factor-1 gene knockout mice.
    Luft JC1, IJ Benjamin2, JB Garges1 and DJ Dix1. 1Reproductive Toxicology Division, USEPA, RTP, NC, 27711 and 2Dept of Internal Medicine, Univ.of Texas Southwestern Med C...

  10. Linking cellular zinc status to body weight and fat mass: mapping quantitative trait loci in Znt7 knockout mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zinc transporter 7 (Znt7, Slc30a7) knockout (KO) mice display abnormalities in body weight gain and body adiposity. Regulation of body weight and fatness is complex, involving multiple genetic and environmental factors. To understand how zinc homeostasis influences body weight gain and fat deposit a...

  11. Ontogeny of brain and blood serotonin levels in 5-HT receptor knockout mice: potential relevance to the neurobiology of autism.

    PubMed

    Janusonis, Skirmantas; Anderson, George M; Shifrovich, Ilya; Rakic, Pasko

    2006-11-01

    The most consistent neurochemical finding in autism has been elevated group mean levels of blood platelet 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin). The origin and significance of this platelet hyperserotonemia remain poorly understood. The 5-HT(1A) receptor plays important roles in the developing brain and is also expressed in the gut, the main source of platelet 5-HT. Post-natal tissue levels of 5-HT, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and tryptophan were examined in the brain, duodenum and blood of 5-HT(1A) receptor-knockout and wild-type mice. At 3 days after birth, the knockout mice had lower mean brain 5-HT levels and normal mean platelet 5-HT levels. Also, at 3 days after birth, the mean tryptophan levels in the brain, duodenum and blood of the knockout mice were around 30% lower than those of the wild-type mice. By 2 weeks after birth, the mean brain 5-HT levels of the knockout mice normalized, but their mean platelet 5-HT levels became 24% higher than normal. The possible causes of these dynamic shifts were explored by examining correlations between central and peripheral levels of 5-HT, 5-HIAA and tryptophan. The results are discussed in relation to the possible role of 5-HT in the ontogeny of autism.

  12. Evaluation of cimi-shield knock-out bed bug eliminator against house fly (Musca domestica) adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cimi-Shield Knock-Out (CSKO) Bed Bug Eliminator is a green treatment labeled for use against bed bugs, carpet beetles, ants, roaches, fleas, ticks, silverfish, millipedes and centipedes. The active ingredient is soybean oil. If CSKO is formulated according to label instructions and sprayed directly ...

  13. TERATOGENIC RESPONSES OF TGFALPHA KNOCKOUT FETUSES TO 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABBOTT1, B.D., A.R. BUCKALEW1, and P.L. BRYANT2. 1Reproductive Toxicology Division, EPA, RAP, NC; 2Dept. Environ. Sciences & Engineering, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC. Teratogenic responses of TGF knockout fetuses to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD).

    TCDD induces cl...

  14. [Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-19 in the human cornea. Wound healing in the MMP-19 knock-out mouse model].

    PubMed

    Treumer, F; Flöhr, C; Klettner, A; Nölle, B; Roider, J

    2010-07-01

    At present there are no data in the literature on the expression of matrix metalloprotein-19 in the human cornea. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-19 in the human cornea and to investigate its potential role in corneal wound healing using a MMP-19 knock-out mouse model. A method with Western blotting and immunohistological staining for MMP-19 was performed using paraffin embedded human corneas. Excimer laser keratectomy was performed in wild type (wt) and MMP-19 knock-out (ko) mice and the rate of re-epithelialization was analyzed after 8 h and 18 h. MMP-19 was strongly expressed in the human corneal epithelium mainly in the basal cell layer. MMP-19 was not expressed in the corneal stroma. In the mouse model the size of the corneal lesion after 8 h was 83% (wt) and 89.9% (ko) of the initial area (p=0.09). After 18 h the lesion was 17% (wt) and 13.3% (ko) of the initial area (p=0.01). Laminin-5 was expressed in the migrating epithelial cells with no differences between wild type and knock-out mouse. MMP-19 showed a strong expression in the basal cells of the human corneal epithelium. Corneal re-epithelialization was slightly faster in the MMP-19 knock-out mouse. No differences in the expression of laminin-5 could be detected.

