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Sample records for a1298c mtr a2756g

  1. Homocysteine Metabolism Gene Polymorphisms (MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G and MTRR A66G) Jointly Elevate the Risk of Folate Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Xing; Dai, Shao-Xing; Zheng, Jun-Juan; Liu, Jia-Qian; Huang, Jing-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Folate deficiency is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease. We aimed to explore the joint effect of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C, methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G, and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G polymorphisms on folate deficiency in a Chinese hypertensive population. A total of 480 subjects aged 28–75 were enrolled in this study from September 2005–December 2005 from six hospitals in different Chinese regions. Known genotypes were detected by PCR-RFLP methods and serum folate was measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Our results showed that MTHFR 677TT and MTR 2756AG + GG were independently associated with a higher risk of folate deficiency (TT vs. CC + CT, p < 0.001 and AG + GG vs. AA p = 0.030, respectively). However, the MTHFR A1298C mutation may confer protection by elevating the serum folate level (p = 0.025). Furthermore, patients carrying two or more risk genotypes showed higher odds of folate deficiency than null risk genotype carriers, especially those carrying four risk genotypes. These findings were verified by generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (p = 0.0107) and a cumulative effects model (p = 0.001). The results of this study have shown that interactions among homocysteine metabolism gene polymorphisms lead to dramatic elevations in the folate deficiency risk. PMID:26266420

  2. Methionine synthase A2756G transition might be a risk factor for male infertility: Evidences from seven case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Karimian, Mohammad; Hosseinzadeh Colagar, Abasalt

    2016-04-15

    Methionine synthase (MTR) has a crucial role in DNA synthesis and methylation reactions. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the MTR-A2756G polymorphism with idiopathic male infertility. Blood samples were collected from 217 idiopathic infertile- and 233 healthy-men, and MTR-A2756G genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP. Meta-analysis was conducted by pooling our data with the data obtained from 6 previous studies. Also, the effects of this substitution on protein structure were evaluated by bioinformatics tools. Our study revealed the association of AG-genotype, GG-genotype, and G-allele with male infertility. Meta-analysis showed a significant association between A2756G transition and male infertility. In addition, structural analysis of the transition effect on protein revealed a significant influence on MTR function (with score: 38; expected accuracy: 66%). These findings suggest that the A2756G substitution might be a genetic risk factor and a potential biomarker for idiopathic male infertility.

  3. Association between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and hepatocellular carcinoma risk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiyan; Li, Guang; Zhang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hepatocarcinogenesis is a complex process that is influenced by many factors. Several studies have investigated the relationship between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk, but the results are inconsistent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis covering a large sample size to address this controversy. Methods: Eligible studies were searched using PubMed, EMBASE, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. A total of 7 studies from 6 publications with 2035 cases and 3096 controls were included. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was calculated by the fixed or random effects to evaluate the correlation between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and HCC risk. The Q statistic and I2 statistic were used to assess the statistical heterogeneity among studies. Publication bias was evaluated by Egger’s linear regression test and Begg’s funnel plot. Results: In present study, the results showed that MTHFR A1298C polymorphism was not significantly associated with risk of HCC based on CC + AC vs. AA genetic model (OR=1.01, 95% CI=0.90-1.13). Similarly, in the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, no significant HCC risk was found in Asian population (OR=1.02, 95% CI=0.91-1.14). In the subgroup analysis based on source of control, we found that MTHFR A1298C polymorphism showed no effects on the occurrence of HCC in the population-based (PB) and hospital-based (HB) group (OR=0.97, 95% CI=0.83-1.15; OR=1.04, 95% CI=0.89-1.21). Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggested that MTHFR A1298C polymorphism may not be a risk factor for HCC. PMID:26309569

  4. Prevalence of MTHFR C677T and MS A2756G polymorphisms in major depressive disorder, and their impact on response to fluoxetine treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine the prevalence of the C677T polymorphism of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and the A2756G polymorphism of methionine synthase (MS), and their impact on antidepressant response. We screened 224 subjects (52% female, mean age 39 +/- 11 years) with SCID-diagnosed major...

  5. Association of the MTHFR A1298C Variant with Unexplained Severe Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Eloualid, Abdelmajid; Abidi, Omar; Charif, Majida; El houate, Brahim; Benrahma, Houda; Louanjli, Noureddine; Chadli, Elbakkay; Ajjemami, Maria; Barakat, Abdelhamid; Bashamboo, Anu; McElreavey, Ken; Rhaissi, Houria; Rouba, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene is one of the main regulatory enzymes involved in folate metabolism, DNA synthesis and remethylation reactions. The influence of MTHFR variants on male infertility is not completely understood. The objective of this study was to analyze the distribution of the MTHFR C677T and A1298C variants using PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) in a case group consisting of 344 men with unexplained reduced sperm counts compared to 617 ancestry-matched fertile or normozoospermic controls. The Chi square test was used to analyze the genotype distributions of MTHFR polymorphisms. Our data indicated a lack of association of the C677T variant with infertility. However, the homozygous (C/C) A1298C polymorphism of the MTHFR gene was present at a statistically high significance in severe oligozoospermia group compared with controls (OR = 3.372, 95% confidence interval CI = 1.27–8.238; p = 0.01431). The genotype distribution of the A1298C variants showed significant deviation from the expected Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, suggesting that purifying selection may be acting on the 1298CC genotype. Further studies are necessary to determine the influence of the environment, especially the consumption of diet folate on sperm counts of men with different MTHFR variants. PMID:22457816

  6. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and gastric cancer susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Lei-Zhou; Liu, Yi; Xu, Xiao-Zhou; Jiang, Peng-Cheng; Ma, Gui; Bu, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Yu, Feng; Xu, Ke-Sen; Li, Hua

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To identify the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and gastric cancer (GC) susceptibility. METHODS: Systematic searches were performed on the electronic databases PubMed, ISI, Web of knowledge, CNKI and Wanfang, as well as manual searching of the references of the identified articles. A total of 26 papers were included in this meta-analysis. Overall and subgroup analyses were performed. Odds ratio (OR) and 95%CI were used to evaluate the associations between MTHFR polymorphisms and GC risk. The I2 statistics were used to evaluate between-study heterogeneity. Sensitivity analysis was also performed. RESULTS: Increased risk was found for the MTHFR C677T polymorphism under four genetic models (TT + CT vs CC: OR = 1.23, P = 0.002; T vs C: OR = 1.15, P = 0.001; TT vs CC: OR = 1.37, P = 0.0005; TT vs CT + CC: OR = 1.17, P = 0.0008). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity suggested that C677T polymorphism conferred a risk of GC in eastern but not in western populations. Stratification by tumor site showed an association between the C677T polymorphism and gastric cardia cancer and non-cardia GC in the worldwide population and in eastern populations. Regardless of comparisons with controls or diffuse-type GC, a positive association was found for the C677T polymorphism and an increased risk of intestinal-type GC in the whole population and in western populations. With regard to the A1298C polymorphism, we found that genotype CC was significantly decreased and conferred protection against GC in eastern populations (CC vs AA: OR = 0.44, P = 0.03; CC vs AC + AA: OR = 0.46, P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: MTHFR C677T polymorphism is a risk factor for GC, and the A1298C polymorphism may be a protective factor against GC in eastern populations. PMID:25170232

  7. Association between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and risk of cancer: evidence from 265 case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xin-Li; Liu, Zhi-Zhong; Yan, Sen-Xiang; Wang, Wei; Chang, Rui-Xia; Zhang, Chun-Yan; Guo, Yan

    2016-02-01

    Many molecular, epidemiological studies have been performed to explore the association between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and cancer risk. However, the results were inconsistent or even contradictory. Hence, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the association between cancer risk and MTHFR A1298C (81,040 cases and 114,975 controls from 265 studies) polymorphism. Overall, significant association was observed between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and cancer risk when all eligible studies were pooled into the meta-analysis. In further stratified and sensitivity analyses, significantly increased cervical cancer (dominant model: OR 1.46, 95 % CI 1.13-1.90; AC vs. AA: OR 1.48, 95 % CI 1.13-1.92) and lymphoma (dominant model: OR 1.22, 95 % CI 1.04-1.44; recessive model: OR 1.66, 95 % CI 1.15-2.39; CC vs. AA: OR 1.75, 95 % CI 1.21-2.53) risk were observed in Asians, and significantly decreased colorectal cancer risk was found in Asians (recessive model: OR 0.75, 95 % CI 0.59-0.96; CC vs. AA: OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.60-1.00). In summary, this meta-analysis suggests that MTHFR A1298C polymorphism is associated with increased cervical cancer and lymphoma risk in Asians, and MTHFR A1298C polymorphism is associated with decreased colorectal cancer risk in Asians. Moreover, this meta-analysis also points out the importance of new studies, such as oral cancer and chronic myeloid leukemia, because they had high heterogeneity in this meta-analysis (I (2) > 75 %).

  8. No association of the MTHFR gene A1298C polymorphism with the risk of prostate cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    LI, DAWEI; TIAN, TIAN; GUO, CHUNHUI; REN, JUCHAO; YAN, LEI; LIU, HAINAN; XU, ZHONGHUA

    2012-01-01

    Various studies have demonstrated that the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism contributes to the risk of prostate cancer, while other studies have provided conflicting findings. In the present study, we carried out a comprehensive meta-analysis with the aim of determining whether there is a significant association of the MTHFR gene A1298C polymorphism with the susceptibility of prostate cancer. Studies on the MTHFR gene A1298C polymorphism and prostate cancer were retrieved using the electronic PubMed database without any restriction on language through Aug 21, 2011. Data were abstracted by a standardized protocol. Crude odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the strength of association. The analyses were conducted with Review Manager software version 4.2. Nine case-control studies were identified, including 2,723 prostate cancer patients and 3,442 controls. Overall, no significant associations were found between the MTHFR gene A1298C polymorphism and prostate cancer (codominant models: CC vs. AA, OR=1.03, 95% CI 0.79–1.34, P=0.84; AC vs. AA, OR=1.04, 95% CI 0.93–1.16, P=0.46; dominant model: AC + CC vs. AA, OR=1.04, 95% CI 0.94–1.15, P=0.48; recessive model: CC vs. AC + AA, OR=1.02, 95% CI 0.76–1.35, P=0.91; allele model: C vs. A, OR=1.04, 95% CI 0.90–1.19, P=0.61). Similarly, in the subgroup analyses by DNA source, ethnicity, control source, pathological stage and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, no significant associations were observed. Our meta-analysis suggests that the MTHFR gene A1298C polymorphism is not associated with the risk of prostate cancer. PMID:22969917

  9. MTHFR A1298C and C677T gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to chronic myeloid leukemia in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Aly, Rabab M; Taalab, Mona M; Ghazy, Hayam F

    2014-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme regulating the intracellular folate metabolism which plays an important role in carcinogenesis through DNA methylation. We aimed to evaluate the association between MTHFR A1298C and C677T polymorphisms and the risks of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Eighty-five patients with CML and a control group containing 100 healthy, age and sex matched individuals were examined for MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length (PCR-RFLP) method. The frequency of 677TT genotype in patients with CML was significantly higher compared to controls (OR=2.513, 95% CI: 0.722-4.086, P=0.025). No such association was shown for heterozygous 677CT (OR=1.010, 95% CI: 0.460-2.218, P=0.981). Moreover, for A1298C genotype, a statistically significant higher frequency of 1298CC was also detected in CML patients compared to control group (OR=1.1816, 95% CI: 0.952-3.573, P=0.036), 0.036). No such statistical significance was demonstrable for heterozygote 1298AC (OR=1.046, 95% CI: 0.740-1.759, P=0.092). In addition, patients with joint 677CT/1298AC or 677TT/1298CC genotypes showed an association with increased risk of CML (OR=1.849, 95% CI: 0.935-2.540, P=0.024; OR=1.915, 95% CI: 1.202-3.845, P=0.020 respectively). .A statistically significant increased risk of resistant to therapy was observed with 677CT and 1298AC genotypes (P=0.001, P=0.002 respectively). We conclude that both MTHFR 677TT and 1298CC polymorphisms have been associated with risk of CML and both 677CT and 1298AC genotypes are associated with higher risk of resistant to therapy. PMID:24966971

  10. MTHFR A1298C and C677T gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to chronic myeloid leukemia in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Aly, Rabab M; Taalab, Mona M; Ghazy, Hayam F

    2014-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme regulating the intracellular folate metabolism which plays an important role in carcinogenesis through DNA methylation. We aimed to evaluate the association between MTHFR A1298C and C677T polymorphisms and the risks of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Eighty-five patients with CML and a control group containing 100 healthy, age and sex matched individuals were examined for MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length (PCR-RFLP) method. The frequency of 677TT genotype in patients with CML was significantly higher compared to controls (OR=2.513, 95% CI: 0.722-4.086, P=0.025). No such association was shown for heterozygous 677CT (OR=1.010, 95% CI: 0.460-2.218, P=0.981). Moreover, for A1298C genotype, a statistically significant higher frequency of 1298CC was also detected in CML patients compared to control group (OR=1.1816, 95% CI: 0.952-3.573, P=0.036), 0.036). No such statistical significance was demonstrable for heterozygote 1298AC (OR=1.046, 95% CI: 0.740-1.759, P=0.092). In addition, patients with joint 677CT/1298AC or 677TT/1298CC genotypes showed an association with increased risk of CML (OR=1.849, 95% CI: 0.935-2.540, P=0.024; OR=1.915, 95% CI: 1.202-3.845, P=0.020 respectively). .A statistically significant increased risk of resistant to therapy was observed with 677CT and 1298AC genotypes (P=0.001, P=0.002 respectively). We conclude that both MTHFR 677TT and 1298CC polymorphisms have been associated with risk of CML and both 677CT and 1298AC genotypes are associated with higher risk of resistant to therapy.

  11. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T and A1298C Polymorphisms in Male Partners of Recurrent Miscarriage Couples

    PubMed Central

    Tara, Somayeh-Sadat; Ghaemimanesh, Fatemeh; Zarei, Saeed; Reihani-Sabet, Fakhreddin; Pahlevanzadeh, Zhamak; Modarresi, Mohammad Hosein; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Background: Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) C677T and A1298C have been described as strong risk factors for idiopathic recurrent miscarriage (RM). However, very few studies have investigated the association of paternal MTHFR SNPs with RM. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of paternal C677T and A1298C SNPs among Iranian RM couples. Methods: The study subjects comprised 225 couples with more than three consecutive pregnancy losses, and 100 control couples with no history of pregnancy complications. All females in the case group had MTHFR polymorphisms; and genotype SNPs were analyzed by PCR-RFLP. Groups were statistically compared using Mann Whitney U-test and Chi-square statistical tests. The p<0.05 were considered significant. Results: Statistically significant difference was detected in the frequency of MTHFR SNPs in male partners of the two groups (p=0.019). Combined heterozygosity of MTHFR polymorphisms was a common phenomenon in the males; 52 (23.1%) and 14 (14%) of males in RM and control groups, respectively. Absence of combined homozygosity for both SNPs in all studied groups/genders was observed. Conclusion: The MTHFR gene composition of male partners of RM couples may contribute to increased risk of miscarriage. PMID:27110516

  12. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C polymorphism and susceptibility to acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a cohort of Egyptian children.

    PubMed

    Mosaad, Youssef M; Abousamra, Nashwa K; Elashery, Rasha; Fawzy, Iman M; Eldein, Omar A Sharaf; Sherief, Doaa M; El Azab, Hend M M

    2015-01-01

    This case-control study was planned to investigate the possible role of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms as a risk factor for the development of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in a cohort of Egyptian children. Typing of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms was done using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) for 100 children with ALL and 100 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. No significant differences were found between patients with ALL and controls for the frequency of MTHFR C677T and A1298C alleles, genotypes, combined genotypes or haplotypes. The C677T and A1298C genotype frequency was different from that in Korean and Chinese populations (p < 0.5) and was similar to that in British, French-Canadian and German-Caucasian populations (p > 0.5). Our findings suggest that MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms are unlikely to affect the development of childhood ALL in an Egyptian population from Delta.

  13. MTHFR gene A1298C polymorphisms are associated with breast cancer risk among Chinese population: evidence based on an updated cumulative meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yadong; Yang, Haiyan; Duan, Guangcai

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Published studies on the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene A1298C polymorphisms and breast cancer risk among Chinese population have yielded conflicting results. The purpose of this study was to clarify the association between MTHFR gene A1298C polymorphisms and breast cancer risk among Chinese population. Methods: Systematic searches were performed through the database of Medline/PubMed, Science Direct, Elsevier, CNKI and Wanfang Medical Online. Results: Overall, a significantly increased risk of breast cancer was observed among the subjects carrying MTHFR gene A1298C AC+CC genotype (odds ratio [OR]=1.05 with 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.10) as compared to those carrying AA genotype among total Chinese population. We did not observe any significant association between MTHFR gene A1298C polymorphisms and the risk of breast cancer under the additional genetic models of AC vs. AA, CC vs. AA and C-allele vs. A-allele (OR=1.00 with 95% CI: 0.97-1.02, OR=1.01 with 95% CI: 1.00-1.02 and OR=1.00 with 95% CI: 0.99-1.02, respectively). The cumulative meta-analysis showed similar results. In subgroup analysis, we observed subjects carrying AC+CC genotype had an increased breast cancer risk compared with those carrying AA genotype among the studies of sample size less than 1000. We did not observe any significant association between MTHFR gene A1298C polymorphisms and breast cancer risk in additional subgroup analyses. Conclusions: Our results suggest that MTHFR gene A1298C AC+CC genotype may be a risk factor for the development of breast cancer among Chinese population. Well-designed studies with a large sample size are needed to further confirm our findings. PMID:26884927

  14. Spectrum of MTHFR gene SNPs C677T and A1298C: a study among 23 population groups of India.

    PubMed

    Saraswathy, Kallur Nava; Asghar, Mohammad; Samtani, Ratika; Murry, Benrithung; Mondal, Prakash Ranjan; Ghosh, Pradeep Kumar; Sachdeva, Mohinder Pal

    2012-04-01

    Elevated homocysteine is a risk factor for many complex disorders. The role of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in methylation of homocysteine makes it one of the most important candidate genes for these disorders. Considering the heterogeneity in its distribution in world populations, we screened MTHFR C677T and A1298C single nucleotide polymorphisms in a total of 23 Indian caste, tribal and religious population groups from five geographical regions of India and belonging to four major linguistic groups. The frequencies of MTHFR 677T and 1298C alleles were found to be 10.08 and 20.66%, respectively. MTHFR homozygous genotype 677TT was absent in eight population groups and homozygous 1298CC was absent in two population groups. 677T allele was found to be highest among north Indian populations with Indo-European tongue and 1298C was high among Dravidian-speaking tribes of east India and south India. The less common mutant haplotype 677T-1298C was observed among seven population groups and overall the frequency of this haplotype was 0.008, which is similar to that of African populations. cis configuration of 677T and 1298C was 0.94%. However, we could not find any individual with four mutant alleles which supports the earlier observation that presence of more than two mutant alleles may decrease the viability of foetus and possibly be a selective disadvantage in the population.

  15. Incidence Assessment of MTHFR C677T and A1298C Polymorphisms in Iranian Non-syndromic Cleft Lip and/or Palate Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ebadifar, Asghar; Ameli, Nazila; Khorramkhorshid, Hamid Reza; Salehi Zeinabadi4, Mehdi; Kamali, Kourosh; Khoshbakht, Tayyebeh

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. The aim of the present study is to determine the incidence of MTHFR C677 T and A1298C muta-tions in Iranian patients with cleft lip and/or cleft palate. Materials and methods. We screened 61 Iranian patients with cleft lip and/or cleft palate for mutations in the two alleles of MTHFR gene associated with cleft lip and/or palate: A1298C and C677T, using Polymerase Chain Reaction following by RFLP. Results. The 677T and 1298C homozygote genotypes showed a frequency of 36.1% and 11.4%, respectively. Combined genotype frequencies in newborns having oral clefts showed that the highest genotype was 677TT/1298AA (22.9%) and 677TT/1298CC genotypes were not observed. Conclusion. The results showed that 65.6% of all patients had at least one T mutant allele in C677T and 58.9% C mutant allele for A1298C. According to the frequencies of homozygosity of mutant alleles, it could be said that MTHFR genotype of 677TT shows a greater role in having oral clefts. PMID:26236436

  16. The prevalence of Factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, MTHFR C677T and MTHFR A1298C mutations in healthy Turkish population

    PubMed Central

    Ekim, M; Ekim, H; Yılmaz, YK

    2015-01-01

    Background: Factor V Leiden (FVL), prothrombin gene (PT G20210A) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphisms are the main biomarkers used in the evaluation of tendency to venous thromboembolism. Our study aimed to investigate the distribution frequencies of these polymorphisms in healthy Turks living in the urban Yozgat region.  Material and Methods: This study included 90 blood donor candidates. All the donors were apparently healthy, and there was no family relationship between them. Mutations including FVL, PT G20210A, and MTHFR (C677T, A1298C) were investigated in all participants. Screening of polymorphisms was carried out using the SNaPshot® multiplex system. Results: There were 42 male and 48 female individuals with age range 17-78 years and mean age 47.5 ± 13.6 years. The heterozygous FVL mutation was noted in 17 (10 male and seven female) donors (19%). FVL mutation was more frequently encountered in males than in females (23.8% vs. 12.5%). The heterozygous PT G20210A mutation was observed in five (5.5%) of the 90 (three male, two female) donors. The prevalence of homozygous polymorphisms of MTHFR C677T was 8.8% and of MTHFR A1298C 13.3%. On the other hand, four of the 90 participants (4.4%) carried none of these polymorphisms. Conclusion: This study showed that the prevalence of FVL, PT G20210A, MTHFR C677T and MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms is quite high, and the coexistence of FVL with other genotypes is not rare in a healthy Turkish population living in the Yozgat region. Of course, further detailed studies should be performed to support these findings. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (4): 309-313. PMID:27688694

  17. Geographical and Ethnic Distributions of the MTHFR C677T, A1298C and MTRR A66G Gene Polymorphisms in Chinese Populations: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Dingyuan

    2016-01-01

    Background The geographical and ethnic distributions of the polymorphic methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutations (C677T and A1298C) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) mutation (A66G) remain heterogeneous in China. The goal of this study was to estimate the pooled frequencies of the alleles and associated genotypes of these gene polymorphisms among healthy populations in Mainland China. Objective and Methods We systematically reviewed published epidemiological studies on the distributions of 3 genetic variants in Chinese healthy populations living in Mainland China through a meta-analysis. The relevant electronic databases were searched. All of the raw data of the eligible citations were extracted. The frequency estimates were stratified by geography, ethnicity and sex. Results Sixty-six studies were identified with a total of 92277 study participants. The meta-analysis revealed that the frequencies of the MTHFR C677T, A1298C, and MTRR A66G gene polymorphisms varied significantly between different ethnic groups and along geographical gradients. The frequencies of the 677T allele and 677TT genotype increased along the southern-central-northern direction across Mainland China (all Pvalues≤0.001). The frequencies of the 1298C, 1298CC, 66G and 66GG genotypes decreased along the south-central-north direction across the country (all Pvalues≤0.001). Conclusions Our meta-analysis strongly indicates significant geographical and ethnic variations in the frequencies of the C677T, A1298C, and A66G gene polymorphisms in the folate metabolism pathway among Chinese populations. PMID:27089387

  18. Methyltetrahydrofolate vs Folic Acid Supplementation in Idiopathic Recurrent Miscarriage with Respect to Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T and A1298C Polymorphisms: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hekmatdoost, Azita; Vahid, Farhad; Yari, Zahra; Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Eini-Zinab, Hassan; Lakpour, Niknam; Arefi, Soheila

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether 5-methylenetetrahydrofolate (MTHF) is more effective than folic acid supplementation in treatment of recurrent abortion in different MTHFR gene C677T and A1298C polymorphisms. Methods A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted April 2011-September 2014 in recurrent abortion clinics in Tehran, Iran. The participants were women with three or more idiopathic recurrent abortion, aged 20 to 45 years. Two hundred and twenty eligible women who consented to participate were randomly assigned to receive either folic acid or 5-MTHF according to the stratified blocked randomization by age and the number of previous abortions. Participants took daily 1 mg 5-methylentetrahydrofolate or 1 mg folic acid from at least 8 weeks before conception to the 20th week of the pregnancy. The primary outcome was ongoing pregnancy rate at 20th week of pregnancy, and the secondary outcomes were serum folate and homocysteine at the baseline, after 8 weeks, and at the gestational age of 4, 8, 12, and 20 weeks, MTHFR gene C677T and A1298C polymorphisms. Results There was no significant difference in abortion rate between two groups. Serum folate increased significantly in both groups over time; these changes were significantly higher in the group receiving 5-MTHF than the group receiving folic acid (value = 2.39, p<00.1) and the result was the same by considering the time (value = 1.24, p<0.01). Plasma tHcys decreased significantly in both groups over time; however these changes were not significantly different between the groups (value = 0.01, p = 0.47). Conclusion The results do not support any beneficial effect of 5-MTHF vs. folate supplementation in women with recurrent abortion with any MTHFR C677T and/or A1298C polymorphism. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01976676 PMID:26630680

  19. MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, and OPG A163G Polymorphisms in Mexican Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Brambila-Tapia, Aniel Jessica Leticia; Durán-González, Jorge; Sandoval-Ramírez, Lucila; Mena, Juan Pablo; Salazar-Páramo, Mario; Gámez-Nava, Jorge Iván; González-López, Laura; Lazalde-Medina B, Brissia; Dávalos, Nory Omayra; Peralta-Leal, Valeria; del Mercado, Mónica Vázquez; Beltrán-Miranda, Claudia Patricia; Dávalos, Ingrid Patricia

    2012-01-01

    MTHFR polymorphisms C677T and A1298C are associated with reduced MTHFR enzyme activity and hyperhomocysteinemia, which has been associated with osteoporosis. The A163G polymorphism in osteoprotegerin (OPG) has been studied in osteoporosis with controversial results. The objective of the present study was to investigate the association(s) among MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, and OPG A163G polymorphisms in Mexican patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. The femoral neck and lumbar spine bone mineral densities (BMDs) were measured in 71 RA patients, and genotyping for the three polymorphisms was performed via restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Patients with osteoporosis/osteopenia exhibited statistically significant differences in the genotype frequencies of MTHFR C677T as well as an association with femoral neck BMD; TT homozygotes had lower BMDs than patients with the CT genotype, and both of these groups had lower BMDs than patients with the CC genotype. The associations of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism with osteoporosis/osteopenia and femoral neck BMD suggest that these polymorphisms confer a risk of developing osteoporosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, a risk that may be reduced with folate and B complex supplementation. PMID:22377704

  20. MTHFR Gene variants C677T, A1298C and association with Down syndrome: A Case-control study from South India

    PubMed Central

    Cyril, Cyrus; Rai, Padmalatha; Chandra, N.; Gopinath, P. M.; Satyamoorthy, K.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and low folate levels are associated with inhibition of DNA methyltransferase and consequently DNA hypomethylation. The expanding spectrum of common conditions linked with MTHFR polymorphisms includes certain adverse birth outcome, pregnancy complications, cancers, adult cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric disorders, with several of these associations remaining still controversial. Trisomy 21 or Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation. It stems predominantly from the failure of chromosome 21 to segregate normally during meiosis. Despite substantial research, the molecular mechanisms underlying non-disjunction leading to trisomy 21 are poorly understood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two common variants C677T and A1298C of the MTHFR gene were screened in 36 parents with DS children and 60 healthy couples from Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. The MTHFR genotypes were studied by RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified products and confirmed by sequencing. RESULTS: The CT genotype was seen in three each (8.3%) of case mothers and fathers. One case father showed TT genotype. All the control individuals exhibited the wild type CC genotype. A similar frequency for the uncommon allele C of the second polymorphism was recorded in case mothers (0.35) and fathers (0.37) in comparison with the control mothers (0.39) and fathers (0.37). CONCLUSION: This first report on MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in trisomy 21 parents from south Indian population revealed that MTHFR 677CT polymorphism was associated with a risk for Down syndrome. PMID:20680153

  1. Ethnic variation of the C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase (MTHFR) gene in southwestern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Antonio-Véjar, V; Del Moral-Hernández, O; Alarcón-Romero, L C; Flores-Alfaro, E; Leyva-Vázquez, M A; Hernández-Sotelo, D; Illades-Aguiar, B

    2014-09-29

    In this study, we examined the distribution of genotype and allele frequencies of the C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase gene (MTHFR) in two ethnic groups in the State of Guerrero, Mexico, which were compared with those of the Mestizo population of the region. A comparative study was conducted on 455 women from two ethnic groups and a group of Mestizo women of the State of Guerrero, Mexico: 135 Nahuas, 124 Mixtecas, and 196 Mestizas. Genotyping of both polymorphisms were performed by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. We found that the 677TT genotype was more frequent in Nahua and Mixteca women compared to Mestiza women (P = 0.008), and the most prevalent genotype in both ethnic groups was the 1298AA genotype (P < 0.001). We also compared the 677T allele frequency obtained from the groups studied with the frequencies reported in other ethnic groups of Mexico (Huichol, Tarahumara, and Purepecha). There were significant differences between the three ethnic groups compared to Nahuas (Huicholes, P = 0.004; Tarahumaras, P < 0.001; Purepechas, P = 0.042). Our results indicated significant differences in the frequencies of the C677T and A1298C polymorphisms between the two ethnic groups and the Mestizo population of the State of Guerrero. In addition, we found strong differences with other ethnic groups in Mexico. These results could be useful for future studies investigating diseases related to folate metabolism, and could help the government to design specific nutrition programs for different ethnic groups.

  2. The impact of C677T and A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms on methotrexate therapeutic response in East Bohemian region rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Soukup, Tomas; Dosedel, Martin; Pavek, Petr; Nekvindova, Jana; Barvik, Ivan; Bubancova, Iva; Bradna, Petr; Kubena, Ales Antonin; Carazo, Alejandro Fernández; Veleta, Tomas; Vlcek, Jiri

    2015-07-01

    Some single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) might be predictive of methotrexate (MTX) therapeutic outcome in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of this study was to determine whether SNPs in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene are predictive of MTX response. Comparison was made using EULAR response criteria and according to the change of DAS28 (∆DAS28) after a 6-month MTX treatment in RA patient cohort. The two SNPs C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131) have been genotyped. A total of 120 patients were enrolled in the study, and all of them fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology 1987 RA criteria and are currently or previously taking MTX oral treatment, either as a monotherapy (n = 65) or in a combination with other disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (n = 55). Genotyping was performed using qPCR allelic discrimination. We did not found any association of C677T and A1298C genotypes with MTX treatment inefficacy in dominant model (OR 1.23, 95 % CI 0.57-2.65, P = 0.697; and OR 0.98, 95 % CI 0.47-2.14, P = 1.0, respectively), or in recessive and codominant models. However, when ∆DAS28 after a 6-month therapy was used as a measure of treatment efficacy, the 677CT and 1298AC genotypes were found to be significantly associated with less favorable response to MTX (P = 0.025 and P = 0.043, respectively). In addition, even lower ∆DAS28 was determined for double-mutated 677CT-1298AC heterozygotes. It means that a synergistic effect of 677CT and 1298AC genotypes was observed. Nevertheless, the DAS28 baseline was lower here comparing to other genotypes. Unexpectedly, quite the opposite trend-i.e., better response to MTX-was found in genotypes 677CC-1298CC and 677TT-1298AA. It is an intriguing finding, because these double-mutated homozygotes are known for their low MTHFR-specific activity. Global significance was P = 0.013, η (2) = 0.160-i.e., large-size effect. Thus, our data show greater ability of 677CC-1298CC and 677TT

  3. The impact of C677T and A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms on methotrexate therapeutic response in East Bohemian region rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Soukup, Tomas; Dosedel, Martin; Pavek, Petr; Nekvindova, Jana; Barvik, Ivan; Bubancova, Iva; Bradna, Petr; Kubena, Ales Antonin; Carazo, Alejandro Fernández; Veleta, Tomas; Vlcek, Jiri

    2015-07-01

    Some single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) might be predictive of methotrexate (MTX) therapeutic outcome in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of this study was to determine whether SNPs in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene are predictive of MTX response. Comparison was made using EULAR response criteria and according to the change of DAS28 (∆DAS28) after a 6-month MTX treatment in RA patient cohort. The two SNPs C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131) have been genotyped. A total of 120 patients were enrolled in the study, and all of them fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology 1987 RA criteria and are currently or previously taking MTX oral treatment, either as a monotherapy (n = 65) or in a combination with other disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (n = 55). Genotyping was performed using qPCR allelic discrimination. We did not found any association of C677T and A1298C genotypes with MTX treatment inefficacy in dominant model (OR 1.23, 95 % CI 0.57-2.65, P = 0.697; and OR 0.98, 95 % CI 0.47-2.14, P = 1.0, respectively), or in recessive and codominant models. However, when ∆DAS28 after a 6-month therapy was used as a measure of treatment efficacy, the 677CT and 1298AC genotypes were found to be significantly associated with less favorable response to MTX (P = 0.025 and P = 0.043, respectively). In addition, even lower ∆DAS28 was determined for double-mutated 677CT-1298AC heterozygotes. It means that a synergistic effect of 677CT and 1298AC genotypes was observed. Nevertheless, the DAS28 baseline was lower here comparing to other genotypes. Unexpectedly, quite the opposite trend-i.e., better response to MTX-was found in genotypes 677CC-1298CC and 677TT-1298AA. It is an intriguing finding, because these double-mutated homozygotes are known for their low MTHFR-specific activity. Global significance was P = 0.013, η (2) = 0.160-i.e., large-size effect. Thus, our data show greater ability of 677CC-1298CC and 677TT

  4. Association between C677T and A1298C MTHFR gene polymorphism and nonsyndromic orofacial clefts in the Turkish population: a case-parent study.

    PubMed

    Semiç-Jusufagiç, Aida; Bircan, Rıfat; Çelebiler, Özhan; Erdim, Melike; Akarsu, Nurten; Elçioğlu, Nursel H

    2012-01-01

    Two common MTHFR gene polymorphisms (C677T and A1298C) have been implicated in the etiology of nonsyndromic cleft lip/palate (nsCL/P). To investigate the genotype association among nsCL/P in the Turkish population, 56 case-parent trios were recruited into the study. Genotype frequencies were compared to two groups of controls from the same population. A total of 46 case-parent trios were included in transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) analysis. The mothers of the study group had a higher frequency of 677TT genotype, with a three-fold increased risk of having nsCL/P offspring (odds ratio [OR]: 3.14, p=0.03). The combined 677CT/1298AC genotype was also common among these mothers (28%), but it did not reach statistical significance (OR: 2.27, p=0.07). TDT analysis for (C677T) T allele transmission did not reveal a significant association. In conclusion, mothers carrying 677TT genotype or with 677CT/1298AC combined genotype have increased risk of having nsCL/P offspring; therefore, higher periconceptional folic acid supplementation should be advised for decreasing the recurrence risk.

  5. A retrospective comparative exploratory study on two Methylentetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms in esophagogastric cancer: the A1298C MTHFR polymorphism is an independent prognostic factor only in neoadjuvantly treated gastric cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Methylentetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays a major role in folate metabolism and consequently could be an important factor for the efficacy of a treatment with 5-fluorouracil. Our aim was to evaluate the prognostic and predictive value of two well characterized constitutional MTHFR gene polymorphisms for primarily resected and neoadjuvantly treated esophagogastric adenocarcinomas. Methods 569 patients from two centers were analyzed (gastric cancer: 218, carcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEG II, III): 208 and esophagus (AEG I): 143). 369 patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery, 200 patients were resected without preoperative treatment. The MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were determined in DNA from peripheral blood lymphozytes. Associations with prognosis, response and clinicopathological factors were analyzed retrospectively within a prospective database (chi-square, log-rank, cox regression). Results Only the MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms had prognostic relevance in neoadjuvantly treated patients but it was not a predictor for response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The AC genotype of the MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms was significantly associated with worse outcome (p = 0.02, HR 1.47 (1.06-2.04). If neoadjuvantly treated patients were analyzed based on their tumor localization, the AC genotype of the MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms was a significant negative prognostic factor in patients with gastric cancer according to UICC 6th edition (gastric cancer including AEG type II, III: HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3-2.0, p = 0.001) and 7th edition (gastric cancer without AEG II, III: HR 2.8, 95% CI 1.5-5.7, p = 0.003), not for AEG I. For both definitions of gastric cancer the AC genotype was confirmed as an independent negative prognostic factor in cox regression analysis. In primarily resected patients neither the MTHFR A1298C nor the MTHFR C677T polymorphisms had prognostic impact. Conclusions The MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms was

  6. Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T-A1298C polymorphisms with risk for esophageal adenocarcinoma, Barrett's esophagus, and reflux esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Ekiz, F; Ormeci, N; Coban, S; Karabulut, H G; Aktas, B; Tukun, A; Tuncali, T; Yüksel, O; Alkış, N

    2012-07-01

    Incidence of the esophagus adenocarcinoma has been dramatically increasing in Western countries since the last decade. Gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus are risk factors for adenocarcinoma. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genes play a key role not only in folate metabolism but also in esophagus, stomach, pancreatic carcinoma, and acute leukemias. Studies have suggested that genetic polymorphisms of MTHFR (C677T) may clarify the causes and events involved in esophageal carcinogenesis. In this study, we evaluated MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms, and vitamin B12, folate, and plasma homocystein levels in patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), Barrett's esophagus (BE), chronic esophagitis, and healthy controls (n = 26, n = 14, n = 30, and n = 30, respectively). The mean age of patients in the EAC and BE groups was significantly higher compared with the control group (P < 0.001, P = 0.003, respectively). In all patient groups, serum folate levels were significantly lower than that of the control group (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, and P < 0.01, respectively). There was no statistically significant association between folate levels and MTHFR gene polymorphisms. No differences were found in terms of MTHFR gene polymorphisms, homocystein, and B12 levels among the groups. MTHFR gene polymorphisms and folate deficiency are not predictors of early esophageal carcinoma. However, further studies using larger series of patients are needed to evaluate the effect of genetic polymorphisms in the folate metabolic pathway and to clarify the role of folate deficiency and folate metabolism in the development of esophagus adenocarcinoma. PMID:21951971

  7. A new and improved method based on polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) for the determination of A1298C mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene.

    PubMed

    Machnik, Grzegorz; Zapala, Malgorzata; Pelc, Ewa; Gasecka-Czapla, Monika; Kaczmarczyk, Grzegorz; Okopien, Boguslaw

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular folate homeostasis and metabolism is regulated by numerous genes. Among them, 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is of special interest because of its involvement in regulation of the homocysteine level in the body as a result of folate metabolism. Moreover, some studies demonstrated that the homocysteine plasma level in individuals may be influenced by polymorphisms present in the MTHFR gene. Two common, clinically relevant mutations have been described: MTHFR C677T and MTHFR A1298C. Although several laboratory techniques allow genotyping of both polymorphisms, PCR-RFLP analysis is simple to perform, relatively cheap, and thus one of the most utilized. In the case of A1298C, the PCR-RFLP technique that utilizes MboII endonuclease class II requires an acrylamide gel electrophoresis, since agarose gel electrophoresis is unable to resolve short deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragments after restriction digestion. Agarose gel electrophoresis is commonly preferred over that of acrylamide. To resolve this inconvenience, a novel PCR-RFLP, AjuI-based method to genotype A1298C alleles has been developed that can be performed on standard agarose gel.

  8. Molecular analysis of factor V Leiden, factor V Hong Kong, factor II G20210A, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T, and A1298C mutations related to Turkish thrombosis patients.

    PubMed

    Dölek, Bilgen; Eraslan, Serpil; Eroğlu, Sevim; Kesim, Belgin Eroglu; Ulutin, Turgut; Yalçiner, Altan; Laleli, Yahya R; Gözükirmizi, Nermin

    2007-10-01

    Inherited gene disorders related to the hemostatic system have been documented as risk factors for thrombosis. The roles of factor V Hong Kong (FV Hong Kong), factor V Leiden (FV Leiden), factor II G20210A (FII G20210A), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, and MTHFR A1298C mutations in Turkish patients with thrombosis (270 patients) compared with healthy controls (114 subjects) were evaluated. Polymerase chain reaction-based restriction enzyme analysis was carried out to screen these mutations, and single-strand conformation analysis was established to identify variations using the primers selected for restriction enzyme analysis studies. As a result, a significant relationship was determined among FV Leiden, FII G20210A, and thrombosis. The FV Hong Kong mutation was observed in only 2 patients with pulmonary vein thrombosis who are FV Leiden/FV Hong Kong compound heterozygous for FV gene. MTHFR C677T and A1298C were equally distributed in the patient group compared with the control group. All named mutations were also identified with single-strand conformation analysis, but a new variant/polymorphism during studies was not found. Because some inherited abnormalities are associated with thromboembolic disorders, determining the mutations and gene-to-gene interactions in patients with thrombosis history has a great impact on diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. PMID:17911197

  9. Polymorphisms of folate metabolism genes in patients with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Nathália Perpétua; Galbiatti-Dias, Ana Lívia Silva; Castanhole-Nunes, Márcia Maria Urbanin; da Silva, Renato Ferreira; Pavarino, Érika Cristina; Goloni-Bertollo, Eny Maria; Ruiz-Cintra, Mariangela Torreglosa

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluated the association of the risk factors and polymorphisms in MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G and MTRR A66G genes. METHODS Patients with cirrhosis (n = 116), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (n = 71) and controls (n = 356) were included. Polymerase chain reaction followed by enzymatic digestion and allelic discrimination technique real-time PCR techniques were used for analysis. MINITAB-14.0 and SNPstats were utilized for statistical analysis. RESULTS Showed that age ≥ 46 years (OR = 10.31; 95%CI: 5.66-18.76; P < 0.001) and smoking (OR = 0.47; 95%CI: 0.28-0.78; P = 0.003) were associated with cirrhosis. Age ≥ 46 years (OR = 16.36; 95%CI: 6.68-40.05; P < 0.001) and alcohol habit (OR = 2.01; 95%CI: 1.03-3.89; P = 0.039) were associated with HCC. MTHFR A1298C in codominant model (OR = 3.37; 95%CI: 1.52-7.50; P = 0.014), recessive model (OR = 3.04; 95%CI: 1.43-6.47; P = 0.0051) and additive model (OR = 1.71; 95%CI: 1.16-2.52; P = 0.0072) was associated with HCC, as well as MTR A2756G in the additive model (OR = 1.68; 95%CI: 1.01-2.77; P = 0.047), and MTRR A66G in the codominant model (OR = 3.26; 95%CI: 1.54-6.87; P < 0.001), dominant model (OR = 2.55; 95%CI: 1.24-5.25; P = 0.007) and overdominant model (OR = 3.05; 95%CI: 1.66-5.62; P < 0.001). MTR A2756G in the additive model (OR = 1.54; 95%CI: 1.02-2.33; P = 0.042) and smokers who presented at least one polymorphic allele for MTRR A66G (OR = 1.71; 95%CI: 0.77-3.82; P = 0.0051) showed increased risk for cirrhosis. There was no association between clinical parameters and polymorphisms. CONCLUSION Age ≥ 46 years, alcohol habit and MTR A2756G, MTHFR A1298C and MTRR A66G polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk of HCC development; age ≥ 46 years, tobacco habit and the MTR A2756G polymorphism are associated with cirrhosis. PMID:27803768

  10. MTR OFFICE WINGS AT WEST SIDE OF MTR HIGH BAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR OFFICE WINGS AT WEST SIDE OF MTR HIGH BAY REACTOR BUILDING. CONTEXTUAL VIEW. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, TRA-652 (OFFICE WING), TRA-661 (SOUTH WING EXTENSION), SECOND/THIRD FLOOR (BALCONIES) OF MTR-603, MTR HIGH-BAY. AT RIGHT EDGE OF VIEW IS REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING (TRA-635). INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-44-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. Role of genetic mutations in folate-related enzyme genes on Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kang; Zhao, Ruizhe; Shen, Min; Ye, Jiaxin; Li, Xiao; Huang, Yuan; Hua, Lixin; Wang, Zengjun; Li, Jie

    2015-11-09

    Several studies showed that the genetic mutations in the folate-related enzyme genes might be associated with male infertility; however, the results were still inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis to investigate the associations between the MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G mutations and the MTHFR haplotype with the risk of male infertility. Overall, a total of 37 studies were selected. Our meta-analysis showed that the MTHFR C677T mutation was a risk factor for male infertility in both azoospermia and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia patients, especially in Asian population. Men carrying the MTHFR TC haplotype were most liable to suffer infertility while those with CC haplotype had lowest risk. On the other hand, the MTHFR A1298C mutation was not related to male infertility. MTR A2756G and MTRR A66G were potential candidates in the pathogenesis of male infertility, but more case-control studies were required to avoid false-positive outcomes. All of these results were confirmed by the trial sequential analysis. Finally, our meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis proved that the genetic mutations in the folate-related enzyme genes played a significant role in male infertility.

  12. MTR MAIN FLOOR. MTR TRACTOR IS IN CENTER OF VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR MAIN FLOOR. MTR TRACTOR IS IN CENTER OF VIEW AMIDST AN ACCUMULATION OF CLUTTER ON THE FLOOR. TRACTOR HAD ATTACHMENTS IN FRONT TO FACILITATE MOVING OF COFFINS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3027. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 9/17/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. Evaluation of GenoFlow Thrombophilia Array Test Kit in Its Detection of Mutations in Factor V Leiden (G1691A), Prothrombin G20210A, MTHFR C677T and A1298C in Blood Samples from 113 Turkish Female Patients

    PubMed Central

    Aytekin, Ebru; Ergun, Sezen Guntekin; Percin, Ferda E.

    2014-01-01

    Thrombophilia is a heritable blood disease characterized by an increased tendency to form abnormal blood clots that can block blood vessels. In obstetrics and gynecology, it has been shown by a number of reports that a proportion of recurrent miscarriages involve thrombophilia-related mutations, in particular, Factor V G1691A, prothrombin G20210A, and MTHFR C677T and A1298C. In this study, we examined the frequency of these four mutations in 113 female Turkish patients who had prior complications in pregnancy, using the DiagCor GenoFlow Thrombophilia Array Test kit. Heterozygous MTHFR C677T and A1298C mutations were detected in 46% of the patients, and among these patients, 60% of them carried double heterozygous mutations. In contrast, the heterozygous Factor V G1691A and prothrombin G20210A were detected only in a smaller number of patients, respectively, 13% and 3%. The GenoFlow kit demonstrated 100% concordance with results from Sanger sequencing, which can be translated into sensitivity and specificity both at 100% within this series of patients. PMID:25153695

  14. Genetic Variants in the Folate Pathway and the Risk of Neural Tube Defects: A Meta-Analysis of the Published Literature

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ti; Lou, Jiao; Zhong, Rong; Wu, Jing; Zou, Li; Sun, Yu; Lu, Xuzai; Liu, Li; Miao, Xiaoping; Xiong, Guanglian

    2013-01-01

    Background Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) are among the most prevalent and most severe congenital malformations worldwide. Polymorphisms in key genes involving the folate pathway have been reported to be associated with the risk of NTDs. However, the results from these published studies are conflicting. We surveyed the literature (1996–2011) and performed a comprehensive meta-analysis to provide empirical evidence on the association. Methods and Findings We investigated the effects of 5 genetic variants from 47 study populations, for a total of 85 case-control comparisons MTHFR C677T (42 studies; 4374 cases, 7232 controls), MTHFR A1298C (22 studies; 2602 cases, 4070 controls), MTR A2756G (9 studies; 843 cases, 1006 controls), MTRR A66G (8 studies; 703 cases, 1572 controls), and RFC-1 A80G (4 studies; 1107 cases, 1585 controls). We found a convincing evidence of dominant effects of MTHFR C677T (OR 1.23; 95%CI 1.07–1.42) and suggestive evidence of RFC-1 A80G (OR 1.55; 95%CI 1.24–1.92). However, we found no significant effects of MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G in risk of NTDs in dominant, recessive or in allelic models. Conclusions Our meta-analysis strongly suggested a significant association of the variant MTHFR C677T and a suggestive association of RFC-1 A80G with increased risk of NTDs. However, other variants involved in folate pathway do not demonstrate any evidence for a significant marginal association on susceptibility to NTDs. PMID:23593147

  15. Transportation of spent MTR fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Raisonnier, D.

    1997-08-01

    This paper gives an overview of the various aspects of MTR spent fuel transportation and provides in particular information about the on-going shipment of 4 spent fuel casks to the United States. Transnucleaire is a transport and Engineering Company created in 1963 at the request of the French Atomic Energy Commission. The company followed the growth of the world nuclear industry and has now six subsidiaries and affiliated companies established in countries with major nuclear programs.

  16. Regulation of the MtrC-MtrD-MtrE efflux-pump system modulates the in vivo fitness of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Warner, Douglas M; Folster, Jason P; Shafer, William M; Jerse, Ann E

    2007-12-15

    The Neisseria gonorrhoeae MtrC-MtrD-MtrE multidrug-resistance efflux pump expels macrolide antibiotics, penicillin, and antimicrobial effectors of the innate defense. Mutation of the mtrR locus, which encodes a transcriptional repressor of the mtrCDE operon, increases gonococcal resistance to these agents. Here we report that, in a mouse infection model, an mtrR mutant is more fit than the wild-type bacteria. Consistent with derepression of the mtrCDE operon as the primary reason for the fitness benefit, an mtrR,mtrE double mutant and an mtrE mutant showed no difference in survival phenotype. Gonococcal mutants deficient in MtrA, an activator of the mtrCDE operon, exhibited significantly reduced fitness in vivo, and mtrA mutants with spontaneous compensatory mtrR mutations were selected during infection. These results confirm the importance of the MtrC-MtrD-MtrE efflux-pump system during experimental gonococcal genital-tract infection and also illustrate an antibiotic-resistance mechanism that is accompanied by a fitness benefit rather than a fitness cost.

