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Sample records for a10 cultured smooth

  1. Bladder smooth muscle organ culture preparation maintains the contractile phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tanchun; Kendig, Derek M.; Chang, Shaohua; Trappanese, Danielle M.; Chacko, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells, when subjected to culture, modulate from a contractile to a secretory phenotype. This has hampered the use of cell culture for molecular techniques to study the regulation of smooth muscle biology. The goal of this study was to develop a new organ culture model of bladder smooth muscle (BSM) that would maintain the contractile phenotype and aid in the study of BSM biology. Our results showed that strips of BSM subjected to up to 9 days of organ culture maintained their contractile phenotype, including the ability to achieve near-control levels of force with a temporal profile similar to that of noncultured tissues. The technical aspects of our organ culture preparation that were responsible, in part, for the maintenance of the contractile phenotype were a slight longitudinal stretch during culture and subjection of the strips to daily contraction-relaxation. The tissues contained viable cells throughout the cross section of the strips. There was an increase in extracellular collagenous matrix, resulting in a leftward shift in the passive length-tension relationship. There were no significant changes in the content of smooth muscle-specific α-actin, calponin, h-caldesmon, total myosin heavy chain, protein kinase G, Rho kinase-I, or the ratio of SM1 to SM2 myosin isoforms. Moreover the organ cultured tissues maintained functional voltage-gated calcium channels and large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. Therefore, we propose that this novel BSM organ culture model maintains the contractile phenotype and will be a valuable tool for the use in cellular/molecular biology studies of bladder myocytes. PMID:22896042

  2. Influence of aldosterone and salt or ouabain in a10 rat aorta smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Schwerdt, Gerald; Frisch, Annett; Mildenberger, Sigrid; Hilgenfeld, Tim; Grossmann, Claudia; Gekle, Michael

    2012-01-01

    It is currently under debate whether aldosterone is able to induce fibrosis or whether it acts only as a cofactor under pathological conditions, e.g. as an elevated salt (NaCl) load. We tested the interaction of 10 nM aldosterone, 15 mM NaCl and 1 μM ouabain using rat aorta smooth muscle cells (A10) with respect to the following parameters: necrosis, apoptosis, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase activity, glutathione (GSH) content, collagen and fibronectin homeostasis and intracellular calcium distribution. Necrosis rates were increased after 48 h of incubation with aldosterone, salt or ouabain and in the combination of aldosterone and salt or ouabain. Apoptosis rates were decreased. A reduced defense capacity against oxidative stress was mirrored in the decreased G6PD activity and GSH content. Collagen III or fibronectin synthesis rates were unchanged, but gelatinase activity was increased resulting in a decreased media collagen III and fibronectin content. Calcium stores were increased by aldosterone in combination with ouabain. Aldosterone and salt per se can lead to cell injury that is aggravated in combination or with cardiotonic steroids. In cooperation with other vascular cells, this can generate a permissive milieu enabling aldosterone or salt to promote more extensive vascular injury. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Binding and effects of KATP channel openers in the vascular smooth muscle cell line, A10

    PubMed Central

    Russ, Ulrich; Metzger, Friedrich; Kickenweiz, Elisabeth; Hambrock, Annette; Krippeit-Drews, Peter; Quast, Ulrich

    1997-01-01

    The ATP-sensitive K+ channel (KATP channel) in A10 cells, a cell line derived from rat thoracic aorta, was characterized by binding studies with the tritiated KATP channel opener, [3H]-P1075, and by electrophysiological techniques. Saturation binding experiments gave a KD value of 9.2±5.2 nM and a binding capacity (BMax) of 140±40 fmol mg−1 protein for [3H]-P1075 binding to A10 cells; from the BMax value a density of binding sites of 5–10 per μm2 plasmalemma was estimated. KATP channel modulators such as the openers P1075, pinacidil, levcromakalim and minoxidil sulphate and the blocker glibenclamide inhibited [3H]-P1075 binding. The extent of inhibition at saturation depended on the compound, levcromakalim inhibiting specific [3H]-P1075 binding by 85%, minoxidil sulphate and glibenclamide by 70%. The inhibition constants were similar to those determined in strips of rat aorta. Resting membrane potential, recorded with microelectrodes, was −51±1 mV. P1075 and levcromakalim produced a concentration-dependent hyperpolarization by up to −25 mV with EC50 values of 170±40 nM and 870±190 nM, respectively. The hyperpolarization induced by levcromakalim (3 μM) was completely reversed by glibenclamide with an IC50 value of 86±17 nM. Voltage clamp experiments were performed in the whole cell configuration under a physiological K+ gradient. Levcromakalim (10 μM) induced a current which reversed around −80 mV; the current-voltage relationship showed considerable outward rectification. Glibenclamide (3 μM) abolished the effect of levcromakalim. Analysis of the noise of the levcromakalim (10 μM)-induced current at −40 and −20 mV yielded estimates of the channel density, the single channel conductance and the probability of the channel to be open of 0.14 μm−2, 8.8 pS and 0.39, respectively. The experiments showed that A10 cells are endowed with functional KATP channels which resemble those in vascular tissue; hence, these

  4. Vasopressin activates Akt/mTOR pathway in smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Montes, Daniela K.; Brenet, Marianne; Muñoz, Vanessa C.

    Highlights: •AVP induces mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells cultured in high glucose concentration. •The mTOR phosphorylation is mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway activation. •The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation inhibited autophagy and stimulated cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex is a key regulator of autophagy, cell growth and proliferation. Here, we studied the effects of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on mTOR activation in vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration. AVP induced the mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells grown in high glucose, in contrast to cells cultured in normal glucose; wherein, only basal phosphorylation was observed. Themore » AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation was inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor. Moreover, the AVP-induced mTOR activation inhibited autophagy and increased thymidine incorporation in cells grown in high glucose. This increase was abolished by rapamycin which inhibits the mTORC1 complex formation. Our results suggest that AVP stimulates mTOR phosphorylation by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and, subsequently, inhibits autophagy and raises cell proliferation in A-10 cells maintained in high glucose concentration.« less

  5. Cultured smooth muscle cells of the human vesical sphincter are more sensitive to histamine than are detrusor smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Jochen; Oberbach, Andreas; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe

    2006-05-01

    To compare histamine receptor expression in cultured smooth muscle cells from the human detrusor and internal sphincter using receptor-specific agonists. Smooth muscle cells from the bladder dome and internal sphincter were cultured from 5 male patients undergoing cystectomy for bladder cancer therapy. Calcium transients in cells stimulated with carbachol, histamine, histamine receptor 1 (H1R)-specific heptanecarboxamide (HTMT), dimaprit (H2R), and R-(alpha)-methylhistamine (H3R) were measured by calcium imaging. Histamine receptor proteins were detected by Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry. H1R, H2R, and H3R expression was found in tissue and cultured cells. Carbachol stimulated equal numbers of detrusor and sphincter cells (60% and 51%, respectively). Histamine stimulated significantly more cells than carbachol in detrusor (100%) and sphincter (99.34%) cells. Calcium responses to carbachol in detrusor and sphincter cells were comparable and did not differ from those to histamine in detrusor cells. However, histamine and specific agonists stimulated more sphincter cells than did carbachol (P <0.001), and the calcium increase was greater in sphincter cells than in detrusor cells. Single cell analysis revealed comparable H2R responses in detrusor and sphincter cells, but H1R and H3R-mediated calcium reactions were significantly greater in sphincter cells. Histamine very effectively induces calcium release in smooth muscle cells. In sphincter cells, histamine is even more effective than carbachol regarding the number of reacting cells and the intracellular calcium increase. Some of the variability in the outcome of antihistaminic interstitial cystitis therapies might be caused by the ineffectiveness of the chosen antihistaminic or unintentional weakening of sphincteric function.

  6. [Advance in study of vascular endothelial cell and smooth muscle cell co-culture system].

    PubMed

    Li, Yujie; Yang, Qing; Weng, Xiaogang; Chen, Ying; Ruan, Congxiao; Li, Dan; Zhu, Xiaoxing

    2012-02-01

    The interactions between endothelial cells (EC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC) contribute to vascular physiological functions and also cause the occurrence and development of different kinds of diseases. Currently, EC-SMC co-culture model is the best way to study the interactions between the two kinds of cells. This article summarizes existing EC-SMC co-culture models and their effects on the structure and functions of the two kinds of cells. Microscopically speaking, it provides a basis for in-depth studies on their interactions as well as a reference for the establishment of in vitro EC-SMC co-culture system that is closer to organic physiology or pathology state.

  7. Vascular smooth muscle cells exhibit a progressive loss of rigidity with serial culture passaging.

    PubMed

    Dinardo, Carla Luana; Venturini, Gabriela; Omae, Samantha Vieira; Zhou, Enhua H; da Motta-Leal-Filho, Joaquim Maurício; Dariolli, Rafael; Krieger, José Eduardo; Alencar, Adriano Mesquita; Costa Pereira, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    One drawback of in vitro cell culturing is the dedifferentiation process that cells experience. Smooth muscle cells (SMC) also change molecularly and morphologically with long term culture. The main objective of this study was to evaluate if culture passages interfere in vascular SMC mechanical behavior. SMC were obtained from five different porcine arterial beds. Optical magnetic twisting cytometry (OMTC) was used to characterize mechanically vascular SMC from different cultures in distinct passages and confocal microscopy/western blotting, to evaluate cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix proteins. We found that vascular SMC rigidity or viscoelastic complex modulus (G) decreases with progression of passages. A statistically significant negative correlation between G and passage was found in four of our five cultures studied. Phalloidin-stained SMC from higher passages exhibited lower mean signal intensity per cell (confocal microscopy) and quantitative western blotting analysis showed a decrease in collagen I content throughout passages. We concluded that vascular SMC progressively lose their stiffness with serial culture passaging. Thus, limiting the number of passages is essential for any experiment measuring viscoelastic properties of SMC in culture.

  8. Beta-type transforming growth factor specifies organizational behavior in vascular smooth muscle cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    In culture, vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) grow in a "hill-and- valley" (multilayered) pattern of organization. We have studied the growth, behavioral organization, and biosynthetic phenotype of rat aortic SMC exposed to purified platelet-derived growth regulatory molecules. We show that multilayered growth is not a constitutive feature of cultured SMC, and that beta-type transforming growth factor (TGF-beta) is the primary determinant of multilayered growth and the hill-and-valley pattern of organization diagnostic for SMC in culture. TGF-beta inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, the serum- or platelet- derived growth factor-mediated proliferation of these cells in two- dimensional culture, but only when cells were plated at subconfluent densities. The ability of TGF-beta to inhibit SMC growth was inversely correlated to plating cell density. When SMC were plated at monolayer density (5 X 10(4) cells/cm2) to allow maximal cell-to-cell contact, TGF-beta potentiated cell growth. This differential response of SMC to TGF-beta may contribute to the hill-and-valley pattern of organization. Unlike its effect on other cell types, TGF-beta did not enhance the synthesis of fibronectin or its incorporation into the extracellular matrix. However, the synthesis of a number of other secreted proteins was altered by TGF-beta treatment. SMC treated with TGF-beta for 4 or 8 h secreted markedly enhanced amounts of an Mr 38,000-D protein doublet whose synthesis is known to be increased by heparin (another inhibitor of SMC growth), suggesting metabolic similarities between heparin- and TGF-beta-mediated SMC growth inhibition. The data suggest that TGF-beta may play an important and complex regulatory role in SMC proliferation and organization during development and after vascular injury. PMID:3475277

  9. Stimulation of the BKCa channel in cultured smooth muscle cells of human trachea by magnolol

    PubMed Central

    Wu, S; Chen, C; Li, H; Lo, Y; Chen, S; Chiang, H

    2002-01-01

    Background: Magnolol, a compound isolated from the cortex of Magnolia officinalis, has been found to possess anti-allergic and anti-asthmatic activity. Methods: The effect of magnolol on ionic currents was studied in cultured smooth muscle cells of human trachea with the aid of the patch clamp technique. Results: In whole cell current recordings magnolol reversibly increased the amplitude of K+ outward currents. The increase in outward current caused by magnolol was sensitive to inhibition by iberiotoxin (200 nM) or paxilline (1 µM) but not by glibenclamide (10 µM). In inside out patches, magnolol added to the bath did not modify single channel conductance but effectively enhanced the activity of large conductance Ca2+ activated K+ (BKCa) channels. Magnolol increased the probability of these channel openings in a concentration dependent manner with an EC50 value of 1.5 µM. The magnolol stimulated increase in the probability of channels opening was independent of internal Ca2+. The application of magnolol also shifted the activation curve of BKCa channels to less positive membrane potentials. The change in the kinetic behaviour of BKCa channels caused by magnolol in these cells is the result of an increase in dissociation and gating constants. Conclusions: These results provide evidence that, in addition to the presence of antioxidative activity, magnolol is potent in stimulating BKCa channel activity in tracheal smooth muscle cells. The direct stimulation of these BKCa channels by magnolol may contribute to the underlying mechanism by which it acts as an anti-asthmatic compound. PMID:11809993

  10. Lovastatin inhibits gap junctional communication in cultured aortic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jing; Wang, Li-Hong; Zheng, Liang-Rong; Zhu, Jian-Hua; Hu, Shen-Jiang

    2010-09-01

    Gap junctions, which serve as intercellular channels that allow the passage of ions and other small molecules between neighboring cells, play an important role in vital functions, including the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and development. Statins, the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzymeA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, have been shown to inhibit the migration and proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) leading to an antiproliferative effect. Recent studies have shown that statins can reduce gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) expression both in vivo and in vitro. However, little work has been done on the effects of statins on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). We hypothesized in this study that lovastatin inhibits vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) migration through the inhibition of the GJIC. Rat aortic SMCs (RASMCs) were exposed to lovastatin. Vascular smooth muscle cells migration was then assessed with a Transwell migration assay. Gap junctional intercellular communication was determined by using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis, which was performed with a laser-scanning confocal microscope. The migration of the cultured RASMCs were detected by Transwell system. Cell migration was dose-dependently inhibited with lovastatin. Compared with that in the control (110 ± 26), the number of migrated SMCs was significantly reduced to 72 ± 24 (P < .05), 62 ± 18 (P < .01), and 58 ± 19 (P < .01) at the concentration of 0.4, 2, and 10 umol/L, per field. The rate of fluorescence recovery (R) at 5 minutes after photobleaching was adopted as the functional index of GJIC. The R- value of cells exposed to lovastatin 10 umol/L for 48 hours was 24.38% ± 4.84%, whereas the cells in the control group had an R- value of 36.11% ± 10.53%, demonstrating that the GJIC of RASMCs was significantly inhibited by lovastatin (P < .01). Smaller concentrations of lovastatin 0.08 umol/L did not change gap junction coupling

  11. Development and characterization of a 3D multicell microtissue culture model of airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    West, Adrian R; Zaman, Nishat; Cole, Darren J; Walker, Matthew J; Legant, Wesley R; Boudou, Thomas; Chen, Christopher S; Favreau, John T; Gaudette, Glenn R; Cowley, Elizabeth A; Maksym, Geoffrey N

    2013-01-01

    Airway smooth muscle (ASM) cellular and molecular biology is typically studied with single-cell cultures grown on flat 2D substrates. However, cells in vivo exist as part of complex 3D structures, and it is well established in other cell types that altering substrate geometry exerts potent effects on phenotype and function. These factors may be especially relevant to asthma, a disease characterized by structural remodeling of the airway wall, and highlights a need for more physiologically relevant models of ASM function. We utilized a tissue engineering platform known as microfabricated tissue gauges to develop a 3D culture model of ASM featuring arrays of ∼0.4 mm long, ∼350 cell "microtissues" capable of simultaneous contractile force measurement and cell-level microscopy. ASM-only microtissues generated baseline tension, exhibited strong cellular organization, and developed actin stress fibers, but lost structural integrity and dissociated from the cantilevers within 3 days. Addition of 3T3-fibroblasts dramatically improved survival times without affecting tension development or morphology. ASM-3T3 microtissues contracted similarly to ex vivo ASM, exhibiting reproducible responses to a range of contractile and relaxant agents. Compared with 2D cultures, microtissues demonstrated identical responses to acetylcholine and KCl, but not histamine, forskolin, or cytochalasin D, suggesting that contractility is regulated by substrate geometry. Microtissues represent a novel model for studying ASM, incorporating a physiological 3D structure, realistic mechanical environment, coculture of multiple cells types, and comparable contractile properties to existing models. This new model allows for rapid screening of biochemical and mechanical factors to provide insight into ASM dysfunction in asthma.

  12. Maintaining Elastogenicity of Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Smooth Muscle Cells in Two-Dimensional Culture.

    PubMed

    Dahal, Shataakshi; Broekelman, Thomas; Mecham, Robert P; Ramamurthi, Anand

    2018-06-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are localized expansions of the abdominal aorta that grow slowly to rupture. AAA growth is driven by irreversible elastic matrix breakdown in the aorta wall by chronically upregulated matrix metalloproteases (MMPs). Since adult vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) poorly regenerate elastic matrix, we previously explored utility of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and SMCs derived therefrom (BM-SMCs) for this purpose. One specific differentiated phenotype (cBM-SMCs) generated on a fibronectin substrate in presence of exogenous transforming growth factor-β and platelet-derived growth factor exhibited superior elastogenicity versus other phenotypes, and usefully provided proelastogenic and antiproteolytic stimuli to aneurysmal SMCs. Since in vivo cell therapy demands large cell inoculates, these derived SMCs must be propagated in vitro while maintaining their superior elastogenic, proelastogenic, and antiproteolytic characteristics. In this work, we thus investigated the culture conditions that must be provided to this propagation phase, which ensure that the differentiated SMCs maintain their phenotype and matrix regenerative benefits. Our results indicate that our BM-SMCs retain their phenotype in long-term culture even in the absence of differentiation growth factors and fibronectin substrate, but these conditions must be continued to be provided during postdifferentiation propagation if they are to maintain their superior elastic matrix deposition, crosslinking, and fiber formation properties. Our study, however, showed that cells propagated under these conditions exhibit higher expression of MMP-2, but favorably, no expression of elastolytic MMP-9. Hence, the study outcomes provide crucial guidelines to maintain phenotypic stability of cBM-SMCs during their propagation in two-dimensional culture before their delivery to the AAA wall for therapy.

  13. Nitric oxide production by cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells: stimulation by fluid flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadaki, M.; Tilton, R. G.; Eskin, S. G.; McIntire, L. V.

    1998-01-01

    This study demonstrated that exposure of cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC) to fluid flow resulted in nitric oxide (NO) production, monitored by nitrite and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate production. A rapid burst in nitrite production rate was followed by a more gradual increase throughout the period of flow exposure. Neither the initial burst nor the prolonged nitrite production was dependent on the level of shear stress in the range of 1.1-25 dyn/cm2. Repeated exposure to shear stress after a 30-min static period restimulated nitrite production similar to the initial burst. Ca(2+)-calmodulin antagonists blocked the initial burst in nitrite release. An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) blocked nitrite production, indicating that changes in nitrite reflect NO production. Treatment with dexamethasone or cycloheximide had no effect on nitrite production. Monoclonal antibodies directed against the inducible and endothelial NOS isoforms showed no immunoreactivity on Western blots, whereas monoclonal antibodies directed against the neuronal NOS gave specific products. These findings suggest that human aortic SMC express a constitutive neuronal NOS isoform, the enzymatic activity of which is modulated by flow.

  14. Glucose and insulin independently reduce the fibrinolytic potential of human vascular smooth muscle cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, A; Iacoviello, L; Capani, F; Vitacolonna, E; Donati, M B; Consoli, A

    1996-12-01

    Hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia have both been related to accelerated atherosclerosis in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Plasma fibrinolytic potential is reduced in NIDDM and it is known that glucose and insulin can modulate plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and tissue-plasminogen activator (t-PA) secretion and can therefore regulate local fibrinolysis. Vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMC) play an important role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions; however, the role of insulin and glucose in regulating PAI-1 and t-PA production in vSMC is presently not known. Therefore, we cultured arterial vSMC explanted from human umbilical cords and exposed them to increasing concentrations of glucose (5, 12, 20, 27, 35 mmol/l) or insulin (0.1, 0.5, 1, 10 nmol/l) in a serum free medium. After 24 h, PAI-1 and t-PA antigens and activity were evaluated in the culture medium; in cells exposed to 20 mmol/l glucose and to 0.5 nmol/l insulin PAI-1 gene expression was also evaluated. An increase in PAI-1 antigen was observed at each glucose concentration (by 138, 169, 251 and 357% as compared to 5 mmol/l glucose) which was paralleled by an increase in PAI-1 activity. t-PA concentration was also increased by glucose but its activity was sharply reduced. An increase in PAI-1 antigen was detected at each insulin level (by 121, 128, 156 and 300% as compared to no insulin). PAI-1 activity was slightly increased at the lowest insulin concentrations but markedly increased by 10 nmol/l insulin. t-PA antigen was also increased by insulin; however, its activity was markedly reduced at each concentration. As compared to control cells, PAI-1 mRNA was increased by 2.5 and 2.0 fold by 20 mmol/l glucose and 0.5 nmol/l insulin, respectively. We conclude that in human vSMC both glucose and insulin can affect the fibrinolytic balance so as to reduce fibrinolytic potential. This might contribute to decreased local fibrinolysis and thereby might accelerate the

  15. KCl cotransport regulation and protein kinase G in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Adragna, N C; Zhang, J; Di Fulvio, M; Lincoln, T M; Lauf, P K

    2002-05-15

    K-Cl cotransport is activated by vasodilators in erythrocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells and its regulation involves putative kinase/phosphatase cascades. N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) activates the system presumably by inhibiting a protein kinase. Nitrovasodilators relax smooth muscle via cGMP-dependent activation of protein kinase G (PKG), a regulator of membrane channels and transporters. We investigated whether PKG regulates K-Cl cotransport activity or mRNA expression in normal, PKG-deficient-vector-only-transfected (PKG-) and PKG-catalytic-domain-transfected (PKG+) rat aortic smooth muscle cells. K-Cl cotransport was calculated as the Cl-dependent Rb influx, and mRNA was determined by semiquantitative RT-PCR. Baseline K-Cl cotransport was higher in PKG+ than in PKG- cells (p <0.01). At 0.5 mM, NEM stimulated K-Cl cotransport by 5-fold in PKG- but not in PKG+ cells. However, NEM was more potent although less effective to activate K-Cl cotransport in normal (passage 1-3) and PKG+ than in PKG- cells. In PKG- cells, [(dihydroindenyl) oxy] alkanoic acid (300 mM) but not furosemide (1 mM) inhibited K-Cl cotransport. Furthermore, no difference in K-Cl cotransport mRNA expression was observed between these cells. In conclusion, this study shows that manipulation of PKG expression in vascular smooth muscle cells affects K-Cl cotransport activity and its activation by NEM.

  16. Interleukin-4 upregulates RhoA protein via an activation of STAT6 in cultured human bronchial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Yoshihiko; Todoroki, Michiko; Misawa, Miwa

    2010-02-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is believed to play a role in allergic bronchial asthma, and has been suggested to cause hyperresponsiveness of airway smooth muscle. In the present study, the effects of IL-4 on the expression of RhoA protein, a monomeric GTP-binding protein that contributes to the contraction of smooth muscle, were determined in cultured human bronchial smooth muscle cells (hBSMCs). Incubation of hBSMCs with IL-4 (100ng/mL) caused a distinct phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6), a major signal transducer activated by IL-4, indicating that IL-4 is capable of activating signal transduction in the hBSMCs directly. IL-4 also caused a significant increase in the expression level of RhoA protein: the peak of the upregulation of RhoA protein was observed at 12-24h after the IL-4 treatment. Both the phosphorylation of STAT6 and the upregulation of RhoA protein induced by IL-4 were inhibited by the co-incubation with AS1517499, a selective inhibitor of STAT6, in a concentration-dependent fashion. These findings suggest that IL-4 is capable of inducing an upregulation of RhoA via an activation of STAT6 in cultured hBSMCs. The RhoA upregulation induced by IL-4, one of the Th2 cytokines upregulated in the airways of allergic bronchial asthmatics, might result in an augmentation of bronchial smooth muscle contractility, that is one of the causes of airway hyperresponsiveness. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Strategies for Smooth and Effective Cross-Cultural Online Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Junfeng; Kinshuk; Yu, Huiju; Chen, Sue-Jen; Huang, Ronghuai

    2014-01-01

    As the communication between different cultures is becoming more and more frequent, the competence of cross-cultural awareness and collaboration is emerging as a key ability in the 21st century. Face to face communication is the most efficient way to cultivate the competence of cross-cultural awareness and collaboration. However, there are very…

  18. Static pressure accelerates ox-LDL-induced cholesterol accumulation via SREBP-1-mediated caveolin-1 downregulation in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Di-xian, E-mail: luodixian_2@163.com; Institute of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, College of Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001, Hunan; First People's Hospital of Chenzhou City, Chenzhou 423000, Hunan

    Research highlights: {yields} Vertical static pressure accelerates ox-LDL-induced cholesterol accumulation in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. {yields} Static pressure induces SREBP-1 activation. {yields} Static pressure downregulates the expressions of caveolin-1 by activating SREBP-1. {yields} Static pressure also downregulates the transcription of ABCA1 by activating SREBP-1. {yields} Static pressure increases ox-LDL-induced cholesterol accumulation by SREBP-1-mediated caveolin-1 downregulation in vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in vitro. -- Abstract: Objective: To investigate the effect of static pressure on cholesterol accumulation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and its mechanism. Methods: Rat-derived VSMC cell line A10 treated with 50 mg/L ox-LDL and different staticmore » pressures (0, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 mm Hg) in a custom-made pressure incubator for 48 h. Intracellular lipid droplets and lipid levels were assayed by oil red O staining and HPLC; The mRNA levels of caveolin-1 and ABCA1, the protein levels of caveolin-1 SREBP-1 and mature SREBP-1 were respectively detected by RT-PCR or western blot. ALLN, an inhibitor of SREBP metabolism, was used to elevate SREBP-1 protein level in VSMCs treated with static pressure. Results: Static pressures significantly not only increase intracellular lipid droplets in VSMCs, but also elevate cellular lipid content in a pressure-dependent manner. Intracellular free cholesterol (FC), cholesterol ester (CE), total cholesterol (TC) were respectively increased from 60.5 {+-} 2.8 mg/g, 31.8 {+-} 0.7 mg/g, 92.3 {+-} 2.1 mg/g at atmosphere pressure (ATM, 0 mm Hg) to 150.8 {+-} 9.4 mg/g, 235.9 {+-} 3.0 mg/g, 386.7 {+-} 6.4 mg/g at 180 mm Hg. At the same time, static pressures decrease the mRNA and protein levels of caveolin-1, and induce the activation and nuclear translocation of SREBP-1. ALLN increases the protein level of mature SREBP-1 and decreases caveolin-1 expression, so that cellular lipid levels

  19. Regulation of natriuretic peptide receptor A and B expression by transforming growth factor-beta 1 in cultured aortic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Fujio, N; Gossard, F; Bayard, F; Tremblay, J

    1994-06-01

    Two types of natriuretic peptide receptors (NPR-A and NPR-B) are membrane guanylate cyclases whose relative expression varies in different tissues. Because natriuretic peptides have been shown to inhibit aortic smooth muscle proliferation, we investigated the regulation of NPR-A and NPR-B in these cells under different proliferative conditions. NPR subtype mRNA levels were measured by our newly developed quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay using mutated NPR-A and NPR-B cRNA as internal standards. The functional impact of their expression was determined by atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)- and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP)-induced stimulation of cyclic GMP production. In the intact aorta, NPR-B mRNA levels were found to be 10-fold higher than those of NPR-A. This dominance was further amplified (1000-fold) in long-term cultures (10 to 15 passages) of aortic smooth muscle cells (ASMC). Higher cyclic GMP production with CNP than with ANP was observed in cultured ASMC from Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Similar stimulation by the two agonists was noted in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) cells, paralleled by a 10-fold increase in NPR-A mRNA levels and ANP stimulation of cyclic GMP in hypertensive cells. The present study also evaluated NPR-A and NPR-B mRNA control by transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1), an important regulator of cell proliferation that is overexpressed in SHR ASMC. TGF-beta 1 decreased both NPR-A and NPR-B mRNA levels with a predominant effect in SHR cells at high cell density.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Activation of particulate guanylyl cyclase by endothelins in cultured SV-40 transformed cat iris sphincter smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Ding, K H; Latimer, A J; Abdel-Latif, A A

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the effects of endothelins (ETs) on cGMP production in cultured SV-40 transformed cat iris sphincter smooth muscle (SV-CISM-2) cells. ET-3 increased cGMP formation in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50 = 98nM), which was 2.5 times higher than that of ET-1. The ET(B)receptor agonists sarafotoxin-S6c and IRL 1620 also increased cGMP production, mimicking the effects of the ETs. The ET(B) receptor antagonist BQ 788, but not the ET(A) receptor antagonist BQ610, dose-dependently blocked ET-3-stimulated cGMP formation (IC50=10nM). The phorbol ester, Phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (PDBu), which inhibits particulate guanylyl cyclase in smooth muscle, dose-dependently inhibited ET-3-stimulated cGMP accumulation (IC50=66nM). LY83583 and ODQ, inhibitors of soluble guanylyl cyclases, as well as inhibitors of the nitric oxide cascade and of intracellular Ca2+ elevation had no appreciable effect on ET-3-induced cGMP production. ET-3 markedly inhibited carbachol-induced intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. We conclude that ET-3 increases intracellular cGMP levels in SV-CISM-2 cells through activation of the ET(B) receptor subtype and subsequent stimulation of the membrane-bound guanylyl cyclase. Elevation of cGMP by ET and the subsequent inhibition of muscarinic stimulation of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization by the cyclic nucleotide could serve to modulate the contractile effects of Ca2+-mobilizing agonists in the iris sphincter smooth muscle.

  1. The impact of simulated microgravity on purinergic signaling in an endothelial and smooth muscle cell co-culture model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Lau, Patrick; Pansky, Andreas; Kassack, Matthias; Tobiasch, Edda

    Astronauts suffer from cardiovascular deconditioning when they are exposed to microgravity conditions during space missions. Thus, current research focuses on the identification of the underlying mechanism also with respect to therapy and countermeasures. Endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) play a key role in a variety of vascular functions. Gene expression, cytoskeleton morphology and apoptosis in both, ECs and SMCs, have shown alterations under simulated and real microgravity condition. However, all these data were observed during single culturing of either ECs or SMCs under microgravity conditions, which is different from the in vivo situation. Purinergic 2 (P2) receptors bind extracellular nucleotides and can regulate the vascular tone and vascular cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis. In this study primary ECs and SMCs were obtained from bovine aorta and characterized using specific markers. Here we show for the first time that the P2-receptor expressions pattern in ECs and in SMCs is altered after 24h in simulated microgravity. Specific receptors are down- or up-regulated on the gene and protein level. In addition the supernatant of ECs during culture was used as conditioned medium for SMCs and vice visa to investigate the influence of either cell type on the other. ECs and SMCs secret cytokines which induce pathogenic proliferation and an altered migration behavior under simulated microgravity conditions. Interestingly, co-culturing with condition medium could compensate this change. In detail, P2X7 was down-regulated in ECs after 24h clinorotation but recovered to the 1 g level when cultured with conditioned medium from SMCs collected under normal gravity. In conclusion, our data indicate that the paracrine effect between ECs and SMCs is an important regulator of cell behavior, also under altered gravity conditions. P2-receptor gene and protein expression were altered during microgravity. Since several P2-receptor artificial

  2. Rapid desensitization of vasopressin-stimulated phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis questions the role of these pathways in sustained diacylglycerol formation in A10 vascular-smooth-muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Plevin, R; Wakelam, M J

    1992-08-01

    The kinetics of vasopressin-stimulated PtdIns(4,5)P2 and phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) hydrolysis in relation to sustained diacylglycerol (DAG) formation was investigated in A10 vascular-smooth-muscle cells in culture. Vasopressin stimulated a transient increase in Ins(1,4,5)P3 mass formation, which was mirrored by a decrease in PtdIns(4,5)P2 mass levels. Vasopressin stimulated sustained accumulation of total [3H]inositol phosphates ([3H]IP) in the presence of Li+; however, this was significantly decreased by adding a vasopressin-receptor antagonist at different times after initial stimulation. Vasopressin-stimulated phospholipase D (PLD) activity was found to be a transient phenomenon lasting approx. 2 min. Experiments involving agonist preincubation with subsequent addition of butanol confirmed that vasopressin-stimulated PLD activity was desensitized. Vasopressin stimulated an increase in formation of choline, but not of phosphocholine, suggesting that PLD was the major catalytic route of PtdCho hydrolysis in this cell line. The roles of choline and inositol phospholipid hydrolysis in the prolonged phase of DAG formation was examined by comparing vasopressin-stimulated changes in DAG levels in the presence of butanol, the protein kinase C inhibitor Ro-31-8220 or a V1a-receptor antagonist. Vasopressin-stimulated DAG formation was decreased by 40-50% in the presence of butanol between 1 and 10 min; however, during more prolonged stimulation butanol was without significant effect. In cells pretreated with Ro-31-8220, vasopressin-stimulated DAG formation was decreased by approx. 30% at 2 min, but was significantly potentiated at later times. This coincided with an enhancement of vasopressin-stimulated [3H]IP accumulation. In cells exposed to the V1a-receptor antagonist 5 min after addition of vasopressin, subsequent DAG formation was significantly decreased, indicating that sustained formation of DAG, like [3H]IP accumulation, was dependent on continual agonist

  3. Cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells are resistant to methylamine toxicity: no correlation to semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langford, S. D.; Trent, M. B.; Boor, P. J.

    2001-01-01

    Methylamine (MA), a component of serum and a metabolite of nicotine and certain insecticides and herbicides, is metabolized by semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO). MA is toxic to cultured human umbilical vein and calf pulmonary artery endothelial cells. Endothelial cells, which do not exhibit endogenous SSAO activity, are exposed to SSAO circulating in serum. In contrast, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) do exhibit innate SSAO activity both in vivo and in vitro. This property, together with the critical localization of VSMC within the arterial wall, led us to investigate the potential toxicity of MA to VSMC. Cultured rat VSMC were treated with MA (10-5 to 1 M). In some cultures, SSAO was selectively inhibited with semicarbazide or MDL-72145 [(E)-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-fluoroallylamine]. Cytotoxicity was measured via MTT, vital dye exclusion, and clonogenic assays. MA proved to be toxic to VSMC only at relatively high concentrations (LC(50) of 0.1 M). The inhibition of SSAO with semicarbazide or MDL-72145 did not increase MA toxicity, suggesting that the production of formaldehyde via tissue-bound, SSAO-mediated MA metabolism does not play a role in the minimal toxicity observed in isolated rat VSMC. The omission of fetal calf serum (FCS), which contains high SSAO activity, from media similarly showed little effect on cytotoxicity. We conclude that VSMC--in contrast to previous results in endothelial cells--are relatively resistant to MA toxicity, and SSAO does not play a role in VSMC injury by MA.

  4. Substance-specific importance of EGFR for vascular smooth muscle cells motility in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Schreier, Barbara; Schwerdt, Gerald; Heise, Christian; Bethmann, Daniel; Rabe, Sindy; Mildenberger, Sigrid; Gekle, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Besides their importance for the vascular tone, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) also contribute to pathophysiological vessel alterations. Various G-protein coupled receptor ligands involved in vascular dysfunction and remodeling can transactivate the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) of VSMC, yet the importance of EGFR transactivation for the VSMC phenotype is incompletely understood. The aims of this study were (i) to characterize further the importance of the VSMC-EGFR for proliferation, migration and marker gene expression for inflammation, fibrosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis and (ii) to test the hypothesis that vasoactive substances (endothelin-1, phenylephrine, thrombin, vasopressin and ATP) rely differentially on the EGFR with respect to the abovementioned phenotypic alterations. In primary, aortic VSMC from mice without conditional deletion of the EGFR, proliferation, migration, marker gene expression (inflammation, fibrosis and ROS homeostasis) and cell signaling (ERK 1/2, intracellular calcium) were analyzed. VSMC-EGFR loss reduced collective cell migration and single cell migration probability, while no difference between the genotypes in single cell velocity, chemotaxis or marker gene expression could be observed under control conditions. EGF promoted proliferation, collective cell migration, chemokinesis and chemotaxis and leads to a proinflammatory gene expression profile in wildtype but not in knockout VSMC. Comparing the impact of five vasoactive substances (all reported to transactivate EGFR and all leading to an EGFR dependent increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation), we demonstrate that the importance of EGFR for their action is substance-dependent and most apparent for crowd migration but plays a minor role for gene expression regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sailing smoothly across the cultural divide: Constructing effective behavioral science presentations for medical audiences.

    PubMed

    Myerholtz, Linda; Schirmer, Julie; Carling, Mary Anne

    2015-01-01

    Beginning behavioral science faculty, who are critical residency program contributors, face significant immediate challenges that often diminish their effectiveness and increase the time it takes to translate and reformat their expertise into relevant and meaningful educational presentations. Residency program culture and competency-based learning are quite different from the educational objectives and teaching environments found in most behavioral health training programs. The goal of this article is to provide beginning behavior science faculty, who are typically on their own and learning on the job, with a guide to the core educational perspectives and skills required as well as key resources that are available to them. Since a significant portion of behavioral science faculty's teaching time revolves around small and large group presentations, our guide focuses on how to incorporate key strategies and resources into relevant, evidenced-based and, most importantly, effective behavioral health presentations for the program's resident physicians. Specifically, our recommendations include selection of content, methods of content organization, techniques for actively engaging resident physicians in discussing the significance of the topics, and descriptions of numerous Internet resources for the primary mental health topics that concern family medicine trainees. Finally, it is emphasized that the relevant and effective use of these recommendations is dependent upon the behavioral science faculty educator's first understanding and appreciating how physicians' think, speak, and prioritize information while caring for their patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Water filtration rate and infiltration/accumulation of low density lipoproteins in 3 different modes of endothelial/smooth muscle cell co-cultures.

    PubMed

    Ding, ZuFeng; Fan, YuBo; Deng, XiaoYan

    2009-11-01

    Using different endothelial/smooth muscle cell co-culture modes to simulate the intimal structure of blood vessels, the water filtration rate and the infiltration/accumulation of LDL of the cultured cell layers were studied. The three cell culture modes of the study were: (i) The endothelial cell monolayer (EC/Phi); (ii) endothelial cells directly co-cultured on the smooth muscle cell monolayer (EC-SMC); (iii) endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells cultured on different sides of a Millicell-CM membrane (EC/SMC). It was found that under the same condition, the water filtration rate was the lowest for the EC/SMC mode and the highest for the EC/Phi mode, while the infiltration/accumulation of DiI-LDLs was the lowest in the EC/Phi mode and the highest in the EC-SMC mode. It was also found that DiI-LDL infiltration/accumulation in the cultured cell layers increased with the increasing water filtration rate. The results from the in vitro model study therefore suggest that the infiltration/accumulation of the lipids within the arterial wall is positively correlated with concentration polarization of atherogenic lipids, and the integrity of the endothelium plays an important role in the penetration and accumulation of atherogenic lipids in blood vessel walls.

  7. Effects of captopril, losartan, and nifedipine on cell hypertrophy of cultured vascular smooth muscle from hypertensive Ren-2 transgenic rats

    PubMed Central

    Peiró, Concepción; Llergo, José L; Angulo, Javier; López-Novoa, José M; Rodríguez-López, Ana; Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Sánchez-Ferrer, Carlos F

    1997-01-01

    We hypothesized that tissular renin-angotensin system (RAS) induces vascular hypertrophy in hypertensive Ren-2 transgenic rats (TGR; strain name TGR(mRen2)L27). This assumption was tested in cell cultures of vascular smooth muscle (VSMC) from both hypertensive TGR and control normotensive Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Planar cell surface area, protein synthesis, and protein content per cell were studied, the role for locally produced angiotensin II (AII) was evaluated and the possible pharmacological interference by different drugs was analysed. By use of radioimmunoassay techniques, AII could be determined in TGR cultures (10.25±0.12 pg per 107 cells) while it could not be detected in SD ones. Under serum-free conditions, VSMC from hypertensive TGR were hypertrophic when compared to SD VSMC, as they presented a higher protein content per cell (335±18 and 288±7 pg per cell respectively; P<0.05) and increased mean planar cell surface area, as determined by image analysis (4,074±238 and 4,764±204 μm2, respectively; P<0.05). When exogenously added to cultured SD and TGR VSMC, AII (100 pM to 1 μM) promoted protein synthesis and protein content in a concentration-dependent manner without affecting DNA synthesis. Maximal effects were observed at 100 nM. At this concentration, AII effectively increased planar cell surface area in both SD and TGR cultures by ∼20%. Treatment of TGR cultures, in the absence of exogenous AII, with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril or the angiotensin AT1 receptors antagonist losartan (100 nM to 10 μM) reduced planar cell surface area in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, both captopril and losartan (10 μM), decreased protein synthesis by ∼15%. Treatment of SD VSMC, in the absence of exogenous AII, with both captopril and losartan had no effect either on planar cell surface area or protein synthesis. Treatment with the Ca2+ antagonist nifedipine (100 nM to 10 μM) reduced cell size

  8. Regulation of proliferation and gene expression in cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells by resveratrol and standardized grape extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhirong; Chen Yan; Labinskyy, Nazar

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that low to moderate consumption of red wine is inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart disease; the protection is in part attributed to grape-derived polyphenols, notably trans-resveratrol, present in red wine. It is not clear whether the cardioprotective effects of resveratrol can be reproduced by standardized grape extracts (SGE). In the present studies, we determined, using cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC), growth and specific gene responses to resveratrol and SGE provided by the California Table Grape Commission. Suppression of HASMC proliferation by resveratrol was accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in the expression ofmore » tumor suppressor gene p53 and heat shock protein HSP27. Using resveratrol affinity chromatography and biochemical fractionation procedures, we showed by immunoblot analysis that treatment of HASMC with resveratrol increased the expression of quinone reductase I and II, and also altered their subcellular distribution. Growth of HASMC was significantly inhibited by 70% ethanolic SGE; however, gene expression patterns in various cellular compartments elicited in response to SGE were substantially different from those observed in resveratrol-treated cells. Further, SGE also differed from resveratrol in not being able to induce relaxation of rat carotid arterial rings. These results indicate that distinct mechanisms are involved in the regulation of HASMC growth and gene expression by SGE and resveratrol.« less

  9. Biomaterials patterned with discontinuous microwalls for vascular smooth muscle cell culture: biodegradable small diameter vascular grafts and stable cell culture substrates.

    PubMed

    Heath, Daniel E; Kang, Gavin C W; Cao, Ye; Poon, Yin Fun; Chan, Vincent; Chan-Park, Mary B

    2016-10-01

    The medial layer of small diameter blood vessels contains circumferentially aligned vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMC) that possess contractile phenotype. In tissue-engineered constructs, these cellular characteristics are usually achieved by seeding planar scaffolds with vSMC, rolling the cell-laden scaffold into a tubular structure, and maturing the construct in a pulsatile bioreactor, a lengthy process that can take up to two months. During the maturation phase, the cells circumferentially orient, their contractile protein expression increases, and they obtain a contractile phenotype. Generating cell culture platforms that enable the rapid production of directionally oriented vSMC with increased contractile protein expression would be a major step forward for blood vessel tissue engineering and would greatly facilitate the in vitro study of vSMC biology. Previously, we developed a micropatterned cell culture surface that promotes orientation and contractile protein expression of vSMC. Herein, we explore two potential applications of this technology. First, we fabricate tubular and biodegradable scaffolds that possess the micropatterning on their exterior surface. When vSMC are seeded on these scaffolds, they initially proliferate in order to fill the microchannels and as confluence is reached the cells align in the direction of the micropatterning resulting in a biodegradable scaffold that is inhabited by circumferentially aligned vSMC within a week. Second, we illustrate that we can generate biostable cell culture surfaces that allow the in vitro study of the cells in a more contractile state. Specifically, we explore contractile protein expression of cells cultured on the micropatterned surfaces with the addition of soluble transforming growth factor beta one (TGFβ1).

  10. Intracellular Acid-Extruding Regulators and the Effect of Lipopolysaccharide in Cultured Human Renal Artery Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Shih-Hurng; Lee, Chung-Yi; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Shih, Shou-Jou; Chen, Li-Wei; Cheng, Tzu-Hurng; Chang, Chung-Yi; Tsai, Chein-Sung

    2014-01-01

    Homeostasis of the intracellular pH (pHi) in mammalian cells plays a pivotal role in maintaining cell function. Thus far, the housekeeping Na+-H+ exchanger (NHE) and the Na+-HCO3 − co-transporter (NBC) have been confirmed in many mammalian cells as major acid extruders. However, the role of acid-extruding regulators in human renal artery smooth muscle cells (HRASMCs) remains unclear. It has been demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced vascular occlusion is associated with the apoptosis, activating calpain and increased [Ca2+]i that are related to NHE1 activity in endothelia cells. This study determines the acid-extruding mechanisms and the effect of LPS on the resting pHi and active acid extruders in cultured HRASMCs. The mechanism of pHi recovery from intracellular acidosis (induced by NH4Cl-prepulse) is determined using BCECF-fluorescence in cultured HRASMCs. It is seen that (a) the resting pHi is 7.19±0.03 and 7.10±0.02 for HEPES- and CO2/HCO3 −- buffered solution, respectively; (b) apart from the housekeeping NHE1, another Na+-coupled HCO3 − transporter i.e. NBC, functionally co-exists to achieve acid-equivalent extrusion; (c) three different isoforms of NBC: NBCn1 (SLC4A7; electroneutral), NBCe1 (SLC4A4; electrogenic) and NBCe2 (SLC4A5), are detected in protein/mRNA level; and (d) pHi and NHE protein expression/activity are significantly increased by LPS, in both a dose- and time- dependent manner, but NBCs protein expression is not. In conclusion, it is demonstrated, for the first time, that four pHi acid-extruding regulators: NHE1, NBCn1, NBCe1 and NBCe2, co-exist in cultured HRASMCs. LPS also increases cellular growth, pHi and NHE in a dose- and time-dependent manner. PMID:24587308

  11. Effects of 5-fluorouracil in nuclear and cellular morphology, proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, cytoskeletal and caveolar distribution in primary cultures of smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Filgueiras, Marcelo de Carvalho; Morrot, Alexandre; Soares, Pedro Marcos Gomes; Costa, Manoel Luis; Mermelstein, Cláudia

    2013-01-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most prevalent types of cancer in the world and is one of the leading causes of cancer death. The anti-metabolite 5- fluorouracil (5-FU) is widely used in the treatment of patients with colon cancer and other cancer types. 5-FU-based chemotherapy has been shown to be very efficient in the improvement of overall survival of the patients and for the eradication of the disease. Unfortunately, common side effects of 5-FU include severe alterations in the motility of the gastrointestinal tissues. Nevertheless, the molecular and cellular effects of 5-FU in smooth muscle cells are poorly understood. Primary smooth muscle cell cultures are an important tool for studies of the biological consequences of 5-FU at the cellular level. The avian gizzard is one of the most robust organs of smooth muscle cells. Here we studied the molecular and cellular effects of the chemotherapic drug 5-FU in a primary culture of chick gizzard smooth muscle cells. We found that treatment of smooth muscle cells with 5-FU inhibits cell proliferation by the arrest of cells in the G1 phase of cell cycle and induce apoptosis. 5-FU induced a decrease in the percentage of histone H3-positive cells. Treatment of cells with 5-FU induced changes in cellular and nuclear morphology, a decrease in the number of stress fibers and a major decrease in the number of caveolin-3 positive cells. Our results suggest that the disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and the reduction of caveolin-3 expression could explain the alterations in contractility observed in patients treated with 5-FU. These findings might have an impact in the understanding of the cellular effects of 5-FU in smooth muscle tissues and might help the improvement of new therapeutic protocols for the treatment of colon cancer.

  12. Effects of 5-Fluorouracil in Nuclear and Cellular Morphology, Proliferation, Cell Cycle, Apoptosis, Cytoskeletal and Caveolar Distribution in Primary Cultures of Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Filgueiras, Marcelo de Carvalho; Morrot, Alexandre; Soares, Pedro Marcos Gomes; Costa, Manoel Luis; Mermelstein, Cláudia

    2013-01-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most prevalent types of cancer in the world and is one of the leading causes of cancer death. The anti-metabolite 5- fluorouracil (5-FU) is widely used in the treatment of patients with colon cancer and other cancer types. 5-FU-based chemotherapy has been shown to be very efficient in the improvement of overall survival of the patients and for the eradication of the disease. Unfortunately, common side effects of 5-FU include severe alterations in the motility of the gastrointestinal tissues. Nevertheless, the molecular and cellular effects of 5-FU in smooth muscle cells are poorly understood. Primary smooth muscle cell cultures are an important tool for studies of the biological consequences of 5-FU at the cellular level. The avian gizzard is one of the most robust organs of smooth muscle cells. Here we studied the molecular and cellular effects of the chemotherapic drug 5-FU in a primary culture of chick gizzard smooth muscle cells. We found that treatment of smooth muscle cells with 5-FU inhibits cell proliferation by the arrest of cells in the G1 phase of cell cycle and induce apoptosis. 5-FU induced a decrease in the percentage of histone H3-positive cells. Treatment of cells with 5-FU induced changes in cellular and nuclear morphology, a decrease in the number of stress fibers and a major decrease in the number of caveolin-3 positive cells. Our results suggest that the disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and the reduction of caveolin-3 expression could explain the alterations in contractility observed in patients treated with 5-FU. These findings might have an impact in the understanding of the cellular effects of 5-FU in smooth muscle tissues and might help the improvement of new therapeutic protocols for the treatment of colon cancer. PMID:23646193

  13. TGF-beta1 inhibits Cx43 expression and formation of functional syncytia in cultured smooth muscle cells from human detrusor.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Jochen; Heinrich, Marco; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe

    2009-02-01

    Human detrusor smooth muscle cells (hBSMCs) are coupled by connexin 43 (Cx43)-positive gap junctions to form functional syncytia. Gap junctional communication likely is necessary for synchronised detrusor contractions and is supposed to be altered in voiding disturbances. Other authors have shown that the pleiotropic cytokine TGF-beta1 upregulates Cx43 expression in human aortic smooth muscle cells. In this study, we examined the TGF-beta1 effects on Cx43 expression in cultured hBSMCs. hBSMC cultures, established from patients undergoing cystectomy, were treated with recombinant human TGF-beta1. Cx43 expression was then examined by Western blotting, real-time PCR, and immunocytochemistry. Dye-injection experiments were used to study the size of functional syncytia. Dye-coupling experiments revealed stable formation of functional syncytia in passaged cell cultures (P1-P4). Stimulation with TGF-beta1 led to significant reduction of Cx43 immunoreactivity and coupling. Cx43 protein expression was significantly downregulated and Cx43 mRNA was only 30% of the control level. Interestingly, low phosphorylation species of Cx43 were particularly affected. Our experiments demonstrated a significant down regulation of connexin 43 by TGF-beta1 in cultured hBSMCs. These findings support the view that TGF-beta1 is involved in the pathophysiology of urinary bladder dysfunction.

  14. Crosstalk between monocytes and myometrial smooth muscle in culture generates synergistic pro-inflammatory cytokine production and enhances myocyte contraction, with effects opposed by progesterone.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, S P; Hutchinson, J L; Dorward, D A; Rossi, A G; Norman, J E

    2015-08-01

    Both term and preterm parturition are characterized by an influx of macrophages and neutrophils into the myometrium and cervix, with co-incident increased peripheral blood monocyte activation. Infection and inflammation are strongly implicated in the pathology of preterm labour (PTL), with progesterone considered a promising candidate for its prevention or treatment. In this study, we investigated the effect of monocytes on myometrial smooth muscle cell inflammatory cytokine production both alone and in response to LPS, a TLR4 agonist used to trigger PTL in vivo. We also investigated the effect of monocytes on myocyte contraction. Monocytes, isolated from peripheral blood samples from term pregnant women, were cultured alone, or co-cultured with PHM1-41 myometrial smooth muscle cells, for 24 h. In a third set of experiments, PHM1-41 myocytes were cultured for 24 h in isolation. Cytokine secretion was determined by ELISA or multiplex assays. Co-culture of monocytes and myocytes led to synergistic secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1, with the secretion being further enhanced by LPS (100 ng/ml). The synergistic secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 from co-cultures was mediated in part by direct cell-cell contact, and by TNF. Conditioned media from co-cultures stimulated contraction of PHM1-41 myocytes, and the effect was inhibited by progesterone. Both progesterone and IL-10 inhibited LPS-stimulated IL-6 and IL-8 secretion from co-cultures, while progesterone also inhibited chemokine secretion. These data suggest that monocytes infiltrating the myometrium at labour participate in crosstalk that potentiates pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, an effect that is enhanced by LPS, and can augment myocyte contraction. These effects are all partially inhibited by progesterone. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

  15. The expression of genes involved in myometrial contractility changes during ex situ culture of pregnant human uterine smooth muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Ilicic, Marina; Butler, Trent; Zakar, Tamas; Paul, Jonathan W

    2017-01-01

    Ex situ analyses of human myometrial tissue has been used to investigate the regulation of uterine quiescence and transition to a contractile phenotype. Following concerns about the validity of cultured primary cells, we examined whether myometrial tissue undergoes culture-induced changes ex situ that may affect the validity of in vitro models. To determine whether human myometrial tissue undergoes culture-induced changes ex situ in Estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) and Oxytocin receptor (OXTR) expression. Additionally, to determine whether culture conditions approaching the in vivo environment influence the expression of these key genes. Term non-laboring human myometrial tissues were cultured in the presence of specific treatments, including; serum supplementation, progesterone and estrogen, cAMP, PMA, stretch or NF-κB inhibitors. ESR1, PTGS2 and OXTR mRNA abundance after 48 h culture was determined using quantitative RT-PCR. Myometrial tissue in culture exhibited culture-induced up-regulation of ESR1 and PTGS2 and down-regulation of OXTR mRNA expression. Progesterone prevented culture-induced increase in ESR1 expression. Estrogen further up-regulated PTGS2 expression. Stretch had no direct effect, but blocked the effects of progesterone and estrogen on ESR1 and PTGS2 expression. cAMP had no effect whereas PMA further up-regulated PTGS2 expression and prevented decline of OXTR expression. Human myometrial tissue in culture undergoes culture-induced gene expression changes consistent with transition toward a laboring phenotype. Changes in ESR1, PTGS2 and OXTR expression could not be controlled simultaneously. Until optimal culture conditions are determined, results of in vitro experiments with myometrial tissues should be interpreted with caution.

  16. Smooth Sailing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Beverley; Pincott, Maxine; Rebman, Ashley; Northcutt, Jen; Barsanti, Amy; Silkunas, Betty; Brighton, Susan K.; Reitz, David; Winkler, Maureen

    1999-01-01

    Presents discipline tips from several teachers to keep classrooms running smoothly all year. Some of the suggestions include the following: a bear-cave warning system, peer mediation, a motivational mystery, problem students acting as the teacher's assistant, a positive-behavior-reward chain, a hallway scavenger hunt (to ensure quiet passage…

  17. Temperature and nucleotide dependence of calcium release by myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.B.; Smith, L.; Higgins, B.L.

    1985-11-25

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) rapidly increased UVCaS efflux from a nonmitochondrial organelle in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells that were permeabilized with saponin. A nucleotide, preferably ATP, was essential for IP3-evoked UVCaS release. Two nonhydrolyzable ATP analogues satisfied the nucleotide requirement for IP3-evoked UVCaS release. IP3 strongly stimulated UVCaS efflux at low temperatures (1 to 15 degrees C). Decreasing the temperature from 37 to 4 degrees C inhibited the rate of IP3-stimulated efflux by only about 33%. The failure of such low temperatures to strongly inhibit IP3-induced UVCaS efflux suggests that IP3 activated a CaS channel, rather than a carrier, bymore » a ligand-binding, rather than a metabolic, reaction.« less

  18. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein acts synergistically with beta-glycerophosphate to induce osteoblast differentiation in primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Bear, Mackenzie; Butcher, Martin; Shaughnessy, Stephen G

    2008-09-01

    Previous studies have localized osteoblast specific markers to sites of calcified atherosclerotic lesions. We therefore decided to use an established in vitro model of vascular calcification in order to confirm earlier reports of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) promoting the osteogenic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Treatment of primary bovine aortic smooth muscle cells (BASMCs) with beta-glycerophosphate was found to induce a time-dependent increase in osteoblast differentiation. In contrast, no effect was seen when BASMCs were cultured in the presence of oxLDL alone. However, when the BASMCs were cultured in the presence of both beta-glycerophosphate and oxLDL, beta-glycerophosphate's ability to induce osteoblast differentiation was significantly enhanced. In an attempt to resolve the mechanism by which this effect was occurring, we examined the effect of beta-glycerophosphate and oxLDL on several pathways known to be critical to the differentiation of osteoblasts. Surprisingly, beta-glycerophosphate alone was found to enhance Osterix (Osx) expression by inducing both Smad 1/5/8 activation and Runx2 expression. In contrast, oxLDL did not affect either Smad 1/5/8 activation or Runx2 activation but rather, it enhanced both beta-glycerophosphate-induced Osx expression and osteoblast differentiation in an extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (Erk 1 and 2) -dependent manner. When taken together, these findings suggest a plausible mechanism by which oxLDL may promote osteogenic differentiation and vascular calcification in vivo. J. Cell. Biochem. 105: 185-193, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Cyclic Mechanical Stretch Up-regulates Hepatoma-Derived Growth Factor Expression in Cultured Rat Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Kao, Ying-Hsien; Chen, Po-Han; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Chang, Yo-Chen; Lin, Yu-Chun; Tsai, Ming-Shian; Lee, Po-Huang; Cheng, Cheng-I

    2018-02-21

    Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is a potent mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) during embryogenesis and injury repair of vessel walls. Whether mechanical stimuli modulate HDGF expression remains unknown. This study aimed at investigating whether cyclic mechanical stretch plays a regulatory role in HDGF expression and regenerative cytokine production in aortic SMCs. A SMC cell line was grown on a silicone-based elastomer chamber with extracellular matrix coatings (either type I collagen or fibronectin) and received cyclic and uni-axial mechanical stretches with 10% deformation at frequency 1 Hz. Morphological observation showed that fibronectin coating provided better cell adhesion and spreading and that consecutive 6 hours of cyclic mechanical stretch remarkably induced reorientation and realignment of SMCs. Western blotting detection demonstrated that continuous mechanical stimuli elicited up-regulation of HDGF and PCNA, a cell proliferative marker. Signal kinetic profiling study indicated that cyclic mechanical stretch induced signaling activity in RhoA/ROCK and PI3K/Akt cascades. Kinase inhibition study further showed that blockade of PI3K activity suppressed the stretch-induced TNF-a, whereas RhoA/ROCK inhibition significantly blunted the IL-6 production and HDGF over-expression. Moreover, siRNA-mediated HDGF gene silencing significantly suppressed constitutive expression of IL-6, but not TNF-α, in SMCs. These findings support the role of HDGF in maintaining vascular expression of IL-6, which has been regarded a crucial regenerative factor for acute vascular injury. In conclusion, cyclic mechanical stretch may maintain constitutive expression of HDGF in vascular walls and be regarded an important biophysical regulator in vascular regeneration. ©2018 The Author(s).

  20. Cell culture alters Ca2+ entry pathways activated by store-depletion or hypoxia in canine pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Ng, Lih Chyuan; Kyle, Barry D; Lennox, Alison R; Shen, Xiao-Ming; Hatton, William J; Hume, Joseph R

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that, in acutely dispersed canine pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), depletion of both functionally independent inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3))- and ryanodine-sensitive Ca(2+) stores activates capacitative Ca(2+) entry (CCE). The present study aimed to determine if cell culture modifies intracellular Ca(2+) stores and alters Ca(2+) entry pathways caused by store depletion and hypoxia in canine PASMCs. Intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) was measured in fura 2-loaded cells. Mn(2+) quench of fura 2 signal was performed to study divalent cation entry, and the effects of hypoxia were examined under oxygen tension of 15-18 mmHg. In acutely isolated PASMCs, depletion of IP(3)-sensitive Ca(2+) stores with cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) did not affect initial caffeine-induced intracellular Ca(2+) transients but abolished 5-HT-induced Ca(2+) transients. In contrast, CPA significantly reduced caffeine- and 5-HT-induced Ca(2+) transients in cultured PASMCs. In cultured PASMCs, store depletion or hypoxia caused a transient followed by a sustained rise in [Ca(2+)](i). The transient rise in [Ca(2+)](i) was partially inhibited by nifedipine, whereas the nifedipine-insensitive transient rise in [Ca(2+)](i) was inhibited by KB-R7943, a selective inhibitor of reverse mode Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX). The nifedipine-insensitive sustained rise in [Ca(2+)](i) was inhibited by SKF-96365, Ni(2+), La(3+), and Gd(3+). In addition, store depletion or hypoxia increased the rate of Mn(2+) quench of fura 2 fluorescence that was also inhibited by these blockers, exhibiting pharmacological properties characteristic of CCE. We conclude that cell culture of canine PASMCs reorganizes IP(3) and ryanodine receptors into a common intracellular Ca(2+) compartment, and depletion of this store or hypoxia activates voltage-operated Ca(2+) entry, reverse mode NCX, and CCE.

  1. Activation of particulate guanylate cyclase by adrenomedullin in cultured SV-40 transformed cat iris sphincter smooth muscle (SV-CISM-2) cells.

    PubMed

    Ali, N; Yousufzai, S Y; Abdel-Latif, A A

    2000-07-01

    We investigated the effects of adrenomedullin (ADM) on cGMP production in cultured SV-40 transformed cat iris sphincter smooth muscle (SV-CISM-2) cells. ADM increased cGMP accumulation in a time- and concentration- dependent manner. The peptide increased cGMP formation in the transformed cells by 405-fold as compared to 1. 6-fold in primary cultured CISM cells. The basal cGMP concentrations in both cell types were comparable. In addition, ADM increased cAMP accumulation in SV-CISM-2 cells and in primary cultured cells by 18. 9- and 5.8-fold, respectively. The ADM receptor antagonist, ADM(26-52), but not the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) receptor antagonist, anantin, inhibited ADM-induced cGMP formation. The phorbol ester, phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (PDBu), which inhibits particulate guanylate cyclases in smooth muscle, blocked ADM-stimulated cGMP accumulation. In contrast, inhibitors of the soluble guanylate cyclases, such as LY83583 and ODQ, and inhibitors of the nitric oxide cascade had little effect on ADM-stimulated cGMP production. The stimulatory effect of ADM on cGMP formation is due to activation of the guanylate cyclase system and not to a much reduced phosphodiesterase activity. ADM stimulated guanylate cyclase activity in membrane fractions isolated from SV-CISM-2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner with EC(50) value of 72 nM. Pertussis toxin, an activator of the G-protein, Gi, inhibited ADM-stimulated cGMP accumulation, whereas cholera toxin, a stimulator of the Gs G-protein and subsequently cAMP accumulation, had little effect. Pretreatment of the plasma membrane fraction with Gialpha antibody attenuated ADM-stimulated guanylate cyclase activity by 75%. We conclude that ADM increases intracellular cGMP levels in SV-CISM-2 cells through activation of the ADM receptor and subsequent stimulation of a Gi-mediated membrane-bound guanylate cyclase.

  2. Specific growth stimulation of cultured smooth muscle cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats by platelet-derived growth factor A-chain homodimer.