  15. Proteome analysis of a hepatocyte-specific BIRC5 (survivin)-knockout mouse model during liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Bracht, Thilo; Hagemann, Sascha; Loscha, Marius; Megger, Dominik A; Padden, Juliet; Eisenacher, Martin; Kuhlmann, Katja; Meyer, Helmut E; Baba, Hideo A; Sitek, Barbara

    2014-06-06

    The Baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein 5 (BIRC5), also known as inhibitor of apoptosis protein survivin, is a member of the chromosomal passenger complex and a key player in mitosis. To investigate the function of BIRC5 in liver regeneration, we analyzed a hepatocyte-specific BIRC5-knockout mouse model using a quantitative label-free proteomics approach. Here, we present the analyses of the proteome changes in hepatocyte-specific BIRC5-knockout mice compared to wildtype mice, as well as proteome changes during liver regeneration induced by partial hepatectomy in wildtype mice and mice lacking hepatic BIRC5, respectively. The BIRC5-knockout mice showed an extensive overexpression of proteins related to cellular maintenance, organization and protein synthesis. Key regulators of cell growth, transcription and translation MTOR and STAT1/STAT2 were found to be overexpressed. During liver regeneration proteome changes representing a response to the mitotic stimulus were detected in wildtype mice. Mainly proteins corresponding to proliferation, cell cycle and cytokinesis were up-regulated. The hepatocyte-specific BIRC5-knockout mice showed impaired liver regeneration, which had severe consequences on the proteome level. However, several proteins with function in mitosis were found to be up-regulated upon the proliferative stimulus. Our results show that the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase UHRF1 is strongly up-regulated during liver regeneration independently of BIRC5.

  16. CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene knockout in primary human airway epithelial cells reveals a proinflammatory role for MUC18.

    PubMed

    Chu, H W; Rios, C; Huang, C; Wesolowska-Andersen, A; Burchard, E G; O'Connor, B P; Fingerlin, T E; Nichols, D; Reynolds, S D; Seibold, M A

    2015-10-01

    Targeted knockout of genes in primary human cells using CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome-editing represents a powerful approach to study gene function and to discern molecular mechanisms underlying complex human diseases. We used lentiviral delivery of CRISPR-Cas9 machinery and conditional reprogramming culture methods to knockout the MUC18 gene in human primary nasal airway epithelial cells (AECs). Massively parallel sequencing technology was used to confirm that the genome of essentially all cells in the edited AEC populations contained coding region insertions and deletions (indels). Correspondingly, we found mRNA expression of MUC18 was greatly reduced and protein expression was absent. Characterization of MUC18 knockout cell populations stimulated with TLR2, 3 and 4 agonists revealed that IL-8 (a proinflammatory chemokine) responses of AECs were greatly reduced in the absence of functional MUC18 protein. Our results show the feasibility of CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene knockouts in AEC culture (both submerged and polarized), and suggest a proinflammatory role for MUC18 in airway epithelial response to bacterial and viral stimuli.

  17. CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor Knockout in Mice Impairs Contextual Long-Term Memory and Enhances Spatial Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Kim, Jimok

    2016-01-01

    Neurocognitive effects of cannabinoids have been extensively studied with a focus on CB1 cannabinoid receptors because CB1 receptors have been considered the major cannabinoid receptor in the nervous system. However, recent discoveries of CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the brain demand accurate determination of whether and how CB2 receptors are involved in the cognitive effects of cannabinoids. CB2 cannabinoid receptors are primarily involved in immune functions, but also implicated in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression. Here, we examined the effects of CB2 receptor knockout in mice on memory to determine the roles of CB2 receptors in modulating cognitive function. Behavioral assays revealed that hippocampus-dependent, long-term contextual fear memory was impaired whereas hippocampus-independent, cued fear memory was normal in CB2 receptor knockout mice. These mice also displayed enhanced spatial working memory when tested in a Y-maze. Motor activity and anxiety of CB2 receptor knockout mice were intact when assessed in an open field arena and an elevated zero maze. In contrast to the knockout of CB2 receptors, acute blockade of CB2 receptors by AM603 in C57BL/6J mice had no effect on memory, motor activity, or anxiety. Our results suggest that CB2 cannabinoid receptors play diverse roles in regulating memory depending on memory types and/or brain areas. PMID:26819779

  18. Acute multi-sgRNA knockdown of KEOPS complex genes reproduces the microcephaly phenotype of the stable knockout zebrafish model

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Ronen; Hoogstraten, Charlotte A.; Schapiro, David; Majmundar, Amar J.; Kolb, Amy; Eddy, Kaitlyn; Shril, Shirlee; Braun, Daniela A.; Poduri, Annapurna

