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Sample records for a1298c gene polymorphisms

  1. Prevalence of MTHFR gene polymorphisms (C677T and A1298C) among Tamilians.

    PubMed

    Angeline, T; Jeyaraj, Nirmala; Granito, Selena; Tsongalis, Gregory J

    2004-10-01

    We have investigated the incidence of the C677T and A1298C methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the South Indian Tamil Nadu population with a total number of 72 individuals. The MTHFR genotyping was performed using the polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction enzyme analysis. Homozygosity for the MTHFR A1298C SNP was detected in 15.3% (11/72) of the individuals tested, and 47.2% (34/72) were heterozygous for this SNP. Homozygosity for the C677T MTHFR SNP was detected in 1.38%(1/72), and the frequency of the C677T heterozygotes was 18.1%(13/72). When we analyzed the combined frequency of the two SNPs, the frequency of double heterozygosity was19.6%, and the frequency of double homozygosity was completely absent among the study group. The 'C' allele frequency for MTHFR A1298C was 0.389, and the 'T' allele frequency for C677T mutation was 0.104. Out of the 72 individuals included in the study, 52 were acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients and 20 were healthy individuals with no documented history of heart disease. The results of this study indicate that the MTHFR A1298C SNP is more prevalent among the Tamilians when compared to the MTHFR C677T SNP, suggesting a possible role of MTHFR A1298C in the pathogenesis of heart diseases.

  2. Is methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene A1298C polymorphism related with varicocele risk?

    PubMed

    Ucar, V B; Nami, B; Acar, H; Kilinç, M

    2015-02-01

    Varicocele is one of the main reasons for male infertility the exact aetiology of which remains unclear. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is important for DNA synthesis and methylation, which has a key role during spermatogenesis. Numerous literature suggests that the MTHFR polymorphism may be genetic risk factors for male infertility. In this study, we evaluated C677T and A1298C MTHFR gene polymorphism frequency in patients with varicocele and normal men. A total of 107 varicocele patients and 109 fertile healthy individuals were included. Genotyping of the MTHFR gene in C677T and A1298C base pairs carried out by using real-time PCR technique and afterwards, the statistical analysis accomplished. There is a statistical difference for the frequency of 1298AA genotype in patients with varicocele compared with normal controls (P = 0.0051, OR = 2.2750). Instead, subsequently, 1298/A allel frequency in patient group was significantly higher in comparison with control group (P = 0.0174). According to our results, 1298AA genotype in MTHFR gene raises the risk of varicocele approximately 2.3 times more compared with men carrying other genotypes. The results show that genetic factors have an important role in the molecular basis of varicocele. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Relationship between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) A1298C gene polymorphism and type 2 diabetic nephropathy risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Xiao, Yan; Zhang, Xian-Wen; Gao, Zhi-Qing; Han, Jing-Hui

    2014-07-01

    Relationship between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) A1298C gene polymorphism and type 2 diabetic nephropathy (T2DN) risk is still unclear. This study was performed to evaluate if there is an association between the MTHFR A1298C gene polymorphism and T2DN risk using meta-analysis. The relevant reports were searched and identified from PubMed, Cochrane Library on 1 October 2013, and eligible studies were included and synthesized. Eight reports were recruited into this meta-analysis for the association of the MTHFR A1298C gene polymorphism with T2DN risk. The MTHFR A1298C C allele or CC genotype was shown to be not associated with T2DN risk (C allele: OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.43-1.34, p = 0.34; CC genotype: OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 0.63-2.22, p = 0.60). Interestingly, AA genotype was associated with the T2DN risk (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.49-0.96, p = 0.03). In the sensitivity analysis according to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), the results were consistent with those in non-sensitivity analysis. However, in the sensitivity analysis according to the control source from hospital, sample size of case (≥ 100), sample size of case (<100), the MTHFR A1298C gene polymorphism was not associated with T2DN risk. In conclusion, the MTHFR A1298C gene polymorphism was not associated with T2DN risk. However, additional studies are required to firmly establish a correlation between the MTHFR A1298C gene polymorphism and T2DN risk.

  4. Association between C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene and risk of male infertility: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Luo, Y Y; Wu, S; Tang, Y D; Rao, X D; Xiong, L; Tan, M; Deng, M Z; Liu, H

    2016-04-26

    Published studies on the association between the C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and male infertility risk are controversial. To obtain a more precise evaluation, we performed a meta-analysis based on published case-control studies. We conducted an electronic search of PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Web of Science, and the China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database for papers on MTHFR gene C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and male infertility risk. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were used to assess the strength of association in homozygote, heterozygote, dominant, recessive, and additive models. Statistical heterogeneity, test of publication bias, and sensitivity analysis were carried out using the STATA software (Version 13.0). Overall, 21 studies of C677T (4505 cases and 4024 controls) and 13 studies of A1298C (2785 cases and 3094 controls) were included in this meta-analysis. For C677T, the homozygote comparison results were OR = 1.629, 95%CI (1.215- 2.184), and the recessive model results were OR = 1.462 (1.155- 1.850). For A1298C, the homozygote comparison results were OR = 1.289 (1.029-1.616), and the recessive model results were OR = 1.288 (1.034-1.604). In conclusion, the current meta-analysis showed that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism was associated with a significantly increased male infertility risk in the Asian and overall populations, but not in the Caucasian population, and there was a significant association between the A1298C polymorphism and male infertility risk in the Asian, Caucasian, and overall groups.

  5. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase A1298C Polymorphism and Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kevin; Amin, Zubair M; An, Jie; Rambaran, Kerry Anne; Johnson, Tyler B

    2017-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a disorder that carries significant psychosocial and economic implications. Research efforts have focused on identifying biomarkers that can aid in the prediction, diagnosis, and efficacious treatment of MDD. Most of this focus has been placed on a polymorphism of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, C677T. MTHFR C677T is screened during MDD diagnosis in many protocols. However, MTHFR C667T poses conflicting data in various ethnic groups and geographic populations calling into question its utility. Another polymorphism, MTHFR A1298C, has often taken the back-seat to MTHFR C677T in respect to research focus. MTHFR A1298C is implicated in irregular homocysteine metabolism and aberrant folate cycles and, through this, it may play a role as either a driver in the development of MDD or as a predictive or diagnostic marker, possibly in combination with C677T. The number of studies evaluating MTHFR A1298C and the power of those studies is lacking and thus larger studies are required to confirm the association between this polymorphism and MDD. PMID:29209581

  6. Geographical and Ethnic Distributions of the MTHFR C677T, A1298C and MTRR A66G Gene Polymorphisms in Chinese Populations: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Dingyuan

    2016-01-01

    Background The geographical and ethnic distributions of the polymorphic methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutations (C677T and A1298C) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) mutation (A66G) remain heterogeneous in China. The goal of this study was to estimate the pooled frequencies of the alleles and associated genotypes of these gene polymorphisms among healthy populations in Mainland China. Objective and Methods We systematically reviewed published epidemiological studies on the distributions of 3 genetic variants in Chinese healthy populations living in Mainland China through a meta-analysis. The relevant electronic databases were searched. All of the raw data of the eligible citations were extracted. The frequency estimates were stratified by geography, ethnicity and sex. Results Sixty-six studies were identified with a total of 92277 study participants. The meta-analysis revealed that the frequencies of the MTHFR C677T, A1298C, and MTRR A66G gene polymorphisms varied significantly between different ethnic groups and along geographical gradients. The frequencies of the 677T allele and 677TT genotype increased along the southern-central-northern direction across Mainland China (all Pvalues≤0.001). The frequencies of the 1298C, 1298CC, 66G and 66GG genotypes decreased along the south-central-north direction across the country (all Pvalues≤0.001). Conclusions Our meta-analysis strongly indicates significant geographical and ethnic variations in the frequencies of the C677T, A1298C, and A66G gene polymorphisms in the folate metabolism pathway among Chinese populations. PMID:27089387

  7. Evaluation of Factor V Leiden, Prothrombin G20210A, MTHFR C677T and MTHFR A1298C gene polymorphisms in retinopathy of prematurity in a Turkish cohort.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Hatip; Gunay, Murat; Celik, Gokhan; Gunay, Betul Onal; Aydin, Umeyye Taka; Karaman, Ali

    2016-12-01

    To assess Factor V Leiden (FVL) (rs6025), Prothrombin G20210A (rs1799963), MTHFR C677T (rs1801133), and MTHFR A1298C (rs1801131) gene mutations as risk factors in the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). A total of 105 children were included in this cross-sectional study. Patients were divided into two groups. The study group consisted of 55 infants with a history of ROP and the control group comprised 50 healthy infants with term birth. All subjects were screened for the presence of certain mutations (FVL, Prothrombin G20210A, MTHFR C677T and MTHFR A1298C) by Real-Time PCR at 1 year of age. The mean gestational age (GA) and birth weight (BW) of the study group were, 28.65 ± 2.85 weeks and 1171 ± 385.74 g, respectively. There were no significant differences of genotype and allele frequency of Prothrombin G20210A, MTHFR A1298C and MTHFR C677T between the study and control groups (p > 0.05). Eight children (14.5 %) had heterozygous and one child (1.8%) had homozygous FVL mutation in the study group. One child (2%) in the control group had heterozygous FVL mutation. There was statistically significant differences of FVL allele and genotype frequencies between the groups (p < 0.05). The prevalence of FVL polymorphism (16.3 %) was higher in ROP patients than control subjects in this Turkish cohort. We suggest a possible association of FVL mutation with ROP at the end of the study.

  8. MTHFR C677T, A1298C and MS A2756G Gene Polymorphisms and Male Infertility Risk in a Chinese Population: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Fang, Kun; Ren, Shangqing; Liao, Jian; Liu, Shengzhuo; Liu, Liangren; Peng, Zhufeng; Dong, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR C677T and A1298C) and methionine synthase gene (MS A2756G) polymorphisms have shown an association with male infertility risk in several ethnic populations. Although several studies have evaluated these associations in Chinese populations, their small sample sizes and inconsistent outcomes have prevented strong conclusions. Therefore, the present meta-analysis was performed with published studies to evaluate the associations of the three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and male infertility in a Chinese population. Methods We conducted a search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China biology medical literature (CBM), VIP, and Chinese literature (Wan Fang) databases up to May 31, 2016. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were used to assess the strength of associations with a random-effect model or a fixed-effect model based on the heterogeneity analysis results. Sensitivity analysis was used to confirm the reliability and stability of the meta-analysis. Results A total of nine studies, including 1,713 cases and 1,104 controls, were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled results indicated that the MTHFR C667T polymorphism was significantly associated with increased risk of male infertility in the Chinese population in the allele model (T vs. C: OR = 1.47, 95%CI = 1.32–1.63), the dominant model (TT + CT vs. CC: OR = 1.51, 95%CI = 1.30–1.77), the additive model (TT vs. CC: OR = 2.08, 95%CI = 1.68–2.58) and the recessive model (TT vs. CT+CC: OR = 1.58, 95%CI = 1.31–1.90), whereas the MTHFR A1298C and MS A2756G polymorphisms were not risk factors. There was no significant heterogeneity in any genotype contrasts among the studies. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the results of this meta-analysis were relatively stable. Conclusion This study suggests that the MTHFR C667T polymorphism may contribute to the genetic

  9. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C gene polymorphisms in oral squamous cell carcinoma in south-east Iran.

    PubMed

    Miri-Moghaddam, Ebrahim; Saravani, Shirin; Garme, Yasamn; Khosravi, Arezoo; Bazi, Ali; Motazedian, Jamaledin

    2016-02-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene encodes an essential enzyme involving in folate metabolism. Due to the role of folate in DNA integrity, polymorphisms of MTHFR are interesting targets for cancer risk studies. Our goal was to evaluate the prevalence of MTHFR C677T and A1298T single nucleotide polymorphisms in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The study was conducted on 57 OSCC patients diagnosed within 2004-2013 along with 62 non-OSCC subjects. DNA was extracted by standard kit protocol. Subsequently, tetra-ARMS (amplification refractory mutation system)-PCR was applied to identify the selected polymorphisms. Data showed that CT and TT genotypes of C677T polymorphisms significantly increased the risk of OSCC [odds ratio (OR) = 2.2, 95% CI: 1-5, P = 0.04]. Although allelic distribution was not significantly different between patients and controls, T allele of C677T polymorphism was closely associated with the risk of OSCC (OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 0.9-6.9; P = 0.07). Results indicated that C677T/A1298C: CC/AC and C677T/A1298C: CC/AA haplotypes were the most common combinations in OSCC patient and control groups, respectively. (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 0.6-3.8, P > 0.05). Our results highlight the possible impact of C677T polymorphism in increasing the risk of OSCC development. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene, homocysteine and coronary artery disease: the A1298C polymorphism does matter. Inferences from a case study (Madeira, Portugal).

    PubMed

    Freitas, Ana I; Mendonça, Isabel; Guerra, Graça; Brión, Maria; Reis, Roberto P; Carracedo, Angel; Brehm, António

    2008-01-01

    Elevated levels of plasma homocysteine, an independent risk factor and a strong predictor of mortality in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), can result from nutritional deficiencies or genetic errors, including methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms. The contribution of these polymorphisms in the development of CAD remains controversial. We analysed the impact of MTHFR C677T and A1298C on fasting homocysteine and CAD in 298 CAD patients proved by angiography and 510 control subjects from the Island of Madeira (Portugal). After adjustment for other risk factors, plasma homocysteine remained independently correlated with CAD. Serum homocysteine was significantly higher in individuals with 677TT and 1298AA genotypes. There was no difference in the distribution of MTHFR677 genotypes between cases and controls but a significant increase in 1298AA prevalence was found in CAD patients. In spite of the clear effect of C677T mutation on elevated homocysteine levels we only found an association between 1298AA genotype and CAD in this population. The simultaneous presence of 677CT and 1298AA genotypes provides a significant risk of developing the disease, while the 1298AC genotype, combined with 677CC, shows a significant trend towards a decrease in CAD occurrence. The data shows an independent association between elevated levels of homocysteine and CAD. Both MTHFR polymorphisms are associated with increased fasting homocysteine (677TT and 1298AA genotypes), but only the 1298AA variant shows an increased prevalence in CAD group. Odds ratio seem to indicate that individuals with the MTHFR 1298AA genotype and the 677CT/1298AA compound genotype had a 1.6-fold increased risk for developing CAD suggesting a possible association of MTHFR polymorphisms with the risk of CAD in Madeira population.

  11. A new and improved method based on polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) for the determination of A1298C mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene.

    PubMed

    Machnik, Grzegorz; Zapala, Malgorzata; Pelc, Ewa; Gasecka-Czapla, Monika; Kaczmarczyk, Grzegorz; Okopien, Boguslaw

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular folate homeostasis and metabolism is regulated by numerous genes. Among them, 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is of special interest because of its involvement in regulation of the homocysteine level in the body as a result of folate metabolism. Moreover, some studies demonstrated that the homocysteine plasma level in individuals may be influenced by polymorphisms present in the MTHFR gene. Two common, clinically relevant mutations have been described: MTHFR C677T and MTHFR A1298C. Although several laboratory techniques allow genotyping of both polymorphisms, PCR-RFLP analysis is simple to perform, relatively cheap, and thus one of the most utilized. In the case of A1298C, the PCR-RFLP technique that utilizes MboII endonuclease class II requires an acrylamide gel electrophoresis, since agarose gel electrophoresis is unable to resolve short deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragments after restriction digestion. Agarose gel electrophoresis is commonly preferred over that of acrylamide. To resolve this inconvenience, a novel PCR-RFLP, AjuI-based method to genotype A1298C alleles has been developed that can be performed on standard agarose gel.

  12. Genetic susceptibility of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T, A1298C, and G1793A polymorphisms with risk for bladder transitional cell carcinoma in men.

    PubMed

    Safarinejad, Mohammad Reza; Shafiei, Nayyer; Safarinejad, Shiva

    2011-12-01

    We performed a case-control study of 158 bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) cases and 316 controls to investigate the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, A1298G, and G1793A polymorphisms and bladder cancer susceptibility by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RLFP) technique. The controls were frequency-matched to the cases by age (± 5 years), ethnicity, and smoking status. We also measured serum levels of total homocysteine (tHcy), folate, and vitamin B12. It was found that the 1298AC (odds ratio, OR = 3.74; 95% confidence interval, CI = 2.34-5.47; P = 0.001) and 1298CC (OR = 3.46, 95% CI = 2.37-5.52; P = 0.001) genotypes of MTHFR A1298C were significantly associated with increased risk of bladder TCC. The MTHFR C677T and G1793A polymorphisms were not associated with bladder TCC. After stratification for grade and stage, we observed that the 677TT (OR = 4.47, 95% CI = 2.74-6.72; P = 0.001) and MTHFR 1298CC (OR = 4.78, 95% CI = 2.82-6.89; P = 0.001) genotypes of MTHFR were associated with increased risk of muscle-invasive bladder TCC. We also found that the MTHFR 677CT+1298AA genotypes were associated with an approximately 70% reduction in risk of bladder cancer (OR = 0.31; 95% CI = 0.15-0.68) compared to the combined referent genotype. There were 8 haplotypes and 16 haplotype genotypes based on these three variants. When we used the haplotypes and assumed that the 677T, 1298C, and 1793G alleles were risk alleles, the adjusted odds ratios increased as the number of risk alleles increased: 1.00 for 0-1 variant, 1.88 (1.4-2.7) for any two risk alleles and 2.07 (1.6-2.8) for any three risk alleles. Serum tHcy levels were significantly higher in carriers of the 677T, 1298C, and 1793G alleles compared to noncarriers (all P < 0.01). There was no significant correlation between serum levels of tHcy and folate and bladder cancer risk. Further studies in larger samples size and different

  13. Methionine synthase A2756G and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase A1298C polymorphisms are not risk factors for idiopathic venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Salomon, O; Rosenberg, N; Zivelin, A; Steinberg, D M; Kornbrot, N; Dardik, R; Inbal, A; Seligsohn, U

    2001-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a defined risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Several polymorphisms of genes encoding for enzymes acting in the remethylation pathway of homocysteine metabolism, ie, methionine synthase (MS) A2756G, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and MTHFR A1298C, can cause increased homocysteine levels particularly in patients with deficiencies of folic acid, vitamin B6, or B12 and hence be potential risk factors for VTE. Indeed, homozygous MTHFR C677T was shown to be a mild risk factor for VTE by some, but not by all, investigators. In this study, we assessed the risk exerted by MS A2756G and MTHFR A1298C in a cohort of patients with idiopathic venous thromboembolism. Homozygosities for MS A2756G and MTHFR A1298C were not found to be statistically significant risk factors for VTE. In addition, no interactions were observed among MS A2756G, MTHFR A1298C and MTHFR C677T in conferring a risk of VTE.

  14. Association between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and male infertility: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Yin, Guo-Ying; Liu, Juan; Liang, Yue; Li, Yao-Yan; Zhao, Jing-Yu; Zhang, Li-Wen; Wang, Bai-Qi; Tang, Nai-Jun

    2017-04-01

    There have been several epidemiological studies evaluating the potential association between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) A1298C polymorphism and the risk of male infertility. However, the results obtained were inconsistent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to further examine the association between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and male infertility. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify all eligible studies from the online literature databases published prior to January 15th, 2016. A total of 20 studies with 4293 cases and 4507 controls were included. An odds ratio (OR) and a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated to assess the strength of the association. A cumulative meta-analysis, sensitivity analysis and assessment of the publication bias were also performed in this study. The results showed that in the overall analysis, the association between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and male infertility was not significant. A stratified analysis by ethnicity revealed a significant increase in the risk of male infertility in the Asian population with the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism (especially in the heterozygote model: OR=1.20, 95% CI=1.01-1.44, P=0.994; the dominant model: OR=1.23, 95% CI=1.04-1.45, P=0.996; and the allele model: OR=1.20, 95% CI=1.04-1.39, P=0.985) but not in the Caucasian population. In the stratified analyses, no significant association was observed between the different types of male infertility. This meta-analysis suggests the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism may be a potential risk factor for male infertility, especially in the Asian population.

  15. Association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T/A1298C polymorphisms and essential hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Le; Hu, Cai-Yun; Lu, Shan-Shan; Gong, Feng-Feng; Feng, Fang; Qian, Zhen-Zhong; Ding, Xiu-Xiu; Yang, Hui-Yun; Sun, Ye-Huan

    2014-12-01

    Many studies have investigated the role of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) C677T/A1298C polymorphisms in essential hypertension (EH), but results are inconclusive. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to clarify the effects of MTHFR C677T/A1298C polymorphisms on the risk of EH. Electronic databases were searched to identify relevant studies published until January 2014. Data were extracted by two independent authors. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95%confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the association between MTHFR C677T/A1298C polymorphisms and the risk of EH using random effect models or fixed effect models. Finally,30 studies with 5207 cases and 5383 controls were included for C677T polymorphism and 6 studies with 1009 cases and 994 controls were included for A1298C polymorphism. Meta-analysis results indicated that MTHFR C677T polymorphism contributed to an increased risk of EH (for T vs. C: OR=1.30, 95%CI=1.18–1.43; for TT+CT vs. CC: OR=1.34, 95%CI=1.24–1.46; for TT vs. CC: OR=1.62, 95%CI=1.32–1.99; for TT vs. CT+CC: OR=1.41, 95%CI=1.26–1.59). However, no significant association was detected between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and the risk of EH. This meta-analysis supports that MTHFR C677T polymorphism plays a role in developing EH. MTHFR A1298C polymorphism may not be associated with an increased risk of EH. Further large and well-designed studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  16. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) (C677T and A1298C) Polymorphisms and Vascular Complications in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Fekih-Mrissa, Najiba; Mrad, Meriem; Ibrahim, Hazard; Akremi, Imen; Sayeh, Aicha; Jaidane, Amel; Ouertani, Haroun; Zidi, Borni; Gritli, Nasreddine

    2017-08-01

    To assess whether 2 polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, C677T and A1298C, are risk factors for vascular complications in Tunisian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The MTHFR polymorphisms were genotyped, and plasma homocysteine levels were evaluated in 160 Tunisian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Prevalence of the 2 heterozygous polymorphisms of the thermolabile MTHFR gene (CT and AC) was encountered more commonly in patients with diabetes mellitus than in the healthy controls (p<10 -3 ). Subjects with diabetes had significantly higher homocysteine (Hcy) levels than the control subjects; however, there was no statistical difference in plasma Hcy values between carriers of mutant genotypes (CT/TT for C677T and AC/CC for A1298C) and wild types (CC and AA) in patients with diabetes. Retinopathy was found to be a vascular complication in patients with either the 677CT or the 1298(AC+CC) genotype more commonly than in those with the wild-type genotypes (p=0.003; OR=3.2, 95% CI, 1.4 to 7.4; p<10 -3 ; OR=5.9, 95% CI, 2.7 to 13). Only patients who carry the A1298C mutation (AC+CC) are at risk for at least 1 complication (p=0.002). Double heterozygous mutants were at the greatest risk for retinopathy and for suffering at least 1 complication (p<10 -3 ). Studies involving a larger study population and various ethnic groups are required before ruling out the role of MTHFR gene in type 2 diabetes mellitus and in vascular complications. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and gastric cancer susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Lei-Zhou; Liu, Yi; Xu, Xiao-Zhou; Jiang, Peng-Cheng; Ma, Gui; Bu, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Yu, Feng; Xu, Ke-Sen; Li, Hua

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To identify the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and gastric cancer (GC) susceptibility. METHODS: Systematic searches were performed on the electronic databases PubMed, ISI, Web of knowledge, CNKI and Wanfang, as well as manual searching of the references of the identified articles. A total of 26 papers were included in this meta-analysis. Overall and subgroup analyses were performed. Odds ratio (OR) and 95%CI were used to evaluate the associations between MTHFR polymorphisms and GC risk. The I2 statistics were used to evaluate between-study heterogeneity. Sensitivity analysis was also performed. RESULTS: Increased risk was found for the MTHFR C677T polymorphism under four genetic models (TT + CT vs CC: OR = 1.23, P = 0.002; T vs C: OR = 1.15, P = 0.001; TT vs CC: OR = 1.37, P = 0.0005; TT vs CT + CC: OR = 1.17, P = 0.0008). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity suggested that C677T polymorphism conferred a risk of GC in eastern but not in western populations. Stratification by tumor site showed an association between the C677T polymorphism and gastric cardia cancer and non-cardia GC in the worldwide population and in eastern populations. Regardless of comparisons with controls or diffuse-type GC, a positive association was found for the C677T polymorphism and an increased risk of intestinal-type GC in the whole population and in western populations. With regard to the A1298C polymorphism, we found that genotype CC was significantly decreased and conferred protection against GC in eastern populations (CC vs AA: OR = 0.44, P = 0.03; CC vs AC + AA: OR = 0.46, P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: MTHFR C677T polymorphism is a risk factor for GC, and the A1298C polymorphism may be a protective factor against GC in eastern populations. PMID:25170232

  18. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T and A1298C Polymorphisms in Male Partners of Recurrent Miscarriage Couples

    PubMed Central

    Tara, Somayeh-Sadat; Ghaemimanesh, Fatemeh; Zarei, Saeed; Reihani-Sabet, Fakhreddin; Pahlevanzadeh, Zhamak; Modarresi, Mohammad Hosein; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Background: Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) C677T and A1298C have been described as strong risk factors for idiopathic recurrent miscarriage (RM). However, very few studies have investigated the association of paternal MTHFR SNPs with RM. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of paternal C677T and A1298C SNPs among Iranian RM couples. Methods: The study subjects comprised 225 couples with more than three consecutive pregnancy losses, and 100 control couples with no history of pregnancy complications. All females in the case group had MTHFR polymorphisms; and genotype SNPs were analyzed by PCR-RFLP. Groups were statistically compared using Mann Whitney U-test and Chi-square statistical tests. The p<0.05 were considered significant. Results: Statistically significant difference was detected in the frequency of MTHFR SNPs in male partners of the two groups (p=0.019). Combined heterozygosity of MTHFR polymorphisms was a common phenomenon in the males; 52 (23.1%) and 14 (14%) of males in RM and control groups, respectively. Absence of combined homozygosity for both SNPs in all studied groups/genders was observed. Conclusion: The MTHFR gene composition of male partners of RM couples may contribute to increased risk of miscarriage. PMID:27110516

  19. ASSOCIATION OF MTHFR A1298C POLYMORPHISM WITH BREAST CANCER AND/OR OVARIAN CANCER RISK: AN UPDATED META-ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Li, Yi; Li, Rui; Han, Xiao; Ma, Ying; Liu, Bin; Kong, Xiangzhen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent years have witnessed the discovery of similar gene variations between breast cancer and ovarian cancer, inherited breast and ovarian cancer in particular. A large number of case-control studies have been conducted to explore the association of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) A1298C polymorphism with breast cancer and/or ovarian cancer risk. However, the results are still inconsistent and inconclusive. Consequently, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and breast, ovarian cancer risk. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive retrieval was conducted in the electronic database of PubMed, Web of Science and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) until June 2015 to identify eligible studies. A total of 35 studies which examined the association of MTHFR A1298C polymorphism with breast cancer and/or ovarian cancer were identified. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the effect of gene polymorphism. And allele model, homozygous model, co-dominant model, dominant model, recessive model were applied. Result: In the overall analysis, significantly increased breast cancer and/or ovarian cancer risk was found (for allele model A VS C OR = 1.05, CI: 1.02-1.08, P = 4χ10-3; for homozygous model AA VS CC OR = 1.11, CI: 1.03-1.19, P = 5χ10-3; for recessive model (AC +AA) VS CC: OR = 1.10, CI: 1.03-1.18, P = 7χ10-3). Conclusion: In the subgroup analysis, significantly increased breast cancer risk was identified among Caucasians. MTHFR A1298C polymorphism might contribute to an increased risk of breast cancer and/or ovarian cancer susceptibility. In addition, MTHFR A1298C polymorphism had a significant association with breast cancer in Caucasians. PMID:28487897

  20. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T, A1298C and G1793A polymorphisms: association with risk for clear cell renal cell carcinoma and tumour behaviour in men.

    PubMed

    Safarinejad, M R; Shafiei, N; Safarinejad, S

    2012-05-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays a crucial role in regulating folate metabolism, which affects DNA synthesis and methylation. This study investigated whether MTHFR C677T, A1298C and G1793A polymorphisms modified clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) risk independently as well as in combination with serum total homocysteine (Hcy) and folate levels. A case-control study of 152 cases (men) and 304 age-matched healthy controls was conducted in one geographical area of Iran. Genotyping of MTHFR gene polymorphisms was carried out using a polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Serum levels of total Hcy, folate and vitamin B12 were also determined. The MTHFR 677T and 1298C allele frequencies were 42.8 and 47.4% in cases, compared with 33.7 and 33.1% in controls. After controlling for confounding factors, a significant increase in CCRCC risk was found among carriers of the 677CT genotype compared with those with the 677CC genotype (odds ratio 2.21, 95% confidence interval 1.31-3.76), with a significant trend (P=0.014). Statistically significant odds ratios were also found in patients homozygous for MTHFR C677T, who have a 1.58-fold higher risk of developing CCRCC (95% confidence interval=1.21-2.44; P=0.024). Compared with the MTHFR 677CC genotype, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for the MTHFR 677TT genotype was 6.18 (95% confidence interval=4.75-8.34) for stage IV cancer and 4.68 (95% confidence interval=2.72-6.54) for grade 3 CCRCC (both P=0.0001). After adjustment for selected variants, the MTHFR 1298AC genotype showed a significantly increased risk of CCRCC compared with the wild-type (odds ratio=3.71, 95% confidence interval=2.22-5.33; P=0.001), and the 1298C allele carrier showed a positive association with the risk of CCRCC compared with the wild-type (odds ratio=3.9, 95% confidence interval=2.55-6.02; P=0.001). Furthermore, subjects carrying at least one copy of the variant allele showed a 4.4 times

  1. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T/A1298C polymorphisms and susceptibility to Parkinson's disease: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Le; Ding, Xiu-Xiu; Sun, Ye-Huan; Yang, Hui-Yun; Sun, Liang

    2013-12-15

    The association between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T/A1298C polymorphisms and susceptibility to Parkinson's disease (PD) was controversial in previous studies. The present study was therefore designed to investigate a more reliable estimate. 15 studies were identified by a search of PubMed, EBMBASE, PDGENE, Elsevier, Springer Link, CBM (Chinese Biomedical Database), CNKI (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure), VIP (Chinese), and Wanfang (Chinese) databases, up to April 2013. Odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using fixed effects model or random effects model. The subgroup analyses were made on the ethnicity. MTHFR C677T polymorphism had a significant association with susceptibility to PD in all genetic models (for T vs. C: OR=1.24, 95% CI=1.11-1.38; for TT+CT vs. CC: OR=1.27, 95% CI=1.10-1.46; for TT vs. CC: OR=1.56, 95% CI=1.22-1.98; for TT vs. CT+CC: OR=1.43, 95% CI=1.14-1.79). Subgroup analyses by ethnicity revealed that the association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and PD existed in Caucasian population and Asian population. However, no association was detected between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and PD. Results from this meta-analysis supported that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of PD. The MTHFR A1298C polymorphism may not increase the susceptibility to PD. Further studies are required to confirm our findings. © 2013.

  2. Spectrum of MTHFR gene SNPs C677T and A1298C: a study among 23 population groups of India.

    PubMed

    Saraswathy, Kallur Nava; Asghar, Mohammad; Samtani, Ratika; Murry, Benrithung; Mondal, Prakash Ranjan; Ghosh, Pradeep Kumar; Sachdeva, Mohinder Pal

    2012-04-01

    Elevated homocysteine is a risk factor for many complex disorders. The role of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in methylation of homocysteine makes it one of the most important candidate genes for these disorders. Considering the heterogeneity in its distribution in world populations, we screened MTHFR C677T and A1298C single nucleotide polymorphisms in a total of 23 Indian caste, tribal and religious population groups from five geographical regions of India and belonging to four major linguistic groups. The frequencies of MTHFR 677T and 1298C alleles were found to be 10.08 and 20.66%, respectively. MTHFR homozygous genotype 677TT was absent in eight population groups and homozygous 1298CC was absent in two population groups. 677T allele was found to be highest among north Indian populations with Indo-European tongue and 1298C was high among Dravidian-speaking tribes of east India and south India. The less common mutant haplotype 677T-1298C was observed among seven population groups and overall the frequency of this haplotype was 0.008, which is similar to that of African populations. cis configuration of 677T and 1298C was 0.94%. However, we could not find any individual with four mutant alleles which supports the earlier observation that presence of more than two mutant alleles may decrease the viability of foetus and possibly be a selective disadvantage in the population.

  3. A retrospective comparative exploratory study on two Methylentetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms in esophagogastric cancer: the A1298C MTHFR polymorphism is an independent prognostic factor only in neoadjuvantly treated gastric cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Methylentetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays a major role in folate metabolism and consequently could be an important factor for the efficacy of a treatment with 5-fluorouracil. Our aim was to evaluate the prognostic and predictive value of two well characterized constitutional MTHFR gene polymorphisms for primarily resected and neoadjuvantly treated esophagogastric adenocarcinomas. Methods 569 patients from two centers were analyzed (gastric cancer: 218, carcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEG II, III): 208 and esophagus (AEG I): 143). 369 patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery, 200 patients were resected without preoperative treatment. The MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were determined in DNA from peripheral blood lymphozytes. Associations with prognosis, response and clinicopathological factors were analyzed retrospectively within a prospective database (chi-square, log-rank, cox regression). Results Only the MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms had prognostic relevance in neoadjuvantly treated patients but it was not a predictor for response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The AC genotype of the MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms was significantly associated with worse outcome (p = 0.02, HR 1.47 (1.06-2.04). If neoadjuvantly treated patients were analyzed based on their tumor localization, the AC genotype of the MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms was a significant negative prognostic factor in patients with gastric cancer according to UICC 6th edition (gastric cancer including AEG type II, III: HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3-2.0, p = 0.001) and 7th edition (gastric cancer without AEG II, III: HR 2.8, 95% CI 1.5-5.7, p = 0.003), not for AEG I. For both definitions of gastric cancer the AC genotype was confirmed as an independent negative prognostic factor in cox regression analysis. In primarily resected patients neither the MTHFR A1298C nor the MTHFR C677T polymorphisms had prognostic impact. Conclusions The MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms was

  4. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and susceptibility to gastric adenocarcinoma in an Italian population.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Stefania; Gianfagna, Francesco; Persiani, Roberto; La Greca, Antonio; Arzani, Dario; Rausei, Stefano; D'ugo, Domenico; Magistrelli, Paolo; Villari, Paolo; Van Duijn, Cornelia M; Ricciardi, Gualtiero

    2007-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays a central role in the metabolism of folate, which provides a methyl donor for DNA methylation and deoxynucleoside synthesis. We performed a case-control study to explore the relationship between two common MTHFR polymorphisms (C677T and A1298C), their combination and interaction with environmental exposures, on gastric adenocarcinoma susceptibility and progression in an Italian population. One hundred and two cases and 254 hospital controls, matched by age and gender, were enrolled. Individuals carrying the MTHFR 677T allele showed an increased risk of gastric cancer (odds ratio (OR) 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98-2.67), particularly among ever smokers (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.07-5.33) and, among 677 TT individuals, those with a low intake of fruit and vegetables (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.05-4.54). The strongest effect, however, was noted for the MTHFR 677 TT genotype among the diffuse gastric cancer histotype (OR 2.92, 95% CI 1.12-7.60). No association was detected for the effect of MTHFR A1298C polymorphism. Survival analysis did not show any association between each polymorphism on the overall survival, although when the analysis was restricted to the first year of follow-up after the surgical intervention an improved survival was noted among MTHFR 677 CC subjects compared with the T allele carriers (p value for log-rank test 0.02). In conclusion, MTHFR 677 (any T genotype) appears to modulate an individual's susceptibility to gastric cancer, particularly when combined with cigarette smoking and among those with a low intake of fruit and vegetables. Our results also suggest that an aberrant DNA methylation pattern, through impaired folate metabolism, might play a key role in gastric carcinogenesis. A possible survival effect of the MTHFR C677T genotype in gastric cancer patients deserves further investigations with larger sample sizes.

  5. 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms: genotype frequency and association with homocysteine and folate levels in middle-southern Italian adults.

    PubMed

    Zappacosta, Bruno; Graziano, Mirella; Persichilli, Silvia; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Iacoviello, Licia

    2014-01-01

    Two genetic polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene (C677T and A1298C) can influence the plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels, especially in the presence of an inadequate folate status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequencies of C677T and of A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms and their correlation with Hcy and serum folate concentrations in a population of blood donors living in a region of middle-southern Italy (the Molise Region). One hundred ninety seven blood donors were studied for total plasma Hcy, serum folate and C677T and A1298C MTHFR genotypes. The frequency of C677T genotypes was 20.8% (CC), 49.8% (CT) and 29.4% (TT); for the A1298C genotypes: 48.7% (AA), 43.7% (AC) and 7.6% (CC). Hcy and serum folate concentrations were significantly different among genotypes of the C677T polymorphism (CC versus CT versus TT: <0.0001 both for Hcy and folate), with Hcy values increasing, and serum folate decreasing, from CC to TT subjects. Regarding to A1298C polymorphism, the difference among genotypes (AA versus AC versus CC; p: 0.026 for Hcy and 0.014 for serum folate), showed an opposite trend for both parameters, with Hcy higher in the wild-type and lower in the homozygotes and serum folate higher in CC than in AA subjects. In conclusion, we found a high frequency of MTHFR allele associated with high level of Hcy and low levels of folate in an Italian southern population. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Effects of Maternal 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T and A1298C Polymorphisms and Tobacco Smoking on Infant Birth Weight in a Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Yila, Thamar Ayo; Sasaki, Seiko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Braimoh, Titilola Serifat; Kashino, Ikuko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Okada, Emiko; Baba, Toshiaki; Yoshioka, Eiji; Minakami, Hisanori; Endo, Toshiaki; Sengoku, Kazuo; Kishi, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Background Intracellular folate hemostasis depends on the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. Because 5,10-MTHFR 677TT homozygosity and tobacco smoking are associated with low folate status, we tested the hypothesis that smoking in mothers with 5,10-MTHFR C677T or A1298C polymorphisms would be independently associated with lower birth weight among their offspring. Methods We assessed 1784 native Japanese mother-child pairs drawn from the ongoing birth cohort of The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children’s Health. Data (demographic information, hospital birth records, and biological specimens) were extracted from recruitments that took place during the period from February 2003 to March 2006. Maternal serum folate were assayed by chemiluminescent immunoassay, and genotyping of 5,10-MTHFR C677T/A1298C polymorphisms was done using a TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. Results The prevalence of folate deficiency (<6.8 nmol/L) was 0.3%. The 5,10-MTHFR 677CT genotype was independently associated with an increase of 36.40 g (95% CI: 2.60 to 70.30, P = 0.035) in mean infant birth weight and an increase of 90.70 g (95% CI: 6.00 to 175.50, P = 0.036) among male infants of nonsmokers. Female infants of 677TT homozygous passive smokers were 99.00 g (95% CI: −190.26 to −7.56, P = 0.034) lighter. The birth weight of the offspring of smokers with 5,10-MTHFR 1298AA homozygosity was lower by 107.00 g (95% CI: −180.00 to −33.90, P = 0.004). Conclusions The results suggest that, in this population, maternal 5,10-MTHFR C677T polymorphism, but not the 5,10-MTHFR A1298C variant, is independently associated with improvement in infant birth weight, especially among nonsmokers. However, 5,10-MTHFR 1298AA might be associated with folate impairment and could interact with tobacco smoke to further decrease birth weight. PMID:22277790

  7. Associations of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms with genetic susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cen, Han; Huang, Hua; Zhang, Li-Na; Liu, Li-Ya; Zhou, Li; Xin, Xia-Fei; Zhuo, Ren-Jie

    2017-02-01

    The aim of our study was to conduct a meta-analysis to assess whether combined evidence shows associations between C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and genetic susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A total of 11 articles involving 20 comparisons were included, containing 12 comparisons for the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and 8 comparisons for the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism. Significant evidence was detected for the association of RA susceptibility with the MTHFR C677T polymorphism T allele under allelic contrast and dominant model in Asians (T versus C, OR = 1.300, 95 % CI = 1.104-1.531, p = 0.002; TT + CT versus CC, OR = 1.495, 95 % CI = 1.187-1.882, p = 0.001). Significant association between RA susceptibility and the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism A allele under recessive model was found in the overall meta-analysis (AA versus AC + CC, OR = 1.281, 95 % CI = 1.048-1.565, p = 0.016). Our meta-analysis results demonstrate that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism is involved in the genetic susceptibility of RA in Asians, and the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism is associated with genetic susceptibility to RA in the overall population. Given the paucity of studies, especially in non-Asian populations, further studies with larger sample sizes are required to elucidate the role of MTHFR polymorphisms in the genetic basis of RA in different ethnic populations.

  8. MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, and OPG A163G polymorphisms in Mexican patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Brambila-Tapia, Aniel Jessica Leticia; Durán-González, Jorge; Sandoval-Ramírez, Lucila; Mena, Juan Pablo; Salazar-Páramo, Mario; Gámez-Nava, Jorge Iván; González-López, Laura; Lazalde-Medina B, Brissia; Dávalos, Nory Omayra; Peralta-Leal, Valeria; Vázquez del Mercado, Mónica; Beltrán-Miranda, Claudia Patricia; Dávalos, Ingrid Patricia

    2012-01-01

    MTHFR polymorphisms C677T and A1298C are associated with reduced MTHFR enzyme activity and hyperhomocysteinemia, which has been associated with osteoporosis. The A163G polymorphism in osteoprotegerin (OPG) has been studied in osteoporosis with controversial results. The objective of the present study was to investigate the association(s) among MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, and OPG A163G polymorphisms in Mexican patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. The femoral neck and lumbar spine bone mineral densities (BMDs) were measured in 71 RA patients, and genotyping for the three polymorphisms was performed via restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Patients with osteoporosis/osteopenia exhibited statistically significant differences in the genotype frequencies of MTHFR C677T as well as an association with femoral neck BMD; TT homozygotes had lower BMDs than patients with the CT genotype, and both of these groups had lower BMDs than patients with the CC genotype. The associations of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism with osteoporosis/osteopenia and femoral neck BMD suggest that these polymorphisms confer a risk of developing osteoporosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, a risk that may be reduced with folate and B complex supplementation.

  9. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism A1298C (Glu429Ala) predicts decline in renal function over time in the African-American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Trial and Veterans Affairs Hypertension Cohort (VAHC)

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Rany M.; Lipkowitz, Michael S.; Bhatnagar, Vibha; Pandey, Braj; Schork, Nicholas J.; O’Connor, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with increased venous thrombosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Mutations in the human methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene have been associated with increased homocysteine levels and risks of CVD in various populations including those with kidney disease. Here, we evaluated the influence of MTHFR variants on progressive loss of kidney function. Methods. We analyzed 821 subjects with hypertensive nephrosclerosis from the longitudinal National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases African-American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Trial to determine whether decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) over ∼4.2 years was predicted by common genetic variation within MTHFR at non-synonymous positions C677T (Ala222Val) and A1298C (Glu429Ala) or by MTHFR haplotypes. The effect on GFR decline was then supported by a study of 1333 subjects from the San Diego Veterans Affairs Hypertension Cohort (VAHC), followed over ∼4.5 years. Linear effect models were utilized to determine both genotype [single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)] and genotype (SNP)-by-time interactions. Results. In AASK, the polymorphism at A1298C predicted the rate of GFR decline: A1298/A1298 major allele homozygosity resulted in a less pronounced decline of GFR, with a significant SNP-by-time interaction. An independent follow-up study in the San Diego VAHC subjects supports that A1298/A1298 homozygotes have the greatest estimated GFR throughout the study. Haplotype analysis with C677T yielded concurring results. Conclusion. We conclude that the MTHFR-coding polymorphism at A1298C is associated with renal decline in African-Americans with hypertensive nephrosclerosis and is supported by a veteran cohort with a primary care diagnosis of hypertension. Further investigation is needed to confirm such findings and to determine what molecular mechanism may contribute to this association. PMID:21613384

  10. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C polymorphism and changes in homocysteine concentrations in women with idiopathic recurrent pregnancy losses.

    PubMed

    Mtiraoui, N; Zammiti, W; Ghazouani, L; Braham, N Jmili; Saidi, S; Finan, R R; Almawi, W Y; Mahjoub, T

    2006-02-01

    Because they have been described as strong risk factors for idiopathic recurrent pregnancy losses (RPLs), we assessed the association between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) C677T and A1298C and hyperhomocysteinemia in Tunisian women with idiopathic RPL. Study subjects comprised 200 patients with more than three consecutive RPLs, and 200 age-matched parous control women. C677T and A1298C SNPs were analyzed by PCR-RFLP analysis, and fasting serum homocysteine was measured with ELISA. The frequency of MTHFR 677T/T (30.0 vs 7.0%) and 1298C/C (13.5 vs 4.0%) genotypes was significantly higher in patients. While it was similar among patients and controls (P = 0.095), higher homocysteine was seen with the T/T (but not 1298A/C and 1298C/C) genotype among patients and controls compared with non-T/T carriers (P < 0.05), and in patients vs controls. Higher prevalence of MTHFR 677T/T was seen in late (P < 0.05) and early-late (P < 0.001) RPL, while higher prevalence of 1298C/C genotype was seen only in early-late RPL (P < 0.001), and the prevalence of double heterozygotes was statistically not significant between patients and controls (P = 0.10; odds ratio = 2.73). Logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for all variables, homozygosity for MTHFR C677T was associated with late (P < 0.001), and combined early-late (P < 0.001), while homozygosity for A1298C was associated only with combined early-late (P = 0.026), as was secondary-level education, which was associated with early (P = 0.005), late (P = 0.026) and combined early-late (P = 0.004) abortions. Homozygosity for MTHFR C677T (late and early-late) and A1298C (early-late) are risk factor for RPLs, irrespectively of total homocysteine levels.

  11. C677T and A1298C mutations in the MTHFR gene and survival in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Osian, Gelu; Procopciuc, Lucia; Vlad, Liviu; Iancu, Cornel; Mocan, Teodora; Mocan, Lucian

    2009-12-01

    Our preliminary results laboratory have shown some association between C677T and A1298C MTHFR mutations and factors influencing survival in colorectal cancer. We studied the survival of patients with colorectal cancer depending on the initial Dukes-MAC stage of the disease at the time of diagnosis and the MTHFR mutation present. We randomly selected 69 patients with sporadic colorectal cancer who underwent surgery at the Surgical Clinic III Cluj between October 2003 and May 2005. The study ended on 15 March 2008. Survival data was verified in 48 cases. Survival analyses were performed using Kaplan-Mayer survival curves and median survival time was calculated. The comparison of two or more categories was performed using the Logrank test, considering the threshold value p less or equal to 0.05. In both stage B and C patients with the CT/TT mutation have a poorer survival rate than those with the wild CC genotype (p less than 0.05). The presence of the C677T mutation (CT or TT genotype) in patients diagnosed in stage D did not result as a significant survival risk factor (HR=0.537, 95% CI 0.128-2.184) p>0.05. Patients diagnosed with stage C colorectal cancer, who have the 1298C allele, have significantly better survival than those without this allele, 60% vs. 15.4%, (p=0.0016). In our study in both stage B and C, patients with the CT/TT mutation have poorer survival than the wild CC genotype. In stage B patients, the A1298C mutation is a negative prognostic factor. The presence of the A1298C mutation in a hetero- or homozygous form plays a protective role in stage C.

  12. MTRR A66G, RFC1 G80A, and MTHFR C677T and A1298C Polymorphisms and Disease Activity in Mexicans with Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated with Methotrexate

    PubMed Central

    González-Mercado, Mirna Gisel; Rivas, Fernando; Gallegos-Arreola, M. Patricia; Morán-Moguel, M. Cristina; Salazar-Páramo, Mario; González-López, Laura; Gámez-Nava, J. Iván; Muñoz-Valle, J. Francisco; Medina-Coss y León, Ricardo; González-Mercado, Anahí; Aceves, Mario A.; Dávalos, Nory O.; Macías-Chumacera, Agustín

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationships of polymorphisms in genes whose protein products are related in the metabolic pathway of folic acid, particularly MTRR A66G, RFC1 G80A, and MTHFR C677T and A1298C, and disease activity in Mexican patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with methotrexate (MTX). Materials and Methods: Sixty-eight patients with RA were included in the study who were being treated with MTX, either with or without other drugs. In addition to general data, disease activity was measured by the disease activity score 28 (DAS28). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyping was performed by allelic discrimination using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: Differences in genotype (homozygotic or heterozygotic for each allele), allele distributions, and phenotype were not statistically different between the RA group and control populations. We did not find any association between the studied polymorphisms and disease activity nor with the intragroup variables (e.g., clinical activity, body mass index, and single- or combined-drug treatment) or between genetic markers; we also did not find any association within the RA group or between the RA group and control populations. Conclusion: Additional studies of more polymorphisms related to this or other metabolic pathways are required to determine the influence of genetics on disease activity in RA. PMID:28994615

  13. Lack of association between MTHFR A1298C variant and Alzheimer's disease: evidence from a systematic review and cumulative meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shumin; Wu, Yongfu; Liu, Xu; Zhou, Jiahui; Wang, Ziyou; He, Zhiwei; Huang, Zunnan

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies have investigated the association between MTHFR A1298C (rs1801131) polymorphism and susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nevertheless, an ultimate conclusion remains obscure. We then executed this meta-analysis to estimate this association more precisely. Related studies were systematically searched on PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Google scholar, and AlzGene databases. The association was evaluated by reviewing the odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Publication bias, sensitivity analysis, and cumulative meta-analysis were performed to help draw a more definite conclusion. Ten eligible studies were finally enrolled in this meta-analysis. Lack of association between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and AD risk was observed in five genetic models (allelic: OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 0.88-1.56; homozygous: OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 0.87-1.53; heterozygous: OR = 1.19, 95% CI: 0.76-1.86; dominant: OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 0.81-1.87; recessive: OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.89-1.52). The result of cumulative meta-analysis sorted by publication year was also detected a dynamic tendency of no correlation between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and AD. This meta-analysis reveals that MTHFR A1298C polymorphism may not be associated with AD risk.

  14. Correlation of clinical response with homocysteine reduction during therapy with reduced B vitamins in patients with MDD who are positive for MTHFR C677T or A1298C polymorphism: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Mech, Arnold W; Farah, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of reduced B vitamins as monotherapy in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) who were also positive for at least 1 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism associated with depression and further test the hypothesis that reduced (metabolized) B vitamins will lower homocysteine in a majority of clinically responding patients. 330 adult patients with MDD (DSM-5) and positive for either MTHFR C677T or A1298C polymorphism were enrolled in a trial conducted between August 1, 2014, and April 3, 2015. 160 patients received placebo, while 170 received a capsule containing a combination of reduced B vitamins. Plasma homocysteine levels were measured at baseline and week 8. The Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) was used to evaluate efficacy for MDD. 159 of 170 vitamin-treated patients and 123 of 160 placebo-treated patients were completers. Of the active treatment group, 131 (82.4%) showed a reduction in homocysteine (for a mean in this subgroup of 25%, P < .001), while 28 (17.6%) showed no significant change. Placebo patients demonstrated a small elevation in homocysteine. Active-treatment patients demonstrated, on average, a 12-point reduction on the MADRS by week 8, and 42% achieved full remission (P < .001). No side effect was significantly different between groups. No patients experienced mania. A combination of reduced B vitamins and micronutrients, when used in the treatment of MDD in patients with MTHFR polymorphism, resulted in a separation from placebo by week 2, and 42% of the treatment arm achieved remission by week 8. Further, clinical improvement correlated with a significant reduction in homocysteine levels in a majority of responders. These results support the homocysteine theory of depression and the safety and therapeutic benefit of reduced B vitamins as monotherapy for MDD, particularly in patients with MTHFR polymorphism. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT

  15. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase gene polymorphism in children with allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Dogru, M; Aydin, H; Aktas, A; Cırık, A A

    2015-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms by impairing folate metabolism may influence the development of allergic diseases. The results of studies evaluating the relationship between MTHFR polymorphisms and atopic disease are controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the polymorphisms of C677T and A1298C for MTHFR gene and allergic rhinitis (AR) in children. Ninety patients followed up with diagnosis of allergic rhinitis in our clinic and 30 children with no allergic diseases were included in the study. All participants were genotyped for the MTHFR (C677T) and (A1298C) polymorphisms. Vitamin b12, folate and homocysteine levels were measured. The mean age of patients was 9.2±2.9 years; 66.7% of the patients were male. There was no significant difference between patient and control groups regarding gender, age and atopy history of the family (p>0.05). The frequency of homozygotes for MTHFR C677T polymorphism in the patient and control groups was 3.3% and 10%, respectively. The frequency of homozygotes for MTHFR A1298C polymorphism among groups was 26.7% and 16.7%, respectively. The association between allergic rhinitis and polymorphisms of C677T and A1298C for MTHFR gene was not statistically significant in patients compared with controls (p>0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between the patients and the control group in terms of serum vitamin b12, folate and homocysteine levels (p>0.05). We found no evidence for an association between allergic rhinitis and polymorphisms of C677T and A1298C for MTHFR gene in children. Further studies investigating the relationship between MTHFR polymorphism and AR are required. Copyright © 2014 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Combined heterozygosity for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutations C677T and A1298C is associated with abruptio placentae but not with intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, G S; Scholtz, C L; Hillermann, R; Odendaal, H J

    2001-08-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the involvement of MTHFR gene mutations C677T and A1298C implicated in vascular disease, in patients with abruptio placentae and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). DNA was extracted from blood samples of 54 patients with placental vasculopathy (18 patients with abruptio placentae and 36 with IUGR) and 114 control patients and amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The resulting fragments were subjected to restriction enzyme analysis and resolved by gel electrophoresis. A significant association could be demonstrated between mutation A1298C and both abruptio placentae and IUGR. Combined heterozygosity for mutations C677T and A1298C was detected in 22.2% of abruptio placentae cases. Combined heterozygosity for MTHFR mutations C677T and A1298C may represent a genetic marker for abruptio placentae.

  17. Population distribution of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C risk alleles for methotrexate toxicity in Israel.

    PubMed

    Efrati, Edna; Elkin, Hela; Nahum, Sagi; Krivoy, Norberto

    2013-04-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a central regulatory enzyme in the folate pathway. Two non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in MTHFR, C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131) have been associated with reduced MTHFR enzyme activity. These polymorphisms, especially C677T, appear to be linked with methotrexate-related toxicity, particularly hepatotoxicity; thus, pretreatment identification of individuals carrying these polymorphisms may be of clinical relevance. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and distribution of MTHFR polymorphic variants, known to functionally impair MTHFR activity, in the highly heterogeneous Israeli population. MTHFR genotyping was carried out in the representatives of three major demographic groups in Israel by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and high-resolution melting. The relative distribution of variant alleles 677T and 1298C was found to be similar in individuals of Jewish, Druze and Arab Moslem descent (p = 0.09). However, Ashkenazi Jews displayed a 1.9-fold higher frequency of variant 677T and a 1.8-fold lower frequency of variant 1298C compared to non-Ashkenazi Jews (p < 0.001). Distinct differences in the relative frequencies of both polymorphisms were also found between Ashkenazi Jews and Druze (p < 0.01 for C677T, p < 0.01 for A1298C) or Ashkenazi Jews and Arab Moslem (p < 0.01 for C677T, p < 0.05 for A1298C). These data underscore the importance of geographic genetic analysis for a better understanding of human pharmacotherapy and personalized medicine.

  18. Metabolism and gene polymorphisms of the folate pathway in Brazilian women with history of recurrent abortion.

    PubMed

    Boas, Wendell Vilas; Gonçalves, Rozana Oliveira; Costa, Olívia Lúcia Nunes; Goncalves, Marilda Souza

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the association between polymorphisms in genes that encode enzymes involved in folate- and vitamin B12-dependent homocysteine metabolism and recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). We investigated the C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofalate reductase gene (MTHFR), the A2756G polymorphism of the methionine synthase gene (MS) and the 844ins68 insertion of the cystathionine beta synthetase gene (CBS). The PCR technique followed by RFLP was used to assess the polymorphisms; the serum levels of homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate were investigated by chemiluminescence. The EPI Info Software version 6.04 was used for statistical analysis. Parametric variables were compared by Student's t-test and nonparametric variables by the Wilcoxon rank sum test. The frequencies of gene polymorphisms in 89 women with a history of idiopathic recurrent miscarriage and 150 controls were 19.1 and 19.6% for the C677T, insertion, 20.8 and 26% for the A1298C insertion, 14.2 and 21.9% for the A2756G insertion, and 16.4 and 18% for the 844ins68 insertion, respectively. There were no significant differences between case and control groups in any of the gene polymorphisms investigated. However, the frequency of the 844ins68 insertion in the CBS gene was higher among women with a history of loss during the third trimester of pregnancy (p=0.003). Serum homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate levels id not differ between the polymorphisms studied in the case and control groups. However, linear regression analysis showed a dependence of serum folate levels on the maintenance of tHcy levels. The investigated gene polymorphisms and serum homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate levels were not associated with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage in the present study. Further investigations are needed in order to confirm the role of the CBS 844ins68 insertion in recurrent miscarriage.

  19. Polymorphisms in folate metabolism genes are associated with susceptibility to presbycusis.

    PubMed

    Manche, Santoshi Kumari; Jangala, Madhavi; Dudekula, Dinesh; Koralla, Meganadh; Akka, Jyothy

    2018-03-01

    Presbycusis or age related hearing loss is caused by several extrinsic and intrinsic factors that damage the auditory system. Gene polymorphisms in folate metabolism were found to play an important role in the etiology of presbycusis. The present study aimed to investigate the role of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTR) and thymidylate synthase (TYMS) gene polymorphisms in the onset of presbycusis in a South Indian population. A total of 220 subjects confirmed with presbycusis along with 270 age and sex matched healthy controls visiting MAA ENT Hospitals, Hyderabad, India were enrolled for the study. Genotyping of MTHFR C677T (rs180133) and A1298C (rs1801131), MTR A2756G (rs1805087), TSER (rs1801136) and TS1494indel6 bp (rs16430) was carried out using PCR & PCR-RFLP methods. The 'TT' genotype of MTHFR C677T and '152 bp/152 bp' genotype of TS1494indel6 bp showed statistically significant risk for presbycusis while CC genotype of MTHFR A1298C, '2R/2R' genotype of TSER at 3'UTR and 6 bp ins/6 bp ins of TYMS at 5'UTR were found to be protective. The T-A-A haplotype combination of MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C and MTR A2756G as well as 3R- 152 bp of TYMS at 5'UTR and 3'UTR were also found to contribute significant risk for the onset of presbycusis. Further, the combination of SNP loci TSER: TS1494indel6 bp exhibited moderate linkage in presbycusis. The present pilot study identified the significant association of gene variants of MTHFR and TYMS with presbycusis. These findings aid in early diagnosis of hearing loss in the elderly population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Polymorphisms in MTHFR, MS and CBS genes and premature acute myocardial infarction in a Pakistani population.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Mohammad Perwaiz; Iqbal, Khalida; Tareen, Asal Khan; Parveen, Siddiqa; Mehboobali, Naseema; Haider, Ghulam; Iqbal, Saleem Perwaiz

    2016-11-01

    High prevalence of premature coronary heart disease in Pakistanis compared to other populations points towards the genetic predisposition of this population to develop this disease. Since no investigations have been carried out in Pakistan to study the relationship of polymorphisms in genes involved in homocysteine cycle, the objective of the present study was to find out if there is any association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, A1298C; methionine synthase (MS) A2756G; cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) 844ins68, G919A polymorphisms with premature acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in a population of Pakistani patients with this disease. In a cross-sectional study, DNA samples of 143 AMI patients (age <45 years) and 153 healthy controls were genotyped for the above mentioned polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP methods. Plasma/serum samples of both patients and healthy controls were screened for homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12. One way ANOVA and chi-squared test were used for analysis of data. Mean plasma homocysteine levels in premature AMI patients and healthy controls were found to be 23±17.2 and 23±13.4 μmol/l, respectively which are higher than the upper normal limit of this biomarker (15μmol/l). MTHFR 677 CT genotype in healthy controls and MTHFR 677 TT genotype in AMI patients were found to have significantly increased levels of plasma homocysteine (p value <0.05), while all other polymorphisms did not show any significant difference in mean levels of homocysteine between AMI patients and healthy controls. Moreover, no association was observed between MTHFR C677T, A1298C; MS A2756C; CBS844ins68 polymorphisms and premature AMI in this population. This indicates that common polymorphisms in MTHFR, MS and CBS genes have no role in premature AMI in Pakistani population.

  1. Possible association between germline methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphisms and psoriasis risk in a Turkish population.

    PubMed

    Kilic, S; Ozdemir, O; Silan, F; Isik, S; Yildiz, O; Karaagacli, D; Silan, C; Ogretmen, Z

    2017-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease caused by genetic and epigenetic factors. There are conflicting results in the literature about the association between psoriasis and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR), ranging from strong linkage to no association. To investigate the association between the germline MTHFR polymorphisms C677T and A1298C with psoriasis risk in a Turkish population. The study enrolled 84 patients with psoriasis and 212 healthy controls (HCs) without any history of psoriasis. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of patients and HCs, and real-time PCR was used for genotyping. Results were compared by Pearson χ² test and multiple logistic regression models. The frequency of both the MTHFR 677TT and A1298C (homozygous) genotypes was statistically significantly different from HCs. Point mutations were detected in all patients with early-onset psoriasis (before the age of 20 years). The T allele of MTHFR 677 and the C allele of MTHFR 1298 increased psoriasis risk by 12.4- and 17.0-fold, respectively, in patients compared with HCs. A possible association was detected betweengermline MTHFR 677 C>T and 1298 A>C genotypes and psoriasis risk in a Turkish population. These results need to be confirmed in further studies with larger sample sizes. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  2. Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase, transforming growth factor-β1 and lymphotoxin-α genes polymorphisms and susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Olfat G; Alnoury, Amina M; Hegazy, Gehan A; El Haddad, Hemmat E; Sayed, Safaa; Hamdy, Ahmed

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a widely prevalent autoimmune disorder with suggested genetic predisposition. The aim of this study is to detect the pattern of genetic polymorphism of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677 T and A1298 C), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 T869 C) and lymphotoxin-α (LT-α A252G) in patients having rheumatoid arthritis and correlate these patterns to disease activity and serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), B-Cell Activating Factor (BAFF), and osteopontin. A total of 194 subjects, 90 controls and 104 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were genotyped for MTHFR C677 T and A1298 C, TGF-β1 T869 C and LT-α A252G polymorphisms using a methodology based on PCR-RFLP. Also serum levels of TNF-α, osteopontin and BAFF were measured by ELISA kits. The CT genotype and T allele of MTHFR C677 T and GG genotype and G allele of LT-α A252G are associated with the risk of RA and with higher levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Our findings suggest that there is association between MTHFR C677 T and LT-α A252G genes polymorphisms and increased risk of RA in this sample of Egyptian population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  3. Association of Methylenetetrahydrafolate Reductase Gene Polymorphism (MTHFR) in Patients with Gallbladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Ruhi; Singh, Gyanendra; Pandey, Manoj; Basu, Somprakas; Bhartiya, Satyanam Kumar; Singh, K K; Shukla, Vijay Kumar

    2016-03-01

    5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme in folate metabolism and plays a major role in DNA methylation. There are two popular MTHFR polymorphisms known as C677T and A1298C which are found to be involved in folate metabolism and lowering the enzyme activity, thus may be linked with cancer development. This study aims to look at the association of these polymorphisms in gallbladder cancer. Thirty patients each with gallbladder cancer, cholelithiasis, and normal gallbladder were genotyped for the above-given polymorphisms by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. C677T MTHFR polymorphism was not associated (χ(2) = 2.44, p = 0.85) with an increased likelihood of having gallbladder cancer. A1298C was significantly associated (χ(2) = 28.87, p < 0.001) with risk of developing gallbladder cancer. A1298C was significantly correlated with grade (r = 0.337, p < 0.001) and histopathology (r = 0.446, p < 0.001). This study proposed that MTHFR A1298C polymorphism may be associated with risk of developing gallbladder cancer, and there is no association between C677T polymorphism and gallbladder cancer.

  4. Association between Thrombophilic Genes Polymorphisms and Recurrent Pregnancy Loss Susceptibility in the Iranian Population: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kamali, Mahdieh; Hantoushzadeh, Sedigheh; Borna, Sedigheh; Neamatzadeh, Hossein; Mazaheri, Mahta; Noori-Shadkam, Mahmood; Haghighi, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    Studies have indicated that thrombophilic genes polymorphisms are associated with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) in the Iranian population. We aimed to evaluate the precise association between thrombophilic genes polymorphisms (MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, Prothrombin G20210A, FVL G1691A, and PAI-1 4G/5G) and RPL risk in the Iranian population. PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and ISC were searched for eligible articles published up to April 1, 2017. In total, 37 case-control studies in 18 relevant publications were selected: 1,199, 1,194, 630, 830, and 955 RPL cases and 1,079, 1079, 594, 794, and 499 controls for MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C,Prothrombin G20210A, FVL G1691A, and PAI-1 4G/5G, respectively. The results indicated a significant increased risk of RPL in all genetic models in the population. Also, Prothrombin G20210A and FVL G1691A as well as PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphisms were associated with RPL risk in the Iranian population. Hence, thrombophilic genes polymorphisms are associated with an increased RPL risk in the Iranian population. PMID:28734273

  5. Determining the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms and genomic DNA methylation level: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Shangguan, Shaofang; Chang, Shaoyan; Yu, Xin; Wang, Zhen; Lu, Xiaolin; Wu, Lihua; Zhang, Ting

    2016-08-01

    The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism is a risk factor for neural tube defects. C677T and A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms produce an enzyme with reduced folate-related one carbon metabolism, and this has been associated with aberrant methylation modifications in DNA and protein. A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the association between MTHFR C677T/A1298C genotypes and global genomic methylation. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 10 were performed on C677T MTHFR genotypes and 6 were performed on A1298C MTHFR genotypes. Our results did not indicate any correlation between global methylation and MTHFR A1298C, C677T polymorphisms. The results of our study provide evidence to assess the global methylation modification alterations of MTHFR polymorphisms among individuals. However, our data did not found any conceivable proof supporting the hypothesis that common variant of MTHFR A1298C, C677T contributes to methylation modification. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:667-674, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism with ischemic stroke in the Eastern Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Lv, Q-Q; Lu, J; Sun, H; Zhang, J-S

    2015-04-27

    The association between the MTHFR genetic polymorphism and ischemic stroke has been reported by a number of investigators. However, the results have been controversial and conflicting. The aim of this study was to explore the association between the MTHFR variants C677T and A1298C and the risk of ischemic stroke in an Eastern Chinese Han population. A total of 199 patients with ischemic stroke and 241 controls were recruited. Genotyping of the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms was carried out using the Taqman 7900HT Sequence Detection System. The overall estimates (odds ratio: OR) for the allele (C) and genotype (AC+CC) of the A1298C polymorphism were 1.57 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.16-2.10], and 2.36 (95%CI = 1.39-4.00), respectively, establishing significant association of the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism with ischemic stroke. In contrast, there were no statistically significant differences compared to controls between MTHFR C677T polymorphic variants in the association ischemic stroke risk. Furthermore, haplotype-based analysis demonstrated that compared with the C-677-A-1298 haplotype, the C-677-C-1298 and T-677-C-1298 haplotypes showed significant increased risk of ischemic stroke (OR = 1.56; 95%CI = 1.07- 2.2; P = 0.02; OR = 1.76; 95%CI = 1.17-2.65; P < 0.01, respectively). We concluded that the A1298C polymorphism and the haplotypes C-677-C-1298 and T-677-C-1298 in MTHFR might modulate the risk of ischemic stroke in the Eastern Chinese Han population.

  7. MTR, MTRR, and MTHFR Gene Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip With or Without Cleft Palate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Sun, Xiang-Yu; Dong, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the associations of methionine synthase (MTR), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms with the susceptibility to nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P). Methods: Between May 2012 and August 2014, 147 NSCL/P patients (case group) and 129 healthy volunteers (control group) were recruited for the study. The MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G, MTHFR C677T and MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms were assessed by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism. Haplotype analyses were performed with SHEsis software. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the possible risk factors for NSCL/P. Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) was applied to detect gene–gene interactions. Results: MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G, and MTHFR C677T gene polymorphisms were associated with the risk of NSCL/P (all p < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that MTR A2756G, MTR RA66G, and MTHFR C667T might increase the risk of NSCL/P (odds ratio [OR] = 0.270, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.106–0.689; OR = 0.159, 95% CI = 0.069–0.368; OR = 0.343, 95% CI = 0.139–0.844). The CA haplotype in the MTHFR gene may serve as a protective factor for NSCL/P (OR = 0.658, 95% CI = 0.470–0.923), and the TA haplotype might be a risk factor (OR = 2.001, 95% CI = 1.301–3.077). GMDR revealed that the optimal models were two- and four-dimensional models with prediction accuracies of 75.73% (p = 0.001) and 77.21% (p = 0.001) and the best cross-validation consistencies of 10/10 and 10/10, respectively. Conclusion: MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G, and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms may be related to NSCL/P, and interactions were detected between the MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G, and MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms. PMID:27167580

  8. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, A1298C and G1793A genotypes, and the relationship between maternal folate intake, tibia lead and infant size at birth

    PubMed Central

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Tellez-Rojo, Martha M.; Hérnandez-Avila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard; Wright, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    Small size at birth continues to be a problem worldwide and many factors, including reduced folate intake and Pb exposure, are associated with it. However, single factors rarely explain the variability in birth weight, suggesting a need for more complex explanatory models. We investigated environment–gene interactions to understand whether folate intake and maternal Pb exposure were associated with smaller newborn size in 474 women with uncomplicated pregnancies delivering term infants in Mexico City. We examined if folate intake modified the negative effects of maternal Pb burden on birth size. We also asked if maternal and infant methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genotypes (C677T, A1298C and G1793A) modified the effects of folate intake or Pb exposure on birth size. Women were aged 24·6 (SD 5·1) years; 43·5 % were primiparous. Maternal blood Pb at delivery was 86 (SD 42) μg/l, with 26·7 % having levels ≥100 μg/l. Tibia Pb level was 9·9 (SD 9·8) μg/g. Of the women, 35·3 % had folate intakes <400 μg/d. Birth weight was 3170 (SD 422) g. In covariate-adjusted regressions, higher folate intake was associated with higher birth weight (β 0·04; P<0·05). Higher bone Pb was associated with lower birth weight (β −4·9; P<0·05). Folate intake did not modify the effects of Pb on birth size, nor did MTHFR modify the association between Pb or folate intake on birth size. Although modest, the relationship between maternal nutrition, Pb burden and birth size does underscore the importance of environmental exposures to child health because patterns of fetal growth may affect health outcomes well into adulthood. PMID:19338708

  9. 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTRR), and methionine synthase reductase (MTR) gene polymorphisms and adult meningioma risk.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Yan-Wen; Shi, Hua-Ping; Wang, Yan-Zhong; Li, Gui-Ling; Yu, Hai-Tao; Xie, Xin-You

    2013-11-01

    The causes of meningiomas are not well understood. Folate metabolism gene polymorphisms have been shown to be associated with various human cancers. It is still controversial and ambiguous between the functional polymorphisms of folate metabolism genes 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTRR), and methionine synthase reductase (MTR) and risk of adult meningioma. A population-based case–control study involving 600 meningioma patients (World Health Organization [WHO] Grade I, 391 cases; WHO Grade II, 167 cases; WHO Grade III, 42 cases) and 600 controls was done for the MTHFR C677T and A1298C, MTRR A66G, and MTR A2756G variants in Chinese Han population. The folate metabolism gene polymorphisms were determined by using a polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Meningioma cases had a significantly lower frequency of MTHFR 677 TT genotype [odds ratio (OR) = 0.49, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.33–0.74; P = 0.001] and T allele (OR = 0.80, 95 % CI 0.67–0.95; P = 0.01) than controls. A significant association between risk of meningioma and MTRR 66 GG (OR = 1.41, 95 % CI 1.02–1.96; P = 0.04) was also observed. When stratifying by the WHO grade of meningioma, no association was found. Our study suggested that MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G variants may affect the risk of adult meningioma in Chinese Han population.