    PubMed Central

    Resink, T J; Scott-Burden, T; Hahn, A W; Rouge, M; Hosang, M; Powell, J S; Bühler, F R

    1990-01-01

    Cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC)1 from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) possess specific cell surface receptors for both homodimeric forms of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-AA and PDGF-BB), in contrast to cells from normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) animals, which express receptors only for the B-chain form of PDGF. Stimulation of quiescent VSMC from SHR with PDGF-AA resulted in activation of S6-kinase and induction of phosphoinositide catabolism, as well as cellular proliferation when cultures were maintained for prolonged periods with daily supplementation of the growth factor. WKY-derived VSMC showed no response to PDGF-AA, which was consistent with their lack of specific receptors for this homodimer. The responsiveness of quiescent cells from SHR and WKY to the B-chain homodimer was similar. The enhanced growth responsiveness of SHR-derived cells to fetal calf serum, as compared with cells from their normotensive counterparts, may be accounted for in part by their expression of receptors for the AA homodimer of PDGF. PMID:1965150

  3. Urotensin II contributes to collagen synthesis and up-regulates Egr-1 expression in cultured pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells through the ERK1/2 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wei; Cai, Zhifeng; Liu, Mengmeng

    Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of urotensin II (UII) treatment on the proliferation and collagen synthesis of cultured rat pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and to explore whether these effects are mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways and early growth response 1 (Egr-1). Methods: The proliferation of cultured PASMCs stimulated with different doses of UII was detected by BrdU incorporation. The mRNA expression levels of procollagen I (procol I), procollagen III (procol III), extracellular regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), stress-stimulated protein kinase (Sapk), p38 MAPK (p38), and Egr-1 mRNA in culturedmore » PASMCs after treatment with UII, the UII-specific antagonist urantide, and the ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the protein expression levels of procol I, procol III, phosphorylated (p)-ERK1/2, p-Sapk, p-p38, and Egr-1 were detected by Western blotting. Results: Treatment with UII increased the proliferation of cultured PASMCs in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). However, treatment with urantide and PD98059 inhibited the promoting effect of UII on PASMC proliferation (P < 0.05). Real-time PCR analysis showed that UII up-regulated the expression of procol I, procol III, ERK1/2, Sapk, and Egr-1 mRNA (P < 0.05), but not p38 mRNA. However, the up-regulating effect of UII was inhibited by PD98059 and urantide. Western blotting analysis showed that UII increased the synthesis of collagen I, collagen III, p-ERK1/2, p-Sapk, and Egr-1, and these effects also were inhibited by PD98059 and urantide (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Egr-1 participates in the UII-mediated proliferation and collagen synthesis of cultured rat PASMCs via activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway.« less

  4. PDGF activates K-Cl cotransport through phosphoinositide 3-kinase and protein phosphatase-1 in primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Lauf, Peter K; Adragna, Norma C

    2005-07-15

    K-Cl cotransport (K-Cl COT, KCC) is an electroneutrally coupled movement of K and Cl present in most cells. In this work, we studied the pathways of regulation of K-Cl COT by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Wortmannin and LY 294002 blocked the PDGF-induced K-Cl COT activation, indicating that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-K) pathway is involved. However, PD 98059 had no effect on K-Cl COT activation by PDGF, suggesting that the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway is not involved under the experimental conditions tested. Involvement of phosphatases was also examined. Sodium orthovanadate, cyclosporin A and okadaic acid had no effect on PDGF-stimulated K-Cl COT. Calyculin A blocked the PDGF-stimulated K-Cl COT by 60%, suggesting that protein phosphatase-1 (PP-1) is a mediator in the PDGF signaling pathway/s. In conclusion, our results indicate that the PDGF-mediated pathways of K-Cl COT regulation involve the signaling molecules PI 3-K and PP-1.

  5. Engineering blood vessels through micropatterned co-culture of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells on bilayered electrospun fibrous mats with pDNA inoculation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaowen; Lu, Jinfu; Li, Huinan; Wei, Jiaojun; Li, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Although engineered blood vessels have seen important advances during recent years, proper mechanical strength and vasoactivity remain unsolved problems. In the current study, micropatterned fibrous mats were created to load smooth muscle cells (SMC), and a co-culture with endothelial cells (EC) was established through overlaying on an EC-loaded flat fibrous mat to mimic the layered structure of a blood vessel. A preferential distribution of SMC was determined in the patterned regions throughout the fibrous scaffolds, and aligned fibers in the patterned regions provided topological cues to guide the orientation of SMC with intense actin filaments and extracellular matrix (ECM) production in a circumferential direction. Plasmid DNA encoding basic fibroblast growth factors and vascular endothelial growth factor were integrated into electrospun fibers as biological cues to promote SMC infiltration into fibrous mats, and the viability and ECM production of both EC and SMC. The layered fibrous mats with loaded EC and SMC were wrapped into a cylinder, and engineered vessels were obtained with compact EC and SMC layers after co-culture for 3 months. Randomly oriented ECM productions of EC formed a continuous endothelium covering the entire lumenal surface, and a high alignment of ECM was shown in the circumferential direction of SMC layers. The tensile strength, strain at failure and suture retention strength were higher than those of the human femoral artery, and the burst pressure and radial compliance were in the same range as the human saphenous vein, indicating potential as blood vessel substitutes for transplantation in vivo. Thus, the establishment of topographical cues and biochemical signals in fibrous scaffolds demonstrates advantages in modulating cellular behavior and organization found in complex multicellular tissues. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of rosuvastatin on the production and activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and migration of cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells induced by homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ya-fei; Chi, Ju-fang; Tang, Wei-liang; Xu, Fu-kang; Liu, Long-bin; Ji, Zheng; Lv, Hai-tao; Guo, Hang-yuan

    2013-08-01

    To test the influence of homocysteine on the production and activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and on cell migration of cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Also, to explore whether rosuvastatin can alter the abnormal secretion and activation of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 and migration of VSMCs induced by homocysteine. Rat VSMCs were incubated with different concentrations of homocysteine (50-5000 μmol/L). Western blotting and gelatin zymography were used to investigate the expressions and activities of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in VSMCs in culture medium when induced with homocysteine for 24, 48, and 72 h. Transwell chambers were employed to test the migratory ability of VSMCs when incubated with homocysteine for 48 h. Different concentrations of rosuvastatin (10(-9)-10(-5) mol/L) were added when VSMCs were induced with 1000 μmol/L homocysteine. The expressions and activities of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 were examined after incubating for 24, 48, and 72 h, and the migration of VSMCs was also examined after incubating for 48 h. Homocysteine (50-1000 μmol/L) increased the production and activation of MMP-2 and expression of TIMP-2 in a dose-dependent manner. However, when incubated with 5000 μmol/L homocysteine, the expression of MMP-2 was up-regulated, but its activity was down-regulated. Increased homocysteine-induced production and activation of MMP-2 were reduced by rosuvastatin in a dose-dependent manner whereas secretion of TIMP-2 was not significantly altered by rosuvastatin. Homocysteine (50-5000 μmol/L) stimulated the migration of VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner, but this effect was eliminated by rosuvastatin. Homocysteine (50-1000 μmol/L) significantly increased the production and activation of MMP-2, the expression of TIMP-2, and the migration of VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner. Additional extracellular rosuvastatin can decrease the excessive expression and activation of MMP-2 and

  7. H19, a marker of developmental transition, is reexpressed in human atherosclerotic plaques and is regulated by the insulin family of growth factors in cultured rabbit smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Han, D K; Khaing, Z Z; Pollock, R A; Haudenschild, C C; Liau, G

    1996-03-01

    H19 is a developmentally regulated gene with putative tumor suppressor activity, and loss of H19 expression may be involved in Wilms' tumorigenesis. In this report, we have performed in situ hybridization analysis of H19 expression during normal rabbit development and in human atherosclerotic plaques. We have also used cultured smooth muscle cells to identify H19 regulatory factors. Our data indicate that H19 expression in the developing skeletal and smooth muscles correlated with specific differentiation events in these tissues. Expression of H19 in the skeletal muscle correlated with nonproliferative, actin-positive muscle cells. In the prenatal blood vessel, H19 expression was both temporally and spatially regulated with initial loss of expression in the inner smooth muscle layers adjacent to the lumen. We also identified H19-positive cells within the adult atherosclerotic lesion and we suggest that these cells may recapitulate earlier developmental events. These results, along with the identification of the insulin family of growth factors as potent regulatory molecules for H19 expression, provide additional clues toward understanding the physiological regulation and function of H19.

  8. H19, a marker of developmental transition, is reexpressed in human atherosclerotic plaques and is regulated by the insulin family of growth factors in cultured rabbit smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Han, D K; Khaing, Z Z; Pollock, R A; Haudenschild, C C; Liau, G

    1996-01-01

    H19 is a developmentally regulated gene with putative tumor suppressor activity, and loss of H19 expression may be involved in Wilms' tumorigenesis. In this report, we have performed in situ hybridization analysis of H19 expression during normal rabbit development and in human atherosclerotic plaques. We have also used cultured smooth muscle cells to identify H19 regulatory factors. Our data indicate that H19 expression in the developing skeletal and smooth muscles correlated with specific differentiation events in these tissues. Expression of H19 in the skeletal muscle correlated with nonproliferative, actin-positive muscle cells. In the prenatal blood vessel, H19 expression was both temporally and spatially regulated with initial loss of expression in the inner smooth muscle layers adjacent to the lumen. We also identified H19-positive cells within the adult atherosclerotic lesion and we suggest that these cells may recapitulate earlier developmental events. These results, along with the identification of the insulin family of growth factors as potent regulatory molecules for H19 expression, provide additional clues toward understanding the physiological regulation and function of H19. PMID:8636440

  9. Evaluation of pharmacological relaxation effect of the natural product naringin on in vitro cultured airway smooth muscle cells and in vivo ovalbumin-induced asthma Balb/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Lu, Yun; Luo, Mingzhi; Shi, Xiaohao; Pan, Yan; Zeng, Huilong; Deng, Linhong

    2016-01-01

    Asthma has become a common chronic respiratory disease worldwide and its prevalence is predicted to continue increasing in the next decade, particularly in developing countries. A key component in asthma therapy is to alleviate the excessive bronchial airway narrowing ultimately due to airway smooth muscle contraction, which is often facilitated by a smooth muscle relaxant, such as the β2-adrenergic agonists. Recently, bitter taste receptor (TAS2R) agonists, including saccharin and chloroquine, have been found to potently relax the airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) via intracellular Ca2+ signaling. This inspires a great interest in screening the vast resource of natural bitter substances for potential bronchodilatory drugs. In the present study, the relaxation effect of naringin, a compound extracted from common grapefruit, on ASMCs cultured in vitro or bronchial airways of Balb/c mice in vivo was evaluated. The results demonstrated that, when exposed to increasing doses of naringin (0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mM), the traction force generated by the cultured ASMCs decreased progressively, while the intracellular calcium flux signaling in the ASMCs increased. When inhaled at increasing doses (15, 30 and 60 µg), naringin also dose-dependently reduced the bronchial airway resistance of the normal and ovalbumin-induced asthma Balb/c mice in response to challenge with methacholine. In conclusion, these findings indicate that naringin was able to effectively relax murine ASMCs in vitro and in vivo, thus suggesting that it is a promising drug agent to be further investigated in the development of novel bronchodilators for the treatment of asthma. PMID:28101344

  10. Tanshinone IIA inhibits AGEs-induced proliferation and migration of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells by suppressing ERK1/2 MAPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming; Luo, Ying; Hu, Pengfei; Dou, Liping; Huang, Shuwei

    2018-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular disease. Our current study sought to explore the effects of tanshinone IIA on the proliferation and migration of VSMCs induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs). In this study, we examined the effects of tanshinone IIA by cell proliferation assay and cell migration assay. And we explored the underlying mechanism by Western blotting. AGEs significantly induced the proliferation and migration of VSMCs, but treatment with tanshinone IIA attenuated these effects. AGEs could increase the activity of the ERK1/2 and p38 pathways but not the JNK pathway. Treatment with tanshinone IIA inhibited the AGEs-induced activation of the ERK1/2 pathway but not the p38 pathway. Tanshinone IIA inhibits AGEs-induced proliferation and migration of VSMCs by suppressing the ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway.

  11. Tanshinone IIA inhibits AGEs-induced proliferation and migration of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells by suppressing ERK1/2 MAPK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ming; Luo, Ying; Hu, Pengfei; Dou, Liping; Huang, Shuwei

    2018-01-01

    Objective(s): Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular disease. Our current study sought to explore the effects of tanshinone IIA on the proliferation and migration of VSMCs induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Materials and Methods: In this study, we examined the effects of tanshinone IIA by cell proliferation assay and cell migration assay. And we explored the underlying mechanism by Western blotting. Results: AGEs significantly induced the proliferation and migration of VSMCs, but treatment with tanshinone IIA attenuated these effects. AGEs could increase the activity of the ERK1/2 and p38 pathways but not the JNK pathway. Treatment with tanshinone IIA inhibited the AGEs-induced activation of the ERK1/2 pathway but not the p38 pathway. Conclusion: Tanshinone IIA inhibits AGEs-induced proliferation and migration of VSMCs by suppressing the ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:29372041

  12. Responses of Disengaged and Minoritized Haitian American Students in a 10th Grade English/Intensive Reading Class to the Intentional Use of Culturally Relevant Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishbein, Helena J.

    2016-01-01

    The Eurocentric and patriarchal curriculum in typical American schools can alienate some students. Research suggests that using culturally relevant literature with alienated students may cause them to become more engaged in English Language Arts classes. This practitioner inquiry case study, set in Southwest Florida, examined the responses of six…

  13. Human mesenchymal stem cells cultured on silk hydrogels with variable stiffness and growth factor differentiate into mature smooth muscle cell phenotype.

    PubMed

    Floren, Michael; Bonani, Walter; Dharmarajan, Anirudh; Motta, Antonella; Migliaresi, Claudio; Tan, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Cell-matrix and cell-biomolecule interactions play critical roles in a diversity of biological events including cell adhesion, growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Evidence suggests that a concise crosstalk of these environmental factors may be required to direct stem cell differentiation toward matured cell type and function. However, the culmination of these complex interactions to direct stem cells into highly specific phenotypes in vitro is still widely unknown, particularly in the context of implantable biomaterials. In this study, we utilized tunable hydrogels based on a simple high pressure CO2 method and silk fibroin (SF) the structural protein of Bombyx mori silk fibers. Modification of SF protein starting water solution concentration results in hydrogels of variable stiffness while retaining key structural parameters such as matrix pore size and β-sheet crystallinity. To further resolve the complex crosstalk of chemical signals with matrix properties, we chose to investigate the role of 3D hydrogel stiffness and transforming growth factor (TGF-β1), with the aim of correlating the effects on the vascular commitment of human mesenchymal stem cells. Our data revealed the potential to upregulate matured vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype (myosin heavy chain expression) of hMSCs by employing appropriate matrix stiffness and growth factor (within 72h). Overall, our observations suggest that chemical and physical stimuli within the cellular microenvironment are tightly coupled systems involved in the fate decisions of hMSCs. The production of tunable scaffold materials that are biocompatible and further specialized to mimic tissue-specific niche environments will be of considerable value to future tissue engineering platforms. This article investigates the role of silk fibroin hydrogel stiffness and transforming growth factor (TGF-β1), with the aim of correlating the effects on the vascular commitment of human mesenchymal stem cells. Specifically, we

  14. Diamond Smoothing Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voronov, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    Diamond smoothing tools have been proposed for use in conjunction with diamond cutting tools that are used in many finish-machining operations. Diamond machining (including finishing) is often used, for example, in fabrication of precise metal mirrors. A diamond smoothing tool according to the proposal would have a smooth spherical surface. For a given finish machining operation, the smoothing tool would be mounted next to the cutting tool. The smoothing tool would slide on the machined surface left behind by the cutting tool, plastically deforming the surface material and thereby reducing the roughness of the surface, closing microcracks and otherwise generally reducing or eliminating microscopic surface and subsurface defects, and increasing the microhardness of the surface layer. It has been estimated that if smoothing tools of this type were used in conjunction with cutting tools on sufficiently precise lathes, it would be possible to reduce the roughness of machined surfaces to as little as 3 nm. A tool according to the proposal would consist of a smoothing insert in a metal holder. The smoothing insert would be made from a diamond/metal functionally graded composite rod preform, which, in turn, would be made by sintering together a bulk single-crystal or polycrystalline diamond, a diamond powder, and a metallic alloy at high pressure. To form the spherical smoothing tip, the diamond end of the preform would be subjected to flat grinding, conical grinding, spherical grinding using diamond wheels, and finally spherical polishing and/or buffing using diamond powders. If the diamond were a single crystal, then it would be crystallographically oriented, relative to the machining motion, to minimize its wear and maximize its hardness. Spherically polished diamonds could also be useful for purposes other than smoothing in finish machining: They would likely also be suitable for use as heat-resistant, wear-resistant, unlubricated sliding-fit bearing inserts.

  15. Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharides Reduce Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Interleukin-1β Expression in Cultured Smooth Muscle Cells and in Thoracic Aortas in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Chan-Jung; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Sung, Hsin-Ching; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Hsu, Hsien-Yeh; Tseng, Ying-Chin; Li, Chi-Yuan; Wang, Shu-Huei

    2014-01-01

    The expression of inflammatory cytokines on vascular walls is a critical event in vascular diseases and inflammation. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of an extract of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) polysaccharides (EORPs), which is effective against immunological disorders, on interleukin- (IL-) 1β expression by human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) and the underlying mechanism. The lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced IL-1β expression was significantly reduced when HASMCs were pretreated with EORP by Western blot and immunofluorescent staining. Pretreatment with 10 μg/mL EORP decreased LPS-induced ERK, p38, JNK, and Akt phosphorylation. But the increase in IL-1β expression with LPS treatment was only inhibited by pretreatment with the ERK1/2 inhibitor, while the JNK and p38 inhibitors had no effect. In addition, EORP reduced the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor- (NF-) κB p65 in LPS-treated HASMCs. Furthermore, in vivo, IL-1β expression was strongly expressed in thoracic aortas in LPS-treated mice. Oral administration of EORP decreased IL-1β expression. The level of IL-1β expression in LPS-treated or in LPS/EORP-treated group was very low and was similar to that of the saline-treated group in toll-like receptor 4-deficient (TLR4−/−) mice. These findings suggest that EORP has the anti-inflammatory property and could prove useful in the prevention of vascular diseases and inflammatory responses. PMID:24723958

  16. Vitisin B, a resveratrol tetramer, inhibits migration through inhibition of PDGF signaling and enhancement of cell adhesiveness in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, Eng-Thaim; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Huang, Yu-Ling

    2011-10-15

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play an important role in normal vessel formation and in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Grape plants contain resveratrol monomer and oligomers and drinking of wine made from grape has been linked to 'French Paradox'. In this study we evaluated the effect of vitisin B, a resveratrol tetramer, on VSMC behaviors. Vitisin B inhibited basal and PDGF-induced VSMC migration. Strikingly, it did not inhibit VSMC proliferation but inversely enhanced cell cycle progression and proliferation. Among the tested resveratrol oligomers, vitisin B showed an excellent inhibitory activity and selectivity on PDGF signaling. The anti-migratorymore » effect by vitisin B was due to direct inhibition on PDGF signaling but was independent of interference with PDGF binding to VSMCs. Moreover, the enhanced VSMC adhesiveness to matrix contributed to the anti-migratory effect by vitisin B. Fluorescence microscopy revealed an enhanced reorganization of actin cytoskeleton and redistribution of activated focal adhesion proteins from cytosol to the peripheral edge of the cell membrane. This was confirmed by the observation that enhanced adhesiveness was repressed by the Src inhibitor. Finally, among the effects elicited by vitisin B, only the inhibitory effect toward basal migration was partially through estrogen receptor activation. We have demonstrated here that a resveratrol tetramer exhibited dual but opposite actions on VSMCs, one is to inhibit VSMC migration and the other is to promote VSMC proliferation. The anti-migratory effect was through a potent inhibition on PDGF signaling and novel enhancement on cell adhesion. - Highlights: > Several resveratrol oligomers from grape plants are examined on VSMC behaviors. > Tetraoligomer vitisin B shows excellent inhibitory activity and selectivity. > It exerts dual but opposing actions: anti-migratory and pro-proliferative effects. > The anti-migratory effect results from anti

  17. Charon's Smooth Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, R. A.; Spencer, J. R.; Nimmo, F.; Beddingfield, C.; Grundy, W. M.; McKinnon, W. B.; Moore, J.; Robbins, S.; Runyon, K.; Schenk, P.; Singer, K.; Weaver, H.; Young, L. A.; Ennico, K.; Olkin, C.; Stern, S. A.; New Horizons Science Team

    2018-06-01

    We hypothesize that Charon's smooth plains result from its global extension that caused crustal blocks to founder. Then, a viscous cryoflow composed of ammonia-rich mantle material rose up, enveloped the sinking blocks, and produced the plains.

  18. Role of protein kinase C alpha in endothelin-1 stimulation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and arachidonic acid release in cultured cat iris sphincter smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Husain, S; Abdel-Latif, A A

    1998-05-20

    We have investigated the role and mechanism of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced arachidonic acid (AA) release in cat iris sphincter smooth muscle (CISM) cells. ET-1 increased AA release in a concentration (EC50=8 nM) and time-dependent (t1/2=1.2 min) manner. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), but not phospholipase C (PLC), is involved in the liberation of AA in the stimulated cells. This conclusion is supported by the findings that ET-1-induced AA release is inhibited by AACOCF3, quinacrine and manoalide, PLA2 inhibitors, but not by U-73122, a PLC inhibitor, or by RHC-80267, a diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor. A role for PKC in ET-1-induced AA release is supported by the findings that the phorbol ester, PDBu, increased AA release by 96%, that prolonged treatment of the cells with PDBu resulted in the selective down regulation of PKCalpha and the complete inhibition of ET-1-induced AA release, and that pretreatment of the cells with staurosporine or RO 31-8220, PKC inhibitors, blocked the ET-1-induced AA release. Gö-6976, a compound that inhibits PKCalpha and beta specifically, blocked ET-1-induced AA release in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 8 nM. Thymeatoxin (0.1 microM), a specific activator of PKCalpha, beta, and gamma induced a 150% increase in AA release. Treatment of the cells with ET-1 caused significant translocation of PKCalpha, but not PKCbeta, from cytosol to the particulate fraction. These results suggest that PKCalpha plays a critical role in ET-1-induced AA release in these cells. Immunochemical analysis revealed the presence of cPLA2, p42mapk and p44mapk in the CISM cells. The data presented are consistent with a role for PKCalpha, but not for p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), in cPLA2 activation and AA release in ET-1-stimulated CISM cells since: (i) the PKC inhibitor, RO 31-8220, inhibited ET-1-induced AA release, cPLA2 phosphorylation and cPLA2 activity, but had no inhibitory

  19. Discrete square root smoothing.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaminski, P. G.; Bryson, A. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The basic techniques applied in the square root least squares and square root filtering solutions are applied to the smoothing problem. Both conventional and square root solutions are obtained by computing the filtered solutions, then modifying the results to include the effect of all measurements. A comparison of computation requirements indicates that the square root information smoother (SRIS) is more efficient than conventional solutions in a large class of fixed interval smoothing problems.

  20. smoothG

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, Andrew T.; Gelever, Stephan A.; Lee, Chak S.

    2017-12-12

    smoothG is a collection of parallel C++ classes/functions that algebraically constructs reduced models of different resolutions from a given high-fidelity graph model. In addition, smoothG also provides efficient linear solvers for the reduced models. Other than pure graph problem, the software finds its application in subsurface flow and power grid simulations in which graph Laplacians are found

  1. A 10-Year Longitudinal Study of Effects of a Multifaceted Residency Spiritual Care Curriculum: Clinical Ability, Professional Formation, End of Life, and Culture.

    PubMed

    Anandarajah, Gowri; Roseman, Janet; Lee, Danny; Dhandhania, Nupur

    2016-12-01

    Although spiritual care (SC) is recognized as important in whole-person medicine, physicians infrequently address patients' spiritual needs, citing lack of training. Although many SC curricula descriptions exist, few studies report effects on physicians. To broadly examine immediate and long-term effects of a required, longitudinal, residency SC curriculum, which emphasized inclusive patient-centered SC, compassion, and spiritual self-care. We conducted in-depth individual interviews with 26 physicians (13 intervention; 13 comparison) trained at a 13-13-13 residency. We interviewed intervention physicians three times over 10 years-1) preintervention, as PGY1s, 2) postintervention, as PGY3s, 3) eight-year postintervention, as practicing physicians. We interviewed comparison physicians as PGY3s. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed by four researchers. Forty-nine interviews were analyzed. General: Both groups were diverse regarding personal importance of spirituality/religion. All physicians endorsed the value of SC, sharing rich patient stories particularly related to end of life and cultural diversity. Curricular effects: 1) skills/barriers-intervention physicians demonstrated progressive improvements in clinical approach, accompanied by diminishing worries related to SC. PGY3 comparison physicians struggled with SC skills and worries more than PGY3 intervention physicians, 2) physician formation-most physicians described residency as profoundly challenging and transformative. Even after eight years, many intervention physicians noted that reflection on their diverse beliefs and values in safety, coupled with compassion shown to them through this curriculum, had deeply positive effects. High impact training: patient-centered spiritual assessment; chaplain rounds; spiritual self-care workshop/retreats; multicultural SC framework. A longitudinal, multifaceted residency SC curriculum can have lasting positive effects on physicians' SC skills and

  2. Smoothing the Marmousi Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žáček, K.

    Summary- The only way to make an excessively complex velocity model suitable for application of ray-based methods, such as the Gaussian beam or Gaussian packet methods, is to smooth it. We have smoothed the Marmousi model by choosing a coarser grid and by minimizing the second spatial derivatives of the slowness. This was done by minimizing the relevant Sobolev norm of slowness. We show that minimizing the relevant Sobolev norm of slowness is a suitable technique for preparing the optimum models for asymptotic ray theory methods. However, the price we pay for a model suitable for ray tracing is an increase of the difference between the smoothed and original model. Similarly, the estimated error in the travel time also increases due to the difference between the models. In smoothing the Marmousi model, we have found the estimated error of travel times at the verge of acceptability. Due to the low frequencies in the wavefield of the original Marmousi data set, we have found the Gaussian beams and Gaussian packets at the verge of applicability even in models sufficiently smoothed for ray tracing.

  3. Smoothly deformed light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenholm, Stig

    1993-01-01

    A single mode cavity is deformed smoothly to change its electromagnetic eigenfrequency. The system is modeled as a simple harmonic oscillator with a varying period. The Wigner function of the problem is obtained exactly by starting with a squeezed initial state. The result is evaluated for a linear change of the cavity length. The approach to the adiabatic limit is investigated. The maximum squeezing is found to occur for smooth change lasting only a fraction of the oscillational period. However, only a factor of two improvement over the adiabatic result proves to be possible. The sudden limit cannot be investigated meaningfully within the model.

  4. Income Smoothing: Methodology and Models.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    studies have all followed a similar research process (Figure 1). All were expost studies and included the following steps: 1. A smoothing technique(s) or...researcher methodological decisions used in past empirical studies of income smoothing (design type, smoothing device norm, and income target) are discussed...behavior. The identification of smoothing, and consequently the conclusions to be drawn from smoothing studies , is found to be sensitive to the three

  5. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    2016-10-05

    This code is a highly modular framework for developing smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations running on parallel platforms. The compartmentalization of the code allows for rapid development of new SPH applications and modifications of existing algorithms. The compartmentalization also allows changes in one part of the code used by many applications to instantly be made available to all applications.

  6. Pavement smoothness indices : research brief.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-08-01

    Many in the asphalt industry believe that initial pavement smoothness directly relates to : pavement life. Public perception of smoothness is also important. Oregon is interested in : determining the appropriate method of measurement to quantify smoo...

  7. Exponential smoothing weighted correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzi, F.; Di Matteo, T.; Aste, T.

    2012-06-01

    In many practical applications, correlation matrices might be affected by the "curse of dimensionality" and by an excessive sensitiveness to outliers and remote observations. These shortcomings can cause problems of statistical robustness especially accentuated when a system of dynamic correlations over a running window is concerned. These drawbacks can be partially mitigated by assigning a structure of weights to observational events. In this paper, we discuss Pearson's ρ and Kendall's τ correlation matrices, weighted with an exponential smoothing, computed on moving windows using a data-set of daily returns for 300 NYSE highly capitalized companies in the period between 2001 and 2003. Criteria for jointly determining optimal weights together with the optimal length of the running window are proposed. We find that the exponential smoothing can provide more robust and reliable dynamic measures and we discuss that a careful choice of the parameters can reduce the autocorrelation of dynamic correlations whilst keeping significance and robustness of the measure. Weighted correlations are found to be smoother and recovering faster from market turbulence than their unweighted counterparts, helping also to discriminate more effectively genuine from spurious correlations.

  8. Mitochondrial motility and vascular smooth muscle proliferation.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Susan; Saunter, Christopher; Wilson, Calum; Coats, Paul; Girkin, John M; McCarron, John G

    2012-12-01

    Mitochondria are widely described as being highly dynamic and adaptable organelles, and their movement is thought to be vital for cell function. Yet, in various native cells, including those of heart and smooth muscle, mitochondria are stationary and rigidly structured. The significance of the differences in mitochondrial behavior to the physiological function of cells is unclear and was studied in single myocytes and intact resistance-sized cerebral arteries. We hypothesized that mitochondrial dynamics is controlled by the proliferative status of the cells. High-speed fluorescence imaging of mitochondria in live vascular smooth muscle cells shows that the organelle undergoes significant reorganization as cells become proliferative. In nonproliferative cells, mitochondria are individual (≈ 2 μm by 0.5 μm), stationary, randomly dispersed, fixed structures. However, on entering the proliferative state, mitochondria take on a more diverse architecture and become small spheres, short rod-shaped structures, long filamentous entities, and networks. When cells proliferate, mitochondria also continuously move and change shape. In the intact pressurized resistance artery, mitochondria are largely immobile structures, except in a small number of cells in which motility occurred. When proliferation of smooth muscle was encouraged in the intact resistance artery, in organ culture, the majority of mitochondria became motile and the majority of smooth muscle cells contained moving mitochondria. Significantly, restriction of mitochondrial motility using the fission blocker mitochondrial division inhibitor prevented vascular smooth muscle proliferation in both single cells and the intact resistance artery. These results show that mitochondria are adaptable and exist in intact tissue as both stationary and highly dynamic entities. This mitochondrial plasticity is an essential mechanism for the development of smooth muscle proliferation and therefore presents a novel therapeutic

  9. Culture.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy B; Rodríguez, Melanie Domenech; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-02-01

    This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele than traditional treatments. The most effective treatments tended to be those with greater numbers of cultural adaptations. Mental health services targeted to a specific cultural group were several times more effective than those provided to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. We recommend a series of research-supported therapeutic practices that account for clients' culture, with culture-specific treatments being more effective than generally culture-sensitive treatments. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Regeneration and Maintenance of Intestinal Smooth Muscle Phenotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walthers, Christopher M.

    Tissue engineering is an emerging field of biomedical engineering that involves growing artificial organs to replace those lost to disease or injury. Within tissue engineering, there is a demand for artificial smooth muscle to repair tissues of the digestive tract, bladder, and vascular systems. Attempts to develop engineered smooth muscle tissues capable of contracting with sufficient strength to be clinically relevant have so far proven unsatisfactory. The goal of this research was to develop and sustain mature, contractile smooth muscle. Survival of implanted SMCs is critical to sustain the benefits of engineered smooth muscle. Survival of implanted smooth muscle cells was studied with layered, electrospun polycaprolactone implants with lasercut holes ranging from 0--25% porosity. It was found that greater angiogenesis was associated with increased survival of implanted cells, with a large increase at a threshold between 20% and 25% porosity. Heparan sulfate coatings improved the speed of blood vessel infiltration after 14 days of implantation. With these considerations, thicker engineered tissues may be possible. An improved smooth muscle tissue culture technique was utilized. Contracting smooth muscle was produced in culture by maintaining the native smooth muscle tissue organization, specifically by sustaining intact smooth muscle strips rather than dissociating tissue in to isolated smooth muscle cells. Isolated cells showed a decrease in maturity and contained fewer enteric neural and glial cells. Muscle strips also exhibited periodic contraction and regular fluctuation of intracellular calclium. The muscle strip maturity persisted after implantation in omentum for 14 days on polycaprolactone scaffolds. A low-cost, disposable bioreactor was developed to further improve maturity of cultured smooth muscle cells in an environment of controlled cyclical stress.The bioreactor consistently applied repeated mechanical strain with controllable inputs for strain

  11. Robust Smoothing: Smoothing Parameter Selection and Applications to Fluorescence Spectroscopy∂

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Soo; Cox, Dennis D.

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy has emerged in recent years as an effective way to detect cervical cancer. Investigation of the data preprocessing stage uncovered a need for a robust smoothing to extract the signal from the noise. Various robust smoothing methods for estimating fluorescence emission spectra are compared and data driven methods for the selection of smoothing parameter are suggested. The methods currently implemented in R for smoothing parameter selection proved to be unsatisfactory, and a computationally efficient procedure that approximates robust leave-one-out cross validation is presented. PMID:20729976

  12. Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    Twelve conference papers on cultural aspects of second language instruction include: "Towards True Multiculturalism: Ideas for Teachers" (Brian McVeigh); Comparing Cultures Through Critical Thinking: Development and Interpretations of Meaningful Observations" (Laurel D. Kamada); "Authority and Individualism in Japan and the…

  13. Mechanisms of mechanical strain memory in airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak Rim; Hai, Chi-Ming

    2005-10-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that mechanical deformation of airway smooth muscle induces structural remodeling of airway smooth muscle cells, thereby modulating mechanical performance in subsequent contractions. This hypothesis implied that past experience of mechanical deformation was retained (or "memorized") as structural changes in airway smooth muscle cells, which modulated the cell's subsequent contractile responses. We termed this phenomenon mechanical strain memory. Preshortening has been found to induce attenuation of both force and isotonic shortening velocity in cholinergic receptor-activated airway smooth muscle. Rapid stretching of cholinergic receptor-activated airway smooth muscle from an initial length to a final length resulted in post-stretch force and myosin light chain phosphorylation that correlated significantly with initial length. Thus post-stretch muscle strips appeared to retain memory of the initial length prior to rapid stretch (mechanical strain memory). Cytoskeletal recruitment of actin- and integrin-binding proteins and Erk 1/2 MAPK appeared to be important mechanisms of mechanical strain memory. Sinusoidal length oscillation led to force attenuation during oscillation and in subsequent contractions in intact airway smooth muscle, and p38 MAPK appeared to be an important mechanism. In contrast, application of local mechanical strain to cultured airway smooth muscle cells induced local actin polymerization and cytoskeletal stiffening. It is conceivable that deep inspiration-induced bronchoprotection may be a manifestation of mechanical strain memory such that mechanical deformation from past breathing cycles modulated the mechanical performance of airway smooth muscle in subsequent cycles in a continuous and dynamic manner.

  14. Ceramic coatings on smooth surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. A. (Inventor); Brindley, W. J. (Inventor); Rouge, C. J. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A metallic coating is plasma sprayed onto a smooth surface of a metal alloy substitute or on a bond coating. An initial thin ceramic layer is low pressure sprayed onto the smooth surface of the substrate or bond coating. Another ceramic layer is atmospheric plasma sprayed onto the initial ceramic layer.

  15. Impact of a smoothness incentive.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-01-01

    Smoothness, the absence of bumps and dips in the riding surface of a pavement, improves the quality of the ride and is believed to prolong the life of the pavement. This research addressed the impact of potential pay adjustments for smoothness on mai...

  16. Smooth quantile normalization.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Stephanie C; Okrah, Kwame; Paulson, Joseph N; Quackenbush, John; Irizarry, Rafael A; Bravo, Héctor Corrada

    2018-04-01

    Between-sample normalization is a critical step in genomic data analysis to remove systematic bias and unwanted technical variation in high-throughput data. Global normalization methods are based on the assumption that observed variability in global properties is due to technical reasons and are unrelated to the biology of interest. For example, some methods correct for differences in sequencing read counts by scaling features to have similar median values across samples, but these fail to reduce other forms of unwanted technical variation. Methods such as quantile normalization transform the statistical distributions across samples to be the same and assume global differences in the distribution are induced by only technical variation. However, it remains unclear how to proceed with normalization if these assumptions are violated, for example, if there are global differences in the statistical distributions between biological conditions or groups, and external information, such as negative or control features, is not available. Here, we introduce a generalization of quantile normalization, referred to as smooth quantile normalization (qsmooth), which is based on the assumption that the statistical distribution of each sample should be the same (or have the same distributional shape) within biological groups or conditions, but allowing that they may differ between groups. We illustrate the advantages of our method on several high-throughput datasets with global differences in distributions corresponding to different biological conditions. We also perform a Monte Carlo simulation study to illustrate the bias-variance tradeoff and root mean squared error of qsmooth compared to other global normalization methods. A software implementation is available from https://github.com/stephaniehicks/qsmooth.

  17. Young Craters on Smooth Plains

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-01-15

    This image, from NASA Mariner 10 spacecraft which launched in 1974, shows young craters superposed on smooth plains. Larger young craters have central peaks, flat floors, terraced walls, and radial ejecta deposits.

  18. Lateral variation in pavement smoothness

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-12-01

    Current performance-based contracting specifications employ International Roughness Index (IRI) to measure the smoothness of a pavement as perceived by the motorist. This parameter is measured in the outer or right-hand traffic lane and requires an u...

  19. Cultural

    Treesearch

    Wilbur F. LaPage

    1971-01-01

    A critical look at outdoor recreation research and some underlying premises. The author focuses on the concept of culture as communication and how it influences our perception of problems and our search for solutions. Both outdoor recreation and science are viewed as subcultures that have their own bodies of mythology, making recreation problems more difficult to...

  20. Nonparametric Model of Smooth Muscle Force Production During Electrical Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Cole, Marc; Eikenberry, Steffen; Kato, Takahide; Sandler, Roman A; Yamashiro, Stanley M; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z

    2017-03-01

    A nonparametric model of smooth muscle tension response to electrical stimulation was estimated using the Laguerre expansion technique of nonlinear system kernel estimation. The experimental data consisted of force responses of smooth muscle to energy-matched alternating single pulse and burst current stimuli. The burst stimuli led to at least a 10-fold increase in peak force in smooth muscle from Mytilus edulis, despite the constant energy constraint. A linear model did not fit the data. However, a second-order model fit the data accurately, so the higher-order models were not required to fit the data. Results showed that smooth muscle force response is not linearly related to the stimulation power.

  1. Radar data smoothing filter study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. V.

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of the current Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) data smoothing techniques for a variety of radars and payloads is examined. Alternative data reduction techniques are given and recommendations are made for improving radar data processing at WFF. A data adaptive algorithm, based on Kalman filtering and smoothing techniques, is also developed for estimating payload trajectories above the atmosphere from noisy time varying radar data. This algorithm is tested and verified using radar tracking data from WFF.

  2. Active controls for ride smoothing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.; Thompson, G. O.

    1976-01-01

    Active controls technology offers great promise for significantly smoothing the ride, and thus improving public and air carrier acceptance, of certain types of transport aircraft. Recent findings which support this promise are presented in the following three pertinent areas: (1) Ride quality versus degree of traveler satisfaction; (2) significant findings from a feasibility study of a ride smoothing system; and (3) potential ride problems identified for several advanced transport concepts.

  3. 7 CFR 51.636 - Smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States...) Definitions § 51.636 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and...

  4. 7 CFR 51.698 - Smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States... § 51.698 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size...

  5. Smooth muscle sphincteroplasty in colostomy.

    PubMed

    Kostov, Daniel V; Temelkov, Temelko D; Dragnev, Nedyalko A; Kobakov, Georgi L; Ivanov, Krasimir D

    2004-04-01

    The present work elaborated on Schmidt's idea of an effective smooth muscle sphincteroplasty. The aim of the study was to analyze the effects on the patients with a lower quadrant colostomy constructed after abdominoperineal extirpation of a modified smooth muscle sphincteroplasty combined with colon irrigations. Seventy-two rectal cancer patients (39 men and 33 women, median age, 54.5 years) with smooth muscle sphincteroplasty and 20 controls with conventional colostomy using colon irrigations (11 men and 9 women, median age, 63.2 years) were examined. A modified smooth muscle wrap of the colostomy with a free graft of a 4-cm-long colon segment without mucosa was applied. In this precolostomy segment a high intraluminal pressure was achieved. The functional capacity and anatomic integrity of the transplanted smooth muscle graft were examined manometrically, electromyographically, and histomorphologically. The functional activity of the colostomy was assessed by periodic recording of the number of "spontaneous" and "directed" defecations.RESULTS. In the patients with smooth muscle sphincteroplasty, the basal intraluminal pressure of the precolostomy segment two years after operation measured 29.7 mmHg. After dilatation of the transplant, these pressures reached up to 43 mmHg ( P < 0.001). The weekly "spontaneous" stools were 3 to 5 times less frequent than in the controls ( P < 0.001). The modified smooth muscle sphincteroplasty offers operative-technical opportunities for increasing intraluminal pressure in the precolostomy colon segment. Its combination with colonic irrigations facilitates control of the evacuatory rhythm and "spontaneous" stools in colostomy patients, thus improving their quality of life.

  6. On smoothness of black saturns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chruściel, Piotr T.; Eckstein, Michał; Szybka, Sebastian J.

    2010-11-01

    We prove smoothness of the domain of outer communications (d.o.c.) of the Black Saturn solutions of Elvang and Figueras. We show that the metric on the d.o.c. extends smoothly across two disjoint event horizons with topology mathbb{R} × {S^3} and mathbb{R} × {S^1} × {S^2} . We establish stable causality of the d.o.c. when the Komar angular momentum of the spherical component of the horizon vanishes, and present numerical evidence for stable causality in general.

  7. Registration of 'Newell' Smooth Bromegrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Newell’ (Reg. No. CV-xxxx, PI 671851) smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.) is a steppe or southern type cultivar that is primarily adapted in the USA to areas north of 40o N lat. and east of 100o W long. that have 500 mm or more annual precipitation or in areas that have similar climate cond...

  8. 7 CFR 51.768 - Smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size of the fruit. “Thin” means that the skin thickness does not average more than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm), on a central...

  9. 7 CFR 51.768 - Smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size of the fruit. “Thin” means that the skin thickness does not average more than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm), on a central...

  10. A SAS IML Macro for Loglinear Smoothing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim; von Davier, Alina

    2011-01-01

    Polynomial loglinear models for one-, two-, and higher-way contingency tables have important applications to measurement and assessment. They are essentially regarded as a smoothing technique, which is commonly referred to as loglinear smoothing. A SAS IML (SAS Institute, 2002a) macro was created to implement loglinear smoothing according to…

  11. s-SMOOTH: Sparsity and Smoothness Enhanced EEG Brain Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Qin, Jing; Hsin, Yue-Loong; Osher, Stanley; Liu, Wentai

    2016-01-01

    EEG source imaging enables us to reconstruct current density in the brain from the electrical measurements with excellent temporal resolution (~ ms). The corresponding EEG inverse problem is an ill-posed one that has infinitely many solutions. This is due to the fact that the number of EEG sensors is usually much smaller than that of the potential dipole locations, as well as noise contamination in the recorded signals. To obtain a unique solution, regularizations can be incorporated to impose additional constraints on the solution. An appropriate choice of regularization is critically important for the reconstruction accuracy of a brain image. In this paper, we propose a novel Sparsity and SMOOthness enhanced brain TomograpHy (s-SMOOTH) method to improve the reconstruction accuracy by integrating two recently proposed regularization techniques: Total Generalized Variation (TGV) regularization and ℓ1−2 regularization. TGV is able to preserve the source edge and recover the spatial distribution of the source intensity with high accuracy. Compared to the relevant total variation (TV) regularization, TGV enhances the smoothness of the image and reduces staircasing artifacts. The traditional TGV defined on a 2D image has been widely used in the image processing field. In order to handle 3D EEG source images, we propose a voxel-based Total Generalized Variation (vTGV) regularization that extends the definition of second-order TGV from 2D planar images to 3D irregular surfaces such as cortex surface. In addition, the ℓ1−2 regularization is utilized to promote sparsity on the current density itself. We demonstrate that ℓ1−2 regularization is able to enhance sparsity and accelerate computations than ℓ1 regularization. The proposed model is solved by an efficient and robust algorithm based on the difference of convex functions algorithm (DCA) and the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). Numerical experiments using synthetic data demonstrate the

  12. Improving smoothing efficiency of rigid conformal polishing tool using time-dependent smoothing evaluation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chi; Zhang, Xuejun; Zhang, Xin; Hu, Haifei; Zeng, Xuefeng

    2017-06-01

    A rigid conformal (RC) lap can smooth mid-spatial-frequency (MSF) errors, which are naturally smaller than the tool size, while still removing large-scale errors in a short time. However, the RC-lap smoothing efficiency performance is poorer than expected, and existing smoothing models cannot explicitly specify the methods to improve this efficiency. We presented an explicit time-dependent smoothing evaluation model that contained specific smoothing parameters directly derived from the parametric smoothing model and the Preston equation. Based on the time-dependent model, we proposed a strategy to improve the RC-lap smoothing efficiency, which incorporated the theoretical model, tool optimization, and efficiency limit determination. Two sets of smoothing experiments were performed to demonstrate the smoothing efficiency achieved using the time-dependent smoothing model. A high, theory-like tool influence function and a limiting tool speed of 300 RPM were o

  13. Calcium signaling in smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Hill-Eubanks, David C; Werner, Matthias E; Heppner, Thomas J; Nelson, Mark T

    2011-09-01

    Changes in intracellular Ca(2+) are central to the function of smooth muscle, which lines the walls of all hollow organs. These changes take a variety of forms, from sustained, cell-wide increases to temporally varying, localized changes. The nature of the Ca(2+) signal is a reflection of the source of Ca(2+) (extracellular or intracellular) and the molecular entity responsible for generating it. Depending on the specific channel involved and the detection technology employed, extracellular Ca(2+) entry may be detected optically as graded elevations in intracellular Ca(2+), junctional Ca(2+) transients, Ca(2+) flashes, or Ca(2+) sparklets, whereas release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores may manifest as Ca(2+) sparks, Ca(2+) puffs, or Ca(2+) waves. These diverse Ca(2+) signals collectively regulate a variety of functions. Some functions, such as contractility, are unique to smooth muscle; others are common to other excitable cells (e.g., modulation of membrane potential) and nonexcitable cells (e.g., regulation of gene expression).

  14. Smooth random change point models.

    PubMed

    van den Hout, Ardo; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela; Matthews, Fiona E

    2011-03-15

    Change point models are used to describe processes over time that show a change in direction. An example of such a process is cognitive ability, where a decline a few years before death is sometimes observed. A broken-stick model consists of two linear parts and a breakpoint where the two lines intersect. Alternatively, models can be formulated that imply a smooth change between the two linear parts. Change point models can be extended by adding random effects to account for variability between subjects. A new smooth change point model is introduced and examples are presented that show how change point models can be estimated using functions in R for mixed-effects models. The Bayesian inference using WinBUGS is also discussed. The methods are illustrated using data from a population-based longitudinal study of ageing, the Cambridge City over 75 Cohort Study. The aim is to identify how many years before death individuals experience a change in the rate of decline of their cognitive ability. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Why Are Galaxies So Smooth?

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-04-30

    This image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows the spiral galaxy NGC 2841, located about 46 million light-years from Earth in the constellation Ursa Major. The galaxy is helping astronomers solve one of the oldest puzzles in astronomy: Why do galaxies look so smooth, with stars sprinkled evenly throughout? An international team of astronomers has discovered that rivers of young stars flow from their hot, dense stellar nurseries, dispersing out to form large, smooth distributions. This image is a composite of three different wavelengths from Spitzer's infrared array camera. The shortest wavelengths are displayed inblue, and mostly show the older stars in NGC 2841, as well as foreground stars in our own Milky Way galaxy. The cooler areas are highlighted in red, and show the dusty, gaseous regions of the galaxy. Blue shows infrared light of 3.6 microns, green represents 4.5-micron light and red, 8.0-micron light. The contribution from starlight measured at 3.6 microns has been subtracted from the 8.0-micron data to enhance the visibility of the dust features.The shortest wavelengths are displayed inblue, and mostly show the older stars in NGC 2841, as well as foreground stars in our own Milky Way galaxy. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA12001

  16. Fibronectin Matrix Polymerization Regulates Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotype through a Rac1 Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Feng; Long, Xiaochun; Hendershot, Allison; Miano, Joseph M.; Sottile, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells are maintained in a differentiated state in the vessel wall, but can be modulated to a synthetic phenotype following injury. Smooth muscle phenotypic modulation is thought to play an important role in the pathology of vascular occlusive diseases. Phenotypically modulated smooth muscle cells exhibit increased proliferative and migratory properties that accompany the downregulation of smooth muscle cell marker proteins. Extracellular matrix proteins, including fibronectin, can regulate the smooth muscle phenotype when used as adhesive substrates. However, cells produce and organize a 3-dimensional fibrillar extracellular matrix, which can affect cell behavior in distinct ways from the protomeric 2-dimensional matrix proteins that are used as adhesive substrates. We previously showed that the deposition/polymerization of fibronectin into the extracellular matrix can regulate the deposition and organization of other extracellular matrix molecules in vitro. Further, our published data show that the presence of a fibronectin polymerization inhibitor results in increased expression of smooth muscle cell differentiation proteins and inhibits vascular remodeling in vivo. In this manuscript, we used an in vitro cell culture system to determine the mechanism by which fibronectin polymerization affects smooth muscle phenotypic modulation. Our data show that fibronectin polymerization decreases the mRNA levels of multiple smooth muscle differentiation genes, and downregulates the levels of smooth muscle α-actin and calponin proteins by a Rac1-dependent mechanism. The expression of smooth muscle genes is transcriptionally regulated by fibronectin polymerization, as evidenced by the increased activity of luciferase reporter constructs in the presence of a fibronectin polymerization inhibitor. Fibronectin polymerization also promotes smooth muscle cell growth, and decreases the levels of actin stress fibers. These data define a Rac1-dependent pathway wherein

  17. The Dynamic Actin Cytoskeleton in Smooth Muscle.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dale D

    2018-01-01

    Smooth muscle contraction requires both myosin activation and actin cytoskeletal remodeling. Actin cytoskeletal reorganization facilitates smooth muscle contraction by promoting force transmission between the contractile unit and the extracellular matrix (ECM), and by enhancing intercellular mechanical transduction. Myosin may be viewed to serve as an "engine" for smooth muscle contraction whereas the actin cytoskeleton may function as a "transmission system" in smooth muscle. The actin cytoskeleton in smooth muscle also undergoes restructuring upon activation with growth factors or the ECM, which controls smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. Abnormal smooth muscle contraction, cell proliferation, and motility contribute to the development of vascular and pulmonary diseases. A number of actin-regulatory proteins including protein kinases have been discovered to orchestrate actin dynamics in smooth muscle. In particular, Abelson tyrosine kinase (c-Abl) is an important molecule that controls actin dynamics, contraction, growth, and motility in smooth muscle. Moreover, c-Abl coordinates the regulation of blood pressure and contributes to the pathogenesis of airway hyperresponsiveness and vascular/airway remodeling in vivo. Thus, c-Abl may be a novel pharmacological target for the development of new therapy to treat smooth muscle diseases such as hypertension and asthma. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Smoothing and the second law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, Marshal L.

    1987-01-01

    The technique of obtaining second-order oscillation-free total -variation-diminishing (TVD), scalar difference schemes by adding a limited diffusive flux ('smoothing') to a second-order centered scheme is explored. It is shown that such schemes do not always converge to the correct physical answer. The approach presented here is to construct schemes that numerically satisfy the second law of thermodynamics on a cell-by-cell basis. Such schemes can only converge to the correct physical solution and in some cases can be shown to be TVD. An explicit scheme with this property and second-order spatial accuracy was found to have extremely restrictive time-step limitation. Switching to an implicit scheme removed the time-step limitation.

  19. Smoothing and the second law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, Marshal L.

    1986-01-01

    The technique of obtaining second order, oscillation free, total variation diminishing (TVD), scalar difference schemes by adding a limited diffusion flux (smoothing) to a second order centered scheme is explored. It is shown that such schemes do not always converge to the correct physical answer. The approach presented here is to construct schemes that numerically satisfy the second law of thermodynamics on a cell by cell basis. Such schemes can only converge to the correct physical solution and in some cases can be shown to be TVD. An explicit scheme with this property and second order spatial accuracy was found to have an extremely restrictive time step limitation (Delta t less than Delta x squared). Switching to an implicit scheme removed the time step limitation.

  20. Smooth Muscle-Mediated Connective Tissue Remodeling in Pulmonary Hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecham, Robert P.; Whitehouse, Loren A.; Wrenn, David S.; Parks, William C.; Griffin, Gail L.; Senior, Robert M.; Crouch, Edmond C.; Stenmark, Kurt R.; Voelkel, Norbert F.

    1987-07-01

    Abnormal accumulation of connective tissue in blood vessels contributes to alterations in vascular physiology associated with disease states such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. Elastin synthesis was studied in blood vessels from newborn calves with severe pulmonary hypertension induced by alveolar hypoxia in order to investigate the cellular stimuli that elicit changes in pulmonary arterial connective tissue production. A two- to fourfold increase in elastin production was observed in pulmonary artery tissue and medial smooth muscle cells from hypertensive calves. This stimulation of elastin production was accompanied by a corresponding increase in elastin messenger RNA consistent with regulation at the transcriptional level. Conditioned serum harvested from cultures of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells isolated from hypertensive animals contained one or more low molecular weight elastogenic factors that stimulated the production of elastin in both fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells and altered the chemotactic responsiveness of fibroblasts to elastin peptides. These results suggest that connective tissue changes in the pulmonary vasculature in response to pulmonary hypertension are orchestrated by the medial smooth muscle cell through the generation of specific differentiation factors that alter both the secretory phenotype and responsive properties of surrounding cells.

  1. {beta}-Catenin regulates airway smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Sepp R; Van Ziel, Anna M; Baarsma, Hoeke A; Gosens, Reinoud

    2010-08-01

    beta-Catenin is an 88-kDa member of the armadillo family of proteins that is associated with the cadherin-catenin complex in the plasma membrane. This complex interacts dynamically with the actin cytoskeleton to stabilize adherens junctions, which play a central role in force transmission by smooth muscle cells. Therefore, in the present study, we hypothesized a role for beta-catenin in the regulation of smooth muscle force production. beta-Catenin colocalized with smooth muscle alpha-actin (sm-alpha-actin) and N-cadherin in plasma membrane fractions and coimmunoprecipitated with sm-alpha-actin and N-cadherin in lysates of bovine tracheal smooth muscle (BTSM) strips. Moreover, immunocytochemistry of cultured BTSM cells revealed clear and specific colocalization of sm-alpha-actin and beta-catenin at the sites of cell-cell contact. Treatment of BTSM strips with the pharmacological beta-catenin/T cell factor-4 (TCF4) inhibitor PKF115-584 (100 nM) reduced beta-catenin expression in BTSM whole tissue lysates and in plasma membrane fractions and reduced maximal KCl- and methacholine-induced force production. These changes in force production were not accompanied by changes in the expression of sm-alpha-actin or sm-myosin heavy chain (MHC). Likewise, small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of beta-catenin in BTSM strips reduced beta-catenin expression and attenuated maximal KCl- and methacholine-induced contractions without affecting sm-alpha-actin or sm-MHC expression. Conversely, pharmacological (SB-216763, LiCl) or insulin-induced inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) enhanced the expression of beta-catenin and augmented maximal KCl- and methacholine-induced contractions. We conclude that beta-catenin is a plasma membrane-associated protein in airway smooth muscle that regulates active tension development, presumably by stabilizing cell-cell contacts and thereby supporting force transmission between neighboring cells.

  2. Analysis of Two Advanced Smoothing Algorithms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    59 B. METHODOLOGY . ......... ........... 60 6 C. TESTING AND RESULTS ---- LINEAR UNDERLYING FUNCTION...SMOOTHING ALGORITHMS ...... .................... 94 A. GENERAL ......... ....................... .. 94 B. METHODOLOGY ............................ .95 C...to define succinctly. 59 B. METHODOLOGY There is no established procedure to follow in testing the efficiency and effectiveness of a smoothing

  3. Leiomodin and tropomodulin in smooth muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating to suggest that actin filament remodeling is critical for smooth muscle contraction, which implicates actin filament ends as important sites for regulation of contraction. Tropomodulin (Tmod) and smooth muscle leiomodin (SM-Lmod) have been found in many tissues containing smooth muscle by protein immunoblot and immunofluorescence microscopy. Both proteins cofractionate with tropomyosin in the Triton-insoluble cytoskeleton of rabbit stomach smooth muscle and are solubilized by high salt. SM-Lmod binds muscle tropomyosin, a biochemical activity characteristic of Tmod proteins. SM-Lmod staining is present along the length of actin filaments in rat intestinal smooth muscle, while Tmod stains in a punctate pattern distinct from that of actin filaments or the dense body marker alpha-actinin. After smooth muscle is hypercontracted by treatment with 10 mM Ca(2+), both SM-Lmod and Tmod are found near alpha-actinin at the periphery of actin-rich contraction bands. These data suggest that SM-Lmod is a novel component of the smooth muscle actin cytoskeleton and, furthermore, that the pointed ends of actin filaments in smooth muscle may be capped by Tmod in localized clusters.

  4. Thermal smoothing of rough surfaces in vacuo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahl, G.

    1986-01-01

    The derivation of equations governing the smoothing of rough surfaces, based on Mullins' (1957, 1960, and 1963) theories of thermal grooving and of capillarity-governed solid surface morphology is presented. As an example, the smoothing of a one-dimensional sine-shaped surface is discussed.

  5. Endothelin ETA receptor expression in human cerebrovascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, J C; Pickard, J D; Davenport, A P

    1995-11-01

    1. Endothelin (ET) has been implicated in cerebrovasospasm for example, following subarachnoid haemorrhage, and blocking the interaction of ET with its receptors on cerebral vessels, may be of therapeutic benefit. The aim of our study was to characterize endothelin receptor sub-types on medial smooth muscle cells of human cerebral vessels. Cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells were explanted from human cerebral resistance vessels and characterized as human brain smooth muscle cells (HBSMCs). 2. Over a 48 h incubation period, HBSMC cultures secreted comparable levels of immunoreactive (IR) big endothelin-1 (big ET-1) and IR endothelin (ET): 12.7 +/- 10.3 and 8.3 +/- 5.6 pmol/10(6) cells, respectively (mean +/- s.e. mean from three different individuals), into the culture medium. 3. Total RNA was extracted from cultures of human brain smooth muscle cells. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RI-PCR) assays and subsequent product separation by agarose gel electrophoresis revealed single bands corresponding to the expected product sizes encoding cDNA for ETA (299 base pairs) and ETB (428 base pairs) (n = 3 different cultures). 4. Autoradiography demonstrated the presence of specific binding sites for [125I]-ET-1 which labels all ET receptors, and [125I]-PD151242, an ETA subtype-selective antagonist which exclusively labels ETA receptors, but no specific-binding was detected using ETB subtype-selective [125I]-BQ3020 (n = 3 different cultures, in duplicate). 5. In saturation binding assays, [123I]-ET-1 bound with high affinity: KD = 0.8 +/- 0.1 nM and Bmax = 690 +/- 108 fmol mg-1. A one-site fit was preferred and Hill slopes were close to unity over the concentration range (10(-12) to 10(-8) M). [125I]-PD151242 also bound with similar affinity: KD = 0.4 +/- 0.1 nM and Bmax = 388 +/- 68 fmol mg-1 (mean +/- s.e. mean, n = 3 different cultures). Again, a one-site fit was preferred and Hill slopes were close to unity over the concentration range. Unlabelled PD

  6. Smooth Plains in Mercury's North

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    NASA acquired: March 29, 2011 As the MESSENGER spacecraft passed low over Mercury's north polar region, MDIS used its pivot to capture this image, showing terrain that had not been previously seen by spacecraft. The newly imaged surface is located in Mercury's north polar region, to the north of the bright, rayed crater Hokusai. Looking from the bottom of the image toward the top is looking southward, just as MDIS was doing when this image was acquired. This newly seen terrain shows craters with long shadows, as expected at this high northern latitude. Understanding the interiors of the craters in Mercury's polar regions and any ices they may contain is one of the main science goals of the MESSENGER mission. The long shadows also accentuate the topography of the surface, which includes a number of ridges that resemble those seen on the expansive smooth plains imaged during Mercury flyby 3. On March 17, 2011 (March 18, 2011, UTC), MESSENGER became the first spacecraft ever to orbit the planet Mercury. The mission is currently in its commissioning phase, during which spacecraft and instrument performance are verified through a series of specially designed checkout activities. In the course of the one-year primary mission, the spacecraft's seven scientific instruments and radio science investigation will unravel the history and evolution of the Solar System's innermost planet. Visit the Why Mercury? section of this website to learn more about the science questions that the MESSENGER mission has set out to answer. Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  7. Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Activation Contributes to Airway Smooth Muscle Growth and Asthma Severity

    PubMed Central

    Naveed, Shams-un-nisa; Clements, Debbie; Jackson, David J.; Philp, Christopher; Billington, Charlotte K.; Soomro, Irshad; Reynolds, Catherine; Harrison, Timothy W.; Johnston, Sebastian L.; Shaw, Dominick E.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and mast cells are present in the airways of people with asthma. Objectives: To investigate whether MMP-1 could be activated by mast cells and increase asthma severity. Methods: Patients with stable asthma and healthy control subjects underwent spirometry, methacholine challenge, and bronchoscopy, and their airway smooth muscle cells were grown in culture. A second asthma group and control subjects had symptom scores, spirometry, and bronchoalveolar lavage before and after rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations. Extracellular matrix was prepared from decellularized airway smooth muscle cultures. MMP-1 protein and activity were assessed. Measurements and Main Results: Airway smooth muscle cells generated pro–MMP-1, which was proteolytically activated by mast cell tryptase. Airway smooth muscle treated with activated mast cell supernatants produced extracellular matrix, which enhanced subsequent airway smooth muscle growth by 1.5-fold (P < 0.05), which was dependent on MMP-1 activation. In asthma, airway pro–MMP-1 was 5.4-fold higher than control subjects (P = 0.002). Mast cell numbers were associated with airway smooth muscle proliferation and MMP-1 protein associated with bronchial hyperresponsiveness. During exacerbations, MMP-1 activity increased and was associated with fall in FEV1 and worsening asthma symptoms. Conclusions: MMP-1 is activated by mast cell tryptase resulting in a proproliferative extracellular matrix. In asthma, mast cells are associated with airway smooth muscle growth, MMP-1 levels are associated with bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and MMP-1 activation are associated with exacerbation severity. Our findings suggest that airway smooth muscle/mast cell interactions contribute to asthma severity by transiently increasing MMP activation, airway smooth muscle growth, and airway responsiveness. PMID:27967204

  8. Spline-Based Smoothing of Airfoil Curvatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, W.; Krist, S.

    2008-01-01

    Constrained fitting for airfoil curvature smoothing (CFACS) is a splinebased method of interpolating airfoil surface coordinates (and, concomitantly, airfoil thicknesses) between specified discrete design points so as to obtain smoothing of surface-curvature profiles in addition to basic smoothing of surfaces. CFACS was developed in recognition of the fact that the performance of a transonic airfoil is directly related to both the curvature profile and the smoothness of the airfoil surface. Older methods of interpolation of airfoil surfaces involve various compromises between smoothing of surfaces and exact fitting of surfaces to specified discrete design points. While some of the older methods take curvature profiles into account, they nevertheless sometimes yield unfavorable results, including curvature oscillations near end points and substantial deviations from desired leading-edge shapes. In CFACS as in most of the older methods, one seeks a compromise between smoothing and exact fitting. Unlike in the older methods, the airfoil surface is modified as little as possible from its original specified form and, instead, is smoothed in such a way that the curvature profile becomes a smooth fit of the curvature profile of the original airfoil specification. CFACS involves a combination of rigorous mathematical modeling and knowledge-based heuristics. Rigorous mathematical formulation provides assurance of removal of undesirable curvature oscillations with minimum modification of the airfoil geometry. Knowledge-based heuristics bridge the gap between theory and designers best practices. In CFACS, one of the measures of the deviation of an airfoil surface from smoothness is the sum of squares of the jumps in the third derivatives of a cubicspline interpolation of the airfoil data. This measure is incorporated into a formulation for minimizing an overall deviation- from-smoothness measure of the airfoil data within a specified fitting error tolerance. CFACS has been

  9. Isolation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells from neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keng Jin; Czech, Lyubov; Waypa, Gregory B; Farrow, Kathryn N

    2013-10-19

    Pulmonary hypertension is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. Historically, there has been significant study of the signaling pathways involved in vascular smooth muscle contraction in PASMC from fetal sheep. While sheep make an excellent model of term pulmonary hypertension, they are very expensive and lack the advantage of genetic manipulation found in mice. Conversely, the inability to isolate PASMC from mice was a significant limitation of that system. Here we described the isolation of primary cultures of mouse PASMC from P7, P14, and P21 mice using a variation of the previously described technique of Marshall et al. that was previously used to isolate rat PASMC. These murine PASMC represent a novel tool for the study of signaling pathways in the neonatal period. Briefly, a slurry of 0.5% (w/v) agarose + 0.5% iron particles in M199 media is infused into the pulmonary vascular bed via the right ventricle (RV). The iron particles are 0.2 μM in diameter and cannot pass through the pulmonary capillary bed. Thus, the iron lodges in the small pulmonary arteries (PA). The lungs are inflated with agarose, removed and dissociated. The iron-containing vessels are pulled down with a magnet. After collagenase (80 U/ml) treatment and further dissociation, the vessels are put into a tissue culture dish in M199 media containing 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS), and antibiotics (M199 complete media) to allow cell migration onto the culture dish. This initial plate of cells is a 50-50 mixture of fibroblasts and PASMC. Thus, the pull down procedure is repeated multiple times to achieve a more pure PASMC population and remove any residual iron. Smooth muscle cell identity is confirmed by immunostaining for smooth muscle myosin and desmin.