  17. Regulation of the MtrC-MtrD-MtrE efflux-pump system modulates the in vivo fitness of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Warner, Douglas M; Folster, Jason P; Shafer, William M; Jerse, Ann E

    2007-12-15

    The Neisseria gonorrhoeae MtrC-MtrD-MtrE multidrug-resistance efflux pump expels macrolide antibiotics, penicillin, and antimicrobial effectors of the innate defense. Mutation of the mtrR locus, which encodes a transcriptional repressor of the mtrCDE operon, increases gonococcal resistance to these agents. Here we report that, in a mouse infection model, an mtrR mutant is more fit than the wild-type bacteria. Consistent with derepression of the mtrCDE operon as the primary reason for the fitness benefit, an mtrR,mtrE double mutant and an mtrE mutant showed no difference in survival phenotype. Gonococcal mutants deficient in MtrA, an activator of the mtrCDE operon, exhibited significantly reduced fitness in vivo, and mtrA mutants with spontaneous compensatory mtrR mutations were selected during infection. These results confirm the importance of the MtrC-MtrD-MtrE efflux-pump system during experimental gonococcal genital-tract infection and also illustrate an antibiotic-resistance mechanism that is accompanied by a fitness benefit rather than a fitness cost. PMID:18190261

  18. Evaluation of Factor V G1691A, prothrombin G20210A, Factor XIII V34L, MTHFR A1298C, MTHFR C677T and PAI-1 4G/5G genotype frequencies of patients subjected to cardiovascular disease (CVD) panel in south-east region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Oztuzcu, Serdar; Ergun, Sercan; Ulaşlı, Mustafa; Nacarkahya, Gülper; Iğci, Yusuf Ziya; Iğci, Mehri; Bayraktar, Recep; Tamer, Ali; Çakmak, Ecir Ali; Arslan, Ahmet

    2014-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, such as arterial hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia or diabetes mellitus, as well as CVDs, including myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease or stroke, are the most prevalent diseases and account for the major causes of death worldwide. In the present study, 4,709 unrelated patients subjected to CVD panel in south-east part of Turkey between the years 2010 and 2013 were enrolled and DNA was isolated from the blood samples of these patients. Mutation analyses were conducted using the real-time polymerase chain reaction method to screen six common mutations (Factor V G1691A, PT G20210A, Factor XIII V34L, MTHFR A1298C and C677T and PAI-1 -675 4G/5G) found in CVD panel. The prevalence of these mutations were 0.57, 0.25, 2.61, 13.78, 9.34 and 24.27 % in homozygous form, respectively. Similarly, the mutation percent of them in heterozygous form were 7.43, 3.44, 24.91, 44.94, 41.09 and 45.66%, respectively. No mutation was detected in 92 (1.95%) patients in total. Because of the fact that this is the first study to screen six common mutations in CVD panel in south-east region of Turkey, it has a considerable value on the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. Upon the results of the present and previous studied a careful examination for these genetic variants should be carried out in thrombophilia screening programs, particularly in Turkish population. PMID:24532105

  19. MTR BUILDING, TRA603. WEST SIDE OF MTR SECOND/THIRD FLOOR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING, TRA-603. WEST SIDE OF MTR SECOND/THIRD FLOOR AND HIGH-BAY REACTOR FLOOR (WITH STAIRWAY FROM ROOF). CAMERA FACING EAST FROM ROOF OF TRA-604. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-42-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, April 2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. MTR BUILDING, TRA603. NORTH SIDES OF MTR AND PLUG STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING, TRA-603. NORTH SIDES OF MTR AND PLUG STORAGE BUILDINGS. CAMERA FACING SOUTH. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-43-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. MTR plates modeling with MAIA

    SciTech Connect

    Marelle, V.; Dubois, S.; Ripert, M.; Noirot, J.

    2008-07-15

    MAIA is a thermo-mechanical code dedicated to the modeling of MTR fuel plates. The main physical phenomena modeled in the code are the cladding oxidation, the interaction between fuel and Al-matrix, the swelling due to fission products and the Al/fuel particles interaction. The creeping of the plate can be modeled in the mechanical calculation. MAIA has been validated on U-Mo dispersion fuel experiments such as IRIS 1 and 2 and FUTURE. The results are in rather good agreement with post-irradiation examinations. MAIA can also be used to calculate in-pile behavior of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} plates as in the SHARE experiment irradiated in the SCK/Mol BR2 reactor. The main outputs given by MAIA throughout the irradiation are temperatures, cladding oxidation thickness, interaction thickness, volume fraction of meat constituents, swelling, displacements, strains and stresses. MAIA is originally a two-dimensional code but a three-dimensional version is currently under development. (author)

  2. MTR BASEMENT. WORKERS (DON ALVORD AND CYRIL VAN ORDEN OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BASEMENT. WORKERS (DON ALVORD AND CYRIL VAN ORDEN OF PHILLIPS PETROLEUM CO.) POSE FOR GAMMA IRRADIATION EXPERIMENT IN MTR CANAL. CANS OF FOOD WILL BE LOWERED TO CANAL BOTTOM, WHERE SPENT MTR FUEL ELEMENTS EMIT GAMMA RADIATION. INL NEGATIVE NO. 11746. Unknown Photographer, 8/20/1954 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. MTR, SOUTH FACE OF REACTOR. SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL SHIELDING WAS REQUIRED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, SOUTH FACE OF REACTOR. SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL SHIELDING WAS REQUIRED OUTSIDE OF MTR FOR EXPERIMENTS. THE AIRCRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION PROJECT DOMINATED THE USE OF THIS PART OF THE MTR. INL NEGATIVE NO. 7225. Unknown Photographer, 11/28/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. MTR BUILDING, TRA603. DETAILED VIEW OF NORTHWEST CORNERS OF MTR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING, TRA-603. DETAILED VIEW OF NORTHWEST CORNERS OF MTR HIGH-BAY AND SECOND/THIRD STORY SECTIONS. NOTE SHAPE OF PANEL ABOVE WINDOW OVER "TRA-603" BUILDING NUMBERS. THIS IS A "STANDARD PANEL." INL NEGATIVE NUMBER HD46-42-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. ETR AND MTR COMPLEXES IN CONTEXT. CAMERA FACING NORTHERLY. FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR AND MTR COMPLEXES IN CONTEXT. CAMERA FACING NORTHERLY. FROM BOTTOM TO TOP: ETR COOLING TOWER, ELECTRICAL BUILDING AND LOW-BAY SECTION OF ETR BUILDING, HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING (WITH U SHAPED YARD), COMPRESSOR BUILDING. MTR REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING IS ATTACHED TO SOUTH WALL OF MTR. WING A IS ATTACHED TO BALCONY FLOOR OF MTR. NEAR UPPER RIGHT CORNER OF VIEW IS MTR PROCESS WATER BUILDING. WING B IS AT FAR WEST END OF COMPLEX. NEAR MAIN GATE IS GAMMA FACILITY, WITH "COLD" BUILDINGS BEYOND: RAW WATER STORAGE TANKS, STEAM PLANT, MTR COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE AND COOLING TOWER. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4101. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. MATERIALS TESTING REACTOR (MTR) BUILDING, TRA603. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF MTR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MATERIALS TESTING REACTOR (MTR) BUILDING, TRA-603. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF MTR BUILDING SHOWING NORTH SIDES OF THE HIGH-BAY REACTOR BUILDING, ITS SECOND/THIRD FLOOR BALCONY LEVEL, AND THE ATTACHED ONE-STORY OFFICE/LABORATORY BUILDING, TRA-604. CAMERA FACING SOUTHEAST. VERTICAL CONCRETE-SHROUDED BEAMS SUPPORT PRECAST CONCRETE PANELS. CONCRETE PROJECTION FORMED AS A BUNKER AT LEFT OF VIEW IS TRA-657, PLUG STORAGE BUILDING. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-42-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. Analysis of Structural MtrC Models Based on Homology with the Crystal Structure of MtrF

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Marcus; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Richardson, David; Clarke, Thomas A.

    2012-12-01

    The outer-membrane decahaem cytochrome MtrC is part of the transmembrane MtrCAB complex required for mineral respiration by Shewanella oneidensis. MtrC has significant sequence similarity to the paralogous decahaem cytochrome MtrF, which has been structurally solved through X-ray crystallography. This now allows for homology-based models of MtrC to be generated. The structure of these MtrC homology models contain ten bis-histidine-co-ordinated c-type haems arranged in a staggered cross through a four-domain structure. This model is consistent with current spectroscopic data and shows that the areas around haem 5 and haem 10, at the termini of an octahaem chain, are likely to have functions similar to those of the corresponding haems in MtrF. The electrostatic surfaces around haem 7, close to the β-barrels, are different in MtrF and MtrC, indicating that these haems may have different potentials and interact with substrates differently.

  8. MTR AND ETR COMPLEXES. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY TOWARD CHEMICAL PROCESSING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR AND ETR COMPLEXES. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY TOWARD CHEMICAL PROCESSING PLANT. MTR AND ITS ATTACHMENTS IN FOREGROUND. ETR BEYOND TO RIGHT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4100. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. MTR BUILDING AND BALCONY FLOORS. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY. PHOTOGRAPHER DID ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING AND BALCONY FLOORS. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY. PHOTOGRAPHER DID NOT EXPLAIN DARK CLOUD. MTR WING WILL ATTACH TO GROUND FLOOR. INL NEGATIVE NO. 1567. Unknown Photographer, 2/28/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. PRECONSTRUCTION IMAGE OF THE MTR SITE. ABANDONED IRRIGATION CANAL (FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PRE-CONSTRUCTION IMAGE OF THE MTR SITE. ABANDONED IRRIGATION CANAL (FROM EARLY 1900s) ILLUSTRATES FLATNESS OF MTR/TRA TERRAIN. FEATURE ON HORIZON IN LEFT OF VIEW IS EXPLORATORY WATER DRILLING EQUIPMENT. CAMERA LOOKS SOUTHEAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 136. Unknown Photographer, 12/5/1949 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. REACTIVITY MEASUREMENT FACILITY, UNDER CONSTRUCTION OVER MTR CANAL IN BASEMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REACTIVITY MEASUREMENT FACILITY, UNDER CONSTRUCTION OVER MTR CANAL IN BASEMENT OF MTR BUILDING, TRA-603. WOOD PLANKS REST ON CANAL WALL OBSERVABLE IN FOREGROUND. INL NEGATIVE NO. 11745. Unknown Photographer, 8/20/1954 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF "EXCLUSION" MTR AREA WITH IDAHO CHEMICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF "EXCLUSION" MTR AREA WITH IDAHO CHEMICAL PROCESSING PLANT IN BACKGROUND AT CENTER TOP OF VIEW. CAMERA FACING EAST. EXCLUSION GATE HOUSE AT LEFT OF VIEW. BEYOND MTR BUILDING AND ITS WING, THE PROCESS WATER BUILDING AND WORKING RESERVOIR ARE LEFT-MOST. FAN HOUSE AND STACK ARE TO ITS RIGHT. PLUG STORAGE BUILDING IS RIGHT-MOST STRUCTURE. NOTE FAN LOFT ABOVE MTR BUILDING'S ONE-STORY WING. THIS WAS LATER CONVERTED FOR OFFICES. INL NEGATIVE NO. 3610. Unknown Photographer, 10/30/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. PRECAST CONCRETE WALL PANELS ARE LIFTED INTO PLACE ON MTR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PRECAST CONCRETE WALL PANELS ARE LIFTED INTO PLACE ON MTR STEEL FRAME STRUCTURE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 1330. Unknown Photographer, 1/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. MTR BASEMENT. GENERAL ELECTRIC CONTROL CONSOLE FOR AIRCRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BASEMENT. GENERAL ELECTRIC CONTROL CONSOLE FOR AIRCRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION EXPERIMENT NO. 1. INL NEGATIVE NO. 6510. Unknown Photographer, 9/29/1959 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. MTR MAIN FLOOR. MEN DEMONSTRATE INSERTION OF DUMMY PLUG INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR MAIN FLOOR. MEN DEMONSTRATE INSERTION OF DUMMY PLUG INTO AN MTR BEAM HOLE. ONE MAN CHECKS RADIATION LEVEL AT THE END OF THE UNIVERSAL COFFIN, WHILE ANOTHER USES TOOL TO INSERT PLUG INTO HOLE THROUGH COFFIN. MEN WEAR "ANTI-C" (ANTI-CONTAMINATION) CLOTHING. INL NEGATIVE NO. 6198. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 6/27/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. The MATROSHKA experiment: results and comparison from extravehicular activity (MTR-1) and intravehicular activity (MTR-2A/2B) exposure.

    PubMed

    Berger, Thomas; Bilski, Paweł; Hajek, Michael; Puchalska, Monika; Reitz, Günther

    2013-12-01

    Astronauts working and living in space are exposed to considerably higher doses and different qualities of ionizing radiation than people on Earth. The multilateral MATROSHKA (MTR) experiment, coordinated by the German Aerospace Center, represents the most comprehensive effort to date in radiation protection dosimetry in space using an anthropomorphic upper-torso phantom used for radiotherapy treatment planning. The anthropomorphic upper-torso phantom maps the radiation distribution as a simulated human body installed outside (MTR-1) and inside different compartments (MTR-2A: Pirs; MTR-2B: Zvezda) of the Russian Segment of the International Space Station. Thermoluminescence dosimeters arranged in a 2.54 cm orthogonal grid, at the site of vital organs and on the surface of the phantom allow for visualization of the absorbed dose distribution with superior spatial resolution. These results should help improve the estimation of radiation risks for long-term human space exploration and support benchmarking of radiation transport codes.

  17. [Development of the high-throughput fluorescence assay detecting SNPs in hemostasis and folate metabolism genes for clinical use].

    PubMed

    Prasolova, M A; Shchepotina, E G; Dymshits, G M

    2013-01-01

    Genetic predisposition of an individual patient should be taken in account to choose the proper treatment. Implementation to clinical practice requires the development of rapid, high-throughput, and easy assays intended to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms. A detection kit intended to identify the hemostasis and folate cycle gene mutations G20210A FII, G1691A FV, G10976A FVII, G103T FXIII, C807T ITGA2, T1565C ITGB3, 5G(-675)4G PAI, G(-455)A FGB, C677T and A1298C MTHFR, A2756G MTR, A66G MTRR was suggested in this work. The method is based on the polymerase chain reaction and subsequent melt curve analysis of the complexes of amplicons with specific probe. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms can be identified in one tube using our detection kit that increases the productivity of the analysis in the clinical use. Different types of biological samples (buccal epithelium, saliva, plasma, serum, and urogenital swabs) can be used as the initial material for DNA isolation and further analysis by the method developed in this work.

  18. MTR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA651. RELATED AIR COMPRESSOR EQUIPMENT OUTSIDE BUILDING. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-651. RELATED AIR COMPRESSOR EQUIPMENT OUTSIDE BUILDING. PIPE LEADS BELOW GRADE INTO MTR BUILDING. CAMERA FACING WEST, IE, EAST SIDE OF MTR BUILDING. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-1265. Jack L. Larsen, Photographer, 4/20/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. CONTROL ROOM ON MARCH 31, 1952, AS THE MTR GOES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTROL ROOM ON MARCH 31, 1952, AS THE MTR GOES CRITICAL FOR THE FIRST TIME. COMPARE CEILING FIXTURES IN THIS PHOTO AND PHOTO ID-33-G-212 FOR COMMON PERSPECTIVE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 4517. Unknown Photographer, 3/31/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. CANAL EMERGES FROM EAST SIDE OF MTR BUILDING. "EXTRA" LENGTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CANAL EMERGES FROM EAST SIDE OF MTR BUILDING. "EXTRA" LENGTH WAS TO STORE SPENT FUEL THAT WOULD ACCUMULATE BEFORE THE CHEMICAL PROCESSING PLANT WAS READY TO PROCESS IT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 1659. Unknown Photographer, 3/9/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. CUTS FOR MTR EXCAVATION ILLUSTRATE SEDIMENTARY MANTLE OF SOIL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CUTS FOR MTR EXCAVATION ILLUSTRATE SEDIMENTARY MANTLE OF SOIL AND GRAVEL OVERLAYING LAVA ROCK FIFTY FEET BELOW. SAGEBRUSH HAS BEEN SCOURED FROM REST OF SITE. CAMERA PROBABLY FACES SOUTHWEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 67. Unknown Photographer, 6/4/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. MTR CONTROL ROOM WITH CONTROL CONSOLE AND STATUS READOUTS ALONG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR CONTROL ROOM WITH CONTROL CONSOLE AND STATUS READOUTS ALONG WALL. WORKERS MAKE ELECTRICAL AND OTHER CONNECTIONS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 4289. Unknown Photographer, 2/26/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. REACTIVITY MEASUREMENT FACILITY. CAMERA LOOKS DOWN INTO MTR CANAL. REACTOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REACTIVITY MEASUREMENT FACILITY. CAMERA LOOKS DOWN INTO MTR CANAL. REACTOR IS FUELED AS AN ETR MOCK-UP. LIGHTS DANGLE BELOW WATER LEVEL. CONTROL RODS AND OTHER APPARATUS DESCEND FROM ABOVE WATER LEVEL. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-900. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 3/26/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. ELECTRICAL LINES ARRIVE FROM CENTRAL FACILITIES AREA, SOUTH OF MTR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ELECTRICAL LINES ARRIVE FROM CENTRAL FACILITIES AREA, SOUTH OF MTR. EXCAVATION RUBBLE IN FOREGROUND. CONTRACTOR CRAFT SHOPS, CRANES, AND OTHER MATERIALS ON SITE. CAMERA FACES EAST, WITH LITTLE BUTTE AND MIDDLE BUTTE IN DISTANCE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 335. Unknown Photographer, 7/1/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. Fission yeast mtr1p regulates interphase microtubule cortical dwell-time

    PubMed Central

    Carlier-Grynkorn, Frédérique; Ji, Liang; Fraisier, Vincent; Lombard, Berangère; Dingli, Florent; Loew, Damarys; Paoletti, Anne; Ronot, Xavier; Tran, Phong T.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The microtubule cytoskeleton plays important roles in cell polarity, motility and division. Microtubules inherently undergo dynamic instability, stochastically switching between phases of growth and shrinkage. In cells, some microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) and molecular motors can further modulate microtubule dynamics. We present here the fission yeast mtr1+, a new regulator of microtubule dynamics that appears to be not a MAP or a motor. mtr1-deletion (mtr1Δ) primarily results in longer microtubule dwell-time at the cell tip cortex, suggesting that mtr1p acts directly or indirectly as a destabilizer of microtubules. mtr1p is antagonistic to mal3p, the ortholog of mammalian EB1, which stabilizes microtubules. mal3Δ results in short microtubules, but can be partially rescued by mtr1Δ, as the double mutant mal3Δ mtr1Δ exhibits longer microtubules than mal3Δ single mutant. By sequence homology, mtr1p is predicted to be a component of the ribosomal quality control complex. Intriguingly, deletion of a predicted ribosomal gene, rps1801, also resulted in longer microtubule dwell-time similar to mtr1Δ. The double-mutant mal3Δ rps1801Δ also exhibits longer microtubules than mal3Δ single mutant alone. Our study suggests a possible involvement of mtr1p and the ribosome complex in modulating microtubule dynamics. PMID:24928430

  6. Fission yeast mtr1p regulates interphase microtubule cortical dwell-time.

    PubMed

    Carlier-Grynkorn, Frédérique; Ji, Liang; Fraisier, Vincent; Lombard, Berangère; Dingli, Florent; Loew, Damarys; Paoletti, Anne; Ronot, Xavier; Tran, Phong T

    2014-01-01

    The microtubule cytoskeleton plays important roles in cell polarity, motility and division. Microtubules inherently undergo dynamic instability, stochastically switching between phases of growth and shrinkage. In cells, some microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) and molecular motors can further modulate microtubule dynamics. We present here the fission yeast mtr1(+), a new regulator of microtubule dynamics that appears to be not a MAP or a motor. mtr1-deletion (mtr1Δ) primarily results in longer microtubule dwell-time at the cell tip cortex, suggesting that mtr1p acts directly or indirectly as a destabilizer of microtubules. mtr1p is antagonistic to mal3p, the ortholog of mammalian EB1, which stabilizes microtubules. mal3Δ results in short microtubules, but can be partially rescued by mtr1Δ, as the double mutant mal3Δ mtr1Δ exhibits longer microtubules than mal3Δ single mutant. By sequence homology, mtr1p is predicted to be a component of the ribosomal quality control complex. Intriguingly, deletion of a predicted ribosomal gene, rps1801, also resulted in longer microtubule dwell-time similar to mtr1Δ. The double-mutant mal3Δ rps1801Δ also exhibits longer microtubules than mal3Δ single mutant alone. Our study suggests a possible involvement of mtr1p and the ribosome complex in modulating microtubule dynamics. PMID:24928430

  7. Identification of a cell envelope protein (MtrF) involved in hydrophobic antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Veal, Wendy L; Shafer, William M

    2003-01-01

    The mtrCDE-encoded efflux pump of Neisseria gonorrhoeae provides gonococci with a mechanism to resist structurally diverse antimicrobial hydrophobic agents (HAs). Strains of N. gonorrhoeae that display hypersusceptibility to HAs often contain mutations in the efflux pump genes, mtrCDE. Such strains frequently contain a phenotypically suppressed mutation in mtrR, a gene that encodes a repressor (MtrR) of mtrCDE gene expression, and one that would normally result in HA resistance. We have recently examined HA-hypersusceptible clinical isolates of gonococci that contain such phenotypically suppressed mtrR mutations, in order to determine whether genes other than mtrCDE are involved in HA resistance. These studies led to the discovery of a gene that we have designated mtrF, located downstream of the mtrR gene, that is predicted to encode a 56.1 kDa cytoplasmic membrane protein containing 12 transmembrane domains. Expression of mtrF was enhanced in a strain deficient in MtrR production, indicating that this gene, together with the closely linked mtrCDE operon, is subject to MtrR-dependent transcriptional control. Orthologues of mtrF were identified in a number of diverse bacteria. Except for the AbgT protein of Escherichia coli, their products have been identified as hypothetical proteins with unknown function(s). Genetic evidence is presented that MtrF is important in the expression of high-level detergent resistance by gonococci. We propose that MtrF acts in conjunction with the MtrC-MtrD-MtrE efflux pump, to confer on gonococci high-level resistance to certain HAs. PMID:12493784

  8. MTR MAIN FLOOR. NEUTRON TUNNEL (SPANNED BY STILELIKE STEPS) PROJECTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR MAIN FLOOR. NEUTRON TUNNEL (SPANNED BY STILE-LIKE STEPS) PROJECTS FROM THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE MTR TOWARD SOUTHEAST CORNER OF BUILDING, WHERE SHIELDING BLOCKS BEGIN TO SURROUND THE TUNNEL AS IT NEARS DETECTING INSTRUMENTS NEAR THE BUILDING WALL. GEAR RELATED TO CRYSTAL NEUTRON SPECTROMETER IS IN FOREGROUND SURROUNDED BY SHIELDING. DATA CONSOLES ARE AT MID-LEVEL OF EAST FACE. OTHER WORK PROCEEDS ON TOP OF AND ELSEWHERE AROUND REACTOR. NOTE TOOLS HANGING AGAINST SOUTHEAST CORNER, USED TO CHANGE FUEL ELEMENTS AND OTHER REACTOR ITEMS DURING REFUELING CYCLES. INL NEGATIVE NO. 10439. Unknown Photographer, 4/20/1954 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. MTR CAISSONS WERE DRILLED INTO BEDROCK. IN CENTER OF VIEW, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR CAISSONS WERE DRILLED INTO BEDROCK. IN CENTER OF VIEW, CONCRETE FLOWS FROM TRUCK INTO DRUM, WHICH IS LOWERED INTO CAISSON AND RELEASED AT BOTTOM OF HOLE. BEYOND, TRUCK-MOUNTED DRILLING RIG DRILLS HOLE FOR ANOTHER CAISSON NEAR EDGE OF EXCAVATION. MATERIAL REMOVED FROM HOLE IS CARRIED BY CONVEYOR TO WAITING TRUCK. INL NEGATIVE NO. 307. Unknown Photographer, 6/1950. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. TOP OF MTR. MAN CLIMBS FRAME ON FOOT LADDER TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOP OF MTR. MAN CLIMBS FRAME ON FOOT LADDER TO POSITION CRANE HOOK, WHICH WILL LIFT TOP PLUG FROM REACTOR AS A STEP IN REFUELING PROCEDURES. NOTE CRANE OPERATOR AT UPPER LEFT OF VIEW. ENTIRE APPARATUS, INCLUDING FRAME AND DRIVES FOR CONTROL RODS, WILL BE LIFTED. INL NEGATIVE NO. 6199. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 6/22/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. CONTROL CONSOLE FOR MTR FISSION PRODUCT MONITOR, USED TO DETECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTROL CONSOLE FOR MTR FISSION PRODUCT MONITOR, USED TO DETECT BREAKS IN CLADDING OF FUEL ELEMENTS. COUNT-RATE METER IN TOP PANEL INDICATES AMOUNT OF RADIOACTIVITY. LOWER PANELS SUPPLY POWER AND AMPLIFICATION OF SIGNALS GENERATED BY SCINTILLATION COUNTER/PHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBE COMBINATION IN RESPONSE TO RADIOACTIVITY IN A SAMPLE OF THE COOLING WATER. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-771. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 3/15/1956. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. MTR BASEMENT. DOORWAY TO SOURCE STORAGE VAULT IS AT CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BASEMENT. DOORWAY TO SOURCE STORAGE VAULT IS AT CENTER OF VIEW; TO DECONTAMINATION ROOM, AT RIGHT. PART OF MAZE ENTRY IS VISIBLE INSIDE VAULT DOORWAY. INL NEGATIVE NO. 7763. Unknown Photographer, photo was dated as 3/30/1953, but this was probably an error. The more likely date is 3/30/1952. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. Mutations in Mtr4 Structural Domains Reveal Their Important Role in Regulating tRNAiMet Turnover in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Mtr4p Enzymatic Activities In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Burclaff, Joseph; Anderson, James T

    2016-01-01

    RNA processing and turnover play important roles in the maturation, metabolism and quality control of a large variety of RNAs thereby contributing to gene expression and cellular health. The TRAMP complex, composed of Air2p, Trf4p and Mtr4p, stimulates nuclear exosome-dependent RNA processing and degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The Mtr4 protein structure is composed of a helicase core and a novel so-called arch domain, which protrudes from the core. The helicase core contains highly conserved helicase domains RecA-1 and 2, and two structural domains of unclear functions, winged helix domain (WH) and ratchet domain. How the structural domains (arch, WH and ratchet domain) coordinate with the helicase domains and what roles they are playing in regulating Mtr4p helicase activity are unknown. We created a library of Mtr4p structural domain mutants for the first time and screened for those defective in the turnover of TRAMP and exosome substrate, hypomodified tRNAiMet. We found these domains regulate Mtr4p enzymatic activities differently through characterizing the arch domain mutants K700N and P731S, WH mutant K904N, and ratchet domain mutant R1030G. Arch domain mutants greatly reduced Mtr4p RNA binding, which surprisingly did not lead to significant defects on either in vivo tRNAiMet turnover, or in vitro unwinding activities. WH mutant K904N and Ratchet domain mutant R1030G showed decreased tRNAiMet turnover in vivo, as well as reduced RNA binding, ATPase and unwinding activities of Mtr4p in vitro. Particularly, K904 was found to be very important for steady protein levels in vivo. Overall, we conclude that arch domain plays a role in RNA binding but is largely dispensable for Mtr4p enzymatic activities, however the structural domains in the helicase core significantly contribute to Mtr4p ATPase and unwinding activities.

  14. CONCRETE POURS HAVE PRODUCED A REINFORCED SUPPORT BASE FOR MTR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONCRETE POURS HAVE PRODUCED A REINFORCED SUPPORT BASE FOR MTR REACTOR. PIPE TUNNEL IS UNDER CONSTRUCTION AT CENTER OF VIEW. PIPES WILL CARRY RADIOACTIVE WATER FROM REACTOR TO WATER PROCESS BUILDING. CAMERA LOOKS SOUTH INTO TUNNEL ALONG WEST SIDE OF REACTOR BASE. TWO CAISSONS ARE AT LEFT SIDE OF VIEW. NOTE "WINDOW" IN SOUTH FACE OF REACTOR BASE AND ALSO GROUP OF PENETRATIONS TO ITS LEFT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 733. Unknown Photographer, 10/6/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. TEST REACTOR AREA PLOT PLAN CA. 1968. MTR AND ETR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TEST REACTOR AREA PLOT PLAN CA. 1968. MTR AND ETR AREAS SOUTH OF PERCH AVENUE. "COLD" SERVICES NORTH OF PERCH. ADVANCED TEST REACTOR IN NEW SECTION WEST OF COLD SERVICES SECTION. NEW PERIMETER FENCE ENCLOSES BETA RAY SPECTROMETER, TRA-669, AN ATR SUPPORT FACILITY, AND ATR STACK. UTM LOCATORS HAVE BEEN DELETED. IDAHO NUCLEAR CORPORATION, FROM A BLAW-KNOX DRAWING, 3/1968. INL INDEX NO. 530-0100-00-400-011646, REV. 0. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. Acoustic Sensors for Fission Gas Characterization in MTR Harsh Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Very, F.; Rosenkrantz, E.; Fourmentel, D.; Destouches, C.; Villard, J. F.; Combette, P.; Ferrandis, J. Y.

    Our group is now working for more than 15 years, in a close partnership with CEA, on the development of acoustic sensors devoted to the characterization of fission gas release for in-pile experiments in Material Testing Reactor. First of all, we will present the main principle of the method and the result of a first succeed experiment called REMORA 3 used to differentiate helium and fission gas released kinetics under transient operating condition [1]. Then we will present our new researches involving thick film transducers produced by screen-printing process in order to propose piezoelectric structures for harsh temperature and irradiation measurements in new MTR reactor.

  17. Failed MTR Fuel Element Detect in a Sipping Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Zeituni, C.A.; Terremoto, L.A.A.; da Silva, J.E.R.

    2004-10-06

    This work describes sipping tests performed on Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements of the IEA-R1 research reactor, in order to find out which one failed in the core during a routine operation. Radioactive iodine isotopes {sup 131}I and {sup 133}I, employed as failure monitors, were detected in samples corresponding to the failed fuel element. The specific activity of each sample, as well as the average leaking rate, were measured for {sup 137}Cs. The nuclear fuels U{sub 3}O{sub 8} - Al dispersion and U - Al alloy were compared concerning their measured average leaking rates of {sup 137}Cs.

  18. WORKERS FABRICATE ROOF SLABS FOR MTR BUILDING AT THE CONSTRUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WORKERS FABRICATE ROOF SLABS FOR MTR BUILDING AT THE CONSTRUCTION SITE. FORMS WERE MADE OF STEEL. AFTER AN INCH OF CONCRETE HAD BEEN POURED IN THE FORM, A MAT OF REINFORCING STEEL WAS PLACED ON IT. THE REMAINDER OF THE FORM WAS FILLED, AND THE CONCRETE WAS VIBRATED, STRUCK, AND TROWELED. GROOVES AT CORNER WILL HAVE 1/4 INCH RODS WELDED INTO THE EYE OF THE STEEL MAT FOR GROUNDING. INL NEGATIVE NO. 578. Unknown Photographer, 9/1/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. MTR WING A, TRA604. NORTH SIDE. CAMERA FACING SOUTH. OFFICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING A, TRA-604. NORTH SIDE. CAMERA FACING SOUTH. OFFICE WING IS CONNECTED TO TRA-603 SECOND/THIRD FLOOR AT LEFT. PROJECTION AT RIGHT IS TRA-668, MTR NORTH WING EXTENSION. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD47-44-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. MTR WING A, TRA604. SOUTH SIDE, LARGELY HIDDEN BY TEMPORARY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING A, TRA-604. SOUTH SIDE, LARGELY HIDDEN BY TEMPORARY STORAGE STRUCTURE. CAMERA FACING NORTHWEST. EAST SIDE OF TRA-661, MTR SOUTH WING IS AT LEFT OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD47-44-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. MTR, TRA603. BASEMENT DECONTAMINATION ROOM DETAILS. WALLS OF SOLID CONCRETE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. BASEMENT DECONTAMINATION ROOM DETAILS. WALLS OF SOLID CONCRETE MASONRY. STAINLESS STEEL WORK BENCH, FLOOR COVING AND DRAINS. "WARM" FLOOR DRAIN. OVERHEAD SHOWER WITH CHAIN PULL. IDO MTR-603-IDO-4, 12/1952. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-396-110468, REV. 1. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. MTR, TRA603. SOURCE STORAGE VAULT IN BASEMENT. MAZE ENTRY. SOLID ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. SOURCE STORAGE VAULT IN BASEMENT. MAZE ENTRY. SOLID CONCRETE WALLS. CONCRETE PLUGS, ONE LINED WITH LEAD, AND LIFT HANDLES. FLOOR WELLS SIX FEET DEEP BELOW FLOOR. IDO MTR-603-IDO-5, 12/1952. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-396-110469, REV. 0. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603. BASEMENT. CAMERA IN WEST CORRIDOR FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603. BASEMENT. CAMERA IN WEST CORRIDOR FACING SOUTH. FREIGHT ELEVATOR IS AT RIGHT OF VIEW. AT CENTER VIEW IS MTR VAULT NO. 1, USED TO STORE SPECIAL OR FISSIONABLE MATERIALS. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-6-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. Crystal structure of the open state of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae MtrE outer membrane channel.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hsiang-Ting; Chou, Tsung-Han; Su, Chih-Chia; Bolla, Jani Reddy; Kumar, Nitin; Radhakrishnan, Abhijith; Long, Feng; Delmar, Jared A; Do, Sylvia V; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R; Shafer, William M; Yu, Edward W

    2014-01-01

    Active efflux of antimicrobial agents is one of the most important strategies used by bacteria to defend against antimicrobial factors present in their environment. Mediating many cases of antibiotic resistance are transmembrane efflux pumps, composed of one or more proteins. The Neisseria gonorrhoeae MtrCDE tripartite multidrug efflux pump, belonging to the hydrophobic and amphiphilic efflux resistance-nodulation-cell division (HAE-RND) family, spans both the inner and outer membranes of N. gonorrhoeae and confers resistance to a variety of antibiotics and toxic compounds. We here describe the crystal structure of N. gonorrhoeae MtrE, the outer membrane component of the MtrCDE tripartite multidrug efflux system. This trimeric MtrE channel forms a vertical tunnel extending down contiguously from the outer membrane surface to the periplasmic end, indicating that our structure of MtrE depicts an open conformational state of this channel.

  5. Crystal structure of the open state of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae MtrE outer membrane channel.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hsiang-Ting; Chou, Tsung-Han; Su, Chih-Chia; Bolla, Jani Reddy; Kumar, Nitin; Radhakrishnan, Abhijith; Long, Feng; Delmar, Jared A; Do, Sylvia V; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R; Shafer, William M; Yu, Edward W

    2014-01-01

    Active efflux of antimicrobial agents is one of the most important strategies used by bacteria to defend against antimicrobial factors present in their environment. Mediating many cases of antibiotic resistance are transmembrane efflux pumps, composed of one or more proteins. The Neisseria gonorrhoeae MtrCDE tripartite multidrug efflux pump, belonging to the hydrophobic and amphiphilic efflux resistance-nodulation-cell division (HAE-RND) family, spans both the inner and outer membranes of N. gonorrhoeae and confers resistance to a variety of antibiotics and toxic compounds. We here describe the crystal structure of N. gonorrhoeae MtrE, the outer membrane component of the MtrCDE tripartite multidrug efflux system. This trimeric MtrE channel forms a vertical tunnel extending down contiguously from the outer membrane surface to the periplasmic end, indicating that our structure of MtrE depicts an open conformational state of this channel. PMID:24901251

  6. Gamma-ray spectroscopy on irradiated MTR fuel elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terremoto, L. A. A.; Zeituni, C. A.; Perrotta, J. A.; da Silva, J. E. R.

    2000-08-01

    The availability of burnup data is an important requirement in any systematic approach to the enhancement of safety, economics and performance of a nuclear research reactor. This work presents the theory and experimental techniques applied to determine, by means of nondestructive gamma-ray spectroscopy, the burnup of Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements irradiated in the IEA-R1 research reactor. Burnup measurements, based on analysis of spectra that result from collimation and detection of gamma-rays emitted in the decay of radioactive fission products, were performed at the reactor pool area. The measuring system consists of a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector together with suitable fast electronics and an on-line microcomputer data acquisition module. In order to achieve absolute burnup values, the detection set (collimator tube+HPGe detector) was previously calibrated in efficiency. The obtained burnup values are compared with ones provided by reactor physics calculations, for three kinds of MTR fuel elements with different cooling times, initial enrichment grades and total number of fuel plates. Both values show good agreement within the experimental error limits.

  7. Characterization of a functional C-terminus of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis MtrA responsible for both DNA binding and interaction with its two-component partner protein, MtrB.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuqing; Zeng, Jumei; He, Zheng-Guo

    2010-11-01

    Virulence in pathogenic bacteria is due in part to the action of two-component systems. However, in the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the molecular mechanisms underlying these systems are as yet unclear. In this study, MtrA was shown to contain a functional C-terminus and also to have Ca(2+) as its preferred cofactor for DNA binding. Further mutation experiments demonstrated that the C-terminus of MtrA was responsible for specific interactions with the target DNA motif and also with its partner protein, MtrB. The physical interaction between MtrA and MtrB inhibited DNA binding by MtrA. These findings yield critical information about the unique regulatory mechanisms of the essential MtrAB two-component system in this pathogen.

  8. CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF "COLD" NORTH HALF OF MTR COMPLEX. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF "COLD" NORTH HALF OF MTR COMPLEX. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY. FOREGROUND CORNER CONTAINS OIL STORAGE TANKS. WATER TANKS AND WELL HOUSES ARE BEYOND THEM TO THE LEFT. LARGE LIGHT-COLORED BUILDING IN CENTER OF VIEW IS STEAM PLANT. DEMINERALIZER AND WATER STORAGE TANK ARE BEYOND. SIX-CELL COOLING TOWER AND ITS PUMP HOUSE ARE ABOVE IT IN VIEW. SERVICE BUILDINGS INCLUDING CANTEEN ARE ON NORTH SIDE OF ROAD. "EXCLUSION" AREA IS BEYOND ROAD. COMPARE LOCATION OF EXCLUSION-AREA GATE WITH PHOTO ID-33-G-202. INL NEGATIVE NO. 3608. Unknown Photographer, 10/30/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. ENGINEERING TEST REACTOR, TRA642. CONTEXTUAL VIEW ORIENTATING ETR TO MTR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ENGINEERING TEST REACTOR, TRA-642. CONTEXTUAL VIEW ORIENTATING ETR TO MTR. CAMERA IS ON ROOF OF MTR BUILDING AND FACES DUE SOUTH. MTR SERVICE BUILDING, TRA-635, IN LOWER RIGHT CORNER. STEEL FRAMES SHOW BUILDINGS TO BE ATTACHED TO ETR BUILDING. HIGH-BAY SECTION IN CENTER IS REACTOR BUILDING. TWO-STORY CONTROL ROOM AND OFFICE BUILDING, TRA-647, IS BETWEEN IT AND MTR SERVICE BUILDING. STRUCTURE TO THE LEFT (WITH NO FRAMING YET) IS COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-643, AND BEYOND IT WILL BE HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA-644, GREAT SOUTHERN BUTTE ON HORIZON. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-2382. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 6/10/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. PUMP HOUSE FOR MTR WELL NO. 1, TRA601. FLOOR PLAN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PUMP HOUSE FOR MTR WELL NO. 1, TRA-601. FLOOR PLAN, ELEVATIONS, SECTION SHOWING WELL CASING, ROOF FRAMING PLAN. AS BUILT. WELL HOUSE FOR WELL NO. 2, TRA-602, WAS IDENTICAL IN ALL PARTICULARS EXCEPT FLOOR DIMENSIONS AND ARRANGEMENT OF PUMP AND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT INSIDE. IDAHO OPERATIONS OFFICE MTR-601-IDO-1, 12/1954. INL INDEX NO. 531-0601-00-396-110463, REV. 2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. MtrA of the sodium ion pumping methyltransferase binds cobalamin in a unique mode

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Tristan; Ermler, Ulrich; Shima, Seigo

    2016-01-01

    In the three domains of life, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is primarily used in methyltransferase and isomerase reactions. The methyltransferase complex MtrA–H of methanogenic archaea has a key function in energy conservation by catalysing the methyl transfer from methyl-tetrahydromethanopterin to coenzyme M and its coupling with sodium-ion translocation. The cobalamin-binding subunit MtrA is not homologous to any known B12-binding proteins and is proposed as the motor of the sodium-ion pump. Here, we present crystal structures of the soluble domain of the membrane-associated MtrA from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii and the cytoplasmic MtrA homologue/cobalamin complex from Methanothermus fervidus. The MtrA fold corresponds to the Rossmann-type α/β fold, which is also found in many cobalamin-containing proteins. Surprisingly, the cobalamin-binding site of MtrA differed greatly from all the other cobalamin-binding sites. Nevertheless, the hydrogen-bond linkage at the lower axial-ligand site of cobalt was equivalently constructed to that found in other methyltransferases and mutases. A distinct polypeptide segment fixed through the hydrogen-bond linkage in the relaxed Co(III) state might be involved in propagating the energy released upon corrinoid demethylation to the sodium-translocation site by a conformational change. PMID:27324530

  12. Nuclear mRNA accumulation causes nucleolar fragmentation in yeast mtr2 mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Kadowaki, T; Hitomi, M; Chen, S; Tartakoff, A M

    1994-01-01

    We have identified a set of genes that affect mRNA transport (mtr) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One of these genes, MTR2, has been cloned and shown to encode a novel 21-kDa nuclear protein that is essential for vegetative growth. MTR2 shows limited homology to a protein implicated in plasmid DNA transfer in Escherichia coli. PolyA+RNA accumulates within the nucleus of mtr2-1 in two to three foci at 37 degrees C. mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA synthesis continue as do pre-mRNA splicing, tRNA processing, and rRNA export at 37 degrees C. Under these conditions the polyA tail length increases, and protein synthesis is progressively inhibited. Nucleolar antigens also redistribute to two to three nuclear foci at 37 degrees C, and this redistribution depends on ongoing transcription by RNA polymerase II. Surprisingly, these foci coincide with the sites of polyA+RNA accumulation. Comparable colocalization and dependance on RNA polymerase II transcription is seen for the mtr1-1 mutant. The disorganization of the nucleolus thus depends on mRNA accumulation in these mutants. We discuss the possible functions of MTR2 and the yeast nucleolus in mRNA export. Images PMID:7865887

  13. MtrA of the sodium ion pumping methyltransferase binds cobalamin in a unique mode.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Tristan; Ermler, Ulrich; Shima, Seigo

    2016-01-01

    In the three domains of life, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is primarily used in methyltransferase and isomerase reactions. The methyltransferase complex MtrA-H of methanogenic archaea has a key function in energy conservation by catalysing the methyl transfer from methyl-tetrahydromethanopterin to coenzyme M and its coupling with sodium-ion translocation. The cobalamin-binding subunit MtrA is not homologous to any known B12-binding proteins and is proposed as the motor of the sodium-ion pump. Here, we present crystal structures of the soluble domain of the membrane-associated MtrA from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii and the cytoplasmic MtrA homologue/cobalamin complex from Methanothermus fervidus. The MtrA fold corresponds to the Rossmann-type α/β fold, which is also found in many cobalamin-containing proteins. Surprisingly, the cobalamin-binding site of MtrA differed greatly from all the other cobalamin-binding sites. Nevertheless, the hydrogen-bond linkage at the lower axial-ligand site of cobalt was equivalently constructed to that found in other methyltransferases and mutases. A distinct polypeptide segment fixed through the hydrogen-bond linkage in the relaxed Co(III) state might be involved in propagating the energy released upon corrinoid demethylation to the sodium-translocation site by a conformational change. PMID:27324530

  14. The Transcriptional Repressor, MtrR, of the mtrCDE Efflux Pump Operon of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Can Also Serve as an Activator of "off Target" Gene (glnE) Expression.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Paul J T; Shafer, William M

    2015-06-01

    MtrR is a well-characterized repressor of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae mtrCDE efflux pump operon. However, results from a previous transcriptional profiling study suggested that MtrR also represses or activates expression of at least sixty genes outside of the mtr locus. Evidence that MtrR can directly repress so-called "off target" genes has previously been reported; in particular, MtrR was shown to directly repress glnA, which encodes glutamine synthetase. In contrast, evidence for the ability of MtrR to directly activate expression of gonococcal genes has been lacking; herein, we provide such evidence. We now report that MtrR has the ability to directly activate expression of glnE, which encodes the dual functional adenyltransferase/deadenylase enzyme GlnE that modifies GlnA resulting in regulation of its role in glutamine biosynthesis. With its capacity to repress expression of glnA, the results presented herein emphasize the diverse and often opposing regulatory properties of MtrR that likely contributes to the overall physiology and metabolism of N. gonorrhoeae. PMID:26078871

  15. Preliminary developments of MTR plates with uranium nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Durand, J.P.; Laudamy, P.; Richter, K.

    1997-08-01

    In the opinion of CERCA, the total weight of Uranium per MTR plate (without changing the external dimensions) cannot be further increased using U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}. Limits have been reached on plates with a thicker meat or loaded to 6g Ut/cm{sup 3}. The use of a denser fuel like Uranium mononitride could permit an increase in these limits. A collaboration between the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, and CERCA has been set ut. The preliminary studies at the ITU to check compatibility between aluminium and UN proved that there are no metallurgical interactions below 500{degrees}C. Feasibility of the manufacturing, on a laboratory scale at CERCA, of depleted Uranium mononitride plates loaded to 7 g Ut/cm{sup 3} has been demonstrated. The manufacturing process, however, is only one aspect of the development of a new fuel. The experience gained in the case of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} has shown that the development of a new fuel requires considerable time and financial investment. Such a development certainly represents an effort of about 10 years.

  16. Mtr Extracellular Electron Transfer Pathways in Fe(III)-reducing or Fe(II)-oxidizing Bacteria: A Genomic Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Liang; Rosso, Kevin M.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2012-12-01

    Originally discovered in the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (MR-1), the Mtr (i.e., metal-reducing) pathway exists in all characterized strains of metal-reducing Shewanella. The protein components identified to date for the Mtr pathway of MR-1 include four multi-heme c-type cytochromes (c-Cyts), CymA, MtrA, MtrC and OmcA, and a porin-like, outer membrane protein MtrB. They are strategically positioned along the width of the MR-1 cell envelope to mediate electron transfer from the quinone/quinol pool in the inner-membrane to the Fe(III)-containing minerals external to the bacterial cells. A survey of microbial genomes revealed homologues of the Mtr pathway in other dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacteria, including Aeromonas hydrophila, Ferrimonas balearica and Rhodoferax ferrireducens, and in the Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria Dechloromonas aromatica RCB, Gallionella capsiferriformans ES-2 and Sideroxydans lithotrophicus ES-1. The widespread distribution of Mtr pathways in Fe(III)-reducing or Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria emphasizes the importance of this type of extracellular electron transfer pathway in microbial redox transformation of Fe. Their distribution in these two different functional groups of bacteria also emphasizes the bi-directional nature of electron transfer reactions carried out by the Mtr pathways. The characteristics of the Mtr pathways may be shared by other pathways used by microorganisms for exchanging electrons with their extracellular environments.

  17. MTR and In-vivo 1H-MRS studies on mouse brain with parkinson's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Moon-Hyun; Kim, Hyeon-Jin; Chung, Jin-Yeung; Doo, Ah-Reum; Park, Hi-Joon; Kim, Seung-Nam; Choe, Bo-Young

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the changes in the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) histogram are related to specific characteristics of Parkinson's disease (PD) and to investigate whether the MTR histogram parameters are associated with neurochemical dysfunction by performing in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). MTR and in vivo 1H-MRS studies were performed on control mice (n = 10) and 1-methyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine intoxicated mice (n = 10). All the MTR and in vivo 1H-MRS experiments were performed on a 9.4 T MRI/MRS system (Bruker Biospin, Germany) using a standard head coil. The protondensity fast spin echo (FSE) images and the T2-weighted spin echo (SE) images were acquired with no gap. Outer volume suppression (OVS), combined with the ultra-short echo-time stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM), was used for the localized in-vivo 1H-MRS. The quantitative analysis of metabolites was performed from the 1H spectra obtained in vivo on the striatum (ST) by using jMRUI (Lyon, France). The peak height of the MTR histograms in the PD model group was significantly lower than that in the control group (p < 0.05). The midbrain MTR values for volume were lower in the PD group than the control group(p < 0.05). The complex peak (Glx: glutamine+glutamate+ GABA)/creatine (Cr) ratio of the right ST in the PD group was significantly increased as compared to that of the control group. The present study revealed that the peak height of the MTR histogram was significantly decreased in the ST and substantia nigra, and a significant increase in the Gl x /Cr ratio was found in the ST of the PD group, as compared with that of the control group. These findings could reflect the early phase of neuronal dysfunction of neurotransmitters.

  18. [Features of allele polymorphism of genes involved in homocysteine and folate metabolism in patients with atherosclerosis of the lower extremity arteries].