  10. Individualized supplementation of folic acid according to polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) reduced pregnant complications.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiujuan; Jiang, Jing; Xu, Min; Xu, Mei; Yang, Yan; Lu, Wei; Yu, Xuemei; Ma, Jianlin; Pan, Jiakui

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to detect the genotype distributions and allele frequencies of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, A1298C and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G polymorphisms of pregnant women in Jiaodong region in China, and to investigate whether folic acid supplementation affect the pregnancy complications. A total of 7,812 pregnant women from the Jiaodong region in Shandong province in China. By using Taqman-MGB, 2,928 pregnant women (case group) were tested for the genotype distributions and allele frequencies of MTHFR C677T, A1298C and MTRR A66G polymorphisms. Folic acid metabolism ability was ranked at four levels and then pregnant women in different rank group were supplemented with different doses of folic acid. Their pregnancy complications were followed up and compared with 4,884 pregnant women without folic acid supplementation (control group) in the same hospital. The allele frequencies of MTHFR C677T were 49.1 and 50.9%; those of MTHFR A1298C were 80.2 and 19.8%, and those of MTRR A66G were 74.1 and 25.9%. After supplemented with folic acid, the complication rates in different age groups were significantly reduced, especially for gestational diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Periconceptional folic acid supplementation and healthcare following gene polymorphism testing may be a powerful measure to decrease congenital malformations. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism and risk of chronic myelogenous leukemia: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Yichao, Jin; Jiaxin, Lin; Yueting, Zhang; Qin, Lu; Tonghua, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Reported evidence supports a role for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) in the risk of chronic myelogenous leykemia (CML). However, these reports arrived at non-conclusive and even conflicting results regarding the association between two common MTHFR polymorphisms (C677T and A1298C) and CML risk. Thus, a meta-analysis was carried out to clarify a more precise association between these two polymorphisms and the CML risk by updating the available publications. Pooled odds ratios (OR) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) and stratification analysis were performed to estimate the relationship between MTHFR polymorphisms and the risk of CML under different genetic comparison models. Data from the meta-analysis showed no significant association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and CML risk. However, significant associations were found between MTHFR A1298C variants and CML risk under homozygous comparison model (CC vs AA, OR=1.62, 95% CI=1.11-2.36, p=0.01) and dominant comparison model (CC+AC vs AA, OR=1.68, 95% CI=1.17-2.43, p=0.005) in overall population; especially more obvious impacts were noticed for Asian populations in subgroup analysis for homozygous model (CC vs AA, OR=2.00, 95% CI=1.25-3.21, p=0.004) and dominant model (CC+AC vs AA, OR=2.49, 95% CI=1.42-4.36, p=0.001), but this did not apply in Caucasian populations. The results of this meta-analysis suggested no significant association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and CML risk, while an increased CML risk was noticed for 1298C variant carriers, especially in Asian populations but not in Caucasian populations, which suggested ethnicity differences between MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms and risk of CML.

  12. The effect of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms on susceptibility to human papilloma virus infection and cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Hajiesmaeil, Mogge; Tafvizi, Farzaneh; Sarmadi, Soheila

    2016-12-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer among women worldwide. Several factors lead to cervical cancer, among which human papilloma virus (HPV) infection has a prominent role. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is crucial in folate metabolic pathway and plays an important role in DNA synthesis and DNA methylation. MTHFR gene polymorphisms, including C677T and A1298C, lead to reduced enzyme activity. This case-control study aims to illustrate the association between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and the risk of cervical cancer. This study was conducted on 196 samples, which included 96 cervical biopsy samples compared to 100 Pap smear samples of normal healthy women without HPV infection. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was used for the MTHFR polymorphism detection, followed by fluorescent amplification-based specific hybridization PCR method to detect HPV16 and HPV18. The results show that the MTHFR 677TT genotype plays a protective role in cervical cancer (P=0.0030) (OR=0.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.07-0.59). Furthermore, there was a strong significant association between MTHFR 1298CC genotype and the risk of cervical cancer (OR=10.69; 95% CI: 4.28-26.71, P=0.0001). It can be concluded that A1298C polymorphism is a genetic risk factor for cervical cancer in the assessed Iranian population group. It seems that MTHFR 1298CC genotype is more susceptible to HPV 16 infection. Combination analysis of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms revealed that combined MTHFR 677CC and 1298CC are strongly associated with a risk of cervical cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Epistasis analysis of metabolic genes polymorphisms associated with ischemic heart disease in Yucatan.

    PubMed

    García-González, Igrid; López-Díaz, Roger Iván; Canché-Pech, José Reyes; Solís-Cárdenas, Alberto de Jesús; Flores-Ocampo, Jorge A; Mendoza-Alcocer, Renán; Herrera-Sánchez, Luis Fernando; Jiménez-Rico, Marco Antonio; Ceballos-López, Adrián Alejandro; López-Novelo, María E

    2018-01-28

    Epistasis is a type of genetic interaction that could explain much of the phenotypic variability of complex diseases. In this work, the effect of epistasis of metabolic genes and cardiovascular risk on the susceptibility to the development of ischemic heart disease in Yucatan was determined. Case-control study in 79 Yucatecan patients with ischemic heart disease and 101 healthy controls matched by age and origin with cases. The polymorphisms -108CT, Q192R, L55M (paraoxonase 1; PON1), C677T, A1298C (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase; MTHFR), and the presence/absence of the glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) gene were genotyped. Epistasis analysis was performed using the multifactorial dimensional reduction method. The best risk prediction model was selected based on precision (%), statistical significance (P<0.05), and cross-validation consistency. We found an independent association of the null genotype GSTT1*0/0 (OR=3.39, CI: 1.29-8.87, P=0.017) and the null allele (OR=1.86, CI: 1.19-2.91, P=0.007) with ischemic heart disease. The GSTT1*0 deletion and the 677TT genotype (MTHFR) were identified as being at a high cardiovascular risk, whereas the GSTT1*1 wild type genotype and the CC677 variant were at low risk. The gene-environment interaction identified the GSTT1 gene, C677T polymorphism (MTHFR), and hypertension as the factors that best explain ischemic heart disease in the study population. The interaction of the MTHFR, GSTT1 and hypertension may constitute a predictive model of risk for early onset ischemic heart disease in the population of Yucatan. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  14. Thrombophilic gene polymorphisms and recurrent pregnancy loss in Greek women.

    PubMed

    Chatzidimitriou, M; Chatzidimitriou, D; Mavridou, M; Anetakis, C; Chatzopoulou, F; Lialiaris, T; Mitka, S

    2017-12-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is a multifactorial disorder. The aim of this study was the detection of various genetic polymorphisms and their correlation to RPL, in Greek women. The impact of 12 thrombophilic polymorphisms was evaluated, among 48 Greek women with a history of RPL, vs 27 healthy parous women. Multiplex PCR and in situ hybridization on nitrocellulose films were performed, to investigate 12 genetic polymorphisms previously reported as risk factors for RPL. Heterozygous FV Leiden, homozygous PAI-1 4G/4G, heterozygous MTHFR C677T, homozygous MTHFR A1298C, as much as the combined thrombophilic genotypes MTHFR 677T + ACE Ι/D, MTHFR 677T/1298C + ACE D/D, ACE I/D + b-fibrinogen -455 G/A, FV HR2 + b-fibrinogen -455 G/A showed a correlation as risk factors for RPL, whereas the rest of the investigated polymorphisms and their combinations did not render statistically significant differences between the two groups in study. The results of this study, as well as those of similar studies, concerning the detection of genetic, environmental, and physiological factors underlying RPL, will prove of critical significance in the investigation and treatment of thrombophilic predisposition, in cases of RPL. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Meta-Prediction of MTHFR Gene Polymorphisms and Air Pollution on the Risk of Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy Worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ya-Ling; Yang, Hsiao-Ling; Shiao, S. Pamela K.

    2018-01-01

    Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP) are devastating health hazards for both women and children. Both methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms and air pollution can affect health status and result in increased risk of HDP for women. The major objective of this study was to investigate the effect of MTHFR polymorphisms, air pollution, and their interaction on the risk of HDP by using meta-predictive analytics. We searched various databases comprehensively to access all available studies conducted for various ethnic populations from countries worldwide, from 1997 to 2017. Seventy-one studies with 8064 cases and 13,232 controls for MTHFR C677T and 11 studies with 1425 cases and 1859 controls for MTHFR A1298C were included. MTHFR C677T homozygous TT (risk ratio (RR) = 1.28, p < 0.0001) and CT plus TT (RR = 1.07, p = 0.0002) were the risk genotypes, while wild-type CC played a protective role (RR = 0.94, p = 0.0017) for HDP. The meta-predictive analysis found that the percentage of MTHFR C677T TT plus CT (p = 0.044) and CT (p = 0.043) genotypes in the HDP case group were significantly increased with elevated levels of air pollution worldwide. Additionally, in countries with higher air pollution levels, the pregnant women with wild-type CC MTHFR 677 had a protection effect against HDP (p = 0.014), whereas, the homozygous TT of MTHFR C677T polymorphism was a risk genotype for developing HDP. Air pollution level is an environmental factor interacting with increased MTHFR C677T polymorphisms, impacting the susceptibility of HDP for women. PMID:29438331

  16. Meta-Prediction of MTHFR Gene Polymorphisms and Air Pollution on the Risk of Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy Worldwide.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya-Ling; Yang, Hsiao-Ling; Shiao, S Pamela K

    2018-02-13

    Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP) are devastating health hazards for both women and children. Both methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase ( MTHFR ) gene polymorphisms and air pollution can affect health status and result in increased risk of HDP for women. The major objective of this study was to investigate the effect of MTHFR polymorphisms, air pollution, and their interaction on the risk of HDP by using meta-predictive analytics. We searched various databases comprehensively to access all available studies conducted for various ethnic populations from countries worldwide, from 1997 to 2017. Seventy-one studies with 8064 cases and 13,232 controls for MTHFR C677T and 11 studies with 1425 cases and 1859 controls for MTHFR A1298C were included. MTHFR C677T homozygous TT (risk ratio (RR) = 1.28, p < 0.0001) and CT plus TT (RR = 1.07, p = 0.0002) were the risk genotypes, while wild-type CC played a protective role (RR = 0.94, p = 0.0017) for HDP. The meta-predictive analysis found that the percentage of MTHFR C677T TT plus CT ( p = 0.044) and CT ( p = 0.043) genotypes in the HDP case group were significantly increased with elevated levels of air pollution worldwide. Additionally, in countries with higher air pollution levels, the pregnant women with wild-type CC MTHFR 677 had a protection effect against HDP ( p = 0.014), whereas, the homozygous TT of MTHFR C677T polymorphism was a risk genotype for developing HDP. Air pollution level is an environmental factor interacting with increased MTHFR C677T polymorphisms, impacting the susceptibility of HDP for women.

  17. Genetic polymorphisms influence runners' responses to the dietary ingestion of antioxidant supplementation based on pequi oil (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.): a before-after study.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Lordelo, Graciana Souza; Akimoto, Arthur Kenji; Alves, Penha Cristina Zaidan; Pereira, Luiz Carlos da Silva; Klautau-Guimarães, Maria de Nazaré; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe

    2011-11-01

    Genes have been implicated in the levels of oxidative stress, lipids, CVD risk, immune reactivity, and performance. Pequi oil (Caryocar brasiliense) has shown anti-inflammatory and hypotensive effects, besides reducing exercise-induced DNA, tissue damages, and anisocytosis. Given that diet can interact with the human genome to influence health and disease, and because genetic variability can influence response to diet, we aim to investigate the influence of 12 gene polymorphisms on inflammatory markers, postprandial lipids, arterial pressure, and plasma lipid peroxidation of runners (N = 125), before and after 14 days of 400 mg pequi-oil supplementation, after races under closely comparable conditions. Arterial pressure was checked before races; blood samples were taken immediately after racing to perform leukogram and plateletgram, Tbars assay, lipid, and CRP dosages and genotyping. CAT, GST-M1/T1, CRP-G1059C, and MTHFR-C677T polymorphisms influenced post-pequi-oil responses in leukogram; Hp and MTHFR-C677T, in plateletgram; Hp, ACE, GSTT1, and MTHFR-A1298C, in lipid profile; MTHFR-A1298C, in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels; and Hp and MnSOD, in Tbars assay. Differences between ACE genotypes in leukogram and total cholesterol disappeared after pequi, and the same occurred for Hp and MnSOD in Tbars assay and for MTHFR-A1298C with CRP levels. Because genetic inheritance is one of the factors that drive atherosclerosis-related lipid abnormalities, results can contribute to a greater understanding of the influence of genetic polymorphisms in situations that push up free radicals. Knowledge is also expanded on how antioxidant supplementation affects an individual's genes and how athletic genetic makeup can affect the way a person responds to antioxidant supplements.

  18. Correlation with Platelet Parameters and Genetic Markers of Thrombophilia Panel (Factor II g.20210G>A, Factor V Leiden, MTHFR (C677T, A1298C), PAI-1, β-Fibrinogen, Factor XIIIA (V34L), Glycoprotein IIIa (L33P)) in Ischemic Strokes.

    PubMed

    Tasdemir, Sener; Erdem, Haktan Bagis; Sahin, Ibrahim; Ozel, Lutfi; Ozdemir, Gokhan; Eroz, Recep; Tatar, Abdulgani

    2016-06-01

    An important type of arterial thrombosis, ischemic stroke is associated with increased mortality risk, severe disability and life quality impairment. In this study, we analyzed mean platelet volume, platelet count values and genetic thrombophilia markers of patients who have ischemic stroke history and searched the relationship with genetic predisposition of ischemic strokes and platelet parameters. A retrospective, clinical trial was performed by reviewing the ischemic stroke history (except cryptogenic events) of 599 patients and 100 controls. The results of the genetic thrombophilia panel were used to classify the study group and control group into low and high risk for thrombophilia groups. The high-risk group included patients homozygous/heterozygous for Factor II g.20210G>A or Factor V Leiden mutations with/without any other polymorphism. The low-risk group included patients heterozygous or homozygous for MTHFR (C677T, A1298C), PAI-1, β-fibrinogen, Factor XIIIA (V34L) and glycoprotein IIIa (L33P) polymorphisms or negative in terms of both mutations and polymorphisms. The results of study showed us that high-risk group mutations are important risk factors for ischemic stroke but low-risk group polymorphisms are not significant. According to platelet parameters, although there was a significant difference between MPV and PLT values of ischemic stroke and control group, thrombophilia mutations and polymorphisms have not a significant effect on MPV and PLT values in ischemic stroke patients.

  19. Association of C677T transition of the human methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene with male infertility.

    PubMed

    Karimian, Mohammad; Colagar, Abasalt Hosseinzadeh

    2016-04-01

    The human methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene encodes one of the key enzymes in folate metabolism. This gene is located on chromosome 1 (1p36.3), which has 12 exons. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible association of the two (C677T and A1298C) polymorphisms of this gene with male infertility. In a case-control study, 250 blood samples were collected from IVF centres in Sari and Babol (Iran): 118 samples were from oligospermic men and 132 were from controls. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms of the MTHFR genotype were detected using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. There was no association found between the A1298C variant and male infertility. However, carriers of the 677T allele (CT and TT genotypes) were at a higher risk of infertility than individuals with other genotypes (odds ratio 1.84; 95% confidence interval 1.11-3.04; P=0.0174). Structural analysis of human MTHFR flavoprotein showed that C677T transition played an important role in the change in affinity of the MTHFR-Flavin adenine dinucleotide binding site. Based on our results, we suggest that C677T transition in MTHFR may increase the risk of male infertility, and detection of the C677T polymorphism biomarker may be helpful in the screening of idiopathic male infertility.

  20. Effect of MTHFR Polymorphisms on Gastrointestinal Cancer Risk in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Mazzuca, Federica; Borro, Marina; Botticelli, Andrea; Aimati, Laura; Gentile, Giovanna; Capalbo, Carlo; Maddalena, Chiara; Mazzotti, Eva; Simmaco, Maurizio; Marchetti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to assess the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) C677T and A1298C in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene with colorectal, esophageal/gastric and pancreatic cancer in a cohort of Italian patients. Methods A total of 790 cancer patients and 202 healthy controls were genotyped and distributions in genotype and allele frequencies were compared by Chi-squared analysis and logistic regression analysis. Results According to most of previous findings, we found an effect of the C677T variant, but no effect of the A1298C, in colorectal and esophageal/gastric, whereas no association was evidenced with pancreatic cancer. We found that only homozygous TT carriers of the C677T variant had an increased risk for onset of cancer. Conclusion This result could be related to dietary and behavioral habits of the analyzed population, which could mitigate the deleterious effect of the T allele in heterozygosity and it highlights the importance to validate genetic determinant of cancer risk in different population and geographical areas. PMID:28983337

  1. Influence of nitrous oxide anesthesia, B-vitamins, and MTHFR gene polymorphisms on perioperative cardiac events: the vitamins in nitrous oxide (VINO) randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Nagele, Peter; Brown, Frank; Francis, Amber; Scott, Mitchell G; Gage, Brian F; Miller, J Philip

    2013-07-01

    Nitrous oxide causes an acute increase in plasma homocysteine that is more pronounced in patients with the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T or A1298C gene variant. In this randomized controlled trial, the authors sought to determine whether patients carrying the MTHFR C677T or A1298C variant had a higher risk for perioperative cardiac events after nitrous oxide anesthesia and whether this risk could be mitigated by B-vitamins. The authors randomized adult patients with cardiac risk factors undergoing noncardiac surgery, to receive nitrous oxide plus intravenous B-vitamins before and after surgery, or to nitrous oxide and placebo. Serial cardiac biomarkers and 12-lead electrocardiograms were obtained. The primary study endpoint was the incidence of myocardial injury, as defined by cardiac troponin I increase within the first 72 h after surgery. A total of 500 patients completed the trial. Patients who were homozygous for either MTHFR C677T, or A1298C gene variant (n=98; 19.6%) had no increased rate of postoperative cardiac troponin I increase compared with wild-type and heterozygous patients (11.2 vs. 14.0%; relative risk 0.96; 95% CI, 0.85-1.07; P=0.48). B-vitamins blunted the rise in homocysteine, but had no effect on cardiac troponin I increase compared with patients receiving placebo (13.2 vs. 13.6%; relative risk 1.02; 95% CI 0.78 to 1.32; P=0.91). Neither MTHFR C677T and A1298C gene variant, nor acute homocysteine increase are associated with perioperative cardiac troponin increase after nitrous oxide anesthesia. B-vitamins blunt nitrous oxide-induced homocysteine increase but have no effect on cardiac troponin I increase.

  2. Influence of Nitrous Oxide Anesthesia, B-Vitamins, and MTHFR gene polymorphisms on Perioperative Cardiac Events: The Vitamins in Nitrous Oxide (VINO) Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nagele, Peter; Brown, Frank; Francis, Amber; Scott, Mitchell G.; Gage, Brian F.; Miller, J. Philip

    2013-01-01

    Background Nitrous oxide causes an acute increase in plasma homocysteine that is more pronounced in patients with the MTHFR C677T or A1298C gene variant. In this randomized controlled trial we sought to determine if patients carrying the MTHFR C677T or A1298C variant had a higher risk for perioperative cardiac events after nitrous oxide anesthesia and if this risk could be mitigated by B-vitamins. Methods We randomized adult patients with cardiac risk factors undergoing noncardiac surgery to receive nitrous oxide plus intravenous B-vitamins before and after surgery or to nitrous oxide and placebo. Serial cardiac biomarkers and 12-lead electrocardiograms were obtained. The primary study endpoint was the incidence of myocardial injury, as defined by cardiac troponin I elevation within the first 72 hours after surgery. Results A total of 500 patients completed the trial. Patients who were homozygous for either MTHFR C677T or A1298C gene variant (n= 98; 19.6%) had no increased rate of postoperative cardiac troponin I elevation compared to wild-type and heterozygous patients (11.2% vs. 14.0%; relative risk 0.96, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.07, p=0.48). B-vitamins blunted the rise in homocysteine, but had no effect on cardiac troponin I elevation compared to patients receiving placebo (13.2% vs. 13.6%; relative risk 1.02, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.32, p=0.91). Conclusions Neither MTHFR C677T and A1298C gene variant nor acute homocysteine increase are associated with perioperative cardiac troponin elevation after nitrousoxide anesthesia. B-vitamins blunt nitrous oxide-induced homocysteine increase but have no effect on cardiac troponin elevation. PMID:23856660

  3. Associations of MTHFR Gene Polymorphisms with Hypertension and Hypertension in Pregnancy: A Meta-Analysis from 114 Studies with 15411 Cases and 21970 Controls

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Boyi; Fan, Shujun; Zhi, Xueyuan; Li, Yongfang; Liu, Yuyan; Wang, Da; He, Miao; Hou, Yongyong; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan

    2014-01-01

    Background Several epidemiological studies have investigated the associations of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms with hypertension (H) or hypertension in pregnancy (HIP). However, the results were controversial. We therefore performed a comprehensive meta-analysis to provide empirical evidences on the associations. Methodologies The English and Chinese databases were systematically searched to identify relevant studies. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the strength of the associations. Meta-regression, subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, cumulative meta-analysis and assessment of publication bias were performed in our study. Principal Findings A total of 114 studies with 15411 cases and 21970 controls were included, 111 studies with 15094 cases and 21633 controls for the C677T polymorphism and 21 with 2533 cases and 2976 controls for the A1298C polymorphism. Overall, the C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with H and HIP (H & HIP: OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.17–1.34; H: OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.20–1.53; HIP: OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.08–1.32). Stratified analysis by ethnicity revealed a significant association among East Asians and Caucasians, but not among Latinos, Black Africans, and Indians and Sri Lankans. In the stratified analyses according to source of controls, genotyping method, sample size and study quality, significant associations were observed in all the subgroups, with the exception of population based subgroup in H studies and large sample size and “others” genotyping method subgroups in HIP studies. For the A1298C polymorphism, no significant association was observed either in overall or subgroup analysis under all genetic models. Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that the MTHFR C677T rather than A1298C polymorphism may be associated with H & HIP, especially among East Asians and Caucasians. PMID:24505291

  4. The MTHFR C677T Polymorphism Is Related to Plasma Concentration of Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein in Adolescents with Cardiovascular Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Morais, Carla C; Alves, Maira C; Augusto, Elaine M; Abdalla, Dulcinéia S P; Horst, Maria A; Cominetti, Cristiane

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible relationships among the A1298C (rs1801131) and C677T (rs1801133) polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and levels of homocysteine, vitamins B6, B12, folic acid and lipid profile, including oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), of adolescents at cardiovascular risk. We recruited 115 adolescents (10-19 years old), 58.3% (n = 67) female, from a public school in Brazil who underwent anthropometric, biochemical and genetic tests as well as food consumption evaluation. An important prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia (19.1%) and alterations in triacylglycerol (17.4%), total cholesterol (26.9%) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (48.0%) concentrations were observed, as well as low vitamin B6 concentrations (23.5%). The categorization of homocysteine concentrations into tertiles revealed significant differences in serum concentrations of folate, vitamin B12 and HDL, waist circumference and intake of total and saturated fat among the tertiles. The presence of variant alleles regarding the MTHFR C677T polymorphism interfered with vitamin B6 and ox-LDL cholesterol concentrations. There was a trend for higher waist circumference values in T carriers (C677T), but not in C carriers (A1298C). The MTHFR C677T allele was associated with higher plasma vitamin B6 and ox-LDL compared to the CC genotype. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism in endometrial cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-Jun; Xu, Li-Hui; Chen, Yue-Ming; Luo, Li; Tu, Qiao-Feng; Mei, Jin

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of case-controlled prospective or retrospective studies to assess the effect of MTHFR polymorphisms on the risk of developing endometrial cancer. PubMed, Cochrane, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched (up to March 2014) for prospective or retrospective case-controlled studies that investigated the association of three MTHFR polymorphisms (rs180113 [C677T], rs1801131 [A1289C], and rs2274976 [G1793A]) with endometrial cancer. The patient population included subjects from three separate countries: China, Spain, and the USA. Only one study reported quantitative findings for MTHFR G1793A and, consequently, this polymorphism was not evaluated in our analysis. There were no significant associations of any MTHFR C677T or MTHFR A1298C alleles or genotypes with endometrial cancer (all p > 0.300). This meta-analysis does not support the association of endometrial cancer with two common MTHFR polymorphisms from this patient population. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. APOE gene polymorphisms and diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Papanas, Nikolaos; Veletza, Stavroula; Maltezos, Efstratios

    2012-01-01

    Genetic factors may influence the natural course of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and explain some of its variability. The aim of this review was to examine the association between apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene polymorphisms and diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Four relevant studies were identified. The two earlier works provided evidence that the ɛ4 allele is a risk factor for this complication, while the two more recent studies were negative. Important differences in the methodology used and in the populations included are obvious, rendering difficult the comparison between studies. In conclusion, the association between APOE gene polymorphisms and diabetic peripheral neuropathy is still unclear. Available evidence is rather limited and results have so far been contradictory. Future studies should employ more robust methodology, adjusting for potential confounders and for the prevalence of neuropathy in the general population with diabetes. PMID:23056065

  7. Androgen receptor gene polymorphism in zebra species

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hideyuki; Langenhorst, Tanya; Ogden, Rob; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2015-01-01

    Androgen receptor genes (AR) have been found to have associations with reproductive development, behavioral traits, and disorders in humans. However, the influence of similar genetic effects on the behavior of other animals is scarce. We examined the loci AR glutamine repeat (ARQ) in 44 Grevy's zebras, 23 plains zebras, and three mountain zebras, and compared them with those of domesticated horses. We observed polymorphism among zebra species and between zebra and horse. As androgens such as testosterone influence aggressiveness, AR polymorphism among equid species may be associated with differences in levels of aggression and tameness. Our findings indicate that it would be useful to conduct further studies focusing on the potential association between AR and personality traits, and to understand domestication of equid species. PMID:26236645

  8. Adiponectin gene polymorphisms: Association with childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Fraga, Vanêssa Gomes; Gomes, Karina Braga

    2014-01-01

    The current childhood obesity epidemic represents a particular challenge for public health. Understanding of the etiological mechanisms of obesity remains integral in treating this complex disorder. In recent years, studies have elucidated the influence of hormones secreted by adipose tissue named adipokines. Adiponectin is a adipokine that exhibits important anti-inflammatory, insulin-sensitizing and anti-atherogenic properties and it is strongly associated to obesity development. It is well known that adiponectin levels decrease with obesity. Furthermore, studies show that some single nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene encoding adiponectin, ADIPOQ, may influence the expression of this protein. The objective of this paper is to provide an up-to-date review of ADIPOQ polymorphisms in the context of childhood obesity. PMID:27625863

  9. Presence of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism MTHFR C677T in molar tissue but not maternal blood predicts failure of methotrexate treatment for low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jia; Usui, Hirokazu; Kaku, Hiroshi; Shozu, Makio

    2017-01-05

    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a rare tumor, and its genomic constitution is different from the maternal genome because of its gestational origin. Methotrexate (MTX) is a standard chemotherapeutic agent for low-risk GTN. An association between polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and MTX treatment outcome has been reported in various diseases. Thus, we examined the association between clinical outcome and MTHFR polymorphisms in both tumor and blood DNA of low-risk GTN patients. MTHFR C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131) were genotyped using high-resolution melting assays in 62 Japanese low-risk GTN patients and in 52 antecedent molar tissues. We compared the genotypes of MTHFR polymorphisms with the clinical outcome of 5-day MTX treatment. Twenty-five patients entered remission and 37 patients developed drug resistance or adverse effects that necessitated a drug change. The MTHFR 677T allele in molar tissue was significantly related to the need for drug change (P=0.006; odds ratio [OR], 3.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-7.49), in contrast to MTHFR 1298C (P=0.18; OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.32-1.25). The MTHFR 677T and 1298C alleles obtained from patients' blood DNA were not related to MTX treatment outcome (P=0.49; OR 1.31; 95% CI, 0.61-2.91 and P=0.10; OR 0.52; 95% CI, 0.22-1.15, respectively). These data demonstrate for the first time that the genotype of MTHFR 677TT in molar tissue is associated with ineffective MTX treatment in Japanese low-risk GTN patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Associations between Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) Polymorphisms and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Man-Yi; Zhang, Li; Shi, Song-Li; Lin, Jing-Na

    2016-01-01

    Background C677T and A1298C are the most common allelic variants of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) gene. The association between MTHFR polymorphisms and the occurrence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains controversial. This study was thus performed to examine whether MTHFR mutations are associated with the susceptibility to NAFLD. Methods A first meta-analysis on the association between the MTHFR polymorphisms and NAFLD risks was carried out via Review Manager 5.0 and Stata/SE 12.0 software. The on-line databases, such as PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, WOS, Scopus and EBSCOhost (updated to April 1st, 2016), were searched for eligible case-control studies. The odd radio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI) and P value were calculated through Mantel-Haenszel statistics under random- or fixed-effect model. Results Eight articles (785 cases and 1188 controls) contributed data to the current meta-analysis. For C677T, increased NAFLD risks were observed in case group under homozygote model (T/T vs C/C, OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.03~2.15, P = 0.04) and recessive model (T/T vs C/C+C/T, OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.07~1.88, P = 0.02), but not the other genetics models, compared with control group. For A1298C, significantly increased NAFLD risks were detected in allele model (C vs A, OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.13~2.07, P = 0.006), homozygote model (C/C vs A/A, OR = 2.81, 95% CI = 1.63~4.85, P = 0.0002), dominant model (A/C+C/C vs A/A, OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.06~2.41, P = 0.03) and recessive model (C/C vs A/A+A/C, OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.45~3.00, P<0.0001), but not heterozygote model. Conclusion T/T genotype of MTHFR C677T polymorphism and C/C genotype of MTHFR A1298C are more likely to be associated with the susceptibility to NAFLD. PMID:27128842

  11. Associations between Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) Polymorphisms and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) Risk: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Man-Yi; Zhang, Li; Shi, Song-Li; Lin, Jing-Na

    2016-01-01

    C677T and A1298C are the most common allelic variants of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) gene. The association between MTHFR polymorphisms and the occurrence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains controversial. This study was thus performed to examine whether MTHFR mutations are associated with the susceptibility to NAFLD. A first meta-analysis on the association between the MTHFR polymorphisms and NAFLD risks was carried out via Review Manager 5.0 and Stata/SE 12.0 software. The on-line databases, such as PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, WOS, Scopus and EBSCOhost (updated to April 1st, 2016), were searched for eligible case-control studies. The odd radio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI) and P value were calculated through Mantel-Haenszel statistics under random- or fixed-effect model. Eight articles (785 cases and 1188 controls) contributed data to the current meta-analysis. For C677T, increased NAFLD risks were observed in case group under homozygote model (T/T vs C/C, OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.03~2.15, P = 0.04) and recessive model (T/T vs C/C+C/T, OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.07~1.88, P = 0.02), but not the other genetics models, compared with control group. For A1298C, significantly increased NAFLD risks were detected in allele model (C vs A, OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.13~2.07, P = 0.006), homozygote model (C/C vs A/A, OR = 2.81, 95% CI = 1.63~4.85, P = 0.0002), dominant model (A/C+C/C vs A/A, OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.06~2.41, P = 0.03) and recessive model (C/C vs A/A+A/C, OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.45~3.00, P<0.0001), but not heterozygote model. T/T genotype of MTHFR C677T polymorphism and C/C genotype of MTHFR A1298C are more likely to be associated with the susceptibility to NAFLD.

  12. Gene Polymorphism Studies in a Teaching Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shultz, Jeffry

    2009-02-01

    I present a laboratory procedure for illustrating transcription, post-transcriptional modification, gene conservation, and comparative genetics for use in undergraduate biology education. Students are individually assigned genes in a targeted biochemical pathway, for which they design and test polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. In this example, students used genes annotated for the steroid biosynthesis pathway in soybean. The authoritative Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) interactive database and other online resources were used to design primers based first on soybean expressed sequence tags (ESTs), then on ESTs from an alternate organism if soybean sequence was unavailable. Students designed a total of 50 gene-based primer pairs (37 soybean, 13 alternative) and tested these for polymorphism state and similarity between two soybean and two pea lines. Student assessment was based on acquisition of laboratory skills and successful project completion. This simple procedure illustrates conservation of genes and is not limited to soybean or pea. Cost per student estimates are included, along with a detailed protocol and flow diagram of the procedure.

  13. Polymorphism of starch pathway genes in cassava.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, L M; Brito, A C; Carmo, C D; Oliveira, E J

    2016-12-02

    The distribution and frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can help to understand changes associated with characteristics of interest. We aimed to evaluate nucleotide diversity in six genes involved in starch biosynthesis in cassava using a panel of 96 unrelated accessions. The genes were sequenced, aligned, and used to obtain values for nucleotide diversity (π), segregating sites (θ), Tajima's D test, and neighbor-joining (NJ) clustering. On average, one SNP per 147 and 171 bp was identified in exon and intron regions, respectively. Thirteen heterozygous loci were found. Three of seven SNPs in the exon region resulted in non-synonymous replacement or four synonymous substitutions. However, no associations were noted between SNPs and root dry-matter content. The parameter π ranged from 0.0001 (granule bound starch synthase I) to 0.0033 (α-amylase), averaging 0.0011, while θ ranged from 0.00014 (starch branching enzyme) to 0.00584 (starch synthase I), averaging 0.002353. The θ diversity value was typically double that of the π. Results of the D test did not suggest any evidence of deviance of neutrality in these genes. Among the evaluated accession, 82/96 were clustered using the NJ method but without a clear separation of the root dry-matter content, root pulp coloration, and classification of the cyanogenic compound content. High variation in genes of the starch biosynthetic pathway can be used to identify associations with the functional properties of starch for the use of polymorphisms for selection purposes.

  14. APOE gene polymorphism analysis in Barranquilla, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Martha; Arias, Isis; Rolón, Gloria; Hernández, Enio; Garavito, Pilar; Silvera-Redondo, Carlos

    2016-03-03

    The genetic variability present in the APOE gene polymorphism is considered an important factor associated with predisposition to diseases affecting lipid metabolism, as well as heart diseases and Alzheimer's disease, among others. Understanding it as a risk factor in different populations and ethnic groups is a useful tool.  To analyze the APOE gene polymorphism and determine allelic and genotypic frequencies of a representative sample of population from Barranquilla, Colombia.  We performed a descriptive and comparative study. The sample size was 227 unrelated individuals from Barranquilla, Colombia.  The most frequent allele was the ε3, with 85%, followed by the ε4 allele (13%) and ε2 (1.8%). The genotypes found were: ε3/ε3: 71.8%, ε3/ε4: 24.2%, ε2/ε3: 2.2%, ε2/ε4: 1.3% and ε4/ε4: 0.4%. The ε2/ε2 genotype was not found in this study. The sample exhibited the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.  The frequency of the ε3 allele and the ε3/ε3 genotype was similar to that reported in the literature in countries like Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, and in some Colombian Amerindian ethnic groups. The ε2/ε2 genotype was absent. This result is consistent with those found in other population groups worldwide. The frequency of the ε4 allele and the genotypes associated in this population could be related to the presence of diseases such as hypercholesterolemia, myocardial infarction and Alzheimer.

  15. Association between Tryptophan Hydroxylase 2 Gene Polymorphism and Completed Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fudalej, Sylwia; Ilgen, Mark; Fudalej, Marcin; Kostrzewa, Grazyna; Barry, Kristen; Wojnar, Marcin; Krajewski, Pawel; Blow, Frederic; Ploski, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    The association between suicide and a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1386483) was examined in the recently identified tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) gene. Blood samples of 143 suicide victims and 162 age- and sex-matched controls were examined. The frequency of the TT genotype in the TPH2 polymorphism was higher in suicide victims than in…

  16. Isolation of tetranucleotide repeat polymorphisms flanking the BRCA1 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett-Baker, P.E.; Kiousis, S.; King, S.E.

    1996-02-15

    This article reports on the isolation of tetranucleotide repeat polymorphisms which flank the BRCA1 gene on human chromosome 17. BRCA1 has been linked to both hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. Fifteen new short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRPs) flanking the BRCA1 locus are reported. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. [Functional polymorphisms in clock genes and circadian rhythm sleep disorders].

    PubMed

    Ebisawa, Takashi

    2007-06-01

    Polymorphisms in clock genes induce circadian rhythm sleep disorders. Mutations in Per2 gene (S662G) or Casein Kinasel delta (CK16) gene (T44A) cause Familial advanced sleep phase syndrome. Missense polymorphisms in Per3 (V647G) and CK1e (S408N) genes increase or decrease the risk of developing delayed sleep phase syndrome. All of these polymorphisms seem to affect the phosphorylation of the clock proteins. Some of the polymorphisms in CK1, which shows reduced enzyme activity in vitro, induced increased phosphorylation of PER proteins in in vivo assays. Careful attention should be paid to analyze the complex system composed of feedback loops, such as the biological clock.

  18. Polymorphisms of 5,10-methylenetetralydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), fruit and vegetable intake, and the risk of stomach cancer.

    PubMed

    Mu, L N; Cao, W; Zhang, Z F; Yu, S Z; Jiang, Q W; You, N C; Lu, Q Y; Zhou, X F; Ding, B G; Chang, J; Chen, C W; Wei, G R; Cai, L

    2007-01-01

    Stomach cancer is a serious public health problem in China. 5,10-Methylenetetralydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) may be involved in both DNA methylation and DNA synthesis. Folate deficiency is associated with cancer risk that may be modulated by a genetic variation in the MTHFR gene in folate metabolism. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the association between polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene and the risk of stomach cancer. This study also explored the modification effects of fruit and vegetable intake (one of the main constituents is folate) on the risk of this disease. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Taixing, China, consisting of 206 newly diagnosed cases with primary stomach cancer and 415 healthy population controls. Polymorphisms of MTHFR C677T and A1298C were assayed by polymerase chain reaction-restricted fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) techniques. The data were analysed using the logistic regression model. No obvious association between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and the risk of stomach cancer was observed in this study. The frequencies of 677 C/C, C/T, and T/T were 34.5, 50.9, and 14.6%, respectively, in controls. The frequency of the MTHFR 677 wild homozygotic genotype was 25.8% in cases, which was lower than that in controls (34.5%). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for the MTHFR 677 any T genotype was 2.05 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.26-3.34) when compared with the C/C genotype. In the low fruit and vegetable intake group an increasing trend was observed with the T allele exposure, p = 0.0056. The adjusted ORs were 1.68 (95% CI = 0.86-3.29) for the C/T genotype and 3.58 (95% CI = 1.46-8.75) for the T/T genotype, respectively. The MTHFR 677 any T genotype was associated with an increased risk of primary stomach cancer among the Chinese population. Folate deficiency might modify the MTHFR gene polymorphism and influence the risk of stomach cancer.

  19. Migraine and Genetic Polymorphisms: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Pizza, Vincenzo; Agresta, Anella; Agresta, Antonio; Lamaida, Eros; Lamaida, Norman; Infante, Francesco; Capasso, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between genetic polymorphisms and migraine as a cause of an increased risk of thrombotic disorders development is still debated In this respect, factor V Leiden, factor V (H1299R), prothrombin G20210A, factor XIII (V34L), β-fibrinogen, MTHFR (C677T), MTHFR (A1298C), APO E, PAI-1, HPA-1 and ACE I/D seem to play a determinant role in vascular diseases related to migraine. The present review analyzes both the incidence of the above genetic vascular mutations in migraineurs and the most re-cent developments related to genetic polymorphisms and migraine. PMID:22962564

  20. Migraine and genetic polymorphisms: an overview.

    PubMed

    Pizza, Vincenzo; Agresta, Anella; Agresta, Antonio; Lamaida, Eros; Lamaida, Norman; Infante, Francesco; Capasso, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between genetic polymorphisms and migraine as a cause of an increased risk of thrombotic disorders development is still debated In this respect, factor V Leiden, factor V (H1299R), prothrombin G20210A, factor XIII (V34L), β-fibrinogen, MTHFR (C677T), MTHFR (A1298C), APO E, PAI-1, HPA-1 and ACE I/D seem to play a determinant role in vascular diseases related to migraine. The present review analyzes both the incidence of the above genetic vascular mutations in migraineurs and the most re-cent developments related to genetic polymorphisms and migraine.

  1. Association study of the common polymorphisms in the folate-methionine pathway with retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Elaheh; Saliminejad, Kioomars; Akbari, Mohammad Taghi; Kamali, Koorosh; Ahani, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Folate and methionine metabolism enzymes could affect DNA synthesis and repair, and their methylation and polymorphisms have been associated with some forms of cancer. This study was carried out to investigate whether the MTHFR C677T (rs1801133), MTHFR A1298C (rs1801131) and TYMS 2R/3R (rs34743033) polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to retinoblastoma in an Iranian population. A case-control study was conducted involving 96 patients with retinoblastoma and 204 healthy controls. Genotyping of the MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, and TYMS 2R/3R polymorphism were assessed by PCR-RFLP, high resolution melting curve (HRM), and PCR methods, respectively. The frequencies of MTHFR 677CT and 677TT genotypes were significantly lower in cases than controls (p values, 0.012 and 0.034, respectively). The MTHFR 677T allele was significantly lower in patients than in the control group (p = 0.003). In contrast, no association was observed with respect to the MTHFR A1298C and TYMS 2R/3R polymorphisms. The MTHFR C677T polymorphism was associated with the risk of retinoblastoma in this Iranian population and the T allele had a protective effect on the susceptibility to retinoblastoma.

  2. Polymorphism in transmembrane region of MICA gene and cholelithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Shou-Chuan; Lee, Yann-Jinn; Liu, Hsin-Fu; Dang, Ching-Wen; Chang, Shih-Chuan; Lin, Shee-Chan; Kao, Chin-Roa

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the significance of polymorphism of MHC class I chain-related gene A (MICA) gene in patients with cholelithiasis. METHODS: Subjects included 170 unrelated adults (83 males) with cholelithiasis and 245 randomly selected unrelated adults (130 males) as controls. DNA was extracted from peripheral leukocytes and analyzed for polymorphism of 5 alleles (A4, A5, A5.1, A6 and A9) of the MICA gene. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in phenotype, allele, and genotype frequencies of any of the 5 alleles between cholelithiasis patients and controls. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that MICA alleles studied bear no relation to cholelithiasis. PMID:12854159

  3. Melanoma risk is associated with vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Zeljic, Katarina; Kandolf-Sekulovic, Lidija; Supic, Gordana; Pejovic, Janko; Novakovic, Marijan; Mijuskovic, Zeljko; Magic, Zvonko

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have reported that vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms are associated with the occurrence of various cancers, including melanoma. The aim of the current study was to investigate the association of VDR gene polymorphisms with melanoma risk, clinicopathological characteristics, and vitamin D levels. The study group included 117 patients (84 patients with superficial spreading melanoma and 33 patients with nodular melanoma). The control group included 122 sex-matched and age-matched healthy-blood donors of the same ethnicity. VDR gene polymorphisms FokI, EcoRV, TaqI, and ApaI were genotyped by real-time PCR. In 60 patients, the total 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were evaluated in serum samples by direct chemiluminescence. Associations among parameters were considered to be significant if the P value was less than 0.05. Significant differences in the frequencies of VDR genotypes were observed between cases and the control group for FokI and TaqI polymorphisms (P<0.0001; P=0.005, respectively). Heterozygous Ff as well as mutant FF genotypes of the FokI polymorphism were associated with increased melanoma risk compared with the wild-type form [odds ratio (OR)=3.035, P=0.003; OR=9.276, P<0.0001, respectively]. A significantly increased melanoma risk was observed for the heterozygous Tt (OR=2.302, P=0.011) and the mutated variant tt (OR=3.697, P=0.003) of the TaqI polymorphism in comparison with the wild-type genotype. None of the polymorphisms studied was associated with clinicopathological characteristics and vitamin D serum level. Our results suggest that FokI and TaqI polymorphisms in the VDR gene may be considered as potential biomarkers for melanoma susceptibility. Low vitamin D levels in melanoma patients indicate the need for vitamin D supplementation.

  4. Finding Protein-Coding Genes through Human Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Wijaya, Edward; Frith, Martin C.; Horton, Paul; Asai, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Human gene catalogs are fundamental to the study of human biology and medicine. But they are all based on open reading frames (ORFs) in a reference genome sequence (with allowance for introns). Individual genomes, however, are polymorphic: their sequences are not identical. There has been much research on how polymorphism affects previously-identified genes, but no research has been done on how it affects gene identification itself. We computationally predict protein-coding genes in a straightforward manner, by finding long ORFs in mRNA sequences aligned to the reference genome. We systematically test the effect of known polymorphisms with this procedure. Polymorphisms can not only disrupt ORFs, they can also create long ORFs that do not exist in the reference sequence. We found 5,737 putative protein-coding genes that do not exist in the reference, whose protein-coding status is supported by homology to known proteins. On average 10% of these genes are located in the genomic regions devoid of annotated genes in 12 other catalogs. Our statistical analysis showed that these ORFs are unlikely to occur by chance. PMID:23349826

  5. Finding protein-coding genes through human polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Wijaya, Edward; Frith, Martin C; Horton, Paul; Asai, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Human gene catalogs are fundamental to the study of human biology and medicine. But they are all based on open reading frames (ORFs) in a reference genome sequence (with allowance for introns). Individual genomes, however, are polymorphic: their sequences are not identical. There has been much research on how polymorphism affects previously-identified genes, but no research has been done on how it affects gene identification itself. We computationally predict protein-coding genes in a straightforward manner, by finding long ORFs in mRNA sequences aligned to the reference genome. We systematically test the effect of known polymorphisms with this procedure. Polymorphisms can not only disrupt ORFs, they can also create long ORFs that do not exist in the reference sequence. We found 5,737 putative protein-coding genes that do not exist in the reference, whose protein-coding status is supported by homology to known proteins. On average 10% of these genes are located in the genomic regions devoid of annotated genes in 12 other catalogs. Our statistical analysis showed that these ORFs are unlikely to occur by chance.

  6. Association of -330 interleukin-2 gene polymorphism with oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prithvi Kumar; Kumar, Vijay; Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem; Gupta, Rajni; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Jain, Amita; Bogra, Jaishri; Chandra, Girish

    2017-12-01

    Cytokines play an important role in the development of cancer. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of cytokine genes have been reported to be associated with the development and severity of inflammatory diseases and cancer predisposition. This study was undertaken to evaluate a possible association of interleukin 2 (IL-2) (- 330A>C) gene polymorphisms with the susceptibility to oral cancer. The SNP in IL-2 (-330A>C) gene was genotyped in 300 oral cancer patients and in similar number of healthy volunteers by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism and the association of the gene with the disease was evaluated. IL-2 (-330A>C) gene polymorphism was significantly associated with oral cancer whereas it was neither associated with clinicopathological status nor with cancer pain. The AC heterozygous genotype was significantly associated with oral cancer patients as compared to controls [odds ratio (OR): 3.0; confidence interval (CI): 2.14-4.20; P<0.001]. The C allele frequency was also significantly associated with oral cancer (OR: 1.80; CI: 1.39-2.33; P<0.001). IL-2 (-330A>C) gene polymorphism was also associated with oral cancer in tobacco smokers and chewers. Our results showed that oral cancer patients had significantly higher frequency of AA genotype but significantly lower frequency of AC genotype and C allele compared to controls. The IL-2 AC genotype and C allele of IL-2 (-330A>C) gene polymorphisms could be potential protective factors and might reduce the risk of oral cancer in Indian population.

  7. Polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) are associated with susceptibility to adult acute myeloid leukemia in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lulu; Deng, Donghong; Peng, Zhigang; Ye, Fanghui; Xiao, Qiang; Zhang, Bing; Ye, Bingbing; Mo, Zengnan; Yang, Xiaobo; Liu, Zhenfang

    2015-06-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an essential enzyme in the metabolism of folate. Since acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by rapidly proliferating tissues that have a high requirement for DNA synthesis, it is possible that the presence of MTHFR polymorphisms could be linked to the multifactorial process of AML development. We evaluated the role of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in a case-control study comprising 98 AML patients and 2016 healthy controls in a Southern Chinese population. We further conducted a sub-study restricted to individuals who neither smoked nor drank alcohol (70 AML patients and 160 healthy controls). MTHFR polymorphisms in the patient and control groups were evaluated by SNaP shot genotype techniques and Illumina BeadChip, respectively. Logistic regression was used to assess the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). The MTHFR 1298AC genotype and the 677CC/1298AC haplotype were significantly associated with a decreased risk of AML compared with the AA genotype and 677CC/1298AA haplotype (OR=0.60, 95% CI: 0.38-0.95, P=0.03; OR=0.49, 95% CI: 0.27-0.90, P=0.02, respectively). In addition, the 677TT genotype was significantly associated with an increased risk of AML compared with the AA genotype only in non-smokers and non-drinkers (OR=4.78; 95% CI=1.38-16.61, P=0.01). The results might suggest that MTHFR polymorphisms are significantly associated with AML risk. In addition, the role of MTHFR genetic susceptibility could be greater among non-smokers and non-drinkers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of myosin 1H gene polymorphisms in mandibular retrognathism.

    PubMed

    Arun, Richards M; Lakkakula, Bhaskar V K S; Chitharanjan, Arun B

    2016-05-01

    Mandibular retrognathism may be the result of a developmental abnormality or the unfavorable positional relationship of developing jaws. Several lines of evidence suggest that muscles are known to have extensive mutual effects on bones. Studies with immunohistochemical staining and gene expression have shown unique combinations of myosin heavy chain isoforms in the masseter muscles. In this study, we aimed to evaluate MYO1H gene polymorphisms and haplotypes as risk factors for mandibular retrognathism. Twenty-five subjects with mandibular retrognathism and 25 control subjects of both sexes having an orthognathic maxilla (SNA, 82° ± 2°) between the ages of 12 and 30 years of age were selected for this study. Based on the cephalometric values, subjects with SNB angles smaller than 78° were considered to have mandibular retrognathism. Orthognathic subjects (SNB, 80°) without jaw deformations were used as the comparison group. Three polymorphisms of MYO1H gene (rs10850110, rs11611277, and rs3825393) were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Associations were tested with the Pearson chi-square test and haplotype analyses. The single nucleotide polymorphism rs3825393 showed a statistically significant association with mandibular retrognathism. The cephalometric variables SNB and ANB angles showed significant differences among the various genotypes of rs3825393. Linkage disequilibrium was not strong and significant between the single nucleotide polymorphisms; hence, the haplotypes of the MYO1H gene are not associated with mandibular retrognathism. These results suggest that the rs3825393 polymorphism of the MYO1H gene is associated with an increased risk for mandibular retrognathism. The relatively small sample size used in the study resulted in modest statistical power. A parallel investigation on another population with larger samples to increase the power could further clarify the role of the MYO1H gene in

  9. Serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) polymorphisms and compulsive buying.

    PubMed

    Devor, E J; Magee, H J; Dill-Devor, R M; Gabel, J; Black, D W

    1999-04-16

    We examined a panel of 21 patients diagnosed with compulsive buying for two DNA sequence polymorphisms found in the gene that encodes the serotonin transport (5-HTT). One polymorphism, found in the promoter region of the 5-HTT gene, involves a 44-base pair (bp) deletion, and the other, found in the second intron, is due to variable numbers of a repeat sequence. We also typed a panel of 38 psychiatrically normal controls for both 5-HH markers. When compared to this control panel, no significant differences were seen for either 5-HTT marker among the compulsive buyers.

  10. Identification of new polymorphisms in the CACNA1S gene.

    PubMed

    Carsana, Antonella; Fortunato, Giuliana; De Sarno, Claudia; Brancadoro, Virginia; Salvatore, Francesco

    2003-01-01

    We identified four novel polymorphisms in the CACNA1S gene that encodes the alpha1-subunit of the dihydropyridine receptor. Mutations in this gene are associated with two genetic diseases: malignant hyperthermia and hypokalemic periodic paralysis. The nucleotide substitutions c2403T --> C and c5398T --> C did not result in amino acid replacement, the nucleotide substitution c4475C --> A caused the replacement of the Ala1492 with an Asp residue and an A insertion was identified in intron 36. By using methods based on digestion with restriction enzymes we calculated the frequencies of these novel polymorphisms, as well as heterozygosity, in normal subjects from southern Italy.

  11. Interlocus nonrandom association of polymorphisms in Drosophila chemoreceptor genes.

    PubMed

    Takano-Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Kawabe, Akira; Inomata, Nobuyuki; Nanba, Noriko; Kondo, Rumi; Inoue, Yutaka; Itoh, Masanobu

    2004-09-28

    Some forms of multilocus selection with epistasis, such as truncation selection, can effectively reduce the mutation load [Kondrashov, A. S. (1988) Nature 336, 435-440]. Many quantitative characters, including complex genetic diseases, are likely to be subject to these types of selection. However, direct measurement of selection in natural populations is difficult and the effect of epistasis on within-species variations remains unclear. Epistatic interaction in the fitness effect can generate linkage disequilibrium (LD). Therefore, we may detect the action of natural selection from its amount and pattern. Here, we report a large number of interlocus nonrandom associations between polymorphisms in 98 Drosophila chemoreceptor genes. LD was examined in two fly samples collected at the same location, but in different seasons. The amount of LD was much larger in the spring sample than in the autumn one. The between-sample difference was much more striking for the replacement polymorphisms than for the silent polymorphisms. This difference between the replacement and silent polymorphisms could not be attributed to differences in the mean marker distances. We also found a significant excess of associations between one frequent and one less common allele for the replacement polymorphisms, but not for the silent polymorphisms. It is unlikely that a simple seasonal bottleneck could explain all these differences in the scale of LD between the samples and between the replacement and silent polymorphisms. Natural selection is suggested to play a significant role in shaping the pattern of LD observed in this study.

  12. Polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and cystathionine beta-synthase in oral cancer - a case-control study in southeastern Brazilians.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Andressa; Dos Santos, Marcelo; de Podestá, José Roberto Vasconcelos; Gouvêa, Sônia Alves; Von Zeidler, Sandra Ventorin; Louro, Iúri Drumond; Cordeiro-Silva, Melissa de Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a serious public health problem, due to its high mortality rate and worldwide rising incidence. OSCC susceptibility is mediated by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Studies suggest that genetic variants encoding enzymes involved in folate metabolism may modulate OSCC risk by altering DNA synthesis/repair and methylation process. The goals of this study were to evaluate the association of three genotypic polymorphism (MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C and CBS 844ins68) and oral cancer risk in southeastern Brazilians and evaluate the interactions between polymorphisms and clinical histopathological parameters. This case-control study included 101 cases and 102 controls in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. MTHFR genotyping was done by PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism) and CBS genotyping by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) analysis. MTHFR C677T polymorphism was associated with lymph node involvement. Genotype CT+TT acted as a protective factor. MTHFR A1298C AC+CC genotype was associated with tumor differentiation, and possibly with a better prognosis. In risk analysis, no correlation was observed between genotypes and OSCC. We concluded that MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C and CBS 844ins68 polymorphisms were not associated with OSCC risk in southeastern Brazilians; however, we suggest a prognosis effect associated with MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in OSCC. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Depressive symptoms in schizophrenia and dopamine and serotonin gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Peitl, Vjekoslav; Štefanović, Mario; Karlović, Dalibor

    2017-07-03

    Although depressive symptoms seem to be frequent in schizophrenia they have received significantly less attention than other symptom domains. As impaired serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission is implicated in the pathogenesis of depression and schizophrenia this study sought to investigate the putative association between several functional gene polymorphisms (SERT 5-HTTLPR, MAO-A VNTR, COMT Val158Met and DAT VNTR) and schizophrenia. Other objectives of this study were to closely examine schizophrenia symptom domains by performing factor analysis of the two most used instruments in this setting (Positive and negative syndrome scale - PANSS and Calgary depression rating scale - CDSS) and to examine the influence of investigated gene polymorphisms on the schizophrenia symptom domains, focusing on depressive scores. A total of 591 participants were included in the study (300 schizophrenic patients and 291 healthy volunteers). 192 (64%) of schizophrenic patients had significant depressive symptoms. Genotype distribution revealed no significant differences regarding all investigated polymorphisms except the separate gender analysis for MAO-A gene polymorphism which revealed significantly more allele 3 carriers in schizophrenic males. Factor analysis of the PANSS scale revealed the existence of five separate factors (symptom domains), while the CDSS scale revealed two distinct factors. Several investigated gene polymorphisms (mostly SERT and MAO-A, but also COMT) significantly influenced two factors from the PANSS (aggressive/impulsive and negative symptoms) and one from the CDSS scale (suicidality), respectively. Depressive symptoms in schizophrenic patients may be influenced by functional gene polymorphisms, especially those implicated in serotonergic neurotransmission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Polymorphism of the DNA Base Excision Repair Genes in Keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Wojcik, Katarzyna A.; Synowiec, Ewelina; Sobierajczyk, Katarzyna; Izdebska, Justyna; Blasiak, Janusz; Szaflik, Jerzy; Szaflik, Jacek P.

    2014-01-01

    Keratoconus (KC) is a degenerative corneal disorder for which the exact pathogenesis is not yet known. Oxidative stress is reported to be associated with this disease. The stress may damage corneal biomolecules, including DNA, and such damage is primarily removed by base excision repair (BER). Variation in genes encoding BER components may influence the effectiveness of corneal cells to cope with oxidative stress. In the present work we genotyped 5 polymorphisms of 4 BER genes in 284 patients and 353 controls. The A/A genotype of the c.–1370T>A polymorphism of the DNA polymerase γ (POLG) gene was associated with increased occurrence of KC, while the A/T genotype was associated with decreased occurrence of KC. The A/G genotype and the A allele of the c.1196A>G polymorphism of the X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) were associated with increased, and the G/G genotype and the G allele, with decreased KC occurrence. Also, the C/T and T as well as C/C genotypes and alleles of the c.580C>T polymorphism of the same gene displayed relationship with KC occurrence. Neither the g.46438521G>C polymorphism of the Nei endonuclease VIII-like 1 (NEIL1) nor the c.2285T>C polymorphism of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) was associated with KC. In conclusion, the variability of the XRCC1 and POLG genes may play a role in KC pathogenesis and determine the risk of this disease. PMID:25356504

  15. Vitiligo susceptibility and catalase gene (CAT) polymorphisms in sicilian population.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Valentina; Niceta, Marcello; Fiorella, Santi; La Vecchia, Marco; Bastonini, Emanuela; Bongiorno, Maria R; Pistone, Giuseppe

    2017-02-15

    Catalase gene (CAT) polymorphisms were analyzed as responsible for the deficiency of catalase enzyme activity and concomitant accumulation of excessive hydrogen peroxide in Vitiligo patients. Catalase is a well known oxidative stress regulator that could play an important role in the pathogenesis of Vitiligo. This study was conducted to evaluate three CAT gene polymorphisms (-89A/T, 389C/T, 419C/T) and their association with Vitiligo susceptibility in Sicilian population. 60 out of 73 Sicilian patients with Vitiligo were enrolled and submitted to CAT gene analysis. Contrary to the Northern part of Europe but likewise to the Mediterranean area, the frequency of the CAT genotypes in Sicily is equally distributed. Out of all CAT genotypes, only CAT -89 T/T frequency was found to be significantly higher amongst Vitiligo patients than controls. Despite the involvement of the CAT enzyme in the pathogenesis of Vitiligo, the biological significance of CAT gene polymorphisms is still controversial. With the only exception for CAT variant -89A/T, the other studied CAT gene polymorphisms (389C/T and 419C/T) might not to be associated with Vitiligo in Sicilian population.

  16. Opsin gene polymorphism predicts trichromacy in a cathemeral lemur.

    PubMed

    Veilleux, Carrie C; Bolnick, Deborah A

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has identified polymorphic trichromacy in three diurnal strepsirrhines: Coquerel's sifaka (Propithecus coquereli), black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata), and red ruffed lemurs (V. rubra). Current hypotheses suggest that the transitions to diurnality experienced by Propithecus and Varecia were necessary precursors to their independent acquisitions of trichromacy. Accordingly, cathemeral lemurs are thought to lack the M/L opsin gene polymorphism necessary for trichromacy. In this study, the M/L opsin gene was sequenced in ten cathemeral blue-eyed black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons). This analysis identified a polymorphism identical to that of other trichromatic strepsirrhines at the critical amino acid position 285 in exon 5 of the M/L opsin gene. Thus, polymorphic trichromacy is likely present in at least one cathemeral Eulemur species, suggesting that strict diurnality is not necessary for trichromacy. The presence of trichromacy in E. m. flavifrons suggests that a re-evaluation of current hypotheses regarding the evolution of strepsirrhine trichromacy may be necessary. Although the M/L opsin polymorphism may have been independently acquired three times in the lemurid-indriid clade, the distribution of opsin alleles in lemurids and indriids may also be consistent with a common origin of trichromacy in the last common ancestor of either the lemurids or the lemurid-indriid clade. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Relationship between matrilin-1 gene polymorphisms and mandibular retrognathism.

    PubMed

    Balkhande, Pranita B; Lakkakula, Bhaskar V K S; Chitharanjan, Arun B

    2018-02-01

    Mandibular retrognathism is a type of malocclusion that refers to an abnormal posterior position of the mandible as a result of a developmental abnormality. From the literature, it is evident that the mandibular growth pattern is determined by the intramembranous ossification of the mandibular body and endochondral ossification of the condyle. Matrilin-1 is a cartilage extracellular matrix protein, and matrilin-1 gene (MATN1) polymorphisms have been found to be involved in dental malocclusions of humans. In this study, we aimed to examine the association between MATN1 polymorphisms and the risk of mandibular retrognathism, in a case-control study with a South Indian population. Eighty-one patients with mandibular retrognathism (SNB, <78°) and 71 controls having an orthognathic mandible (SNB, 80° ± 2°) were recruited. In both the patient and control groups, subjects with an orthognathic maxilla (SNA, 82° ± 2°) were included. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms of the MATN1 gene (rs1149048, rs1149042, and rs1065755) were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The statistical association analysis was performed using the chi-square test. Pair-wise linkage disequilibrium was computed, and haplotypes were compared between subjects and controls. Nonparametric tests were used to compare cephalometric measurements between groups. No polymorphic site deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the controls. The rs1149042 genotypes and alleles were found to be associated with reduced risk of mandibular retrognathism. Furthermore, rs1149042 genotypes were associated with mandibular measurements (SNB and ANB). There was no strong and consistent linkage disequilibrium linkage disequilibrium across two different single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes were not associated with mandibular retrognathism. The results of our study suggest an association between the MATN1 gene polymorphisms and mandibular retrognathism

  18. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) Polymorphisms and Susceptibility for Cervical Lesions: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaojiao; Yang, Pei

    2012-01-01

    Background The association between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T/A1298C polymorphisms and the susceptibility to cervical lesions was unclear. This study was designed to investigate their precise association using a large-scale meta-analysis. Methods The previous 16 studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase and CBM databases. The crude odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the association between the MTHFR C677T/A1298C polymorphisms and the susceptibility to the cervical lesions. The subgroup analyses were made on the following: pathological history, geographic region, ethnicity, source of controls and source of DNA for genotyping. Results Neither of the polymorphisms had a significant association with the susceptibility to the cervical lesions in all genetic models. Similar results were found in the subgroup analyses. No association was found between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and the cervical lesions in the Asia or the America populations though a significant inverse association was found in the Europe population (additive model: P = 0.006, OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.72–0.95; CT vs. CC: P = 0.05, OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.69–1.00; TT vs. CC: P = 0.05, OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.53–1.00). Interestingly, women with the MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms had a marginally increased susceptibility to invasive cancer (ICC) when compared with no carriers but no statistically significant difference in the dominant model (P = 0.06, OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.99–1.49) and AC vs. AA (P = 0.09, OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.97–1.51). Conclusions The MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms may not increase the susceptibility to cervical lesions. However, the meta-analysis reveals a negative association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphisms and the cervical lesions, especially in the European populations. The marginal association between the MTHFR A1298C

  19. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and susceptibility for cervical lesions: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Long, Shuyu; Yang, Xingliang; Liu, Xiaojiao; Yang, Pei

    2012-01-01

    The association between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T/A1298C polymorphisms and the susceptibility to cervical lesions was unclear. This study was designed to investigate their precise association using a large-scale meta-analysis. The previous 16 studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase and CBM databases. The crude odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the association between the MTHFR C677T/A1298C polymorphisms and the susceptibility to the cervical lesions. The subgroup analyses were made on the following: pathological history, geographic region, ethnicity, source of controls and source of DNA for genotyping. Neither of the polymorphisms had a significant association with the susceptibility to the cervical lesions in all genetic models. Similar results were found in the subgroup analyses. No association was found between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and the cervical lesions in the Asia or the America populations though a significant inverse association was found in the Europe population (additive model: P = 0.006, OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.72-0.95; CT vs. CC: P = 0.05, OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.69-1.00; TT vs. CC: P = 0.05, OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.53-1.00). Interestingly, women with the MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms had a marginally increased susceptibility to invasive cancer (ICC) when compared with no carriers but no statistically significant difference in the dominant model (P = 0.06, OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.99-1.49) and AC vs. AA (P = 0.09, OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.97-1.51). The MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms may not increase the susceptibility to cervical lesions. However, the meta-analysis reveals a negative association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphisms and the cervical lesions, especially in the European populations. The marginal association between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms and the susceptibility to cervical cancer requires a further study.

  20. Estrogen receptor gene polymorphism in patients with degenerative lumbar scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Park, Yang Soo; Suh, Kuen Tak; Shin, Jong Ki; Lee, Jung Sub

    2017-02-01

    To examine the association between development of degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS) and sex hormones. We investigated the association between DLS and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) gene polymorphisms in 184 patients with a diagnosis of DLS, by determining the presences of the Pvu II and Xba I polymorphisms, measuring bone mineral densities at the lumbar spine (LSBMD) and femoral neck (FNBMD), and by investigating biochemical markers of bone turnover and comparing these results with those of 220 healthy normal controls. Genotype frequencies in DLS patients and controls revealed a significant difference for the Pvu II polymorphism only (p = 0.0287). No significant difference was found between the DLS and control groups with respect to the Xba I polymorphism, bone mineral density (BMD), or biochemical markers. Furthermore, no significant association was observed between the Pvu II polymorphism and BMD, lumbar scoliosis, lateral listhesis, or biochemical markers in patients with DLS. These results suggest that the ERα Pvu II polymorphism influences the prevalence of DLS.

  1. Association of interleukin 4 gene polymorphisms with dental implant loss.

    PubMed

    Pigossi, Suzane C; Alvim-Pereira, Fabiano; Alvim-Pereira, Claudia C K; Trevilatto, Paula C; Scarel-Caminaga, Raquel M

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between interleukin 4 (IL4) polymorphisms/haplotypes and dental implant loss. Two hundred and seventy eight (n = 278) unrelated patients were divided into 2 groups: (1) control group (C) composed of 186 individuals presenting at least 1 osseointegrated implant and (2) study group (S) composed of 94 individuals presenting at least 1 implant loss. After DNA collection, IL4 polymorphisms were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism and for the variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) only by PCR. No association between alleles/genotypes of -590 (C/T) (P = 0.9704/P = 0.5992) and VNTR (P = 0.7155/P = 0.8789) polymorphisms and implant loss were found between the groups. Regarding +33 (C/T) polymorphism, no difference was found in genotype frequency (P = 0.1288), but the C allele was associated with implant loss (P = 0.0236, odds ratio = 1.61, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-2.4). Haplotype analysis showed no statistical differences between the groups. The C allele of the +33 (C/T) polymorphism in the IL4 gene was associated with susceptibility to dental implant loss in Brazilians in the studied population.

  2. Gene Polymorphism Studies in a Teaching Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Jeffry

    2009-01-01

    I present a laboratory procedure for illustrating transcription, post-transcriptional modification, gene conservation, and comparative genetics for use in undergraduate biology education. Students are individually assigned genes in a targeted biochemical pathway, for which they design and test polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. In this…

  3. The Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphisms and Risk of Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Janne Kaergaard; Kraglund, Kristian Lundsgaard; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Mors, Ole; Andersen, Grethe; Buttenschøn, Henriette N

    2018-04-03

    Serotonin is known as a neurotransmitter; however, it also plays an important role in platelet aggregation as it is released upon platelet activation. The serotonin transporter (SERT) is responsible for the uptake of serotonin into platelets. Functional polymorphisms in the SERT gene may influence platelet activity, as they result in different levels of transporters and thereby different levels of serotonin in platelets. SERT gene polymorphisms have thus been associated with the risk of myocardial infarction. A similar association may exist between SERT gene polymorphisms and stroke. However, to our knowledge, this potential association has not previously been studied. We therefore aimed to investigate the association between polymorphisms in the SERT gene and the risk of ischemic stroke/transitory ischemic attack (TIA). We conducted a case-control study including 834 consecutively admitted first-ever Caucasian ischemic stroke patients/TIA from Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark and 571 healthy controls. The control group comprised a sample from the Danish working population, who were all employees in the public sector in the Central Denmark Region. Two polymorphisms, the length variation (short = S/long = L) in the serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region and a single-nucleotide (A/G) polymorphism (rs25531) were studied. The genotypes were grouped according to the functional activity: SS, SLG and LGLG (low expression), SLA, LGLA (medium expression), and LALA (high expression). Data were analyzed using logistic regression and results presented as OR with 95% CI. The high-expression genotype was associated with a lower risk of ischemic stroke/TIA when compared to both the medium expression genotype (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.56-0.93) and the low-expression genotype (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.55-1.01) as well as the combination of the low and medium expression genotypes (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.58-0.93). The lower OR estimates associated with the high-expression genotype were

  4. Gene polymorphisms of fibrinolytic enzymes in coal workers' pneumoconiosis

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, L.C.; Tseng, J.C.; Hua, C.C.