  10. Smooth halos in the cosmic web

    SciTech Connect

    Gaite, José, E-mail: jose.gaite@upm.es

    Dark matter halos can be defined as smooth distributions of dark matter placed in a non-smooth cosmic web structure. This definition of halos demands a precise definition of smoothness and a characterization of the manner in which the transition from smooth halos to the cosmic web takes place. We introduce entropic measures of smoothness, related to measures of inequality previously used in economy and with the advantage of being connected with standard methods of multifractal analysis already used for characterizing the cosmic web structure in cold dark matter N-body simulations. These entropic measures provide us with a quantitative description ofmore » the transition from the small scales portrayed as a distribution of halos to the larger scales portrayed as a cosmic web and, therefore, allow us to assign definite sizes to halos. However, these ''smoothness sizes'' have no direct relation to the virial radii. Finally, we discuss the influence of N-body discreteness parameters on smoothness.« less

  11. Mn/DOT combined smoothness specification.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-04-01

    This report presents the development of a combined smoothness specification for asphalt and concrete pavements : and associated training for the certification of profiler operators by highway agencies. The report discusses the : analyses conducted to...

  12. Small Craters Engulfed by Smooth Plains

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-08-05

    This double ring basin top center of image was photographed during NASA Mariner 10 second encounter and shows two craters about 30 km in diameter which have been engulfed by smooth plains on the floor of the inner ring.

  13. Refractory thermal insulation for smooth metal surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    To protect rocket metal surfaces from engine exhaust heat, a refractory thermal insulation mixture, which adheres to smooth metals, has been developed. Insulation protection over a wide temperature range can be controlled by thickness of the applied mixture.

  14. Mechanotransduction, asthma, and airway smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Fabry, Ben; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.

    2008-01-01

    Excessive force generation by airway smooth muscle is the main culprit in excessive airway narrowing during an asthma attack. The maximum force the airway smooth muscle can generate is exquisitely sensitive to muscle length fluctuations during breathing, and is governed by complex mechanotransduction events that can best be studied by a hybrid approach in which the airway wall is modeled in silico so as to set a dynamic muscle load comparable to that experienced in vivo. PMID:18836522

  15. Stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering of polarization-smoothed and temporally smoothed laser beams

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, R.L.; Lefebvre, E.; Langdon, A.B.

    1999-04-01

    Control of filamentation and stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering is shown to be possible by use of both spatial and temporal smoothing schemes. The spatial smoothing is accomplished by the use of phase plates [Y. Kato and K. Mima, Appl. Phys. {bold 329}, 186 (1982)] and polarization smoothing [Lefebvre {ital et al.}, Phys. Plasmas {bold 5}, 2701 (1998)] in which the plasma is irradiated with two orthogonally polarized, uncorrelated speckle patterns. The temporal smoothing considered here is smoothing by spectral dispersion [Skupsky {ital et al.}, J. Appl. Phys. {bold 66}, 3456 (1989)] in which the speckle pattern changes on themore » laser coherence time scale. At the high instability gains relevant to laser fusion experiments, the effect of smoothing must include the competition among all three instabilities. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}« less

  16. A 310-bp minimal promoter mediates smooth muscle cell-specific expression of telokin.

    PubMed

    Smith, A F; Bigsby, R M; Word, R A; Herring, B P

    1998-05-01

    A cell-specific promoter located in an intron of the smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase gene directs transcription of telokin exclusively in smooth muscle cells. Transgenic mice were generated in which a 310-bp rabbit telokin promoter fragment, extending from -163 to +147, was used to drive expression of simian virus 40 large T antigen. Smooth muscle-specific expression of the T-antigen transgene paralleled that of the endogenous telokin gene in all smooth muscle tissues except uterus. The 310-bp promoter fragment resulted in very low levels of transgene expression in uterus; in contrast, a transgene driven by a 2.4-kb fragment (-2250 to +147) resulted in high levels of transgene expression in uterine smooth muscle. Telokin expression levels correlate with the estrogen status of human myometrial tissues, suggesting that deletion of an estrogen response element (ERE) may account for the low levels of transgene expression driven by the 310-bp rabbit telokin promoter in uterine smooth muscle. Experiments in A10 smooth muscle cells directly showed that reporter gene expression driven by the 2.4-kb, but not 310-bp, promoter fragment could be stimulated two- to threefold by estrogen. This stimulation was mediated through an ERE located between -1447 and -1474. Addition of the ERE to the 310-bp fragment restored estrogen responsiveness in A10 cells. These data demonstrate that in addition to a minimal 310-bp proximal promoter at least one distal cis-acting regulatory element is required for telokin expression in uterine smooth muscle. The distal element may include an ERE between -1447 and -1474.

  17. Nonequilibrium flows with smooth particle applied mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Kum, Oyeon

    1995-07-01

    Smooth particle methods are relatively new methods for simulating solid and fluid flows through they have a 20-year history of solving complex hydrodynamic problems in astrophysics, such as colliding planets and stars, for which correct answers are unknown. The results presented in this thesis evaluate the adaptability or fitness of the method for typical hydrocode production problems. For finite hydrodynamic systems, boundary conditions are important. A reflective boundary condition with image particles is a good way to prevent a density anomaly at the boundary and to keep the fluxes continuous there. Boundary values of temperature and velocity can be separatelymore » controlled. The gradient algorithm, based on differentiating the smooth particle expression for (uρ) and (Tρ), does not show numerical instabilities for the stress tensor and heat flux vector quantities which require second derivatives in space when Fourier`s heat-flow law and Newton`s viscous force law are used. Smooth particle methods show an interesting parallel linking to them to molecular dynamics. For the inviscid Euler equation, with an isentropic ideal gas equation of state, the smooth particle algorithm generates trajectories isomorphic to those generated by molecular dynamics. The shear moduli were evaluated based on molecular dynamics calculations for the three weighting functions, B spline, Lucy, and Cusp functions. The accuracy and applicability of the methods were estimated by comparing a set of smooth particle Rayleigh-Benard problems, all in the laminar regime, to corresponding highly-accurate grid-based numerical solutions of continuum equations. Both transient and stationary smooth particle solutions reproduce the grid-based data with velocity errors on the order of 5%. The smooth particle method still provides robust solutions at high Rayleigh number where grid-based methods fails.« less

  18. NUMERICAL CONVERGENCE IN SMOOTHED PARTICLE HYDRODYNAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Qirong; Li, Yuexing; Hernquist, Lars

    2015-02-10

    We study the convergence properties of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) using numerical tests and simple analytic considerations. Our analysis shows that formal numerical convergence is possible in SPH only in the joint limit N → ∞, h → 0, and N{sub nb} → ∞, where N is the total number of particles, h is the smoothing length, and N{sub nb} is the number of neighbor particles within the smoothing volume used to compute smoothed estimates. Previous work has generally assumed that the conditions N → ∞ and h → 0 are sufficient to achieve convergence, while holding N{sub nb} fixed.more » We demonstrate that if N{sub nb} is held fixed as the resolution is increased, there will be a residual source of error that does not vanish as N → ∞ and h → 0. Formal numerical convergence in SPH is possible only if N{sub nb} is increased systematically as the resolution is improved. Using analytic arguments, we derive an optimal compromise scaling for N{sub nb} by requiring that this source of error balance that present in the smoothing procedure. For typical choices of the smoothing kernel, we find N{sub nb} ∝N {sup 0.5}. This means that if SPH is to be used as a numerically convergent method, the required computational cost does not scale with particle number as O(N), but rather as O(N {sup 1} {sup +} {sup δ}), where δ ≈ 0.5, with a weak dependence on the form of the smoothing kernel.« less

  19. Effect of smoothing on robust chaos.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Amogh; Chen, Qingfei; Wang, Yan; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Do, Younghae

    2010-08-01

    In piecewise-smooth dynamical systems, situations can arise where the asymptotic attractors of the system in an open parameter interval are all chaotic (e.g., no periodic windows). This is the phenomenon of robust chaos. Previous works have established that robust chaos can occur through the mechanism of border-collision bifurcation, where border is the phase-space region where discontinuities in the derivatives of the dynamical equations occur. We investigate the effect of smoothing on robust chaos and find that periodic windows can arise when a small amount of smoothness is present. We introduce a parameter of smoothing and find that the measure of the periodic windows in the parameter space scales linearly with the parameter, regardless of the details of the smoothing function. Numerical support and a heuristic theory are provided to establish the scaling relation. Experimental evidence of periodic windows in a supposedly piecewise linear dynamical system, which has been implemented as an electronic circuit, is also provided.

  20. Length adaptation of airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Bossé, Ynuk; Sobieszek, Apolinary; Paré, Peter D; Seow, Chun Y

    2008-01-01

    Many types of smooth muscle, including airway smooth muscle (ASM), are capable of generating maximal force over a large length range due to length adaptation, which is a relatively rapid process in which smooth muscle regains contractility after experiencing a force decrease induced by length fluctuation. Although the underlying mechanism is unclear, it is believed that structural malleability of smooth muscle cells is essential for the adaptation to occur. The process is triggered by strain on the cell cytoskeleton that results in a series of yet undefined biochemical and biophysical events leading to restructuring of the cytoskeleton and contractile apparatus and consequently optimization of the overlap between the myosin and actin filaments. Although length adaptability is an intrinsic property of smooth muscle, maladaptation of ASM could result in excessive constriction of the airways and the inability of deep inspirations to dilate them. In this article, we describe the phenomenon of length adaptation in ASM and some possible underlying mechanisms that involve the myosin filament assembly and disassembly. We discuss a possible role of maladaptation of ASM in the pathogenesis of asthma. We believe that length adaptation in ASM is mediated by specific proteins and their posttranslational regulations involving covalent modifications, such as phosphorylation. The discovery of these molecules and the processes that regulate their activity will greatly enhance our understanding of the basic mechanisms of ASM contraction and will suggest molecular targets to alleviate asthma exacerbation related to excessive constriction of the airways.

  1. Prostaglandins, oxygen tension and smooth muscle tone

    PubMed Central

    Eckenfels, A.; Vane, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    1. By using indomethacin to inhibit their intramural synthesis, we have investigated the contribution of prostaglandins to the maintenance of (a) the intrinsic tone of isolated smooth muscle preparations and (b) contractions produced by drugs or high oxygen concentration. 2. When treated with indomethacin, the rat stomach strip and chick rectum preparation slowly relaxed, whether they were bathed in Krebs solution or blood. Although their sensitivity to added prostaglandin was somewhat enhanced, they became insensitive to changes in oxygen or glucose concentration. However, another smooth muscle preparation, the rat colon, was neither relaxed by indomethacin nor contracted by high oxygen concentration. 3. These results support the hypothesis that intramural generation of prostaglandin maintains the tone of some smooth muscle preparations. 4. Contractions of the guinea-pig isolated colon were induced by histamine. These contractions were normally well maintained but in Krebs solution lacking either oxygen or glucose, only the initial spike contraction remained. In the presence of indomethacin the histamine contraction was also poorly sustained, but maintenance was restored by a low concentration of prostaglandin E2. 5. Thus, the effects on smooth muscle of oxygen or glucose lack may also be mediated by reduction in the synthesis or effects of an intramural prostaglandin. Extension of this hypothesis to intestinal and vascular smooth muscle in vivo is discussed. PMID:5072227

  2. Interstitial Cells: Regulators of Smooth Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Kenton M.; Ward, Sean M.; Koh, Sang Don

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscles are complex tissues containing a variety of cells in addition to muscle cells. Interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin interact with and form electrical connectivity with smooth muscle cells in many organs, and these cells provide important regulatory functions. For example, in the gastrointestinal tract, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and PDGFRα+ cells have been described, in detail, and represent distinct classes of cells with unique ultrastructure, molecular phenotypes, and functions. Smooth muscle cells are electrically coupled to ICC and PDGFRα+ cells, forming an integrated unit called the SIP syncytium. SIP cells express a variety of receptors and ion channels, and conductance changes in any type of SIP cell affect the excitability and responses of the syncytium. SIP cells are known to provide pacemaker activity, propagation pathways for slow waves, transduction of inputs from motor neurons, and mechanosensitivity. Loss of interstitial cells has been associated with motor disorders of the gut. Interstitial cells are also found in a variety of other smooth muscles; however, in most cases, the physiological and pathophysiological roles for these cells have not been clearly defined. This review describes structural, functional, and molecular features of interstitial cells and discusses their contributions in determining the behaviors of smooth muscle tissues. PMID:24987007

  3. Fixed interval smoothing with discrete measurements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bierman, G. J.

    1972-01-01

    Smoothing equations for a linear continuous dynamic system with linear discrete measurements, derived from the discrete results of Rauch, Tung, and Striebel (1965), (R-T-S), are used to extend, through recursive updating, the previously published results of Bryson and Frazier (1963), (B-F), and yield a modified Bryson and Frazier, (M-B-F), algorithm. A comparison of the (M-B-F) and (R-T-S) algorithms leads to the conclusion that the former is to be preferred because it entails less computation, less storage, and less instability. It is felt that the presented (M-B-F) smoothing algorithm is a practical mechanization and should be of value in smoothing discretely observed dynamic linear systems.

  4. Benzodiazepines impair smooth pursuit eye movements.

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, P R; Wade, P; Smith, A T; Richens, A

    1983-01-01

    Five healthy male volunteers received single oral doses of 10 mg diazepam, 20 mg temazepam and placebo, in a double-blind, randomised fashion. Smooth pursuit eye movement velocity and serum benzodiazepine concentration were measured before and after at 0.5,1,1.5,2,3,4,6,9 and 12 h after administration of the treatments. Significant decrease in smooth pursuit eye movement velocity as compared to placebo was observed between 0.5-2 h after temazepam, and between 1-2 h after diazepam. Smooth pursuit eye movement velocity was log-linearly correlated with serum temazepam and diazepam concentration. The results demonstrate the relationship between serum benzodiazepine concentration and its effect on an objective measure of oculomotor performance. PMID:6133544

  5. The biophysics of asthmatic airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Newman L; Li, Weilong; Jiang, He; Unruh, H; Ma, Xuefei

    2003-09-16

    It is clear that significant advances have been made in the understanding of the physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology of airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction and how the knowledge obtained from these approaches may be used to elucidate the pathogenesis of asthma. Not to belittle other theories of smooth muscle contraction extant in the field, perhaps the most outstanding development has been the formulation of plasticity theory. This may radically alter our understanding of smooth muscle contraction. Its message is that while shortening velocity and capacity are linear functions of length, active force is length independent. These changes are explained by the ability of thick filament protein to depolymerize at short lengths and to increase numbers of contractile units in series at lengths greater than optimal length or L(ref). Other advances are represented by the report that the major part of ASM shortening is complete within the initial first 20% of contraction time, that the nature and history of loading determine the extent of shortening and that these findings can be explained by the finding that the crossbridges are cycling four times faster than in the remaining time. Another unexpected finding is that late in the course of isotonic relaxation the muscle undergoes spontaneous activation which delays relaxation and smoothes it out; speculatively this could minimize turbulence of airflow. On the applied front evidence now shows the shortening ability of bronchial smooth muscle of human subjects of asthma is significantly increased. Measurements also indicate that increased smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase content, via increased actomyosin ATPase activity could be responsible for the changes in contractility.

  6. Formalin produces depolarizations in human airway smooth muscle in vitro.

    PubMed

    Richards, Ira S; DeHate, Robin B

    2006-03-01

    Respiratory irritants may result in airway smooth muscle (ASM) depolarization and bronchoconstriction. We examined the effect of formalin on membrane potentials in human ASM in two types of in vitro preparations: strip preparations, which contain functional sensory and motor nerve endings and cultured cells, which lack these nerve endings due to the tissue dissociation process. Depolarizations occurred in atropine-treated strip preparations in response to formalin exposures, but not in similarly-treated cultured cells, suggesting a role for non-cholinergic mediators in formalin-induced depolarization. It is suggested that formalin may act as an irritant to produce bronchoconstriction that is mediated by the release of endogenous substance P (SP) from peripheral sensory nerve endings. This is supported by our observation that exogenous SP produced depolarizations of a magnitude similar to those produced by formalin in both strip preparations and cultured cells. In addition, capsaicin, which releases endogenous SP from nerve endings, produced depolarizations of a magnitude similar to formalin in strip preparations, but was without effect in cultured cells.

  7. Production of super-smooth articles

    DOEpatents

    Duchane, David V.

    1983-01-01

    Super-smooth rounded or formed articles made of thermoplastic materials including various poly(methyl methacrylate) or acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers are produced by immersing the articles into a bath, the composition of which is slowly changed with time. The starting composition of the bath is made up of at least one solvent for the polymer and a diluent made up of at least one nonsolvent for the polymer and optional materials which are soluble in the bath. The resulting extremely smooth articles are useful as mandrels for laser fusion and should be useful for a wide variety of other purposes, for example lenses.

  8. Smoothing of climate time series revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Michael E.

    2008-08-01

    We present an easily implemented method for smoothing climate time series, generalizing upon an approach previously described by Mann (2004). The method adaptively weights the three lowest order time series boundary constraints to optimize the fit with the raw time series. We apply the method to the instrumental global mean temperature series from 1850-2007 and to various surrogate global mean temperature series from 1850-2100 derived from the CMIP3 multimodel intercomparison project. These applications demonstrate that the adaptive method systematically out-performs certain widely used default smoothing methods, and is more likely to yield accurate assessments of long-term warming trends.

  9. Relative properties of smooth terminating bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasjev, A. V.; Ragnarsson, I.

    1998-01-01

    The relative properties of smooth terminating bands observed in the A ∼ 110 mass region are studied within the effective alignment approach. Theoretical values of ietf are calculated using the configuration-dependent shell-correction model with the cranked Nilsson potential. Reasonable agreement with experiment shows that previous interpretations of these bands are consistent with the present study. Contrary to the case of superdeformed bands, the effective alignments of these bands deviate significantly from the pure single-particle alignments of the corresponding orbitals. This indicates that in the case of smooth terminating bands, the effects associated with changes in equilibrium deformations contribute significantly to the effective alignment.

  10. Markers for human brain pericytes and smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Leon C D; Rustenhoven, Justin; Scotter, Emma L; Schweder, Patrick; Faull, Richard L M; Park, Thomas I H; Dragunow, Mike

    2018-06-07

    Brain pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) are a critical component of the neurovascular unit and are important in regulating cerebral blood flow and blood-brain barrier integrity. Identification of subtypes of mural cells in tissue and in vitro is important to any study of their function, therefore we identified distinct mural cell morphologies in neurologically normal post-mortem human brain. Further, the distribution of mural cell markers platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFRβ), α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), CD13, neural/glial antigen-2 (NG2), CD146 and desmin was examined. We determined that PDGFRβ, NG2, CD13, and CD146 were expressed in capillary-associated pericytes. NG2, and CD13 were also present on vSMCs in large vessels, however abundant CD146 and desmin staining was also detected in vSMCs on large vessels, co-labelling with αSMA. To determine whether cultures recapitulated observations from tissue, primary human brain pericytes derived from neurologically normal autopsies were analysed for the presence of pericyte markers by immunocytochemistry, western blotting and qPCR. The proteins observed in brain pericytes in tissue (PDGFRβ, αSMA, desmin, CD146, CD13, and NG2) were present in vitro, validating a panel of proteins that can be used to label brain pericytes and vSMCs in tissue and in vitro. Finally, we showed that the proteins CD146 and desmin that are expressed on large vessels in situ, are also selective markers of a smooth muscle cell phenotype in vitro. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Smooth light extraction in lighting optical fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Balbuena, A. A.; Vazquez-Molini, D.; Garcia-Botella, A.; Martinez-Anton, J. C.; Bernabeu, E.

    2011-10-01

    Recent advances in LED technology have relegated the use of optical fibre for general lighting, but there are several applications where it can be used as scanners lighting systems, daylight, cultural heritage lighting, sensors, explosion risky spaces, etc. Nowadays the use of high intensity LED to inject light in optical fibre increases the possibility of conjugate fibre + LED for lighting applications. New optical fibres of plastic materials, high core diameter up to 12.6 mm transmit light with little attenuation in the visible spectrum but there is no an efficient and controlled way to extract the light during the fibre path. Side extracting fibres extracts all the light on 2π angle so is not well suited for controlled lighting. In this paper we present an extraction system for mono-filament optical fibre which provides efficient and controlled light distribution. These lighting parameters can be controlled with an algorithm that set the position, depth and shape of the optical extraction system. The extraction system works by total internal reflection in the core of the fibre with high efficiency and low cost. A 10 m length prototype is made with 45° sectional cuts in the fibre core as extraction system. The system is tested with a 1W white LED illuminator in one side.

  12. Autonomic Modification of Intestinal Smooth Muscle Contractility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Laura E. A.; Tansey, Etain A.; Johnson, Chris D.; Roe, Sean M.; Quinn, Joe G.

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal smooth muscle contracts rhythmically in the absence of nerve and hormonal stimulation because of the activity of pacemaker cells between and within the muscle layers. This means that the autonomic nervous system modifies rather than initiates intestinal contractions. The practical described here gives students an opportunity to observe…

  13. Quantitative analysis of arm movement smoothness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczesna, Agnieszka; Błaszczyszyn, Monika

    2017-07-01

    The paper deals with the problem of motion data quantitative smoothness analysis. We investigated values of movement unit, fluidity and jerk for healthy and paralyzed arm of patients with hemiparesis after stroke. Patients were performing drinking task. To validate the approach, movement of 24 patients were captured using optical motion capture system.

  14. Preliminary investigations on the effects of a Strongylus vulgaris larval extract, mononuclear factors and platelet factors on equine smooth muscle cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Morgan, S J; Storts, R W; Stromberg, P C; Sowa, B A; Lay, J C

    1989-01-01

    Factors involved in the proliferation of equine vascular smooth muscle cells were studied in vitro. The most prominent proliferative responses in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells were induced by Strongylus vulgaris larval antigen extract (LAE) and platelet-derived factors. Less significant proliferative responses were obtained with conditioned media from S. vulgaris LAE stimulated and from unstimulated equine mononuclear leukocytes. Additionally, vascular smooth muscle cells exposed to S. vulgaris LAE developed numerous perinuclear vacuoles and were more spindle-shaped than control or smooth muscle cells exposed to other factors. Equine mononuclear leukocytes exposed to LAE developed prominent morphological changes, including enlargement, clumping and increased numbers of mitotic figures.

  15. 32 CFR 169a.10 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contracts. 169a.10 Section 169a.10 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Procedures § 169a.10 Contracts. When contract cost becomes unreasonable or performance...

  16. 32 CFR 169a.10 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Contracts. 169a.10 Section 169a.10 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Procedures § 169a.10 Contracts. When contract cost becomes unreasonable or performance...

  17. 32 CFR 169a.10 - Contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contracts. 169a.10 Section 169a.10 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Procedures § 169a.10 Contracts. When contract cost becomes unreasonable or performance...

  18. 8 CFR 245a.10 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions. 245a.10 Section 245a.10 Aliens... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT Legal Immigration Family Equity (LIFE) Act Legalization Provisions § 245a.10 Definitions. In this Subpart B, the terms: Eligible alien means an alien (including a spouse or child as...

  19. 8 CFR 245a.10 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions. 245a.10 Section 245a.10 Aliens... AND NATIONALITY ACT Legal Immigration Family Equity (LIFE) Act Legalization Provisions § 245a.10 Definitions. In this Subpart B, the terms: Eligible alien means an alien (including a spouse or child as...

  20. 8 CFR 245a.10 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definitions. 245a.10 Section 245a.10 Aliens... AND NATIONALITY ACT Legal Immigration Family Equity (LIFE) Act Legalization Provisions § 245a.10 Definitions. In this Subpart B, the terms: Eligible alien means an alien (including a spouse or child as...

  1. 8 CFR 245a.10 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 245a.10 Section 245a.10 Aliens... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT Legal Immigration Family Equity (LIFE) Act Legalization Provisions § 245a.10 Definitions. In this Subpart B, the terms: Eligible alien means an alien (including a spouse or child as...

  2. 8 CFR 245a.10 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions. 245a.10 Section 245a.10 Aliens... AND NATIONALITY ACT Legal Immigration Family Equity (LIFE) Act Legalization Provisions § 245a.10 Definitions. In this Subpart B, the terms: Eligible alien means an alien (including a spouse or child as...

  3. Histochemical characteristics of a tonic smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Gilloteaux, J; Stalmans-Falys, M

    1979-09-01

    It is suggested that ABRM, smooth muscle of Mytilus edulis L. and Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk. (Mollusca Pelecypoda), is composed of one histochemical fibre type. The fibres are characterized by a low myofibrillar ATPase activity. Succinic and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidoreductase activities are distributed in a reverse pattern than that of the ATPase activity. Glycogen phosphorylase is richly represented in ABRM fibres and this detection is in opposition with the negative detection of alkaline phosphatase activity. These preliminary histochemical observations are similar to those found in some vertebrate smooth muscles. Mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate, 6-phosphogluconate, lactate and octopine dehydrogenases are not detected in muscle fibres whereas glio-interstitial tissues show weak but distinct reactivity. These last results especially characterize Mytilus catch fibres and are briefly discussed in relationship with previous physiological, biochemical and morphological observations.

  4. [Relaxant effects of protopine on smooth muscles].

    PubMed

    Huang, Y H; Zhang, Z Z; Jiang, J X

    1991-01-01

    The relaxant effects of protopine (Pro) on smooth muscles were studied by recording isotonic contraction and radioimmunoassay. Pro relaxed the contraction of rabbit thoracic aorta, mesenteric artery, portal vein and guinea pig ileum and taenia colon induced by high K+ (70 mmol.L-1). Pro also inhibited the contraction of rabbit thoracic aorta, mesenteric artery, portal vein induced by NE (0.3 mumol.L-1) and guinea pig taenia colon induced by BaCl2 (1 mmol.L-1). Pro inhibited the intracellular Ca2+ release, but did not inhibit Ca2+ influx induced by NE. These results suggested that the smooth muscle relaxant mechanism of action of Pro may be the inhibition of intracellular Ca2+ release.

  5. A smoothing algorithm using cubic spline functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E., Jr.; Price, J. M.; Howser, L. M.

    1974-01-01

    Two algorithms are presented for smoothing arbitrary sets of data. They are the explicit variable algorithm and the parametric variable algorithm. The former would be used where large gradients are not encountered because of the smaller amount of calculation required. The latter would be used if the data being smoothed were double valued or experienced large gradients. Both algorithms use a least-squares technique to obtain a cubic spline fit to the data. The advantage of the spline fit is that the first and second derivatives are continuous. This method is best used in an interactive graphics environment so that the junction values for the spline curve can be manipulated to improve the fit.

  6. Compensating for estimation smoothing in kriging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olea, R.A.; Pawlowsky, Vera

    1996-01-01

    Smoothing is a characteristic inherent to all minimum mean-square-error spatial estimators such as kriging. Cross-validation can be used to detect and model such smoothing. Inversion of the model produces a new estimator-compensated kriging. A numerical comparison based on an exhaustive permeability sampling of a 4-fr2 slab of Berea Sandstone shows that the estimation surface generated by compensated kriging has properties intermediate between those generated by ordinary kriging and stochastic realizations resulting from simulated annealing and sequential Gaussian simulation. The frequency distribution is well reproduced by the compensated kriging surface, which also approximates the experimental semivariogram well - better than ordinary kriging, but not as well as stochastic realizations. Compensated kriging produces surfaces that are more accurate than stochastic realizations, but not as accurate as ordinary kriging. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  7. Structure-Preserving Smoothing of Biomedical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Debora; Hernàndez-Sabaté, Aura; Burnat, Mireia; Jansen, Steven; Martínez-Villalta, Jordi

    Smoothing of biomedical images should preserve gray-level transitions between adjacent tissues, while restoring contours consistent with anatomical structures. Anisotropic diffusion operators are based on image appearance discontinuities (either local or contextual) and might fail at weak inter-tissue transitions. Meanwhile, the output of block-wise and morphological operations is prone to present a block structure due to the shape and size of the considered pixel neighborhood.

  8. Variational algorithms for nonlinear smoothing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bach, R. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A variational approach is presented for solving a nonlinear, fixed-interval smoothing problem with application to offline processing of noisy data for trajectory reconstruction and parameter estimation. The nonlinear problem is solved as a sequence of linear two-point boundary value problems. Second-order convergence properties are demonstrated. Algorithms for both continuous and discrete versions of the problem are given, and example solutions are provided.

  9. On the thermodynamics of smooth muscle contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stålhand, Jonas; McMeeking, Robert M.; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.

    2016-09-01

    Cell function is based on many dynamically complex networks of interacting biochemical reactions. Enzymes may increase the rate of only those reactions that are thermodynamically consistent. In this paper we specifically treat the contraction of smooth muscle cells from the continuum thermodynamics point of view by considering them as an open system where matter passes through the cell membrane. We systematically set up a well-known four-state kinetic model for the cross-bridge interaction of actin and myosin in smooth muscle, where the transition between each state is driven by forward and reverse reactions. Chemical, mechanical and energy balance laws are provided in local forms, while energy balance is also formulated in the more convenient temperature form. We derive the local (non-negative) production of entropy from which we deduce the reduced entropy inequality and the constitutive equations for the first Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor, the heat flux, the ion and molecular flux and the entropy. One example for smooth muscle contraction is analyzed in more detail in order to provide orientation within the established general thermodynamic framework. In particular the stress evolution, heat generation, muscle shorting rate and a condition for muscle cooling are derived.

  10. Notch Signaling in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baeten, J.T.; Lilly, B.

    2018-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is a highly conserved pathway involved in cell fate determination in embryonic development and also functions in the regulation of physiological processes in several systems. It plays an especially important role in vascular development and physiology by influencing angiogenesis, vessel patterning, arterial/venous specification, and vascular smooth muscle biology. Aberrant or dysregulated Notch signaling is the cause of or a contributing factor to many vascular disorders, including inherited vascular diseases, such as cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, associated with degeneration of the smooth muscle layer in cerebral arteries. Like most signaling pathways, the Notch signaling axis is influenced by complex interactions with mediators of other signaling pathways. This complexity is also compounded by different members of the Notch family having both overlapping and unique functions. Thus, it is vital to fully understand the roles and interactions of each Notch family member in order to effectively and specifically target their exact contributions to vascular disease. In this chapter, we will review the Notch signaling pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells as it relates to vascular development and human disease. PMID:28212801

  11. Fibronectin promotes differentiation of neural crest progenitors endowed with smooth muscle cell potential

    SciTech Connect

    Costa-Silva, Bruno; Programa de Pos-graduacao em Neurociencias, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario - Trindade, 88040-900, Florianopolis, S.C.; Coelho da Costa, Meline

    The neural crest (NC) is a model system used to investigate multipotency during vertebrate development. Environmental factors control NC cell fate decisions. Despite the well-known influence of extracellular matrix molecules in NC cell migration, the issue of whether they also influence NC cell differentiation has not been addressed at the single cell level. By analyzing mass and clonal cultures of mouse cephalic and quail trunk NC cells, we show for the first time that fibronectin (FN) promotes differentiation into the smooth muscle cell phenotype without affecting differentiation into glia, neurons, and melanocytes. Time course analysis indicated that the FN-induced effectmore » was not related to massive cell death or proliferation of smooth muscle cells. Finally, by comparing clonal cultures of quail trunk NC cells grown on FN and collagen type IV (CLIV), we found that FN strongly increased both NC cell survival and the proportion of unipotent and oligopotent NC progenitors endowed with smooth muscle potential. In contrast, melanocytic progenitors were prominent in clonogenic NC cells grown on CLIV. Taken together, these results show that FN promotes NC cell differentiation along the smooth muscle lineage, and therefore plays an important role in fate decisions of NC progenitor cells.« less

  12. 7 CFR 51.772 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Definitions § 51.772 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and not coarse for the variety and size of the fruit. “Fairly thin” means that the skin thickness does not...

  13. 7 CFR 51.772 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Definitions § 51.772 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and not coarse for the variety and size of the fruit. “Fairly thin” means that the skin thickness does not...

  14. Measuring, achieving and promoting smoothness of Virginia's asphalt overlays.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-01-01

    This study was initiated with the goal of identifying the predominant factors affecting the achievable smoothness of asphalt overlays. In addition, it chronicles the evolution of Virginia's innovative special provision for smoothness, which was devel...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1162 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND... smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and not coarse for the variety...

  16. Measuring, Achieving, And Promoting Smoothness Of Virginia's Asphalt Overlays

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-04-01

    This study was initiated with the goal of identifying the predominant factors affecting the achievable smoothness of asphalt overlays. In addition, the researcher chronicles the evolution of Virginia's innovative special provision for smoothness, whi...

  17. A smoothed two- and three-dimensional interface reconstruction method

    DOE PAGES

    Mosso, Stewart; Garasi, Christopher; Drake, Richard

    2008-04-22

    The Patterned Interface Reconstruction algorithm reduces the discontinuity between material interfaces in neighboring computational elements. This smoothing improves the accuracy of the reconstruction for smooth bodies. The method can be used in two- and three-dimensional Cartesian and unstructured meshes. Planar interfaces will be returned for planar volume fraction distributions. Finally, the algorithm is second-order accurate for smooth volume fraction distributions.

  18. Neurophysiology and Neuroanatomy of Smooth Pursuit in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lencer, Rebekka; Trillenberg, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Smooth pursuit eye movements enable us to focus our eyes on moving objects by utilizing well-established mechanisms of visual motion processing, sensorimotor transformation and cognition. Novel smooth pursuit tasks and quantitative measurement techniques can help unravel the different smooth pursuit components and complex neural systems involved…

  19. Alternative Smoothing and Scaling Strategies for Weighted Composite Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim

    2014-01-01

    In this study, smoothing and scaling approaches are compared for estimating subscore-to-composite scaling results involving composites computed as rounded and weighted combinations of subscores. The considered smoothing and scaling approaches included those based on raw data, on smoothing the bivariate distribution of the subscores, on smoothing…

  20. Radial Basis Function Based Quadrature over Smooth Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    Radial Basis Functions φ(r) Piecewise Smooth (Conditionally Positive Definite) MN Monomial |r|2m+1 TPS thin plate spline |r|2mln|r| Infinitely Smooth...smooth surfaces using polynomial interpolants, while [27] couples Thin - Plate Spline interpolation (see table 1) with Green’s integral formula [29

  1. Visual Short-Term Memory During Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerzel, Dirk; Ziegler, Nathalie E.

    2005-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) was probed while observers performed smooth pursuit eye movements. Smooth pursuit keeps a moving object stabilized in the fovea. VSTM capacity for position was reduced during smooth pursuit compared with a condition with eye fixation. There was no difference between a condition in which the items were approximately…

  2. Enhanced elastin synthesis and maturation in human vascular smooth muscle tissue derived from induced-pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Eoh, Joon H; Shen, Nian; Burke, Jacqueline A; Hinderer, Svenja; Xia, Zhiyong; Schenke-Layland, Katja; Gerecht, Sharon

    2017-04-01

    Obtaining vascular smooth muscle tissue with mature, functional elastic fibers is a key obstacle in tissue-engineered blood vessels. Poor elastin secretion and organization leads to a loss of specialization in contractile smooth muscle cells, resulting in over proliferation and graft failure. In this study, human induced-pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) were differentiated into early smooth muscle cells, seeded onto a hybrid poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate/poly (l-lactide) (PEGdma-PLA) scaffold and cultured in a bioreactor while exposed to pulsatile flow, towards maturation into contractile smooth muscle tissue. We evaluated the effects of pulsatile flow on cellular organization as well as elastin expression and assembly in the engineered tissue compared to a static control through immunohistochemistry, gene expression and functionality assays. We show that culturing under pulsatile flow resulted in organized and functional hiPSC derived smooth muscle tissue. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed hiPSC-smooth muscle tissue with robust, well-organized cells and elastic fibers and the supporting microfibril proteins necessary for elastic fiber assembly. Through qRT-PCR analysis, we found significantly increased expression of elastin, fibronectin, and collagen I, indicating the synthesis of necessary extracellular matrix components. Functionality assays revealed that hiPSC-smooth muscle tissue cultured in the bioreactor had an increased calcium signaling and contraction in response to a cholinergic agonist, significantly higher mature elastin content and improved mechanical properties in comparison to the static control. The findings presented here detail an effective approach to engineering elastic human vascular smooth muscle tissue with the functionality necessary for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Obtaining robust, mature elastic fibers is a key obstacle in tissue-engineered blood vessels. Human induced-pluripotent stem cells have

  3. Pavement Smoothness and Fuel Efficiency: An Analysis of the Economic Dimensions of the Missouri Smooth Roads Initiative.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-11-01

    Its widely accepted that smooth roads provide greater driver comfort and satisfaction, decreased vehicle maintenance costs, and better fuel economy. Now thanks to a recently completed study, the affect of pavement smoothness on fuel efficiency has...

  4. Cysteinyl leukotrienes promote human airway smooth muscle migration.

    PubMed

    Parameswaran, Krishnan; Cox, Gerard; Radford, Katherine; Janssen, Luke J; Sehmi, Roma; O'Byrne, Paul M

    2002-09-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes promote airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction and proliferation. Little is known about their role in ASM migration. We investigated this using cultured human ASMs (between the second and fifth passages) obtained from the large airways of resected nonasthmatic lung. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (1 ng/ml) promoted significant (3.5-fold) ASM migration of myocytes across collagen-coated 8- micro m polycarbonate membranes in Transwell culture plates. Leukotriene E(4) (10(-7), 10(-8), 10(-9) M) did not demonstrate a chemotactic effect; it did promote chemokinesis. Priming by leukotriene E(4) (10(-7) M) significantly augmented the directional migratory response to platelet-derived growth factor (1.5-fold, p < 0.05). This was blocked by montelukast (10(-6) M), demonstrating the effect to be mediated by the cysteinyl leukotriene receptor. The "priming effect" was also partially attenuated by prostaglandin E(2) (10(-7) M). Whereas both the chemokinetic and the chemotactic "primed" responses were equally attenuated by a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor (SB203580, 25 micro M) and by a Rho-kinase inhibitor (Y27632, 10 micro M), the chemotactic response showed greater inhibition than chemokinesis by a phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase inhibitor (LY294002, 50 micro M). These experiments suggest that cysteinyl leukotrienes play an augmentary role in human ASM migration. The phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase pathway is a key signaling mechanism in the chemotactic migration of ASM cells in response to cysteinyl leukotrienes.

  5. Smooth and Fractured Deposits in Eridania Valleys

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-13

    The ancient highland channels in this image empty into the Eridania Basin (not visible), a large topographically low enclosure with smooth-appearing terrains that may have once contained a large paleolake or ancient sea. Water in these channels flowed to the east into Ariadnes Basin, a smaller basin located within the confines of Eridiana. Light-toned knobs are exposed in the northern channel, while the other channels are partially filled with smooth appearing lobe-shaped surface flows that are extensively fractured when viewed at high-resolution. Although the origin of these knobs is not known, interpretations include fumarolic mounds, erosional remnants, pingos, mud volcanoes and spring mounds. The movement of the once ice-rich, channel-filling flows over the knobby terrains likely created radial tension stresses producing the cracks that we see on the surface of these deposits. As the material slowly thinned, it eventually led to the formation of an elephant skin-like texture. This texture is different from the surrounding eroding mantling deposit that has become pitted as the ice sublimated causing the overlying surface to collapse. The combination of such knobby terrain and smooth, channel-filling deposits are seen only in a few places on Mars. One such example is the Navua Valles channels northeast of the Hellas Basin that may have also hosted a large, ice-covered lake in the past. Their morphological similarities, particularly in their surface materials, suggest that they formed under similar paleoclimatic conditions. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA12968

  6. Effects of tachykinins on uterine smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Patak, E N; Pennefather, J N; Story, M E

    2000-11-01

    1. Sensory nerves supplying the mammalian uterus have been shown to contain substance P (SP) and neurokinin (NK)A. This review presents some of the advances that have led to a greater understanding of the effects of tachykinins on uterine smooth muscle. 2. The cell-surface peptidase neprilysin (EC.3 24.11, endopeptidase 24.11, enkephalinase, CALLA, CD10) has been shown to play a major role in regulating the actions of tachykinins on both rat and human myometrium. Because this peptidase is known to be regulated by steroids and pregnancy, its effects may be of physiological relevance. 3. Tachykinins produce contractions of isolated myometrial preparations from non-pregnant rats and mice. The NK2 receptor mediates these effects in rat uterus, while the NK1 receptor may mediate these effects in the mouse uterus. 4. The effects of tachykinins have been examined on myometrial preparations obtained at Caesarean section from near-term pregnant women. In the presence of the peptidase inhibitors (thiorphan, captopril and bestatin), the mammalian tachykinins SP, NKA and NKB produced concentration-dependent uterine contractions. 5. The order of agonist potency NKA > SP = NKB suggested that NK2 receptors mediate uterine contractions in the human. This was confirmed using the stable analogues [Sar9,Met(O2)11]SP, [Lys5MeLeu9Nle10]NKA(4-10) and [N-MePhe7]NKB, which are NK1, NK2 and NK3 receptor selective, respectively. Only [Lys5MeLeu9Nle10]NKA(4-10) produced concentration-related contractions of human uterine smooth muscle. 6. The experimental findings described in the present review, taken together with results published previously in the literature, indicate that tachykinin peptides may play a physiological or pathophysiological role in regulating uterine smooth muscle activity. However, more extensive research will be required to confirm such a role for these peptides.

  7. Convergence Rates for Multivariate Smoothing Spline Functions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    GAI (,T) g (T)dT - g In order to show convergence of the series and obtain bounds on the terms, we need to estimate £ Now (1 + Ay v) AyV ( g ,#V...Cox* Technical Summary Report #2437 October 1982 ABSTRACT Given data z i - g (ti ) + ci, 1 4 i 4 n, where g is the unknown function, the ti are unknown...d-dimensional variables in a domain fl, and the ei are i.i.d. random errors, the smoothing spline estimate g n is defined to be the

  8. A smooth exit from eternal inflation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, S. W.; Hertog, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    The usual theory of inflation breaks down in eternal inflation. We derive a dual description of eternal inflation in terms of a deformed Euclidean CFT located at the threshold of eternal inflation. The partition function gives the amplitude of different geometries of the threshold surface in the no-boundary state. Its local and global behavior in dual toy models shows that the amplitude is low for surfaces which are not nearly conformal to the round three-sphere and essentially zero for surfaces with negative curvature. Based on this we conjecture that the exit from eternal inflation does not produce an infinite fractal-like multiverse, but is finite and reasonably smooth.

  9. Old Basin Filled by Smooth Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Old basin, 190 km in diameter, filled by smooth plains at 43 degrees S, 55 degrees W. The basin's hummocky rim is partly degraded and cratered by later events. Mariner 10 frame 166607.

    The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.

    Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Northwestern University

  10. Method for producing smooth inner surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Charles A.

    2016-05-17

    The invention provides a method for preparing superconducting cavities, the method comprising causing polishing media to tumble by centrifugal barrel polishing within the cavities for a time sufficient to attain a surface smoothness of less than 15 nm root mean square roughness over approximately a 1 mm.sup.2 scan area. The method also provides for a method for preparing superconducting cavities, the method comprising causing polishing media bound to a carrier to tumble within the cavities. The method also provides for a method for preparing superconducting cavities, the method comprising causing polishing media in a slurry to tumble within the cavities.

  11. Compressive Sensing via Nonlocal Smoothed Rank Function

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ya-Ru; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Xi-Le

    2016-01-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) theory asserts that we can reconstruct signals and images with only a small number of samples or measurements. Recent works exploiting the nonlocal similarity have led to better results in various CS studies. To better exploit the nonlocal similarity, in this paper, we propose a non-convex smoothed rank function based model for CS image reconstruction. We also propose an efficient alternating minimization method to solve the proposed model, which reduces a difficult and coupled problem to two tractable subproblems. Experimental results have shown that the proposed method performs better than several existing state-of-the-art CS methods for image reconstruction. PMID:27583683

  12. Pavement Smoothness and Fuel Efficiency: An Analysis of the Economic Dimensions of the Missouri Smooth Road Initiative.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-12-18

    This study investigated the affect of pavement smoothness on fuel efficiency, specifically examining the miles per gallon in fuel savings for smooth versus rough pavement. The study found a 53% improvement in smoothness which resulted in over 2.4% im...

  13. Mechanisms of Vascular Smooth Muscle Contraction and the Basis for Pharmacologic Treatment of Smooth Muscle Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brozovich, F.V.; Nicholson, C.J.; Degen, C.V.; Gao, Yuan Z.; Aggarwal, M.

    2016-01-01

    The smooth muscle cell directly drives the contraction of the vascular wall and hence regulates the size of the blood vessel lumen. We review here the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which agonists, therapeutics, and diseases regulate contractility of the vascular smooth muscle cell and we place this within the context of whole body function. We also discuss the implications for personalized medicine and highlight specific potential target molecules that may provide opportunities for the future development of new therapeutics to regulate vascular function. PMID:27037223

  14. Monocyte activation by smooth muscle cell-derived matrices.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, J; Jorgensen, R W; Martin, B M; Franzblau, C

    1990-12-01

    Mononuclear phagocytes adhere to and penetrate the vessel wall endothelium and contact the subendothelial space prior to the development of the atherosclerotic plaque. In an attempt to model the early events of plaque development we used an elastin-rich, multicomponent, cell-derived matrix from neonatal rat aortic smooth muscle cells as a substratum for monocytes. Using this model, we show that human monocyte morphology and metabolism are markedly altered by the matrix substratum. When a mixed mononuclear cell population is seeded on matrix or plastic, only monocytes adhere to the matrix surface. In contrast, lymphocytes as well as monocytes adhere to the plastic surface. The matrix-adherent monocytes develop large intracellular granules and form extensive clusters of individual cells. Metabolically, these cells develop sodium fluoride resistant non-specific esterase activity and their media contain more growth factor activity and PGE2. Although total protein synthesis is equivalent in both cultures, the matrix contact induces an increase in specific proteins in the media. We also show that a purified alpha-elastin substratum induces some, but not all, of the monocyte changes seen when using the matrix substratum. Using the alpha-elastin substratum, there is selective adhesion of monocytes and increased growth factor activity, however, the cells are morphologically different from the matrix-adherent cells. Thus, the use of the smooth muscle cell-derived matrix, in conjunction with purified matrix components, serves as a model that can provide insight into the mechanisms of monocyte adhesion and stimulation by the matrix environment that exists in vivo. Such mechanisms may be particularly important in atherogenesis.

  15. Four Keys to a Smooth Flight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Jan; Conzemius, Anne

    2002-01-01

    Describes four key elements typically seen in schools that show continuous improvement in student results. Such schools' cultures are permeated by a shared focus on student learning, a strong culture of reflective practice, a collaborative environment where teachers see colleagues and parents as important partners, and an ever increasing…

  16. Snap evaporation of droplets on smooth topographies.

    PubMed

    Wells, Gary G; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Élfego; Le Lirzin, Youen; Nourry, Anthony; Orme, Bethany V; Pradas, Marc; Ledesma-Aguilar, Rodrigo

    2018-04-11

    Droplet evaporation on solid surfaces is important in many applications including printing, micro-patterning and cooling. While seemingly simple, the configuration of evaporating droplets on solids is difficult to predict and control. This is because evaporation typically proceeds as a "stick-slip" sequence-a combination of pinning and de-pinning events dominated by static friction or "pinning", caused by microscopic surface roughness. Here we show how smooth, pinning-free, solid surfaces of non-planar topography promote a different process called snap evaporation. During snap evaporation a droplet follows a reproducible sequence of configurations, consisting of a quasi-static phase-change controlled by mass diffusion interrupted by out-of-equilibrium snaps. Snaps are triggered by bifurcations of the equilibrium droplet shape mediated by the underlying non-planar solid. Because the evolution of droplets during snap evaporation is controlled by a smooth topography, and not by surface roughness, our ideas can inspire programmable surfaces that manage liquids in heat- and mass-transfer applications.

  17. Smooth Tubercle Bacilli: Neglected Opportunistic Tropical Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Aboubaker Osman, Djaltou; Bouzid, Feriel; Canaan, Stéphane; Drancourt, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Smooth tubercle bacilli (STB) including "Mycobacterium canettii" are members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), which cause non-contagious tuberculosis in human. This group comprises <100 isolates characterized by smooth colonies and cordless organisms. Most STB isolates have been obtained from patients exposed to the Republic of Djibouti but seven isolates, including the three seminal ones obtained by Georges Canetti between 1968 and 1970, were recovered from patients in France, Madagascar, Sub-Sahara East Africa, and French Polynesia. STB form a genetically heterogeneous group of MTBC organisms with large 4.48 ± 0.05 Mb genomes, which may link Mycobacterium kansasii to MTBC organisms. Lack of inter-human transmission suggested a yet unknown environmental reservoir. Clinical data indicate a respiratory tract route of contamination and the digestive tract as an alternative route of contamination. Further epidemiological and clinical studies are warranted to elucidate areas of uncertainty regarding these unusual mycobacteria and the tuberculosis they cause.

  18. Smooth Tubercle Bacilli: Neglected Opportunistic Tropical Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Aboubaker Osman, Djaltou; Bouzid, Feriel; Canaan, Stéphane; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Smooth tubercle bacilli (STB) including “Mycobacterium canettii” are members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), which cause non-contagious tuberculosis in human. This group comprises <100 isolates characterized by smooth colonies and cordless organisms. Most STB isolates have been obtained from patients exposed to the Republic of Djibouti but seven isolates, including the three seminal ones obtained by Georges Canetti between 1968 and 1970, were recovered from patients in France, Madagascar, Sub-Sahara East Africa, and French Polynesia. STB form a genetically heterogeneous group of MTBC organisms with large 4.48 ± 0.05 Mb genomes, which may link Mycobacterium kansasii to MTBC organisms. Lack of inter-human transmission suggested a yet unknown environmental reservoir. Clinical data indicate a respiratory tract route of contamination and the digestive tract as an alternative route of contamination. Further epidemiological and clinical studies are warranted to elucidate areas of uncertainty regarding these unusual mycobacteria and the tuberculosis they cause. PMID:26793699

  19. An earthquake rate forecast for Europe based on smoothed seismicity and smoothed fault contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiemer, Stefan; Woessner, Jochen; Basili, Roberto; Wiemer, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    The main objective of project SHARE (Seismic Hazard Harmonization in Europe) is to develop a community-based seismic hazard model for the Euro-Mediterranean region. The logic tree of earthquake rupture forecasts comprises several methodologies including smoothed seismicity approaches. Smoothed seismicity thus represents an alternative concept to express the degree of spatial stationarity of seismicity and provides results that are more objective, reproducible, and testable. Nonetheless, the smoothed-seismicity approach suffers from the common drawback of being generally based on earthquake catalogs alone, i.e. the wealth of knowledge from geology is completely ignored. We present a model that applies the kernel-smoothing method to both past earthquake locations and slip rates on mapped crustal faults and subductions. The result is mainly driven by the data, being independent of subjective delineation of seismic source zones. The core parts of our model are two distinct location probability densities: The first is computed by smoothing past seismicity (using variable kernel smoothing to account for varying data density). The second is obtained by smoothing fault moment rate contributions. The fault moment rates are calculated by summing the moment rate of each fault patch on a fully parameterized and discretized fault as available from the SHARE fault database. We assume that the regional frequency-magnitude distribution of the entire study area is well known and estimate the a- and b-value of a truncated Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution based on a maximum likelihood approach that considers the spatial and temporal completeness history of the seismic catalog. The two location probability densities are linearly weighted as a function of magnitude assuming that (1) the occurrence of past seismicity is a good proxy to forecast occurrence of future seismicity and (2) future large-magnitude events occur more likely in the vicinity of known faults. Consequently

  20. How a Nanodroplet Diffuses on Smooth Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chu; Huang, Jizu; Li, Zhigang

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we investigate how nanodroplets diffuse on smooth surfaces through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and theoretical analyses. The simulations results show that the surface diffusion of nanodroplet is different from that of single molecules and solid nanoparticles. The dependence of nanodroplet diffusion coefficient on temperature is surface wettability dependent, which undergoes a transition from linear to nonlinear as the surface wettability is weakened due to the coupling of temperature and surface energy. We also develop a simple relation for the diffusion coefficient by using the contact angle and contact radius of the droplet. It works well for different surface wettabilities and sized nanodroplets, as confirmed by MD simulations. This work was supported by the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region under Grant No. 615312.

  1. Smooth muscle cell phenotypic switching in stroke.

    PubMed

    Poittevin, Marine; Lozeron, Pierre; Hilal, Rose; Levy, Bernard I; Merkulova-Rainon, Tatiana; Kubis, Nathalie

    2014-06-01

    Disruption of cerebral blood flow after stroke induces cerebral tissue injury through multiple mechanisms that are not yet fully understood. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in blood vessel walls play a key role in cerebral blood flow control. Cerebral ischemia triggers these cells to switch to a phenotype that will be either detrimental or beneficial to brain repair. Moreover, SMC can be primarily affected genetically or by toxic metabolic molecules. After stroke, this pathological phenotype has an impact on the incidence, pattern, severity, and outcome of the cerebral ischemic disease. Although little research has been conducted on the pathological role and molecular mechanisms of SMC in cerebrovascular ischemic diseases, some therapeutic targets have already been identified and could be considered for further pharmacological development. We examine these different aspects in this review.

  2. Relating Lexicographic Smoothness and Directed Subdifferentiability

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Kamil A.

    2016-06-03

    Lexicographic derivatives developed by Nesterov and directed subdifferentials developed by Baier, Farkhi, and Roshchina are both essentially nonconvex generalized derivatives for nonsmooth nonconvex functions and satisfy strict calculus rules and mean-value theorems. This article aims to clarify the relationship between the two generalized derivatives. In particular, for scalar-valued functions that are locally Lipschitz continuous, lexicographic smoothness and directed subdifferentiability are shown to be equivalent, along with the necessary optimality conditions corresponding to each. For such functions, the visualization of the directed subdifferential-the Rubinov subdifferential-is shown to include the lexicographic subdifferential, and is also shown to be included in its closedmore » convex hull. As a result, various implications of these results are discussed.« less

  3. Variational principles for relativistic smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaghan, J. J.; Price, D. J.

    2001-12-01

    In this paper we show how the equations of motion for the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method may be derived from a variational principle for both non-relativistic and relativistic motion when there is no dissipation. Because the SPH density is a function of the coordinates the derivation of the equations of motion through variational principles is simpler than in the continuum case where the density is defined through the continuity equation. In particular, the derivation of the general relativistic equations is more direct and simpler than that of Fock. The symmetry properties of the Lagrangian lead immediately to the familiar additive conservation laws of linear and angular momentum and energy. In addition, we show that there is an approximately conserved quantity which, in the continuum limit, is the circulation.

  4. Smooth function approximation using neural networks.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Silvia; Stengel, Robert F

    2005-01-01

    An algebraic approach for representing multidimensional nonlinear functions by feedforward neural networks is presented. In this paper, the approach is implemented for the approximation of smooth batch data containing the function's input, output, and possibly, gradient information. The training set is associated to the network adjustable parameters by nonlinear weight equations. The cascade structure of these equations reveals that they can be treated as sets of linear systems. Hence, the training process and the network approximation properties can be investigated via linear algebra. Four algorithms are developed to achieve exact or approximate matching of input-output and/or gradient-based training sets. Their application to the design of forward and feedback neurocontrollers shows that algebraic training is characterized by faster execution speeds and better generalization properties than contemporary optimization techniques.

  5. Conservative, special-relativistic smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosswog, Stephan

    2010-11-01

    We present and test a new, special-relativistic formulation of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). Our approach benefits from several improvements with respect to earlier relativistic SPH formulations. It is self-consistently derived from the Lagrangian of an ideal fluid and accounts for the terms that stem from non-constant smoothing lengths, usually called “grad-h terms”. In our approach, we evolve the canonical momentum and the canonical energy per baryon and thus circumvent some of the problems that have plagued earlier formulations of relativistic SPH. We further use a much improved artificial viscosity prescription which uses the extreme local eigenvalues of the Euler equations and triggers selectively on (a) shocks and (b) velocity noise. The shock trigger accurately monitors the relative density slope and uses it to fine-tune the amount of artificial viscosity that is applied. This procedure substantially sharpens shock fronts while still avoiding post-shock noise. If not triggered, the viscosity parameter of each particle decays to zero. None of these viscosity triggers is specific to special relativity, both could also be applied in Newtonian SPH.The performance of the new scheme is explored in a large variety of benchmark tests where it delivers excellent results. Generally, the grad-h terms deliver minor, though worthwhile, improvements. As expected for a Lagrangian method, it performs close to perfect in supersonic advection tests, but also in strong relativistic shocks, usually considered a particular challenge for SPH, the method yields convincing results. For example, due to its perfect conservation properties, it is able to handle Lorentz factors as large as γ = 50,000 in the so-called wall shock test. Moreover, we find convincing results in a rarely shown, but challenging test that involves so-called relativistic simple waves and also in multi-dimensional shock tube tests.

  6. Local, smooth, and consistent Jacobi set simplification

    DOE PAGES

    Bhatia, Harsh; Wang, Bei; Norgard, Gregory; ...

    2014-10-31

    The relation between two Morse functions defined on a smooth, compact, and orientable 2-manifold can be studied in terms of their Jacobi set. The Jacobi set contains points in the domain where the gradients of the two functions are aligned. Both the Jacobi set itself as well as the segmentation of the domain it induces, have shown to be useful in various applications. In practice, unfortunately, functions often contain noise and discretization artifacts, causing their Jacobi set to become unmanageably large and complex. Although there exist techniques to simplify Jacobi sets, they are unsuitable for most applications as they lackmore » fine-grained control over the process, and heavily restrict the type of simplifications possible. In this paper, we introduce a new framework that generalizes critical point cancellations in scalar functions to Jacobi set in two dimensions. We present a new interpretation of Jacobi set simplification based on the perspective of domain segmentation. Generalizing the cancellation of critical points from scalar functions to Jacobi sets, we focus on simplifications that can be realized by smooth approximations of the corresponding functions, and show how these cancellations imply simultaneous simplification of contiguous subsets of the Jacobi set. Using these extended cancellations as atomic operations, we introduce an algorithm to successively cancel subsets of the Jacobi set with minimal modifications to some user-defined metric. We show that for simply connected domains, our algorithm reduces a given Jacobi set to its minimal configuration, that is, one with no birth–death points (a birth–death point is a specific type of singularity within the Jacobi set where the level sets of the two functions and the Jacobi set have a common normal direction).« less

  7. Hydroxyapatite and Calcified Elastin Induce Osteoblast-like Differentiation in Rat Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Yang; Sinha, Aditi; Nosoudi, Nasim; Grover, Ankit; Vyavahare, Naren

    2014-01-01

    Vascular calcification can be categorized into two different types. Intimal calcification related to atherosclerosis and elastin-specific medial arterial calcification (MAC). Osteoblast-like differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) has been shown in both types; however, how this relates to initiation of vascular calcification is unclear. We hypothesize that the initial deposition of hydroxyapatite-like mineral in MAC occurs on degraded elastin first and that causes osteogenic transformation of VSMCs. To test this, rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs) were cultured on hydroxyapatite crystals and calcified aortic elastin. Using RT-PCR and specific protein assays, we demonstrate that RASMCs lose their smooth muscle lineage markers like alpha smooth muscle actin (SMA) and myosin heavy chain (MHC) and undergo chondrogenic/osteogenic transformation. This is indicated by an increase in the expression of typical chondrogenic proteins such as aggrecan, collagen type II alpha 1(Col2a1) and bone proteins such as runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCN). Furthermore, when calcified conditions are removed, cells return to their original phenotype. Our data supports the hypothesis that elastin degradation and calcification precedes VSMCs' osteoblast-like differentiation. PMID:24447384

  8. Chloride channel blockers promote relaxation of TEA-induced contraction in airway smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Peter D.; Gallos, George; Perez-zoghbi, Jose F.; Trice, Jacquelyn; Zhang, Yi; Siviski, Matthew; Sonett, Joshua; Emala, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction is an important component in the pathophysiology of asthma. We have shown that ligand gated chloride channels modulate ASM contractile tone during the maintenance phase of an induced contraction, however the role of chloride flux in depolarization-induced contraction remains incompletely understood. To better understand the role of chloride flux under these conditions, muscle force (human ASM, guinea pig ASM), peripheral small airway luminal area (rat ASM) and airway smooth muscle plasma membrane electrical potentials (human cultured ASM) were measured. We found ex vivo guinea pig airway rings, human ASM strips and small peripheral airways in rat lungs slices relaxed in response to niflumic acid following depolarization-induced contraction induced by K+ channel blockade with tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA). In isolated human airway smooth muscle cells TEA induce depolarization as measured by a fluorescent indicator or whole cell patch clamp and this depolarization was reversed by niflumic acid. These findings demonstrate that ASM depolarization induced contraction is dependent on chloride channel activity. Targeting of chloride channels may be a novel approach to relax hypercontractile airway smooth muscle in bronchoconstrictive disorders. PMID:24662476

  9. Chloride channel blockers promote relaxation of TEA-induced contraction in airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Yim, Peter D; Gallos, George; Perez-Zoghbi, Jose F; Trice, Jacquelyn; Zhang, Yi; Siviski, Matthew; Sonett, Joshua; Emala, Charles W

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction is an important component in the pathophysiology of asthma. We have shown that ligand gated chloride channels modulate ASM contractile tone during the maintenance phase of an induced contraction, however the role of chloride flux in depolarization-induced contraction remains incompletely understood. To better understand the role of chloride flux under these conditions, muscle force (human ASM, guinea pig ASM), peripheral small airway luminal area (rat ASM) and airway smooth muscle plasma membrane electrical potentials (human cultured ASM) were measured. We found ex vivo guinea pig airway rings, human ASM strips and small peripheral airways in rat lungs slices relaxed in response to niflumic acid following depolarization-induced contraction induced by K(+) channel blockade with tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA). In isolated human airway smooth muscle cells TEA induce depolarization as measured by a fluorescent indicator or whole cell patch clamp and this depolarization was reversed by niflumic acid. These findings demonstrate that ASM depolarization induced contraction is dependent on chloride channel activity. Targeting of chloride channels may be a novel approach to relax hypercontractile airway smooth muscle in bronchoconstrictive disorders.

  10. Role of smooth muscle cells on endothelial cell cytosolic free calcium in porcine coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Budel, S; Schuster, A; Stergiopoulos, N; Meister, J J; Bény, J L

    2001-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the cytosolic free calcium concentration in endothelial cells is under the influence of the smooth muscle cells in the coronary circulation. In the left descending branch of porcine coronary arteries, cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) was estimated by determining the fluorescence ratio of two calcium probes, fluo 4 and fura red, in smooth muscle and endothelial cells using confocal microscopy. Acetylcholine and potassium, which act directly on smooth muscle cells to increase [Ca(2+)](i), were found to indirectly elevate [Ca(2+)](i) in endothelial cells; in primary cultures of endothelial cells, neither stimulus affected [Ca(2+)](i), yet substance P increased the fluorescence ratio twofold. In response to acetylcholine and potassium, isometric tension developed by arterial strips with intact endothelium was attenuated by up to 22% (P < 0.05) compared with strips without endothelium. These findings suggest that stimuli that increase smooth muscle [Ca(2+)](i) can indirectly influence endothelial cell function in porcine coronary arteries. Such a pathway for negative feedback can moderate vasoconstriction and diminish the potential for vasospasm in the coronary circulation.

  11. Effects of Gingko biloba extract (EGb 761) on vascular smooth muscle cell calcification induced by β-glycerophosphate.

    PubMed

    Li, En-Gang; Tian, Jun; Xu, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of Gingko biloba extract (EGb 761) on calcification induced by β-glycerophosphate in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. Rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells were cultured with various concentrations of EGb 761 and β-glycerophosphate for 7 days. Calcium content in the cells, alkaline phosphatase activity, cell protein content, NF-κB activation, and reactive oxygen species production were assayed, respectively. The calcium depositions of vascular smooth muscle cells of the β-glycerophosphate group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p < 0.01), and were inhibited by EGb 761 in a concentration-dependent manner (p < 0.05). Data showed β-glycerophosphate induced the enhanced expression of alkaline phosphatase, up-regulated the NF-κB activity and increased reactive oxygen species production of vascular smooth muscle cells while these decreased when administrated with EGb 761(p < 0.05). EGb 761 significantly reduced deposition of calcium induced by β-glycerophosphate in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. It not only reduced the deposition of calcium, but also inhibited osteogenic transdifferentiation, which may be associated with decreasing expression of alkaline phosphatase, down-regulating the NF-κB activity, and reducing reactive oxygen species production of vascular smooth muscle cells, and may have the potential to serve as a role for vascular calcification in clinical situations.