    2018-01-01

    Until recently, morpholino oligonucleotides have been widely employed in zebrafish as an acute and efficient loss-of-function assay. However, off-target effects and reproducibility issues when compared to stable knockout lines have compromised their further use. Here we employed an acute CRISPR/Cas approach using multiple single guide RNAs targeting simultaneously different positions in two exemplar genes (osgep or tprkb) to increase the likelihood of generating mutations on both alleles in the injected F0 generation and to achieve a similar effect as morpholinos but with the reproducibility of stable lines. This multi single guide RNA approach resulted in median likelihoods for at least one mutation on each allele of >99% and sgRNA specific insertion/deletion profiles as revealed by deep-sequencing. Immunoblot showed a significant reduction for Osgep and Tprkb proteins. For both genes, the acute multi-sgRNA knockout recapitulated the microcephaly phenotype and reduction in survival that we observed previously in stable knockout lines, though milder in the acute multi-sgRNA knockout. Finally, we quantify the degree of mutagenesis by deep sequencing, and provide a mathematical model to quantitate the chance for a biallelic loss-of-function mutation. Our findings can be generalized to acute and stable CRISPR/Cas targeting for any zebrafish gene of interest. PMID:29346415

  19. Acute multi-sgRNA knockdown of KEOPS complex genes reproduces the microcephaly phenotype of the stable knockout zebrafish model.

    PubMed

    Jobst-Schwan, Tilman; Schmidt, Johanna Magdalena; Schneider, Ronen; Hoogstraten, Charlotte A; Ullmann, Jeremy F P; Schapiro, David; Majmundar, Amar J; Kolb, Amy; Eddy, Kaitlyn; Shril, Shirlee; Braun, Daniela A; Poduri, Annapurna; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2018-01-01

    Until recently, morpholino oligonucleotides have been widely employed in zebrafish as an acute and efficient loss-of-function assay. However, off-target effects and reproducibility issues when compared to stable knockout lines have compromised their further use. Here we employed an acute CRISPR/Cas approach using multiple single guide RNAs targeting simultaneously different positions in two exemplar genes (osgep or tprkb) to increase the likelihood of generating mutations on both alleles in the injected F0 generation and to achieve a similar effect as morpholinos but with the reproducibility of stable lines. This multi single guide RNA approach resulted in median likelihoods for at least one mutation on each allele of >99% and sgRNA specific insertion/deletion profiles as revealed by deep-sequencing. Immunoblot showed a significant reduction for Osgep and Tprkb proteins. For both genes, the acute multi-sgRNA knockout recapitulated the microcephaly phenotype and reduction in survival that we observed previously in stable knockout lines, though milder in the acute multi-sgRNA knockout. Finally, we quantify the degree of mutagenesis by deep sequencing, and provide a mathematical model to quantitate the chance for a biallelic loss-of-function mutation. Our findings can be generalized to acute and stable CRISPR/Cas targeting for any zebrafish gene of interest.

  20. Brain Region-Specific Effects of cGMP-Dependent Kinase II Knockout on AMPA Receptor Trafficking and Animal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Seonil; Pick, Joseph E.; Abera, Sinedu; Khatri, Latika; Ferreira, Danielle D. P.; Sathler, Matheus F.; Morison, Sage L.; Hofmann, Franz; Ziff, Edward B.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation of GluA1, a subunit of AMPA receptors (AMPARs), is critical for AMPAR synaptic trafficking and control of synaptic transmission. cGMP-dependent protein kinase II (cGKII) mediates this phosphorylation, and cGKII knockout (KO) affects GluA1 phosphorylation and alters animal behavior. Notably, GluA1 phosphorylation in the KO…

  1. Neutral endopeptidase knockout induces hyperalgesia in a model of visceral pain, an effect related to bradykinin and nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Hanspeter S; Zernig, Gerald; Hauser, Kurt F; Gerard, Craig; Hersh, Louis B; Saria, Alois