    PubMed

    Klenkova, N A; Kapustin, S I; Saltykova, N B; Shmeleva, V M; Blinov, M N

    2009-01-01

    Under study were features of allele polymorphism of genes of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T and A1298C), methionine synthase (MS A 2756G), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR A66G) and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD G1958A) in patients with atherosclerosis of the lower extremity arteries (ALEA). Patients with hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) had statistically significant increase of allele MTHFR 677T and MTRR 66GG as compared both with the control group and with the group of patients without HHcy. It suggests that polymorphism of genes involved in homocystein and folate metabolism might affect the risk of HHcy in patients with ALEA. PMID:20209990

  19. [Features of allele polymorphism of genes involved in homocysteine and folate metabolism in patients with atherosclerosis of the lower extremity arteries].

    PubMed

    Klenkova, N A; Kapustin, S I; Saltykova, N B; Shmeleva, V M; Blinov, M N

    2009-01-01

    Under study were features of allele polymorphism of genes of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T and A1298C), methionine synthase (MS A 2756G), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR A66G) and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD G1958A) in patients with atherosclerosis of the lower extremity arteries (ALEA). Patients with hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) had statistically significant increase of allele MTHFR 677T and MTRR 66GG as compared both with the control group and with the group of patients without HHcy. It suggests that polymorphism of genes involved in homocystein and folate metabolism might affect the risk of HHcy in patients with ALEA.

  20. Role of Mex67-Mtr2 in the Nuclear Export of 40S Pre-Ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Occhipinti, Laura; Kemmler, Stefan; Panse, Vikram G.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear export of mRNAs and pre-ribosomal subunits (pre40S and pre60S) is fundamental to all eukaryotes. While genetic approaches in budding yeast have identified bona fide export factors for mRNAs and pre60S subunits, little is known regarding nuclear export of pre40S subunits. The yeast heterodimeric transport receptor Mex67-Mtr2 (TAP-p15 in humans) binds mRNAs and pre60S subunits in the nucleus and facilitates their passage through the nuclear pore complex (NPC) into the cytoplasm by interacting with Phe-Gly (FG)-rich nucleoporins that line its transport channel. By exploiting a combination of genetic, cell-biological, and biochemical approaches, we uncovered an unanticipated role of Mex67-Mtr2 in the nuclear export of 40S pre-ribosomes. We show that recruitment of Mex67-Mtr2 to pre40S subunits requires loops emanating from its NTF2-like domains and that the C-terminal FG-rich nucleoporin interacting UBA-like domain within Mex67 contributes to the transport of pre40S subunits to the cytoplasm. Remarkably, the same loops also recruit Mex67-Mtr2 to pre60S subunits and to the Nup84 complex, the respective interactions crucial for nuclear export of pre60S subunits and mRNAs. Thus Mex67-Mtr2 is a unique transport receptor that employs a common interaction surface to participate in the nuclear export of both pre-ribosomal subunits and mRNAs. Mex67-Mtr2 could engage a regulatory crosstalk among the three major export pathways for optimal cellular growth and proliferation. PMID:22956913

  1. MTR,TRA603. EXPERIMENTERS' SPACE ALLOCATIONS IN BASEMENT AS OF 1963. SHIELDED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR,TRA-603. EXPERIMENTERS' SPACE ALLOCATIONS IN BASEMENT AS OF 1963. SHIELDED CUBICLES WERE IDENTIFIED BY SPONSORING LABORATORY AND ITS TEST HOLE NUMBER IN THE REACTOR, IE, "KAPL HB-1" SIGNIFIED KNOLLS ATOMIC POWER LABORATORY, HORIZONTAL BEAM NO. 1. "WAPD" WAS WESTINGHOUSE ATOMIC POWER DIVISION. CATCH TANKS AND SAMPLE STATIONS FOR TEST LOOPS WERE ASSOCIATED WITH THESE CUBICLES. NOTE DESKS, STORAGE CABINETS, SWITCH GEAR, INSTRUMENT PANELS. PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY MTR-E-5205, 4/1963. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-706-009757, REV. 5. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. MTR WING, TRA604, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. INTERIOR VIEW FROM SAME LOCATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING, TRA-604, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. INTERIOR VIEW FROM SAME LOCATION IN WEST CORRIDOR AS PHOTO ID-33-G-42 BUT CAMERA FACES SOUTH. SIGN ON DOOR FOR "PIPE TUNNEL" WARNS OF RADIOLOGICAL AND ASBESTOS HAZARDS. DOOR HAS METAL HASPS. SIGN ON OVERHEAD WASTE HEAT RECOVERY PIPES SAYS THEY CONTAIN "ASBESTOS FREE INSULATION." FIRE DOOR AT LEFT LEADS TO STAIRWAY TO FIRST FLOOR. DOOR AT RIGHT LEADS TO ROOM WHICH ONCE CONTAINED MTR LIBRARY. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-13-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. MTR, TRA603. NORTH ELEVATION. PLUG STORAGE AREA WITH ROLLING STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. NORTH ELEVATION. PLUG STORAGE AREA WITH ROLLING STEEL DOOR. PIPE TUNNEL IN SUB-BASEMENT. FIXED SASH WINDOWS IN BALCONY SECTION. DOOR DETAILS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-803-7, 7/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-098-100566, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. SOUTH WING, MTR661. INTERIOR DETAIL INSIDE LAB ROOM 131. CAMERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH WING, MTR-661. INTERIOR DETAIL INSIDE LAB ROOM 131. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. NOTE CONCRETE BLOCK WALLS. SAFETY SHOWER AND EYE WASHER AT REAR WALL. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-7-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. Performance of the MTR core with MOX fuel using the MCNP4C2 code.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Ismail; Albarhoum, Mohamad

    2016-08-01

    The MCNP4C2 code was used to simulate the MTR-22 MW research reactor and perform the neutronic analysis for a new fuel namely: a MOX (U3O8&PuO2) fuel dispersed in an Al matrix for One Neutronic Trap (ONT) and Three Neutronic Traps (TNTs) in its core. Its new characteristics were compared to its original characteristics based on the U3O8-Al fuel. Experimental data for the neutronic parameters including criticality relative to the MTR-22 MW reactor for the original U3O8-Al fuel at nominal power were used to validate the calculated values and were found acceptable. The achieved results seem to confirm that the use of MOX fuel in the MTR-22 MW will not degrade the safe operational conditions of the reactor. In addition, the use of MOX fuel in the MTR-22 MW core leads to reduce the uranium fuel enrichment with (235)U and the amount of loaded (235)U in the core by about 34.84% and 15.21% for the ONT and TNTs cases, respectively. PMID:27213809

  6. MTR STACK, TRA710, CONTEXTUAL VIEW, CAMERA FACING SOUTH. PERIMETER SECURITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR STACK, TRA-710, CONTEXTUAL VIEW, CAMERA FACING SOUTH. PERIMETER SECURITY FENCE AND SECURITY LIGHTING IN VIEW AT LEFT. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD52-1-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 5/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. MTR, TRA603. CONTROL ROOM DETAILS. ACOUSTIC PLASTER CEILING, USHAPED CONSOLE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. CONTROL ROOM DETAILS. ACOUSTIC PLASTER CEILING, U-SHAPED CONSOLE, INSTRUMENT PANELS, GLASS DOOR, ASPHALT TILE FLOOR AND COLORS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-803-11, 10/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-098-100570, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulations and Molecular Conductance Measurements of the Bacterial Decaheme Cytochrome MtrF

    SciTech Connect

    Byun, H. S.; Pirbadian, S.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Shi, Liang; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y.

    2014-09-05

    Microorganisms overcome the considerable hurdle of respiring extracellular solid substrates by deploying large multiheme cytochrome complexes that form 20 nanometer conduits to traffic electrons through the periplasm and across the cellular outer membrane. Here we report the first kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and single-molecule scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements of the Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 outer membrane decaheme cytochrome MtrF, which can perform the final electron transfer step from cells to minerals and microbial fuel cell anodes. We find that the calculated electron transport rate through MtrF is consistent with previously reported in vitro measurements of the Shewanella Mtr complex, as well as in vivo respiration rates on electrode surfaces assuming a reasonable (experimentally verified) coverage of cytochromes on the cell surface. The simulations also reveal a rich phase diagram in the overall electron occupation density of the hemes as a function of electron injection and ejection rates. Single molecule tunneling spectroscopy confirms MtrF's ability to mediate electron transport between an STM tip and an underlying Au(111) surface, but at rates higher than expected from previously calculated heme-heme electron transfer rates for solvated molecules.

  9. MTR WING, TRA604. FIRST FLOOR PLAN. ENTRY LOBBY, MACHINE SHOP, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING, TRA-604. FIRST FLOOR PLAN. ENTRY LOBBY, MACHINE SHOP, INSTRUMENT SHOP, COUNTING ROOM, HEALTH PHYSICS LAB, LABS AND OFFICES, STORAGE, SHIPPING AND RECEIVING. BLAW-KNOX 3150-4-2, 7/1950. INL INDEX NO. 053-604-00-099-100008, REV. 7. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. MTR, TRA603. FOUNDATION PLAN, SECTION A ALONG NORTH/SOUTH AXIS SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. FOUNDATION PLAN, SECTION A ALONG NORTH/SOUTH AXIS SHOWS PIPE TUNNEL FOR COOLANT WATER. BLAW-KNOX 3150-803-33, 5/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-62-098-100589, REV. 8. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. MTR, TRA603. SUBBASEMENT FLOOR PLAN. INLET/OUTLET TUNNELS FOR COOLANT WATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. SUB-BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN. INLET/OUTLET TUNNELS FOR COOLANT WATER (NORTH SIDE) AND AIR (SOUTH SIDE). RABBIT CANAL AND BULKHEADS. SUMPS AND DRAINS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-3-7, 3/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-098-100006, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. MTR, TRA603. FOUNDATION PLAN, SECTION C THROUGH COOLANT WATER EXIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. FOUNDATION PLAN, SECTION C THROUGH COOLANT WATER EXIT TUNNEL ALONG NORTH SIDE AS IT RETURNS TO MAIN COOLANT TUNNEL LEAVING BUILDING TO THE NORTH. BLAW-KNOX 3150-803-35, 5/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-62-098-100591, REV. 2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. MTR, TRA603. BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN. REACTOR SHIELDING, CANAL AND RABBIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN. REACTOR SHIELDING, CANAL AND RABBIT CANAL, DEEP WELL STORAGE. DECONTAMINATION ROOM, VAULT, MONITOR ROOM, OFFICE, STAIRWAYS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-803-1, 7/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-098-100560, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. Structure and function of Neisseria gonorrhoeae MtrF illuminates a class of antimetabolite efflux pumps.

    PubMed

    Su, Chih-Chia; Bolla, Jani Reddy; Kumar, Nitin; Radhakrishnan, Abhijith; Long, Feng; Delmar, Jared A; Chou, Tsung-Han; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R; Shafer, William M; Yu, Edward W

    2015-04-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an obligate human pathogen and the causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea. The control of this disease has been compromised by the increasing proportion of infections due to antibiotic-resistant strains, which are growing at an alarming rate. N. gonorrhoeae MtrF is an integral membrane protein that belongs to the AbgT family of transporters for which no structural information is available. Here, we describe the crystal structure of MtrF, revealing a dimeric molecule with architecture distinct from all other families of transporters. MtrF is a bowl-shaped dimer with a solvent-filled basin extending from the cytoplasm to halfway across the membrane bilayer. Each subunit of the transporter contains nine transmembrane helices and two hairpins, posing a plausible pathway for substrate transport. A combination of the crystal structure and biochemical functional assays suggests that MtrF is an antibiotic efflux pump mediating bacterial resistance to sulfonamide antimetabolite drugs.

  15. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603, BASEMENT. CAMERA IS IN OFFICE AREA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603, BASEMENT. CAMERA IS IN OFFICE AREA A-101 AND FACING EAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-6-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. MTR WING A, TRA604, INTERIOR. MAIN FLOOR, DETAIL OF LABORATORY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING A, TRA-604, INTERIOR. MAIN FLOOR, DETAIL OF LABORATORY 123. CAMERA LOOKING NORTHEAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-12-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. MTR BUILDING, INTERIOR, TRA603. BASEMENT. CAMERA IS IN NORTHWEST CORNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING, INTERIOR, TRA-603. BASEMENT. CAMERA IS IN NORTHWEST CORNER FACING SOUTHEAST. AREA IS IN USE FOR FILE STORAGE. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-6-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603. CAMERA IS AT SOUTH END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603. CAMERA IS AT SOUTH END OF THIRD FLOOR BALCONY LOOKING NORTHEAST. BRIDGE BETWEEN BALCONY AND REACTOR TOP AT LEFT OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-5-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603, REACTOR FLOOR. VIEW DOWN CORRIDOR CREATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603, REACTOR FLOOR. VIEW DOWN CORRIDOR CREATED BY EAST WALL ON LEFT AND APPARATUS ON RIGHT. CAMERA FACING SOUTH. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-1-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. MTR WING A, TRA604, INTERIOR. SECOND FLOOR, GENERAL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING A, TRA-604, INTERIOR. SECOND FLOOR, GENERAL VIEW OF OFFICES 210 AND 209 AS SEEN FROM TOP OF STAIRWAY. CAMERA FACES SOUTH. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-9-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. SOUTH WING, TRA661. SOUTH SIDE. CAMERA FACING NORTH. MTR HIGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH WING, TRA-661. SOUTH SIDE. CAMERA FACING NORTH. MTR HIGH BAY BEYOND. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-45-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. MTR WING A, TRA604, INTERIOR. MAIN FLOOR. DETAIL VIEW INSIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING A, TRA-604, INTERIOR. MAIN FLOOR. DETAIL VIEW INSIDE LABORATORY 110. CAMERA FACING SOUTH. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-12-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603, REACTOR FLOOR. DETAIL OF REACTOR TEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603, REACTOR FLOOR. DETAIL OF REACTOR TEST HOLE OPENING IN WEST FACE. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-2-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. SOUTH WING, TRA661. WEST SIDE. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. MTR WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH WING, TRA-661. WEST SIDE. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. MTR WEST WALL BEYOND ROOF LINE. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-45-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603. DETAIL OF OFFICE (ROOM 306) ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603. DETAIL OF OFFICE (ROOM 306) ON THIRD FLOOR BALCONY. CAMERA FACING WEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-5-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. MTR WING, TRA604, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. WEST CORRIDOR. CAMERA FACES NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING, TRA-604, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. WEST CORRIDOR. CAMERA FACES NORTH. HVAC AREA IS AT RIGHT OF CORRIDOR. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-13-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. MTR WING A, TRA604, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. CAMERA FACES WEST, ITS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING A, TRA-604, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. CAMERA FACES WEST, ITS BACK TO A FREIGHT ELEVATOR. ELECTRIC PANELS AT LEFT OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-13-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603. CAMERA FACING SOUTHEAST CORNER OF REACTOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603. CAMERA FACING SOUTHEAST CORNER OF REACTOR FLOOR. SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT RELATE TO MOCK-UP PROJECT. NOTE PRECAST WALL PANELS SUPPORTED BY VERTICAL COLUMNS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-4-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603. CAMERA IS ON SECOND FLOOR BALCONY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603. CAMERA IS ON SECOND FLOOR BALCONY LOOKING DOWN ON WEST FACE OF REACTOR. SHIELDING BLOCKS IN FOREGROUND ATOP CABINET. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-3-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603, REACTOR FLOOR. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603, REACTOR FLOOR. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF SOUTHWEST CORNER OF REACTOR. WEST FACE IS TOWARD LEFT OF VIEW. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-2-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. MTR STACK, TRA710, DETAIL OF BASE. CAMERA FACING NORTH. SIGN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR STACK, TRA-710, DETAIL OF BASE. CAMERA FACING NORTH. SIGN SAYS "DANGER, DO NOT USE THIS LADDER." TRA-605, PROCESS WATER BUILDING, IN VIEW AT LEFT. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD52-1-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 5/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603, REACTOR FLOOR. DETAIL OF REACTOR'S SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603, REACTOR FLOOR. DETAIL OF REACTOR'S SOUTH FACE. CAMERA FACING NORTHWESTERLY. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-1-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603. CAMERA IS ON SECOND FLOOR BALCONY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603. CAMERA IS ON SECOND FLOOR BALCONY LOOKING DOWN ON REACTOR FLOOR, FACING NORTHEAST, THE WEST AND SOUTH FACES OF THE REACTOR. MOCK-UP APPARATUS IS AT RIGHT OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD-46-3-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. MTR BUILDING, TRA603. NORTHEAST CORNER, NORTH SIDE SHADED. CAMERA FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING, TRA-603. NORTHEAST CORNER, NORTH SIDE SHADED. CAMERA FACING SOUTHWEST. NORTH-SIDE PROJECTION IS PLUG STORAGE BUILDING, TRA-657; BUILDING NEXT TO EAST WALL IS AIR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-626. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-43-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603. CAMERA IS AT NORTH END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603. CAMERA IS AT NORTH END OF THIRD FLOOR BALCONY LOOKING SOUTHEAST. DETAIL OF REACTOR'S NORTH FACE AND ITS TEST HOLES. MOCK-UP APPARATUS IS BEYOND REACTOR. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-5-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. MTR WING A, TRA604, INTERIOR. MAIN FLOOR. VIEW DOWN CORRIDOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING A, TRA-604, INTERIOR. MAIN FLOOR. VIEW DOWN CORRIDOR 2 (BETWEEN ROOMS ON WEST WALL AND IN CENTER OF FLOOR). CAMERA FACING SOUTH. PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-12-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. MTR STACK, TRA71, DETAIL OF PUMICE BLOCK SERVICE BUILDING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR STACK, TRA-71-, DETAIL OF PUMICE BLOCK SERVICE BUILDING AT BASE OF STACK. CAMERA FACING SOUTHEAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD52-1-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 5/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. MTR BLOWER AND FAN HOUSE, TRA610. ELEVATION OF STACK ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BLOWER AND FAN HOUSE, TRA-610. ELEVATION OF STACK ON WEST SIDE OF FAN HOUSE. BLAW-KNOX 3150-10-2, 6/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0610-00-098-100021, REV. 0. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. MTR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA651. TWO JOY COMPRESSORS ARE INSTALLED. OUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-651. TWO JOY COMPRESSORS ARE INSTALLED. OUT OF VIEW ON RIGHT WERE TWO INGERSOLL-RAND COMPRESSORS. NOTE FRAME STRUCTURE OF METAL-SIDING BUILDING. COMPARE WITH ID-33-G-4. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-1257. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 4/20/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. Performance of the MTR core with MOX fuel using the MCNP4C2 code.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Ismail; Albarhoum, Mohamad

    2016-08-01

    The MCNP4C2 code was used to simulate the MTR-22 MW research reactor and perform the neutronic analysis for a new fuel namely: a MOX (U3O8&PuO2) fuel dispersed in an Al matrix for One Neutronic Trap (ONT) and Three Neutronic Traps (TNTs) in its core. Its new characteristics were compared to its original characteristics based on the U3O8-Al fuel. Experimental data for the neutronic parameters including criticality relative to the MTR-22 MW reactor for the original U3O8-Al fuel at nominal power were used to validate the calculated values and were found acceptable. The achieved results seem to confirm that the use of MOX fuel in the MTR-22 MW will not degrade the safe operational conditions of the reactor. In addition, the use of MOX fuel in the MTR-22 MW core leads to reduce the uranium fuel enrichment with (235)U and the amount of loaded (235)U in the core by about 34.84% and 15.21% for the ONT and TNTs cases, respectively.

  1. MTR BLOWER AND FAN HOUSE, TRA610. FIRST FLOOR, ROOF AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BLOWER AND FAN HOUSE, TRA-610. FIRST FLOOR, ROOF AND FOUNDATION PLANS. DOOR SCHEDULE AND LOCATION OF STRUCTURAL STEEL AND HOLLOW METAL DOORS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-810-1, 1/1951. INL INDEX NO. 531-0610-00-098-100688, REV. 2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. SOUTH WING, MTR661. INTERIOR DETAIL INSIDE LAB ROOM 127. CAMERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH WING, MTR-661. INTERIOR DETAIL INSIDE LAB ROOM 127. CAMERA FACES WEST, LOOKING DIRECTLY AT A PAIR OF HOT CELLS, THEIR WINDOWS, AND MASTER/SLAVE MANIPULATORS. CABINET AT LEFT IS ABOVE GLOVE BOX. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-8-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603. BASEMENT. CAMERA IS IN SOUTHWEST QUADRANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603. BASEMENT. CAMERA IS IN SOUTHWEST QUADRANT OF BASEMENT AND FACING NORTHEAST. PANEL DISPLAYS DATA READOUTS. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-6-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. MTR WING A, TRA604. SOUTH SIDE. CAMERA FACING NORTH. THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING A, TRA-604. SOUTH SIDE. CAMERA FACING NORTH. THIS VIEW TYPIFIES TENDENCY FOR EXPANSIONS TO TAKE THE FORM OF PROJECTIONS AND INFILL USING AVAILABLE YARD SPACES. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD47-44-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. MTR WING A, TRA604, INTERIOR. MAIN FLOOR. DETAIL VIEW INSIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING A, TRA-604, INTERIOR. MAIN FLOOR. DETAIL VIEW INSIDE LABORATORY 114. CAMERA FACING NORTH. DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS IS UNDERWAY. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-12-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING, TRA635. WEST SIDE. CAMERA LOOKING NORTHEAST. MTR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING, TRA-635. WEST SIDE. CAMERA LOOKING NORTHEAST. MTR (TRA-603) AT LEFT OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-41-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. MTR WING, TRA604. A LABORATORY ROOM WITH ITS CABINETS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING, TRA-604. A LABORATORY ROOM WITH ITS CABINETS AND SERVICE STRIP DOWN CENTER OF ROOM. CARD IN LEFT CORNER OF VIEW WAS INSERTED BY INL PHOTOGRAPHER TO COVER AN OBSOLETE SECURITY RESTRICTION PRINTED ON THE ORIGINAL NEGATIVE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 3817. Unknown Photographer, 11/28/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING, TRA635. EAST SIDE. CAMERA LOOKING NORTHWEST. MTR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING, TRA-635. EAST SIDE. CAMERA LOOKING NORTHWEST. MTR BUILDING, TRA-603, AT RIGHT OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-41-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. A simple gamma spectrometry method for evaluating the burnup of MTR-type HEU fuel elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makmal, T.; Aviv, O.; Gilad, E.

    2016-10-01

    A simple method for the evaluation of the burnup of a materials testing reactor (MTR) fuel element by gamma spectrometry is presented. The method was applied to a highly enriched uranium MTR nuclear fuel element that was irradiated in a 5 MW pool-type research reactor for a total period of 34 years. The experimental approach is based on in-situ measurements of the MTR fuel element in the reactor pool by a portable high-purity germanium detector located in a gamma cell. To corroborate the method, analytical calculations (based on the irradiation history of the fuel element) and computer simulations using a dedicated fuel cycle burnup code ORIGEN2 were performed. The burnup of the MTR fuel element was found to be 52.4±8.8%, which is in good agreement with the analytical calculations and the computer simulations. The method presented here is suitable for research reactors with either a regular or an irregular irradiation regime and for reactors with limited infrastructure and/or resources. In addition, its simplicity and the enhanced safety it confers may render this method suitable for IAEA inspectors in fuel element burnup assessments during on-site inspections.

  10. MTR WING A, TRA604, INTERIOR. MAIN FLOOR. DETAILS OF MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING A, TRA-604, INTERIOR. MAIN FLOOR. DETAILS OF MACHINE SHOP. CAMERA FACING SOUTH. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-31-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. MTR WING A, TRA604, INTERIOR, MAIN FLOOR. DETAIL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING A, TRA-604, INTERIOR, MAIN FLOOR. DETAIL VIEW OF MACHINE SHOP AT SOUTHWEST CORNER OF WING. CAMERA FACING WEST TOWARDS WINDOW IN WEST WALL. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-31-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. The exosome-binding factors Rrp6 and Rrp47 form a composite surface for recruiting the Mtr4 helicase

    PubMed Central

    Schuch, Benjamin; Feigenbutz, Monika; Makino, Debora L; Falk, Sebastian; Basquin, Claire; Mitchell, Phil; Conti, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The exosome is a conserved multi-subunit ribonuclease complex that functions in 3′ end processing, turnover and surveillance of nuclear and cytoplasmic RNAs. In the yeast nucleus, the 10-subunit core complex of the exosome (Exo-10) physically and functionally interacts with the Rrp6 exoribonuclease and its associated cofactor Rrp47, the helicase Mtr4 and Mpp6. Here, we show that binding of Mtr4 to Exo-10 in vitro is dependent upon both Rrp6 and Rrp47, whereas Mpp6 binds directly and independently of other cofactors. Crystallographic analyses reveal that the N-terminal domains of Rrp6 and Rrp47 form a highly intertwined structural unit. Rrp6 and Rrp47 synergize to create a composite and conserved surface groove that binds the N-terminus of Mtr4. Mutation of conserved residues within Rrp6 and Mtr4 at the structural interface disrupts their interaction and inhibits growth of strains expressing a C-terminal GFP fusion of Mtr4. These studies provide detailed structural insight into the interaction between the Rrp6–Rrp47 complex and Mtr4, revealing an important link between Mtr4 and the core exosome. PMID:25319414

  13. Construction of prokaryotic expression plasmid of mtrC protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and its expression in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongxiang; Tu, Yating; Lin, Nengxing; Huang, Changzheng

    2005-01-01

    In order to provide a rational research basis for detection of resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to antimicrobial hydrophobic agents and study on the resistant mechanism of multiple transferable resistance (mtr) efflux system, plasmid pET-28a(+) encoding mtrC gene was constructed and the related target protein was expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) DE3. The fragments of mtrC gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from the standard strains were amplified and cloned into prokaryotic expression plasmid pET-28a(+) with restriction endonuclease to construct recombinant pET-mtrC which was verified by restriction endonuclease and DNA sequencing. The recombinant was transformed into E. coli DE3 to express the protein mtrC induced by IPTG. The results showed mtrC DNA fragment was proved correct through restriction endonuclease and DNA sequencing. Its sequence was 99.5% homologus to that published on GeneBank (U14993). A 48.5 kD fusion protein which was induced by IPTG was detected by SDS-PAGE. It was concluded that the construction of prokaryotic expression plasmid of mtrC protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was correct and the fusion protein was successively expressed in E. coli. PMID:16463681

  14. Towards Electrosynthesis in Shewanella: Energetics of Reversing the Mtr Pathway for Reductive Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Daniel E.; Flynn, Jeffrey M.; Baron, Daniel B.; Gralnick, Jeffrey A.; Bond, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems rely on microorganisms to link complex oxidation/reduction reactions to electrodes. For example, in Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1, an electron transfer conduit consisting of cytochromes and structural proteins, known as the Mtr respiratory pathway, catalyzes electron flow from cytoplasmic oxidative reactions to electrodes. Reversing this electron flow to drive microbial reductive metabolism offers a possible route for electrosynthesis of high value fuels and chemicals. We examined electron flow from electrodes into Shewanella to determine the feasibility of this process, the molecular components of reductive electron flow, and what driving forces were required. Addition of fumarate to a film of S. oneidensis adhering to a graphite electrode poised at −0.36 V versus standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) immediately led to electron uptake, while a mutant lacking the periplasmic fumarate reductase FccA was unable to utilize electrodes for fumarate reduction. Deletion of the gene encoding the outer membrane cytochrome-anchoring protein MtrB eliminated 88% of fumarate reduction. A mutant lacking the periplasmic cytochrome MtrA demonstrated more severe defects. Surprisingly, disruption of menC, which prevents menaquinone biosynthesis, eliminated 85% of electron flux. Deletion of the gene encoding the quinone-linked cytochrome CymA had a similar negative effect, which showed that electrons primarily flowed from outer membrane cytochromes into the quinone pool, and back to periplasmic FccA. Soluble redox mediators only partially restored electron transfer in mutants, suggesting that soluble shuttles could not replace periplasmic protein-protein interactions. This work demonstrates that the Mtr pathway can power reductive reactions, shows this conduit is functionally reversible, and provides new evidence for distinct CymA:MtrA and CymA:FccA respiratory units. PMID:21311751

  15. Association of folate-pathway gene polymorphisms with the risk of prostate cancer: a population-based nested case-control study, systematic review, and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Collin, Simon M; Metcalfe, Chris; Zuccolo, Luisa; Lewis, Sarah J; Chen, Lina; Cox, Angela; Davis, Michael; Lane, J Athene; Donovan, Jenny; Smith, George Davey; Neal, David E; Hamdy, Freddie C; Gudmundsson, Julius; Sulem, Patrick; Rafnar, Thorunn; Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R; Eeles, Rosalind A; Guy, Michelle; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Morrison, Jonathan; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Stefansson, Kari; Easton, Douglas F; Martin, Richard M

    2009-09-01

    Folate-pathway gene polymorphisms have been implicated in several cancers and investigated inconclusively in relation to prostate cancer. We conducted a systematic review, which identified nine case-control studies (eight included, one excluded). We also included data from four genome-wide association studies and from a case-control study nested within the UK population-based Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment study. We investigated by meta-analysis the effects of eight polymorphisms: MTHFR C677T (rs1801133; 12 studies; 10,745 cases; 40,158 controls), MTHFR A1298C (rs1801131; 5 studies; 3,176 cases; 4,829 controls), MTR A2756G (rs1805087; 8 studies; 7,810 cases; 37,543 controls), MTRR A66G (rs1801394; 4 studies; 3,032 cases; 4,515 controls), MTHFD1 G1958A (rs2236225; 6 studies; 7,493 cases; 36,941 controls), SLC19A1/RFC1 G80A (rs1051266; 4 studies; 6,222 cases; 35,821 controls), SHMT1 C1420T (rs1979277; 2 studies; 2,689 cases; 4,110 controls), and FOLH1 T1561C (rs202676; 5 studies; 6,314 cases; 35,190 controls). The majority (10 of 13) of eligible studies had 100% Caucasian subjects; only one study had <90% Caucasian subjects. We found weak evidence of dominant effects of two alleles: MTR 2756A>G [random effects pooled odds ratio, 1.06 (1.00-1.12); P = 0.06 (P = 0.59 for heterogeneity across studies)] and SHMT1 1420C>T [random effects pooled odds ratio, 1.11 (1.00-1.22); P = 0.05 (P = 0.38 for heterogeneity across studies)]. We found no effect of MTHFR 677C>T or any of the other alleles in dominant, recessive or additive models, or in comparing a/a versus A/A homozygous. Neither did we find any difference in effects on advanced or localized cancers. Our meta-analysis suggests that known common folate-pathway single nucleotide polymorphisms do not have significant effects on susceptibility to prostate cancer. PMID:19706844

  16. Roles of UndA and MtrC of Shewanella putrefaciens W3-18-1 in iron reduction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The completion of genome sequencing in a number of Shewanella species, which are most renowned for their metal reduction capacity, offers a basis for comparative studies. Previous work in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 has indicated that some genes within a cluster (mtrBAC-omcA-mtrFED) were involved in iron reduction. To explore new features of iron reduction pathways, we experimentally analyzed Shewanella putrefaciens W3-18-1 since its gene cluster is considerably different from that of MR-1 in that the gene cluster encodes only four ORFs. Results Among the gene cluster, two genes (mtrC and undA) were shown to encode c-type cytochromes. The ΔmtrC deletion mutant revealed significant deficiencies in reducing metals of Fe2O3, α-FeO(OH), β-FeO(OH), ferric citrate, Mn(IV) and Co(III), but not organic compounds. In contrast, no deficiency of metal reduction was observed in the ΔundA deletion mutant. Nonetheless, undA deletion resulted in progressively slower iron reduction in the absence of mtrC and fitness loss under the iron-using condition, which was indicative of a functional role of UndA in iron reduction. Conclusions These results provide physiological and biochemical evidences that UndA and MtrC of Shewanella putrefaciens W3-18-1 are involved in iron reduction. PMID:24274142

  17. MTR, TRA603. TRANSVERSE SECTION LOOKS DOWN EAST/WEST AXIS TO SHOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. TRANSVERSE SECTION LOOKS DOWN EAST/WEST AXIS TO SHOW PATH OF PROCESS WATER LINES IN PIPE TUNNEL FROM SUMP PUMP, AIR DUCTS, ELEVATORS, CANAL IN BASEMENT LEVEL, CANAL CRANE DOWN CENTER LINE OF CANAL, AND REACTOR ROOM CRANE ON TRAVELING RAIL. BLAW-KNOX BKC-3150, 3/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-098-100005, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. MTR BUILDING, TRA603. EAST SIDE. CAMERA FACING WEST. CORRUGATED IRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING, TRA-603. EAST SIDE. CAMERA FACING WEST. CORRUGATED IRON BUILDING MARKED WITH "X" IS TRA-651. TRA-626, TO ITS RIGHT, HOUSED COMPRESSOR EQUIPMENT FOR THE AIRCRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION PROGRAM. LATER, IT WAS USED FOR STORAGE. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-42-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, April 2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. MTR WING A, TRA604, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. DETAIL OF A19 LAB ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING A, TRA-604, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. DETAIL OF A-19 LAB AREA ALONG SOUTH WALL. SIGN ON FLOOR DIRECTS WORKERS TO OBTAIN WHOLE BODY FRISK UPON LEAVING AREA. SIGN ON EQUIPMENT IN CENTER OF VIEW REQUESTS WORKERS TO "NOTIFY HEALTH PHYSICS BEFORE WORKING ON THIS SYSTEM." CAMERA FACING SOUTHWEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-13-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603, SECOND FLOOR BALCONY. CAMERA FACING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603, SECOND FLOOR BALCONY. CAMERA FACING NORTH. ROOMS 204, 203, 202, AND 201 ARE TO LEFT. VIEW TOWARDS REACTOR FLOOR IS SEEN THROUGH BALCONY RAILING. PLATFORM BETWEEN REACTOR AND THIRD FLOOR BALCONY IS SEEN BEYOND SQUARE PILLAR IN FOREGROUND. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-3-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603. CAMERA IS ON SECOND FLOOR BALCONY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603. CAMERA IS ON SECOND FLOOR BALCONY LOOKING DOWN ON REACTOR FLOOR, FACING EAST. REACTOR IS AT LEFT OF VIEW. APPARATUS DIRECTLY IN FRONT OF CAMERA IS PART OF A MOCK-UP PROJECT. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-3-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. MTR BUILDING, TRA603. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF NORTH SIDE. CAMERA FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING, TRA-603. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF NORTH SIDE. CAMERA FACING SOUTH. NOTE UNEVEN DISTANCES BETWEEN VERTICAL BEAMS. PRECAST PANELS IN LEFT-MOST SECTION ARE LESS WIDE THAN THE OTHER THREE SECTIONS. TRA-657 IN FOREGROUND IS PLUG STORAGE BUILDING. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-43-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603. CAMERA IS AT NORTH END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603. CAMERA IS AT NORTH END OF THIRD FLOOR BALCONY LOOKING SOUTHEAST AND ACROSS TOP OF REACTOR. MOCK-UP APPARATUS IS BEYOND REACTOR. BRIDGE CONNECTING BALCONY AND REACTOR TOP AT RIGHT OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-5-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603, REACTOR FLOOR. CAMERA IS IN NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603, REACTOR FLOOR. CAMERA IS IN NORTHEAST CORNER FACING SOUTHWEST. NORTH FACE OF REACTOR IS IN LEFT HALF OF VIEW. WEST WALL CONTAINS CONTROL BALCONIES. BRIDGE FROM REACTOR TO SECOND-FLOOR BALCONY IS IN CENTER OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-1-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603. CAMERA IS AT NORTH END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603. CAMERA IS AT NORTH END OF SECOND FLOOR BALCONY LOOKING TOWARDS WORK PLATFORMS ON NORTH FACE OF REACTOR. BRIDGE TO THIRD FLOOR BALCONY FROM TOP OF REACTOR IS AT UPPER RIGHT OF VIEW. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD-46-4-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. MTR WING, TRA604. ELEVATIONS OF NORTH, WEST AND SOUTH SIDES. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING, TRA-604. ELEVATIONS OF NORTH, WEST AND SOUTH SIDES. EAST SIDE CONNECTS TO TRA-603'S WEST SIDE. REFERENCE TO PANEL TYPES A, B, C, D, E, H. WINDOWS IN BANKS OF FOUR. DETAILS OF ENTRY ON WEST SIDE: CANOPY, GLASS BLOCK. FAN DECK. BLAW-KNOX 3150-804-5, 11/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0604-00-098-100630, REV. 5. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603, REACTOR FLOOR. VIEW DOWN CORRIDOR CREATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603, REACTOR FLOOR. VIEW DOWN CORRIDOR CREATED BY REACTOR (LEFT OF VIEW) AND WEST WALL ON RIGHT. BRIDGE OVERHEAD PROVIDED ACCESS TO TOP OF REACTOR FROM BALCONY. NOTE WIDTH OF BRIDGE. CAMERA FACING SOUTH TOWARDS OPEN DOOR OF REACTOR SERVICE BUILDING, TRA-635. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-1-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. MTR BUILDING, TRA603. SOUTHEAST CORNER, EAST SIDE FACING TOWARD RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING, TRA-603. SOUTHEAST CORNER, EAST SIDE FACING TOWARD RIGHT OF VIEW. CAMERA FACING NORTHWEST. LIGHT-COLORED PROJECTION AT LEFT IS ENGINEERING SERVICES BUILDING, TRA-635. SMALL CONCRETE BLOCK BUILDING AT CENTER OF VIEW IS FAST CHOPPER DETECTOR HOUSE, TRA-665. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-43-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. Thermodynamics of Electron Flow in the Bacterial Deca-heme Cytochrome MtrF

    SciTech Connect

    Breuer, Marian; Zarzycki, Piotr P.; Blumberger, Jochen; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2012-07-01

    Electron transporting multiheme cytochromes are essential to the metabolism of microbes that inhabit soils and carry out important biogeochemical processes. Recently the first crystal structure of a prototype bacterial deca-heme cytochrome (MtrF) has been resolved and its electrochemistry characterized. However, the molecular details of electron conductance along heme chains in the cytochrome are difficult to access via experiment due to the nearly identical chemical nature of the heme cofactors. Here we employ large-scale molecular dynamics simulations to compute the reduction potentials of the ten hemes of MtrF in aqueous solution. We find that as a whole they fall within a range of about 0.3 V in agreement with experiment. Individual reduction potentials give rise to a free energy profile for electron conduction that is approximately symmetric with respect to the center of the protein. Our calculations indicate that there is no significant potential bias along the orthogonal octa- and tetra-heme chains suggesting that under aqueous conditions MtrF is a nearly reversible two-dimensional conductor.

  10. Targeted Protein Degradation of Outer Membrane Decaheme Cytochrome MtrC Metal Reductase in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Measured Using Biarsenical Probe CrAsH-EDT2

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Yijia; Chen, Baowei; Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Bigelow, Diana J.; Squier, Thomas C.

    2011-10-14

    Development of efficient microbial biofuel cells requires an ability to exploit interfacial electron transfer reactions to external electron acceptors, such as metal oxides; such reactions occur in the facultative anaerobic gram-negative bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 through the catalytic activity of the outer membrane decaheme c-type cytochrome MtrC. Central to the utility of this pathway to synthetic biology is an understanding of cellular mechanisms that maintain optimal MtrC function, cellular localization, and renewal by degradation and resynthesis. In order to monitor trafficking to the outer membrane, and the environmental sensitivity of MtrC, we have engineered a tetracysteine tag (i.e., CCPGCC) at its C-terminus that permits labeling by the cell impermeable biarsenical fluorophore, carboxy-FlAsH (CrAsH) of MtrC at the surface of living Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cells. In comparison, the cell permeable reagent FlAsH permits labeling of the entire population of MtrC, including proteolytic fragments resulting from incorrect maturation. We demonstrate specific labeling by CrAsH of engineered MtrC which is dependent on the presence of a functional type-2 secretion system (T2S), as evidenced by T2S system gspD or gspG deletion mutants which are incapable of CrAsH labeling. Under these latter conditions, MtrC undergoes proteolytic degradation to form a large 35-38 kDa fragment; this degradation product is also resolved during normal turnover of the CrAsH-labeled MtrC protein. No MtrC protein is released into the medium during turnover, suggesting the presence of cellular turnover systems involving MtrC reuptake and degradation. The mature MtrC localized on the outer membrane is a long-lived protein, with a turnover rate of 0.043 hr-1 that is insensitive to O2 concentration. Maturation of MtrC is relatively inefficient, with substantial rates of turnover of the immature protein prior to export to the outer membrane (i.e., 0.028 hr-1) that are consistent

  11. MpeR regulates the mtr efflux locus in Neisseria gonorrhoeae and modulates antimicrobial resistance by an iron-responsive mechanism.

    PubMed

    Mercante, Alexandra Dubon; Jackson, Lydgia; Johnson, Paul J T; Stringer, Virginia A; Dyer, David W; Shafer, William M

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that the MpeR transcriptional regulator produced by Neisseria gonorrhoeae represses the expression of mtrF, which encodes a putative inner membrane protein (MtrF). MtrF works as an accessory protein with the Mtr efflux pump, helping gonococci to resist high levels of diverse hydrophobic antimicrobials. Regulation of mpeR has been reported to occur by an iron-dependent mechanism involving Fur (ferric uptake regulator). Collectively, these observations suggest the presence of an interconnected regulatory system in gonococci that modulates the expression of efflux pump protein-encoding genes in an iron-responsive manner. Herein, we describe this connection and report that levels of gonococcal resistance to a substrate of the mtrCDE-encoded efflux pump can be modulated by MpeR and the availability of free iron. Using microarray analysis, we found that the mtrR gene, which encodes a direct repressor (MtrR) of mtrCDE, is an MpeR-repressed determinant in the late logarithmic phase of growth when free iron levels would be reduced due to bacterial consumption. This repression was enhanced under conditions of iron limitation and resulted in increased expression of the mtrCDE efflux pump operon. Furthermore, as judged by DNA-binding analysis, MpeR-mediated repression of mtrR was direct. Collectively, our results indicate that both genetic and physiologic parameters (e.g., iron availability) can influence the expression of the mtr efflux system and modulate levels of gonococcal susceptibility to efflux pump substrates. PMID:22214775

  12. Studies of mixed HEU-LEU-MTR cores using 3D models

    SciTech Connect

    Haenggi, P.; Lehmann, E.; Hammer, J.; Christen, R.

    1997-08-01

    Several different core loadings were assembled at the SAPHIR research reactor in Switzerland combining the available types of MTR-type fuel elements, consisting mainly of both HEU and LEU fuel. Bearing in mind the well known problems which can occur in such configurations (especially power peaking), investigations have been carried out for each new loading with a 2D neutron transport code (BOXER). The axial effects were approximated by a global buckling value and therefore the radial effects could be studied in considerably detail. Some of the results were reported at earlier RERTR meetings and were compared to those obtained by other methods and with experimental values. For the explicit study of the third dimension of the core, another code (SILWER), which has been developed in PSI for LWR power plant cores, has been selected. With the help of an adapted model for the MTR-core of SAPHIR, several important questions have been addressed. Among other aspects, the estimation of the axial contribution to the hot channel factors, the influence of the control rod position and of the Xe-poisoning on the power distribution were studied. Special attention was given to a core position where a new element was assumed placed near a empty, water filled position. The comparison of elements of low and high enrichments at this position was made in terms of the induced power peaks, with explicit consideration of axial effects. The program SILWER has proven to be applicable to MTR-cores for the investigation of axial effects. For routine use as for the support of reactor operation, this 3D code is a good supplement to the standard 2D model.

  13. The use of experimental data in an MTR-type nuclear reactor safety analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Simon E.

    Reactivity initiated accidents (RIAs) are a category of events required for research reactor safety analysis. A subset of this is unprotected RIAs in which mechanical systems or human intervention are not credited in the response of the system. Light-water cooled and moderated MTR-type ( i.e., aluminum-clad uranium plate fuel) reactors are self-limiting up to some reactivity insertion limit beyond which fuel damage occurs. This characteristic was studied in the Borax and Spert reactor tests of the 1950s and 1960s in the USA. This thesis considers the use of this experimental data in generic MTR-type reactor safety analysis. The approach presented herein is based on fundamental phenomenological understanding and uses correlations in the reactor test data with suitable account taken for differences in important system parameters. Specifically, a semi-empirical approach is used to quantify the relationship between the power, energy and temperature rise response of the system as well as parametric dependencies on void coefficient and the degree of subcooling. Secondary effects including the dependence on coolant flow are also examined. A rigorous curve fitting approach and error assessment is used to quantify the trends in the experimental data. In addition to the initial power burst stage of an unprotected transient, the longer term stability of the system is considered with a stylized treatment of characteristic power/temperature oscillations (chugging). A bridge from the HEU-based experimental data to the LEU fuel cycle is assessed and outlined based on existing simulation results presented in the literature. A cell-model based parametric study is included. The results are used to construct a practical safety analysis methodology for determining reactivity insertion safety limits for a light-water moderated and cooled MTR-type core.

  14. MTR WING, TRA604. ONE OF THE LABORATORY UNITS ALONG THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING, TRA-604. ONE OF THE LABORATORY UNITS ALONG THE SOUTH SIDE WALL. NOTE SINK, CABINET, TABLE, AND HOOD UNITS. DUCT ABOVE RECEIVES CONTAMINATED AIR AND SENDS IT TO FAN HOUSE AND STACK. NOTE PARTITION WALL BEHIND WORK UNITS. THE HEALTH PHYSICS LAB WAS SIMILARLY EQUIPPED. WINDOW AT LEFT EDGE OF VIEW. CARD IN LOWER RIGHT WAS INSERTED BY INL PHOTOGRAPHER TO COVER AN OBSOLETE SECURITY RESTRICTION PRINTED ON ORIGINAL NEGATIVE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 4225. Unknown Photographer, 2/13/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. MTR, TRA603. LONGITUDINAL SECTION SHOWS EAST/WEST SECTION AND PROJECTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. LONGITUDINAL SECTION SHOWS EAST/WEST SECTION AND PROJECTION OF CANAL BEYOND EAST WALL OF BUILDING; PIPE TUNNEL, BULKHEAD LOCATIONS IN CANAL, SWING-OUT ISOLATION GATE, TUNNEL HATCH UNDER ROADWAY; SUB-PILE AND RABBIT CANAL SECTIONS; BALCONY CONTROL AND INSTRUMENT ROOMS; CATWALK, MAIN AND AUXILIARY HOISTS. AIR COMPRESSOR BUILDING (TRA-626) TO THE NORTH. BLAW-KNOX BKC-3150-3-5, 3/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-098-100004, REV. 7. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. MTR, TRA603. FIRST FLOOR PLAN. REACTOR AT CENTER. TWENTYMETER CHOPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. FIRST FLOOR PLAN. REACTOR AT CENTER. TWENTY-METER CHOPPER HOUSE. COFFIN TURNING ROLLS. REMOVABLE PANEL OVER CANAL ON EAST SIDE. NEW PLUG STORAGE ACCESS. DOOR SCHEDULE INDICATES STEEL (FOR VAULT), WIRE MESH, AND HOLLOW METAL TYPES. STORAGE AND ISSUE ROOM. SAFETY SHOWERS. DOORWAY TO WING, TRA-604. BLAW-KNOX 3150-803-2, 7/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-098-100561, REV. 10. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. WATER PROCESS SYSTEM FLOW DIAGRAM FOR MTR, TRA603. SUMMARY OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WATER PROCESS SYSTEM FLOW DIAGRAM FOR MTR, TRA-603. SUMMARY OF COOLANT FLOW FROM WORKING RESERVOIR TO INTERIOR OF REACTOR'S THERMAL SHIELD. NAMES TANK SECTIONS. PIPE AND DRAIN-LINE SIZES. SHOWS DIRECTION OF AIR FLOW THROUGH PEBBLE AND GRAPHITE BLOCK ZONE. NEUTRON CURTAIN AND THERMAL COLUMN DOOR. BLAW-KNOX 3150-92-7, 3/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-51-098-100036, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. Analysis of MTR and MTRR Polymorphisms for Neural Tube Defects Risk Association

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongxin; Liu, Yuan; Ji, Wenyu; Qin, Hu; Wu, Hao; Xu, Danshu; Tukebai, Turtuohut; Wang, Zengliang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the most common congenital defects of the central nervous system among neonates and the folate status during pregnancy was considered as the most important etiopathogenesis of NTDs. Besides, methionine synthase (MTR) gene and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) gene were folate metabolism involved genes and had been investigated in several previous studies with inconsistent results. Hence, we aimed to explore the association of 4 selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on MTRR/MTR gene and the susceptibility of NTDs in a Chinese population. Seven SNPs were selected from HapMap databases with Haploview 4.2 software. A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was performed to genotype the polymorphisms from blood samples of 165 NTDs patients and 280 healthy controls. The correlation between these SNPs and NTDs risk was tested by Student t test and Chi-square test by STATA 11.0 software. Furthermore, we performed a meta-analysis of relevant studies to investigate the association between the SNPs MTRR 66A>G and MTR 2756A>G and the susceptibility of NTDs. An increased risk of NTDs was verified to be significantly associated with MTRR 66A>G (G allele vs. A allele: OR = 1.36 (1.03–1.80), P = 0.028; GG + AG vs. AA: OR = 1.60 (1.05–2.43), P = 0.027) and MTR 2756A>G (G allele vs. A allele: OR = 1.45 (1.06–1.98), P = 0.021; GG + AG vs. AA: OR = 1.51 (1.02–2.23), P = 0.038) in our study. However, the other SNPs in our analysis showed no significant association with NTDs risk (all P > 0.05). Furthermore, the result of the meta-analysis supported the association between MTRR 66A>G and NTDs risk (G allele vs. A allele: OR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.09–1.61, GG + GA vs. AA: OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.06–2.09, GG vs. AA: OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.04–2.49). Our study confirmed that the MTRR 66A>G and MTR 2756A>G were significantly

  19. Mutagenesis of the C1 Oxidation Pathway in Methanosarcina barkeri: New Insights into the Mtr/Mer Bypass Pathway▿

    PubMed Central

    Welander, Paula V.; Metcalf, William W.