  12. Image segmentation on adaptive edge-preserving smoothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Kun; Wang, Dan; Zheng, Xiuqing

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, typical active contour models are widely applied in image segmentation. However, they perform badly on real images with inhomogeneous subregions. In order to overcome the drawback, this paper proposes an edge-preserving smoothing image segmentation algorithm. At first, this paper analyzes the edge-preserving smoothing conditions for image segmentation and constructs an edge-preserving smoothing model inspired by total variation. The proposed model has the ability to smooth inhomogeneous subregions and preserve edges. Then, a kind of clustering algorithm, which reasonably trades off edge-preserving and subregion-smoothing according to the local information, is employed to learn the edge-preserving parameter adaptively. At last, according to the confidence level of segmentation subregions, this paper constructs a smoothing convergence condition to avoid oversmoothing. Experiments indicate that the proposed algorithm has superior performance in precision, recall, and F-measure compared with other segmentation algorithms, and it is insensitive to noise and inhomogeneous-regions.

  13. Bifurcation theory for finitely smooth planar autonomous differential systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Maoan; Sheng, Lijuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we establish bifurcation theory of limit cycles for planar Ck smooth autonomous differential systems, with k ∈ N. The key point is to study the smoothness of bifurcation functions which are basic and important tool on the study of Hopf bifurcation at a fine focus or a center, and of Poincaré bifurcation in a period annulus. We especially study the smoothness of the first order Melnikov function in degenerate Hopf bifurcation at an elementary center. As we know, the smoothness problem was solved for analytic and C∞ differential systems, but it was not tackled for finitely smooth differential systems. Here, we present their optimal regularity of these bifurcation functions and their asymptotic expressions in the finite smooth case.

  14. Star Products with Separation of Variables Admitting a Smooth Extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabegov, Alexander

    2012-08-01

    Given a complex manifold M with an open dense subset Ω endowed with a pseudo-Kähler form ω which cannot be smoothly extended to a larger open subset, we consider various examples where the corresponding Kähler-Poisson structure and a star product with separation of variables on (Ω, ω) admit smooth extensions to M. We give a simple criterion of the existence of a smooth extension of a star product and apply it to these examples.

  15. Hydraulic Conductivity of Smooth Muscle Cell-Initiated Arterial Cocultures

    PubMed Central

    Mathura, Rishi A.; Russell-Puleri, Sparkle; Cancel, Limary M.; Tarbell, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of arterial coculture conditions on the transport properties of several in vitro endothelial cell (EC) – smooth muscle cell (SMC) – porous filter constructs in which SMC were grown to confluence first and then EC were inoculated. This order of culturing simulates the environment of a blood vessel wall after endothelial layer damage due to stenting, vascular grafting or other vascular wall insult. For all coculture configurations examined, we observed that hydraulic conductivity (Lp) values were significantly higher than predicted by a resistances-in-series (RIS) model accounting for the Lp of EC and SMC measured separately. The greatest increases were observed when EC were plated directly on top of a confluent SMC layer without an intervening filter, presumably mediated by direct EC – SMC contacts that were observed under confocal microscopy. The results are the opposite of a previous study that showed Lp was significantly reduced compared to an RIS model when EC were grown to confluency first. The physiological, pathophysiological and tissue engineering implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26265460

  16. Hydraulic Conductivity of Smooth Muscle Cell-Initiated Arterial Cocultures.

    PubMed

    Mathura, Rishi A; Russell-Puleri, Sparkle; Cancel, Limary M; Tarbell, John M

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of arterial coculture conditions on the transport properties of several in vitro endothelial cell (EC)-smooth muscle cell (SMC)-porous filter constructs in which SMC were grown to confluence first and then EC were inoculated. This order of culturing simulates the environment of a blood vessel wall after endothelial layer damage due to stenting, vascular grafting or other vascular wall insult. For all coculture configurations examined, we observed that hydraulic conductivity (L(p)) values were significantly higher than predicted by a resistances-in-series (RIS) model accounting for the L(p) of EC and SMC measured separately. The greatest increases were observed when EC were plated directly on top of a confluent SMC layer without an intervening filter, presumably mediated by direct EC-SMC contacts that were observed under confocal microscopy. The results are the opposite of a previous study that showed L(p) was significantly reduced compared to an RIS model when EC were grown to confluency first. The physiological, pathophysiological and tissue engineering implications of these results are discussed.

  17. Comparison of smoothing methods for the development of a smoothed seismicity model for Alaska and the implications for seismic hazard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moschetti, Morgan P.; Mueller, Charles S.; Boyd, Oliver S.; Petersen, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    In anticipation of the update of the Alaska seismic hazard maps (ASHMs) by the U. S. Geological Survey, we report progress on the comparison of smoothed seismicity models developed using fixed and adaptive smoothing algorithms, and investigate the sensitivity of seismic hazard to the models. While fault-based sources, such as those for great earthquakes in the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone and for the ~10 shallow crustal faults within Alaska, dominate the seismic hazard estimates for locations near to the sources, smoothed seismicity rates make important contributions to seismic hazard away from fault-based sources and where knowledge of recurrence and magnitude is not sufficient for use in hazard studies. Recent developments in adaptive smoothing methods and statistical tests for evaluating and comparing rate models prompt us to investigate the appropriateness of adaptive smoothing for the ASHMs. We develop smoothed seismicity models for Alaska using fixed and adaptive smoothing methods and compare the resulting models by calculating and evaluating the joint likelihood test. We use the earthquake catalog, and associated completeness levels, developed for the 2007 ASHM to produce fixed-bandwidth-smoothed models with smoothing distances varying from 10 to 100 km and adaptively smoothed models. Adaptive smoothing follows the method of Helmstetter et al. and defines a unique smoothing distance for each earthquake epicenter from the distance to the nth nearest neighbor. The consequence of the adaptive smoothing methods is to reduce smoothing distances, causing locally increased seismicity rates, where seismicity rates are high and to increase smoothing distances where seismicity is sparse. We follow guidance from previous studies to optimize the neighbor number (n-value) by comparing model likelihood values, which estimate the likelihood that the observed earthquake epicenters from the recent catalog are derived from the smoothed rate models. We compare likelihood

  18. Comparison of smoothing methods for the development of a smoothed seismicity model for Alaska and the implications for seismic hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moschetti, M. P.; Mueller, C. S.; Boyd, O. S.; Petersen, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    In anticipation of the update of the Alaska seismic hazard maps (ASHMs) by the U. S. Geological Survey, we report progress on the comparison of smoothed seismicity models developed using fixed and adaptive smoothing algorithms, and investigate the sensitivity of seismic hazard to the models. While fault-based sources, such as those for great earthquakes in the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone and for the ~10 shallow crustal faults within Alaska, dominate the seismic hazard estimates for locations near to the sources, smoothed seismicity rates make important contributions to seismic hazard away from fault-based sources and where knowledge of recurrence and magnitude is not sufficient for use in hazard studies. Recent developments in adaptive smoothing methods and statistical tests for evaluating and comparing rate models prompt us to investigate the appropriateness of adaptive smoothing for the ASHMs. We develop smoothed seismicity models for Alaska using fixed and adaptive smoothing methods and compare the resulting models by calculating and evaluating the joint likelihood test. We use the earthquake catalog, and associated completeness levels, developed for the 2007 ASHM to produce fixed-bandwidth-smoothed models with smoothing distances varying from 10 to 100 km and adaptively smoothed models. Adaptive smoothing follows the method of Helmstetter et al. and defines a unique smoothing distance for each earthquake epicenter from the distance to the nth nearest neighbor. The consequence of the adaptive smoothing methods is to reduce smoothing distances, causing locally increased seismicity rates, where seismicity rates are high and to increase smoothing distances where seismicity is sparse. We follow guidance from previous studies to optimize the neighbor number (n-value) by comparing model likelihood values, which estimate the likelihood that the observed earthquake epicenters from the recent catalog are derived from the smoothed rate models. We compare likelihood

  19. CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION AND DRAMATIC RITUAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SALISBURY, LEE H.

    THE AUTHOR'S PROGRAM, COLLEGE ORIENTATION PROGRAM FOR ALASKAN NATIVES (COPAN), WAS DEVELOPED TO PROVIDE A SMOOTH TRANSITION FOR NATIVE ALASKAN STUDENTS INTO THE AREA OF WESTERN CULTURE, IN COLLEGE. THE FINE ARTS WERE UTILIZED AS A COMMUNICATION BRIDGE BETWEEN THE ESKIMO AND WESTERN CULTURES. THE MEDIA OF THE DANCE AND DRAMA WERE THE BASES FOR…

  20. Paradoxical behavior of neuromedin U in isolated smooth muscle cells and intact tissue.

    PubMed

    Brighton, Paul J; Wise, Alan; Dass, Narinder B; Willars, Gary B

    2008-04-01

    Neuromedin U (NmU) is a neuropeptide showing high levels of structural conservation across different species. Since its discovery in 1985, NmU has been implicated in numerous physiological roles, including smooth muscle contraction, energy homeostasis, stress, intestinal ion transport, pronociception, and circadian rhythm. Two G-protein-coupled receptors have been identified for NmU and cloned from humans, rats, and mice. Recombinantly expressed NmU receptors couple to both Galpha(q/11) and Galpha(i) G-proteins, and NmU binds essentially irreversibly, preventing signaling to repetitive applications of NmU. However, it is unclear whether these properties reflect those of endogenously expressed NmU receptors or how these properties influence the functional consequences of NmU receptor signaling. Here, we have explored the signaling by rat NmU receptors expressed endogenously in cultured rat colonic smooth muscle cells and explore the functional consequence of this signaling by investigating the NmU-mediated contraction of ex vivo rat colonic smooth muscle preparations. We demonstrate that endogenous rat NmU receptors couple to both Galpha(q/11) and Galpha(i) G-proteins. Furthermore, we show complex patterns of Ca(2+) signaling, including oscillations, and provide evidence of essentially irreversible binding of NmU to smooth muscle cells. Challenge of either circular or longitudinal rat isolated colonic smooth muscle preparations with NmU resulted in robust contractions. Stimulation was direct, and paradoxically, repetitive applications of NmU mediated repetitive contractions with no evidence of desensitization, highlighting a major discrepancy in the behavior of NmU in single cells and in intact tissues. The reason for this discrepancy is presently unknown.

  1. Nuclear fusion-independent smooth muscle differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells induced by a smooth muscle environment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong; Jack, Gregory S; Rao, Nagesh; Zuk, Patricia; Ignarro, Louis J; Wu, Benjamin; Rodríguez, Larissa V

    2012-03-01

    Human adipose-derived stem cells hASC have been isolated and were shown to have multilineage differentiation capacity. Although both plasticity and cell fusion have been suggested as mechanisms for cell differentiation in vivo, the effect of the local in vivo environment on the differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells has not been evaluated. We previously reported the in vitro capacity of smooth muscle differentiation of these cells. In this study, we evaluate the effect of an in vivo smooth muscle environment in the differentiation of hASC. We studied this by two experimental designs: (a) in vivo evaluation of smooth muscle differentiation of hASC injected into a smooth muscle environment and (b) in vitro evaluation of smooth muscle differentiation capacity of hASC exposed to bladder smooth muscle cells. Our results indicate a time-dependent differentiation of hASC into mature smooth muscle cells when these cells are injected into the smooth musculature of the urinary bladder. Similar findings were seen when the cells were cocultured in vitro with primary bladder smooth muscle cells. Chromosomal analysis demonstrated that microenvironment cues rather than nuclear fusion are responsible for this differentiation. We conclude that cell plasticity is present in hASCs, and their differentiation is accomplished in the absence of nuclear fusion. Copyright © 2011 AlphaMed Press.

  2. SMOOTHING ROTATION CURVES AND MASS PROFILES

    SciTech Connect

    Berrier, Joel C.; Sellwood, J. A.

    2015-02-01

    We show that spiral activity can erase pronounced features in disk galaxy rotation curves. We present simulations of growing disks, in which the added material has a physically motivated distribution, as well as other examples of physically less realistic accretion. In all cases, attempts to create unrealistic rotation curves were unsuccessful because spiral activity rapidly smoothed away features in the disk mass profile. The added material was redistributed radially by the spiral activity, which was itself provoked by the density feature. In the case of a ridge-like feature in the surface density profile, we show that two unstable spiral modesmore » develop, and the associated angular momentum changes in horseshoe orbits remove particles from the ridge and spread them both inward and outward. This process rapidly erases the density feature from the disk. We also find that the lack of a feature when transitioning from disk to halo dominance in the rotation curves of disk galaxies, the so called ''disk-halo conspiracy'', could also be accounted for by this mechanism. We do not create perfectly exponential mass profiles in the disk, but suggest that this mechanism contributes to their creation.« less

  3. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics with GRAPE-1A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umemura, Masayuki; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Makino, Junichiro; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Sugimoto, Daiichiro; Turner, Edwin L.; Loeb, Abraham

    1993-01-01

    We describe the implementation of a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) scheme using GRAPE-1A, a special-purpose processor used for gravitational N-body simulations. The GRAPE-1A calculates the gravitational force exerted on a particle from all other particles in a system, while simultaneously making a list of the nearest neighbors of the particle. It is found that GRAPE-1A accelerates SPH calculations by direct summation by about two orders of magnitudes for a ten thousand-particle simulation. The effective speed is 80 Mflops, which is about 30 percent of the peak speed of GRAPE-1A. Also, in order to investigate the accuracy of GRAPE-SPH, some test simulations were executed. We found that the force and position errors are smaller than those due to representing a fluid by a finite number of particles. The total energy and momentum were conserved within 0.2-0.4 percent and 2-5 x 10 exp -5, respectively, in simulations with several thousand particles. We conclude that GRAPE-SPH is quite effective and sufficiently accurate for self-gravitating hydrodynamics.

  4. Modeling Boulder Transport by Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpytchev, M.

    2017-12-01

    Large coastal boulders are often believed to have been transported by strong tsunami andstorm waves. Understanding and quantifying the boulder transport processes is, therefore,crucial for evaluation of strength and timing of the past tsunamis and storms. Over the last10-15 year, a series of studies have obtained estimates of basic wave parameters neededto set in motion a boulder of given size, shape and mass by using simplified paramaterizationsof fluid-particle interactions. Although, parameterizing the principal hydraulic forces drivingboulder transport was succefull in reproducing effects of several historical tsunamis, someimportant details about initiation of boulder motion and the contribution of coastal wavetransformations as well as of suspended sediment to enhancing coastal currents are still lacking.These essentially non-linear processes can be particularly important for distingushing, in everyparticular case, whether it is a storm wave or a tsunami (or both) that was capable to transportspecific boulder to a given site.In this study, we employ the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method in orderto get new insights on interaction of waves with boulders in the nearshore area.We first compare the SPH predictions with available laboratory experiments and thenexplore the effects of realistic 3D coastal bathymetry, non-linear behaviour of coastal waves,boulders shape and the impact of bedload and suspended sediment on dislodgement and initiationof boulder transport.

  5. Mechanical properties of asthmatic airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Chin, Leslie Y M; Bossé, Ynuk; Pascoe, Chris; Hackett, Tillie L; Seow, Chun Y; Paré, Peter D

    2012-07-01

    Airway smooth muscle (ASM) is the major effector of excessive airway narrowing in asthma. Changes in some of the mechanical properties of ASM could contribute to excessive narrowing and have not been systematically studied in human ASM from nonasthmatic and asthmatic subjects. Human ASM strips (eight asthmatic and six nonasthmatic) were studied at in situ length and force was normalised to maximal force induced by electric field stimulation (EFS). Measurements included: passive and active force versus length before and after length adaptation, the force-velocity relationship, maximal shortening and force recovery after length oscillation. Force was converted to stress by dividing by cross-sectional area of muscle. The only functional differences were that the asthmatic tissue was stiffer at longer lengths (p<0.05) and oscillatory strain reduced isometric force in response to EFS by 19% as opposed to 36% in nonasthmatics (p<0.01). The mechanical properties of human ASM from asthmatic and nonasthmatic subjects are comparable except for increased passive stiffness and attenuated decline in force generation after an oscillatory perturbation. These data may relate to reduced bronchodilation induced by a deep inspiration in asthmatic subjects.

  6. A rough end for smooth microstate geometries

    DOE PAGES

    Marolf, Donald; Michel, Ben; Puhm, Andrea

    2017-05-03

    Supersymmetric microstate geometries with five non-compact dimensions have recently been shown by Eperon, Reall, and Santos (ERS) to exhibit a non-linear instability featuring the growth of excitations at an “evanescent ergosurface” of infinite redshift. We argue that this growth may be treated as adiabatic evolution along a family of exactly supersymmetric solutions in the limit where the excitations are Aichelburg-Sexl-like shockwaves. In the 2-charge system such solutions may be constructed explicitly, incorpo-rating full backreaction, and are in fact special cases of known microstate geometries. In a near-horizon limit, they reduce to Aichelburg-Sexl shockwaves in AdS 3 × S 3 propagatingmore » along one of the angular directions of the sphere. Noting that the ERS analysis is valid in the limit of large microstate angular momentum j, we use the above identification to interpret their instability as a transition from rare smooth microstates with large angular momentum to more typical microstates with smaller angular momentum. This entropic driving terminates when the angular momentum decreases to j~√n 1n 5 where the density of microstates is maximal. Finally, we argue that, at this point, the large stringy corrections to such microstates will render them non-linearly stable. We identify a possible mechanism for this stabilization and detail an illustrative toy model.« less

  7. Neurophysiology and Neuroanatomy of Smooth Pursuit: Lesion Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Smooth pursuit impairment is recognized clinically by the presence of saccadic tracking of a small object and quantified by reduction in pursuit gain, the ratio of smooth eye movement velocity to the velocity of a foveal target. Correlation of the site of brain lesions, identified by imaging or neuropathological examination, with defective smooth…

  8. A Note on the Definition of a Smooth Curve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euler, Russell; Sadek, Jawad

    2005-01-01

    In many elementary calculus textbooks in use today, the definition of a "smooth curve" is slightly ambiguous from the students' perspective. Even when smoothness is defined carefully, there is a shortage of relevant exercises that would serve to elaborate on related subtle points which many students may find confusing. In this article, the authors…

  9. Smooth Constrained Heuristic Optimization of a Combinatorial Chemical Space

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    ARL-TR-7294•MAY 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Smooth ConstrainedHeuristic Optimization of a Combinatorial Chemical Space by Berend Christopher...7294•MAY 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Smooth ConstrainedHeuristic Optimization of a Combinatorial Chemical Space by Berend Christopher...

  10. The effect of robot dynamics on smoothness during wrist pointing.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Andrew; Pezent, Evan; Bradley, Joshua; O'Malley, Marcia K

    2017-07-01

    The improvement of movement smoothness over the course of therapy is one of the positive outcomes observed during robotic rehabilitation. Although movements are generally robust to disturbances, certain perturbations might disrupt an individual's ability to produce these smooth movements. In this paper, we explore how a rehabilitation robot's inherent dynamics impact movement smoothness during pointing tasks. Able-bodied participants made wrist pointing movements under four different operating conditions. Despite the relative transparency of the device, inherent dynamic characteristics negatively impacted movement smoothness. Active compensation for Coulomb friction effects failed to mitigate the degradation in smoothness. Assessment of movements that involved coupled motions of the robot's joints reduced the bias seen in single degree of freedom movements. When using robotic devices for assessment of movement quality, the impact of the inherent dynamics must be considered.

  11. [Salidroside inhibits hypoxia-induced phenotypic modulation of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells in vitro].

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Lü, Bo-Dong; Chen, Shi-Tao; Zhang, Shi-Geng; Yang, Ke-Bing

    2013-08-01

    To explore the effects of salidroside on the phenotypic modulation of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells (CCSMC) in hypoxic SD rats. CCSMCs were cultured in vitro and identified by immunohistochemistry. The cells were divided into six groups: normal control (21% O2), hypoxia (1% O2), hypoxia + salidroside 1 mg/L, hypoxia + salidroside 3 mg/L, hypoxia + salidroside 5 mg/L and hypoxia + PGE1 0.4 microg/L, and then cultured for 48 hours. The relative expressions of alpha-actin and osteopontin (OPN) in each group were determined by RT-PCR. The in vitro cultured CCSMCs grew well, with anti-alpha-smooth muscle actin monoclonal antibodies immunohistochemically positive. The relative expression of alpha-actin was markedly decreased while that of OPN remarkably increased in the hypoxia group as compared with the normal control group (P < 0.01). The hypoxia + salidroside 5 mg/L group showed a significantly higher expression of alpha-actin and lower expression of OPN than the hypoxia group (P < 0.01), but exhibited no significant differences from the hypoxia + PGE group (P > 0.05). Hypoxia can reduce the relative expression level of alpha-actin and increase that of OPN in the CCSMCs of SD rats, namely, induce their phenotypic modulation from the contraction to the non-contraction type. Salidroside can restrain hypoxia-induced phenotypic modulation of CCSMCs, and its inhibitory effect at 5 mg/L is similar to that of PGE1.

  12. Nonmuscle myosin is regulated during smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Samantha L; Ogut, Ozgur; Brozovich, Frank V

    2009-07-01

    The participation of nonmuscle myosin in force maintenance is controversial. Furthermore, its regulation is difficult to examine in a cellular context, as the light chains of smooth muscle and nonmuscle myosin comigrate under native and denaturing electrophoresis techniques. Therefore, the regulatory light chains of smooth muscle myosin (SM-RLC) and nonmuscle myosin (NM-RLC) were purified, and these proteins were resolved by isoelectric focusing. Using this method, intact mouse aortic smooth muscle homogenates demonstrated four distinct RLC isoelectric variants. These spots were identified as phosphorylated NM-RLC (most acidic), nonphosphorylated NM-RLC, phosphorylated SM-RLC, and nonphosphorylated SM-RLC (most basic). During smooth muscle activation, NM-RLC phosphorylation increased. During depolarization, the increase in NM-RLC phosphorylation was unaffected by inhibition of either Rho kinase or PKC. However, inhibition of Rho kinase blocked the angiotensin II-induced increase in NM-RLC phosphorylation. Additionally, force for angiotensin II stimulation of aortic smooth muscle from heterozygous nonmuscle myosin IIB knockout mice was significantly less than that of wild-type littermates, suggesting that, in smooth muscle, activation of nonmuscle myosin is important for force maintenance. The data also demonstrate that, in smooth muscle, the activation of nonmuscle myosin is regulated by Ca(2+)-calmodulin-activated myosin light chain kinase during depolarization and a Rho kinase-dependent pathway during agonist stimulation.

  13. Smooth pursuit eye movements and schizophrenia: literature review.

    PubMed

    Franco, J G; de Pablo, J; Gaviria, A M; Sepúlveda, E; Vilella, E

    2014-09-01

    To review the scientific literature about the relationship between impairment on smooth pursuit eye movements and schizophrenia. Narrative review that includes historical articles, reports about basic and clinical investigation, systematic reviews, and meta-analysis on the topic. Up to 80% of schizophrenic patients have impairment of smooth pursuit eye movements. Despite the diversity of test protocols, 65% of patients and controls are correctly classified by their overall performance during this pursuit. The smooth pursuit eye movements depend on the ability to anticipate the target's velocity and the visual feedback, as well as on learning and attention. The neuroanatomy implicated in smooth pursuit overlaps to some extent with certain frontal cortex zones associated with some clinical and neuropsychological characteristics of the schizophrenia, therefore some specific components of smooth pursuit anomalies could serve as biomarkers of the disease. Due to their sedative effect, antipsychotics have a deleterious effect on smooth pursuit eye movements, thus these movements cannot be used to evaluate the efficacy of the currently available treatments. Standardized evaluation of smooth pursuit eye movements on schizophrenia will allow to use specific aspects of that pursuit as biomarkers for the study of its genetics, psychopathology, or neuropsychology. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling the dispersion effects of contractile fibers in smooth muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtada, Sae-Il; Kroon, Martin; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.

    2010-12-01

    Micro-structurally based models for smooth muscle contraction are crucial for a better understanding of pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis, incontinence and asthma. It is meaningful that models consider the underlying mechanical structure and the biochemical activation. Hence, a simple mechanochemical model is proposed that includes the dispersion of the orientation of smooth muscle myofilaments and that is capable to capture available experimental data on smooth muscle contraction. This allows a refined study of the effects of myofilament dispersion on the smooth muscle contraction. A classical biochemical model is used to describe the cross-bridge interactions with the thin filament in smooth muscles in which calcium-dependent myosin phosphorylation is the only regulatory mechanism. A novel mechanical model considers the dispersion of the contractile fiber orientations in smooth muscle cells by means of a strain-energy function in terms of one dispersion parameter. All model parameters have a biophysical meaning and may be estimated through comparisons with experimental data. The contraction of the middle layer of a carotid artery is studied numerically. Using a tube the relationships between the internal pressure and the stretches are investigated as functions of the dispersion parameter, which implies a strong influence of the orientation of smooth muscle myofilaments on the contraction response. It is straightforward to implement this model in a finite element code to better analyze more complex boundary-value problems.

  15. Computer programs for smoothing and scaling airfoil coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, H. L., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Detailed descriptions are given of the theoretical methods and associated computer codes of a program to smooth and a program to scale arbitrary airfoil coordinates. The smoothing program utilizes both least-squares polynomial and least-squares cubic spline techniques to smooth interatively the second derivatives of the y-axis airfoil coordinates with respect to a transformed x-axis system which unwraps the airfoil and stretches the nose and trailing-edge regions. The corresponding smooth airfoil coordinates are then determined by solving a tridiagonal matrix of simultaneous cubic-spline equations relating the y-axis coordinates and their corresponding second derivatives. A technique for computing the camber and thickness distribution of the smoothed airfoil is also discussed. The scaling program can then be used to scale the thickness distribution generated by the smoothing program to a specific maximum thickness which is then combined with the camber distribution to obtain the final scaled airfoil contour. Computer listings of the smoothing and scaling programs are included.

  16. Agonist-induced Ca2+ Sensitization in Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Artamonov, Mykhaylo V.; Momotani, Ko; Stevenson, Andra; Trentham, David R.; Derewenda, Urszula; Derewenda, Zygmunt S.; Read, Paul W.; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Somlyo, Avril V.

    2013-01-01

    Many agonists, acting through G-protein-coupled receptors and Gα subunits of the heterotrimeric G-proteins, induce contraction of smooth muscle through an increase of [Ca2+]i as well as activation of the RhoA/RhoA-activated kinase pathway that amplifies the contractile force, a phenomenon known as Ca2+ sensitization. Gα12/13 subunits are known to activate the regulator of G-protein signaling-like family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs), which includes PDZ-RhoGEF (PRG) and leukemia-associated RhoGEF (LARG). However, their contributions to Ca2+-sensitized force are not well understood. Using permeabilized blood vessels from PRG(−/−) mice and a new method to silence LARG in organ-cultured blood vessels, we show that both RhoGEFs are activated by the physiologically and pathophysiologically important thromboxane A2 and endothelin-1 receptors. The co-activation is the result of direct and independent activation of both RhoGEFs as well as their co-recruitment due to heterodimerization. The isolated recombinant C-terminal domain of PRG, which is responsible for heterodimerization with LARG, strongly inhibited Ca2+-sensitized force. We used photolysis of caged phenylephrine, caged guanosine 5′-O-(thiotriphosphate) (GTPγS) in solution, and caged GTPγS or caged GTP loaded on the RhoA·RhoGDI complex to show that the recruitment and activation of RhoGEFs is the cause of a significant time lag between the initial Ca2+ transient and phasic force components and the onset of Ca2+-sensitized force. PMID:24106280

  17. Airway mechanics and methods used to visualize smooth muscle dynamics in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cooper, P R; McParland, B E; Mitchell, H W; Noble, P B; Politi, A Z; Ressmeyer, A R; West, A R

    2009-10-01

    Contraction of airway smooth muscle (ASM) is regulated by the physiological, structural and mechanical environment in the lung. We review two in vitro techniques, lung slices and airway segment preparations, that enable in situ ASM contraction and airway narrowing to be visualized. Lung slices and airway segment approaches bridge a gap between cell culture and isolated ASM, and whole animal studies. Imaging techniques enable key upstream events involved in airway narrowing, such as ASM cell signalling and structural and mechanical events impinging on ASM, to be investigated.

  18. Smooth solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations

    SciTech Connect

    Pokhozhaev, S I

    2014-02-28

    We consider smooth solutions of the Cauchy problem for the Navier-Stokes equations on the scale of smooth functions which are periodic with respect to x∈R{sup 3}. We obtain existence theorems for global (with respect to t>0) and local solutions of the Cauchy problem. The statements of these depend on the smoothness and the norm of the initial vector function. Upper bounds for the behaviour of solutions in both classes, which depend on t, are also obtained. Bibliography: 10 titles.

  19. Smooth invariant densities for random switching on the torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhtin, Yuri; Hurth, Tobias; Lawley, Sean D.; Mattingly, Jonathan C.

    2018-04-01

    We consider a random dynamical system obtained by switching between the flows generated by two smooth vector fields on the 2d-torus, with the random switchings happening according to a Poisson process. Assuming that the driving vector fields are transversal to each other at all points of the torus and that each of them allows for a smooth invariant density and no periodic orbits, we prove that the switched system also has a smooth invariant density, for every switching rate. Our approach is based on an integration by parts formula inspired by techniques from Malliavin calculus.

  20. Additional Smooth and Rough Water Trials of SKI-CAT.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    REPORT & PERIOD COVERED ADDITIONAL SMOOTH AND ROUGH WATER TRIALS OF FINAL SKI- CAT S. PERFORMING ORO. REPORT NUMSER 7. AUTHOR() I. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMUr...Identif by bloc membe) ’ " -Further tests of SKI- CAT were made in smooth and rough water. Smooth water results confirmed the performance results of...reductions in the accelerations and motions of SKI- CAT over against the head seasreut DD , +A ,3 1473 EDITION OF I NOVS IS OBSOLETE UNCIbSJFIED SIME 0102-014

  1. Smoothing optimization of supporting quadratic surfaces with Zernike polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hang; Lu, Jiandong; Liu, Rui; Ma, Peifu

    2018-03-01

    A new optimization method to get a smooth freeform optical surface from an initial surface generated by the supporting quadratic method (SQM) is proposed. To smooth the initial surface, a 9-vertex system from the neighbor quadratic surface and the Zernike polynomials are employed to establish a linear equation system. A local optimized surface to the 9-vertex system can be build by solving the equations. Finally, a continuous smooth optimization surface is constructed by stitching the above algorithm on the whole initial surface. The spot corresponding to the optimized surface is no longer discrete pixels but a continuous distribution.

  2. A-type potassium currents in smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Amberg, Gregory C; Koh, Sang Don; Imaizumi, Yuji; Ohya, Susumu; Sanders, Kenton M

    2003-03-01

    A-type currents are voltage-gated, calcium-independent potassium (Kv) currents that undergo rapid activation and inactivation. Commonly associated with neuronal and cardiac cell-types, A-type currents have also been identified and characterized in vascular, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal smooth muscle cells. This review examines the molecular identity, biophysical properties, pharmacology, regulation, and physiological function of smooth muscle A-type currents. In general, this review is intended to facilitate the comparison of A-type currents present in different smooth muscles by providing a comprehensive report of the literature to date. This approach should also aid in the identification of areas of research requiring further attention.

  3. Triptolide inhibits TGF-β1-induced cell proliferation in rat airway smooth muscle cells by suppressing Smad signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ming; Lv, Zhiqiang; Huang, Linjie

    Background: We have reported that triptolide can inhibit airway remodeling in a murine model of asthma via TGF-β1/Smad signaling. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of triptolide on airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) proliferation and the possible mechanism. Methods: Rat airway smooth muscle cells were cultured and made synchronized, then pretreated with different concentration of triptolide before stimulated by TGF-β1. Cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay. Flow cytometry was used to study the influence of triptolide on cell cycle and apoptosis. Signal proteins (Smad2, Smad3 and Smad7) were detected by western blotting analysis. Results: Triptolidemore » significantly inhibited TGF-β1-induced ASMC proliferation (P<0.05). The cell cycle was blocked at G1/S-interphase by triptolide dose dependently. No pro-apoptotic effects were detected under the concentration of triptolide we used. Western blotting analysis showed TGF-β1 induced Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation was inhibited by triptolide pretreatment, and the level of Smad7 was increased by triptolide pretreatment. Conclusions: Triptolide may function as an inhibitor of asthma airway remodeling by suppressing ASMCs proliferation via negative regulation of Smad signaling pathway. - Highlights: • In this study, rat airway smooth muscle cells were cultured and made synchronized. • Triptolide inhibited TGF-β1-induced airway smooth muscle cells proliferation. • Triptolide inhibited ASMCs proliferation via negative regulation of Smad signaling pathway.« less

  4. SABRE, a 10-MV linear induction accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Corely, J.P.; Alexander, J.A.; Pankuch, P.J.

    SABRE (Sandia Accelerator and Beam Research Experiment) is a 10-MV, 250-kA, 40-ns linear induction accelerator. It was designed to be used in positive polarity output. Positive polarity accelerators are important for application to Sandia's ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) and LMF (Laboratory Microfusion Facility) program efforts. SABRE was built to allow a more detailed study of pulsed power issues associated with positive polarity output machines. MITL (Magnetically Insulated Transmission Line) voltage adder efficiency, extraction ion diode development, and ion beam transport and focusing. The SABRE design allows the system to operate in either positive polarity output for ion extraction applications ormore » negative polarity output for more conventional electron beam loads. Details of the design of SABRE and the results of initial machine performance in negative polarity operation are presented in this paper. 13 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.« less

  5. Increased IGF-IEc expression and mechano-growth factor production in intestinal muscle of fibrostenotic Crohn's disease and smooth muscle hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Vu, Kent; Hazelgrove, Krystina

    2015-01-01

    The igf1 gene is alternatively spliced as IGF-IEa and IGF-IEc variants in humans. In fibrostenotic Crohn's disease, the fibrogenic cytokine TGF-β1 induces IGF-IEa expression and IGF-I production in intestinal smooth muscle and results in muscle hyperplasia and collagen I production that contribute to stricture formation. Mechano-growth factor (MGF) derived from IGF-IEc induces skeletal and cardiac muscle hypertrophy following stress. We hypothesized that increased IGF-IEc expression and MGF production mediated smooth muscle hypertrophy also characteristic of fibrostenotic Crohn's disease. IGF-IEc transcripts and MGF protein were increased in muscle cells isolated from fibrostenotic intestine under regulation by endogenous TGF-β1. Erk5 and MEF2C were phosphorylated in vivo in fibrostenotic muscle; both were phosphorylated and colocalized to nucleus in response to synthetic MGF in vitro. Smooth muscle-specific protein expression of α-smooth muscle actin, γ-smooth muscle actin, and smoothelin was increased in affected intestine. Erk5 inhibition or MEF2C siRNA blocked smooth muscle-specific gene expression and hypertrophy induced by synthetic MGF. Conditioned media of cultured fibrostenotic muscle induced muscle hypertrophy that was inhibited by immunoneutralization of endogenous MGF or pro-IGF-IEc. The results indicate that TGF-β1-dependent IGF-IEc expression and MGF production in patients with fibrostenotic Crohn's disease regulates smooth muscle cell hypertrophy a critical factor that contributes to intestinal stricture formation. PMID:26428636

  6. Simple data-smoothing and noise-suppression technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duty, R. L.

    1970-01-01

    Algorithm, based on the Borel method of summing divergent sequences, is used for smoothing noisy data where knowledge of frequency content is not required. Technique's effectiveness is demonstrated by a series of graphs.

  7. Small Smooth Units ('Young' Lavas?) Abutting Lobate Scarps on Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malliband, C. C.; Rothery, D. A.; Balme, M. R.; Conway, S. J.

    2018-05-01

    We have identified small units abutting, and so stratigraphy younger than, lobate scarps. This post dates the end of large scale smooth plains formation at the onset of global contraction. This elaborates the history of volcanism on Mercury.

  8. Effects of contrast on smooth pursuit eye movements.

    PubMed

    Spering, Miriam; Kerzel, Dirk; Braun, Doris I; Hawken, Michael J; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2005-05-20

    It is well known that moving stimuli can appear to move more slowly when contrast is reduced (P. Thompson, 1982). Here we address the question whether changes in stimulus contrast also affect smooth pursuit eye movements. Subjects were asked to smoothly track a moving Gabor patch. Targets varied in velocity (1, 8, and 15 deg/s), spatial frequency (0.1, 1, 4, and 8 c/deg), and contrast, ranging from just below individual thresholds to maximum contrast. Results show that smooth pursuit eye velocity gain rose significantly with increasing contrast. Below a contrast level of two to three times threshold, pursuit gain, acceleration, latency, and positional accuracy were severely impaired. Therefore, the smooth pursuit motor response shows the same kind of slowing at low contrast that was demonstrated in previous studies on perception.

  9. Differential Effect of Zoledronic Acid on Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Albadawi, Hassan; Haurani, Mounir J.; Oklu, Rahmi; Trubiano, Jordan P.; Laub, Peter J.; Yoo, Hyung-Jin; Watkins, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The activation of human vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, adhesion and migration is essential for intimal hyperplasia formation. These experiments were designed to test whether Zoledronic Acid (ZA) would modulate indices of human smooth muscle cell activation, exert differential effects on proliferating vs. quiescent cells and determine whether these effects were dependent on GTPase binding proteins prenylation. ZA was chosen for testing in these experiments because it is clinically used in humans with cancer, and has been shown to modulate rat smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. Methods Human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC) were cultured under either proliferating or growth arrest (quiescent) conditions in the presence or absence of ZA for 48 hours, whereupon the effect of ZA on HASMC proliferation, cellular viability, metabolic activity and membrane integrity were compared. In addition, the effect of ZA on adhesion and migration were assessed in proliferating cells. The effect of increased concentration of ZA on the mevalonate pathway and genomic/cellular stress related poly ADP Ribose polymerase (PARP) enzyme activity were assessed using the relative prenylation of Rap-1A/B protein and the formation of poly ADP- ribosylated proteins (PAR) respectively. Results There was a dose dependent inhibition of cellular proliferation, adhesion and migration following ZA treatment. ZA treatment decreased indices of cellular viability and significantly increased membrane injury in proliferating vs. quiescent cells. This was correlated with the appearance of unprenylated Rap-1A protein and dose dependent down regulation of PARP activity. Conclusions These data suggest that ZA is effective in inhibiting HASMC proliferation, adhesion and migration which coincide with the appearance of unprenylated RAP-1A/B protein, thereby suggesting that the mevalonate pathway may play a role in the inhibition of HASMC activation. PMID:23164362

  10. Inhibition of RhoA/Rho kinase pathway and smooth muscle contraction by hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Nalli, Ancy D; Wang, Hongxia; Bhattacharya, Sayak; Blakeney, Bryan A; Murthy, Karnam S

    2017-10-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) plays an important role in smooth muscle relaxation. Here, we investigated the expression of enzymes in H 2 S synthesis and the mechanism regulating colonic smooth muscle function by H 2 S. Expression of cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), but not cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), was identified in the colonic smooth muscle of rabbit, mouse, and human. Carbachol (CCh)-induced contraction in rabbit muscle strips and isolated muscle cells was inhibited by l-cysteine (substrate of CSE) and NaHS (an exogenous H 2 S donor) in a concentration-dependent fashion. H 2 S induced S-sulfhydration of RhoA that was associated with inhibition of RhoA activity. CCh-induced Rho kinase activity also was inhibited by l-cysteine and NaHS in a concentration-dependent fashion. Inhibition of CCh-induced contraction by l-cysteine was blocked by the CSE inhibitor, dl-propargylglycine (DL-PPG) in dispersed muscle cells. Inhibition of CCh-induced Rho kinase activity by l-cysteine was blocked by CSE siRNA in cultured cells and DL-PPG in dispersed muscle cells. Stimulation of Rho kinase activity and muscle contraction in response to CCh was also inhibited by l-cysteine or NaHS in colonic muscle cells from mouse and human. Collectively, our studies identified the expression of CSE in colonic smooth muscle and determined that sulfhydration of RhoA by H 2 S leads to inhibition of RhoA and Rho kinase activities and muscle contraction. The mechanism identified may provide novel therapeutic approaches to mitigate gastrointestinal motility disorders. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacology Research & Perspectives published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, British Pharmacological Society and American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  11. Contribution of α-smooth muscle actin and extracellular matrix to the in vitro reorganization of cardiomyocyte contractile system.

    PubMed

    Bildyug, Natalya; Bozhokina, Ekaterina; Khaitlina, Sofia

    2016-04-01

    Cardiomyocytes in culture undergo reversible rearrangement of their contractile apparatus with the conversion of typical myofibrils into the structures of non-muscle type and the loss of contractility. Along with these transformations, the cardiomyocytes gain the capacity to synthesize extracellular matrix. Here we show that during cultivation of rat neonatal cardiomyocytes, the inherent α-cardiac actin isoform is transiently replaced by α-smooth-muscle actin, whose expression is accompanied by transformation of myofibrils into stress-fiber-like structures. The following down-regulation of α-smooth muscle actin parallels restoration of myofibrillar system and correlates with the accumulation of extracellular collagen and laminin, initially missing from the cardiomyocytes culture. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  12. Aging may negatively impact movement smoothness during stair negotiation.

    PubMed

    Dixon, P C; Stirling, L; Xu, X; Chang, C C; Dennerlein, J T; Schiffman, J M

    2018-05-26

    Stairs represent a barrier to safe locomotion for some older adults, potentially leading to the adoption of a cautious gait strategy that may lack fluidity. This strategy may be characterized as unsmooth; however, stair negotiation smoothness has yet to be quantified. The aims of this study were to assess age- and task-related differences in head and body center of mass (COM) acceleration patterns and smoothness during stair negotiation and to determine if smoothness was associated with the timed "Up and Go" (TUG) test of functional movement. Motion data from nineteen older and twenty young adults performing stair ascent, stair descent, and overground straight walking trials were analyzed and used to compute smoothness based on the log-normalized dimensionless jerk (LDJ) and the velocity spectral arc length (SPARC) metrics. The associations between TUG and smoothness measures were evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficient (r). Stair tasks increased head and body COM acceleration pattern differences across groups, compared to walking (p < 0.05). LDJ smoothness for the head and body COM decreased in older adults during stair descent, compared to young adults (p ≤ 0.015) and worsened with increasing TUG for all tasks (-0.60 ≤ r ≤ -0.43). SPARC smoothness of the head and body COM increased in older adults, regardless of task (p < 0.001), while correlations showed improved SPARC smoothness with increasing TUG for some tasks (0.33 ≤ r ≤ 0.40). The LDJ outperforms SPARC in identifying age-related stair negotiation adaptations and is associated with performance on a clinical test of gait. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Smoothed-particle hydrodynamics and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, W. G.; Hoover, C. G.

    1993-08-01

    Gingold, Lucy, and Monaghan invented a grid-free version of continuum mechanics ``smoothed-particle hydrodynamics,`` in 1977. It is a likely contributor to ``hybrid`` simulations combining atomistic and continuum simulations. We describe applications of this particle-based continuum technique from the closely-related standpoint of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics. We compare chaotic Lyapunov spectra for atomistic solids and fluids with those which characterize a two-dimensional smoothed-particle fluid system.

  14. Cisapride stimulates contraction of idiopathic megacolonic smooth muscle in cats.

    PubMed

    Hasler, A H; Washabau, R J

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown that cisapride, a substituted piperidinyl benzamide, stimulates contraction of healthy feline colonic smooth muscle. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effect of cisapride on feline idiopathic megacolonic smooth muscle function. Longitudinal smooth muscle strips from ascending and descending colon were obtained from cats with idiopathic megacolon, suspended in a 1.5 mM Ca(2+)-HEPES buffer solution (37 degrees C, 100% O2, pH 7.4), attached to isometric force transducers, and stretched to optimal muscle length (Lo). Control responses were obtained at each muscle site with acetylcholine (10(-8) to 10(-4) M), substance P (10(-11) to 10(-7) M), or potassium chloride (10 to 80 mM). Muscles were then stimulated with cumulative (10(-9) to 10(-6) M) doses of cisapride in the absence or presence of tetrodotoxin (10(-6) M) and atropine (10(-6) M), or in a 0 calcium HEPES buffer solution. In cats with idiopathic megacolon, cisapride stimulated contractions of longitudinal smooth muscle from both the ascending and the descending colon. Cisapride-induced contractions were similar in magnitude to those induced by substance P and acetylcholine in the ascending colon, but were less than those observed in the descending colon. Cisapride-induced contractions in megacolonic smooth muscle were only partially inhibited by tetrodotoxin and atropine, but were virtually abolished by removal of extracellular calcium. We concluded that cisapride-induced contractions of feline megacolonic smooth muscle are largely smooth muscle mediated and dependent on influx of extracellular calcium. Cisapride-induced contractions in megacolonic smooth muscle are only partially dependent on enteric cholinergic nerves. Thus, cisapride may be useful in the treatment of cats with idiopathic megacolon.

  15. Air-to-Air Missile Enhanced Scoring with Kalman Smoothing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Samuel and Robert Popoli. Modern Tracking Systems. Artech House, 1999. 3. Brown , Robert G. and Patrick Y. C. Hwang . Introduction to Random Signals and...Air-to-Air Missile Enhanced Scoring with Kalman Smoothing THESIS Jonathon Gipson, Captain, USAF AFIT/GE/ENG/12-18 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR...AFIT/GE/ENG/12-18 Air-to-Air Missile Enhanced Scoring with Kalman Smoothing THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer

  16. Ureter smooth muscle cell orientation in rat is predominantly longitudinal.

    PubMed

    Spronck, Bart; Merken, Jort J; Reesink, Koen D; Kroon, Wilco; Delhaas, Tammo

    2014-01-01

    In ureter peristalsis, the orientation of the contracting smooth muscle cells is essential, yet current descriptions of orientation and composition of the smooth muscle layer in human as well as in rat ureter are inconsistent. The present study aims to improve quantification of smooth muscle orientation in rat ureters as a basis for mechanistic understanding of peristalsis. A crucial step in our approach is to use two-photon laser scanning microscopy and image analysis providing objective, quantitative data on smooth muscle cell orientation in intact ureters, avoiding the usual sectioning artifacts. In 36 rat ureter segments, originating from a proximal, middle or distal site and from a left or right ureter, we found close to the adventitia a well-defined longitudinal smooth muscle orientation. Towards the lamina propria, the orientation gradually became slightly more disperse, yet the main orientation remained longitudinal. We conclude that smooth muscle cell orientation in rat ureter is predominantly longitudinal, though the orientation gradually becomes more disperse towards the proprial side. These findings do not support identification of separate layers. The observed longitudinal orientation suggests that smooth muscle contraction would rather cause local shortening of the ureter, than cause luminal constriction. However, the net-like connective tissue of the ureter wall may translate local longitudinal shortening into co-local luminal constriction, facilitating peristalsis. Our quantitative, minimally invasive approach is a crucial step towards more mechanistic insight into ureter peristalsis, and may also be used to study smooth muscle cell orientation in other tube-like structures like gut and blood vessels.

  17. The evolutionary origin of bilaterian smooth and striated myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Brunet, Thibaut; Fischer, Antje HL; Steinmetz, Patrick RH; Lauri, Antonella; Bertucci, Paola; Arendt, Detlev

    2016-01-01

    The dichotomy between smooth and striated myocytes is fundamental for bilaterian musculature, but its evolutionary origin is unsolved. In particular, interrelationships of visceral smooth muscles remain unclear. Absent in fly and nematode, they have not yet been characterized molecularly outside vertebrates. Here, we characterize expression profile, ultrastructure, contractility and innervation of the musculature in the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii and identify smooth muscles around the midgut, hindgut and heart that resemble their vertebrate counterparts in molecular fingerprint, contraction speed and nervous control. Our data suggest that both visceral smooth and somatic striated myocytes were present in the protostome-deuterostome ancestor and that smooth myocytes later co-opted the striated contractile module repeatedly – for example, in vertebrate heart evolution. During these smooth-to-striated myocyte conversions, the core regulatory complex of transcription factors conveying myocyte identity remained unchanged, reflecting a general principle in cell type evolution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19607.001 PMID:27906129

  18. Stimulation of aortic smooth muscle cell mitogenesis by serotonin

    SciTech Connect

    Nemecek, G.M.; Coughlin, S.R.; Handley, D.A.

    1986-02-01

    Bovine aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro responded to 1 nM to 10 ..mu..M serotonin with increased incorporation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine into DNA. The mitogenic effect of serotonin was half-maximal at 80 nM and maximal above 1 ..mu..M. At a concentration of 1 ..mu..M, serotonin stimulated smooth muscle cell mitogenesis to the same extent as human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) at 12 ng/ml. Tryptamine was approx. = 1/10th as potent as serotonin as a mitogen for smooth muscle cells. Other indoles that are structurally related to serotonin (D- and L-tryptophan, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, melatonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and 5-hydroxytryptophol) and quipazine weremore » inactive. The stimulatory effect of serotonin on smooth muscle cell DNA synthesis required prolonged (20-24 hr) exposure to the agonist and was attenuated in the presence of serotonin D receptor antagonists. When smooth muscle cells were incubated with submaximal concentrations of serotonin and PDGF, synergistic rather than additive mitogenic responses were observed. These data indicate that serotonin has a significant mitogenic effect on smooth muscle cells in vitro, which appears to be mediated by specific plasma membrane receptors.« less

  19. Vardenafil inhibiting parasympathetic function of tracheal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Fei-Peng; Chao, Pin-Zhir; Wang, Hsing-Won

    2018-07-01

    Levitra, a phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitor, is the trade name of vardenafil. Nowadays, it is applied to treatment of erectile dysfunction. PDE5 inhibitors are employed to induce dilatation of the vascular smooth muscle. The effect of Levitra on impotency is well known; however, its effect on the tracheal smooth muscle has rarely been explored. When administered for sexual symptoms via oral intake or inhalation, Levitra might affect the trachea. This study assessed the effects of Levitra on isolated rat tracheal smooth muscle by examining its effect on resting tension of tracheal smooth muscle, contraction caused by 10 -6  M methacholine as a parasympathetic mimetic, and electrically induced tracheal smooth muscle contractions. The results showed that adding methacholine to the incubation medium caused the trachea to contract in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of Levitra at doses of 10 -5  M or above elicited a significant relaxation response to 10 -6  M methacholine-induced contraction. Levitra could inhibit electrical field stimulation-induced spike contraction. It alone had minimal effect on the basal tension of the trachea as the concentration increased. High concentrations of Levitra could inhibit parasympathetic function of the trachea. Levitra when administered via oral intake might reduce asthma attacks in impotent patients because it might inhibit parasympathetic function and reduce methacholine-induced contraction of the tracheal smooth muscle. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  20. The use of micropatterning to control smooth muscle myosin heavy chain expression and limit the response to transforming growth factor β1 in vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Corin; Brown, Xin Q; Bartolak-Suki, Erzsebet; Ma, Hongwei; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Wong, Joyce Y

    2010-01-01

    In the healthy artery, contractile vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) have an elongated shape and are highly aligned but transition to a synthetic phenotype in culture, while additionally becoming well spread and randomly organized. Thus, controlling VSMC phenotype is a challenge in tissue engineering. In this study, we investigated the effects of micropatterning on contractile protein expression in VSMCs at low and high passage and in the presence of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1). Micropatterning led to significantly decreased cell area, increased elongation, and increased alignment compared to non-patterned VSMCs independent of passage number. In the presence of serum, micropatterning led to increased smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC) and α-actin expression in low passage VSMCs, but had no effect on high passage VSMCs. Micropatterning was as effective as TGFβ1 in up-regulating SM-MHC at low passage; however, micropatterning limited VSMC response to TGFβ1 at both low and high passage. Investigation of TGFβ receptor 1 revealed higher expression in non-patterned VSMCs compared to patterned at high passage. Our studies demonstrate that micropatterning is an important regulator of SM-MHC expression in contractile VSMCs and that it may provide a mechanism for phenotype stabilization in the presence of growth factors. PMID:20858564

  1. Chronic stimulation of farnesoid X receptor impairs nitric oxide sensitivity of vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Kida, Taiki; Murata, Takahisa; Hori, Masatoshi; Ozaki, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that is highly expressed in enterohepatic tissue, is implicated in bile acid, lipid, and glucose metabolisms. Although recent studies showed that FXR is also expressed in vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells, its physiological and/or pathological roles in vasculature tissue remain unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the chronic effect of synthetic FXR agonist GW4064 on vascular contraction and endothelium-dependent relaxation using tissue culture procedure. In cultured rabbit mesenteric arteries, the treatment with 0.1-10 microM GW4064 for 7 days did not influence vascular contractility induced by high K(+) (15-65 mM), norepinephrine (0.1-100 microM), and endothelin-1 (0.1-100 nM). However, the chronic treatment with GW4064 (1-10 microM for 7 days) dose dependently impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by substance P (0.1-30 nM). In hematoxylin-eosin cross sectioning and en face immunostaining, GW4064 had no effects on the morphology of endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In endothelium-denuded arteries treated with GW4064 (1-10 microM) for 7 days, 3 nM-100 microM sodium nitroprusside-induced vasorelaxation, but not membrane-permeable cGMP analog 8-bromoguanosine-cGMP (8-Br-cGMP; 1-100 microM)-induced vasorelaxation, was significantly impaired. In these GW4064-treated arteries, 1 muM sodium nitroprusside-induced intracellular cGMP elevations were impaired. In RT-PCR, any changes were detected in mRNA expression level of alpha(1)- and beta(1)-subunit of soluble guanylyl cyclase. These results suggest that chronic stimulation of FXR impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation, which is due to decreased sensitivity of smooth muscle cells to nitric oxide.

  2. Vascular smooth muscle cell phenotypic changes in patients with Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crosas-Molist, Eva; Meirelles, Thayna; López-Luque, Judit; Serra-Peinado, Carla; Selva, Javier; Caja, Laia; Gorbenko Del Blanco, Darya; Uriarte, Juan José; Bertran, Esther; Mendizábal, Yolanda; Hernández, Vanessa; García-Calero, Carolina; Busnadiego, Oscar; Condom, Enric; Toral, David; Castellà, Manel; Forteza, Alberto; Navajas, Daniel; Sarri, Elisabet; Rodríguez-Pascual, Fernando; Dietz, Harry C; Fabregat, Isabel; Egea, Gustavo

    2015-04-01

    Marfan's syndrome is characterized by the formation of ascending aortic aneurysms resulting from altered assembly of extracellular matrix microfibrils and chronic tissue growth factor (TGF)-β signaling. TGF-β is a potent regulator of the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype. We hypothesized that as a result of the chronic TGF-β signaling, VSMC would alter their basal differentiation phenotype, which could facilitate the formation of aneurysms. This study explores whether Marfan's syndrome entails phenotypic alterations of VSMC and possible mechanisms at the subcellular level. Immunohistochemical and Western blotting analyses of dilated aortas from Marfan patients showed overexpression of contractile protein markers (α-smooth muscle actin, smoothelin, smooth muscle protein 22 alpha, and calponin-1) and collagen I in comparison with healthy aortas. VSMC explanted from Marfan aortic aneurysms showed increased in vitro expression of these phenotypic markers and also of myocardin, a transcription factor essential for VSMC-specific differentiation. These alterations were generally reduced after pharmacological inhibition of the TGF-β pathway. Marfan VSMC in culture showed more robust actin stress fibers and enhanced RhoA-GTP levels, which was accompanied by increased focal adhesion components and higher nuclear localization of myosin-related transcription factor A. Marfan VSMC and extracellular matrix measured by atomic force microscopy were both stiffer than their respective controls. In Marfan VSMC, both in tissue and in culture, there are variable TGF-β-dependent phenotypic changes affecting contractile proteins and collagen I, leading to greater cellular and extracellular matrix stiffness. Altogether, these alterations may contribute to the known aortic rigidity that precedes or accompanies Marfan's syndrome aneurysm formation. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Stimulation of Synthesis and Release of Brain-Derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF) from Intestinal Smooth Muscle Cells by Substance P and Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Peptide (PACAP)

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qudah, M.; Alkahtani, R.; Akbarali, H.I.; Murthy, K.S.; Grider, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin present in the intestine where it participates in survival and growth of enteric neurons, augmentation of enteric circuits, and stimulation of intestinal peristalsis and propulsion. Previous studies largely focused on the role of neural and mucosal BDNF. The expression and release of BDNF from intestinal smooth muscle and the interaction with enteric neuropeptides has not been studied in gut. Methods The expression and secretion of BDNF from smooth muscle cultured from rabbit longitudinal intestinal muscle in response to substance P and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) was measured by western blot and ELISA. BDNF mRNA was measured by rt-PCR. Key Results The expression of BNDF protein and mRNA was greater in smooth muscle cells from the longitudinal muscle than from circular muscle layer. PACAP and substance P increased the expression of BDNF protein and mRNA in cultured longitudinal smooth muscle cells. PACAP and substance P also stimulated the secretion of BDNF from cultured longitudinal smooth muscle cells. Chelation of intracellular calcium with BAPTA prevented substance P-induced increase in BDNF mRNA and protein expression as well as substance P-induced secretion of BDNF. Conclusions & Inferences Neuropeptides known to be present in enteric neurons innervating the longitudinal layer increase the expression of BDNF mRNA and protein in smooth muscle cells and stimulate the release of BDNF. Considering the ability of BDNF to enhance smooth muscle contraction, this autocrine loop may partially explain the characteristic hypercontractility of longitudinal muscle in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:26088546

  4. Effects of Piecewise Spatial Smoothing in 4-D SPECT Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Wenyuan; Yang, Yongyi; King, Michael A.

    2014-02-01

    In nuclear medicine, cardiac gated SPECT images are known to suffer from significantly increased noise owing to limited data counts. Consequently, spatial (and temporal) smoothing has been indispensable for suppressing the noise artifacts in SPECT reconstruction. However, recently we demonstrated that the benefit of spatial processing in motion-compensated reconstruction of gated SPECT (aka 4-D) could be outweighed by its adverse effects on the myocardium, which included degraded wall motion and perfusion defect detectability. In this work, we investigate whether we can alleviate these adverse effects by exploiting an alternative spatial smoothing prior in 4-D based on image total variation (TV). TV based prior is known to induce piecewise smoothing which can preserve edge features (such as boundaries of the heart wall) in reconstruction. However, it is not clear whether such a property would necessarily be beneficial for improving the accuracy of the myocardium in 4-D reconstruction. In particular, it is unknown whether it would adversely affect the detectability of perfusion defects that are small in size or low in contrast. In our evaluation study, we first use Monte Carlo simulated imaging with 4-D NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) phantom wherein the ground truth is known for quantitative comparison. We evaluated the accuracy of the reconstructed myocardium using a number of metrics, including regional and overall accuracy of the myocardium, accuracy of the phase activity curve (PAC) of the LV wall for wall motion, uniformity and spatial resolution of the LV wall, and detectability of perfusion defects using a channelized Hotelling observer (CHO). For lesion detection, we simulated perfusion defects with different sizes and contrast levels with the focus being on perfusion defects that are subtle. As a preliminary demonstration, we also tested on three sets of clinical acquisitions. From the quantitative results, it was demonstrated that TV smoothing could

  5. MC3T3-E1 Cells on Titanium Surfaces with Nanometer Smoothness and Fibronectin Immobilization

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Tohru; Yoshida, Eiji; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Uo, Motohiro; Yoshinari, Masao

    2012-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the viability and total protein contents of osteoblast-like cells on the titanium surface with different surface mechanical treatment, namely, nanometer smoothing (Ra: approximately 2.0 nm) and sandblasting (Ra: approximately 1.0 μm), and biochemical treatment, namely, with or without fibronectin immobilization. Fibronectin could be easily immobilized by tresyl chloride-activation technique. MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded on the different titanium surfaces. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. At 1 day of cell culture, there were no significant differences in cell viability among four different titanium surfaces. At 11 days, sandblasted titanium surface with fibronectin immobilization showed the significantly highest cell viability than other titanium surface. No significant differences existed for total protein contents among four different titanium surfaces at 11 days of cell culture. Scanning electron microscopy observation revealed that smoothness of titanium surface produced more spread cell morphologies, but that fibronectin immobilization did not cause any changes of the morphologies of attached cells. Fibronectin immobilization provided greater amount of the number of attached cells and better arrangement of attached cells. In conclusion, the combination of sandblasting and fibronectin immobilization enhanced the cell viability and fibronectin immobilization providing better arrangements of attached cells. PMID:22675359

  6. A Robust Method to Generate Mechanically Anisotropic Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Sheets for Vascular Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Backman, Daniel E; LeSavage, Bauer L; Shah, Shivem B; Wong, Joyce Y

    2017-06-01

    In arterial tissue engineering, mimicking native structure and mechanical properties is essential because compliance mismatch can lead to graft failure and further disease. With bottom-up tissue engineering approaches, designing tissue components with proper microscale mechanical properties is crucial to achieve the necessary macroscale properties in the final implant. This study develops a thermoresponsive cell culture platform for growing aligned vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) sheets by photografting N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) onto micropatterned poly(dimethysiloxane) (PDMS). The grafting process is experimentally and computationally optimized to produce PNIPAAm-PDMS substrates optimal for VSMC attachment. To allow long-term VSMC sheet culture and increase the rate of VSMC sheet formation, PNIPAAm-PDMS surfaces were further modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane yielding a robust, thermoresponsive cell culture platform for culturing VSMC sheets. VSMC cell sheets cultured on patterned thermoresponsive substrates exhibit cellular and collagen alignment in the direction of the micropattern. Mechanical characterization of patterned, single-layer VSMC sheets reveals increased stiffness in the aligned direction compared to the perpendicular direction whereas nonpatterned cell sheets exhibit no directional dependence. Structural and mechanical anisotropy of aligned, single-layer VSMC sheets makes this platform an attractive microstructural building block for engineering a vascular graft to match the in vivo mechanical properties of native arterial tissue. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Anticipatory Smooth Eye Movements in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Aitkin, Cordelia D.; Santos, Elio M.; Kowler, Eileen

    2013-01-01

    Smooth pursuit eye movements are important for vision because they maintain the line of sight on targets that move smoothly within the visual field. Smooth pursuit is driven by neural representations of motion, including a surprisingly strong influence of high-level signals representing expected motion. We studied anticipatory smooth eye movements (defined as smooth eye movements in the direction of expected future motion) produced by salient visual cues in a group of high-functioning observers with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), a condition that has been associated with difficulties in either generating predictions, or translating predictions into effective motor commands. Eye movements were recorded while participants pursued the motion of a disc that moved within an outline drawing of an inverted Y-shaped tube. The cue to the motion path was a visual barrier that blocked the untraveled branch (right or left) of the tube. ASD participants showed strong anticipatory smooth eye movements whose velocity was the same as that of a group of neurotypical participants. Anticipatory smooth eye movements appeared on the very first cued trial, indicating that trial-by-trial learning was not responsible for the responses. These results are significant because they show that anticipatory capacities are intact in high-functioning ASD in cases where the cue to the motion path is highly salient and unambiguous. Once the ability to generate anticipatory pursuit is demonstrated, the study of the anticipatory responses with a variety of types of cues provides a window into the perceptual or cognitive processes that underlie the interpretation of events in natural environments or social situations. PMID:24376667

  8. Anticipatory smooth eye movements in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Aitkin, Cordelia D; Santos, Elio M; Kowler, Eileen

    2013-01-01

    Smooth pursuit eye movements are important for vision because they maintain the line of sight on targets that move smoothly within the visual field. Smooth pursuit is driven by neural representations of motion, including a surprisingly strong influence of high-level signals representing expected motion. We studied anticipatory smooth eye movements (defined as smooth eye movements in the direction of expected future motion) produced by salient visual cues in a group of high-functioning observers with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), a condition that has been associated with difficulties in either generating predictions, or translating predictions into effective motor commands. Eye movements were recorded while participants pursued the motion of a disc that moved within an outline drawing of an inverted Y-shaped tube. The cue to the motion path was a visual barrier that blocked the untraveled branch (right or left) of the tube. ASD participants showed strong anticipatory smooth eye movements whose velocity was the same as that of a group of neurotypical participants. Anticipatory smooth eye movements appeared on the very first cued trial, indicating that trial-by-trial learning was not responsible for the responses. These results are significant because they show that anticipatory capacities are intact in high-functioning ASD in cases where the cue to the motion path is highly salient and unambiguous. Once the ability to generate anticipatory pursuit is demonstrated, the study of the anticipatory responses with a variety of types of cues provides a window into the perceptual or cognitive processes that underlie the interpretation of events in natural environments or social situations.