    2006-03-15

    The authors assessed the gene polymorphisms of missense C/T polymorphism in exon 6 of the urokinase-plasminogen activator (PLAU) gene (PLAU P141L), A/u-repeat in intron 8 of the tissue-type plasminogen activator (PLAT) gene (PLAT TPA25 Alu insertion), and 4G/5G in the promoter region of the serine proteinase inhibitor, clade E (SERPINE) or plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 gene (SERPINE1 -675 4G/5G) in 153 healthy volunteers and 154 retired coal miners with coal miners' pneumoconiosis (CWP). The CWP subjects included 94 individuals with simple pneumoconiosis and 60 individuals with progressive massive fibrosis presenting with worse pulmonary function. The distributions of genotypes ofmore » these three genes did not differ between the control and CWP subjects or between subjects with simple pneumoconiosis and those with progressive massive fibrosis. However, by assessing duration of work and its interaction with genotypes by means of logistic regression, the authors found the missense C/T polymorphism in exon 6 of the PLAU gene to be an effect modifier of the association between work duration and the development of progressive massive fibrosis.« less

  5. IL1 gene polymorphisms and unsuccessful dental implants.

    PubMed

    Vaz, P; Gallas, M M; Braga, A C; Sampaio-Fernandes, J C; Felino, A; Tavares, P

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to analyse the association between polymorphisms in the IL1 gene cluster and failure of dental implants in a Portuguese population. A total of 155 Caucasian Portuguese subjects were divided into two groups: 100 with successful dental implants and 55 with unsuccessful dental implants. DNA was obtained through an oral mucosa scraping. PCR was used to identify the polymorphisms: single nucleotide changes in positions -889 of IL1A gene and +3953 of IL1B gene. The prevalence of the polymorphisms -889IL1A gene and +3953IL1B gene, determined by the positive result of TGP (Genetic Test for Periodontitis; CGC, Genetics, Portugal), in the studied population rehabilitated with dental implants was of 33.50%. Allele 1 of the IL1B gene was the most prevalent (62.20%), followed by allele 1 of the IL1A gene (54.80%) and the least frequent was allele 2 of IL1B gene (37.40%). Success of dental implants was mainly associated with a negative TGP result, whereas no success was found to be related to a positive result. There were no statistically significant differences between the alleles 1 and 2 of the genes IL1A and IL1B and the tobacco and alcohol consumption for the success or no success of the dental implants. The alleles 1 and 2 of IL1A gene and the alleles 1 and 2 of IL1B gene were statistically associated with the success or no success of the dental implants. Tobacco habit and alcohol consumption showed no statistically significant association with success or no success of the dental implants. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Evaluation of GenoFlow Thrombophilia Array Test Kit in its detection of mutations in Factor V Leiden (G1691A), prothrombin G20210A, MTHFR C677T and A1298C in blood samples from 113 Turkish female patients.

    PubMed

    Aytekin, Ebru; Ergun, Sezen Guntekin; Ergun, Mehmet Ali; Percin, Ferda E

    2014-11-01

    Thrombophilia is a heritable blood disease characterized by an increased tendency to form abnormal blood clots that can block blood vessels. In obstetrics and gynecology, it has been shown by a number of reports that a proportion of recurrent miscarriages involve thrombophilia-related mutations, in particular, Factor V G1691A, prothrombin G20210A, and MTHFR C677T and A1298C. In this study, we examined the frequency of these four mutations in 113 female Turkish patients who had prior complications in pregnancy, using the DiagCor GenoFlow Thrombophilia Array Test kit. Heterozygous MTHFR C677T and A1298C mutations were detected in 46% of the patients, and among these patients, 60% of them carried double heterozygous mutations. In contrast, the heterozygous Factor V G1691A and prothrombin G20210A were detected only in a smaller number of patients, respectively, 13% and 3%. The GenoFlow kit demonstrated 100% concordance with results from Sanger sequencing, which can be translated into sensitivity and specificity both at 100% within this series of patients.

  7. NBN Gene Polymorphisms and Cancer Susceptibility: A Systemic Review

    PubMed Central

    Berardinelli, Francesco; di Masi, Alessandra; Antoccia, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between DNA repair failure and cancer is well established as in the case of rare, high penetrant genes in high cancer risk families. Beside this, in the last two decades, several studies have investigated a possible association between low penetrant polymorphic variants in genes devoted to DNA repair pathways and risk for developing cancer. This relationship would be also supported by the observation that DNA repair processes may be modulated by sequence variants in DNA repair genes, leading to susceptibility to environmental carcinogens. In this framework, the aim of this review is to provide the reader with the state of the art on the association between common genetic variants and cancer risk, limiting the attention to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the NBN gene and providing the various odd ratios (ORs). In this respect, the NBN protein, together with MRE11 and RAD50, is part of the MRN complex which is a central player in the very early steps of sensing and processing of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), in telomere maintenance, in cell cycle control, and in genomic integrity in general. So far, many papers were devoted to ascertain possible association between common synonymous and non-synonymous NBN gene polymorphisms and increased cancer risk. However, the results still remain inconsistent and inconclusive also in meta-analysis studies for the most investigated E185Q NBN miscoding variant. PMID:24396275

  8. Gene polymorphisms and the prevalence of key periodontal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Nibali, L; Ready, D R; Parkar, M; Brett, P M; Wilson, M; Tonetti, M S; Griffiths, G S

    2007-05-01

    Growing evidence suggests that individual genetic susceptibility may influence the host's response to infections. The aim of this project was to study whether gene polymorphisms of inflammatory markers are associated with the presence of viable periodontopathogenic bacteria. We extracted genomic DNA from 45 young adults diagnosed with generalized aggressive periodontitis to study Fc receptors, formyl peptide receptor, Interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and vitamin D receptor polymorphisms. The presence and viable numbers of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Tannerella forsythensis were determined by culture, and their identities confirmed by PCR. Multiple logistic regressions revealed that both Fcgamma receptor and IL-6 -174 polymorphisms were associated with increased odds of detecting A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, and T. forsythensis after adjustment for age, ethnicity, smoking, and periodontitis extent. These findings support the hypothesis that complex interactions between the microbiota and host genome may be at the basis of susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis.

  9. Gene-gene interactions and gene polymorphisms of VEGFA and EG-VEGF gene systems in recurrent pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Su, Mei-Tsz; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang; Chen, Yi-Chi; Kuo, Pao-Lin

    2014-06-01

    Both vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) systems play major roles in angiogenesis. A body of evidence suggests VEGFs regulate critical processes during pregnancy and have been associated with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). However, little information is available regarding the interaction of these two major major angiogenesis-related systems in early human pregnancy. This study was conducted to investigate the association of gene polymorphisms and gene-gene interaction among genes in VEGFA and EG-VEGF systems and idiopathic RPL. A total of 98 women with history of idiopathic RPL and 142 controls were included, and 5 functional SNPs selected from VEGFA, KDR, EG-VEGF (PROK1), PROKR1 and PROKR2 were genotyped. We used multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) analysis to choose a best model and evaluate gene-gene interactions. Ingenuity pathways analysis (IPA) was introduced to explore possible complex interactions. Two receptor gene polymorphisms [KDR (Q472H) and PROKR2 (V331M)] were significantly associated with idiopathic RPL (P<0.01). The MDR test revealed that the KDR (Q472H) polymorphism was the best loci to be associated with RPL (P=0.02). IPA revealed EG-VEGF and VEGFA systems shared several canonical signaling pathways that may contribute to gene-gene interactions, including the Akt, IL-8, EGFR, MAPK, SRC, VHL, HIF-1A and STAT3 signaling pathways. Two receptor gene polymorphisms [KDR (Q472H) and PROKR2 (V331M)] were significantly associated with idiopathic RPL. EG-VEGF and VEGFA systems shared several canonical signaling pathways that may contribute to gene-gene interactions, including the Akt, IL-8, EGFR, MAPK, SRC, VHL, HIF-1A and STAT3.

  10. Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Childhood Autism

    PubMed Central

    Cieślińska, Anna; Kostyra, Elżbieta; Chwała, Barbara; Moszyńska-Dumara, Małgorzata; Fiedorowicz, Ewa; Teodorowicz, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of heterogeneous, behaviorally defined disorders whereby currently no biological markers are common to all affected individuals. A deregulated immune response may be contributing to the etiology of ASD. The active metabolite of vitamin D3 has an immunoregulatory role mediated by binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in monocyte, macrophages, and lymphocytes. The effects of vitamin D and interaction with the VDR may be influenced by polymorphism in the VDR gene. Methods: Genetic association of four different VDR polymorphisms (Apa-I, Bsm-I, Taq-I, Fok-I) associated with susceptibility to the development of autism in children was investigated. Results: We uniquely found an association between the presence of the T allele at position Taq-I and presence of the a allele at position Apa-I of the VDR gene with decreased ASD incidence. There was also an association between female gender and the presence of the T allele. We found no statistical significant correlation between VDR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and vitamin D3 concentration in serum of ASD children. Conclusion: Genetic polymorphism in two SNP in VDR may be correlated with development of ASD symptoms by influencing functionality of vitamin D3 metabolism, while vitamin D3 levels were not significantly different between ASD and non-ASD children. PMID:28891930

  11. Do polymorphisms in chemosensory genes matter for human ingestive behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, John E.; Feeney, Emma L.; Allen, Alissa L.

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, basic research in chemoreceptor genetics and neurobiology have revolutionized our understanding of individual differences in chemosensation. From an evolutionary perspective, chemosensory variations appear to have arisen in response to different living environments, generally in the avoidance of toxins and to better detect vital food sources. Today, it is often assumed that these differences may drive variable food preferences and choices, with downstream effects on health and wellness. A growing body of evidence indicates chemosensory variation is far more complex than previously believed. However, just because a genetic polymorphism results in altered receptor function in cultured cells or even behavioral phenotypes in the laboratory, this variation may not be sufficient to influence food choice in free living humans. Still, there is ample evidence to indicate allelic variation in TAS2R38 predicts variation in bitterness of synthetic pharmaceuticals (e.g., propylthiouracil) and natural plant compounds (e.g., goitrin), and this variation associates with differential intake of alcohol and vegetables. Further, this is only one of 25 unique bitter taste genes (TAS2Rs) in humans, and emerging evidence suggests other TAS2Rs may also contain polymorphisms that a functional with respect to ingestive behavior. For example, TAS2R16 polymorphisms are linked to the bitterness of naturally occurring plant compounds and alcoholic beverage intake, a TAS2R19 polymorphism predicts differences in quinine bitterness and grapefruit bitterness and liking, and TAS2R31 polymorphisms associate with differential bitterness of plant compounds like aristolochic acid and the sulfonyl amide sweeteners saccharin and acesulfame-K. More critically with respect to food choices, these polymorphisms may vary independently from each other within and across individuals, meaning a monolithic one-size-fits-all approach to bitterness needs to be abandoned. Nor are genetic

  12. Do polymorphisms in chemosensory genes matter for human ingestive behavior?

    PubMed

    Hayes, John E; Feeney, Emma L; Allen, Alissa L

    2013-12-01

    In the last decade, basic research in chemoreceptor genetics and neurobiology have revolutionized our understanding of individual differences in chemosensation. From an evolutionary perspective, chemosensory variations appear to have arisen in response to different living environments, generally in the avoidance of toxins and to better detect vital food sources. Today, it is often assumed that these differences may drive variable food preferences and choices, with downstream effects on health and wellness. A growing body of evidence indicates chemosensory variation is far more complex than previously believed. However, just because a genetic polymorphism results in altered receptor function in cultured cells or even behavioral phenotypes in the laboratory, this variation may not be sufficient to influence food choice in free living humans. Still, there is ample evidence to indicate allelic variation in TAS2R38 predicts variation in bitterness of synthetic pharmaceuticals (e.g., propylthiouracil) and natural plant compounds (e.g., goitrin), and this variation associates with differential intake of alcohol and vegetables. Further, this is only one of 25 unique bitter taste genes ( TAS2Rs ) in humans, and emerging evidence suggests other TAS2Rs may also contain polymorphisms that a functional with respect to ingestive behavior. For example, TAS2R16 polymorphisms are linked to the bitterness of naturally occurring plant compounds and alcoholic beverage intake, a TAS2R19 polymorphism predicts differences in quinine bitterness and grapefruit bitterness and liking, and TAS2R31 polymorphisms associate with differential bitterness of plant compounds like aristolochic acid and the sulfonyl amide sweeteners saccharin and acesulfame-K. More critically with respect to food choices, these polymorphisms may vary independently from each other within and across individuals, meaning a monolithic one-size-fits-all approach to bitterness needs to be abandoned. Nor are genetic

  13. Analysis of DNA Repair Genes Polymorphisms in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Romanowicz, Hanna; Pyziak, Łukasz; Jabłoński, Filip; Bryś, Magdalena; Forma, Ewa; Smolarz, Beata

    2017-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms in the DNA repair genes may be associated with increased cancer risk. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of the DNA repair genes polymorphisms with the risk of breast cancer development. The study included 200 breast cancer patients and 200 healthy controls. The following polymorphisms were studied: C/G (Ser326Cys, rs1052133) of the hOGG1, A/C (IVS5 + 33, rs3212961) of the ERCC1, A/C (Lys939Gln, rs2228001) of the XPC, C/T (Thr241Met, rs861539) of the XRCC3, G/T (Leu787Leu, rs1800392) of the WRN and G/T (Ser307Ser, rs1056503) of the XRCC4 gene. Presented study showed statistically significant increase in the breast cancer development risk of the G/G hOGG1 genotype (OR 8.13; 95 % CI, 4.37-15.14; p < 0.001) and for the G hOGG1 allele (OR 5.11; 95 % CI, 3.69-7.06; p < 0.001), as well as for the C/C ERCC1 genotype (OR 10.61; 95 % CI, 5.72-19.69; p < 0.001) and the C ERCC1 allele (OR 4.66; 95 % CI, 3.43-6.34; p < 0.001) in patients with breast cancer in comparison with healthy control group. We also observed positive association of the C/C XPC genotype (OR 3.80; 95 % CI, 2.27-6.38; p < 0.001) as well as the C XPC allele occurrence with an increased breast cancer development risk (OR 2.65; 95 % CI, 1.98-3.55; p < 0.001). Furthermore, we found an association of the G/T WRN gene polymorphism with increased risk of carcinoma. The hOGG1, ERCC1, XPC and WRN genes polymorphisms may be related to development of breast cancer.

  14. Polymorphisms of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes involved in wine production.

    PubMed

    Vigentini, Ileana; Fracassetti, Daniela; Picozzi, Claudia; Foschino, Roberto

    2009-03-01

    The setting up of new molecular methods for Saccharomyces cerevisiae typing is valuable in enology. Actually, the ability to discriminate different strains in wine making can have a benefit both for the control of the fermentation process and for the preservation of wine typicity. This study focused on the screening of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes involved in wine production that could evolve rapidly considering the selective pressure of the isolation environment. Preliminary screening of 30 genes in silico was performed, followed by the selection of 10 loci belonging to 8 genes. The sequence analysis showed a low polymorphism and a degree of heterozygosity. However, a new potential molecular target was recognized in the TPS1 gene coding for the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase enzyme involved in the ethanol resistance mechanism. This gene showed a 1.42% sequence diversity with seven different nucleotide substitutions. Moreover, classic techniques were applied to a collection of 50 S. cerevisiae isolates, mostly with enologic origin. Our results confirmed that the wine making was not carried out only by the inoculated commercial starter because indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae present during fermentation were detected. In addition, a high genetic relationship among some commercial cultures was found, highlighting imprecision or fraudulent practices by starter manufacturers.

  15. Folate and Breast Cancer: Role of Intake, Blood Levels and Metabolic Gene Polymorphisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    those with MTHFR , MTR, and MTRR polymorphisms. The specific aims of this postdoctoral training proposal are 1) further methodological training in the...analysis of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions by studying folate intake and folate metabolic gene polymorphisms ( MTHFR , MTR, MTRR) using data

  16. Polymorphism in ABC transporter genes of Dirofilaria immitis.

    PubMed

    Mani, Thangadurai; Bourguinat, Catherine; Prichard, Roger K

    2017-08-01

    Dirofilaria immitis, a filarial nematode, causes dirofilariasis in dogs, cats and occasionally in humans. Prevention of the disease has been mainly by monthly use of the macrocyclic lactone (ML) endectocides during the mosquito transmission season. Recently, ML resistance has been confirmed in D. immitis and therefore, there is a need to find new classes of anthelmintics. One of the mechanisms associated with ML resistance in nematodes has been the possible role of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters in reducing drug concentrations at receptor sites. ABC transporters, mainly from sub-families B, C and G, may contribute to multidrug resistance (MDR) by active efflux of drugs out of the cell. Gene products of ABC transporters may thus serve as the targets for agents that may modulate susceptibility to drugs, by inhibiting drug transport. ABC transporters are believed to be involved in a variety of physiological functions critical to the parasite, such as sterol transport, and therefore may also serve as the target for drugs that can act as anthelmintics on their own. Knowledge of polymorphism in these ABC transporter genes in nematode parasites could provide useful information for the process of drug design. We have identified 15 ABC transporter genes from sub-families A, B, C and G, in D. immitis, by comparative genomic approaches and analyzed them for polymorphism. Whole genome sequencing data from four ML susceptible (SUS) and four loss of efficacy (LOE) pooled populations were used for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. Out of 231 SNPs identified in those 15 ABC transporter genes, 89 and 75 of them were specific to the SUS or LOE populations, respectively. A few of the SNPs identified may affect gene expression, protein function, substrate specificity or resistance development and may be useful for transporter inhibitor/anthelmintic drug design, or in order to anticipate resistance development. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by

  17. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) hemoglobin genes: multiplicity and polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Borza, Tudor; Stone, Cynthia; Gamperl, A Kurt; Bowman, Sharen

    2009-01-01

    Background Hemoglobin (Hb) polymorphism, assessed by protein gel electrophoresis, has been used almost exclusively to characterize the genetic structure of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) populations and to establish correlations with phenotypic traits such as Hb oxygen binding capacity, temperature tolerance and growth characteristics. The genetic system used to explain the results of gel electrophoresis entails the presence of one polymorphic locus with two major alleles (HbI-1; HbI-2). However, vertebrates have more than one gene encoding Hbs and recent studies have reported that more than one Hb gene is present in Atlantic cod. These observations prompted us to re-evaluate the number of Hb genes expressed in Atlantic cod, and to perform an in depth search for polymorphisms that might produce relevant phenotypes for breeding programs. Results Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) led to the identification of nine distinct Hb transcripts; four corresponding to the α Hb gene family and five to the β Hb gene family. To gain insights about the Hb genes encoding these transcripts, genomic sequence data was generated from heterozygous (HbI-1/2) parents and fifteen progeny; five of each HbI type, i.e., HbI-1/1, HbI-1/2 and HbI-2/2. β Hb genes displayed more polymorphism than α Hb genes. Two major allele types (β1A and β1B) that differ by two linked non-synonymous substitutions (Met55Val and Lys62Ala) were found in the β1 Hb gene, and the distribution of these β1A and β1B alleles among individuals was congruent with that of the HbI-1 and HbI-2 alleles determined by protein gel electrophoresis. RT-PCR and Q-PCR analysis of the nine Hb genes indicates that all genes are expressed in adult fish, but their level of expression varies greatly; higher expression of almost all Hb genes was found in individuals displaying the HbI-2/2 electrophoretic type. Conclusion This study indicates that more Hb genes are present and expressed in adult Atlantic cod than previously

  18. Glutathione S-transferase gene polymorphisms in presbycusis.

    PubMed

    Ateş, Nurcan Aras; Unal, Murat; Tamer, Lülüfer; Derici, Ebru; Karakaş, Sevim; Ercan, Bahadir; Pata, Yavuz Selim; Akbaş, Yücel; Vayisoğlu, Yusuf; Camdeviren, Handan

    2005-05-01

    Glutathione and glutathione-related antioxidant enzymes are involved in the metabolism and detoxification of cytotoxic and carcinogenic compounds as well as reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species generation occurs in prolonged relative hypoperfusion conditions such as in aging. The etiology of presbycusis is much less certain; however, a complex genetic cause is most likely. The effect of aging shows a wide interindividual range; we aimed to investigate whether profiles of (glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1, T1 and P1 genotypes may be associated with the risk of age-related hearing loss. We examined 68 adults with presbycusis and 69 healthy controls. DNA was extracted from whole blood, and the GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms were determined using a real-time polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence resonance energy transfer with a Light-Cycler Instrument. Associations between specific genotypes and the development of presbycusis were examined by use of logistic regression analyses to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Gene polymorphisms at GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 in subjects with presbycusis were not significantly different than in the controls (p > 0.05). Also, the combinations of different GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 genotypes were not an increased risk of presbycusis (p > 0.05). We could not demonstrate any significant association between the GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 polymorphism and age-related hearing loss in this population. This may be because of our sample size, and further studies need to investigate the exact role of GST gene polymorphisms in the etiopathogenesis of the presbycusis.

  19. Leptin gene tetranucleotide repeat polymorphism in obese individuals in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elbaz, Rizk; Dawood, Nahed; Mostafa, Hala; Zaki, Somaia; Wafa, Alaa; Settin, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Leptin is a peptide hormone secreted by the adipose tissue. Genetic mutations of the leptin gene were reported to cause severe obesity. This study was undertaken to investigate the association of the polymorphic tetranucleotide repeat locus 3' UTR of leptin gene with obesity in Egyptian cases. This study has included 120 subjects affected with obesity 57 of them were consistent with the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MS) while the rest (63) had simple obesity. These cases were compared to 83 normal weight healthy controls. All participants were subjected to an estimation of their body mass index (BMI), waist hip ratio (WHR), serum as well as characterization of leptin gene tetranucleotide repeat (TTTC)n polymorphism by PCR technique. Thirteen different alleles were identified in all cases of obesity versus only 5 alleles in normal controls. The most frequent allele was the 154 bp allele (57.5% in all cases of obesity vs. 92.2% in controls). Total cases with obesity showed a significantly higher carriage rate of class II alleles (I/II + II/II genotypes) compared to healthy controls (48.3% vs. 6.0%, OR=14.6, 95% CI=5.5-38.6, p=<0.0001). This was more apparent in the group with simple obesity (52.3% vs. 6.0%, OR=17.2, 95% CI=6.1-48.1, p=<0.0001) than in MS cases (43.9 % vs. 6.0 %, OR =12.19, 95% CI=4.9-30.4, p=< 0.0001). Interestingly, cases with MS did not differ from those with simple obesity regarding their class I or II allele frequencies (p> 0.05). Although serum lipids were significantly higher in obese cases compared to controls, no difference was found among obese cases with different leptin gene class genotypes (p> 0.05). Tetranucleotide repeat (TTTC)n polymorphism in the 3' UTR of the human leptin gene was associated with obesity in Egyptian obese cases showing higher class II allele carriage rate. However, the lipoprotein levels were not affected by this polymorphism.

  20. Association of oxidative stress gene polymorphisms with presbycusis.

    PubMed

    Manche, Santoshi Kumari; Jangala, Madhavi; Putta, Padmavathi; Koralla, Raja Meganadh; Akka, Jyothy

    2016-11-30

    Presbycusis is characterised by etiopathological changes in the cochlea of the inner ear due to genetic and environmental factors and has a serious impact on quality of life. The present study was aimed to evaluate the role of oxidant stress gene polymorphisms in the development of presbycusis. 220 subjects with confirmed presbycusis from ENT specialists of MAA ENT hospital, Hyderabad, India from 2012 to 2014 were considered for the study. 270 age and sex matched controls were included in the study. Analysis of gene polymorphisms of SNPs cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) 3801 T>C, 2455 A>G and 2453 A>C; glutathione S transferase (GST) T1 and M1; N-acetyl transferase (NAT2) 282 C>T and 857 G>A; uncoupled proteins (UCP1) (-3826) A>G and (UCP2) (866)G>A was carried out. Variations in the allelic and genotypic frequencies obtained were computed and analysed using appropriate statistical methods. The results of the study indicated that CYP1A1 gene polymorphism at 2453 C>A (adjusted OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.01-2.87) and 2455 A>G (adjusted OR: 1.87, 95% CI: 1.07-3.37), double null genotype of GSTM1 and GSTT1 (adjusted OR: 8.88, 95% CI: 4.10-19.19), NAT2 gene at C282T (adjusted OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.02-3.11) and G590 A (adjusted OR: 1.83, 95% CI 1.20-3.63) and UCP2 (-866) G>A (adjusted OR: 12.39; 95% CI: 6.51-23.56) showed increased risk for presbycusis while CYP1A1 at 3801 T>C and UCP1 (-3286) A>G exhibited no association. The haplotype combinations of T-G-A of CYP1A1 at 3801, 2455 and 2453 positions as well as T-A of NAT2*6 at 282 and 590 positions were found to contribute significant risk for the onset of presbycusis. Gene polymorphisms of CYP1A1 (A2455G, C2453A), NAT2*6 (C282T, G590 A), GST T1/M1 (double null genotype) and UCP2 (G-866 A) were found to contribute significant risk to presbycusis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Association of cytokine gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to invasive candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Sun, R T; Tian, W J; Xing, X W; Gao, S H; Wang, S B

    2015-06-18

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of cytokine genes in the susceptibility to Candida infection. A total of 275 consecutive patients diagnosed with Candida infection were selected between May 2010 and May 2011, along with 305 uninfected controls. Genotyping of the IL-1β gene polymorphisms (IL1β) rs1143634, IL1βrs16944, IL8 rs4073, IL10 rs1800872, and IL10 rs1800896 was carried out using a 384-well plate format on the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Patients with invasive Candida infections were more likely to have had an immunocompromised state, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, solid organ transplant, solid tumor, chemotherapy within the past three months, neutropenia, surgery within the past 30 days, acute renal failure, liver failure, and/or median baseline serum creatinine. Conditional logistic regression analyses found that individuals with the rs1800896 GG genotype were associated with a higher risk of invasive Candida infections than those carrying the AA genotype (odds ratio = 0.61, 95% confidence interval = 0.37-0.94). From the results of this case-control study, we suggest that the cytokine IL-10 gene rs1800896 polymorphism might play a role in the etiology of invasive Candida infections.

  2. TNFα gene polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Kornélia; Tax, Gábor; Teodorescu-Brinzeu, Dragos; Koreck, Andrea; Kemény, Lajos

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in acne pathogenesis, and pro-inflammatory cytokines are key factors in these events. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is a central molecule coded by a gene that shows high level of genetic polymorphisms especially in its promoter region. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TNFα gene have been shown to be associated with an increased risk to develop chronic inflammatory diseases. In order to find out if known TNFα regulatory SNPs (-1031T>C, -857C>T, -863C>A, -308G>A, -238G>A) have a role in the development of the inflammatory reactions in acne vulgaris, we analyzed our genomic collection in a retrospective case-control study using the PCR-RFLP method, and we compared the resulting genotype and allele frequencies. There were no significant differences in the observed genotype or allele frequencies between the control and acne group in case of the -1031, -863, -238 SNPs; however, the TNFα -857 minor T allele was found to act as a protective factor in our study population in acne, and a higher occurrence of the minor -308 A allele in female acne patients was also noted. Genetic variants of the TNFα gene may affect the risk of acne vulgaris. Our results can help to elucidate the molecular events leading to acne development.

  3. Angiotensin converting enzyme gene polymorphism in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, B; Peric, S.; Ross, D.

    1994-09-01

    An insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) gene is a useful predictor of human plasma ACE levels. ACE levels tend to be lowest in subjects with ACE genotype DD and intermediate in subjects with ACE genotype ID. Angiotensin II (Ang II) as a product of ACE is a cardiac growth factor and produces a marked hypertrophy of the chick myocyte in cell culture. Rat experiments also suggest that a small dose of ACE inhibitor that does not affect the afterload results in prevention or regression of cardiac hypertrophy. In order to study the relationship of ACEmore » and the severity of hypertrophy, the ACE genotype has been determined in 28 patients with a clinical diagnosis of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC) and 51 normal subjects. The respective frequencies of I and D alleles were: 0.52 and 0.48 (in FHC patients) and 0.44 and 0.56 (in the normal controls). There was no significant difference in the allele frequencies between FHC and normal subjects ({chi}{sup 2}=0.023, p>0.05). The II, ID, and DD genotypes were present in 7, 15, and 6 FHC patients, respectively. The averages of maximal thickness of the interventricular septum measured by echocardiography or at autopsy were 18 {plus_minus}3, 19{plus_minus}4, and 19{plus_minus}3 mm in II, ID and DD genotypes, respectively. The ACE gene polymorphism did not correlate with the severity of left ventricular hypertrophy in FHC patients (r{sub s}=0.231, p>0.05). These results do not necessarily exclude the possible effect of Ang II on the hypertrophy since the latter may be produced through the action of chymase in the human ventricles. However, ACE gene polymorphism is not a useful predictor of the severity of myocardial hypertrophy in FHC patients.« less

  4. Polymorphisms in cyclooxygenase-2 gene in endometrial cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Torricelli, Federica; Mandato, Vincenzo Dario; Farnetti, Enrico; Abrate, Martino; Casali, Bruno; Ciarlini, Gino; Pirillo, Debora; Gelli, Maria Carolina; Costagliola, Luigi; Nicoli, Davide; Palomba, Stefano; La Sala, Giovanni Battista

    2015-09-01

    The enzyme cyclooxygenase 2 is an inducible enzyme expressed at sites of inflammation and in a variety of malignant solid tumors such as endometrial cancer (EC). In EC patients, its over-expression is correlated with progressive disease and poor prognosis. The expression is encoded by a polymorphic gene, called PTGS2. The aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that rs5275 polymorphism of PTGS2 influence the prognosis of EC patients. This paper is a retrospective cohort study. Clinical and pathological data were extrapolated and genotypes were assessed on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded non-tumor tissues. A total of 159 type I EC patients were included in the final analysis. Univariate analysis indicated that patients with rs5275 genotype CC have a lower risk to develop a grade (G) 2-3 endometrial cancer. rs5275 effect on EC grading was confirmed by multivariate analysis also after data adjusting for age, BMI, parity, hypertension, and diabetes. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) confirmed that patients with rs5275 genotype CC have a risk 80 % lower (OR = 0.20, P = 0.009) to develop a G2 and/or G3 EC in comparison with patients with TT or TC genotype. Differentiation of the type 1 EC is significantly and independently influenced by rs5275 polymorphism. rs5275 CC patients have a lower risk to present a G2-G3 EC.

  5. [Progesterone receptor gene polymorphism and recurrent spontaneous abortion].

    PubMed

    Traina, Evelyn; Daher, Silvia; Franchim, Camila Sommerauer; Fuziy, Juliana Aoki; Moron, Antônio Fernandes; Banzato, Priscilla Chamelete Andrade; Mattar, Rosiane

    2010-05-01

    To assess a possible association between polymorphism of the progesterone receptor gene (PROGINS) and recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). In this case-control study, 85 women with at least three previous spontaneous abortions without an identifiable cause (RSA Group) and 157 women with at least two previous term pregnancies without pathologies and no previous miscarriage (Control Group) were selected. An amount of 10 mL of peripheral blood was collected by venipuncture and genomic DNA was extracted by the DTAB/CTAB method, followed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) under specific conditions for this polymorphism and by amplification by 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. The bands were visualized with an ultraviolet light transilluminator and the gels were photographed. Differences in the PROGINS genotype and allele frequencies between groups were analyzed by the χ² test, with the level of significance set at p<0.05. The Odds Ratio (OR) was also used, with 95% confidence intervals 95%CI. PROGINS genotypic frequencies were 72.3% T1T1 and 27.7% T1T2 for the RSA group and 76.4% T1T1, 22.3% T1T2 and 1.3% T2T2 for the control group. There were no differences between groups when the genotype and allele frequencies were analyzed: respectively p=0.48 (OR: 0.8) and p=0.65 (OR: 0.9). Our results suggest that PROGINS polymorphism is not associated with RSA.

  6. T cell cytokine gene polymorphisms in canine diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Short, Andrea D; Catchpole, Brian; Kennedy, Lorna J; Barnes, Annette; Lee, Andy C; Jones, Chris A; Fretwell, Neale; Ollier, William E R

    2009-03-15

    Insulin-deficiency diabetes in dogs shares some similarities with human latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA). Canine diabetes is likely to have a complex pathogenesis with multiple genes contributing to overall susceptibility and/or disease progression. An association has previously been shown between canine diabetes and MHC class II genes, although other genes are also likely to contribute to the genetic risk. Potential diabetes susceptibility genes include immuno-regulatory TH1/TH2 cytokines such as IFNgamma, IL-12, IL-4 and IL-10. We screened these candidate genes for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a range of different dog breeds using dHPLC analysis and DNA sequencing. Thirty-eight of the SNPs were genotyped in crossbreed dogs and seven other breed groups (Labrador Retriever, West Highland White Terrier, Collie, Schnauzer, Cairn Terrier, Samoyed and Cavalier King Charles Spaniel), which demonstrated substantial intra-breed differences in allele frequencies. When SNPs were examined for an association with diabetes by case:control analysis significant associations were observed for IL-4 in three breeds, the Collie, Cairn Terrier and Schnauzer and for IL-10 in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel. These results suggest that canine cytokine genes regulating the TH1/TH2 immune balance might play a contributory role in determining susceptibility to diabetes in some breeds.

  7. Polymorphisms in inflammatory genes, plasma antioxidants, and prostate cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianjun; Dhakal, Ishwori B.; Lang, Nicholas P.; Kadlubar, Fred F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Presence of xenotropic murine leukemia virus–related virus and chronic inflammation in prostate tumor suggests that inflammation plays a role in prostate cancer etiology. This study investigated whether variants in inflammatory genes act alone or interact with plasma antioxidants to influence prostate cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in Central Arkansas. Methods Cases (n = 193) were men, aged 40–80, diagnosed with prostate cancer in three major hospitals in 1998–2003, and controls (n = 197) were matched to cases by age, race, and county of residence. Results After adjustment for confounders, polymorphisms in COX-2 (rs689466) and IL-8 (rs4073) were not significantly associated with prostate cancer risk. However, apparent interactions were observed between these genetic variants and plasma antioxidants on the risk of this malignancy. The protective effect of the mutant allele of the COX-2 polymorphism was more pronounced among subjects with high plasma levels of β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, β-carotene, or selenium (≥median) [e.g., OR (95% CI): 0.37 (0.15, 0.86) (AG/GG vs. AA) for β-cryptoxanthin]. Conversely, the promoting effect of the variant allele of the IL-8 polymorphism was more remarkable in subjects with low plasma levels of Lutein/zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, and β-carotene (genes interact with plasma antioxidants to modulate prostate cancer risk. PMID:20431935

  8. Bovine gene polymorphisms related to fat deposition and meat tenderness

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Leptin, thyroglobulin and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase play important roles in fat metabolism. Fat deposition has an influence on meat quality and consumers' choice. The aim of this study was to determine allele and genotype frequencies of polymorphisms of the bovine genes, which encode leptin (LEP), thyroglobulin (TG) and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1). A further objective was to establish the effects of these polymorphisms on meat characteristics. We genotyped 147 animals belonging to the Nelore (Bos indicus), Canchim (5/8 Bos taurus + 3/8 Bos indicus), Rubia Gallega X Nelore (1/2 Bos taurus + 1/2 Bos indicus), Brangus Three-way cross (9/16 Bos taurus + 7/16 Bos indicus) and Braunvieh Three-way cross (3/4 Bos taurus + 1/4 Bos indicus) breeds. Backfat thickness, total lipids, marbling score, ribeye area and shear force were fitted, using the General Linear Model (GLM) procedure of the SAS software. The least square means of genotypes and genetic groups were compared using Tukey's test. Allele frequencies vary among the genetic groups, depending on Bos indicus versus Bos taurus influence. The LEP polymorphism segregates in pure Bos indicus Nelore animals, which is a new finding. The T allele of TG is fixed in Nelore, and DGAT1 segregates in all groups, but the frequency of allele A is lower in Nelore animals. The results showed no association between the genotypes and traits studied, but a genetic group effect on these traits was found. So, the genetic background remains relevant for fat deposition and meat tenderness, but the gene markers developed for Bos taurus may be insufficient for Bos indicus. PMID:21637649

  9. Polymorphism in the interferon-{alpha} gene family

    SciTech Connect

    Golovleva, I.; Lundgren, E.; Beckman, L.

    1996-09-01

    A pronounced genetic polymorphism of the interferon type I gene family has been assumed on the basis of RFLP analysis of the genomic region as well as the large number of sequences published compared to the number of loci. However, IFNA2 is the only locus that has been carefully analyzed concerning gene frequency, and only naturally occurring rare alleles have been found. We have extended the studies on a variation of expressed sequences by studying the IFNA1, IFNA2, IFNA10, IFNA13, IFNA14, and IFNA17 genes. Genomic white-blood-cell DNA from a population sample of blood donors and from a family material weremore » screened by single-nucleotide primer extension (allele-specific primer extension) of PCR fragments. Because of sequence similarities, in some cases {open_quotes}nested{close_quotes} PCR was used, and, when applicable, restriction analysis or control sequencing was performed. All individuals carried the interferon-{alpha} 1 and interferon-{alpha} 13 variants but not the LeIF D variant. At the IFNA2 and IFNA14 loci only one sequence variant was found, while in the IFNA10 and IFNA17 groups two alleles were detected in each group. The IFNA10 and IFNA17 alleles segregated in families and showed a close fit to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There was a significant linkage disequilibrium between IFNA10 and IFNA17 alleles. The fact that the extent of genetic polymorphism was lower than expected suggests that a majority of the previously described gene sequences represent nonpolymorphic rare mutants that may have arisen in tumor cell lines. 44 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.« less

  10. Phosphodiesterase 4D gene polymorphisms in sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Chien, Chen-Yu; Tai, Shu-Yu; Wang, Ling-Feng; Hsi, Edward; Chang, Ning-Chia; Wang, Hsun-Mo; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Ho, Kuen-Yao

    2016-09-01

    The phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) gene has been reported as a risk gene for ischemic stroke. The vascular factors are between the hypothesized etiologies of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL), and this genetic effect might be attributed for its role in SSNHL. We hypothesized that genetic variants of the PDE4D gene are associated with susceptibility to SSNHL. We conducted a case-control study with 362 SSNHL cases and 209 controls. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected. The genotypes were determined using TaqMan technology. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was tested for each SNP, and genetic effects were evaluated according to three inheritance modes. We carried out sex-specific analysis to analyze the overall data. All three SNPs were in HWE. When subjects were stratified by sex, the genetic effect was only evident in females but not in males. The TT genotype of rs702553 exhibited an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 3.83 (95 % confidence interval = 1.46-11.18) (p = 0.006) in female SSNHL. The TT genotype of SNP rs702553 was associated with female SSNHL under the recessive model (p = 0.004, OR 3.70). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, TT genotype of rs702553 was significantly associated with female SSNHL (p = 0.0043, OR 3.70). These results suggest that PDE4D gene polymorphisms influence the susceptibility for the development of SSNHL in the southern Taiwanese female population.

  11. N-acetyltransferase 2 gene polymorphism and presbycusis.

    PubMed

    Unal, Murat; Tamer, Lülüfer; Doğruer, Zeynep Nil; Yildirim, Hatice; Vayisoğlu, Yusuf; Camdeviren, Handan

    2005-12-01

    The enzyme of N-acetyltransferase (NAT) is involved in the metabolism and detoxification of cytotoxic and carcinogenic compounds as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS). The excessive amount of ROS generation occurs in the ageing inner ear. The exact etiopathogenesis of presbycusis is not known, but it is generally accepted that it is the result of series of insults, such as physiologic age-related degeneration, noise exposure, medical disorders and their treatment, as well as hereditary susceptibility. The effect of aging shows a wide interindividual range; we aimed to investigate whether profiles of NAT2 genotypes may be associated with the risk of presbycusis. Hospital-based, case-control study. We examined 68 adults with presbycusis and 98 healthy controls. DNA was extracted from whole blood, and the polymorphisms of NAT2*5A, NAT2*6A, NAT2*7A/B, and NAT2*14A were determined using a real-time polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence resonance energy transfer with a Light-Cycler Instrument. Associations between specific genotypes and the development of presbycusis were examined by use of logistic regression analyses to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Gene polymorphisms at NAT2*5A, NAT2*7A/B, and NAT2*14A in subjects with presbycusis were not significantly different from in the controls (P > .05). However, in NAT2*6A, the risk of presbycusis was 15.2-fold more in individuals with mutant allele than subjects with wild genotype (P = .013). Individuals with NAT2*6A heterozygote allele had a 0.34-fold less risk in the development of presbycusis than subjects with mutant allele (P = .032) We demonstrated a significant association between the NAT2*6A polymorphism and age-related hearing loss in this population. However, the sample size was relatively small, and further studies need to investigate the exact role of NAT2 gene polymorphism in the etiopathogenesis of the presbycusis.

  12. Impact of estrogen receptor α gene and oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms on female sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Armeni, Anastasia K; Assimakopoulos, Konstantinos; Marioli, Dimitra; Koika, Vassiliki; Michaelidou, Euthychia; Mourtzi, Niki; Iconomou, Gregoris

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decades, research attention has increasingly been paid to the neurobiological component of sexual behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation of estrogen receptor α (ERA) gene polymorphism (rs2234693-PvuII) (T→C substitution) and oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism (rs53576) (G→A substitution) with sexuality parameters of young, healthy women. One hundred thirty-three Greek heterosexual women, students in higher education institutions, 20–25 years of age, sexually active, with normal menstrual cycles (28–35 days), were recruited in the study. Exclusion criteria were chronic and/or major psychiatric diseases, use of oral contraceptive pills (OCs), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid diseases as well as drugs that are implicated in hypothalamus–pituitary–gonadal axis. T allele (wildtype) of rs2234693 (PvuII) polymorphism of ERA gene was correlated with increased levels of arousal and lubrication, whereas A allele (polymorphic) of rs53576 (OXTR) polymorphism was correlated with increased arousal levels. The simultaneous presence of both T allele of rs2234693 (PvuII) and A allele of rs53576 (OXTR) polymorphisms (T + A group) was correlated with increased arousal, orgasm levels as well as female sexual function index full score. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the interaction between ERA and OXTR with regard to sexual function in women. Female sexuality is a complex behavioral trait that encompasses both biological and psychological components. It seems that variability in female sexual response stems from genetic variability that characterizes endocrine, neurotransmitter and central nervous system influences. PMID:28069897

  13. Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance-1 gene polymorphism in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Faway, Emilie; Musset, Lise; Pelleau, Stéphane; Volney, Béatrice; Casteras, Jessica; Caro, Valérie; Menard, Didier; Briolant, Sébastien; Legrand, Eric

    2016-11-08

    Plasmodium vivax malaria is a major public health problem in French Guiana. Some cases of resistance to chloroquine, the first-line treatment used against P. vivax malaria, have been described in the Brazilian Amazon region. The aim of this study is to investigate a possible dispersion of chloroquine-resistant P. vivax isolates in French Guiana. The genotype, polymorphism and copy number variation, of the P. vivax multidrug resistance gene-1 (pvmdr1) have been previously associated with modification of the susceptibility to chloroquine. The pvmdr1 gene polymorphism was evaluated by sequencing and copy number variation was assessed by real-time PCR, in P. vivax isolates obtained from 591 symptomatic patients from 1997 to 2013. The results reveal that 1.0% [95% CI 0.4-2.2] of French Guiana isolates carry the mutations Y976F and F1076L, and that the proportion of isolates with multiple copies of pvmdr1 has significantly decreased over time, from 71.3% (OR = 6.2 [95% CI 62.9-78.7], p < 0.0001) in 1997-2004 to 12.8% (OR = 0.03 [95% CI 9.4-16.9], p < 0.0001) in 2009-2013. A statistically significant relationship was found between Guf-A (harboring the single mutation T958M) and Sal-1 (wild type) alleles and pvmdr1 copy number. Few P. vivax isolates harboring chloroquine-resistant mutations in the pvmdr1 gene are circulating in French Guiana. However, the decrease in the prevalence of isolates carrying multiple copies of pvmdr1 might indicate that the P. vivax population in French Guiana is evolving towards a decreased susceptibility to chloroquine.

  14. [Prevalence of gene polymorphisms associated with immune-dependent diseases in the populations of North Eurasia].

    PubMed

    Cherednichenko, A A; Trifonova, E A; Vagaitseva, K V; Bocharova, A V; Varzari, A M; Radzhabov, M O; Stepanov, V A

    2015-01-01

    The data on distribution of genetic diversity in gene polymorphisms associated with autoimmune and allergic diseases and with regulation of immunoglobulin E and cytokines levels in 26 populations of the Northern Eurasia is presented. Substantial correlation between the values of average expected heterozygosity by 44 gene polymorphisms with climatic and geographical factors has not been revealed. Clustering of population groups in correspondence with their geographic locations is observed. The degree of gene differentiation among populations and the selective neutrality of gene polymorphisms have been assessed. The results of our work evidence the substantial genetic diversity and differentiation of human populations by studied genes.

  15. Detoxification genes polymorphisms in SIDS exposed to tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Filonzi, Laura; Magnani, Cinzia; Lavezzi, Anna Maria; Vaghi, Marina; Nosetti, Luana; Nonnis Marzano, Francesco

    2018-03-30

    The best hypothesis to explain Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) pathogenesis is offered by the "triple risk model", which suggests that an interaction of different variables related to exogenous stressors and infant vulnerability may lead to the syndrome. Environmental factors are triggers that act during a particular sensible period, modulated by intrinsic genetic characteristics. Although literature data show that one of the major SIDS risk factors is smoking exposure, a specific involvement of molecular components has never been highlighted. Starting from these observations and considering the role of GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes functional polymorphisms in the detoxification process, we analyzed GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotype frequencies in 47 SIDS exposed to tobacco smoke and 75 healthy individuals. A significant association (p < .0001) between the GSTM1 null genotype and SIDS exposed to smoke was found. On the contrary, no association between GSTT1 polymorphism and SIDS was determined. Results indicated the contribution of the GSTM1 -/- genotype resulting in null detoxification activity in SIDS cases, and led to a better comprehension of the triple risk model, highlighting smoking exposure as a real SIDS risk factor on a biochemical basis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Association of Cytokine Gene Polymorphism with Peri-implantitis Risk.

    PubMed

    Petkovic-Curcin, Aleksandra; Zeljic, Katarina; Cikota-Aleksic, Bojana; Dakovic, Dragana; Tatic, Zoran; Magic, Zvonko

    To investigate whether polymorphisms of cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin (IL)6, IL10, and IL1ra genes are associated with the risk of peri-implantitis susceptibility in patients with dental implants in the Serbian population. Isolated DNA from the blood was used for IL10-1082, TNFα-308, IL6-174, CD14-159, and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL1ra) genotyping using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methodology. Clinical parameters included: peri-implant pocket depth (PPD), Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), and radiologic bone loss. The study included 98 patients with dental implants in function for at least 1 year, divided into peri-implantitis (34) and healthy peri-implant tissue (64) groups. The percentage distribution of smokers was significantly different between patients who developed peri-implantitis and patients with healthy peri-implant tissue (71% vs 42%, respectively) and associated with increased peri-implantitis risk (OR: 3.289, 95% CI: 1.352 to 8.001; P = .007). A positive history of periodontitis was more frequent in the peri-implantitis group (62%) than in the healthy peri-implant tissue (20%) group and associated with increased peri-implantitis risk (OR: 6.337, 95% CI: 2.522 to 15.927; P = .0001). Frequencies of CD14-159, TNFα-308, IL10-1082, and IL6-174 genotypes were significantly different between patients with and without peri-implantitis. However, logistic regression revealed only TNFα-308 polymorphic GA/AA genotypes (OR: 8.890, 95% CI: 2.15 to 36.7; P = .003) and smoking (OR: 6.2, 95% CI: 1.44 to 26.7; P = .014) as independent factors associated with increased peri-implantitis risk, while CD14-159 polymorphic CT/TT genotypes were associated with decreased risk for peri-implantitis (OR: 0.059, 95% CI: 0.009 to 0.355; P = .002). The findings suggest that smoking and the presence of TNFα-308 GA/AA genotypes may increase the risk for peri

  17. IRAK4 gene polymorphism and odontogenic maxillary sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Inês Guerra; Vaz, Paula; Almeida, Ricardo Faria; Braga, Ana Cristina; Felino, António

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether a specific interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-4 (IRAK4) gene polymorphism had any influence on the development of changes in maxillary sinus, particularly in the presence of etiological factors of dental origin. The study population included 153 Portuguese Caucasians that were selected from a database of 504 retrospectively analysed computed tomography (CT) scans. A genetic test was performed, and a model was created through logistic analysis and regression coefficients. The statistical methodologies included were the independent Chi test, Fisher's exact test, binary logistic regression and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The estimated prevalence of IRAK4 gene polymorphism found in a Portuguese Caucasian population was 26.8 % (CI 95%) [20.1, 34.7 %]. A model to predict the inflammatory response in the maxillary sinus in the presence etiological factors of dental origin was constructed. This model had the following as variables: previously diagnosed sinusitis, sinus pressure symptoms, cortical bone loss observed on CT, positive genetic test result and radiographic examination that revealed the roots of the teeth communication with the maxillary sinus, which are interpreted as risk factors. The constructed model should be considered an initial clinical tool. The area under the ROC curve found, AUC = 0.91, revealed that the model correctly predicts the outcome in 91.1% of cases. The clinical relevance of this study lies in trying to achieve a potential tool (a model) that may assist the clinician in the implementation of suitable dental treatment plans in complex cases, with probable involvement of the maxillary sinus.

  18. Lipin 1 gene polymorphisms in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mlinar, B; Ferk, P; Pfeifer, M; Geršak, K; Marc, J

    2011-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder associated with increased prevalence of insulin resistance (IR). IR could be implicated in PCOS etiology and represents the major cause of cardiometabolic complications. The aim of present study was to investigate for the first time the association of lipin 1 gene polymorphisms with metabolic and hormonal profile in PCOS patients and controls. Into a case-control study 371 individuals were enrolled: 222 PCOS patients and 149 controls. Two lipin 1 gene polymorphisms were analyzed: rs11693809 (intron 1 SNP) and rs2716610 (intron 17 SNP) using fluorescent hydrolyzing probes. Body mass index, fasting plasma insulin and glucose along with androgen profile were measured in all subjects. Plasma lipids were measured in 93 patients and 43 controls and oral glucose test (OGTT) was performed on 68 PCOS patients. C/T heterozygotes for intron 1 SNP had significantly lower LDL-cholesterol than wild type C/C homozygotes (p=0.026) in the control group. In PCOS patients, mutated T/T homozygotes exhibited significantly lower glucose after OGTT than heterozygotes (p=0.033). Similarly, in nonobese PCOS patients, intron 1 SNP T/T homozygotes had lower HOMA-IR than heterozygotes (p=0.009). For intron 17 SNP, mutated C/T+T/T genotypes were associated with higher plasma triglycerides in controls (p=0.039). Genotype and allele frequencies were similar between PCOS patients and controls for both SNPs. Our results show that, in PCOS patients, intron 1 SNP is protective against IR and glucose intolerance suggesting that lipin 1 variation could be one of the genetic factors in cardiometabolic complications of PCOS. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Association between vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism and nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, M; Pacini, S; Amato, M; Aterini, S; Chiarugi, V

    1999-01-01

    To study the distribution of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene alleles in hypercalciuric and nonhypercalciuric nephrolithiasis patients, hypothesizing that distinct biochemical parameters would be associated with different VDR genotypes. 12 hypercalciuric, 15 normocalciuric nephrolithiasis patients, and 150 healthy subjects were recruited. The individual genetic pattern for VDR was evaluated by DNA extraction followed by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the VDR gene and digestion with the restriction enzyme BsmI. In the hypercalciuric group, Bb patients represented 50% (6/12); bb patients 33% (4/12), and BB cases were 16% (2/12). The VDR frequency distribution was not statistically different in hypercalciuric patients and controls (Bb 72%; bb 16%; BB 12%). In the nonhypercalciuric group, the prevalence of the bb genotype (7/15; 47%) was thrice the percentage of control subjects, while the percentage of BB patients was similar to that of the control group (2/15; 13%). Patients with the bb haplotype exhibited a higher daily urinary calcium excretion. Among hypercalciuric patients, after a calcium-restricted diet, bb patients showed a 39% reduction in daily urinary calcium excretion in comparison with a nonsignificant 13% reduction observed in BB subjects (p = 0.004). The effects of VDR gene polymorphism on calcium metabolism contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of urinary calculi.

  20. Organization, structure, and polymorphisms of the human profilaggrin gene.

    PubMed

    Gan, S Q; McBride, O W; Idler, W W; Markova, N; Steinert, P M

    1990-10-09

    Profilaggrin is a major protein component of the keratohyalin granules of mammalian epidermis. It is initially expressed as a large polyprotein precursor and is subsequently proteolytically processed into individual functional filaggrin molecules. We have isolated genomic DNA and cDNA clones encoding the 5'- and 3'-ends of the human gene and mRNA. The data reveal the presence of likely "CAT" and "TATA" sequences, an intron in the 5'-untranslated region, and several potential regulatory sequences. While all repeats are of the same length (972 bp, 324 amino acids), sequences display considerable variation (10-15%) between repeats on the same clone and between different clones. Most variations are attributable to single-base changes, but many also involve changes in charge. Thus, human filaggrin consists of a heterogeneous population of molecules of different sizes, charges, and sequences. However, amino acid sequences encoding the amino and carboxyl termini are more conserved, as are the 5' and 3' DNA sequences flanking the coding portions of the gene. The presence of unique restriction enzyme sites in these conserved flanking sequences has enabled calculations on the size of the full-length gene and the numbers of repeats in it: depending on the source of genomic DNA, the gene contains 10, 11, or 12 filaggrin repeats that segregate in kindred families by normal Mendelian genetic mechanisms. This means that the human profilaggrin gene system is also polymorphic with respect to size due to simple allelic differences between different individuals. The amino- and carboxyl-terminal sequences of profilaggrin contain partial or truncated repeats with unusual un-filaggrin-like sequences on the termini.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Genetic polymorphisms of the enzymes involved in DNA methylation and synthesis in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Terruzzi, Ileana; Senesi, Pamela; Montesano, Anna; La Torre, Antonio; Alberti, Giampietro; Benedini, Stefano; Caumo, Andrea; Fermo, Isabella; Luzi, Livio

    2011-08-24

    Physical exercise induces adaptive changes leading to a muscle phenotype with enhanced performance. We first investigated whether genetic polymorphisms altering enzymes involved in DNA methylation, probably responsible of DNA methylation deficiency, are present in athletes' DNA. We determined the polymorphic variants C667T/A1298C of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), A2756G of methionine synthase (MTR), A66G of methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), G742A of betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), and 68-bp ins of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) genes in 77 athletes and 54 control subjects. The frequency of MTHFR (AC), MTR (AG), and MTRR (AG) heterozygous genotypes was found statistically different in the athletes compared with the control group (P=0.0001, P=0.018, and P=0.0001), suggesting a reduced DNA methylating capacity. We therefore assessed whether DNA hypomethylation might increase the expression of myogenic proteins expressed during early (Myf-5 and MyoD), intermediate (Myf-6), and late-phase (MHC) of myogenesis in a cellular model of hypomethylated or unhypomethylated C2C12 myoblasts. Myogenic proteins are largely induced in hypomethylated cells [fold change (FC)=Myf-5: 1.21, 1.35; MyoD: 0.9, 1.47; Myf-6: 1.39, 1.66; MHC: 1.35, 3.10 in GMA, DMA, respectively] compared with the control groups (FC=Myf-5: 1.0, 1.38; MyoD: 1.0, 1.14; Myf-6: 1.0, 1.44; MHC: 1.0, 2.20 in GM, DM, respectively). Diameters and length of hypomethylated myotubes were greater then their respective controls. Our findings suggest that DNA hypomethylation due to lesser efficiency of polymorphic MTHFR, MS, and MSR enzymes induces the activation of factors determining proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts promoting muscle growth and increase of muscle mass.

  2. Genetic polymorphisms of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) genes and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dong Gui; Mackenzie, Peter I; McKinnon, Ross A; Meech, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Identification of genetic polymorphisms that contribute to the risk of developing cancers is important for cancer prevention. The most recent human genome GRCh38/hg38 assembly (2013) reveals thousands of genetic polymorphisms in human uridine diphosphoglucuronosyltransferase (UGT) genes. Among these, a large number of polymorphisms at the UGT1A and UGT2B genes have been shown to modulate UGT gene promoter activity or enzymatic activity. Glucuronidation plays an important role in the metabolism and clearance of endogenous and exogenous carcinogenic compounds, and this reaction is primarily catalyzed by the UGT1A and UGT2B enzymes. Therefore, it has long been hypothesized that UGT polymorphisms that reduce the capacity to glucuronidate carcinogens and other types of cancer-promoting molecules (e.g. sex hormones) are associated with an increased risk of developing cancers. A large number of case-control studies have investigated this hypothesis and these studies identified numerous UGT polymorphisms in UGT1A and UGT2B genes as genetic risk factors for a wide variety of cancers, including bladder, breast, colorectal, endometrial, esophageal, head and neck, liver, lung, prostate, and thyroid. These UGT polymorphisms may be cancer causative polymorphisms, or be linked to as yet undefined causative polymorphisms, either in UGT genes or neighboring genes. This article presents a comprehensive review of these case-control studies, discusses current areas of uncertainty, and highlights future research directions in this field.

  3. Gene network polymorphism is the raw material of natural selection: the selfish gene network hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Boldogköi, Zsolt

    2004-09-01

    Population genetics, the mathematical theory of modern evolutionary biology, defines evolution as the alteration of the frequency of distinct gene variants (alleles) differing in fitness over the time. The major problem with this view is that in gene and protein sequences we can find little evidence concerning the molecular basis of phenotypic variance, especially those that would confer adaptive benefit to the bearers. Some novel data, however, suggest that a large amount of genetic variation exists in the regulatory region of genes within populations. In addition, comparison of homologous DNA sequences of various species shows that evolution appears to depend more strongly on gene expression than on the genes themselves. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated in several systems that genes form functional networks, whose products exhibit interrelated expression profiles. Finally, it has been found that regulatory circuits of development behave as evolutionary units. These data demonstrate that our view of evolution calls for a new synthesis. In this article I propose a novel concept, termed the selfish gene network hypothesis, which is based on an overall consideration of the above findings. The major statements of this hypothesis are as follows. (1) Instead of individual genes, gene networks (GNs) are responsible for the determination of traits and behaviors. (2) The primary source of microevolution is the intraspecific polymorphism in GNs and not the allelic variation in either the coding or the regulatory sequences of individual genes. (3) GN polymorphism is generated by the variation in the regulatory regions of the component genes and not by the variance in their coding sequences. (4) Evolution proceeds through continuous restructuring of the composition of GNs rather than fixing of specific alleles or GN variants.

  4. Associations of tryptophan hydroxylase gene polymorphisms with IBS

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Sang-Eun; Kohen, Ruth; Cain, Kevin C.; Jarrett, Monica E.; Heitkemper, Margaret M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Alterations in serotonin (5-HT) are suspected in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin and has two isoforms, TPH1 and TPH2. Genetic variants in both genes have been studied in various disorders related to serotonin dysregulation. The aim of this study was to examine whether TPH gene variants were associated with IBS and IBS-related gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Methods Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the TPH1 and one SNP from the TPH2 were genotyped in 199 IBS patients and 79 healthy controls. All subjects were Caucasian women of European origin. IBS patients filled in a daily diary with five GI symptoms and stool characteristics for 28 days. Key Results The TPH1 SNPs showed no association with the diagnosis of IBS. However among IBS patients, all five TPH1 SNPs showed some association with diarrhea and loose type of stool consistency, with p-values rating from 0.01 to 0.20. The TPH2 SNP showed a trend towards a reduced risk of IBS as well as possible associations with stool characteristics, both hard and loose stools. However, no p-values were less than the conservative multiple-comparison-adjusted threshold of 0.001 and hence these results must be interpreted cautiously. Conclusions & Inferences This study is the first to assess associations of TPH gene variants with IBS-related GI symptoms and stool characteristics. The possible association of TPH gene variants with diarrhea needs to be verified in an independent sample. PMID:21073637

  5. HOTAIR gene polymorphisms contribute to increased neuroblastoma susceptibility in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xu; He, Jing; Chang, Yitian; Luo, Annie; Luo, Ailing; Zhang, Jiao; Zhang, Ruizhong; Xia, Huimin; Xu, Ling

    2018-03-30

    Neuroblastoma is the most frequently diagnosed extracranial solid tumor in children. Previous studies have shown that single-nucleotide polymorphisms in some genes are associated with the risk of multiple cancers, including neuroblastoma. Although Hox transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) gene polymorphisms have been investigated in a variety of cancers, to the authors' knowledge the relationships between HOTAIR gene polymorphisms and neuroblastoma susceptibility have not been reported to date. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the correlation between HOTAIR gene polymorphisms and neuroblastoma risk in Chinese children. The authors genotyped 6 polymorphisms (rs920778 A>G, rs12826786 C>T, rs4759314 A>G, rs7958904 G>C, rs874945 C>T, and rs1899663 C>A) of the HOTAIR gene in 2 Chinese populations including 393 neuroblastoma cases and 812 healthy controls. The strength of the associations was evaluated using odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Further stratification analyses were conducted to explore the association between the HOTAIR gene polymorphisms rs12826786 C>T, rs874945 C>T, and rs1899663 C>A with neuroblastoma susceptibility in terms of age, sex, clinical stage of disease, and sites of origin. The authors found that the rs12826786 C>T (P =.013), rs874945 C>T (P =.020), and rs1899663 C>A (P =.029) polymorphisms were significantly associated with increased neuroblastoma risk. In stratification analyses, these associations were more predominant in females and among patients with tumor in the retroperitoneal region or mediastinum. The remaining 3 polymorphisms were not found to be related to neuroblastoma susceptibility. The results of the current study verified that HOTAIR gene polymorphisms are associated with increased neuroblastoma risk and suggest that HOTAIR gene polymorphisms might be a potential biomarker for neuroblastoma susceptibility. Cancer 2018. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  6. Gene presence-absence polymorphism in castrating anther-smut fungi: recent gene gains and phylogeographic structure.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Fanny E; Rodríguez de la Vega, Ricardo C; Brandenburg, Jean-Tristan; Carpentier, Fantin; Giraud, Tatiana

    2018-05-02

    Gene presence-absence polymorphisms segregating within species are a significant source of genetic variation but have been little investigated to date in natural populations. In plant pathogens, the gain or loss of genes encoding proteins interacting directly with the host, such as secreted proteins, probably plays an important role in coevolution and local adaptation. We investigated gene presence-absence polymorphism in populations of two closely related species of castrating anther-smut fungi, Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae (MvSl) and M. silenes-dioicae (MvSd), from across Europe, on the basis of Illumina genome sequencing data and high-quality genome references. We observed presence-absence polymorphism for 186 autosomal genes (2% of all genes) in MvSl, and only 51 autosomal genes in MvSd. Distinct genes displayed presence-absence polymorphism in the two species. Genes displaying presence-absence polymorphism were frequently located in subtelomeric and centromeric regions and close to repetitive elements, and comparison with outgroups indicated that most were present in a single species, being recently acquired through duplications in multiple-gene families. Gene presence-absence polymorphism in MvSl showed a phylogeographic structure corresponding to clusters detected based on SNPs. In addition, gene absence alleles were rare within species and skewed toward low-frequency variants. These findings are consistent with a deleterious or neutral effect for most gene presence-absence polymorphism. Some of the observed gene loss and gain events may however be adaptive, as suggested by the putative functions of the corresponding encoded proteins (e.g., secreted proteins) or their localization within previously identified selective sweeps. The adaptive roles in plant and anther-smut fungi interactions of candidate genes however need to be experimentally tested in future studies.

  7. Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Gene Polymorphisms and Ovarian Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Goode, Ellen L.; White, Kristin L.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Berchuck, Andrew; Larson, Melissa C.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Olson, Janet E.; Webb, Penelope M.; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Sellers, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Because selected xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes process pro-carcinogens that could initiate ovarian carcinogenesis, we hypothesized that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes encoding xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes are associated with risk of ovarian cancer. Cases with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (N = 1,571 including 956 of serous sub-type) and controls (N = 2,046) from three studies were genotyped at 11 SNPs in EPHX1, ADH4, ADH1A, NQO2, NAT2, GSTP1, CYP1A1, and NQO1, following an initial SNP screen in a subset of participants. Logistic regression analysis of genotypes obtained via Illumina GoldenGate and Sequenom iPlex technologies revealed the following age- and study-adjusted associations: EPHX1 rs1051740 with increased serous ovarian cancer risk (per-allele odds ratio (OR) 1.17, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.04–1.32, p = 0.01), ADH4 r1042364 with decreased ovarian cancer risk (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.81–1.00, p = 0.05), and NQO1 rs291766 with increased ovarian cancer risk (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.00–1.23, p = 0.04). These findings are consistent with prior studies implicating these genes in carcinogenesis and suggest that this collection of variants is worthy of follow-up in additional studies. PMID:21480392

  8. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the homologous recombination repair genes and breast cancer risk in Polish women.

    PubMed

    Romanowicz-Makowska, Hanna; Smolarz, Beata; Zadrozny, Marek; Westfal, Boguslaw; Baszczynski, Jakub; Polac, Ireneusz; Sporny, Stanislaw

    2011-07-01

    Genetic polymorphisms in homologous recombination repair genes that can lead to protein haploinsufficiency are generally associated with increased cancer risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate associations between the risk of breast cancer and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes, encoding three key proteins of the homologous recombination repair: RAD51 (the human homologue of the E. coli RecA protein), X-ray repair cross-complementing group (XRCC) 2 and XRCC3. The polymorphisms studied were G135C of the RAD51 gene (c. -98 G>C; rs1801320), Arg188His of the XRCC2 gene (c. 563 G>A; rs3218536), and Thr241Met of the XRCC3 gene (c. 722 C>T; rs861539). Each polymorphism was genotyped by the PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment-length polymorphism) method in 700 Polish female patients with sporadic breast cancer and in 708 cancer-free women, who served as controls. In the present study, we showed the association between RAD51 G135C polymorphism and the incidence of breast cancer (p < 0.0001), but found no significant association with XRCC2 Arg188His or XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism. Instead, significant association was identified between XRCC2 Arg188His or XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism and breast cancer progression, assessed by the histological grading. However, each of these three polymorphisms was not associated with the tumor size or the lymph node metastases. This study provides evidence that links single nucleotide polymorphisms of RAD51 and XRCC2/3 genes with the risk of breast cancer in Polish women. In conclusion, RAD51 G135C, XRCC2 Arg188His and XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphisms may be regarded as predictive factors of sporadic breast cancer in female population.

  9. Monoamine oxidase A gene polymorphism predicts adolescent outcome of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Kang, Chuanyuan; Zhang, Haobo; Wang, Yufeng; Zhou, Rulun; Wang, Bing; Guan, Lili; Yang, Li; Faraone, Stephen V

    2007-06-05

    ADHD is generally deemed to be a highly heritable disorder with mean heritability of 0.75. The enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO), which has both A and B types, has long been considered a candidate pathological substrate for ADHD, and more recently, the genes for both MAO enzymes have been examined as mediators of the illness. Previous studies indicated that 30-50% of children with ADHD will experience symptoms that persist into adolescence and will have more significant impairment in social and neuropsychological functioning compared to those whose symptoms have remitted. Genes may also influence these characteristics of the disorder, and in this context MAO genes may also be candidates for moderating the presentation of ADHD. The current study examined the association between adolescent outcome of ADHD and MAO gene polymorphisms, including the 941T > G polymorphism in exon 8 (rs1799835) and 1460C > T polymorphism in exon 14 (rs1137070) of the MAOA gene, and the A > G polymorphism in intron13 (rs1799836), C > T polymorphism in the 3'UTR (rs1040399), and 2327T > C polymorphism in exon15 of the MAOB gene. Significant associations were observed between the MAOA gene polymorphisms and ADHD remission. Due to the small sample size and the possibility of phenotypic and etiologic heterogeneity of ADHD outcomes across ethnic or geographic groups, these results must be replicated before they can be generalized to other populations. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Investigation of the association between Rho/Rho-kinase gene polymorphisms and systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Pehlivan, Yavuz; Yolbas, Servet; Cetin, Gozde Yıldırım; Alibaz-Oner, Fatma; Cagatay, Yonca; Yilmaz, Neslihan; Oztuzcu, Serdar; Donmez, Salim; Ozgen, Metin; Koca, Suleyman Serdar; Pamuk, Omer Nuri; Sayarlıoglu, Mehmet; Kisacik, Bunyamin; Direskeneli, Haner; Demiryurek, Abdullah Tuncay; Onat, Ahmet Mesut

    2016-03-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a disease characterized by inflammation, vascular abnormalities and fibrosis. The role of Rho/Rho-kinase pathway was demonstrated in the pathogenesis of fibrosis, inflammation and vascular abnormalities. This study was aimed to investigate the relation between SSc and Rho/Rho-kinase gene polymorphisms. The study included 339 patients with SSc and 302 healthy subjects who were apparently healthy and at similar age and gender. Genotype distributions and allele frequencies were detected by using Chi-square test or Fisher's exact Chi-square test between groups, and the haplotype analysis was applied using online program (SHEsis). Significant association was found in a polymorphism in the ROCK1 gene (rs35996865), a polymorphism in ROCK2 gene (rs10178332), a polymorphism in RhoA gene (rs2177268) and two polymorphisms in RhoC gene (rs11102522 and rs11538960) with SSc disease (p < 0.0022). In this study, association between SSc disease and Rho/Rho-kinase gene polymorphisms was investigated for the first time; significant associations between ROCK1, ROCK2, RhoA and RhoC gene polymorphisms and SSc disease were demonstrated. The results strongly suggest that this SNP may be an important risk factor for development of SSc. However, further validation of these findings in an independent cohort is necessary.

  11. Association of Blood Lead Levels with Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms among Chinese Pregnant Women in Wuhan City

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wei; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Shuyun; Wu, Hongling; Gu, Xue; Qin, Lingzhi; Tian, Ping; Zeng, Yun; Ye, Linxiang; Ni, Zemin; Wang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Background Pregnancy is an important stimulus of bone lead release. Elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) may cause adverse pregnancy outcomes for mothers and harmful lead effects on fetuses. However, the reports about maternal BLL changes during pregnancy are conflicting to some extent. This article is to explore the variations in BLLs among pregnant women. The relationships of BLLs with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T, A1298C, and G1793A polymorphisms, which are associated with bone resorption, were also studied. A total of 973 women, including 234, 249, and 248 women in their first, second, and third trimesters, respectively, and 242 non-pregnant women, were recruited at the Wuhan Women and Children Medical Health Center. Methods BLLs were determined using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of MTHFR were identified with the TaqMan probe method. Results The geometric mean (geometric standard deviation) of BLLs was 16.2 (1.78) μg/L for all participants. All the studied MTHFR alleles were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Multiple-linear regression analysis revealed the following results. Among the pregnant women, those that carried MTHFR 677CC (i.e. wild-genotype homozygote) and 1298CC (i.e. mutant-genotype homozygote) exhibited higher BLLs than those that carried 677CT/TT (standardized β = 0.074, P = 0.042) and 1298AC/AA (standardized β = 0.077, P = 0.035) when other covariates (e.g., age, no. of children, education and income, etc.) were adjusted. The BLLs of pregnant women consistently decreased during the pregnancy and these levels positively correlated with BMI (standard β = 0.086–0.096, P<0.05). Conclusions The 1298CC mutant-type homozygote in the MTHFR gene is a risk factor for high BLLs among low-level environmental lead-exposed Chinese pregnant women, whose BLLs consistently decreased during gestation. PMID:25723397

  12. Polymorphism of growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene in Nilagiri sheep.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Amiya Ranjan; Jeichitra, V; Rajendran, R; Raja, A

    2017-02-01

    The allelic variation in the regulatory sequence of growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene influences the growth traits of sheep. A study was carried out to find out the polymorphisms associated with exon 10 of GHR gene and its association with growth traits of Nilagiri sheep. The blood samples were collected from Nilagiri sheep (n = 103) reared at Sheep Breeding Research Station, Sandynallah, Tamil Nadu, India. DNA was isolated using the phenol-chloroform extraction procedure and eight samples having amplified product of part of exon 10 (895 bp) sequenced. The results indicated transitions of nucleotide G>A at loci G177624A and G177878A. The genotyping frequencies estimated using the tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system-PCR for GG, GA and AA were 0.262, 0.544 and 0.194, and 0.349, 0.505 and 0.146, respectively. The estimated allele frequencies of G and A nucleotides were 0.5340 and 0.4660, and 0.6015 and 0.3985, respectively, at loci G177624A and G177878A. The effects of both the mutations on growth-related traits viz., birth, weaning (3 months) 6, 9 and 12 months weight in Nilagiri sheep were found to be non-significant. This can be a novel approach to assess growth of sheep using the mutation in GHR gene. Thus, this approach can be useful for further investigation as a molecular marker associated with genetic improvement.