    2008-01-01

    A series of Methanosarcina barkeri mutants lacking the genes encoding the enzymes involved in the C1 oxidation/reduction pathway were constructed. Mutants lacking the methyl-tetrahydromethanopterin (H4MPT):coenzyme M (CoM) methyltransferase-encoding operon (Δmtr), the methylene-H4MPT reductase-encoding gene (Δmer), the methylene-H4MPT dehydrogenase-encoding gene (Δmtd), and the formyl-methanofuran:H4MPT formyl-transferase-encoding gene (Δftr) all failed to grow using either methanol or H2/CO2 as a growth substrate, indicating that there is an absolute requirement for the C1 oxidation/reduction pathway for hydrogenotrophic and methylotrophic methanogenesis. The mutants also failed to grow on acetate, and we suggest that this was due to an inability to generate the reducing equivalents needed for biosynthetic reactions. Despite their lack of growth on methanol, the Δmtr and Δmer mutants were capable of producing methane from this substrate, whereas the Δmtd and Δftr mutants were not. Thus, there is an Mtr/Mer bypass pathway that allows oxidation of methanol to the level of methylene-H4MPT in M. barkeri. The data further suggested that formaldehyde may be an intermediate in this bypass; however, no methanol dehydrogenase activity was found in Δmtr cell extracts, nor was there an obligate role for the formaldehyde-activating enzyme (Fae), which has been shown to catalyze the condensation of formaldehyde and H4MPT in vitro. Both the Δmer and Δmtr mutants were able to grow on a combination of methanol plus acetate, but they did so by metabolic pathways that are clearly distinct from each other and from previously characterized methanogenic pathways. PMID:18178739

  20. Experimental determination of the self-absorption factor for MTR plates by passive gamma spectrometric measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berndt, R.; Mortreau, P.

    2011-07-01

    The measurement of the absolute activity or the mass of radioactive substances by gamma spectrometry needs to include a correction for the radiation absorption inside the source volume, the so-called self-absorption factor. It depends on geometry and material composition of the source, the detector geometry and on the geometrical arrangement of source and gamma radiation detector; it can be calculated if full information about all that is available. This article however describes how to determine the self-absorption factor from measurements if the radiation sources are plates of uranium fuel with typical parameters of nuclear fuel for MTR reactors and without using detail information on the source geometry, thus allowing easy inspection without relying on - potentially falsified - declarations on the internal properties of the fuel objects and without calculation.

  1. Isolation of a High-Affinity Functional Protein Complex between OmcA and MtrC: Two Outer Membrane Decaheme c-type Cytochromes of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Liang; Chen, Baowei; Wang, Zheming; Elias, Dwayne A.; Mayer, M. Uljana; Gorby, Yuri A.; Ni, Shuisong; Lower, Brian H.; Kennedy, David W.; Wunschel, David S.; Mottaz, Heather M.; Marshall, Matthew J.; Hill, Eric A.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Squier, Thomas C.

    2006-07-01

    SUMMARY Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultatively anaerobic bacterium that is capable of using insoluble oxidized metals, such as manganese [Mn(III, IV)] and iron [Fe(III)] oxides and oxyhydroxides, as terminal electron acceptors during anaerobic respiration. The ability of S. oneidensis MR-1 to reduce oxidized Mn and/or Fe has previously been linked to OmcA and MtrC: two decaheme c-type cytochromes that are localized to the outer membrane. To investigate how the electron transport proteins OmcA and MtrC are organized, we expressed and purified recombinant OmcA and MtrC from wild type S. oneidensis MR-1 as well as a mutant that lacked OmcA and MtrC (ΔomcA/mtrC). After purification to the nearly electrophoretic homogeneity from the ΔomcA/mtrC mutant, the recombinant OmcA and MtrC exhibited the characteristics of c-type cytochromes, and each of their polypeptides was confirmed to contain 10 hemes. When purified from wild type cells, endogenous MtrC or OmcA was always co-purified with recombinant OmcA or MtrC, respectively. Fluorescence polarization experiment showed that recombinant OmcA bound to the FlAsH-labeled MtrC with a dissociation constant of 7 ×10-7 M. The purified recombinant OmcA or MtrC alone displayed intrinsic ferric reductase activity with NADH used as an electron donor. Ferric reductase specific activity increased by 35 to 41% when nearly equimolar concentrations of OmcA and MtrC were assayed relative to the two proteins assayed independently. These results demonstrate that OmcA and MtrC directly interact with each other to form a stable complex with high ferric reductase activity.

  2. Direct Involvement of Type II Secretion System in Extracellular Translocation of Shewanella Oneidensis Outer Membrane Cytochromes MtrC and OmcA

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Liang; Deng, Shuang; Marshall, Matthew J.; Wang, Zheming; Kennedy, David W.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Mottaz, Heather M.; Hill, Eric A.; Gorby, Yuri A.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Richardson, David J.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2008-08-01

    Outer membrane decaheme c-type cytochromes MtrC and OmcA of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 are extracellular lipoproteins important for dissimilatory reduction of solid metal (hydr)oxides during anaerobic respiration. To investigate the roles of type II secretion system (T2S) in translocation of MtrC and OmcA across outer membrane, we measured the effects of deleting two T2S genes, gspD and gspG, on the secretion of MtrC and OmcA when cells were grown under anaerobic conditions. Deletion of gspD or gspG resulted in slightly yellowish supernatants, different from the pink supernatant of wild type (wt). Comparative proteomic analyses revealed that, although MtrC, OmcA and NrfA, a periplasmic nitrite reductase, were present the supernatants of wt and ΔgspD mutant, their peptides counts were much lower in ΔgspD than in wt. Subsequent analyses with heme-staining and Western blot not only confirmed that deletion of gspD or gspG reduced the abundances of MtrC and OmcA in the supernatants, but also revealed that the deletions consequently increased their abundances inside the cells. Complementation of ΔgspG mutant with functional GspG could reverse the effects of deleting gspG on the colors of the supernatants and the abundances of MtrC and OmcA. In contrast, Western results showed that the abundance of NrfA was reduced in the supernatant and the cells of ΔgspD mutant, suggesting that reduced NrfA in the periplasm, where MtrC and OmcA were accumulated, contributed to its reduction in the supernatant. Thus, our results demonstrate at the first time that T2S facilitates translocation of MtrC and OmcA across outer membrane.

  3. Antibody recognition force microscopy shows that outer membrane cytochromes OmcA and MtrC are expressed on the exterior surface of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Lower, Brian H.; Yongsunthon, Ruchirej; Shi, Liang; Wildling, Linda; Gruber, Hermann J.; Wigginton, Nicholas S.; Reardon, Catherine L.; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Boily, Jean F.; Lower, Steven

    2009-05-01

    Antibody-recognition force microscopy showed that OmcA and MtrC are expressed on the exterior surface of living Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cells during anaerobic growth, when Fe(III) served as the terminal electron acceptor. OmcA was localized to the interface with hematite, while MtrC was more uniformly displayed on the bacterium’s exterior cell surface. Both cytochromes were also found associated with extracellular material.

  4. FarR regulates the farAB-encoded efflux pump of Neisseria gonorrhoeae via an MtrR regulatory mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lee, E-H; Rouquette-Loughlin, C; Folster, J P; Shafer, W M

    2003-12-01

    The farAB operon of Neisseria gonorrhoeae encodes an efflux pump which mediates gonococcal resistance to antibacterial fatty acids. It was previously observed that expression of the farAB operon was positively regulated by MtrR, which is a repressor of the mtrCDE-encoded efflux pump system (E.-H. Lee and W. M. Shafer, Mol. Microbiol. 33:839-845, 1999). This regulation was believed to be indirect since MtrR did not bind to the farAB promoter. In this study, computer analysis of the gonococcal genome sequence database, lacZ reporter fusions, and gel mobility shift assays were used to elucidate the regulatory mechanism by which expression of the farAB operon is modulated by MtrR in gonococci. We identified a regulatory protein belonging to the MarR family of transcriptional repressors and found that it negatively controls expression of farAB by directly binding to the farAB promoter. We designated this regulator FarR to signify its role in regulating the farAB operon. We found that MtrR binds to the farR promoter, thereby repressing farR expression. Hence, MtrR regulates farAB in a positive fashion by modulating farR expression. This MtrR regulatory cascade seems to play an important role in adjusting levels of the FarAB and MtrCDE efflux pumps to prevent their excess expression in gonococci. PMID:14645274

  5. Characterization of Shewanella oneidensis MtrC: a cell-surface decaheme cytochrome involved in respiratory electron transport to extracellular electron acceptors

    SciTech Connect

    Hartshorne, Robert S.; Jepson, Brian N.; Clarke, Thomas A.; Field, Sarah J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Shi, Liang; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David

    2007-09-04

    Abstract MtrC is a decaheme c-type cytochrome associated with the outer cell membrane of Fe(III)-respiring species of the Shewanella genus. It is proposed to play a role in anaerobic respiration by mediating electron transfer to extracellular mineral oxides that can serve as terminal electron acceptors. The present work presents the first spectropotentiometric and voltammetric characterization of MtrC, using protein purified from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Potentiometric titrations, monitored by UV–vis absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, reveal that the hemes within MtrC titrate over a broad potential range spanning between approximately +100 and approximately *500 mV (vs. the standard hydrogen electrode). Across this potential window the UV– vis absorption spectra are characteristic of low-spin c-type hemes and the EPR spectra reveal broad, complex features that suggest the presence of magnetically spin-coupled lowspin c-hemes. Non-catalytic protein film voltammetry of MtrC demonstrates reversible electrochemistry over a potential window similar to that disclosed spectroscopically. The voltammetry also allows definition of kinetic properties of MtrC in direct electron exchange with a solid electrode surface and during reduction of a model Fe(III) substrate. Taken together, the data provide quantitative information on the potential domain in which MtrC can operate.

  6. Structural characterization of the principal mRNA-export factor Mex67–Mtr2 from Chaetomium thermophilum

    SciTech Connect

    Aibara, Shintaro; Valkov, Eugene; Lamers, Meindert H.; Dimitrova, Lyudmila; Hurt, Ed; Stewart, Murray

    2015-06-27

    The crystal structures of the individual domains of the Mex67–Mtr2 complex from C. thermophilum have been determined and their arrangement in solution has been studied by SAXS. Members of the Mex67–Mtr2/NXF–NXT1 family are the principal mediators of the nuclear export of mRNA. Mex67/NXF1 has a modular structure based on four domains (RRM, LRR, NTF2-like and UBA) that are thought to be present across species, although the level of sequence conservation between organisms, especially in lower eukaryotes, is low. Here, the crystal structures of these domains from the thermophilic fungus Chaetomium thermophilum are presented together with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and in vitro RNA-binding data that indicate that, not withstanding the limited sequence conservation between different NXF family members, the molecules retain similar structural and RNA-binding properties. Moreover, the resolution of crystal structures obtained with the C. thermophilum domains was often higher than that obtained previously and, when combined with solution and biochemical studies, provided insight into the structural organization, self-association and RNA-binding properties of Mex67–Mtr2 that facilitate mRNA nuclear export.

  7. Mtr4-like protein coordinates nuclear RNA processing for heterochromatin assembly and for telomere maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nathan N.; Chalamcharla, Venkata R.; Reyes-Turcu, Francisca; Mehta, Sameet; Zofall, Martin; Balachandran, Vanivilasini; Dhakshnamoorthy, Jothy; Taneja, Nitika; Yamanaka, Soichiro; Zhou, Ming; Grewal, Shiv I. S.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The regulation of protein-coding and noncoding RNAs is linked to nuclear processes including chromatin modifications and gene silencing. However, the mechanisms that distinguish RNAs and mediate their functions are poorly understood. We describe a nuclear RNA processing network in fission yeast with a core module comprising the Mtr4-like protein, Mtl1, and the zinc finger protein, Red1. The Mtl1-Red1 core promotes degradation of mRNAs and noncoding RNAs, and associates with different proteins to assemble heterochromatin via distinct mechanisms. Mtl1 also forms Red1-independent interactions with evolutionarily conserved proteins named Nrl1 and Ctr1, which associate with splicing factors. Whereas Nrl1 targets transcripts with cryptic introns to form heterochromatin at developmental genes and retrotransposons, Ctr1 functions in processing intron-containing telomerase RNA. Together with our discovery of widespread cryptic introns, including in noncoding RNAs, these findings reveal unique cellular strategies for recognizing regulatory RNAs and coordinating their functions in response to developmental and environmental cues. PMID:24210919

  8. Draft genome sequence of Janthinobacterium lividum strain MTR reveals its mechanism of capnophilic behavior.

    PubMed

    Valdes, Natalia; Soto, Paola; Cottet, Luis; Alarcon, Paula; Gonzalez, Alex; Castillo, Antonio; Corsini, Gino; Tello, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Janthinobacterium lividum is a Gram-negative bacterium able to produce violacein, a pigment with antimicrobial and antitumor properties. Janthinobacterium lividum colonizes the skin of some amphibians and confers protection against fungal pathogens. The mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. In order to identify the advantages for the bacterium to colonize amphibian skin we sequenced Janthinobacterium lividum strain MTR, a strain isolated from Cajón del Maipo, Chile. The strain has capnophilic behavior, with growth favored by high concentrations (5 %) of carbon dioxide. Its genome is 6,535,606 bp in size, with 5,362 coding sequences and a G + C content of 62.37 %. The presence of genes encoding for products that participate in the carbon fixation pathways (dark CAM pathways), and the entire set of genes encoding for the enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle may explain the capnophilic behavior and allow us to propose that the CO2 secreted by the skin of amphibians is the signal molecule that guides colonization by Janthinobacterium lividum.

  9. Specific Bonds between an Iron Oxide Surface and Outer Membrane Cytochromes MtrC and OmcA from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Lower, Brian H.; Shi, Liang; Yongsunthon, Ruchirej; Droubay, Timothy C.; Mccready, David E.; Lower, Steven

    2007-07-31

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is purported to express outer membrane cytochromes (e.g., MtrC and OmcA) that transfer electrons directly to Fe(III) in a mineral during anaerobic respiration.  A prerequisite for this type of reaction would be the formation of a stable bond between a cytochrome and an iron oxide surface.  Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to detect whether a specific bond forms between a hematite (Fe2O3) thin film, created with oxygen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and recombinant MtrC or OmcA molecules coupled to gold substrates.  Force spectra displayed a unique force signature indicative of a specific bond between each cytochrome and the hematite surface.  The strength of the OmcA-hematite bond was approximately twice as strong as the MtrC-hematite bond, but direct binding to hematite was twice as favorable for MtrC.  Reversible folding/unfolding reactions were observed for mechanically denatured MtrC molecules bound to hematite.  The force measurements for the hematite-cytochrome pairs were compared to spectra collected between an iron oxide and S. oneidensis under anaerobic conditions.  There is a strong correlation between the whole cell and pure protein force spectra suggesting that the unique binding attributes of each cytochrome complement one another and allow both MtrC and OmcA to play a prominent role in the transfer of electrons to Fe(III) in minerals.  Finally, by comparing the magnitude of binding force for the whole cell vs. pure protein data, we were able to estimate that a single bacterium of S. oneidensis (2 x 0.5 μm) expresses ~104 cytochromes on its outer surface. 

  10. Deletion of mtrC in Haemophilus ducreyi Increases Sensitivity to Human Antimicrobial Peptides and Activates the CpxRA Regulon ▿

    PubMed Central

    Rinker, Sherri D.; Trombley, Michael P.; Gu, Xiaoping; Fortney, Kate R.; Bauer, Margaret E.

    2011-01-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi resists killing by antimicrobial peptides encountered during human infection, including cathelicidin LL-37, α-defensins, and β-defensins. In this study, we examined the role of the proton motive force-dependent multiple transferable resistance (MTR) transporter in antimicrobial peptide resistance in H. ducreyi. We found a proton motive force-dependent effect on H. ducreyi's resistance to LL-37 and β-defensin HBD-3, but not α-defensin HNP-2. Deletion of the membrane fusion protein MtrC rendered H. ducreyi more sensitive to LL-37 and human β-defensins but had relatively little effect on α-defensin resistance. The mtrC mutant 35000HPmtrC exhibited phenotypic changes in outer membrane protein profiles, colony morphology, and serum sensitivity, which were restored to wild type by trans-complementation with mtrC. Similar phenotypes were reported in a cpxA mutant; activation of the two-component CpxRA regulator was confirmed by showing transcriptional effects on CpxRA-regulated genes in 35000HPmtrC. A cpxR mutant had wild-type levels of antimicrobial peptide resistance; a cpxA mutation had little effect on defensin resistance but led to increased sensitivity to LL-37. 35000HPmtrC was more sensitive than the cpxA mutant to LL-37, indicating that MTR contributed to LL-37 resistance independent of the CpxRA regulon. The CpxRA regulon did not affect proton motive force-dependent antimicrobial peptide resistance; however, 35000HPmtrC had lost proton motive force-dependent peptide resistance, suggesting that the MTR transporter promotes proton motive force-dependent resistance to LL-37 and human β-defensins. This is the first report of a β-defensin resistance mechanism in H. ducreyi and shows that LL-37 resistance in H. ducreyi is multifactorial. PMID:21444663

  11. Delay discounting and frontostriatal fiber tracts: a combined DTI and MTR study on impulsive choices in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Peper, Jiska S; Mandl, René C W; Braams, Barbara R; de Water, Erik; Heijboer, Annemieke C; Koolschijn, P Cédric M P; Crone, Eveline A

    2013-07-01

    Delay discounting, a measure of impulsive choice, has been associated with decreased control of the prefrontal cortex over striatum responses. The anatomical connectivity between both brain regions in delaying gratification remains unknown. Here, we investigate whether the quality of frontostriatal (FS) white matter tracts can predict individual differences in delay-discounting behavior. We use tract-based diffusion tensor imaging and magnetization transfer imaging to measure the microstructural properties of FS fiber tracts in 40 healthy young adults (from 18 to 25 years). We additionally explored whether internal sex hormone levels affect the integrity of FS tracts, based on the hypothesis that sex hormones modulate axonal density within prefrontal dopaminergic circuits. We calculated fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), longitudinal diffusivity, radial diffusivity (RD), and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), a putative measure of myelination, for the FS tract. Results showed that lower integrity within the FS tract (higher MD and RD and lower FA), predicts faster discounting in both sexes. MTR was unrelated to delay-discounting performance. In addition, testosterone levels in males were associated with a lower integrity (higher RD) within the FS tract. Our study provides support for the hypothesis that enhanced structural integrity of white matter fiber bundles between prefrontal and striatal brain areas is associated with better impulse control.

  12. Delay Discounting and Frontostriatal Fiber Tracts: A Combined DTI and MTR Study on Impulsive Choices in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peper, Jiska S.; Mandl, René C.W.; Braams, Barbara R.; de Water, Erik; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Koolschijn, P. Cédric M.P.; Crone, Eveline A.

    2013-01-01

    Delay discounting, a measure of impulsive choice, has been associated with decreased control of the prefrontal cortex over striatum responses. The anatomical connectivity between both brain regions in delaying gratification remains unknown. Here, we investigate whether the quality of frontostriatal (FS) white matter tracts can predict individual differences in delay-discounting behavior. We use tract-based diffusion tensor imaging and magnetization transfer imaging to measure the microstructural properties of FS fiber tracts in 40 healthy young adults (from 18 to 25 years). We additionally explored whether internal sex hormone levels affect the integrity of FS tracts, based on the hypothesis that sex hormones modulate axonal density within prefrontal dopaminergic circuits. We calculated fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), longitudinal diffusivity, radial diffusivity (RD), and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), a putative measure of myelination, for the FS tract. Results showed that lower integrity within the FS tract (higher MD and RD and lower FA), predicts faster discounting in both sexes. MTR was unrelated to delay-discounting performance. In addition, testosterone levels in males were associated with a lower integrity (higher RD) within the FS tract. Our study provides support for the hypothesis that enhanced structural integrity of white matter fiber bundles between prefrontal and striatal brain areas is associated with better impulse control. PMID:22693341

  13. In Vivo Identification of the Outer Membrane Protein OmcA-MtrC Interaction Network in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Cells Using Novel Hydrophobic Chemical Cross-Linkers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haizhen; Tang, Xiaoting; Munske, Gerhard R.; Zakharova, Natalia L.; Yang, Li; Zheng, Chunxiang; Wolff, Meagan A.; Tolic, Nikola; Anderson, Gordon A.; Shi, Liang; Marshall, Matthew J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Bruce, James E.

    2008-04-01

    Outer membrane (OM) cytochromes OmcA (SO1779) and MtrC (SO1778) are the integral components of electron transfer used by Shewanella oneidensis for anaerobic respiration of metal (hydr)oxides. Here the OmcA-MtrC interaction was identified in vivo using a novel hydrophobic chemical cross-linker (MRN) combined with immunoprecipitation techniques. In addition, identification of other OM proteins from the cross-linked complexes allows first visualization of the OmcA-MtrC interaction network. Further experiments on omcA and mtrC mutant cells showed OmcA plays a central role in the network interaction. For comparison, two commercial cross-linkers were also used in parallel and both resulted in fewer OM protein identifications, indicating the superior properties of MRN for identification of membrane protein interactions. Finally, comparison experiments of in vivo cross-linking and cell lysate cross-linking resulted in significantly different protein interaction data, demonstrating the importance of in vivo cross-linking for study of protein-protein interactions in cells.

  14. Role of Outer-Membrane Cytochromes MtrC and OmcA in the Biomineralization of Ferrihydrite by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, Catherine L.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Kennedy, David W.; Saffarini, Daad; Arey, Bruce W.; Shi, Liang; Wang, Zheming; Moore, Dean A.; Mclean, Jeffrey S.; Moyles, Dianne M.; Marshall, Matthew J.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beliaev, Alex S.

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to improve the understanding of electron transfer mechanisms at the microbe-mineral interface, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 mutants with in-frame deletions of outer membrane cytochrome genes mtrC, omcA, or both, were characterized for the ability to reduce metal oxides using a suite of microscopic, spectroscopic, and biochemicalr techniques. The results indicate that neither MtrC nor OmcA are essential for the reduction of soluble, complexed Fe(III)-citrate or Fe(III)-NTA; however, at least one of these outer membrane cytochromes is required for the reduction of Fe(III)- and Mn(III/IV)- oxides. In vitro analysis of purified, recombinant protein demonstrated that both cytochromes transfer electrons directly to metal-oxides; however, MtrC transfers electrons at a faster rate than OmcA. Immunolocalization of MtrC and OmcA reveal that both cytochromes are surface-exposed on the cell outer-membrane and co-localize with insoluble iron precipitates when respiring ferrihydrite or cultured aerobically with Fe(III)-citrate. Additionally, during prolonged incubation, wild-type cells promoted biotransformation of ferrihydrite to vivianite [Fe3(PO4)2•8H2O] while the double cytochrome mutant was unable to form any secondary mineral phases. Collectively, our results support a role for direct electron transfer from OMCs to metal oxides by establishing their in vitro electron transfer activities, confirming the requirement of either MtrC or OmcA for in vivo reductive biomineralization of ferrihydrite, and localizing the cytochromes to the cell exterior where they can directly contact mineral substrates.

  15. The MTR 2756A>G polymorphism and maternal risk of birth of a child with Down syndrome: a case-control study and a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Coppedè, Fabio; Bosco, Paolo; Lorenzoni, Valentina; Migheli, Francesca; Barone, Concetta; Antonucci, Ivana; Stuppia, Liborio; Romano, Corrado; Migliore, Lucia

    2013-12-01

    Methionine synthase (MTR) is required for the conversion of homocysteine (hcy) to methionine in the one-carbon metabolic pathway. Previous studies investigating a common MTR 2756A>G polymorphism as a maternal risk factor for the birth of a child with Down syndrome (DS) are conflicting and limited by small case-control cohorts, and its contribution to circulating hcy levels is still debated. We performed a large case-control study and a meta-analysis of the literature to further address the role of MTR 2756A>G as a maternal risk factor for the birth of a child with DS. 286 mothers of a DS child (MDS) and 305 control mothers of Italian origin were included in the case-control study. Genotyping was performed by means of PCR/RFLP technique. Data on circulating levels of hcy, folates, and vitamin B12 were available for 189 MDS and 194 control mothers. The meta analysis of previous and present data involved a total of 8 studies (1,171 MDS and 1,402 control mothers). Both the case-control study and the meta-analysis showed no association of MTR 2756A>G with the maternal risk of birth of a child with DS (OR = 1.15; 95 % CI 0.85-1.55, and OR = 1.08; 95 % CI 0.93-1.25, respectively), even after stratification of the overall data available for the meta-analysis into ethnic groups. No association of the studied polymorphism with circulating levels of hcy, folates, and vitamin B12 was observed. Present data do not support a role for MTR 2756A>G as independent maternal risk factor for a DS birth.

  16. The MTR 2756A>G polymorphism and maternal risk of birth of a child with Down syndrome: a case-control study and a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Coppedè, Fabio; Bosco, Paolo; Lorenzoni, Valentina; Migheli, Francesca; Barone, Concetta; Antonucci, Ivana; Stuppia, Liborio; Romano, Corrado; Migliore, Lucia

    2013-12-01

    Methionine synthase (MTR) is required for the conversion of homocysteine (hcy) to methionine in the one-carbon metabolic pathway. Previous studies investigating a common MTR 2756A>G polymorphism as a maternal risk factor for the birth of a child with Down syndrome (DS) are conflicting and limited by small case-control cohorts, and its contribution to circulating hcy levels is still debated. We performed a large case-control study and a meta-analysis of the literature to further address the role of MTR 2756A>G as a maternal risk factor for the birth of a child with DS. 286 mothers of a DS child (MDS) and 305 control mothers of Italian origin were included in the case-control study. Genotyping was performed by means of PCR/RFLP technique. Data on circulating levels of hcy, folates, and vitamin B12 were available for 189 MDS and 194 control mothers. The meta analysis of previous and present data involved a total of 8 studies (1,171 MDS and 1,402 control mothers). Both the case-control study and the meta-analysis showed no association of MTR 2756A>G with the maternal risk of birth of a child with DS (OR = 1.15; 95 % CI 0.85-1.55, and OR = 1.08; 95 % CI 0.93-1.25, respectively), even after stratification of the overall data available for the meta-analysis into ethnic groups. No association of the studied polymorphism with circulating levels of hcy, folates, and vitamin B12 was observed. Present data do not support a role for MTR 2756A>G as independent maternal risk factor for a DS birth. PMID:24150725

  17. Molecular Structure and Free Energy Landscape for Electron Transport in the Deca-Heme Cytochrome MtrF

    SciTech Connect

    Breuer, Marian; Zarzycki, Piotr P.; Shi, Liang; Clarke, Thomas; Edwards, Marcus; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Blumberger, Jochen; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2012-12-01

    The free energy profile for electron flow through the bacterial deca-heme cytochrome MtrF has been computed using thermodynamic integration and classical molecular dynamics. The extensive calculations on two versions of the structure help validate the method and results, because differences in the profiles can be related to differences in the charged amino acids local to specific heme groups. First estimates of reorganization free energies λ yield a range consistent with expectations for partially solvent exposed cofactors, and reveal an activation energy range surmountable for electron flow. Future work will aim at increasing the accuracy of λ with polarizable force field dynamics and quantum chemical energy gap calculations, as well as quantum chemical computation of electronic coupling matrix elements.

  18. Role of outer-membrane cytochromes MtrC and OmcA in the biomineralization of ferrihydrite by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    PubMed

    Reardon, C L; Dohnalkova, A C; Nachimuthu, P; Kennedy, D W; Saffarini, D A; Arey, B W; Shi, L; Wang, Z; Moore, D; McLean, J S; Moyles, D; Marshall, M J; Zachara, J M; Fredrickson, J K; Beliaev, A S

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to improve the understanding of electron transfer mechanisms at the microbe-mineral interface, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 mutants with in-frame deletions of outer-membrane cytochromes (OMCs), MtrC and OmcA, were characterized for the ability to reduce ferrihydrite (FH) using a suite of microscopic, spectroscopic, and biochemical techniques. Analysis of purified recombinant proteins demonstrated that both cytochromes undergo rapid electron exchange with FH in vitro with MtrC displaying faster transfer rates than OmcA. Immunomicroscopy with cytochrome-specific antibodies revealed that MtrC co-localizes with iron solids on the cell surface while OmcA exhibits a more diffuse distribution over the cell surface. After 3-day incubation of MR-1 with FH, pronounced reductive transformation mineral products were visible by electron microscopy. Upon further incubation, the predominant phases identified were ferrous phosphates including vivianite [Fe(3)(PO(4))(2)x8H(2)O] and a switzerite-like phase [Mn(3),Fe(3)(PO(4))(2)x7H(2)O] that were heavily colonized by MR-1 cells with surface-exposed outer-membrane cytochromes. In the absence of both MtrC and OmcA, the cells ability to reduce FH was significantly hindered and no mineral transformation products were detected. Collectively, these results highlight the importance of the outer-membrane cytochromes in the reductive transformation of FH and support a role for direct electron transfer from the OMCs at the cell surface to the mineral.

  19. Influence of GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, NAT1, NAT2, EPHX1, MTR and MTHFR polymorphism on chromosomal aberration frequencies in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Skjelbred, Camilla Furu; Svendsen, Marit; Haugan, Vera; Eek, Anette Kildal; Clausen, Kjell Oskar; Kure, Elin H; Tuimala, Jarno T; Svendsen, Martin Veel; Norppa, Hannu; Hansteen, Inger-Lise

    2011-03-01

    We have studied the influence of genetic polymorphisms in the xenobiotic-metabolizing genes GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, EPHX1, NAT1 and NAT2 and the folate-metabolizing genes MTR and MTHFR on the frequencies of cells with chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in peripheral lymphocytes of Norwegian men. Log-linear Poisson regression models were applied on 357 subjects of whom data on all the polymorphisms examined were available. Total CAs and chromosome-type aberrations (CSAs) were significantly increased by higher age alone, whereas chromatid-type aberrations (CTAs) were elevated by the GSTT1-null genotype and MTHFR codon 222 variant allele and chromatid gaps (CTGs) by EPHX1 high activity genotype and occupational exposure. Stratification by smoking and age (<40 and ≥40 years) showed that the effect of the GSTT1 null and EPHX1 high activity genotypes only concerned (older) smokers, in agreement with the roles of the respective enzymes in detoxification and metabolic activation. The MTHFR codon 222 variant allele was associated with high CTGs in smokers, the MTR codon 919 variant allele with high CTAs in older smokers and the NAT2 fast acetylator genotype with high CTGs in older subjects. Among younger nonsmokers, however, carriers of the MTHFR codon 222 and MTR codon 919 variant alleles showed a decrease in the level of CTGs and total CAs, respectively. In conclusion, polymorphisms of GSTT1, EPHX1, MTHFR, MTR and NAT2 differentially affect the frequency of CTAs, CSAs and CTGs, showing interaction with smoking and age. It appears that CA subtypes rather than total CAs should be considered in this type of studies.

  20. Comparative proteomics reveal the impact of OmcA/MtrC deletion on Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in response to hexavalent chromium exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Chen, Juan; Hu, Wen-Jun; Liu, Ji-Yun; Zheng, Hai-Lei; Zhao, Feng

    2014-12-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a priority pollutant causing serious environmental issues. Microbial reduction provides an alternative strategy for Cr(VI) remediation. The dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, was employed to study Cr(VI) reduction and toxicity in this work. To understand the effect of membrane cytochromes on Cr(VI) response, a comparative protein profile analysis from S. oneidensis MR-1 wild type and its mutant of deleting OmcA and MtrC (△omcA/mtrC) was conducted using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) technology. The 2-DE patterns were compared, and the proteins with abundant changes of up to twofold in the Cr(VI) treatment were detected. Using mass spectrometry, 38 and 45 differentially abundant proteins were identified in the wild type and the mutant, respectively. Among them, 25 proteins were shared by the two strains. The biological functions of these identified proteins were analyzed. Results showed that Cr(VI) exposure decreased the abundance of proteins involved in transcription, translation, pyruvate metabolism, energy production, and function of cellular membrane in both strains. There were also significant differences in protein expressions between the two strains under Cr(VI) treatment. Our results suggest that OmcA/MtrC deletion might result in the Cr(VI) toxicity to outer membrane and decrease assimilation of lactate, vitamin B12, and cystine. When carbohydrate metabolism was inhibited by Cr(VI), leucine and sulfur metabolism may act as the important compensatory mechanisms in the mutant. Furthermore, the mutant may regulate electron transfer in the inner membrane and periplasm to compensate for the deletion of OmcA and MtrC in Cr(VI) reduction.

  1. Kinetic Characterization of OmcA and MtrC, Terminal Reductases Involved in Respiratory Electron Transfer for Dissimilatory Iron Reduction in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1▿

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Daniel E.; Brantley, Susan L.; Tien, Ming

    2009-01-01

    We have used scaling kinetics and the concept of kinetic competence to elucidate the role of hemeproteins OmcA and MtrC in iron reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Second-order rate constants for OmcA and MtrC were determined by single-turnover experiments. For soluble iron species, a stopped-flow apparatus was used, and for the less reactive iron oxide goethite, a conventional spectrophotometer was used to measure rates. Steady-state experiments were performed to obtain molecular rate constants by quantifying the OmcA and MtrC contents of membrane fractions and whole cells by Western blot analysis. For reduction of soluble iron, rates determined from transient-state experiments were able to account for rates obtained from steady-state experiments. However, this was not true with goethite; rate constants determined from transient-state experiments were 100 to 1,000 times slower than those calculated from steady-state experiments with membrane fractions and whole cells. In contrast, addition of flavins to the goethite experiments resulted in rates that were consistent with both transient- and steady-state experiments. Kinetic simulations of steady-state results with kinetic constants obtained from transient-state experiments supported flavin involvement. Therefore, we show for the first time that OmcA and MtrC are kinetically competent to account for catalysis of soluble iron reduction in whole Shewanella cells but are not responsible for electron transfer via direct contact alone with insoluble iron-containing minerals. This work supports the hypothesis that electron shuttles are important participants in the reduction of solid Fe phases by this organism. PMID:19542342

  2. Structural Characterization of the Chaetomium thermophilum TREX-2 Complex and its Interaction with the mRNA Nuclear Export Factor Mex67:Mtr2

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrova, Lyudmila; Valkov, Eugene; Aibara, Shintaro; Flemming, Dirk; McLaughlin, Stephen H.; Hurt, Ed; Stewart, Murray

    2015-01-01

    Summary The TREX-2 complex integrates mRNA nuclear export into the gene expression pathway and is based on a Sac3 scaffold to which Thp1, Sem1, Sus1, and Cdc31 bind. TREX-2 also binds the mRNA nuclear export factor, Mex67:Mtr2, through the Sac3 N-terminal region (Sac3N). Here, we characterize Chaetomium thermophilum TREX-2, show that the in vitro reconstituted complex has an annular structure, and define the structural basis for interactions between Sac3, Sus1, Cdc31, and Mex67:Mtr2. Crystal structures show that the binding of C. thermophilum Sac3N to the Mex67 NTF2-like domain (Mex67NTF2L) is mediated primarily through phenylalanine residues present in a series of repeating sequence motifs that resemble those seen in many nucleoporins, and Mlp1 also binds Mex67:Mtr2 using a similar motif. Deletion of Sac3N generated growth and mRNA export defects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and we propose TREX-2 and Mlp1 function to facilitate export by concentrating mature messenger ribonucleoparticles at the nuclear pore entrance. PMID:26051714

  3. Gene-environment and gene-gene interactions of specific MTHFR, MTR and CBS gene variants in relation to homocysteine in black South Africans.

    PubMed

    Nienaber-Rousseau, Cornelie; Ellis, Suria M; Moss, Sarah J; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Towers, G Wayne

    2013-11-01

    The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), cystathione-β-synthase (CBS) and methionine synthase (MTR) genes interact with each other and the environment. These interactions could influence homocysteine (Hcy) and diseases contingent thereon. We determined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within these genes, their relationships and interactions with total Hcy concentrations within black South Africans to address the increased prevalence of diseases associated with Hcy. The MTHFR 677 TT and MTR 2756 AA genotypes were associated with higher Hcy concentrations (16.6 and 10.1 μmol/L; p<0.05) compared to subjects harboring the MTHFR 677 CT/CC and the MTR 2756 AG genotypes (10.5, 9.7 and 9.5 μmol/L, respectively). The investigated CBS genotypes did not influence Hcy. We demonstrated interactions between the area of residence and the CBS T833C/844ins68 genotypes (p=0.005) so that when harboring the wildtype allele, rural subjects had significantly higher Hcy than their urban counterparts, but when hosting the variant allele the environment made no difference to Hcy. Between the CBS T833C/844ins68 or G9276A and MTHFR C677T genotypes, there were two-way interactions (p=0.003 and=0.004, respectively), with regard to Hcy. Subjects harboring the MTHFR 677 TT genotype in combination with the CBS 833 TT/homozygous 844 non-insert or the MTHFR 677 TT genotype in combination with the CBS 9276 GA/GG displayed higher Hcy concentrations. Therefore, some of the investigated genotypes affected Hcy; residential area changed the way in which the CBS T833C/844ins68 SNPs influenced Hcy concentrations highlighting the importance of environmental factors; and gene-gene interactions allude to epistatic effects.

  4. Association study of folate-related enzymes (MTHFR, MTR, MTRR) genetic variants with non-obstructive male infertility in a Polish population.

    PubMed

    Kurzawski, Mateusz; Wajda, Anna; Malinowski, Damian; Kazienko, Anna; Kurzawa, Rafal; Drozdzik, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Spermatogenesis is a process where an important contribution of genes involved in folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism is observed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between male infertility and the MTHFR (677C > T; 1298A > C), MTR (2756A > G) and MTRR (66A > G) polymorphisms in a Polish population. No significant differences in genotype or allele frequencies were detected between the groups of 284 infertile men and of 352 fertile controls. These results demonstrate that common polymorphisms in folate pathway genes are not major risk factors for non-obstructive male infertility in the Polish population. PMID:25983623

  5. MtrR control of a transcriptional regulatory pathway in Neisseria meningitidis that influences expression of a gene (nadA) encoding a vaccine candidate.

    PubMed

    Cloward, Jason M; Shafer, William M

    2013-01-01

    The surface-exposed NadA adhesin produced by a subset of capsular serogroup B strains of Neisseria meningitidis is currently being considered as a vaccine candidate to prevent invasive disease caused by a hypervirulent lineage of meningococci. Levels of NadA are known to be controlled by both transcriptional regulatory factors and a component of human saliva, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid. Herein, we confirmed the capacity of a DNA-binding protein termed FarR to negatively control nadA expression. We also found that a known transcriptional regulator of farR in N. gonorrhoeae termed MtrR can have a negative regulatory impact on farR and nadA expression, especially when over-expressed. MtrR-mediated repression of nadA was found to be direct, and its binding to a target DNA sequence containing the nadA promoter influenced formation and/or stability of FarR::nadA complexes. The complexity of the multi-layered regulation of nadA uncovered during this investigation suggests that N. meningitidis modulates NadA adhesin protein levels for the purpose of interacting with host cells yet avoiding antibody directed against surface exposed epitopes.

  6. Role of outer membrane c-type cytochromes MtrC and OmcA in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cell production, accumulation and detachment during respiration on hematite

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 has the capacity to contribute to iron cycling over the long term by respiring on crystalline iron oxides such as hematite when poorly crystalline phases are depleted. The ability of outer membrane cytochromes OmcA and MtrC of MR-1 to bind to an...

  7. Effects of Bio-Au Nanoparticles on Electrochemical Activity of Shewanella oneidensis Wild Type and ΔomcA/mtrC Mutant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ranran; Cui, Li; Chen, Lixiang; Wang, Chao; Cao, Changli; Sheng, Guoping; Yu, Hanqing; Zhao, Feng

    2013-11-01

    Both Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 wild type and its mutant ΔomcA/mtrC are capable of transforming AuIII into Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). Cyclic voltammetry reveals a decrease in redox current after the wild type is exposed to AuIII but an increase in oxidation current for the mutant. The peak current of the wild type is much higher than that of the mutant before the exposure of AuIII, but lower than that of the mutant after the formation of AuNPs. This suggests that damage to the electron transfer chain in the mutant could be repaired by AuNPs to a certain extent. Spectroscopy and SDS-PAGE analysis indicate a decrease in cell protein content after the formation of AuNPs, which provides a convenient way to detect intracellular information on cells.

  8. Effects of bio-Au nanoparticles on electrochemical activity of Shewanella oneidensis wild type and ΔomcA/mtrC mutant.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ranran; Cui, Li; Chen, Lixiang; Wang, Chao; Cao, Changli; Sheng, Guoping; Yu, Hanqing; Zhao, Feng

    2013-11-22

    Both Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 wild type and its mutant ΔomcA/mtrC are capable of transforming Au(III) into Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). Cyclic voltammetry reveals a decrease in redox current after the wild type is exposed to Au(III) but an increase in oxidation current for the mutant. The peak current of the wild type is much higher than that of the mutant before the exposure of Au(III), but lower than that of the mutant after the formation of AuNPs. This suggests that damage to the electron transfer chain in the mutant could be repaired by AuNPs to a certain extent. Spectroscopy and SDS-PAGE analysis indicate a decrease in cell protein content after the formation of AuNPs, which provides a convenient way to detect intracellular information on cells.

  9. Kinetics of Reduction of Fe(III) Complexes by Outer Membrane Cytochromes MtrC and OmcA of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zheming; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Xuelin; Marshall, Matthew J.; Zachara, John M.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Dupuis, Michel; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Heald, Steve M.; Shi, Liang

    2008-09-12

    Shewanella Oneidensis MR-1 possesses up to 42 c-type cytochromes with heme content varying between 1 to as many as 37. Among them, the outer-membrane cytochromes, particularly MtrC and OmcA, are suspected to function as terminal reductases and are responsible for its enzymatic catalysis capability. So far, the mechanisms of metal reduction by these outer-membrane cytochromes are unknown. In this work, we report the study of reduction kinetics of a series of Fe(III) complexes with citrate, NTA and EDTA by abiotically reduced MtrC and OmcA using a stopped-flow technique in combination with theoretical computation methods within the framework of the electron transfer theory of Marcus and speciation calculations based on the current thermodynamic database. Stopped-flow kinetic data showed that the reaction was very fast and appeared to proceed in two stages, a fast stage that completes in much less than a second and a slower stage afterwards. For a given complex, the reaction is faster by reduction with MtrC than OmcA, while for a given protein, the reaction completes in the decreasing order of Fe-EDTA > Fe-NTA > Fe-citrate. All the stopped-flow kinetic curves could be modeled by two parallel second-order bimolecular redox reactions with second-order rate constants ranging from 0.872 µM-1s-1 for the fast reaction between MtrC with Fe-EDTA complex to 0.012 µM-1s-1 for the slow reaction between OmcA and Fe-citrate complex. Speciation calculations indicated that at both metal:ligand ratios, 1:1.5 and 1:10, a single dominant ferric complex was responsible for the observed reaction for each ligand and, therefore, the observed dual-reaction pathways was attributed to the differences in the reduction behavior among various heme groups within each protein. The results of redox potential calculations with known thermodynamic data show only small differences on the scale of a few millivolts among the three complexes, suggested that

  10. Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with reduced susceptibility to cefixime and ceftriaxone: association with genetic polymorphisms in penA, mtrR, porB1b, and ponA.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Robert; Fredlund, Hans; Nicholas, Robert; Unemo, Magnus

    2007-06-01

    The recent emergence and transmission of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with reduced susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins such as cefixime and ceftriaxone have been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation of different polymorphisms in the penA, mtrR, porB1b (penB), and ponA genes of N. gonorrhoeae with reduced susceptibility to cefixime and ceftriaxone. Eighteen gonococcal isolates with reduced cefixime and ceftriaxone susceptibility (Cef(i)) and two susceptible isolates were characterized using serovar determination, antibiograms, N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST), and sequencing of penA, mtrR, porB1b, and ponA alleles. For the Cef(i) isolates (n = 18), the MICs of cefixime and ceftriaxone ranged between 0.032 to 0.38 mug/ml and 0.064 to 0.125 mug/ml, respectively. These isolates were assigned five different serovars and six divergent NG-MAST sequence types. Eleven isolates (61%) with higher MICs of cefixime and ceftriaxone contained a nearly identical penA mosaic allele and previously described polymorphisms in mtrR (a single nucleotide [A] deletion in the promoter), penB (mutations in porB1b encoding loop 3 of PorB1b), and ponA (ponA1 polymorphism). The remaining seven Cef(i) isolates (39%), which had somewhat lower MICs of cefixime and ceftriaxone, contained an aspartic acid insertion (Asp-345a) in PBP 2 in conjunction with alterations of 4 to 10 amino acid residues in the C-terminal region of the transpeptidase domain of penA. In conclusion, an unambiguous association between penA mosaic alleles, in conjunction with genetic polymorphisms in mtrR, porB1b, and ponA, and greater reduced susceptibility to cefixime and ceftriaxone was identified.

  11. Role of Outer Membrane C-Type Cytochromes MtrC and OmcA in Shewanella Oneidensis MR-1 Cell Production, Accumulation, and Detachment During Respiration on Hematite

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Andrew C.; Peterson, L.; Reardon, Catherine L.; Reed, Samantha B.; Culley, David E.; Romine, Margaret F.; Geesey, Gill G.

    2012-07-01

    Solid phase iron oxides are considered to be important terminal electron acceptors for microbial respiration in many anoxic environments. Besides the knowledge that cells attach to and reduce these substrates, other aspects of surface-associated cell behavior and the related cell surface components that influence cell-mineral interactions are not well understood. In the present study, wild-type cells of the dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 formed thin biofilms one-to-two cell layers in thickness when respiring on natural specular hematite under flow conditions similar to those which exist in aquatic sediments and subsurface environments. The distribution of cells within the biofilm indicated that direct contact was not required for electron transfer from cells to the mineral surface. Detached biomass in the form of single cells represented >99% of the surface-associated wild-type cell production from respiration on hematite over the biofilm life cycle. A mutant deficient in the outer membrane c35 type cytochrome OmcA, while still able to respire and replicate on hematite, established a lower steady-state cell density on the mineral surface than that of the wild-type strain. A mutant deficient in MtrC, another outer membrane c-type cytochrome, and a mutant deficient in both cytochromes were unable to reduce sufficient amounts of hematite to support detectable growth on the mineral surface. When considered in the context of previous work, the results support a growing body of evidence that the relative importance of OmcA and MtrC to cell respiration and replication depends on the form of iron oxide available as terminal electron acceptor.

  12. Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility in Barcelona: penA, ponA, mtrR, and porB mutations and NG-MAST sequence types associated with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins.

    PubMed

    Serra-Pladevall, J; Barberá, M J; Rodriguez, S; Bartolomé-Comas, R; Roig, G; Juvé, R; Andreu, A

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) in our area, to analyze the molecular mechanisms involved in cephalosporins resistance, and to undertake molecular typing of our NG strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using the Etest. The genes penA, mtrR, penB, and ponA were studied. Molecular typing was performed by N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing. Of 329 strains analyzed in 2013, none showed high-level cephalosporin resistance, but 8.2 % had resistance to cefixime [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) > 0.125 μg/mL] and 0.6 % to ceftriaxone (MIC > 0.125 μg/mL). Azithromycin resistance was documented in 4.3 % and ciprofloxacin resistance in 49.2 %. Among 48 strains with an MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL to cefixime, 58.3 % showed the penA mosaic pattern XXXIV, 98 % a Leu → Pro substitution at position 421 of the ponA gene, 100 % amino acid changes at positions 101 and 102 of the PorB1b porin, and 87.5 % of strains an adenine deletion in the promoter region of the MtrC-D-E efflux pump. A significant difference between strains with and without decreased cephalosporin susceptibility (MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL) was observed for these four genes. Of the 48 strains with an MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL to cefixime, 43.8 % belonged to the genogroup G1407 and 27.1 % belonged to the genogroup G2400. A significant association of G1407 with decreased susceptibility (MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL) and G2992 with susceptibility was found, and also between G1407 and mosaic pattern XXXIV and between G2400 and A501T substitution in penA. The NG resistance rate in our area is higher than the median of Europe. We have detected the emergence of G2400, which may be a source of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:27255221

  13. Artificial neural network-based exploration of gene-nutrient interactions in folate and xenobiotic metabolic pathways that modulate susceptibility to breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Ramaiah, M Janaki; Pavithrakumari, Manickam; Jayapriya, Jaganathan; Hussain, Tajamul; Alrokayan, Salman A; Gottumukkala, Suryanarayana Raju; Digumarti, Raghunadharao; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

    2016-04-15

    In the current study, an artificial neural network (ANN)-based breast cancer prediction model was developed from the data of folate and xenobiotic pathway genetic polymorphisms along with the nutritional and demographic variables to investigate how micronutrients modulate susceptibility to breast cancer. The developed ANN model explained 94.2% variability in breast cancer prediction. Fixed effect models of folate (400 μg/day) and B12 (6 μg/day) showed 33.3% and 11.3% risk reduction, respectively. Multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis showed the following interactions in responders to folate: RFC1 G80A × MTHFR C677T (primary), COMT H108L × CYP1A1 m2 (secondary), MTR A2756G (tertiary). The interactions among responders to B12 were RFC1G80A × cSHMT C1420T and CYP1A1 m2 × CYP1A1 m4. ANN simulations revealed that increased folate might restore ER and PR expression and reduce the promoter CpG island methylation of extra cellular superoxide dismutase and BRCA1. Dietary intake of folate appears to confer protection against breast cancer through its modulating effects on ER and PR expression and methylation of EC-SOD and BRCA1. PMID:26784656

  14. Artificial neural network-based exploration of gene-nutrient interactions in folate and xenobiotic metabolic pathways that modulate susceptibility to breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Ramaiah, M Janaki; Pavithrakumari, Manickam; Jayapriya, Jaganathan; Hussain, Tajamul; Alrokayan, Salman A; Gottumukkala, Suryanarayana Raju; Digumarti, Raghunadharao; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

    2016-04-15

    In the current study, an artificial neural network (ANN)-based breast cancer prediction model was developed from the data of folate and xenobiotic pathway genetic polymorphisms along with the nutritional and demographic variables to investigate how micronutrients modulate susceptibility to breast cancer. The developed ANN model explained 94.2% variability in breast cancer prediction. Fixed effect models of folate (400 μg/day) and B12 (6 μg/day) showed 33.3% and 11.3% risk reduction, respectively. Multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis showed the following interactions in responders to folate: RFC1 G80A × MTHFR C677T (primary), COMT H108L × CYP1A1 m2 (secondary), MTR A2756G (tertiary). The interactions among responders to B12 were RFC1G80A × cSHMT C1420T and CYP1A1 m2 × CYP1A1 m4. ANN simulations revealed that increased folate might restore ER and PR expression and reduce the promoter CpG island methylation of extra cellular superoxide dismutase and BRCA1. Dietary intake of folate appears to confer protection against breast cancer through its modulating effects on ER and PR expression and methylation of EC-SOD and BRCA1.