    2002-01-01

    Neutral endopeptidase (EC3.4.24.11, NEP, enkephalinase) is a zinc-metalloendopeptidase, cleaving a variety of substrates like enkephalins, substance P, and bradykinin. In the brain, NEP is a key enzyme in the degradation of enkephalins. Pharmacological inhibition of NEP-activity causes analgesia resulting from enhanced extracellular enkephalin concentrations. Recently, transgenic mice lacking the enzyme NEP have been developed (Lu, 1995). The present study was designed to investigate the nociceptive behavior of these NEP-knockout mice. Interestingly, NEP-deficient mice did not respond with decreased pain perception, but exhibited hyperalgesia in the hot-plate jump, warm-water tail-withdrawal, and mostnotablyin theacetic-acid writhing test. Inhibition of aminopeptidase N by bestatin reduced writhing in both strains, whereas NEP-inhibition by thiorphan reduced writhing selectively in wild-type mice. Naloxone increased writhing in wild-type but not in knockouts, whereas the bradykinin B2-receptor antagonist HOE140 reduced writhing selectively in NEP-knockouts. Similarly, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME reduced writhing in NEP-knockouts. These results indicate that genetic elimination of NEP, in contrast to pharmacological inhibition, leads to bradykinin-induced hyperalgesia instead of enkephalin-mediated analgesia. Nitric oxide (NO) is suggested to be involved in this process.

  2. The Brain Proteome of the Ubiquitin Ligase Peli1 Knock-Out Mouse during Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Lereim, Ragnhild Reehorst; Oveland, Eystein; Xiao, Yichuan; Torkildsen, Øivind; Wergeland, Stig; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Sun, Shao-Cong; Berven, Frode S

    2016-09-01

    The ubiquitin ligase Peli1 has previously been suggested as a potential treatment target in multiple sclerosis. In the multiple sclerosis disease model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, Peli1 knock-out led to less activated microglia and less inflammation in the central nervous system. Despite being important in microglia, Peli1 expression has also been detected in glial and neuronal cells. In the present study the overall brain proteomes of Peli1 knock-out mice and wild-type mice were compared prior to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induction, at onset of the disease and at disease peak. Brain samples from the frontal hemisphere, peripheral from the extensive inflammatory foci, were analyzed using TMT-labeling of sample pools, and the discovered proteins were verified in individual mice using label-free proteomics. The greatest proteomic differences between Peli1 knock-out and wild-type mice were observed at the disease peak. In Peli1 knock-out a higher degree of antigen presentation, increased activity of adaptive and innate immune cells and alterations to proteins involved in iron metabolism were observed during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. These results unravel global effects to the brain proteome when abrogating Peli1 expression, underlining the importance of Peli1 as a regulator of the immune response also peripheral to inflammatory foci during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The proteomics data is available in PRIDE with accession PXD003710.

  3. Evaluation of cimi-shield knock-out bed bug eliminator against house fly (Musca domestica) adults.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cimi-Shield Knock-Out (CSKO) Bed Bug Eliminator is a green treatment labeled for use against bed bugs, carpet beetles, ants, roaches, fleas, ticks, silverfish, millipedes and centipedes. The active ingredient is soybean oil. If CSKO is formulated according to label instructions and sprayed directly ...

  4. Mesenchyme-specific knockout of ESET histone methyltransferase causes ectopic hypertrophy and terminal differentiation of articular chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Kevin A; Teteak, Colin J; Zou, Junhui; Hacquebord, Jacques; Ghatan, Andrew; Zielinska-Kwiatkowska, Anna; Fernandes, Russell J; Chansky, Howard A; Yang, Liu

    2013-11-08

    The exact molecular mechanisms governing articular chondrocytes remain unknown in skeletal biology. In this study, we have found that ESET (an ERG-associated protein with a SET domain, also called SETDB1) histone methyltransferase is expressed in articular cartilage. To test whether ESET regulates articular chondrocytes, we carried out mesenchyme-specific deletion of the ESET gene in mice. ESET knock-out did not affect generation of articular chondrocytes during embryonic development. Two weeks after birth, there was minimal qualitative difference at the knee joints between wild-type and ESET knock-out animals. At 1 month, ectopic hypertrophy, proliferation, and apoptosis of articular chondrocytes were seen in the articular cartilage of ESET-null animals. At 3 months, additional signs of terminal differentiation such as increased alkaline phosphatase activity and an elevated level of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 were found in ESET-null cartilage. Staining for type II collagen and proteoglycan revealed that cartilage degeneration became progressively worse from 2 weeks to 12 months at the knee joints of ESET knock-out mutants. Analysis of over 14 pairs of age- and sex-matched wild-type and knock-out mice indicated that the articular chondrocyte phenotype in ESET-null mutants is 100% penetrant. Our results demonstrate that expression of ESET plays an essential role in the maintenance of articular cartilage by preventing articular chondrocytes from terminal differentiation and may have implications in joint diseases such as osteoarthritis.