  13. Association between vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Gezen-Ak, Duygu; Dursun, Erdinç; Ertan, Turan; Hanağasi, Haşmet; Gürvit, Hakan; Emre, Murat; Eker, Engin; Oztürk, Melek; Engin, Funda; Yilmazer, Selma

    2007-07-01

    Vitamin D(3) is known to be involved in neuroprotection and exert its neuroprotective effects by modulating neuronal calcium homeostasis and production of neurotrophins. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene which can influence the affinity of vitamin D(3) to its receptor may be related to neurodegenerative diseases and neuronal damage by altering the vitamin D-mediated pathways. In this study, our aim was to determine whether there is an association between VDR gene and late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) in order to see if vitamin D contributes to AD or not. One hundred and four cases of dementia of Alzheimer type and 109 age-matched controls were genotyped according to ApaI (a: + restriction site and A: no restriction site) and TaqI (t: + restriction site and T: no restriction site) sites in intron 8 and exon 9 of the ligand-binding site of VDR gene. When the controls and patients were compared for their ApaI genotypes, the frequency of the patients with Aa genotype was significantly higher than the frequency of the healthy individuals with the same genotype (p = 0.008, chi(2) = 9.577, OR = 2.30). Thus, the "Aa" genotype may increase the risk of developing AD 2.3 times when compared with the "AA" genotype. On the other hand, the "AT" haplotype was significantly higher in controls (p = 0.006) indicating a protective role of the "AT" haplotype in AD. Consequently, this study provides evidence for a possible link between AD and vitamin D.

  14. [Polymorphism of vitamin D receptor gene Fok I in Mongolian population of China].

    PubMed

    Xing, Shao-ji; Zhou, Li-she; Xu, Xiu-ju

    2006-04-01

    To investigate the polymorphism distribution of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene Fok I in Mongolian population of China. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was used to analyze three genotypes FF, Ff and ff in the start codon of VDR gene (Fok I) in unrelated normal healthy Mongolian individuals of China. In the population, we obtained the allelic frequencies of 57% and 43% for (F) and (f) allele and the percentage of genotypes FF, Ff and ff to be 31%, 52%, and 17% respectively. The polymorphism frequency and distribution of this VDR gene Fok I in Mongolian population of China exhibit its own characteristics.

  15. Genetic mapping of the human tryptophan hydroxylase gene on chromosome 11, using an intronic conformational polymorphism.

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, D A; Dean, M; Goldman, D

    1992-01-01

    The identification of polymorphic alleles at loci coding for functional genes is crucial for genetic association and linkage studies. Since the tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) gene codes for the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin, it would be advantageous to identify a polymorphism in this gene. By examining introns of the human TPH gene by PCR amplification and analysis by the single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) technique, an SSCP was revealed with two alleles that occur with frequencies of .40 and .60 in unrelated Caucasians. DNAs from 24 informative CEPH families were typed for the TPH intron polymorphism and analyzed with respect to 10 linked markers on chromosome 11, between p13 and p15, with the result that TPH was placed between D11S151 and D11S134. This region contains loci for several important genes, including those for Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and tyrosine hydroxylase. Images Figure 1 PMID:1463016

  16. Genetic mapping of the human tryptophan hydroxylase gene on chromosome 11, using an intronic conformational polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, D A; Dean, M; Goldman, D

    1992-12-01

    The identification of polymorphic alleles at loci coding for functional genes is crucial for genetic association and linkage studies. Since the tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) gene codes for the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin, it would be advantageous to identify a polymorphism in this gene. By examining introns of the human TPH gene by PCR amplification and analysis by the single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) technique, an SSCP was revealed with two alleles that occur with frequencies of .40 and .60 in unrelated Caucasians. DNAs from 24 informative CEPH families were typed for the TPH intron polymorphism and analyzed with respect to 10 linked markers on chromosome 11, between p13 and p15, with the result that TPH was placed between D11S151 and D11S134. This region contains loci for several important genes, including those for Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and tyrosine hydroxylase.

  17. Multiple gene polymorphisms analysis revealed a different profile of genetic polymorphisms of primary open-angle glaucoma in northern Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Li-Yun; Tam, Pancy Oi-Sin; Chiang, Sylvia Wai-Yee; Ding, Ning; Chen, Li Jia; Yam, Gary Hin-Fai; Pang, Chi-Pui

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the individual and interactive effects of polymorphisms in the myocilin (MYOC),optineurin (OPTN), WD repeat domain 36 (WDR36), and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genes on primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in northern Chinese. Methods Northern Chinese study subjects, 176 POAG patients and 200 controls, were recruited for screening of the coding exons and splicing regions of MYOC. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in OPTN (M98K, R545Q, IVS5+38T>G, IVS8–53T>C, and IVS15+10G>A), one SNP in WDR36 (IVS5+30C>T) as well as the APOE promoter and ε2/ε3/ε4 polymorphisms were also examined. Association analysis was performed by using χ2 analysis. High-order gene-gene interaction was also analyzed using the multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method. Results In MYOC, 22 variants were identified. Four of them were novel but found in controls only. The missense mutation, Val53Ala, is likely a glaucoma causing mutation, accounting for 0.6% of cases. No individual polymorphism in OPTN, WDR36, or APOE was associated with POAG. MDR analysis identified a best 6-factor model for POAG: MYOC IVS2+35A>G, OPTN Met98Lys, OPTN IVS5+38T>G, OPTN IVS8–53T>C, WDR36 IVS5+30C>T, and APOE −491A>T. Conclusions The association pattern between the genes, MYOC, OPTN, WDR36, and APOE, and POAG in northern Chinese is different from that of southern Chinese. Disease-causing mutations in MYOC accounted for a small proportion of northern Chinese POAG patients. Common polymorphisms in these genes were not associated with POAG individually but might interactively contribute to the disorder, supporting a polygenic etiology. PMID:19145250

  18. Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms across Tuberculosis Clinical Spectrum in Pakistani Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Ambreen; Talat, Najeeha; Jamil, Bushra; Hasan, Zahra; Razzaki, Tashmeem; Dawood, Ghaffar; Hussain, Rabia

    2009-01-01

    Background Pakistan ranks 7th globally in terms of tuberculosis (TB) disease burden (incidence 181/100000 pop./yr; prevalence of 329/pop./yr). Reports from different populations show variable associations of TB susceptibility and severity with cytokine gene polymorphisms. Tuberculosis clinical severity is multi-factorial and cytokines play a pivotal role in the modulation of disease severity. We have recently reported that the ratio of two key cytokines (IFNγ and IL10) show significant correlation with the severity spectrum of tuberculosis. The objective of the current study was to analyze the frequency of cytokine gene polymorphisms linked to high and low responder phenotypes (IFNγ +874 T hi→A lo and IL10 −1082 G lo→A hi) in tuberculosis patients. Methods and Findings Study groups were stratified according to disease site as well as disease severity: Pulmonary N = 111 (Minimal, PMN = 19; Moderate, PMD = 63; Advance, PAD = 29); Extra-pulmonary N = 67 (Disseminated DTB = 20, Localized LTB = 47) and compared with healthy controls (TBNA = 188). Genotype analyses were carried out using amplification refractory mutation system-PCR (ARMS-PCR) and stimulated whole blood (WB) culture assay was used for assessing cytokine profiles. Our results suggest that the IFNγ +874 TT genotype and T allele was overrepresented in PMN (p = 0.01) and PMD (p = 0.02). IFNγ +874 TT in combination with IL10 GG lo genotypes showed the highest association (χ2 = 6.66, OR = 6.06, 95% CI = 1.31–28.07, p = 0.01). IFNγ AA lo on the other hand in combination with IL10 GG lo increased the risk of PAD (OR = 5.26; p = 0.005) and DTB (OR = 3.59; p = 0.045). Conclusion These findings are consistent with the role of IL10 in reducing collateral tissue damage and the protective role of IFNγ in limiting disease in the lung. PMID:19274101

  19. Significant association of interleukin-4 gene intron 3 VNTR polymorphism with susceptibility to knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Yigit, Serbulent; Inanir, Ahmet; Tekcan, Akın; Tural, Ercan; Ozturk, Gokhan Tuna; Kismali, Gorkem; Karakus, Nevin

    2014-03-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a strong chondroprotective cytokine and polymorphisms within this gene may be a risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA). We aimed to investigate genotype and allele frequencies of IL-4 gene intron 3 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism in patients with knee OA in a Turkish population. The study included 202 patients with knee OA and 180 healthy controls. Genomic DNA was isolated and IL-4 gene 70 bp VNTR polymorphism determined by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Our result show that there was statistically significant difference between knee OA patients and control group with respect to IL-4 genotype distribution and allele frequencies (p=0.000, OR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.10-0.41, OR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.12-0.42, respectively). Our findings suggest that there is an association of IL-4 gene intron 3 VNTR polymorphism with susceptibility of a person for development of knee OA. As a result, IL-4 gene intron 3 VNTR polymorphism could be a genetic marker in OA in a Turkish study population. This is the first association study that evaluates the associations between IL-4 gene VNTR polymorphism and knee OA. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Polymorphisms of KAP6, KAP7, and KAP8 genes in four Chinese sheep breeds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y X; Shi, G Q; Wang, H X; Wan, P C; Tang, H; Yang, H; Guan, F

    2014-04-30

    High glycine-tyrosine proteins (HGTPs), also known as keratin-associated proteins (KAPs), play a key role in the major structures and mechanical properties of wool fiber. Sheep HGTPs consist of three multigene families: KAP6, KAP7, and KAP8 genes. Polymorphisms of these three genes have been proposed to have important effects on wool fiber traits. The aim of the present study was to identify polymorphisms of the KAP6, KAP7, and KAP8 genes in four sheep breeds, including Chinese Merino superfine wool sheep, Hu sheep, a Merino x Hu crossed breed, and Romney sheep. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product direct sequencing, PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism, and cloned sequencing methods were used to find genetic variation and identify polymorphisms in these genes. The Mutation Surveyor v3.97 software was used to analyze the sequences. These methods revealed six different sequences of the KAP6 gene, two different sequences of the KAP7 gene, and five different sequences of the KAP8 gene. Accordingly, three (with frequencies>1%) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the KAP6 gene, one SNP of the KAP7 gene, and five SNPs of the KAP8 gene were detected. Interestingly, some of these sequences were present in only certain sheep breeds, thereby suggesting that these special allele sequences could be used as candidate genes of wool characteristics in further studies.

  1. [Analyses of coding sequence point mutation and polymorphism of TGFBI gene in Chinese patients with keratoconus].

    PubMed

    GUAN, Tao; MA, Zhang-wei; DING, Shi-ping

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the point mutations and polymorphisms of transforming growth factor beta-induced gene (TGFBI) in Chinese patients with keratoconus and discuss the relationship between the feature of gene mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms of TGFBI gene and keratoconus. Polymerase chain reaction single strand conformation polymorphism and DNA direct sequencing were performed in 30 keratoconus cases and 30 healthy controls. All 17 exons of the TGFBI gene were analyzed for point mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Totally two heterozygous nucleotide changes were identified in exon 12 of the TGFBI gene. The codon 535 is changed from GGA to TGA in 1 patient, leading to a substitution of glycine to a stop codon at the protein level (G535X). The codon 540 is changed from TTT to TTC in 2 patients and 1 control individual, resulting in a nonsense mutation (F54F), and is a single nucleotide polymorphism of the gene. Mutation and polymorphisms of the TGFBI gene were detected in Chinese patients with keratoconus in this study. The results suggest that TGFBI gene might play an important role in the pathogenesis of keratoconus.

  2. Genetic Susceptibility to Multiple Sclerosis: The Role of FOXP3 Gene Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    IŞIK, Nihal; YILDIZ MANUKYAN, Nüket; AYDIN CANTÜRK, İlknur; CANDAN, Fatma; ÜNSAL ÇAKMAK, Ayşen; SARU HAN DİRESKENELİ, Güher

    2014-01-01

    Introduction It is well recognized that both genetic and environmental factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Immune pathogenesis of MS focuses on pathogenic CD4+ T lymphocytes. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells have suppressive function in this cell group. FOXP3 (forkhead boxP3) transcription factor is a key structure in the development and function of regulatory cells. Functional alterations in FOXP3 gene expression have been observed in various autoimmune diseases. Methods We screened a non-synonymous coding single nucleotide polymorphism (exon +2710 C/T) (rs2232369) of human FOXP3 gene in 148 MS patients (118 with Relapsing Remitting MS, 30 with Secondary Progressive MS) and 102 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The association of polymorphisms with susceptibility, and course of the disease was evaluated. Results We could not detect any single nucleotide polymorphism in MS patients, however, polymorphic allele was detected in 3% of the control group. Consequently, a genetic association between the FOXP3 gene polymorphism and MS was not revealed. Conclusion The distribution of this polymorphism has not been screened in any other MS populations before. Although we could not succeed to find any association between susceptibility to MS and screened FOXP3 gene polymorphisms, we suggest that this particular polymorphism is not appropriate for these kind of studies in the future. PMID:28360598

  3. Genetic association of cyclooxygenase-2 gene polymorphisms with Parkinson's disease susceptibility in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yi; Wu, Yuquan; Li, Yansheng

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the genetic association of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) gene promoter region polymorphisms with Parkinson's disease (PD) susceptibility in Chinese Han population. The genotyping of COX2 gene polymorphisms was conducted by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in 122 patients with PD and 120 healthy persons. The association strength of gene polymorphism with disease was measured by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) calculated using χ(2) test which also evaluated the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) of gene polymorphism in controls. The linkage disequilibrium and haplotype were also analyzed as evidence in the analysis of association. On condition that the genotypes distributions of COX2 -1290A>G, -1195G>A, -765G>C in the control group all conformed to HWE, however, only the homozygous genotype AA of -1195G>A polymorphism showed an association with PD (OR=0.432, 95% CI=0.196-0.950). In addition, in haplotype analysis, G-A-C haplotype frequency in cases was significantly lower than the controls, compared with the common haplotype A-G-G (P=0.031, OR=0.375, 95% CI=0.149-0.940). COX2 -1195G>A polymorphism might play a protective role in the onset of PD and G-A-C haplotype in this three promoter region polymorphisms also showed a negative association.

  4. Polymorphisms in Dopamine System Genes Are Associated with Individual Differences in Attention in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmboe, Karla; Nemoda, Zsofia; Fearon, R. M. Pasco; Csibra, Gergely; Sasvari-Szekely, Maria; Johnson, Mark H.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge about the functional status of the frontal cortex in infancy is limited. This study investigated the effects of polymorphisms in four dopamine system genes on performance in a task developed to assess such functioning, the Freeze-Frame task, at 9 months of age. Polymorphisms in the catechol-O-methyltransferase ("COMT") and the…

  5. Influence of FCGRT gene polymorphisms on pharmacokinetics of therapeutic antibodies.

    PubMed

    Passot, Christophe; Azzopardi, Nicolas; Renault, Sylvaine; Baroukh, Nadine; Arnoult, Christophe; Ohresser, Marc; Boisdron-Celle, Michèle; Gamelin, Erick; Watier, Hervé; Paintaud, Gilles; Gouilleux-Gruart, Valérie

    2013-01-01

    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) encoded by FCGRT is known to be involved in the pharmacokinetics (PK) of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Variability in the expression of FCGRT gene and consequently in the FcRn protein level could explain differences in PK observed between patients treated with mAbs. We studied whether the previously described variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) or copy number variation (CNV) of FCGRT are associated with individual variations of PK parameters of cetuximab. VNTR and CNV were assessed on genomic DNA of 198 healthy individuals and of 94 patients treated with the therapeutic mAb. VNTR and CNV were analyzed by allele-specific PCR and duplex real-time PCR with Taqman (®) technology, respectively. The relationship between FCGRT polymorphisms (VNTR and CNV) and PK parameters of patients treated with cetuximab was studied. VNTR3 homozygote patients had a lower cetuximab distribution clearance than VNTR2/VNTR3 and VNTR3/VNTR4 patients (p = 0.021). We observed no affects of VNTR genotype on elimination clearance. One healthy person (0.5%) and 1 patient (1.1%) had 3 copies of FCGRT. The PK parameters of this patient did not differ from those of patients with 2 copies. The FCGRT promoter VNTR may influence mAbs' distribution in the body. CNV of FCGRT cannot be used as a relevant pharmacogenetic marker because of its low frequency.

  6. TNF-α and intPLA2 genes' polymorphism in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Slopien, Agnieszka; Rybakowski, Filip; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Czerski, Piotr; Hauser, Joanna; Komorowska-Pietrzykowska, Renata; Rajewski, Andrzej

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this study was the assessment of -308G/A tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α gene polymorphism and intPLA2 gene polymorphism in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and healthy controls. We studied 91 non-related patients with AN and 144 healthy women (blood donors and students). The mean age of women from study group was 18.22 years (SD ± 3.13 years) and from control group was 31.71 years (SD ± 8.22). Gene polymorphisms were studied with the use of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. TNF-α gene polymorphism consists of G/A substitution in -308 promoter region. IntPLA2 gene polymorphism is related to intron 1, in which restrictive region is found and recognized by BanI enzyme. We did not obtain statistically significant differences in the frequency of genotypes and alleles of -308G/A TNF-α polymorphism between the study and control groups (genotypes: P = 0.106, alleles: P = 0.076). We did analogous analysis in the restrictive and bulimic subgroups. We did not observe statistically relevant differences in the frequency of genotypes (P = 0.700) and alleles (P = 0.305). We did not obtain statistically relevant difference in the frequency of genotypes and alleles of intPLA2 gene between the study group and controls (genotypes: P = 0.300, alleles: P = 0.331). We did analogous analysis in both subgroups of AN. We did not observe statistically relevant differences in the frequency of genotypes (P = 0.344) and alleles (P = 0.230). There was no statistically relevant trend for the association between TNF-α polymorphism and AN. We did not find association between studied polymorphism of intPLA2 gene and risk of AN.

  7. Drinking water contaminants, gene polymorphisms, and fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Infante-Rivard, Claire

    2004-08-01

    There are still many uncertainties regarding the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with exposure to drinking water disinfection by-products. In Montréal, Québec, Canada, we carried out a hospital-based case-control study including 493 cases of intrauterine growth restriction defined as birth weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age and sex, according to Canadian standards. Controls were babies (n = 472) delivered at the same hospital whose birth weight was at or above the 10th percentile, matched for gestational age, race, and sex. Exposure to total and specific trihalomethanes was measured using regulatory data collected by municipalities and the provincial Ministry of Environment. Residential history, water drinking, and shower habits during pregnancy, as well as known risk factors for intrauterine growth restriction, were measured with a face-to-face interview with all mothers. Mothers and newborns were characterized for two genetic polymorphisms, one in the CYP2E1 gene (G1259C), and another in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene (C677T). Exposure to specific and total trihalomethanes from drinking water, determined for 458 cases and 426 controls, did not result in an increased risk of intrauterine growth restriction. However, significant effect modification was observed between newborns with and without the CYP2E1 variant; among newborns with the variant, the adjusted odds ratio for intrauterine growth restriction associated with exposure to average total trihalomethanes above the 90th percentile (corresponding to 29.4 microg/L) was 13.20 (95% confidence interval, 1.19-146.72). These findings suggest that exposure to trihalomethanes at the highest levels can affect fetal growth but only in genetically susceptible newborns.

  8. Gene-gene interactions among PPARα/δ/γ polymorphisms for hypertriglyceridemia in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shu-Jun; Liu, Meng-Meng; Guo, Zhi-Rong; Wu, Ming; Chen, Qiu; Zhou, Zheng-Yuan; Zhang, Li-Jun; Luo, Wen-Shu

    2013-02-25

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs)-α,-β/δ and -γ are the ligand-activated transcription factors that function as the master regulators of glucose, fatty acid and lipoprotein metabolism, energy balance, cell proliferation and differentiation, inflammation and atherosclerosis. This study examined the main effects of both single-locus and multilocus interactions among genetic variants in Chinese Han individuals to test the hypothesis that PPAR-α/δ/γ polymorphisms may contribute to the etiology of hypertriglyceridemia independently and/or through such complex interactions. We genotyped 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms for PPAR-α/δ/γ. Participants were recruited from the Prevention of MetS and Multi-metabolic Disorders in Jiangsu Province of China Study. 820 subjects (474 non-hypertriglyceridemia subjects, 346 hypertriglyceridemia subjects) were randomly selected. Single-locus analyses showed that after adjusted for age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, waist circumference and fasting glucose, rs1800206, rs9794, rs3856806 and rs1805192 were significantly associated with hypertriglyceridemia, the OR (95% CI) were 4.43(3.08-6.37), 1.49(1.10-2.02), 1.56(1.16-2.08), 2.43(1.80-3.29), respectively. Further, generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction method analysis showed that two-to-six-locus and eight-locus models were significant (p<0.05), which indicated a potential gene-gene interaction among PPAR-α/δ/γ polymorphisms. The results suggest that PPAR-α/δ/γ polymorphisms may contribute to the risk of hypertriglyceridemia independently and/or in an interactive manner. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mapping gene-environment interactions at regulatory polymorphisms: insights into mechanisms of phenotypic variation.

    PubMed

    Maranville, Joseph C; Luca, Francesca; Stephens, Matthew; Di Rienzo, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Genetic effects on gene regulation make a substantial contribution to phenotypic diversity, yet their mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we discuss the potential insights to be gained from mapping gene-environment interactions at regulatory polymorphisms (i.e., genetic variation that affects gene expression under specific environmental conditions). We highlight a novel statistical method to identify specific patterns of gene-environment interaction at these regulatory polymorphisms. Reviewing its application to a study that mapped gene expression in the presence and absence of glucocorticoids, we discuss the mechanistic insights that this approach provides.

  10. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms and interaction with smoking and alcohol consumption in lung cancer risk: a case-control study in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Kiyohara, Chikako; Horiuchi, Takahiko; Takayama, Koichi; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2011-10-25

    Cigarette smoking is an established risk factor of lung cancer development while the current epidemiological evidence is suggestive of an increased lung cancer risk associated with alcohol consumption. Dietary folate, which is present in a wide range of fresh fruits and vegetables, may be a micronutrient that has a beneficial impact on lung carcinogenesis. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays a crucial role in regulating folate metabolism, which affects both DNA synthesis/repair and methylation. We examined if smoking or alcohol consumption modify associations between MTHFR polymorphisms and lung cancer risk. We evaluated the role of the MTHFR C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131) polymorphisms in a case-control study comprised of 462 lung cancer cases and 379 controls in a Japanese population. Logistic regression was used to assess the adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The TT genotype of the C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.42 - 3.62, P < 0.01) while the A1298C polymorphism was not associated with lung cancer risk. The minor alleles of both polymorphisms behaved in a recessive fashion. The highest risks were seen for 677TT-carriers with a history of smoking or excessive drinking (OR = 6.16, 95% CI = 3.48 - 10.9 for smoking; OR = 3.09, 95% CI = 1.64 - 5.81 for drinking) compared with C-carriers without a history of smoking or excessive drinking, but no interactions were seen. The 1298CC genotype was only associated with increased risk among non-smokers (P < 0.05), and smoking was only associated with increased risks among 1298A-carriers (P < 0.01), but no significant interaction was seen. There was a synergistic interaction between the A1298C polymorphism and drinking (P < 0.05). The highest risk was seen for the CC-carriers with excessive drinking (OR = 7.24, 95% CI = 1.89 - 27.7) compared with the A-carriers without excessive drinking). The C

  11. Relationship between gene polymorphisms and prevalence of myocardial infarction among diabetic and non-diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Relvas, W G M; Izar, M C O; Helfenstein, T; Fonseca, M I H; Colovati, M; Oliveira, A; Ihara, S S M; Han, S W; Las Casas, A A; Fonseca, F A H

    2005-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), apolipoprotein AI and CIII gene polymorphisms, and to verify whether these genetic determinants are associated with the prevalence of myocardial infarction (MI) or type 2 diabetes. The TaqIB restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in intron I of the CETP gene, the MspI in the third intron of the APOAI gene, and also SstI in the 3' untranslated region of the APOCIII gene were determined using standard methods. The prevalence of these polymorphisms was compared between diabetic (n = 119), and non-diabetic (n = 100) middle-aged individuals of both sexes. We found a higher prevalence of the B2B2 genotype of the CETP gene among diabetics than that observed in non-diabetics (P < 0.05), and a lower prevalence of this genotype among patients with previous MI (P < 0.02). The MspI polymorphisms of the APOAI gene showed that M1++ genotype was found mainly in diabetic patients (P < 0.04). Conversely, the SstI polymorphism of APOCIII gene was not significantly associated with either MI or diabetes. Therefore, among these genetic polymorphisms, TaqIB of CETP and MspI of apolipoprotein AI appeared to help significantly to identify diabetic individuals. In particular, the former may have an additional role in the primary prevention of coronary disease.

  12. Androgen Receptor Gene Polymorphism, Aggression, and Reproduction in Tanzanian Foragers and Pastoralists.

    PubMed

    Butovskaya, Marina L; Lazebny, Oleg E; Vasilyev, Vasiliy A; Dronova, Daria A; Karelin, Dmitri V; Mabulla, Audax Z P; Shibalev, Dmitri V; Shackelford, Todd K; Fink, Bernhard; Ryskov, Alexey P

    2015-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) gene polymorphism in humans is linked to aggression and may also be linked to reproduction. Here we report associations between AR gene polymorphism and aggression and reproduction in two small-scale societies in northern Tanzania (Africa)--the Hadza (monogamous foragers) and the Datoga (polygynous pastoralists). We secured self-reports of aggression and assessed genetic polymorphism of the number of CAG repeats for the AR gene for 210 Hadza men and 229 Datoga men (aged 17-70 years). We conducted structural equation modeling to identify links between AR gene polymorphism, aggression, and number of children born, and included age and ethnicity as covariates. Fewer AR CAG repeats predicted greater aggression, and Datoga men reported more aggression than did Hadza men. In addition, aggression mediated the identified negative relationship between CAG repeats and number of children born.

  13. Androgen Receptor Gene Polymorphism, Aggression, and Reproduction in Tanzanian Foragers and Pastoralists

    PubMed Central

    Butovskaya, Marina L.; Lazebny, Oleg E.; Vasilyev, Vasiliy A.; Dronova, Daria A.; Karelin, Dmitri V.; Mabulla, Audax Z. P.; Shibalev, Dmitri V.; Shackelford, Todd K.; Fink, Bernhard; Ryskov, Alexey P.

    2015-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) gene polymorphism in humans is linked to aggression and may also be linked to reproduction. Here we report associations between AR gene polymorphism and aggression and reproduction in two small-scale societies in northern Tanzania (Africa)—the Hadza (monogamous foragers) and the Datoga (polygynous pastoralists). We secured self-reports of aggression and assessed genetic polymorphism of the number of CAG repeats for the AR gene for 210 Hadza men and 229 Datoga men (aged 17–70 years). We conducted structural equation modeling to identify links between AR gene polymorphism, aggression, and number of children born, and included age and ethnicity as covariates. Fewer AR CAG repeats predicted greater aggression, and Datoga men reported more aggression than did Hadza men. In addition, aggression mediated the identified negative relationship between CAG repeats and number of children born. PMID:26291982

  14. Effects of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms on susceptibility to type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xin-Hua; Liu, Zhe-Long; Wang, Heng; Sun, Qi; Li, Wen-Hui; Yang, Guo-Hua; Liu, Qiu-Ying

    2006-06-01

    To investigate the influence of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms on susceptibility to type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in the Chinese Han population. One hundred and thirty-six Chinese Han people, including 54 T1DM patients and 82 unrelated healthy subjects as control were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism for three restriction sites in the VDR gene, which were ApaI, TaqI, and BamI. The frequency of B allele of BsmI site in VDR gene was significantly higher in T1DM patients than in healthy subjects (P = 0.033) while no difference was found between the two groups in the distribution of ApaI and TaqI polymorphisms. The BsmI polymorphism of VDR gene may be associated with the susceptibility to T1DM in the Chinese Han population of Beijing.

  15. Association of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism with periodontal diseases in Japanese and Chinese.

    PubMed

    Tachi, Y; Shimpuku, H; Nosaka, Y; Kawamura, T; Shinohara, M; Ueda, M; Imai, H; Ohura, K; Sun, J; Meng, H; Cao, C

    2001-01-01

    We examined whether polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene are associated with the incidence of adult periodontitis (AP) and early-onset periodontitis (EOP) in case-controlled studies of Japanese and Chinese subjects. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the VDR gene detected by digestion with Taq I were found to be significantly associated with the occurrence of AP or EOP, suggesting that the VDR genotype a risk factor for periodontitis.

  16. Two single base polymorphisms in introns 41 and 16 of the NF1 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Ming Hong; Upadhyaya, M.

    1995-04-24

    We have characterized two intragenic polymorphisms in the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) gene by direct sequencing of PCR products. The variants for these polymorphisms were initially detected on Hydrolink gels. One of the polymorphisms involves a G to A transition in intron 41 at the 28th base upstream of exon 42 with an observed {open_quote}G{close_quote}/{open_quote}A{close_quote} heterozygosity of 0.42. The other polymorphism is a T to C transition in intron 16 at the 16th base upstream of exon 17 with an observed {open_quote}T{close_quote}/{open_quote}C{close_quote} heterozygosity of 0.09. In combination with other documented polymorphisms in the NF1 gene, these variants should assist inmore » genetic analysis of NF1 families. 24 refs., 3 figs.« less

  17. Blood lead levels, iron metabolism gene polymorphisms and homocysteine: a gene-environment interaction study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Lee, Mee-Ri; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2017-12-01

    Homocysteine has been causally associated with various adverse health outcomes. Evidence supporting the relationship between lead and homocysteine levels has been accumulating, but most prior studies have not focused on the interaction with genetic polymorphisms. From a community-based prospective cohort, we analysed 386 participants (aged 41-71 years) with information regarding blood lead and plasma homocysteine levels. Blood lead levels were measured between 2001 and 2003, and plasma homocysteine levels were measured in 2007. Interactions of lead levels with 42 genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in five genes ( TF , HFE , CBS , BHMT and MTR ) were assessed via a 2-degree of freedom (df) joint test and a 1-df interaction test. In secondary analyses using imputation, we further assessed 58 imputed SNPs in the TF and MTHFR genes. Blood lead concentrations were positively associated with plasma homocysteine levels (p=0.0276). Six SNPs in the TF and MTR genes were screened using the 2-df joint test, and among them, three SNPs in the TF gene showed interactions with lead with respect to homocysteine levels through the 1-df interaction test (p<0.0083). Seven SNPs in the MTHFR gene were associated with homocysteine levels at an α-level of 0.05, but the associations did not persist after Bonferroni correction. These SNPs did not show interactions with lead levels. Blood lead levels were positively associated with plasma homocysteine levels measured 4-6 years later, and three SNPs in the TF gene modified the association. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Allelic polymorphisms in the transcriptional regulatory region of apolipoprotein E gene.

    PubMed

    Artiga, M J; Bullido, M J; Sastre, I; Recuero, M; García, M A; Aldudo, J; Vázquez, J; Valdivieso, F

    1998-01-09

    In this work, we explored the existence of genetic variants within the apolipoprotein E gene transcriptional regulatory region, using a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis screening of a region comprising nucleotides -1017 to +406. Upon a population study, three new polymorphic sites (-491, -427 and -219) and two mutations were found. Functional effects of the polymorphisms, assayed by transient transfection and electrophoretic mobility shift assays in a human hepatoma cell line, showed that polymorphisms at sites -491 and -219 of the APOE promoter produce variations in the transcriptional activity of the gene, most probably through differential binding of nuclear proteins.

  19. Interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene polymorphisms in chronic idiopathic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Tavakol, M; Amirzargar, A A; Movahedi, M; Aryan, Z; Bidoki, A Z; Gharagozlou, M; Aghamohammadi, A; Nabavi, M; Ahmadvand, A; Behniafard, N; Heidari, K; Soltani, S; Rezaei, N

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate association of gene polymorphisms among proinflammatory cytokines and susceptibility to chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU). Ninety patients with prolonged urticaria more than 6 weeks were included as case group. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL-6 (G/C -174, G/A nt565) and TNF-α (G/A -308, G/A -238) were evaluated, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR); and the results were compared to the control group. G allele was significantly higher in the patients at locus of -238 of promoter of TNF-α gene (p<0.001). Frequency of following genotypes were significantly lower in patients with CIU, compared to controls: AG at -308 and GA at -238 of TNF-α gene (p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively), CG at -174 and GG at +565 of IL-6 gene (p<0.05). Additionally, following genotypes were more common among patients with CIU: GG at -308 and -238 of TNF-α gene (p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively), GG at -174 and GA at +565 of IL-6 gene (p<0.05). Pro-inflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms can affect susceptibility to CIU. TNF-α promoter polymorphisms as well as IL-6 gene polymorphisms are associated with CIU. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Excess amino acid polymorphism in mitochondrial DNA: contrasts among genes from Drosophila, mice, and humans.

    PubMed

    Rand, D M; Kann, L M

    1996-07-01

    Recent studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in mammals and Drosophila have shown an excess of amino acid variation within species (replacement polymorphism) relative to the number of silent and replacement differences fixed between species. To examine further this pattern of nonneutral mtDNA evolution, we present sequence data for the ND3 and ND5 genes from 59 lines of Drosophila melanogaster and 29 lines of D. simulans. Of interest are the frequency spectra of silent and replacement polymorphisms, and potential variation among genes and taxa in the departures from neutral expectations. The Drosophila ND3 and ND5 data show no significant excess of replacement polymorphism using the McDonald-Kreitman test. These data are in contrast to significant departures from neutrality for the ND3 gene in mammals and other genes in Drosophila mtDNA (cytochrome b and ATPase 6). Pooled across genes, however, both Drosophila and human mtDNA show very significant excesses of amino acid polymorphism. Silent polymorphisms at ND5 show a significantly higher variance in frequency than replacement polymorphisms, and the latter show a significant skew toward low frequencies (Tajima's D = -1.954). These patterns are interpreted in light of the nearly neutral theory where mildly deleterious amino acid haplotypes are observed as ephemeral variants within species but do not contribute to divergence. The patterns of polymorphism and divergence at charge-altering amino acid sites are presented for the Drosophila ND5 gene to examine the evolution of functionally distinct mutations. Excess charge-altering polymorphism is observed at the carboxyl terminal and excess charge-altering divergence is detected at the amino terminal. While the mildly deleterious model fits as a net effect in the evolution of nonrecombining mitochondrial genomes, these data suggest that opposing evolutionary pressures may act on different regions of mitochondrial genes and genomes.

  1. Ethnic differences in the association of thrombophilic polymorphisms with obstetric complications in Slovak and Roma (Gypsy) populations.

    PubMed

    Bozikova, Alexandra; Gabrikova, Dana; Pitonak, Jozef; Bernasovska, Jarmila; Macekova, Sona; Lohajova-Behulova, Regina

    2015-02-01

    Hereditary as well as acquired thrombophilia is associated with a higher incidence of severe obstetric complications such as preeclampsia, spontaneous pregnancy loss, placental abruption, and fetal growth retardation. The aim of our study was to examine the association of selected thrombophilic polymorphisms (factor V Leiden, MTHFR C677T, and MTHFR A1298C) with pregnancy complications in the Slovak majority population and the Roma (Gypsy) ethnic population. The study included 354 women; 120 patients and 105 controls from the Slovak majority population, 50 patients and 79 controls from the Slovak Roma population. Genotyping was performed by the real-time polymerase chain reaction method using TaqMan(®) MGB probes. A statistically significant higher frequency of factor V Leiden (p=0.001, odds ratio [OR]=5.9) and MTHFR C677T polymorphism (p=0.011, OR=1.7) was observed in the Slovak majority patient group compared to the control group. The incidence of MTHFR A1298C polymorphism between patients and controls did not differ significantly. None of the three polymorphisms studied was in association with pregnancy complications in the group of Roma women. Our study has confirmed the variable distribution of selected thrombophilic polymorphisms in different ethnic groups as well as their various effects on the clinical phenotype.

  2. Ethnic Differences in the Association of Thrombophilic Polymorphisms with Obstetric Complications in Slovak and Roma (Gypsy) Populations

    PubMed Central

    Gabrikova, Dana; Pitonak, Jozef; Bernasovska, Jarmila; Macekova, Sona; Lohajova-Behulova, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Hereditary as well as acquired thrombophilia is associated with a higher incidence of severe obstetric complications such as preeclampsia, spontaneous pregnancy loss, placental abruption, and fetal growth retardation. The aim of our study was to examine the association of selected thrombophilic polymorphisms (factor V Leiden, MTHFR C677T, and MTHFR A1298C) with pregnancy complications in the Slovak majority population and the Roma (Gypsy) ethnic population. The study included 354 women; 120 patients and 105 controls from the Slovak majority population, 50 patients and 79 controls from the Slovak Roma population. Genotyping was performed by the real-time polymerase chain reaction method using TaqMan® MGB probes. Results: A statistically significant higher frequency of factor V Leiden (p=0.001, odds ratio [OR]=5.9) and MTHFR C677T polymorphism (p=0.011, OR=1.7) was observed in the Slovak majority patient group compared to the control group. The incidence of MTHFR A1298C polymorphism between patients and controls did not differ significantly. None of the three polymorphisms studied was in association with pregnancy complications in the group of Roma women. Conclusions: Our study has confirmed the variable distribution of selected thrombophilic polymorphisms in different ethnic groups as well as their various effects on the clinical phenotype. PMID:25549181

  3. Study of the HFE gene common polymorphisms in French patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Praline, Julien; Blasco, Hélène; Vourc'h, Patrick; Rat, Valérian; Gendrot, Chantal; Camu, William; Andres, Christian R

    2012-06-15

    Our objective was to investigate whether the C282Y (p.Cys 282 Tyr) and H63D (p. His 63 Asp) HFE polymorphisms were associated with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS) in the French population. We searched for a relation of HFE polymorphisms with the clinical characteristics of the disease. The HFE polymorphisms were studied in 824 patients with SALS and 583 controls. We compared the frequency of the polymorphisms between SALS and controls groups by univariate and multivariate statistics, taking into account gender, site, age-at-onset and survival. We did not observe significant difference in the frequency of H63D polymorphism between SALS and control group. We observed a significant difference for C282Y between patients and controls with a low frequency of the Y allele in patients (3.2%) compared to our control group (5.9%). Disease duration, distribution of gender, site-of-onset, age-at-onset did not differ between groups taking into account genotypes of each polymorphism. Our results in this large cohort of ALS patients indicate that H63D polymorphism is not associated with SALS in the French population. This conclusion does not exclude a weak effect of the HFE gene polymorphisms in certain ALS populations, or an effect of other rare HFE gene variants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of gender, ABCA1 gene polymorphisms and lipid profile in Greek young nurses

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective One of the important proteins involved in lipid metabolism is the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) encoding by ABCA1 gene. In this study we evaluated the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ABCA1 gene. We analyzed SNPs in chromosome 9 such as rs2230806 (R219K) in the position 107620867, rs2230808 (R1587K) in the position 106602625 and rs4149313 (I883M) in the position 106626574 according to gender and lipid profile of Greek nurses. Methods The study population consisted of 447 (87 men) unrelated nurses who were genotyped for ABCA1 gene polymorphisms. Additionally, lipid profile [total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein A1] was evaluated. Results The distribution of all three studied ABCA1 gene polymorphisms did not differ according to gender. However, only R219K genotype distribution bared borderline statistical significance (p = 0.08) between the two studied groups. Moreover, allele frequencies of R219K, R1587K and I88M polymorphisms did not differ according to gender. In general, blood lipid levels did not seem to vary according to ABCA1 gene polymorphisms, when testing all subjects or when testing only men or only women. However, a significant difference of LDL-C distribution was detected in all subjects according to R1587K genotype, indicating lower LDL-C levels with KK polymorphism (p = 0.0025). The above difference was solely detected on female population (p = 0.0053). Conclusions The ABCA1 gene polymorphisms frequency, distribution and lipid profile did not differ according to gender. However, in the female population the KK genotype of R1587K gene indicated lower LDL-C levels. Further studies, involving a higher number of individuals, are required to clarify genes and gender contribution. PMID:22668585

  5. Association of gender, ABCA1 gene polymorphisms and lipid profile in Greek young nurses.

    PubMed

    Kolovou, Vana; Marvaki, Apostolia; Karakosta, Agathi; Vasilopoulos, Georgios; Kalogiani, Antonia; Mavrogeni, Sophie; Degiannis, Dimitrios; Marvaki, Christina; Kolovou, Genovefa

    2012-07-09

    One of the important proteins involved in lipid metabolism is the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) encoding by ABCA1 gene. In this study we evaluated the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ABCA1 gene. We analyzed SNPs in chromosome 9 such as rs2230806 (R219K) in the position 107620867, rs2230808 (R1587K) in the position 106602625 and rs4149313 (I883M) in the position 106626574 according to gender and lipid profile of Greek nurses. The study population consisted of 447 (87 men) unrelated nurses who were genotyped for ABCA1 gene polymorphisms. Additionally, lipid profile [total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein A1] was evaluated. The distribution of all three studied ABCA1 gene polymorphisms did not differ according to gender. However, only R219K genotype distribution bared borderline statistical significance (p = 0.08) between the two studied groups. Moreover, allele frequencies of R219K, R1587K and I88M polymorphisms did not differ according to gender. In general, blood lipid levels did not seem to vary according to ABCA1 gene polymorphisms, when testing all subjects or when testing only men or only women. However, a significant difference of LDL-C distribution was detected in all subjects according to R1587K genotype, indicating lower LDL-C levels with KK polymorphism (p = 0.0025). The above difference was solely detected on female population (p = 0.0053). The ABCA1 gene polymorphisms frequency, distribution and lipid profile did not differ according to gender. However, in the female population the KK genotype of R1587K gene indicated lower LDL-C levels. Further studies, involving a higher number of individuals, are required to clarify genes and gender contribution.

  6. Association between interleukin family gene polymorphisms and recurrent aphthous stomatitis risk.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Wang, Wei

    2018-03-18

    The present study was aimed at identifying the association between interleukin family gene polymorphisms and recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) risk using a meta-analysis. We searched the PubMed, web of science, Embase and ScienceDirect-Elsevier databases for research on the interleukin polymorphism and RAS risk. In total 12 studies were included to investigate the relationships between RAS risk and six polymorphisms by calculating pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A significant association was found between IL-1β+3954C/T polymorphism and RAS risk. A high risk of RAS was found in RAS patients with the G allele or GG genotype of IL-6-174 polymorphism. Low risk of RAS was found in the C allele of IL-10-592C/A polymorphism under an allele model, but a high risk of RAS was found in IL-10-1082G/A polymorphism. In the subgroup analysis, no correlation was found between the IL-10-1082 polymorphism and RAS risk in the caucasian population with the allele model. In conclusion, an IL-1β+3954C/T polymorphism was determined to be related to susceptibility to RAS, and individuals with the G allele and GG genotype of IL-6-174 or the A allele of IL-10-592 or the G allele of IL-10-1082 appeared to be more vulnerable to developing RAS.

  7. Serotonin transporter and G protein beta 3 subunit gene polymorphisms in Greeks with irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Markoutsaki, T; Karantanos, T; Gazouli, M; Anagnou, N P; Ladas, S D; Karamanolis, D G

    2011-11-01

    Polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter (SERT) and G protein β3 subunit (GNB3) genes might contribute to the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Association studies of SERT and GNB3 polymorphisms and IBS have shown diverse results among different populations, which might be due to subject composition differences. The aim of the study was to assess the potential association between SERT and GNB3 polymorphisms and IBS in Greeks. A total of 124 patients with IBS diagnosed according to the Rome III criteria and 238 healthy individuals were included in the study. SERT and GNB3 gene polymorphisms were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-based methods. It was shown that the frequencies of the SS genotype and S allele of the serotonin transporter polymorphism were significantly associated with IBS (P = 0.0314 and P = 0.019, respectively). TT genotype and T allele frequencies of G protein β3 subunit showed also significant difference between the IBS patients and healthy controls IBS (P = 0.0163 and P = 0.0001, respectively). None of the clinical symptoms analyzed was significantly associated with the polymorphisms tested. The results suggest that SERT and GNB3 gene polymorphisms might be associated with irritable bowel syndrome predisposition in Greeks.

  8. Polymorphisms in the SLC11A1 gene and tuberculosis risk: a meta-analysis update.

    PubMed

    Meilang, Q; Zhang, Y; Zhang, J; Zhao, Y; Tian, C; Huang, J; Fan, H

    2012-04-01

    Polymorphisms in SLC11A1 gene have been extensively studied for an association with tuberculosis (TB); however, results from replication studies have been inconsistent. To comprehensively evaluate the genetic risk of polymorphisms (D543N, 3'UTR TGTG ins/del, INT4, [GT]n) in the SLC11A1 gene for TB. A meta-analysis was carried out to analyse the association between SLC11A1 polymorphisms and TB risk. A total of 82 case-control studies in 35 articles were included in the meta-analysis. The results showed that these four polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk of TB (D543N OR 1.31, 95%CI 1.11-1.55; 3'UTR TGTG ins/del OR 1.45, 95%CI 1.25-1.68; INT4 OR 1.27, 95%CI 1.09-1.49; [GT]n OR 1.35, 95%CI 1.14-1.61). In further stratified analyses by ethnicity and TB forms, significant increased risks were found in subgroups of Asians and in pulmonary TB (PTB) for all four polymorphisms, while an increased risk of extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) was found for D543N polymorphism. This meta-analysis suggests that polymorphisms in the SLC11A1 gene contribute to TB (both PTB and EPTB), particularly in Asians.

  9. Influence of Interleukin-6 (174G/C) Gene Polymorphism on Obesity in Egyptian Children.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ola M; Gabre, Azza A; Sallam, Sara F; El-Alameey, Inas R; Sabry, Rania N; Galal, Essam M; Tawfik, Sawsan M; Zarouk, Waheba A; Mosaad, Rehab M; Ramadan, Abeer

    2017-12-15

    Obesity is a multi-factorial chronic disorder. A considerable number of studies have been performed to figure out whether there is an association between obesity and polymorphisms of gene IL-6 (174G/C) , but the results are equivocal. This study aimed to find out whether the IL-6 (174G/C) gene was associated with the risk of developing obesity in Egyptian children. The study included 149 children and adolescents with age ranged between 9.5 - 18 years. Eighty-five of them were obese which BMIZ-score is > 2, and sixty-four children with BMIZ-score ≤ 2 served as control group. Serum level of IL-6 and genetic analysis for IL-6 (174G/C) gene polymorphism were done. Obese children had significantly higher serum levels of IL-6 as compared to those of control children (P = 0.003). A high percentage of IL-6 polymorphism GC was found in obese subjects (93.7%), while the control group had a higher percentage of IL-6 polymorphism GG (70.6 %). Our study showed that carriers of the C allele for the IL-6 (174G/C) polymorphism have higher BMI. As the G174C polymorphism is likely to affect IL-6 expression and its physiological regulation; consequently this polymorphism may affect adiposity.

  10. Influence of Interleukin-6 (174G/C) Gene Polymorphism on Obesity in Egyptian Children

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ola M.; Gabre, Azza A.; Sallam, Sara F.; El-Alameey, Inas R.; Sabry, Rania N.; Galal, Essam M.; Tawfik, Sawsan M.; Zarouk, Waheba A.; Mosaad, Rehab M.; Ramadan, Abeer

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is a multi-factorial chronic disorder. A considerable number of studies have been performed to figure out whether there is an association between obesity and polymorphisms of gene IL-6 (174G/C), but the results are equivocal. AIM: This study aimed to find out whether the IL-6 (174G/C) gene was associated with the risk of developing obesity in Egyptian children. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study included 149 children and adolescents with age ranged between 9.5 – 18 years. Eighty-five of them were obese which BMIZ-score is > 2, and sixty-four children with BMIZ-score ≤ 2 served as control group. Serum level of IL-6 and genetic analysis for IL-6 (174G/C) gene polymorphism were done. RESULTS: Obese children had significantly higher serum levels of IL-6 as compared to those of control children (P = 0.003). A high percentage of IL-6 polymorphism GC was found in obese subjects (93.7%), while the control group had a higher percentage of IL-6 polymorphism GG (70.6 %). CONCLUSION: Our study showed that carriers of the C allele for the IL-6 (174G/C) polymorphism have higher BMI. As the G174C polymorphism is likely to affect IL-6 expression and its physiological regulation; consequently this polymorphism may affect adiposity. PMID:29362605

  11. Polymorphism of the LIG3 gene in keratoconus and Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Synowiec, E; Wojcik, K A; Izdebska, J; Binczyk, E; Szaflik, J; Blasiak, J; Szaflik, J P

    2015-03-28

    The product of the LIG3 gene encodes DNA ligase III, which is involved in the repair of oxidatively damaged DNA in the base excision repair pathway. We hypothesized that polymorphism in this gene may change susceptibility to oxidative stress and predispose individuals to the development of keratoconus (KC) and Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD). Therefore, we investigated the association between genotypes and haplotypes of the g.29661G>A polymorphism (rs1003918) and the g.29059C>T polymorphism (rs1052536) of the LIG3 gene and the occurrence of KC and FECD in patients with FECD (258 individuals) or KC (283) and ethnically matched controls (300). The A/A genotype and the A allele of the g.29661G>A polymorphism were associated with increased occurrence of KC, while the G allele of this polymorphism was positively correlated with a decreased occurrence of this disease. The T/C genotype of the g.29059C>T polymorphism was associated with decreased FECD occurrence. In addition, the AT haplotype was associated with increased occurrence of KC and FECD, while the GT haplotype was associated with decreased occurrence of these diseases. The g.29661G>A and g.29059C>T polymorphisms may play a role in the KC and FECD pathogenesis and can be considered as markers in these diseases.

  12. Promoter methylation and gene polymorphism are two independent events in regulation of GSTP1 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Aaliya; Masood, A; Wani, K A; Bhat, Younus Ahmad; Nissar, Bushra; Khan, Nuzhat Shaheen; Ganai, B A

    2017-04-01

    Breast carcinogenesis is a multistep process, involving both genetic and epigenetic modification process of genes, involved in diverse pathways ranging from DNA repair to metabolic processes. This study was undertaken to assess the role of promoter methylation of GSTP1 gene, a member of glutathione-S-transferase family of enzymes, in relation to its expression, polymorphism, and clinicopathological parameters. Tissue samples were taken from breast cancer patients and paired with their normal adjacent tissues. A total of 51 subjects were studied, in which the frequency of promoter methylation in cancerous tissue was 37.25% as against 11% in the normal tissues ( p ≤ 0.001). The hypermethylated status of the gene was significantly associated with the loss of the protein expression ( r = -0.449, p = 0.001, odds ratio = 7.42, 95% confidence interval = 2.05-26.92). Furthermore, when compared with the clinical parameters, the significant association was found between the promoter hypermethylation and lymph node metastasis ( p ≤ 0.001), tumor stage ( p = 0.039), tumor grade ( p = 0.028), estrogen receptor status ( p = 0.018), and progesterone receptor status ( p = 0.046). Our study is the first of its kind in Kashmiri population, which indicates that GSTP1 shows aberrant methylation pattern in the breast cancer with the consequent loss in the protein expression. Furthermore, it also shows that the gene polymorphism (Ile105Val) at codon 105 is not related to the promoter methylation and two are the independent events in breast cancer development.

  13. Association between monoamine oxidase gene polymorphisms and smoking behaviour in Chinese males.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ying; Chen, Dafang; Hu, Yonghua; Guo, Song; Sun, Hongqiang; Lu, Aili; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Li, Lingsong

    2006-10-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is a critical metabolic enzyme of dopamine, which is a key neurotransmitter of the mesolimbic reward pathway in the human brain. Consequently, the gene encoding MAO is an important candidate gene in the genetics of smoking behaviour. We investigated the association between MAOA polymorphisms (a VNTR polymorphism and an EcoRV polymorphism) and smoking status. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted with 203 current smoking subjects and 168 non-current smoking subjects in Beijing, China. Genotyping for these polymorphisms was performed using PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Multiple logistic regression models were used to analyse the association of MAOA gene polymorphisms with smoking status. We found that individuals with the 1460T/O genotype had a significantly increased the risk of smoking compared to those with 1460C/O. The adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were 3.2 (95% CI 2.0-5.2) in current vs. non-current smokers group, 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.8) in ever vs. never smokers group, 2.5 (95% CI 1.4-4.3) in current vs. never smokers group, and 5.3 (95% CI 2.5-11.2) in current vs. former smokers group respectively. We also found that individuals with the 3-repeat genotype of the VNTR polymorphism had a significantly increased risk of smoking significantly compared to those with the 4-repeat genotype. The aORs were 2.0 (95% CI 1.0-4.1) in the current vs. former smokers group, and 1.9 (95% CI 1.0-3.6) in the nicotine dependent vs. non-nicotine dependent group respectively. Moreover, MAOA gene haplotypes were associated significantly with nicotine dependence in every group. In conclusion, there is an important association between MAOA polymorphisms and smoking status, suggesting a possible role of MAOA gene variants in nicotine dependence.

  14. Associations Between TNFAIP3 Gene Polymorphisms and Rheumatoid Arthritis Risk: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Yuan, Xier; Zhou, Qiang; Shi, Jiujun; Song, Zhoufeng; Quan, Renfu; Zhang, Dawei

    2017-05-01

    A host of studies investigated the associations between tumor necrosis factor alpha inducible protein 3 (TNFAIP3) gene rs2230926 and rs5029937 polymorphisms and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) susceptibility, but with conflicting findings. Therefore, we explored whether TNFAIP3 gene rs2230926 and rs5029937 polymorphisms are associated with RA by meta-analysis. We performed out a comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Elsevier, Embase, and CNKI databases to identify relevant studies. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of the associations. Literature search identified 10 case-control studies involving 18,014 cases and 20,112 controls in this meta-analysis. Our data supported an association between TNFAIP3 gene rs2230926 and rs5029937 polymorphisms and RA risk. Stratification analysis of ethnicity indicated that rs5029937 polymorphism increased the risk of RA among Caucasians, while rs2230926 polymorphism increased the risk of RA among Asians and Caucasians. In conclusion, this meta-analysis demonstrates that TNFAIP3 gene polymorphisms (rs2230926 and rs5029937) are associated with the increased risk of RA. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Adaptive gains through repeated gene loss: parallel evolution of cyanogenesis polymorphisms in the genus Trifolium (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Olsen, Kenneth M; Kooyers, Nicholas J; Small, Linda L

    2014-08-05

    Variation in cyanogenesis (hydrogen cyanide release following tissue damage) was first noted in populations of white clover more than a century ago, and subsequent decades of research have established this system as a classic example of an adaptive chemical defence polymorphism. Here, we document polymorphisms for cyanogenic components in several relatives of white clover, and we determine the molecular basis of this trans-specific adaptive variation. One hundred and thirty-nine plants, representing 13 of the 14 species within Trifolium section Trifoliastrum, plus additional species across the genus, were assayed for cyanogenic components (cyanogenic glucosides and their hydrolysing enzyme, linamarase) and for the presence of underlying cyanogenesis genes (CYP79D15 and Li, respectively). One or both cyanogenic components were detected in seven species, all within section Trifoliastrum; polymorphisms for the presence/absence (PA) of components were detected in six species. In a pattern that parallels our previous findings for white clover, all observed biochemical polymorphisms correspond to gene PA polymorphisms at CYP79D15 and Li. Relationships of DNA sequence haplotypes at the cyanogenesis loci and flanking genomic regions suggest independent evolution of gene deletions within species. This study thus provides evidence for the parallel evolution of adaptive biochemical polymorphisms through recurrent gene deletions in multiple species. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. A functional polymorphism in fas (CD95/APO-1) gene promoter associated with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Kanemitsu, Satomi; Ihara, Kenji; Saifddin, Ahmed; Otsuka, Takeshi; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Nagayama, Jun; Kuwano, Michihiko; Hara, Toshiro

    2002-06-01

    To investigate whether Fas promoter polymorphisms show a genetic contribution to the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a Japanese population, and to study the functional difference in promoter activity of the polymorphisms. In 109 SLE patients and 140 controls, the frequencies of A/G polymorphisms at -670 nucleotide position and G/A at -1377 nucleotide position were determined by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism analysis. The functional significance of the -670A/G polymorphism in the Fas gene was evaluated by a combination of Fas transcriptional activity in the reporter gene assay and binding activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 protein in the electrophoretic mobility shift assay. SLE patients exhibited significantly higher frequency of A allele at nucleotide position -670 (p = 0.004). There was no significant difference in the nucleotide position -1377 in Fas promoter gene between SLE patients and controls. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that the oligonucleotide with -670A in the Fas promoter had a higher binding ability to a GAS binding protein, STAT1, than that with -670G, although there was no statistically significant difference in the reporter gene assay. Fas promoter -670A/G polymorphism was significantly associated with SLE, suggesting a possibility that Fas promoter contributes, at least in part, to the pathogenesis of SLE.

  17. Polymorphism analysis of prion protein gene in 11 Pakistani goat breeds

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Mohammad Farooque; Khan, Sher Hayat; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Yang, Lifeng; Ali, Tariq; Khan, Jamal Muhammad; Shah, Syed Zahid Ali; Zhou, Xiangmei; Hussain, Tanveer; Zhu, Ting; Hussain, Tariq; Zhao, Deming

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The association between caprine PrP gene polymorphisms and its susceptibility to scrapie has been investigated in current years. As the ORF of the PrP gene is extremely erratic in different breeds of goats, we studied the PrP gene polymorphisms in 80 goats which belong to 11 Pakistani indigenous goat breeds from all provinces of Pakistan. A total of 6 distinct polymorphic sites (one novel) with amino acid substitutions were identified in the PrP gene which includes 126 (A -> G), 304 (G -> T), 379 (A -> G), 414 (C -> T), 428 (A -> G) and 718 (C -> T). The locus c.428 was found highly polymorphic in all breeds as compare to other loci. On the basis of these PrP variants NJ phylogenetic tree was constructed through MEGA6.1 which showed that all goat breeds along with domestic sheep and Mauflon sheep appeared as in one clade and sharing its most recent common ancestors (MRCA) with deer species while Protein analysis has shown that these polymorphisms can lead to varied primary, secondary and tertiary structure of protein. Based on these polymorphic variants, genetic distance, multidimensional scaling plot and principal component analyses revealed the clear picture regarding greater number of substitutions in cattle PrP regions as compared to the small ruminant species. In particular these findings may pinpoint the fundamental control over the scrapie in Capra hircus on genetic basis. PMID:27388702

  18. Human T-cell receptor v{beta} gene polymorphism and multiple sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, S.; Charmley, P.; Birchfield, R.I.

    1995-04-01

    Population-based genetic associations have been reported between RFLPs detected with probes corresponding to the genes encoding the {beta} chain of the T-cell receptor for antigen (RCRB) and a variety of autoimmune disorders. In the case of multiple sclerosis (MS), these studies have localized a putative disease-associated gene to a region of {approximately}110 kb in length, located within the TCRB locus. In the current study, all 14 known TCRBV (variable region) genes within the region of localization were mapped and identified. The nucleotide sequences of these genes were determined in a panel of six MS patients and six healthy controls, whomore » were human-leukocyte antigen and TCRB-RFLP haplotype matched. Nine of the 14 TCRBV genes studied showed evidence of polymorphism. PCR-based assays for each of these polymorphic genes were developed, and allele and genotype frequencies were determined in a panel of DNA samples from 48 MS patients and 60 control individuals. No significant differences in allele, genotype, or phenotype frequencies were observed between the MS patients and controls for any of the 14 TCRBV-gene polymorphisms studied. In light of the extensive linkage disequilibrium across the region studied, the saturating numbers of polymorphisms examined, and the direct sequence analysis of all BV genes in the region, these results suggest that it is unlikely that germ-line polymorphism in the TCRBV locus makes a major contribution to MS susceptibility. The TCRBV coding region-specific markers generated in these studies, as well as the approach of testing for associations with specific functionally relevant polymorphic sites within individual BV genes, should be useful in the evaluation of the many reported disease associations involving the human TCRB region. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.« less

  19. Polymorphisms of Selected DNA Repair Genes and Lung Cancer in Chromium Exposure.

    PubMed

    Halasova, E; Matakova, T; Skerenova, M; Krutakova, M; Slovakova, P; Dzian, A; Javorkova, S; Pec, M; Kypusova, K; Hamzik, J

    2016-01-01

    Chromium is a well-known mutagen and carcinogen involved in lung cancer development. DNA repair genes play an important role in the elimination of genetic changes caused by chromium exposure. In the present study, we investigated the polymorphisms of the following DNA repair genes: XRCC3, participating in the homologous recombination repair, and hMLH1 and hMSH2, functioning in the mismatch repair. We focused on the risk the polymorphisms present in the development of lung cancer regarding the exposure to chromium. We analyzed 106 individuals; 45 patients exposed to chromium with diagnosed lung cancer and 61 healthy controls. Genotypes were determined by a PCR-RFLP method. We unravelled a potential for increased risk of lung cancer development in the hMLH1 (rs1800734) AA genotype in the recessive model. In conclusion, gene polymorphisms in the DNA repair genes underscores the risk of lung cancer development in chromium exposed individuals.

  20. An improved polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay for the detection of a PON2 gene polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaoran; Yang, Yongli; Wang, Tuanwei; Feng, Xiaolei; Yao, W U; Yan, Zhen; Wang, Wei

    2016-07-01

    In recent research, it has been shown that there have been variants of rs12026 within the paraoxonase 2 ( PON2 ) gene, which have been associated with cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes and other diseases. The isochizomers, such as the Bso FI enzyme, required for the detection of this polymorphism are expensive. Therefore, an improved and less expensive polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism method was established for the detection of the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs12026 in the exon 5 of chromosome 7 of the human PON2 gene using the method of amplification-created restriction site. Subsequent to assessing 302 individuals, the genotype frequencies were 68.9% for CC, 29.8% for CG and 1.3% for GG, and the allelic frequencies were 83.8% for C and 16.2% for G. The PCR results were confirmed by DNA sequencing. The χ 2 test showed that the genotype and allele frequencies of PON2 -148 do not deviate from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and the sequences of amplified products were consistent with the sequence published in GenBank with the exception of a mismatched base.

  1. Functional polymorphisms in the sigma1 receptor gene associated with alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Ryosuke; Furukawa, Aizo; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Suwaki, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    Sigma1 receptors are involved in the pathogenesis of drug abuse. Two polymorphisms (GC-241-240TT and Gln2Pro) in the sigma1 receptor gene (SIGMAR1) have been identified. To investigate the role of SIGMAR1 in conveying susceptibility to alcoholism, we performed a functional analysis of polymorphisms in the SIGMAR1 and a case-control study. We initially screened for polymorphisms in the 5'-upstream region. The effects of the polymorphisms on transcriptional activity were determined using a gene reporter assay. The distribution of SIGMAR1 polymorphisms was analyzed in 307 alcoholic and 302 control subjects. A novel T-485A polymorphism was identified. The transcriptional activity of the A-485 allele and the TT-241-240 allele was significantly reduced compared with that of the T-485 allele and the GC-241-240 allele. The frequencies of the A-485 allele (chi2=5.575, df=1, p=.0205) and the TT-241-240/Pro2 haplotype (chi2=21.464, df=1, p<.0001) were significantly higher in control subjects compared with alcoholic subjects. The T-485A and the GC-241-240TT may be functional polymorphisms, and the A-485 allele and TT-241-240/Pro2 haplotype are possible protective factors for the development of alcoholism.

  2. Polymorphisms in the P1 promoter of the IGF-1 gene in children with growth disorders.

    PubMed

    Broniarczyk, Justyna K; Kędzia, Andrzej; Nowak, Witold; Kościński, Łukasz; Lewandowski, Mikołaj; Goździcka-Józefiak, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to associate children's growth disorders with polymorphisms detected in the P1 promoter region of IGF1 (including SNP and (CA) n microsatellite repeat polymorphism) and IGF1 and IGFPB3 levels. IGF-1 gene P1 promoter polymorphism was analyzed in DNA obtained from the blood of 51 children with growth disorders and 50 healthy children without growth disorders by means of PCR-SSCP and sequencing. Among children with growth disorders and the control group we found previously described polymorphisms in the P1 promoter of the IGF-1 gene (rs35767, rs5742612) and different genotypes. The frequency of both detected polymorphisms was no significantly different in the study and the control groups. The CA repeat sequence within the group of children in the study ranged from 11 to 21. The most common were homozygote 19/19 (49.02%) and heterozygote 19/20 (27.45%). Our results did not show any association between polymorphisms in the P1 promoter and IGF-1 levels in the serum of children with growth disorders. This study demonstrated that SNP and (CA) n microsatellite repeat polymorphisms by themselves are not the primary regulatory elements of IGF-1 expression. However, our bioinformatics analysis has shown that the (CA) n microsatellite region in the P1 promoter of IGF-1 is able to form DNA loop structures which can modulate transcription. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  3. Alzheimer disease risk associated with APOE4 is modified by STH gene polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Seripa, D; Matera, M G; D'Andrea, R P; Gravina, C; Masullo, C; Daniele, A; Bizzarro, A; Rinaldi, M; Antuono, P; Wekstein, D R; Dal Forno, G; Fazio, V M

    2004-05-11

    The association of the STH gene polymorphism with Alzheimer disease (AD) is debated. In the analysis of two genetically and diagnostically distinct groups of Alzheimer patients from the USA and Italy, the authors did not find an association with the STH polymorphism. However, the APOE-4-associated risk of AD greatly increased if the STH-G allele was also present. The STH-G allele appears to be a risk modifier for AD.

  4. TNFAIP3 gene rs10499194, rs13207033 polymorphisms decrease the risk of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Jie; Yang, Hao-Yu; Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Xindie; Liu, Rui-Ping; Mi, Yuan-Yuan

    2016-12-13

    Accumulating evidences suggested that tumor necrosis factor alpha inducible protein 3 (TNFAIP3) gene rs10499194, rs13207033 polymorphisms may be associated with the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, these studies yielded contradictory findings. To clarify convincing associations, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis by searching in PubMed, Embase, and the China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by using fixed-effect or random-effect models. A total of 13 case-control studies for rs10499194 polymorphism and 6 studies for rs13207033 polymorphism were included. Our data indicated that TNFAIP3 gene rs10499194, rs13207033 polymorphisms were associated with the decreased risk of RA. Stratification analyses of ethnicity indicated rs10499194, rs13207033 polymorphisms decreased the risk of RA among Caucasian populations, but not among Asian populations. In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicates that TNFAIP3 gene rs10499194, rs13207033 polymorphisms decrease the risk of RA, especially among Caucasian populations.

  5. NO ASSOCIATION BETWEEN tHbmass AND POLYMORPHISMS IN THE HBB GENE IN ENDURANCE ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Malczewska-Lenczowska, J.; Orysiak, J.; Majorczyk, E.; Pokrywka, A.; Kaczmarski, J.; Szygula, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between tHbmass and HBB gene polymorphisms in athletes of endurance disciplines. Eighty-two well-trained athletes (female n=36, male n=46), aged 19.3 ± 2.7 years, representing cross country skiing (n=37) and middle- and long-distance running (n=45), participated in the study. Genotyping for 2 polymorphisms in the HBB gene (- 551C/T and intron 2, +16 C/G) was performed using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Total haemoglobin mass (tHbmass) was determined by the optimized carbon monoxide rebreathing method. Blood morphology, indices of iron status (ferritin, transferrin receptor and total iron binding capacity) and C reactive protein were also determined. No differences were found in the HBB genotype and allele frequencies between male and female athletes. Regardless of the polymorphisms, no relationships were found between HBB genotypes as well as alleles and relative values of tHbmass, expressed per body mass (g · kg-1 BM), both in female and male athletes. Our results demonstrated that -551 C/T and intron 2, +16 C/G polymorphisms of the HBB gene have no association with total haemoglobin mass in endurance athletes. It cannot be ruled out that several polymorphisms, each with a small but significant contribution, may be responsible for the amount of haemoglobin. PMID:24899775

  6. Investigation on estrogen receptor alpha gene polymorphisms in Iranian women with recurrent pregnancy loss

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavipour, Marzieh; Idali, Farah; Zarei, Saeed; Talebi, Saeed; Fatemi, Ramina; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Pahlavan, Somayeh; Rajaei, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is a multifactorial disorder. Environmental factors and genetics can affect pregnancy outcomes. Objective: Conflicting data suggest an association between estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) gene polymorphisms and RPL. In this study, such association was investigated in Iranian women with RPL. Materials and Methods: In this case control study, blood samples were collected from 244 women with a history of three or more consecutive pregnancy losses and 104 healthy women with at least two live births. Using polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), we studied -397C/T and -351A/G polymorphisms on ESR1 gene in case and control subjects. Results: The genotypic frequencies of -397C/T and -351A/G polymorphisms on ESR1were not significantly different between RPL and control groups (p=0.20 and p=0.09, respectively). A significantly negative correlation was observed between -397C/T and -351A/G (r=-0.852, p<0.001) in RPL women and complete linkage disequilibrium between the investigated polymorphisms was found (D’: 0.959; r-square= 0.758, p<0.001). Conclusion: This investigation suggests that the analyzed polymorphisms on ESR1gene are not associated with an increased risk of RPL in the studied population. PMID:25071847

  7. TNFA and IL10 Gene Polymorphisms are not Associated with Periodontitis in Brazilians

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, P. R; Costa, J. E; Gomez, R. S; Gollob, K. J; Dutra, W. O

    2009-01-01

    IL-10 and TNF-α are cytokines that have complex and opposing roles in the inflammatory responses. G/A polymorphisms at position –1082 of IL10 and –308 of TNFA genes have been reported to influence the expression of IL-10 and TNF-α, respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the IL10 (-1082) and TNFA (- 308) gene polymorphisms with different clinical forms or severity of periodontitis in a sample of Brazilian individuals. DNA was obtained from oral swabs of 165 Brazilian individuals, which were divided into three groups: individuals with chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis and individuals without clinical evidence of periodontitis. Evaluation of IL10 and TNFA polymorphisms was performed by RFLP analysis. Statistical analysis of data was performed using the χ2 likelihood ratio and Fisher`s exact test. No significant differences in the genotype and allele distribution of either IL10 or TNFA were observed among individuals with different clinical forms or with different degrees of severity of periodontitis. Moreover, combined analysis of IL10 and TNFA polymorphisms did not show any association with periodontal status. As conclusion, the IL10 and TNFA gene promoter polymorphisms investigated are not associated with different clinical forms of periodontitis or with severity of the disease in the Brazilian population polymorphisms. PMID:19771178

  8. Association of angiotensin type 2 receptor gene polymorphisms with ureteropelvic junction obstruction in Brazilian patients.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Debora M; Dos Santos, Augusto Cesar; Sarubi, Helena C; Bastos-Rodrigues, Luciana; Rosa, Daniela Valadão; Freitas, Izabella S; De Marco, Luiz Armando; Oliveira, Eduardo A; Simões e Silva, Ana Cristina

    2014-11-01

    The angiotensin type 2 (AT2 ) receptor takes part in the process of ureteric bud during kidney development. Therefore, the gene encoding AT2 receptor, the AGTR2 gene located in the X chromosome, is a potential candidate for genetic association with Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract (CAKUT). This study aimed to investigate whether AGTR2 gene polymorphisms are associated with CAKUT in general or even with common phenotypes of CAKUT in a Brazilian sample of paediatric patients. We analyzed 290 paediatric patients with CAKUT and 262 healthy controls from the same geographic area. TaqMan single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assays for AGTR2 gene at rs1403543, rs3736556, rs35474657, rs5193 and rs5194 were performed. The sample was in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium for all five SNPs. The presence of CAKUT in general was not significantly associated with the SNPs included in this study. However, when patients were segregated according to major phenotypes, the diagnosis of Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction (UPJO) was significantly associated with AGTR2 gene polymorphisms at rs3736556 and at rs5194. On the other hand, the diagnoses of vesicoureteral reflux and of multicystic dysplastic kidney were not associated with AGTR2 gene polymorphisms. Our results support that the AGTR2 gene may contribute to the pathogenesis of UPJO and the genetic origin of CAKUT could vary according to phenotype expression. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  9. Serotonin gene polymorphisms and bipolar I disorder: focus on the serotonin transporter.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Hader A; Talkowski, Michael E; Wood, Joel; Pless, Lora; Bamne, Mikhil; Chowdari, Kodavali V; Allen, Michael; Bowden, Charles L; Calabrese, Joseph; El-Mallakh, Rif S; Fagiolini, Andrea; Faraone, Stephen V; Fossey, Mark D; Friedman, Edward S; Gyulai, Laszlo; Hauser, Peter; Ketter, Terence A; Loftis, Jennifer M; Marangell, Lauren B; Miklowitz, David J; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Patel, Jayendra; Sachs, Gary S; Sklar, Pamela; Smoller, Jordan W; Thase, Michael E; Frank, Ellen; Kupfer, David J; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L

    2005-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bipolar disorder may involve, at least in part, aberrations in serotonergic neurotransmission. Hence, serotonergic genes are attractive targets for association studies of bipolar disorder. We have reviewed the literature in this field. It is difficult to synthesize results as only one polymorphism per gene was typically investigated in relatively small samples. Nevertheless, suggestive associations are available for the 5HT2A receptor and the serotonin transporter genes. With the availability of extensive polymorphism data and high throughput genotyping techniques, comprehensive evaluation of these genes using adequately powered samples is warranted. We also report on our investigations of the serotonin transporter, SLC6A4 (17q11.1-q12). An insertion/deletion polymorphism (5HTTLPR) in the promoter region of this gene has been investigated intensively. However, the results have been inconsistent. We reasoned that other polymorphism/s may contribute to the associations and the inconsistencies may be due to variations in linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns between samples. Therefore, we conducted LD analyses, as well as association and linkage using 12 polymorphisms, including 5HTTLPR. We evaluated two samples. The first sample consisted of 135 US Caucasian nuclear families having a proband with bipolar I disorder (BDI, DSM IV criteria) and available parents. For case-control analyses, the patients from these families were compared with cord blood samples from local Caucasian live births (n = 182). Our second, independent sample was recruited through the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD, 545 cases, 548 controls). No significant associations were detected at the individual polymorphism or haplotype level using the case-control or family-based analyses. Our analyses do not support association between SLC6A4 and BDI families. Further studies using sub-groups of BDI are worthwhile.