  15. Associations between genetic variation in one-carbon metabolism and LINE-1 DNA methylation in histologically normal breast tissues

    PubMed Central

    Llanos, Adana A M; Marian, Catalin; Brasky, Theodore M; Dumitrescu, Ramona G; Liu, Zhenhua; Mason, Joel B; Makambi, Kepher H; Spear, Scott L; Kallakury, Bhaskar V S; Freudenheim, Jo L; Shields, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide DNA hypomethylation is an early event in the carcinogenic process. Percent methylation of long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) is a biomarker of genome-wide methylation and is a potential biomarker for breast cancer. Understanding factors associated with percent LINE-1 DNA methylation in histologically normal tissues could provide insight into early stages of carcinogenesis. In a cross-sectional study of 121 healthy women with no prior history of cancer who underwent reduction mammoplasty, we examined associations between plasma and breast folate, genetic variation in one-carbon metabolism, and percent LINE-1 methylation using multivariable regression models (adjusting for race, oral contraceptive use, and alcohol use). Results are expressed as the ratio of LINE-1 methylation relative to that of the referent group, with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). We found no significant associations between plasma or breast folate and percent LINE-1 methylation. Variation in MTHFR, MTR, and MTRR were significantly associated with percent LINE-1 methylation. Variant allele carriers of MTHFR A1289C had 4% lower LINE-1 methylation (Ratio 0.96, 95% CI 0.93–0.98), while variant allele carriers of MTR A2756G (Ratio 1.03, 95% CI 1.01–1.06) and MTRR A66G (Ratio 1.03, 95% CI 1.01–1.06) had 3% higher LINE-1 methylation, compared to those carrying the more common genotypes of these SNPs. DNA methylation of LINE-1 elements in histologically normal breast tissues is influenced by polymorphisms in genes in the one-carbon metabolism pathway. Future studies are needed to investigate the sociodemographic, environmental and additional genetic determinants of DNA methylation in breast tissues and the impact on breast cancer susceptibility. PMID:26090795

  16. Cotranscriptional recruitment of RNA exosome cofactors Rrp47p and Mpp6p and two distinct Trf-Air-Mtr4 polyadenylation (TRAMP) complexes assists the exonuclease Rrp6p in the targeting and degradation of an aberrant messenger ribonucleoprotein particle (mRNP) in yeast.

    PubMed

    Stuparevic, Igor; Mosrin-Huaman, Christine; Hervouet-Coste, Nadège; Remenaric, Mateja; Rahmouni, A Rachid

    2013-11-01

    The cotranscriptional mRNA processing and packaging reactions that lead to the formation of export-competent messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) are under the surveillance of quality control steps. Aberrant mRNPs resulting from faulty events are retained in the nucleus with ensuing elimination of their mRNA component. The molecular mechanisms by which the surveillance system recognizes defective mRNPs and stimulates their destruction by the RNA degradation machinery are still not completely elucidated. Using an experimental approach in which mRNP formation in yeast is disturbed by the action of the bacterial Rho helicase, we have shown previously that the targeting of Rho-induced aberrant mRNPs is mediated by Rrp6p, which is recruited cotranscriptionally in association with Nrd1p following Rho action. Here we investigated the specific involvement in this quality control process of different cofactors associated with the nuclear RNA degradation machinery. We show that, in addition to the main hydrolytic action of the exonuclease Rrp6p, the cofactors Rrp47p, Mpp6p as well as the Trf-Air-Mtr4 polyadenylation (TRAMP) components Trf4p, Trf5p, and Air2p contribute significantly by stimulating the degradation process upon their cotranscriptional recruitment. Trf4p and Trf5p are apparently recruited in two distinct TRAMP complexes that both contain Air2p as component. Surprisingly, Rrp47p appears to play an important role in mutual protein stabilization with Rrp6p, which highlights a close association between the two partners. Together, our results provide an integrated view of how different cofactors of the RNA degradation machinery cooperate to target and eliminate aberrant mRNPs.

  17. Cotranscriptional Recruitment of RNA Exosome Cofactors Rrp47p and Mpp6p and Two Distinct Trf-Air-Mtr4 Polyadenylation (TRAMP) Complexes Assists the Exonuclease Rrp6p in the Targeting and Degradation of an Aberrant Messenger Ribonucleoprotein Particle (mRNP) in Yeast*

    PubMed Central

    Stuparevic, Igor; Mosrin-Huaman, Christine; Hervouet-Coste, Nadège; Remenaric, Mateja; Rahmouni, A. Rachid

    2013-01-01

    The cotranscriptional mRNA processing and packaging reactions that lead to the formation of export-competent messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) are under the surveillance of quality control steps. Aberrant mRNPs resulting from faulty events are retained in the nucleus with ensuing elimination of their mRNA component. The molecular mechanisms by which the surveillance system recognizes defective mRNPs and stimulates their destruction by the RNA degradation machinery are still not completely elucidated. Using an experimental approach in which mRNP formation in yeast is disturbed by the action of the bacterial Rho helicase, we have shown previously that the targeting of Rho-induced aberrant mRNPs is mediated by Rrp6p, which is recruited cotranscriptionally in association with Nrd1p following Rho action. Here we investigated the specific involvement in this quality control process of different cofactors associated with the nuclear RNA degradation machinery. We show that, in addition to the main hydrolytic action of the exonuclease Rrp6p, the cofactors Rrp47p, Mpp6p as well as the Trf-Air-Mtr4 polyadenylation (TRAMP) components Trf4p, Trf5p, and Air2p contribute significantly by stimulating the degradation process upon their cotranscriptional recruitment. Trf4p and Trf5p are apparently recruited in two distinct TRAMP complexes that both contain Air2p as component. Surprisingly, Rrp47p appears to play an important role in mutual protein stabilization with Rrp6p, which highlights a close association between the two partners. Together, our results provide an integrated view of how different cofactors of the RNA degradation machinery cooperate to target and eliminate aberrant mRNPs. PMID:24047896

  18. Evaluation of the use of nodal methods for MTR neutronic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Reitsma, F.; Mueller, E.Z.

    1997-08-01

    Although modern nodal methods are used extensively in the nuclear power industry, their use for research reactor analysis has been very limited. The suitability of nodal methods for material testing reactor analysis is investigated with the emphasis on the modelling of the core region (fuel assemblies). The nodal approach`s performance is compared with that of the traditional finite-difference fine mesh approach. The advantages of using nodal methods coupled with integrated cross section generation systems are highlighted, especially with respect to data preparation, simplicity of use and the possibility of performing a great variety of reactor calculations subject to strict time limitations such as are required for the RERTR program.

  19. Health and safety plan for characterization sampling of ETR and MTR facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, D.E.

    1994-10-01

    This health and safety plan establishes the procedures and requirements that will be used to minimize health and safety risks to persons performing Engineering Test Reactor and Materials Test Reactor characterization sampling activities, as required by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard, 29 CFR 1910.120. It contains information about the hazards involved in performing the tasks, and the specific actions and equipment that will be used to protect persons working at the site.

  20. Microstructural analysis of MTR fuel plates damaged by a coolant flow blockage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leenaers, A.; Joppen, F.; Van den Berghe, S.

    2009-10-01

    In 1975, as a result of a blockage of the coolant inlet flow, two plates of a fuel element of the BR2 reactor of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK•CEN) were partially melted. The fuel element consisted of Al-clad plates with 90% 235U enriched UAl x fuel dispersed in an Al matrix. The element had accumulated a burn up of 21% 235U before it was removed from the reactor. Recently, the damaged fuel plates were sent to the hot laboratory for detailed PIE. Microstructural changes and associated temperature markers were used to identify several stages in the progression to fuel melting. It was found that the temperature in the center of the fuel plate had increased above 900-950 °C before the reactor was scrammed. In view of the limited availability of such datasets, the results of this microstructural analysis provide valuable input in the analysis of accident scenarios for research reactors.

  1. Code System for the Analysis of Material Test Reactor (MTR) Cores.

    1995-03-24

    Version 00 The RETRAC code uses a set of coupled neutron point-kinetics equations and thermal-hydraulic conservation laws to simulate nuclear reactor core behavior under transient or accident conditions. The reactor core is represented by a single equivalent unit cell composed of three regions: fuel, clad, and moderator (coolant).

  2. 33 CFR 154.1041 - Specific response information to be maintained on mobile MTR facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... list of procedures to be followed in the event of a discharge. (2) Identity of response resources to... National Response Center. (b) The owner or operator of the mobile facility must also retain the...

  3. 33 CFR 154.1041 - Specific response information to be maintained on mobile MTR facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... list of procedures to be followed in the event of a discharge. (2) Identity of response resources to... National Response Center. (b) The owner or operator of the mobile facility must also retain the...

  4. H1299R in coagulation Factor V and Glu429Ala in MTHFR genes in recurrent pregnancy loss in Sari, Mazandaran

    PubMed Central

    Arabkhazaeli, Nadia; Ghanaat, Kasra; Hashemi-Soteh, Mohammad Bagher

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is caused by different factors, including genetics and thrombophilia. Beside Factor V Leiden, another nucleotide change in a factor V (FV) gene (A4070G; His1299Arg) has been identified linking to hereditary thrombophilia. Also, two proposed MTHFR polymorphisms, C677T and A1298C (Glu429A) are linked with RPL. Objective: In this study, the effect of two factors, A4070G in FV and A1298C in MTHFR are evaluated in RPL patients from Mazandaran province, Iran. Materials and methods: Sample population of 100 women with RPL and 100 controls with Mazandarani ethnics from northern Iran were consist. The factor V (A4070G) and MTHFR (A1298C) polymorphisms were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. Results: Molecular study showed 5 women from patients and 9 women from control group were heterozygous AG for A4070G. Frequency of "A" allele in patient and control groups was 97.5% (0.975) and 95.5% (0.955) respectively, and "G" allele frequency was 2.5% (0.025) and 4.5% (0.045) respectively. No significant association (p≤0.05) between FV A4070G genotype and RPL with an OR=1.88, CI 95%=0.6-5.82, was observed (p=0.4). Also, for A1298C, all patients and control individuals were AA genotype. "A" allele frequency in patients and control was 100% and "C" allele frequency was zero. There was no significant difference for A1298C between groups. Conclusion: Our finding showed that A4070G and A1298C polymorphisms cannot be considered as a cause of PRL in women from Mazandaran province, northern Iran. PMID:27326418

  5. Program Guide for Basic Precision Machining 8754000 (IN48.052300) and Precision Machining MTR0470 (IN48.050300).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This competency-based program guide provides course content information and procedures for secondary schools, postsecondary vocational schools, and community colleges in Florida that conduct programs in basic precision machining and precision machining. The first section is on legal authority, which applies to all vocational education programs in…

  6. Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms in chronic myeloid leukemia: an Egyptian study.

    PubMed

    Khorshied, Mervat Mamdooh; Shaheen, Iman Abdel Mohsen; Abu Khalil, Reham E; Sheir, Rania Elsayed

    2014-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene plays a pivotal role in folate metabolism. Several genetic variations in MTHFR gene as MTHFR-C677T and MTHFR-A1298C result in decreased MTHFR activity, which could influence efficient DNA methylation and explain susceptibility to different cancers. The etiology of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is obscure and little is known about individual's susceptibility to CML. In order to assess the influence of these genetic polymorphisms on the susceptibility to CML and its effect on the course of the disease among Egyptians, we performed an age-gender-ethnic matched case-control study. The study included 97 CML patients and 130 healthy controls. Genotyping of MTHFR-C677T and -A1298C was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. The results showed no statistical difference in the distribution of MTHFR-C677T and -A1298C polymorphic genotypes between CML patients and controls. The frequency of MTHFR 677-TT homozygous variant was significantly higher in patients with accelerated/blastic transformation phase when compared to those in the chronic phase of the disease. In conclusion, our study revealed that MTHFR-C677T and -A1298C polymorphisms could not be considered as genetic risk factors for CML in Egyptians. However, MTHFR 677-TT homozygous variant might be considered as a molecular predictor for disease progression.

  7. Plasma folate, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and colorectal cancer risk in three large nested case-control studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few prospective studies have examined the associations between blood levels of folate, in conjunction with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms, and colorectal cancer. We evaluated the associations between plasma folate, MTHFR C677T, and A1298C, and colorectal cancer in three la...

  8. Functional Inference of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene Polymorphisms on Enzyme Stability as a Potential Risk Factor for Down Syndrome in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Vraneković, Jadranka; Babić Božović, Ivana; Starčević Čizmarević, Nada; Buretić-Tomljanović, Alena; Ristić, Smiljana; Petrović, Oleg; Kapović, Miljenko; Brajenović-Milić, Bojana

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the biochemical structure and function of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) provides new evidence in elucidating the risk of having a child with Down syndrome (DS) in association with two common MTHFR polymorphisms, C677T and A1298C. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk for DS according to the presence of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms as well as the stability of the enzyme configuration. This study included mothers from Croatia with a liveborn DS child (n = 102) or DS pregnancy (n = 9) and mothers with a healthy child (n = 141). MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were assessed by PCR-RFLP. Allele/genotype frequencies differences were determined using χ2 test. Odds ratio and the 95% confidence intervals were calculated to evaluate the effects of different alleles/genotypes. No statistically significant differences were found between the frequencies of allele/genotype or genotype combinations of the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in the case and the control groups. Additionally, the observed frequencies of the stable (677CC/1298AA, 677CC/1298AC, 677CC/1298CC) and unstable (677CT/1298AA, 677CT/1298AC, 677TT/1298AA) enzyme configurations were not significantly different. We found no evidence to support the possibility that MTHFR polymorphisms and the stability of the enzyme configurations were associated with risk of having a child with DS in Croatian population. PMID:20592453

  9. Evidence for the Assembly of a Bacterial Tripartite Multidrug Pump with a Stoichiometry of 3:6:3*

    PubMed Central

    Janganan, Thamarai K.; Bavro, Vassiliy N.; Zhang, Li; Matak-Vinkovic, Dijana; Barrera, Nelson P.; Venien-Bryan, Catherine; Robinson, Carol V.; Borges-Walmsley, Maria Inês; Walmsley, Adrian R.

    2011-01-01

    The multiple transferable resistance (mTR) pump from Neisseria gonorrhoeae MtrCDE multidrug pump is assembled from the inner and outer membrane proteins MtrD and MtrE and the periplasmic membrane fusion protein MtrC. Previously we established that while there is a weak interaction of MtrD and MtrE, MtrC binds with relatively high affinity to both MtrD and MtrE. MtrD conferred antibiotic resistance only when it was expressed with MtrE and MtrC, suggesting that these proteins form a functional tripartite complex in which MtrC bridges MtrD and MtrE. Furthermore, we demonstrated that MtrC interacts with an intraprotomer groove on the surface of MtrE, inducing channel opening. However, a second groove is apparent at the interface of the MtrE subunits, which might also be capable of engaging MtrC. We have now established that MtrC can be cross-linked to cysteines placed in this interprotomer groove and that mutation of residues in the groove impair the ability of the pump to confer antibiotic resistance by locking MtrE in the closed channel conformation. Moreover, MtrE K390C forms an intermolecular disulfide bond with MtrC E149C locking MtrE in the open channel conformation, suggesting that a functional salt bridge forms between these residues during the transition from closed to open channel conformations. MtrC forms dimers that assemble into hexamers, and electron microscopy studies of single particles revealed that these hexamers are arranged into ring-like structures with an internal aperture sufficiently large to accommodate the MtrE trimer. Cross-linking of single cysteine mutants of MtrC to stabilize the dimer interface in the presence of MtrE, trapped an MtrC-MtrE complex with a molecular mass consistent with a stoichiometry of 3:6 (MtrE3MtrC6), suggesting that dimers of MtrC interact with MtrE, presumably by binding to the two grooves. As both MtrE and MtrD are trimeric, our studies suggest that the functional pump is assembled with a stoichiometry of 3

  10. Association between 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and congenital heart disease: A meta-analysis☆

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenju; Hou, Zongliu; Wang, Chunhui; Wei, Chuanyu; Li, Yaxiong; Jiang, Lihong

    2013-01-01

    Background Inconsistent results were reported in recent literature regarding the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T/A1298C polymorphisms and the susceptibility of congenital heart disease (CHD). In this study, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the associations by employing multiple analytical methods. Methods Literature search was performed and published articles were obtained from PubMed, Embase and CNKI databases based on the exclusion and inclusion criteria. Data were extracted from eligible studies and the crude odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random or fix effects model to evaluate the associations between the MTHFR C677T/A1298C polymorphisms and CHD development. Subgroup based analysis was performed by Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, ethnicity, types of CHD, source of control and sample size. Results Twenty-four eligible studies were included in this meta-analysis. Significant association was found between fetal MTHFR C677T polymorphism and CHD development in all genetic models. The pooled ORs and 95% CIs in all genetic models indicated that MTHFR C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with CHD in Asian, but not Caucasian in subgroup analysis. The maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism was not associated with CHD except for recessive model. Moreover, neither maternal nor fetal MTHFR A1298C polymorphism was associated with CHD. Conclusion The fetal MTHFR C677T polymorphism may increase the susceptibility to CHD. Fetal MTHFR C677T polymorphism was more likely to affect Asian fetus than Caucasian. The MTHFR A1298C polymorphism may not be a risk of congenital heart disease. PMID:25606381

  11. MTHFR genetic polymorphism increases the risk of preterm delivery

    PubMed Central

    Nan, Yanrong; Li, Hongmei

    2015-01-01

    Aims: This study aimed to investigate the association between the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and premature delivery susceptibility. Methods: With matched age and gender, 108 premature delivery pregnant women as cases and 108 healthy pregnant women as controls were recruited in this case-control study. The cases and controls had same gestational weeks. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was adopted to analyze C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of the participants. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotype analysis were conducted by Haploview software. The differences for frequencies of gene type, allele and haplotypes in cases and controls were tested by chi-square test. The relevant risk of premature delivery was represented by odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results: TT gene type frequency of C677T polymorphsim was higher in cases than the controls (P=0.004, OR=3.077, 95% CI=1.469-6.447), so was allele T (P=0.002, OR=1.853, 95% CI=1.265-2.716). Whereas, CC gene type of A1298C polymorphism had a lower distribution in cases than the controls (P=0.008, OR=0.095, 95% CI=0.012-0.775), so was allele C (P=0.047, OR=0.610, 95% CI=0.384-0.970). Haplotype analysis and linkage disequilibrium test conducted on the alleles of two polymorphisms in MTHFR gene, we discovered that haplotype T-A had a higher distribution in cases, which indicated that susceptible haplotype T-A was the candidate factor for premature delivery. Conclusions: Gene type TT of MTHFR C677T polymorphism might make premature delivery risk rise while gene type CC of A1298C polymorphism might have protective influence on premature delivery. PMID:26261642

  12. New Dosimetric Interpretation of the DV50 Vessel-Steel Experiment Irradiated in the OSIRIS MTR Reactor Using the Monte-Carlo Code TRIPOLI-4®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malouch, Fadhel

    2016-02-01

    An irradiation program DV50 was carried out from 2002 to 2006 in the OSIRIS material testing reactor (CEA-Saclay center) to assess the pressure vessel steel toughness curve for a fast neutron fluence (E > 1 MeV) equivalent to a French 900-MWe PWR lifetime of 50 years. This program allowed the irradiation of 120 specimens out of vessel steel, subdivided in two successive irradiations DV50 n∘1 and DV50 n∘2. To measure the fast neutron fluence (E > 1 MeV) received by specimens after each irradiation, sample holders were equipped with activation foils that were withdrawn at the end of irradiation for activity counting and processing. The fast effective cross-sections used in the dosimeter processing were determined with a specific calculation scheme based on the Monte-Carlo code TRIPOLI-3 (and the nuclear data ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90). In order to put vessel-steel experiments at the same standard, a new dosimetric interpretation of the DV50 experiment has been performed by using the Monte-Carlo code TRIPOLI-4 and more recent nuclear data (JEFF3.1.1 and IRDF-2002). This paper presents a comparison of previous and recent calculations performed for the DV50 vessel-steel experiment to assess the impact on the dosimetric interpretation.

  13. HWMA/RCRA Closure Plan for the TRA/MTR Warm Waste System Voluntary Consent Order SITE-TANK-005 Tank System TRA-007

    SciTech Connect

    K. Winterholler

    2007-01-30

    This Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Plan was developed for portions of the Test Reactor Area/Materials Test Reactor Warm Waste System located in the Materials Test Reactor Building (TRA-603) at the Reactor Technology Complex, Idaho National Laboratory Site, to meet a further milestone established under Voluntary Consent Order Action Plan SITE-TANK-005 for the Tank System TRA-007. The reactor drain tank and canal sump to be closed are included in the Test Reactor Area/Materials Test Reactor Warm Waste System. The reactor drain tank and the canal sump will be closed in accordance with the interim status requirements of the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as implemented by the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.05.009 and Code of Federal Regulations 265. This closure plan presents the closure performance standards and methods for achieving those standards.

  14. Phylogeny of Japanese stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) inferred from 16S mtrRNA gene sequences, with reference to the evolution of sexual dimorphism of mandibles.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Tadatsugu; Araya, Kunio

    2005-12-01

    As a first step in reconstructing the phylogeny of world stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae), phylogenetic relationships among the major members of Japanese stag beetles were explored by analyzing a sequence of 1030 nucleotides from the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene. A total of 20 species and three additional subspecies representing 13 genera were examined to provide basic information on the phylogeny of world Lucanidae. The resultant phylogenetic tree indicates that the family Lucanidae is monophyletic, and contains two major lineages: one consists of the genera Platycerus, Aesalus, Ceruchus, and Nicagus, and the other includes Dorcus, Rhaetulus, Prosopocoilus, Aegus, Neolucanus, Prismognathus, Lucanus, Figulus, and Nigidius. Generic members of the latter lineage are further divided into the following four sublineages: i) Figulus and Nigidius; ii) Prismognathus and Lucanus; iii) Aegus and Neolucanus; and iv) Dorcus, Rhaetulus, and Prosopocoilus. These molecular phylogenetic relationships are used as a basis for a preliminary exploration of the evolution of sexual dimorphism in the shape of the mandible. The results of this investigation suggest that strong sexual dimorphism with well-developed mandibles in males evolved independently at least twice, once in the genus Aegus and once in the ancestor of the Lucanus-Prismognathus and Dorcus-Rhaetulus-Prosopocoilus clades. Alternatively, it is possible that sexual dimorphism of mandibles has undergone secondary loss in the genera Figulus and Nigidius. PMID:16462103

  15. Serum homocysteine, vitamin B12, folic acid levels and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism in vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Yasar, Ali; Gunduz, Kamer; Onur, Ece; Calkan, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine serum vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine (Hcy) levels as well as MTHFR (C677, A1298C) gene polymorphisms in patients with vitiligo, and to compare the results with healthy controls. Forty patients with vitiligo and 40 age and sex matched healthy subjects were studied. Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma Hcy levels and MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by chemiluminescence and real time PCR methods, respectively. Mean serum vitamin B12 and Hcy levels were not significantly different while folic acid levels were significantly lower in the control group. There was no significant relationship between disease activity and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocystein levels. No significant difference in C677T gene polymorphism was detected. Heterozygote A1298C gene polymorphism in the patient group was statistically higher than the control group. There was no significant relationship between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine levels. In conclusion, vitamin B12, folate and Hcy levels are not altered in vitiligo and MTHFR gene mutations (C677T and A1298C) do not seem to create susceptibility for vitiligo. PMID:22846211

  16. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T gene polymorphism decreases the risk of childhood acute lymphocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Franco, R F; Simões, B P; Tone, L G; Gabellini, S M; Zago, M A; Falcão, R P

    2001-12-01

    We have determined the prevalence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutations C677T and A1298C in 71 children (< or = 15 years) with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and in 71 control subjects. Odds ratio (OR) for ALL linked to MTHFR C677T was 0.4 (95% CI 0.2-0.8); for heterozygotes it was 0.5 (95% CI 0.2-0.9) and for homozygotes it was 0.3 (95%CI 0.09-0.8). MTHFR A1298C yielded an overall OR for ALL of 1.3 (95% CI: 0.7-2.6); for heterozygotes it was 1.3 (95% CI: 0.7-7.6) and for homozygotes it was 2.8 (95% CI 0.5-15.6). In conclusion, MTHFR C677T was linked to a significant 2.4-fold decreased risk of developing childhood ALL, whereas MTHFR A1298C did not significantly affect the risk of ALL in our population. PMID:11736945

  17. Tripartite efflux pumps: energy is required for dissociation, but not assembly or opening of the outer membrane channel of the pump.

    PubMed

    Janganan, Thamarai K; Bavro, Vassiliy N; Zhang, Li; Borges-Walmsley, Maria Inês; Walmsley, Adrian R

    2013-05-01

    The MtrCDE multidrug pump, from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, is assembled from the inner and outer membrane proteins MtrD and MtrE, which are connected by the periplasmic membrane fusion protein MtrC. Although it is clear that MtrD delivers drugs to the channel of MtrE, it remains unclear how drug delivery and channel opening are connected. We used a vancomycin sensitivity assay to test for opening of the MtrE channel. Cells expressing MtrE or MtrE-E434K were insensitive to vancomycin; but became moderately and highly sensitive to vancomycin respectively, when coexpressed with MtrC, suggesting that the MtrE channel opening requires MtrC binding and is energy-independent. Cells expressing wild-type MtrD, in an MtrCE background, were vancomycin-insensitive, but moderately sensitive in an MtrCE-E434K background. The mutation of residues involved in proton translocation inactivated MtrD and abolished drug efflux, rendered both MtrE and MtrE-E434K vancomycin-insensitive; imply that the pump-component interactions are preserved, and that the complex is stable in the absence of proton flux, thus sealing the open end of MtrE. Following the energy-dependent dissociation of the tripartite complex, the MtrE channel is able to reseal, while MtrE-E434K is unable to do so, resulting in the vancomycin-sensitive phenotype. Thus, our findings suggest that opening of the OMP via interaction with the MFP is energy-independent, while both drug export and complex dissociation require active proton flux.

  18. Myelinated Afferents Are Involved in Pathology of the Spontaneous Electrical Activity and Mechanical Hyperalgesia of Myofascial Trigger Spots in Rats

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are common causes for chronic pain. Myelinated afferents were considered to be related with muscular pain, and our clinical researches indicated they might participate in the pathology of MTrPs. Here, we applied myofascial trigger spots (MTrSs, equal to MTrPs in human) of rats to further investigate role of myelinated afferents. Modified pyridine-silver staining revealed more nerve endings at MTrSs than non-MTrSs (P < 0.01), and immunohistochemistry with Neurofilament 200 indicated more myelinated afferents existed in MTrSs (P < 0.01). Spontaneous electrical activity (SEA) recordings at MTrSs showed that specific block of myelinated afferents in sciatic nerve with tetrodotoxin (TTX) led to significantly decreased SEA (P < 0.05). Behavioral assessment showed that mechanical pain thresholds (MPTs) of MTrSs were lower than those of non-MTrSs (P < 0.01). Block of myelinated afferents by intramuscular TTX injection increased MPTs of MTrSs significantly (P < 0.01), while MPTs of non-MTrSs first decreased (P < 0.05) and then increased (P > 0.05). 30 min after the injection, MPTs at MTrSs were significantly lower than those of non-MTrSs (P < 0.01). Therefore, we concluded that proliferated myelinated afferents existed at MTrSs, which were closely related to pathology of SEA and mechanical hyperalgesia of MTrSs. PMID:26064165

  19. Reconstruction of Extracellular Respiratory Pathways for Iron(III) Reduction in Shewanella Oneidensis Strain MR-1

    PubMed Central

    Coursolle, Dan; Gralnick, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 is a facultative anaerobic bacterium capable of respiring a multitude of electron acceptors, many of which require the Mtr respiratory pathway. The core Mtr respiratory pathway includes a periplasmic c-type cytochrome (MtrA), an integral outer-membrane β-barrel protein (MtrB), and an outer-membrane-anchored c-type cytochrome (MtrC). Together, these components facilitate transfer of electrons from the c-type cytochrome CymA in the cytoplasmic membrane to electron acceptors at and beyond the outer-membrane. The genes encoding these core proteins have paralogs in the S. oneidensis genome (mtrB and mtrA each have four while mtrC has three) and some of the paralogs of mtrC and mtrA are able to form functional Mtr complexes. We demonstrate that of the additional three mtrB paralogs found in the S. oneidensis genome, only MtrE can replace MtrB to form a functional respiratory pathway to soluble iron(III) citrate. We also evaluate which mtrC/mtrA paralog pairs (a total of 12 combinations) are able to form functional complexes with endogenous levels of mtrB paralog expression. Finally, we reconstruct all possible functional Mtr complexes and test them in a S. oneidensis mutant strain where all paralogs have been eliminated from the genome. We find that each combination tested with the exception of MtrA/MtrE/OmcA is able to reduce iron(III) citrate at a level significantly above background. The results presented here have implications toward the evolution of anaerobic extracellular respiration in Shewanella and for future studies looking to increase the rates of substrate reduction for water treatment, bioremediation, or electricity production. PMID:22363330

  20. Common Mutations of the Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) Gene in Non-Syndromic Cleft Lips and Palates Children in North-West of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi-Fakhim, Shahin; Asghari Estiar, Mehrdad; Varghaei, Parizad; Alizadeh Sharafi, Mahdi; Sakhinia, Masoud; Sakhinia, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cleft lips and cleft palates are common congenital abnormalities in children. Various chromosomal loci have been suggested to be responsible the development of these abnormalities. The present study was carried out to investigate the association between the suspected genes (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase [MTHFR] A1298C and C677T) that might contribute into the etiology of these disorders through application of molecular methods. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional and explanatory study was carried out on a study population of 65 affected children, 130 respective parents and 50 healthy individuals between 2009 and 2012 at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran. After DNA extraction, amplification refractory mutation system–polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-PCR were used respectively to investigate the C677T and A1298C mutations for the MTHFR gene. Results: There was a significant difference in the rates of the C677T mutation when affected patients and their fathers were compared with the control group (odds ratio [OR]=0.44) (OR=0.64). However, there was no significant difference observed in the rate of this mutation between the patients’ mothers and the control group (OR=1.35). In addition, the abnormality rate was higher in patients with the A1298C mutation and their parents, when compared with the control group. This abnormality rate was higher for the affected children and their fathers in comparison with their mothers (Fathers, OR=0.26; Mothers, OR=0.65; Children, OR=0.55). No significant difference was seen in the rate of the polymorphism C677T in its CC, when the affected children and their parents were compared with the control group. However, there was a significant difference in the A1298C mutation. Conclusion: An association was seen between the A1298C mutation and cleft lip and cleft palate abnormalities in Iran. However, there seems to be a stronger relationship

  1. Analytical Method of Correction of B 1 Errors in Mapping of Magnetization Transfer Ratio in Highfield Magnetic Resonance Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarnykh, V. L.; Khodanovich, M. Yu.

    2015-04-01

    Magnetization Transfer Ratio (MTR) is a widely used parameter for quantitative estimation of tissues in magnetic resonance tomography (MRT). At the same time, MTR is rather sensitive to errors caused by the nonideal characteristics of magnetic resonance tomographs. In particular, MTR depends strongly on the local inhomogeneities of the radio-frequency field B 1 that limits the MTR application for high magnetic field strengths. In the present research, a simple analytical model of the MTR dependence on B 1 is derived. Based on this model, a correction algorithm is developed using a set of parameters independent of tissue. This algorithm is tested for MTR mapping of the human brain in the field with induction of 3 T. The MTR correction demonstrates high accuracy for a wide range of B 1 inhomogeneities. Combination of the analytical algorithm with fast B 1 mapping enables high-precision MTR brain mapping for neuroimaging applications and analysis of histograms on high-field scanners.

  2. Treatment of myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chang-Zern

    2006-10-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is caused by myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) located within taut bands of skeletal muscle fibers. Treating the underlying etiologic lesion responsible for MTrP activation is the most important strategy in MPS therapy. If the underlying pathology is not given the appropriate treatment, the MTrP cannot be completely and permanently inactivated. Treatment of active MTrPs may be necessary in situations in which active MTrPs persist even after the underlying etiologic lesion has been treated appropriately. When treating the active MTrPs or their underlying pathology, conservative treatment should be given before aggressive therapy. Effective MTrP therapies include manual therapies, physical therapy modalities, dry needling, or MTrP injection. It is also important to eliminate any perpetuating factors and provide adequate education and home programs to patients so that recurrent or chronic pain can be avoided.

  3. Analysis of genetic polymorphisms of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in depressed patients in a Slovak (Caucasian) population.

    PubMed

    Evinova, Andrea; Babusikova, Eva; Straka, Stanislav; Ondrejka, Igor; Lehotsky, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder where both gene-gene and gene-environment interactions play an important role, but the clues are still not fully understood. One carbon metabolism in the CNS plays a critical role in the synthesis and release of neurotransmitters which are relevant to depressive disorder. We studied genetic polymorphisms of the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) in association with major depressive disorder. We genotyped the BDNF G196A, the MTHFR C677T, and A1298C polymorphisms in 134 patients diagnosed with major depression and 143 control subjects in Slovak (Caucasian) cohort of patients and probands. We found no significant association of either the BDNF G196A or MTHFR C677T polymorphisms with major depressive disorder neither in female nor male group of patients. However, the MTHFR A1298C genotype distribution was 36.6% (for AA genotype), 48.5% (AC) and 14.9% (CC) for the depressed patients, and 48.9% (AA), 42.7% (AC) and 8.4% (CC), respectively, for the control subjects. Patients with MDD had a higher prevalence of the CC genotype (OR = 2.38; 95% CI = 1.07-5.32; p = 0.032) and the AC + CC genotype (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.03-2.69; p = 0.037) in comparison with the control subjects. This study shows that CC genotype of the MTHFR A1298C is associated with higher risk of MDD in Slovak population.

  4. Significant association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase single nucleotide polymorphisms with prostate cancer susceptibility in taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsi-Chin; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Tsai, Ru-Yin; Lin, Chih-Hsueh; Wang, Rou-Fen; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Chen, Kuen-Bao; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Bau, Da-Tian; Lin, Cheng-Chieh

    2010-09-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in men and is a major health problem worldwide. Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays an important role in folate metabolism and is also an important source of DNA methylation and DNA synthesis (nucleotide synthesis). To assess the association and interaction of genotypic polymorphisms in MTHFR and lifestyle factors with prostate cancer in Taiwan, we investigated two well-known polymorphic variants of MTHFR, C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131), analyzed the association of specific genotypes with prostate cancer susceptibility, and discussed their joint effects with individual habits on prostate cancer risk. In total, 218 patients with prostate cancer and 436 healthy controls recruited from the China Medical Hospital in central Taiwan were genotyped for these polymorphisms with prostate cancer susceptibility. We found the MTHFR C677T but not the A1298C genotype was differently distributed between the prostate cancer and control groups. The T allele of MTHFR C677T conferred a significantly (p=0.0011) decreased risk of prostate cancer. As for the A1298C polymorphism, there was no difference in distribution between the prostate cancer and control groups. Gene interactions with smoking were significant for MTHFR C677T polymorphism. The MTHFR C677T CT and TT genotypes in association with smoking conferred a decreased risk of 0.501 (95% confidence interval=0.344-0.731) for prostate cancer. Our results provide the first evidence that the C allele of MTHFR C677T may be associated with the development of prostate cancer and may be a novel useful marker for primary prevention and anticancer intervention.

  5. Unilateral sequential papillophlebitis and central retinal artery occlusion in a young healthy patient

    PubMed Central

    Demirok, Gülizar; Kocamaz, Mehmet Fatih; Topalak, Yasemin; Şengün, Ahmet; Hasanreisoğlu, Berati

    2015-01-01

    A 23-year-old girl presented to the clinic with metamorphopsia and photopsia in her left eye. After detailed ophthalmic examination, central retinal vein occlusion with optic disc edema was detected in that eye. Three days after diagnosis, the patient returned to our clinic with visual acuity decrease. Central retinal artery occlusion sparing cilioretinal artery was detected. All the laboratory tests were normal except for heterozygous methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutation (A1298C genotypes) and an indefinite Lyme disease seropositivity. Symptoms and visual disturbance recovered without any further treatment other than acetylsalicylic acid for prophylaxis. PMID:26862099

  6. Bilateral transverse sinus thrombosis secondary to a homozygous C677T MTHFR gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Kanaan, Ziad M; Mahfouz, Rami; Taher, Ali; Sawaya, Raja A

    2008-09-01

    We describe the case of a previously healthy young man who presented with headache, diplopia, nausea, vomiting, and bilateral papilledema. Magnetic resonance venography of the brain revealed thrombosis of the right transverse sinus. Blood tests showed elevated homocysteine levels, and coagulation studies revealed a homozygous C677T mutation and a heterozygous A1298C mutation of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. The patient had no other etiology for venous thrombosis. We recommend screening patients who present with sinus thrombosis for MTHFR gene mutations. PMID:18666857

  7. Plasmatic higher levels of homocysteine in Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease, which includes a spectrum of hepatic pathology such as simple steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. The increased serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy) may be associated with hepatic fat accumulation. Genetic mutations in the folate route may only mildly impair Hcy metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between liver steatosis with plasma homocysteine level and MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in Brazilian patients with NAFLD. Methods Thirty-five patients diagnosed with NAFLD by liver biopsy and forty-five healthy controls neither age nor sex matched were genotyped for C677T and A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP and PCR-ASA, respectively, and Hcy was determined by HPLC. All patients were negative for markers of Wilson’s, hemochromatosis and autoimmune diseases. Their daily alcohol intake was less than 100 g/week. A set of metabolic and serum lipid markers were also measured at the time of liver biopsies. Results The plasma Hcy level was higher in NAFLD patients compared to the control group (p = 0.0341). No statistical difference for genotypes 677C/T (p = 0.110) and 1298A/C (p = 0.343) in patients with NAFLD and control subjects was observed. The genotypes distribution was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (677C/T p = 0.694 and 1298 A/C p = 0.188). The group of patients and controls showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) for BMI and HOMA_IR, similarly to HDL cholesterol levels (p < 0,006), AST, ALT, γGT, AP and triglycerides levels (p < 0.001). A negative correlation was observed between levels of vitamin B12 and Hcy concentration (p = 0.005). Conclusion Our results indicate that plasma Hcy was higher in NAFLD than controls. The MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms did not differ significantly between groups, despite the 677TT homozygous frequency was higher in patients (17

  8. Migraine and genetic polymorphisms: an overview.

    PubMed

    Pizza, Vincenzo; Agresta, Anella; Agresta, Antonio; Lamaida, Eros; Lamaida, Norman; Infante, Francesco; Capasso, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between genetic polymorphisms and migraine as a cause of an increased risk of thrombotic disorders development is still debated In this respect, factor V Leiden, factor V (H1299R), prothrombin G20210A, factor XIII (V34L), β-fibrinogen, MTHFR (C677T), MTHFR (A1298C), APO E, PAI-1, HPA-1 and ACE I/D seem to play a determinant role in vascular diseases related to migraine. The present review analyzes both the incidence of the above genetic vascular mutations in migraineurs and the most re-cent developments related to genetic polymorphisms and migraine.

  9. Induction of muscle cramps by nociceptive stimulation of latent myofascial trigger points.

    PubMed

    Ge, Hong-You; Zhang, Yang; Boudreau, Shellie; Yue, Shou-Wei; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this present study is to test the hypothesis that nociceptive stimulation of latent myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) increases the occurrence of local muscle cramps. Nociceptive muscle stimulation was obtained by a bolus injection of glutamate (0.1 ml, 0.5 M) into a latent MTrP and a control point (a non-MTrP) located in the right or left gastrocnemius medialis muscles in 14 healthy subjects. A bolus of isotonic saline (0.9%, 0.1 ml) injection served as a control. The injections were guided by intramuscular electromyography (EMG) showing resting spontaneous electrical activity at a latent MTrP and no such activity at a non-MTrP. Intramuscular and surface EMG activities in the gastrocnemius medialis muscle were recorded pre-, during-, and post-injection for a period of 8 min to monitor the occurrence of muscle cramps, which are characterized by a brief episodic burst of high levels of EMG activity. The results showed that glutamate and isotonic saline injections into the latent MTrPs induced higher peak pain intensity than into the non-MTrPs (both P < 0.05). Glutamate injection induced higher peak pain intensity than isotonic saline injection into either latent MTrPs or non-MTrPs (both P < 0.05). Muscle camps were observed in 92.86% of the subjects following glutamate injection into the latent MTrPs, but not into the non-MTrPs (P < 0.001). No muscle cramps were recorded following isotonic saline injection into either the latent MTrPs or the non-MTrPs. These results suggest that latent MTrPs could be involved in the genesis of muscle cramps. Focal increase in nociceptive sensitivity at MTrPs constitutes one of the mechanisms underlying muscle cramps.

  10. TRA Closure Plan REV 0-9-20-06 HWMA/RCRA Closure Plan for the TRA/MTR Warm Waste System Voluntary Consent Order SITE-TANK-005 Tank System TRA-007

    SciTech Connect

    Winterholler, K.

    2007-01-31

    This Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure plan was developed for portions of the Test Reactor Area/Materials Test Reactor Warm Waste System located in the Materials Test Reactor Building (TRA-603) at the Reactor Technology Complex, Idaho National Laboratory Site, to meet a further milestone established under Voluntary Consent Order Action Plan SITE-TANK-005 for Tank System TRA-007. The reactor drain tank and canal sump to be closed are included in the Test Reactor Area/Materials Test Reactor Warm Waste System. The reactor drain tank and the canal sump were characterized as having managed hazardous waste. The reactor drain tank and canal sump will be closed in accordance with the interim status requirements of the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as implemented by the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.05.009 and 40 Code of Federal Regulations 265. This closure plan presents the closure performance standards and methods for achieving those standards.

  11. Intermediates in the recycling of 5-methylthioribose to methionine in fruits.

    PubMed

    Kushad, M M; Richardson, D G; Ferro, A J

    1983-10-01

    The recycling of 5-methylthioribose (MTR) to methionine in avocado (Persea americana Mill, cv Hass) and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill, cv unknown) was examined. [(14)CH(3)]MTR was not metabolized in cell free extract from avocado fruit. Either [(14)CH(3)]MTR plus ATP or [(14)CH(3)]5-methylthioribose-1-phosphate (MTR-1-P) alone, however, were metabolized to two new products by these extracts. MTR kinase activity has previously been detected in these fruit extracts. These data indicate that MTR must be converted to MTR-1-P by MTR kinase before further metabolism can occur. The products of MTR-1-P metabolism were tentatively identified as alpha-keto-gamma-methylthiobutyric acid (alpha-KMB) and alpha-hydroxy-gamma-methylthiobutyric acid (alpha-HMB) by chromatography in several solvent systems. [(35)S]alpha-KMB was found to be further metabolized to methionine and alpha-HMB by these extracts, whereas alpha-HMB was not. However, alpha-HMB inhibited the conversion of alpha-KMB to methionine. Both [U-(14)C]alpha-KMB and [U-(14)C]methionine, but not [U-(14)C]alpha-HMB, were converted to ethylene in tomato pericarp tissue. In addition, aminoethoxyvinylglycine inhibited the conversion of alpha-KMB to ethylene. These data suggest that the recycling pathway leading to ethylene is MTR --> MTR-1-P --> alpha-KMB --> methionine --> S-adenosylmethionine --> 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid --> ethylene.

  12. Ultrasonic tissue characterization of the upper trapezius muscle in patients with myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Turo, Diego; Otto, Paul; Shah, Jay P; Heimur, Juliana; Gebreab, Tadesse; Armstrong, Katherine; Gerber, Lynn H; Sikdar, Siddhartha

    2012-01-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are palpable, tender nodules in skeletal muscle that produce symptomatic referred pain when palpated. MTrPs are characteristic findings in myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). The role of MTrPs in the pathophysiology of MPS is unknown. Objective characterization and quantitative measurement of the properties of MTrPs can improve their localization and diagnosis, as well as lead to clinical outcome measures. MTrPs associated with soft tissue neck pain are often found in the upper trapezius muscle. We have previously demonstrated that MTrPs can be visualized using ultrasound imaging. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether texture-based image analysis can differentiate structural heterogeneity of symptomatic MTrPs and normal muscle.

  13. Heterogenous Distribution of MTHFR Gene Variants among Mestizos and Diverse Amerindian Groups from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Cubas, Cecilia; Sánchez-Hernández, Beatríz E; García-Ortiz, Humberto; Martínez-Hernández, Angélica; Barajas-Olmos, Francisco; Cid, Miguel; Mendoza-Caamal, Elvia C; Centeno-Cruz, Federico; Ortiz-Cruz, Gabriela; Jiménez-López, José Concepción; Córdova, Emilio J; Salas-Bautista, Eva Gabriela; Saldaña-Alvarez, Yolanda; Fernández-López, Juan Carlos; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M; Orozco, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme in folate metabolism. Folate deficiency has been related to several conditions, including neural tube defects (NTDs) and cardiovascular diseases. Hence, MTHFR genetic variants have been studied worldwide, particularly the C677T and A1298C. We genotyped the C677T and A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms in Mexican Amerindians (MAs), from the largest sample included in a genetic study (n = 2026, from 62 ethnic groups), and in a geographically-matched Mexican Mestizo population (MEZ, n = 638). The 677T allele was most frequent in Mexican individuals, particularly in MAs. The frequency of this allele in both MAs and MEZs was clearly enriched in the South region of the country, followed by the Central East and South East regions. In contrast, the frequency of the 1298C risk allele in Mexicans was one of the lowest in the world. Both in MAs and MEZs the variants 677T and 1298C displayed opposite allele frequency gradients from southern to northern Mexico. Our findings suggest that in Mestizos the 677T allele was derived from Amerindians while the 1298C allele was a European contribution. Some subgroups showed an allele frequency distribution that highlighted their genetic diversity. Notably, the distribution of the frequency of the 677T allele was consistent with that of the high incidence of NTDs reported in MEZ. PMID:27649570

  14. [Log-linear model used in the hybrid design of case-parents triad/control-mother dyad].

    PubMed

    Peng, W J; Zhang, H; Li, Y X; Li, C Y; Yan, W R

    2016-06-01

    This study introduced the application of a log-linear model in the hybrid design of case-parents triad/control-mother dyad. Data related to the association between cleft lip with palate (CLP) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene A1298C diversity was analyzed. Log-linear model based on likelihood ratio tests (LRTs) was used to analyze the relationships between mother, offspring genotypes and CLP. Data from our study noticed that children of mothers carrying the CC genotype presented a lower risk of CLP, comparing with the children of mothers carrying the AA genotype, with S2=0.45 (95%CI: 0.26-0.79). Offspring that carrying the AC genotype presented a lower risk of CLP, comparing with the offspring that carrying the AA genotype, with R1=0.69 (95% CI: 0.48-0.97). However, no other types of relationships were found. The power of hybrid design was greater than the case-parents study (0.86>0.78). MTHFR A1298C polymorphism seemed to have played an important role in the etiology on both cleft lip and palate. Data from the hybrid design and the log-linear model could help researchers to explore the effects of genotypes from both mothers and the offspring. This study design would present stronger power than the regular case-parents studies thus suitable for studies on the etiology of diseases in early lives, as birth defects. PMID:27346122

  15. The MTHFR C677T polymorphism modifies age at onset in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Vallelunga, Annamaria; Pegoraro, Valentina; Pilleri, Manuela; Biundo, Roberta; De Iuliis, Angela; Marchetti, Mauro; Facchini, Silvia; Formento Dojot, Patrizia; Antonini, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD) and may result from genetic mutations or/and environmental factors. 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a folate-dependent enzyme that catalyzed remethylation of homocysteine (Hcy) and the MTHFR C677T polymorphism makes the MTHFR enzyme thermolabile causing hyperhomocysteinemia. In this study we analyzed whether two functional polymorphisms of MTHFR gene, A1298C and C677T, affect age of onset in PD. We enrolled 120 patients with sporadic PD. Patients were divided into three groups based on MTHFR C677T polymorphisms: (a) homozygotes wild type (CC) (b) heterozygotes (CT) and (c) homozygotes carriers of mutation (TT). MTHFR SNPs were analyzed using High-Resolution Melt analysis and ANOVA was performed to assess whether polymorphisms of MTHFR gene could influence age of onset. The MTHFR A1298C polymorphism had no effect on PD age at onset (p = 1.0) while there was a significant association with MTHFR C677T (p = 0.019 Bonferroni-adjusted post hoc) showing an earlier onset in CC as compared with TT. (p = 0.024). No differences were found for vascular load assessed with magnetic resonance imaging, pharmacological therapy and cognitive state for two MTHFR SNPs. Our results suggest a possible association of MTHFR C677T with age at onset of PD and may have important implications regarding the role of MTHFR. PMID:24052451

  16. Heterogenous Distribution of MTHFR Gene Variants among Mestizos and Diverse Amerindian Groups from Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Contreras-Cubas, Cecilia; Sánchez-Hernández, Beatríz E.; García-Ortiz, Humberto; Martínez-Hernández, Angélica; Barajas-Olmos, Francisco; Cid, Miguel; Mendoza-Caamal, Elvia C.; Centeno-Cruz, Federico; Ortiz-Cruz, Gabriela; Jiménez-López, José Concepción; Córdova, Emilio J.; Salas-Bautista, Eva Gabriela; Saldaña-Alvarez, Yolanda; Fernández-López, Juan Carlos; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.