  5. Review of automatic detection of pig behaviours by using image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Shuqing; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhu, Mengshuai; Wu, Jianzhai; Kong, Fantao

    2017-06-01

    Automatic detection of lying, moving, feeding, drinking, and aggressive behaviours of pigs by means of image analysis can save observation input by staff. It would help staff make early detection of diseases or injuries of pigs during breeding and improve management efficiency of swine industry. This study describes the progress of pig behaviour detection based on image analysis and advancement in image segmentation of pig body, segmentation of pig adhesion and extraction of pig behaviour characteristic parameters. Challenges for achieving automatic detection of pig behaviours were summarized.

  6. Transmissible Gastroenteritis in Feeder Pigs: Observations on the Jejunal Epithelium of Normal Feeder Pigs and Feeder Pigs Infected with TGE Virus

    PubMed Central

    Morin, M.; Morehouse, L. G.

    1974-01-01

    Light and electron microscopy findings in the jejunal mucosa of the normal feeder pig and feeder pigs infected with transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus are reported. Villi in the mid jejunum of the normal feeder pig were elongated, finger shaped and covered with a layer of columnar absorptive cells with a well developed and regular brush border. Severe lesions of villous atrophy were present in all jejunal segments of feeder swine killed 96 hours post infection with TGE virus. Atrophic villi were covered by flat to cuboidal cells with a poorly developed brush border in some areas. In other segments, cells varied in appearance from sub-columnar to columnar type of near normal appearance. The ultrastructure of the jejunal absorptive cells in the normal feeder pig was found to be similar to that described for the jejunal cells of other adult mammals. There were no significant indications of high pinocytotic activity. The epithelial cells covering the atrophic villi of TGE infected pigs had a fine structure similar to that described for the crypt cells, ranging in appearance from very immature to moderately differentiated cells. Microvilli were very short, decreased markedly in number and irregular in arrangement. The terminal web was poorly developed. Strands of rough endoplasmic reticulum were markedly diminished and an increase in free ribosomes was noted. The significance of these observations in explaining pathogenesis of TGE in feeder pigs is discussed. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8. PMID:4277743

  7. Tetracycline Susceptibility in Chlamydia suis Pig Isolates.

    PubMed

    Donati, Manuela; Balboni, Andrea; Laroucau, Karine; Aaziz, Rachid; Vorimore, Fabien; Borel, Nicole; Morandi, Federico; Vecchio Nepita, Edoardo; Di Francesco, Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of Chlamydia suis in an Italian pig herd, determine the tetracycline susceptibility of C. suis isolates, and evaluate tet(C) and tetR(C) gene expression. Conjunctival swabs from 20 pigs were tested for C. suis by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and 55% (11) were positive. C. suis was then isolated from 11 conjunctival swabs resampled from the same herd. All positive samples and isolates were positive for the tet(C) resistance gene. The in vitro susceptibility to tetracycline of the C. suis isolates showed MIC values ranging from 0.5 to 4 μg/mL. Tet(C) and tetR(C) transcripts were found in all the isolates, cultured both in the absence and presence of tetracycline. This contrasts with other Gram-negative bacteria in which both genes are repressed in the absence of the drug. Further investigation into tet gene regulation in C. suis is needed.

  8. Mouse and Guinea Pig Models of Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Orme, Ian M; Ordway, Diane J

    2016-08-01

    This article describes the nature of the host response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the mouse and guinea pig models of infection. It describes the great wealth of information obtained from the mouse model, reflecting the general availability of immunological reagents, as well as genetic manipulations of the mouse strains themselves. This has led to a good understanding of the nature of the T-cell response to the infection, as well as an appreciation of the complexity of the response involving multiple cytokine- and chemokine-mediated systems. As described here and elsewhere, we have a growing understanding of how multiple CD4-positive T-cell subsets are involved, including regulatory T cells, TH17 cells, as well as the subsequent emergence of effector and central memory T-cell subsets. While, in contrast, our understanding of the host response in the guinea pig model is less advanced, considerable strides have been made in the past decade in terms of defining the basis of the immune response, as well as a better understanding of the immunopathologic process. This model has long been the gold standard for vaccine testing, and more recently is being revisited as a model for testing new drug regimens (bedaquiline being the latest example).