  10. Functional Characterization of Genetic Polymorphisms Identified in the Promoter Region of the Bovine PEPS Gene

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Zhihua; Zheng, Xue; Huang, Jinming; Qi, Chao; Zhang, Yan; Li, Jianbin

    2012-01-01

    Peptidase S (PEPS) is a metallopeptidase that cleaves N-terminal residues from proteins and peptides. PEPS is used as a cell maintenance enzyme with critical roles in peptide turnover. The promoter region located upstream of the initiation site plays an important role in regulating gene expression. Polymorphism in the promoter region can alter gene expression and lead to biological changes. In the current study, polymorphisms in the promoter region of the PEPS gene were investigated. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing methods were used to screen sequence variations in the promoter region of DNA samples from 743 Chinese Holstein cattle. Two polymorphisms (g. −534 T>C and g. −2545 G>A) were identified and eight haplotypes were classified by haplotype analysis. The two genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes were associated with fat percentage and somatic cell score in Chinese Holstein cattle. The results of real-time PCR showed that cow kidneys exhibit the highest PEPS expression level. Moreover, bioinformatics analysis predicted that the single-nucleotide polymorphism g. −534 T>C is located in the core promoter region and in the transcription factor binding sites. The promoter activities of the polymorphism of −543 T>C were measured by luciferase assay in the human kidney epithelial cell line 293T. Transcriptional activity is significantly lower in cell lines transfected with the reporter construct containing 2.5 kb upstream fragments with −543 C than in those with wild-type −543 T. The results indicated that genetic variation at locus −543 influences PEPS promoter activity. The genetic variation in the promoter region of PEPS gene may regulate PEPS gene transcription and might have consequences at a regulatory level. PMID:22304649

  11. Functional characterization of genetic polymorphisms identified in the promoter region of the bovine PEPS gene.

    PubMed

    Ju, Zhihua; Zheng, Xue; Huang, Jinming; Qi, Chao; Zhang, Yan; Li, Jianbin; Zhong, Jifeng; Wang, Changfa

    2012-06-01

    Peptidase S (PEPS) is a metallopeptidase that cleaves N-terminal residues from proteins and peptides. PEPS is used as a cell maintenance enzyme with critical roles in peptide turnover. The promoter region located upstream of the initiation site plays an important role in regulating gene expression. Polymorphism in the promoter region can alter gene expression and lead to biological changes. In the current study, polymorphisms in the promoter region of the PEPS gene were investigated. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing methods were used to screen sequence variations in the promoter region of DNA samples from 743 Chinese Holstein cattle. Two polymorphisms (g. -534 T>C and g. -2545 G>A) were identified and eight haplotypes were classified by haplotype analysis. The two genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes were associated with fat percentage and somatic cell score in Chinese Holstein cattle. The results of real-time PCR showed that cow kidneys exhibit the highest PEPS expression level. Moreover, bioinformatics analysis predicted that the single-nucleotide polymorphism g. -534 T>C is located in the core promoter region and in the transcription factor binding sites. The promoter activities of the polymorphism of -543 T>C were measured by luciferase assay in the human kidney epithelial cell line 293T. Transcriptional activity is significantly lower in cell lines transfected with the reporter construct containing 2.5 kb upstream fragments with -543 C than in those with wild-type -543 T. The results indicated that genetic variation at locus -543 influences PEPS promoter activity. The genetic variation in the promoter region of PEPS gene may regulate PEPS gene transcription and might have consequences at a regulatory level.

  12. Relationship of interleukin-1B gene promoter region polymorphism with Helicobacter pylori infection and gastritis.

    PubMed

    Ramis, Ivy Bastos; Vianna, Júlia Silveira; Halicki, Priscila Cristina Bartolomeu; Lara, Caroline; Tadiotto, Thássia Fernanda; da Silva Maciel, João Batista; Gonçalves, Carla Vitola; von Groll, Andrea; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio; da Silva, Pedro Eduardo Almeida

    2015-09-29

    Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric carcinoma. The severity of damage is determined by the interplay between environmental/behavioral factors, bacterial pathogenicity genes and host genetic polymorphisms that can influence the secretion levels of inflammatory cytokines. Accordingly, this study aimed to identify polymorphisms in the IL-1B and IL-1RN genes and their associations with H. pylori infection, cagA gene of H. pylori, and gastroduodenal diseases. Gastric biopsy samples from 151 patients infected with H. pylori and 76 uninfected individuals were analyzed. H. pylori infection was diagnosed by histology and PCR. Polymorphisms at positions -511, -31 and +3954 of the IL-1B gene were detected by PCR-RFLP, and an analysis of the VNTR polymorphism of the IL-1RN gene was performed by PCR. It was observed that the presence of the T/T genotype at position -511 and the C/C genotype at position -31 were associated with H. pylori infection and with an increased risk of gastritis in H. pylori-positive patients. Additionally, strains from patients H. pylori-positive carrying the cagA gene was significantly related with the T/T genotype at position -511 of IL-1B.  No association of polymorphisms at position +3954 of IL-1B and in the IL-1RN with H. pylori infection and with risk of severe gastric diseases was found. We demonstrated that polymorphisms in the promoter region of the IL-1B gene (at positions -511 and -31) are associated with an enhanced risk of H. pylori infection as well as gastritis in H. pylori-positive patients.

  13. Extensive shared polymorphism at non-MHC immune genes in recently diverged North American prairie grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minias, Piotr; Bateson, Zachary W.; Whittingham, Linda A.; Johnson, Jeff A.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Dunn, Peter O.

    2018-01-01

    Gene polymorphisms shared between recently diverged species are thought to be widespread and most commonly reflect introgression from hybridization or retention of ancestral polymorphism through incomplete lineage sorting. Shared genetic diversity resulting from incomplete lineage sorting is usually maintained for a relatively short period of time, but under strong balancing selection it may persist for millions of years beyond species divergence (balanced trans-species polymorphism), as in the case of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. However, balancing selection is much less likely to act on non-MHC immune genes. The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of shared polymorphism and selection at non-MHC immune genes in five grouse species from Centrocercus and Tympanuchus genera. For this purpose, we genotyped five non-MHC immune genes that do not interact directly with pathogens, but are involved in signaling and regulate immune cell growth. In contrast to previous studies with MHC, we found no evidence for balancing selection or balanced trans-species polymorphism among the non-MHC immune genes. No haplotypes were shared between genera and in most cases more similar allelic variants sorted by genus. Between species within genera, however, we found extensive shared polymorphism, which was most likely attributable to introgression or incomplete lineage sorting following recent divergence and large ancestral effective population size (i.e., weak genetic drift). Our study suggests that North American prairie grouse may have attained relatively low degree of reciprocal monophyly at nuclear loci and reinforces the rarity of balancing selection in non-MHC immune genes.

  14. Identification of polymorphisms in the Toll-like receptor gene and the association with allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Inhong; Oh, Yeon-Kyun; Lee, Sang Heon; Jung, Ha Min; Chae, Soo-Cheon; Lee, Jae Hoon

    2010-03-01

    The TLRs gene encodes the principal innate immunity receptor in humans. The TLR2 Arg753Gln and Arg677Trp polymorphisms have been associated with a reduced response of monocytes and cell lines to challenge with mycobacteria. The TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms have been associated with a reduction in the inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide in humans. It has been suggested that TLR2 and TLR4 polymorphisms may be associated with allergic responses; thus, we hypothesized that TLR2 and TLR4 polymorphisms may modify the relative risk for development of allergic rhinitis. The Taqman assay and high-resolution melt (HRM) were used for genotyping. We analyzed two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; 597T>C and 1350T>C) in the TLR2 gene and 1 SNP (4216G>C) in the TLR4 gene. We compared the genotype of these SNPs in patients with allergic rhinitis and controls without allergic rhinitis. We also estimated the haplotype frequencies between the two groups. The genotype and allele frequencies of the 597T>C and 1350T>C SNPs in the TLR2 gene were not significantly different between the patients with allergic rhinitis and controls (P > 0.05). The genotype and allele frequencies of 4216G>C in the TLR4 gene were not significantly different between the patients with allergic rhinitis and controls (P > 0.05). Haplotype analysis of the following two different (597)-(1350) major haplotypes (frequency >0.05) were present in the TLR2 gene: T-C and C-C. The C-C haplotype was positively associated with allergic rhinitis (P = 0.048). Our study suggests that the TLR2 gene polymorphisms might be susceptible to the development of allergic rhinitis. Further functional studies of TLR2 genetics in light of the associations with allergic rhinitis inflammation would help clarify the role of TLR2 genetics in clinical evaluations.

  15. Association of Gene Polymorphisms in Interleukin 6 in Infantile Bronchial Asthma.

    PubMed

    Babusikova, Eva; Jurecekova, Jana; Jesenak, Milos; Evinova, Andrea

    2017-07-01

    The genetic background of bronchial asthma is complex, and it is likely that multiple genes contribute to its development both directly and through gene-gene interactions. Cytokines contribute to different aspects of asthma, as they determine the type, severity and outcomes of asthma pathogenesis. Allergic asthmatics undergoing an asthmatic attack exhibit significantly higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukins and chemokines. In recent years, cytokines and their receptors have been shown to be highly polymorphic, and this prompted us to investigate interleukin 6 promoter polymorphisms at position -174G/C (rs1800795) and at -572G/C (rs1800796) in relation to asthma in children. Interleukin 6 promoter polymorphisms were analyzed in bronchial asthma patients and healthy children using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. We observed a significant association between polymorphism at -174G/C and bronchial asthma (OR=3.4, 95% CI: 2.045-5.638, P<.001). Higher associations between polymorphism at IL-6 -174G/C and bronchial asthma were observed in atopic patients (OR=4.1, 95% CI: 2.308-7.280, P<8.10 -7 ). Interleukin 6 polymorphism is associated with bronchial asthma, particularly its atopic phenotype. Expression and secretion of interleukins in asthmatic patients may be affected by genetic polymorphisms, and could have a disease-modifying effect in the asthmatic airway and modify the therapeutic response. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Canine olfactory receptor gene polymorphism and its relation to odor detection performance by sniffer dogs.

    PubMed

    Lesniak, Anna; Walczak, Marta; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Sacharczuk, Mariusz; Gawkowski, Maciej; Jaszczak, Kazimierz

    2008-01-01

    The outstanding sensitivity of the canine olfactory system has been acknowledged by using sniffer dogs in military and civilian service for detection of a variety of odors. It is hypothesized that the canine olfactory ability is determined by polymorphisms in olfactory receptor (OR) genes. We investigated 5 OR genes for polymorphic sites which might affect the olfactory ability of service dogs in different fields of specific substance detection. All investigated OR DNA sequences proved to have allelic variants, the majority of which lead to protein sequence alteration. Homozygous individuals at 2 gene loci significantly differed in their detection skills from other genotypes. This suggests a role of specific alleles in odor detection and a linkage between single-nucleotide polymorphism and odor recognition efficiency.

  17. [The value of 5-HTT gene polymorphism for the assessment and prediction of male adolescence violence].

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Liu, Xiang; Yang, Zhen-xing; Qiu, Chang-jian; Ma, Xiao-hong

    2012-08-01

    To establish an adolescent violence crime prediction model, and to assess the value of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene polymorphism for the assessment and prediction of violent crime. Investigative tools were used to analyze the difference in personality dimensions, social support, coping styles, aggressiveness, impulsivity, and family condition scale between 223 adolescents with violence behavior and 148 adolescents without violence behavior. The distribution of 5-HTT gene polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR and 5-HTTVNTR) was compared between the two groups. The role of 5-HTT gene polymorphism on adolescent personality, impulsion and aggression scale also was also analyzed. Stepwise logistic regression was used to establish a predictive model for adolescent violent crime. Significant difference was found between the violence group and the control group on multiple dimensions of psychology and environment scales. However, no statistical difference was found with regard to the 5-HTT genotypes and alleles between adolescents with violent behaviors and normal controls. The rate of prediction accuracy was not significantly improved when 5-HTT gene polymorphism was taken into the model. The violent crime of adolescents was closely related with social and environmental factors. No association was found between 5-HTT polymorphisms and adolescent violence criminal behavior.

  18. Relationship between ADD1 Gly460Trp gene polymorphism and essential hypertension in Madeira Island

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Ana Célia; Palma dos Reis, Roberto; Pereira, Andreia; Borges, Sofia; Freitas, Ana Isabel; Guerra, Graça; Góis, Teresa; Rodrigues, Mariana; Henriques, Eva; Freitas, Sónia; Ornelas, Ilídio; Pereira, Décio; Brehm, António; Mendonça, Maria Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Essential hypertension (EH) is a complex disease in which physiological, environmental, and genetic factors are involved in its genesis. The genetic variant of the alpha-adducin gene (ADD1) has been described as a risk factor for EH, but with controversial results. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of ADD1 (Gly460Trp) gene polymorphism with the EH risk in a population from Madeira Island. A case-control study with 1614 individuals of Caucasian origin was performed, including 817 individuals with EH and 797 controls. Cases and controls were matched for sex and age, by frequency-matching method. All participants collected blood for biochemical and genotypic analysis for the Gly460Trp polymorphism. We further investigated which variables were independently associated to EH, and, consequently, analyzed their interactions. In our study, we found a significant association between the ADD1 gene polymorphism and EH (odds ratio 2.484, P = .01). This association remained statistically significant after the multivariate analysis (odds ratio 2.548, P = .02). The ADD1 Gly460Trp gene polymorphism is significantly and independently associated with EH risk in our population. The knowledge of genetic polymorphisms associated with EH is of paramount importance because it leads to a better understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of this pathology. PMID:29049185

  19. Relationship between ADD1 Gly460Trp gene polymorphism and essential hypertension in Madeira Island.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ana Célia; Palma Dos Reis, Roberto; Pereira, Andreia; Borges, Sofia; Freitas, Ana Isabel; Guerra, Graça; Góis, Teresa; Rodrigues, Mariana; Henriques, Eva; Freitas, Sónia; Ornelas, Ilídio; Pereira, Décio; Brehm, António; Mendonça, Maria Isabel

    2017-10-01

    Essential hypertension (EH) is a complex disease in which physiological, environmental, and genetic factors are involved in its genesis. The genetic variant of the alpha-adducin gene (ADD1) has been described as a risk factor for EH, but with controversial results.The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of ADD1 (Gly460Trp) gene polymorphism with the EH risk in a population from Madeira Island.A case-control study with 1614 individuals of Caucasian origin was performed, including 817 individuals with EH and 797 controls. Cases and controls were matched for sex and age, by frequency-matching method. All participants collected blood for biochemical and genotypic analysis for the Gly460Trp polymorphism. We further investigated which variables were independently associated to EH, and, consequently, analyzed their interactions.In our study, we found a significant association between the ADD1 gene polymorphism and EH (odds ratio 2.484, P = .01). This association remained statistically significant after the multivariate analysis (odds ratio 2.548, P = .02).The ADD1 Gly460Trp gene polymorphism is significantly and independently associated with EH risk in our population. The knowledge of genetic polymorphisms associated with EH is of paramount importance because it leads to a better understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of this pathology.

  20. No Association between Personality and Candidate Gene Polymorphisms in a Wild Bird Population.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Hannah A; Hajduk, Gabriela K; Durieux, Gillian; Burke, Terry; Dugdale, Hannah L

    2015-01-01

    Consistency of between-individual differences in behaviour or personality is a phenomenon in populations that can have ecological consequences and evolutionary potential. One way that behaviour can evolve is to have a genetic basis. Identifying the molecular genetic basis of personality could therefore provide insight into how and why such variation is maintained, particularly in natural populations. Previously identified candidate genes for personality in birds include the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4), and serotonin transporter (SERT). Studies of wild bird populations have shown that exploratory and bold behaviours are associated with polymorphisms in both DRD4 and SERT. Here we tested for polymorphisms in DRD4 and SERT in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis) population on Cousin Island, Seychelles, and then investigated correlations between personality and polymorphisms in these genes. We found no genetic variation in DRD4, but identified four polymorphisms in SERT that clustered into five haplotypes. There was no correlation between bold or exploratory behaviours and SERT polymorphisms/haplotypes. The null result was not due to lack of power, and indicates that there was no association between these behaviours and variation in the candidate genes tested in this population. These null findings provide important data to facilitate representative future meta-analyses on candidate personality genes.

  1. Role of cytokine gene polymorphisms in acute and chronic kidney disease following liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Hideya; Onishi, Yasuharu; Nakamura, Taro; Ishigami, Masatoshi; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-07-01

    Development of renal dysfunction, including acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD), after liver transplantation (LT) remains a critical issue adversely affecting patient survival in both the short and long term. Previous reports have suggested that inflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines and their functionally relevant gene polymorphisms may play critical roles in the development of AKI and CKD. However, the involvement of these cytokines and their gene polymorphisms in renal deterioration following LT remains unclear. We examined 62 recipients who underwent LT at Nagoya University between 2004 and 2009 and who had survived for at least 1 year. The following gene polymorphisms in recipients were analyzed: tumor necrosis factor-A (TNFA) T-1031C, interleukin-2 (IL2) T-330G, IL10 C-819T, IL13 C-1111T, transforming growth factor-B (TGFB) T29C, and IL4 T-33C. Thirteen patients (21 %) developed AKI within 4 weeks after LT. Of the investigated gene polymorphisms, the IL4 -33 T/T genotype was significantly associated with higher incidence of AKI compared with the other two genotypes [hazard ratio (HR) = 5.48, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.18-25.52, p = 0.03]. On the other hand, 16 patients (26 %) had developed CKD at median follow-up of 9.2 years after LT. We showed the lack of association between investigated gene polymorphisms in recipients and CKD development. The IL4 -33 T/T genotype might be a risk factor for AKI in LT, and this might contribute to earlier withdrawal of immunosuppressive agents to minimize renal toxicity. In contrast, none of the investigated cytokine gene polymorphisms were associated with CKD.

  2. Genetic polymorphism in three glutathione s-transferase genes and breast cancer risk

    SciTech Connect

    Woldegiorgis, S.; Ahmed, R.C.; Zhen, Y.

    2002-04-01

    The role of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzyme family is to detoxify environmental toxins and carcinogens and to protect organisms from their adverse effects, including cancer. The genes GSTM1, GSTP1, and GSTT1 code for three GSTs involved in the detoxification of carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzene. In humans, GSTM1 is deleted in about 50% of the population, GSTT1 is absent in about 20%, whereas the GSTP1 gene has a single base polymorphism resulting in an enzyme with reduced activity. Epidemiological studies indicate that GST polymorphisms increase the level of carcinogen-induced DNA damage and several studies havemore » found a correlation of polymorphisms in one of the GST genes and an increased risk for certain cancers. We examined the role of polymorphisms in genes coding for these three GST enzymes in breast cancer. A breast tissue collection consisting of specimens of breast cancer patients and non-cancer controls was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence or absence of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes and for GSTP1 single base polymorphism by PCR/RFLP. We found that GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletions occurred more frequently in cases than in controls, and GSTP1 polymorphism was more frequent in controls. The effective detoxifier (putative low-risk) genotype (defined as presence of both GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes and GSTP1 wild type) was less frequent in cases than controls (16% vs. 23%, respectively). The poor detoxifier (putative high-risk) genotype was more frequent in cases than controls. However, the sample size of this study was too small to provide conclusive results.« less

  3. A polymorphism in PRF1 gene is associated with HIV-1 vertical transmission in Brazilian children.

    PubMed

    Padovan, Lara; Segat, Ludovica; Crovella, Sergio

    2011-02-20

    We investigated the possible association between PRF1 gene polymorphisms and HIV-1 vertical transmission in Brazilian children by analyzing PRF1 gene coding and untranslated regions in 173 perinatally infected children (HIV+), 51 exposed uninfected (HIV-), and 171 HIV-unexposed uninfected children. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in our samples. The rs885822 C allele and CC genotype were significantly more frequent in HIV-negative than in HIV-positive patients and associated with a protective effect toward HIV vertical transmission.

  4. Folate and Breast Cancer: Role of Intake, Blood Levels, and Metabolic Gene Polymorphisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    12.0 10.1 0.05 Breast cancer in first-degree relative, % 3.4 2.4 0.15 Ever had breast fibroadenoma , % 9.7 5.2 0.01 Age at menarche (yr) 14.5 1.6...DAMD17-02-1-0606 TITLE: Folate and Breast Cancer: Role of Intake, Blood Levels, and Metabolic Gene Polymorphisms PRINCIPAL...NUMBER Folate and Breast Cancer: Role of Intake, Blood Levels, and Metabolic Gene Polymorphisms 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-02-1-0606 5c. PROGRAM

  5. DRD2/ANKK1 gene polymorphisms in forensic autopsies of methamphetamine intoxication fatalities.

    PubMed

    Matsusue, Aya; Ishikawa, Takaki; Ikeda, Tomoya; Tani, Naoto; Arima, Hisatomi; Waters, Brian; Hara, Kenji; Kashiwagi, Masayuki; Takayama, Mio; Ikematsu, Natsuki; Kubo, Shin-Ichi

    2018-04-22

    Dopamine D2 receptor/ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (DRD2/ANKK1) gene polymorphisms have been associated with responses to psychotropic drugs and addiction. We analyzed two DRD2/ANKK1 polymorphisms, Taq1A and -141C Ins/Del, in 37 fatal methamphetamine (MA) intoxication cases and 235 control cases in which MA and psychotropic drugs were not detected. The association among polymorphism, cause of death, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dopamine concentration was evaluated. The Taq1A polymorphism distribution in the fatal MA intoxication cases differed from in the controls (P = 0.030) with a significantly high A1/A1 + A1/A2 genotype frequency. No significant associations were observed between -141C Ins/Del polymorphisms and MA intoxication cases or between DRD2/ANKK1 polymorphisms and CSF dopamine concentrations. Our findings suggest that the DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to fatal MA intoxication. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Discovery of nucleotide polymorphisms in the Musa gene pool by Ecotilling.

    PubMed

    Till, Bradley J; Jankowicz-Cieslak, Joanna; Sági, László; Huynh, Owen A; Utsushi, Hiroe; Swennen, Rony; Terauchi, Ryohei; Mba, Chikelu

    2010-11-01

    Musa (banana and plantain) is an important genus for the global export market and in local markets where it provides staple food for approximately 400 million people. Hybridization and polyploidization of several (sub)species, combined with vegetative propagation and human selection have produced a complex genetic history. We describe the application of the Ecotilling method for the discovery and characterization of nucleotide polymorphisms in diploid and polyploid accessions of Musa. We discovered over 800 novel alleles in 80 accessions. Sequencing and band evaluation shows Ecotilling to be a robust and accurate platform for the discovery of polymorphisms in homologous and homeologous gene targets. In the process of validating the method, we identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms that may be deleterious for the function of a gene putatively important for phototropism. Evaluation of heterozygous polymorphism and haplotype blocks revealed a high level of nucleotide diversity in Musa accessions. We further applied a strategy for the simultaneous discovery of heterozygous and homozygous polymorphisms in diploid accessions to rapidly evaluate nucleotide diversity in accessions of the same genome type. This strategy can be used to develop hypotheses for inheritance patterns of nucleotide polymorphisms within and between genome types. We conclude that Ecotilling is suitable for diversity studies in Musa, that it can be considered for functional genomics studies and as tool in selecting germplasm for traditional and mutation breeding approaches.

  7. Polymorphism of the flap endonuclease 1 gene in keratoconus and Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, Katarzyna A; Synowiec, Ewelina; Polakowski, Piotr; Głowacki, Sylwester; Izdebska, Justyna; Lloyd, Sophie; Galea, Dieter; Blasiak, Janusz; Szaflik, Jerzy; Szaflik, Jacek P

    2014-08-22

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including serious ocular diseases, keratoconus (KC) and Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD). Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) plays an important role in the repair of oxidative DNA damage in the base excision repair pathway. We determined the association between two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), c.-441G>A (rs174538) and g.61564299G>T (rs4246215), in the FEN1 gene and the occurrence of KC and FECD. This study involved 279 patients with KC, 225 patients with FECD and 322 control individuals. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and length polymorphism restriction fragment analysis (RFLP) were applied. The T/T genotype of the g.61564299G>T polymorphism was associated with an increased occurrence of KC and FECD. There was no association between the c.-441G>A polymorphism and either disease. However, the GG haplotype of both polymorphisms was observed more frequently and the GT haplotype less frequently in the KC group than the control. The AG haplotype was associated with increased FECD occurrence. Our findings suggest that the g.61564299G>T and c.-441G>A polymorphisms in the FEN1 gene may modulate the risk of keratoconus and Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy.

  8. Association between polymorphisms in erythropoietin gene and upper limit haematocrit levels among regular blood donors.

    PubMed

    Khabour, O F; Bani-Ahmad, M A; Hammash, N M

    2012-12-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone that functions primarily on the stimulation and control of erythropoiesis in bone marrow. In this study, polymorphisms in EPO gene; C3434T, G3544T (rs551238) and rs1617640 were evaluated to determine their frequencies and genotype distribution patterns among blood donors with upper-limit haematocrit level. A total of 298 subjects, 181 blood donors with haematocrit level greater or equal to 48% and 117 donors with haematocrit between 42-47.5% as control were recruited. All subjects were genotyped for C3434T, rs551238 polymorphisms and for rs1617640 using restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP) and sequencing techniques. A significant difference was found in rs1617640 and rs551238 genotype frequencies in blood donors with upper-haematocrit compared to the control group (P<0.05). In accordance with genotype frequencies, G allele in these two polymorphisms were found at higher frequency among upper-haematocrit group compared to the control (P<0.05). On the other hand, C3434T polymorphism was not significantly different between the two groups, neither for genotype frequencies nor for allele frequencies. Results suggest a strong association between rs551238 and rs1617640 polymorphisms in the EPO gene and upper-limit haematocrit level among blood donors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. [Correlation between FOXP3 gene polymorphisms and allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Cheng-shuo; Zhang, Luo

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the correlation between polymorphisms in the FOXP3 locus and the susceptibility of allergic rhinitis. Two polymorphisms in FOXP3 locus were genotyped in 193 subjects with allergic rhinitis and 191 healthy controls. The polymorphisms were chosen in terms of the information from Hapmap website as well as Haploview version 4.1 program implemented results. PCR-resequencing methods was performed for genotyping. SPSS program version 13.0 was used for statistical analysis. Heterozygotes of rs3761547 and rs3761548 appeared significant, while only rs3761548 (P = 0.020, OR = 3.12, 95%CI were 1.21 - 8.04) remained significant following application of the Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Subgroup analysis for the presence of different allergen allergy also showed significant association for house dust mites (rs3761547, P = 0.013, OR = 2.00). Heterozygous allele in rs3761548 is associated with allergic rhinitis and rs3761547 is related to house dust mites allergic rhinitis.

  10. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism susceptibility to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: an updated meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Cai-Yun; Qian, Zhen-Zhong; Gong, Feng-Feng; Lu, Shan-Shan; Feng, Fang; Wu, Yi-Le; Yang, Hui-Yun; Sun, Ye-Huan

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies examining the possible role of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms in the development of schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD) have provided inconclusive findings, this meta-analysis was therefore designed to get a more reliable assessment. A total of 38 articles were identified through a search of electronic databases, up to 27 February 2014. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (CIs) were calculated using random effects models. Meta-analysis showed that MTHFR C677T was significantly associated with SZ, the highest OR was found for the recessive model (for TT vs. CT + CC: OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.18-1.53); a marginal association of MTHFR C677T with increased risk of BPD has also been found for the recessive model (OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.00-1.59). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity indicated that the significant association with SZ and BPD existed among Asian and African populations, but not for the white. MTHFR A1298C was significant associated with SZ, the highest OR for the dominant model (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.03-1.24). Subgroup analysis indicated a significant association with SZ existed in Asian populations, not among the white populations and no significant association was detected between the MTHFR A1298C and BPD in all groups. We conclude that MTHFR polymorphism is associated with SZ and BPD among Asian, African populations, but not the white.

  11. Lack of associations between AURKA gene polymorphisms and neuroblastoma susceptibility in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jue; Qian, Yuanmin; Zhu, Jinhong; Zhang, Jiao; Wang, Feng-Hua; Zeng, Jia-Hang; Liang, Jiang-Hua; Wang, Hui; Xia, Huimin; He, Jing; Liu, Wei

    2018-04-20

    Previous studies have demonstrated that polymorphisms in the AURKA gene are associated with various types of cancer. In neuroblastoma, AURKA protein product regulates N-myc protein levels and plays a critical role in tumorigenesis. To investigate the association between three AURKA polymorphisms (rs1047972 C>T, rs2273535 T>A and rs8173 G>C) and neuroblastoma susceptibility in Chinese populations, we performed this two-center case-control study including 393 neuroblastoma cases and 812 controls. Two study populations were recruited from two different regions in China. No significant associations were identified between any of the three AURKA polymorphisms and the risk of neuroblastoma. Similar observations were found in the stratified analysis. In conclusion, our results indicate that none of the AURKA polymorphisms are associated with neuroblastoma susceptibility in two distinct Chinese populations. Further studies with larger sample sizes and different ethnicities are warranted to validate our results. ©2018 The Author(s).

  12. [Correlation analysis of G870A CCND1 gene polymorphism with digestive system tumors].

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu-Min; Shi, Ya-Lin

    2016-11-20

    To study the correlation of G870A CCND1 gene polymorphism and digestive system tumors. From August 2010 to August 2014, 164 digestive system cancer patients (including 82 patients with gastric cancer and 82 with colorectal cancer) and 82 healthy subjects (control group) were examined with PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The distribution of CCND1 gene G870A frequency in the 3 groups and its association with tumor staging and grading were analyzed. The frequencies of the GG, GA and AA genotypes in G870A CCND1 gene loci in patients with gastric cancer and colorectal cancer differed significantly from those in the control group (P<0.05). G870A CCND1 gene polymorphism was closely associated with an increased risk of digestive system tumors (P<0.05). The GA and AA genotypes were associated with a significantly higher risk of digestive system cancer risk than the GG genotype (P<0.05), and their frequencies were significantly higher in patients with tumors of higher pathological grade and in those in advanced tumor stages (P<0.05). G870A CCND1 gene polymorphism is associated with the risk of digestive system tumors. The allele A is associated with an increased risk of digestive system tumors and correlated with the tumor differentiation and staging of the tumor.

  13. IL-10 and IL-12B gene polymorphisms in a multiethnic Malaysian population.

    PubMed

    Sam, S S; Teoh, B T; AbuBakar, S

    2015-04-13

    Inheritance of polymorphisms in the interleukin (IL)-10 promoter and IL-12B genes, which influence cytokine production and activities, may define the balance in T helper response in infection and autoimmune diseases. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of the IL-10 promoter and IL-12B gene polymorphisms in a multiethnic Malaysian population. Overall, our findings suggest that the IL-12B and IL-10 -592 genotypes were distributed homogenously across all major ethnic groups, including Malays, Chinese, and Indians, except for polymorphisms at IL-10 -1082. At this gene locus, the ethnic Chinese showed a significantly lower allele frequency of -1082G (2.1%) compared to the Malay (12.2%) and Indian (15.3%) populations. Results for the IL-12B and IL-10 gene polymorphisms were consistent with those reported for the Asian population, but markedly different from those of the African and Caucasian populations. Our findings suggest that there are specific genetic variations between different ethnic groups, which should be examined in all gene population-based association studies.

  14. Analysis of HLA-G gene polymorphisms in Slovak women with pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Durmanova, V; Drobny, J; Shawkatova, I; Dlhopolcek, J; Bucova, M

    2017-01-01

    To identify possible association between the selected HLA-G gene polymorphisms and risk of pre-eclampsia. Pre-eclampsia is a serious multisystem disorder that affects women during pregnancy. Despite many research studies, the pathology of pre-eclampsia is not fully understood. Human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) belongs to the molecules that induce fetal acceptance by the maternal immune system. HLA-G expression was found to be impaired in the women suffering from pre-eclampsia suggesting its involvement in the development of pre-eclampsia. 123 women with pre-eclampsia and 102 women with normotensive pregnancy were included in the study. HLA-G gene polymorphisms affecting its expression was determined, namely the HLA-G 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the 3'UTR and HLA-G 1597ΔC polymorphism tagging the HLA-G*01:05N null allele. Genotyping was performed by PCR and PCR-RFLP. No statistically significant differences in either allele or genotype frequencies between pre-eclampsia cases and control group have been observed (p > 0.05). Genetic predisposition of HLA-G to pre-eclampsia in Slovak women was examined for the first time. No association between analysed HLA-G gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to pre-eclampsia was observed. Further investigations are needed to determine the role of immunosuppressive molecule HLA-G in pre-eclampsia development (Tab. 5, Fig. 2, Ref. 37).

  15. Association between gastric cancer and -1993 polymorphism of TBX21 gene

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Le-Hui; Li, Qin; Li, Peng; Zhu, Sheng-Tao; Wang, Jing; Yang, Hong-Li; Xu, Chang-Qing; Guo, Xiu-Hua

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between the polymorphism of TBX21 gene and the risk of gastric cancer in a Chinese population. METHODS: The -1993 polymorphism located in TBX21 gene promoter region was identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. The risk between TBX21 gene genotype and gastric cancer was determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis in 220 gastric cancer patients and 262 cancer-free controls matched by age, sex and ethnicity. RESULTS: Compared with the TBX21 -1993TT genotype, the -1993CC genotype exhibited a significantly elevated risk for gastric cancer [Odds ratio (OR) = 3.42, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.41-8.31]. The relationship between the -1993 polymorphic genotype and the invasive status such as lymph node and distant metastasis was found among the gastric cancer patients (OR = 4.02, 95% CI: 1.87-8.66; OR = 7.02, 95% CI: 3.44-14.34, respectively). CONCLUSION: TBX21 -1993 polymorphism might contribute to the risk of gastric cancer, especially to the distant metastasis. PMID:22416188

  16. [Leptin gene C2549A polymorphism in minority Hui and Uygur children with obesity].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji-Hong; Zeng, Wen-Juan; Xu, Pei-Ru; Zhang, Wei-Ping

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship of leptin gene polymorphism with obesity in ethnic minority Hui and Uygur children in China. Sixty-eight ethnic minority (35 Hui and 33 Uygur) children with obesity and 69 age-matched minority (36 Hui and 33 Uygur) children without obesity were recruited from six primary schools in the sub-urban areas of Urumqi. Venous blood was sampled from all subjects after fasting for 12 hours. Leptin gene C2549A polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. Blood concentrations of lipids, leptin and insulin were measured with biochemical methods and radioimmunoassys, respectively. In the 137 children tested, the prevalence of AA, AC and CC genotype was 9.5%, 33.6% and 56.9%, respectively. A allele frequency was significantly different between the two ethnic (i.e. Hui and Uygur) groups (P<0.05). A allele frequency and AA+ AC genotype frequency were not significantly different between obese and non-obese children in both ethnic groups (P>0.05). Blood leptin levels were not significantly different between obese and non-obese children with an AA+AC or CC genotype in both ethnic groups (P>0.05). Leptin gene polymorphisms exist in Hui and Uygur children. The C2549A polymorphism is not significantly associated with the prevalence of obesity in both Hui and Uygur children.

  17. Determination of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism in Turkish patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Aşlar, Deniz; Özdiler, Erhan; Altuğ, Ayşe Tuba; Taştan, Hakkı

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and Turkish patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate (nsCL/P) and to determine the prevalence of the Turkish population. Molecular analysis of gene polymorphisms were carried out using polymerase chain reactions and restriction enzyme digestions. In our study, 80 patients with nsCL/P and 125 unrelated individuals from Turkey were studied. We found that MTHFR C677T polymorphism is a significant risk factor for nsCL/P in Turkey (p=0.0004). These results support the impact of MTHFR C677T polymorphism and importance of folic acid intake in the etiology of nsCL/P. MTHFR gene which is localized in the relevant region of chromosome 1p36.3 not been studied Turkish patients with nsCL/P and the prevalence of our country not to be determined. We revealed statistically association between the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism and nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate in the Turkish population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of candidate gene polymorphisms on reproductive traits in a Large White pig population.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shuji; Kikuchi, Takashi; Uemoto, Yoshinobu; Mikawa, Satoshi; Suzuki, Keiichi

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to test for association of candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with sow prolificacy reproductive traits, such as litter size, ovulation rate and lifetime performance, in gilts of a Large White pig population. Preliminary research on 25 animals selected from the high- and low-performance groups of 347 animals with case-control studies indicated that seven genes were associated with total number of piglets born (TNB). Six of the seven genes were associated with reproductive traits, including TNB, number of piglets born alive (NBA) and average weight of piglet weaning (AWW). A MBL2 SNP was significantly associated with TNB and NBA in first parity. A CFB SNP was associated with TNB in first parity. An ACE SNP was associated with TNB in first and second parities. An EGF polymorphism was associated with TNB, NBA and AWW in second parity. A KCNC2 polymorphism was significantly associated with TNB and NBA in second parity. A SLC22A5 SNP was associated with TNB and NBA in second parity. Six candidate SNPs were associated with TNB; the only exception was a PRKAG3 polymorphism. A candidate gene approach enables some of these polymorphisms to be used in genetic improvement programs based on marker-assisted selection. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Microarray study of single nucleotide polymorphisms and expression of ATP-binding cassette genes in breast tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsyganov, M. M.; Ibragimova, M. K.; Karabut, I. V.; Freydin, M. B.; Choinzonov, E. L.; Litvyakov, N. V.

    2015-11-01

    Our previous research establishes that changes of expression of the ATP-binding cassette genes family is connected with the neoadjuvant chemotherapy effect. However, the mechanism of regulation of resistance gene expression remains unclear. As many researchers believe, single nucleotide polymorphisms can be involved in this process. Thereupon, microarray analysis is used to study polymorphisms in ATP-binding cassette genes. It is thus found that MDR gene expression is connected with 5 polymorphisms, i.e. rs241432, rs241429, rs241430, rs3784867, rs59409230, which participate in the regulation of expression of own genes.

  20. Genetic Polymorphisms in VIR Genes among Indian Plasmodium vivax Populations

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Purva; Pande, Veena; Das, Aparup

    2014-01-01

    The vir genes are antigenic genes and are considered to be possible vaccine targets. Since India is highly endemic to Plasmodium vivax, we sequenced 5 different vir genes and investigated DNA sequence variations in 93 single-clonal P. vivax isolates. High variability was observed in all the 5 vir genes; the vir 1/9 gene was highly diverged across Indian populations. The patterns of genetic diversity do not follow geographical locations, as geographically distant populations were found to be genetically similar. The results in general present complex genetic diversity patterns in India, requiring further in-depth population genetic and functional studies. PMID:25352708

  1. Genetic polymorphisms in VIR genes among Indian Plasmodium vivax populations.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Purva; Pande, Veena; Das, Aparup; Singh, Vineeta

    2014-10-01

    The vir genes are antigenic genes and are considered to be possible vaccine targets. Since India is highly endemic to Plasmodium vivax, we sequenced 5 different vir genes and investigated DNA sequence variations in 93 single-clonal P. vivax isolates. High variability was observed in all the 5 vir genes; the vir 1/9 gene was highly diverged across Indian populations. The patterns of genetic diversity do not follow geographical locations, as geographically distant populations were found to be genetically similar. The results in general present complex genetic diversity patterns in India, requiring further in-depth population genetic and functional studies.

  2. Genetic polymorphisms in the formaldehyde dehydrogenase gene and their biological significance.

    PubMed

    Just, Walter; Zeller, Jasmin; Riegert, Clarissa; Speit, Günter

    2011-11-30

    The GSH-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FDH) is the most important enzyme for the metabolic inactivation of formaldehyde. We studied three polymorphisms of this gene with the intention to elucidate their relevance for inter-individual differences in the protection against the (geno-)toxicity of FA. The first polymorphism (rs11568816) was investigated using real-time PCR and restriction fragment analysis in 150 subjects. However, we did not find the polymorphic sequence in any of the subjects. We studied a second polymorphism (rs17028487), representing a base exchange (c.*114A>G) in exon 9 of the FDH gene. We analyzed 70 subjects with the SNaPshot Primer Extension method and subsequent analysis in a ABI PRISM 3100, but no variant allele was identified. A third polymorphism, rs13832 in exon 9 (c.*493G>T), was studied in a group of 105 subjects by the SNaPshot Primer Extension method. 43 of the subjects were heterozygous for the polymorphism (G/T), 46 homozygous for the T allele, and 16 were homozygous for the G-allele. Real-time RT-PCR measurements of FDH mRNA did not indicate a significant difference in transcript levels between the heterozygous and the homozygous groups. The in vitro comet assay after FA exposure of blood samples obtained from 5 homozygous GG and 3 homozygous TT subjects did not lead to a significant difference between these two groups. Altogether, our study did not identify biologically relevant polymorphisms in transcribed regions of the FDH gene, which may lead to inter-individual differences in the metabolic inactivation of FA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of eNOS gene polymorphisms in relation to BMD in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Firat, Sibel Cubukcu; Cetin, Zafer; Samanci, Nehir; Aydin, Funda; Balci, Nilufer; Gungor, Firat; Firat, Mehmet Ziya; Luleci, Guven; Karauzum, Sibel Berker

    2009-08-20

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relations between T(-786)C and Glu298Asp polymorphisms of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene and BMD in postmenopausal Turkish women. The T(-786)C and Glu298Asp polymorphisms were genotyped by PCR-RFLP method in 311 postmenopausal osteoporotic women (OP) and in 305 age-matched postmenopausal females (CG) with normal BMD. None of the SNPs of the eNOS gene was significantly associated with BMD at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, Ward's triangle and femoral trochanter in the combined group. Mean BMD values were therefore found to be similar across the genotypes in postmenopausal Turkish women. However, there was a significant association between the T(-786)C polymorphism and BMD values at the lumbar spine in the normal control group (P=0.005), and at the femoral trochanter in the osteoporotic patients (P=0.046). The mean value of the lumbar spine BMD in the normal controls was significantly higher in women with the TC genotype of the T(-786)C polymorphism than in women with the TT genotype (P=0.0012). Women with the CC genotype of the T(-786)C polymorphism in the osteoporotic patients had significantly higher BMD value at the femoral trochanter than those with the TC (P=0.018) and TT genotypes (P=0.024). Frequencies of the TC heterozygotes for T(-786)C polymorphism were significantly higher among osteoporotic subjects than normal controls. Also, the CC and TT genotype frequencies of control group were significantly higher than those of the osteoporotic group at the femoral neck. We conclude that, although the biological role of the nitric oxide synthases is well established, our study does not suggest that eNOS gene polymorphisms, T(-786)C and Glu298Asp, are major contributors to adult bone mineral density in the postmenopausal Turkish women.

  4. Catalase gene C-262T polymorphism: importance in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Khodayari, Siamak; Salehi, Zivar; Fakhrieh Asl, Saba; Aminian, Keyvan; Mirzaei Gisomi, Nadia; Torabi Dalivandan, Saeideh

    2013-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are by-products of the cellular metabolism and have important roles in the normal physiology of the cell. However, when ROS production exceeds the antioxidant capacity, a state known as oxidative stress, damage to cellular macromolecules emerges. A crucial role in counteracting ROS is played by the enzyme catalase. A common polymorphism in the catalase (CAT) promoter region (C-262T) alters the expression as well as blood catalase levels, and leads to a number of human diseases. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory condition of the large bowel that is known to be influenced by oxidative stress. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association of CAT C-262T polymorphism on the risk of UC. Samples were collected from 60 patients diagnosed with UC and 78 control subjects, and genotyped by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. We found that CAT C-262T genotype frequencies were significantly different between cases and controls (P = 0.002). Individuals carrying the -262C/T genotype had a greater risk for UC compared with C/C genotype (odds ratio, 4.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.73-13.75, P = 0.002). This study indicates that CAT C-262T polymorphism may be associated with UC, and that the -262C/T genotype may be a risk factor for the disease. Further studies are needed to confirm the results. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. [Family based association study of MMP-9 gene-1562C>T polymorphism in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Groszewska, Agata; Kapelski, Paweł; Skibińska, Maria; Hauser, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    MMP-9 is a candidate gene related to the neurodevelopment hypothesis of schizophrenia. The aim of this research was TDT analysis of polymorphism -1562C>T MMP-9 gene in schizophrenia. Research was carried out on 147 trios (patient and his/hers both healthy parents). Genetic material was isolated from leukocytes using the salting out method. Polymorphism was studied with PCR-RFLP, statistic analysis was made using transmission disquilibrium test by Haploview 4.2. There was no significant association between analyzed polymorphism of MMP-9 (-1562 C>T) and schizophrenia. Insignificant association doesn't exclude the possible contribution of MMP-9 to pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Further research is needed to be carried out on bigger groups and other populations.

  6. Dopamine D{sub 3} receptor gene: Organization transcript variants, and polymorphism associated with schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Griffon, N.; Pilon, C.; Martres, M.P.

    1996-02-16

    DNA fragments from a genomic library were used to establish the partial structure of the human dopamine D{sub 3} receptor gene (DRD3). Its coding sequence contains 6 exons and stretches over 40,000 base pairs. The complete DRD3 transcript and three shorter variants, in which the second and/or third exon are deleted, were detected in similar proportions in brains from four controls and three psychiatric patients. The Msp I polymorphism was localized in the fifth intron of the gene, 40,000 base pairs downstream the Bal I polymorphism and a PCR-based method was developed for genotyping this polymorphism. The distributions of themore » Msp I and Bal I genotypes were not independent in 297 individuals ({chi}{sup 2} = 10.5, df = 4, P = 0.03), but only a weak association was found between allele 1 of the Bal I polymorphism and allele 2 of the Msp I polymorphism ({chi}{sup 2} = 3.99, df = 1, P = 0.04). The previously reported association between homozygosity at both alleles of the Bal I polymorphism and schizophrenia was presently maintained in an extended sample, comprising 119 DSM-III-R chronic schizophrenics and 85 controls ({chi}{sup 2}= 5.3, df = 1, P = 0.02) and found more important in males than in females. The presence of the Bal I allele 2 is associated with an early age at onset, particularly in males (df = 35, t value = 2.6, P = 0.014). In the same sample, allelic frequencies, genotype counts, and proportion of homozygotes for the Msp I polymorphism did not differ between schizophrenics and controls ({chi}{sup 2}= 0.06, df = 1, P = 0.80, {chi}{sup 2} = 0.22, df = 1, P = 0.90 and {chi}{sup 2} = 0.16, df = 1, P = 0.69, respectively). The large distance of the Msp I polymorphism from the Bal I polymorphism and its localization in the 3{prime} part of the gene may explain the discrepant results obtained with the two polymorphisms. 36 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.« less

  7. Tumour necrosis factor gene complex polymorphisms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Ruse, Charlotte E; Hill, Maureen C; Tobin, Martin; Neale, Natalie; Connolly, Martin J; Parker, Stuart G; Wardlaw, Andrew J

    2007-02-01

    We aimed to examine the role of tumour necrosis factor gene complex polymorphisms in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesized that individuals possessing polymorphic variants associated with higher tumour necrosis factor (TNF) secretion would be more susceptible to and/or have more severe disease. Patients with COPD and population controls underwent detailed clinical phenotyping. Genotyping for the tumour necrosis factor-308 and the lymphotoxin alpha NcoI (LTalpha polymorphisms was carried out by 'blinded' laboratory staff. Three hundred and sixty one individuals (220 cases and 141 controls) were recruited. We showed an association between the LTalphaNcol polymorphism and forced vital capacity (FVC) in a population of older adults with and without COPD. The LTalphaNcol*2 allele was associated with poorer lung function, under a codominant model, with a fall in FVC (expressed as a percentage of its predicted value) of 3.7% for each copy of the LTalphaNcol*2 allele possessed (for FVC, regression coefficient (95% CI)=-3.73(-7.01 to -0.44), P=0.026; for FEV(1) regression coefficient=-3.56(-7.80 to 0.70), P=0.101. However, there was no difference in genotype distribution between the case and control populations. This study adds weight to the suggestion that the TNF gene complex is involved in physiological alterations (FVC) that may affect the development and severity of COPD. The absence of a significant association between the TNF gene-complex polymorphisms in this study does not rule out a modest effect of these polymorphisms on the risk of COPD, as much larger studies are needed to detect modest gene effects on binary disease endpoints.

  8. Early failure of dental implants and TNF-alpha (G-308A) gene polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Campos, Maria Isabela Guimarães; dos Santos, Maria Cristina Leme Godoy; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina; Scarel-Caminaga, Raquel Mantuaneli; Bezerra, Fábio José Barbosa; Line, Sergio Roberto Peres

    2004-03-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a potent inflammatory mediator with bone resorption activity. Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the human TNF-alpha gene have been shown to affect the levels of this cytokine and have been associated with a variety of diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between early implant failure and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the -308 promoter region of the TNF-alpha gene. A sample of 66 nonsmokers was divided into 2 groups: a test group comprising 28 patients (mean age, 52.7 years) with one or more early failed implants and a control group consisting of 38 individuals (mean age, 43.2 years) with one or more healthy implants. Genomic DNA from buccal mucosa was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and submitted to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to distinguish allele G and allele A of the TNF-alpha (-308) gene polymorphism. Differences in the allele and genotype frequencies between control and test groups were assessed by chi-squared test (P <0.05). No significant difference was observed in the allele (P = 0.4635) and genotype (P = 0.4445) distribution of the polymorphism when control and failure groups were compared. The results indicate that the TNF-alpha (G-308A) gene polymorphism is not associated with early implant failure, suggesting that its presence alone does not constitute a genetic risk factor for implant loss in the Brazilian population.

  9. Increased risk of advanced prostate cancer associated with MnSOD Ala-9-Val gene polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Kucukgergin, Canan; Sanli, Oner; Tefik, Tzevat; Aydın, Makbule; Ozcan, Faruk; Seckin, Sule

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the association between manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) Ala-9-Val gene polymorphism and the initiation and/or progression of prostate cancer (PCa) as well as to evaluate its potential interactions with advanced age and smoking status. MnSOD Ala-9-Val gene polymorphism was carried out in 134 (mean age 64.1±7.48) PCa patients and 159 (mean age 62.5±7.53) healthy controls with serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels (<4 ng/ml) and normal digital rectal examination (DRE) findings in this prospectively designed study. PCa patients were classified as low stage disease (T1 or T2 and N0M0 stages) and high stage disease (T3 or T4 and N0M0 or N1 or M1 stages). Genotypes for MnSOD Ala-9-Val gene polymorphism were identified by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFPL). Despite lack of association between different genotypes of MnSOD Ala-9-Val gene polymorphism and the presence of PCa, patients with Ala/Ala genotype were at an increased risk of high stage disease compared with those with the Val/Val genotype [odds ratio (OR), 3.77; 95% CI, 1.30-10.94; P=0.012]. However, no significant difference was observed in the distribution of each genotype among PCa patients, with respect to tumor grade. On the other hand, smoking status and aging did not seem to change the association between genotypes and PCa risk. Ala/Ala genotype of MnSOD polymorphism may have an effect on adverse features of PCa such as high stage disease.

  10. Association between Rho-kinase (ROCK2) gene polymorphisms and Behçet's disease.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Elif; Alasehirli, Belgin; Pehlivan, Yavuz; Onat, Ahmet Mesut; Oztuzcu, Serdar; Ozkara, Esma; Kisacik, Bünyamin; Camci, Celaletdin; Demiryürek, Abdullah T

    2012-12-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is a multi-systemic vasculitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between Rho-kinase (ROCK2) gene polymorphisms and patients with BD in a Turkish population. A total of 194 BD patients and 276 healthy controls with similar age and sex were included to this study. Polymorphisms were analyzed in genomic DNA using a BioMark 96.96 dynamic array system. mRNA from blood samples was extracted, and real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed for ROCK2 gene expression. There were marked changes in both genotype (TT, 41.8%; TA, 30.3%) and allele (T, 57%; A, 43%) frequencies for the rs35768389 (Asp601Val) polymorphism in patients compared with controls (TT, 64.6%; TA, 9.4%, P < 0.0001; T, 69.3%; A, 30.7%, P = 0.0004). Although CC genotype (52.0%) of rs1515219 polymorphism were more frequent, CT genotype (27.7%) were less frequent among the patients than controls (CC, 31.7%, CT, 44.6%, P = 0.0001). There was an increase in C allele (65.8% vs 54.0%) and decrease in T allele frequencies (34.2% vs 46.0%, P = 0.001) in patients. However, no associations were found with rs726843, rs2290156, rs965665, rs10178332, rs2230774, rs6755196, rs10929732, and rs34945852 polymorphisms. There was an increase in peripheral blood mRNA ROCK2 expressions in patients. This is the first study to examine the involvement of ROCK2 gene variation in the risk of incident BD. The results strongly suggest that ROCK2 gene polymorphisms may modify individual susceptibility to BD in the Turkish population. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of klotho gene polymorphisms on urinary tract stone disease.

    PubMed

    Gürel, Abdullah; Üre, İyimser; Temel, Halide Edip; Çilingir, Oğuz; Uslu, Sema; Celayir, Mehmet Fatih; Aslan, Serap; Başeskioğlu, Ali Barbaros

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effect of klotho gene and β-glucuronidase activity on stone formation in patients with urinary tract stone disease (UTSD). A total of 103 patients with UTSD and 102 controls with no specific urolithiasis history were enrolled into the study. G395A and C1818T polymorphisms of klotho gene were analyzed with PCR method. Serum levels of calcium and phosphorus and 24-h urine levels of β-glucuronidase activity, calcium and phosphorus levels were measured biochemically. A total of 103 of patients were male (50.2 %) and 102 were female (49.8 %) (p 0.945). Twenty-four-hour urine levels of calcium were significantly higher in UTSD group, whereas no difference was observed in phosphorus levels (p < 0.001, p 0.074, respectively). As for the G395A polymorphism, type of GG was significantly higher in the patient group compared to the controls (p = 0.02), while GA genotype was significantly higher in the controls (p = 0.001). There was no significant difference in F352V and C1818T polymorphism between the patient and control groups. β-glucuronidase activity was slightly lower in the patient group without significance (p 0.932).When patients with GG genotype and the rest were compared, there were no significant difference in all parameters. Any polymorphism altering the function of klotho gene may result with stone formation. We found that there are more GG sequences of G395A gene in patients with UTSD. That may be a polymorphism of klotho gene which results with stone formation. Further studies with more patients should be accomplished which are combining the genetic and epigenetic factors associated with urolithiasis and klotho gene to enlighten the etiology of this disease.

  12. Blood lead levels, ALAD gene polymorphisms, and mortality.

    PubMed

    van Bemmel, Dana M; Li, Yan; McLean, Jody; Chang, Man-Huei; Dowling, Nicole F; Graubard, Barry; Rajaraman, Preetha

    2011-03-01

    Previous analyses from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) have found that elevated blood lead levels may be associated with cardiovascular mortality, cancer mortality, and all-cause mortality. The 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) G177C genetic polymorphism (rs 1800435) affects lead toxicokinetics and may alter the adverse effects of lead exposure. We examined whether the ALAD G177C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) affects the relationship between lead and mortality. We analyzed a subset of 3349 genotyped NHANES III participants at least 40 years of age. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we estimated the relative risk of all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality by ALAD genotype, and by blood lead levels (<5 μg/dL vs. ≥5 μg/dL). We also tested whether the ALAD genotype modified the relationship between blood lead level and mortality. The adjusted overall relative risk for participants with the variant ALAD genotype was decreased for all-cause mortality (hazards ratio = 0.68; [95% confidence interval = 0.50-0.93]) compared with persons having the common GG genotype. There was some suggestion that higher lead levels were associated with cancer mortality (1.48 [0.92-2.38]). We observed no convincing interaction effect between ALAD genotype and blood lead level on mortality risk. The ALAD genotype may be associated with decreased mortality from all causes and from cancer. This association does not seem to be affected by lead exposure.

  13. TLR2, TLR3, TLR4 and CD14 gene polymorphisms associated with oral lichen planus risk.

    PubMed

    Stanimirovic, Dragan; Zeljic, Katarina; Jankovic, Ljiljana; Magic, Marko; Hadzi-Mihajlovic, Milos; Magic, Zvonko

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether polymorphisms in toll-like receptor (TLR) and cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) genes are associated with oral lichen planus (OLP) risk and clinical course of the disease. The study group consisted of 101 patients with confirmed OLP and 104 healthy blood donors without systemic or oral mucosal diseases. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of TLR2 (rs3804099), TLR3 (rs3775291 and rs5743312), TLR4 (rs4986790 and rs4986791), and CD14 (rs2569190) genes were genotyped using real-time PCR or PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The rs5743312 TLR3 gene polymorphism was associated with increased OLP risk in comparison with the wild type genotype (OR = 15.984, P = 0.011). No association with OLP risk was observed for the polymorphisms studied in TLR2, TLR4 and CD14 genes or for the rs3775291 polymorphism of the TLR3 gene. The polymorphisms of the TLR3 gene were in linkage disequilibrium (D' = 1, r(2) = 0.1). Identified haplotypes were not associated with the risk of OLP. The findings of the current study suggest that the TT genotype of the rs5743312 TLR3 gene polymorphism may play a significant role in the aetiology of OLP. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  14. Identification of Staphylococcus spp. by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism of gap Gene

    PubMed Central

    Yugueros, Javier; Temprano, Alejandro; Sánchez, María; Luengo, José María; Naharro, Germán

    2001-01-01

    Oligonucleotide primers specific for the Staphylococcus aureus gap gene were previously designed to identify 12 Staphylococcus spp. by PCR. In the present study, AluI digestion of PCR-generated products rendered distinctive restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns that allowed 24 Staphylococcus spp. to be identified with high specificity. PMID:11574593

  15. Clinical Efficacy of Fluvoxamine and Functional Polymorphism in a Serotonin Transporter Gene on Childhood Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugie, Yoko; Sugie, Hideo; Fukuda,Tokiko; Ito, Masataka; Sasada, Yumiko; Nakabayashi, Mutsumi; Fukashiro, Kazunobu; Ohzeki, Takehiko

    2005-01-01

    We studied the correlation between response to fluvoxamine and serotonin transporter gene promoter region polymorphism (5-HTTLPR). Eighteen children with autistic disorder completed a 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study of fluvoxamine. Behavioral assessments were obtained before and at 12 weeks of treatment.…

  16. Effect of adiponectin gene polymorphisms on waist circumference in patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Plasma levels of adiponectin which is secreted from adipose tissue are associated with various parameters of metabolic syndrome. This effect seems to be a result of interactions between genetic and environmental factors including central obesity. The present study was carried out to investigate the possibility of relation between single nucleotide polymorphisms of adiponectin gene (+45 T/G and −11391 G/A) and waist circumferences (WC) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on n = 238 diabetic patients selected as cases and n = 159 as healthy control who were recruited from Rafsanjan city in south – east of Iran. The possible association of +45 T/G and –11391 G/A adiponectin gene polymorphisms with WC according to age and sex was evaluated. Results There was no significant difference in distribution of frequencies of +45 T/G and –11391 G/A adiponectin gene polymorphisms in each group. We only found a significant association between –11391 G/A adiponectin gene polymorphism with WC in diabetic group (p = 0.021). This association was remained significant after adjustment in multivariate regression model (p = 0.019, OR: 0.244, 95%CI: 0.075-0.791) and also this effect was independent of sex and age. Conclusion We found higher abdominal obesity in GA or AA carriers of adiponectin – 11391 G/A genotype in type 2 diabetes patients independent of age and sex. PMID:23497697

  17. Mutations and a polymorphism in the factor VIII gene discovered by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, S.; Gitschier, J.

    1990-03-01

    Hemophilia A results from mutations in the gene coding for coagulation factor VIII. The authors gradient gel electrophoresis to screen for mutations in the region of the factor VIII gene coding for the first acidic domain. Amplification primers were designed employing the MELTMAP computer program to optimize the ability to detect mutations. Screening of amplified DNA from 228 unselected hemophilia A patients revealed two mutations and one polymorphism. Rescreening the same population by making heteroduplexes between amplified patient and control samples prior to electrophoresis revealed one additional mutation. The mutations include two missense and one 4-base-pair deletion, and each mutationmore » was found in patients with severe hemophilia. The polymorphism, located adjacent to the adenine branch site in intron 7, is useful for genetic prediction in some cases where the Bcl I and Xba I polymorphisms are uninformative. These results suggest that DNA amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis should be an excellent strategy for identifying mutations and polymorphisms in defined regions of the factor VIII gene and other large genes.« less

  18. BIALLELIC POLYMORPHISM IN THE INTRON REGION OF B-TUBULIN GENE OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARASITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nucleotide sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified intron region of the Cryptosporidium parvum B-tubulin gene in 26 human and 15 animal isolates revealed distinct genetic polymorphism between the human and bovine genotypes. The separation of 2 genotypes of C. parvum is...

  19. Identification of Staphylococcus spp. by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of gap gene.

    PubMed

    Yugueros, J; Temprano, A; Sánchez, M; Luengo, J M; Naharro, G

    2001-10-01

    Oligonucleotide primers specific for the Staphylococcus aureus gap gene were previously designed to identify 12 Staphylococcus spp. by PCR. In the present study, AluI digestion of PCR-generated products rendered distinctive restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns that allowed 24 Staphylococcus spp. to be identified with high specificity.

  20. Polymorphism of GST and FTO Genes in Risk Prediction of Cataract among a North Indian Population.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Anu; Raza, Syed Tasleem; Abbas, Shania; Singh, Luxmi; Rizvi, Saliha; Ahmed, Faisal; Eba, Ale; Mahdi, Farzana

    2016-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the association of GST and FTO gene polymorphisms with cataract cases and controls. The study included 131 cases and 126 controls. GST and FTO gene polymorphisms were evaluated by PCR-RFLP. The frequency of the GSTM1-positive and GSTT1-positive in cataract cases were 62.13% and 86.40% while in the controls it was 46.39% and 95.87% with odds ratios of 1.9 (95% CI, 1.08-3.32; p value 0.025) and 0.27 (95% CI, 0.09-0.86; p value, 0.019) respectively. There was a statistically significant association between the GSTM1 null genotype and the risk of cataract development with an odds ratio of 0.43 (95% CI, 0.24-0.76; p value, 0.003). Significant differences were obtained in the frequencies of FTO AA and TT genotype (p = 0.023 and 0.023) between cases and controls. The present study suggested that GSTM1, GSTT1 and FTO gene polymorphisms are associated with increased risk for cataract in North Indian populations. Due to the limited sample size, the finding on GST and FTO gene polymorphisms need further investigation.

  1. Polymorphisms in genes encoding the serotonin and dopamine pathways in two sisters with metachromatic leukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Kumperscak, H G; Dolzan, V; Videtic, A; Plesnicar, B K

    2008-01-01

    Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is a metabolic disease that has recently been investigated as a model for the study of psychosis. We report on two sisters with adult-type MLD who developed psychiatric symptomatology, but differed in their expression of psychotic and depressive symptoms. Association studies have indicated that polymorphisms in genes encoding the serotonin and dopamine transporters and receptors are related to the symptomatology of schizophrenia and/or depression; hence both sisters were genotyped for some of these candidate genes. The sisters shared dopamine receptor D(2) (DRD(2)) c.1047GG (p.311Ser/Ser) and c.-141Cins/ins polymorphisms, which are significantly associated with schizophrenia, but differed in the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region and serotonin receptor 1A (5-HT(1A)) c.-1019C to G polymorphisms, which may have increased the elder sister's susceptibility to depressive symptoms. Much bigger samples would be needed to gain enough statistical power to develop any hypotheses. This is the first report on genotyping MLD patients for candidate genes for psychiatric disorders, although MLD has been proposed as a model for schizophrenia.

  2. Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphisms and retinal vascular signs: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our objective was to examine the association between apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene polymorphisms and retinal microvascular signs. We used a population-based, cross-sectional study. Participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (n=10,036; aged 49-73 years) had retinal photographs tak...

  3. Polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor gene are associated with periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    de Brito Júnior, Rui Barbosa; Scarel-Caminaga, Raquel Mantuaneli; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina; de Souza, Ana Paula; Barros, Silvana Pereira

    2004-08-01

    Genetic polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene are associated with bone homeostasis and diseases in which bone loss is a cardinal sign. The aim of this study was to determine whether chronic periodontal disease in a Brazilian population is associated with polymorphisms in the VDR gene. Clinical examination and recordings of probing depth and clinical attachment level were performed in 113 unrelated adults who were divided into two groups: 44 healthy individuals (control group) and 69 subjects with chronic periodontitis (CP). DNA was obtained from the subjects' epithelial cells by scraping the buccal mucosa. Two polymorphisms in the VDR gene were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction, followed by Taql and BsmI restriction endonuclease digestion. Frequencies of VDR/TaqI and VDR/BsmI showed significant differences between the control group and the CP group (P < 0.05). The "Tb" haplotype was prevalent in the control group (43.2%), and the "TB" haplotype in the CP group (36.6%). The "TB" haplotype seemed to increase susceptibility to periodontal disease (odds ratio [OR] = 2.19). The heterozygous haplotype "TB/tb" was predominant in the CP group (OR = 4.32; P = 0.005). TaqI and BsmI polymorphisms of the VDR gene are associated with clinical attachment loss due to periodontal disease in a Brazilian population. These findings suggest that VDR genotype might be a risk indicator for susceptibility to chronic periodontitis.

  4. Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism of calpain 1 gene with meat tenderness of the yak

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The association of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of calpain 1 (CAPN1) gene with shear force of 2.54 cm steaks from M. longissimus dorsi from Gannan yaks (Bos grunniens, n = 181) was studied. The experimental design was a repeated measures with the main unit in a completely randomized design...

  5. Polymorphisms in the hemagglutinin gene influenced the viral shedding of pandemic 2009 influenza virus in swine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The contribution of influenza virus quasi-species for transmission efficiency and replication is poorly understood. In the present study we show that naturally occurring polymorphisms present in the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of two 2009 pandemic H1N1 isolates, A/California/04/2009 (Ca/09) and A/Mexico...

  6. Ethnic Manifestations of Gene Polymorphisms of Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) in Adolescents of Western Kazakhstan Region.

    PubMed

    Amanzholkyzy, Aynur; Nurgalieva, Rose E; Dosimov, Arystan Zh; Stankevicius, Edgaras; Kaldybaeva, Ayman T

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the article is studying the connection of VDR gene polymorphisms with bone tissue mineral density and biochemical marker of 25-PO vitamin D in adolescents of both ethnic groups, living in Western Kazakhstan Region. The study included 110 relatively healthy children aged 13-18 years of Aktobe, the representatives of Kazakh ethnic group e 66 (Kazakh children) and Slavonic e 44 (Russian children). The groups were formed according to BTMD data, ethnic affiliation and according to content of vitamin D and gene polymorphism of vitamin D (VDR). Genotype SS is negative marker in Kazakh adolescents of Western Kazakhstan Region for BTMD and 25-PO vitamin D; in children of Kazakh nationality with osteopathy sign, genotype SS occurs at almost twice the rate in comparison with Slavonic ethnic group and respectively by a factor of 2 less 25-PO vitamin D content. Disorders of bone mineralization and metabolism depend on ethnic affiliation and presence of defined polymorphic genotypes of VDR gene molecular markers. Genotype Tt is a normal variant of gene polymorphism and is characterized by significantly less 25-PO vitamin D content in adolescents of Kazakh ethnic group, in comparison with their age mates of Slavonic ethnic group. Copyright © 2018 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Polymorphisms of the p53 gene in women with ovarian or endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Peller, S; Halperin, R; Schneider, D; Kopilova, Y; Rotter, V

    1999-01-01

    The p53 gene is frequently mutated in various human tumors. Polymorphism is an additional genetic alteration observed in exons and introns of the p53 gene of normal tissues and tumors. Distributions of alleles of three common polymorphisms of the p53 gene; a 16 bp duplication in intron 3, codon 72 of exon 4 and a sequence in intron 6, were studied in peripheral white blood cells (WBC) of patients with ovarian or endometrial carcinomas. The analysis was performed by PCR and direct sequencing. The 100% linkage observed between the most common haplotypes of each polymorphism in healthy subjects was lower in the patients. A significant difference was observed between frequencies of genotype and haplotype combinations in patients with ovarian carcinoma and endometrial carcinoma. The incidence of heterozygosity was increased in ovarian carcinoma and decreased in endometrial carcinoma. Our results suggest that the p53 gene may be involved in susceptibility and predisposition to various cancers not only by mutations but also by preferential presentation of polymorphic alleles.