    2016-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme in folate metabolism. Folate deficiency has been related to several conditions, including neural tube defects (NTDs) and cardiovascular diseases. Hence, MTHFR genetic variants have been studied worldwide, particularly the C677T and A1298C. We genotyped the C677T and A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms in Mexican Amerindians (MAs), from the largest sample included in a genetic study (n = 2026, from 62 ethnic groups), and in a geographically-matched Mexican Mestizo population (MEZ, n = 638). The 677T allele was most frequent in Mexican individuals, particularly in MAs. The frequency of this allele in both MAs and MEZs was clearly enriched in the South region of the country, followed by the Central East and South East regions. In contrast, the frequency of the 1298C risk allele in Mexicans was one of the lowest in the world. Both in MAs and MEZs the variants 677T and 1298C displayed opposite allele frequency gradients from southern to northern Mexico. Our findings suggest that in Mestizos the 677T allele was derived from Amerindians while the 1298C allele was a European contribution. Some subgroups showed an allele frequency distribution that highlighted their genetic diversity. Notably, the distribution of the frequency of the 677T allele was consistent with that of the high incidence of NTDs reported in MEZ. PMID:27649570

  17. Heterogenous Distribution of MTHFR Gene Variants among Mestizos and Diverse Amerindian Groups from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Cubas, Cecilia; Sánchez-Hernández, Beatríz E; García-Ortiz, Humberto; Martínez-Hernández, Angélica; Barajas-Olmos, Francisco; Cid, Miguel; Mendoza-Caamal, Elvia C; Centeno-Cruz, Federico; Ortiz-Cruz, Gabriela; Jiménez-López, José Concepción; Córdova, Emilio J; Salas-Bautista, Eva Gabriela; Saldaña-Alvarez, Yolanda; Fernández-López, Juan Carlos; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M; Orozco, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme in folate metabolism. Folate deficiency has been related to several conditions, including neural tube defects (NTDs) and cardiovascular diseases. Hence, MTHFR genetic variants have been studied worldwide, particularly the C677T and A1298C. We genotyped the C677T and A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms in Mexican Amerindians (MAs), from the largest sample included in a genetic study (n = 2026, from 62 ethnic groups), and in a geographically-matched Mexican Mestizo population (MEZ, n = 638). The 677T allele was most frequent in Mexican individuals, particularly in MAs. The frequency of this allele in both MAs and MEZs was clearly enriched in the South region of the country, followed by the Central East and South East regions. In contrast, the frequency of the 1298C risk allele in Mexicans was one of the lowest in the world. Both in MAs and MEZs the variants 677T and 1298C displayed opposite allele frequency gradients from southern to northern Mexico. Our findings suggest that in Mestizos the 677T allele was derived from Amerindians while the 1298C allele was a European contribution. Some subgroups showed an allele frequency distribution that highlighted their genetic diversity. Notably, the distribution of the frequency of the 677T allele was consistent with that of the high incidence of NTDs reported in MEZ.

  18. Polymorphisms in the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase and methionine synthase reductase genes and their correlation with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Zhu, L

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to explore the correlation between unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion and polymorphisms in the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) genes. A case control study was conducted in 118 patients with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (abortion group) and 174 healthy women (control group). The genetic material was extracted from the oral mucosal epithelial cells obtained from all subjects. The samples were subjected to fluorescence quantitative PCR to detect the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) and MTRR (A66G) gene loci. The distribution frequency (18/118, 15.3%) of the MTHFR 677TT genotype was significantly higher in the abortion group (χ2 = 11.006, P = 0.004) than in the control group (2/174, 1.1%); on the other hand, the distribution frequency of the MTHFR A1298C genotype did not significantly differ between the abortion and control groups (χ(2) = 0.441, P = 0.507). The distribution frequency of the MTRR A66G genotype was also significantly higher in the abortion group (14/118, 11.9%; χ(2) = 10.503, P = 0.005) than in the control group (8/174, 4.6%). The MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G polymorphisms are significantly correlated with the occurrence of spontaneous abortion.

  19. Myofascial trigger points and innervation zone locations in upper trapezius muscles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are hyperirritable spots located in taut bands of muscle fibres. Electrophysiological studies indicate that abnormal electrical activity is detectable near MTrPs. This phenomenon has been described as endplate noise and it has been purported to be associated MTrP pathophysiology. Thus, it is suggested that MTrPs will be overlap the innervation zone (IZ). The purpose of this work was to describe the location of MTrPs and the IZ in the right upper trapezius. Methods We screened 71 individuals and eventually enrolled 24 subjects with neck pain and active MTrPs and 24 neck pain-free subjects with latent MTrPs. Surface electromyography (sEMG) signals were detected using an electrode matrix during isometric contraction of the upper trapezius. A physiotherapist subsequently examined the subject’s trapezius to confirm the presence of MTrPs and establish their location. IZ locations were identified by visual analysis of sEMG signals. IZ and MTrPs locations were described using an anatomical coordinate system (ACS), with the skin area covered by the matrix divided into four quadrants. Results No significant difference was observed between active and latent MTrPs locations (P = 0.6). Forty-five MTrPs were in the third quadrant of the ACS, and 3 were included in second quadrant. IZs were located approximately midway between the seventh cervical vertebrae and the acromial angle in a limited area in the second and third quadrants. The mean distance between MTrP and IZ was 10.4 ± 5.8 mm. Conclusions According to the acquired results, we conclude that IZ and MTrPs are located in well-defined areas in upper trapezius muscle. Moreover, MTrPs in upper trapezius are proximally located to the IZ but not overlapped. PMID:23758854

  20. Structure of Arabidopsis thaliana 5-methylthioribose Kinase Reveals a More Occluded Active Site Than its Bacterial Homolog

    SciTech Connect

    Ku,S.; Cornell, K.; Howell, P.

    2007-01-01

    Metabolic variations exist between the methionine salvage pathway of humans and a number of plants and microbial pathogens. 5-Methylthioribose (MTR) kinase is a key enzyme required for methionine salvage in plants and many bacteria. The absence of a mammalian homolog suggests that MTR kinase is a good target for the design of specific herbicides or antibiotics. The structure of Arabidopsis thaliana MTR kinase co-crystallized with ATP?S and MTR has been determined at 1.9 Angstroms resolution. The structure is similar to B. subtilis MTR kinase and has the same protein kinase fold observed in other evolutionarily related protein kinase-like phosphotransferases. The active site is comparable between the two enzymes with the DXE-motif coordinating the nucleotide-Mg, the D238 of the HGD catalytic loop polarizing the MTR O1 oxygen, and the RR-motif interacting with the substrate MTR. Unlike its bacterial homolog, however, the Gly-rich loop (G-loop) of A. thaliana MTR kinase has an extended conformation, which shields most of the active site from solvent, a feature that resembles eukaryotic protein kinases more than the bacterial enzyme. The G- and W-loops of A. thaliana and B. subtilis MTR kinase adopt different conformations despite high sequence similarity. The ATP?S analog was hydrolyzed during the co-crystallization procedure, resulting in ADP in the active site. This suggests that the A. thaliana enzyme, like its bacterial homolog, may have significant ATPase activity in the absence of MTR. The structure of A. thaliana MTR kinase provides a template for structure-based design of agrochemicals, particularly herbicides whose effectiveness could be regulated by nutrient levels. Features of the MTR binding site offer an opportunity for a simple organic salt of an MTR analog to specifically inhibit MTR kinase.

  1. Novel Applications of Ultrasound Technology to Visualize and Characterize Myofascial Trigger Points and Surrounding Soft Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Sikdar, Siddhartha; Shah, Jay P.; Gebreab, Tadesse; Yen, Ru-Huey; Gilliams, Elizabeth; Danoff, Jerome; Gerber, Lynn H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Apply ultrasound (US) imaging techniques to better describe the characteristics of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) and the immediately adjacent soft tissue. Design Descriptive (exploratory) study. Setting Biomedical research center. Participants 9 subjects meeting Travell and Simons’s criteria for MTrPs in a taut band in the upper trapezius. Interventions (None) Main Outcome Measures MTrPs were evaluated by 1) physical examination, 2) pressure algometry, and 3) three types of ultrasound imaging including grayscale (2D US), vibration sonoelastography (VSE), and Doppler. Methods Four sites in each patient were labeled based on physical examination as either active MTrP (spontaneously-painful, A-MTrP), latent MTrP (non-painful, L-MTrP), or normal myofascial tissue. US examination was performed on each subject by a team blinded to the physical findings. A 12-5 MHz US transducer was used. VSE was performed by color Doppler variance imaging while simultaneously inducing vibrations (~92Hz) with a handheld massage vibrator. Each site was assigned a tissue imaging score (TIS) as follows: 0 = uniform echogenicity and stiffness; 1 = focal hypoechoic region with stiff nodule; 2 = multiple hypoechoic regions with stiff nodules. Blood flow in the neighborhood of MTrPs was assessed using Doppler imaging. Each site was assigned a blood flow waveform score (BFS) as follows: 0 = normal arterial flow in muscle; 1 = elevated diastolic flow; 2 = high-resistance flow waveform with retrograde diastolic flow. Results MTrPs appeared as focal, hypoechoic regions on 2D US, indicating local changes in tissue echogenicity, and as focal regions of reduced vibration amplitude on VSE, indicating a localized stiff nodule. MTrPs were elliptical in shape, with a size of 0.16 ± 0.11 cm2. There were no significant differences in size between A-MTrPs and L-MTrPs. Sites containing MTrPs were more likely to have higher TIS compared to normal myofascial tissue (p<0.002). Small arteries (or

  2. Ultrasonic Tissue Characterization of the Upper Trapezius Muscle in Patients with Myofascial Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Turo, Diego; Otto, Paul; Shah, Jay P.; Heimur, Juliana; Gebreab, Tadesse; Armstrong, Katherine; Gerber, Lynn H.; Sikdar, Siddhartha

    2013-01-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are palpable, tender nodules in skeletal muscle that produce symptomatic referred pain when palpated. MTrPs are characteristic findings in myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). The role of MTrPs in the pathophysiology of MPS is unknown. Objective characterization and quantitative measurement of the properties of MTrPs can improve their localization and diagnosis, as well as lead to clinical outcome measures. MTrPs associated with soft tissue neck pain are often found in the upper trapezius muscle. We have previously demonstrated that MTrPs can be visualized using ultrasound imaging. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether texture-based image analysis can differentiate structural heterogeneity of symptomatic MTrPs and normal muscle. Patients with chronic (>3 months) neck pain with spontaneously painful, palpable MTrPs (active MTrPs) and healthy volunteers without spontaneous pain (normal) were recruited for this study. Entropy filtering was performed on B-mode images of the upper trapezius and mean entropy values of symptomatic muscles were compared with healthy ones. Entropy analysis was also used to evaluate the size of regions with low entropy. We found that sites with active MTrPs have significantly lower entropy (p<0.05), i.e. they have more homogenous texture, than asymptomatic ones. PMID:23366899

  3. Rapid electron exchange between surface-exposed bacterial cytochromes and Fe(III) minerals.

    PubMed

    White, Gaye F; Shi, Zhi; Shi, Liang; Wang, Zheming; Dohnalkova, Alice C; Marshall, Matthew J; Fredrickson, James K; Zachara, John M; Butt, Julea N; Richardson, David J; Clarke, Thomas A

    2013-04-16

    The mineral-respiring bacterium Shewanella oneidensis uses a protein complex, MtrCAB, composed of two decaheme cytochromes, MtrC and MtrA, brought together inside a transmembrane porin, MtrB, to transport electrons across the outer membrane to a variety of mineral-based electron acceptors. A proteoliposome system containing a pool of internalized electron carriers was used to investigate how the topology of the MtrCAB complex relates to its ability to transport electrons across a lipid bilayer to externally located Fe(III) oxides. With MtrA facing the interior and MtrC exposed on the outer surface of the phospholipid bilayer, the established in vivo orientation, electron transfer from the interior electron carrier pool through MtrCAB to solid-phase Fe(III) oxides was demonstrated. The rates were 10(3) times higher than those reported for reduction of goethite, hematite, and lepidocrocite by S. oneidensis, and the order of the reaction rates was consistent with those observed in S. oneidensis cultures. In contrast, established rates for single turnover reactions between purified MtrC and Fe(III) oxides were 10(3) times lower. By providing a continuous flow of electrons, the proteoliposome experiments demonstrate that conduction through MtrCAB directly to Fe(III) oxides is sufficient to support in vivo, anaerobic, solid-phase iron respiration.

  4. Long-Lasting Gene Conversion Shapes the Convergent Evolution of the Critical Methanogenesis Genes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sishuo; Chen, Youhua; Cao, Qinhong; Lou, Huiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Methanogenesis and its key small-molecule methyltransferase Mtr complex are poorly understood despite their pivotal role in Earth’s global carbon cycle. Mtr complex is encoded by a conserved mtrEDCBAFGH operon in most methanogens. Here we report that two discrete lineages, Methanococcales and Methanomicrobiales, have a noncanonical mtr operon carrying two copies of mtrA resulting from an ancient duplication. Compared to mtrA-1, mtrA-2 acquires a distinct transmembrane domain through domain shuffling and gene fusion. However, the nontransmembrane domains (MtrA domain) of mtrA-1 and mtrA-2 are homogenized by gene conversion events lasting throughout the long history of these extant methanogens (over 2410 million years). Furthermore, we identified a possible recruitment of ancient nonmethanogenic methyltransferase genes to establish the methanogenesis pathway. These results not only provide novel evolutionary insight into the methanogenesis pathway and methyltransferase superfamily but also suggest an unanticipated long-lasting effect of gene conversion on gene evolution in a convergent pattern. PMID:26384370

  5. Rapid electron exchange between surface-exposed bacterial cytochromes and Fe(III) minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Gaye F.; Shi, Zhi; Shi, Liang; Wang, Zheming; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; Marshall, Matthew J.; Fredrickson, James K.; Zachara, John M.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David J.; Clarke, Thomas A.

    2013-04-01

    The mineral-respiring bacterium Shewanella oneidensis uses a protein complex, MtrCAB, composed of two decaheme cytochromes, MtrC and MtrA, brought together inside a transmembrane porin, MtrB, to transport electrons across the outer membrane to a variety of mineral-based electron acceptors. A proteoliposome system containing a pool of internalized electron carriers was used to investigate how the topology of the MtrCAB complex relates to its ability to transport electrons across a lipid bilayer to externally located Fe(III) oxides. With MtrA facing the interior and MtrC exposed on the outer surface of the phospholipid bilayer, the established in vivo orientation, electron transfer from the interior electron carrier pool through MtrCAB to solid-phase Fe(III) oxides was demonstrated. The rates were 103 times higher than those reported for reduction of goethite, hematite, and lepidocrocite by S. oneidensis, and the order of the reaction rates was consistent with those observed in S. oneidensis cultures. In contrast, established rates for single turnover reactions between purified MtrC and Fe(III) oxides were 103 times lower. By providing a continuous flow of electrons, the proteoliposome experiments demonstrate that conduction through MtrCAB directly to Fe(III) oxides is sufficient to support in vivo, anaerobic, solid-phase iron respiration.

  6. Experienced versus Inexperienced Interexaminer Reliability on Location and Classification of Myofascial Trigger Point Palpation to Diagnose Lateral Epicondylalgia: An Observational Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Mora-Relucio, Raquel; Núñez-Nagy, Susana; Gallego-Izquierdo, Tomás; Rus, Alma; Plaza-Manzano, Gustavo; Romero-Franco, Natalia; Ferragut-Garcías, Alejandro; Pecos-Martín, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the interexaminer reliability of experienced and inexperienced examiners on location and classification of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in two epicondylar muscles and the association between the MTrP found and the diagnosis of lateral epicondylalgia (LE). Fifty-two pianists (some suffered LE) voluntarily participated in the study. Three physiotherapists (one inexperienced in myofascial pain) examined, located, and marked MTrPs in the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) and extensor digitorum communis (EDC) muscles. Forearms were photographed and analyzed to establish the degree of agreement on MTrPs diagnosis. Data showed 81.73% and 77.88% of agreement on MTrP classification and 85.58% and 72.12% on MTrP location between the expert evaluators for ECRB and EDC, respectively. The agreement on MTrP classification between experienced and inexperienced examiners was 54.81% and 51.92% for ECRB and 50.00% and 55.77% for EDC. Also, agreement on MTrP location was 54.81% and 60.58% for ECRB and 48.08% and 48.08% for EDC. A strong association was found between presence of relevant MTrPs, LE diagnosis, and forearm pain when the examiners were experts. The analysis of location and classification of MTrPs in the epicondylar muscles through physical examination by experienced evaluators is reliable, reproducible, and suitable for diagnosing LE. PMID:26881005

  7. A gonococcal efflux pump system enhances bacterial survival in a female mouse model of genital tract infection.

    PubMed

    Jerse, Ann E; Sharma, Nirmala D; Simms, Amy N; Crow, Emily T; Snyder, Lori A; Shafer, William M

    2003-10-01

    Active efflux of antimicrobial substances is likely to be an important bacterial defense against inhibitory host factors inherent to different body sites. Two well-characterized multidrug resistance efflux systems (MtrCDE and FarAB-MtrE) exist in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a bacterial pathogen of the human genital mucosae. In vitro studies suggest that the MtrCDE and FarAB-MtrE efflux systems protect the gonococcus from hydrophobic antimicrobial substances that are likely to be present on mucosal surfaces. Here we report that a functional MtrCDE efflux system, but not a functional FarAB-MtrE system, enhances experimental gonococcal genital tract infection in female mice. Specifically, the recovery of mtrD and mtrE mutants, but not a farB mutant, from mice inoculated with mutant or wild-type gonococci was reduced compared with that of the wild-type strain. Competitive-infection experiments confirmed the survival disadvantage of MtrCDE-deficient gonococci. This report is the first direct evidence that a multidrug resistance efflux system enhances survival of a bacterial pathogen in the genital tract. Additionally, experiments using ovariectomized mice showed that MtrCDE-deficient gonococci were more rapidly cleared from mice that were capable of secreting gonadal hormones. MtrCDE-deficient gonococci were more sensitive to nonphysiological concentrations of progesterone in vitro than were wild-type or FarAB-MtrE-deficient gonococci. These results suggest that progesterone may play an inhibitory role in vivo. However, hormonally regulated factors rather than progesterone itself may be responsible for the more rapid clearance of mtr-deficient gonococci from intact mice.

  8. Molecular Underpinnings of Fe(III) Oxide Reduction by Shewanella Oneidensis MR-1

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Liang; Rosso, Kevin M.; Clarke, Tomas A.; Richardson, David J.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, James K.

    2012-01-01

    In the absence of O2 and other electron acceptors, the Gram-negative bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 can use ferric [Fe(III)] (oxy)(hydr)oxide minerals as the terminal electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration. At circumneutral pH and in the absence of strong complexing ligands, Fe(III) oxides are relatively insoluble and thus are external to the bacterial cells. S. oneidensis MR-1 and related strains of metal-reducing Shewanella have evolved machinery (i.e., metal-reducing or Mtr pathway) for transferring electrons from the inner-membrane, through the periplasm and across the outer-membrane to the surface of extracellular Fe(III) oxides. The protein components identified to date for the Mtr pathway include CymA, MtrA, MtrB, MtrC, and OmcA. CymA is an inner-membrane tetraheme c-type cytochrome (c-Cyt) that belongs to the NapC/NrfH family of quinol dehydrogenases. It is proposed that CymA oxidizes the quinol in the inner-membrane and transfers the released electrons to MtrA either directly or indirectly through other periplasmic proteins. A decaheme c-Cyt, MtrA is thought to be embedded in the trans outer-membrane and porin-like protein MtrB. Together, MtrAB deliver the electrons through the outer-membrane to the MtrC and OmcA on the outmost bacterial surface. MtrC and OmcA are the outer-membrane decaheme c-Cyts that are translocated across the outer-membrane by the bacterial type II secretion system. Functioning as terminal reductases, MtrC and OmcA can bind the surface of Fe(III) oxides and transfer electrons directly to these minerals via their solvent-exposed hemes. To increase their reaction rates, MtrC and OmcA can use the flavins secreted by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells as diffusible co-factors for reduction of Fe(III) oxides. Because of their extracellular location and broad redox potentials, MtrC and OmcA can also serve as the terminal reductases for soluble forms of Fe(III). In addition to Fe(III) oxides, Mtr pathway is also involved in reduction of

  9. Candidate Assembly Statistical Evaluation

    1998-07-15

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) receives aluminum clad spent Material Test Reactor (MTR) fuel from all over the world for storage and eventual reprocessing. There are hundreds of different kinds of MTR fuels and these fuels will continue to be received at SRS for approximately ten more years. SRS''s current criticality evaluation methodology requires the modeling of all MTR fuels utilizing Monte Carlo codes, which is extremely time consuming and resource intensive. Now that amore » significant number of MTR calculations have been conducted it is feasible to consider building statistical models that will provide reasonable estimations of MTR behavior. These statistical models can be incorporated into a standardized model homogenization spreadsheet package to provide analysts with a means of performing routine MTR fuel analyses with a minimal commitment of time and resources. This became the purpose for development of the Candidate Assembly Statistical Evaluation (CASE) program at SRS.« less

  10. Charge carrier transport in polycrystalline organic thin film based field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Varsha; Sharma, Akanksha; Ghosh, Subhasis

    2016-05-01

    The charge carrier transport mechanism in polycrystalline thin film based organic field effect transistors (OFETs) has been explained using two competing models, multiple trapping and releases (MTR) model and percolation model. It has been shown that MTR model is most suitable for explaining charge carrier transport in grainy polycrystalline organic thin films. The energetic distribution of traps determined independently using Mayer-Neldel rule (MNR) is in excellent agreement with the values obtained by MTR model for copper phthalocyanine and pentacene based OFETs.

  11. New trends in myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chang-Zern

    2002-11-01

    This review article summarizes recent studies on myofascial trigger point (MTrP) to further clarify the mechanism of MTrP. MTrP is the major cause of muscle pain (myofascial pain) in clinical practice. There are multiple MTrP loci in an MTrP region. An MTrP locus contains a sensory component (sensitive locus) and a motor component (active locus). A sensitive locus is the site from which pain, referred pain (ReP), and local twitch response (LTR) can be elicited by needle stimulation. Sensitive loci are probably sensitized nociceptors based on a histological study. They are widely distributed in the whole muscle, but are concentrated in the endplate zone. An active locus is the site from which spontaneous electrical activity (SEA) can be recorded. Active loci are dysfunctional endplates since SEA is essentially the same as endplate noise (EPN) recorded from an abnormal endplate as reported by neurophysiologists. Both ReP and LTRs are mediated through spinal cord mechanisms, demonstrated in both human and animal studies. The pathogenesis of MTrPs appears to be related to the integration in the spinal cord (formation of MTrP circuits) in response to the disturbance of the nerve endings and abnormal contractile mechanism at multiple dysfunctional endplates. Methods usually applied to treat MTrPs include stretch, massage, thermotherapy, electrotherapy, laser therapy, MTrP injection, dry needling, and acupuncture. The mechanism of acupuncture is similar to dry needling or MTrP injection. The new technique of MTrP injection can also be used to treat neurogenic spasticity.

  12. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene and susceptibility to breast cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zintzaras, E

    2006-04-01

    The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms have been linked to the risk of developing breast cancer. A meta-analysis of 18 case-control studies investigating the association between the C677T and the A1298C polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene and breast cancer (BC) was carried out. The meta-analysis included genotype data on 5467/7336 and 3768/5276 cases/controls for C677T and A1298C, respectively. In the meta-analysis, the consistency of genetic effects across different ethnicities and the effect of menopausal status for various genetic contrasts were investigated. The overall analysis for investigating the association between the C677T allele T and the risk of developing BC showed significant heterogeneity (p = 0.08, I2 = 34%) and non-significant association [odds ratio (OR) 1.02; 95% confidence interval (0.95-1.10)]. The allele contrast was not significant in Caucasians (nine studies) and in East Asians (four studies) [OR 1.03 (0.93-1.14) and OR 0.96 (0.81-1.15), respectively] or in pre-menopausal (five studies) and post-menopausal (four studies) groups [OR 1.10 (0.94-1.29) and OR 1.06 (0.95-1.18), respectively]. The genotype contrast of the homozygotes (TT vs CC) produced significant results only for pre-menopausal cases [OR 1.46 (1.05-2.03)]. The recessive model for allele T produced significant association only in pre-menopausal cases [OR 1.49 (1.09-2.03)]. The dominant model for the effect of allele T produced no significant results, overall and in each subgroup. For the A1298C polymorphism, all genotype contrasts showed lack of association, overall and in Caucasians. In summary, the accumulated evidence supports an association in pre-menopausal women. BC is a complex disease with multifactorial etiology, and therefore, case-control studies that investigate gene-environment interaction might elucidate further the genetics of the disease.

  13. Associations between Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) Polymorphisms and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Man-Yi; Zhang, Li; Shi, Song-Li; Lin, Jing-Na

    2016-01-01

    Background C677T and A1298C are the most common allelic variants of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) gene. The association between MTHFR polymorphisms and the occurrence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains controversial. This study was thus performed to examine whether MTHFR mutations are associated with the susceptibility to NAFLD. Methods A first meta-analysis on the association between the MTHFR polymorphisms and NAFLD risks was carried out via Review Manager 5.0 and Stata/SE 12.0 software. The on-line databases, such as PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, WOS, Scopus and EBSCOhost (updated to April 1st, 2016), were searched for eligible case-control studies. The odd radio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI) and P value were calculated through Mantel-Haenszel statistics under random- or fixed-effect model. Results Eight articles (785 cases and 1188 controls) contributed data to the current meta-analysis. For C677T, increased NAFLD risks were observed in case group under homozygote model (T/T vs C/C, OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.03~2.15, P = 0.04) and recessive model (T/T vs C/C+C/T, OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.07~1.88, P = 0.02), but not the other genetics models, compared with control group. For A1298C, significantly increased NAFLD risks were detected in allele model (C vs A, OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.13~2.07, P = 0.006), homozygote model (C/C vs A/A, OR = 2.81, 95% CI = 1.63~4.85, P = 0.0002), dominant model (A/C+C/C vs A/A, OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.06~2.41, P = 0.03) and recessive model (C/C vs A/A+A/C, OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.45~3.00, P<0.0001), but not heterozygote model. Conclusion T/T genotype of MTHFR C677T polymorphism and C/C genotype of MTHFR A1298C are more likely to be associated with the susceptibility to NAFLD. PMID:27128842

  14. Association between Maternal MTHFR Polymorphisms and Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip with or without Cleft Palate in Offspring, A Meta-Analysis Based on 15 Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xinjuan; Wang, Ping; Yin, Xinjuan; Liu, Xiaozhuan; Li, Di; Li, Xing; Wang, Yongchao; Li, Hongle; Yu, Zengli

    2015-01-01

    Background The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is thought to be involved in the development of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P). However, conflicting results have been obtained when evaluating the association between maternal MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and the risk of NSCL/P. In light of this gap, a meta-analysis of all eligible case-control studies was conducted in the present study. Materials and Methods A total of 15 case-control studies were ultimately identified after a comprehensive literature search and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) examination. Cochrane’s Q test and index of heterogeneity (I2) indicated no obvious heterogeneity among studies. Results Fixed or random-effects models were used to calculate the pooled odds ratios (ORs). The results showed that the TT genotype in mothers increased the likelihood of having NSCL/P offspring 1.25 times (95% CI: 1.047-1.494) more than the CC homozygotes. Meanwhile, maternal TT genotype increased the risk of producing NSCL/P offspring in recessive model (OR=1.325, 95% CI: 1.124-1.562). However, the CT heterozygote and the CT+TT dominant models had no association with NSCL/P offspring compared with the CC wild-type homozygote model. Subgroup analyses based on ethnicity indicated that maternal TT genotype increased the likelihood of having NSCL/P offspring in Whites (OR=1.308, 95% CI: 1.059-1.617) and Asians (OR=1.726, 95% CI: 1.090-2.733) in recessive model. Also, subgroup analyses based on source of control showed that mothers with the 677TT genotype had a significantly increased susceptibility of having NSCL/P children in hospital based population (HB) when compared with CC homozygotes (OR=1.248, 95% CI: 1.024-1.520) and un- der the recessive model (OR=1.324, 95% CI: 1.104-1.588). Furthermore, maternal A1298C polymorphism had no significant association with producing NSCL/P offspring (dominant model OR=0.952, 95% CI: 0.816-1.111, recessive model OR=0.766, 95% CI

  15. Prevalence of myofascial trigger points in fibromyalgia: the overlap of two common problems.

    PubMed

    Ge, Hong-You

    2010-10-01

    With the objective evidence of their existence, myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) contribute to an increasing number of chronic regional and widespread pain conditions. The widespread spontaneous pain pattern in fibromyalgia (FM) is a summation of multiple regional pains due to active MTrPs. A regional pain in FM is from local active MTrPs and/or referred from remote active MTrPs. Positive tender points specified in FM are MTrPs, either active or latent. Manual stimulation of active MTrPs located in the muscles in different body regions completely reproduced overall spontaneous FM pain pattern. Active MTrPs as tonic peripheral nociceptive input contribute tremendously to the initiation and maintenance of central sensitization, to the impairment of descending inhibition, to the increased excitability of motor units, and to the induction of sympathetic hyperactivity observed in FM. The considerable overlap of MTrPs and FM in pain characteristics and pathophysiology suggests that FM pain is largely due to MTrPs.

  16. Current studies on myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Ta-Shen

    2009-10-01

    Recent studies have clarified the nature of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). In an MTrP region, multiple hyperirritable loci can be found. The sensory components of the MTrP locus are sensitized nociceptors that are responsible for pain, referred pain, and local twitch responses. The motor components are dysfunctional endplates that are responsible for taut band formation as a result of excessive acetylcholine (ACh) leakage. The concentrations of pain- and inflammation-related substances are increased in the MTrP region. It has been hypothesized that excessive ACh release, sarcomere shortening, and release of sensitizing substances are three essential features that relate to one another in a positive feedback cycle. This MTrP circuit is the connection among spinal sensory (dorsal horn) neurons responsible for the MTrP phenomena. Recent studies suggest that measurement of biochemicals associated with pain and inflammation in the MTrP region, the sonographic study of MTrPs, and the magnetic resonance elastography for taut band image are potential tools for the diagnosis of MTrPs. Many methods have been used to treat myofascial pain, including laser therapy, shockwave therapy, and botulinum toxin type A injection. PMID:19728962

  17. Current studies on myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Ta-Shen

    2009-10-01

    Recent studies have clarified the nature of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). In an MTrP region, multiple hyperirritable loci can be found. The sensory components of the MTrP locus are sensitized nociceptors that are responsible for pain, referred pain, and local twitch responses. The motor components are dysfunctional endplates that are responsible for taut band formation as a result of excessive acetylcholine (ACh) leakage. The concentrations of pain- and inflammation-related substances are increased in the MTrP region. It has been hypothesized that excessive ACh release, sarcomere shortening, and release of sensitizing substances are three essential features that relate to one another in a positive feedback cycle. This MTrP circuit is the connection among spinal sensory (dorsal horn) neurons responsible for the MTrP phenomena. Recent studies suggest that measurement of biochemicals associated with pain and inflammation in the MTrP region, the sonographic study of MTrPs, and the magnetic resonance elastography for taut band image are potential tools for the diagnosis of MTrPs. Many methods have been used to treat myofascial pain, including laser therapy, shockwave therapy, and botulinum toxin type A injection.

  18. High prevalence of shoulder girdle muscles with myofascial trigger points in patients with shoulder pain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Shoulder pain is reported to be highly prevalent and tends to be recurrent or persistent despite medical treatment. The pathophysiological mechanisms of shoulder pain are poorly understood. Furthermore, there is little evidence supporting the effectiveness of current treatment protocols. Although myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are rarely mentioned in relation to shoulder pain, they may present an alternative underlying mechanism, which would provide new treatment targets through MTrP inactivation. While previous research has demonstrated that trained physiotherapists can reliably identify MTrPs in patients with shoulder pain, the percentage of patients who actually have MTrPs remains unclear. The aim of this observational study was to assess the prevalence of muscles with MTrPs and the association between MTrPs and the severity of pain and functioning in patients with chronic non-traumatic unilateral shoulder pain. Methods An observational study was conducted. Subjects were recruited from patients participating in a controlled trial studying the effectiveness of physical therapy on patients with unilateral non-traumatic shoulder pain. Sociodemographic and patient-reported symptom scores, including the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) Questionnaire, and Visual Analogue Scales for Pain were compared with other studies. To test for differences in age, gender distribution, and education level between the current study population and the populations from Dutch shoulder studies, the one sample T-test was used. One observer examined all subjects (n = 72) for the presence of MTrPs. Frequency distributions, means, medians, standard deviations, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for descriptive purposes. The Spearman's rank-order correlation (ρ) was used to test for association between variables. Results MTrPs were identified in all subjects. The median number of muscles with MTrPs per subject was 6 (active MTrPs) and 4 (latent MTr

  19. MTHFR polymorphisms' influence on outcome and toxicity in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Chiusolo, Patrizia; Reddiconto, Giovanni; Farina, Giuliana; Mannocci, Alice; Fiorini, Alessia; Palladino, Mariangela; La Torre, Giuseppe; Fianchi, Luana; Sorà, Federica; Laurenti, Luca; Leone, Giuseppe; Sica, Simona

    2007-12-01

    Recently the influence of polymorphisms of different genes involved in metabolism of chemoterapic agents have been studied especially in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We evaluated the influence of C677T and A1298C methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms on time to relapse and survival and on methotrexate (MTX) toxicity in 82 ALL adult patients. Relapse free survival and event free survival between homozygous wild-type and variant patients in both polymorphisms were not significantly different. However, we observed an association between 677TT variant and survival in a subset of ALL patients homogenously treated with MTX-based maintenance (p=0.02). In the same subgroup we confirmed the role of 677TT variant on toxicity during MTX treatment (p=0.003). PMID:17512587

  20. [The role of homocysteine and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, methionine synthase, methionine synthase reductase polymorphisms in the development of cardiovascular diseases and hypertension].

    PubMed

    Marosi, Krisztina; Agota, Annamária; Végh, Veronika; Joó, József Gábor; Langmár, Zoltán; Kriszbacher, Ildikó; Nagy, Zsolt B

    2012-03-25

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading causes of death in the developed countries. Elevated homocysteine level is as an independent risk factor of CVDs. The C677T and A1298C variants of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) have been shown to influence folate and homocysteine metabolisms. However, the relationship between MTHFR polymorphisms and hyperhomocysteinemia has not been well established yet. The gene variants were also reported to be associated with CVDs. In addition, the C677T polymorphisms may play a role in the development of hypertension. Recent research evidence has suggested that MTHFR variants might be independently linked to CVDs and hypertension, because of the involvement of the MTHFR enzyme product (5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate /5-MTHF) in the regulation of endothelial functions. Further research is required to investigate the association between gene polymorphisms of folate-metabolizing enzymes and CVDs, and to identify the possible role of the relevant gene variants in the molecular pathogenesis of hyperhomocysteinemia.

  1. Recurrent pregnancy loss in a subject with heterozygote factor V Leiden mutation; a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimzadeh-Vesal, Reza; Azam, Roza; Ghazarian, Arvin; Hajesmaeili, Mogge; Ranji, Najmeh; Ezzati, Mohammad Reza; Sadri, Mehrdad; Mohammadi, Mohammad Ali; Khavandi, Siamak

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss is usually defined as the loss of two or more consecutive pregnancies before 20 weeks of gestation, which occurs in approximately 5% of reproductive-aged women. It has been suggested that women with thrombophilia have an increased risk of pregnancy loss and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. Thrombophilia is an important predisposition to blood clot formation and is considered as a significant risk factor for recurrent pregnancy loss. The inherited predisposition to thrombophilia is most often associated with factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin G20210A mutation, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C gene variants. The net effect is an increased cleavage of prothrombin to thrombin and excessive blood coagulation. PMID:26989729

  2. Congenital IL-12R1β receptor deficiency and thrombophilia in a girl homozygous for an IL12RB1 mutation and compound heterozygous for MTFHR mutations: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Kose, M.; Ceylan, O.; Patiroglu, T.; Bustamante, J.; Casanova, J. L.; Akyildiz, B. N.; Doganay, S.

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) plays an important role in the production of interferon gamma from T cells and natural killer cells and is essential for protection against intra-macrophagic pathogens such as Mycobacterium and Salmonella. Here, we describe a 16-year-old girl with homozygous mutation in exon 12 of the IL12RB1 gene, which causes complete IL-12Rβ1 deficiency in association with heterozygous mutation (C677T and A1298C) in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene. She presented with disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection, retroperitoneal fungal abscess and also thrombosis in the superior mesenteric–portal vein junction. This is the first case report of a primary immunodeficiency associated with a genetically determined venous thrombosis. PMID:24678409

  3. MTHFR Gene Mutations: A Potential Marker of Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease?

    PubMed

    Román, Gustavo C

    2015-01-01

    Recent epigenome-wide association studies have confirmed the importance of epigenetic effects mediated by DNA methylation in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). Metabolic folate pathways and methyl donor reactions facilitated by B-group vitamins may be critical in the pathogenesis of LOAD. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene mutations were studied in consecutive Alzheimer's Disease & Memory Clinic patients up to December 2014. DNA analyses of MTHFR-C667T and - A1298C homozygous and heterozygous polymorphisms in 93 consecutive elderly patients revealed high prevalence of MTHFR mutations (92.5%). Findings require confirmation in a larger series, but MTHFR mutations may become a LOAD marker, opening novel possibilities for prevention and treatment.

  4. Association between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and the risk of autism spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pu, Danhua; Shen, Yiping; Wu, Jie

    2013-10-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is essential for DNA biosynthesis and the epigenetic process of DNA methylation, and its gene polymorphisms have been implicated as risk factors for birth defects, neurological disorders, and cancers. However, reports on the association of MTHFR polymorphisms with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are inconclusive. Therefore, we investigated the relationship of the MTHFR polymorphisms (C677T and A1298C) and the risk of ASD by meta-analysis. Up to December 2012, eight case-control studies involving 1672 patients with ASD and 6760 controls were included for meta-analysis. The results showed that the C677T polymorphism was associated with significantly increased ASD risk in all the comparison models [T vs. C allele (frequency of allele): odds ratio (OR) = 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-1.85; CT vs. CC (heterozygote): OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.09-2.00; TT vs. CC (homozygote): OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.08-3.20; CT+TT vs. CC (dominant model): OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.12-2.18; and TT vs. CC+CT (recessive model): OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.02-2.22], whereas the A1298C polymorphism was found to be significantly associated with reduced ASD risk but only in a recessive model (CC vs. AA+AC: OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.56-0.97). In addition, we stratified the patient population based on whether they were from a country with food fortification of folic acid or not. The meta-analysis showed that the C677T polymorphism was found to be associated with ASD only in children from countries without food fortification. Our study indicated that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism contributes to increased ASD risk, and periconceptional folic acid may reduce ASD risk in those with MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism. PMID:23653228

  5. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genetic polymorphisms and psychiatric disorders: a HuGE review.

    PubMed

    Gilbody, Simon; Lewis, Sarah; Lightfoot, Tracy

    2007-01-01

    The authors performed a meta-analysis of studies examining the association between polymorphisms in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, including MTHFR C677T and A1298C, and common psychiatric disorders, including unipolar depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. The primary comparison was between homozygote variants and the wild type for MTHFR C677T and A1298C. For unipolar depression and the MTHFR C677T polymorphism, the fixed-effects odds ratio for homozygote variants (TT) versus the wild type (CC) was 1.36 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11, 1.67), with no residual between-study heterogeneity (I(2) = 0%)--based on 1,280 cases and 10,429 controls. For schizophrenia and MTHFR C677T, the fixed-effects odds ratio for TT versus CC was 1.44 (95% CI: 1.21, 1.70), with low heterogeneity (I(2) = 42%)--based on 2,762 cases and 3,363 controls. For bipolar disorder and MTHFR C677T, the fixed-effects odds ratio for TT versus CC was 1.82 (95% CI: 1.22, 2.70), with low heterogeneity (I(2) = 42%)-based on 550 cases and 1,098 controls. These results were robust to various sensitively analyses. This meta-analysis demonstrates an association between the MTHFR C677T variant and depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder, raising the possibility of the use of folate in treatment and prevention. PMID:17074966

  6. The Association of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Genotypes with the Risk of Childhood Leukemia in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wen-Shin; Ji, Hong-Xue; Hsiao, Chieh-Lun; Miao, Chia-En; Hsu, Yuan-Nian; Bau, Da-Tian

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most prevalent type of pediatric cancer, the causes of which are likely to involve an interaction between genetic and environmental factors. To evaluate the effects of the genotypic polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) on childhood ALL risk in Taiwan, two well-known polymorphic genotypes of MTHFR, C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131), were analyzed to examine the extent of their associations with childhood ALL susceptibility and to discuss the MTHFR genotypic contribution to childhood ALL risk among different populations. Methodology/Principal Findings In total, 266 patients with childhood ALL and an equal number of non-cancer controls recruited were genotyped utilizing PCR-RFLP methodology. The MTHFR C677T genotype, but not the A1298C, was differently distributed between childhood ALL and control groups. The CT and TT of MTHFR C677T genotypes were significantly more frequently found in controls than in childhood ALL patients (odds ratios=0.60 and 0.48, 95% confidence intervals=0.42–0.87 and 0.24–0.97, respectively). As for gender, the boys carrying the MTHFR C677T CT or TT genotype conferred a lower odds ratio of 0.51 (95% confidence interval=0.32–0.81, P=0.0113) for childhood ALL. As for age, those equal to or greater than 3.5 years of age at onset of disease carrying the MTHFR C677T CT or TT genotype were of lower risk (odds ratio= 0.43 and 95% confidence interval=0.26–0.71, P=0.0016). Conclusions Our results indicated that the MTHFR C677T T allele was a protective biomarker for childhood ALL in Taiwan, and the association was more significant in male patients and in patients 3.5 years of age or older at onset of disease. PMID:25793509

  7. "Polymorphisms in folate metabolism genes as maternal risk factor for neural tube defects: an updated meta-analysis".

    PubMed

    Yadav, Upendra; Kumar, Pradeep; Yadav, Sushil Kumar; Mishra, Om Prakash; Rai, Vandana

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between maternal methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, A1298C and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G polymorphisms and risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring. However, the results from the published studies on the association between these three polymorphisms and NTD risk are conflicting. To derive a clearer picture of association between these three maternal polymorphisms and risk of NTD, we performed meta-analysis. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify all case-control studies of maternal MTHFR and MTRR polymorphisms and NTD risk. We used odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the strength of the association. Overall, we found that maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism (OR(TvsC) =1.20; 95% CI = 1.13-1.28) and MTRR A66G polymorphism (OR(GvsA) = 1.21; 95% CI = 0.98-1.49) were risk factors for producing offspring with NTD but maternal MTHFR A1298C polymorphism (OR(CvsA) = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.78-1.07) was not associated with NTD risk. However, in stratified analysis by geographical regions, we found that the maternal C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with the risk of NTD in Asian (OR(TvsC) = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.05-1.94), European (OR(TvsC) = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.04-1.24) and American (OR(TvsC) = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.13-1.41) populations. In conclusion, present meta-analysis supports that the maternal MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G are polymorphisms contributory to risk for NTD. PMID:25005003

  8. Meta-analysis of the association of MTHFR polymorphisms with multiple myeloma risk

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li-Min; Ruan, Lin-Hai; Yang, Hai-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms with multiple myeloma (MM) risk has been explored, but the results remain controversial. Thus, a meta-analysis was performed to provide a comprehensively estimate. The case-control studies about MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms with MM risk were collected by searching PubMed, Elsevier, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang Databases. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were applied to assess the strength of association. Overall, no significant association was found between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and MM risk under all four genetic models (AC vs. AA, OR = 0.99, 95%CI = 0.82-1.20; CC vs. AA, OR = 1.14, 95%CI = 0.77-1.68; recessive model, OR = 1.10, 95%CI = 0.76-1.59; dominant model, OR = 1.01, 95%CI = 0.84-1.22). The risk was also not significantly altered for C677T polymorphism and MM in overall comparisons (CT vs. CC, OR = 1.04, 95%CI = 0.93-1.17; TT vs. CC, OR = 1.16, 95%CI = 0.98-1.37; recessive model, OR = 1.13, 95%CI = 0.98-1.32; dominant model, OR = 1.07, 95%CI = 0.96-1.20). In subgroup analyses by ethnicity, no significant association was observed in both Caucasians and Asians. This meta-analysis suggested that MTHFR polymorphisms were not associated with MM risk. PMID:26022785

  9. Ex vivo study for the assessment of behavioral factor and gene polymorphisms in individual susceptibility to oxidative DNA damage metals-induced.

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Angela; Baluce, Barbara; Visalli, Giuseppa; La Maestra, Sebastiano; Micale, Rosanna; Izzotti, Alberto

    2011-06-01

    Transition metals in fine particulate matter generated by combustion induce oxidative DNA damage and inflammation. However, there is remarkable inter-individual variability in susceptibility to these damages. To assess this variability, an ex vivo study was performed using lymphocytes of 47 Caucasian healthy subjects. Cell samples were exposed to a water solution of oil fly ash (OFA). This was formed by the distinctive transition metals vanadium, iron, and nickel. Oxidative DNA damage was evaluated by testing cell viability, intracellular ROS production and 8-oxo-dG. DNA fragmentation and DNA repair capacity were assessed by using the Alkaline-Halo assay. GSTM1, GSTT1, hOGG1, and C677T and A1298C MTHFR gene polymorphisms were tested. Demographic and behavioral factors, collected by questionnaire, were also considered. OFA induced damages showed: (a) a 20-fold variation in range among different subjects in ROS production, (b) a 7-fold variation in range of 8-oxo-dG, and (c) a 25-fold variation in range in DNA repair capacity. A significant increase in DNA damage was detected in GSTT1-deficent subjects compared with wild type genotype carriers. Increases in cytoplasmic ROS and decreases in DNA repair capacity (P<0.05) were observed in C677T and A1298C variants of MTHFR. A remarkable protective effect of high fruits and vegetable intake was observed for ROS production and DNA damage. Conversely, an adverse effect of meat intake was observed on ROS increase, DNA damage and repair capacity, probably due to the increased intake of bioavailable iron. Smoking decreased DNA repair capacity, while age increased OFA-induced DNA damage. The wide comparative analysis of the complex interactions network, between genetic and behavioral factors provides evidence of the remarkable role of several lifestyle factors. In comparison to genetic polymorphisms they seem to have a higher weight in determining individual susceptibility to the adverse effects of airborne pollutants as

  10. Association between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and the risk of autism spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pu, Danhua; Shen, Yiping; Wu, Jie

    2013-10-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is essential for DNA biosynthesis and the epigenetic process of DNA methylation, and its gene polymorphisms have been implicated as risk factors for birth defects, neurological disorders, and cancers. However, reports on the association of MTHFR polymorphisms with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are inconclusive. Therefore, we investigated the relationship of the MTHFR polymorphisms (C677T and A1298C) and the risk of ASD by meta-analysis. Up to December 2012, eight case-control studies involving 1672 patients with ASD and 6760 controls were included for meta-analysis. The results showed that the C677T polymorphism was associated with significantly increased ASD risk in all the comparison models [T vs. C allele (frequency of allele): odds ratio (OR) = 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-1.85; CT vs. CC (heterozygote): OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.09-2.00; TT vs. CC (homozygote): OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.08-3.20; CT+TT vs. CC (dominant model): OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.12-2.18; and TT vs. CC+CT (recessive model): OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.02-2.22], whereas the A1298C polymorphism was found to be significantly associated with reduced ASD risk but only in a recessive model (CC vs. AA+AC: OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.56-0.97). In addition, we stratified the patient population based on whether they were from a country with food fortification of folic acid or not. The meta-analysis showed that the C677T polymorphism was found to be associated with ASD only in children from countries without food fortification. Our study indicated that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism contributes to increased ASD risk, and periconceptional folic acid may reduce ASD risk in those with MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism.

  11. FAST CHOPPER BUILDING, TRA665. CONTEXTUAL VIEW: CHOPPER BUILDING IN CENTER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FAST CHOPPER BUILDING, TRA-665. CONTEXTUAL VIEW: CHOPPER BUILDING IN CENTER. MTR REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING,TRA-635, TO LEFT; MTR BUILDING TO RIGHT. CAMERA FACING WEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD42-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 3/2004 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. Structural and functional characteristics of natural and constructed channels draining a reclaimed mountaintop removal and valley fill coal mine

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop removal and valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining has altered the landscape of the Central Appalachian region in the United States. The goals of this study were to 1) compare the structure and function of natural and constructed stream channels in forested and MTR/VF catch...