  9. An investigation of ear necrosis in pigs.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeonghwa; Friendship, Robert M; Poljak, Zvonimir; DeLay, Josepha; Slavic, Durda; Dewey, Catherine E

    2013-05-01

    Porcine ear necrosis was investigated in 23 conveniently chosen farms, consisting of 14 case farms and 9 control farms. Biopsies of lesions and oral swabs from pigs on 11 case farms were examined by histology and bacterial culture. All farms were visited for observations and a survey on management, housing, and the presence of other clinical signs or behavioral vices. Histological examination revealed that the lesions began on the surface and progressed to deeper layers, and that vascular damage did not appear to be the initiating cause. Spirochetes were only rarely observed in histological examination and were not cultured from biopsies and oral swabs. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus hyicus were cultured from 91% and 66% of samples, respectively. Ear biting and a humid environment were associated with ear necrosis. On some farms large numbers of pigs were affected and lesions were sometimes extensive. The condition appears to be an infectious disease beginning on the surface of the skin; contributing environmental and management factors are likely.

  10. An investigation of ear necrosis in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeonghwa; Friendship, Robert M.; Poljak, Zvonimir; DeLay, Josepha; Slavic, Durda; Dewey, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    Porcine ear necrosis was investigated in 23 conveniently chosen farms, consisting of 14 case farms and 9 control farms. Biopsies of lesions and oral swabs from pigs on 11 case farms were examined by histology and bacterial culture. All farms were visited for observations and a survey on management, housing, and the presence of other clinical signs or behavioral vices. Histological examination revealed that the lesions began on the surface and progressed to deeper layers, and that vascular damage did not appear to be the initiating cause. Spirochetes were only rarely observed in histological examination and were not cultured from biopsies and oral swabs. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus hyicus were cultured from 91% and 66% of samples, respectively. Ear biting and a humid environment were associated with ear necrosis. On some farms large numbers of pigs were affected and lesions were sometimes extensive. The condition appears to be an infectious disease beginning on the surface of the skin; contributing environmental and management factors are likely. PMID:24155434

  11. Guinea-pig productivity under traditional management.

    PubMed

    Manjeli, Y; Tchoumboue, J; Njwe, R M; Teguia, A

    1998-04-01

    Results of a 12 month study of traditional guinea-pig production in the western highlands of Cameroon are reported. The mean age of guinea-pigs (Cavia porcellus L.) at first parturition, kidding interval and litter size at birth were 126.30 +/- 10.40 d, 64.8 +/- 1.70 d and 1.63 +/- 0.26 kids respectively. The annual reproductive rate was 9.18 kids/breeding doe while the doe post-partum weight was 530 g. Mean body weights at birth, presumed weaning (21 d) and 15 weeks of age were 78.36 +/- 3.20, 147.51 +/- 8.10 and 418.88 +/- 32 g respectively. Type of birth and sex had a significant effect on body weight at all ages. Birth weight dropped significantly from 83.88 +/- 2.87 g for singles to 81.57 +/- 3.40 g for twins, 74.25 +/- 2.39 g for triplets and 73.75 +/- 4.12 g for quadruplets. These differences were maintained to maturity (15 weeks). Males were generally heavier than females. Mortality rates were relatively high among kids: 24% at birth, 39% at 3 weeks and 40% at 15 weeks. Productivity indices were 0.827 kg of young weaned per doe per year, 1560 g of young weaned per kg of doe per year and 2.52 kg of young weaned per kg metabolic weight (kg 0.75) of female per year.

  12. Advances in QTL Mapping in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Rothschild, Max F.; Hu, Zhi-liang; Jiang, Zhihua

    2007-01-01

    Over the past 15 years advances in the porcine genetic linkage map and discovery of useful candidate genes have led to valuable gene and trait information being discovered. Early use of exotic breed crosses and now commercial breed crosses for quantitative trait loci (QTL) scans and candidate gene analyses have led to 110 publications which have identified 1,675 QTL. Additionally, these studies continue to identify genes associated with economically important traits such as growth rate, leanness, feed intake, meat quality, litter size, and disease resistance. A well developed QTL database called PigQTLdb is now as a valuable tool for summarizing and pinpointing in silico regions of interest to researchers. The commercial pig industry is actively incorporating these markers in marker-assisted selection along with traditional performance information to improve traits of economic performance. The long awaited sequencing efforts are also now beginning to provide sequence available for both comparative genomics and large scale single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) association studies. While these advances are all positive, development of useful new trait families and measurement of new or underlying traits still limits future discoveries. A review of these developments is presented. PMID:17384738

  13. The essential role of guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) IE1 and IE2 homologs in viral replication and IE1-mediated ND10 targeting