  8. Adiponectin and leptin gene polymorphisms in patients with post-transplant diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Romanowski, Maciej; Dziedziejko, Violetta; Maciejewska-Karlowska, Agnieszka; Sawczuk, Marek; Safranow, Krzysztof; Domanski, Leszek; Pawlik, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a common metabolic complication after organ transplantation and may be associated with the use of calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus and cyclosporine). Leptin and adiponectin are adipokines and play an important role in the regulation of insulin secretion as well as glucose and lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to examine the association between adiponectin and leptin gene polymorphisms and development of PTDM. The study included 323 patients who received kidney transplants and were treated with calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus or cyclosporine). The association between adiponectin and leptin gene polymorphisms and PTDM was studied in three models of Cox regression analysis--additive, dominant and recessive. In these three models, the LEP rs2167270 gene polymorphism was statistically significantly associated with increased risk of PTDM. The association between the LEP rs2167270 polymorphism and PTDM was confirmed by multivariate regression analysis. The results of our study suggest an association between the leptin rs2167270 gene A allele and PTDM. Original submitted 27 February 2015; Revision submitted 22 May 2015.

  9. The point mutation and polymorphism in keratoconus candidate gene TGFBI in Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Guan, Tao; Liu, Chibo; Ma, Zhangwei; Ding, Shiping

    2012-07-15

    To understand the region point mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms characteristic of keratoconus candidate gene in Chinese population, the TGFBI. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism and DNA direct sequencing were performed on blood samples from 30 cases of keratoconus patients and 30 normal controls. 17 exons from the coding region of TGFBI gene were examined for point mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Two types of base mutation were found in exon 12, which were both heterozygous. In 1 patient the site 535 showed GGA→TGA substitution, which was the change from glycine to stop codon (G535X). This was not found in all control cases. In 2 patients and 1 control case the site 540 showed TTT→TTC substitutions without changing of the coding for phenylalanine (F540F), suggesting for the polymorphism. The candidate keratoconus gene TGFB1 showed genetic variation and mutation in keratoconus population. The gene might play a role in the development of keratoconus in Chinese population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Association between Infants' Self-Regulatory Behavior and MAOA Gene Polymorphism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Minghao; Chen, Xinyin; Way, Niobe; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Deng, Huihua; Ke, Xiaoyan; Yu, Weiwei; Chen, Ping; He, Chuan; Chi, Xia; Lu, Zuhong

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulatory behavior in early childhood is an important characteristic that has considerable implications for the development of adaptive and maladaptive functioning. The present study investigated the relations between a functional polymorphism in the upstream region of monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) and self-regulatory behavior in a sample…

  11. The SPO11-C631T gene polymorphism and male infertility risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zheng-Ju; Ren, Peng-Wei; Yang, Bo; Liao, Jian; Liu, Sheng-Zhuo; Fang, Kun; Ren, Shang-Qing; Liu, Liang-Ren; Dong, Qiang

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the association between the SPO11 gene C631T polymorphism and the risk of male infertility. We conducted a search on PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China biology medical literature database (CBM), VIP, and Chinese literature database (Wan Fang) on 31 March 2016. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were used to assess the strength of associations. A total of five studies including 542 cases and 510 controls were involved in this meta-analysis. The pooled results indicated that the SPO11 gene C631T polymorphism was significantly associated with increased risk of male infertility (TT + CT vs. CC: OR = 4.14, 95%CI = 2.48-6.89; CT vs. CC: OR = 4.34, 95%CI = 2.56-7.34; T vs. C: OR = 4.35, 95%CI = 2.58-7.34). Subgroup analysis of different countries proved the relationship between SPO11 gene C631T polymorphism and male infertility risk in Chinese, but not in Iranian peoples. In conclusion, this study suggested that SPO11 gene C631T polymorphism may contribute as a genetic factor susceptible to cause male infertility. Furthermore, more large sample and representative population-based cases and well-matched controls are needed to validate our results.

  12. Landscape heterogeneity predicts gene flow in a widespread polymorphic bumble bee, Bombus bifarius (Hymentoptera: Apidae).

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bombus bifarius is a widespread bumble bee that occurs in montane regions of western North America. This species has several major color polymorphisms, and shows evidence of genetic structuring among regional populations. We test whether this structure is evidence for discrete gene flow barriers tha...

  13. Transforming growth factor-β1 gene polymorphisms with liver cirrhosis risk: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Pengfei; Sun, Xiangru; Feng, Xiufang; Zhang, Chaolong

    2018-03-01

    Although several epidemiological studies have investigated the association of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-ß1) gene polymorphisms with the susceptibility to liver cirrhosis (LC), controversial results exist. Consequently, we performed a meta-analysis to accurately evaluate the relationship of TGF-ß1-509C/T and codon 10T/C polymorphisms with the risk of LC introduced by chronic hepatitis B/V virus (HBV/HCV) infection. A total of 9 case-control studies, involving 985 LC patients and 909 controls, were recruited for meta-analysis. The results suggested a significant association between the -509C/T polymorphism and LC risk in the total population. Stratification by ethnicity revealed similar associations in Egyptian and Caucasian populations, but not in Asian populations. Subgroup analyses by different etiologies also showed similar associations in HCV-induced LC, but not in HBV-induced LC. However, the overall data failed to show a significant association between codon 10T/C polymorphism and the risk of LC in the study. We concluded that TGF-ß1-509C/T polymorphism was significantly associated with LC susceptibility, while the codon 10T/C polymorphism seemed to have a limited role in predicting the occurrence of LC induced by HBV/HCV infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Polymorphisms in the factor VII gene and ischemic stroke in young adults.

    PubMed

    Lopaciuk, Stanislaw; Windyga, Jerzy; Watala, Cezary W; Bykowska, Ksenia; Pietrucha, Tadeusz; Kwiecinski, Hubert; Czlonkowska, Anna; Kuczynska-Zardzewialy, Arleta; Jackson, Audrey A; Carew, Josephine A; Bauer, Kenneth A

    2010-07-01

    Polymorphic configurations of the coagulation factor VII gene (F7) are associated with plasma levels of FVII antigen (FVII:Ag) and FVII coagulant activity (FVII:C). Our aim was to determine whether F7 polymorphisms influence risk of ischemic stroke in young adults. One hundred and fifty survivors of ischemic stroke before the age of 45 and an equal number of age and sex-matched controls were genotyped for five F7 polymorphisms: the -A670C transversion, -323 decanucleotide insertion (P + 10), the number (which varies between five and eight) of a 37 base pair repeat polymorphisms in intron 7 (IVS7), amino acid substitution R353Q, and +154AA insertion. 353Q, P + 10 and +154AA were demonstrated to associate with significantly decreased plasma FVII:Ag, whereas -670C and IVS7 seven or higher were associated with a tendency towards increased plasma FVII:Ag. The former three polymorphisms were significantly more common in control individuals than in patients, whereas the latter two were significantly more common in patients than in control individuals. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that two F7 polymorphisms, -670C and IVS7 seven or higher, are independent risk factors for ischemic stroke in young adult patients.

  15. Family of melanocortin receptor (MCR) genes in mammals-mutations, polymorphisms and phenotypic effects.

    PubMed

    Switonski, M; Mankowska, M; Salamon, S

    2013-11-01

    The melanocortin receptor gene family consists of five single-exon members, which are located on autosomes. Three genes (MC2R, MC4R and MC5R) are syntenic in the human, mouse, cattle and dog genomes, while in the pig, the syntenic group comprises MC1R, MC2R and MC5R. Two genes (MC1R and MC4R) have been extensively studied due to their function in melanogenesis (MC1R) and energy control (MC4R). Conservative organisation of these genes in five mammalian species (human, mouse, cattle, pig and dog), in terms of the encoded amino acid sequence, is higher in the case of MC4R compared to MC1R. Polymorphisms of these two genes are responsible or associated with variation of pigmentation (MC1R) and adipose tissue deposition (MC4R). Polymorphic variants in MC1R, causing coat colour variation, were described in humans and domestic mammals (cattle, horse, pig, sheep, dog), as well as farm red and arctic foxes. The MC4R gene is very polymorphic in humans and it is well known that some variants cause monogenic obesity or significantly contribute to the development of polygenic obesity. Such relationships are not so evident in domestic mammals; however, at least one missense substitution (298Asp > Asn) in the porcine MC4R significantly contributes, at least in some breeds, to fat tissue accumulation, feed conversion ratio and daily weight gain. Knowledge on the phenotypic effects of polymorphisms of MC2R, MC3R and MC5R in domestic mammals is scarce, probably due to the small number of reports addressing these genes. Thus, further studies focused on these genes should be undertaken.

  16. Genetic Polymorphisms in Cytokine Genes in Colombian Patients with Ocular Toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Naranjo-Galvis, C A; de-la-Torre, A; Mantilla-Muriel, L E; Beltrán-Angarita, L; Elcoroaristizabal-Martín, X; McLeod, R; Alliey-Rodriguez, N; Begeman, I J; López de Mesa, C; Gómez-Marín, J E; Sepúlveda-Arias, J C

    2018-04-01

    Toxoplasmosis is caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii , which has the capacity to infect all warm-blooded animals worldwide. Toxoplasmosis is a major cause of visual defects in the Colombian population; however, the association between genetic polymorphisms in cytokine genes and susceptibility to ocular toxoplasmosis has not been studied in this population. This work evaluates the associations between polymorphisms in genes coding for the cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) (rs1799964, rs1800629, rs1799724, rs1800630, and rs361525), interleukin 1β (IL-1β) (rs16944, rs1143634, and rs1143627), IL-1α (rs1800587), gamma interferon (IFN-γ) (rs2430561), and IL-10 (rs1800896 and rs1800871) and the presence of ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) in a sample of a Colombian population (61 patients with OT and 116 healthy controls). Genotyping was performed with the "dideoxynucleotide (ddNTP) primer extension" technique. Functional-effect predictions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were done by using FuncPred. A polymorphism in the IL-10 gene promoter (-1082G/A) was significantly more prevalent in OT patients than in controls ( P = 1.93e-08; odds ratio [OR] = 5.27e+03; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.18 to 8.739; Bonferroni correction [BONF] = 3.48e-07). In contrast, haplotype "AG" of the IL-10 gene promoter polymorphisms (rs1800896 and rs1800871) was present at a lower frequency in OT patients ( P = 7e-04; OR = 0.10; 95% CI = 0.03 to 0.35). The +874A/T polymorphism of IFN-γ was associated with OT ( P = 3.37e-05; OR = 4.2; 95% CI = 2.478 to 7.12; BONF = 6.07e-04). Haplotype "GAG" of the IL-1β gene promoter polymorphisms (rs1143634, rs1143627, and rs16944) appeared to be significantly associated with OT ( P = 0.0494). The IL-10, IFN-γ, and IL-1β polymorphisms influence the development of OT in the Colombian population. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. Relationship between estrogen receptor 1 gene polymorphisms and postmenopausal osteoporosis of the spine in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Shang, D P; Lian, H Y; Fu, D P; Wu, J; Hou, S S; Lu, J M

    2016-06-03

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variants of the estrogen receptor 1 gene (ESR1) at rs2234693 and rs9340799, as well as to investigate the relationship between ESR gene polymorphisms and postmenopausal osteoporosis (OP) of the spine in Chinese women. We recruited 198 postmenopausal women with OP and 276 healthy women between May 2012 and September 2015 in Zhongshan Hospital. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure the bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar vertebrae in all subjects. In addition, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism based analysis was conducted to identify the genotypes of ESR1. The distribution of ESR1 in the osteoporosis group and the control group was determined; the relationship between ESR polymorphisms and BMD was analyzed. The distributions of BMD were: TT < TC < CC, GG < AG < AA. The TT, TTGG, and TCGG genotypes were found to be lower as compared to the other genotypes. Stratified analysis suggested that the TT genotype and the combined genotypes TTGG and TCGG were significantly higher in the OP group as compared to the control group (P < 0.01). Therefore, ESR1 polymorphisms at rs2234693 and rs9340799 may be associated with OP, and could be used as markers to screen those with high risks to postmenopausal OP in Chinese women.

  18. High interleukin-4 expression and interleukin-4 gene polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to human paracoccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Mônica Sawan; Peraçolli, Terezinha S; Silva-Vergara, Mário León; Ribeiro, Sílvio C; Oliveira, Rafael Faria; Mendes, Rinaldo Poncio; Rodrigues, Virmondes

    2015-09-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is caused by dimorphic fungi from the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis complex. Previous studies have demonstrated that the severity of disease is associated with a T-helper 2 immune response characterised by high interleukin (IL)-4 production. In the present study we analysed two polymorphisms in the IL-4 gene (-590 C/T and intron-3 microsatellite) in 76 patients with PCM and 73 control subjects from an endemic area. The production of IL-4 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells after antigen or phytohaemagglutinin stimulation was determined by ELISA. A significant correlation was observed between the RP2/RP2 intron-3 genotype and infection with Paracoccidioides sp.(p = 0.011), whereas the RP1/RP1 genotype was correlated with resistance. No significant correlation was observed for the IL-4 promoter polymorphism. Furthermore, the low IL-4 expression observed in the control group compared with patients was associated with the RP1/RP1 genotype. These results suggest that IL-4 polymorphisms might be associated with the ability of the host to control Paracoccidioides sp.infection. The relevance of this polymorphism is supported by the observation that patients with disease produce high levels of IL-4 following mitogen or antigen stimulation. The IL-4 gene is located in the cytokine cluster region of chromosome 5 where other polymorphisms have also been described.

  19. Estrogen associated gene polymorphisms and their interactions in the progress of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Xing, Y; Jia, J P; Ji, X J; Tian, T

    2013-12-01

    The extensive neuroprotective effects of estrogen against Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been proven in numerous laboratory studies. However, in clinical studies, the exact role of estrogen in AD is still ambiguous. Some evidences even suggested the high levels of estrogen or estrogen replacement treatment increased the risk of AD. Thus, there must be other factors affecting the neuroprotective effects of estrogen. Multiple enzymes and receptor proteins are involved in the biosynthesis, metabolism and signaling pathways of estrogen, and mediate the beneficial effects of estrogen on AD. Previous studies have suggested some polymorphisms of genes encoding these enzymes and proteins are associated with the risk of AD. In addition to the genes associated with estrogen biosynthesis and metabolism and the genes encoding estrogen receptor proteins, some other genes also modulate the effects of estrogen on AD, or interact with other estrogen-associated genes on the progress of AD. The gene-hormone and gene-gene interactions may be key to unraveling the conflicting results regarding the effect of estrogen on AD. In this paper, we will review and discuss the associations between polymorphisms of these genes and their interactions and the susceptibility to AD. A better understanding of these estrogen-associated genes is significant to explore the pathogenesis of AD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Meta-analysis of the association between two neprilysin gene polymorphisms and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xingzhi; Tang, Peng; Liu, Peng; Liu, Yue; Hou, Chen; Li, Rui

    2014-11-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between two neprilysin variants (rs989692 and rs3736187) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). All eligible studies were searched in PubMed and Embase from inception to July 2014. Data was extracted by two investigators independently. The complete overdominant model (CC+TT vs. CT) and co-dominant model (GG vs. AA and GA vs. AA) were used for rs989692 and rs3736187, respectively. A comparison of allele frequencies was also conducted. Six studies containing 2555 AD patients and 1914 controls were included for rs989692 polymorphisms. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and confidence interval (CI) suggested that rs989692 polymorphisms were not associated with AD based on the current published studies (C vs. T, OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.85-1.19; CC+TT vs. CT, OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.78-1.01). Five studies containing 2438 AD patients and 1452 controls were identified for rs3736187 polymorphisms (G vs. A, OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.66-0.91; GG vs. AA, OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.19-0.77; GA vs. AA, OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.61-0.99). The result showed that rs3736187 polymorphisms were likely associated with the decreased risk of AD. This meta-analysis indicates that rs3736187 (A/G) polymorphisms may be a potential beneficial single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), which are associated with a decreased risk in AD. Further larger scale studies are necessary to validate gene-to-gene interactions and to define the association of neprilysin polymorphisms with AD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Association of SNAP-25 Gene Ddel and Mnll Polymorphisms with Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Herken, Hasan; Erdal, Mehmet Emin; Kenar, Ayşe Nur İnci; Unal, Gonca Ayşe; Cakaloz, Burcu; Ay, Mustafa Ertan; Yücel, Erinç; Edgünlü, Tuba; Sengül, Cem

    2014-10-01

    The synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) gene is a presynaptic plasma membrane protein and an integral component of the vesicle docking and fusion machinery mediating secretion of neurotransmitters. Previously, several studies reported association between SNAP-25 and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We investigated whether these SNAP-25 polymorphisms (MnlI T/G and DdelI T/C) were also associated with ADHD in the Turkish population. Our study comprised unrelated 139 subjects who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD and 73 controls and all were of Turkish origin. Genetic analyses were performed and patients were evaluated with Wender-Utah Rating Scale and Adult ADD/ADHD DSM IV-Based Diagnostic Screening and Rating Scale. SNAP-25 DdelI polymorphism was not associated with ADHD but there was a statistically significant difference between ADHD patients and controls for SNAP-25 MnlI polymorphism. For SNAP-25 MnlI polymorphism patients with G/G genotype of the SNAP-25 gene MnlI polymorphism had higher Wender-Utah scores and higher scores in the 1st and 3rd parts of adult ADD/ADHD Scale. We detected a significant association of the MnlI polymorphism in our ADHD sample which was similar to previous findings. Our study also revealed that SNAP-25 MnlI polymorphism was also associated with symptom severity of ADHD. This study is also, the first report on the association of SNAP-25 with ADHD in the Turkish population.

  2. p53 gene mutations and codon 72 polymorphism in ovarian carcinoma patients from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Malisic, E; Jankovic, R; Slavkovic, D; Milovic-Kovacevic, M; Radulovic, S

    2010-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecological malignancies. The early stages of this disease are asymptomatic and more than 75% of the cases are diagnosed with regional or distant metastases. p53 gene is frequently mutated in some histological subtypes of ovarian carcinomas. The role of p53 mutations and polymorphic variant of codon 72 in the prognosis of disease is still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of p53 mutations and polymorphic variants of codon 72 among ovarian carcinoma patients and to correlate them with clinicopathological characteristics of disease. 54 ovarian carcinoma patients were included in the study. DNA was isolated from tumor tissue by the salting- out method. p53 mutations in exons 4-8 were detected by PCR-SSCP (polymerase chain reaction - single-stranded conformational polymorphism) electrophoresis. Codon 72 polymorphism was assessed by RFLP (restriction fragment-length polymorphism) method. p53 mutations were present in 11 out of 54 patients (20.4%). Twenty-four patients (44.4%) exhibited Arg/ Arg, 24 patients (44.4%) Arg/Pro and 6 patients (11.2%) Pro/ Pro genotype of 72 codon polymorphism. Correlations between p53 mutations and various clinicopathological characteristics were not found. However, we observed that the frequency of Pro/Pro genotype was increasing with higher histological grade as well as in advanced compared to localized disease, but without statistical significance. Distribution of p53 gene mutations between Pro/Pro genotype and Arg/Pro plus Arg/Arg genotypes was not statistically significant. Our study suggests that Pro/Pro genotype of 72 codon polymorphism could be an independent prognostic marker in ovarian carcinomas.

  3. Association study of ankylosing spondylitis and polymorphisms in ERAP1 gene in Zhejiang Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangbo; Li, Liangda; Shi, Shanfen; Chen, Xin; Gao, Jianqing; Zhu, Minyu; Yuan, Jiandong

    2016-02-01

    The susceptibility loci of ERAP1 polymorphisms have been found to be strongly associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The researches in multiple ethnic cohorts suggested that the population attributable risk in ERAP1 polymorphisms is at a high significance level. This study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence and incidence of subsets of AS and investigate the specific variants of ERAP1 polymorphisms in AS susceptibility, in the Han ethnic Chinese population in Zhejiang Province. AS patients were selected, diagnosed, and confirmed by a qualified rheumatologist. The basal clinical and demographic characteristics were compared with all subjects. Genotypes for eight selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ERAP1 gene (rs27038, rs27037, rs27434, rs27980, rs7711564, rs30187, rs10050860, and rs17482078) were determined by using the Sequenom MassARRAY iPLEX platform in Zhejiang Han Chinese population. Association analyses were performed on the whole genotyped data set in 707 unrelated ankylosing spondylitis cases and 837 ethnically matched controls. We observed the strongest association between AS and HLA-B27, which confers over 90 % of ankylosing spondylitis cases. Moreover, we found three loci of ERAP1 polymorphisms were at a high significance level (rs27037 P = 0.00451; rs27434 P = 0.00012; rs27980 P = 0.00682) with AS in Zhejiang population. We also confirmed polymorphism locus of ERAP1 previously reported association with AS (rs27434; P = 5.3 × 10(-12)). Our results indicated a difference in the mechanism of susceptibility loci in subsets of Zhejiang Han Chinese population and provided further evidence that rs27434 is the key polymorphism associated with AS in ERAP1 gene.

  4. [Melanin traits of Yunnan black bone sheep and TYR gene polymorphism].

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu-Li; Mao, Hua-Ming; Shu, Wen; Deng, Wei-Dong

    2006-03-01

    The "black bone and muscle" is cardinal melanin trait of black bone sheep. The black bone sheep and the native sheep in Lanping and Luomuni sheep were chosen as materials for the measurement of TYR activity of blood and melanin content of tissues and organs. Moreover, we compared characteristic structure of melanin of black bone sheep with silky fowls. The results showed as follows: TYR activity was significantly different between black and non-black bone sheep (P<0.05); the total character of infrared spectrum (IR) of melanin of black bone sheep resembled silky fowls; and melanin was eumelanin. We firstly cloned exon1 667bp sequence of TYR gene and determined TYR gene polymorphism of black and non-black bone sheep by PCR-RFLP. Compared with sequence of TYR gene of non-black bone sheep, there were two nucleotide mutation sites in exon1 of black bone sheep, located in No.64 and No.154 amino acid codons, respectively; but they were synonymics mutation. We designed restriction site in codon 64 and check up TYR gene polymorphism. The result showed the mutation site together with the close linked gene influenced melanin trait deposition. It suggests there should be functional mutation related with melanin trait. Furthermore, there was significant correlation between TYR gene polymorphism and coat color of sheep (P<0.01), indicating TYR could influence synthesis of coat color of sheep.

  5. Association between Factor V Gene Polymorphism and Risk of Ischemic Stroke: An Updated Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Alhazzani, Adel Ali; Kumar, Amit; Selim, Magdy

    2018-02-22

    Ischemic stroke is a complex, multifactorial, and polygenic disease. Reports on relationship between Factor V G1691A single nucleotide gene polymorphism and ischemic stroke have revealed inconsistent results. We conducted an updated meta-analysis to determine the role of Factor V single nucleotide gene polymorphism in ischemic stroke. We searched the literature using academic electronic databases that is, PubMed, Trip Data Base, EBSCO, and Google Scholar, last search up to September 2017. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated from fixed or random effects models whichever applicable using software STATA version 13 (StataCorp LP, College Station, TX). Forty case-control studies met the inclusion criteria, which included 6860 cases and 18,025 controls. Altogether, 19 studies in young adults (age < or = 40 years) and 17 studies were conducted in old stroke (age > 40). Four studies did not report the mean age at recruitment. Significant association between Factor V G1691A gene polymorphism and risk of ischemic stroke were observed under dominant model (OR 1.40; 95% CI: 1.22 to 1.62, P value <.001). Stratified analysis suggested substantial association of Factor V gene polymorphism and risk of ischemic stroke in cases with onset at young age (OR 1.84; 95% CI: 1.47 to 2.30), but was not statistical significant in cases at old age (>40 years). Factor V G1691A single nucleotide gene polymorphism was associated with risk of ischemic stroke mainly in young adults. Further research with adequately powered prospective studies in homogenous subjects are required to determine the nature of association in young stroke. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Study on the correlation between KCNJ11 gene polymorphism and metabolic syndrome in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fan; Liu, Ning; Chen, Xiao Zhuang; Han, Kun Yuan; Zhu, Cai Zhong

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the correlation between KCNJ11 gene polymorphism and metabolic syndrome in elderly patients. From January 2014 to January 2015, 54 elderly patients with metabolic syndrome were enrolled in this study as the observation group. During the same period, 46 healthy elderly individuals were enrolled in this study as the control group. KCNJ11 gene polymorphism (rs28502) was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The expression levels of mRNA in different genotypes were detected using FQ-PCR. ELISA was used to evaluate the KCNJ11 protein expression in different genotypes. KCNJ11 gene polymorphism and metabolic syndrome was studied by measuring the blood pressure levels in patients with different genotypes. Three genotypes of KCNJ11 gene in rs28502 were CC, CT and TT. The CC, CT and TT genotype frequencies in healthy population were 8.5, 9.2 and 82.2%, respectively, while the genotype frequencies in patients with metabolic syndrome were 42.4, 49.8 and 7.8%, respectively. There were significant differences between groups (P≤0.05). However, the genotype frequencies of C/T in healthy individuals and metabolic syndrome patients were 35.3 and 38.3%, respectively. There were no significant differences between groups (P>0.05). FQ-PCR results showed that the KCNJ11 mRNA expression levels in the control and observation groups had no significant differences (P>0.05). However, the results obtained from ELISA analysis revealed that KCNJ11 protein expression level in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, KCNJ11 gene polymorphism is associated with metabolic syndrome in the elderly. Elderly patients with the CC and TT genotypes are more likely to develop metabolic syndrome.

  7. VEGFR2 Gene Polymorphism Correlates with Deep Venous Thrombosis Risk in Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Wang, Hai-Qing; Jian, Tao; Qin, Wei-Wei; Xu, Fei; Xin, Zhen-Lei; Wang, Yan-Hua; Zhang, Mi; Lu, Hui-Jun

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the correlations between three vascular endothelial growth factor 2 (VEGFR2) gene polymorphisms, +1192C>T, +1719T>A, and -604T>C, and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in Chinese Han population. We conducted a case-control study, between September 2009 and September 2012, in a Chinese Han population with onset of lower extremity DVT. A total of 135 patients were enrolled in the case group and 156 healthy individuals in the control group. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to detect the genotype and allele frequencies of the VEGFR2 gene polymorphisms +1192C>T, +1719T>A, and -604T>C. Haplotype analyses were conducted with SHEsis program. Logistic regression was used to detect the risk factors of DVT. Outpatient review and telephone follow-up were conducted to analyze the long-term treatment of DVT patients. The allele and genotype frequencies of -604T>C VEGFR2 polymorphism exhibited significant differences between the case and control groups (both p < 0.05). Haplotype analyses showed remarkable differences between the case and control groups in the distribution frequency of TAC and CTT haplotypes in the VEGFR2 gene (both p < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed independent correlation between the incidence of DVT and TAC haplotype in the VEGFR2 gene (p < 0.05). In addition, the TAC haplotype may be a risk factor for DVT treatment failure. Our findings suggest that the VEGFR2 gene -604T>C polymorphism and TAC haplotype are associated with DVT, and the TAC haplotype might affect the efficacy of long-term treatment of DVT patients.

  8. PRISMA-combined Myeloperoxidase -463G/A gene polymorphism and coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan-Yan; Wang, Hui; Qian, Jin; Kim, Hyun Jun; Wu, Jing-jing; Wang, Lian-sheng; Zhou, Chuan-wei; Yang, Zhi-Jian; Lu, Xin-Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Myeloperoxidase (MPO) -463G/A gene polymorphism may be associated with an increased risk of developing coronary artery disease (CAD). Studies on the subject, however, do not provide a clear consensus. This meta-analysis was performed to explore the relationship between MPO gene -463G/A polymorphism and CAD risk. Methods: This meta-analysis combines data from 4744 subjects from 9 independent studies. By using fixed or random effect models, the pooled odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were assessed. Results: Our analysis found a significant association between MPO gene -463G/A polymorphism and CAD in the whole population under all genetic models: allelic (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.54–0.85, P = 0.0009), recessive (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.22–0.76, P = 0.005), dominant (OR: 0.682, 95% CI: 0.534–0.871, P = 0.002), homozygous (OR: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.16–0.79, P = 0.01), heterozygous genetic model (OR: 0.832, 95% CI: 0.733–0.945, P = 0.004), and additive (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.46–0.90, P = 0.01), especially in the Chinese subgroup (P < 0.05). On the contrary, we found no such relationship in the non-Chinese subgroup (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The MPO gene -463G/A polymorphism is associated with CAD risk, especially within the Chinese population. The A allele of MPO gene -463G/A polymorphism might protect the people from suffering the CAD risk. PMID:28328864

  9. Blood Lead Levels, ALAD Gene Polymorphisms, and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    van Bemmel, Dana M.; Li, Yan; McLean, Jody; Chang, Man-huei; Dowling, Nicole F.; Graubard, Barry; Rajaraman, Preetha

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous analyses from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) have found that elevated blood lead levels may be associated with cardiovascular mortality, cancer mortality, and all-cause mortality. The 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) G177C genetic polymorphism (rs 1800435) affects lead toxicokinetics and may alter the adverse effects of lead exposure. We examined whether the ALAD G177C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) affects the relationship between lead and mortality. Methods We analyzed a subset of 3349 genotyped NHANES III participants at least 40 years of age. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we estimated the relative risk of all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality by ALAD genotype, and by blood lead levels (<5 μg/dL vs. ≥5 μg/dL). We also tested whether the ALAD genotype modified the relationship between blood lead level and mortality. Results The adjusted overall relative risk for participants with the variant ALADCG/CC genotype was decreased for all-cause mortality (hazards ratio = 0.68; [95% confidence interval = 0.50–0.93]) compared with persons having the common GG genotype. There was some suggestion that higher lead levels were associated with cancer mortality (1.48 [0.92–2.38]). We observed no convincing interaction effect between ALAD genotype and blood lead level on mortality risk. Conclusion The ALADCG/CC genotype may be associated with decreased mortality from all causes and from cancer. This association does not seem to be affected by lead exposure. PMID:21293208

  10. [Gene polymorphisms of rennin-angiotensin system and coronary artery thrombosis disease].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tie-Nan; Pan, Jia-Qi; Shen, Zhu-Jun; Zhao, Yong-Qiang; Shen, Ti

    2004-10-01

    To investigate the distribution frequencies of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin II I type receptor (AT1R) genotypes in Chinese, to find the relationships between polymorphisms of ACE, AGT and AT1R gene, and coronary artery thrombosis disease (CATD) and to study the interactions of themselves, PCR and PCR-RFLP techniques were performed to determine the genotypes of ACE, AGT and AT1R gene in CATD group (192 cases) and control group (110 cases). The results showed that (1) genotype frequencies of the three polymorphisms in the control group were 12.2% (DD), 43.9% (ID), and 43.9% (II) for the ACE I/D polymorphism; 8.2% (MM), 36.7% (MT), and 55.1% (TT) for AGT M235T polymorphism; 91.8% (AA), 8.2% (AC) for AT1R A1166C polymorphism respectively; (2) there were no significant differences between patients in either the control group, the non-MI group, or the MI group in any genotype frequency of all these three genes (P >0.05). (3) the odds ratio for CATD in subjects carrying both AT1R-AC and AGT-TT genotype was 3.517 (95% CI 0.988 - 12.527), compared with those carrying AT1R-AA and AGT-TT genotype and was 15.000 (95% CI 1.940-115.963), compared with those carrying AT1R-AC and AGT-MM/MT genotype. In subjects with AT1R-AC genotype, there was also a great difference of ACE D allele frequency between control group and CATD group (P=0.017). It is concluded that genotype frequencies of ACE I/D polymorphism, AGT M235T polymorphism, and AT1R A1166C polymorphism were obviously different from those in western countries. Although these three polymorphisms were not independent risk factors for CATD or myocardial infarction (MI) in Chinese, AT1R-AC genotype has a significant synergistic effect with AGT-TT genotype. There is also a obvious interaction between AT1R-AC genotype and ACE D allele.

  11. Impact of CCL4 gene polymorphisms and environmental factors on oral cancer development and clinical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lien, Ming-Yu; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Tsai, Hsiao-Chi; Chen, Yng-Tay; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Hua, Chun-Hung; Yang, Shun-Fa; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2017-05-09

    In Taiwan, oral cancer has causally been associated with environmental carcinogens. CCL4 (C-C chemokine ligand 4), a macrophage inflammatory protein with a key role in inflammation and immune-regulation, was implicated in carcinogenesis by facilitating instability in the tumor environment. The purpose of this study was to identify gene polymorphisms of CCL4 specific to patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) susceptibility and clinicopathological characteristics. A total of 2,053 participants, including 1192 healthy people and 861 patients with oral cancer, were recruited for this study. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the CCL4 gene were analyzed by a real-time PCR. We found that the T/T homozygotes of CCL4 rs1634507 G/T polymorphism and the GG haplotype of 2 CCL4 SNPs (rs1634507 and rs10491121) combined were associated with oral-cancer susceptibility. In addition, TA haplotype significantly decreased the risks for oral cancer by 0.118 fold. Among 1420 smokers, CCL4 polymorphisms carriers with the betel-nut chewing habit had a 15.476-20.247-fold greater risk of having oral cancer compared to CCL4 wild-type (WT) carriers without the betel-nut chewing habit. Finally, patients with oral cancer who had A/G heterozygotes of CCL4 rs10491121 A/G polymorphism showed a lower risk for an advanced tumor size (> T2) (p=0.046), compared to those patients with AA homozygotes. Our results suggest that the CCL4 rs1634507 SNP have potential predictive significance in oral carcinogenesis. Gene-environment interactions of CCL4 polymorphisms might influence oral-cancer susceptibility. CCL4 rs10491121 may be a factor to predict the tumor size in OSCC patients.

  12. Analysis of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms in patients with chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Gunes, Sezgin; Sumer, A Pinar; Keles, Gonca Cayir; Kara, Nurten; Koprulu, Hulya; Bagci, Hasan; Bek, Yuksel

    2008-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene are related to bone mineral density, bone turnover, and diseases with bone loss. Alveolar bone loss is a key feature in periodontitis. The aim of this study was to determine whether severe generalized chronic periodontitis (CP) in a Turkish population was associated with polymorphisms in the VDR gene. Samples of venous blood and DNA were obtained from 72 patients with severe generalized chronic periodontitis and 102 healthy controls. The polymorphic regions were amplified using PCR followed by digestion with restriction enzymes BsmI A/G(rs1544410), ApaI G/T(rs11168271), TaqI T/C(rs731236), and analyzed electrophoretically. Genotype and allele frequencies were calculated. There were no statistically significant differences in the frequencies of VDR BsmI, ApaI, TaqI genotypes between the CP patients and healthy controls. The GTT haplotype, constructed from the three adjacent restriction fragment length polymorphisms was found to be over-represented among CP cases. This corresponded an OR of 2.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.12-5.18) for heterozygous carriers and 2.27 (95% confidence interval, 0.95-5.4) for homozygous carrier of the risk haplotype. The present findings indicated that BsmI, ApaI, TaqI polymorphisms of the VDR gene were not associated with the severe generalized CP in the studied Turkish patients. Moreover, the VDR genotypes based on haplotype analysis may be associated with chronic periodontitis. In the future, diagnostic periodontal risk assessments like polymorphisms may be useful in detection of individuals susceptible for periodontitis.

  13. Polymorphisms in the phosducin (PDC) gene on chromosome 1q25-32

    SciTech Connect

    Humphries, P.; Mansergh, F.C.; Farrar, G.J.

    1994-09-01

    Phosducin (33 kDa protein or MEKA) is a principal water-soluble phosphoprotein in the rod and cone photoreceptor cells and pinealocytes. This protein modulates the phototransduction cascade by binding to the beta and gamma subunit complexes of transducin. The PDC gene has been mapped to 1q25-32, the region of linkage of two hereditary retinal degenerative disorders; autosomal dominant juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma and one form of autosomal recessive RP. Using previously published sequence data, PCR primers were designed to amplify the coding and 5{prime} flanking regions of the PDC gene. Direct sequencing revealed three polymorphisms in the 5{prime} flanking region, two ofmore » which were in regions highly homologous between humans and mice. Analysis of the polymorphisms was then extended to larger population samples using SSCPE and denaturing gel analysis. The first polymorphism PDC1 resulted from an insertion of a G residue at position -653/4. Allele frequencies were determined to be 0.51 (insG) and 0.49 (normal) giving a PIC value of 0.50. A deletion of a T residue at position -488 was the basis of the PDC2 polymorphism with allele frequencies of 0.88 (normal) and 0.12 (delT) and a PIC value of 0.21. Interestingly, the allele with an inserted G residue in PDC1 always segregrated with the deleted T allele in PDC2. The third polymorphism PDC3 was caused by a T or G residue at position -1083. Allele frequencies of 0.26 (G residue) and 0.74 (T residue) were determined from an analysis of 80 individuals with an overall PIC value of 0.39. The identification of these three polymorphisms in the PDC gene will be useful for future genetic linkage studies of chromosome 1q in inherited retinopathies.« less

  14. Impact of MCP-1 and CCR-2 gene polymorphisms on coronary artery disease susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiu-Ling; Ueng, Kwo-Chang; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Chiang, Whei-Ling; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chu, Shu-Chen

    2012-09-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) was the second leading cause of death during the last 3 years in Taiwan. Smooth muscle cells, monocytes/macrophages, and endothelial cells produce monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) within atherosclerotic plaques following binding to the chemokine receptor-2 (CCR-2). Previous studies have well-documented the association between MCP-1 expression and susceptibility to, or clinicopathological features, of CAD. This study investigated the relationships between MCP-1-2518A/G and CCR-2-V64I genetic polymorphisms and CAD in the Taiwanese population. A total of 608 subjects, including 392 non-CAD controls and 216 patients with CAD, were recruited and subjected to polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) to evaluate the effects of these two polymorphic variants on CAD. Results indicated a significant association between MCP-1 -2548 gene polymorphism and susceptibility to CAD. GG genotypes (OR = 1.629; 95 % CI = 1.003-2.644), or individuals with at least one G allele (OR = 1.511; 95 % CI = 1.006-2.270), had a higher risk of CAD as compared with AA genotypes. Results also revealed that subjects with at least one A allele of the V64I CCR2 gene polymorphism had significantly increased risk of CAD. G allele in MCP-1-2518 might contribute to higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation in CAD patients (OR = 4.254; p < 0.05). In conclusion, MCP-1-2518G and CCR-2 64I gene polymorphisms represent important factors in determining susceptibility to CAD, and the contribution of MCP-1-2518G could be through effects on atrial fibrillation in CAD patients.

  15. The relation of serotonin-related gene and COMT gene polymorphisms with criminal behavior in schizophrenic disorder.

    PubMed

    Koh, Kyung Bong; Choi, Eun Hee; Lee, Young-joon; Han, Mooyoung; Choi, Sang-Sup; Kim, So Won; Lee, Min Goo

    2012-02-01

    It has been suggested that patients with schizophrenia might be involved in criminal behavior, such as homicidal and violent behavior. However, the relationship between criminal behavior and genes in patients with schizophrenia has not been clearly elucidated. The objective of this study was to examine the relation between criminal behavior and serotonin-related gene or catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms in patients with schizophrenia. Serotonin-related and COMT polymorphic markers were assessed by using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. Ninety-nine crime-related inpatients with schizophrenia (57 homicidal and 42 nonhomicidal violent) and 133 healthy subjects were enrolled between October 2005 and May 2008. Diagnoses were made according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. The genotype frequencies of tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH1) A218C and COMT V158M were compared between groups. The TPH1 CC genotype had 2.7-fold higher odds of crime-related schizophrenia compared with A-carrier genotype after the analysis was controlled for sex and age (OR, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.22 - 5.91; P = .01). In addition, the TPH1 CC genotype had 3.4-fold higher odds of homicidal schizophrenia compared with A-carrier genotype after the analysis was controlled for sex and age (OR, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.40 - 8.18; P = .007). However, no significant differences were found in the frequencies of genotype of COMT polymorphism between criminal schizophrenics and healthy subjects, nor were any significant differences found between nonhomicidal schizophrenics and healthy subjects. These results indicate that the TPH1 CC recessive genotype is likely to be a genetic risk factor for criminal behavior, especially homicidal behavior in patients with schizophrenia. However, COMT gene polymorphisms were not associated with criminal behavior in schizophrenic patients. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  16. 5-HT2A receptor gene polymorphisms in Croatian subjects with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Hranilovic, Dubravka; Blazevic, Sofia; Babic, Marina; Smurinic, Maja; Bujas-Petkovic, Zorana; Jernej, Branimir

    2010-08-15

    Disturbances in the expression/function of the 5-HT2A receptor are implicated in autism. The association of the 5-HT2A receptor gene with autism was studied in the Croatian population. Distribution frequencies for alleles, genotypes and haplotypes of -1438 A/G and His452Tyr polymorphisms were compared in samples of 103 autistic and 214 control subjects. Significant overrepresentation of the G allele and the GG genotype of the -1438 A/G polymorphism was observed in group of autistic subjects, supporting the possible involvement of the 5-HT2A receptor in the development of autism. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Alzheimer's disease and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphisms: a potential nutrigenomic approach for Mexico].

    PubMed

    Castillo-Quan, Jorge I; Pérez-Osorio, Julia M

    2009-01-01

    The establishment of medical genomics in Mexico offers the possibility to study in a more comprehensive manner the etiological factors of different diseases, providing a global view of the interaction between the genome and the environment. Nutrition is recognized as a significant determinant in several diseases, yet its interaction with polymorphisms, and in general with the genome, has not been properly addressed Mexico has a high prevalence of polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene, and in both clinical and basic studies this has been associated with an increased susceptibility of developing Alzheimer's disease. We propose a potential nutrigenomic approach for the study of Alzheimer disease in Mexico.

  18. [Polymorphic markers of some genes associated with multiple sclerosis in the population of Kazakhstan].

    PubMed

    Aĭtxozhina, N A; Nigmatova, V G; Khanseitova, A K; Mendesh, M A; Ashirbekov, E E; Balmukhanov, T S

    2011-06-01

    Associations of DR2 specificity of the DRB1gene and single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the tumor necrosis factor gene TNFalpha (-308 G/A), interleukin genes IL-beta (-511 C/T), IL-2 (-475 A/T and -631 G/A), IL-6(-634 C/G), paraoxanase gene PON1 (M55L, Q192R), and the mitochondrial protein transport gene UCP2 (-866 G/A) with the development of multiple sclerosis (MS) were studied in two main ethnic groups of Kazakhstan (Kazakhs and Russians). An association of DR2 specificity of the DRBI gene with MS was found in the combined group of Kazakhs, Russians, and offsprings from mixed marriages. No correlation between DR2 specificity and MS was found in the separately examined groups of Kazakhs and Russians. Statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences between the MS patients and healthy individuals were observed in the distribution of the genotypes at site -634 G/C of the IL-6 gene in the Kazakh group, in the allelic frequencies at site -308 A/G in the promoter region of the TNFalpha gene in the Russian group, and in the frequencies of alleles at the polymorphic Q 192R locus of the PON1 gene in the Kazakh group. No significant differences were revealed in the distribution of the genotypes and in the frequencies of alleles at the polymorphic sites of the genes IL-1beta (-511 C/T), IL-2 (-475 A/T and -631 G/A), PON1 (M55L), and UCP2 (-866 G/A).

  19. Investigation of interleukin-12, interleukin-17 and interleukin-23 receptor gene polymorphisms in alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Aytekin, Nesrin; Akcali, Cenk; Pehlivan, Sacide; Kirtak, Necmettin; Inaloz, Serhat

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the distribution of interleukin (IL)-12 (IL12; 1188A/C), IL17 (A7488G) and IL-23 receptor (IL23R; +2199A/C) gene polymorphisms in patients with alopecia areata. Patients with alopecia areata and healthy controls were enrolled in this case-control study. Genotyping of the IL12 (1188A/C), IL17 (A7488G) and IL23R (+2199A/C) polymorphisms was undertaken. Genotype frequencies were compared between the two groups. The study enrolled 100 patients with alopecia areata and 71 control subjects. No significant differences were found in the frequencies for the IL12 and IL23R gene polymorphisms between the patient and control groups. The IL17 GG genotype was significantly more common and the IL17 GA genotype was significantly less common in patients with alopecia areata compared with controls, but only 10% of patients had the GG genotype. The IL17 GG genotype was associated with susceptibility for alopecia areata, but this genotype was only present in a small number of patients. The IL12 and IL23R gene polymorphisms were not found to have a significant association with alopecia areata. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. A Study on the Role of Estrogen Receptor Gene Polymorphisms in Female Infertility.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Monisha; Ganesh, Vijaya; Koshy, Teena; Venugopal, Priyanka; Paul, Solomon; Venkatesan, Vettriselvi

    2016-11-01

    Female infertility is often of unknown etiology and is a significant medical problem. It occurs when implantation does not occur; a fertilized embryo fails to survive after implantation; or when the egg cannot move from the ovary to the uterus. The aim of this study was to analyze the role of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) genotypes in female infertility. Blood samples were collected from 114 women with infertility undergoing infertility treatment. Samples were also collected from 115 age-matched control women with at least one live child and with no history of infertility or abortions. Genomic DNA was isolated from the blood samples, and genotyping of the ESR1 gene was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The study revealed the presence of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ESR1 gene, PvuII and XbaI. Individual analyses of these two polymorphisms showed that the XbaI heterozygote was significantly increased in controls compared to cases (odds ratio-0.39, confidence interval-0.21 to 0.74, p-0.005). The combined analysis of the PvuII and XbaI genotypes showed no significant difference between the case and control samples. Analysis of the Pvull and Xba1 polymorphisms of the ESR1 gene, demonstrated that the XbaI heterozygote was significantly increased in controls indicating a protective effect.

  1. [K198N polymorphism in the EDN1 gene in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Pousada, Guillermo; Baloira, Adolfo; Vilariño, Carlos; Valverde, Diana

    2015-04-20

    In pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) an association with a polymorphism in the endothelin gene (EDN1) has been described. The main objective of this study was to analyze the polymorphism K198N in the gene EDN1 in patients with PAH, correlating the results with clinical and hemodynamic parameters. We compared 41 patients diagnosed with idiopathic and associated PAH of group i with 50 healthy controls. Polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing were used to analyze the polymorphism K198N. We compared the genotype distribution and searched for a correlation with clinical, hemodynamic and therapeutic response. Genotype GG was present in 42% of patients in this study and 65% of controls. The GT+TT genotypes appeared in 58% of patients and in 35% of controls. Statistically significant differences between patients and controls (P=.032) were detected, with a relative risk in carriers of having the T allele of 2.51 (95% CI 1.07 to 5.86). The analysis by PolyPhen software defined K198N change as pathogenic. No significant differences in the response to treatment at medium term were found. The genotype analysis of the EDN1 gene polymorphism shows statistically significant differences in patients with PAH compared to healthy individuals. Individuals carrying at least one T allele exhibit a higher relative significant risk to develop HAP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Polymorphism Analysis of VSX1 and SOD1 Genes in Greek Patients with Keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Moschos, Marilita M; Kokolakis, Nikolaos; Gazouli, Maria; Chatziralli, Irini P; Droutsas, Dimitrios; Anagnou, Nicholas P; Ladas, Ioannis D

    2015-01-01

    A number of mutations in the VSX1 and SOD1 genes have been reported to be associated with keratoconus (KC), however the results from different studies are controversial. In this study, we conducted the genotyping of common polymorphisms [VSX1: D144E, H244R, R166W, G160D; SOD1: intronic 7-base deletion (c.169 + 50 delTAAACAG)], in a case-control sample panel of the Greek population. A case-control panel, with 33 KC patients and 78 healthy controls, were surveyed. DNA from each individual was tested for the VSX1: D144E, H244R, R166W, G160D and SOD1: intronic 7-base deletion (c.169 + 50 delTAAACAG) polymorphisms by direct sequencing. We observed no polymorphisms of the VSX1 gene in the case-control panel. Concerning the SOD1 intronic 7-base deletion (c.169 + 50 delTAAACAG), our findings suggest that heterozygous carriers are over-represented among KC cases compared to healthy controls (p = 0.002). We cannot confirm the previously reported association of the polymorphism in the VSX1 gene with KC. Our results suggest a possible causative role of SOD1 in the pathogenesis of KC. Further studies are required to identify other important genetic factors involved in the pathogenesis and progression of KC.

  3. Is there any association between childhood cardiac septal defects and ROCK2 gene polymorphism?

    PubMed

    Aksoy, M; Uygun, H; Baspinar, O; Demiryurek, S; Oztuzcu, S; Cengiz, B; Irdem, A; Araz, N C

    2014-03-17

    Rho/Rho-kinase pathway plays a critical role in the regulation of cellular functions such as proliferation and migration. One of the possible theories of the development of ventricular septal defects is cell migration disorder. The aim of this study was to analyze the genotype distributions and allele frequencies for the ROCK2 gene Thr431Asn polymorphisms in the development of cardiac septal defects in a Turkish population. In this case-control study, 300 patients with cardiac defects (150 patients with ventricular and 150 patients with atrial septal defects) and control group (150 healthy control subjects) were investigated. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in ROCK2 gene Thr431Asn was analyzed by real-time PCR using a Light-Cycler. Neither genotype distributions nor the allele frequencies for the Thr431Asn polymorphism showed a significant difference between the groups. These results suggest that there is no association of the ROCK2 gene Thr431Asn polymorphism with the development of cardiac septal defects in pediatric patients.

  4. Polymorphism of exon 3 of MHC class II B gene in Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis).

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Wu, Xiaobing; Yan, Peng; Jiang, Zhigang

    2007-10-01

    The polymorphism of MHC class II B gene in 14 Chinese alligators was analyzed, which came from three different areas: a wild population from Xuancheng, Anhui, a captive population from Changxing, Zhejiang, and a captive population from Anhui Research Center for Reproduction of Chinese Alligators. The gene fragment was amplified using a pair of specific primers designed from the MHC gene sequence of the spectacled caiman. A total of 34 sequence haplotypes of exon 3 were detected in the sampled Chinese alligators. The numbers of haplotypes of the 3 Chinese alligator populations were 15, 10, and 9, respectively. The overall estimation of the MHC polymorphism in the Chinese alligator population was higher than those in mammals and in cyprinid fish. The rates of nonsynonymous substitutions (d(N)) occurred at a significantly lower frequency than that of synonymous substitutions (d(S)), which were not consistent with the common rule. This result might suggest that the polymorphism of exon 3 seemed not to be maintained by the balancing selection. The neutrality test of Tajima excluded the null hypothesis that the polymorphism of exon 3 was generated by a random drift, and the fact that D = -0.401 indicated an excess of rare mutations in the Chinese alligator. The nucleotide diversity of the sequences and the phylogenetic relations were also analyzed, and the results suggested that there was no significant difference in genetic diversity among the 3 populations of Chinese alligator.

  5. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to ischemic stroke: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Pingping; Qin, Chao

    2014-02-10

    Associations between 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T polymorphism and ischemic stroke have been reported (Ariyaratnam et al., 2007; Banerjee et al., 2007; Casas et al., 2004), but the results of these studies are inconsistent. To investigate the possible associations between the MTHFR gene polymorphism and ischemic stroke, we performed a meta-analysis. Nineteen case-control studies associated with MTHFR gene C667T involving 2223 cases and 2936 controls were included. Heterogeneity among studies was evaluated with I(2) and Egger's test and an inverted funnel plot was used to assess publication bias. Odds ratio (OR) was observed to identify the associations. Statistically significant association with ischemic stroke was identified for allele T polymorphism of MTHFR [fixed-effects OR=1.28, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.17-1.40, P<0.00001] and marginally significant association was detected with genotype CT of MTHFR (fixed-effects OR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.01-127, P=0.04) and genotype TT of MTHFR (fixed-effects OR=1.43, 95% CI: 1.20-1.70, P<0.001). The results suggested that the MTHFR C667T genetic polymorphism was significantly associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke. © 2013.

  6. Spontaneous abortion and functional polymorphism (Val16Ala) in the manganese SOD gene.

    PubMed

    Eskafi Sabet, E; Salehi, Z; Khodayari, S; Sabouhi Zarafshan, S; Zahiri, Z

    2015-02-01

    Spontaneous abortion is the most common complication of early pregnancy. Genetic factors have been hypothesised to play a role in spontaneous abortion. Since it is possible that the balance of oxidants and antioxidants can be affected by different genetic variants, gene polymorphisms have been proposed as a susceptibility factor that increases the chance of miscarriage. Manganese superoxide dismutase is an important antioxidant enzyme encoded by manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene. The aim of this experiment was to assess whether Val16Ala polymorphism of MnSOD gene is associated with miscarriage in northern Iran. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used for genotyping. Statistical analyses were conducted using the χ(2)-test. The genetic distributions did not differ significantly between cases and controls, however slightly more Val/Val genotypes were found among the patients compared with control subjects (p = 0.059). No correlation was observed between susceptibility to abortion and MnSOD Val16Ala polymorphism. Larger population-based studies are needed for clarifying the relationship between abortion and MnSOD genotypes.

  7. Common polymorphisms in dopamine-related genes combine to produce a 'schizophrenia-like' prefrontal hypoactivity.

    PubMed

    Vercammen, A; Weickert, C S; Skilleter, A J; Lenroot, R; Schofield, P R; Weickert, T W

    2014-02-04

    Individual changes in dopamine-related genes influence prefrontal activity during cognitive-affective processes; however, the extent to which common genetic variations combine to influence prefrontal activity is unknown. We assessed catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val108/158Met (rs4680) and dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) G-T (rs2283265) single nucleotide polymorphisms and functional magnetic resonance imaging during an emotional response inhibition test in 43 healthy adults and 27 people with schizophrenia to determine the extent to which COMT Val108/158Met and DRD2 G-T polymorphisms combine to influence prefrontal response to cognitive-affective challenges. We found an increased number of cognitive-deficit risk alleles in these two dopamine-regulating genes predict reduced prefrontal activation during response inhibition in healthy adults, mimicking schizophrenia-like prefrontal hypoactivity. Our study provides evidence that functionally related genes can combine to produce a disease-like endophenotype.

  8. Tryptophan hydroxylase 1 gene polymorphisms alter prefrontal cortex activation during response inhibition.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, Anthony C; Rodrigo, Achala H; Carcone, Dean; McMain, Shelley; Jacobs, Grace; Kennedy, James L

    2016-01-01

    The tryptophan hydroxylase 1 gene (TPH1) catalyzes the formation of 5-hydroxytryptophan, a precursor to the neurotransmitter serotonin. Variations in the gene encoding this enzyme may underlie difficulties in impulse control; however, the proximate relationship between risk alleles for polymorphisms in the TPH1 gene and the neural correlates of response inhibition remain poorly understood. The present study examined the relationship of 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the TPH1 gene (rs1799913 and rs4537731) to prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation on a response inhibition task. Evoked hemodynamic oxygenation in the PFC was measured in 30 unrelated healthy adult women using 16-channel continuous-wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy while they completed a manual go/no-go task. TPH1 alleles showed no association with demographic characteristics, general intelligence, impulsive personality traits, or accuracy and response latency indices on the go/no-go task. Participants carrying the risk alleles, however, showed less activity primarily in bilateral inferior frontal gyri and medial PFC under conditions of response inhibition. Polymorphisms in the TPH1 gene may be represented by diminished activity in lateral areas of the PFC underlying response inhibition. Reduced activity in medial PFC might represent altered self-monitoring of performances on the response inhibition task. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. DNA polymorphism analysis of candidate genes for type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Mexican ethnic group.

    PubMed

    Flores-Martínez, S E; Islas-Andrade, S; Machorro-Lazo, M V; Revilla, M C; Juárez, R E; Mújica-López, K I; Morán-Moguel, M C; López-Cardona, M G; Sánchez-Corona, J

    2004-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disorder resulting from the action and interaction of many genetic and environmental factors. It has been reported that polymorphisms in genes involved in the metabolism of glucose are associated with the susceptibility to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus increases with age, as well as with obesity and hypertension, its prevalence and incidence are different among geographical regions and ethnic groups. In Mexico, a higher prevalence and incidence has been described in the south of the country, and differences between urban and rural communities have been observed. We studied 73 individuals from Santiago Jamiltepec, a small indigenous community from Oaxaca State, Mexico. This population has shown a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and the aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the Pst I (insulin gene), Nsi I (insulin receptor gene) and Gly972Arg (insulin receptor substrate 1 gene) polymorphisms and type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity and hypertension in this population. Clinical evaluation consisted of BMI and blood pressure measurements, and biochemical assays consisted of determination of fasting plasma insulin and glucose levels. PCR and restriction enzyme digestion analysis were applied to genomic DNA to identify the three polymorphisms. From statistical analysis carried out here, individually, the Pst I, Nsi I and Gly972Arg polymorphisms were not associated with the type 2 diabetes, obese or hypertensive phenotypes in this population. Nevertheless, there was an association between the Nsi I and Pst I polymorphisms and increased serum insulin levels.

  10. Streptomycin Resistance and Lineage-Specific Polymorphisms in Mycobacterium tuberculosis gidB Gene

    PubMed Central

    Spies, Fernanda S.; Ribeiro, Andrezza W.; Ramos, Daniela F.; Ribeiro, Marta O.; Martin, Anandi; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Rossetti, Maria Lucia R.; da Silva, Pedro Eduardo A.; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2011-01-01

    Mutations related to streptomycin resistance in the rpsL and rrs genes are well known and can explain about 70% of this phenotypic resistance. Recently, the gidB gene was found to be associated with low-level streptomycin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mutations in gidB have been reported with high frequency, and this gene appears to be very polymorphic, with frameshift and point mutations occurring in streptomycin-susceptible and streptomycin-resistant strains. In this study, mutations in gidB appeared in 27% of streptomycin-resistant strains that contained no mutations in the rpsL or rrs genes, and they were associated with low-level streptomycin resistance. However, the association of certain mutations in gidB with streptomycin resistance needs to be further investigated, as we also found mutations in gidB in streptomycin-susceptible strains. This occurred only when the strain was resistant to rifampin and isoniazid. Two specific mutations appeared very frequently in this and other studies of streptomycin-susceptible and -resistant strains; these mutations were not considered related to streptomycin resistance, but as a polymorphism. We stratified the strains according to the different phylogenetic lineages and showed that the gidB16 polymorphism (16G allele) was exclusively present in the Latin American-Mediterranean (LAM) genotype, while the gidB92 polymorphism (92C allele) was associated with the Beijing lineage in another population. In the sample studied, the two characterized single-nucleotide polymorphisms could distinguish LAM and Beijing lineages from the other lineages. PMID:21593257

  11. Streptomycin resistance and lineage-specific polymorphisms in Mycobacterium tuberculosis gidB gene.

    PubMed

    Spies, Fernanda S; Ribeiro, Andrezza W; Ramos, Daniela F; Ribeiro, Marta O; Martin, Anandi; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Rossetti, Maria Lucia R; da Silva, Pedro Eduardo A; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2011-07-01

    Mutations related to streptomycin resistance in the rpsL and rrs genes are well known and can explain about 70% of this phenotypic resistance. Recently, the gidB gene was found to be associated with low-level streptomycin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mutations in gidB have been reported with high frequency, and this gene appears to be very polymorphic, with frameshift and point mutations occurring in streptomycin-susceptible and streptomycin-resistant strains. In this study, mutations in gidB appeared in 27% of streptomycin-resistant strains that contained no mutations in the rpsL or rrs genes, and they were associated with low-level streptomycin resistance. However, the association of certain mutations in gidB with streptomycin resistance needs to be further investigated, as we also found mutations in gidB in streptomycin-susceptible strains. This occurred only when the strain was resistant to rifampin and isoniazid. Two specific mutations appeared very frequently in this and other studies of streptomycin-susceptible and -resistant strains; these mutations were not considered related to streptomycin resistance, but as a polymorphism. We stratified the strains according to the different phylogenetic lineages and showed that the gidB(16) polymorphism (16G allele) was exclusively present in the Latin American-Mediterranean (LAM) genotype, while the gidB(92) polymorphism (92C allele) was associated with the Beijing lineage in another population. In the sample studied, the two characterized single-nucleotide polymorphisms could distinguish LAM and Beijing lineages from the other lineages.

  12. E-selectin gene polymorphisms and essential hypertension in Asian population: an updated meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Gaojun; Zhang, Bifeng; Weng, Weijin; Shi, Ganwei; Xue, Sheliang; Song, Yanbin; Ma, Chunyan

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that E-selectin gene polymorphisms (A561C and C1839T) may be associated with essential hypertension (EH), but the results are conflicting in different ethnic populations. Thus, we performed this meta-analysis to investigate a more authentic association between E-selectin gene polymorphisms and the risk of EH. We searched the relevant studies for the present meta-analysis from the following electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Wanfang Data, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to evaluate the strength of the association between E-selectin gene polymorphisms and EH susceptibility. The pooled ORs were performed for dominant model, allelic model and recessive model. The publication bias was examined by Begg's funnel plots and Egger's test. A total of eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. All studies came from Asians. Ten studies (12 cohorts) evaluated the A561C polymorphism and EH risk, including 2,813 cases and 2,817 controls. The pooled OR was 2.280 (95%CI: 1.893-2.748, P<0.001) in dominant model, 5.284 (95%CI: 2.679-10.420, P<0.001) in recessive model and 2.359 (95%CI: 1.981-2.808, P = 0.001) in allelic model. Four studies (six cohorts) evaluated C1839T polymorphism and EH risk, including 1,700 cases and 1,681 controls. The pooled OR was 0.785 (95%CI: 0.627-0.983, P = 0.035) in dominant model, 1.250 (95%CI: 0.336-4.652, P = 0.739) in recessive model and 0.805 (95%CI: 0.649-0.999, P = 0.049) in allelic model. The current meta-analysis concludes that the C allele of E-selectin A561C gene polymorphism might increase the EH risk in Asian population, whereas the T allele of E-selectin C1839T gene polymorphism might decrease the EH risk.

  13. Single-nucleotide polymorphism-gene intermixed networking reveals co-linkers connected to multiple gene expression phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Bin-Sheng; Zhang, Qing-Pu; Zhang, Guang-Mei; Zhang, Shao-Jun; Zhang, Wei; Lv, Hong-Chao; Zhang, Fan; Lv, Sa-Li; Li, Chuan-Xing; Rao, Shao-Qi; Li, Xia

    2007-01-01

    Gene expression profiles and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) profiles are modern data for genetic analysis. It is possible to use the two types of information to analyze the relationships among genes by some genetical genomics approaches. In this study, gene expression profiles were used as expression traits. And relationships among the genes, which were co-linked to a common SNP(s), were identified by integrating the two types of information. Further research on the co-expressions among the co-linked genes was carried out after the gene-SNP relationships were established using the Haseman-Elston sib-pair regression. The results showed that the co-expressions among the co-linked genes were significantly higher if the number of connections between the genes and a SNP(s) was more than six. Then, the genes were interconnected via one or more SNP co-linkers to construct a gene-SNP intermixed network. The genes sharing more SNPs tended to have a stronger correlation. Finally, a gene-gene network was constructed with their intensities of relationships (the number of SNP co-linkers shared) as the weights for the edges. PMID:18466544

  14. LG839: anti-obesity effects and polymorphic gene correlates of reward deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Blum, Kenneth; Chen, Amanda L C; Chen, Thomas J H; Rhoades, Patrick; Prihoda, Thomas J; Downs, B William; Waite, Roger L; Williams, Lonna; Braverman, Eric R; Braverman, Dasha; Arcuri, Vanessa; Kerner, Mallory; Blum, Seth H; Palomo, Tomas

    2008-09-01

    This study systematically assessed the weight management effects of a novel experimental DNA-customized nutraceutical, LG839 (LifeGen, Inc., La Jolla, CA, USA). A total of 1058 subjects who participated in the overall D.I.E.T. study were genotyped and administered an LG839 variant based on polymorphic outcomes. A subset of 27 self-identified obese subjects of Dutch descent, having the same DNA pattern of four out of the five candidate genes tested (chi-square analysis) as the entire data set, was subsequently evaluated. Simple t tests comparing a number of weight management parameters before and after 80 days of treatment with LG839 were performed. Significant results were observed for weight loss, sugar craving reduction, appetite suppression, snack reduction, reduction of late night eating (all P<0.01), increased perception of overeating, enhanced quality of sleep, increased happiness (all P<0.05), and increased energy (P<0.001). Polymorphic correlates were obtained for a number of genes (LEP, PPAR-gamma2, MTHFR, 5-HT2A, and DRD2 genes) with positive clinical parameters tested in this study. Of all the outcomes and gene polymorphisms, only the DRD2 gene polymorphism (A1 allele) had a significant Pearson correlation with days on treatment (r=0.42, P=0.045). If these results are confirmed in additional rigorous, controlled studies, we carefully suggest that DNA-directed targeting of certain regulator genes, along with customized nutraceutical intervention, provides a unique framework and strategic modality to combat obesity.

  15. Polymorphisms of genes involved in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons’ biotransformation and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Marinković, Natalija; Pašalić, Daria; Potočki, Slavica

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the most prevalent environmental pollutants and result from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons (coal and gasoline, fossil fuel combustion, byproducts of industrial processing, natural emission, cigarette smoking, etc.). The first phase of xenobiotic biotransformation in the PAH metabolism includes activities of cytochrome P450 from the CYP1 family and microsomal epoxide hydrolase. The products of this biotransformation are reactive oxygen species that are transformed in the second phase through the formation of conjugates with glutathione, glucuronate or sulphates. PAH exposure may lead to PAH-DNA adduct formation or induce an inflammatory atherosclerotic plaque phenotype. Several genetic polymorphisms of genes encoded for enzymes involved in PAH biotransformation have been proven to lead to the development of diseases. Enzyme CYP P450 1A1, which is encoded by the CYP1A1 gene, is vital in the monooxygenation of lipofilic substrates, while GSTM1 and GSTT1 are the most abundant isophorms that conjugate and neutralize oxygen products. Some single nucleotide polymorphisms of the CYP1A1 gene as well as the deletion polymorphisms of GSTT1 and GSTM1 may alter the final specific cellular inflammatory respond. Occupational exposure or conditions from the living environment can contribute to the production of PAH metabolites with adverse effects on human health. The aim of this study was to obtain data on biotransformation and atherosclerosis, as well as data on the gene polymorphisms involved in biotransformation, in order to better study gene expression and further elucidate the interaction between genes and the environment. PMID:24266295

  16. The polymorphic IL-1B and IL-1RN genes in the aetiopathogenesis of peptic ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Gonzalez, M A; Lanas, A; Santolaria, S; Crusius, J B A; Serrano, M T; Peña, A S

    2001-01-01

    Besides environmental factors, the genetic background of an individual may contribute to the development and final outcome of peptic ulcer disease. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) are cytokines that play a key role in modulating the inflammatory response in the gastrointestinal mucosa. This study aimed to investigate whether polymorphisms in the IL-1B and IL-RN genes are involved in the susceptibility to and final outcome of peptic ulcer disease. DNA from 179 unrelated Spanish Caucasian patients with peptic ulcer diseases and 99 ethnically matched healthy controls was typed for the TaqI polymorphism at position + 3954 in the IL-1B gene and the variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism in intron 2 of the IL-1RN gene. The determination of Helicobacter pylori status and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) use was studied in all patients and in controls. H. pylori infection and NSAID use were more frequent in ulcer patients than in controls. There were no significant differences in carriage rate, genotype and allele frequencies of the IL-1RN and the IL-1B+3954 gene polymorphisms between peptic ulcer patients and controls. However, a strong allelic association between IL-1B and IL-1RN genes was found in duodenal ulcer patients (P < 0·0006). Logistic regression identified H. pylori infection and NSAIDs use as independent risk factors for peptic ulcer diseases whereas the simultaneous carriage of IL-1B+3954 allele 2 and IL-1RN allele 2 was associated with reduced risk for duodenal ulcer disease (OR: 0·37, 95% CI = 0·14–0·9). Our data suggest that IL-1B and IL-1RN genes in addition to bacterial and environmental factors play a key role in determining the final outcome of peptic ulcer disease. PMID:11531943

  17. Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 gene polymorphism in an Algerian population.

    PubMed

    Chelouti, Hiba; Khelil, Malika

    2017-09-01

    The arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is a key enzyme in the biotransformation of xenobiotics. NAT2 gene polymorphisms have been associated with the risk of isoniazid hepatotoxicity and these polymorphisms change among different populations. The objective of this study is to investigate NAT2 polymorphisms in order to predict the prevalence of NAT2 phenotype in an Algerian population. Genotyping of NAT2 was done using a PCR-RFLP method. Haplotype was analysed using the software package PHASE, version 2.0. The major haplotypes were NAT2*5B (23.72%), NAT2*6 A (18.61%), NAT2*4 (14.60%) and NAT2*5 F (10%). The average of the expected slow acetylator phenotype was 53%. Our results suggest that the high frequency of slow acetylator phenotype requires investigation into its possible association with ATDH.

  18. Effect of metallothionein 2A gene polymorphism on allele-specific gene expression and metal content in prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Krześlak, Anna; Forma, Ewa; Chwatko, Grażyna

    2013-05-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are highly conserved, small molecular weight, cysteine rich proteins. The major physiological functions of metallothioneins include homeostasis of essential metals Zn and Cu and protection against cytotoxicity of heavy metals. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between the − 5 A/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs28366003) in core promoter region and expression of metallothionein 2A (MT2A) gene and metal concentration in prostate cancer tissues. MT2A polymorphism was determined by the polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism technique (PCR–RFLP) using 412 prostate cancer tissue samples. MT2A gene expression analysis was performed bymore » real-time RT-PCR method. A significant association between rs28366003 genotype and MT2A expression level was found. The average mRNA level was found to be lower among minor allele carriers (the risk allele) than average expression among homozygotes for the major allele. Metal levels were analyzed by flamed atomic absorption spectrometer system. Highly statistically significant associations were detected between the SNP and Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb levels. The results of Spearman's rank correlation showed that the expressions of MT2A and Cu, Pb and Ni concentrations were negatively correlated. On the basis of the results obtained in this study, we suggest that SNP polymorphism may affect the MT2A gene expression in prostate and this is associated with some metal accumulation. - Highlights: • MT2A gene expression and metal content in prostate cancer tissues • Association between SNP (rs28366003) and expression of MT2A • Significant associations between the SNP and Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb levels • Negative correlation between MT2A gene expression and Cu, Pb and Ni levels.« less

  19. Association of C677T polymorphism in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR gene) with ischemic stroke: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Pradeep; Prasad, Manya; Sagar, Ram; Yadav, Arun Kumar; Pandit, Awadh Kishor; Jali, Vidishaa Prasad; Pathak, Abhishek

    2015-07-01

    Studies on association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism and ischemic stroke have shown conflicting results. We have conducted a meta-analysis to determine the precise association of the C677T polymorphism of MTHFR gene with risk of ischemic stroke. We searched electronic databases Medline, EMBASE, and Google Scholar (last search dated till August 2014). Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from random or fixed-effects models were calculated. The methodological quality of included studies was determined by the quality assessment scale. Thirty eight case-control studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria comprising 6310 patients and 8297 controls. The significant associations between MTHFR C677T genetic polymorphism and risk of ischemic stroke were observed in dominant (OR, 1·09; 95% CI, 1·06-1·12, P-value < 0·001) and recessive (OR, 1·31; 95% CI, 1·19-1·44, P-value < 0·001) inheritance models. In an Asian population, significant association between the MTHFR polymorphism and ischemic stroke was observed (dominant model: OR 1·36, 95% CI 1·23-1·49 and under recessive model OR, 1·29; 95% CI, 1·15-1·45). In the Caucasian population borderline, non-significant association was observed under dominant model of inheritance (OR, 1·05; 95% CI, 0·99-1·10) but significant association was observed under the recessive model of inheritance (OR, 1·33; 95% CI, 1·13-1·58). The present study results suggest that MTHFR C677T genetic polymorphism is a probable risk of ischemic stroke.