  13. Generation of antiserum to specific epitopes.

    PubMed

    Marchion, D C; Manning, D S; Shafer, W M; Judd, R C

    1996-12-01

    The ability to prevent disease by immunization with subunit vaccines that incorporate specific epitopes was demonstrated by DiMarchi et al. (1), who used a synthetic peptide to protect cattle against foot-and-mouth disease. However, generation of antibody to peptide antigens is often difficult owing to the small molecular mass and limited chemical complexity. We tested the hypothesis that recombinant DNA and synthetic peptide techniques would make it possible to stimulate vigorous immune responses to specific epitopes of an outer membrane protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The MtrC AP1 sequence from the invariant MtrC gonococcal lipoprotein was genetically fused to maltose binding protein. The resultant fusion protein was used as the primary immunogen to stimulate MtrC AP1-specific antiserum. To enhance antibody production specific to MtrC AP1, boosting immunizations were performed with synthetic MtrC AP1 sequence contained in a multiple antigenic peptide system immunogen. The MtrC AP1-specific antiserum strongly recognized the MtrC protein on Western blots and appeared to bind native MtrC protein in situ. The generation of antibody in this fashion provides the technology to produce antibody to defined epitopes of any protein, including those found in the gonococcal outer membrane. The ability of those antibodies to inhibit bacterial growth or to activate complement protein can then be tested.

  14. Serial Magnetization Transfer Imaging in Acute Optic Neuritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, S. J.; Toosy, A. T.; Jones, S. J.; Altmann, D. R.; Miszkiel, K. A.; MacManus, D. G.; Barker, G. J.; Plant, G. T.; Thompson, A. J.; Miller, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    In serial studies of multiple sclerosis lesions, reductions in magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) are thought to be due to demyelination and axonal loss, with later rises due to remyelination. This study followed serial changes in MTR in acute optic neuritis in combination with clinical and electrophysiological measurements to determine if the MTR…

  15. A new-generation 5-nitroimidazole can induce highly metronidazole-resistant Giardia lamblia in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Linda A; Burgess, Anita G; Krauer, Kenia G; Eckmann, Lars; Vanelle, Patrice; Crozet, Maxime D; Gillin, Frances D; Upcroft, Peter; Upcroft, Jacqueline A

    2010-07-01

    The 5-nitroimidazole (NI) compound C17, with a side chain carrying a remote phenyl group in the 2-position of the imidazole ring, is at least 14-fold more active against the gut protozoan parasite Giardialamblia than the 5-NI drug metronidazole (MTR), with a side chain in the 1-position of the imidazole ring, which is the primary drug for the treatment of giardiasis. Over 10 months, lines resistant to C17 were induced in vitro and were at least 12-fold more resistant to C17 than the parent strains. However, these lines had ID(90) values (concentration of drug at which 10% of control parasite ATP levels are detected) for MTR of >200 microM, whilst lines induced to be highly resistant to MTR in vitro have maximum ID(90) values around 100 microM (MTR-susceptible isolates typically have an ID(90) of 5-12.8 microM). The mechanism of MTR activation in Giardia apparently involves reduction to toxic radicals by the activity of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) and the electron acceptor ferredoxin. MTR-resistant Giardia have decreased PFOR activity, which is consistent with decreased activation of MTR in these lines, but C17-resistant lines have normal levels of PFOR. Therefore, an alternative mechanism of resistance in Giardia must account for these super-MTR-resistant cells. PMID:20456926

  16. 33 CFR 154.1015 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... transferring oil to or from a vessel with a capacity of 250 barrels or more and deepwater ports; (2) Mobile MTR facilities used or intended to be used to transfer oil to or from a vessel with a capacity of 250 barrels or... ports, and fixed MTR onshore facilities capable of transferring oil to or from a vessel with a...

  17. 33 CFR 154.1015 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... transferring oil to or from a vessel with a capacity of 250 barrels or more and deepwater ports; (2) Mobile MTR facilities used or intended to be used to transfer oil to or from a vessel with a capacity of 250 barrels or... ports, and fixed MTR onshore facilities capable of transferring oil to or from a vessel with a...

  18. 33 CFR 154.1015 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transferring oil to or from a vessel with a capacity of 250 barrels or more and deepwater ports; (2) Mobile MTR facilities used or intended to be used to transfer oil to or from a vessel with a capacity of 250 barrels or... ports, and fixed MTR onshore facilities capable of transferring oil to or from a vessel with a...

  19. Export of detritus and invertebrate from headwater streams: linking mountaintop removal and valley fill coal mining to downstream receiving waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop removal and valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining has resulted in large scale alteration of the topography, reduced forest productivity, and burial of headwater streams in the U.S. Central Appalachians. Although MTR/VF coal mining has occurred for several decades and the ...

  20. SOUTH WING, TRA661. WEST SIDE. CAMERA FACING EAST. COVERED STAIRWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH WING, TRA-661. WEST SIDE. CAMERA FACING EAST. COVERED STAIRWAY AND BUILDING END AT LEFT OF VIEW IS TRA-652, ANOTHER MTR OFFICE WING. WEST SIDE OF MTR HIGH BAY BEYOND. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-45-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. Programming the quorum sensing-based AND gate in Shewanella oneidensis for logic gated-microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yidan; Yang, Yun; Katz, Evgeny; Song, Hao

    2015-03-11

    An AND logic gate based on a synthetic quorum-sensing (QS) module was constructed in a Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 mtrA knockout mutant. The presence of two input signals activated the expression of a periplasmic decaheme cytochrome MtrA to regenerate the extracellular electron transfer conduit, enabling the construction of AND-gated microbial fuel cells.

  2. A Decaheme Cytochrome as a Molecular Electron Conduit in Dye-Sensitized Photoanodes

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ee Taek; Sheikh, Khizar; Orchard, Katherine L; Hojo, Daisuke; Radu, Valentin; Lee, Chong-Yong; Ainsworth, Emma; Lockwood, Colin; Gross, Manuela A; Adschiri, Tadafumi; Reisner, Erwin; Butt, Julea N; Jeuken, Lars J C

    2015-01-01

    In nature, charge recombination in light-harvesting reaction centers is minimized by efficient charge separation. Here, it is aimed to mimic this by coupling dye-sensitized TiO2 nanocrystals to a decaheme protein, MtrC from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, where the 10 hemes of MtrC form a ≈7-nm-long molecular wire between the TiO2 and the underlying electrode. The system is assembled by forming a densely packed MtrC film on an ultra-flat gold electrode, followed by the adsorption of approximately 7 nm TiO2 nanocrystals that are modified with a phosphonated bipyridine Ru(II) dye (RuP). The step-by-step construction of the MtrC/TiO2 system is monitored with (photo)electrochemistry, quartz-crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Photocurrents are dependent on the redox state of the MtrC, confirming that electrons are transferred from the TiO2 nanocrystals to the surface via the MtrC conduit. In other words, in these TiO2/MtrC hybrid photodiodes, MtrC traps the conduction-band electrons from TiO2 before transferring them to the electrode, creating a photobioelectrochemical system in which a redox protein is used to mimic the efficient charge separation found in biological photosystems. PMID:26180522

  3. ANP COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA626, UNDER CONSTRUCTION ALONG EAST WALL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ANP COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-626, UNDER CONSTRUCTION ALONG EAST WALL OF MTR BUILDING. CAMERA FACES SOUTH. AIR RECEIVING TANKS WERE SET UP AND THE WALLS CONSTRUCTED AROUND THEM. CONNECTIONS BETWEEN THE COMPRESSOR BUILDING AND THE MTR WERE BELOW GROUND. INL NEGATIVE NO. 6089. Unknown Photographer, 6/25/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. A afferent fibers are involved in the pathology of central changes in the spinal dorsal horn associated with myofascial trigger spots in rats.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fei; Ge, Hong-You; Wang, Yong-Hui; Yue, Shou-Wei

    2015-11-01

    A afferent fibers have been reported to participate in the development of the central sensitization induced by inflammation and injuries. Current evidence suggests that myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) induce central sensitization in the related spinal dorsal horn, and clinical studies indicate that A fibers are associated with pain behavior. Because most of these clinical studies applied behavioral indexes, objective evidence is needed. Additionally, MTrP-related neurons in dorsal root ganglia and the spinal ventral horn have been reported to be smaller than normal, and these neurons were considered to be related to A fibers. To confirm the role of A fibers in MTrP-related central changes in the spinal dorsal horn, we studied central sensitization as well as the size of neurons associated with myofascial trigger spots (MTrSs, equivalent to MTrPs in humans) in the biceps femoris muscle of rats and provided some objective morphological evidence. Cholera toxin B subunit-conjugated horseradish peroxidase was applied to label the MTrS-related neurons, and tetrodotoxin was used to block A fibers specifically. The results showed that in the spinal dorsal horn associated with MTrS, the expression of glutamate receptor (mGluR1α/mGluR5/NMDAR1) increased, while the mean size of MTrS-related neurons was smaller than normal. After blocking A fibers, these changes reversed to some extent. Therefore, we concluded that A fibers participated in the development and maintenance of the central sensitization induced by MTrPs and were related to the mean size of neurons associated with MTrPs in the spinal dorsal horn.

  5. Overexpression of Mycothiol Disulfide Reductase Enhances Corynebacterium glutamicum Robustness by Modulating Cellular Redox Homeostasis and Antioxidant Proteins under Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Si, Meiru; Zhao, Chao; Zhang, Bing; Wei, Dawei; Chen, Keqi; Yang, Xu; Xiao, He; Shen, Xihui

    2016-01-01

    Mycothiol (MSH) is the dominant low-molecular-weight thiol (LMWT) unique to high-(G+C)-content Gram-positive Actinobacteria, such as Corynebacterium glutamicum, and is oxidised into its disulfide form mycothiol disulfide (MSSM) under oxidative conditions. Mycothiol disulfide reductase (Mtr), an NADPH-dependent enzyme, reduces MSSM to MSH, thus maintaining intracellular redox homeostasis. In this study, a recombinant plasmid was constructed to overexpress Mtr in C. glutamicum using the expression vector pXMJ19-His6. Mtr-overexpressing C. glutamicum cells showed increased tolerance to ROS induced by oxidants, bactericidal antibiotics, alkylating agents, and heavy metals. The physiological roles of Mtr in resistance to oxidative stresses were corroborated by decreased ROS levels, reduced carbonylation damage, decreased loss of reduced protein thiols, and a massive increase in the levels of reversible protein thiols in Mtr-overexpressing cells exposed to stressful conditions. Moreover, overexpression of Mtr caused a marked increase in the ratio of reduced to oxidised mycothiol (MSH:MSSM), and significantly enhanced the activities of a variety of antioxidant enzymes, including mycothiol peroxidase (MPx), mycoredoxin 1 (Mrx1), thioredoxin 1 (Trx1), and methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA). Taken together, these results indicate that the Mtr protein functions in C. glutamicum by protecting cells against oxidative stress. PMID:27383057

  6. Metabolism of 5-methylthioribose to methionine

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, J.H.; Yang, S.F.

    1987-06-01

    During ethylene biosynthesis, the H/sub 3/CS-group of S-adenosylmethionine is released as 5'-methylthioadenosine, which is recycled to methionine via 5-methylthioribose (MTR). In mungbean hypocotyls and cell-free extracts of avocado, (/sup 14/C)MTR was converted into labeled methionine via 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyric acid (KMB) and 2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutyric acid (HMB), as intermediates. Incubation of (ribose-U-/sup 14/C)MTR with avocado extract resulted in the production of (/sup 14/C)formate, indicating the conversion of MTR to KMB involves a loss of formate, presumably from C-1 of MTR. Tracer studies showed that KMB was converted readily in vivo and in vitro to methionine, while HMB was converted much more slowly. The conversion of KMB to methionine by dialyzed avocado extract requires an amino donor. Among several potential donors examined, L-glutamine was the most efficient. Anaerobiosis inhibited only partially the oxidation of MTR to formate, KMB/HMB, and methionine by avocado extract. The role of O/sub 2/ in the conversion of MTR to methionine is discussed.

  7. Accuracy and uncertainty of asymmetric magnetization transfer ratio quantification for amide proton transfer (APT) imaging at 3T: a Monte Carlo study.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jing; Zhang, Qinwei; Wang, Yi-Xiang; Wei, Juan; Zhou, Jinyuan

    2013-01-01

    Amide proton transfer (APT) imaging offers a novel and powerful MRI contrast mechanism for quantitative molecular imaging based on the principle of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST). Asymmetric magnetization transfer ratio (MTR(asym)) quantification is crucial for Z-spectrum analysis of APT imaging, but is still challenging, particularly at clinical field strength. This paper studies the accuracy and uncertainty in the quantification of MTR(asym) for APT imaging at 3T, by using high-order polynomial fitting of Z-spectrum through Monte Carlo simulation. Results show that polynomial fitting is a biased estimator that consistently underestimates MTR(asym). For a fixed polynomial order, the accuracy of MTR(asym) is almost constant with regard to signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) while the uncertainty decreases exponentially with SNR. The higher order polynomial fitting increases both the accuracy and the uncertainty of MTR(asym). For different APT signal intensity levels, the relative accuracy and the absolute uncertainty keep constant for a fixed polynomial order. These results indicate the limitations and pitfalls of polynomial fitting for MTR(asym) quantification so better quantification technique for MTR(asym) estimation is warranted.

  8. Porin-mediated antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: ion, solute, and antibiotic permeation through PIB proteins with penB mutations.

    PubMed

    Olesky, Melanie; Zhao, Shuqing; Rosenberg, Robert L; Nicholas, Robert A

    2006-04-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae has two porins, PIA and PIB, whose genes (porA and porB, respectively) are alleles of a single por locus. We recently demonstrated that penB mutations at positions 120 and 121 in PIB, which are presumed to reside in loop 3 that forms the pore constriction zone, confer intermediate-level resistance to penicillin and tetracycline (M. Olesky, M. Hobbs, and R. A. Nicholas, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46:2811-2820, 2002). In the present study, we investigated the electrophysiological properties as well as solute and antibiotic permeation rates of recombinant PIB proteins containing penB mutations (G120K, G120D/A121D, G120P/A121P, and G120R/A121H). In planar lipid bilayers, the predominant conducting state of each porin variant was 30 to 40% of the wild type, even though the anion selectivity and maximum channel conductance of each PIB variant was similar to that of the wild type. Liposome-swelling experiments revealed no significant differences in the permeation of sugars or beta-lactam antibiotics through the wild type or PIB variants. Although these results are seemingly contradictory with the ability of these variants to increase antibiotic resistance, they are consistent with MIC data showing that these porin mutations confer resistance only in strains containing an mtrR mutation, which increases expression of the MtrC-MtrD-MtrE efflux pump. Moreover, both the mtrR and penB mutations were required to decrease in vivo permeation rates below those observed in the parental strain containing either mtrR or porin mutations alone. Thus, these data demonstrate a novel mechanism of porin-mediated resistance in which mutations in PIB have no affect on antibiotic permeation alone but instead act synergistically with the MtrC-MtrD-MtrE efflux pump in the development of antibiotic resistance in gonococci. PMID:16547016

  9. Importance of multidrug efflux pumps in the antimicrobial resistance property of clinical multidrug-resistant isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Golparian, Daniel; Shafer, William M; Ohnishi, Makoto; Unemo, Magnus

    2014-06-01

    The contribution of drug efflux pumps in clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae that express extensively drug-resistant or multidrug-resistant phenotypes has heretofore not been examined. Accordingly, we assessed the effect on antimicrobial resistance of loss of the three gonococcal efflux pumps associated with a known capacity to export antimicrobials (MtrC-MtrD-MtrE, MacA-MacB, and NorM) in such clinical isolates. We report that the MIC of several antimicrobials, including seven previously and currently recommended for treatment was significantly impacted. PMID:24733458

  10. Role of plasma homocysteine levels and MTHFR polymorphisms on IQ scores in children and young adults with epilepsy treated with antiepileptic drugs.

    PubMed

    Di Rosa, Gabriella; Lenzo, Patrizia; Parisi, Eleonora; Neri, Milena; Guerrera, Silvia; Nicotera, Antonio; Alibrandi, Angela; Germanò, Eva; Caccamo, Daniela; Spanò, Maria; Tortorella, Gaetano

    2013-12-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) is a sulfur-containing amino acid involved in methionine metabolism. High plasma total Hcy (tHcy) has been quite frequently reported in patients with epilepsy treated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) mainly related to plasma folate reduction induced by AEDs themselves. The role of C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) on the increase of plasma tHcy in patients with epilepsy taking AEDs is still controversial. Cognitive impairment may be associated with epilepsy either as the result of the epileptic syndrome per se or as a side effect induced by the AEDs. High plasma tHcy levels were associated with lower cognitive performances in patients affected by Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment and in healthy elderly. We searched for a correlation between plasma tHcy levels with the intelligence quotient (IQ) scores in a population of children and young adults with epilepsy treated with old and/or newer AEDs. The study group encompassed 179 patients (92 M, 51.5%) followed at our Unit of Child Neuropsychiatry and aged between 4 and 25years (mean+SD: 14.03±4.25). The inclusion criteria included the following: 1) diagnosis of epilepsy of "unknown cause" (cryptogenic) according to the ILAE classification, 2) age older than 3years, 3) stabilized antiepileptic treatment for at least 6months, and 4) clinical records of cognitive tests, plasma tHcy value, and results of MTHFR polymorphisms. Patients' mean tHcy value was 9.71±3.13μM/L (tHcy<9μM/L as our laboratory cutoff in nonepileptic controls). The mean TIQ score was 85.22 (SD±24.12); the mean VIQ score was 86.32 (SD±20.86); and the mean PIQ score was 86.94 (SD±21.51). C677T and A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms were detected in 74/92 (80%) examined patients and distributed into the following: CT (22.3%), TT (14.9%), CC (10.3%) for C677T, AC (16%), CC (1.1%), and AA (30.3%) for A1298C. Plasma tHcy levels were not significantly related to the IQ scores

  11. The role of multihaem cytochromes in the respiration of nitrite in Escherichia coli and Fe(III) in Shewanella oneidensis

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Thomas A.; Holley, Tracey; Hartshorne, Robert S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Shi, Liang; Richardson, David

    2008-10-01

    The periplasmic nitrite reductase system from Escherichia coli and the extracellular Fe(III) reductase system from Shewanella oneidensis contain multihaem c-type cytochromes as electron carriers and terminal reductases. The position and orientation of the haem cofactors in multihaem cytochromes from different bacteria often show significant conservation despite different arrangements of the polypeptide chain. We propose that the decahaem cytochromes of the iron reductase system MtrA, MtrC and OmcA comprise pentahaem ‘modules’ similar to the electron donor protein, NrfB, from E. coli. To demonstrate this, we have isolated and characterized the N-terminal pentahaem module of MtrA by preparing a truncated form containing five covalently attached haems. UV–visible spectroscopy indicated that all five haems were low-spin, consistent with the presence of bis-His ligand co-ordination as found in full-length MtrA.

  12. The role of multihaem cytochromes in the respiration of nitrite in Escherichia coli and Fe(III) in Shewanella oneidensis.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Thomas A; Holley, Tracey; Hartshorne, Robert S; Fredrickson, Jim K; Zachara, John M; Shi, Liang; Richardson, David J

    2008-10-01

    The periplasmic nitrite reductase system from Escherichia coli and the extracellular Fe(III) reductase system from Shewanella oneidensis contain multihaem c-type cytochromes as electron carriers and terminal reductases. The position and orientation of the haem cofactors in multihaem cytochromes from different bacteria often show significant conservation despite different arrangements of the polypeptide chain. We propose that the decahaem cytochromes of the iron reductase system MtrA, MtrC and OmcA comprise pentahaem 'modules' similar to the electron donor protein, NrfB, from E. coli. To demonstrate this, we have isolated and characterized the N-terminal pentahaem module of MtrA by preparing a truncated form containing five covalently attached haems. UV-visible spectroscopy indicated that all five haems were low-spin, consistent with the presence of bis-His ligand co-ordination as found in full-length MtrA.

  13. Molecular Underpinnings of Fe(III) Oxide Reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Liang; Rosso, Kevin M.; Clarke, Thomas A.; Richardson, David J.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2012-02-15

    In the absence of O2 and other electron acceptors, the Gram-negative bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 can use ferric [Fe(III)] (oxy)(hydr)oxide minerals as the terminal electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration. At circumneutral pH and in the absence of strong complexing ligands, Fe(III) oxides are relatively insoluble and thus are external to the bacterial cells. S. oneidensis MR-1 and related strains of metal-reducing Shewanella have evolved the machinery (i.e., metal-reducing or Mtr pathway) for transferring electrons from the inner-membrane, through the periplasm and across the outer-membrane to the surface of extracellular Fe(III) oxides. The protein components identified to date for the Mtr pathway include CymA, MtrA, MtrB, MtrC and OmcA. CymA is an inner-membrane tetraheme c-type cytochrome (c-Cyt) that belongs to the NapC/NrfH family of quinol dehydrogenases. It is proposed that CymA oxidizes the quinol in the inner-membrane and transfers the released electrons to redox proteins in the periplasm. Although the periplasmic proteins receiving electrons from CymA during Fe(III) oxidation have not been identified, they are believed to relay the electrons in the periplasm to MtrA. A decaheme c-Cyt, MtrA is thought to be embedded in the trans outer-membrane and porin-like protein MtrB. Together, MtrAB deliver the electrons through the outer-membrane to the MtrC and OmcA on the outmost bacterial surface. MtrC and OmcA are the outer-membrane decaheme c-Cyts that are translocated across the outer-membrane by the bacterial type II secretion system. Functioning as terminal reductases, MtrC and OmcA can bind the surface of Fe(III) oxides and transfer electrons directly to these minerals via their solvent-exposed hemes. To increase their reaction rates, MtrC and OmcA can use the flavins secreted by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells as diffusible co-factors for reduction of Fe(III) oxides. Because of their extracellular location and broad redox potentials, MtrC and OmcA can

  14. Estimating benthic secondary production from aquatic insect emergence in streams affected by mountaintop removal coal mining, West Virginia USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop removal and valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining recountours the Appalachian landscape, buries headwater stream channels, and degrades downstream water quality. The goal of this study was to compare benthic community production estimates, based on seasonal insect emergen...

  15. The Exosome Is Recruited to RNA Substrates through Specific Adaptor Proteins.

    PubMed

    Thoms, Matthias; Thomson, Emma; Baßler, Jochen; Gnädig, Marén; Griesel, Sabine; Hurt, Ed

    2015-08-27

    The exosome regulates the processing, degradation, and surveillance of a plethora of RNA species. However, little is known about how the exosome recognizes and is recruited to its diverse substrates. We report the identification of adaptor proteins that recruit the exosome-associated helicase, Mtr4, to unique RNA substrates. Nop53, the yeast homolog of the tumor suppressor PICT1, targets Mtr4 to pre-ribosomal particles for exosome-mediated processing, while a second adaptor Utp18 recruits Mtr4 to cleaved rRNA fragments destined for degradation by the exosome. Both Nop53 and Utp18 contain the same consensus motif, through which they dock to the "arch" domain of Mtr4 and target it to specific substrates. These findings show that the exosome employs a general mechanism of recruitment to defined substrates and that this process is regulated through adaptor proteins.

  16. Sediment and epilithon metabolism and hydrolytic activity in streams affected by mountaintop removal coal mining, West Virginia, U.S.A.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop removal and valley filling (MTR/VF) is a method of coal mining used in the Central Appalachians. Despite regulations requiring that potential mpacts to stream function be considered in determining compensatory mitigation associated with permitted fill activities, asse...

  17. Grey and White Matter Magnetisation Transfer Ratio Measurements in the Lumbosacral Enlargement: A Pilot In Vivo Study at 3T.

    PubMed

    Ugorji, Chinyere O; Samson, Rebecca S; Liechti, Martina D; Panicker, Jalesh N; Miller, David H; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Yiannakas, Marios C

    2015-01-01

    Magnetisation transfer (MT) imaging of the central nervous system has provided further insight into the pathophysiology of neurological disease. However, the use of this method to study the lower spinal cord has been technically challenging, despite the important role of this region, not only for motor control of the lower limbs, but also for the neural control of lower urinary tract, sexual and bowel functions. In this study, the feasibility of obtaining reliable grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) measurements within the lumbosacral enlargement (LSE) was investigated in ten healthy volunteers using a clinical 3T MRI system. The mean cross-sectional area of the LSE (LSE-CSA) and the mean GM area (LSE-GM-CSA) were first obtained by means of image segmentation and tissue-specific (i.e. WM and GM) MTR measurements within the LSE were subsequently obtained. The reproducibility of the segmentation method and MTR measurements was assessed from repeated measurements and their % coefficient of variation (%COV). Mean (± SD) LSE-CSA across 10 healthy subjects was 59.3 (± 8.4) mm2 and LSE-GM-CSA was 17.0 (± 3.1) mm2. The mean intra- and inter-rater % COV for measuring the LSE-CSA were 0.8% and 2.3%, respectively and for the LSE-GM-CSA were 3.8% and 5.4%, respectively. Mean (± SD) WM-MTR was 43.2 (± 4.4) and GM-MTR was 40.9 (± 4.3). The mean scan-rescan % COV for measuring WM-MTR was 4.6% and for GM-MTR was 3.8%. Using a paired t-test, a statistically significant difference was identified between WM-MTR and GM-MTR in the LSE (p<0.0001). This pilot study has shown that it is possible to obtain reliable tissue-specific MTR measurements within the LSE using a clinical MR system at 3T. The MTR acquisition and analysis protocol presented in this study can be used in future investigations of intrinsic spinal cord diseases that affect the LSE.

  18. FAST CHOPPER BUILDING, TRA665. CAMERA FACING NORTH. NOTE BRICKEDIN WINDOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FAST CHOPPER BUILDING, TRA-665. CAMERA FACING NORTH. NOTE BRICKED-IN WINDOW ON RIGHT SIDE (BELOW PAINTED NUMERALS "665"). SLIDING METAL DOOR ON COVERED RAIL AT UPPER LEVEL. SHELTERED ENTRANCE TO STEEL SHIELDING DOOR. DOOR INTO MTR SERVICE BUILDING, TRA-635, STANDS OPEN. MTR BEHIND CHOPPER BUILDING. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD42-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 3/2004 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. Structures of 5-Methylthioribose Kinase Reveal Substrate Specificity and Unusual Mode of Nucleotide Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Ku,S.; Yip, P.; Cornell, K.; Riscoe, M.; Behr, J.; Guillerm, G.; Howell, P.

    2007-01-01

    The methionine salvage pathway is ubiquitous in all organisms, but metabolic variations exist between bacteria and mammals. 5-Methylthioribose (MTR) kinase is a key enzyme in methionine salvage in bacteria and the absence of a mammalian homolog suggests that it is a good target for the design of novel antibiotics. The structures of the apo-form of Bacillus subtilis MTR kinase, as well as its ADP, ADP-PO4, AMPPCP, and AMPPCP-MTR complexes have been determined. MTR kinase has a bilobal eukaryotic protein kinase fold but exhibits a number of unique features. The protein lacks the DFG motif typically found at the beginning of the activation loop and instead coordinates magnesium via a DXE motif (Asp{sup 250}-Glu{sup 252}). In addition, the glycine-rich loop of the protein, analogous to the 'Gly triad' in protein kinases, does not interact extensively with the nucleotide. The MTR substrate-binding site consists of Asp{sup 233} of the catalytic HGD motif, a novel twin arginine motif (Arg{sup 340}/Arg{sup 341}), and a semi-conserved W-loop, which appears to regulate MTR binding specificity. No lobe closure is observed for MTR kinase upon substrate binding. This is probably because the enzyme lacks the lobe closure/inducing interactions between the C-lobe of the protein and the ribosyl moiety of the nucleotide that are typically responsible for lobe closure in protein kinases. The current structures suggest that MTR kinase has a dissociative mechanism.

  20. Depth dose distributions measured with thermoluminescence detectors inside the anthropomorphic torso of the MATROSHKA experiment inside and outside the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther; Hajek, Michael; Bergmann, Robert; Bilski, Pawel; Puchalska, Msc. Monika

    The ESA MATROSHKA (MTR) facility was realized through the German Aerospace Center, DLR, Cologne, as main contractor, aiming for the determination of skin and organ doses within a simulated human upper torso. MTR simulates, by applying an anthropomorphic upper torso, as exact as possible an astronaut performing either an extravehicular activity (EVA) (MTR Phase 1) or an astronaut working inside the International Space Station (MTR Phase 2A). It consists of a human phantom, a Base Structure and a Carbon fibre container - simulating the astronaut‘s space suit. The phantom itself is made up of 33 slices composed of natural bones, embedded in tissue equivalent plastic of different density for tissue and lung. The Phantom slices are equipped with channels and cut-outs to allow the accommodation of active and passive dosemeters, temperature and pressure sensors. Over 4800 passive detectors (thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs) and plastic nuclear track detectors) constitute the radiation experiments which are beside inside the phantom also located on top the head of the phantom, in front of the belly and around the body as part of a Poncho and a Hood. In its 1st exposure phase (MTR 1: 2004 - 2005) MTR measured the depth dose distribution of an astronaut performing an EVA - mounted outside the Zvezda Module. In its 2nd exposure phase the phantom was positioned inside the ISS to monitor the radiation environment and measure the depth dose distribution in dependence on the inside shielding configurations. The majority of the TLDs provided for the determination of the depth dose distribution was provided by IFJ-PAN, ATI and DLR. Data of "combined" depth dose distribution of the three different groups will be shown for the MTR-1 exposure (outside the ISS) and the MTR-2A (inside the ISS). The discussion will focus on the difference in depth dose as well as skin dose distribution based on the different shielding thickness provided by the two experimental phases.

  1. Development of a Proteoliposome Model to Probe Transmembrane Electron-Transfer Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    White, Gaye F.; Shi, Zhi; Shi, Liang; Dohnalkova, Alice; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David J.; Clarke, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    The mineral respiring bacterium Shewanella oneidensis uses a protein complex, MtrCAB, composed of two decaheme cytochromes brought together inside a transmembrane porin to transport electrons across the outer membrane to a variety of mineral-based electron acceptors. A proteoliposome system has been developed that contains methyl viologen (MV) as an internalised electron acceptor and valinomycin (V) as a membrane associated cation exchanger. These proteoliposomes can be used as a model system to investigate MtrCAB function.

  2. Contribution of the local and referred pain from active myofascial trigger points in fibromyalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ge, Hong-You; Nie, Hongling; Madeleine, Pascal; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2009-12-15

    The generalized hypersensitivity associated with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) may in part be driven by peripheral nociceptive sources. The aim of the study was to investigate whether local and referred pain from active myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) contributes to fibromyalgia pain. FMS patients and healthy controls (n=22 each, age- and gender-matched) were recruited. The surface area over the upper trapezius muscle on each side was divided into 13 sub-areas (points) of 1cm in diameter for each point. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) and the local and referred pain pattern induced by manual palpation at 13 points bilaterally in the upper trapezius were recorded. Results showed that PPT levels at all measured points were significantly lower in FMS than controls. Multiple active MTrPs (7.4+/-2.2) were identified bilaterally in the muscle in FMS patients, but no active MTrPs were found in controls. The mid-fiber region of the muscle had the lowest PPT level with the largest number of active MTrPs in FMS and with the largest number of latent MTrPs in controls. The local and referred pain pattern induced from active MTrPs bilaterally in the upper trapezius muscle were similar to the ongoing pain pattern in the neck and shoulder region in FMS. In conclusion, active MTrPs bilaterally in the upper trapezius muscle contribute to the neck and shoulder pain in FMS. Active MTrPs may serve as one of the sources of noxious input leading to the sensitization of spinal and supraspinal pain pathways in FMS.

  3. Magnetization transfer ratio does not correlate to myelin content in the brain in the MOG-EAE mouse model.

    PubMed

    Fjær, Sveinung; Bø, Lars; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Torkildsen, Øivind; Wergeland, Stig

    2015-01-01

    Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method which may detect demyelination not detected by conventional MRI in the central nervous system of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). A decrease in MTR value has previously been shown to correlate to myelin loss in the mouse cuprizone model for demyelination. In this study, we investigated the sensitivity of MTR for demyelination in the myelin oligodendrocyte (MOG) 1-125 induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model. A total of 24 female c57Bl/6 mice were randomized to a control group (N = 6) or EAE (N = 18). MTR images were obtained at a preclinical 7 Tesla Bruker MR-scanner before EAE induction (baseline), 17-19 days (midpoint) and 31-32 days (endpoint) after EAE induction. Mean MTR values were calculated in five regions of the brain and compared to weight, EAE severity score and myelin content assessed by immunostaining for proteolipid protein and luxol fast blue, lymphocyte and monocyte infiltration and iron deposition. Contrary to what was expected, MTR values in the EAE mice were higher than in the control mice at the midpoint and endpoint. No significant difference in myelin content was found according to histo- or immunohistochemistry. Changes in MTR values did not correlate to myelin content, iron content, lymphocyte or monocyte infiltration, weight or EAE severity scores. This suggest that MTR measures of brain tissue can give significant differences between control mice and EAE mice not caused by demyelination, inflammation or iron deposition, and may not be useful surrogate markers for demyelination in the MOG1-125 mouse model.

  4. Skeletal muscle MRI magnetisation transfer ratio reflects clinical severity in peripheral neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, C D J; Morrow, J M; Miranda, M A; Davagnanam, I; Cowley, P C; Mehta, H; Hanna, M G; Koltzenburg, M; Yousry, T A; Reilly, M M; Thornton, J S

    2012-01-01

    MRI may provide treatment outcome measures in neuromuscular conditions. The authors assessed MRI magnetisation transfer ratios (MTRs) in lower-limb musculature as markers of pathology in peripheral neuropathies and compared the findings with associated clinical data. Ten patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) and nine patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) were compared with 10 healthy subjects. The MTR in the calf muscles was significantly lower than controls in the two patient groups (both p<0.001). The median MTRs (IQR) were 50.5(1.6) percentage units (p.u.) (control), 41.5(10.6) p.u. (CMT1A) and 39.3(8.7) p.u. (CIDP). Moreover, anterior lower leg MTR correlated strongly with strength of ankle dorsiflexion, measured with the Medical Research Council scale, in CIDP (ρ=0.88, p<0.001) and also in CMT1A (ρ=0.50, p<0.05), where MTR also showed an association with disease duration (ρ=-0.86, p<0.001). Short tau inversion recovery MRI of the same muscles showed abnormalities associated with regions of reduced MTR (p<0.001), and MTR was also reduced in other muscles otherwise deemed normal appearing (p<0.001), indicating that MTR may be more sensitive to muscle damaged by denervation than conventional MRI. The significant reductions in muscle MTR in peripheral neuropathies and the associated correlations with clinical measures indicate that MTR has potential as an imaging outcome measure in future therapeutic trials.

  5. REACTOR SERVICE BUILDING, TRA635, INTERIOR. CAMERA FACES NORTHWEST TOWARDS INTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REACTOR SERVICE BUILDING, TRA-635, INTERIOR. CAMERA FACES NORTHWEST TOWARDS INTERIOR WALL ENCLOSING STORAGE AND OFFICE SPACE ALONG THE WEST SIDE. AT RIGHT EDGE IS DOOR TO MTR BUILDING. FROM RIGHT TO LEFT, SPACE WAS PLANNED FOR A LOCKER ROOM, MTR ISSUE ROOM, AND STORAGE AREAS AND RELATED OFFICES. NOTE SECOND "MEZZANINE" FLOOR ABOVE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 10227. Unknown Photographer, 3/23/1954 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. ETR COMPLEX. CAMERA FACING SOUTH. FROM BOTTOM OF VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COMPLEX. CAMERA FACING SOUTH. FROM BOTTOM OF VIEW TO TOP: MTR, MTR SERVICE BUILDING, ETR CRITICAL FACILITY, ETR CONTROL BUILDING (ATTACHED TO ETR), ETR BUILDING (HIGH-BAY), COMPRESSOR BUILDING (ATTACHED AT LEFT OF ETR), HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING (JUST BEYOND COMPRESSOR BUILDING), COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE, COOLING TOWER. OTHER BUILDINGS ARE CONTRACTORS' CONSTRUCTION BUILDINGS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4105. Unknown Photographer, ca. 1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. MTHFR C677T Polymorphism is Associated with Tumor Response to Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy: A Result Based on Previous Reports

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yue; Li, Xingde; Kong, Xiangjun

    2015-01-01

    Background Preoperative chemoradiotherapy (pRCT) followed by surgery has been widely practiced in locally advanced rectal cancer, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer and other cancers. However, the therapy also exerts some severe adverse effects and some of the patients show poor or no response. It is very important to develop biomarkers (e.g., gene polymorphisms) to identify patients who have a higher likelihood of responding to pRCT. Recently, a series of reports have investigated the association of the genetic polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) genes with the tumor response to pRCT; however, the results were inconsistent and inconclusive. Material/Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed by searching relevant studies about the association of MTHFR and EGFR polymorphisms with the tumor regression grade (TRG) in response to pRCT in databases of PubMed, EMBAS, Web of science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang database up to March 30, 2015. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated to assess the strength of the association under 5 genetic models. Results A total of 11 eligible articles were included in the present meta-analysis, of which 8 studies were performed in rectal cancer and 3 studies were performed in esophageal cancer. We finally included 8 included studies containing 839 cases for MTHFR C677T, 5 studies involving 634 cases for MTHFR A1298C, 3 studies containing 340 cases for EGFR G497A, and 4 studies containing 396 cases for EGFR CA repeat. The pooled analysis results indicated that MTHFR C677T might be correlated with the tumor response to pRCT under the recessive model (CC vs. CTTT) in overall analysis (OR=1.426(1.074–1.894), P=0.014), rectal cancer (OR=1.483(1.102–1.996), P=0.009), and TRG 1–2 vs. 3–5 group (OR=1.423(1.046–1.936), P=0.025), while other polymorphism including MTHFR

  8. SPECIFIC SEQUENTIAL MYOFASCIAL TRIGGER POINT THERAPY IN THE TREATMENT OF A PATIENT WITH MYOFASCIAL PAIN SYNDROME ASSOCIATED WITH REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Chang-Zern

    2000-01-01

    A patient with traumatic rotator cuff tear of the left shoulder developed severe myofascial pain syndrome with reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) involving the left upper extremity. He was unable to tolerate any type of manual therapy or needle treatment due to severe allodynia in the whole left upper limb. This patient presented for treatment approximately 6 months after the onset of trauma. Treatment consisting of specific myofascial trigger point (MTrP) therapy, beginning with desensitization and gentle massage on the MTrP of the first dorsal interosseous muscle, followed by treatment of MTrPs of the wrist-finger extensors and anterior deltoid muscles was commenced. Allodynia was remarkably reduced and further physical therapy with modalities was administered. After 2 weeks of daily MTrP therapy, he received local steroid injection to the left shoulder and continued MTrP therapy 2-3 times per week. Approximately 2 months after the injection the patient was almost pain free with nearly full range of motion in his left shoulder. The mechanism of MTrPs and their association with RSD is discussed in this paper. PMID:17987165

  9. Development and aging of superficial white matter myelin from young adulthood to old age: Mapping by vertex-based surface statistics (VBSS).

    PubMed

    Wu, Minjie; Kumar, Anand; Yang, Shaolin

    2016-05-01

    Superficial white matter (SWM) lies immediately beneath cortical gray matter and consists primarily of short association fibers. The characteristics of SWM and its development and aging were seldom examined in the literature and warrant further investigation. Magnetization transfer imaging is sensitive to myelin changes in the white matter. Using an innovative multimodal imaging analysis approach, vertex-based surface statistics (VBSS), the current study vertexwise mapped age-related changes of magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) in SWM from young adulthood to old age (30-85 years, N = 66). Results demonstrated regionally selective and temporally heterochronologic changes of SWM MTR with age, including (1) inverted U-shaped trajectories of SWM MTR in the rostral middle frontal, medial temporal, and temporoparietal regions, suggesting continuing myelination and protracted maturation till age 40-50 years and accelerating demyelination at age 60 and beyond, (2) linear decline of SWM MTR in the middle and superior temporal, and pericalcarine areas, indicating early maturation and less acceleration in age-related degeneration, and (3) no significant changes of SWM MTR in the primary motor, somatosensory and auditory regions, suggesting resistance to age-related deterioration. We did not observe similar patterns of changes in cortical thickness in our sample, suggesting the observed SWM MTR changes are not due to cortical atrophy. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1759-1769, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Measurement of photon flux with a miniature gas ionization chamber in a Material Testing Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourmentel, D.; Filliatre, P.; Villard, J. F.; Lyoussi, A.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Carcreff, H.

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear heating measurements in Material Testing Reactors (MTR) are crucial for the design of the experimental devices and the prediction of the temperature of the hosted samples. Nuclear heating in MTR materials (except fuel) is mainly due to the energy deposition by the photon flux. Therefore, the photon flux is a key input parameter for the computer codes which simulate nuclear heating and temperature reached by samples/devices under irradiation. In the Jules Horowitz MTR under construction at the CEA Cadarache, the maximal expected nuclear heating levels will be about 15 to 18 W g-1 and it will be necessary to assess this parameter with the best accuracy. An experiment was performed at the OSIRIS reactor to combine neutron flux, photon flux and nuclear heating measurements to improve the knowledge of the nuclear heating in MTR. There are few appropriate sensors for selective measurement of the photon flux in MTR even if studies and developments are ongoing. An experiment, called CARMEN-1, was conducted at the OSIRIS MTR and we used in particular a gas ionization chamber based on miniature fission chamber design to measure the photon flux. In this paper, we detail Monte-Carlo simulations to analyze the photon fluxes with ionization chamber measurements and we compare the photon flux calculations to the nuclear heating measurements. These results show a good accordance between photon flux measurements and nuclear heating measurement and allow improving the knowledge of these parameters.

  11. The Effect of Monochromatic Infrared Photo Energy on the Irritability of Myofascial Trigger Spot of Rabbit Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Kuan, Ta-Shen; Lin, Yu-Ching; Lien, Wei-Chih; Hsieh, Pei-Chun; Chung, Yu-Ting; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang; Chou, Li-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether the vasodilatation effect of monochromatic infrared photo energy (MIRE) had the potential for the treatment of myofascial trigger spot (MTrS) in rabbits. Design. A randomized-controlled animal study. Subjects. Twelve adult New Zealand rabbits. Methods. For each rabbit, a MTrS (equivalent to a myofascial trigger point in humans) in one side of the biceps femoris muscle was randomly selected for MIRE treatment (experimental side), while another MTrS in the other side (control side) received a sham treatment. The intervention consisted of a daily 40 minutes treatment, three times per week for 2 weeks. The prevalence of endplate noise (EPN) loci in the MTrS was assessed before, immediately after, and one week after the completion of the 2-week treatment. Results. MIRE could suppress the prevalence of EPN in the MTrS. The degree of reduction in EPN prevalence in the MTrS between the experimental side and the control side was significantly different immediately after MIRE treatment, but not significantly different one week after MIRE treatment. Conclusion. Our study suggests that MIRE may be a useful therapeutic option for the management of the myofascial trigger point in humans. PMID:26442122

  12. A Cajal body-independent pathway for telomerase trafficking in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, Rebecca L.; Li, Jian; Culp, Bradley R.; Terns, Rebecca M. Terns, Michael P.

    2010-10-15

    The intranuclear trafficking of human telomerase involves a dynamic interplay between multiple nuclear sites, most notably Cajal bodies and telomeres. Cajal bodies are proposed to serve as sites of telomerase maturation, storage, and assembly, as well as to function in the cell cycle-regulated delivery of telomerase to telomeres in human cells. Here, we find that telomerase RNA does not localize to Cajal bodies in mouse cells, and instead resides in separate nuclear foci throughout much of the cell cycle. However, as in humans, mouse telomerase RNA (mTR) localizes to subsets of telomeres specifically during S phase. The localization of mTR to telomeres in mouse cells does not require coilin-containing Cajal bodies, as mTR is found at telomeres at similar frequencies in cells from wild-type and coilin knockout mice. At the same time, we find that human TR localizes to Cajal bodies (as well as telomeres) in mouse cells, indicating that the distinct trafficking of mTR is attributable to an intrinsic property of the RNA (rather than a difference in the mouse cell environment such as the properties of mouse Cajal bodies). We also find that during S phase, mTR foci coalesce into short chains, with at least one of the conjoined mTR foci co-localizing with a telomere. These findings point to a novel, Cajal body-independent pathway for telomerase biogenesis and trafficking in mice.

  13. Rapid electron exchange between surface-exposed bacterial cytochromes and Fe(III) minerals

    SciTech Connect

    White, Gaye F.; Shi, Zhi; Shi, Liang; Wang, Zheming; Dohnalkova, Alice; Marshall, Matthew J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David; Clarke, Thomas A.

    2013-04-16

    The mineral respiring bacterium Shewanella oneidensis uses a protein complex, MtrCAB, composed of two decaheme cytochromes brought together inside a transmembrane porin to transport electrons across the outer membrane to a variety of mineral-based electron acceptors. A proteoliposome system that contains methyl viologen as an internalised electron carrier has been used to investigate how the topology of the MtrCAB complex relates to its ability to transport electrons across a lipid bilayer to externally-located Fe(III) oxides. With MtrA facing the interior and MtrC exposed on the outer surface of the phospholipid bilayer, direct electron transfer from the interior through MtrCAB to solid-phase Fe(III) oxides was demonstrated. The observed rates of conduction through the protein complex were 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that observed in whole cells, demonstrating that direct electron exchange between MtrCAB and Fe(III) oxides is efficient enough to support in-vivo, anaerobic, solid phase iron respiration.

  14. Moderate treadmill running exercise prior to tendon injury enhances wound healing in aging rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianying; Yuan, Ting; Wang, James H-C.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of exercise on wound healing in aging tendon was tested using a rat moderate treadmill running (MTR) model. The rats were divided into an MTR group that ran on a treadmill for 4 weeks and a control group that remained in cages. After MTR, a window defect was created in the patellar tendons of all rats and wound healing was analyzed. We found that MTR accelerated wound healing by promoting quicker closure of wounds, improving the organization of collagen fibers, and decreasing senescent cells in the wounded tendons when compared to the cage control. MTR also lowered vascularization, increased the numbers of tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSCs) and TSC proliferation than the control. Besides, MTR significantly increased the expression of stem cell markers, OCT-4 and Nanog, and tenocyte genes, Collagen I, Collagen III and tenomodulin, and down-regulated PPAR-γ, Collagen II and Runx-2 (non-tenocyte genes). These findings indicated that moderate exercise enhances healing of injuries in aging tendons through TSC based mechanisms, through which exercise regulates beneficial effects in tendons. This study reveals that appropriate exercise may be used in clinics to enhance tendon healing in aging patients. PMID:26885754

  15. Modified pectic polysaccharide from turmeric (Curcuma longa): A potent dietary component against gastric ulcer.

    PubMed

    Harsha, Mysore R; Chandra Prakash, Serkad V; Dharmesh, Shylaja M

    2016-03-15

    Native, intact (TrPP) and modified, low-molecular-weight (MTrPP) forms of pectic polysaccharides isolated from turmeric were evaluated for ulcer-preventive potentials in in vitro and in vivo models. Data indicated that MTrPP possessed significantly better ulcer-preventive property than TrPP; inhibiting ulcer scores up to 85%. Results were substantiated by effective muco-protection, H(+),K(+)-ATPase down-regulation, inhibition of H. pylori growth/adherence, higher antioxidant/cytoprotective mechanisms. Structural data indicated TrPP and MTrPP differ in their molecular weights and structural characteristics with different sugar compositions and side chain ratios. MTrPP was rich in galacturonic acid (687mg/g; TrPP-544mg/g) and galactose (52.9%; TrPP-21.7%). Results were substantiated by NMR/FTIR data indicating the presence of homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonam-I containing galactans. By virtue of binding to inflammatory marker (galectin-3), galactans may reduce inflammation induced ulcerations. The low molecular weight of MTrPP (155kDa; TrPP-13kDa) may increase its bioavailability than TrPP, thus MTrPP may possess higher antiulcer potential.

  16. Remote Subcutaneous Needling to Suppress the Irritability of Myofascial Trigger Spots: An Experimental Study in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zhonghua; Hsieh, Yueh-Ling; Hong, Chang-Zern; Kao, Mu-Jung; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chou, Li-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To obtain electrophysiological effects of Fu's subcutaneous needling (FSN) on needling distance by assessment of endplate noise (EPN) recorded from the myofascial trigger spots (MTrSs) in rabbit skeletal muscle. Method. Eighteen New Zealand rabbits weighing 2.5–3.0 kg were randomly divided into two groups as follows: proximal needling (PN) group and distal needling (DN) group. The needling procedure followed the instructions described by the inventor of FSN, including needling insertion and swaying movement. The amplitudes of EPN on the MTrS region of BF muscle were recorded as an index of MTrS irritability. Random sampling of EPN tracings were taken for further analyses before, during, and after FSN treatment. Results. In PN and DN groups, the trends of EPN amplitude alterations were similar at conditions before, during, and after FSN treatment. The degree of reduction in the EPN amplitude in PN group was significantly higher than that in DN group. There were no significant changes in EPN amplitudes in the MTrS of contralateral BF without FSN intervention either in DN or PN group. Conclusion. The irritability of proximal MTrSs could be modulated after ipsilateral FSNs. The placement of FSN may affect the effectiveness of suppression of irritability of MTrSs. PMID:23346200

  17. Development and aging of superficial white matter myelin from young adulthood to old age: Mapping by vertex-based surface statistics (VBSS).