  9. CD98 regulates vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Baumer, Yvonne; McCurdy, Sara; Alcala, Martin; Mehta, Nehal; Lee, Bog-Hieu; Ginsberg, Mark H; Boisvert, William A

    2017-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) migrate and proliferate to form a stabilizing fibrous cap that encapsulates atherosclerotic plaques. CD98 is a transmembrane protein made of two subunits, CD98 heavy chain (CD98hc) and one of six light chains, and is known to be involved in cell proliferation and survival. Because the influence of CD98hc on atherosclerosis development is unknown, our aim was to determine if CD98hc expressed on VSMC plays a role in shaping the morphology of atherosclerotic plaques by regulating VSMC function. In addition to determining the role of CD98hc in VSMC proliferation and apoptosis, we utilized mice with SMC-specific deletion of CD98hc (CD98hc fl/fl SM22αCre + ) to determine the effects of CD98hc deficiency on VSMC function in atherosclerotic plaque. After culturing for 5 days in vitro, CD98hc -/- VSMC displayed dramatically reduced cell counts, reduced proliferation, as well as reduced migration compared to control VSMC. Analysis of aortic VSCM after 8 weeks of HFD showed a reduction in CD98hc -/- VSMC proliferation as well as increased apoptosis compared to controls. A long-term atherosclerosis study using SMC-CD98hc -/- /ldlr -/- mice was performed. Although total plaque area was unchanged, CD98hc -/- mice showed reduced presence of VSMC within the plaque (2.1 ± 0.4% vs. 4.3 ± 0.4% SM22α-positive area per plaque area, p < 0.05), decreased collagen content, as well as increased necrotic core area (25.8 ± 1.9% vs. 10.9 ± 1.6%, p < 0.05) compared to control ldlr -/- mice. We conclude that CD98hc is required for VSMC proliferation, and that its deficiency leads to significantly reduced presence of VSMC in the neointima. Thus, CD98hc expression in VSMC contributes to the formation of plaques that are morphologically more stable, and thereby protects against atherothrombosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. West Antarctic Balance Fluxes: Impact of Smoothing, Algorithm and Topography.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Brocq, A.; Payne, A. J.; Siegert, M. J.; Bamber, J. L.

    2004-12-01

    Grid-based calculations of balance flux and velocity have been widely used to understand the large-scale dynamics of ice masses and as indicators of their state of balance. This research investigates a number of issues relating to their calculation for the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (see below for further details): 1) different topography smoothing techniques; 2) different grid based flow-apportioning algorithms; 3) the source of the flow direction, whether from smoothed topography, or smoothed gravitational driving stress; 4) different flux routing techniques and 5) the impact of different topographic datasets. The different algorithms described below lead to significant differences in both ice stream margins and values of fluxes within them. This encourages caution in the use of grid-based balance flux/velocity distributions and values, especially when considering the state of balance of individual ice streams. 1) Most previous calculations have used the same numerical scheme (Budd and Warner, 1996) applied to a smoothed topography in order to incorporate the longitudinal stresses that smooth ice flow. There are two options to consider when smoothing the topography, the size of the averaging filter and the shape of the averaging function. However, this is not a physically-based approach to incorporating smoothed ice flow and also introduces significant flow artefacts when using a variable weighting function. 2) Different algorithms to apportion flow are investigated; using 4 or 8 neighbours, and apportioning flow to all down-slope cells or only 2 (based on derived flow direction). 3) A theoretically more acceptable approach of incorporating smoothed ice flow is to use the smoothed gravitational driving stress in x and y components to derive a flow direction. The flux can then be apportioned using the flow direction approach used above. 4) The original scheme (Budd and Warner, 1996) uses an elevation sort technique to calculate the balance flux contribution from all

  11. A smoothed particle hydrodynamics model for droplet and film flow on smooth and rough fracture surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kordilla, Jannes; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Geyer, Tobias

    2013-09-01

    Flow on fracture surfaces has been identified by many authors as an important flow process in unsaturated fractured rock formations. Given the complexity of flow dynamics on such small scales, robust numerical methods have to be employed in order to capture the highly dynamic interfaces and flow intermittency. In this work we present microscale free-surface flow simulations using a three-dimensional multiphase Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) code. Pairwise solid-fluid and fluid-fluid interaction forces are used to control the wetting behavior and cover a wide range of static and transient contact angles as well as Reynolds numbers encountered in droplet flow onmore » rock surfaces. We validate our model via comparison with existing empirical and semi-analyical solutions for droplet flow. We use the model to investigate the occurence of adsorbed trailing films of droplets under various flow conditions and its importance for the flow dynamics when films and droplets coexist. We show that flow velocities are higher on prewetted surfaces covered by a thin film which is qualitatively attributed to the enhanced dynamic wetting and dewetting at the trailing and advancing contact line.« less

  12. Impedance computed tomography using an adaptive smoothing coefficient algorithm.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, A; Uchiyama, A

    2001-01-01

    In impedance computed tomography, a fixed coefficient regularization algorithm has been frequently used to improve the ill-conditioning problem of the Newton-Raphson algorithm. However, a lot of experimental data and a long period of computation time are needed to determine a good smoothing coefficient because a good smoothing coefficient has to be manually chosen from a number of coefficients and is a constant for each iteration calculation. Thus, sometimes the fixed coefficient regularization algorithm distorts the information or fails to obtain any effect. In this paper, a new adaptive smoothing coefficient algorithm is proposed. This algorithm automatically calculates the smoothing coefficient from the eigenvalue of the ill-conditioned matrix. Therefore, the effective images can be obtained within a short computation time. Also the smoothing coefficient is automatically adjusted by the information related to the real resistivity distribution and the data collection method. In our impedance system, we have reconstructed the resistivity distributions of two phantoms using this algorithm. As a result, this algorithm only needs one-fifth the computation time compared to the fixed coefficient regularization algorithm. When compared to the fixed coefficient regularization algorithm, it shows that the image is obtained more rapidly and applicable in real-time monitoring of the blood vessel.

  13. Geographic smoothing of solar PV: Results from Gujarat

    DOE PAGES

    Klima, Kelly; Apt, Jay

    2015-09-24

    We examine the potential for geographic smoothing of solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation using 13 months of observed power production from utility-scale plants in Gujarat, India. To our knowledge, this is the first published analysis of geographic smoothing of solar PV using actual generation data at high time resolution from utility-scale solar PV plants. We use geographic correlation and Fourier transform estimates of the power spectral density (PSD) to characterize the observed variability of operating solar PV plants as a function of time scale. Most plants show a spectrum that is linear in the log–log domain at high frequencies f,more » ranging from f -1.23 to f -1.56 (slopes of -1.23 and -1.56), thus exhibiting more relative variability at high frequencies than exhibited by wind plants. PSDs for large PV plants have a steeper slope than those for small plants, hence more smoothing at short time scales. Interconnecting 20 Gujarat plants yields a f -1.66 spectrum, reducing fluctuations at frequencies corresponding to 6 h and 1 h by 23% and 45%, respectively. Half of this smoothing can be obtained through connecting 4-5 plants; reaching marginal improvement of 1% per added plant occurs at 12-14 plants. The largest plant (322 MW) showed an f -1.76 spectrum. Furthermore, this suggests that in Gujarat the potential for smoothing is limited to that obtained by one large plant.« less

  14. Research of beam smoothing technologies using CPP, SSD, and PS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Su, Jingqin; Hu, Dongxia; Li, Ping; Yuan, Haoyu; Zhou, Wei; Yuan, Qiang; Wang, Yuancheng; Tian, Xiaocheng; Xu, Dangpeng; Dong, Jun; Zhu, Qihua

    2015-02-01

    Precise physical experiments place strict requirements on target illumination uniformity in Inertial Confinement Fusion. To obtain a smoother focal spot and suppress transverse SBS in large aperture optics, Multi-FM smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) was studied combined with continuous phase plate (CPP) and polarization smoothing (PS). New ways of PS are being developed to improve the laser irradiation uniformity and solve LPI problems in indirect-drive laser fusion. The near field and far field properties of beams using polarization smoothing were studied and compared, including birefringent wedge and polarization control array. As more parameters can be manipulated in a combined beam smoothing scheme, quad beam smoothing was also studies. Simulation results indicate through adjusting dispersion directions of one-dimensional (1-D) SSD beams in a quad, two-dimensional SSD can be obtained. Experiments have been done on SG-III laser facility using CPP and Multi-FM SSD. The research provides some theoretical and experimental basis for the application of CPP, SSD and PS on high-power laser facilities.

  15. Role of ROCK expression in gallbladder smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Ding, You-Ming; Wang, Chun-Tao; Wang, Wei-Xing

    2015-08-01

    Cholelithiasis is a common medical condition whose incidence rate is increasing yearly, while its pathogenesis has yet to be elucidated. The present study assessed the expression of Rho-kinase (ROCK) in gallbladder smooth muscles and its effect on the contractile function of gallbladder smooth muscles during gallstone formation. Thirty male guinea pigs were randomly divided into three groups: The control group, the gallstone model group and the fasudil interference group. The fasting volume (FV) and bile capacity of the gallbladder (FB) as well as the total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents of the gallbladder bile were determined. In addition, the gallbladder was dissected to identify whether any gallstones had formed. Part of the gallbladder tissue specimens were used for immunohistochemical analysis of ROCK expression in gallbladder smooth muscles. The results showed that four guinea pigs in the model group and eight in the fasudil group displayed gallstone formation, while there was no gallstone formation in the control group. The FV and FB were significantly increased in the model and fasudil groups. Similarly, the TC and TG contents of gallbladder bile were increased in these groups. The positive expression rate of ROCK in gallbladder smooth muscles in the model and fasudil groups was significantly reduced compared with that in the control group (P<0.05). The results of the present study indicated that the reduction of ROCK expression in guinea pig gallbladder smooth muscles weakened gallbladder contraction and thereby promoted gallstone formation.

  16. Vinpocetine Attenuates the Osteoblastic Differentiation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiu-Juan; Wang, Na; Yi, Peng-Fei; Song, Min; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Yu-Zhong; Liang, Qiu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Vascular calcification is an active process of osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, its definite mechanism remains unknown. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has been demonstrated to inhibit the high glucose-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, it remains unknown whether vinpocetine can affect the osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. We hereby investigated the effect of vinpocetine on vascular calcification using a beta-glycerophosphate-induced cell model. Our results showed that vinpocetine significantly reduced the osteoblast-like phenotypes of vascular smooth muscle cells including ALP activity, osteocalcin, collagen type I, Runx2 and BMP-2 expression as well as the formation of mineralized nodule. Vinpocetine, binding to translocation protein, induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase and Akt and thus inhibited the translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B into the nucleus. Silencing of translocator protein significantly attenuated the inhibitory effect of vinpocetine on osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Taken together, vinpocetine may be a promising candidate for the clinical therapy of vascular calcification. PMID:27589055

  17. Vinpocetine Attenuates the Osteoblastic Differentiation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yun-Yun; Sun, Lin; Chen, Xiu-Juan; Wang, Na; Yi, Peng-Fei; Song, Min; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Yu-Zhong; Liang, Qiu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Vascular calcification is an active process of osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, its definite mechanism remains unknown. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has been demonstrated to inhibit the high glucose-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, it remains unknown whether vinpocetine can affect the osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. We hereby investigated the effect of vinpocetine on vascular calcification using a beta-glycerophosphate-induced cell model. Our results showed that vinpocetine significantly reduced the osteoblast-like phenotypes of vascular smooth muscle cells including ALP activity, osteocalcin, collagen type I, Runx2 and BMP-2 expression as well as the formation of mineralized nodule. Vinpocetine, binding to translocation protein, induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase and Akt and thus inhibited the translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B into the nucleus. Silencing of translocator protein significantly attenuated the inhibitory effect of vinpocetine on osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Taken together, vinpocetine may be a promising candidate for the clinical therapy of vascular calcification.

  18. Decreased airway narrowing and smooth muscle contraction in hyperresponsive pigs.

    PubMed

    Turner, Debra J; Noble, Peter B; Lucas, Matthew P; Mitchell, Howard W

    2002-10-01

    Increased smooth muscle contractility or reduced smooth muscle mechanical loads could account for the excessive airway narrowing and hyperresponsiveness seen in asthma. These mechanisms were investigated by using an allergen-induced porcine model of airway hyperresponsiveness. Airway narrowing to electric field stimulation was measured in isolated bronchial segments, over a range of transmural pressures (0-20 cmH(2)O). Contractile responses to ACh were measured in bronchial segments and in isolated tracheal smooth muscle strips isolated from control and test (ovalbumin sensitized and challenged) pigs. Test airways narrowed less than controls (P < 0.0001). Test pigs showed reduced contractility to ACh, both in isolated bronchi (P < 0.01) and smooth muscle strips (P < 0.01). Thus isolated airways from pigs exhibiting airway hyperresponsiveness in vivo are hyporesponsive in vitro. The decreased narrowing in bronchi from hyperresponsive pigs may be related to decreased smooth muscle contractility. These data suggest that mechanisms external to the airway wall may be important to the hyperresponsive nature of sensitized lungs.

  19. Immortalization of cat iris sphincter smooth muscle cells by SV40 virus: growth, morphological, biochemical and pharmacological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ocklind, A; Yousufzai, S Y; Ghosh, S; Coca-Prados, M; St Jernschantz, J; Abdel-Latif, A A

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish immortalized cell cultures of cat iris sphincter smooth muscle cells for a model investigating ocular receptors and their signal transduction pathways. Cultured cat iris sphincter muscle cells were immortalized by viral transformation with SV40 virus and the morphological and immunocytochemical properties of the normal and immortalized cells were investigated. The transformed cell clone, SV-CISM-2, was further characterized biochemically and pharmacologically. The normal muscle cells showed characteristics of smooth muscle cells, as judged by their growth and the presence of smooth muscle alpha-actin and desmin. After seven passages the normal cells ceased to proliferate. In contrast, the immortalized cells retained their proliferative ability for more than 220 population doublings over 55 passages. The transformation phenotype in these cells was confirmed by their expression of the large T-antigen, the incorporation of viral DNA into cellular DNA, growth in agarose and in low-serum medium, and complete loss of contact inhibition. The immortalized cells expressed smooth muscle alpha-actin, desmin and MLC protein. Biochemical and pharmacological studies on the SV-CISM cells revealed the presence of several functional receptors including muscarinic cholinergic, beta-adrenergic, peptidergic (substance P and endothelin). Platelet-activating factor, and prostaglandin (PG). Muscarinic stimulation of these cells resulted in: (a) a dose-dependent increase in the release of arachidonic acid (AA) and (PGs) and enhancement in the production of inositol trisphosphate (IP3); and (b) a substantial increase in MLC phosphorylation (118%), an indicator of smooth muscle contractility. The stimulatory effects of carbachol on these responses were completely blocked by atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist. This study constitutes the first successful immortalization of iris sphincter smooth muscle cells. The SV-CISM-2 cells can serve as

  20. A method of smoothed particle hydrodynamics using spheroidal kernels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulbright, Michael S.; Benz, Willy; Davies, Melvyn B.

    1995-01-01

    We present a new method of three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) designed to model systems dominated by deformation along a preferential axis. These systems cause severe problems for SPH codes using spherical kernels, which are best suited for modeling systems which retain rough spherical symmetry. Our method allows the smoothing length in the direction of the deformation to evolve independently of the smoothing length in the perpendicular plane, resulting in a kernel with a spheroidal shape. As a result the spatial resolution in the direction of deformation is significantly improved. As a test case we present the one-dimensional homologous collapse of a zero-temperature, uniform-density cloud, which serves to demonstrate the advantages of spheroidal kernels. We also present new results on the problem of the tidal disruption of a star by a massive black hole.

  1. Surface smoothness: cartilage biomarkers for knee OA beyond the radiologist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tummala, Sudhakar; Dam, Erik B.

    2010-03-01

    Fully automatic imaging biomarkers may allow quantification of patho-physiological processes that a radiologist would not be able to assess reliably. This can introduce new insight but is problematic to validate due to lack of meaningful ground truth expert measurements. Rather than quantification accuracy, such novel markers must therefore be validated against clinically meaningful end-goals such as the ability to allow correct diagnosis. We present a method for automatic cartilage surface smoothness quantification in the knee joint. The quantification is based on a curvature flow method used on tibial and femoral cartilage compartments resulting from an automatic segmentation scheme. These smoothness estimates are validated for their ability to diagnose osteoarthritis and compared to smoothness estimates based on manual expert segmentations and to conventional cartilage volume quantification. We demonstrate that the fully automatic markers eliminate the time required for radiologist annotations, and in addition provide a diagnostic marker superior to the evaluated semi-manual markers.

  2. A User Guide for Smoothing Air Traffic Radar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bach, Ralph E.; Paielli, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    Matlab software was written to provide smoothing of radar tracking data to simulate ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast) data in order to test a tactical conflict probe. The probe, called TSAFE (Tactical Separation-Assured Flight Environment), is designed to handle air-traffic conflicts left undetected or unresolved when loss-of-separation is predicted to occur within approximately two minutes. The data stream that is down-linked from an aircraft equipped with an ADS-B system would include accurate GPS-derived position and velocity information at sample rates of 1 Hz. Nation-wide ADS-B equipage (mandated by 2020) should improve surveillance accuracy and TSAFE performance. Currently, position data are provided by Center radar (nominal 12-sec samples) and Terminal radar (nominal 4.8-sec samples). Aircraft ground speed and ground track are estimated using real-time filtering, causing lags up to 60 sec, compromising performance of a tactical resolution tool. Offline smoothing of radar data reduces wild-point errors, provides a sample rate as high as 1 Hz, and yields more accurate and lag-free estimates of ground speed, ground track, and climb rate. Until full ADS-B implementation is available, smoothed radar data should provide reasonable track estimates for testing TSAFE in an ADS-B-like environment. An example illustrates the smoothing of radar data and shows a comparison of smoothed-radar and ADS-B tracking. This document is intended to serve as a guide for using the smoothing software.

  3. The Initiation of Smooth Pursuit is Delayed in Anisometropic Amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Raashid, Rana Arham; Liu, Ivy Ziqian; Blakeman, Alan; Goltz, Herbert C; Wong, Agnes M F

    2016-04-01

    Several behavioral studies have shown that the reaction times of visually guided movements are slower in people with amblyopia, particularly during amblyopic eye viewing. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the initiation of smooth pursuit eye movements, which are responsible for accurately keeping moving objects on the fovea, is delayed in people with anisometropic amblyopia. Eleven participants with anisometropic amblyopia and 14 visually normal observers were asked to track a step-ramp target moving at ±15°/s horizontally as quickly and as accurately as possible. The experiment was conducted under three viewing conditions: amblyopic/nondominant eye, binocular, and fellow/dominant eye viewing. Outcome measures were smooth pursuit latency, open-loop gain, steady state gain, and catch-up saccade frequency. Participants with anisometropic amblyopia initiated smooth pursuit significantly slower during amblyopic eye viewing (206 ± 20 ms) than visually normal observers viewing with their nondominant eye (183 ± 17 ms, P = 0.002). However, mean pursuit latency in the anisometropic amblyopia group during binocular and monocular fellow eye viewing was comparable to the visually normal group. Mean open-loop gain, steady state gain, and catch-up saccade frequency were similar between the two groups, but participants with anisometropic amblyopia exhibited more variable steady state gain (P = 0.045). This study provides evidence of temporally delayed smooth pursuit initiation in anisometropic amblyopia. After initiation, the smooth pursuit velocity profile in anisometropic amblyopia participants is similar to visually normal controls. This finding differs from what has been observed previously in participants with strabismic amblyopia who exhibit reduced smooth pursuit velocity gains with more catch-up saccades.

  4. The Initiation of Smooth Pursuit is Delayed in Anisometropic Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Raashid, Rana Arham; Liu, Ivy Ziqian; Blakeman, Alan; Goltz, Herbert C.; Wong, Agnes M. F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Several behavioral studies have shown that the reaction times of visually guided movements are slower in people with amblyopia, particularly during amblyopic eye viewing. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the initiation of smooth pursuit eye movements, which are responsible for accurately keeping moving objects on the fovea, is delayed in people with anisometropic amblyopia. Methods Eleven participants with anisometropic amblyopia and 14 visually normal observers were asked to track a step-ramp target moving at ±15°/s horizontally as quickly and as accurately as possible. The experiment was conducted under three viewing conditions: amblyopic/nondominant eye, binocular, and fellow/dominant eye viewing. Outcome measures were smooth pursuit latency, open-loop gain, steady state gain, and catch-up saccade frequency. Results Participants with anisometropic amblyopia initiated smooth pursuit significantly slower during amblyopic eye viewing (206 ± 20 ms) than visually normal observers viewing with their nondominant eye (183 ± 17 ms, P = 0.002). However, mean pursuit latency in the anisometropic amblyopia group during binocular and monocular fellow eye viewing was comparable to the visually normal group. Mean open-loop gain, steady state gain, and catch-up saccade frequency were similar between the two groups, but participants with anisometropic amblyopia exhibited more variable steady state gain (P = 0.045). Conclusions This study provides evidence of temporally delayed smooth pursuit initiation in anisometropic amblyopia. After initiation, the smooth pursuit velocity profile in anisometropic amblyopia participants is similar to visually normal controls. This finding differs from what has been observed previously in participants with strabismic amblyopia who exhibit reduced smooth pursuit velocity gains with more catch-up saccades. PMID:27070109

  5. Disturbance of smooth muscle regulatory function by Eisenia foetida toxin lysenin: insight into the mechanism of smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Czuryło, Edward A; Kulikova, Natalia; Sobota, Andrzej

    2008-05-01

    Lysenin, a toxin present in the coelomic fluid of the earthworm Eisenia foetida, is known to cause a long-lasting contraction of rat aorta smooth muscle strips. We addressed the mechanisms underlying its action on smooth muscle cells and present the first report demonstrating a completely new property of lysenin unrelated to its basic sphingomyelin-binding ability. Here we report lysenin enhancement effect on smooth muscle actomyosin ATPase activity and the ability of networking the actin filaments. The maximum enhancement of the ATPase activity of actomyosin at 120 mM KCl was observed at a molar ratio of lysenin to actin of about 1:10(5), while at 70 mM KCl at the ratio of about 1:10(6). The effect of lysenin became most pronounced only when both smooth muscle regulatory proteins, tropomyosin and caldesmon, were present. Co-sedimentation experiments indicated that lysenin did not displace neither tropomyosin nor caldesmon from the thin filament. Thus, the lysenin-dependent abolishment of the inhibitory effect of caldesmon on the ATPase activity was related rather to the modification of the filament structure. The ability of the toxin to exert its stimulatory effect at extremely low concentrations (as low as one molecule of lysenin per 10(6) actin molecules) may result from the long-range cooperative transitions in the entire thin filament with an involvement of smooth muscle tropomyosin, while the role of caldesmon may be limited exclusively to the inhibition of ATPase activity.

  6. Proliferation of smooth muscle cells stimulated by Porphyromonas gingivalis is inhibited by apple polyphenol.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Hiroaki; Tagashira, Motoyuki; Kanda, Tomomasa; Amano, Atsuo

    2011-11-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) is thought to be involved in the progression of occlusive arterial lesions, whereas vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation is considered to be involved in occlusive arterial disease. We previously showed that bacteremia caused by Pg infection induced proliferation of mouse aortic SMCs. Furthermore, human SMCs stimulated with human plasma incubated with Pg showed a marked transformation from the contractile to proliferative phenotype. In the present study, we examine the involvement of Pg gingipains and fimbriae in induction of the SMC transformation and proliferation, and effective inhibitors. Pg strains including gingipain- and fimbria-null mutants were incubated in human plasma, after which the bacteria were removed and the supernatants were added to cultured SMCs. To evaluate the effects of inhibitors, Pg organisms were incubated in plasma in the presence of apple polyphenol (AP), epigallocatechin gallate, KYT-1 (Arg-gingipain inhibitor), and KYT-36 (Lys-gingipain inhibitor). Plasma supernatants from wild-type and fimbria-mutant cultures markedly stimulated cellular proliferation, whereas those containing gingipain-null mutants showed negligible effects. SMC proliferation was also induced by plasma treated with trypsin. Furthermore, plasma supernatants cultured in the presence of KYT-1/KYT-36 and AP showed significant inhibitory effects on SMC proliferation, whereas cultures with epigallocatechin gallate did not. Our results suggest that Pg gingipains are involved in the induction of SMC transformation and proliferation, whereas this was inhibited by AP.

  7. The smooth entropy formalism for von Neumann algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta, Mario; Furrer, Fabian; Scholz, Volkher B.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss information-theoretic concepts on infinite-dimensional quantum systems. In particular, we lift the smooth entropy formalism as introduced by Renner and collaborators for finite-dimensional systems to von Neumann algebras. For the smooth conditional min- and max-entropy, we recover similar characterizing properties and information-theoretic operational interpretations as in the finite-dimensional case. We generalize the entropic uncertainty relation with quantum side information of Tomamichel and Renner and discuss applications to quantum cryptography. In particular, we prove the possibility to perform privacy amplification and classical data compression with quantum side information modeled by a von Neumann algebra.

  8. Restoring a smooth function from its noisy integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulko, Olga; Prokof'ev, Nikolay; Svistunov, Boris

    2018-05-01

    Numerical (and experimental) data analysis often requires the restoration of a smooth function from a set of sampled integrals over finite bins. We present the bin hierarchy method that efficiently computes the maximally smooth function from the sampled integrals using essentially all the information contained in the data. We perform extensive tests with different classes of functions and levels of data quality, including Monte Carlo data suffering from a severe sign problem and physical data for the Green's function of the Fröhlich polaron.

  9. The smooth entropy formalism for von Neumann algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Berta, Mario, E-mail: berta@caltech.edu; Furrer, Fabian, E-mail: furrer@eve.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Scholz, Volkher B., E-mail: scholz@phys.ethz.ch

    2016-01-15

    We discuss information-theoretic concepts on infinite-dimensional quantum systems. In particular, we lift the smooth entropy formalism as introduced by Renner and collaborators for finite-dimensional systems to von Neumann algebras. For the smooth conditional min- and max-entropy, we recover similar characterizing properties and information-theoretic operational interpretations as in the finite-dimensional case. We generalize the entropic uncertainty relation with quantum side information of Tomamichel and Renner and discuss applications to quantum cryptography. In particular, we prove the possibility to perform privacy amplification and classical data compression with quantum side information modeled by a von Neumann algebra.

  10. Porcine Stomach Smooth Muscle Force Depends on History-Effects.

    PubMed

    Tomalka, André; Borsdorf, Mischa; Böl, Markus; Siebert, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    The stomach serves as food reservoir, mixing organ and absorption area for certain substances, while continually varying its position and size. Large dimensional changes during ingestion and gastric emptying of the stomach are associated with large changes in smooth muscle length. These length changes might induce history-effects, namely force depression (FD) following active muscle shortening and force enhancement (FE) following active muscle stretch. Both effects have impact on the force generating capacity of the stomach, and thus functional relevance. However, less is known about history-effects and active smooth muscle properties of stomach smooth muscle. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate biomechanical muscle properties as force-length and force-velocity relations (FVR) of porcine stomach smooth muscle strips, extended by the analysis of history-effects on smooth muscle force. Therefore, in total n = 54 tissue strips were dissected in longitudinal direction from the ventral fundus of porcine stomachs. Different isometric, isotonic, and isokinetic contraction protocols were performed during electrical muscle stimulation. Cross-sectional areas (CSA) of smooth muscles were determined from cryo-histological sections stained with Picrosirius Red. Results revealed that maximum smooth muscle tension was 10.4 ± 2.6 N/cm 2 . Maximum shortening velocity ( V max ) and curvature factor ( curv ) of the FVR were 0.04 ± 0.01 [optimum muscle length/s] and 0.36 ± 0.15, respectively. The findings of the present study demonstrated significant ( P < 0.05) FD [up to 32% maximum muscle force ( F im )] and FE (up to 16% F im ) of gastric muscle tissue, respectively. The FE- and FD-values increased with increasing ramp amplitude. This outstanding muscle behavior is not accounted for in existing models so far and strongly supports the idea of a holistic reflection of distinct stomach structure and function. For the first time this study provides a comprehensive set of

  11. Near atomically smooth alkali antimonide photocathode thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Feng, Jun; Karkare, Siddharth; Nasiatka, James; ...

    2017-01-24

    Nano-roughness is one of the major factors degrading the emittance of electron beams that can be generated by high efficiency photocathodes, such as the thermally reacted alkali antimonide thin films. In this paper, we demonstrate a co-deposition based method for producing alkali antimonide cathodes that produce near atomic smoothness with high reproducibility. Here, we calculate the effect of the surface roughness on the emittance and show that such smooth cathode surfaces are essential for operation of alkali antimonide cathodes in high field, low emittance radio frequency electron guns and to obtain ultracold electrons for ultrafast electron diffraction applications.

  12. Near atomically smooth alkali antimonide photocathode thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Jun; Karkare, Siddharth; Nasiatka, James

    Nano-roughness is one of the major factors degrading the emittance of electron beams that can be generated by high efficiency photocathodes, such as the thermally reacted alkali antimonide thin films. In this paper, we demonstrate a co-deposition based method for producing alkali antimonide cathodes that produce near atomic smoothness with high reproducibility. Here, we calculate the effect of the surface roughness on the emittance and show that such smooth cathode surfaces are essential for operation of alkali antimonide cathodes in high field, low emittance radio frequency electron guns and to obtain ultracold electrons for ultrafast electron diffraction applications.

  13. Methods and electrolytes for electrodeposition of smooth films

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu; Graff, Gordon L; Chen, Xilin; Ding, Fei; Shao, Yuyan

    2015-03-17

    Electrodeposition involving an electrolyte having a surface-smoothing additive can result in self-healing, instead of self-amplification, of initial protuberant tips that give rise to roughness and/or dendrite formation on the substrate and/or film surface. For electrodeposition of a first conductive material (C1) on a substrate from one or more reactants in an electrolyte solution, the electrolyte solution is characterized by a surface-smoothing additive containing cations of a second conductive material (C2), wherein cations of C2 have an effective electrochemical reduction potential in the solution lower than that of the reactants.

  14. Contextual effects on motion perception and smooth pursuit eye movements.

    PubMed

    Spering, Miriam; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2008-08-15

    Smooth pursuit eye movements are continuous, slow rotations of the eyes that allow us to follow the motion of a visual object of interest. These movements are closely related to sensory inputs from the visual motion processing system. To track a moving object in the natural environment, its motion first has to be segregated from the motion signals provided by surrounding stimuli. Here, we review experiments on the effect of the visual context on motion processing with a focus on the relationship between motion perception and smooth pursuit eye movements. While perception and pursuit are closely linked, we show that they can behave quite distinctly when required by the visual context.

  15. A new seamless, smooth, interior, absorptive finishing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antonio, Peter

    2003-04-01

    Architects and acousticians have sought a field-applied, absorptive finishing system that resembles a smooth plaster or painted drywall surface, since the dawn of architectural acoustics. Some success has been achieved using sprayed cellulose or cementitious materials, but surface smoothness has been a challenge. A new approach utilizing a thin microporous layer of mineral particles applied over a mineral wool panel will be described. This material can be applied to almost any shape surface, internally pigmented to match almost any color and renovated. It is currently finding application in many architectural applications, including museums. A recent installation in the New Pinakothek Museum in Munich will be illustrated.

  16. The computation of Laplacian smoothing splines with examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wendelberger, J. G.

    1982-01-01

    Laplacian smoothing splines (LSS) are presented as generalizations of graduation, cubic and thin plate splines. The method of generalized cross validation (GCV) to choose the smoothing parameter is described. The GCV is used in the algorithm for the computation of LSS's. An outline of a computer program which implements this algorithm is presented along with a description of the use of the program. Examples in one, two and three dimensions demonstrate how to obtain estimates of function values with confidence intervals and estimates of first and second derivatives. Probability plots are used as a diagnostic tool to check for model inadequacy.

  17. Porcine Stomach Smooth Muscle Force Depends on History-Effects

    PubMed Central

    Tomalka, André; Borsdorf, Mischa; Böl, Markus; Siebert, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    The stomach serves as food reservoir, mixing organ and absorption area for certain substances, while continually varying its position and size. Large dimensional changes during ingestion and gastric emptying of the stomach are associated with large changes in smooth muscle length. These length changes might induce history-effects, namely force depression (FD) following active muscle shortening and force enhancement (FE) following active muscle stretch. Both effects have impact on the force generating capacity of the stomach, and thus functional relevance. However, less is known about history-effects and active smooth muscle properties of stomach smooth muscle. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate biomechanical muscle properties as force-length and force-velocity relations (FVR) of porcine stomach smooth muscle strips, extended by the analysis of history-effects on smooth muscle force. Therefore, in total n = 54 tissue strips were dissected in longitudinal direction from the ventral fundus of porcine stomachs. Different isometric, isotonic, and isokinetic contraction protocols were performed during electrical muscle stimulation. Cross-sectional areas (CSA) of smooth muscles were determined from cryo-histological sections stained with Picrosirius Red. Results revealed that maximum smooth muscle tension was 10.4 ± 2.6 N/cm2. Maximum shortening velocity (Vmax) and curvature factor (curv) of the FVR were 0.04 ± 0.01 [optimum muscle length/s] and 0.36 ± 0.15, respectively. The findings of the present study demonstrated significant (P < 0.05) FD [up to 32% maximum muscle force (Fim)] and FE (up to 16% Fim) of gastric muscle tissue, respectively. The FE- and FD-values increased with increasing ramp amplitude. This outstanding muscle behavior is not accounted for in existing models so far and strongly supports the idea of a holistic reflection of distinct stomach structure and function. For the first time this study provides a comprehensive set of stomach

  18. Oxytocin receptors expressed and coupled to Ca2+ signalling in a human vascular smooth muscle cell line.

    PubMed

    Yazawa, H; Hirasawa, A; Horie, K; Saita, Y; Iida, E; Honda, K; Tsujimoto, G

    1996-03-01

    1. In a human vascular smooth muscle cell line (HVSMC), binding experiments with [3H]-arginine8-vasopressin (AVP) have shown the existence of a homogeneous population of binding sites with affinity (Kd value) of 0.65 nM and a maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) of 122 fmol mg-1 protein. 2. Nonlabelled compounds compete for [3H]-AVP binding in the HVSMC membrane with an order of potency of oxytocin > lyspressin > or = AVP > Thr4, Gly7-oxytocin > (beta-mercapto-beta-beta-cyclopentamethylenepropionyl-O-Me Tyr2, Arg8) vasopressin > desmopressin > OPC21268 > OPC31260. This order was markedly different from that observed in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (A10), a well-established V1A receptor system. 3. In HVSMC both oxytocin and AVP increased inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) production and [Ca2+]i response, but the efficacy of the responses was greater for oxytocin than AVP. 4. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay detected only oxytocin receptor but not V1A or V2 receptors in HVSMC, whereas only V1A receptors were found in A10 cells. 5. In conclusion, in HVSMC only oxytocin receptors are expressed among the vasopressin receptor family, and they coupled to phosphatidyl inositol (PI) turnover/Ca2+ signalling. This unexpected observation should provide new insight into the functional role of the oxytocin receptor in a human vascular smooth muscle cell line.

  19. Comparison of gel contraction mediated by airway smooth muscle cells from patients with and without asthma.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hisako; Moir, Lyn M; Oliver, Brian G G; Burgess, Janette K; Roth, Michael; Black, Judith L; McParland, Brent E

    2007-10-01

    Exaggerated bronchial constriction is the most significant and life threatening response of patients with asthma to inhaled stimuli. However, few studies have investigated the contractility of airway smooth muscle (ASM) from these patients. The purpose of this study was to establish a method to measure contraction of ASM cells by embedding them into a collagen gel, and to compare the contraction between subjects with and without asthma. Gel contraction to histamine was examined in floating gels containing cultured ASM cells from subjects with and without asthma following overnight incubation while unattached (method 1) or attached (method 2) to casting plates. Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase protein levels were also examined. Collagen gels containing ASM cells reduced in size when stimulated with histamine in a concentration-dependent manner and reached a maximum at a mean (SE) of 15.7 (1.2) min. This gel contraction was decreased by inhibitors for phospholipase C (U73122), myosin light chain kinase (ML-7) and Rho kinase (Y27632). When comparing the two patient groups, the maximal decreased area of gels containing ASM cells from patients with asthma was 19 (2)% (n = 8) using method 1 and 22 (3)% (n = 6) using method 2, both of which were greater than that of cells from patients without asthma: 13 (2)% (n = 9, p = 0.05) and 10 (4)% (n = 5, p = 0.024), respectively. Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase levels were not different between the two groups. The increased contraction of asthmatic ASM cells may be responsible for exaggerated bronchial constriction in asthma.

  20. Myosin light chain kinase controls voltage-dependent calcium channels in vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, A; Schakman, O; Yerna, X; Dessy, C; Morel, N

    2014-07-01

    The Ca(2+)-dependent kinase myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) is the activator of smooth muscle contraction. In addition, it has been reported to be involved in Ca(2+) channel regulation in cultured cells, and we previously showed that the MLCK inhibitor ML-7 decreases arginine vasopressin (AVP)-induced Ca(2+) influx in rat aorta. This study was designed to investigate whether MLCK is involved in Ca(2+) regulation in resistance artery smooth muscle cell, which plays a major role in the control of blood pressure. As ML compounds were shown to have off-target effects, MLCK was downregulated by transfection with a small interfering RNA targeting MLCK (MLCK-siRNA) in rat small resistance mesenteric artery (RMA) and in the rat embryonic aortic cell line A7r5. Noradrenaline-induced contraction and Ca(2+) signal were significantly depressed in MLCK-siRNA compared to scramble-siRNA-transfected RMA. Contraction and Ca(2+) signal induced by high KCl and voltage-activated Ca(2+) current were also significantly decreased in MLCK-siRNA-transfected RMA, suggesting that MLCK depletion modifies voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels. KCl- and AVP-induced Ca(2+) signals and voltage-activated Ca(2+) current were decreased in MLCK-depleted A7r5 cells. Eventually, real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that in A7r5, MLCK controlled mRNA expression of CaV1.2 (L-type) and CaV3.1 (T-type) voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels. Our results suggest that MLCK controls the transcription of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells.

  1. Interleukin-4 activates large-conductance, calciumactivated potassium (BKCa) channels in human airway smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Gilles; O’Connell, Robert J.; Pietrzykowski, Andrzej Z.; Treistman, Steven N.; Ethier, Michael F.; Madison, J. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channels are regulated by voltage and near-membrane calcium concentrations and are determinants of membrane potential and excitability in airway smooth muscle cells. Since the T helper–2 (Th2) cytokine, interleukin (IL)-4, is an important mediator of airway inflammation, we investigated whether IL-4 rapidly regulated BKCa activity in normal airway smooth muscle cells. On-cell voltage clamp recordings were made on subconfluent, cultured human bronchial smooth muscle cells (HBSMC). Interleukin-4 (50 ng ml−1), IL-13 (50 ng ml−1) or histamine (10 μm) was added to the bath during the recordings. Immunofluorescence studies with selective antibodies against the α and β1 subunits of BKCa were also performed. Both approaches demonstrated that HBSMC membranes contained large-conductance channels (>200 pS) with both calcium and voltage sensitivity, all of which is characteristic of the BKCa channel. Histamine caused a rapid increase in channel activity, as expected. A new finding was that perfusion with IL-4 stimulated rapid, large increases in BKCa channel activity (77.2 ± 63.3-fold increase, P < 0.05, n = 18). This large potentiation depended on the presence of external calcium. In contrast, IL-13 (50 ng ml−1) had little effect on BKCa channel activity, but inhibited the effect of IL-4. Thus, HBSMC contain functional BKCa channels whose activity is rapidly potentiated by the cytokine, IL-4, but not by IL-13.These findings are consistent with a model in which IL-4 rapidly increases near-membrane calcium concentrations to regulate BKCa activity. PMID:18403443

  2. Guiding the orientation of smooth muscle cells on random and aligned polyurethane/collagen nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lin; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Qin, Xiaohong; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2014-09-01

    Fabricating scaffolds that can simulate the architecture and functionality of native extracellular matrix is a huge challenge in vascular tissue engineering. Various kinds of materials are engineered via nano-technological approaches to meet the current challenges in vascular tissue regeneration. During this study, nanofibers from pure polyurethane and hybrid polyurethane/collagen in two different morphologies (random and aligned) and in three different ratios of polyurethane:collagen (75:25; 50:50; 25:75) are fabricated by electrospinning. The fiber diameters of the nanofibrous scaffolds are in the range of 174-453 nm and 145-419 for random and aligned fibers, respectively, where they closely mimic the nanoscale dimensions of native extracellular matrix. The aligned polyurethane/collagen nanofibers expressed anisotropic wettability with mechanical properties which is suitable for regeneration of the artery. After 12 days of human aortic smooth muscle cells culture on different scaffolds, the proliferation of smooth muscle cells on hybrid polyurethane/collagen (3:1) nanofibers was 173% and 212% higher than on pure polyurethane scaffolds for random and aligned scaffolds, respectively. The results of cell morphology and protein staining showed that the aligned polyurethane/collagen (3:1) scaffold promote smooth muscle cells alignment through contact guidance, while the random polyurethane/collagen (3:1) also guided cell orientation most probably due to the inherent biochemical composition. Our studies demonstrate the potential of aligned and random polyurethane/collagen (3:1) as promising substrates for vascular tissue regeneration. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. 7 CFR 51.772 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and not coarse for the variety and size of the fruit. “Fairly thin” means that the skin thickness does not average more than 1/2 inch (12.7...

  4. 7 CFR 51.772 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and not coarse for the variety and size of the fruit. “Fairly thin” means that the skin thickness does not average more than 1/2 inch (12.7...

  5. Smoothed Residual Plots for Generalized Linear Models. Technical Report #450.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brant, Rollin

    Methods for examining the viability of assumptions underlying generalized linear models are considered. By appealing to the likelihood, a natural generalization of the raw residual plot for normal theory models is derived and is applied to investigating potential misspecification of the linear predictor. A smooth version of the plot is also…

  6. Singular perturbation of smoothly evolving Hele-Shaw solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, M.; Tanveer, S.

    1996-01-01

    We present analytical scaling results, confirmed by accurate numerics, to show that there exists a class of smoothly evolving zero surface tension solutions to the Hele-Shaw problem that are significantly perturbed by an arbitrarily small amount of surface tension in order one time. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  7. Invariant Geometric Evolutions of Surfaces and Volumetric Smoothing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-15

    1991. [40] D. G. Lowe, "Organization of smooth image curves at multiple scales," International Journal of Computer Vision 3, pp. 119-130, 1989. [41] E ... Lutwak , "On some affine isoperimetric inequalities," J. Differential Geometry 23, pp. 1-13, 1986. [42] F. Mokhatarian and A. Mackworth, "A theory of

  8. Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements: Is Perceived Motion Necessary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Arien; And Others

    1979-01-01

    It has recently been shown that perceived motion, in the absence of any appropriate retinal motion, is a sufficient stimulus to generate smooth pursuit eye motions. However, three experiments show that perceived motion is not necessary for pursuit, but that retinal motion always governs pursuit. (BB)

  9. Easy Songs for Smooth Transitions in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Nina; Aghayan, Carol

    2006-01-01

    Young children in school go through 16 to 20 transitions every day. What can make 10 children settle down, clean up, and move from room to room without protest? Even if you are uncomfortable singing in public, the simple songs in this book will help you glide smoothly through tough transitions such as greetings and good-byes, calling attention,…

  10. Smooth plains on Mercury. A comparison with Vesta.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambon, F.; Capaccioni, F.; Carli, C.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Filacchione, G.; Giacomini, L.

    Mercury, the closest planet to the Sun, has been visited by the MESSENGER spacecraft \\citet{solomon2007}. After 3 years of orbit around Mercury a global coverage of the surface has been done revealing that ∼27% of Mercury's surface is covered by smooth plains \\citet{denevi2013}. Large part of Mercury's smooth plain (SP) seems to have volcanic origin. Different composition has been observed, most of the SP have a magnesian alkali-basalt-like composition, while some of them have been interpreted as ultramafic. A further 2% of smooth plains have been identified as Odin-type plains and represent the knobby and hummocky plains surrounding the Caloris basin \\citet{denevi2013}. Application of classification methods \\citet{adams2006} applied to color image data of the MESSENGER wide angle camera (MDIS-WAC) \\citet{MDIS} and a spectral analysis of the spec- trometer data (MASCS-VIRS) \\citet{MASCS} are useful to highlight the differences in composition of the smooth planes. A compa rison between Mercury's SP and those of other solar system bodies, such as Vesta \\citet{desanctis2012}, reveals useful to obtain information on the origin and the evolution of this bodies.

  11. Optimization of conditions for thermal smoothing GaAs surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhundov, I. O.; Kazantsev, D. M.; Kozhuhov, A. S.; Alperovich, V. L.

    2018-03-01

    GaAs thermal smoothing by annealing in conditions which are close to equilibrium between the surface and vapors of As and Ga was earlier proved to be effective for the step-terraced surface formation on epi-ready substrates with a small root-mean-square roughness (Rq ≤ 0.15 nm). In the present study, this technique is further developed in order to reduce the annealing duration and to smooth GaAs samples with a larger initial roughness. To this end, we proposed a two-stage anneal with the first high-temperature stage aimed at smoothing "coarse" relief features and the second stage focused on "fine" smoothing at a lower temperature. The optimal temperatures and durations of two-stage annealing are found by Monte Carlo simulations and adjusted after experimentation. It is proved that the temperature and duration of the first high-temperature stage are restricted by the surface roughening, which occurs due to deviations from equilibrium conditions.

  12. Likelihood Methods for Adaptive Filtering and Smoothing. Technical Report #455.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Ronald W.

    The dynamic linear model or Kalman filtering model provides a useful methodology for predicting the past, present, and future states of a dynamic system, such as an object in motion or an economic or social indicator that is changing systematically with time. Recursive likelihood methods for adaptive Kalman filtering and smoothing are developed.…

  13. Wide-band array signal processing via spectral smoothing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Guanghan; Kailath, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    A novel algorithm for the estimation of direction-of-arrivals (DOA) of multiple wide-band sources via spectral smoothing is presented. The proposed algorithm does not require an initial DOA estimate or a specific signal model. The advantages of replacing the MUSIC search with an ESPRIT search are discussed.

  14. Modified Kneser-Ney Smoothing of n-Gram Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Frankie

    2000-01-01

    This report examines a series of tests that were performed on variations of the modified Kneser Ney smoothing model outlined in a study by Chen and Goodman. We explore several different ways of choosing and setting the discounting parameters, as well as the exclusion of singleton contexts at various levels of the model.

  15. Congenital smooth muscle hamartoma of the palpebral conjunctiva.

    PubMed

    Mora, L Evelyn; Rodríguez-Reyes, Abelardo A; Vera, Ana M; Rubio, Rosa Isela; Mayorquín-Ruiz, Mariana; Salcedo, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Smooth muscle hamartoma is defined as a disorganized focus or an overgrowth of mature smooth muscle, generally with low capacity of autonomous growth and benign behavior. The implicated tissues are mature and proliferate in a disorganized fashion. A healthy 5-day-old Mexican boy was referred to the authors' hospital in México city for evaluation of a "cystic" lesion of the right eye that had been noted since birth. The pregnancy and delivery were unremarkable. On physical examination, there was a reddish-pink soft lesion with a tender "cystic" appearance, which was probably emerging from the upper eyelid conjunctiva, which measured 2.7 cm in its widest diameter and transilluminated. Ultrasound imaging revealed an anterior "cystic" lesion with normally formed phakic eye. An excisional biopsy was performed, and the lesion was dissected from the upper tarsal subconjunctival space. Subsequent histologic and immunohistochemical findings were consistent with the diagnosis of congenital smooth muscle hamartoma (CSMH) of the tarsal conjunctiva. The authors' research revealed that only one case of CSMH localized in the conjunctiva (Roper GJ, Smith MS, Lueder GT. Congenital smooth muscle hamartoma of the conjunctival fornix. Am J Ophthalmol. 1999;128:643-4) has been reported to date in the literature. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this current case would be the second case reported of CSMH in this anatomic location. Therefore, the authors' recommendation is to include CSMH in the differential diagnosis of a cystic mass that presents in the fornix and palpebral conjunctiva.

  16. Launch Environment Water Flow Simulations Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Bruce T.; Berg, Jared J.; Harris, Michael F.; Crespo, Alejandro C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the use of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) to simulate the water flow from the rainbird nozzle system used in the sound suppression system during pad abort and nominal launch. The simulations help determine if water from rainbird nozzles will impinge on the rocket nozzles and other sensitive ground support elements.

  17. Smoothing Polymer Surfaces by Solvent-Vapor Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthamatten, Mitchell

    2003-03-01

    Ultra-smooth polymer surfaces are of great importance in a large body of technical applications such as optical coatings, supermirrors, waveguides, paints, and fusion targets. We are investigating a simple approach to controlling surface roughness: by temporarily swelling the polymer with solvent molecules. As the solvent penetrates into the polymer, its viscosity is lowered, and surface tension forces drive surface flattening. To investigate sorption kinetics and surface-smoothing phenomena, a series of vapor-deposited poly(amic acid) films were exposed to dimethyl sulfoxide vapors. During solvent exposure, the surface topology was continuously monitored using light interference microscopy. The resulting power spectra indicate that high-frequency defects smooth faster than low-frequency defects. This frequency dependence was studied by depositing polymer films onto a series of 2D sinusoidal surfaces and performing smoothing experiments. Results show that the amplitudes of the sinusoidal surfaces decay exponentially with solvent exposure time, and the exponential decay constants are proportional to surface frequency. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  18. [Intrarenal smooth muscle: histology of a complex urodymamic machine].

    PubMed

    Arias, L F; Ortiz-Arango, N

    2013-03-01

    To know better the microscopic arrangement of the bundles of smooth muscle in the human renal parenchyma, their distribution and anatomical relationships, trying to make a reconstruction of this muscular system. Five adult human kidneys and one fetal kidney were processed "in toto" with cross sections every 300μm. In the histological sections we identify the smooth muscle fibers trying to determine its insertion, course and anatomical relationship with other structures of the kidney tissue. There are bundles of smooth muscle fibers of variable thickness parallel to the edges of the medullary pyramids, bundles that surrounding the medulla in a spiral course, and bundles that accompany arcuate vessels, the latter being the most abundant and easy to identify. These groups of muscle fibers do not have a precise or constant insertion site, their periodicity is not homogeneous and they are not a direct extension of the muscle of the renal pelvis, although some bundles are in contact with it. There are also unusual and inconstant small muscle fibers no associated to vessels in the interstitium of the cortex and, exceptionally, in the medulla. There is a complex microscopic system of smooth muscle fibers that partially surround the renal medulla and are related to renal pelvic muscles without a direct continuity with them. Although this small muscular system is under-recognized, could be very important in urodynamics. Copyright © 2012 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. 7 CFR 51.772 - Fairly smooth texture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and not coarse for the variety and size of the fruit. “Fairly thin” means that the skin thickness does not average more than 1/2 inch (12.7...

  20. Water Flow Simulation using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Bruce; Berg, Jared; Harris, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Simulation of water flow from the rainbird nozzles has been accomplished using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). The advantage of using SPH is that no meshing is required, thus the grid quality is no longer an issue and accuracy can be improved.

  1. Beta-function B-spline smoothing on triangulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechevsky, Lubomir T.; Zanaty, Peter

    2013-03-01

    In this work we investigate a novel family of Ck-smooth rational basis functions on triangulations for fitting, smoothing, and denoising geometric data. The introduced basis function is closely related to a recently introduced general method introduced in utilizing generalized expo-rational B-splines, which provides Ck-smooth convex resolutions of unity on very general disjoint partitions and overlapping covers of multidimensional domains with complex geometry. One of the major advantages of this new triangular construction is its locality with respect to the star-1 neighborhood of the vertex on which the said base is providing Hermite interpolation. This locality of the basis functions can be in turn utilized in adaptive methods, where, for instance a local refinement of the underlying triangular mesh affects only the refined domain, whereas, in other method one needs to investigate what changes are occurring outside of the refined domain. Both the triangular and the general smooth constructions have the potential to become a new versatile tool of Computer Aided Geometric Design (CAGD), Finite and Boundary Element Analysis (FEA/BEA) and Iso-geometric Analysis (IGA).

  2. Rapid Structured Volume Grid Smoothing and Adaption Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    A rapid, structured volume grid smoothing and adaption technique, based on signal processing methods, was developed and applied to the Shuttle Orbiter at hypervelocity flight conditions in support of the Columbia Accident Investigation. Because of the fast pace of the investigation, computational aerothermodynamicists, applying hypersonic viscous flow solving computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes, refined and enhanced a grid for an undamaged baseline vehicle to assess a variety of damage scenarios. Of the many methods available to modify a structured grid, most are time-consuming and require significant user interaction. By casting the grid data into different coordinate systems, specifically two computational coordinates with arclength as the third coordinate, signal processing methods are used for filtering the data [Taubin, CG v/29 1995]. Using a reverse transformation, the processed data are used to smooth the Cartesian coordinates of the structured grids. By coupling the signal processing method with existing grid operations within the Volume Grid Manipulator tool, problems related to grid smoothing are solved efficiently and with minimal user interaction. Examples of these smoothing operations are illustrated for reductions in grid stretching and volume grid adaptation. In each of these examples, other techniques existed at the time of the Columbia accident, but the incorporation of signal processing techniques reduced the time to perform the corrections by nearly 60%. This reduction in time to perform the corrections therefore enabled the assessment of approximately twice the number of damage scenarios than previously possible during the allocated investigation time.

  3. Rapid Structured Volume Grid Smoothing and Adaption Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    A rapid, structured volume grid smoothing and adaption technique, based on signal processing methods, was developed and applied to the Shuttle Orbiter at hypervelocity flight conditions in support of the Columbia Accident Investigation. Because of the fast pace of the investigation, computational aerothermodynamicists, applying hypersonic viscous flow solving computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes, refined and enhanced a grid for an undamaged baseline vehicle to assess a variety of damage scenarios. Of the many methods available to modify a structured grid, most are time-consuming and require significant user interaction. By casting the grid data into different coordinate systems, specifically two computational coordinates with arclength as the third coordinate, signal processing methods are used for filtering the data [Taubin, CG v/29 1995]. Using a reverse transformation, the processed data are used to smooth the Cartesian coordinates of the structured grids. By coupling the signal processing method with existing grid operations within the Volume Grid Manipulator tool, problems related to grid smoothing are solved efficiently and with minimal user interaction. Examples of these smoothing operations are illustrated for reduction in grid stretching and volume grid adaptation. In each of these examples, other techniques existed at the time of the Columbia accident, but the incorporation of signal processing techniques reduced the time to perform the corrections by nearly 60%. This reduction in time to perform the corrections therefore enabled the assessment of approximately twice the number of damage scenarios than previously possible during the allocated investigation time.

  4. Notice of Release: 'Stress tolerant smooth bromegrass STSB'

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture announces the release of a stress tolerant smooth bromegrass (STSB) [Bromus inermys, Leyss.] germplasm (PI xxxx) developed by Dr. Bryan K. Kindiger at the USDA-ARS Grazinglands Research Laboratory, El Reno, OK 73036. STSB is release...

  5. Lycee Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Regine; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes a recent French national survey about the cultural behavior of lycee students. Points out the internal diversity of the lycee population in cultural practices. Argues that an adolescent culture exists; identifies an upper secondary school culture; and defines its relationship with mass, classical, or class cultures. (NL)

  6. Metabolism of native and naturally occurring multiple modified low density lipoprotein in smooth muscle cells of human aortic intima.

    PubMed

    Tertov, V V; Orekhov, A N

    1997-01-01

    The subfraction of low density lipoprotein (LDL) with low sialic acid content that caused accumulation of cholesterol esters in human aortic smooth muscle cells has been found in the blood of coronary atherosclerosis patients. It was demonstrated that this subfraction consists of LDL with small size, high electronegative charge, reduced lipid content, altered tertiary structure of apolipoprotein B, etc. LDL of this subfraction is naturally occurring multiple-modified LDL (nomLDL). In this study we compared the binding, uptake and proteolytic degradation of native LDL and nomLDL by smooth muscle cells cultured from human grossly normal intima, fatty streaks, and atherosclerotic plaques. Uptake of nomLDL by normal and atherosclerotic cells was 3.5- and 6-fold, respectively, higher than uptake of native LDL. Increased uptake of nomLDL was due to increased binding of this LDL by intimal smooth muscle cells. The enhanced binding is explained by the interaction of nomLDL with cellular receptors other than LDL-receptor. Modified LDL interacted with the scavenger receptor, asialoglycoprotein receptor, and also with cell surface proteoglycans. Rates of degradation of nomLDL were 1.5- and 5-fold lower than degradation of native LDL by normal and atherosclerotic cells, respectively. A low rate of nomLDL degradation was also demonstrated in homogenates of intimal cells. Activities of lysosomal proteinases of atherosclerotic cells were decreased compared with normal cells. Pepstatin A, a cathepsin D inhibitor, completely inhibited lipoprotein degradation, while serine, thiol, or metallo-proteinase inhibitors had partial effect. This fact reveals that cathepsin D is involved in initial stages of apoB degradation by intimal smooth muscle cells. Obtained data show that increased uptake and decreased lysosomal degradation of nomLDL may be the main cause of LDL accumulation in human aortic smooth muscle cells, leading to foam cell formation.

  7. Smoothed Spectra, Ogives, and Error Estimates for Atmospheric Turbulence Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Nelson Luís

    2018-01-01

    A systematic evaluation is conducted of the smoothed spectrum, which is a spectral estimate obtained by averaging over a window of contiguous frequencies. The technique is extended to the ogive, as well as to the cross-spectrum. It is shown that, combined with existing variance estimates for the periodogram, the variance—and therefore the random error—associated with these estimates can be calculated in a straightforward way. The smoothed spectra and ogives are biased estimates; with simple power-law analytical models, correction procedures are devised, as well as a global constraint that enforces Parseval's identity. Several new results are thus obtained: (1) The analytical variance estimates compare well with the sample variance calculated for the Bartlett spectrum and the variance of the inertial subrange of the cospectrum is shown to be relatively much larger than that of the spectrum. (2) Ogives and spectra estimates with reduced bias are calculated. (3) The bias of the smoothed spectrum and ogive is shown to be negligible at the higher frequencies. (4) The ogives and spectra thus calculated have better frequency resolution than the Bartlett spectrum, with (5) gradually increasing variance and relative error towards the low frequencies. (6) Power-law identification and extraction of the rate of dissipation of turbulence kinetic energy are possible directly from the ogive. (7) The smoothed cross-spectrum is a valid inner product and therefore an acceptable candidate for coherence and spectral correlation coefficient estimation by means of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. The quadrature, phase function, coherence function and spectral correlation function obtained from the smoothed spectral estimates compare well with the classical ones derived from the Bartlett spectrum.

  8. Tachykinin receptor expression and function in human esophageal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Jason R; Chrones, Tom; Preiksaitis, Harold G; Sims, Stephen M

    2006-08-01

    Tachykinins are present in enteric nerves of the gastrointestinal tract and cause contraction of esophageal smooth muscle; however, the mechanisms involved are not understood. Our aim was to characterize tachykinin signaling in human esophageal smooth muscle. We investigated functional effects of tachykinins on human esophageal smooth muscle using tension recordings and isolated cells, receptor expression with reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunoblotting, intracellular Ca2+ responses using fluorescent indicator dyes, and membrane currents with patch-clamp electrophysiology. The mammalian tachykinins [substance P and neurokinin (NK) A and NKB] elicited concentration-dependent contractions of human esophageal smooth muscle. These responses were not affected by muscarinic receptor or neuronal blockade indicating a direct effect on smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Immunofluorescence and RT-PCR identified tachykinin receptors (NK1, NK2, and NK3) on SMCs. Contraction was mediated through a combination of Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and influx through L-type Ca2+ channels. NK2 receptor blockade inhibited the largest proportion of tachykinin-evoked responses. NKA evoked a nonselective cation current (I(NSC)) with properties similar to that elicited by muscarinic stimulation. The following paradigm is suggested: tachykinin receptor binding to SMCs releases Ca2+ from stores along with activation of I(NSC), which in turn results in membrane depolarization, L-type Ca2+ channel opening, rise of Ca2+ concentration, and contraction. These studies reveal new aspects of tachykinin signaling in human esophageal SMCs. Excitatory tachykinin pathways may represent targets for pharmacological intervention in disorders of esophageal dysmotility.

  9. Weak Measurement and Quantum Smoothing of a Superconducting Qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Dian

    In quantum mechanics, the measurement outcome of an observable in a quantum system is intrinsically random, yielding a probability distribution. The state of the quantum system can be described by a density matrix rho(t), which depends on the information accumulated until time t, and represents our knowledge about the system. The density matrix rho(t) gives probabilities for the outcomes of measurements at time t. Further probing of the quantum system allows us to refine our prediction in hindsight. In this thesis, we experimentally examine a quantum smoothing theory in a superconducting qubit by introducing an auxiliary matrix E(t) which is conditioned on information obtained from time t to a final time T. With the complete information before and after time t, the pair of matrices [rho(t), E(t)] can be used to make smoothed predictions for the measurement outcome at time t. We apply the quantum smoothing theory in the case of continuous weak measurement unveiling the retrodicted quantum trajectories and weak values. In the case of strong projective measurement, while the density matrix rho(t) with only diagonal elements in a given basis |n〉 may be treated as a classical mixture, we demonstrate a failure of this classical mixture description in determining the smoothed probabilities for the measurement outcome at time t with both diagonal rho(t) and diagonal E(t). We study the correlations between quantum states and weak measurement signals and examine aspects of the time symmetry of continuous quantum measurement. We also extend our study of quantum smoothing theory to the case of resonance fluorescence of a superconducting qubit with homodyne measurement and observe some interesting effects such as the modification of the excited state probabilities, weak values, and evolution of the predicted and retrodicted trajectories.

  10. Concurrent generation of functional smooth muscle and endothelial cells via a vascular progenitor.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Melanie; Anderson, Erica K; Phadnis, Smruti M; Longaker, Michael T; Cooke, John P; Chen, Bertha; Reijo Pera, Renee A

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) are typically derived separately, with low efficiencies, from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). The concurrent generation of these cell types might lead to potential applications in regenerative medicine to model, elucidate, and eventually treat vascular diseases. Here we report a robust two-step protocol that can be used to simultaneously generate large numbers of functional SMCs and ECs from a common proliferative vascular progenitor population via a two-dimensional culture system. We show here that coculturing hPSCs with OP9 cells in media supplemented with vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and bone morphogenetic protein 4 yields a higher percentage of CD31(+)CD34(+) cells on day 8 of differentiation. Upon exposure to endothelial differentiation media and SM differentiation media, these vascular progenitors were able to differentiate and mature into functional endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells, respectively. Furthermore, we were able to expand the intermediate population more than a billion fold to generate sufficient numbers of ECs and SMCs in parallel for potential therapeutic transplantations.

  11. Thin-film dielectric elastomer sensors to measure the contraction force of smooth muscle cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araromi, O.; Poulin, A.; Rosset, S.; Favre, M.; Giazzon, M.; Martin-Olmos, C.; Liley, M.; Shea, H.

    2015-04-01

    The development of thin-film dielectric elastomer strain sensors for the characterization of smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction is presented here. Smooth muscle disorders are an integral part of diseases such as asthma and emphysema. Analytical tools enabling the characterization of SMC function i.e. contractile force and strain, in a low-cost and highly parallelized manner are necessary for toxicology screening and for the development of new and more effective drugs. The main challenge with the design of such tools is the accurate measurement of the extremely low contractile cell forces expected as a result of SMC monolayer contraction (as low as ~ 100 μN). Our approach utilizes ultrathin (~5 μm) and soft elastomer membranes patterned with elastomer-carbon composite electrodes, onto which the SMCs are cultured. The cell contraction induces an in-plane strain in the elastomer membrane, predicted to be in the order 1 %, which can be measured via the change in the membrane capacitance. The cell force can subsequently be deduced knowing the mechanical properties of the elastomer membrane. We discuss the materials and fabrication methods selected for our system and present preliminary results indicating their biocompatibility. We fabricate functional capacitive senor prototypes with good signal stability over the several hours (~ 0.5% variation). We succeed in measuring in-plane strains of 1 % with our fabricated devices with good repeatability and signal to noise ratio.