  20. Monoamine oxidase A gene polymorphism and suicide: an association study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chi-Fa; Lung, For-Wey; Hung, Tai-Hsin; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Wu, Ching-Kuan; Wen, Jung-Kwang; Lin, Pao-Yen

    2012-02-01

    Abnormalities in brain monoamine transmission have been implicated in the pathogenesis of suicidal behavior. Studies examining the association between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA)-uVNTR polymorphism and suicide revealed inconsistent findings. This study aims to evaluate the possible association between the MAOA-uVNTR polymorphism and suicidal behaviors by examining our own subjects and conducting a meta-analytic review. 373 unrelated psychiatric patients (including 160 suicide attempters and 213 non-suicide attempters) were genotyped for the MAOA-uVNTR polymorphism. A meta-analysis was then performed by pooling data from seven case-control association studies by random effects model. Our results indicate that there is no association between the MAOA-uVNTR polymorphism and suicide attempts in both genders. It also reveals that there is no association with violent suicide attempts. In the meta-analysis, there is no association between the polymorphism and suicidal behaviors. Also, there is no difference in the allelic distribution between psychiatric patients with and without suicidal behaviors. Limitations Our study was constrained by the insufficient information about environmental risk factors of suicide. Our study is the first one to use meta-analysis in exploring the role of the MAOA-uVNTR polymorphism in suicidal behavior in psychiatric patients. No significant association was found in our study, suggesting MAOA-uVNTR polymorphism is unlikely to contribute significantly to suicide behavior. Further studies investigating the gene-environment interaction or focusing on the genetic risk factors of endophenotypes of suicidal behaviors are warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic polymorphisms in calcitonin receptor gene and risk for recurrent kidney calcium stone disease.

    PubMed

    Shakhssalim, Nasser; Basiri, Abbas; Houshmand, Massoud; Pakmanesh, Hamid; Golestan, Banafsheh; Azadvari, Mohaddeseh; Aryan, Hajar; Kashi, Amir H

    2014-01-01

    In this study the full sequence of the calcitonin receptor gene (CALCR) in a group of Iranian males suffering from recurrent calcium urinary stones was compared with that of a control group. Serum and urinary biochemistry related to urolithiasis were evaluated in 105 males diagnosed with recurrent kidney calcium stones and 101 age-matched healthy control males. The polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism method was used to detect new polymorphisms in the CALCR. Nine polymorphisms were detected; seven were in the non-coding and two in the coding region. The T allele associated with the 3'UTR+18C>T polymorphism was observed exclusively in the stone formers. The exact odds ratio for the T allele in this locus for those at risk of stone formation was 36.72 (95% CI 4.95-272.0) (p < 0.001). The mean (standard deviation) urine calcium concentration was 117 (60) mg/l in patients with the C allele and 152 (72) mg/l in those with the T allele (p = 0.03). In addition, IVS1-6T>C and IVS1insA polymorphisms in intron 1 were associated with kidney stone disease (p < 0.001). Regarding single nucleotide polymorphism 447, mean (standard deviation) of serum calcitonin levels were 16.7 (18.7) pg/ml, 10.5 (11.0) pg/ml and 9.94 (9.7) pg/ml in subjects with TT, TC and CC genotypes, respectively (p = 0.01). Our data indicate a potential association between 3'UTR+18C>T and intron 1 polymorphisms in the CALCR and the risk of kidney stone disease. 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Associations of the ABCA1 and LPL Gene Polymorphisms With Lipid Levels in a Hyperlipidemic Population.

    PubMed

    Tao, Fang; Weinstock, Justin; Venners, Scott A; Cheng, Jun; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Zou, Yanfeng; Pan, Faming; Jiang, Shanqun; Zha, Xiangdong; Xu, Xiping

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the effects of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1) I883M and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) HindIII polymorphisms on lipid levels in patients with hyperlipidemia. A total of 533 patients were enrolled. Serum lipid parameters were determined by an automatic biochemistry analyzer. Genotyping of the ABCA1 I883M and LPL HindIII was carried out using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate the associations between serum lipid levels and the genetic polymorphisms. The frequency distribution of the ABCA1 I883M and LPL HindIII polymorphisms did not deviate from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The major finding of our regression analysis showed that neither the ABCA1 I883M nor the LPL HindIII polymorphism was associated with baseline serum lipid levels in the total population. However, among patients with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (ALT ≥ 40 U/L), carriers of the M allele of the ABCA1 gene had lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and higher levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) after adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption, education level, occupation, and work intensity ( P < .05 for both). A test on interaction terms between the ABCA1 I833M polymorphism and ALT on HDL-C and LDL-C levels also remained significant ( P = .001 and P = .014, respectively). Our data suggest that there are significant interactive effects between ABCA1 I883M and ALT levels on HDL-C and LDL-C levels. However, the LPL HindIII polymorphism did not influence lipid levels.

  3. Discovery of nucleotide polymorphisms in the Musa gene pool by Ecotilling

    PubMed Central

    Jankowicz-Cieslak, Joanna; Sági, László; Huynh, Owen A.; Utsushi, Hiroe; Swennen, Rony; Terauchi, Ryohei; Mba, Chikelu

    2010-01-01

    Musa (banana and plantain) is an important genus for the global export market and in local markets where it provides staple food for approximately 400 million people. Hybridization and polyploidization of several (sub)species, combined with vegetative propagation and human selection have produced a complex genetic history. We describe the application of the Ecotilling method for the discovery and characterization of nucleotide polymorphisms in diploid and polyploid accessions of Musa. We discovered over 800 novel alleles in 80 accessions. Sequencing and band evaluation shows Ecotilling to be a robust and accurate platform for the discovery of polymorphisms in homologous and homeologous gene targets. In the process of validating the method, we identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms that may be deleterious for the function of a gene putatively important for phototropism. Evaluation of heterozygous polymorphism and haplotype blocks revealed a high level of nucleotide diversity in Musa accessions. We further applied a strategy for the simultaneous discovery of heterozygous and homozygous polymorphisms in diploid accessions to rapidly evaluate nucleotide diversity in accessions of the same genome type. This strategy can be used to develop hypotheses for inheritance patterns of nucleotide polymorphisms within and between genome types. We conclude that Ecotilling is suitable for diversity studies in Musa, that it can be considered for functional genomics studies and as tool in selecting germplasm for traditional and mutation breeding approaches. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1395-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20589365

  4. Polymorphisms in circadian genes, night work and breast cancer: results from the GENICA study.

    PubMed

    Rabstein, Sylvia; Harth, Volker; Justenhoven, Christina; Pesch, Beate; Plöttner, Sabine; Heinze, Evelyn; Lotz, Anne; Baisch, Christian; Schiffermann, Markus; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon; Brüning, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    The role of genetic variants and environmental factors in breast cancer etiology has been intensively studied in the last decades. Gene-environment interactions are now increasingly being investigated to gain more insights into the development of breast cancer, specific subtypes, and therapeutics. Recently, night shift work that involves circadian disruption has gained rising interest as a potential non-genetic breast cancer risk factor. Here, we analyzed genetic polymorphisms in genes of cellular clocks, melatonin biosynthesis and signaling and their association with breast cancer as well as gene-gene and gene-night work interactions in a German case-control study on breast cancer. GENICA is a population-based case-control study on breast cancer conducted in the Greater Region of Bonn. Associations between seven polymorphisms in circadian genes (CLOCK, NPAS2, ARTNL, PER2 and CRY2), genes of melatonin biosynthesis and signaling (AANAT and MTNR1B) and breast cancer were analyzed with conditional logistic regression models, adjusted for potential confounders for 1022 cases and 1014 controls. Detailed shift-work information was documented for 857 breast cancer cases and 892 controls. Gene-gene and gene-shiftwork interactions were analyzed using model-based multifactor dimensionality reduction (mbMDR). For combined heterozygotes and rare homozygotes a slightly elevated breast cancer risk was found for rs8150 in gene AANAT (OR 1.17; 95% CI 1.01-1.36), and a reduced risk for rs3816358 in gene ARNTL (OR 0.82; 95% CI 0.69-0.97) in the complete study population. In the subgroup of shift workers, rare homozygotes for rs10462028 in the CLOCK gene had an elevated risk of breast cancer (OR for AA vs. GG: 3.53; 95% CI 1.09-11.42). Shift work and CLOCK gene interactions were observed in the two-way interaction analysis. In addition, gene-shiftwork interactions were detected for MTNR1B with NPAS2 and ARNTL. In conclusion, the results of our population-based case-control study

  5. Promoter polymorphisms in genes involved in porcine myogenesis influence their transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Bongiorni, Silvia; Tilesi, Francesca; Bicorgna, Silvia; Iacoponi, Francesca; Willems, Daniela; Gargani, Maria; D'Andrea, MariaSilvia; Pilla, Fabio; Valentini, Alessio

    2014-11-07

    Success of meat production and selection for improvement of meat quality is among the primary aims in animal production. Meat quality traits are economically important in swine; however, the underlying genetic nature is very complex. Therefore, an improved pork production strongly depends on identifying and studying how genetic variations contribute to modulate gene expression. Promoters are key regions in gene modulation as they harbour several binding motifs to transcription regulatory factors. Therefore, polymorphisms in these regions are likely to deeply affect RNA levels and consequently protein synthesis. In this study, we report the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in promoter regions of candidate genes involved in development, cellular differentiation and muscle growth in Sus scrofa. We identified SNPs in the promoter regions of genes belonging to the Myogenic Regulatory Factors (MRF) gene family (the Myogenic Differentiation gene, MYOD1) and to Growth and Differentiation Factors (GDF) gene family (Myostatin gene, MSTN, GDF8), in Casertana and Large White breeds. The purpose of this study was to investigate if polymorphisms in the promoters could affect the transcriptional activity of these genes. With this aim, we evaluated in vitro the functional activity of the luciferase reporter gene luc2 activity, driven by two constructs carrying different promoter haplotypes. We tested the effects of the G302A (U12574) transition on the promoter efficiency in MYOD1 gene. We ascertained a difference in transcription efficiency for the two variants. A stronger activity of the A-carrying construct is more evident in C2C12. The luciferase expression driven by the MYOD1-A allelic variant displayed a 3.8-fold increased transcriptional activity. We investigated the activity of two haplotype variants (AY527152) in the promoter of GDF8 gene. The haploptype-1 (A435-A447-A879) up-regulated the expression of the reporter gene by a two-fold increase, and

  6. A Delta-Sarcoglycan Gene Polymorphism as a Risk Factor for Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Garrido-Garduño, Martín H.; Pérez-Martínez, Ramón A.; Ruiz, Victor M.; Herrera-Tepatlán, Esteban; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Jiménez-Vaca, Ana L.; Minauro-Sanmiguel, Fernando; Salamanca-Gómez, Fabio A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The C allele of c.−94C>G polymorphism of the delta-sarcoglycan gene was associated as a risk factor for coronary spasm in Japanese patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Aim: We evaluated whether the c.−94C>G polymorphism can be a risk factor for HCM in Mexican patients. Methods: The polymorphism was genotyped and the risk was estimated in 35 HCM patients and 145 healthy unrelated individuals. Data of this polymorphism reported in Mexican Amerindian populations were included. Results: The C allele frequency in HCM patients was higher with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.37, and the risk for the CC genotype increased to 5.0. The analysis with Mexican Amerindian populations showed that the C allele frequency was significantly higher in HCM patients with an OR of 2.96 and for CC genotype the risk increased to 7.60. Conclusions: The C allele of the c.−94C>G polymorphism is a risk factor for HCM, which is increased by the Amerindian component and can play an important role in the etiology and progression of disease in Mexican patients. PMID:22524166

  7. Cyclooxygenase-2 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to colorectal cancer in a Brazilian population

    PubMed Central

    Tomitão, Michele Tatiana Pereira; Nahas, Sergio Carlos; Kubrusly, Marcia Saldanha; Furuya, Tatiane Katsue; Diniz, Marcio Augusto; Marie, Suely Kazue Nagahashi; Safatle-Ribeiro, Adriana Vaz; Eluf-Neto, José; Cecconello, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Background Multi-ethnicity of Brazilian population displays high levels of genomic diversity. Polymorphism may detect people at higher risk of developing cancer, distinctive response to treatment, and prognosis. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is induced in response to growth factors and cytokines, and is expressed in inflammatory diseases, precancerous lesions and colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of COX-2 −1195A > G and 8473T > C polymorphisms as a risk factor of developing CRC. Methods We evaluated COX-2 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) of 230 CRC patients and 196 healthy controls by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction. Results Populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), except for control group of 8473T > C SNP. The frequencies were similar in both groups for genotypes and haplotypes. There was no association between studied polymorphisms and risk of CRC. Conclusions The gene polymorphisms studied do not participate in the genetic susceptibility to CRC in a Brazilian population. PMID:28890812

  8. C677T (RS1801133 ) MTHFR gene polymorphism frequency in a colombian population

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Gutierrez, Alberto; Gómez, Piedad Elena; Casas-Gomez, Maria Consuelo; Briceño, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Abnormal levels of the enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) are associated with an increased risk of both cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease and higher concentrations of homocysteine. Abnormal levels are also related to birth defects, pregnancy complications, cancer and toxicity to methotrexate (MTX). Polymorphisms of MTHFR affect the activity of the enzyme. Genetic associations have been related to treatment efficacy. Objective: To establish the frequency of the C> T polymorphism at nucleotide 677 of the MTHFR gene in a group of Colombian individuals. Methods: Data from pharmacogenetic microarrays that include MTX sensibility-associated polymorphisms were retrospectively collected (Pathway Genomics®). The frequency of the C> T MTHFR rs1801133 marker polymorphism was analyzed. Results: Microarray data from 68 men and 84 women were analyzed. Comparisons of genotype C/C vs. C/T and T/T were statistically significantly different (p= 0.00, p= 0.026, respectively), as were C/T and T / T (p= 0.0001). Conclusions: Results for the C/C and C/T genotypes in a Colombian population are similar to other previously studied groups of healthy subjects. Subjects from our population might be at risk of developing diseases associated with MTHFR polymorphisms and might present toxicity and adverse effects if treated with MTX, which suggests the need to evaluate therapeutic alternatives based on individual pharmacogenetic studies. PMID:26309343

  9. Association between serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms and depressed mood caused by job stress in Japanese workers.

    PubMed

    Katsuyama, Hironobu; Tomita, Masafumi; Hidaka, Kazuo; Fushimi, Shigeko; Okuyama, Toshiko; Watanabe, Yoko; Tamechika, Yoshie; Otsuki, Takemi; Saijoh, Kiyofumi; Sunami, Shigeo

    2008-04-01

    To estimate the genetic factors influencing depressed mood caused by job stress, a total of 243 employees at a manufacturing company and a local hospital in Japan (mean age 40.8+/-10.3 years) were recruited with informed consent. The Brief Job Stress Questionnaire was used to assess the present status of stress. Alcohol consumption and smoking were assessed as lifestyle factors. DNA samples were prepared to detect gene polymorphisms of serotonin transporter (5HTT), aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, D2 dopamine receptor, and cytochrome p450 2A6. The relationship between job stress, lifestyle factors and these polymorphisms was assessed for each gender. The level of depressed mood for female subjects was significantly higher among the carriers of two short (s/s) alleles of the 5HTT regulatory region compared with the carriers of one (s/l) or two (l/l) long alleles (Mann-Whitney U test, p<0.05). The odds ratio of depressed mood also confirmed this relationship for the female subjects, whereas there was no relationship for the male subjects. When social support was taken into consideration, the depressed mood score for those who had high support was significantly lower than for those who had low support, irrespective of 5HTT polymorphisms and gender. Job stress may elicit biological responses that contribute to depressed mood in relation to 5HTT polymorphisms, and social support may reduce depressed mood irrespective of 5HTT polymorphisms.

  10. Lack of association between ESR1 gene polymorphisms and premature ovarian failure in Serbian women.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Vujovic, S; Dalgleish, R; Thompson, J; Dragojevic-Dikic, S; Al-Azzawi, F

    2014-06-01

    It has previously been reported that estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) gene (ESR1: estrogen receptor 1) polymorphisms are associated with premature ovarian failure (POF). The aim of this study was to investigate whether these genetic polymorphisms of ESR1 are associated with POF in Serbian women. A series of 197 POF cases matched with 547 fertile controls was recruited by the Institute for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders of Serbia between 2007 and 2010. Genomic DNA was extracted from saliva using Oragene® DNA sample collection kits. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), PvuII and XbaI, in ESR1 were genotyped by dynamic allele-specific hybridization. Haplotype analyses were performed with the restriction fragment length polymorphism method. SNP and haplotype effects were analyzed by logistic regression models. No significant difference was found in the distribution of ESR1 PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms or haplotypes between the POF and control groups. The two ESR1 SNPs, PvuII and XbaI, are not commonly associated with POF in Serbian women and may not contribute to the genetic basis of the condition.

  11. Associations between a polymorphism in the hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1 gene, neuroticism and postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Iliadis, S I; Comasco, E; Hellgren, C; Kollia, N; Sundström Poromaa, I; Skalkidou, A

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the association between a single nucleotide polymorphism in the hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1 gene and neuroticism, as well as the possible mediatory role of neuroticism in the association between the polymorphism and postpartum depressive symptoms. 769 women received questionnaires containing the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at six weeks postpartum and demographic data at pregnancy week 17 and 32 and at six weeks postpartum, as well as the Swedish universities Scales of Personality at pregnancy week 32. Linear regression models showed an association between the GG genotype and depressive symptoms. When neuroticism was introduced in the model, it was associated with EPDS score, whereas the association between the GG genotype and EPDS became borderline significant. A path analysis showed that neuroticism had a mediatory role in the association between the polymorphism and EPDS score. The use of the EPDS, which is a self-reporting instrument. Neuroticism was associated with the polymorphism and had a mediatory role in the association between the polymorphism and postpartum depression. This finding elucidates the genetic background of neuroticism and postpartum depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Association of an Osteopontin gene promoter polymorphism with susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy in Asian Indians.

    PubMed

    Cheema, Balneek Singh; Iyengar, Sreenivasa; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Kohli, Harbir Singh; Sharma, Rajni; Shah, Viral N; Bhansali, Anil; Sakhuja, V; Khullar, Madhu

    2012-10-09

    Genetic predisposition has been proposed to be a major determinant in the development of renal complications of diabetes. Osteopontin (OPN) has been suggested to be associated with renal diseases characterized by tubulointerstitial fibrosis and proteinuria. However, information on association of genetic polymorphisms in OPN with diabetic nephropathy is lacking. Thus, the present study was designed with the aim to examine the association of an OPN gene promoter polymorphism with diabetic nephropathy in Asian Indians. OPN C-443T (rs11730582) polymorphism was determined in 1115 type 2 diabetic patients belonging to two independently ascertained cohorts using Real time PCR based Taqman assay. We observed a nearly threefold elevated risk of diabetic nephropathy among carriers of T allele and TT genotype of OPN C-443T polymorphism. Further, this allele was found to be significantly associated with proteinuria and lower eGFR, a hallmark of diabetic nephropathy, in both our cohorts. This is the first study which suggests that OPN C-443T polymorphism may be a significant risk factor for diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The BTNL2 G16071A gene polymorphism increases granulomatous disease susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Xiang; Ma, Yao; Niu, Xundong; Yan, Zhipeng; Liu, Sitong; Peng, Bo; Peng, Shifeng; Fan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The butyrophilin-like 2 (BTNL2) G16071A gene polymorphism has been implicated in the susceptibility to granulomatous diseases, but the results were inconclusive. The objective of the current study was to precisely explore the relationship between BTNL2 G16071A gene polymorphism and granulomatous disease susceptibility by the meta-analysis including false-positive report probability (FPRP) test. Methods: A systematic literature search in the PubMed, Embase, and Wanfang databases, China National Knowledge Internet, and commercial Internet search engines was conducted to identify studies published up to April 1, 2016. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the effect size. Statistical analysis was conducted using the STATA 12.0 software and FPRP test sheet. Results: In total, all 4324 cases and 4386 controls from 14 eligible studies were included in the current meta-analysis. By the overall meta-analysis, we found a significant association between BTNL2 G16071A gene polymorphism and granulomatous disease susceptibility (A vs G: OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.07–1.45, P = 0.005). The meta-regression analyses showed that a large proportion of the between-study heterogeneity was significantly attributed to the ethnicity (A vs G, P = 0.013) and the types of granulomatous diseases (A vs G, P = 0.002). By the subgroup meta-analysis, the BTNL2 G16071A gene polymorphism was associated with granulomatous disease susceptibility in Caucasians (A vs G: OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.18–1.58, P < 0.001). Moreover, a significant relationship between the BTNL2 G16071A gene polymorphism and sarcoidosis susceptibility (A vs G: OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.39–1.66, P < 0.001) was found. However, to avoid the “false-positive report,” we further investigated the significant associations observed in the present meta-analysis by the FPRP test. Interestingly, the results of FPRP test indicated that the BTNL2

  14. Polymorphisms within the promoter and the intron 2 of the serotonin transporter gene in a population of bulimic patients.

    PubMed

    Lauzurica, N; Hurtado, A; Escartí, A; Delgado, M; Barrios, V; Morandé, G; Soriano, J; Jáuregui, I; González-Valdemoro, M I; García-Camba, E; Fuentes, J A

    2003-12-11

    The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene is a firm candidate to explain eating disorders. In this association study, two different polymorphisms were analysed: a variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in intron 2 and a deletion/insertion polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the promoter region. The hypothesis that these gene polymorphisms may be a susceptibility factor in bulimia nervosa (BN) was explored in a female population of 102 purgative bulimics. BN patients who have suffered preceding anorexia nervosa (AN) episodes formed the so-called previous AN bulimic patient group. In our sample of normal-eater controls and purging type bulimics, regardless of whether or not the BN patients had suffered prior AN episodes, no differences were found considering the frequencies of genotypes, alleles or haplotypes of both polymorphic regions of the 5-HTT gene.

  15. Interleukin-8 gene polymorphism -251T>A contributes to Alzheimer's disease susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Qin, Biyong; Li, Li; Wang, Shanshan; Wu, Jun; Huang, Yulan; Zhou, Ping; Bai, Jiao; Zheng, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Published association studies have investigated the correlation between interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene polymorphism -251T>A and susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the results are conflicting. Thus, we conducted the meta-analysis to reassess the effect of IL-8 gene -251T>A variant on the risk of AD. Relevant studies regarding this association were electronically searched and identified from the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and the Chinese Biomedicine Database. The odds ratios (ORs) with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were pooled to calculate the strength of this association. Nine studies with a total of 1406 cases and 2152 controls were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, a significant association of IL-8 gene -251T>A polymorphism with increased risk of AD was observed in several genetic models (allele, A vs T: OR=1.32, 95%CI=1.16-1.50; homozygous, AA vs TT: OR=1.70, 95%CI=1.21-2.21; heterozygous, TA vs TT: OR=1.37, 95%CI=1.12-1.69; recessive, AA vs TA+TT: OR=1.40, 95%CI=1.12-1.75). Similarly, such association was also revealed both in Asian and European populations in the subgroup analysis by ethnicity. The current study suggested that IL-8 gene polymorphism -251T>A may contribute to the susceptibility to AD.

  16. Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with human directed social behavior in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Kis, Anna; Bence, Melinda; Lakatos, Gabriella; Pergel, Enikő; Turcsán, Borbála; Pluijmakers, Jolanda; Vas, Judit; Elek, Zsuzsanna; Brúder, Ildikó; Földi, Levente; Sasvári-Székely, Mária; Miklósi, Adám; Rónai, Zsolt; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2014-01-01

    The oxytocin system has a crucial role in human sociality; several results prove that polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor gene are related to complex social behaviors in humans. Dogs' parallel evolution with humans and their adaptation to the human environment has made them a useful species to model human social interactions. Previous research indicates that dogs are eligible models for behavioral genetic research, as well. Based on these previous findings, our research investigated associations between human directed social behaviors and two newly described (-212AG, 19131AG) and one known (rs8679684) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory regions (5' and 3' UTR) of the oxytocin receptor gene in German Shepherd (N = 104) and Border Collie (N = 103) dogs. Dogs' behavior traits have been estimated in a newly developed test series consisting of five episodes: Greeting by a stranger, Separation from the owner, Problem solving, Threatening approach, Hiding of the owner. Buccal samples were collected and DNA was isolated using standard protocols. SNPs in the 3' and 5' UTR regions were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction based techniques followed by subsequent electrophoresis analysis. The gene-behavior association analysis suggests that oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms have an impact in both breeds on (i) proximity seeking towards an unfamiliar person, as well as their owner, and on (ii) how friendly dogs behave towards strangers, although the mediating molecular regulatory mechanisms are yet unknown. Based on these results, we conclude that similarly to humans, the social behavior of dogs towards humans is influenced by the oxytocin system.

  17. Polymorphism and genetic mapping of the human oxytocin receptor gene on chromosome 3

    SciTech Connect

    Michelini, S.; Urbanek, M.; Goldman, D.

    1995-06-19

    Centrally administered oxytocin has been reported to facilitate affiliative and social behaviors, in functional harmony with its well-known peripheral effects on uterine contraction and milk ejection. The biological effects of oxytocin could be perturbed by mutations occurring in the sequence of the oxytocin receptor gene, and it would be of interest to establish the position of this gene on the human linkage map. Therefore we identified a polymorphism at the human oxytocin receptor gene. A portion of the 3{prime} untranslated region containing a 30 bp CA repeat was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), revealing a polymorphism with two allelesmore » occurring with frequencies of 0.77 and 0.23 in a sample of Caucasian CEPH parents (n = 70). The CA repeat polymorphism we detected was used to map the human oxytocin receptor to chromosome 3p25-3p26, in a region which contains several important genes, including loci for Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) and renal cell carcinoma. 53 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.« less

  18. Association between PTPN22/CTLA-4 Gene Polymorphism and Allergic Rhinitis with Asthma in Children.

    PubMed

    Song, Shang Hua; Wang, Xiao Qiang; Shen, Yang; Hong, Su Ling; Ke, Xia

    2016-10-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an IgE-mediated upper airway disease, and its impact on asthma has been widely recognized. Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor 22 (PTPN22) gene and the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) gene polymorphisms have been reported to be associated with several immune-related diseases. Here we investigated the reffect of these two genes' polymorphisms on the risk of AR and asthma in Chinese Han children. A total of 106 AR patients, 112 AR with asthma patients, and 109 healthy children were enrolled in the study. The SNPs of PTPN22 (rs2488457, rs1310182, rs3789604) and CTLA-4 (rs3087243, rs11571302, rs11571315, rs231725, rs335219727, and rs4553808) were genotyped using a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. For PTPN22, an increased prevalence of the CC genotype and C allele in rs1310182 were identified in AR group. For CTLA-4, AA genotype and A allele in rs3087243 and rs231725 were increased in AR with asthma group while in AR group, AA genotype and A allele in rs231725 were obviously decreased. This study reveals a significant association between SNPs in PTPN22, CTLA-4 gene and AR with asthma in Chinese Han children, which might be susceptibility factors for AR and asthma.

  19. [Negative association of STAMP2 gene polymorphisms with essential hypertension in Xinjiang Uygur population].

    PubMed

    Bi, Yun-wei; Wang, Chang-min; Yan, Zhi-tao; Li, Nan-fang; Guo, Yan-ying; Wang, Hong-mei; Yao, Xiao-guang; Liang, Deng-pan

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between the genetic polymorphisms of the six transmembrane protein of prostate 2 gene (STAMP2) and essential hypertension in Xinjiang Uygur population. The sequences of STAMP2 gene functional region were sequenced in Xinjiang Uygur population with hypertension. The representative variations selected were genotyped by TaqMan-PCR method in 2047 Uygur individuals, including 810 patients with hypertension and 1237 healthy subjects. The association of the genetic variations of the STAMP2 gene with hypertension in Uygur was analyzed. In the three representative variations (rs8122, rs1981529 and rs34741656) genotyped, there were no significant differences in genotype distribution and allele frequencies between the essential hypertension and control groups (P > 0.05). In ANCOVA analysis, none of the polymorphisms was significantly associated with systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in haplotype frequencies between the two groups either(P > 0.05). There was no association of the three polymorphisms (rs8122, rs1981529 and rs34741656) in the STAMP2 gene with essential hypertension in Xinjiang Uygur population.

  20. [Association of polymorphism of GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes with infertility in men].

    PubMed

    Kurashova, N A; Belyaeva, E V; Ershova, O A; Dashiev, B G; Bairova, T A; Kolesnikova, L I

    2017-12-01

    To identify the association between homozygous deletion genotypes of glutathione transferase genes GSTT1 (glutathione transferase theta 1), GSTM1 (glutathione S-transferase mu1) and infertility in Russian men. The article presents a comparative analysis of the incidence of homozygous deletion genotypes of glutathione transferase genes GSTM1 and GSTT1 in Russian men with and without infertility. The study group comprised 160 infertile Russian men of reproductive age (mean age 30.2+/-3.6 years.) The infertility diagnosis was verified according to the WHO guidelines. The control group comprised 104 healthy Russian volunteers (mean age 31.3+/-5.4 years.) Molecular genetic detection of GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletion polymorphisms was performed using PCR. The genomic DNA for the study was extracted from whole blood samples. The study and control group differed significantly in incidence of GSTM1 (p=0.043) and GSTT1 (p=0.008) deletion polymorphisms. The probability of detecting "zero" genotypes of the GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes in infertile men was 2.5 (p<0.05) and 1.7 times higher (p<0.05), respectively, than in fertile men. Therefore, the study findings allow us to conclude that the deletion genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 are associated with infertility in Russian men. Molecular genetic analysis of deletion polymorphism of glutathione transferase genes can be recommended for a comprehensive examination of infertile men.

  1. Association of the DIO2 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms with recurrent depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Gałecka, Elżbieta; Talarowska, Monika; Orzechowska, Agata; Górski, Paweł; Bieńkiewicz, Małgorzata; Szemraj, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Genetic factors may play a role in the etiology of depressive disorder. The type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase gene (DIO2) encoding the enzyme catalyzing the conversion of T4 to T3 is suggested to play a role in the recurrent depressive disorder (rDD). The current study investigates whether a specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the DIO2 gene, Thr92Ala (T/C); rs 225014 or ORFa-Gly3Asp (C/T); rs 12885300, correlate with the risk for recurrent depression. Genotypes for these two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were determined in 179 patients meeting the ICD-10 criteria for rDD group and in 152 healthy individuals (control group) using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based method. The specific variant of the DIO2 gene, namely the CC genotype of the Thr92Ala polymorphism, was more frequently found in healthy subjects than in patients with depression, what suggests that it could potentially serve as a marker of a lower risk for recurrent depressive disorder. The distribution of four haplotypes was also significantly different between the two study groups with the TC (Thr-Gly) haplotype more frequently detected in patients with depression. In conclusion, data generated from this study suggest for the first time that DIO2 gene may play a role in the etiology of the disease, and thus should be further investigated.

  2. Oxytocin and Vasopressin Receptor Gene Polymorphisms: Role in Social and Psychiatric Traits

    PubMed Central

    Aspé-Sánchez, Mauricio; Moreno, Macarena; Rivera, Maria Ignacia; Rossi, Alejandra; Ewer, John

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) are two phylogenetically conserved neuropeptides that have been implicated in a wide range of social behaviors. Although a large body of research, ranging from rodents to humans, has reported on the effects of OXT and AVP administration on affiliative and trust behaviors, and has highlighted the genetic contributions of OXT and AVP receptor polymorphisms to both social behaviors and to diseases related to social deficits, the consequences of peptide administration on psychiatric symptoms, and the impact of receptor polymorphisms on receptor function, are still unclear. Despite the exciting advances that these reports have brought to social neuroscience, they remain preliminary and suffer from the problems that are inherent to monogenetic linkage and association studies. As an alternative, some studies are using polygenic approaches, and consider the contributions of other genes and pathways, including those involving DA, 5-HT, and reelin, in addition to OXT and AVP; a handful of report are also using genome-wide association studies. This review summarizes findings on the associations between OXT and AVP receptor polymorphism, social behavior, and psychiatric diseases. In addition, we discuss reports on the interactions of OXT and AVP receptor genes and genes involved in other pathways (such as those of dopamine, serotonin, and reelin), as well as research that has shed some light on the impact of gene polymorphisms on the volume, connectivity, and activation of specific neural structures, differential receptor expression, and plasma levels of the OXT and AVP peptides. We hope that this effort will be helpful for understanding the studies performed so far, and for encouraging the inclusion of other candidate genes not explored to date. PMID:26858594

  3. Association of aggression with a novel microRNA binding site polymorphism in the wolframin gene.

    PubMed

    Kovacs-Nagy, Reka; Elek, Zsuzsanna; Szekely, Anna; Nanasi, Tibor; Sasvari-Szekely, Maria; Ronai, Zsolt

    2013-06-01

    Rare mutations in the WFS1 gene lead to Wolfram syndrome, a severe multisystem disorder with progressive neurodegeneration and diabetes mellitus causing life-threatening complications and premature death. Only a few association studies using small clinical samples tested the possible effects of common WFS1 gene variants on mood disorders and suicide, the non-clinical spectrum has not been studied yet. Self-report data on Aggression, Impulsiveness, Anxiety, and Depression were collected from a large (N = 801) non-psychiatric sample. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected to provide an adequate coverage of the entire WFS1 gene, as well as to include putative microRNA binding site polymorphisms. Molecular analysis of the assumed microRNA binding site variant was performed by an in vitro reporter-gene assay of the cloned 3' untranslated region with coexpression of miR-668. Among the 17 WFS1 SNPs, only the rs1046322, a putative microRNA (miR-668) binding site polymorphism showed significant association with psychological dimensions after correction for multiple testing: those with the homozygous form of the minor allele reported higher aggression on the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (P = 0.0005). Functional effect of the same SNP was also demonstrated in a luciferase reporter system: the minor A allele showed lower repression compared to the major G allele, if co-expressed with miR-668. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing a microRNA binding site polymorphism of the WFS1 gene and its association with human aggression based on a large, non-clinical sample. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [Analysis of VDR gene polymorphism Fok1 in infertile women with endometriosis].

    PubMed

    Vilarino, Fábia Lima; Bianco, Bianca; Christofolini, Denise Maria; Lerner, Tatiana Goberstein; Barbosa, Caio Parente

    2011-02-01

    to evaluate the frequency of VDR gene polymorphism Fok1 in infertile women with endometriosis and Control and its relation to the disease. a case-control study that included 147 infertile women with endometriosis and 154 fertile women without endometriosis as Control. Fok1 polymorphism (rs10735810, T2C), which promotes a T/C exchange in exon 2 of the VDR gene, was identified by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), that involves the combination of amplification by PCR and digestion with restriction endonuclease. The χ2 test was used to compare allele and genotype frequencies between groups. All p-values were two-tailed and a p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. the TT, TC and CC genotype frequencies of VDR Fok1 polymorphism were 44.2%, 46.9% and 8.9% in infertile women with endometriosis and 41.6%, 50% and 8.4% in the Control Group. No significant difference was found (p=0.8), even when the patients were subdivided according to the stage of endometriosis (p=0.3 for minimal and mild endometriosis and p=0.2 for moderate and severe endometriosis). Alleles T and C were present, respectively, in 67.6% and 32.3% of infertile women with endometriosis (p=0.8), in 63.5% and 36.5% of women with minimal/mild endometriosis (p=0.5), in 72.5% and 27.5% of women with moderate/severe endometriosis (p=0.2), and in 66.6% and 33.4% of the Control Group. No statistically significant difference was found among any groups and the Control. the results suggest that VDR gene polymorphism Fok1 does not confer genetic susceptibility to endometriosis-associated infertility in the Brazilian population.

  5. Relationship between perilipin genes polymorphisms and growth, carcass and meat quality traits in pigs.

    PubMed

    Gol, S; Ros-Freixedes, R; Zambonelli, P; Tor, M; Pena, R N; Braglia, S; Zappaterra, M; Estany, J; Davoli, R

    2016-02-01

    The perilipins (PLIN) belong to a family of structural proteins that play a role regulating intracellular lipid storage and mobilization. Here, PLIN1 and PLIN2 have been evaluated as candidate genes for growth, carcass and meat quality traits in pigs. A sample of 607 Duroc pigs were genotyped for two single-nucleotide polymorphisms, one in intron 2 of the PLIN1 gene (JN860199:g.173G>A) and the other at the 3' untranslated region of the PLIN2 gene (GU461317:g.98G>A). Using a Bayesian approach, we have been able to find evidence of additive, dominant and epistatic associations of the PLIN1 and PLIN2 polymorphisms with early growth rate and carcass length. However, the major effects were produced by the dominant A allele at the PLIN2 polymorphism, which also affected the carcass lean weight. Thus, pigs carrying an additional copy of the A allele at the g.98G>A PLIN2 polymorphism had a probability of at least 98% of producing carcasses with heavier lean weight (+0.41 kg) and ham weight (+0.10 kg). The results obtained indicate that the PLIN2 polymorphism could be a useful marker for lean growth. In particular, it may help to reduce the undesired negative correlated response in lean weight to selection for increased intramuscular fat content, a common scenario in some Duroc lines involved in the production of high quality pork products. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Identification of polymorphisms in the RNase3 gene and the association with allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Inhong; An, Xue-hua; Oh, Yeon-Kyun; Lee, Sang Heon; Jung, Ha Min; Chae, Soo-Cheon; Lee, Jae Hoon

    2010-03-01

    Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), a potent cytotoxic molecule, is released by activated eosinophils. ECP has been suggested to be involved in tissue remodeling of allergic diseases. The ECP (RNase3) gene is a candidate gene in atopic diseases. RNase3 polymorphisms have been reported to have an association with atopy. We determined whether polymorphisms in the RNase3 gene are associated with allergic rhinitis in a Korean population. The Taqman assay, restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and high-resolution melt (HRM) were used for genotyping. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; g.-550A>G, g.371G>C, and g.499G>C) were identified. The genotype of the SNPs was analyzed in patients with allergic rhinitis and controls without allergic rhinitis. The genotype and allele frequencies were compared between both groups. The genotype frequencies of the g.-550A>G and g.371G>C SNPs were not significantly different between patients with allergic rhinitis and controls (P > 0.05). However, in patients with allergic rhinitis, the genotype and allele frequencies of the g.499G>C SNP of RNase 3 were significantly different from those of the control group (P < 001, P = 0.034, respectively). Haplotype analysis demonstrated the presence of the following five different (-550)-(+371)-(+499) major haplotypes: A-G-G, G-C-C, G-G-G, G-C-G, and A-G-C. The G-C-G haplotype was positively associated with allergic rhinitis (P = 0.048), while the G-G-G haplotype was negatively associated with allergic rhinitis (P = 0.004). Our study suggests that RNase3 polymorphisms are potentially associated with susceptibility to allergic rhinitis.

  7. Association between ABCB1 gene polymorphisms and fentanyl's adverse effects in Turkish patients undergoing spinal anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Kesimci, E; Engin, A B; Kanbak, O; Karahalil, B

    2012-02-10

    The ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCB1) gene product, P-glycoprotein plays an important role in the prevention of intracellular accumulation of potentially toxic substances and metabolites in various tissues. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene are claimed to be correlated with changes in the function of P-glycoprotein. There is evidence that fentanyl, may be a substrate for P-glycoprotein. The aim of the study was to assess whether an association exists between ABCB1 gene polymorphism and early respiratory and sedative adverse effects of intravenous fentanyl in Turkish patients who underwent spinal anesthesia In all 83 unrelated Turkish patients were enrolled in this study. In this study, spinal anesthesia was provided and a single dose of intravenous fentanyl (2.5μg.kg(-1)) at the beginning of surgery was used as a sedative agent. Bispectral index, respiration rate and peripheral oxygen saturation were measured continuously and recorded throughout the study. The allele and genotype frequencies were similar to previous data from Turkish population. Respiratory rate (RR) and SpO(2) parameters of the patients did not show any significant difference according to the genotype distribution for C1236T and C3435T SNPs. Fentanyl-induced decrease in respiration rate was most remarkable at 15min (23%) in CC genotype of C1236T, whereas in TT genotype of C3435T (18%) polymorphism. SpO(2) parameters in allele distribution were also not significant among the groups (p=0.374, p=0.985, respectively). For the C1236T polymorphism, patients carrying T allele showed a significant decrease in pH, and a significant increase in pCO(2) (p<0.001). ABCB1 polymorphisms did not seem to have a significant effect on sedation and respiratory depression caused by intravenous fentanyl in spinal anesthesia in Turkish patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Association of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms with mild cognitive impairment among elderly ethnic Uygurs].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaohui; Zhu, Meisheng; Ma, Li; Miao, Haijun

    2015-12-01

    To assess the association of vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) Apa I, Bsm I genotypes and allele frequencies and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among elderly ethnic Uygurs from Xinjiang, China. The polymorphisms of the VDR genotypes (Apa I and Bsm I) were analyzed by the SNaPshot method in 124 MCI patients and 124 controls. Factors which can increase the risk for MCI have included the A allele of the Apa I polymorphism [OR=1.62, 95%CI(1.13-2.31)] and the AA genotype [OR=3.49, 95% CI(1.57-7.74)], the T allele of the Bsm I polymorphism [OR=1.94, 95%CI(1.24-3.05)], higher triglyceride and systolic blood pressure levels. Polymorphisms of the VDR gene including the A allele and AA genotype of Apa I, and the T allele of Bsm I are probably associated with MCI among elderly ethnic Uygurs, and so are higher levels of triglyceride and systolic blood pressure.

  9. The relationship between vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism and deciduous tooth decay in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yuan-Yuan; Zheng, Jian-Mao; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Jiang, Qian-Zhou; Yang, Xue-Chao; Yu, Miao; Zeng, Su-Juan

    2017-07-11

    In the present study, we explored the link between vitamin D receptor (VDR) BsmI, TaqI, ApaI and FokI gene polymorphisms with deciduous tooth decay in Chinese children. Our study included 380 Chinese children aged 4-7 years, whose DNA sample was collected from the buccal mucosa. VDR gene polymorphisms was determined by PCR-RFLP. The adjusted logistic regression analysis demonstrated that BsmI containing the Bb genotype was linked with the increased risk of deciduous tooth decay (OR = 1.856, 95% CI = [1.184, 2.908], p = 0.007). However, VDR polymorphisms ApaI, TaqI and FokI were not associated with deciduous tooth decay (ApaI: OR = 0.839, 95% CI = [0.614, 1.145], p = 0.268; TaqI: OR = 1.150, 95% CI = [0.495, 2.672], p = 0.744; FokI: OR = 0.856, 95% CI = [0.616, 1.191], p = 0.356). Our results showed that VDR BsmI polymorphism was associated with the risk of deciduous tooth decay in Chinese children aged 4-7 years. However, the specific mechanism remains to further verify through experiment.

  10. Polymorphisms in genes involved in enamel development are associated with dental fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Küchler, Erika Calvano; Tannure, Patricia Nivoloni; Oliveira, Daniela Silva Barroso de; Charone, Senda; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra da; Costa, Marcelo de Castro; Antunes, Leonardo Santos; Calasans Maia, Mônica Diuana; Antunes, Lívia Azeredo Alves

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the association between polymorphisms in DLX1, DLX2, MMP13, TIMP1 and TIMP2 genes with dental fluorosis (DF) phenotype. Four hundred and eighty one subjects (108 with DF and 373 DF free) from 6 to 18 years of age were recruited. This population lived in Rio de Janeiro, a city with fluoridation of public water supplies. DF was assessed using the Deańs index modified. Only erupted permanent teeth were assessed. Genetic polymorphisms in DLX1, DLX2, MMP13, TIMP1 and TIMP2 were analyzed by real-time PCR from genomic DNA. Association between DF, genotype, and allele distribution were evaluated using chi-square and logistic regression analyses with an alpha level of 5%. DF was more prevalent in Afro-descendants than in Caucasians (p=0.08; OR=1.83; CI 95%=1.18-2.82). Logistic regression analysis adjusted by the ethnicity demonstrated a statistical difference for TIMP1 genotype (p=0.033; OR=2.93, 95%CI, 1.09-7.90). When only the severer cases of DF were analyzed, polymorphisms in DLX1 and DLX2 were associated with DF (p<0.05). Our results provided evidence that polymorphisms in TIMP1, DLX1 and DLX2 genes may be associated with DF phenotypes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. PPARα gene variants as predicted performance-enhancing polymorphisms in professional Italian soccer players

    PubMed Central

    Proia, Patrizia; Bianco, Antonino; Schiera, Gabriella; Saladino, Patrizia; Contrò, Valentina; Caramazza, Giovanni; Traina, Marcello; Grimaldi, Keith A; Palma, Antonio; Paoli, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background The PPARα gene encodes the peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor alpha, a central regulator of expression of other genes involved in fatty acid metabolism. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of G allele of the PPARα intron 7 G/C polymorphism (rs4253778) in professional Italian soccer players. Methods Sixty professional soccer players and 30 sedentary volunteers were enrolled in the study. Samples of venous blood were obtained at rest, in the morning, by conventional clinical procedures; blood serum was collected and total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured. An aliquot of anticoagulant-treated blood was used to prepare genomic DNA from whole blood. The G/C polymorphic site in PPARα intron 7 was scanned by using the PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism) protocol with TaqI enzyme. Results We found variations in genotype distribution of PPARα polymorphism between professional soccer players and sedentary volunteers. Particularly, G alleles and the GG genotype were significantly more frequent in soccer players compared with healthy controls (64% versus 48%). No significant correlations were found between lipid profile and genotype background. Conclusion Previous results demonstrated an association of intron 7 G allele as well as the GG genotype in endurance athletes. Our result suggests that this is the case also in professional soccer players. PMID:25525399

  12. Polymorphism of Glucokinase Gene in Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Deog-Yoon; Choi, Jung-Hee; Woo, Jeong-Taek; Paeng, Jeong-Ryung; Yang, In-Myung; Kim, Sung-Woon; Kim, Jin-Woo; Kim, Young-Seol; Kim, Kwang-Won; Choi, Young-Kil

    1994-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest a strong genetic component to NIDDM. To clarify the role of glucokinase gene in the development of NIDDM, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of glucokinase gene and 3′ microsatellite polymorphism analyses by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) were performed in NIDDM and control subjects. Compared to NIDDM with 1.3 kb allele/Pvu I digestion of glucokinase, 10% of NIDDM did not demonstrate 1.3 kb allele and these patients were charcterized by increased insulin secretion. In 3′ microsatellite polymorphism analysis, autoradiography of PCR products revealed three different alleles, including Z, Z+2 and Z+4. Z was the most common allele in both NIDDM and nondiabetic controls. There was no significant allele associated with NIDDM. Frequency of the homozygote Z/Z genotype was significantly lower in NIDDM subjects (16.7%) compared to normal control (46.7%) (p<0.05). There was no difference in clinical findings according to 3′ microsatellite genotypes in NIDDM. These data suggest that there does not appear to be a significant glucokinase allele associated with NIDDM but Z/Z genotype may play a suppressive role in the pathogenesis of a certain type of NIDDM in Korea. Further studies may be required to identify the molecular basis of this association. PMID:7913622

  13. Research on the relativity between gene polymorphism and children cardiac insufficiency.

    PubMed

    He, X-H; Li, C-L; Ling, N; Wang, Q-W; Wang, Z-Z; An, X-J

    2017-08-01

    We analyzed the relationship between Mink-S27 gene polymorphism and children with cardiac insufficiency. From April 2013 to April 2015, we enrolled 73 cases of children with cardiac insufficiency for this study, and all 73 were placed in the observation group. 76 normal cases were selected for the control group. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was used to make polymorphism analysis of the Mink-S27. Our results showed no significant differences in Mink-S27 genotype and allele distribution in both observation and control groups (p>0.05). In lesion samples collected from children with cardiac insufficiency, we detected significant difference in AA, CC genotype frequency and allele frequency between the observation group and the control group (p< 0.05) (X2 = 15.43, p<0.05; X2  = 16.27, p<0.05). Further studies on samples obtained from both groups revealed certain differences of AA, CC, AC genotype frequency and allele frequency in the observation group. The proportion of homozygote (AA, CC) in children with severe cardiac insufficiency was relatively high. GNAS2 gene polymorphism was associated with the prevalence of cardiac insufficiency in children. And also the patients' condition was correlated to the frequency of different genotypes and alleles.

  14. Gene polymorphisms, tobacco exposure and oral cancer susceptibility: a study from Gujarat, West India.

    PubMed

    Singh, R D; Haridas, N; Shah, F D; Patel, J B; Shukla, S N; Patel, P S

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphic variability in the enzymes involved in biotransformation of tobacco-related pro-carcinogens plays an important role in modulating oral cancer susceptibility. CYP1A1*2A, CYP1A1*2C, GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms were determined in 122 oral carcinoma cases and 127 controls from Gujarat, West India using PCR-based methods. The results revealed that the polymorphic variants of CYP1A1 gene did not show association towards oral cancer risk. The GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes were found to be over-represented in patients than controls, suggesting a moderate increase in risk of oral cancer. The oral cancer risk was significantly increased in the patients having either alone or concurrent deletion of GSTM1 and GSTT1. The results also suggested significant association between tobacco habits, especially chewing, variant genotypes of CYP1A1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 and oral cancer risk. Our data have provided evidence that GST polymorphism modified the susceptibility to oral cancer and individuals with variant genotypes of the three genes with tobacco habits are at significant risk of developing oral cancer. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Alcohol and aggressive behavior in men--moderating effects of oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Johansson, A; Bergman, H; Corander, J; Waldman, I D; Karrani, N; Salo, B; Jern, P; Algars, M; Sandnabba, K; Santtila, P; Westberg, L

    2012-03-01

    We explored if the disposition to react with aggression while alcohol intoxicated was moderated by polymorphic variants of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR). Twelve OXTR polymorphisms were genotyped in 116 Finnish men [aged 18-30, M = 22.7, standard deviation (SD) = 2.4] who were randomly assigned to an alcohol condition in which they received an alcohol dose of 0.7 g pure ethanol/kg body weight or a placebo condition. Aggressive behavior was measured using a laboratory paradigm in which it was operationalized as the level of aversive noise administered to a fictive opponent. No main effects of the polymorphisms on aggressive behavior were found after controlling for multiple testing. The interactive effects between alcohol and two of the OXTR polymorphisms (rs4564970 and rs1488467) on aggressive behavior were nominally significant and remained significant for the rs4564970 when controlled for multiple tests. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental study suggesting interactive effects of specific genetic variants and alcohol on aggressive behavior in humans. © 2011 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  16. [Association of polymorphisms of NAPE-PLD and FAAH genes with schizophrenia in Chinese Han population].

    PubMed

    Si, Peiru; Liu, Shulian; Tong, Dongxiao; Cheng, Meijin; Wang, Liwen; Cheng, Xiaoli

    2018-04-10

    To assess the association of polymorphisms of N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-phospholipase D (DAPE-PLD) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) genes, as well as their interaction, with schizophrenia. Polymorphisms of NAPE-PLD rs12540583 and FAAH rs324420, rs2295633, and rs6429600 were determined with PCR - restriction fragment length polymorphism assay and Sanger sequencing. The genotypes of 345 subjects of Han Chinese origin diagnosed with schizophrenia and a 403 controls were compared. The results were analyzed with SPSS 17.0, and the interaction of the two genes was analyzed using a multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method. The frequency of NAPE-PLD rs12540583 polymorphism was significantly different between the two groups under both dominant and additive models (χ2=17.18 vs. χ2=18.94, P<0.0125). The frequencies of AC genotype and C allele of the patient group at rs12540583 were higher than those of the controls, and the interaction of NAPE-PLD and FAAH was associated with schizophrenia. A four-loci model (rs12540583, rs324420, rs2295633 and rs6429600) can best model the interaction between NAPE-PLD and FAAH. The AC genotype and C allele of NAPE-PLD rs12540583 locus are risk factors for schizophrenia, and the interaction between NAPE-PLD rs12540583 and FAAH rs324420, rs2295633 and rs6429600 is associated with schizophrenia.

  17. Association between DAOA gene polymorphisms and the risk of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jinjing; Lin, Yu; Su, Li; Yan, Yan; Chen, Qing; Jiang, Haiyun; Wei, Qiugui; Gu, Lian

    2014-06-03

    Schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD) and depressive disorder (DD) are common psychiatric disorders, which show common genetic vulnerability. Previous gene-disease association studies have reported correlations between d-amino acid oxidase activator (DAOA) gene polymorphisms and the three psychiatric disorders. However, the findings were contradictory. A meta-analysis was therefore conducted to provide more robust investigations into DAOA polymorphisms and the risk of SCZ, BD and DD. This meta-analysis recruited 46 published studies up to July 2013, including 17,515 cases and 25,189 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the association between three specific DAOA SNPs and SCZ, BD and DD. Publication bias was tested by Begg's test and funnel plot, and heterogeneity was assessed by the Cochran's chi-square-based Q statistic and the inconsistency index (I(2)). Moreover, the robustness of the findings was estimated by cumulative meta-analysis. DAOA genetic polymorphisms (M15, M18 and M23) were not found to confer a statistically significant increased risk of SCZ, BD or DD in the overall sample, or in Caucasians and Asians following subgroup analysis. The current study indicated that M15, M18 and M23 might not be the risk factor for SCZ, BD or DD. However, further studies are required to provide robust evidence to estimate the association between DAOA polymorphisms and psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cry1 and Tef gene polymorphisms are associated with major depressive disorder in the Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Hua, Ping; Liu, Weiguo; Chen, Donghui; Zhao, Yanyan; Chen, Ling; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Chun; Guo, Suwan; Wang, Li; Xiao, Hong; Kuo, Sheng-Han

    2014-03-01

    Accumulating evidences indicate that circadian abnormalities lead to sleep disorder, neurodegenerative diseases and depression. We have reported that the polymorphisms of a clock-related gene, Tef, contributed to the risk of sleep disturbances and depression in the Parkinson disease. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the three clock genes we previously studied are associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) in the Chinese population. 105 Subjects with MDD and 485 control subjects participated in this case-control study. Demographics, Mini-mental Status Examination (MMSE), and the Hamilton rating scale for depression (HAMD) were obtained in all subjects. Genotypes of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Cry1 rs2287161, Cry2 rs10838524 and Tef rs738499 were screened by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). MDD cases had a significantly higher frequency carrying the C allele and CC genotype in Cry1 rs2287161 and the T allele and TT genotype in Tef rs738499 than controls. The sample size of MDD group was relatively small. The polymorphisms of Cry1 rs2287161 and Tef rs738499 are associated to MDD. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Association of CTLA-4 +49 A/G and CT60 Gene Polymorphism with Graves' Disease.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Nehad A; Saeed, Aml M; Mahedy, Ahmed W

    2017-06-01

    Graves' disease (GD) is an organ specific autoimmune disease of thyroid gland with genetic and environmental causes. One of genetic factors that have been implicated in the development of this disease is CTLA-4 gene polymorphism. This study aimed to investigate the association of CTLA-4 polymorphisms at position +49A/G, and CT60 with susceptibility to Graves' disease in Saudi patients. 40 adult Saudi patients with GD and 30 healthy controls were genotyped for the +49 A/G and CT60 of the CTLA4 gene using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP). There was a significant difference between GG genotype and AA genotype in GD patient in comparison to control group (P = 0.007), GG genotype was the most prevalent and the AA genotype was less frequent in the GD patients. The G allele at position +49 was more frequent in patients with GD than in the control group. Statistically significant differences between A and G alleles of GD patient and control groups were found (p= 0.003; OR =2.85 and 95% CI =1.4-5.7). The G allele in CT60 was higher in GD patients than those in controls (OR=2.8, 95% CI =1.4-5.7 and P = 0.004). In conclusion, CTLA-4 polymorphism at position 49 and CT60 may be potentially associated with the risk of GD among Saudi patients. Copyright© by the Egyptian Association of Immunologists.

  20. Genetic variability in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) affects clinical expression of Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Gromadzka, Grażyna; Rudnicka, Magdalena; Chabik, Grzegorz; Przybyłkowski, Adam; Członkowska, Anna

    2011-10-01

    Wilson's disease (WND) is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper (Cu) transport, resulting from pathogenic mutations in the ATP7B gene. The reason for the high variability in phenotypic expressions of WND is unknown. Hepatotoxic and neurotoxic effects of homocysteine (Hcy), as well as interrelationships between Hcy and Cu toxicity, were documented. We genotyped the two 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (one of the key folate/Hcy pathway enzymes) gene (MTHFR) polymorphisms: C677T and A1298C in 245 WND patients. Next, we tested the modulation of WND phenotypes by genotypes of MTHFR. MTHFR C677T genotype distribution deviated from that expected from a population in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (C677T, χ(2) = 12.14, p = 0.0005). Patients with the MTHFR 1298C allele were younger at symptoms' onset than those without this allele (median (IQR) age, 24.9 (14.0) years vs. 28.5 (12.0) years, p = 0.006). Carriers of MTHFR "high activity" diplotype (double wild-type homozygotes 677CC/1298AA) manifested WND at older age, than non-carriers (median (IQR) age, 33.5 (9.0) years vs. 25.0 (13.0) years, p = 0.0009). Patients with the MTHFR 677T allele less frequently exhibited the neurological WND phenotype (31 (29.5%) vs. 36 (48.0%)), and more frequently presented with hepatic WND (44 (41.9%) vs. 22 (29.3%)), compared with subjects MTHFR 677T(-). We postulate that MTHFR polymorphism contributes to the phenotypic variability of WND. Copyright © 2011 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Prognostic impact of gene polymorphisms in patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Kitoh, Ryosuke; Nishio, Shin-Ya; Usami, Shin-Ichi

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether genetic polymorphisms (single-nucleotide polymorphism [SNPs]) have a prognostic influence on hearing recovery after standardized corticosteroid therapy. A total of 192 gene samples from idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) patients registered in the Intractable Inner Ear Disease Gene Bank were enrolled and, as the candidate genes, 16 SNPs from 13 genes were selected for this study. Fischer's exact test was used to compare allele frequencies in each SNP between the patients with good hearing recovery and patients with poor hearing recovery. The SNPs of the GSR gene (rs2251780 and rs3779647) and NOS3 gene (rs1799983) were associated with treatment outcome (p < .05). Furthermore, there was a marginal correlation between the SNP of the NR3C1 gene (rs4912910) and treatment outcome (p = .05). The results of this study indicate that the analysis of genetic factors might make it possible to predict the treatment outcome, at least in part, in patients with idiopathic SSNHL.

  2. Identification of Polymorphisms in the Enhancer Region of the Bovine Prolactin Gene and Association with Fertility in Beef Cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objectives were to investigate the polymorphic nature of the enhancer region of the bovine prolactin (PRL) gene and determine the association of these polymorphisms with fertility in beef cows. Primers were designed to amplify a 500 base pair fragment 892 to 1392 bases upstream of the bovine PRL gen...

  3. Association between interleukin-6/6R gene polymorphisms and coronary artery disease in Russian population: influence of interleukin-6/6R gene polymorphisms on inflammatory markers.

    PubMed

    Mitrokhin, Vadim; Nikitin, Alexey; Brovkina, Olga; Khodyrev, Dmitry; Zotov, Alexander; Vachrushev, Nikita; Dragunov, Dmitry; Shim, Andrey; Mladenov, Mitko; Kamkin, Andre

    2017-01-01

    This study determined the genotype effects of interleukin (IL)-6/IL-6R single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on circulating levels of different cytokines in healthy and coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with different allele frequencies. In the control patients, rs1800795 showed significant differences in IL-18 concentrations between CC and CG and CC and GG genotypes ( P =0.003 and 0.004, respectively). Furthermore, circulatory IL-1β was significantly different between GC and GG genotypes from the same SNP ( P =0.038). In the diseased patients, significance was determined only for IL-2 ( P =0.021) between the C and G homozygote allele carriers of rs1800795. The diseased GC and GG genotype carriers were statistically different for IL-2 ( P =0.049) from the rs1800796 and for IL-4 ( P =0.049) from the rs2228044. IL-4 was also statistically significant between the GC and CC genotypes from the rs2228043 of the IL-6R gene ( P =0.025). The last combination of genotypes in the same gene for the same SNP was statistically significant for IL-10 ( P =0.036). According to the logistic regression, only gender (odds ratio [OR] =2.43) and triglycerides (OR =1.98) could be taken as determinants of CAD, while examined SNPs genotypes were not identified as risk factors for CAD. In general, the IL-6 polymorphism genotypes were mainly associated with inflammatory cytokines, while the IL-6R polymorphism genotypes were associated with anti-inflammatory cytokines.

  4. Association between interleukin-6/6R gene polymorphisms and coronary artery disease in Russian population: influence of interleukin-6/6R gene polymorphisms on inflammatory markers

    PubMed Central

    Mitrokhin, Vadim; Nikitin, Alexey; Brovkina, Olga; Khodyrev, Dmitry; Zotov, Alexander; Vachrushev, Nikita; Dragunov, Dmitry; Shim, Andrey; Mladenov, Mitko; Kamkin, Andre

    2017-01-01

    This study determined the genotype effects of interleukin (IL)-6/IL-6R single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on circulating levels of different cytokines in healthy and coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with different allele frequencies. In the control patients, rs1800795 showed significant differences in IL-18 concentrations between CC and CG and CC and GG genotypes (P=0.003 and 0.004, respectively). Furthermore, circulatory IL-1β was significantly different between GC and GG genotypes from the same SNP (P=0.038). In the diseased patients, significance was determined only for IL-2 (P=0.021) between the C and G homozygote allele carriers of rs1800795. The diseased GC and GG genotype carriers were statistically different for IL-2 (P=0.049) from the rs1800796 and for IL-4 (P=0.049) from the rs2228044. IL-4 was also statistically significant between the GC and CC genotypes from the rs2228043 of the IL-6R gene (P=0.025). The last combination of genotypes in the same gene for the same SNP was statistically significant for IL-10 (P=0.036). According to the logistic regression, only gender (odds ratio [OR] =2.43) and triglycerides (OR =1.98) could be taken as determinants of CAD, while examined SNPs genotypes were not identified as risk factors for CAD. In general, the IL-6 polymorphism genotypes were mainly associated with inflammatory cytokines, while the IL-6R polymorphism genotypes were associated with anti-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:29042807

  5. A Systematic Review of Meta-Analyses on Gene Polymorphisms and Gastric Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Gianfagna, Francesco; De Feo, Emma; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Ricciardi, Gualtiero; Boccia, Stefania

    2008-01-01

    Background Individual variations in gastric cancer risk have been associated in the last decade with specific variant alleles of different genes that are present in a significant proportion of the population. Polymorphisms may modify the effects of environmental exposures, and these gene-environment interactions could partly explain the high variation of gastric cancer incidence around the world. The aim of this report is to carry out a systematic review of the published meta-analyses of studies investigating the association between gene polymorphisms and gastric cancer risk, and describe their impact at population level. Priorities on the design of further primary studies are then provided. Methods A structured bibliographic search on Medline and EMBASE databases has been performed to identify meta-analyses on genetic susceptibility to gastric cancer, without restriction criteria. We report the main results of the meta-analyses and we describe the subgroup analyses performed, focusing on the detection of statistical heterogeneity. We investigated publication bias by pooling the primary studies included in the meta-analyses, and we computed the population attributable risk (PAR) for each polymorphism. Results Twelve meta-analyses and one pooled-analysis of community based genetic association studies were included, focusing on nine genes involved in inflammation (IL-1β, IL-1RN, IL-8), detoxification of carcinogens (GSTs, CYP2E1), folate metabolism (MTHFR), intercellular adhesion (E-cadherin) and cell cycle regulation (p53). According to their random-Odds Ratios, individuals carrying one of the IL-1RN *2, IL-1β -511T variant alleles or homozygotes for MTHFR 677T are significantly at higher risk of gastric cancer than those with the wild type homozygote genotypes, showing high PARs. The main sources of heterogeneity in the meta-analyses were ethnicity, quality of the primary study, and selected environmental co-exposures. Effect modification by Helicobacter pylori

  6. Association of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to childhood asthma: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dong-Dong; Yu, Dan-Dan; Ren, Qiong-Qiong; Dong, Bao; Zhao, Feng; Sun, Ye-Huan

    2017-04-01

    As for the association of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to pediatric asthma, results of published studies yielded conflicts. A systematic review was conducted on the relationship between childhood asthma and VDR gene polymorphisms, including ApaI (rs7975232), BsmI (rs1544410), FokI (rs2228570), and TaqI (rs731236). PubMed, Web of Science, CBM (Chinese Biomedical Database), CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), and Wanfang (Chinese) database were searched for relevant studies. Pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Overall results suggested that there was a statistically significant association between ApaI polymorphism and childhood asthma in homozygote model (OR = 1.674, 95%CI = 1.269-2.208, P < 0.001) and allele model (OR = 1.221, 95%CI = 1.084-1.375, P = 0.001). Stratification by ethnicity revealed a statistical association in Asians (OR = 1.389, 95%CI = 1.178-1.638, P < 0.001). There was some evidence of an association between BsmI polymorphism and childhood asthma in the homozygote (OR = 1.462, 95%CI = 1.016-2.105, P = 0.041) and allele models (OR = 1.181, 95%CI = 1.006-1.386, P = 0.042). This association reached significance only in the Caucasian group (OR = 1.236, 95%CI = 1.029-1.485, P = 0.023). For FokI, a statistical association was detected in dominant model (OR = 1.281, 95%CI = 1.055-1.555, P = 0.012); this association was significant in allele model (OR = 1.591, 95%CI = 1.052-2.405, P = 0.028) in Caucasian. ApaI polymorphism plays a particular role in childhood asthma in Asians. FokI polymorphism may be connected with pediatric asthma in Caucasian population. And BsmI polymorphism marginally contributes to childhood asthma susceptibility, while there might be no association between TaqI polymorphism and childhood asthma risk. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:423-429. © 2016 Wiley

  7. KRAS and VEGF gene 3'-UTR single nucleotide polymorphisms predicted susceptibility in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Minnan; Xiao, Xiuli; Xing, Xiaorui; Li, Xin; Xia, Tian; Long, Hanan

    2017-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in tumor-related genes have been reported to play important roles in cancer development. Recent studies have shown that 3'-untranslated regions (UTR) polymorphisms are associated with the occurrence and prognosis of cancers. The aim of this study is to analyze the association between KRAS and VEGF gene 3'-UTR SNPs and genetic susceptibility to colorectal cancer (CRC). In this case-control study of 371 CRC cases and 246 healthy controls, we analyzed the association between one SNP (rs1137188G > A) in the KRAS gene and four SNPs (rs3025039C > T, rs3025040C > T, rs3025053G > A and rs10434A > G) in the VEGF gene and CRC susceptibility by the improved multiplex ligase detection reaction (iMLDR) method. We checked the selected SNPs' minor allele frequency and its distribution in the frequency of Chinese people by Hap-map database and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and used multivariate logistic regression models to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). We found that the rs3025039C variant genotype in the VEGF gene was associated with a significant protection for CRC (AOR = 0.693, 95% CI = 0.485-0.989; P = 0.043 for CC and CT+TT). Nevertheless, the difference was no longer significant after Bonferroni correction (Bonferroni-adjusted P = 0.172). In genetic polymorphisms analysis, we found that the KRAS rs1137188 variant AA genotype had higher portion of tumor size (≥ 5 cm) (P = 0.01; Bonferroni-adjusted P = 0.04), which suggested that the rs1137188 variant AA genotype may significantly be associated with increased progression of CRC. In conclusion, our study suggested that these five SNPs in the KRAS gene and the VEGF gene were not associated with CRC susceptibility in Han Chinese in Sichuan province.

  8. RETRACTED: Association of the ACE I/D gene polymorphism with sepsis susceptibility and sepsis progression.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun-Hua; Zhou, Tian-Biao

    2015-12-01

    This article has been included in a multiple retraction: Chun-Hua Yang and Tian-Biao Zhou Association of the ACE I/D gene polymorphism with sepsis susceptibility and sepsis progression Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 1470320314568521, first published on February 3, 2015 doi: 10.1177/1470320314568521 This article has been retracted at the request of the Editors and the Publisher. After conducting a thorough investigation, SAGE found that the submitting authors of a number of papers published in the Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin Aldosterone System ( JRAAS) (listed below) had supplied fabricated contact details for their nominated reviewers. The Editors accepted these papers based on the reports supplied by the individuals using these fake reviewer email accounts. After concluding that the peer review process was therefore seriously compromised, SAGE and the journal Editors have decided to retract all affected articles. Online First articles (these articles will not be published in an issue) Wenzhuang Tang, Tian-Biao Zhou, and Zongpei Jiang Association of the angiotensinogen M235T gene polymorphism with risk of diabetes mellitus developing into diabetic nephropathy Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 1470320314563426, first published on December 18, 2014 doi: 10.1177/1470320314563426 Tian-Biao Zhou, Hong-Yan Li, Zong-Pei Jiang, Jia-Fan Zhou, Miao-Fang Huang, and Zhi-Yang Zhou Role of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors in radiation nephropathy Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 1470320314563424, first published on December 18, 2014 doi: 10.1177/1470320314563424 Weiqiang Zhong, Zongpei Jiang, and Tian-Biao Zhou Association between the ACE I/D gene polymorphism and T2DN susceptibility: The risk of T2DM developing into T2DN in the Asian population Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 1470320314566019, first published on January 26, 2015 doi: 10.1177/1470320314566019 Tian-Biao Zhou, Xue-Feng Guo, Zongpei

  9. No Association between Oxytocin Receptor (OXTR) Gene Polymorphisms and Experimentally Elicited Social Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Apicella, Coren L.; Cesarini, David; Johannesson, Magnus; Dawes, Christopher T.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Wallace, Björn; Beauchamp, Jonathan; Westberg, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Background Oxytocin (OXT) has been implicated in a suite of complex social behaviors including observed choices in economic laboratory experiments. However, actual studies of associations between oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene variants and experimentally elicited social preferences are rare. Methodology/Principal Findings We test hypotheses of associations between social preferences, as measured by behavior in two economic games, and 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the OXTR gene in a sample of Swedish twins (n = 684). Two standard economic games, the dictator game and the trust game, both involving real monetary consequences, were used to elicit such preferences. After correction for multiple hypothesis testing, we found no significant associations between any of the 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and behavior in either of the games. Conclusion We were unable to replicate the most significant association reported in previous research between the amount donated in a dictator game and an OXTR genetic variant. PMID:20585395

  10. Vitamin D Receptor TaqI Gene Polymorphism and Dental Caries in Czech Children.

    PubMed

    Izakovicova Holla, Lydie; Borilova Linhartova, Petra; Kastovsky, Jakub; Bartosova, Michaela; Musilova, Kristina; Kukla, Lubomir; Kukletova, Martina

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed the VDR TaqI (rs731236) gene polymorphism in children with and those without dental caries. A total of 388 subjects, 153 caries-free (with decayed/missing/filled teeth [DMFT] = 0) and 235 children with dental caries (DMFT ≥1), were genotyped by the TaqMan method. Although no significant differences in VDR TaqI allele and genotype frequencies between caries-free and caries-affected children were detected, a significant association between this polymorphism and gingivitis was found (p < 0.05). In contrast to previous studies from China and Turkey, the VDR TaqI gene variant cannot be used as a marker for identification of Czech children with increased dental caries risk. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. The evaluation of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene I/D and IL-4 gene intron 3 VNTR polymorphisms in coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Basol, Nursah; Celik, Atac; Karakus, Nevin; Ozturk, Sibel Demir; Ozsoy, Sibel Demir; Yigit, Serbulent

    2014-01-01

    Genetic polymorphism is a strong risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). In the present study, our aim was to evaluate angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene I/D polymorphism and interleukin-4 (IL-4) gene Intron 3 variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in CAD. One hundred and twenty-four CAD patients and one hundred and twenty-three controls were enrolled. Genomic DNA was isolated and genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. The risk associated with inheriting the combined genotypes for the two polymorphisms were evaluated and it was found that the individuals who were P2P2-homozygous at IL-4 gene intron 3 VNTR and DD-homozygous at ACE gene I/D have a higher risk of developing CAD. Although, there is no correlation between IL4 VNTR polymorphism and ACE gene polymorphism and CAD, there is a strong association between CAD and co-existence of IL-4 VNTR and ACE gene polymorphisms in the Turkish population. Copyright © 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  12. 1236 C/T and 3435 C/T polymorphisms of the ABCB1 gene in Mexican breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Rubio, S A; Quintero-Ramos, A; Durán-Cárdenas, A; Franco-Topete, R A; Castro-Cervantes, J M; Oceguera-Villanueva, A; Jiménez-Pérez, L M; Balderas-Peña, L M A; Morgan-Villela, G; Del-Toro-Arreola, A; Daneri-Navarro, A

    2015-02-13

    MDR1, which is encoded by the ABCB1 gene, is involved in multidrug resistance (hydrophobic), as well as the elimination of xenotoxic agents. The association between ABCB1 gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk in different populations has been described previously; however, the results have been inconclusive. In this study, we examined the association between polymorphisms 3435 C/T and 1236 C/T in the ABCB1 gene and breast cancer development in Mexican women according to their menopausal status and molecular classification. Molecular subtypes as well as allele and genotype frequencies were analyzed. A total of 248 women with initial breast cancer diagnosis and 180 ethnically matched, healthy, unrelated individuals were enrolled. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was performed to detect polymorphisms 3435 C/T and 1236 C/T in the ABCB1 gene. Premenopausal T allele carriers of the 3435 C/T polymorphism showed a 2-fold increased risk of breast cancer with respect to the reference and postmenopausal groups, as well as triple-negative expression regarding the luminal A/B molecular subrogated subtypes. In contrast, the CT genotype of the 1236 polymorphism was a protective factor against breast cancer. We conclude that the T allele carrier of the 3435 C/T polymorphism in the ABCB1 gene in combination with an estrogen receptor-negative status may be an important risk factor for breast cancer development in premenopausal women.

  13. Analysis of interleukin-10 gene polymorphisms and hepatitis C susceptibility in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad Sohail; Tahir, Sadia; Salman, Amna; Baig, Tahir Ahmed; Shafi, Talha; Zaidi, Najm Us Sahar Sadaf; Qadri, Ishtiaq

    2011-07-04

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) commonly causes a chronic infection but few of patients are able to clear the virus naturally. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that can suppress the immune response against HCV. Interindividual variations in IL-10 production are genetically contributed by polymorphisms within the IL-10 promoter region. This study aimed to investigate the association of the IL-10 gene promoter -1082 G/A, -819 C/T, and -592 C/A polymorphisms with HCV infection susceptibility in Pakistani individuals. Eighty-nine chronically infected patients and 99 controls were enrolled in the study. IL-10 (-1,082 G/A, -819 C/T, -592 C/A) genotyping was performed by amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR). A suggestive evidence of association with hepatitis C was obtained for the IL-10 -819 C/T (-592 C/A) (p: 0.03) promoter polymorphism at the allele level  but not in genotype distribution. The IL-10 -1082 allele showed no association while positive association of GG (p: 0.001) gene and negative association for GA (0.001) gene were observed.  Higher frequencies were observed for GTA (p: 0.02), ACC (p: 0.01) haplotype and GCC/GTA (p: 0.005) diplotype in HCV patients than controls while diplotype GCC/ATA showed protective effect against HCV. Our findings suggest that different IL-10 gene polymorphisms may lead to an imbalance between the pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine responses which may in turn influence the susceptibility to HCV infection.

  14. Association of a mineralocorticoid receptor gene polymorphism with hypertension in a Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Fernando; Mansego, Maria L; Escudero, Juan C; Redon, Josep; Chaves, Felipe J

    2009-06-01

    To assess the association of polymorphisms and haplotypes of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) (NR3C2) gene to the risk of essential hypertension (HTN) in a Spanish population. This is a population-based study which included 1,502 subjects (748 women) >18 years old. Twenty-four polymorphisms of NR3C2 gene were analyzed by using SNPlex (Genotyping System based on OLA/PCR technology). Alleles of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs5522 were significantly associated with the risk of HTN, both in the recessive and codominant models adjusted by age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). Genotype GG of the rs5522 showed to be protective against HTN odds ratio (OR) 0.10 (0.02-0.56), P < 0.01. One haplotype, which included the G allele of the rs5522, was also associated with reduced risk of HTN and four haplotypes which included the A allele were associated with increased risk of HTN. When the 24-h urinary sodium excretion and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were added, they did not reduce the significance level. Interaction between genotypes of the rs5522 and quartiles of 24-h sodium excretion has been observed. In subjects with the AA genotype, those with higher urinary sodium excretion had the lowest risk to be hypertensive. A functional polymorphism of the NR3C2 gene was associated with risk of HTN. The data provided in this study seems to give credit to the hypothesis of the participation of MR gene in the development of HTN, although further studies are necessary to better assess its real impact.

  15. Distribution and Polymorphism of the Flagellin Genes from Isolates of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    polymorphic patterns of the four L106 strains (Fig. 5, presence of PCR products of identical size was detected for lane 3) were identical and matched... Campylobacter . J. Mol. Biol., in press. PCR products generated with both the flaA andflaB primer 7. Anderson, P., and J. Roth. 1981. Spontaneous...Guerry. 1992. Specific detection of Campy- 44. Tilsty, D. T., A. M. Albertini, and J. H. Miller. 1984. Gene lobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

  16. [Research advances in sclera-remodeling relevant gene polymorphisms related to myopia].

    PubMed

    Meng, B; Li, S M; Zhan, S Y; Wang, N L

    2016-11-11

    Myopia is a public health problem in the world and its prevalence and incidence are rising in recent years. Studies have shown that myopia is a kind of complex genetic diseases. And sclera-remodeling plays an important role in the development of myopia. The recent research advances in association with both sclera-remodeling relevant gene polymorphisms and myopia are reviewed in this article. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 876-880) .

  17. Polymorphisms of iodothyronine deiodinases (DIO1, DIO3) genes are not associated with recurrent depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Gałecka, Elżbieta; Talarowska, Monika; Maes, Michael; Su, Kuan-Pin; Górski, Paweł; Szemraj, Janusz

    2016-10-01

    Depressive disorder is characterized by disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis and in the metabolism of thyroid hormones (TH). The evidence for changes in TH levels is observed in human sera and cerebrospinal fluid as well as in animal model studies. Iodothyronine deiodinases (DIOs) type 1, 2 and 3 (DIO1, DIO2, DIO3) are important enzymes for the synthesis and determination of TH concentration. This study aims to examine the link between recurrent depressive disorders (rDD) and two functionally known polymorphisms DIO1a-C/T (rs11206244) and DIO1b-A/G (rs12095080) within the DIO1 gene encoding DIO1 and two polymorphisms DIO3-C/T (rs17716499), DIO3-A/C (rs7150269) within the DIO3 gene encoding DIO3. Both variants were genotyped in 254 rDD patients and 197 healthy subjects using polymerase chain reaction. Basic methods and statistical analyses were used to estimate genetic variants in the risk of the disease. No significant associations were found between the polymorphisms examined here and rDD. There were no significant associations between genotypes distribution and demographic/medical variables. Odds ratios (ORdis) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated, for example: for CC genotype of DIO1a C/T (ORdis=0.86, 95% CI: 0.59, 1.25). Functional variants within the DIO1 gene, which affect TH levels and polymorphisms in DIO3, are not confirmed to be associated with rDD. Nevertheless, considering previous data which indicate that the DIO1 gene is related to the depression, further studies on a larger sample size are recommended. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  18. [Effects of visfatin gene polymorphisms on glycolipid metabolism and exercise-induced weight reduction in obesity].

    PubMed

    Lai, Ai-Ping; Chen, Wen-He

    2012-02-25

    Visfatin, also named nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT), is a cytokine secreted from adipose tissue. Visfatin can regulate immune action and is involved in the NAD+ salvage pathway. In addition, recent researches have shown that visfatin helps the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, especially in exercise-induced weight reduction for obesity. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the contribution of visfatin gene polymorphisms to glucose and lipid metabolism and exercise-induced weight reduction in obesity.

  19. Conserved roles of Osiris genes in insect development, polymorphism and protection.

    PubMed

    Smith, C R; Morandin, C; Noureddine, M; Pant, S

    2018-04-01

    Much of the variation among insects is derived from the different ways that chitin has been moulded to form rigid structures, both internal and external. In this study, we identify a highly conserved expression pattern in an insect-only gene family, the Osiris genes, that is essential for development, but also plays a significant role in phenotypic plasticity and in immunity/toxicity responses. The majority of Osiris genes exist in a highly syntenic cluster, and the cluster itself appears to have arisen very early in the evolution of insects. We used developmental gene expression in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, the bumble bee, Bombus terrestris, the harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex barbatus, and the wood ant, Formica exsecta, to compare patterns of Osiris gene expression both during development and between alternate caste phenotypes in the polymorphic social insects. Developmental gene expression of Osiris genes is highly conserved across species and correlated with gene location and evolutionary history. The social insect castes are highly divergent in pupal Osiris gene expression. Sets of co-expressed genes that include Osiris genes are enriched in gene ontology terms related to chitin/cuticle and peptidase activity. Osiris genes are essential for cuticle formation in both embryos and pupae, and genes co-expressed with Osiris genes affect wing development. Additionally, Osiris genes and those co-expressed seem to play a conserved role in insect toxicology defences and digestion. Given their role in development, plasticity, and protection, we propose that the Osiris genes play a central role in insect adaptive evolution. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  20. The MC1R gene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata): Genotypic and phenotypic polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The guppy (Poecilia reticulata) is an important model organism for studying sexual selection; male guppies have complex and conspicuous pigmentation, and female guppies exhibit preferences for males with specific color spots. Understanding the genetic basis underlying pigmentation variation in the guppy is important for exploring the factors causing the maintenance of color polymorphism in wild populations. Findings We focused on the melanic black pigmentation of guppies, and examined genetic variations in the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene because variation in this gene is known to contribute to polymorphism of melanin pigmentation in several animal species. The complete coding sequence of the guppy MC1R gene was determined, and two different MC1R alleles (963 and 969 bp) were found in wild populations. Ornamental strain guppies with a 963-bp MC1R tended to show less black pigmentation than those with a 969-bp MC1R, although the association between MC1R genotype and black pigmentation disappeared in the F2 offspring. Conclusions The guppy MC1R gene showed variation in the five wild Trinidadian populations we examined, and these populations also differed in terms of allele frequencies. We identified a significant association between black pigmentation and MC1R genotype in fish obtained from aquarium shops. However, the results from F2 families suggest that there are other genes that modify the effects of the MC1R gene. PMID:21294861

  1. Association of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms with breast cancer risk in an Egyptian population.

    PubMed

    El-Shorbagy, Haidan M; Mahmoud, Nada H; Sabet, Salwa

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to explore whether genetic polymorphisms in vitamin D receptor are correlated to the breast cancer prevalence in an Egyptian population. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment polymorphism was used to genotype three frequently analyzed vitamin D receptor gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs1544410, rs7975232, and rs731236) and were identified by sequencing analysis. This is the first study that recorded a new single-nucleotide polymorphism in ApaI genotype within an Egyptian population and was registered with the accession number KY859868. The authors found that TC in rs731236, and TG in KY859868 single-nucleotide polymorphism showed significant distribution differences with an increased risk of breast cancer ( p < 0.05, odds ratio = 3.71, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-13.28 and p < 0.001, odds ratio = 7.05, 95% confidence interval: 2.02-24, respectively) compared with the wild-type TT genotype carriers in both single-nucleotide polymorphisms. In addition, the distribution frequencies of haplotypes ACT, GTT, and ATT in the patients group were significant, where ATT haplotype was associated with the highest breast cancer risk among all other haplotypes in the patients group ( p = 0.0023, odds ratio = 1.72, 95% confidence interval: 1.24-2.437). In conclusion, vitamin D receptors ApaI and TaqI confer high breast cancer susceptibility, particularly in Egyptians females carrying haplotype ATT. However, further studies focusing on the vitamin D receptor variants and haplotypes effects on vitamin D and vitamin D receptor concentrations, activities, and functionalities are needed.

  2. Frequencies of VNTR and RFLP polymorphisms associated with factor VIII gene in Singapore

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, I.; Lai, P.S.; Ouah, T.C.

    1994-09-01

    The allelic frequency of any polymorphism within a population determines its usefulness for genetic counselling. This is important in populations of non-Caucasian origin as RFLPs may significantly differ among ethnic groups. We report a study of five intragenic polymorphisms in factor VIII gene carried out in Singapore. The three PCR-based RFLP markers studied were Intron 18/Bcl I, Intron 19/Hind III and Intron 22/Xba I. In an analysis of 148 unrelated normal X chromosomes, the allele frequencies were found to be A1 = 0.18, A2 = 0.82 (Bcl I RFLP), A1 = 0.80, A2 = 0.20 (Hind III RFLP) and A1more » = 0.58, and A2 = 0.42 (Xba I RFLP). The heterozygosity rates of 74 females analyzed separately were 31%, 32% and 84.2%, respectively. Linkage disequilibrium was also observed to some degree between Bcl I and Hind III polymorphism in our population. We have also analyzed a sequence polymorphism in Intron 7 using hybridization with radioactive-labelled {sup 32}P allele-specific oligonucleotide probes. This polymorphism was not very polymorphic in our population with only 2% of 117 individuals analyzed being informative. However, the use of a hypervariable dinucleotide repeat sequence (VNTR) in Intron 13 showed that 25 of our of 27 (93%) females were heterozygous. Allele frequencies ranged from 1 to 55 %. We conclude that a viable strategy for molecular analysis of Hemophilia A families in our population should include the use of Intron 18/Bcl I and Intron 22/Xba I RFLP markers and the Intron 13 VNTR marker.« less

  3. Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphism and Smoking in the Risk of Chronic Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Chantarangsu, Soranun; Sura, Thanyachai; Mongkornkarn, Sanutm; Donsakul, Kobkiat; Torrungruang, Kitti

    2016-11-01

    Polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene have been implicated in susceptibility to infections and bone-related diseases. However, their relationship with periodontal disease remains unclear. This cross-sectional study investigates whether susceptibility to chronic periodontitis (CP) in a Thai population is associated with VDR polymorphisms. Genomic DNA was obtained from 1,460 participants, aged 39 to 66 years. Genotyping of VDR polymorphisms (FokI, BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI) was performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Participants were categorized into three groups: 1) no/mild; 2) moderate; and 3) severe CP. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine degree of association between VDR polymorphisms and periodontal status adjusted for known confounders. The CC+CT genotypes of FokI polymorphism were associated with severe CP with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3 to 2.8). Compared with genotype-negative (TT) non-smokers, positivity for the risk genotypes (CC+CT) alone and current smoking alone were associated with severe CP with ORs of 1.8 (95% CI: 1.1 to 3.2) and 2.5 (95% CI: 1.0 to 6.2), respectively. The combination of being genotype positive and smoking further increased the OR to 9.6 (95% CI: 4.5 to 20.4). This combined effect was 3.7 times (95% CI: 1.2 to 11.1) greater than expected from the sum of their individual effects, indicating a synergistic interaction. No significant association was observed between other polymorphisms and CP. FokI CC+CT genotypes were associated with increased susceptibility to severe CP, which was aggravated further when combined with smoking.

  4. [The contribution of genes polymorphism of thrombophilia in clinical variability of hemorrhagic vasculitis].

    PubMed

    Zhdanova, L V; Patrushev, L I; Dolgikh, V V; Bimbaev, A B-Zh; Khoĭkova, O Ch

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to the study of clinical and laboratory characteristics of the current of hemorrhagic vasculitis in children in the Republic of Buryatia. The study included 27 patients aged 7.6 +/- 4.02 years, who conducted clinical and laboratory tests, immunological study of antiphospholipids of antibodies, genetic testing for thrombophilia markers of candidate genes. The results showed that hemorrhagic vasculitis often affects children of Buryat nationality. In 96% of cases there are mixed clinical forms of the disease. 63% of children of hemorrhagic vasculitis preceded by various factors, a higher percentage of infectious diseases. The first clinical symptom in 63% of patients is a typical purpura hemorrhagic rash. Results of clinical laboratory blood tests revealed no significant deviations. Circulation of lupus anticoagulant was detected in 37% of subjects. The alphaCL IgM detected in 3 children, alphabeta2-GP-I IgA--in 4, alphabeta2-GP-I IgM--in 1 patient. Carriers of thrombophilia polymorphisms were in 95% of children. Noted that homozygous variants of genes polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolatered reductase and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 correlate with the presence of urinary symptoms and recurrence of the rash. The study shows the risk of recurrent flow of hemorrhagic vasculitis and nefritis of Henoch-Schonlein in children with thrombophilia gene polymorphism.

  5. Association of Htra1 gene polymorphisms with the risk of developing AMD in Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Askari, Mohammad; Nikpoor, Amin Reza; Gorjipour, Fazel; Mazidi, Mohsen; Sanati, Mohammad Hosein; Aryan, Hajar; Irani, Alireza; Ghasemi Falavarjani, Khalil; Nazari, Hossein; Mousavizadeh, Kazem

    2015-10-01

    Half of the cases of vision loss in people under 60 years of age have been attributed to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This is a multifactorial disease with late onset. It has been demonstrated that many different genetic loci are implicated in the risk of developing AMD in different populations. In the current study, we investigated the association of high-temperature ‎requirement A-1 (HTRA1) gene polymorphisms with the risk of developing AMD in the Iranian population. Genomic DNA samples were extracted from 120 patients with AMD and 120 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. A 385 base-pair fragment of the HTRA1 gene promoter region was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique and sequenced. The frequencies of the alleles were calculated and statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Our study demonstrated that the rate of polymorphisms rs11200638 -625 G>A and rs2672598 -487T>C were significantly greater in AMD patients than in healthy controls from the Iranian population. The results of our study indicate that HTRA1 gene promoter region polymorphisms are associated with the risk of developing AMD in the Iranian population.

  6. Polymorphism of the CD14 and TLR4 genes and post-treatment apical periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Rôças, Isabela N; Siqueira, José F; Del Aguila, Camila A; Provenzano, José C; Guilherme, Bianca P S; Gonçalves, Lucio S

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the association of CD14 -260C>T and TLR4 +896A>G gene polymorphisms with post-treatment apical periodontitis in Brazilian individuals. The study population consisted of 41 patients with post-treatment apical periodontitis and 42 individuals with root canal-treated teeth exhibiting healed/healing periradicular tissues (controls). All teeth had apical periodontitis lesions at the time of treatment, which was completed at least 1 year previously. Saliva was collected from the participants; DNA was extracted and used for CD14 and TLR4 genotyping using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism approach and a real-time polymerase chain reaction TaqMan assay (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA), respectively. No specific genotype or allele of the CD14 and TLR4 genes or any combination thereof was positively associated with post-treatment apical periodontitis (P > .05). Data from the present study suggest that polymorphisms in the CD14 and TLR4 genes do not influence the response to endodontic treatment of teeth with apical periodontitis. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A frequent polymorphism in the coding exon of the human cannabinoid receptor (CNR1) gene.

    PubMed

    Gadzicki, D; Müller-Vahl, K; Stuhrmann, M

    1999-08-01

    The central cannabinoid receptor (CB1) mediates the pharmacological activities of cannabis, the endogenous agonist anandamide and several synthetic agonists. The cloning of the human cannabinoid receptor (CNR1) gene facilitates molecular genetic studies in disorders like Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), Parkinsons disease, Alzheimers disease or other neuro psychiatric or neurological diseases, which may be predisposed or influenced by mutations or variants in the CNR1 gene. We detected a frequent silent mutation (1359G-->A) in codon 453 (Thr) of the CNR1 gene that turned out to be a common polymorphism in the German population. Allele frequencies of this polymorphism are 0.76 and 0.24, respectively. We developed a simple and rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay by artificial creation of a Msp I restriction site in amplified wild-type DNA (G-allele), which is destroyed by the silent mutation (A-allele). The intragenic CNR1 polymorphism 1359(G/A) should be useful for association studies in neuro psychiatric disorders which may be related to anandamide metabolism disturbances. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  8. Serotonin transporter gene polymorphism and psychiatric disorders: Is there a link?

    PubMed Central

    Margoob, Mushtaq A.; Mushtaq, Dhuha

    2011-01-01

    Though still in infancy, the field of psychiatric genetics holds great potential to contribute to the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic options to treat these disorders. Among a large number of existing neurotransmitter systems, the serotonin system dysfunction has been implicated in many psychiatric disorders and therapeutic efficacy of many drugs is also thought to be based on modulation of serotonin. Serotonin transporter gene polymorphism is one of the most extensively studied polymorphisms in psychiatric behavioral genetics. In this article, we review the status of evidence for association between the serotonin gene polymorphism and some common mental disorders like affective disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, suicide, autism, and other anxiety and personality disorders. Going beyond traditional association studies, gene-environment interaction, currently gaining momentum, is also discussed in the review. While the existing information of psychiatric genetics is inadequate for putting into practice genetic testing in the diagnostic work-up of the psychiatric patient, if consistent in future research attempts, such results can be of great help to improve the clinical care of a vast majority of patients suffering from such disorders. PMID:22303036

  9. Population-based case-control study of DRD2 gene polymorphisms and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, L V K S; Thangaraj, K; Non, A L; Singh, Lalji; Rao, V R

    2010-10-01

    Several independent lines of evidence for genetic contributions to vulnerability to alcoholism exist. Dopamine is thought to play a major role in the mechanism of reward and reinforcement in response to alcohol. D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) gene has been among the stronger candidate genes implicated in alcoholism. In this study, alcohol use was assessed in 196 randomly selected Kota individuals of Nilgiri Hills, South India. Six DRD2 SNPs were assessed in 81 individuals with alcoholism and 151 controls to evaluate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and alcoholism. Of the three models (dominant, recessive, and additive) tested for association between alcoholism and DRD2 SNPs, only the additive model shows association for three loci (rs1116313, TaqID, and rs2734835). Of six studied polymorphisms, five are in strong linkage disequilibrium forming onesingle haplotype block. Though the global haplotype analysis with these five SNPs was not significant, haplotype analysis using all six SNPs yielded a global P value of .033, even after adjusting for age. These findings support the importance of dopamine receptor gene polymorphisms in alcoholism. Further studies to replicate these findings in different populations are needed to confirm these results.

  10. Analysis of cytokine gene polymorphisms in Mestizo and native populations from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Carrera, Francisco; Castro-Martínez, Xochitl Helga; Leal, Caridad; Portilla-de Buen, Eliseo; Sánchez-Corona, José; Flores-Martínez, Silvia Esperanza; García-Zapién, Alejandra; Ramírez-López, Guadalupe; Gómez-Espinel, Irene; Báez-Duarte, Blanca Guadalupe; Zamora-Ginez, Irma; Velarde-Félix, Jesús Salvador; Guillermo Sánchez-Zazueta, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether the well-known genetic structure of the Mexican population observed with other multiallelic markers can be detected by analyzing functional polymorphisms of cytokine and other inflammatory-response-related genes. A total of 834 Mestizo individuals from five Mexican cities and 92 Lacandonians - an Amerindian group from southeastern Mexico - were genotyped for 14 polymorphisms in the CRP, IL10, IL6, TGFB1, TNFA, LTA, ICAM1 IFNG, and IL1RN genes. Allele and haplotype frequencies were used for genetic structure analysis using F-statistics pairwise distances and multidimensional scaling plot. Ancestry analysis was performed, as well. Significant interpopulational differences at the allele and haplotype frequency level were observed, mainly between Northern (Guadalajara, Monterrey, and Culiacan) and Southern (Tierra Blanca and Puebla) Mexican populations. Also, low but significant substructure was detected between some populations from these two broad regions. Interestingly, both Lacandonian populations were highly differentiated from each other and with respect to Mestizos. Consistent with previous data, Amerindian ancestry in the Southern Mexican groups was higher compared to Northern ones. The Mexican population exhibits regional differences in functional polymorphisms of inflammatory-response genes, as observed for other genetic markers. This information constitutes a reference for epidemiological studies that include these genetic markers to assess the susceptibility of the Mexican population to several immune-response-related diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, and renal disease, which have been shown to be common in the Mexican population but with prevalence differences within this country. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Polymorphism and methylation of the MC4R gene in obese and non-obese dogs.

    PubMed

    Mankowska, Monika; Nowacka-Woszuk, Joanna; Graczyk, Aneta; Ciazynska, Paulina; Stachowiak, Monika; Switonski, Marek

    2017-08-01

    The dog is considered to be a useful biomedical model for human diseases and disorders, including obesity. One of the numerous genes associated with human polygenic obesity is MC4R, encoding the melanocortin 4 receptor. The aim of our study was to analyze polymorphisms and methylation of the canine MC4R in relation to adiposity. Altogether 270 dogs representing four breeds predisposed to obesity: Labrador Retriever (n = 187), Golden Retriever (n = 38), Beagle (n = 28) and Cocker Spaniel (n = 17), were studied. The dogs were classified into three groups: lean, overweight and obese, according to the 5-point Body Condition Score (BCS) scale. In the cohort of Labradors a complete phenotypic data (age, sex, neutering status, body weight and BCS) were collected for 127 dogs. The entire coding sequence as well as 5' and 3'-flanking regions of the studied gene were sequenced and six polymorphic sites were reported. Genotype frequencies differed considerably between breeds and Labrador Retrievers appeared to be the less polymorphic. Moreover, distribution of some polymorphic variants differed significantly (P < 0.05) between small cohorts with diverse BCS in Golden Retrievers (c.777T>C, c.868C>T and c.*33C>G) and Beagles (c.-435T>C and c.637G>T). On the contrary, in Labradors no association between the studied polymorphisms and BCS or body weight was observed. Methylation analysis, using bisulfite DNA conversion followed by Sanger sequencing, was carried out for 12 dogs with BCS = 3 and 12 dogs with BCS = 5. Two intragenic CpG islands, containing 19 cytosines, were analyzed and the methylation profile did not differ significantly between lean and obese animals. We conclude that an association of the MC4R gene polymorphism with dog obesity or body weight is unlikely, in spite of the fact that some associations were found in small cohorts of Beagles and Golden Retrievers. Also methylation level of this gene is not related with dog adiposity.

  12. Molecular analysis of the GSTT1 gene polymorphism in patients with clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Martins, J V M; Rodrigues, D A; Silva, K S F; Costa, I R; Lagares, M H; Campedelli, F L; Barbosa, A M; Morais, M P; Moura, K K V O

    2017-07-06

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease formed by the accumulation of lipids in the innermost layer and large-caliber artery (tunica intima). This accumulation, along with platelet factors, stimulates the proliferation of muscle cells in this region. Over than 400 genes may be related to the pathology since they regulate endothelial function, coagulation, inflammation, metabolism of amino acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Glutathione S-transferases (GST) are enzymes that catalyze the polymorphic detoxification of metabolites produced by oxidative stress within the cells, which is induced by reactive oxygen species. GSTs are one of the defense mechanisms against oxidative stress damage. Due to genetic, cultural, and environmental factors, the rate of atherosclerosis is higher; however, an early diagnosis is crucial for the prevention and treatment of several complications related to the disease. The present study aimed to analyze the frequency of GSTT1 genotypes regarding the presence or absence of the polymorphism in patients with clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis. We collected 200 samples of peripheral blood of patients with the previous diagnosis of atherosclerosis based on clinical examination and imaging, and 100 samples of peripheral blood to compose the control group of patients without clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis. The polymorphism was assessed by PCR and analyzed on the agarose gel stained with 2.0% ethidium bromide. The frequency of the GSTT1 gene polymorphism was compared using the chi-square test (P < 0.05) and the G-test. In the case group, we detected 85.5% of patients with the GSTT1 genotype present and 14.5% of patients with the null genotype. A significant difference was observed between groups (case vs control) for the presence of the GSTT1 polymorphism. According to the analysis of the variable alcohol consumption, we found that in the case group the presence of the GSTT1 gene was higher in individuals who reported

  13. Genetic Polymorphisms in DNA Repair Genes as Modulators of Hodgkin Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    El-Zein, Randa; Monroy, Claudia M.; Etzel, Carol J.; Cortes, Andrea C.; Xing, Yun; Collier, Amanda L.; Strom, Sara S.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although the pathogenesis of Hodgkin disease (HD) remains unknown, the results of epidemiologic studies suggest that heritable factors are important in terms of susceptibility. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may contribute to individual susceptibility for development of different cancers. However, to the authors’ knowledge, few studies to date have investigated the role of such polymorphisms as risk factors for development of HD. METHODS The authors evaluated the relation between polymorphisms in 3 nucleotide excision repair pathway genes (XPD [Lys751Gln], XPC [Lys939Gln], and XPG [Asp1104His]), the base excision repair XRCC1 (Arg399Gln), and double-strand break repair XRCC3 (Thr241Met) in a population of 200 HD cases and 220 matched controls. Variants were investigated independently and in combination; odd ratios (OR) were calculated. RESULTS A positive association was found for XRCC1 gene polymorphism Arg399Gln (OR, 1.77; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.16−2.71) and risk of HD. The combined analysis demonstrated that XRCC1/XRCC3 and XRCC1/XPC polymorphisms were associated with a significant increase in HD risk. XRCC1 Arg/Arg and XRCC3 Thr/Met genotypes combined were associated with an OR of 2.38 (95% CI, 1.24−4.55). The XRCC1 Arg/Gln and XRCC3 Thr/Thr, Thr/Met, and Met/Met genotypes had ORs of 1.88 (95% CI, 1.02−4.10), 1.97 (95% CI, 1.05−3.73), and 4.13 (95% CI, 1.50−11.33), respectively. XRCC1 Gln/Gln and XRCC3 Thr/Thr variant led to a significant increase in risk, with ORs of 3.00 (95% CI, 1.15−7.80). Similarly, XRCC1 Arg/Gln together with XPC Lys/Lys was found to significantly increase the risk of HD (OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.09−4.23). CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may modify the risk of HD, especially when interactions between the pathways are considered. PMID:19280628

  14. [Association study of 5-HT2A receptor gene polymorphism in anorexia nervosa in Polish population].

    PubMed

    Rybakowski, Filip; Słopień, Agnieszka; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Czerski, Piotr; Hauser, Joanna; Rajewski, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a disorder of complex etiopathogenesis including the genetic factors. The previous studies on the role of -1438 A/G promoter polymorphism in 5-HT2A receptor gene brought conflicting results, and it is possible that the analysed polymorphism increases the risk of AN only in some ethnic groups. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of -1438 A/G polymorphism in Polish patients with AN and ethnically matched healthy controls. The genotyping of 5-HT2A receptor polymorphism was performed in 67 AN patients and 114 healthy controls. The frequencies of alleles and genotypes were compared with Chi2 test. The deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were not observed in any group. The frequencies of A/A, A/G and G/G genotypes in AN group were respectively: 37.3%, 50.7% and 11.9%; and in the control group: 40.4%; 47.4% and 12.3% (chi2 = 0.2; df = 2; p = 0.91). The prevalence of A and G alleles in the AN group was respectively 62.7% and 37.3%; and in the control group 64.0% and 36.0%; and did not show any statistically significant difference (chi2 = 0.67; df = 1; p = 0.79). These results suggest that -1438 A/G polymorphism in the promotor region of the 5-HT2A receptor gene does not increase the risk of AN in the Polish population.

  15. Genetic association of AKAP10 gene polymorphism with reduced risk of preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Langmia, I M; Apalasamy, Y D; Suki, S Z; Omar, S Z; Mohamed, Z

    2015-09-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a multifactorial complication in which genetic and environmental factors contribute to the phenotype. The AKAP10 protein encoded by AKAP10 gene has a vital role in the maintenance of myometrial quiescence and pregnancy. This study aimed to investigate whether polymorphisms in the AKAP10 gene are associated with the risk of PTB. A total of 664 women (132 preterm and 532 term) with spontaneous singleton deliveries were genotyped for AKAP10 polymorphisms (rs119672, rs203462 and rs169412) using Sequenom MassARRAY platform. A significant association was observed between the CC and AC genotypes of AKAP10 rs169412 with reduced risk of PTB (CC: adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.95, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23-7.09, P=0.016. AC: adjusted OR 3.46, 95% CI: 1.38-8.68, P=0.008), respectively. Following stratification by ethnicity, a significant association was observed between the AC and CC genotypes of rs169412 and term birth in the Malay ethnic subgroup. (CC: OR 2.9, 95% CI: 1.01-8.59, P=0.041. AC: OR 3.14, 95% CI: 1.04-9.54, P=0.043). A significant association was also observed between the CT genotypes of AKAP10 rs119672 with reduced risk of PTB deliveries (CT: OR 3.2, 95% CI: 1.06-9.76 P=0.007, TT: OR 2.8, 0.98-8.34, P =.0.015) Alternatively, there was no association between AKAP10 rs169412 and rs119672 polymorphisms with PTB in the Indians and Chinese ethnic groups. This study indicates a significant association between the AKAP10 polymorphisms and reduced risk of PTB in the Malays. This demonstrates the potential role of AKAP10 polymorphisms in preterm complications.

  16. Association of schizophrenia in African Americans to polymorphism in synapsin III gene.

    PubMed

    Lachman, Herbert M; Stopkova, Pavla; Rafael, Maryam Aghalar; Saito, Takuya

    2005-06-01

    Linkage studies in families with schizophrenia have pointed to chromosome 22q12-q13 as one of several regions of the genome that may contain a susceptibility gene. The gene coding for synapsin III, an intrinsic synaptic vesicle membrane protein, maps to this target region. Two tightly linked single-nucleotide polymorphisms were recently found in a small subset of patients with SZ - a synonymous variant, L469L (469G>A), and a non-synonymous variant, S470N (470G>A) - which results in the loss of a mitogen-activated protein kinase serine phosphorylation site. We also found a slight increase in 470A in Caucasian patients from the US with schizophrenia. But, the sample size and allele frequency were too small to draw definitive conclusions. However, both single-nucleotide polymorphisms were much more polymorphic in African American controls than in Caucasian controls, thereby providing a better sample cohort to analyze for schizophrenia involvement. For the codon 469 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, a 50-fold increase was observed in the frequency of 469A in African Americans compared with Caucasians. Furthermore, there was an increase in the percentage of African American patients with schizophrenia who were homozygous for the 469A allele compared with controls who were homozygous (11 versus 5%; AA vs. all other genotypes - Fisher statistic=3.08, P=0.04, one-tailed). An increase in 470A heterozygotes was also found, but the results fell short of being statistically significant. The findings support a role for synapsin III in a subset of African American patients with schizophrenia and raises questions about selective pressure in Africa to account for the extraordinary disparity of the 469 and 470 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in different ethnic populations.

  17. Polymorphisms in prothrombotic genes in young stroke patients in Greece: a case-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ranellou, Kyriaki; Paraskeva, Anteia; Kyriazopoulos, Panagiotis; Batistatou, Anna; Evangelou, Aggelos; El-Aly, Mahmoud; Zis, Panagiotis; Tavernarakis, Antonios; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos

    2015-06-01

    Mechanisms of ischemic stroke in young adults are poorly understood. The aim of the study was to investigate and compare the frequency of common variations in prothrombotic genes between young patients with ischemic stroke and controls. Fifty-one cases of first-ever ischemic stroke and 70 community-based controls aged below 50 years were studied. In both groups, the insertion/deletion 4G/5G variation (-675 4G/5G PAI-1) as well as the single-nucleotide polymorphism-844 G/A of the PAI-1 (-844 G/A PAI-1) gene promoter, factor V Leiden (FVL) G1691Α, the prothrombin variant (allele 20210A, FIIG20210A), factor XIII-A Val34Leu polymorphism (FXIII-AVal34Leu) and C677T methylenotetrahydrofolate reductase (C677T MTHFR) polymorphism have been assessed. The -675 4G/5G PAI-1 allele distribution differed significantly between patients and controls (P = 0.020), but no difference was found regarding the distribution of -844 G/A PAI-1 (P = 0.493), FVL (P = 0.199), FIIG20210A (P = 0.410), FXIII-AVal34leu (P = 0.160) and C677T MTHFR (P = 0.788). A lower frequency of 5G/5G genotype and a higher frequency of the 4G/5G genotype of the PAI -675 4G/5G polymorphism was found in young ischemic stroke patients compared to healthy controls. Further epidemiological studies are needed to investigate the differences between different geographic areas, and prospective cohort studies are needed to investigate the possible protective role of 5G/5G polymorphism.

  18. Association of maternal KIR gene content polymorphisms with reduction in perinatal transmission of HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Omosun, Yusuf O.; Blackstock, Anna J.; Williamson, John; van Eijk, Anne Maria; Ayisi, John; Otieno, Juliana; Lal, Renu B.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Slutsker, Laurence

    2018-01-01

    The role of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) in the transmission of HIV-1 has not been extensively studied. Here, we investigated the association of KIR gene content polymorphisms with perinatal HIV-1 transmission. The KIR gene family comprising 16 genes was genotyped in 313 HIV-1 positive Kenyan mothers paired with their infants. Gene content polymorphisms were presented as presence of individual KIR genes, haplotypes, genotypes and KIR gene concordance. The genetic data were analyzed for associations with perinatal transmission of HIV. There was no association of infant KIR genes with perinatal HIV-1 transmission. After adjustment for gravidity, viral load, and CD4 cell count, there was evidence of an association between reduction in perinatal HIV-1 transmission and the maternal individual KIR genes KIR2DL2 (adjusted OR = 0.50; 95% CI: 0.24–1.02, P = 0.06), KIR2DL5 (adjusted OR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.23–0.95, P = 0.04) and KIR2DS5 (adjusted OR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.18–0.80, P = 0.01). Furthermore, these maternal KIR genes were only significantly associated with reduction in perinatal HIV transmission in women with CD4 cell count ≥ 350 cells/ μl and viral load <10000 copies/ml. Concordance analysis showed that when both mother and child had KIR2DS2, there was less likelihood of perinatal HIV-1 transmission (adjusted OR = 0.44; 95% CI: 0.20–0.96, P = 0.039). In conclusion, the maternal KIR genes KIR2DL2, KIR2DL5, KIR2DS5, and KIR2DS2 were associated with reduction of HIV-1 transmission from mother to child. Furthermore, maternal immune status is an important factor in the association of KIR with perinatal HIV transmission. PMID:29360870

  19. Association of maternal KIR gene content polymorphisms with reduction in perinatal transmission of HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Omosun, Yusuf O; Blackstock, Anna J; Williamson, John; van Eijk, Anne Maria; Ayisi, John; Otieno, Juliana; Lal, Renu B; Ter Kuile, Feiko O; Slutsker, Laurence; Shi, Ya Ping

    2018-01-01

    The role of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) in the transmission of HIV-1 has not been extensively studied. Here, we investigated the association of KIR gene content polymorphisms with perinatal HIV-1 transmission. The KIR gene family comprising 16 genes was genotyped in 313 HIV-1 positive Kenyan mothers paired with their infants. Gene content polymorphisms were presented as presence of individual KIR genes, haplotypes, genotypes and KIR gene concordance. The genetic data were analyzed for associations with perinatal transmission of HIV. There was no association of infant KIR genes with perinatal HIV-1 transmission. After adjustment for gravidity, viral load, and CD4 cell count, there was evidence of an association between reduction in perinatal HIV-1 transmission and the maternal individual KIR genes KIR2DL2 (adjusted OR = 0.50; 95% CI: 0.24-1.02, P = 0.06), KIR2DL5 (adjusted OR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.23-0.95, P = 0.04) and KIR2DS5 (adjusted OR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.18-0.80, P = 0.01). Furthermore, these maternal KIR genes were only significantly associated with reduction in perinatal HIV transmission in women with CD4 cell count ≥ 350 cells/ μl and viral load <10000 copies/ml. Concordance analysis showed that when both mother and child had KIR2DS2, there was less likelihood of perinatal HIV-1 transmission (adjusted OR = 0.44; 95% CI: 0.20-0.96, P = 0.039). In conclusion, the maternal KIR genes KIR2DL2, KIR2DL5, KIR2DS5, and KIR2DS2 were associated with reduction of HIV-1 transmission from mother to child. Furthermore, maternal immune status is an important factor in the association of KIR with perinatal HIV transmission.

  20. Association of parental methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism in couples with unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Sah, Anil Kumar; Shrestha, Nisha; Joshi, Pratikshya; Lakha, Renu; Shrestha, Sweta; Sharma, Laxmi; Chandra, Avinash; Singh, Neetu; Kc, Yuvraj; Rijal, Bhola

    2018-04-05

    The aim of this study was to identify the association of parental MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism in couples with and without RPL history. During the study, 21.4% (15/70) of Ala222Val polymorphism was observed among RPL couples while no polymorphism was seen among normal, healthy couples. Our study did not find any association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and gender (p > 0.05), gestational period (p > 0.05), geographical region (p > 0.05) and menstrual history (p > 0.05). However, significant association was seen between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and number of losses (p < 0.05), concluding that the risk of the polymorphism increased with the increase in number of losses. Significant variation in the MTHFR C677T genotype with number of losses among RPL couples were seen but not with other study variables.

  1. M or M-like protein gene polymorphisms in human group G streptococci.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, N; Podbielski, A; Baumgarten, G; Mignon, M; Kaufhold, A

    1995-02-01

    Many group G streptococci (GGS) isolated from infected humans (but not from animal sources) express M or M-like proteins with biological, immunochemical, and genetic features similar to those of group A streptococci (GAS). To further elucidate the recently proposed M-like protein gene (emmL gene) polymorphisms in GGS, Southern blots of genomic DNAs from 38 epidemiologically unrelated GGS strains isolated from human specimens and 12 GGS strains recovered from animal sources were hybridized with oligonucleotide probes designed to specifically detect GAS M class I and M class II M protein (emm) genes. All human-associated GGS strains showed DNA homology to the GAS M class I emm gene probe, whereas no hybridization was found with DNA from any of the animal-associated strains. The emmL genes from all human isolates were amplified by PCR, and the complete sequence of the emmL gene of the Rebecca Lancefield grouping strain D166B was determined. Again, this gene exhibited the structural features typical for emm genes of M class I GAS. The 5' regions of the PCR-amplified emmL genes of the remaining 37 human GGS strains were sequenced. This region showed a sequence diversity similar to that known for GAS emm genes. When strains whose N-terminal emmL gene sequences showed a homology of > 95% were defined as belonging to one genetic type, 30 strains were segregated into six distinct genetic types, whereas the remaining 8 strains each exhibited a unique emmL gene sequence. A high degree of homology between the N-terminal emmL gene segments of six GGS strains and the corresponding regions of either the emm12 or the emm57 gene of GAS was found, suggesting a horizontal gene transfer between strains of these species of beta-hemolytic streptococci. Besides a further understanding of the evolution of GGS emmL genes, the observed emmL gene polymorphisms in GGS could provide the basis for a molecular subspecies delineation of strains and offers the potential of typing GGS for

  2. Multiple gene polymorphisms predisposing to the prothrombotic state in an adolescent with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Doğan, A; Icli, A; Varol, E; Erdogan, D

    2012-04-12

    Acute myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation (STEMI) is rare in adolescents and its pathogenesis is unclear. Growing evidence shows an association between the prothrombotic state and acute STEMI. Prothrombotic genetic factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of STEMI. We present a case of an adolescent with acute STEMI who had multiple prothrombotic gene polymorphisms: in the beta fibrinogen, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and cholesteryl ester transfer protein genes, as well as genotypes in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and human platelet antigen type-1. He had normal coronary arteries with catheterinduced spasm and was treated with a calcium antagonist and aspirin.

  3. Impact of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms on methotrexate-induced toxicities in acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Hu, Xin; Xu, Luhang

    2012-10-01

    The associations between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism and methotrexate (MTX)-induced toxicities in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have been evaluated in various populations, with the results remained conflicting. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis by combining available data to derive a more precise estimation of the association. PubMed, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure were searched until 21 September 2011 to identify eligible studies. A total of 14 studies were included, with all studies investigating MTHFR C677T polymorphism while nine of them investigating MTHFR A1298C polymorphism only. Results suggested that MTHFR C677T polymorphism was associated with significantly increased risk of MTX-induced toxicity, specifically liver toxicity (TT/CT vs. CC: odds ratio (OR) = 1.70, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.05-2.75), myelosuppression (TT vs. CT/CC: OR = 2.82, 95 %CI = 1.25-6.34), oral mucositis (TT/CT vs. CC: OR = 3.68, 95 %CI = 1.73-7.85), gastrointestinal toxicity (TT/CT vs. CC: OR = 2.36, 95 %CI = 1.36-4.11), and skin toxicity (T vs. C: OR = 2.26, 95 %CI = 1.07-4.74). MTHFR A1298C polymorphism was found to be associated with decreased risk of skin toxicity (CC/AC vs. AA: OR = 0.11, 95 %CI = 0.01-0.85). Genotyping of MTHFR polymorphism, C677T particularly, prior to treatment for ALL is likely to be useful with the aim of tailoring MTX therapy and thus reducing the MTX-related toxicities. However, further studies with larger data set and well-designed models are required to validate our findings.

  4. Association between polymorphisms in Wnt signaling pathway genes and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Korean women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Yun; Kim, Hoon; Ku, Seung Yup; Kim, Seok Hyun; Choi, Young Min; Kim, Jung Gu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in Wnt signal pathway genes and circulating osteoprotegerin (OPG), soluble receptor activator of the nuclear factor-κB ligand (sRANKL) levels, bone turnover markers, and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Korean women. Wnt9a c256G>A; low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) 5 c266A>G, c2245C>G, c3893C>T, and c4099G>A; secreted frizzled-related protein (sFRP) 4 c1019G>A; axin II c148C>T and c1615G>A; glycogen synthase kinase binding protein (GBP) c455C>A; β-catenin c94G>T and c101G>T; T-cell factor 1 c663G>T, c734C>T, and c766G>A; and adenomatous polyposis coli c5465T>A polymorphisms were analyzed in 392 postmenopausal Korean women. Serum levels of OPG, sRANKL, and bone turnover markers were measured, and BMDs at the lumbar spine and femoral neck were examined. Wnt9a c256G>A, LRP5 c2245C>G and c4099G>A, axin II c1615G>A, GBP c455C>A, β-catenin c94G>T and c101G>T, and T-cell factor 1 c663G>T and c734C>T single nucleotide polymorphisms were not observed. Among the genes showing polymorphisms, only the sFRP4 c1019G>A polymorphism was associated with BMD. The AA genotype in the sFRP4 c1019G>A polymorphism showed significantly lower lumbar spine BMD and a higher serum bone alkaline phosphatase level than did the GG genotype and showed a 6.39 times higher risk for osteoporosis at the lumbar spine compared with the GG genotype. No significant differences in bone turnover markers, OPG, and sRANKL were detected among the other single genotypes or the LRP haplotype genotype. Our results suggest that the sFRP4 c1019G>A polymorphism may be one of the genetic factors affecting lumbar spine BMD in postmenopausal Korean women.

  5. Passive smoking, Cyp1A1 gene polymorphism and dysmenorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong; Yang, Fan; Li, Zhiping; Chen, Changzhong; Fang, Zhian; Wang, Lihua; Hu, Yonghua; Chen, Dafang

    2007-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether the association between passive smoking exposure and dysmenorrhea is modified by two susceptibility genes, CYP1A1MspI and CYP1A1HincII. Methods This report includes 1645 (1124 no dysmenorrhea, 521 dysmenorrhea) nonsmoking and nondrinking newly wed female workers at Anqing, China between June 1997 and June 2000. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations of passive smoking exposure and genetic susceptibility with dysmenorrhea, adjusting for perceived stress. Results When stratified by women genotype, the adjusted OR of dysmenorrhea was 1.6 (95%CI=1.3-2.1) for passive smoking group with Ile/Ile462 genotype, and 1.5 (95%CI=1.1-2.1) with C/C6235 genotype, compared to non passive smoking group, respectively. The data further showed that there was a significant combined effect between passive smoking and the CYP1A1 Msp1 C/C6235 and HincII Ile/Ile462 genotype (OR=2.6, 95%CI=1.3-5.2). Conclusion CYP1A1 MspI and HincII genotypes modified the association between passive smoking and dysmenorrhea. PMID:17566695

  6. Polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor gene are associated with the development of psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Dadds, Mark R; Moul, Caroline; Cauchi, Avril; Dobson-Stone, Carol; Hawes, David J; Brennan, John; Urwin, Ruth; Ebstein, Richard E

    2014-02-01

    The co-occurrence of child conduct problems (CPs) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits confers risk for psychopathy. The oxytocin (OXT) system is a likely candidate for involvement in the development of psychopathy. We tested variations in the OXT receptor gene (OXTR) in CP children and adolescents with varying levels of CU traits. Two samples of Caucasian children, aged 4-16 years, who met DSM criteria for disruptive behavior problems and had no features of autism spectrum disorder, were stratified into low versus high CU traits. Measures were the frequencies of nine candidate OXTR polymorphisms (single nucleotide polymorphisms). In Sample 1, high CU traits were associated with single nucleotide polymorphism rs1042778 in the 3' untranslated region of OXTR and the CGCT haplotype of rs2268490, rs2254298, rs237889, and rs13316193. The association of rs1042778 was replicated in the second rural sample and held across gender and child versus adolescent age groups. We conclude that polymorphic variation of the OXTR characterizes children with high levels of CU traits and CPs. The results are consistent with a hypothesized role of OXT in the developmental antecedents of psychopathy, particularly the differential amygdala activation model of psychopathic traits, and add genetic evidence that high CU traits specify a distinct subgroup within CP children.

  7. Association of androgen receptor gene CAG and GGN repeat polymorphism with cryptorchidism: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Ge, Xing; Wang, Heng-Xue; Shi, Qiao-Mei; Ding, Zhen; Xu, Li-Chun

    2018-04-01

    Researches on association between variations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene repeat polymorphisms and cryptorchidism (CO) had conflicting results. The aim of this meta-analysis was to analyse the potential effects of AR CAG and/or GGN repeat polymorphism on CO. Studies were independently appraised by two investigators on PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO databases and Foreign Medical Retrieval System. Case-control studies with measurement of CAG and/or GGN repeat length were included. Weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the CAG or GGN repeat polymorphism and CO were calculated. Five reports were included in this analysis. Overall, no difference was identified between patients and fertile men in CAG repeat length. However, when the CO was divided into unilateral and bilateral, longer CAG repeat region was significantly associated with CO in bilateral group (WMD = 0.74; 95% CI, 0.01-1.47; p < .05). In addition, GGN lengths were significantly higher in patients compared with those in controls (WMD = 1.17; 95% CI, 0.28-2.06; p < .05). No obvious effect was found in the GGN length when compared unilateral or bilateral group with control respectively. The results in this meta-analysis indicated that AR CAG and GGN repeat polymorphisms may be an important pathogenesis of CO. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Innate immune system gene polymorphisms in maternal and child genotype and risk of preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nicole M; Holzman, Claudia; Tian, Yan; Witkin, Steven S; Genc, Mehmet; Friderici, Karen; Fisher, Rachel; Sezen, Devrim; Babula, Oksana; Jernigan, Katherine A; Chung, Hwan; Wirth, Julia

    2012-03-01

    There is little information about the combination of genetic variability in pregnant women and their children in relation to the risk of preterm delivery (PTD). In a sub-cohort of 487 non-Hispanic white and 288 African-American mother/child pairs, the Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health Study assessed 10 functional polymorphisms in 9 genes involved in innate immune function. Race-stratified weighted logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios for genotype and PTD/PTD subtypes. Polymorphisms significantly associated with PTD/PTD subtypes were tested for mother/child genotype interactions. Three maternal polymorphisms (IL-1 receptor antagonist intron two repeat (IL-1RN), matrix metalloproteinase- -C1562T, and TNF receptor two M196R (TNFR2)) and three child polymorphisms (IL1-RN, tumor necrosis factor-alpha -G308A, and TNFR2) were associated with PTD, but associations varied by PTD subtype and race. Two interactions were detected for maternal and child genotype. Among non-Hispanic white women, the odds of PTD was higher when both mother and child carried the IL-1RN allele two (additive interaction p < 0.05). Among African-American women, the odds of PTD were higher when both mother and child carried the TNFR2 R allele (multiplicative interaction p < 0.05). These results highlight the importance of assessing both maternal and child genotype in relation to PTD risk.

  9. Role of interleukin-12 gene polymorphisms in the onset risk of cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi; Wang, Meng; Tian, Tian; Liu, Kang; Liu, Xinghan; Zhai, Yajing; Lin, Shuai; Yang, Pengtao; Li, Shanli; Dai, Zhijun; Lu, Jun

    2017-05-02

    Many molecular epidemiologic studies have explored the possible links between interleukin-12 (IL-12) polymorphisms and various cancers. However, results from these studies remain inconsistent. This meta-analysis is aimed to shed light on the associations between three common loci (rs568408, rs2243115, rs3212227) of IL-12 gene and overall cancer risk. Our meta-analysis finally included 33 studies comprising 10,587 cancer cases and 12,040 cancer-free controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the cancer risk. We observed a significant association between IL-12B rs3212227 and overall cancer risk, especially in hepatocellular carcinoma, nasopharyngeal cancer, and among Asians. IL-12A polymorphisms (rs2243115 and rs568408) were found no influence on overall cancer risk. Nevertheless, stratification analyses demonstrated that rs568408 polymorphism contributed to increasing cancer risk of Caucasians and cervical cancer. And, rs2243115 may enhance the risk of brain tumor. These findings provided evidence that IL-12 polymorphisms may play a potential role in cancer risk.

  10. The association of innate immune response gene polymorphisms and puerperal group A streptococcal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Sarah M; Clark, Erin A S; Nelson, Lesa T; Silver, Robert M

    2010-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that influence the maternal innate immune response are associated with puerperal group A streptococcal sepsis. Subjects with confirmed puerperal group A streptococal infection were prospectively identified in 2 tertiary care hospitals over 18 years. Controls were racially matched subjects with term, uncomplicated deliveries. Thirty-eight polymorphisms associated with the innate immune response to bacterial infection were analyzed. Allele and genotype frequencies for subjects and controls were compared. Forty-eight women with puerperal group A streptococcal infection were identified. DNA was obtained for 28 subjects and 54 controls. Allele frequencies were significantly different between subjects and controls for polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9-1486 (P = .03) and heat shock protein (HSP) 70-2 1267 (P = .003). Genotype frequencies were significantly different between subjects and controls for TLR9-1486 (P = .025), HSP70-2 1267 (P = .02), and interleukin (IL)-1beta-511 (P = .016). Puerperal group A streptococcal sepsis may be associated with innate immune response gene polymorphisms in TLR9, HSP70-2, and IL1beta. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of PRKCH gene polymorphism on antihypertensive response to amlodipine and telmisartan.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zan-Ling; Zhu, Miao-Miao; Li, Hui-Lan; Shi, Li-Hong; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Luo, Jia; Zhao, Jin-Feng

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of PRKCH rs2230500 genetic polymorphism on efficacy of amlodipine and telmisartan for patients with hypertension. A total of 136 essential hypertension (EH) patients were treated with amlodipine (70 patients) or telmisartan (66 patients), respectively. Genetic polymorphism was genotyped by Sanger sequencing. Both baseline and post-treatment blood pressure (BP) and heart rate were measured to evaluate the influence of genetic polymorphism on the antihypertensive response. No significant difference in the absolute decrease in diastolic blood pressure (DBP),systolic blood pressure (SBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was observed among PRKCH rs2230500 genotypes after 4-week amlodipine or telmisartan therapy (p > 0.05). However, when compared with carriers or GG genotype, the antihypertensive effect of PRKCH rs2230500 GA/AA carriers was superior in telmisartan treatment group. PRKCH rs2230500 gene polymorphism is significantly related to the efficiency in telmisartan therapy (p = 0.02). The PRKCH rs2230500 may influence the antihypertensive efficacy of telmisartan in Chinese EH patients, and further studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  12. The influence of metabolic gene polymorphisms on urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration in Thai bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Petchpoung, Krittaya; Kaojarern, Sming; Yoovathaworn, Krongtong; Sura, Thanyachai; Sirivarasai, Jintana

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are associated with an increased cancer risk. CYP1A1 and GSTs enzymes are important in metabolism of PAHs. Genetic polymorphisms of these enzymes are responsible for enzyme activity and concentration variation. The objectives of this study were to evaluate association of 1-OHP concentration with genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1 and GSTs in Thai bus drivers. The results showed that 1-OHP levels in bus drivers were significantly higher than that in the control group. Significant difference in 1-OHP was found between smokers and non-smokers, in only bus drivers. Significantly increasing of 1-OHP levels were observed in bus drivers with CYP1A1 MspI and exon 7 variants. Whereas, bus drivers with GSTP1 Val and GSTM1 null genotypes showed decreasing in excretion of 1-OHP. No association between 1-OHP and polymorphisms of GSTT1 was found. This study indicated that 1-OHP concentrations were associated with exposure to air pollution, cigarette smoking and polymorphisms of CYP1A1, GSTM1 and GSTP1 genes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Associations of FoxP3 gene polymorphisms with severe recurrent respiratory papillomatosis in Korean patients.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Tack-Kyun; Chung, Eun Jae; Lee, Nuri; Roh, Eun Youn; Song, Eun Young

    2017-03-15

    FoxP3 is the most dependable marker for regulatory T cells which play a major role in immune tolerance. Foxp3 gene polymorphisms were associated with various autoimmune diseases and clearance of viral infections. We studied the association of Foxp3 polymorphisms in severe RRP patients. A total of 30 Korean severe RRP patients and 195 healthy controls were enrolled. Foxp3 polymorphisms (rs5902434 del/ATT, rs3761548 C/A, rs3761549 C/T, and rs2232365 G/A) were determined by PCR and sequencing. Genotype frequencies (GF) of rs5902434 ATT/ATT and rs2232365 GG were significantly decreased in female RRP patients than controls (0.0% vs 23.0%, p = 0.039, OR = 9.4 for both). We showed that Foxp3 polymorphism of rs5902434 and rs2232365 could be an important protective factor in the susceptibility of severe RRP in female Koreans. Further studies on larger number of patients and other ethnic groups are needed to clarify the association.

  14. Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Gene Polymorphisms in Specific Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Patients' Subgroups.

    PubMed

    Melo-Felippe, Fernanda Brito; de Salles Andrade, Juliana Braga; Giori, Isabele Gomes; Vieira-Fonseca, Tamiris; Fontenelle, Leonardo Franklin; Kohlrausch, Fabiana Barzotti

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological data and animal models support the hypothesis that the dopaminergic (DA) system is implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Therefore, this case-control study assessed whether genetics variations in catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT) could influence susceptibility to OCD and OCD features in a Brazilian sample. A sample of 199 patients with OCD and 200 healthy individuals was genotyped for -287A > G (rs2075507) and Val158Met (rs4680) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by TaqMan(®) or restriction mapping. We observed a statistically significant predominance of the Met low-activity allele in the male patient group as compared to the male healthy control group. The -287A > G polymorphism's genotypes and alleles were significantly overrepresented among male individuals with ordering and female subjects with washing symptoms. We also found female hoarders to exhibit a significant higher frequency of the low activity Met/Met genotype of Val158Met polymorphism compared to female patients who did not express this dimension. Our data suggest an influence of COMT polymorphisms on OCD and OCD patients' features, such as gender, and ordering, washing, and hoarding symptom dimensions. Further studies to confirm the clinical importance of COMT SNPs in OCD are warranted.

  15. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and musculoskeletal injuries in professional football players

    PubMed Central

    MASSIDDA, MYOSOTIS; CORRIAS, LAURA; BACHIS, VALERIA; CUGIA, PAOLO; PIRAS, FRANCESCO; SCORCU, MARCO; CALÒ, CARLA M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and musculoskeletal injury (MI) in elite football players. In total, 54 male professional football players were recruited from an official Italian professional championship team between 2009 and 2013. The cohort was genotyped for the ApaI, BsmI and FokI polymorphisms and MI data were collected over four football seasons. No significant differences were identified among the genotypes in the incidence rates or severity of MI (P=0.254). In addition, no significant associations were observed between VDR polymorphisms and MI phenotypes (P=0.460). However, the results of the casewise multiple regression analysis indicated that the ApaI genotypes accounted for 18% of injury severity (P=0.002). Therefore, while the BsmI and FokI polymorphisms did not appear to be associated with the severity or incidence of MI, the ApaI genotypes may have influenced the severity of muscle injury in top-level football players. PMID:26161149

  16. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and musculoskeletal injuries in professional football players.

    PubMed

    Massidda, Myosotis; Corrias, Laura; Bachis, Valeria; Cugia, Paolo; Piras, Francesco; Scorcu, Marco; Calò, Carla M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and musculoskeletal injury (MI) in elite football players. In total, 54 male professional football players were recruited from an official Italian professional championship team between 2009 and 2013. The cohort was genotyped for the Apa I, Bsm I and Fok I polymorphisms and MI data were collected over four football seasons. No significant differences were identified among the genotypes in the incidence rates or severity of MI (P=0.254). In addition, no significant associations were observed between VDR polymorphisms and MI phenotypes (P=0.460). However, the results of the casewise multiple regression analysis indicated that the Apa I genotypes accounted for 18% of injury severity (P=0.002). Therefore, while the Bsm I and Fok I polymorphisms did not appear to be associated with the severity or incidence of MI, the Apa I genotypes may have influenced the severity of muscle injury in top-level football players.

  17. Human population-specific gene expression and transcriptional network modification with polymorphic transposable elements

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Transposable element (TE) derived sequences are known to contribute to the regulation of the human genome. The majority of known TE-derived regulatory sequences correspond to relatively ancient insertions, which are fixed across human populations. The extent to which human genetic variation caused by recent TE activity leads to regulatory polymorphisms among populations has yet to be thoroughly explored. In this study, we searched for associations between polymorphic TE (polyTE) loci and human gene expression levels using an expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) approach. We compared locus-specific polyTE insertion genotypes to B cell gene expression levels among 445 individuals from 5 human populations. Numerous human polyTE loci correspond to both cis and trans eQTL, and their regulatory effects are directly related to cell type-specific function in the immune system. PolyTE loci are associated with differences in expression between European and African population groups, and a single polyTE loci is indirectly associated with the expression of numerous genes via the regulation of the B cell-specific transcription factor PAX5. The polyTE-gene expression associations we found indicate that human TE genetic variation can have important phenotypic consequences. Our results reveal that TE-eQTL are involved in population-specific gene regulation as well as transcriptional network modification. PMID:27998931

  18. Association of structural polymorphisms in the human period3 gene with delayed sleep phase syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ebisawa, T; Uchiyama, M; Kajimura, N; Mishima, K; Kamei, Y; Katoh, M; Watanabe, T; Sekimoto, M; Shibui, K; Kim, K; Kudo, Y; Ozeki, Y; Sugishita, M; Toyoshima, R; Inoue, Y; Yamada, N; Nagase, T; Ozaki, N; Ohara, O; Ishida, N; Okawa, M; Takahashi, K; Yamauchi, T

    2001-04-01

    Recent progress in biological clock research has facilitated genetic analysis of circadian rhythm sleep disorders, such as delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) and non-24-h sleep-wake syndrome (N-24). We analyzed the human period3 (hPer3) gene, one of the human homologs of the Drosophila clock-gene period (Per), as a possible candidate for rhythm disorder susceptibility. All of the coding exons in the hPer3 gene were screened for polymorphisms by a PCR-based strategy using genomic DNA samples from sleep disorder patients and control subjects. We identified six sequence variations with amino acid changes, of which five were common and predicted four haplotypes of the hPer3 gene. One of the haplotypes was significantly associated with DSPS (Bonferroni's corrected P = 0.037; odds ratio = 7.79; 95% CI 1.59-38.3) in our study population. Our results suggest that structural polymorphisms in the hPer3 gene may be implicated in the pathogenesis of DSPS.

  19. Oxytocin and oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms and risk for schizophrenia: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Montag, Christiane; Brockmann, Eva-Maria; Bayerl, Martin; Rujescu, Dan; Müller, Daniel J; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2013-09-01

    Dysfunctions of the "social brain" belong to the core features of schizophrenia. The neurohormone oxytocin (OXT), mediated through its specific receptor (OXTR), is involved in the regulation of social behaviour and social cognition. Previous research has suggested a role of OXT system genes in disorders of social reciprocity. Preliminary evidence points to an association of peripheral OXT levels as well as OXT and OXTR gene polymorphisms with psychotic symptoms and treatment response in schizophrenia. This study aims to determine a possible contribution of OXT and OXTR genetic variations to schizophrenia susceptibility. Using n = 406 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia according to DSM-IV and n = 406 healthy controls matched for age and gender in a case-control design, two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the OXT gene (rs2740204, rs2740210) and four SNPs within the OXTR gene (rs53576, rs237880, rs237885, rs237902) that were previously investigated in other studies were genotyped. Chi(2)-testing suggested significant associations of OXTR SNPs rs53576(A > G) (P = 0.008) and rs237885(T > G) (P = 0.025) with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Post-hoc ANCOVA revealed significant associations of OXTR SNPs rs53576 with general psychopathology and rs237902 with negative symptom scores in schizophrenic patients. Our findings support hypotheses about an involvement of oxytocinergic gene variants in schizophrenia vulnerability and warrant independent replication.

  20. Human population-specific gene expression and transcriptional network modification with polymorphic transposable elements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Rishishwar, Lavanya; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo; Jordan, I King

    2017-03-17

    Transposable element (TE) derived sequences are known to contribute to the regulation of the human genome. The majority of known TE-derived regulatory sequences correspond to relatively ancient insertions, which are fixed across human populations. The extent to which human genetic variation caused by recent TE activity leads to regulatory polymorphisms among populations has yet to be thoroughly explored. In this study, we searched for associations between polymorphic TE (polyTE) loci and human gene expression levels using an expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) approach. We compared locus-specific polyTE insertion genotypes to B cell gene expression levels among 445 individuals from 5 human populations. Numerous human polyTE loci correspond to both cis and trans eQTL, and their regulatory effects are directly related to cell type-specific function in the immune system. PolyTE loci are associated with differences in expression between European and African population groups, and a single polyTE loci is indirectly associated with the expression of numerous genes via the regulation of the B cell-specific transcription factor PAX5. The polyTE-gene expression associations we found indicate that human TE genetic variation can have important phenotypic consequences. Our results reveal that TE-eQTL are involved in population-specific gene regulation as well as transcriptional network modification. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Novel PAX9 gene polymorphisms and mutations and susceptibility to tooth agenesis in the Czech population.

    PubMed

    Hlousková, Alena; Bonczek, Ondrej; Izakovicová-Hollá, Lydie; Lochman, Jan; Soukalová, Jana; Stembírek, Jan; Mísek, Ivan; Cernochová, Pavlína; Krejcí, Premysl; Vanek, Jirí; Šerý, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Tooth agenesis is one of the most common developmental anomalies in humans. Genetic and environmental factors may be of etiological importance in this condition. Among genes involved in tooth morphogenesis, mutations in PAX9, MSX1, AXIN2, WNT10a, and EDA genes have been associated with tooth agenesis. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between the PAX9 gene variants and tooth agenesis in the Czech population. The selected regions of the PAX9 gene were analysed by direct sequencing and compared with the reference sequence from the GenBank online database (NCBI). We found several novel variants in the PAX9 gene, e.g. insertion g.5100_5101insC (rs11373281) with simultaneous substitution g.5272C>G (rs4904155) in exon 1, and mutation g.10934C>T (Gly203Gly, rs61754301) in exon 3. In subjects with full dentition we observed polymorphisms g.10276A>G (rs12882923) and g.10289A>G (rs12883049) in IVS2 (intervening sequence 2) previously related to tooth agenesis in Polish study. In our study we excluded a direct effect of rs12882923 and rs12883049 polymorphisms on the dental agenesis in the Czech population. All described PAX9 genetic variants were present both in patients with tooth agenesis and controls. We expect that tooth agenesis in our cohort of patients is caused by mutations in regions different from PAX9 exons analyzed in our study.

  2. Characterization of Heterobasidion occidentale transcriptomes reveals candidate genes and DNA polymorphisms for virulence variations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Jun; Shamoun, Simon Francis; Leal, Isabel; Kowbel, Robert; Sumampong, Grace; Zamany, Arezoo

    2018-05-01

    Characterization of genes involved in differentiation of pathogen species and isolates with variations of virulence traits provides valuable information to control tree diseases for meeting the challenges of sustainable forest health and phytosanitary trade issues. Lack of genetic knowledge and genomic resources hinders novel gene discovery, molecular mechanism studies and development of diagnostic tools in the management of forest pathogens. Here, we report on transcriptome profiling of Heterobasidion occidentale isolates with contrasting virulence levels. Comparative transcriptomic analysis identified orthologous groups exclusive to H. occidentale and its isolates, revealing biological processes involved in the differentiation of isolates. Further bioinformatics analyses identified an H. occidentale secretome, CYPome and other candidate effectors, from which genes with species- and isolate-specific expression were characterized. A large proportion of differentially expressed genes were revealed to have putative activities as cell wall modification enzymes and transcription factors, suggesting their potential roles in virulence and fungal pathogenesis. Next, large numbers of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected, including more than 14 000 interisolate non-synonymous SNPs. These polymorphic loci and species/isolate-specific genes may contribute to virulence variations and provide ideal DNA markers for development of diagnostic tools and investigation of genetic diversity. © 2018 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Hydroxymethylbilane synthase: Complete genomic sequence and amplifiable polymorphisms in the human gene

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Hanwook; Warner, C.A.; Chen, Chiahsiang

    1993-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), an autosomal dominant inborn error of heme biosynthesis, results from the half-normal activity of the heme biosynthetic enzyme hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMB-synthase). Heterozygous individuals are prone to life-threatening acute neurologic attacks, which are precipitated by certain drugs and other metabolic, hormonal, and nutritional factors. Since the biochemical diagnosis of heterozygous individuals has been problematic, recent efforts have focused on the identification of mutations and diagnostically useful restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPS) in the HMB-synthase gene. To facilitate these endeavors, the human HMB-synthase gene, including 1.1 kb of the 5[prime] flanking region, was isolated and completely sequenced inmore » both orientations. The 10,024-bp gene contained 15 exons ranging in size from 39 to 438 bp and 14 introns ranging from 87 to 2913 bp. All intron/exon boundaries conformed to the GT/AG consensus rule. There were six Alu repetitive elements, one of the J and five of the Sa subfamilies. Analysis of the 1. I -kb 5[prime]flanking region revealed putative regulatory elements for the housekeeping promoter including AP1, AP4, SP1, TRE, ENH, and CAC. This region contained 10 HpaII sites and had an overall GC content of 54%. Three new polymorphic sites were identified by the single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique, a common BsmAI site in intron 3 (3581 A/G), a common HinfI RFLP in intron 10 (7064 C/A), and a rare MnlI site in intron 14 (7998G/A). The allele frequencies of five previously known and the new polymorphic sites in a normal Caucasian population indicated that the intron 1 and intron 3 RFLPs were in linkage disequilibrium; however, the Hint I site segregated independently. 54 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  4. DICER and DROSHA gene expression and polymorphisms in autoimmune thyroid diseases.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Minori; Watanabe, Mi