  12. Wrinkled alfalfa seeds harbor more aerobic bacteria and are more difficult to sanitize than smooth seeds.

    PubMed

    Charkowski, A O; Sarreal, C Z; Mandrell, R E

    2001-09-01

    At least 14 separate outbreaks of food poisoning attributed to either Salmonella enterica or Escherichia coli O157:H7 have been traced to sprouts in the past decade. Seeds contaminated with human pathogens caused most of these outbreaks, thus many sprout growers are now treating alfalfa seeds with the sanitizing agent, calcium hypochlorite (Ca[OCl]2), prior to sprouting. The efficacy of alfalfa seed sanitation varies between seed lots and between seeds within each lot. Alfalfa seeds from different seed lots were sorted by type in an effort to determine if certain seed types carry more aerobic bacteria than other seed types. Seeds with a wrinkled type, characteristic of lygus bug damage, had significantly higher levels of culturable aerobic bacteria and were more difficult to sanitize than smooth, healthy seeds. After sanitation, wrinkled alfalfa seeds that had been inoculated with S. enterica ser. Newport carried significantly higher levels of Salmonella Newport than smooth seeds. If S. enterica is present on wrinkled seeds in naturally contaminated seed lots, it may be difficult to chemically sanitize the seed lot. Removal of the wrinkled alfalfa seeds from the seed lots, perhaps by adapting color sorting equipment similar to that used to sort rice grains and other seeds, should reduce the level of aerobic bacteria in seed lots and may result in lower levels of human pathogens on contaminated alfalfa seeds.

  13. Ursolic acid suppresses leptin-induced cell proliferation in rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ya-Mei; Tsai, Chiang-Chin; Tzeng, Yu-Wen; Chang, Weng-Cheng; Chiang, Su-Yin; Lee, Ming-Fen

    2017-07-01

    Accumulating lines of evidence indicate that high leptin levels are associated with adverse cardiovascular health in obese individuals. Proatherogenic effects of leptin include endothelial cell activation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. Ursolic acid (UA) has been reported to exhibit multiple biological effects including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of UA on leptin-induced biological responses in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). A-10 VSMCs were treated with leptin in the presence or absence of UA. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was probed by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate. The expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, phospho-(ERK)1/2, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and p50, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) was determined by Western blotting. Immunocytochemistry and confocal laser scanning microscopy were also used for the detection of NF-κB. The secretion of MMP2 was detected by gelatin zymography. UA exhibited antioxidant activities in vitro. In rat VSMCs, UA effectively inhibited cell growth and the activity of MMP2 induced by leptin. These suppressive effects appeared by decreasing the activation of (ERK)1/2, the nuclear expression and translocation of NF-κB, and the production of ROS. UA appeared to inhibit leptin-induced atherosclerosis, which may prevent the development of obesity-induced cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Cultural Vignette: Mexican Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Mary Ellen; And Others

    Developed as part of a multicultural research project in the San Diego Community College District, this booklet presents the findings of a 10-member research team about various elements of Mexican-American culture. The areas covered are: (1) historical background on the Mexican heritage of the United States from pre-colonial times to the present…

  15. Inhibition of extracellular matrix production and remodeling by doxycycline in smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Palomino-Morales, Rogelio; Torres, Carolina; Perales, Sonia; Linares, Ana; Alejandre, Maria Jose

    2016-12-01

    Alterations in the extracellular matrix (ECM) production and remodeling of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) have been implicated in processes related to the differentiation in atherosclerosis. Due to the anti-atherosclerotic properties of the tetracyclines, we aimed to investigate whether cholesterol supplementation changes the effect of doxycycline over the ECM proteins synthesis and whether isoprenylated proteins and Rho A protein activation are affected. SMC primary culture isolated from chicks exposed to atherogenic factors in vivo (a cholesterol-rich diet, SMC-Ch), comparing it with control cultures isolated after a standard diet (SMC-C). After treatment with 20 nM doxycycline, [H 3 ]-proline and [H 3 ]-mevalonate incorporation were used to measure the synthesis of collagen and isoprenylated proteins, respectively. Real-time PCR was assessed to determine col1a2, col2a1, col3a1, fibronectin, and mmp2 gene expression and the pull-down technique was applied to determine the Rho A activation state. A higher synthesis of collagens and isoprenylated proteins in SMC-Ch than in SMC-C was determined showing that doxycycline inhibits ECM production and remodeling in both SMC types of cultures. Moreover, preliminary results about the effect of doxycycline on protein isoprenylation and Rho A protein activation led us to discuss the possibility that membrane G-protein activation pathways could mediate the molecular mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Pharmacological Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase and extracellular matrix deposition by smooth-muscle cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langford, Shannon D.; Trent, Margaret B.; Boor, Paul J.

    2002-01-01

    We have recently reported in vivo disruption of collagen and elastin architecture within blood vessel walls resulting from the selective inhibition of the enzyme semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO). This study further investigates the effects of SSAO inhibition on extracellular matrix deposition by smooth-muscle cells (SMCs) cultured from neonatal rat hearts. SMCs were characterized, SSAO activity was measured, and soluble and insoluble collagen and elastin in the extracellular matrix (ECM) were quantified. Cultured neonatal rat heart SMC exhibited a monotypic synthetic phenotype that likely represents a myofibroblast. Detectable levels of SSAO activity present throughout 30-d culture peaked at 7-14 d, coinciding with the production of ECM. The addition of enzyme inhibitors and alternate SSAO substrates (benzylamine) produced varied and, in some cases, marked changes in SSAO activity as well as in the composition of mature and soluble matrix components. Similar to our previous in vivo findings, in vitro SSAO inhibition produced aberrations in collagen and elastin deposition by heart SMC. Because changes in SSAO activity are associated with cardiovascular pathologic states, this enzyme may play a protective or modulating role by regulating ECM production during pathologic insult.

  17. Neurogenic vasoreactive response of human internal thoracic artery smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Canver, C C; Cooler, S D; Saban, R

    1997-09-01

    The interaction between primary afferent neurons containing neuropeptides and the vascular smooth muscle is incompletely understood. To explore the function of perivascular afferent neurons and to determine whether they produce local effects on vascular smooth muscle cells, we investigated the effects of acute capsaicin and substance P administration in vitro on human internal thoracic arteries (ITA). Vessels were obtained from patients undergoing coronary bypass or from multiorgan transplant donors. Fourteen ITA segments (5 mm wide) were suspended as rings between two stainless-steel stirrups in water-jacketed (37 degrees C) tissue baths under 2.5 to 3 g of basal tension. The tissue baths contained 10 mL physiological salt solution (PSS) of the following composition (mM): NaCl, 119; KCl, 4.7; NaH2PO4, 1.0; MgCl2, 0.5; CaCl2, 2.5; NaHCO3, 25; and glucose, 11; aerated continuously with 95% O2 and 5% CO2. Peptidase inhibitors (phosphoramidon and captopril) were added to PSS to decrease peptide degradation. Mechanical responses were measured isometrically and recorded on a polygraph via isotonic force transducers. Vessels were preconstricted with submaximal concentrations of norepinephrine. After the tension had stabilized, substance P or capsaicin was added cumulatively to the tissue bath. At the end of the experiments, the viability of ITA was verified by its responses to endothelial-dependent (acetylcholine) and endothelial-independent (sodium nitroprusside) vasodilators. In the endothelium-intact ITA segments, substance P produced relaxation of ITA smooth muscle while it induced slight contraction when the ITA was devoid of its endothelium (P = 0.0585). The addition of capsaicin to human ITA primarily produced contractile effects on the developed smooth muscle force. The capsaicin-induced contraction of the ITA smooth muscle was independent of endothelial cell integrity, although contraction was greater in the endothelium-intact ITA segments (P = 0.0165). The

  18. Inhibition of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by Gentiana lutea Root Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Kesavan, Rushendhiran; Potunuru, Uma Rani; Nastasijević, Branislav; T, Avaneesh; Joksić, Gordana; Dixit, Madhulika

    2013-01-01

    Gentiana lutea belonging to the Gentianaceae family of flowering plants are routinely used in traditional Serbian medicine for their beneficial gastro-intestinal and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the study was to determine whether aqueous root extracts of Gentiana lutea consisting of gentiopicroside, gentisin, bellidifolin-8-O-glucoside, demethylbellidifolin-8-O-glucoside, isovitexin, swertiamarin and amarogentin prevents proliferation of aortic smooth muscle cells in response to PDGF-BB. Cell proliferation and cell cycle analysis were performed based on alamar blue assay and propidium iodide labeling respectively. In primary cultures of rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs), PDGF-BB (20 ng/ml) induced a two-fold increase in cell proliferation which was significantly blocked by the root extract (1 mg/ml). The root extract also prevented the S-phase entry of synchronized cells in response to PDGF. Furthermore, PDGF-BB induced ERK1/2 activation and consequent increase in cellular nitric oxide (NO) levels were also blocked by the extract. These effects of extract were due to blockade of PDGF-BB induced expression of iNOS, cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Docking analysis of the extract components on MEK1, the upstream ERK1/2 activating kinase using AutoDock4, indicated a likely binding of isovitexin to the inhibitor binding site of MEK1. Experiments performed with purified isovitexin demonstrated that it successfully blocks PDGF-induced ERK1/2 activation and proliferation of RASMCs in cell culture. Thus, Gentiana lutea can provide novel candidates for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:23637826

  19. Inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by Gentiana lutea root extracts.

    PubMed

    Kesavan, Rushendhiran; Potunuru, Uma Rani; Nastasijević, Branislav; T, Avaneesh; Joksić, Gordana; Dixit, Madhulika

    2013-01-01

    Gentiana lutea belonging to the Gentianaceae family of flowering plants are routinely used in traditional Serbian medicine for their beneficial gastro-intestinal and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the study was to determine whether aqueous root extracts of Gentiana lutea consisting of gentiopicroside, gentisin, bellidifolin-8-O-glucoside, demethylbellidifolin-8-O-glucoside, isovitexin, swertiamarin and amarogentin prevents proliferation of aortic smooth muscle cells in response to PDGF-BB. Cell proliferation and cell cycle analysis were performed based on alamar blue assay and propidium iodide labeling respectively. In primary cultures of rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs), PDGF-BB (20 ng/ml) induced a two-fold increase in cell proliferation which was significantly blocked by the root extract (1 mg/ml). The root extract also prevented the S-phase entry of synchronized cells in response to PDGF. Furthermore, PDGF-BB induced ERK1/2 activation and consequent increase in cellular nitric oxide (NO) levels were also blocked by the extract. These effects of extract were due to blockade of PDGF-BB induced expression of iNOS, cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Docking analysis of the extract components on MEK1, the upstream ERK1/2 activating kinase using AutoDock4, indicated a likely binding of isovitexin to the inhibitor binding site of MEK1. Experiments performed with purified isovitexin demonstrated that it successfully blocks PDGF-induced ERK1/2 activation and proliferation of RASMCs in cell culture. Thus, Gentiana lutea can provide novel candidates for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis.

  20. Tumor necrosis factor regulates NMDA receptor-mediated airway smooth muscle contractile function and airway responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Anaparti, Vidyanand; Pascoe, Christopher D; Jha, Aruni; Mahood, Thomas H; Ilarraza, Ramses; Unruh, Helmut; Moqbel, Redwan; Halayko, Andrew J

    2016-08-01

    We have shown that N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDA-Rs) are receptor-operated calcium entry channels in human airway smooth muscle (HASM) during contraction. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) augments smooth muscle contractility by influencing pathways that regulate intracellular calcium flux and can alter NMDA-R expression and activity in cortical neurons and glial cells. We hypothesized that NMDA-R-mediated Ca(2+) and contractile responses of ASM can be altered by inflammatory mediators, including TNF. In cultured HASM cells, we assessed TNF (10 ng/ml, 48 h) effect on NMDA-R subunit abundance by quantitative PCR, confocal imaging, and immunoblotting. We observed dose- and time-dependent changes in NMDA-R composition: increased obligatory NR1 subunit expression and altered regulatory NR2 and inhibitory NR3 subunits. Measuring intracellular Ca(2+) flux in Fura-2-loaded HASM cultures, we observed that TNF exposure enhanced cytosolic Ca(2+) mobilization and changed the temporal pattern of Ca(2+) flux in individual myocytes induced by NMDA, an NMDA-R selective analog of glutamate. We measured airway responses to NMDA in murine thin-cut lung slices (TCLS) from allergen-naive animals and observed significant airway contraction. However, NMDA acted as a bronchodilator in TCLS from house dust mice-challenged mice and in allergen-naive TCLS subjected to TNF exposure. All contractile or bronchodilator responses were blocked by a selective NMDA-R antagonist, (2R)-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate, and bronchodilator responses were prevented by N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) or indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor). Collectively, we show that TNF augments NMDA-R-mediated Ca(2+) mobilization in HASM cells, whereas in multicellular TCLSs allergic inflammation and TNF exposure leads to NMDA-R-mediated bronchodilation. These findings reveal the unique contribution of ionotrophic NMDA-R to airway hyperreactivity. Copyright © 2016 the American

  1. The Smooth Operator: Understanding Cross-Cultural Interpersonal Skills in Special Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    ONLY (Leave blank) I 2. REPORT DATE I 3. REPORT TYPE A ND DATES COVERED December 2014 Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE A ND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS THE...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) A ND A DDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZA TION Naval Postgraduate School REPORT NUMBER Monterev. CA 93943-5000 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING...AGENCY NA ME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSORING/MONITORING N/A AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 11 . SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views expressed in this thesis are

  2. General Relativistic Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics code developments: A progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, Joshua; Silberman, Zachary; Rizzo, Monica

    2017-01-01

    We report on our progress in developing a new general relativistic Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) code, which will be appropriate for studying the properties of accretion disks around black holes as well as compact object binary mergers and their ejecta. We will discuss in turn the relativistic formalisms being used to handle the evolution, our techniques for dealing with conservative and primitive variables, as well as those used to ensure proper conservation of various physical quantities. Code tests and performance metrics will be discussed, as will the prospects for including smoothed particle hydrodynamics codes within other numerical relativity codebases, particularly the publicly available Einstein Toolkit. We acknowledge support from NSF award ACI-1550436 and an internal RIT D-RIG grant.

  3. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics method from a large eddy simulation perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mascio, A.; Antuono, M.; Colagrossi, A.; Marrone, S.

    2017-03-01

    The Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method, often used for the modelling of the Navier-Stokes equations by a meshless Lagrangian approach, is revisited from the point of view of Large Eddy Simulation (LES). To this aim, the LES filtering procedure is recast in a Lagrangian framework by defining a filter that moves with the positions of the fluid particles at the filtered velocity. It is shown that the SPH smoothing procedure can be reinterpreted as a sort of LES Lagrangian filtering, and that, besides the terms coming from the LES convolution, additional contributions (never accounted for in the SPH literature) appear in the equations when formulated in a filtered fashion. Appropriate closure formulas are derived for the additional terms and a preliminary numerical test is provided to show the main features of the proposed LES-SPH model.

  4. Epigenetic regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell function in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Findeisen, Hannes M; Kahles, Florian K; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2013-04-01

    Epigenetics involve heritable and acquired changes in gene transcription that occur independently of the DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms constitute a hierarchic upper-level of transcriptional control through complex modifications of chromosomal components and nuclear structures. These modifications include, for example, DNA methylation or post-translational modifications of core histones; they are mediated by various chromatin-modifying enzymes; and ultimately they define the accessibility of a transcriptional complex to its target DNA. Integrating epigenetic mechanisms into the pathophysiologic concept of complex and multifactorial diseases such as atherosclerosis may significantly enhance our understanding of related mechanisms and provide promising therapeutic approaches. Although still in its infancy, intriguing scientific progress has begun to elucidate the role of epigenetic mechanisms in vascular biology, particularly in the control of smooth muscle cell phenotypes. In this review, we will summarize epigenetic pathways in smooth muscle cells, focusing on mechanisms involved in the regulation of vascular remodeling.

  5. Epigenetic regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell function in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Findeisen, Hannes M; Kahles, Florian K; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2013-05-01

    Epigenetics involve heritable and acquired changes in gene transcription that occur independently of the DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms constitute a hierarchic upper-level of transcriptional control through complex modifications of chromosomal components and nuclear structures. These modifications include, for example, DNA methylation or post-translational modifications of core histones; they are mediated by various chromatin-modifying enzymes; and ultimately they define the accessibility of a transcriptional complex to its target DNA. Integrating epigenetic mechanisms into the pathophysiologic concept of complex and multifactorial diseases such as atherosclerosis may significantly enhance our understanding of related mechanisms and provide promising therapeutic approaches. Although still in its infancy, intriguing scientific progress has begun to elucidate the role of epigenetic mechanisms in vascular biology, particularly in the control of smooth muscle cell phenotypes. In this review, we will summarize epigenetic pathways in smooth muscle cells, focusing on mechanisms involved in the regulation of vascular remodeling.

  6. Gradient approach to quantify the gradation smoothness for output media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youn Jin; Bang, Yousun; Choh, Heui-Keun

    2010-01-01

    We aim to quantify the perception of color gradation smoothness using objectively measurable properties. We propose a model to compute the smoothness of hardcopy color-to-color gradations. It is a gradient-based method that can be determined as a function of the 95th percentile of second derivative for the tone-jump estimator and the fifth percentile of first derivative for the tone-clipping estimator. Performance of the model and a previously suggested method were psychophysically appreciated, and their prediction accuracies were compared to each other. Our model showed a stronger Pearson correlation to the corresponding visual data, and the magnitude of the Pearson correlation reached up to 0.87. Its statistical significance was verified through analysis of variance. Color variations of the representative memory colors-blue sky, green grass and Caucasian skin-were rendered as gradational scales and utilized as the test stimuli.

  7. Nonclassical states of light with a smooth P function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damanet, François; Kübler, Jonas; Martin, John; Braun, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    There is a common understanding in quantum optics that nonclassical states of light are states that do not have a positive semidefinite and sufficiently regular Glauber-Sudarshan P function. Almost all known nonclassical states have P functions that are highly irregular, which makes working with them difficult and direct experimental reconstruction impossible. Here we introduce classes of nonclassical states with regular, non-positive-definite P functions. They are constructed by "puncturing" regular smooth positive P functions with negative Dirac-δ peaks or other sufficiently narrow smooth negative functions. We determine the parameter ranges for which such punctures are possible without losing the positivity of the state, the regimes yielding antibunching of light, and the expressions of the Wigner functions for all investigated punctured states. Finally, we propose some possible experimental realizations of such states.

  8. A new seamless, smooth, interior, absorptive finishing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antonio, Peter

    2003-10-01

    Government architecture typically employs classic forms of vaults, domes and other focusing or reflective shapes, usually created with hard materials like concrete and plaster. The use of conventional porous absorption is typically rejected as an acoustical surface material for aesthetic reasons. Hence, many of these new and existing facilities have compromised speech intelligibility and music quality. Acousticians have sought a field-applied, absorptive finishing system that resembles a smooth plaster or painted drywall surface, since the dawn of architectural acoustics. Some success has been achieved using sprayed cellulose or cementitious materials, but surface smoothness has been a challenge. A new approach utilizing a thin microporous layer of mineral particles applied over a mineral wool panel will be described. This material can be applied to almost any shape surface, internally pigmented to match almost any color and renovated. Because of these unique characteristics the new seamless, absorptive, finishing system is being specified for many new and renovated spaces. Application examples will be presented.

  9. Gravitational lensing by a smoothly variable surface mass density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paczynski, Bohdan; Wambsganss, Joachim

    1989-01-01

    The statistical properties of gravitational lensing due to smooth but nonuniform distributions of matter are considered. It is found that a majority of triple images had a parity characteristic for 'shear-induced' lensing. Almost all cases of triple or multiple imaging were associated with large surface density enhancements, and lensing objects were present between the images. Thus, the observed gravitational lens candidates for which no lensing object has been detected between the images are unlikely to be a result of asymmetric distribution of mass external to the image circle. In a model with smoothly variable surface mass density, moderately and highly amplified images tended to be single rather than multiple. An opposite trend was found in models which had singularities in the surface mass distribution.

  10. A generalized transport-velocity formulation for smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Chi; Hu, Xiangyu Y., E-mail: xiangyu.hu@tum.de; Adams, Nikolaus A.

    The standard smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method suffers from tensile instability. In fluid-dynamics simulations this instability leads to particle clumping and void regions when negative pressure occurs. In solid-dynamics simulations, it results in unphysical structure fragmentation. In this work the transport-velocity formulation of Adami et al. (2013) is generalized for providing a solution of this long-standing problem. Other than imposing a global background pressure, a variable background pressure is used to modify the particle transport velocity and eliminate the tensile instability completely. Furthermore, such a modification is localized by defining a shortened smoothing length. The generalized formulation is suitable formore » fluid and solid materials with and without free surfaces. The results of extensive numerical tests on both fluid and solid dynamics problems indicate that the new method provides a unified approach for multi-physics SPH simulations.« less

  11. Chemical method for producing smooth surfaces on silicon wafers

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Conrad

    2003-01-01

    An improved method for producing optically smooth surfaces in silicon wafers during wet chemical etching involves a pre-treatment rinse of the wafers before etching and a post-etching rinse. The pre-treatment with an organic solvent provides a well-wetted surface that ensures uniform mass transfer during etching, which results in optically smooth surfaces. The post-etching treatment with an acetic acid solution stops the etching instantly, preventing any uneven etching that leads to surface roughness. This method can be used to etch silicon surfaces to a depth of 200 .mu.m or more, while the finished surfaces have a surface roughness of only 15-50 .ANG. (RMS).

  12. Smooth Horizonless Geometries Deep Inside the Black-Hole Regime.

    PubMed

    Bena, Iosif; Giusto, Stefano; Martinec, Emil J; Russo, Rodolfo; Shigemori, Masaki; Turton, David; Warner, Nicholas P

    2016-11-11

    We construct the first family of horizonless supergravity solutions that have the same mass, charges, and angular momenta as general supersymmetric rotating D1-D5-P black holes in five dimensions. This family includes solutions with arbitrarily small angular momenta, deep within the regime of quantum numbers and couplings for which a large classical black hole exists. These geometries are well approximated by the black-hole solution, and in particular exhibit the same near-horizon throat. Deep in this throat, the black-hole singularity is resolved into a smooth cap. We also identify the holographically dual states in the N=(4,4) D1-D5 orbifold conformal field theory (CFT). Our solutions are among the states counted by the CFT elliptic genus, and provide examples of smooth microstate geometries within the ensemble of supersymmetric black-hole microstates.

  13. Computations underlying the visuomotor transformation for smooth pursuit eye movements

    PubMed Central

    Murdison, T. Scott; Leclercq, Guillaume; Lefèvre, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Smooth pursuit eye movements are driven by retinal motion and enable us to view moving targets with high acuity. Complicating the generation of these movements is the fact that different eye and head rotations can produce different retinal stimuli but giving rise to identical smooth pursuit trajectories. However, because our eyes accurately pursue targets regardless of eye and head orientation (Blohm G, Lefèvre P. J Neurophysiol 104: 2103–2115, 2010), the brain must somehow take these signals into account. To learn about the neural mechanisms potentially underlying this visual-to-motor transformation, we trained a physiologically inspired neural network model to combine two-dimensional (2D) retinal motion signals with three-dimensional (3D) eye and head orientation and velocity signals to generate a spatially correct 3D pursuit command. We then simulated conditions of 1) head roll-induced ocular counterroll, 2) oblique gaze-induced retinal rotations, 3) eccentric gazes (invoking the half-angle rule), and 4) optokinetic nystagmus to investigate how units in the intermediate layers of the network accounted for different 3D constraints. Simultaneously, we simulated electrophysiological recordings (visual and motor tunings) and microstimulation experiments to quantify the reference frames of signals at each processing stage. We found a gradual retinal-to-intermediate-to-spatial feedforward transformation through the hidden layers. Our model is the first to describe the general 3D transformation for smooth pursuit mediated by eye- and head-dependent gain modulation. Based on several testable experimental predictions, our model provides a mechanism by which the brain could perform the 3D visuomotor transformation for smooth pursuit. PMID:25475344

  14. Smooth muscle contraction: mechanochemical formulation for homogeneous finite strains.

    PubMed

    Stålhand, J; Klarbring, A; Holzapfel, G A

    2008-01-01

    Chemical kinetics of smooth muscle contraction affect mechanical properties of organs that function under finite strains. In an effort to gain further insight into organ physiology, we formulate a mechanochemical finite strain model by considering the interaction between mechanical and biochemical components of cell function during activation. We propose a new constitutive framework and use a mechanochemical device that consists of two parallel elements: (i) spring for the cell stiffness; (ii) contractile element for the sarcomere. We use a multiplicative decomposition of cell elongation into filament contraction and cross-bridge deformation, and suggest that the free energy be a function of stretches, four variables (free unphosphorylated myosin, phosphorylated cross-bridges, phosphorylated and dephosphorylated cross-bridges attached to actin), chemical state variable driven by Ca2+-concentration, and temperature. The derived constitutive laws are thermodynamically consistent. Assuming isothermal conditions, we specialize the mechanical phase such that we recover the linear model of Yang et al. [2003a. The myogenic response in isolated rat cerebrovascular arteries: smooth muscle cell. Med. Eng. Phys. 25, 691-709]. The chemical phase is also specialized so that the linearized chemical evolution law leads to the four-state model of Hai and Murphy [1988. Cross-bridge phosphorylation and regulation of latch state in smooth muscle. Am. J. Physiol. 254, C99-C106]. One numerical example shows typical mechanochemical effects and the efficiency of the proposed approach. We discuss related parameter identification, and illustrate the dependence of muscle contraction (Ca2+-concentration) on active stress and related stretch. Mechanochemical models of this kind serve the mathematical basis for analyzing coupled processes such as the dependency of tissue properties on the chemical kinetics of smooth muscle.

  15. Theory of Electromagnetic Surface Waves in Plasma with Smooth Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzelev, M. V.

    2018-05-01

    A theory of nonpotential surface waves in plasma with smooth boundaries is developed. The complex frequencies of surface waves for plasma systems of different geometries and different profiles of the plasma density are calculated. Expressions for the rates of collisionless damping of surface waves due to their resonance interaction with local plasma waves of continuous spectrum are obtained. The influence of collisions in plasma is also considered.

  16. Cross-bridge elasticity in single smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    In smooth muscle, a cross-bridge mechanism is believed to be responsible for active force generation and fiber shortening. In the present studies, the viscoelastic and kinetic properties of the cross- bridge were probed by eliciting tension transients in response to small, rapid, step length changes (delta L = 0.3-1.0% Lcell in 2 ms). Tension transients were obtained in a single smooth muscle cell isolated from the toad (Bufo marinus) stomach muscularis, which was tied between a force transducer and a displacement device. To record the transients, which were of extremely small magnitude (0.1 microN), a high-frequency (400 Hz), ultrasensitive force transducer (18 mV/microN) was designed and built. The transients obtained during maximal force generation (Fmax = 2.26 microN) were characterized by a linear elastic response (Emax = 1.26 X 10(4) mN/mm2) coincident with the length step, which was followed by a biphasic tension recovery made up of two exponentials (tau fast = 5-20 ms, tau slow = 50-300 ms). During the development of force upon activation, transients were elicited. The relationship between stiffness and force was linear, which suggests that the transients originate within the cross-bridge and reflect the cross-bridge's viscoelastic and kinetic properties. The observed fiber elasticity suggests that the smooth muscle cross-bridge is considerably more compliant than in fast striated muscle. A thermodynamic model is presented that allows for an analysis of the factors contributing to the increased compliance of the smooth muscle cross-bridge. PMID:6413640

  17. Discrete wavelet transform: a tool in smoothing kinematic data.

    PubMed

    Ismail, A R; Asfour, S S

    1999-03-01

    Motion analysis systems typically introduce noise to the displacement data recorded. Butterworth digital filters have been used to smooth the displacement data in order to obtain smoothed velocities and accelerations. However, this technique does not yield satisfactory results, especially when dealing with complex kinematic motions that occupy the low- and high-frequency bands. The use of the discrete wavelet transform, as an alternative to digital filters, is presented in this paper. The transform passes the original signal through two complementary low- and high-pass FIR filters and decomposes the signal into an approximation function and a detail function. Further decomposition of the signal results in transforming the signal into a hierarchy set of orthogonal approximation and detail functions. A reverse process is employed to perfectly reconstruct the signal (inverse transform) back from its approximation and detail functions. The discrete wavelet transform was applied to the displacement data recorded by Pezzack et al., 1977. The smoothed displacement data were twice differentiated and compared to Pezzack et al.'s acceleration data in order to choose the most appropriate filter coefficients and decomposition level on the basis of maximizing the percentage of retained energy (PRE) and minimizing the root mean square error (RMSE). Daubechies wavelet of the fourth order (Db4) at the second decomposition level showed better results than both the biorthogonal and Coiflet wavelets (PRE = 97.5%, RMSE = 4.7 rad s-2). The Db4 wavelet was then used to compress complex displacement data obtained from a noisy mathematically generated function. Results clearly indicate superiority of this new smoothing approach over traditional filters.

  18. Ultra-smooth finishing of aspheric surfaces using CAST technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, John; Young, Kevin

    2014-06-01

    Growing applications for astronomical ground-based adaptive systems and air-born telescope systems demand complex optical surface designs combined with ultra-smooth finishing. The use of more sophisticated and accurate optics, especially aspheric ones, allows for shorter optical trains with smaller sizes and a reduced number of components. This in turn reduces fabrication and alignment time and costs. These aspheric components include the following: steep surfaces with large aspheric departures; more complex surface feature designs like stand-alone off-axis-parabola (OAP) and free form optics that combine surface complexity with a requirement for ultra-high smoothness, as well as special optic materials such as lightweight silicon carbide (SiC) for air-born systems. Various fabrication technologies for finishing ultra-smooth aspheric surfaces are progressing to meet these growing and demanding challenges, especially Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) and ion-milling. These methods have demonstrated some good success as well as a certain level of limitations. Amongst them, computer-controlled asphere surface-finishing technology (CAST), developed by Precision Asphere Inc. (PAI), plays an important role in a cost effective manufacturing environment and has successfully delivered numerous products for the applications mentioned above. One of the most recent successes is the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), the world's most powerful planet-hunting instrument, with critical aspheric components (seven OAPs and free form optics) made using CAST technology. GPI showed off its first images in a press release on January 7, 2014 . This paper reviews features of today's technologies in handling the ultra-smooth aspheric optics, especially the capabilities of CAST on these challenging products. As examples, three groups of aspheres deployed in astronomical optics systems, both polished and finished using CAST, will be discussed in detail.

  19. Arc-based smoothing of ion beam intensity on targets

    DOE PAGES

    Friedman, Alex

    2012-06-20

    Manipulating a set of ion beams upstream of a target, makes it possible to arrange a smoother deposition pattern, so as to achieve more uniform illumination of the target. A uniform energy deposition pattern is important for applications including ion-beam-driven high energy density physics and heavy-ion beam-driven inertial fusion energy (“heavy-ion fusion”). Here, we consider an approach to such smoothing that is based on rapidly “wobbling” each of the beams back and forth along a short arc-shaped path, via oscillating fields applied upstream of the final pulse compression. In this technique, uniformity is achieved in the time-averaged sense; this ismore » sufficient provided the beam oscillation timescale is short relative to the hydrodynamic timescale of the target implosion. This work builds on two earlier concepts: elliptical beams applied to a distributed-radiator target [D. A. Callahan and M. Tabak, Phys. Plasmas 7, 2083 (2000)] and beams that are wobbled so as to trace a number of full rotations around a circular or elliptical path [R. C. Arnold et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods 199, 557 (1982)]. Here, we describe the arc-based smoothing approach and compare it to results obtainable using an elliptical-beam prescription. In particular, we assess the potential of these approaches for minimization of azimuthal asymmetry, for the case of a ring of beams arranged on a cone. We also found that, for small numbers of beams on the ring, the arc-based smoothing approach offers superior uniformity. In contrast with the full-rotation approach, arc-based smoothing remains usable when the geometry precludes wobbling the beams around a full circle, e.g., for the X-target [E. Henestroza, B. G. Logan, and L. J. Perkins, Phys. Plasmas 18, 032702 (2011)] and some classes of distributed-radiator targets.« less

  20. Ascorbate transport in pig coronary artery smooth muscle: Na(+) removal and oxidative stress increase loss of accumulated cellular ascorbate.

    PubMed

    Holmes, M E; Samson, S E; Wilson, J X; Dixon, S J; Grover, A K

    2000-01-01

    Pig deendothelialized coronary artery rings and smooth muscle cells cultured from them accumulated ascorbate from medium containing Na(+). The accumulated material was determined to be ascorbate using high-performance liquid chromatography. We further characterized ascorbate uptake in the cultured cells. The data fitted best with a Hill coefficient of 1 for ascorbate (K(asc) = 22 +/- 2 microM) and 2 for Na(+) (K(Na) = 84 +/- 10 mM). The anion transport inhibitors sulfinpyrazone and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (DIDS) inhibited the uptake. Transferring cultured cells loaded with (14)C-ascorbate into an ascorbate-free solution resulted in a biphasic loss of radioactivity - an initial sulfinpyrazone-insensitive faster phase and a late sulfinpyrazone-sensitive slower phase. Transferring loaded cells into a Na(+)-free medium increased the loss in the initial phase in a sulfinpyrazone-sensitive manner, suggesting that the ascorbate transporter is bidirectional. Including peroxide or superoxide in the solution increased the loss of radioactivity. Thus, ascorbate accumulated in coronary artery smooth muscle cells by a Na(+)-dependent transporter was lost in an ascorbate-free solution, and the loss was increased by removing Na(+) from the medium or by oxidative stress. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. Differential gene expression profiling of human adipose stem cells differentiating into smooth muscle-like cells by TGFβ1/BMP4

    SciTech Connect

    Elçin, Ayşe Eser; Parmaksiz, Mahmut; Dogan, Arin

    Regenerative repair of the vascular system is challenging from the perspectives of translational medicine and tissue engineering. There are fundamental hurdles in front of creating bioartificial arteries, which involve recaputilation of the three-layered structure under laboratory settings. Obtaining and maintaining smooth muscle characteristics is an important limitation, as the transdifferentiated cells fail to display mature phenotype. This study aims to shed light on the smooth muscle differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs). To this end, we first acquired hASCs from lipoaspirate samples. Upon characterization, the cells were induced to differentiate into smooth muscle (SM)-like cells using a variety ofmore » inducer combinations. Among all, TGFβ1/BMP4 combination had the highest differentiation efficiency, based on immunohistochemical analyses. hSM-like cell samples were compared to hASCs and to the positive control, human coronary artery-smooth muscle cells (hCA-SMCs) through gene transcription profiling. Microarray findings revealed the activation of gene groups that function in smooth muscle differentiation, signaling pathways, extracellular modeling and cell proliferation. Our results underline the effectiveness of the growth factors and suggest some potential variables for detecting the SM-like cell characteristics. Evidence in transcriptome level was used to evaluate the TGFβ1/BMP4 combination as a previously unexplored effector for the smooth muscle differentiation of adipose stem cells. - Highlights: • Human adipose stem cells (hASCs) were isolated, characterized and cultured. • Growth factor combinations were evaluated for their effectiveness in differentiation using IHC. • hASCs were differentiated into smooth muscle (SM)-like cells using TGF-β1 and BMP4 combination. • Microarray analysis was performed for hASCs, SM-like cells and coronary artery-SMCs. • Microarray data was used to perform hierarchical clustering and

  2. Increased IGF-IEc expression and mechano-growth factor production in intestinal muscle of fibrostenotic Crohn's disease and smooth muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Vu, Kent; Hazelgrove, Krystina; Kuemmerle, John F

    2015-12-01

    The igf1 gene is alternatively spliced as IGF-IEa and IGF-IEc variants in humans. In fibrostenotic Crohn's disease, the fibrogenic cytokine TGF-β1 induces IGF-IEa expression and IGF-I production in intestinal smooth muscle and results in muscle hyperplasia and collagen I production that contribute to stricture formation. Mechano-growth factor (MGF) derived from IGF-IEc induces skeletal and cardiac muscle hypertrophy following stress. We hypothesized that increased IGF-IEc expression and MGF production mediated smooth muscle hypertrophy also characteristic of fibrostenotic Crohn's disease. IGF-IEc transcripts and MGF protein were increased in muscle cells isolated from fibrostenotic intestine under regulation by endogenous TGF-β1. Erk5 and MEF2C were phosphorylated in vivo in fibrostenotic muscle; both were phosphorylated and colocalized to nucleus in response to synthetic MGF in vitro. Smooth muscle-specific protein expression of α-smooth muscle actin, γ-smooth muscle actin, and smoothelin was increased in affected intestine. Erk5 inhibition or MEF2C siRNA blocked smooth muscle-specific gene expression and hypertrophy induced by synthetic MGF. Conditioned media of cultured fibrostenotic muscle induced muscle hypertrophy that was inhibited by immunoneutralization of endogenous MGF or pro-IGF-IEc. The results indicate that TGF-β1-dependent IGF-IEc expression and MGF production in patients with fibrostenotic Crohn's disease regulates smooth muscle cell hypertrophy a critical factor that contributes to intestinal stricture formation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Balancing aggregation and smoothing errors in inverse models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, A. J.; Jacob, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    Inverse models use observations of a system (observation vector) to quantify the variables driving that system (state vector) by statistical optimization. When the observation vector is large, such as with satellite data, selecting a suitable dimension for the state vector is a challenge. A state vector that is too large cannot be effectively constrained by the observations, leading to smoothing error. However, reducing the dimension of the state vector leads to aggregation error as prior relationships between state vector elements are imposed rather than optimized. Here we present a method for quantifying aggregation and smoothing errors as a function of state vector dimension, so that a suitable dimension can be selected by minimizing the combined error. Reducing the state vector within the aggregation error constraints can have the added advantage of enabling analytical solution to the inverse problem with full error characterization. We compare three methods for reducing the dimension of the state vector from its native resolution: (1) merging adjacent elements (grid coarsening), (2) clustering with principal component analysis (PCA), and (3) applying a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) with Gaussian pdfs as state vector elements on which the native-resolution state vector elements are projected using radial basis functions (RBFs). The GMM method leads to somewhat lower aggregation error than the other methods, but more importantly it retains resolution of major local features in the state vector while smoothing weak and broad features.

  4. Balancing aggregation and smoothing errors in inverse models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, A. J.; Jacob, D. J.

    2015-06-01

    Inverse models use observations of a system (observation vector) to quantify the variables driving that system (state vector) by statistical optimization. When the observation vector is large, such as with satellite data, selecting a suitable dimension for the state vector is a challenge. A state vector that is too large cannot be effectively constrained by the observations, leading to smoothing error. However, reducing the dimension of the state vector leads to aggregation error as prior relationships between state vector elements are imposed rather than optimized. Here we present a method for quantifying aggregation and smoothing errors as a function of state vector dimension, so that a suitable dimension can be selected by minimizing the combined error. Reducing the state vector within the aggregation error constraints can have the added advantage of enabling analytical solution to the inverse problem with full error characterization. We compare three methods for reducing the dimension of the state vector from its native resolution: (1) merging adjacent elements (grid coarsening), (2) clustering with principal component analysis (PCA), and (3) applying a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) with Gaussian pdfs as state vector elements on which the native-resolution state vector elements are projected using radial basis functions (RBFs). The GMM method leads to somewhat lower aggregation error than the other methods, but more importantly it retains resolution of major local features in the state vector while smoothing weak and broad features.

  5. Balancing aggregation and smoothing errors in inverse models

    DOE PAGES

    Turner, A. J.; Jacob, D. J.

    2015-06-30

    Inverse models use observations of a system (observation vector) to quantify the variables driving that system (state vector) by statistical optimization. When the observation vector is large, such as with satellite data, selecting a suitable dimension for the state vector is a challenge. A state vector that is too large cannot be effectively constrained by the observations, leading to smoothing error. However, reducing the dimension of the state vector leads to aggregation error as prior relationships between state vector elements are imposed rather than optimized. Here we present a method for quantifying aggregation and smoothing errors as a function ofmore » state vector dimension, so that a suitable dimension can be selected by minimizing the combined error. Reducing the state vector within the aggregation error constraints can have the added advantage of enabling analytical solution to the inverse problem with full error characterization. We compare three methods for reducing the dimension of the state vector from its native resolution: (1) merging adjacent elements (grid coarsening), (2) clustering with principal component analysis (PCA), and (3) applying a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) with Gaussian pdfs as state vector elements on which the native-resolution state vector elements are projected using radial basis functions (RBFs). The GMM method leads to somewhat lower aggregation error than the other methods, but more importantly it retains resolution of major local features in the state vector while smoothing weak and broad features.« less

  6. Error detection and data smoothing based on local procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerra, V. M.

    1974-01-01

    An algorithm is presented which is able to locate isolated bad points and correct them without contaminating the rest of the good data. This work has been greatly influenced and motivated by what is currently done in the manual loft. It is not within the scope of this work to handle small random errors characteristic of a noisy system, and it is therefore assumed that the bad points are isolated and relatively few when compared with the total number of points. Motivated by the desire to imitate the loftsman a visual experiment was conducted to determine what is considered smooth data. This criterion is used to determine how much the data should be smoothed and to prove that this method produces such data. The method utimately converges to a set of points that lies on the polynomial that interpolates the first and last points; however convergence to such a set is definitely not the purpose of our algorithm. The proof of convergence is necessary to demonstrate that oscillation does not take place and that in a finite number of steps the method produces a set as smooth as desired.

  7. Smoothed Particle Inference Analysis of SNR RCW 103

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Kari A.; Burrows, David N.; Dwarkadas, Vikram

    2016-04-01

    We present preliminary results of applying a novel analysis method, Smoothed Particle Inference (SPI), to an XMM-Newton observation of SNR RCW 103. SPI is a Bayesian modeling process that fits a population of gas blobs ("smoothed particles") such that their superposed emission reproduces the observed spatial and spectral distribution of photons. Emission-weighted distributions of plasma properties, such as abundances and temperatures, are then extracted from the properties of the individual blobs. This technique has important advantages over analysis techniques which implicitly assume that remnants are two-dimensional objects in which each line of sight encompasses a single plasma. By contrast, SPI allows superposition of as many blobs of plasma as are needed to match the spectrum observed in each direction, without the need to bin the data spatially. This RCW 103 analysis is part of a pilot study for the larger SPIES (Smoothed Particle Inference Exploration of SNRs) project, in which SPI will be applied to a sample of 12 bright SNRs.

  8. Lysyl oxidase propeptide inhibits smooth muscle cell signaling and proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Hurtado, Paola A.; Vora, Siddharth; Sume, Siddika Selva

    2008-02-01

    Lysyl oxidase is required for the normal biosynthesis and maturation of collagen and elastin. It is expressed by vascular smooth muscle cells, and its increased expression has been previously found in atherosclerosis and in models of balloon angioplasty. The lysyl oxidase propeptide (LOX-PP) has more recently been found to have biological activity as a tumor suppressor, and it inhibits Erk1/2 Map kinase activation. We reasoned that LOX-PP may have functions in normal non-transformed cells. We, therefore, investigated its effects on smooth muscle cells, focusing on important biological processes mediated by Erk1/2-dependent signaling pathways including proliferation and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression.more » In addition, we investigated whether evidence for accumulation of LOX-PP could be found in vivo in a femoral artery injury model. Recombinant LOX-PP was expressed and purified, and was found to inhibit primary rat aorta smooth muscle cell proliferation and DNA synthesis by more than 50%. TNF-{alpha}-stimulated MMP-9 expression and Erk1/2 activation were both significantly inhibited by LOX-PP. Immunohistochemistry studies carried out with affinity purified anti-LOX-PP antibody showed that LOX-PP epitopes were expressed at elevated levels in vascular lesions of injured arteries. These novel data suggest that LOX-PP may provide a feedback control mechanism that serves to inhibit properties associated with the development of vascular pathology.« less

  9. Visual enhancement of unmixed multispectral imagery using adaptive smoothing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemeshewsky, G.P.; Rahman, Z.-U.; Schowengerdt, R.A.; Reichenbach, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    Adaptive smoothing (AS) has been previously proposed as a method to smooth uniform regions of an image, retain contrast edges, and enhance edge boundaries. The method is an implementation of the anisotropic diffusion process which results in a gray scale image. This paper discusses modifications to the AS method for application to multi-band data which results in a color segmented image. The process was used to visually enhance the three most distinct abundance fraction images produced by the Lagrange constraint neural network learning-based unmixing of Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus multispectral sensor data. A mutual information-based method was applied to select the three most distinct fraction images for subsequent visualization as a red, green, and blue composite. A reported image restoration technique (partial restoration) was applied to the multispectral data to reduce unmixing error, although evaluation of the performance of this technique was beyond the scope of this paper. The modified smoothing process resulted in a color segmented image with homogeneous regions separated by sharpened, coregistered multiband edges. There was improved class separation with the segmented image, which has importance to subsequent operations involving data classification.

  10. Anticipatory smooth eye movements with random-dot kinematograms

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Elio M.; Gnang, Edinah K.; Kowler, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    Anticipatory smooth eye movements were studied in response to expectations of motion of random-dot kinematograms (RDKs). Dot lifetime was limited (52–208 ms) to prevent selection and tracking of the motion of local elements and to disrupt the perception of an object moving across space. Anticipatory smooth eye movements were found in response to cues signaling the future direction of global RDK motion, either prior to the onset of the RDK or prior to a change in its direction of motion. Cues signaling the lifetime of the dots were not effective. These results show that anticipatory smooth eye movements can be produced by expectations of global motion and do not require a sustained representation of an object or set of objects moving across space. At the same time, certain properties of global motion (direction) were more sensitive to cues than others (dot lifetime), suggesting that the rules by which prediction operates to influence pursuit may go beyond simple associations between cues and the upcoming motion of targets. PMID:23027686

  11. Fast global image smoothing based on weighted least squares.

    PubMed

    Min, Dongbo; Choi, Sunghwan; Lu, Jiangbo; Ham, Bumsub; Sohn, Kwanghoon; Do, Minh N

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an efficient technique for performing a spatially inhomogeneous edge-preserving image smoothing, called fast global smoother. Focusing on sparse Laplacian matrices consisting of a data term and a prior term (typically defined using four or eight neighbors for 2D image), our approach efficiently solves such global objective functions. In particular, we approximate the solution of the memory-and computation-intensive large linear system, defined over a d-dimensional spatial domain, by solving a sequence of 1D subsystems. Our separable implementation enables applying a linear-time tridiagonal matrix algorithm to solve d three-point Laplacian matrices iteratively. Our approach combines the best of two paradigms, i.e., efficient edge-preserving filters and optimization-based smoothing. Our method has a comparable runtime to the fast edge-preserving filters, but its global optimization formulation overcomes many limitations of the local filtering approaches. Our method also achieves high-quality results as the state-of-the-art optimization-based techniques, but runs ∼10-30 times faster. Besides, considering the flexibility in defining an objective function, we further propose generalized fast algorithms that perform Lγ norm smoothing (0 < γ < 2) and support an aggregated (robust) data term for handling imprecise data constraints. We demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our techniques in a range of image processing and computer graphics applications.

  12. Aerobic metabolism on muscle contraction in porcine gastric smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Hidenori; Kaneda, Takeharu; Nagai, Yuta; Urakawa, Norimoto; Shimizu, Kazumasa

    2018-05-18

    Exposure to chronic hypoxic conditions causes various gastric diseases, including gastric ulcers. It has been suggested that gastric smooth muscle contraction is associated with aerobic metabolism. However, there are no reports on the association between gastric smooth muscle contraction and aerobic metabolism, and we have investigated this association in the present study. High K + - and carbachol (CCh)-induced muscle contractions involved increasing O 2 consumption. Aeration with N 2 (hypoxia) and NaCN significantly decreased high K + - and CCh-induced muscle contraction and O 2 consumption. In addition, hypoxia and NaCN significantly decreased creatine phosphate (PCr) contents in the presence of high K + . Moreover, decrease in CCh-induced contraction and O 2 consumption was greater than that of high K + . Our results suggest that hypoxia and NaCN inhibit high K + - and CCh-induced contractions in gastric fundus smooth muscles by decreasing O 2 consumption and intracellular PCr content. However, the inhibition of CCh-induced muscle contraction was greater than that of high K + -induced muscle contraction.

  13. Nelumbo nucifera leaves extracts inhibit mouse airway smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Xue, Lu; Zhao, Qingyang; Cai, Congli; Liu, Qing-Hua; Shen, Jinhua

    2017-03-20

    Alkaloids extracted from lotus leaves (AELL) can relax vascular smooth muscle. However, whether AELL has a similar relaxant role on airway smooth muscle (ASM) remains unknown. This study aimed to explore the relaxant property of AELL on ASM and the underlying mechanism. Alkaloids were extracted from dried lotus leaves using the high temperature rotary evaporation extraction method. The effects of AELL on mouse ASM tension were studied using force measuring and patch-clamp techniques. It was found that AELL inhibited the high K + or acetylcholine chloride (ACh)-induced precontraction of mouse tracheal rings by 64.8 ± 2.9%, or 48.8 ± 4.7%, respectively. The inhibition was statistically significant and performed in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, AELL-induced smooth muscle relaxation was partially mediated by blocking voltage-dependent Ca 2+ channels (VDCC) and non-selective cation channels (NSCC). AELL, which plays a relaxant role in ASM, might be a new complementary treatment to treat abnormal contractions of the trachea and asthma.

  14. Design and simulation of origami structures with smooth folds.

    PubMed

    Peraza Hernandez, E A; Hartl, D J; Lagoudas, D C

    2017-04-01

    Origami has enabled new approaches to the fabrication and functionality of multiple structures. Current methods for origami design are restricted to the idealization of folds as creases of zeroth-order geometric continuity. Such an idealization is not proper for origami structures of non-negligible fold thickness or maximum curvature at the folds restricted by material limitations. For such structures, folds are not properly represented as creases but rather as bent regions of higher-order geometric continuity. Such fold regions of arbitrary order of continuity are termed as smooth folds . This paper presents a method for solving the following origami design problem: given a goal shape represented as a polygonal mesh (termed as the goal mesh ), find the geometry of a single planar sheet, its pattern of smooth folds, and the history of folding motion allowing the sheet to approximate the goal mesh. The parametrization of the planar sheet and the constraints that allow for a valid pattern of smooth folds are presented. The method is tested against various goal meshes having diverse geometries. The results show that every determined sheet approximates its corresponding goal mesh in a known folded configuration having fold angles obtained from the geometry of the goal mesh.

  15. A new axial smoothing method based on elastic mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Huang, S. C.; Lin, K. P.; Czernin, J.; Wolfenden, P.; Dahlbom, M.; Hoh, C. K.; Phelps, M. E.

    1996-12-01

    New positron emission tomography (PET) scanners have higher axial and in-plane spatial resolutions but at the expense of reduced per plane sensitivity, which prevents the higher resolution from being fully realized. Normally, Gaussian-weighted interplane axial smoothing is used to reduce noise. In this study, the authors developed a new algorithm that first elastically maps adjacent planes, and then the mapped images are smoothed axially to reduce the image noise level. Compared to those obtained by the conventional axial-directional smoothing method, the images by the new method have improved signal-to-noise ratio. To quantify the signal-to-noise improvement, both simulated and real cardiac PET images were studied. Various Hanning reconstruction filters with cutoff frequency=0.5, 0.7, 1.0/spl times/Nyquist frequency and Ramp filter were tested on simulated images. Effective in-plane resolution was measured by the effective global Gaussian resolution (EGGR) and noise reduction was evaluated by the cross-correlation coefficient. Results showed that the new method was robust to various noise levels and indicated larger noise reduction or better image feature preservation (i.e., smaller EGGR) than by the conventional method.

  16. Liquid-Infused Smooth Surface for Improved Condensation Heat Transfer.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Hirotaka; Tenjimbayashi, Mizuki; Moriya, Takeo; Yoshikawa, Ryohei; Sasaki, Kaichi; Togasawa, Ryo; Yamazaki, Taku; Manabe, Kengo; Shiratori, Seimei

    2017-09-12

    Control of vapor condensation properties is a promising approach to manage a crucial part of energy infrastructure conditions. Heat transfer by vapor condensation on superhydrophobic coatings has garnered attention, because dropwise condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces with rough structures leads to favorable heat-transfer performance. However, pinned condensed water droplets within the rough structure and a high thermodynamic energy barrier for nucleation of superhydrophobic surfaces limit their heat-transfer increase. Recently, slippery liquid-infused surfaces (SLIPS) have been investigated, because of their high water sliding ability and surface smoothness originating from the liquid layer. However, even on SLIPS, condensed water droplets are eventually pinned to degrade their heat-transfer properties after extended use, because the rough base layer is exposed as infused liquid is lost. Herein, we report a liquid-infused smooth surface named "SPLASH" (surface with π electron interaction liquid adsorption, smoothness, and hydrophobicity) to overcome the problems derived from the rough structures in previous approaches to obtain stable, high heat-transfer performance. The SPLASH displayed a maximum condensation heat-transfer coefficient that was 175% higher than that of an uncoated substrate. The SPLASH also showed higher heat-transfer performance and more stable dropwise condensation than superhydrophobic surfaces and SLIPS from the viewpoints of condensed water droplet mobility and the thermodynamic energy barrier for nucleation. The effects of liquid-infused surface roughness and liquid viscosity on condensation heat transfer were investigated to compare heat-transfer performance. This research will aid industrial applications using vapor condensation.

  17. Design and simulation of origami structures with smooth folds

    PubMed Central

    Peraza Hernandez, E. A.; Lagoudas, D. C.

    2017-01-01

    Origami has enabled new approaches to the fabrication and functionality of multiple structures. Current methods for origami design are restricted to the idealization of folds as creases of zeroth-order geometric continuity. Such an idealization is not proper for origami structures of non-negligible fold thickness or maximum curvature at the folds restricted by material limitations. For such structures, folds are not properly represented as creases but rather as bent regions of higher-order geometric continuity. Such fold regions of arbitrary order of continuity are termed as smooth folds. This paper presents a method for solving the following origami design problem: given a goal shape represented as a polygonal mesh (termed as the goal mesh), find the geometry of a single planar sheet, its pattern of smooth folds, and the history of folding motion allowing the sheet to approximate the goal mesh. The parametrization of the planar sheet and the constraints that allow for a valid pattern of smooth folds are presented. The method is tested against various goal meshes having diverse geometries. The results show that every determined sheet approximates its corresponding goal mesh in a known folded configuration having fold angles obtained from the geometry of the goal mesh. PMID:28484322

  18. Joking Culture: The Role of Repeated Humorous Interactions on Group Processes during Challenge Course Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, Erin; Siharath, Kassidy; Bell, Steven; Nguyen, Kim; Baker, Carla

    2011-01-01

    When groups form, they develop their own culture from the shared meaning created from their interactions. Humor is part of every social group, and when repeatedly referenced, it forms a joking culture. The joking culture of small groups influences group processes by smoothing group interaction, forming a collective identity, separating the group…

  19. Functional expression of the TMEM16 family of calcium-activated chloride channels in airway smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Remy, Kenneth E.; Danielsson, Jennifer; Funayama, Hiromi; Fu, Xiao Wen; Chang, Herng-Yu Sucie; Yim, Peter; Xu, Dingbang; Emala, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    Airway smooth muscle hyperresponsiveness is a key component in the pathophysiology of asthma. Although calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) flux has been described in many cell types, including human airway smooth muscle (HASM), the true molecular identity of the channels responsible for this chloride conductance remains controversial. Recently, a new family of proteins thought to represent the true CaCCs was identified as the TMEM16 family. This led us to question whether members of this family are functionally expressed in native and cultured HASM. We further questioned whether expression of these channels contributes to the contractile function of HASM. We identified the mRNA expression of eight members of the TMEM16 family in HASM cells and show immunohistochemical evidence of TMEM16A in both cultured and native HASM. Functionally, we demonstrate that the classic chloride channel inhibitor, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB), inhibited halide flux in cultured HASM cells. Moreover, HASM cells displayed classical electrophysiological properties of CaCCs during whole cell electrophysiological recordings, which were blocked by using an antibody selective for TMEM16A. Furthermore, two distinct TMEM16A antagonists (tannic acid and benzbromarone) impaired a substance P-induced contraction in isolated guinea pig tracheal rings. These findings demonstrate that multiple members of this recently described family of CaCCs are expressed in HASM cells, they display classic electrophysiological properties of CaCCs, and they modulate contractile tone in airway smooth muscle. The TMEM16 family may provide a novel therapeutic target for limiting airway constriction in asthma. PMID:23997176

  20. Functional expression of the TMEM16 family of calcium-activated chloride channels in airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Gallos, George; Remy, Kenneth E; Danielsson, Jennifer; Funayama, Hiromi; Fu, Xiao Wen; Chang, Herng-Yu Sucie; Yim, Peter; Xu, Dingbang; Emala, Charles W

    2013-11-01

    Airway smooth muscle hyperresponsiveness is a key component in the pathophysiology of asthma. Although calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) flux has been described in many cell types, including human airway smooth muscle (HASM), the true molecular identity of the channels responsible for this chloride conductance remains controversial. Recently, a new family of proteins thought to represent the true CaCCs was identified as the TMEM16 family. This led us to question whether members of this family are functionally expressed in native and cultured HASM. We further questioned whether expression of these channels contributes to the contractile function of HASM. We identified the mRNA expression of eight members of the TMEM16 family in HASM cells and show immunohistochemical evidence of TMEM16A in both cultured and native HASM. Functionally, we demonstrate that the classic chloride channel inhibitor, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB), inhibited halide flux in cultured HASM cells. Moreover, HASM cells displayed classical electrophysiological properties of CaCCs during whole cell electrophysiological recordings, which were blocked by using an antibody selective for TMEM16A. Furthermore, two distinct TMEM16A antagonists (tannic acid and benzbromarone) impaired a substance P-induced contraction in isolated guinea pig tracheal rings. These findings demonstrate that multiple members of this recently described family of CaCCs are expressed in HASM cells, they display classic electrophysiological properties of CaCCs, and they modulate contractile tone in airway smooth muscle. The TMEM16 family may provide a novel therapeutic target for limiting airway constriction in asthma.

  1. A Novel Method for Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Smooth Muscle-Like Cells on Clinically Deliverable Thermally Induced Phase Separation Microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Nina; Ahmadi, Raheleh

    2015-01-01

    Muscle degeneration is a prevalent disease, particularly in aging societies where it has a huge impact on quality of life and incurs colossal health costs. Suitable donor sources of smooth muscle cells are limited and minimally invasive therapeutic approaches are sought that will augment muscle volume by delivering cells to damaged or degenerated areas of muscle. For the first time, we report the use of highly porous microcarriers produced using thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) to expand and differentiate adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs) into smooth muscle-like cells in a format that requires minimal manipulation before clinical delivery. AdMSCs readily attached to the surface of TIPS microcarriers and proliferated while maintained in suspension culture for 12 days. Switching the incubation medium to a differentiation medium containing 2 ng/mL transforming growth factor beta-1 resulted in a significant increase in both the mRNA and protein expression of cell contractile apparatus components caldesmon, calponin, and myosin heavy chains, indicative of a smooth muscle cell-like phenotype. Growth of smooth muscle cells on the surface of the microcarriers caused no change to the integrity of the polymer microspheres making them suitable for a cell-delivery vehicle. Our results indicate that TIPS microspheres provide an ideal substrate for the expansion and differentiation of AdMSCs into smooth muscle-like cells as well as a microcarrier delivery vehicle for the attached cells ready for therapeutic applications. PMID:25205072

  2. NG2 Proteoglycan Ablation Reduces Foam Cell Formation and Atherogenesis via Decreased Low-Density Lipoprotein Retention by Synthetic Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    She, Zhi-Gang; Chang, Yunchao; Pang, Hong-Bo; Han, Wenlong; Chen, Hou-Zao; Smith, Jeffrey W; Stallcup, William B

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and hyperlipidemia are critical risk factors for atherosclerosis. Because ablation of NG2 proteoglycan in mice leads to hyperlipidemia and obesity, we investigated the impact of NG2 ablation on atherosclerosis in apoE null mice. Immunostaining indicates that NG2 expression in plaque, primarily by synthetic smooth muscle cells, increases during atherogenesis. NG2 ablation unexpectedly results in decreased (30%) plaque development, despite aggravated obesity and hyperlipidemia. Mechanistic studies reveal that NG2-positive plaque synthetic smooth muscle cells in culture can sequester low-density lipoprotein to enhance foam-cell formation, processes in which NG2 itself plays direct roles. In agreement with these observations, low-density lipoprotein retention and lipid accumulation in the NG2/ApoE knockout aorta is 30% less than that seen in the control aorta. These results indicate that synthetic smooth muscle cell-dependent low-density lipoprotein retention and foam cell formation outweigh obesity and hyperlipidemia in promoting mouse atherogenesis. Our study sheds new light on the role of synthetic smooth muscle cells during atherogenesis. Blocking plaque NG2 or altering synthetic smooth muscle cells function may be promising therapeutic strategies for atherosclerosis. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Movements of a Sphere Moving Over Smooth and Rough Inclines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jan, Chyan-Deng

    1992-01-01

    The steady movements of a sphere over a rough incline in air, and over smooth and rough inclines in a liquid were studied theoretically and experimentally. The principle of energy conservation was used to analyze the translation velocities, rolling resistances, and drag coefficients of a sphere moving over the inclines. The rolling resistance to the movement of a sphere from the rough incline was presumed to be caused by collisions and frictional slidings. A varnished wooden board was placed on the bottom of an experimental tilting flume to form a smooth incline and a layer of spheres identical to the sphere moving over them was placed on the smooth wooden board to form a rough incline. Spheres used in the experiments were glass spheres, steel spheres, and golf balls. Experiments show that a sphere moving over a rough incline with negligible fluid drag in air can reach a constant translation velocity. This constant velocity was found to be proportional to the bed inclination (between 11 ^circ and 21^circ) and the square root of the sphere's diameter, but seemingly independent of the sphere's specific gravity. Two empirical coefficients in the theoretical expression of the sphere's translation velocity were determined by experiments. The collision and friction parts of the shear stress exerted on the interface between the moving sphere and rough incline were determined. The ratio of collision to friction parts appears to increase with increase in the bed inclination. These two parts seem to be of the same order of magnitude. The rolling resistances and the relations between the drag coefficient and Reynolds number for a sphere moving over smooth and rough inclines in a liquid, such as water or salad oil, were determined by a regression analysis based on experimental data. It was found that the drag coefficient for a sphere over the rough incline is larger than that for a sphere over the smooth incline, and both of which are much larger than that for a sphere in free

  4. Second-order numerical methods for multi-term fractional differential equations: Smooth and non-smooth solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Fanhai; Zhang, Zhongqiang; Karniadakis, George Em

    2017-12-01

    Starting with the asymptotic expansion of the error equation of the shifted Gr\\"{u}nwald--Letnikov formula, we derive a new modified weighted shifted Gr\\"{u}nwald--Letnikov (WSGL) formula by introducing appropriate correction terms. We then apply one special case of the modified WSGL formula to solve multi-term fractional ordinary and partial differential equations, and we prove the linear stability and second-order convergence for both smooth and non-smooth solutions. We show theoretically and numerically that numerical solutions up to certain accuracy can be obtained with only a few correction terms. Moreover, the correction terms can be tuned according to the fractional derivative orders without explicitly knowing the analytical solutions. Numerical simulations verify the theoretical results and demonstrate that the new formula leads to better performance compared to other known numerical approximations with similar resolution.

  5. Best practices for achieving and measuring pavement smoothness, a synthesis of state-of-practice.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-03-01

    Pavement smoothness specifications have evolved significantly over the past decade. More and more : states are moving away from profilograph-based smoothness specifications to IRI-based specifications. : Unfortunately, a limited history with the usag...

  6. Assessing IRI vs. PI as a measurement of pavement smoothness : final report, June 2006.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-06-07

    A Pavement smoothness specification that allows either the International Roughness Index (IRI) or Profile Index (PI) to measure pavement smoothness would be advantageous to both industry and MoDOT. This brief study provides for MoDOT an understanding...

  7. Gene Expression Programs of Human Smooth Muscle Cells: Tissue-Specific Differentiation and Prognostic Significance in Breast Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Jen-Tsan; Rodriguez, Edwin H; Wang, Zhen; Nuyten, Dimitry S. A; Mukherjee, Sayan; van de Rijn, Matt; van de Vijver, Marc J.; Hastie, Trevor; Brown, Patrick O

    2007-01-01

    Smooth muscle is present in a wide variety of anatomical locations, such as blood vessels, various visceral organs, and hair follicles. Contraction of smooth muscle is central to functions as diverse as peristalsis, urination, respiration, and the maintenance of vascular tone. Despite the varied physiological roles of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), we possess only a limited knowledge of the heterogeneity underlying their functional and anatomic specializations. As a step toward understanding the intrinsic differences between SMCs from different anatomical locations, we used DNA microarrays to profile global gene expression patterns in 36 SMC samples from various tissues after propagation under defined conditions in cell culture. Significant variations were found between the cells isolated from blood vessels, bronchi, and visceral organs. Furthermore, pervasive differences were noted within the visceral organ subgroups that appear to reflect the distinct molecular pathways essential for organogenesis as well as those involved in organ-specific contractile and physiological properties. Finally, we sought to understand how this diversity may contribute to SMC-involving pathology. We found that a gene expression signature of the responses of vascular SMCs to serum exposure is associated with a significantly poorer prognosis in human cancers, potentially linking vascular injury response to tumor progression. PMID:17907811

  8. Gene expression programs of human smooth muscle cells: tissue-specific differentiation and prognostic significance in breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Chi, Jen-Tsan; Rodriguez, Edwin H; Wang, Zhen; Nuyten, Dimitry S A; Mukherjee, Sayan; van de Rijn, Matt; van de Vijver, Marc J; Hastie, Trevor; Brown, Patrick O

    2007-09-01

    Smooth muscle is present in a wide variety of anatomical locations, such as blood vessels, various visceral organs, and hair follicles. Contraction of smooth muscle is central to functions as diverse as peristalsis, urination, respiration, and the maintenance of vascular tone. Despite the varied physiological roles of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), we possess only a limited knowledge of the heterogeneity underlying their functional and anatomic specializations. As a step toward understanding the intrinsic differences between SMCs from different anatomical locations, we used DNA microarrays to profile global gene expression patterns in 36 SMC samples from various tissues after propagation under defined conditions in cell culture. Significant variations were found between the cells isolated from blood vessels, bronchi, and visceral organs. Furthermore, pervasive differences were noted within the visceral organ subgroups that appear to reflect the distinct molecular pathways essential for organogenesis as well as those involved in organ-specific contractile and physiological properties. Finally, we sought to understand how this diversity may contribute to SMC-involving pathology. We found that a gene expression signature of the responses of vascular SMCs to serum exposure is associated with a significantly poorer prognosis in human cancers, potentially linking vascular injury response to tumor progression.

  9. Hyperphosphatemia induces cellular senescence in human aorta smooth muscle cells through integrin linked kinase (ILK) up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Troyano, Nuria; Nogal, María Del; Mora, Inés; Diaz-Naves, Manuel; Lopez-Carrillo, Natalia; Sosa, Patricia; Rodriguez-Puyol, Diego; Olmos, Gemma; Ruiz-Torres, María P

    2015-12-01

    Aging is conditioned by genetic and environmental factors. Hyperphosphatemia is related to some pathologies, affecting to vascular cells behavior. This work analyze whether high concentration of extracellular phosphate induces vascular smooth muscle cells senescence, exploring the intracellular mechanisms and highlighting the in vivo relevance of this phenomenon. Human aortic smooth muscle cells treated with β-Glycerophosphate (BGP, 10mM) suffered cellular senescence by increasing p53, p21 and p16 expression and the senescence associated β-galactosidase activity. In parallel, BGP induced ILK overexpression, dependent on the IGF-1 receptor activation, and oxidative stress. Down-regulating ILK expression prevented BGP-induced senescence and oxidative stress. Aortic rings from young rats treated with 10mM BGP for 48h, showed increased p53, p16 and ILK expression and SA-β-gal activity. Seven/eight nephrectomized rats feeding a hyperphosphatemic diet and fifteenth- month old mice showed hyperphosphatemia and aortic ILK, p53 and p16 expression. In conclusion, we demonstrated that high extracellular concentration of phosphate induced senescence in cultured smooth muscle through the activation of IGF-1 receptor and ILK overexpression and provided solid evidences for the in vivo relevance of these results since aged animals showed high levels of serum phosphate linked to increased expression of ILK and senescence genes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exogenous transforming growth factor-β1 enhances smooth muscle differentiation in embryonic mouse jejunal explants.

    PubMed

    Coletta, Riccardo; Roberts, Neil A; Randles, Michael J; Morabito, Antonino; Woolf, Adrian S

    2017-01-13

    An ex vivo experimental strategy that replicates in vivo intestinal development would in theory provide an accessible setting with which to study normal and dysmorphic gut biology. The current authors recently described a system in which mouse embryonic jejunal segments were explanted onto semipermeable platforms and fed with chemically defined serum-free media. Over 3 days in organ culture, explants formed villi and they began to undergo spontaneous peristalsis. As defined in the current study, the wall of the explanted gut failed to form a robust longitudinal smooth muscle (SM) layer as it would do in vivo over the same time period. Given the role of transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) in SM differentiation in other organs, it was hypothesized that exogenous TGFβ1 would enhance SM differentiation in these explants. In vivo, TGFβ receptors I and II were both detected in embryonic longitudinal jejunal SM cells and, in organ culture, exogenous TGFβ1 induced robust differentiation of longitudinal SM. Microarray profiling showed that TGFβ1 increased SM specific transcripts in a dose dependent manner. TGFβ1 proteins were detected in amniotic fluid at a time when the intestine was physiologically herniated. By analogy with the requirement for exogenous TGFβ1 for SM differentiation in organ culture, the TGFβ1 protein that was demonstrated to be present in the amniotic fluid may enhance intestinal development when it is physiologically herniated in early gestation. Future studies of embryonic intestinal cultures should include TGFβ1 in the defined media to produce a more faithful model of in vivo muscle differentiation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 The Authors Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. BAG3 promotes the phenotypic transformation of primary rat vascular smooth muscle cells via TRAIL.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yao; Chang, Ye; Chen, Shuang; Li, Yuan; Chen, Yintao; Sun, Guozhe; Yu, Shasha; Ye, Ning; Li, Chao; Sun, Yingxian

    2018-05-01

    Under normal physiological condition, the mature vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) show differentiated phenotype. In response to various environmental stimuluses, VSMCs convert from the differentiated phenotype to dedifferentiated phenotype characterized by the increased ability of proliferation/migration and the reduction of contractile ability. The phenotypic transformation of VSMCs played an important role in atherosclerosis. Both Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) and tumor necrosis factor-related apopt-osis inducing ligand (TRAIL) involved in apoptosis. The relationship between BAG3 and TRAIL and their effects the proliferation and migration in VSMCs are rarely reported. This study investigated the effects of BAG3 on the phenotypic modulation and the potential underlying mechanisms in primary rat VSMCs. Primary rat VSMCs were extracted and cultured in vitro. Cell proliferation was detected by cell counting, real-time cell analyzer (RTCA) and EdU incorporation. Cell migration was detected by wound healing, Transwell and RTCA. BAG3 and TRAIL were detected using real-time PCR and western blotting and the secreted proteins in the cultured media by dot blot. The expression of BAG3 increased with continued passages in cultured primary VSMCs. BAG3 promoted the proliferation and migration of primary rat VSMC in a time-dependent manner. BAG3 significantly increased the expression of TRAIL while had no effects on its receptors. TRAIL knockdown or blocking by neutralizing antibody inhibited the proliferation of VSMCs induced by BAG3. TRAIL knockdown exerted no obvious influence on the migration of VSMCs. Based on this study, we report for the first time that BAG3 was expressed in cultured primary rat VSMCs and the expression of BAG3 increased with continued passages. Furthermore, BAG3 promoted the proliferation of VSMCs via increasing the expression of TRAIL. In addition, we also demonstrated that BAG3 promoted the migration of VSMCs independent of TRAIL

  12. Physical contact between human vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells modulates cytosolic and nuclear calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Ghada S; Jacques, Danielle; D'Orléans-Juste, Pedro; Magder, Sheldon; Bkaily, Ghassan

    2018-05-14

    The interaction between vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in the modulation of vascular tone. There is, however, no information on whether direct physical communication regulates the intracellular calcium levels of human VECs (hVECs) and (or) human VSMCs (hVSMCs). Thus, the objective of the study is to verify whether co-culture of hVECs and hVSMCs modulates cytosolic ([Ca 2+ ] c ) and nuclear calcium ([Ca 2+ ] n ) levels via physical contact and (or) factors released by both cell types. Quantitative 3D confocal microscopy for [Ca 2+ ] c and [Ca 2+ ] n measurement was performed in cultured hVECs or hVSMCs or in co-culture of hVECs-hVSMCs. Our results show that: (1) physical contact between hVECs-hVECs or hVSMCs-hVSMCs does not affect [Ca 2+ ] c and [Ca 2+ ] n in these 2 cell types; (2) physical contact between hVECs and hVSMCs induces a significant increase only of [Ca 2+ ] n of hVECs without affecting the level of [Ca 2+ ] c and [Ca 2+ ] n of hVSMCs; and (3) preconditioned culture medium of hVECs or hVSMCs does not affect [Ca 2+ ] c and [Ca 2+ ] n of both types of cells. We concluded that physical contact between hVECs and hVSMCs only modulates [Ca 2+ ] n in hVECs. The increase of [Ca 2+ ] n in hVECs may modulate nuclear functions that are calcium dependent.

  13. Determining the Optimal Values of Exponential Smoothing Constants--Does Solver Really Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravinder, Handanhal V.

    2013-01-01

    A key issue in exponential smoothing is the choice of the values of the smoothing constants used. One approach that is becoming increasingly popular in introductory management science and operations management textbooks is the use of Solver, an Excel-based non-linear optimizer, to identify values of the smoothing constants that minimize a measure…

  14. Smoothing Forecasting Methods for Academic Library Circulations: An Evaluation and Recommendation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Terrence A.; Forys, John W., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Circulation time-series data from 50 midwest academic libraries were used to test 110 variants of 8 smoothing forecasting methods. Data and methodologies and illustrations of two recommended methods--the single exponential smoothing method and Brown's one-parameter linear exponential smoothing method--are given. Eight references are cited. (EJS)

  15. 32 CFR 809a.10 - Military commanders' responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION INSTALLATION ENTRY POLICY, CIVIL DISTURBANCE INTERVENTION AND DISASTER ASSISTANCE Civil Disturbance Intervention and Disaster Assistance § 809a.10 Military commanders' responsibilities. (a...

  16. 32 CFR 809a.10 - Military commanders' responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION INSTALLATION ENTRY POLICY, CIVIL DISTURBANCE INTERVENTION AND DISASTER ASSISTANCE Civil Disturbance Intervention and Disaster Assistance § 809a.10 Military commanders' responsibilities. (a...

  17. 32 CFR 809a.10 - Military commanders' responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION INSTALLATION ENTRY POLICY, CIVIL DISTURBANCE INTERVENTION AND DISASTER ASSISTANCE Civil Disturbance Intervention and Disaster Assistance § 809a.10 Military commanders' responsibilities. (a...

  18. Transcription of G-protein coupled receptors in corporeal smooth muscle is regulated by the endogenous neutral endopeptidase inhibitor sialorphin.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yuehong; Tiplitsky, Scott I; Tar, Moses; Melman, Arnold; Davies, Kelvin P

    2008-08-01

    Several reports suggest that the rat Vcsa1 gene is down-regulated in models of erectile dysfunction. The Vcsa protein product sialorphin is an endogenous neutral endopeptidase inhibitor and its down-regulation could result in prolonged activation of G-protein activated signaling pathways by their peptide agonists. We investigated whether Vcsa1 down-regulation could result in an adaptive change in GPCR (G-protein coupled receptor) expression. Gene expression in cultured rat corporeal smooth muscle cells following treatment with siRNA directed against Vcsa1 or the neutral endopeptidase gene was analyzed using microarray and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. In rats Vcsa1 is one of the most down-regulated genes following bilateral transection of the cavernous nerves. In that animal model we also investigated whether Vcsa1 down-regulation was accompanied by similar changes in gene expression in corporeal smooth muscle cells in which Vcsa1 was knocked down in vitro. Microarray analysis and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that corporeal smooth muscle cells treated in vitro with siRNA against Vcsa1 resulted in GPCR up-regulation as a functional group. In contrast, treatment of corporeal smooth muscle cells that lowered neutral endopeptidase activity resulted in decreased GPCR expression. These results suggest that the peptide product of Vcsa1, sialorphin, can effect GPCR expression by acting on neutral endopeptidase. In animals with bilaterally transected cavernous nerves the decreased Vcsa1 expression is accompanied by increased GPCR expression in cavernous tissue. These experiments suggest that the mechanism by which Vcsa1 modulates erectile function is partly mediated through changes in GPCR expression.

  19. The dopamine D1 receptor is expressed and facilitates relaxation in airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Mizuta, Kentaro; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Dingbang; Mizuta, Fumiko; D'Ovidio, Frank; Masaki, Eiji; Emala, Charles W

    2013-09-02

    Dopamine signaling is mediated by Gs protein-coupled "D1-like" receptors (D1 and D5) and Gi-coupled "D2-like" receptors (D2-4). In asthmatic patients, inhaled dopamine induces bronchodilation. Although the Gi-coupled dopamine D2 receptor is expressed and sensitizes adenylyl cyclase activity in airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells, the Gs-coupled dopamine D1-like receptor subtypes have never been identified on these cells. Activation of Gs-coupled receptors stimulates cyclic AMP (cAMP) production through the stimulation of adenylyl cyclase, which promotes ASM relaxation. We questioned whether the dopamine D1-like receptor is expressed on ASM, and modulates its function through Gs-coupling. The mRNA and protein expression of dopamine D1-like receptor subtypes in both native human and guinea pig ASM tissue and cultured human ASM (HASM) cells was measured. To characterize the stimulation of cAMP through the dopamine D1 receptor, HASM cells were treated with dopamine or the dopamine D1-like receptor agonists (A68930 or SKF38393) before cAMP measurements. To evaluate whether the activation of dopamine D1 receptor induces ASM relaxation, guinea pig tracheal rings suspended under isometric tension in organ baths were treated with cumulatively increasing concentrations of dopamine or A68930, following an acetylcholine-induced contraction with or without the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor Rp-cAMPS, the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channel blocker iberiotoxin, or the exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac) antagonist NSC45576. Messenger RNA encoding the dopamine D1 and D5 receptors were detected in native human ASM tissue and cultured HASM cells. Immunoblots confirmed the protein expression of the dopamine D1 receptor in both native human and guinea pig ASM tissue and cultured HASM cells. The dopamine D1 receptor was also immunohistochemically localized to both human and guinea pig ASM. The dopamine D1-like receptor agonists

  20. The dopamine D1 receptor is expressed and facilitates relaxation in airway smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dopamine signaling is mediated by Gs protein-coupled “D1-like” receptors (D1 and D5) and Gi-coupled “D2-like” receptors (D2-4). In asthmatic patients, inhaled dopamine induces bronchodilation. Although the Gi-coupled dopamine D2 receptor is expressed and sensitizes adenylyl cyclase activity in airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells, the Gs-coupled dopamine D1-like receptor subtypes have never been identified on these cells. Activation of Gs-coupled receptors stimulates cyclic AMP (cAMP) production through the stimulation of adenylyl cyclase, which promotes ASM relaxation. We questioned whether the dopamine D1-like receptor is expressed on ASM, and modulates its function through Gs-coupling. Methods The mRNA and protein expression of dopamine D1-like receptor subtypes in both native human and guinea pig ASM tissue and cultured human ASM (HASM) cells was measured. To characterize the stimulation of cAMP through the dopamine D1 receptor, HASM cells were treated with dopamine or the dopamine D1-like receptor agonists (A68930 or SKF38393) before cAMP measurements. To evaluate whether the activation of dopamine D1 receptor induces ASM relaxation, guinea pig tracheal rings suspended under isometric tension in organ baths were treated with cumulatively increasing concentrations of dopamine or A68930, following an acetylcholine-induced contraction with or without the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor Rp-cAMPS, the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channel blocker iberiotoxin, or the exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac) antagonist NSC45576. Results Messenger RNA encoding the dopamine D1 and D5 receptors were detected in native human ASM tissue and cultured HASM cells. Immunoblots confirmed the protein expression of the dopamine D1 receptor in both native human and guinea pig ASM tissue and cultured HASM cells. The dopamine D1 receptor was also immunohistochemically localized to both human and guinea pig ASM. The

  1. The flavonoid quercetin induces apoptosis and inhibits JNK activation in intimal vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Vizcaino, Francisco; Bishop-Bailley, David; Lodi, Federica

    Quercetin, the most abundant dietary flavonol, exerts vasodilator, anti-hypertensive, and anti-atherogenic effects and reduces the vascular remodelling associated with elevated blood pressure. Here, we have compared the effects of quercetin in intimal- and medial-type rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in culture. After 48 h, quercetin reduced the viability of a polyclonal intimal-type cell line derived from neonatal aorta but not of a medial-type cell line derived from adult aorta. These differential effects were similar in both proliferating and quiescent VSMC. Quercetin also preferentially reduced the viability of intimal-type over medial-type VSMC in primary cultures derived from balloon-injured carotid arteries.more » The effects of quercetin on cell viability were mainly dependent upon induction of apoptosis, as demonstrated by nuclear condensation and fragmentation, and were unrelated to PPAR{gamma}, pro-oxidant effects or nitric oxide. The expression of MAPKs (ERK, p38, and JNK) and ERK phosphorylation were not different between intimal- and medial-type VSMC. p38 phosphorylation was negligible in both cell types. Medial-type showed a weak JNK phosphorylation while this was markedly increased in intimal-type cells. Quercetin reduced JNK phosphorylation but had no consistent effect on ERK phosphorylation. In conclusion, quercetin preferentially produced apoptosis in intimal-type compared to medial-type VSMC. This might play a role in the anti-atherogenic and anti-hypertensive effects of quercetin.« less

  2. NONOates regulate KCl cotransporter-1 and -3 mRNA expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Di Fulvio, Mauricio; Lauf, Peter K; Shah, Shalin; Adragna, Norma C

    2003-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) donors regulate KCl cotransport (KCC) activity and cotransporter-1 and -3 (KCC1 and KCC3) mRNA expression in sheep erythrocytes and in primary cultures of rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), respectively. In this study, we used NONOates as rapid and slow NO releasers to provide direct evidence implicating NO as a regulator of KCC3 gene expression at the mRNA level. In addition, we used the expression of KCC3 mRNA to further investigate the mechanism of action of these NO donors at the cellular level. Treatment of VSMCs with rapid NO releasers, like NOC-5 and NOC-9, as well as with the direct NO-independent soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) stimulator YC-1, acutely increased KCC3 mRNA expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The slow NO releaser NOC-18 had no effect on KCC3 gene expression. A specific NO scavenger completely prevented the NONOate-induced KCC3 mRNA expression. Inhibition of sGC with LY-83583 blocked the NONOate- and YC-1-induced KCC3 mRNA expression. This study shows that in primary cultures of rat VSMCs, the fast NO releasers NOC-9 and NOC-5, but not the slow NO releaser NOC-18, acutely upregulate KCC3 mRNA expression in a NO/sGC-dependent manner.

  3. Histamine receptors in human detrusor smooth muscle cells: physiological properties and immunohistochemical representation of subtypes.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Jochen; Weimann, Annett; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Dawood, Waled; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Dorschner, Wolfgang

    2006-06-01

    The potent inflammatory mediator histamine is released from activated mast cells in interstitial cystitis (IC). Here, we report on the histamine receptor subtypes involved in the intracellular calcium response of cultured smooth muscle cells (cSMC). Fura-2 was used to monitor the calcium response in cSMC, cultured from human detrusor biopsies. The distribution of histamine receptor subtypes was addressed by immunocytochemistry in situ and in vitro. Histamine stimulated a maximum of 92% of the cells (n=335), being more effective than carbachol (70%, n=920). HTMT (H1R-agonist), dimaprit (H2R) and MTH (H3R) lead to significant lower numbers of reacting cells (60, 48 and 54%). Histamine receptor immunoreactivity (H1R, H2R, H3R, H4R) was found in situ and in vitro. Histamine-induced calcium increase is mediated by distinct histamine receptors. Thus, pre-therapeutic evaluation of histamine receptor expression in IC patients may help to optimize therapy by using a patient-specific cocktail of subtype-specific histamine receptor antagonists.

  4. Culturing Protozoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Compares various nutrient media, growth conditions, and stock solutions used in culturing protozoa. A hay infusion in Chalkey's solution maintained at a stable temperature is recommended for producing the most dense and diverse cultures. (WB)

  5. Esophageal culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003764.htm Esophageal culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Esophageal culture is a laboratory test that checks for infection- ...

  6. Endocervical culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003754.htm Endocervical culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Endocervical culture is a laboratory test that helps identify infection ...

  7. Effects of slope smoothing in river channel modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyungmin; Liu, Frank; Hodges, Ben R.

    2017-04-01

    In extending dynamic river modeling with the 1D Saint-Venant equations from a single reach to a large watershed there are critical questions as to how much bathymetric knowledge is necessary and how it should be represented parsimoniously. The ideal model will include the detail necessary to provide realism, but not include extraneous detail that should not exert a control on a 1D (cross-section averaged) solution. In a Saint-Venant model, the overall complexity of the river channel morphometry is typically abstracted into metrics for the channel slope, cross-sectional area, hydraulic radius, and roughness. In stream segments where cross-section surveys are closely spaced, it is not uncommon to have sharp changes in slope or even negative values (where a positive slope is the downstream direction). However, solving river flow with the Saint-Venant equations requires a degree of smoothness in the equation parameters or the equation set with the directly measured channel slopes may not be Lipschitz continuous. The results of non-smoothness are typically extended computational time to converge solutions (or complete failure to converge) and/or numerical instabilities under transient conditions. We have investigated using cubic splines to smooth the bottom slope and ensure always positive reference slopes within a 1D model. This method has been implemented in the Simulation Program for River Networks (SPRNT) and is compared to the standard HEC-RAS river solver. It is shown that the reformulation of the reference slope is both in keeping with the underlying derivation of the Saint-Venant equations and provides practical numerical stability without altering the realism of the simulation. This research was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under grant number CCF-1331610.

  8. Interaction of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Under Low Shear Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, Charles L.

    1998-01-01

    The blood vessel wall consists of three cellular layers, an outer adventitial, a middle medial and an inner intimal layer. When the blood vessel forms in the embryo it begins as a tube composed of a single cell type called endothelial cells. Over time, other cells are recruited from the surrounding tissue to form additional layers on the outer surface of the endothelial tube. The cells that are recruited are called mesenchymal cells. Mesenchymal cells are responsible for the production of connective tissue that holds the blood vessel together and for developing into vascular smooth muscle cells that are responsible for regulating the diameter of the vessel (1) and therefore, blood flow. In a fully developed blood vessel, the endothelial cells make- up the majority of cells in the intimal layer while the mesenchymal cells make-up the majority of cells in the medial and adventitial layers. Within the medial layer of a mature vessel, cells are organized into multiple circular layers of alternating bands of connective tissue and cells. The cell layer is composed of a mixture of mesenchymal cells that have not developed into smooth muscle cells and fully developed smooth muscle cells (2). The assembly and organization of complex tissues is directed in part by a signaling system composed of proteins on the cell surface called adhesion molecules. Adhesion molecules enable cells to recognize each other as well as the composition of the connective tissue in which they reside (3). It was hypothesized that the different cell types that compose the vascular wall possess different adhesion molecules that enable them to recognize each other and through this recognition system, form the complex layered organization of the vascular wall. In other words, the layered organization is an intrinsic property of the cells. If this hypothesis is correct then the different cells that make up the vessel wall, when mixed together, should organize themselves into a layered structure

  9. Selectivity of ROCK inhibitors in the spontaneously tonic smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Rattan, Satish; Patel, Chirag A

    2008-03-01

    The selectivity of different Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitors in the spontaneously tonic smooth muscle has not been investigated. We examined this issue using Y-27632 [(R)-(+)-trans-N-(4-pyridyl)-4-(1-aminoethyl)-cyclohexanecarbox anecarboxamide, 2HCl], H-1152 [(S)-(+)-(2-methyl-5-isoquinolinyl) sulfonylhomopiperazine, 2HCl], HA-1077 [(5 isoquinolinesulfonyl) homopiperazine, 2HCl], and ROCK inhibitor II [N-(4-pyridyl)-N'-(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)urea]. We compared these inhibitors in the spontaneously tonic smooth muscle of the internal anal sphincter (IAS). ROCK, protein kinase C (PKC), and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) activities were determined in the IAS, before and after different ROCK inhibitors. Y-27632 and H-1152 were approximately 30-fold more potent in the IAS (IC(50): 4.4 x 10(-7) and 7.9 x 10(-8) M, respectively) vs. the phasic rectal smooth muscle (RSM) (IC(50): 1.3 x 10(-5) and 2.5 x 10(-6) M, respectively). HA-1077 and ROCK inhibitor II were equipotent in the IAS vs. RSM. In the IAS, H-1152 was the most potent whereas ROCK inhibitor II is the least. Y-27632 and H-1152 caused concentration-dependent decrease in the IAS tone that correlates directly with the decreases in ROCK activity, without significant effect in the PKC and MLCK activities. This specifically selective correlation between ROCK activity and decrease in the IAS tone was absent in the case of HA-1077 and ROCK inhibitor II, which also inhibited PKC and MLCK. We conclude that the IAS tone is critically dependent on ROCK activity, and H-1152 and Y-27632 are the most selective and potent ROCK inhibitors in the IAS.

  10. Bessel smoothing filter for spectral-element mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, P. T.; Brossier, R.; Métivier, L.; Virieux, J.; Wellington, P.

    2017-06-01

    Smoothing filters are extremely important tools in seismic imaging and inversion, such as for traveltime tomography, migration and waveform inversion. For efficiency, and as they can be used a number of times during inversion, it is important that these filters can easily incorporate prior information on the geological structure of the investigated medium, through variable coherent lengths and orientation. In this study, we promote the use of the Bessel filter to achieve these purposes. Instead of considering the direct application of the filter, we demonstrate that we can rely on the equation associated with its inverse filter, which amounts to the solution of an elliptic partial differential equation. This enhances the efficiency of the filter application, and also its flexibility. We apply this strategy within a spectral-element-based elastic full waveform inversion framework. Taking advantage of this formulation, we apply the Bessel filter by solving the associated partial differential equation directly on the spectral-element mesh through the standard weak formulation. This avoids cumbersome projection operators between the spectral-element mesh and a regular Cartesian grid, or expensive explicit windowed convolution on the finite-element mesh, which is often used for applying smoothing operators. The associated linear system is solved efficiently through a parallel conjugate gradient algorithm, in which the matrix vector product is factorized and highly optimized with vectorized computation. Significant scaling behaviour is obtained when comparing this strategy with the explicit convolution method. The theoretical numerical complexity of this approach increases linearly with the coherent length, whereas a sublinear relationship is observed practically. Numerical illustrations are provided here for schematic examples, and for a more realistic elastic full waveform inversion gradient smoothing on the SEAM II benchmark model. These examples illustrate well the

  11. Smooth extrapolation of unknown anatomy via statistical shape models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grupp, R. B.; Chiang, H.; Otake, Y.; Murphy, R. J.; Gordon, C. R.; Armand, M.; Taylor, R. H.

    2015-03-01

    Several methods to perform extrapolation of unknown anatomy were evaluated. The primary application is to enhance surgical procedures that may use partial medical images or medical images of incomplete anatomy. Le Fort-based, face-jaw-teeth transplant is one such procedure. From CT data of 36 skulls and 21 mandibles separate Statistical Shape Models of the anatomical surfaces were created. Using the Statistical Shape Models, incomplete surfaces were projected to obtain complete surface estimates. The surface estimates exhibit non-zero error in regions where the true surface is known; it is desirable to keep the true surface and seamlessly merge the estimated unknown surface. Existing extrapolation techniques produce non-smooth transitions from the true surface to the estimated surface, resulting in additional error and a less aesthetically pleasing result. The three extrapolation techniques evaluated were: copying and pasting of the surface estimate (non-smooth baseline), a feathering between the patient surface and surface estimate, and an estimate generated via a Thin Plate Spline trained from displacements between the surface estimate and corresponding vertices of the known patient surface. Feathering and Thin Plate Spline approaches both yielded smooth transitions. However, feathering corrupted known vertex values. Leave-one-out analyses were conducted, with 5% to 50% of known anatomy removed from the left-out patient and estimated via the proposed approaches. The Thin Plate Spline approach yielded smaller errors than the other two approaches, with an average vertex error improvement of 1.46 mm and 1.38 mm for the skull and mandible respectively, over the baseline approach.

  12. Experimental comparison of PV-smoothing controllers using distributed generators

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Ellis, Abraham; Denda, Atsushi

    The power output variability of photovoltaic systems can affect local electrical grids in locations with high renewable energy penetrations or weak distribution or transmission systems. In those rare cases, quick controllable generators (e.g., energy storage systems) or loads can counteract the destabilizing effects by compensating for the power fluctuations. Previously, control algorithms for coordinated and uncoordinated operation of a small natural gas engine-generator (genset) and a battery for smoothing PV plant output were optimized using MATLAB/Simulink simulations. The simulations demonstrated that a traditional generation resource such as a natural gas genset in combination with a battery would smooth the photovoltaicmore » output while using a smaller battery state of charge (SOC) range and extending the life of the battery. This paper reports on the experimental implementation of the coordinated and uncoordinated controllers to verify the simulations and determine the differences in the controllers. The experiments were performed with the PNM PV and energy storage Prosperity site and a gas engine-generator located at the Aperture Center at Mesa Del Sol in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Two field demonstrations were performed to compare the different PV smoothing control algorithms: (1) implementing the coordinated and uncoordinated controls while switching off a subsection of the PV array at precise times on successive clear days, and (2) comparing the results of the battery and genset outputs for the coordinated control on a high variability day with simulations of the coordinated and uncoordinated controls. It was found that for certain PV power profiles the SOC range of the battery may be larger with the coordinated control, but the total amp-hours through the battery-which approximates battery wear-will always be smaller with the coordinated control.« less

  13. Effects of nifedipine on anorectal smooth muscle in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cook, T A; Brading, A F; Mortensen, N J

    1999-06-01

    Glyceryl trinitrate reduces anal resting pressure and aids the healing of anal fissures. However, some patients develop tachyphylaxis and the fissure fails to heal, suggesting that other agents are needed. This study assesses the effects of nifedipine (a calcium channel antagonist) in modulating resting tone and agonist-induced contractions in human internal anal sphincter (IAS) and rectal circular muscle. Smooth muscle strips from the IAS and rectal circular muscle from ten patients undergoing surgical resection were mounted for isometric tension recording in a superfusion organ bath. The effects of noradrenaline and carbachol were assessed in the presence of various perfusates. LAS strips developed tone and spontaneous activity. Noradrenaline produced dose-dependent contractions. In calcium-free Krebs solution, tone and activity were abolished and no contractions were elicited in response to noradrenaline. Nifedipine also abolished tone and spontaneous activity, but contractions to noradrenaline were only slightly attenuated. In contrast, rectal smooth muscle strips developed spontaneous activity but no resting tone and contracted in response to carbachol. In calcium-free Krebs solution, the spontaneous activity and carbachol contractions were abolished. Addition of nifedipine to the perfusate abolished spontaneous activity and greatly reduced contractions. These data suggest that spontaneous activity and resting tone are dependent on extracellular calcium and flux across the cells. Agonist-induced contraction in the IAS is attributable mainly to the release of calcium from intracellular stores, whereas rectal circular smooth muscle depends principally on extracellular calcium entering the cell for contraction. The attenuation of contractions in both tissues and the abolition of resting tone in the IAS suggest that nifedipine may be useful in the management of patients with anorectal disorders.

  14. Mechanics of smooth muscle in isolated single microvessels.

    PubMed

    Gore, R W; Davis, M J

    1984-01-01

    In vivo studies on frog mesenteric arterioles (4) indicate that segmental differences in the response of microvessels to physical and chemical stimuli can be explained simply in terms of the length-tension characteristics of vascular smooth muscle at different points along the vascular tree. Studies on single, isolated arterioles in vitro were initiated to examine more closely the validity of this explanation for regional response differences. This paper reports some of the results. First-, second-, and third-order arterioles (18-60 micron i.d.) were dissected from hamster cheek pouches. The vessels were cannulated with a modified Burg microperfusion system, and their mechanical properties studied using the methods described by Duling and Gore. Vessels were activated in four stages with K+ and norepinephrine. During activation, transmural pressures were adjusted to minimize vascular smooth-muscle shortening. Active pressure-diameter curves were recorded while adjusting transmural pressure through the range 5 to 400 cm H20 in 5-25 cm steps. Vessel dimensions were measured with a videomicrometer. Passive curves were obtained after equilibration overnight in Ca2+-free medium. The vessels were then fixed and prepared for histologic sectioning, and measurements of vessel-wall composition were made. The Laplace relationship was used to construct length-tension diagrams, and the histologic data were used to normalize the dimensional data to smooth-muscle lengths. Maximum active tension of second-order arterioles (1,170 dynes/cm) was two times previous values reported by Gore et al. This was due presumably to refinements in techniques and dissection procedures. Maximum active stress averaged 3.9 X 10(+6) dynes/cm2 for second-order arterioles. This number is identical to data obtained from hog carotid strips by Dillon et al.

  15. Smooth individual level covariates adjustment in disease mapping.

    PubMed

    Huque, Md Hamidul; Anderson, Craig; Walton, Richard; Woolford, Samuel; Ryan, Louise

    2018-05-01

    Spatial models for disease mapping should ideally account for covariates measured both at individual and area levels. The newly available "indiCAR" model fits the popular conditional autoregresssive (CAR) model by accommodating both individual and group level covariates while adjusting for spatial correlation in the disease rates. This algorithm has been shown to be effective but assumes log-linear associations between individual level covariates and outcome. In many studies, the relationship between individual level covariates and the outcome may be non-log-linear, and methods to track such nonlinearity between individual level covariate and outcome in spatial regression modeling are not well developed. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm, smooth-indiCAR, to fit an extension to the popular conditional autoregresssive model that can accommodate both linear and nonlinear individual level covariate effects while adjusting for group level covariates and spatial correlation in the disease rates. In this formulation, the effect of a continuous individual level covariate is accommodated via penalized splines. We describe a two-step estimation procedure to obtain reliable estimates of individual and group level covariate effects where both individual and group level covariate effects are estimated separately. This distributed computing framework enhances its application in the Big Data domain with a large number of individual/group level covariates. We evaluate the performance of smooth-indiCAR through simulation. Our results indicate that the smooth-indiCAR method provides reliable estimates of all regression and random effect parameters. We illustrate our proposed methodology with an analysis of data on neutropenia admissions in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Electric drive systems including smoothing capacitor cooling devices and systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dede, Ercan Mehmet; Zhou, Feng

    An electric drive system includes a smoothing capacitor including at least one terminal, a bus bar electrically coupled to the at least one terminal, a thermoelectric device including a first side and a second side positioned opposite the first side, where the first side is thermally coupled to at least one of the at least one terminal and the bus bar, and a cooling element thermally coupled to the second side of the thermoelectric device, where the cooling element dissipates heat from the thermoelectric device.

  17. Molecular dynamics study of nanodroplet diffusion on smooth solid surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Zhao-Xia; Huang, Tao; Chen, Yong

    2018-10-01

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations of Lennard-Jones particles in a canonical ensemble to study the diffusion of nanodroplets on smooth solid surfaces. Using the droplet-surface interaction to realize a hydrophilic or hydrophobic surface and calculating the mean square displacement of the center-of-mass of the nanodroplets, the random motion of nanodroplets could be characterized by shorttime subdiffusion, intermediate-time superdiffusion, and long-time normal diffusion. The short-time subdiffusive exponent increases and almost reaches unity (normal diffusion) with decreasing droplet size or enhancing hydrophobicity. The diffusion coefficient of the droplet on hydrophobic surfaces is larger than that on hydrophilic surfaces.

  18. Modeling electrokinetic flows by consistent implicit incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    DOE PAGES

    Pan, Wenxiao; Kim, Kyungjoo; Perego, Mauro; ...

    2017-01-03

    In this paper, we present a consistent implicit incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (I 2SPH) discretization of Navier–Stokes, Poisson–Boltzmann, and advection–diffusion equations subject to Dirichlet or Robin boundary conditions. It is applied to model various two and three dimensional electrokinetic flows in simple or complex geometries. The accuracy and convergence of the consistent I 2SPH are examined via comparison with analytical solutions, grid-based numerical solutions, or empirical models. Lastly, the new method provides a framework to explore broader applications of SPH in microfluidics and complex fluids with charged objects, such as colloids and biomolecules, in arbitrary complex geometries.

  19. An explicit scheme for ohmic dissipation with smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Iwasaki, Kazunari; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we present an explicit scheme for Ohmic dissipation with smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics (SPMHD). We propose an SPH discretization of Ohmic dissipation and solve Ohmic dissipation part of induction equation with the super-time-stepping method (STS) which allows us to take a longer time step than Courant-Friedrich-Levy stability condition. Our scheme is second-order accurate in space and first-order accurate in time. Our numerical experiments show that optimal choice of the parameters of STS for Ohmic dissipation of SPMHD is νsts ˜ 0.01 and Nsts ˜ 5.

  20. Investigation on filter method for smoothing spiral phase plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuanhang; Wen, Shenglin; Luo, Zijian; Tang, Caixue; Yan, Hao; Yang, Chunlin; Liu, Mincai; Zhang, Qinghua; Wang, Jian

    2018-03-01

    Spiral phase plate (SPP) for generating vortex hollow beams has high efficiency in various applications. However, it is difficult to obtain an ideal spiral phase plate because of its continuous-varying helical phase and discontinued phase step. This paper describes the demonstration of continuous spiral phase plate using filter methods. The numerical simulations indicate that different filter method including spatial domain filter, frequency domain filter has unique impact on surface topography of SPP and optical vortex characteristics. The experimental results reveal that the spatial Gaussian filter method for smoothing SPP is suitable for Computer Controlled Optical Surfacing (CCOS) technique and obtains good optical properties.

  1. Modeling electrokinetic flows by consistent implicit incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wenxiao; Kim, Kyungjoo; Perego, Mauro

    2017-04-01

    We present an efficient implicit incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (I2SPH) discretization of Navier-Stokes, Poisson-Boltzmann, and advection-diffusion equations subject to Dirichlet or Robin boundary conditions. It is applied to model various two and three dimensional electrokinetic flows in simple or complex geometries. The I2SPH's accuracy and convergence are examined via comparison with analytical solutions, grid-based numerical solutions, or empirical models. The new method provides a framework to explore broader applications of SPH in microfluidics and complex fluids with charged objects, such as colloids and biomolecules, in arbitrary complex geometries.

  2. Esophageal smooth muscle hypertrophy causing regurgitation in a rabbit

    PubMed Central

    PARKINSON, Lily; KUZMA, Carrie; WUENSCHMANN, Arno; MANS, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    A five-year-old rabbit was evaluated for a 7 to 8 month history of regurgitation, weight loss, and hyporexia. Previously performed whole body radiographs, plasma biochemistry results and complete blood count revealed had no significant abnormalities. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a circumferential caudal esophageal thickening. The animal received supportive care until euthanasia was performed 6 weeks later. Caudal esophageal smooth muscle hypertrophy was diagnosed on necropsy. This case indicates that regurgitation can occur in rabbits and advanced imaging can investigate the underlying cause. PMID:28966232

  3. Method for smoothing the surface of a protective coating

    DOEpatents

    Sangeeta, D.; Johnson, Curtis Alan; Nelson, Warren Arthur

    2001-01-01

    A method for smoothing the surface of a ceramic-based protective coating which exhibits roughness is disclosed. The method includes the steps of applying a ceramic-based slurry or gel coating to the protective coating surface; heating the slurry/gel coating to remove volatile material; and then further heating the slurry/gel coating to cure the coating and bond it to the underlying protective coating. The slurry/gel coating is often based on yttria-stabilized zirconia, and precursors of an oxide matrix. Related articles of manufacture are also described.

  4. Electroform replication of smooth mirrors from sapphire masters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altkorn, R.; Chang, J.; Haidle, R.; Takacs, P. Z.; Ulmer, M. P.

    1992-01-01

    A sapphire master was used to produce mirrors that exhibit mid-to-high-frequency roughness as low as 3 A. The fabrication procedure and potential applications in X-ray astronomy are discussed. It is shown that foils replicated from flat smooth mandrels should offer at least equivalent HF roughness and significantly lower mid-frequency ripple than those coated with lacquer. A ceramic-surface mandrel could also be expected to last far longer without the need for repolishing than electroless nickel-coated mandrels.

  5. Exponentially accurate approximations to piece-wise smooth periodic functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, James; Banerjee, Saheb

    1995-01-01

    A family of simple, periodic basis functions with 'built-in' discontinuities are introduced, and their properties are analyzed and discussed. Some of their potential usefulness is illustrated in conjunction with the Fourier series representations of functions with discontinuities. In particular, it is demonstrated how they can be used to construct a sequence of approximations which converges exponentially in the maximum norm to a piece-wise smooth function. The theory is illustrated with several examples and the results are discussed in the context of other sequences of functions which can be used to approximate discontinuous functions.

  6. Airway smooth muscle contraction - perspectives on past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, H W

    2009-10-01

    Past and contemporary views of airway smooth muscle (ASM) have led to a high level of understanding of the control and intracellular regulation of force or shortening of ASM and of its possible role in airway disease. As well as the multitude of cellular mechanisms that regulate ASM contraction, a number of structural and mechanical factors, which are only present at the airway and lung level, provide overriding control over ASM. With new knowledge about the cellular physiology and biology of ASM, there is increasing need to understand how ASM contraction is regulated and expressed at these airway and system levels.

  7. Application of active controls technology to aircraft bide smoothing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapins, M.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1975-01-01

    A critical review of past efforts in the design and testing of ride smoothing and gust alleviation systems is presented. Design trade offs involving sensor types, choice of feedback loops, human comfort, and aircraft handling-qualities criteria are discussed. Synthesis of a system designed to employ direct-lift and side-force producing surfaces is reported. Two STOL aircraft and an executive transport are considered. Theoretically predicted system performance is compared with hybrid simulation and flight test data. Pilot opinion rating, pilot workload, and passenger comfort rating data for the basic and augmented aircraft are included.

  8. Peeling off an elastica from a smooth attractive substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyharcabal, Xabier; Frisch, Thomas

    2005-03-01

    Using continuum mechanics, we study theoretically the unbinding of an inextensible rod with free ends attracted by a smooth substrate and submitted to a vertical force. We use the elastica model in a medium-range van der Waals potential. We numerically solve a nonlinear boundary value problem and obtain the force-stretching relation at zero temperature. We obtain the critical force for which the rod unbinds from the substrate as a function of three dimensionless parameters, and we find two different regimes of adhesion. We study analytically the contact potential case as the van der Waals radius goes to zero.

  9. Smooth information flow in temperature climate network reflects mass transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlinka, Jaroslav; Jajcay, Nikola; Hartman, David; Paluš, Milan

    2017-03-01

    A directed climate network is constructed by Granger causality analysis of air temperature time series from a regular grid covering the whole Earth. Using winner-takes-all network thresholding approach, a structure of a smooth information flow is revealed, hidden to previous studies. The relevance of this observation is confirmed by comparison with the air mass transfer defined by the wind field. Their close relation illustrates that although the information transferred due to the causal influence is not a physical quantity, the information transfer is tied to the transfer of mass and energy.

  10. An algorithm for surface smoothing with rational splines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiess, James R.

    1987-01-01

    Discussed is an algorithm for smoothing surfaces with spline functions containing tension parameters. The bivariate spline functions used are tensor products of univariate rational-spline functions. A distinct tension parameter corresponds to each rectangular strip defined by a pair of consecutive spline knots along either axis. Equations are derived for writing the bivariate rational spline in terms of functions and derivatives at the knots. Estimates of these values are obtained via weighted least squares subject to continuity constraints at the knots. The algorithm is illustrated on a set of terrain elevation data.

  11. A Smoothed Eclipse Model for Solar Electric Propulsion Trajectory Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aziz, Jonathan D.; Scheeres, Daniel J.; Parker, Jeffrey S.; Englander, Jacob A.

    2017-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) is the dominant design option for employing low-thrust propulsion on a space mission. Spacecraft solar arrays power the SEP system but are subject to blackout periods during solar eclipse conditions. Discontinuity in power available to the spacecraft must be accounted for in trajectory optimization, but gradient-based methods require a differentiable power model. This work presents a power model that smooths the eclipse transition from total eclipse to total sunlight with a logistic function. Example trajectories are computed with differential dynamic programming, a second-order gradient-based method.

  12. Molecular Pathways of Notch Signaling in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Joshua; Gridley, Thomas; Liaw, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    Notch signaling in the cardiovascular system is important during embryonic development, vascular repair of injury, and vascular pathology in humans. The vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) expresses multiple Notch receptors throughout its life cycle, and responds to Notch ligands as a regulatory mechanism of differentiation, recruitment to growing vessels, and maturation. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the current understanding of the molecular basis for Notch regulation of VSMC phenotype. Further, we will explore Notch interaction with other signaling pathways important in VSMC. PMID:22509166

  13. Long-Term Safety of Textured and Smooth Breast Implants.

    PubMed

    Calobrace, M Bradley; Schwartz, Michael R; Zeidler, Kamakshi R; Pittman, Troy A; Cohen, Robert; Stevens, W Grant

    2017-12-13

    In this review, the authors provide a 20-year review and comparison of implant options and describe the evolution of breast implant surface textures; compare available implant surfaces; present long-term safety data from the 10-year US-based Core clinical studies; list the key benefits and risks associated with smooth and textured implants; and provide perspectives on breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL). The authors explore the key benefits and risks associated with all available devices so that optimal and safe patient outcomes can be achieved. © 2017 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Catecholamines release mediators in the opossum oesophageal circular smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, E E; Jager, L P; Jury, J

    1987-01-01

    1. Effects of catecholamines applied exogenously to the circular smooth muscle layer of the body of the oesophagus of the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) were studied, simultaneously measuring changes in the membrane potential, the membrane conductance and the contractility of the muscle, using the double sucrose-gap technique. 2. Superfusion of the smooth muscle with Krebs solution at 27 degrees C containing dopamine (10(-6)-10(-4) M) dose-dependently caused a hyperpolarization of the smooth muscle cells and an increased membrane resistance followed after gradual repolarization by oscillations of the membrane potential, often accompanied by muscle action potentials. During the hyperpolarization, the tendency for the membrane potential to sag during prolonged application of hyperpolarizing currents was reduced and the 'off' depolarization following such currents was increased. This muscle did not develop active tension prior to treatment; it therefore did not relax during the hyperpolarizations, but contracted following the depolarized phase of oscillations. 3. The non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic nerve-mediated inhibitory junction potential (i.j.p.) showed a small reduction in amplitude during superfusion with dopamine, explicable as a result of the drug-induced hyperpolarization. The 'off' response following the i.j.p., decreased transiently when the membrane potential was hyperpolarized to its maximum value. Then it increased to values larger than control as the membrane repolarized. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP, 10(-6) M) produced a similar response but hyperpolarizations were smaller. 4. Of the tested catecholamines, isoprenaline, phenylephrine, butylated hydroxytoluene-920 (BHT-920) and clonidine were ineffective whereas the potency order for other catecholamines was dopamine greater than noradrenaline greater than or equal to adrenaline greater than DOPA. The catecholamine-induced responses were not affected by alpha- or beta

  15. Thermal Smoothing by Laser-Produced Plasma of Porous Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kalal, M.; Limpouch, J.; Krousky, E.

    2003-05-15

    Efficient energy transfer and smoothing effect in laser-irradiated polystyrene foam targets have been observed in preliminary experiments on the PALS iodine laser facility. A theory of laser light absorption region formation and ablation pressure generation in laser-produced plasma of porous matter has been developed and applied for discussion of the results obtained. In particular, two stages of homogenization of the porous matter, important for comprehension of the anomalously high absorption of laser radiation in supercritical foam matter, have been identified: the first, a considerably fast stage of partial homogenization, followed by a much slower second stage, leading to a uniformmore » medium.« less

  16. Measurements of drag and lift on smooth balls in flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod; Lindsey, Crawford

    2017-07-01

    Measurements are presented on the drag and lift coefficients for three relatively smooth balls launched in air and tracked with two cameras separated horizontally by 6.4 m. The ball spin was varied in order to investigate whether the Magnus force would increase or decrease when the ball spin was increased. For one ball, the Magnus force increased. For another ball, the Magnus force decreased almost to zero after reaching a maximum. For the third ball, the Magnus force was negative at low ball spins and positive at high ball spins. For one of the balls, the ball spin increased with time as it travelled through the air.

  17. Application of Active Controls Technology to Aircraft Ride Smoothing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapins, Maris; Jacobson, Ira D.

    1975-01-01

    A critical review of past efforts in the design and testing of ride smoothing and gust alleviation systems is presented. Design trade-offs involving sensor types, choice of feedback loops, human comfort and aircraft handling-qualities criteria are discussed. Synthesis of a system designed to employ direct-lift and side-force producing surfaces is reported. Two STOL-class aircraft and an executive transport are considered. Theoretically-predicted system performance is compared with hybrid simulation and flight test data. Pilot opinion rating, pilot workload, and passenger comfort rating data for the basic and augmented aircraft are included.

  18. Smooth bridge between guided waves and spoof surface plasmon polaritons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liangliang; Li, Zhuo; Gu, Changqing; Xu, Bingzheng; Ning, Pingping; Chen, Chen; Yan, Jian; Niu, Zhenyi; Zhao, Yongjiu

    2015-04-15

    In this work, we build a smooth bridge between a coaxial waveguide and a plasmonic waveguide with subwavelength periodically cylindrical radial grooves, to realize high-efficiency mode conversion between conventional guided waves and spoof surface plasmon polaritons in broadband. This bridge consists of a flaring coaxial waveguide connected with a metal cylindrical wire corrugated with subwavelength gradient radial grooves. Experimental results of the transmission and reflection coefficients show excellent agreement with the numerical simulations. The proposed scheme can be extended readily to other bands and the bridge structure can find potential applications in the integration of conventional microwave or terahertz devices with plasmonic circuits.

  19. Py-SPHViewer: Cosmological simulations using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benítez-Llambay, Alejandro

    2017-12-01

    Py-SPHViewer visualizes and explores N-body + Hydrodynamics simulations. The code interpolates the underlying density field (or any other property) traced by a set of particles, using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) interpolation scheme, thus producing not only beautiful but also useful scientific images. Py-SPHViewer enables the user to explore simulated volumes using different projections. Py-SPHViewer also provides a natural way to visualize (in a self-consistent fashion) gas dynamical simulations, which use the same technique to compute the interactions between particles.

  20. A deterministic global optimization using smooth diagonal auxiliary functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeyev, Yaroslav D.; Kvasov, Dmitri E.

    2015-04-01

    In many practical decision-making problems it happens that functions involved in optimization process are black-box with unknown analytical representations and hard to evaluate. In this paper, a global optimization problem is considered where both the goal function f (x) and its gradient f‧ (x) are black-box functions. It is supposed that f‧ (x) satisfies the Lipschitz condition over the search hyperinterval with an unknown Lipschitz constant K. A new deterministic 'Divide-the-Best' algorithm based on efficient diagonal partitions and smooth auxiliary functions is proposed in its basic version, its convergence conditions are studied and numerical experiments executed on eight hundred test functions are presented.

  1. Cultural Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Patricia L.; Nelson, Sarah W.

    2007-01-01

    Cultural proficiency is defined as "the policies and practices of an organization or the values and behaviors of an individual that enable the agency or person to interact effectively in a culturally diverse environment." The diverse composition of today's classrooms demands that schools and educators be culturally proficient, yet few of them are.…

  2. Bile culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - bile ... is placed in a special dish called a culture medium to see if bacteria, viruses, or fungi ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Body fluid - anaerobic culture. In: ... . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:225-226. Kim AY, ...

  3. Beyond Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Daniel D.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the lack of literature relating to cultural differences and school library media programs and reviews the book "Beyond Culture" by Edward T. Hall. Highlights include the population/environment crisis, cultural literacy, the use of technology, and Marshall McLuhan's idea of the global village. (LRW)

  4. 17 CFR 240.13a-10 - Transition reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transition reports. 240.13a-10... Exchange Act of 1934 Other Reports § 240.13a-10 Transition reports. (a) Every issuer that changes its fiscal closing date shall file a report covering the resulting transition period between the closing date...

  5. 17 CFR 240.13a-10 - Transition reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transition reports. 240.13a-10... Exchange Act of 1934 Other Reports § 240.13a-10 Transition reports. (a) Every issuer that changes its fiscal closing date shall file a report covering the resulting transition period between the closing date...

  6. 17 CFR 240.13a-10 - Transition reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transition reports. 240.13a-10... Exchange Act of 1934 Other Reports § 240.13a-10 Transition reports. (a) Every issuer that changes its fiscal closing date shall file a report covering the resulting transition period between the closing date...

  7. 17 CFR 240.13a-10 - Transition reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transition reports. 240.13a-10... Exchange Act of 1934 Other Reports § 240.13a-10 Transition reports. (a) Every issuer that changes its fiscal closing date shall file a report covering the resulting transition period between the closing date...

  8. 17 CFR 240.13a-10 - Transition reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transition reports. 240.13a-10... Exchange Act of 1934 Other Reports § 240.13a-10 Transition reports. (a) Every issuer that changes its fiscal closing date shall file a report covering the resulting transition period between the closing date...

  9. 45 CFR 12a.10 - Action on approved applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REAL PROPERTY TO ASSIST THE HOMELESS § 12a.10 Action on approved applications. (a) Unutilized and underutilized properties. (1) When HHS approves an application, it will so notify the applicant and forward a... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Action on approved applications. 12a.10 Section...

  10. 45 CFR 12a.10 - Action on approved applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REAL PROPERTY TO ASSIST THE HOMELESS § 12a.10 Action on approved applications. (a) Unutilized and underutilized properties. (1) When HHS approves an application, it will so notify the applicant and forward a... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Action on approved applications. 12a.10 Section...

  11. 12 CFR 708a.10 - Completion of conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Completion of conversion. 708a.10 Section 708a... CONVERSION OF INSURED CREDIT UNIONS TO MUTUAL SAVINGS BANKS § 708a.10 Completion of conversion. (a) After receipt of the approvals under § 708a.8 and § 708a.9 the credit union may complete the conversion. (b) The...

  12. 12 CFR 708a.10 - Completion of conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Completion of conversion. 708a.10 Section 708a... CONVERSIONS AND MERGERS Conversion of Insured Credit Unions to Mutual Savings Banks § 708a.10 Completion of conversion. (a) After receipt of the approvals under § 708a.8 and § 708a.9 the credit union may complete the...

  13. Potential role of insulin signaling on vascular smooth muscle cell migration, proliferation, and inflammation pathways.

    PubMed

    Cersosimo, Eugenio; Xu, Xiaojing; Musi, Nicolas

    2012-02-15

    To investigate the role of insulin signaling pathways in migration, proliferation, and inflammation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), we examined the expression of active components of the phosphatidyl inositol 3 (PI-3) kinase (p-Akt) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (p-Erk) in primary cultures of VSMCs from human coronary arteries. VSMCs were treated in a dose-response manner with insulin (0, 1, 10, and 100 nM) for 20 min, and Akt and Erk phosphorylation were measured by Western blot analysis. In separate experiments, we evaluated the effect of 200 μM palmitate, in the presence and absence of 8 μM pioglitazone, on insulin-stimulated (100 nM for 20 min) Akt and Erk phosphorylation. The phosphorylation of Akt and Erk in VSMCs exhibited a dose dependency with a three- to fourfold increase, respectively, at the highest dose (100 nM). In the presence of palmitate, insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation was completely abolished, and there was a threefold increase in p-Erk. With addition of pioglitazone, the phosphorylation of Akt by insulin remained unchanged, whereas insulin-stimulated Erk phosphorylation was reduced by pioglitazone. These data in VSMCs indicate that high palmitate decreases insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and stimulates MAPK, whereas preexposure peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist pioglitazone preserves Akt phosphorylation and simultaneously attenuates MAPK signaling. Our results suggest that metabolic and mitogenic insulin signals have different sensitivity, are independently regulated, and may play a role in arterial smooth muscle cells migration, proliferation, and inflammation in conditions of acute hyperinsulinemia.

  14. Redundant control of migration and adhesion by ERM proteins in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Baeyens, Nicolas; Latrache, Iman; Yerna, Xavier

    Highlights: •The three ERM proteins are expressed in vascular smooth muscle cell. •ERM depletion inhibited PDGF-evoked migration redundantly. •ERM depletion increased cell adhesion redundantly. •ERM depletion did not affect PDGF-evoked Ca signal, Rac1 activation, proliferation. •ERM proteins control PDGF-induced migration by regulating adhesion. -- Abstract: Ezrin, radixin, and moesin possess a very similar structure with a C-terminal actin-binding domain and a N-terminal FERM interacting domain. They are known to be involved in cytoskeleton organization in several cell types but their function in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the rolemore » of ERM proteins in cell migration induced by PDGF, a growth factor involved in pathophysiological processes like angiogenesis or atherosclerosis. We used primary cultured VSMC obtained from rat aorta, which express the three ERM proteins. Simultaneous depletion of the three ERM proteins with specific siRNAs abolished the effects of PDGF on cell architecture and migration and markedly increased cell adhesion and focal adhesion size, while these parameters were only slightly affected by depletion of ezrin, radixin or moesin alone. Rac1 activation, cell proliferation, and Ca{sup 2+} signal in response to PDGF were unaffected by ERM depletion. These results indicate that ERM proteins exert a redundant control on PDGF-induced VSMC migration by regulating focal adhesion turn-over and cell adhesion to substrate.« less

  15. Effect of TPA on ion fluxes and DNA synthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Previous reports have suggested that phorbol esters can decrease the affinity of epidermal growth factor (EGF) for its cellular receptors. Investigations of the consequences of the interaction between phorbol esters and EGF, however, have been limited to EGF-stimulated Na/H exchange in A431 cells (Whitely, B., D. Cassel, Y.-X. Zuang, and L. Glaser, 1984, J. Cell Biol., 99:1162-1166). In the present study, the effect of the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on EGF-stimulated ion transport and DNA synthesis was determined in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (A7r5). It was found that TPA stimulated Na/H exchange when added alone (half-maximal stimulatory concentration, 25 nM). However, when cells were pretreated with TPA and then challenged with EGF, TPA significantly inhibited EGF-stimulated Na/H exchange (78%; half-maximal inhibition [Ki] at 2.5 nM). Subsequently the effects of TPA on Na/K/Cl co-transport were measured. TPA was observed to inhibit Na/K/Cl co-transport (half-maximal inhibitory concentration, 50 nM) and also to inhibit EGF-stimulated Na/K/Cl co-transport (100%; Ki at 5 nM). Finally, the effects of TPA on DNA synthesis were assessed. TPA had a modest stimulatory effect on DNA synthesis (half-maximal stimulatory concentration, 6 nM), but had a significant inhibitory effect on EGF-stimulated DNA synthesis (56%; Ki at 5 nM). These findings suggest that the inhibitory effect of TPA on EGF-receptor functions goes beyond previously reported effects on Na/H exchange in A431 cells and extends to EGF-stimulation of Na/K/Cl co- transport and DNA synthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:2410432

  16. Rough and smooth morphotypes isolated from Lactobacillus farciminis CNCM I-3699 are two closely-related variants.

    PubMed

    Tareb, Raouf; Bernardeau, Marion; Horvath, Philippe; Vernoux, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-16

    This study focused on a pleomorphic strain Lactobacillus farciminis CNCM I-3699 known as probiotic for animal applications. On plating, this strain was characterized by the presence of rough and smooth morphotypes depending on experimental conditions. Dominant smooth (S) form, bright white, having smooth edges with moist, ropy, and creamy along with rough (R) form, pale white, having irregular edges and a dry and granular aspect were always obtained from the parent strain under aerobic culture conditions. In anaerobic conditions, only S form growth was observed. Biochemical dosage of capsular exopolysaccharides showed a significant difference between S and R forms (p<0.01), in agreement with a ropy or non ropy phenotype for the S or R form, respectively. These differences were confirmed by transmission electronic microscopy. The auto-aggregation profile revealed major differences in cultural behaviors. The R morphotype presented a highly auto-aggregative ability contrary to the S morphotype. However, biochemical and molecular analyses revealed that R and S morphotypes: 1) shared the same sugar fermentation pattern; 2) belonged to L. farciminis species using 16S rDNA sequencing; 3) had identical PFGE patterns using NotI and ApaI endonucleases; and 4) had identical CRISPR loci but different from those of other L. farciminis strains. Furthermore, the novelty and uniqueness of CRISPR spacer sequences in CNCM I-3699 provides a genetic support for the development of a molecular tracking tool for CNCM I-3699 and its variants. In conclusion, L. farciminis CNCM I-3699 is a pleomorphic strain giving reproducibly rise to two phenotypically distinct morphotypes R and S. This phenomenon may explain survival and growth abilities in in vitro fluctuating aerobic-anaerobic conditions along with modulation of exopolysaccharide synthesis and autoaggregation profile. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. In-depth evaluation of commercially available human vascular smooth muscle cells phenotype: Implications for vascular tissue engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Timraz, Sara B.H., E-mail: sara.timraz@kustar.ac.ae; Farhat, Ilyas A.H., E-mail: ilyas.farhat@outlook.com; Alhussein, Ghada, E-mail: ghada.alhussein@kustar.ac.ae

    In vitro research on vascular tissue engineering has extensively used isolated primary human or animal smooth muscle cells (SMC). Research programs that lack such facilities tend towards commercially available primary cells sources. Here, we aim to evaluate the capacity of commercially available human SMC to maintain their contractile phenotype, and determine if dedifferentiation towards the synthetic phenotype occurs in response to conventional cell culture and passaging without any external biochemical or mechanical stimuli. Lower passage SMC adopted a contractile phenotype marked by a relatively slower proliferation rate, higher expression of proteins of the contractile apparatus and smoothelin, elongated morphology, andmore » reduced deposition of collagen types I and III. As the passage number increased, migratory capacity was enhanced, average cell speed, total distance and net distance travelled increased up to passage 8. Through the various assays, corroborative evidence pinpoints SMC at passage 7 as the transition point between the contractile and synthetic phenotypes, while passage 8 distinctly and consistently exhibited characteristics of synthetic phenotype. This knowledge is particularly useful in selecting SMC of appropriate passage number for the target vascular tissue engineering application, for example, a homeostatic vascular graft for blood vessel replacement versus recreating atherosclerotic blood vessel model in vitro. - Highlights: • Ability of human smooth muscle cells to alter phenotype in culture is evaluated. • Examined the effect of passaging human smooth muscle cells on phenotype. • Phenotype is assessed based on morphology, proliferation, markers, and migration. • Multi-resolution assessment methodology, single-cell and cell-population. • Lower and higher passages than P7 adopted a contractile and synthetic phenotype respectively.« less

  18. PKC-dependent regulation of Kv7.5 channels by the bronchoconstrictor histamine in human airway smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Haick, Jennifer M; Brueggemann, Lioubov I; Cribbs, Leanne L; Denning, Mitchell F; Schwartz, Jeffrey; Byron, Kenneth L

    2017-06-01

    Kv7 potassium channels have recently been found to be expressed and functionally important for relaxation of airway smooth muscle. Previous research suggests that native Kv7 currents are inhibited following treatment of freshly isolated airway smooth muscle cells with bronchoconstrictor agonists, and in intact airways inhibition of Kv7 channels is sufficient to induce bronchiolar constriction. However, the mechanism by which Kv7 currents are inhibited by bronchoconstrictor agonists has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, native Kv7 currents in cultured human trachealis smooth muscle cells (HTSMCs) were observed to be inhibited upon treatment with histamine; inhibition of Kv7 currents was associated with membrane depolarization and an increase in cytosolic Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] cyt ). The latter response was inhibited by verapamil, a blocker of L-type voltage-sensitive Ca 2+ channels (VSCCs). Protein kinase C (PKC) has been implicated as a mediator of bronchoconstrictor actions, although the targets of PKC are not clearly established. We found that histamine treatment significantly and dose-dependently suppressed currents through overexpressed wild-type human Kv7.5 (hKv7.5) channels in cultured HTSMCs, and this effect was inhibited by the PKC inhibitor Ro-31-8220 (3 µM). The PKC-dependent suppression of hKv7.5 currents corresponded with a PKC-dependent increase in hKv7.5 channel phosphorylation. Knocking down or inhibiting PKCα, or mutating hKv7.5 serine 441 to alanine, abolished the inhibitory effects of histamine on hKv7.5 currents. These findings provide the first evidence linking PKC activation to suppression of Kv7 currents, membrane depolarization, and Ca 2+ influx via L-type VSCCs as a mechanism for histamine-induced bronchoconstriction. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Arima model and exponential smoothing method: A comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan Ahmad, Wan Kamarul Ariffin; Ahmad, Sabri

    2013-04-01

    This study shows the comparison between Autoregressive Moving Average (ARIMA) model and Exponential Smoothing Method in making a prediction. The comparison is focused on the ability of both methods in making the forecasts with the different number of data sources and the different length of forecasting period. For this purpose, the data from The Price of Crude Palm Oil (RM/tonne), Exchange Rates of Ringgit Malaysia (RM) in comparison to Great Britain Pound (GBP) and also The Price of SMR 20 Rubber Type (cents/kg) with three different time series are used in the comparison process. Then, forecasting accuracy of each model is measured by examinethe prediction error that producedby using Mean Squared Error (MSE), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), and Mean Absolute deviation (MAD). The study shows that the ARIMA model can produce a better prediction for the long-term forecasting with limited data sources, butcannot produce a better prediction for time series with a narrow range of one point to another as in the time series for Exchange Rates. On the contrary, Exponential Smoothing Method can produce a better forecasting for Exchange Rates that has a narrow range of one point to another for its time series, while itcannot produce a better prediction for a longer forecasting period.

  20. The magnetic field of gastrointestinal smooth muscle activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, Alan; Ladipo, Jk; Richards, William; Wikswo, John

    1997-11-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract controls the absorption and transport of ingested materials. Its function is determined largely by the electrical activity of the smooth muscle that lines the GI tract. GI electrical activity consists of an omnipresent slowly oscillating wave known as the basic electrical rhythm (BER) that modulates a higher-frequency spiking activity associated with muscle contraction. The BER has been shown to be a reliable indicator of intestinal viability, and thus, recording of smooth muscle activity may have clinical value. The BER is difficult to measure with cutaneous electrodes because layers of low-conductivity fat between the GI tract and the abdominal surface attenuate the potential. On the other hand, the magnetic field associated with GI electrical activity is mostly unaffected by intervening fat layers. We recorded the magnetic fields from GI activity in 12 volunteers using a multichannel Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometer. Characteristics typical of gastric and intestinal BER were apparent in the data. Channels near the epigastrium recorded gastric BER, and channels in intestinal areas recorded small bowel BER. These results suggest that a single multichannel SQUID magnetometer is able to measure gastrointestinal electrical activity from multiple locations around the abdomen simultaneously.

  1. A smooth mixture of Tobits model for healthcare expenditure.

    PubMed

    Keane, Michael; Stavrunova, Olena

    2011-09-01

    This paper develops a smooth mixture of Tobits (SMTobit) model for healthcare expenditure. The model is a generalization of the smoothly mixing regressions framework of Geweke and Keane (J Econometrics 2007; 138: 257-290) to the case of a Tobit-type limited dependent variable. A Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm with data augmentation is developed to obtain the posterior distribution of model parameters. The model is applied to the US Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey data on total medical expenditure. The results suggest that the model can capture the overall shape of the expenditure distribution very well, and also provide a good fit to a number of characteristics of the conditional (on covariates) distribution of expenditure, such as the conditional mean, variance and probability of extreme outcomes, as well as the 50th, 90th, and 95th, percentiles. We find that healthier individuals face an expenditure distribution with lower mean, variance and probability of extreme outcomes, compared with their counterparts in a worse state of health. Males have an expenditure distribution with higher mean, variance and probability of an extreme outcome, compared with their female counterparts. The results also suggest that heart and cardiovascular diseases affect the expenditure of males more than that of females. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Breaking time reversal in a simple smooth chaotic system.

    PubMed

    Tomsovic, Steven; Ullmo, Denis; Nagano, Tatsuro

    2003-06-01

    Within random matrix theory, the statistics of the eigensolutions depend fundamentally on the presence (or absence) of time reversal symmetry. Accepting the Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit conjecture, this statement extends to quantum systems with chaotic classical analogs. For practical reasons, much of the supporting numerical studies of symmetry breaking have been done with billiards or maps, and little with simple, smooth systems. There are two main difficulties in attempting to break time reversal invariance in a continuous time system with a smooth potential. The first is avoiding false time reversal breaking. The second is locating a parameter regime in which the symmetry breaking is strong enough to transform the fluctuation properties fully to the broken symmetry case, and yet remain weak enough so as not to regularize the dynamics sufficiently that the system is no longer chaotic. We give an example of a system of two coupled quartic oscillators whose energy level statistics closely match with those of the Gaussian unitary ensemble, and which possesses only a minor proportion of regular motion in its phase space.

  3. Influence of smooth temperature variation on hotspot ignition

    DOE PAGES

    Reinbacher, Fynn; Regele, Jonathan David

    2017-10-06

    Autoignition in thermally stratified reactive mixtures originates in localised hotspots. The ignition behaviour is often characterised using linear temperature gradients and more recently constant temperature plateaus combined with temperature gradients. Acoustic timescale characterisation of plateau regions has been successfully used to characterise the type of mechanical disturbance that will be created from a plateau core ignition. This work combines linear temperature gradients with superelliptic cores in order to more accurately account for a local temperature maximum of finite size and the smooth temperature variation contained inside realistic hotspot centres. A one-step Arrhenius reaction is used to model a H 2–airmore » reactive mixture. Using the superelliptic approach a range of behaviours for temperature distributions are investigated by varying the temperature profile between the gradient only and plateau and gradient bounding cases. Each superelliptic case is compared to a respective plateau and gradient case where simple acoustic timescale characterisation may be performed. It is shown that hot spots equivalent with excitation-to-acoustic timescale ratios sufficiently greater than unity exhibit behaviour very similar to a simple plateau-gradient model. Furthermore, for larger hot spots with timescale ratios sufficiently less than unity the reaction behaviour is highly dependent on the smooth temperature profile contained within the core region.« less

  4. Neighbour lists for smoothed particle hydrodynamics on GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Daniel; Rezavand, Massoud; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2018-04-01

    The efficient iteration of neighbouring particles is a performance critical aspect of any high performance smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) solver. SPH solvers that implement a constant smoothing length generally divide the simulation domain into a uniform grid to reduce the computational complexity of the neighbour search. Based on this method, particle neighbours are either stored per grid cell or for each individual particle, denoted as Verlet list. While the latter approach has significantly higher memory requirements, it has the potential for a significant computational speedup. A theoretical comparison is performed to estimate the potential improvements of the method based on unknown hardware dependent factors. Subsequently, the computational performance of both approaches is empirically evaluated on graphics processing units. It is shown that the speedup differs significantly for different hardware, dimensionality and floating point precision. The Verlet list algorithm is implemented as an alternative to the cell linked list approach in the open-source SPH solver DualSPHysics and provided as a standalone software package.

  5. Directional asymmetries in human smooth pursuit eye movements.

    PubMed

    Ke, Sally R; Lam, Jessica; Pai, Dinesh K; Spering, Miriam

    2013-06-27

    Humans make smooth pursuit eye movements to bring the image of a moving object onto the fovea. Although pursuit accuracy is critical to prevent motion blur, the eye often falls behind the target. Previous studies suggest that pursuit accuracy differs between motion directions. Here, we systematically assess asymmetries in smooth pursuit. In experiment 1, binocular eye movements were recorded while observers (n = 20) tracked a small spot of light moving along one of four cardinal or diagonal axes across a featureless background. We analyzed pursuit latency, acceleration, peak velocity, gain, and catch-up saccade latency, number, and amplitude. In experiment 2 (n = 22), we examined the effects of spatial location and constrained stimulus motion within the upper or lower visual field. Pursuit was significantly faster (higher acceleration, peak velocity, and gain) and smoother (fewer and later catch-up saccades) in response to downward versus upward motion in both the upper and the lower visual fields. Pursuit was also more accurate and smoother in response to horizontal versus vertical motion. CONCLUSIONS. Our study is the first to report a consistent up-down asymmetry in human adults, regardless of visual field. Our findings suggest that pursuit asymmetries are adaptive responses to the requirements of the visual context: preferred motion directions (horizontal and downward) are more critical to our survival than nonpreferred ones.

  6. Efference Copy Failure during Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Elisa C.; Sanchez, Jamie L.; Schütz, Alexander C.; Javitt, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal smooth pursuit eye movements in patients with schizophrenia are often considered a consequence of impaired motion perception. Here we used a novel motion prediction task to assess the effects of abnormal pursuit on perception in human patients. Schizophrenia patients (n = 15) and healthy controls (n = 16) judged whether a briefly presented moving target (“ball”) would hit/miss a stationary vertical line segment (“goal”). To relate prediction performance and pursuit directly, we manipulated eye movements: in half of the trials, observers smoothly tracked the ball; in the other half, they fixated on the goal. Strict quality criteria ensured that pursuit was initiated and that fixation was maintained. Controls were significantly better in trajectory prediction during pursuit than during fixation, their performance increased with presentation duration, and their pursuit gain and perceptual judgments were correlated. Such perceptual benefits during pursuit may be due to the use of extraretinal motion information estimated from an efference copy signal. With an overall lower performance in pursuit and perception, patients showed no such pursuit advantage and no correlation between pursuit gain and perception. Although patients' pursuit showed normal improvement with longer duration, their prediction performance failed to benefit from duration increases. This dissociation indicates relatively intact early visual motion processing, but a failure to use efference copy information. Impaired efference function in the sensory system may represent a general deficit in schizophrenia and thus contribute to symptoms and functional outcome impairments associated with the disorder. PMID:23864667

  7. Contextual effects on smooth-pursuit eye movements.

    PubMed

    Spering, Miriam; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2007-02-01

    Segregating a moving object from its visual context is particularly relevant for the control of smooth-pursuit eye movements. We examined the interaction between a moving object and a stationary or moving visual context to determine the role of the context motion signal in driving pursuit. Eye movements were recorded from human observers to a medium-contrast Gaussian dot that moved horizontally at constant velocity. A peripheral context consisted of two vertically oriented sinusoidal gratings, one above and one below the stimulus trajectory, that were either stationary or drifted into the same or opposite direction as that of the target at different velocities. We found that a stationary context impaired pursuit acceleration and velocity and prolonged pursuit latency. A drifting context enhanced pursuit performance, irrespective of its motion direction. This effect was modulated by context contrast and orientation. When a context was briefly perturbed to move faster or slower eye velocity changed accordingly, but only when the context was drifting along with the target. Perturbing a context into the direction orthogonal to target motion evoked a deviation of the eye opposite to the perturbation direction. We therefore provide evidence for the use of absolute and relative motion cues, or motion assimilation and motion contrast, for the control of smooth-pursuit eye movements.

  8. Efference copy failure during smooth pursuit eye movements in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Spering, Miriam; Dias, Elisa C; Sanchez, Jamie L; Schütz, Alexander C; Javitt, Daniel C

    2013-07-17

    Abnormal smooth pursuit eye movements in patients with schizophrenia are often considered a consequence of impaired motion perception. Here we used a novel motion prediction task to assess the effects of abnormal pursuit on perception in human patients. Schizophrenia patients (n = 15) and healthy controls (n = 16) judged whether a briefly presented moving target ("ball") would hit/miss a stationary vertical line segment ("goal"). To relate prediction performance and pursuit directly, we manipulated eye movements: in half of the trials, observers smoothly tracked the ball; in the other half, they fixated on the goal. Strict quality criteria ensured that pursuit was initiated and that fixation was maintained. Controls were significantly better in trajectory prediction during pursuit than during fixation, their performance increased with presentation duration, and their pursuit gain and perceptual judgments were correlated. Such perceptual benefits during pursuit may be due to the use of extraretinal motion information estimated from an efference copy signal. With an overall lower performance in pursuit and perception, patients showed no such pursuit advantage and no correlation between pursuit gain and perception. Although patients' pursuit showed normal improvement with longer duration, their prediction performance failed to benefit from duration increases. This dissociation indicates relatively intact early visual motion processing, but a failure to use efference copy information. Impaired efference function in the sensory system may represent a general deficit in schizophrenia and thus contribute to symptoms and functional outcome impairments associated with the disorder.

  9. Ultrafine and Smooth Full Metal Nanostructures for Plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xinli; Zhang, Jaseng; Xu, Jun; Liao, Zhimin; Wu, Xiaosong; Yu, Dapeng

    2013-03-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), which are coupled excitations of electrons bound to a metal-dielectric interface, show great potential for application in future nanoscale photonic systems due to the strong field confinement at the nanoscale, intensive local field enhancement, and interplay between strongly localized and propagating SPPs. The fabrication of sufficiently smooth metal surface with nanoscale feature size is crucial for SPPs to have practical applications. A template stripping (ST) method combined with PMMA as a template was successfully developed to create extraordinarily smooth metal nanostructures with a desirable feature size and morphology for plasmonics and metamaterials. The advantages of this method, including the high resolution, precipitous top-to bottom profile with a high aspect ratio, and three-dimensional characteristics, make it very suitable for the fabrication of plasmonic structures. By using this ST method, boxing ring-shaped nanocavities have been fabricated and the confined modes of surface plasmon polaritons in these nanocavities have been investigated and imaged by using cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. The mode of the out-of-plane field components of surface plasmon polaritons dominates the experimental mode patterns, indicating that the electron beam locally excites the out-of-plane field component of surface plasmon polaritons, and quality factors can be directly acquired. Numerous applications, such as plasmonic filter, nanolaser, and efficient light-emitting devices, can be expected to arise from these developments.

  10. Myocardin Regulates Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Inflammatory Activation and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ackers-Johnson, Matthew; Talasila, Amarnath; Sage, Andrew P; Long, Xiaochun; Bot, Ilze; Morrell, Nicholas W; Bennett, Martin R; Miano, Joseph M.; Sinha, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Objective Atherosclerosis, the cause of 50% of deaths in westernised societies, is widely regarded as a chronic vascular inflammatory disease. Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) inflammatory activation in response to local pro-inflammatory stimuli contributes to disease progression and is a pervasive feature in developing atherosclerotic plaques. Therefore, it is of considerable therapeutic importance to identify mechanisms that regulate the VSMC inflammatory response. Approach and Results We report that myocardin, a powerful myogenic transcriptional coactivator, negatively regulates VSMC inflammatory activation and vascular disease. Myocardin levels are reduced during atherosclerosis, in association with phenotypic switching of smooth muscle cells. Myocardin deficiency accelerates atherogenesis in hypercholesterolemic ApoE−/− mice. Conversely, increased myocardin expression potently abrogates the induction of an array of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in VSMCs. Expression of myocardin in VSMCs reduces lipid uptake, macrophage interaction, chemotaxis and macrophage-endothelial tethering in vitro, and attenuates monocyte accumulation within developing lesions in vivo. These results demonstrate that endogenous levels of myocardin are a critical regulator of vessel inflammation. Conclusions We propose myocardin as a guardian of the contractile, non-inflammatory VSMC phenotype, with loss of myocardin representing a critical permissive step in the process of phenotypic transition and inflammatory activation, at the onset of vascular disease. PMID:25614278

  11. Adaptive Gain-based Stable Power Smoothing of a DFIG

    DOE PAGES

    Muljadi, Eduard; Lee, Hyewon; Hwang, Min; ...

    2017-11-01

    In a power system that has a high wind penetration, the output power fluctuation of a large-scale wind turbine generator (WTG) caused by the varying wind speed increases the maximum frequency deviation, which is an important metric to assess the quality of electricity, because of the reduced system inertia. This paper proposes a stable power-smoothing scheme of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) that can suppress the maximum frequency deviation, particularly for a power system with a high wind penetration. To do this, the proposed scheme employs an additional control loop relying on the system frequency deviation that operates in combinationmore » with the maximum power point tracking control loop. To improve the power-smoothing capability while guaranteeing the stable operation of a DFIG, the gain of the additional loop is modified with the rotor speed and frequency deviation. The gain is set to be high if the rotor speed and/or frequency deviation is large. Here, the simulation results based on the IEEE 14-bus system demonstrate that the proposed scheme significantly lessens the output power fluctuation of a WTG under various scenarios by modifying the gain with the rotor speed and frequency deviation, and thereby it can regulate the frequency deviation within a narrow range.« less

  12. Directional bilateral filters for smoothing fluorescence microscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, Manasij; Mohan, Kavya; Seelamantula, Chandra Sekhar

    2015-08-01

    Images obtained through fluorescence microscopy at low numerical aperture (NA) are noisy and have poor resolution. Images of specimens such as F-actin filaments obtained using confocal or widefield fluorescence microscopes contain directional information and it is important that an image smoothing or filtering technique preserve the directionality. F-actin filaments are widely studied in pathology because the abnormalities in actin dynamics play a key role in diagnosis of cancer, cardiac diseases, vascular diseases, myofibrillar myopathies, neurological disorders, etc. We develop the directional bilateral filter as a means of filtering out the noise in the image without significantly altering the directionality of the F-actin filaments. The bilateral filter is anisotropic to start with, but we add an additional degree of anisotropy by employing an oriented domain kernel for smoothing. The orientation is locally adapted using a structure tensor and the parameters of the bilateral filter are optimized for within the framework of statistical risk minimization. We show that the directional bilateral filter has better denoising performance than the traditional Gaussian bilateral filter and other denoising techniques such as SURE-LET, non-local means, and guided image filtering at various noise levels in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR). We also show quantitative improvements in low NA images of F-actin filaments.

  13. MURC deficiency in smooth muscle attenuates pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Naohiko; Ogata, Takehiro; Naito, Daisuke; Miyagawa, Kotaro; Taniguchi, Takuya; Hamaoka, Tetsuro; Maruyama, Naoki; Kasahara, Takeru; Nishi, Masahiro; Matoba, Satoaki; Ueyama, Tomomi

    2016-08-22

    Emerging evidence suggests that caveolin-1 (Cav1) is associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. MURC (also called Cavin-4) is a member of the cavin family, which regulates caveolar formation and functions together with caveolins. Here, we show that hypoxia increased Murc mRNA expression in the mouse lung, and that Murc-null mice exhibited attenuation of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH) accompanied by reduced ROCK activity in the lung. Conditional knockout mice lacking Murc in smooth muscle also resist hypoxia-induced PH. MURC regulates the proliferation and migration of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) through Rho/ROCK signalling. Cav1 suppresses RhoA activity in PASMCs, which is reversed by MURC. MURC binds to Cav1 and inhibits the association of Cav1 with the active form of Gα13, resulting in the facilitated association of the active form of Gα13 with p115RhoGEF. These results reveal that MURC has a function in the development of PH through modulating Rho/ROCK signalling.

  14. MURC deficiency in smooth muscle attenuates pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Naohiko; Ogata, Takehiro; Naito, Daisuke; Miyagawa, Kotaro; Taniguchi, Takuya; Hamaoka, Tetsuro; Maruyama, Naoki; Kasahara, Takeru; Nishi, Masahiro; Matoba, Satoaki; Ueyama, Tomomi

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that caveolin-1 (Cav1) is associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. MURC (also called Cavin-4) is a member of the cavin family, which regulates caveolar formation and functions together with caveolins. Here, we show that hypoxia increased Murc mRNA expression in the mouse lung, and that Murc-null mice exhibited attenuation of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH) accompanied by reduced ROCK activity in the lung. Conditional knockout mice lacking Murc in smooth muscle also resist hypoxia-induced PH. MURC regulates the proliferation and migration of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) through Rho/ROCK signalling. Cav1 suppresses RhoA activity in PASMCs, which is reversed by MURC. MURC binds to Cav1 and inhibits the association of Cav1 with the active form of Gα13, resulting in the facilitated association of the active form of Gα13 with p115RhoGEF. These results reveal that MURC has a function in the development of PH through modulating Rho/ROCK signalling. PMID:27546070

  15. Effects of lubiprostone on human uterine smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Cuppoletti, John; Malinowska, Danuta H; Chakrabarti, Jayati; Ueno, Ryuji

    2008-06-01

    Lubiprostone, a bicyclic fatty acid derivative and member of a new class of compounds called prostones, locally activates ClC-2 Cl(-) channels without activation of prostaglandin receptors. The present study was specifically designed to test and compare lubiprostone and prostaglandin effects at the cellular level using human uterine smooth muscle cells. Effects on [Ca(2+)](i), membrane potential and [cAMP](i) in human uterine smooth muscle cells were measured. 10 nM lubiprostone significantly decreased [Ca(2+)](i) from 188 to 27 nM, which was unaffected by 100 nM SC-51322, a prostaglandin EP receptor antagonist. In contrast 10nM PGE(2) and PGE(1) both increased [Ca(2+)](i) 3-5-fold which was blocked by SC-51322. Similarly, lubiprostone and prostaglandins had opposite/different effects on membrane potential and [cAMP](i). Lubiprostone caused SC-51322-insensitive membrane hyperpolarization and no effect on [cAMP](i). PGE(2) and PGE(1) both caused SC-51322-sensitive membrane depolarization and increased [cAMP](i). Lubiprostone has fundamentally different cellular effects from prostaglandins that are not mediated by EP receptors.

  16. A mathematical model of airway and pulmonary arteriole smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Inga; Politi, Antonio Z; Tania, Nessy; Bai, Yan; Sanderson, Michael J; Sneyd, James

    2008-03-15

    Airway hyperresponsiveness is a major characteristic of asthma and is believed to result from the excessive contraction of airway smooth muscle cells (SMCs). However, the identification of the mechanisms responsible for airway hyperresponsiveness is hindered by our limited understanding of how calcium (Ca2+), myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), and myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) interact to regulate airway SMC contraction. In this work, we present a modified Hai-Murphy cross-bridge model of SMC contraction that incorporates Ca2+ regulation of MLCK and MLCP. A comparative fit of the model simulations to experimental data predicts 1), that airway and arteriole SMC contraction is initiated by fast activation by Ca2+ of MLCK; 2), that airway SMC, but not arteriole SMC, is inhibited by a slower activation by Ca2+ of MLCP; and 3), that the presence of a contractile agonist inhibits MLCP to enhance the Ca2+ sensitivity of airway and arteriole SMCs. The implication of these findings is that murine airway SMCs exploit a Ca2+-dependent mechanism to favor a default state of relaxation. The rate of SMC relaxation is determined principally by the rate of release of the latch-bridge state, which is predicted to be faster in airway than in arteriole. In addition, the model also predicts that oscillations in calcium concentration, commonly observed during agonist-induced smooth muscle contraction, cause a significantly greater contraction than an elevated steady calcium concentration.

  17. A Mathematical Model of Airway and Pulmonary Arteriole Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Inga; Politi, Antonio Z.; Tania, Nessy; Bai, Yan; Sanderson, Michael J.; Sneyd, James

    2008-01-01

    Airway hyperresponsiveness is a major characteristic of asthma and is believed to result from the excessive contraction of airway smooth muscle cells (SMCs). However, the identification of the mechanisms responsible for airway hyperresponsiveness is hindered by our limited understanding of how calcium (Ca2+), myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), and myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) interact to regulate airway SMC contraction. In this work, we present a modified Hai-Murphy cross-bridge model of SMC contraction that incorporates Ca2+ regulation of MLCK and MLCP. A comparative fit of the model simulations to experimental data predicts 1), that airway and arteriole SMC contraction is initiated by fast activation by Ca2+ of MLCK; 2), that airway SMC, but not arteriole SMC, is inhibited by a slower activation by Ca2+ of MLCP; and 3), that the presence of a contractile agonist inhibits MLCP to enhance the Ca2+ sensitivity of airway and arteriole SMCs. The implication of these findings is that murine airway SMCs exploit a Ca2+-dependent mechanism to favor a default state of relaxation. The rate of SMC relaxation is determined principally by the rate of release of the latch-bridge state, which is predicted to be faster in airway than in arteriole. In addition, the model also predicts that oscillations in calcium concentration, commonly observed during agonist-induced smooth muscle contraction, cause a significantly greater contraction than an elevated steady calcium concentration. PMID:18065464

  18. Regional Differences in Rat Vaginal Smooth Muscle Contractility and Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Skoczylas, Laura C.; Jallah, Zegbeh; Sugino, Yoshio; Stein, Suzan E.; Feola, Andrew; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to define the regional differences in rat vaginal smooth muscle contractility and morphology. We evaluated circumferential segments from the proximal, middle, and distal rat vagina (n = 21) in vitro. Contractile responses to carbachol, phenylephrine, potassium chloride, and electrical field stimulation (EFS) were measured. Immunohistochemical analyses were also performed. The dose–response curves for carbachol- and phenylephrine-dependent contractions were different in the distal (P = .05, P = .04) compared to the proximal/middle regions. Adjusted for region-dependent changes in contractility, the distal vagina generated lower force in response to carbachol and higher force in response to phenylephrine. There was less force with increasing EFS frequency in the distal (P = .03), compared to the proximal/middle regions. Cholinergic versus adrenergic nerves were more frequent in the proximal region (P = .03). In summary, the results indicate that functional and morphological differences in smooth muscle and nerve fibers of the distal versus proximal/middle regions of the vagina exist. PMID:23298869

  19. Adaptive Gain-based Stable Power Smoothing of a DFIG

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, Eduard; Lee, Hyewon; Hwang, Min

    In a power system that has a high wind penetration, the output power fluctuation of a large-scale wind turbine generator (WTG) caused by the varying wind speed increases the maximum frequency deviation, which is an important metric to assess the quality of electricity, because of the reduced system inertia. This paper proposes a stable power-smoothing scheme of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) that can suppress the maximum frequency deviation, particularly for a power system with a high wind penetration. To do this, the proposed scheme employs an additional control loop relying on the system frequency deviation that operates in combinationmore » with the maximum power point tracking control loop. To improve the power-smoothing capability while guaranteeing the stable operation of a DFIG, the gain of the additional loop is modified with the rotor speed and frequency deviation. The gain is set to be high if the rotor speed and/or frequency deviation is large. Here, the simulation results based on the IEEE 14-bus system demonstrate that the proposed scheme significantly lessens the output power fluctuation of a WTG under various scenarios by modifying the gain with the rotor speed and frequency deviation, and thereby it can regulate the frequency deviation within a narrow range.« less

  20. Smooth time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve estimators.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Pardo-Fernández, Juan Carlos

    2018-03-01

    The receiver operating characteristic curve is a popular graphical method often used to study the diagnostic capacity of continuous (bio)markers. When the considered outcome is a time-dependent variable, two main extensions have been proposed: the cumulative/dynamic receiver operating characteristic curve and the incident/dynamic receiver operating characteristic curve. In both cases, the main problem for developing appropriate estimators is the estimation of the joint distribution of the variables time-to-event and marker. As usual, different approximations lead to different estimators. In this article, the authors explore the use of a bivariate kernel density estimator which accounts for censored observations in the sample and produces smooth estimators of the time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curves. The performance of the resulting cumulative/dynamic and incident/dynamic receiver operating characteristic curves is studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Additionally, the influence of the choice of the required smoothing parameters is explored. Finally, two real-applications are considered. An R package is also provided as a complement to this article.

  1. Influence of smooth temperature variation on hotspot ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Reinbacher, Fynn; Regele, Jonathan David

    Autoignition in thermally stratified reactive mixtures originates in localised hotspots. The ignition behaviour is often characterised using linear temperature gradients and more recently constant temperature plateaus combined with temperature gradients. Acoustic timescale characterisation of plateau regions has been successfully used to characterise the type of mechanical disturbance that will be created from a plateau core ignition. This work combines linear temperature gradients with superelliptic cores in order to more accurately account for a local temperature maximum of finite size and the smooth temperature variation contained inside realistic hotspot centres. A one-step Arrhenius reaction is used to model a H 2–airmore » reactive mixture. Using the superelliptic approach a range of behaviours for temperature distributions are investigated by varying the temperature profile between the gradient only and plateau and gradient bounding cases. Each superelliptic case is compared to a respective plateau and gradient case where simple acoustic timescale characterisation may be performed. It is shown that hot spots equivalent with excitation-to-acoustic timescale ratios sufficiently greater than unity exhibit behaviour very similar to a simple plateau-gradient model. Furthermore, for larger hot spots with timescale ratios sufficiently less than unity the reaction behaviour is highly dependent on the smooth temperature profile contained within the core region.« less

  2. Characterization of primary cilia in human airway smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Du, Hui; Wang, Xiangling; Mei, Changlin; Sieck, Gary C; Qian, Qi

    2009-08-01

    Considerable evidence indicates a key role for primary cilia of mammalian cells in mechanochemical sensing. Dysfunctions of primary cilia have been linked to the pathogenesis of several human diseases. However, cilia-related research has been limited to a few cell and tissue types; to our knowledge, no literature exists on primary cilia in airway smooth muscle (ASM). The aim of this study was to characterize primary cilia in human ASM. Primary cilia of human bronchial smooth muscle cells (HBSMCs) were examined using immunofluorescence confocal microscopy, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. HBSMC migration and injury repair were examined by scratch-wound and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced migration assays. Cross-sectional images of normal human bronchi revealed that primary cilia of HBSMCs within each ASM bundle aggregated at the same horizontal level, forming a "cilium layer." Individual cilia of HBSMCs projected into extracellular matrix and exhibited varying degrees of deflection. Mechanochemical sensing molecules, polycystins, and alpha2-, alpha5-, and beta1-integrins were enriched in cilia, as was EGF receptor, known to activate jointly with integrins during cell migration. Migration assays demonstrated a ciliary contribution to HBSMC migration and wound repair. The primary cilia of ASM cells exert a role in sensing and transducing extracellular mechanochemical signals and in ASM injury repair. Defects in ASM ciliary function could potentially affect airway wall maintenance and/or remodeling, possibly relating to the genesis of bronchiectasis in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, a disease of ciliopathy.

  3. Smoothing-Based Relative Navigation and Coded Aperture Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saenz-Otero, Alvar; Liebe, Carl Christian; Hunter, Roger C.; Baker, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    This project will develop an efficient smoothing software for incremental estimation of the relative poses and velocities between multiple, small spacecraft in a formation, and a small, long range depth sensor based on coded aperture imaging that is capable of identifying other spacecraft in the formation. The smoothing algorithm will obtain the maximum a posteriori estimate of the relative poses between the spacecraft by using all available sensor information in the spacecraft formation.This algorithm will be portable between different satellite platforms that possess different sensor suites and computational capabilities, and will be adaptable in the case that one or more satellites in the formation become inoperable. It will obtain a solution that will approach an exact solution, as opposed to one with linearization approximation that is typical of filtering algorithms. Thus, the algorithms developed and demonstrated as part of this program will enhance the applicability of small spacecraft to multi-platform operations, such as precisely aligned constellations and fractionated satellite systems.

  4. Assessing a 3D smoothed seismicity model of induced earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zechar, Jeremy; Király, Eszter; Gischig, Valentin; Wiemer, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    As more energy exploration and extraction efforts cause earthquakes, it becomes increasingly important to control induced seismicity. Risk management schemes must be improved and should ultimately be based on near-real-time forecasting systems. With this goal in mind, we propose a test bench to evaluate models of induced seismicity based on metrics developed by the CSEP community. To illustrate the test bench, we consider a model based on the so-called seismogenic index and a rate decay; to produce three-dimensional forecasts, we smooth past earthquakes in space and time. We explore four variants of this model using the Basel 2006 and Soultz-sous-Forêts 2004 datasets to make short-term forecasts, test their consistency, and rank the model variants. Our results suggest that such a smoothed seismicity model is useful for forecasting induced seismicity within three days, and giving more weight to recent events improves forecast performance. Moreover, the location of the largest induced earthquake is forecast well by this model. Despite the good spatial performance, the model does not estimate the seismicity rate well: it frequently overestimates during stimulation and during the early post-stimulation period, and it systematically underestimates around shut-in. In this presentation, we also describe a robust estimate of information gain, a modification that can also benefit forecast experiments involving tectonic earthquakes.

  5. Influence of smooth temperature variation on hotspot ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinbacher, Fynn; Regele, Jonathan David

    2018-01-01

    Autoignition in thermally stratified reactive mixtures originates in localised hotspots. The ignition behaviour is often characterised using linear temperature gradients and more recently constant temperature plateaus combined with temperature gradients. Acoustic timescale characterisation of plateau regions has been successfully used to characterise the type of mechanical disturbance that will be created from a plateau core ignition. This work combines linear temperature gradients with superelliptic cores in order to more accurately account for a local temperature maximum of finite size and the smooth temperature variation contained inside realistic hotspot centres. A one-step Arrhenius reaction is used to model a H2-air reactive mixture. Using the superelliptic approach a range of behaviours for temperature distributions are investigated by varying the temperature profile between the gradient only and plateau and gradient bounding cases. Each superelliptic case is compared to a respective plateau and gradient case where simple acoustic timescale characterisation may be performed. It is shown that hot spots equivalent with excitation-to-acoustic timescale ratios sufficiently greater than unity exhibit behaviour very similar to a simple plateau-gradient model. However, for larger hot spots with timescale ratios sufficiently less than unity the reaction behaviour is highly dependent on the smooth temperature profile contained within the core region.

  6. Smooth muscle contraction and growth of stromal cells in the human prostate are both inhibited by the Src family kinase inhibitors, AZM475271 and PP2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiming; Gratzke, Christian; Tamalunas, Alexander; Rutz, Beata; Ciotkowska, Anna; Strittmatter, Frank; Herlemann, Annika; Janich, Sophie; Waidelich, Raphaela; Liu, Chunxiao; Stief, Christian G; Hennenberg, Martin

    2016-12-01

    In benign prostatic hyperplasia, increased prostate smooth muscle tone and prostate volume may contribute alone or together to urethral obstruction and voiding symptoms. Consequently, it is assumed there is a connection between smooth muscle tone and growth in the prostate, but any molecular basis for this is poorly understood. Here, we examined effects of Src family kinase (SFK) inhibitors on prostate contraction and growth of stromal cells. SFK inhibitors, AZM475271 and PP2, were applied to human prostate tissues to assess effects on smooth muscle contraction, and to cultured stromal (WPMY-1) and c-Src-deficient cells to examine effects on proliferation, actin organization and viability. SFKs were detected by real time PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence in human prostate tissues, some being located to smooth muscle cells. AZM475271 (10 μM) and PP2 (10 μM) inhibited SFK in prostate tissues and WPMY-1 cells. Both inhibitors reduced α 1 -adrenoceptor-mediated and neurogenic contraction of prostate strips. This may result from cytoskeletal deorganization, which was observed in response to AZM475271 and PP2 in WPMY-1 cells by staining of actin filaments with phalloidin. This was paralleled by reduced proliferation of wildtype but not of c-Src-deficient cells; cytotoxicity was mainly observed at higher concentrations (>50 μM). In human prostate, smooth muscle tone and growth are both controlled by an SFK-dependent process, which may explain their common role in bladder outlet obstruction. Targeting prostate smooth muscle tone and prostate growth simultaneously by a single compound may, in principal, be possible. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Smooth muscle contraction and growth of stromal cells in the human prostate are both inhibited by the Src family kinase inhibitors, AZM475271 and PP2

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiming; Tamalunas, Alexander; Rutz, Beata; Ciotkowska, Anna; Strittmatter, Frank; Herlemann, Annika; Janich, Sophie; Waidelich, Raphaela; Liu, Chunxiao; Stief, Christian G; Hennenberg, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose In benign prostatic hyperplasia, increased prostate smooth muscle tone and prostate volume may contribute alone or together to urethral obstruction and voiding symptoms. Consequently, it is assumed there is a connection between smooth muscle tone and growth in the prostate, but any molecular basis for this is poorly understood. Here, we examined effects of Src family kinase (SFK) inhibitors on prostate contraction and growth of stromal cells. Experimental Approach SFK inhibitors, AZM475271 and PP2, were applied to human prostate tissues to assess effects on smooth muscle contraction, and to cultured stromal (WPMY‐1) and c‐Src‐deficient cells to examine effects on proliferation, actin organization and viability. Key Results SFKs were detected by real time PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence in human prostate tissues, some being located to smooth muscle cells. AZM475271 (10 μM) and PP2 (10 μM) inhibited SFK in prostate tissues and WPMY‐1 cells. Both inhibitors reduced α1‐adrenoceptor‐mediated and neurogenic contraction of prostate strips. This may result from cytoskeletal deorganization, which was observed in response to AZM475271 and PP2 in WPMY‐1 cells by staining of actin filaments with phalloidin. This was paralleled by reduced proliferation of wildtype but not of c‐Src‐deficient cells; cytotoxicity was mainly observed at higher concentrations (>50 μM). Conclusions and Implications In human prostate, smooth muscle tone and growth are both controlled by an SFK‐dependent process, which may explain their common role in bladder outlet obstruction. Targeting prostate smooth muscle tone and prostate growth simultaneously by a single compound may, in principal, be possible. PMID:27638545

  8. Culture evolves

    PubMed Central

    Whiten, Andrew; Hinde, Robert A.; Laland, Kevin N.; Stringer, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    Culture pervades human lives and has allowed our species to create niches all around the world and its oceans, in ways quite unlike any other primate. Indeed, our cultural nature appears so distinctive that it is often thought to separate humanity from the rest of nature and the Darwinian forces that shape it. A contrary view arises through the recent discoveries of a diverse range of disciplines, here brought together to illustrate the scope of a burgeoning field of cultural evolution and to facilitate cross-disciplinary fertilization. Each approach emphasizes important linkages between culture and evolutionary biology rather than quarantining one from the other. Recent studies reveal that processes important in cultural transmission are more widespread and significant across the animal kingdom than earlier recognized, with important implications for evolutionary theory. Recent archaeological discoveries have pushed back the origins of human culture to much more ancient times than traditionally thought. These developments suggest previously unidentified continuities between animal and human culture. A third new array of discoveries concerns the later diversification of human cultures, where the operations of Darwinian-like processes are identified, in part, through scientific methods borrowed from biology. Finally, surprising discoveries have been made about the imprint of cultural evolution in the predispositions of human minds for cultural transmission. PMID:21357216

  9. 32 CFR 809a.10 - Military commanders' responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., floods, hurricanes, and other natural disasters, arrangements should be made for the identification and... ADMINISTRATION INSTALLATION ENTRY POLICY, CIVIL DISTURBANCE INTERVENTION AND DISASTER ASSISTANCE Civil Disturbance Intervention and Disaster Assistance § 809a.10 Military commanders' responsibilities. (a...

  10. 32 CFR 809a.10 - Military commanders' responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., floods, hurricanes, and other natural disasters, arrangements should be made for the identification and... ADMINISTRATION INSTALLATION ENTRY POLICY, CIVIL DISTURBANCE INTERVENTION AND DISASTER ASSISTANCE Civil Disturbance Intervention and Disaster Assistance § 809a.10 Military commanders' responsibilities. (a...

  11. A biomimetic microfluidic model to study signalling between endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells under hemodynamic conditions.

    PubMed

    van Engeland, Nicole C A; Pollet, Andreas M A O; den Toonder, Jaap M J; Bouten, Carlijn V C; Stassen, Oscar M J A; Sahlgren, Cecilia M

    2018-05-29

    Cell signalling and mechanics influence vascular pathophysiology and there is an increasing demand for in vitro model systems that enable examination of signalling between vascular cells under hemodynamic conditions. Current 3D vessel wall constructs do not recapitulate the mechanical conditions of the native tissue nor do they allow examination of cell-cell interactions under relevant hemodynamic conditions. Here, we describe a 3D microfluidic chip model of arterial endothelial and smooth muscle cells where cellular organization, composition and interactions, as well as the mechanical environment of the arterial wall are mimicked. The hemodynamic EC-VSMC-signalling-on-a-chip consists of two parallel polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) cell culture channels, separated by a flexible, porous PDMS membrane, mimicking the porosity of the internal elastic lamina. The hemodynamic EC-VSMC-signalling-on-a-chip allows co-culturing of human aortic endothelial cells (ECs) and human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), separated by a porous membrane, which enables EC-VSMC interaction and signalling, crucial for the development and homeostasis of the vessel wall. The device allows real time cell imaging and control of hemodynamic conditions. The culture channels are surrounded on either side by vacuum channels to induce cyclic strain by applying cyclic suction, resulting in mechanical stretching and relaxation of the membrane in the cell culture channels. The blood flow is mimicked by creating a flow of medium at the EC side. Vascular cells remain viable during prolonged culturing, exhibit physiological morphology and organization and make cell-cell contact. During dynamic culturing of the device with a shear stress of 1-1.5 Pa and strain of 5-8%, VSMCs align perpendicular to the given strain in the direction of the flow and EC adopt a cobblestone morphology. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the development of a microfluidic device, which enables a co-culture of

  12. The Effect of Spatial Smoothing on Representational Similarity in a Simple Motor Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, Michelle H. A.; Daniels, Nicky; Pegado, Felipe; Op de Beeck, Hans P.

    2017-01-01

    Multi-voxel pattern analyses (MVPA) are often performed on unsmoothed data, which is very different from the general practice of large smoothing extents in standard voxel-based analyses. In this report, we studied the effect of smoothing on MVPA results in a motor paradigm. Subjects pressed four buttons with two different fingers of the two hands in response to auditory commands. Overall, independent of the degree of smoothing, correlational MVPA showed distinctive patterns for the different hands in all studied regions of interest (motor cortex, prefrontal cortex, and auditory cortices). With regard to the effect of smoothing, our findings suggest that results from correlational MVPA show a minor sensitivity to smoothing. Moderate amounts of smoothing (in this case, 1−4 times the voxel size) improved MVPA correlations, from a slight improvement to large improvements depending on the region involved. None of the regions showed signs of a detrimental effect of moderate levels of smoothing. Even higher amounts of smoothing sometimes had a positive effect, most clearly in low-level auditory cortex. We conclude that smoothing seems to have a minor positive effect on MVPA results, thus researchers should be mindful about the choices they make regarding the level of smoothing. PMID:28611726

  13. Novel treatment strategies for smooth muscle disorders: Targeting Kv7 potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Haick, Jennifer M; Byron, Kenneth L

    2016-09-01

    Smooth muscle cells provide crucial contractile functions in visceral, vascular, and lung tissues. The contractile state of smooth muscle is largely determined by their electrical excitability, which is in turn influenced by the activity of potassium channels. The activity of potassium channels sustains smooth muscle cell membrane hyperpolarization, reducing cellular excitability and thereby promoting smooth muscle relaxation. Research over the past decade has indicated an important role for Kv7 (KCNQ) voltage-gated potassium channels in the regulation of the excitability of smooth muscle cells. Expression of multiple Kv7 channel subtypes has been demonstrated in smooth muscle cells from viscera (gastrointestinal, bladder, myometrial), from the systemic and pulmonary vasculature, and from the airways of the lung, from multiple species, including humans. A number of clinically used drugs, some of which were developed to target Kv7 channels in other tissues, have been found to exert robust effects on smooth muscle Kv7 channels. Functional studies have indicated that Kv7 channel activators and inhibitors have the ability to relax and contact smooth muscle preparations, respectively, suggesting a wide range of novel applications for the pharmacological tool set. This review summarizes recent findings regarding the physiological functions of Kv7 channels in smooth muscle, and highlights potential therapeutic applications based on pharmacological targeting of smooth muscle Kv7 channels throughout the body. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Nasopharyngeal culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - nasopharyngeal; Swab for respiratory viruses; Swab for staph carriage ... test identifies viruses and bacteria that cause upper respiratory tract symptoms. These include: Bordetella pertussis Neisseria meningitidis ...

  15. Stimulation of synthesis and release of brain-derived neurotropic factor from intestinal smooth muscle cells by substance P and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide.

    PubMed

    Al-Qudah, M; Alkahtani, R; Akbarali, H I; Murthy, K S; Grider, J R

    2015-08-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin present in the intestine where it participates in survival and growth of enteric neurons, augmentation of enteric circuits, and stimulation of intestinal peristalsis and propulsion. Previous studies largely focused on the role of neural and mucosal BDNF. The expression and release of BDNF from intestinal smooth muscle and the interaction with enteric neuropeptides has not been studied in gut. The expression and secretion of BDNF from smooth muscle cultured from the rabbit intestinal longitudinal muscle layer in response to substance P (SP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) was measured by western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. BDNF mRNA was measured by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The expression of BNDF protein and mRNA was greater in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) from the longitudinal muscle than from circular muscle layer. PACAP and SP increased the expression of BDNF protein and mRNA in cultured longitudinal SMCs. PACAP and SP also stimulated the secretion of BDNF from cultured longitudinal SMCs. Chelation of intracellular calcium with BAPTA (1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid) prevented SP-induced increase in BDNF mRNA and protein expression and SP-induced secretion of BDNF. Neuropeptides known to be present in enteric neurons innervating the longitudinal layer increase the expression of BDNF mRNA and protein in SMCs and stimulate the release of BDNF. Considering the ability of BDNF to enhance smooth muscle contraction, this autocrine loop may partially explain the characteristic hypercontractility of longitudinal muscle in inflammatory bowel disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Smooth 2D manifold extraction from 3D image stack

    PubMed Central

    Shihavuddin, Asm; Basu, Sreetama; Rexhepaj, Elton; Delestro, Felipe; Menezes, Nikita; Sigoillot, Séverine M; Del Nery, Elaine; Selimi, Fekrije; Spassky, Nathalie; Genovesio, Auguste

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional fluorescence microscopy followed by image processing is routinely used to study biological objects at various scales such as cells and tissue. However, maximum intensity projection, the most broadly used rendering tool, extracts a discontinuous layer of voxels, obliviously creating important artifacts and possibly misleading interpretation. Here we propose smooth manifold extraction, an algorithm that produces a continuous focused 2D extraction from a 3D volume, hence preserving local spatial relationships. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by applying it to various biological applications using confocal and wide-field microscopy 3D image stacks. We provide a parameter-free ImageJ/Fiji plugin that allows 2D visualization and interpretation of 3D image stacks with maximum accuracy. PMID:28561033

  17. Criticality in the quantum kicked rotor with a smooth potential.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Rina; Shukla, Pragya

    2008-09-01

    We investigate the possibility of an Anderson-type transition in the quantum kicked rotor with a smooth potential due to dynamical localization of the wave functions. Our results show the typical characteristics of a critical behavior, i.e., multifractal eigenfunctions and a scale-invariant level statistics at a critical kicking strength which classically corresponds to a mixed regime. This indicates the existence of a localization to delocalization transition in the quantum kicked rotor. Our study also reveals the possibility of other types of transition in the quantum kicked rotor, with a kicking strength well within the strongly chaotic regime. These transitions, driven by the breaking of exact symmetries, e.g., time reversal and parity, are similar to weak-localization transitions in disordered metals.

  18. Modeling Electrokinetic Flows by the Smoothed Profile Method

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xian; Beskok, Ali; Karniadakis, George Em

    2010-01-01

    We propose an efficient modeling method for electrokinetic flows based on the Smoothed Profile Method (SPM) [1–4] and spectral element discretizations. The new method allows for arbitrary differences in the electrical conductivities between the charged surfaces and the the surrounding electrolyte solution. The electrokinetic forces are included into the flow equations so that the Poisson-Boltzmann and electric charge continuity equations are cast into forms suitable for SPM. The method is validated by benchmark problems of electroosmotic flow in straight channels and electrophoresis of charged cylinders. We also present simulation results of electrophoresis of charged microtubules, and show that the simulated electrophoretic mobility and anisotropy agree with the experimental values. PMID:20352076

  19. Voltage-Clamp Studies on Uterine Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Nels C.

    1969-01-01

    These studies have developed and tested an experimental approach to the study of membrane ionic conductance mechanisms in strips of uterine smooth muscle. The experimental and theoretical basis for applying the double sucrose-gap technique is described along with the limitations of this system. Nonpropagating membrane action potentials were produced in response to depolarizing current pulses under current-clamp conditions. The stepwise change of membrane potential under voltage-clamp conditions resulted in a family of ionic currents with voltage- and time-dependent characteristics. In sodium-free solution the peak transient current decreased and its equilibrium potential shifted along the voltage axis toward a more negative internal potential. These studies indicate a sodium-dependent, regenerative excitation mechanism. PMID:5796366

  20. Simulations of dolphin kick swimming using smoothed particle hydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Raymond C Z; Cleary, Paul W; Mason, Bruce R

    2012-06-01

    In competitive human swimming the submerged dolphin kick stroke (underwater undulatory swimming) is utilized after dives and turns. The optimal dolphin kick has a balance between minimizing drag and maximizing thrust while also minimizing the physical exertion required of the swimmer. In this study laser scans of athletes are used to provide realistic swimmer geometries in a single anatomical pose. These are rigged and animated to closely match side-on video footage. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) fluid simulations are performed to evaluate variants of this swimming stroke technique. This computational approach provides full temporal and spatial information about the flow moving around the deforming swimmer model. The effects of changes in ankle flexibility and stroke frequency are investigated through a parametric study. The results suggest that the net streamwise force on the swimmer is relatively insensitive to ankle flexibility but is strongly dependent on kick frequency. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. SPAMCART: a code for smoothed particle Monte Carlo radiative transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomax, O.; Whitworth, A. P.

    2016-10-01

    We present a code for generating synthetic spectral energy distributions and intensity maps from smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation snapshots. The code is based on the Lucy Monte Carlo radiative transfer method, I.e. it follows discrete luminosity packets as they propagate through a density field, and then uses their trajectories to compute the radiative equilibrium temperature of the ambient dust. The sources can be extended and/or embedded, and discrete and/or diffuse. The density is not mapped on to a grid, and therefore the calculation is performed at exactly the same resolution as the hydrodynamics. We present two example calculations using this method. First, we demonstrate that the code strictly adheres to Kirchhoff's law of radiation. Secondly, we present synthetic intensity maps and spectra of an embedded protostellar multiple system. The algorithm uses data structures that are already constructed for other purposes in modern particle codes. It is therefore relatively simple to implement.

  2. Dynamics of initial drop splashing on a dry smooth surface

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhenlong; Cao, Yihua

    2017-01-01

    We simulate the onset and evolution of the earliest splashing of an infinite cylindrical liquid drop on a smooth dry solid surface. A tiny splash is observed to be emitted out of the rim of the lamella in the early stage of the impact. We find that the onset time of the splash is primarily dependent on the characteristic timescale, which is defined by the impact velocity as well as the drop radius, with no strong dependence on either the liquid viscosity or surface tension. Three regimes are found to be responsible for different splashing patterns. The outermost ejected droplets keep extending radially at a uniform speed proportional to the impact speed. Finally, we discuss the underlying mechanism which is responsible for the occurrence of the initial drop splash in the study. PMID:28493989

  3. Approximating smooth functions using algebraic-trigonometric polynomials

    SciTech Connect

    Sharapudinov, Idris I

    2011-01-14

    The problem under consideration is that of approximating classes of smooth functions by algebraic-trigonometric polynomials of the form p{sub n}(t)+{tau}{sub m}(t), where p{sub n}(t) is an algebraic polynomial of degree n and {tau}{sub m}(t)=a{sub 0}+{Sigma}{sub k=1}{sup m}a{sub k} cos k{pi}t + b{sub k} sin k{pi}t is a trigonometric polynomial of order m. The precise order of approximation by such polynomials in the classes W{sup r}{sub {infinity}(}M) and an upper bound for similar approximations in the class W{sup r}{sub p}(M) with 4/3

  4. Alternative methods to smooth the Earth's gravity field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jekeli, C.

    1981-01-01

    Convolutions on the sphere with corresponding convolution theorems are developed for one and two dimensional functions. Some of these results are used in a study of isotropic smoothing operators or filters. Well known filters in Fourier spectral analysis, such as the rectangular, Gaussian, and Hanning filters, are adapted for data on a sphere. The low-pass filter most often used on gravity data is the rectangular (or Pellinen) filter. However, its spectrum has relatively large sidelobes; and therefore, this filter passes a considerable part of the upper end of the gravity spectrum. The spherical adaptations of the Gaussian and Hanning filters are more efficient in suppressing the high-frequency components of the gravity field since their frequency response functions are strongly field since their frequency response functions are strongly tapered at the high frequencies with no, or small, sidelobes. Formulas are given for practical implementation of these new filters.

  5. Image smoothing and enhancement via min/max curvature flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malladi, Ravikanth; Sethian, James A.

    1996-03-01

    We present a class of PDE-based algorithms suitable for a wide range of image processing applications. The techniques are applicable to both salt-and-pepper gray-scale noise and full- image continuous noise present in black and white images, gray-scale images, texture images and color images. At the core, the techniques rely on a level set formulation of evolving curves and surfaces and the viscosity in profile evolution. Essentially, the method consists of moving the isointensity contours in an image under curvature dependent speed laws to achieve enhancement. Compared to existing techniques, our approach has several distinct advantages. First, it contains only one enhancement parameter, which in most cases is automatically chosen. Second, the scheme automatically stops smoothing at some optimal point; continued application of the scheme produces no further change. Third, the method is one of the fastest possible schemes based on a curvature-controlled approach.

  6. Parallel multigrid smoothing: polynomial versus Gauss-Seidel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Mark; Brezina, Marian; Hu, Jonathan; Tuminaro, Ray

    2003-07-01

    Gauss-Seidel is often the smoother of choice within multigrid applications. In the context of unstructured meshes, however, maintaining good parallel efficiency is difficult with multiplicative iterative methods such as Gauss-Seidel. This leads us to consider alternative smoothers. We discuss the computational advantages of polynomial smoothers within parallel multigrid algorithms for positive definite symmetric systems. Two particular polynomials are considered: Chebyshev and a multilevel specific polynomial. The advantages of polynomial smoothing over traditional smoothers such as Gauss-Seidel are illustrated on several applications: Poisson's equation, thin-body elasticity, and eddy current approximations to Maxwell's equations. While parallelizing the Gauss-Seidel method typically involves a compromise between a scalable convergence rate and maintaining high flop rates, polynomial smoothers achieve parallel scalable multigrid convergence rates without sacrificing flop rates. We show that, although parallel computers are the main motivation, polynomial smoothers are often surprisingly competitive with Gauss-Seidel smoothers on serial machines.

  7. Estimating Mixture of Gaussian Processes by Kernel Smoothing

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Mian; Li, Runze; Wang, Hansheng; Yao, Weixin

    2014-01-01

    When the functional data are not homogeneous, e.g., there exist multiple classes of functional curves in the dataset, traditional estimation methods may fail. In this paper, we propose a new estimation procedure for the Mixture of Gaussian Processes, to incorporate both functional and inhomogeneous properties of the data. Our method can be viewed as a natural extension of high-dimensional normal mixtures. However, the key difference is that smoothed structures are imposed for both the mean and covariance functions. The model is shown to be identifiable, and can be estimated efficiently by a combination of the ideas from EM algorithm, kernel regression, and functional principal component analysis. Our methodology is empirically justified by Monte Carlo simulations and illustrated by an analysis of a supermarket dataset. PMID:24976675

  8. Quality Tetrahedral Mesh Smoothing via Boundary-Optimized Delaunay Triangulation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhanheng; Yu, Zeyun; Holst, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Despite its great success in improving the quality of a tetrahedral mesh, the original optimal Delaunay triangulation (ODT) is designed to move only inner vertices and thus cannot handle input meshes containing “bad” triangles on boundaries. In the current work, we present an integrated approach called boundary-optimized Delaunay triangulation (B-ODT) to smooth (improve) a tetrahedral mesh. In our method, both inner and boundary vertices are repositioned by analytically minimizing the error between a paraboloid function and its piecewise linear interpolation over the neighborhood of each vertex. In addition to the guaranteed volume-preserving property, the proposed algorithm can be readily adapted to preserve sharp features in the original mesh. A number of experiments are included to demonstrate the performance of our method. PMID:23144522

  9. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Simulations of Ultrarelativistic Shocks with Artificial Viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegler, S.; Riffert, H.

    2000-03-01

    We present a fully Lagrangian conservation form of the general relativistic hydrodynamic equations for perfect fluids with artificial viscosity in a given arbitrary background spacetime. This conservation formulation is achieved by choosing suitable Lagrangian time evolution variables, from which the generic fluid variables of rest-mass density, 3-velocity, and thermodynamic pressure have to be determined. We present the corresponding equations for an ideal gas and show the existence and uniqueness of the solution. On the basis of the Lagrangian formulation we have developed a three-dimensional general relativistic smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code using the standard SPH formalism as known from nonrelativistic fluid dynamics. One-dimensional simulations of a shock tube and a wall shock are presented together with a two-dimensional test calculation of an inclined shock tube. With our method we can model ultrarelativistic fluid flows including shocks with Lorentz factors of even 1000.

  10. Airway smooth muscle: a potential target for asthma therapy.

    PubMed

    Dowell, Maria L; Lavoie, Tera L; Solway, Julian; Krishnan, Ramaswamy

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a major public health problem that afflicts nearly one in 20 people worldwide. Despite available treatments, asthma symptoms remain poorly controlled in a significant minority of asthma patients, especially those with severe disease. Accordingly, much ongoing effort has been directed at developing new therapeutic strategies; these efforts are described in detail below. Although mucus hypersecretion is an important component of asthma pathobiology, the primary mechanism of morbidity and mortality in asthma is excessive narrowing of the airway. The key end- effector of excessive airway narrowing is airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction; overcoming ASM contraction is therefore a prominent therapeutic strategy. Here, we review exciting new advances aimed at ASM relaxation. Exciting advances in ASM biology have identified new therapeutic targets for the prevention or reversal of bronchoconstriction in asthma.

  11. Dynamics of initial drop splashing on a dry smooth surface.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhenlong; Cao, Yihua

    2017-01-01

    We simulate the onset and evolution of the earliest splashing of an infinite cylindrical liquid drop on a smooth dry solid surface. A tiny splash is observed to be emitted out of the rim of the lamella in the early stage of the impact. We find that the onset time of the splash is primarily dependent on the characteristic timescale, which is defined by the impact velocity as well as the drop radius, with no strong dependence on either the liquid viscosity or surface tension. Three regimes are found to be responsible for different splashing patterns. The outermost ejected droplets keep extending radially at a uniform speed proportional to the impact speed. Finally, we discuss the underlying mechanism which is responsible for the occurrence of the initial drop splash in the study.

  12. Eotaxin Augments Calcification in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Raghuraman, Gayatri; Hsiung, Joseph; Zuniga, Mary C; Baughman, Brittanie D; Hitchner, Elizabeth; Guzman, Raul J; Zhou, Wei

    2017-03-01

    Calcification of atherosclerotic plaques in elderly patients represents a potent risk marker of cardiovascular events. Plasma analyses of patients with or without calcified plaques reveal significant differences in chemokines, particularly eotaxin, which escalates with increased calcification. We therefore, hypothesize that eotaxin in circulation augments calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) possibly via oxidative stress in the vasculature. We observe that eotaxin increases the rate of calcification significantly in VSMCs as evidenced by increased alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium deposition, and osteogenic marker expression. In addition, eotaxin promotes proliferation in VSMCs and triggers oxidative stress in a NADPH oxidase dependent manner. These primary novel observations support our proposition that in the vasculature eotaxin augments mineralization. Our findings suggest that eotaxin may represent a potential therapeutic target for prevention of cardiovascular complications in the elderly. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 647-654, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. General solution to inhomogeneous dephasing and smooth pulse dynamical decoupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Junkai; Deng, Xiu-Hao; Russo, Antonio; Barnes, Edwin

    2018-03-01

    In order to achieve the high-fidelity quantum control needed for a broad range of quantum information technologies, reducing the effects of noise and system inhomogeneities is an essential task. It is well known that a system can be decoupled from noise or made insensitive to inhomogeneous dephasing dynamically by using carefully designed pulse sequences based on square or delta-function waveforms such as Hahn spin echo or CPMG. However, such ideal pulses are often challenging to implement experimentally with high fidelity. Here, we uncover a new geometrical framework for visualizing all possible driving fields, which enables one to generate an unlimited number of smooth, experimentally feasible pulses that perform dynamical decoupling or dynamically corrected gates to arbitrarily high order. We demonstrate that this scheme can significantly enhance the fidelity of single-qubit operations in the presence of noise and when realistic limitations on pulse rise times and amplitudes are taken into account.

  14. The Pivotal Role of Airway Smooth Muscle in Asthma Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Ozier, Annaïg; Allard, Benoit; Bara, Imane; Girodet, Pierre-Olivier; Trian, Thomas; Marthan, Roger; Berger, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by the association of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), inflammation, and remodelling. The aim of the present article is to review the pivotal role of airway smooth muscle (ASM) in the pathophysiology of asthma. ASM is the main effector of AHR. The mechanisms of AHR in asthma may involve a larger release of contractile mediators and/or a lower release of relaxant mediators, an improved ASM cell excitation/contraction coupling, and/or an alteration in the contraction/load coupling. Beyond its contractile function, ASM is also involved in bronchial inflammation and remodelling. Whereas ASM is a target of the inflammatory process, it can also display proinflammatory and immunomodulatory functions, through its synthetic properties and the expression of a wide range of cell surface molecules. ASM remodelling represents a key feature of asthmatic bronchial remodelling. ASM also plays a role in promoting complementary airway structural alterations, in particular by its synthetic function. PMID:22220184

  15. Smooth muscle relaxing flavonoids and terpenoids from Conyza filaginoides.

    PubMed

    Mata, R; Rojas, A; Acevedo, L; Estrada, S; Calzada, F; Rojas, I; Bye, R; Linares, E

    1997-02-01

    Activity-guided fractionation of the smooth muscle relaxing, chloroform-methanol (1:1) extract of Conyza filaginoides (D.C.) Hieron (Asteraceae) led to the isolation of three flavonoids (quercetin 3-glucoside, rutin, and pinostrobin), one sterol (alpha-spinasterol), a sesquiterpenoid (beta-caryophyllene 4,5-alpha-oxide), and two triterpenoids (erythrodiol and 3-beta-tridecanoyloxy-28-hydroxyolean-12-ene). 3-beta-Tridecanoyloxy-28-hydroxy-olean-12-ene is a new naturally occurring terpenoid. All the isolated compounds induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the spontaneous contractions of rat ileum. The spasmolytic activity exhibited by the extract and active principles tends to support the traditional use of C filaginoides as an antispasmodic agent.

  16. Inherited neurovascular diseases affecting cerebral blood vessels and smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Sam, Christine; Li, Fei-Feng; Liu, Shu-Lin

    2015-10-01

    Neurovascular diseases are among the leading causes of mortality and permanent disability due to stroke, aneurysm, and other cardiovascular complications. Cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) and Marfan syndrome are two neurovascular disorders that affect smooth muscle cells through accumulation of granule and osmiophilic materials and defective elastic fiber formations respectively. Moyamoya disease, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II), and Fabry's disease are disorders that affect the endothelium cells of blood vessels through occlusion or abnormal development. While much research has been done on mapping out mutations in these diseases, the exact mechanisms are still largely unknown. This paper briefly introduces the pathogenesis, genetics, clinical symptoms, and current methods of treatment of the diseases in the hope that it can help us better understand the mechanism of these diseases and work on ways to develop better diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Smooth conditional distribution function and quantiles under random censorship.

    PubMed

    Leconte, Eve; Poiraud-Casanova, Sandrine; Thomas-Agnan, Christine

    2002-09-01

    We consider a nonparametric random design regression model in which the response variable is possibly right censored. The aim of this paper is to estimate the conditional distribution function and the conditional alpha-quantile of the response variable. We restrict attention to the case where the response variable as well as the explanatory variable are unidimensional and continuous. We propose and discuss two classes of estimators which are smooth with respect to the response variable as well as to the covariate. Some simulations demonstrate that the new methods have better mean square error performances than the generalized Kaplan-Meier estimator introduced by Beran (1981) and considered in the literature by Dabrowska (1989, 1992) and Gonzalez-Manteiga and Cadarso-Suarez (1994).

  18. Integral approximations to classical diffusion and smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    DOE PAGES

    Du, Qiang; Lehoucq, R. B.; Tartakovsky, A. M.

    2014-12-31

    The contribution of the paper is the approximation of a classical diffusion operator by an integral equation with a volume constraint. A particular focus is on classical diffusion problems associated with Neumann boundary conditions. By exploiting this approximation, we can also approximate other quantities such as the flux out of a domain. Our analysis of the model equation on the continuum level is closely related to the recent work on nonlocal diffusion and peridynamic mechanics. In particular, we elucidate the role of a volumetric constraint as an approximation to a classical Neumann boundary condition in the presence of physical boundary.more » The volume-constrained integral equation then provides the basis for accurate and robust discretization methods. As a result, an immediate application is to the understanding and improvement of the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method.« less

  19. Skin or nail culture

    MedlinePlus

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  20. A New and Fast Method for Smoothing Spectral Imaging Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Bo-Cai; Liu, Ming; Davis, Curtiss O.

    1998-01-01

    The Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) acquires spectral imaging data covering the 0.4 - 2.5 micron wavelength range in 224 10-nm-wide channels from a NASA ER-2 aircraft at 20 km. More than half of the spectral region is affected by atmospheric gaseous absorption. Over the past decade, several techniques have been used to remove atmospheric effects from AVIRIS data for the derivation of surface reflectance spectra. An operational atmosphere removal algorithm (ATREM), which is based on theoretical modeling of atmospheric absorption and scattering effects, has been developed and updated for deriving surface reflectance spectra from AVIRIS data. Due to small errors in assumed wavelengths and errors in line parameters compiled on the HITRAN database, small spikes (particularly near the centers of the 0.94- and 1.14-micron water vapor bands) are present in this spectrum. Similar small spikes are systematically present in entire ATREM output cubes. These spikes have distracted geologists who are interested in studying surface mineral features. A method based on the "global" fitting of spectra with low order polynomials or other functions for removing these weak spikes has recently been developed by Boardman (this volume). In this paper, we describe another technique, which fits spectra "locally" based on cubic spline smoothing, for quick post processing of ATREM apparent reflectance spectra derived from AVIRIS data. Results from our analysis of AVIRIS data acquired over Cuprite mining district in Nevada in June of 1995 are given. Comparisons between our smoothed spectra and those derived with the empirical line method are presented.