    PubMed

    Wu, Minjie; Kumar, Anand; Yang, Shaolin

    2016-05-01

    Superficial white matter (SWM) lies immediately beneath cortical gray matter and consists primarily of short association fibers. The characteristics of SWM and its development and aging were seldom examined in the literature and warrant further investigation. Magnetization transfer imaging is sensitive to myelin changes in the white matter. Using an innovative multimodal imaging analysis approach, vertex-based surface statistics (VBSS), the current study vertexwise mapped age-related changes of magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) in SWM from young adulthood to old age (30-85 years, N = 66). Results demonstrated regionally selective and temporally heterochronologic changes of SWM MTR with age, including (1) inverted U-shaped trajectories of SWM MTR in the rostral middle frontal, medial temporal, and temporoparietal regions, suggesting continuing myelination and protracted maturation till age 40-50 years and accelerating demyelination at age 60 and beyond, (2) linear decline of SWM MTR in the middle and superior temporal, and pericalcarine areas, indicating early maturation and less acceleration in age-related degeneration, and (3) no significant changes of SWM MTR in the primary motor, somatosensory and auditory regions, suggesting resistance to age-related deterioration. We did not observe similar patterns of changes in cortical thickness in our sample, suggesting the observed SWM MTR changes are not due to cortical atrophy. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1759-1769, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26955787

  18. Correcting radiofrequency inhomogeneity effects in skeletal muscle magnetisation transfer maps.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, C D J; Morrow, J M; Hanna, M G; Reilly, M M; Yousry, T A; Golay, X; Thornton, J S

    2012-02-01

    The potential of MRI to provide quantitative measures of neuromuscular pathology for use in therapeutic trials is being increasingly recognised. Magnetisation transfer (MT) imaging shows particular promise in this context, being sensitive to pathological changes, particularly in skeletal muscle, where measurements correlate with clinically measured muscle strength. Radiofrequency (RF) transmit field (B(1)) inhomogeneities can be particularly problematic in measurements of the MT ratio (MTR) and may obscure genuine muscle MTR changes caused by disease. In this work, we evaluate, for muscle imaging applications, a scheme previously proposed for the correction of RF inhomogeneity artefacts in cerebral MTR maps using B(1) information acquired in the same session. We demonstrate the theoretical applicability of this scheme to skeletal muscle using a two-pool model of pulsed quantitative MT. The correction scheme is evaluated practically in MTR imaging of the lower limbs of 28 healthy individuals and in two groups of patients with representative neuromuscular diseases: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A and inclusion body myositis. The correction scheme was observed to reduce both the within-subject and between-subject variability in the calf and thigh muscles of healthy subjects and patient groups in histogram- and region-of-interest-based approaches. This method of correcting for RF inhomogeneity effects in MTR maps using B(1) data may markedly improve the sensitivity of MTR mapping indices as measures of pathology in skeletal muscle.

  19. Trigger Points: An Anatomical Substratum

    PubMed Central

    Akamatsu, Flávia Emi; Ayres, Bernardo Rodrigues; Saleh, Samir Omar; Hojaij, Flávio; Andrade, Mauro; Hsing, Wu Tu; Jacomo, Alfredo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to bring the trapezius muscle knowledge of the locations where the accessory nerve branches enter the muscle belly to reach the motor endplates and find myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). Although anatomoclinical correlations represent a major feature of MTrP, no previous reports describing the distribution of the accessory nerve branches and their anatomical relationship with MTrP are found in the literature. Both trapezius muscles from twelve adult cadavers were carefully dissected by the authors (anatomy professors and medical graduate students) to observe the exact point where the branches of the spinal accessory nerve entered the muscle belly. Dissection was performed through stratigraphic layers to preserve the motor innervation of the trapezius muscle, which is located deep in the muscle. Seven points are described, four of which are motor points: in all cases, these locations corresponded to clinically described MTrPs. The four points were common in these twelve cadavers. This type of clinical correlation between spinal accessory nerve branching and MTrP is useful to achieve a better understanding of the anatomical correlation of MTrP and the physiopathology of these disorders and may provide a scientific basis for their treatment, rendering useful additional information to therapists to achieve better diagnoses and improve therapeutic approaches. PMID:25811029

  20. Selection and Characterization of [alpha]-Methyltryptophan-Resistant Lines of Lemna gibba Showing a Rapid Rate of Indole-3-Acetic Acid Turnover.

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Y. Y.; Slovin, J. P.; Cohen, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Turnover rate is an important aspect of the regulation of plant processes by plant growth substances. To study turnover of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), two [alpha]-methyltryptophan-resistant lines (MTR1 and MTR2) of Lemna gibba were generated by nitrosomethyl urea treatment of an inbred line derived from L. gibba G-3. In this report we describe: (a) the development of a selection system using this near isogenic line of L. gibba; (b) techniques for chemical mutation of the lines and selection for [alpha]-methyltryptophan resistance; and (c) the partial characterization of the selected lines. MTR lines contained 3-fold higher levels of anthranilate synthase activity. The enzyme in the MTR lines required higher levels of tryptophan for feedback inhibition. MTR lines also contained 8-fold higher levels of tryptophan, 3-fold higher levels of free IAA, and similar levels of total IAA compared to the inbred line. Turnover rates in the inbred and selected lines were calculated, using the first-order rate equation, based on the decrease over time in isotopic enrichment of I3C6-IAA introduced into L. gibba during a 1-h pulse period. Isotope enrichment in IAA was determined by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Both MTR lines had an approximately 10-fold higher rate of IAA turnover than the parent inbred line. PMID:12228344

  1. Assessment of Myofascial Trigger Points Using Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Kumbhare, Dinesh A; Elzibak, Alyaa H; Noseworthy, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome is a common musculoskeletal pain disorder characterized by the presence of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). The diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome is currently made on clinical grounds. Numerous diagnostic criteria are used to identify myofascial pain syndrome, including the localization of MTrPs. Identifying the presence of MTrPs currently requires the physician to palpate the symptomatic region. Because the interrater reliability of the palpation technique has been found to be poor, numerous groups have been interested in finding objective imaging measures to localize the MTrP. This comprehensive review focuses on summarizing ultrasound imaging techniques that have shown promise in visually localizing the trigger point. The authors' literature search identified three sonographic approaches that have been used in MTrP localization: conventional gray-scale imaging, Doppler imaging, and elastographic ultrasound imaging. This review article explains the basic physics behind the imaging methods and summarizes the characteristics of the MTrP as identified by the ultrasonic techniques.

  2. The role of vitamin B12 in fasting hyperhomocysteinemia and its interaction with the homozygous C677T mutation of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. A case-control study of patients with early-onset thrombotic events.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, A; Coppola, A; Madonna, P; Fermo, I; Pagano, A; Mazzola, G; Galli, L; Cerbone, A M

    2000-04-01

    Total fasting plasma homocysteine (tHcy), homozygosity for the C677T mutation of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and for the A2756G mutation of the methionine synthase (MS) gene, vitamin B12 and folate plasma levels were evaluated in 170 consecutive patients (89 M, 81 F; mean age 41 +/- 12 yrs) with documented early-onset thrombosis (89 venous, 69 arterial, 12 both; mean age at first episode 36 +/- 11 yrs), and in 182 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. Moderate hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy, tHcy >19.5 microM in men and >15 microM in women) was detected in 45 patients (26.5%) and in 18 controls (9.9%, Mantel-Haenszel OR and 95% C.I. after stratification for arterial or venous thrombosis: 3.25, 1.78-5.91). The 677TT MTHFR genotype was not significantly more prevalent in patients (27.6%) than in controls (21.4%, RR = 1.42: 0.84-2.41), and markedly contributed to HHcy (Mantel-Haenszel RR after stratification for case/control status: 8.29, 4.61-14.9). The 2756GG MS genotype, observed in 4 patients (2.4%) and 8 controls (4.4%), was not associated to HHcy. tHcy was negatively correlated to folate and vitamin B12 levels, with better correlation found in subjects with the 677TT mutation (r = -0.42 and -0.25) than with the 677CC or CT MTHFR genotype (r = 0).37 and -0.11). However, folate was similar in patients and controls and vitamin B12 was higher in patients (460 +/- 206 vs. 408 +/-185 pg/ml, p = 0.011). In a generalized linear model, 44% of the variation in tHcy levels was explained by folate and vitamin B12 levels, the MTHFR genotype, gender, and by the interaction of the MTHFR genotype with folate (p < or =0.028); the interactions of vitamin B12 with the MTHFR genotype, gender and patient/control status also significantly contributed to the variation in tHcy levels (p < or =0.028). A 4-week administration of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (15 mg/day) markedly lowered plasma tHcy in 24 patients with MTHFR 677TT genotype, but the response to

  3. Genetic Mediators of Neurocognitive Outcomes in Survivors of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Krull, Kevin R.; Bhojwani, Deepa; Conklin, Heather M.; Pei, Deqing; Cheng, Cheng; Reddick, Wilburn E.; Sandlund, John T.; Pui, Ching-Hon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at increased risk for neurocognitive problems, with significant interindividual variability in outcome. This study examined genetic polymorphisms associated with variability in neurocognitive outcome. Patients and Methods Neurocognitive outcomes were evaluated at the end of therapy in 243 survivors treated on an institutional protocol featuring risk-adapted chemotherapy without prophylactic cranial irradiation. Polymorphisms in genes related to pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of antileukemic agents, drug metabolism, oxidative stress, and attention problems in noncancer populations were examined as predictors of outcome, using multiple general linear models and controlling for age at diagnosis, sex, race, and treatment intensity. Results Compared with national norms, the cohort demonstrated significantly higher rates of problems on direct assessment of sustained attention (P = .01) and on parent ratings of attention problems (P = .02). Children with the A2756G polymorphism in methionine synthase (MS) were more likely to demonstrate deficits in attentiveness (P = .03) and response speed (P = .02), whereas those with various polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase demonstrated increased performance variability (P = .01) and reduced attentiveness (P = .003). Polymorphisms in monoamine oxidase (T1460CA) were associated with increased attention variability (P = .03). Parent-reported attention problems were more common in children with the Cys112Arg polymorphism in apoliopoprotein E4 (P = .01). Conclusion These results are consistent with our previous report of association between attention problems and MS in an independent cohort of long-term survivors of childhood ALL treated with chemotherapy only. The results also raise the possibility of an impact from genetic predispositions related to oxidative stress and CNS integrity. PMID:23650422

  4. The Role of Genetic Polymorphisms as Related to One-Carbon Metabolism, Vitamin B6, and Gene–Nutrient Interactions in Maintaining Genomic Stability and Cell Viability in Chinese Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiayu; Xu, Weijiang; Zhou, Tao; Cao, Neng; Ni, Juan; Zou, Tianning; Liang, Ziqing; Wang, Xu; Fenech, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism (FMOCM) is linked to DNA synthesis, methylation, and cell proliferation. Vitamin B6 (B6) is a cofactor, and genetic polymorphisms of related key enzymes, such as serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), and methionine synthase (MS), in FMOCM may govern the bioavailability of metabolites and play important roles in the maintenance of genomic stability and cell viability (GSACV). To evaluate the influences of B6, genetic polymorphisms of these enzymes, and gene–nutrient interactions on GSACV, we utilized the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) techniques in the lymphocytes from female breast cancer cases and controls. GSACV showed a significantly positive correlation with B6 concentration, and 48 nmol/L of B6 was the most suitable concentration for maintaining GSACV in vitro. The GSACV indexes showed significantly different sensitivity to B6 deficiency between cases and controls; the B6 effect on the GSACV variance contribution of each index was significantly higher than that of genetic polymorphisms and the sample state (tumor state). SHMT C1420T mutations may reduce breast cancer susceptibility, whereas MTRR A66G and MS A2756G mutations may increase breast cancer susceptibility. The role of SHMT, MS, and MTRR genotype polymorphisms in GSACV is reduced compared with that of B6. The results appear to suggest that the long-term lack of B6 under these conditions may increase genetic damage and cell injury and that individuals with various genotypes have different sensitivities to B6 deficiency. FMOCM metabolic enzyme gene polymorphism may be related to breast cancer susceptibility to a certain extent due to the effect of other factors such as stress, hormones, cancer therapies, psychological conditions, and diet. Adequate B6 intake may be good for maintaining genome health and preventing breast cancer. PMID:27347936

  5. The Role of Genetic Polymorphisms as Related to One-Carbon Metabolism, Vitamin B6, and Gene-Nutrient Interactions in Maintaining Genomic Stability and Cell Viability in Chinese Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiayu; Xu, Weijiang; Zhou, Tao; Cao, Neng; Ni, Juan; Zou, Tianning; Liang, Ziqing; Wang, Xu; Fenech, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism (FMOCM) is linked to DNA synthesis, methylation, and cell proliferation. Vitamin B6 (B6) is a cofactor, and genetic polymorphisms of related key enzymes, such as serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), and methionine synthase (MS), in FMOCM may govern the bioavailability of metabolites and play important roles in the maintenance of genomic stability and cell viability (GSACV). To evaluate the influences of B6, genetic polymorphisms of these enzymes, and gene-nutrient interactions on GSACV, we utilized the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) techniques in the lymphocytes from female breast cancer cases and controls. GSACV showed a significantly positive correlation with B6 concentration, and 48 nmol/L of B6 was the most suitable concentration for maintaining GSACV in vitro. The GSACV indexes showed significantly different sensitivity to B6 deficiency between cases and controls; the B6 effect on the GSACV variance contribution of each index was significantly higher than that of genetic polymorphisms and the sample state (tumor state). SHMT C1420T mutations may reduce breast cancer susceptibility, whereas MTRR A66G and MS A2756G mutations may increase breast cancer susceptibility. The role of SHMT, MS, and MTRR genotype polymorphisms in GSACV is reduced compared with that of B6. The results appear to suggest that the long-term lack of B6 under these conditions may increase genetic damage and cell injury and that individuals with various genotypes have different sensitivities to B6 deficiency. FMOCM metabolic enzyme gene polymorphism may be related to breast cancer susceptibility to a certain extent due to the effect of other factors such as stress, hormones, cancer therapies, psychological conditions, and diet. Adequate B6 intake may be good for maintaining genome health and preventing breast cancer. PMID:27347936

  6. Folic acid, polymorphism of methyl-group metabolism genes, and DNA methylation in relation to GI carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jing Yuan; Xiao, Shu Dong

    2003-01-01

    DNA methylation is the main epigenetic modification after replication in humans. DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase (DNMT) catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to C5 of cytosine within CpG dinucleotide sequences in the genomic DNA of higher eukaryotes. There is considerable evidence that aberrant DNA methylation plays an integral role in carcinogenesis. Folic acid or folate is crucial for normal DNA synthesis and can regulate DNA methylation, and through this, it affects cellular SAM levels. Folate deficiency results in DNA hypomethylation. Epidemiological studies have indicated that folic acid protects against gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. Methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase (MS) are the enzymes involved in folate metabolism and are thought to influence DNA methylation. MTHFR is highly polymorphic, and the variant genotypes result in decreased MTHFR enzyme activity and lower plasma folate level. Two common MTHFR polymorphisms, 677CT (or 677TT) and A1298C, and an MS polymorphism, A-->G at 2756, have been identified. Most studies support an inverse association between folate status and the rate of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. During human GI carcinogenesis, MTHFR is highly polymorphic, and the variant genotypes result in decreased MTHFR enzyme activity and lower plasma folate level, as well as aberrant methylation.

  7. NONICHEMIC CENTRAL RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION ASSOCIATED WITH HEREDITARY THROMBOPHYLIA.

    PubMed

    Fişuş, Andreea Dana; Pop, Doina Suzana; Rusu, Monica Blanka; Vultur, Florina; Horvath, Karin Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is the second most common retinal vein disease with significant visual loss via thrombus or compression of vein wall. Thrombophilia is the predisposition to vascular thrombosis with the existence of genetic defect that leads to blood hypercoagulability. This report describes the case of a 55 year old male patient, with an active life who presented himself at the emergency room with acute visual lose, insidious and progressive visual field constriction, without any known history of neurological or vascular diseases. The examinations revealed unilateral optic nerve head edema, the fluorescein angiography was specific for nonischemic central retinal vein occlusion CRVO complicated with macular edema. Blood examinations has emphasized the presence of the heterozygous mutation A1298C in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR), the only one presented from the thrombophilia screen panel and a slightly elevated cholesterol level. During the follow-up period, the patient received anti-VEGF treatment (Bevacizumab, 3x 0.1 ml intravitreal injections) with improved visual acuity and amendment of macular edema. The complex etiology calls for interdisciplinary approach to determine better the cause of this ophthalmological disease. Although studies have found a correlation between some thrombophilia mutations and retinal vein occlusion, more studies that contain a larger number of patients are necessary in order to determine the final role of these gene variants.

  8. Elevated Homocysteine Level and Folate Deficiency Associated with Increased Overall Risk of Carcinogenesis: Meta-Analysis of 83 Case-Control Studies Involving 35,758 Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Guo, Ye; Cui, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background Results of the association of folate metabolism and carcinogenesis are conflicting. We performed a meta-analysis to examine the effect of the interaction of serum concentration of homocysteine (Hcy), folate, and vitamin B12 and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism on risk of cancer overall. Method Two reviewers independently searched for all published studies of Hcy and cancer in PubMed, EMBASE-MEDLINE and Chinese databases. Pooled results were reported as odds ratios (ORs) and mean differences and presented with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) and 2-sided probability values. Results We identified 83 eligible studies of 15,046 cases and 20,712 controls. High level of Hcy but low level of folate was associated with risk of cancer overall, with little effect by type of cancer or ethnicity. Vitamin B12 level was inversely associated with only urinary-system and gastrointestinal carcinomas and for Asian and Middle Eastern patients. As well, MTHFR C677T, A1298C and G1793A polymorphisms were related to elevated serum level of Hcy, and folate and vitamin B12 deficiency. However, only MTHFR C677T homogeneity/wild-type (TT/CC) polymorphism was positively associated with overall risk of cancer. Conclusion Elevated serum Hcy level and folate deficiency are associated with increased overall risk of cancer. PMID:25985325

  9. Impact of Inherited Prothrombotic Disorders on the Long-Term Clinical Outcome of Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty in Patients with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Dubský, Michal; Jirkovská, Alexandra; Pagáčová, Libuše; Bém, Robert; Němcová, Andrea; Fejfarová, Vladimíra; Wosková, Veronika; Jude, Edward B.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to analyse inherited thrombotic disorders that influence the long-term outcome of PTA. Methods. Diabetic patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) treated by PTA in our centre between 2008 and 2011 were included in the study. Patients were divided into unsuccessful PTA group (75 patients), successful PTA group (58 patients), and control group (65 patients, with diabetes but no PAD). Diagnosis of inherited thrombotic disorders included mutation in factor V (Leiden), factor II (prothrombin), and mutation in genes for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase—MTHFR (C677T and A1298C). Results. The genotypic frequency of Leiden allele G1691A was significantly associated with a risk of unsuccessful PTA in comparison with successful PTA group and control group (OR 8.8 (1.1–70.6), p = 0.041, and OR 9.8 (1.2–79.2), p = 0.032, resp.). However, we only observed a trend for the association of the prothrombin allele G20210A and risk of PTA failure. The frequencies of alleles of MTHFR 677 or 1298 did not differ significantly among the groups. Conclusion. Our study showed higher frequency of heterozygous form of Leiden mutation in diabetic patients with unsuccessful outcome of PTA in comparison with patients with successful PTA and diabetic patients without PAD. PMID:26247037

  10. The frequent 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism is associated with a common haplotype in whites, Japanese, and Africans.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Nurit; Murata, Mitsuru; Ikeda, Yasuo; Opare-Sem, Ohene; Zivelin, Ariella; Geffen, Eli; Seligsohn, Uri

    2002-03-01

    The common 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism causes decreased activity of this enzyme and can be associated with mild-to-moderate hyperhomocysteinemia in homozygotes, particularly when there is folic acid deficiency, as well as with vascular dementia, arterial thrombosis, venous thrombosis, neural-tube defects, and fetal loss. When folic acid intake is sufficient, homozygotes for MTHFR 677T appear to be protected against colon cancer and acute lymphatic leukemia, and fetuses bearing this genotype have an augmented survival. The distribution of MTHFR 677T is worldwide, but its frequency in different populations varies extensively. In the present study, we addressed the question of whether the MTHFR 677T alteration has an ancestral origin or has occurred repeatedly. We analyzed the frequency distribution of the previously described polymorphism A1298C in exon 7 and of three intronic dimorphisms, in white Israelis (Jews and Arabs), Japanese, and Ghanaian Africans. The 677T allele was, remarkably, associated with one haplotype, G-T-A-C, in white and Japanese homozygotes. Among the Africans, analysis of maximum likelihood also disclosed an association with the G-T-A-C haplotype, although none of the 174 subjects examined was homozygous for MTHFR 677T. These results suggest that the MTHFR 677T alteration occurred on a founder haplotype that may have had a selective advantage. PMID:11781870

  11. Acute bilateral vision loss in emergency department: A case report.

    PubMed

    Tanrikulu, Ceren Sen; Hocagil, Hilal; Kaya, Ural; Hocagil, Abdullah Cuneyt

    2016-03-01

    Stroke occurs due to the interruption of blood flow to the brain and it is divided into ischemic and hemorrhagic. In the ischemic strokes, while the most commonly affected vessel is median cerebral artery (MCA), it is particularly affected bilateral posterior cerebral artery (PCA) is very rare condition. In this study, a case of sudden loss of vision and bilateral occipital infarct associated with bilateral vertebral system pathology and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene mutation were reported. A 62-year-old man was admitted with sudden loss of vision complaint starting 10 h before applying to emergency department. The patient was oriented and cooperative. On neurological examination, there was complete loss of vision in the right eye and only a response to light in the left eye. On the brain computerized tomography (CT), ischemic lesions were observed in the bilateral occipital areas and on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), there were foci showing diffusion limitation in cortico-subcortical areas of bilateral parieto-occipital region. On the detailed examination at the clinic, MTHFR (a1298c) gene mutation was detected. Bilateral occipital infarction is rare and its diagnosis can be difficult because of its atypical symptoms. Therefore, occipital infarction should be suspected when the only sign is isolated vision loss in patients with risk factor for thromboembolism in their history and detailed visual-neurological examination of these patients should be performed. PMID:27239639

  12. Mitochondrial dysfunction by pro-oxidant vanadium: ex vivo assessment of individual susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Visalli, Giuseppa; Bertuccio, Maria Paola; Picerno, Isa; Spataro, Pasquale; Di Pietro, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to assess the individual susceptibility to mitochondrial impairment induced by ex vivo exposure to vanadium, an airborne pro-oxidant pollutant. In lymphocyte cultures V(IV)-treated of forty-five healthy subjects, we evaluated the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm) and the H2O2 in comparison to background values. As variables, we included both lifestyle factors and genetic polymorphisms (GSTM1 and GSTT1 variants, and C677T and A1298C variants of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase MTHFR). H2O2 mitochondrial content increased significantly (P<0.05) after metal exposure while, in comparison to basal Δψm, both depolarisation and hyperpolarisation were recorded. This underlined the mitochondrial dysfunction vanadium-induced that worsens the redox imbalance by endogenous ROS overproduction. Only age was found to contribute significantly to the high inter-individual variability, as assessed by multivariate analysis. In older subjects, the H2O2/Δψm values underline the organelle impairment and, under V-exposure, Δψm values were inversely related to age (R=-0.591; P=0.012).

  13. Influence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphisms on the outcome of pediatric patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma treated with high-dose methotrexate.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Velia; Ramaglia, Maria; Iannotta, Adriana; Francese, Matteo; Pota, Elvira; Affinita, Maria Carmen; Pecoraro, Giulia; Indolfi, Cristiana; Di Martino, Martina; Di Pinto, Daniela; Buffardi, Salvatore; Poggi, Vincenzo; Indolfi, Paolo; Casale, Fiorina

    2013-12-01

    High-dose methotrexate (MTX) is a key component of most treatment protocols for childhood and adolescent non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Recent studies have suggested that the toxicity of antifolate drugs, such as MTX, is affected by inherited single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in folate metabolizing genes. The aim of our study was to investigate the potential influence of the C677T and A1298C genetic variants of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene on the clinical toxicity and efficacy of MTX in pediatric patients with NHL (n = 95) treated with therapeutic protocols Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP) LNH-97 and EURO LB-02. We demonstrated that patients with the 677T genotype had an approximately six-fold greater risk of developing hematological toxicity compared with wild-type carriers, especially in the 1 g/m(2) treatment group (p = 0.01). Moreover, we identified a correlation between the risk of relapse and the T genotype: T carriers had reduced disease-free survival compared with wild-type patients (67% vs. 100%). Our data suggest a pharmacogenetic influence on the adverse effects of high-dose MTX in the 1 g/m(2) treatment group.

  14. MTHFR polymorphisms in Puerto Rican children with isolated congenital heart disease and their mothers

    PubMed Central

    García-Fragoso, Lourdes; García-García, Inés; Leavitt, Gloria; Renta, Jessicca; Ayala, Miguel A.; Cadilla, Carmen L.

    2010-01-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) are among the most common birth defects. There is evidence suggesting that polymorphisms in folate metabolism could alter susceptibility to CHD. The MTHFR 677TT genotype has been associated with the development of structural congenital heart malformations. The objective of this study was to identify common polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene in children with isolated CHD and their mothers. The DNA analysis for the C677T and A1298C mutations was performed. The study group included 27 mothers, 27 children with CHD, and 220 controls. The prevalence of the TT polymorphism was higher in mothers (22%) than in controls (10%). Compound heterozygosity for both polymorphisms was 3.7 times more common in children with CHD than in the newborn controls. Mothers of children with CHD were more likely to be compound heterozygotes. The higher prevalence of C677T polymorphisms in mothers of children with CHD and of compound heterozygosity for both polymorphisms suggests the possible role of folic acid in the prevention of CHD. Due to the relation of this enzyme to folate metabolism, current folate recommendations for women in childbearing age in Puerto Rico to reduce neural tube defects may need to be extended to the prevention of CHD. PMID:20657745

  15. MTHFR polymorphisms in Puerto Rican children with isolated congenital heart disease and their mothers.

    PubMed

    García-Fragoso, Lourdes; García-García, Inés; Leavitt, Gloria; Renta, Jessicca; Ayala, Miguel A; Cadilla, Carmen L

    2010-03-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) are among the most common birth defects. There is evidence suggesting that polymorphisms in folate metabolism could alter susceptibility to CHD. The MTHFR 677TT genotype has been associated with the development of structural congenital heart malformations. The objective of this study was to identify common polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene in children with isolated CHD and their mothers. The DNA analysis for the C677T and A1298C mutations was performed. The study group included 27 mothers, 27 children with CHD, and 220 controls. The prevalence of the TT polymorphism was higher in mothers (22%) than in controls (10%). Compound heterozygosity for both polymorphisms was 3.7 times more common in children with CHD than in the newborn controls. Mothers of children with CHD were more likely to be compound heterozygotes. The higher prevalence of C677T polymorphisms in mothers of children with CHD and of compound heterozygosity for both polymorphisms suggests the possible role of folic acid in the prevention of CHD. Due to the relation of this enzyme to folate metabolism, current folate recommendations for women in childbearing age in Puerto Rico to reduce neural tube defects may need to be extended to the prevention of CHD.

  16. Venous Thromboembolism after Allogeneic Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Single-Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Azık, Fatih; Gürlek Gökçebay, Dilek; Tavil, Betül; Işık, Pamir; Tunç, Bahattin; Uçkan, Duygu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) in children who undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has high morbidity. The aim of this study is to assess the incidence of VTE in allogeneic pediatric HSCT recipients and the contribution of pretransplant prothrombotic risk factors to thrombosis. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 92 patients between April 2010 and November 2012 undergoing allogeneic HSCT who had completed 100 days post-HSCT. Before HSCT, coagulation profiles; acquired and inherited prothrombotic risk factors including FV G1691A (factor V Leiden), prothrombin G20210A, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, and MTHFR A1298C mutations; and serum homocysteine and lipoprotein (a), plasma antithrombin III, protein C, and protein S levels were obtained from all patients. Results: In the screening of thrombophilia, 8 patients (9%) were heterozygous for factor V Leiden, 5 (6%) were homozygous for MTHFR 677TT, 12 (14%) were homozygous for MTHFR 1298CC, and 2 (2%) were heterozygous for prothrombin G20210A mutation. We observed VTE in 5 patients (5.4%); a prothrombotic risk factor was found in 3 out of these 5 patients, while 4 out of 5 patients had central venous catheters. It was determined there was no significant relationship between VTE and inherited prothrombotic risk factors. Conclusion: VTE after HSCT seems to be a low-frequency event that may be due to low-dose, low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis, and the role of inherited prothrombotic risk factors cannot be entirely excluded without a prospective study. PMID:25912774

  17. Homocysteinemia is inversely correlated with platelet count and directly correlated with sE- and sP-selectin levels in females homozygous for C677T methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Rongioletti, Mauro; Baldassini, Mauro; Papa, Fabrizio; Capoluongo, Ettore; Rocca, Bianca; Cristofaro, Raimondo De; Salvati, Giuseppina; Larciprete, Giovanni; Stroppolo, Annalisa; Angelucci, Piero Antonio; Cirese, Elio; Ameglio, Franco

    2005-01-01

    Plasma homocysteine levels depend in part on the molecular nature of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and on blood folate intake. Little has been reported on platelet counts in the presence of hyperhomocysteinemia and MTHFR polymorphisms, with the exception of delayed platelet recovery in homozygous MTHFR C677T subjects after treatment with methotrexate for ovarian cancer. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the possibility of a link between the platelet count and plasma homocysteine levels in different MTHFR variants in 165 female patients. Determinations of plasma homocysteine levels were by ELISA and of MTHFR polymorphisms (A1298C and C677T) were by inverse hybridization. Serum P- and E-selectin concentrations were obtained by ELISA. An inverse correlation (R=-0.88, P<0.001) was observed between blood platelet counts and plasma homocysteine levels in the women homozygous for MTHFR C677T. This correlation did not depend on pregnancy or other variables reported. Serum concentrations of sE- and sP-selectin, markers of endothelial and platelet activation, were significantly and positively correlated with homocysteine levels. These findings suggest that homocysteine affects platelet numbers in women with MTHFR C677T possibly consequent to endothelial and platelet activation. PMID:16011963

  18. Anticancer drug mithramycin interacts with core histones: An additional mode of action of the DNA groove binder

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Amrita; Sanyal, Sulagna; Kulkarni, Kirti K.; Jana, Kuladip; Roy, Siddhartha; Das, Chandrima; Dasgupta, Dipak

    2014-01-01

    Mithramycin (MTR) is a clinically approved DNA-binding antitumor antibiotic currently in Phase 2 clinical trials at National Institutes of Health for treatment of osteosarcoma. In view of the resurgence in the studies of this generic antibiotic as a human medicine, we have examined the binding properties of MTR with the integral component of chromatin – histone proteins – as a part of our broad objective to classify DNA-binding molecules in terms of their ability to bind chromosomal DNA alone (single binding mode) or both histones and chromosomal DNA (dual binding mode). The present report shows that besides DNA, MTR also binds to core histones present in chromatin and thus possesses the property of dual binding in the chromatin context. In contrast to the MTR–DNA interaction, association of MTR with histones does not require obligatory presence of bivalent metal ion like Mg2+. As a consequence of its ability to interact with core histones, MTR inhibits histone H3 acetylation at lysine 18, an important signature of active chromatin, in vitro and ex vivo. Reanalysis of microarray data of Ewing sarcoma cell lines shows that upon MTR treatment there is a significant down regulation of genes, possibly implicating a repression of H3K18Ac-enriched genes apart from DNA-binding transcription factors. Association of MTR with core histones and its ability to alter post-translational modification of histone H3 clearly indicates an additional mode of action of this anticancer drug that could be implicated in novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:25473595

  19. Two-dimensional ultrasound and ultrasound elastography imaging of trigger points in women with myofascial pain syndrome treated by acupuncture and electroacupuncture: a double-blinded randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Müller, Cristina Emöke Erika; Aranha, Maria Fernanda Montans; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte

    2015-04-01

    Chronic pain has been often associated with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS), which is determined by myofascial trigger points (MTrP). New features have been tested for MTrP diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate two-dimensional ultrasonography (2D US) and ultrasound elastography (UE) images and elastograms of upper trapezius MTrP during electroacupuncture (EA) and acupuncture (AC) treatment. 24 women participated, aged between 20 and 40 years (M ± SD = 27.33 ± 5.05) with a body mass index ranging from 18.03 to 27.59 kg/m2 (22.59 ± 3.11), a regular menstrual cycle, at least one active MTrP at both right (RTPz) and left trapezius (LTPz) and local or referred pain for up to six months. Subjects were randomized into EA and AC treatment groups and the control sham AC (SHAM) group. Intensity of pain was assessed by visual analogue scale; MTrP mean area and strain ratio (SR) by 2D US and UE. A significant decrease of intensity in general, RTPz, and LTPz pain was observed in the EA group (p = 0.027; p < 0.001; p = 0.005, respectively) and in general pain in the AC group (p < 0.001). Decreased MTrP area in RTPz and LTPz were observed in AC (p < 0.001) and EA groups (RTPz, p = 0.003; LTPz, p = 0.005). Post-treatment SR in RTPz and LTPz was lower than pre-treatment in both treatment groups. 2D US and UE effectively characterized MTrP and surrounding tissue, pointing to the possibility of objective confirmation of subjective EA and AC treatment effects.

  20. Intra-rater reliability of an experienced physiotherapist in locating myofascial trigger points in upper trapezius muscle

    PubMed Central

    Barbero, Marco; Bertoli, Paolo; Cescon, Corrado; Macmillan, Fiona; Coutts, Fiona; Gatti, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are considered the principal clinical feature of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). An MTrP consists of spot tenderness within a taut band of muscle fibers and its stimulation can produce both local and referred pain. The clinical diagnosis of MPS depends on correct history taking and a physical examination aimed at identifying the presence of MTrP. The purpose of this study was to investigate the intra-rater reliability of a palpation protocol used for locating an MTrP in the upper trapezius muscle. Methods: Twenty-four subjects with MTrP in the upper trapezius muscle were examined by an experienced physiotherapist. During each of eight experimental sessions, subjects were examined twice in randomized order using a palpation protocol. An anatomical landmark system was defined and the MTrP location established using X and Y values. Results: The intraclass correlation coefficient ICC(1,1) values were 0.62 (95% CI: 0.30–0.81) for X and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.61–0.91) for Y. The Bland–Altman plots for X and Y showed a mean of difference of 0.04 and −0.2 mm, respectively. Limits of agreement for X ranged from −26.3 to 26.2 mm and for Y from −27 to 26.4 mm. Discussion: The ICC(1,1) for the observed values revealed a moderate to high correlation and the Bland–Altman analysis showed means of difference very close to zero with narrow limits of agreement. An experienced physiotherapist can reliably identify MTrP locations in upper trapezius muscle using a palpation protocol. PMID:24179324

  1. Dry Needling Alters Trigger Points in the Upper Trapezius Muscle and Reduces Pain in Subjects with Chronic Myofascial Pain

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Lynn H.; Shah, Jay; Rosenberger, William; Armstrong, Kathryn; Turo, Diego; Otto, Paul; Heimur, Juliana; Thaker, Nikki; Sikdar, Siddhartha

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether dry needling of an active myofascial trigger point (MTrP) reduces pain and alters the status of the trigger point to either a non-spontaneously tender nodule or its resolution. Design A prospective, non-randomized, controlled interventional clinical study Setting University campus Participants Fifty-six subjects with neck or shoulder girdle pain > 3 months duration and active MTrPs were recruited from a campus-wide, volunteer sample. Fifty-two completed the study (23 male/33 female) with mean age of 35.8 years. Interventions Three weekly dry needling treatments of a single active MTrP Main Outcome Measures Primary Outcomes: Baseline and post treatment evaluations of pain using the verbal analogue scale, the Brief Pain Inventory and the status of the MTrP as determined by digital palpation. Trigger points were rated: active (spontaneously painful), latent (requiring palpation to reproduce the characteristic pain) and resolved (no palpable nodule). Secondary Outcomes: Profile of Mood States, Oswestry Disability Index, Short Form 36, Cervical Range of Motion. Results Primary outcomes: 41 subjects had a change in trigger point status from active to latent or resolved; and 11 had no change (p < .001). Reduction in all pain scores was significant (p<.001). Secondary outcomes: significant improvement in post-treatment cervical rotational asymmetry in subjects with unilateral/bilateral MTrPs (p=.001, p=21, respectively); in pain pressure threshold in subjects with unilateral/bilateral MTrPs, (p=.006, p=.012), respectively; improvement in the SF-36 mental health and physical functioning subscales (p=.019, p=.03) respectively; decrease in the Oswestry disability scale (p=.003). Conclusions Dry needling reduces pain and changes MTrP status. Change in trigger point status is associated with a statistically and clinically significant reduction in pain. Reduction in pain is associated with improved mood, function and level of disability. PMID

  2. Myofascial Trigger Points Then and Now: A Historical and Scientific Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jay P.; Thaker, Nikki; Heimur, Juliana; Aredo, Jacqueline V.; Sikdar, Siddhartha; Gerber, Lynn H.

    2015-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to discuss the evolving role of the myofascial trigger point (MTrP) in myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) from both a historical and scientific perspective. MTrPs are hard, discrete, palpable nodules in a taut band of skeletal muscle that may be spontaneously painful (i.e. active), or painful only on compression (i.e. latent). MPS is a term used to describe a pain condition which can be acute or, more commonly, chronic and involves the muscle and its surrounding connective tissue (e.g. fascia). According to Travell and Simons, MTrPs are central to the syndrome—but are they necessary? Although the clinical study of muscle pain and MTrPs has proliferated over the past two centuries, the scientific literature often seems disjointed and confusing. Unfortunately, much of the terminology, theories, concepts, and diagnostic criteria are inconsistent, incomplete, or controversial. In order to address these deficiencies, investigators have recently applied clinical, imaging (of skeletal muscle and brain), and biochemical analyses to systematically and objectively study the MTrP and its role in MPS. Data suggest that the soft tissue milieu around the MTrP, neurogenic inflammation, sensitization, and limbic system dysfunction may all play a role in the initiation, amplification, and perpetuation of MPS. The authors will chronicle the advances that have led to the current understanding of MTrP pathophysiology and its relationship to MPS, and review the contributions of clinicians and researchers who have influenced and expanded our contemporary level of clinical knowledge and practice. PMID:25724849

  3. Myofascial Trigger Points Then and Now: A Historical and Scientific Perspective.

    PubMed

    Shah, Jay P; Thaker, Nikki; Heimur, Juliana; Aredo, Jacqueline V; Sikdar, Siddhartha; Gerber, Lynn

    2015-07-01

    The intent of this article is to discuss the evolving role of the myofascial trigger point (MTrP) in myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) from both a historical and scientific perspective. MTrPs are hard, discrete, palpable nodules in a taut band of skeletal muscle that may be spontaneously painful (i.e., active) or painful only on compression (i.e., latent). MPS is a term used to describe a pain condition that can be acute or, more commonly, chronic and involves the muscle and its surrounding connective tissue (e.g. fascia). According to Travell and Simons, MTrPs are central to the syndrome-but are they necessary? Although the clinical study of muscle pain and MTrPs has proliferated over the past two centuries, the scientific literature often seems disjointed and confusing. Unfortunately, much of the terminology, theories, concepts, and diagnostic criteria are inconsistent, incomplete, or controversial. To address these deficiencies, investigators have recently applied clinical, imaging (of skeletal muscle and brain), and biochemical analyses to systematically and objectively study the MTrP and its role in MPS. Data suggest that the soft tissue milieu around the MTrP, neurogenic inflammation, sensitization, and limbic system dysfunction may all play a role in the initiation, amplification, and perpetuation of MPS. The authors chronicle the advances that have led to the current understanding of MTrP pathophysiology and its relationship to MPS, and review the contributions of clinicians and researchers who have influenced and expanded our contemporary level of clinical knowledge and practice.

  4. Meta-Analysis of Studies Comparing Single and Multi-Tablet Fixed Dose Combination HIV Treatment Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Clay, P.G.; Nag, S.; Graham, C.M.; Narayanan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Availability of a single source review of once-daily fixed-dose single tablet regimen (STR) and multiple tablet fixed-dose regimen (MTR) would optimally inform healthcare providers and policy makers involved in the management of population with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We conducted a meta-analysis of published literature to compare patient adherence, clinical, and cost outcomes of STR to MTR. Published literature in English between 2005 and 2014 was searched using Embase, PubMed (Medline in-process), and ClinicalTrials.Gov databases. Two-level screening was undertaken by 2 independent researchers to finalize articles for evidence synthesis. Adherence, efficacy, safety, tolerability, healthcare resource use (HRU), and costs were assessed comparing STR to MTR. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed and heterogeneity examined using meta-regression. Thirty-five articles were identified for qualitative evidence synthesis, of which 9 had quantifiable data for meta-analysis (4 randomized controlled trials and 5 observational studies). Patients on STR were significantly more adherent when compared to patients on MTR of any frequency (odds ratio [OR]: 2.37 [95% CI: 1.68, 3.35], P < 0.001; 4 studies), twice-daily MTR (OR: 2.53 [95% CI: 1.13, 5.66], P = 0.02; 2 studies), and once-daily MTR (OR: 1.81 [95% CI: 1.15, 2.84], P = 0.01; 2 studies). The relative risk (RR) for viral load suppression at 48 weeks was higher (RR: 1.09 [95% CI: 1.04, 1.15], P = .0003; 3 studies) while RR of grade 3 to 4 laboratory abnormalities was lower among patients on STR (RR: 0.68 [95% CI: 0.49, 0.94], P = 0.02; 2 studies). Changes in CD4 count at 48 weeks, any severe adverse events (SAEs), grade 3 to 4 AEs, mortality, and tolerability were found comparable between STR and MTR. Several studies reported significant reduction in HRU and costs among STR group versus MTR. Study depicted comparable tolerability, safety (All-SAE and Grade 3–4 AE), and

  5. Effect of Treatment with Interferon Beta-1a on Changes in Voxel-Wise Magnetization Transfer Ratio in Normal Appearing Brain Tissue and Lesions of Patients with Relapsing–Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A 24-Week, Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Zivadinov, Robert; Dwyer, Michael G.; Markovic-Plese, Silva; Kennedy, Cheryl; Bergsland, Niels; Ramasamy, Deepa P.; Durfee, Jacqueline; Hojnacki, David; Hayward, Brooke; Dangond, Fernando; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca

    2014-01-01

    Background This pilot study investigated changes in remyelinating and demyelinating activity in normal appearing brain tissue (NABT) and lesions, by using voxel-wise magnetization transfer ratio (VW-MTR), in patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) receiving interferon beta-1a 44 mcg subcutaneously (IFN β-1a SC) three times weekly versus healthy controls (HCs) (NCT01085318). Methods Increasing (suggestive of remyelination) and decreasing (suggestive of demyelination) VW-MTR changes in NABT and in T2, T1 and gadolinium (Gd)-enhancing lesion volume were measured over 24 weeks in 23 patients treated with IFN β-1a SC and in 15 HCs (where applicable). VW-MTR changes were tested using the Wilcoxon signed–rank or Wilcoxon rank–sum test. Results A trend for greater volume of NABT with increasing VW-MTR at 24 weeks was observed for patients versus HCs (median [range] 1206 [0–15278]; 342 [0–951] mm3; p = 0.061). NABT volume with increasing VW-MTR at 12 weeks was significantly greater in patients than in HCs (852 [6–11577]; 360 [0–1755] mm3; p = 0.028). Similar findings were detected for lesion volumes. Two patients with notably high numbers of Gd-enhancing lesions at baseline had a markedly greater volume of tissue with increasing VW-MTR compared with other patients. Volume of NABT tissue with decreasing VW-MTR was significantly greater in patients versus HCs at 24 weeks (942 [0–6141]; 297 [0–852] mm3; p<0.001). Conclusions The significant change in NABT volume with increasing VW-MTR at 12 weeks suggests that active remyelination in patients with RRMS may occur during treatment with IFN β-1a SC. Findings from two patients with the highest number of Gd-enhancing lesions at baseline suggest that extensive remyelination in NABT may occur in patients with high disease activity. Tissue volume with decreasing VW-MTR was greater in patients than in HCs, despite treatment, validating the sensitivity of this technique for detecting MS

  6. Electron tunneling properties of outer-membrane decaheme cytochromes from Shewanella oneidensis

    SciTech Connect

    Wigginton, Nicholas S; Rosso, Kevin M; Lower, Brian H; Shi, Liang; Hochella, Michael F

    2007-02-01

    In this report, we describe the characterization of two outer-membrane decaheme cytochromes OmcA and MtrC purified from the metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and tunneling spectroscopy (TS). OmcA and MtrC were solubilized with a common detergent and irreversibly bound to Au (111) substrates as self-assembled cytochrome films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) verified that OmcA and MtrC were covalently bound to the Au surface via thiol bonds to cysteine residues. Initial STM images show that a layer of detergent covers and protects the cytochrome films. Temporary application of high bias voltage causes the detergent film to reorganize around the tip, opening a window for direct STM imaging of the cytochrome layer underneath. The STM apparent sizes of both OmcA and MtrC are 58 nanometers in diameter consistent with expectations from their molecular masses. Current-voltage TS over individual cytochromes showed that OmcA and MtrC have different abilities to mediate the tunneling current, reflecting differences in their electronic structures. The data suggest that the two cytochromes could have different roles in the electron transport chain during metal reduction.

  7. [Differences between myofascial trigger points and tender points].

    PubMed

    Mense, S

    2011-02-01

    The article describes and compares the characteristics of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) of the myofascial pain syndrome and the tender points (TePs) of the fibromyalgia syndrome. Many statements are hypothetical, because not all aspects of the disorders have been clarified in solid studies. Signs and symptoms of MTrPs: (1) palpable nodule, often located close to the muscle belly, (2) often single, (3) allodynia and hyperalgesia at the MTrP, (4) referral of the MTrP pain, (5) normal pain sensitivity outside the MTrPs, (6) local twitch response, (7) local contracture in biopsy material, (8) peripheral mechanism probable. Signs and symptoms of TePs: (1) no palpable nodule, (2) location often close to the muscle attachments, (3) multiple by definition, (4) allodynia and hyperalgesia also outside the TePs, (5) enhanced pain under psychic stress, (6) unspecific histological changes in biopsy material, (7) central nervous mechanism probable. The multitude of differences speak against a common aetiology and pathophysiology.

  8. Magnetization Transfer Imaging of Suicidal Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ziqi; Zhang, Huawei; Jia, Zhiyun; Zhong, Jingjie; Huang, Xiaoqi; Du, Mingying; Chen, Lizhou; Kuang, Weihong; Sweeney, John A.; Gong, Qiyong

    2015-01-01

    Magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) provides a quantitative measure of the macromolecular structural integrity of brain tissue, as represented by magnetization transfer ratio (MTR). In this study, we utilized MTI to identify biophysical alterations in MDD patients with a history of suicide attempts relative to MDD patients without such history. The participants were 36 medication-free MDD patients, with (N = 17) and without (N = 19) a history of a suicide attempt, and 28 healthy controls matched for age and gender. Whole brain voxel-based analysis was used to compare MTR across three groups and to analyze correlations with symptom severity and illness duration. We identified decreased MTR in left inferior parietal lobule and right superior parietal lobule in suicide attempters relative to both non-attempters and controls. Non-attempters also showed significantly reduced MTR in left inferior parietal lobule relative to controls, as well as an MTR reduction in left cerebellum. These abnormalities were not correlated with symptom severity or illness duration. Depressed patients with a history of suicide attempt showed bilateral abnormalities in parietal cortex compared to nonsuicidal depressed patients and healthy controls. Parietal lobe abnormalities might cause attentional dysfunction and impaired decision making to increase risk for suicidal behavior in MDD. PMID:25853872

  9. Magnetization Transfer Ratio Relates to Cognitive Impairment in Normal Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, Stephan; Pirpamer, Lukas; Hofer, Edith; Duering, Marco; Jouvent, Eric; Fazekas, Franz; Mangin, Jean-Francois; Chabriat, Hugues; Dichgans, Martin; Ropele, Stefan; Schmidt, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    Magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) can detect microstructural brain tissue changes and may be helpful in determining age-related cerebral damage. We investigated the association between the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) in gray and white matter (WM) and cognitive functioning in 355 participants of the Austrian stroke prevention family study (ASPS-Fam) aged 38–86 years. MTR maps were generated for the neocortex, deep gray matter structures, WM hyperintensities, and normal appearing WM (NAWM). Adjusted mixed models determined whole brain and lobar cortical MTR to be directly and significantly related to performance on tests of memory, executive function, and motor skills. There existed an almost linear dose-effect relationship. MTR of deep gray matter structures and NAWM correlated to executive functioning. All associations were independent of demographics, vascular risk factors, focal brain lesions, and cortex volume. Further research is needed to understand the basis of this association at the tissue level, and to determine the role of MTR in predicting cognitive decline and dementia. PMID:25309438

  10. A narrative review of new trends in the diagnosis of myofascial trigger points: diagnostic ultrasound imaging and biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Srbely, John Z; Kumbhare, Dinesh; Grosman-Rimon, Liza

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is one of the most common conditions of chronic musculoskeletal pain encountered by primary healthcare practitioners on a daily basis. It is generally accepted amongst the broad profile of healthcare practitioners treating MPS that the presence of discrete, palpable and tender nodules within the muscle, known as myofascial trigger points (MTrP), is necessary to confirm the diagnosis of MPS. Manual palpation is currently the most common technique used to detect MTrP, however, previous research has shown that the reliability of manual palpation for detecting MTrP is poor, and in our opinion unacceptably poor, leading to inconsistent diagnosis of MPS and poor patient outcomes. There are currently no objective accepted diagnostic criteria for the clinical detection of MTrP, nor are there standardized diagnostic criteria for MPS. Two promising areas of research with potential for enhancing the diagnosis of MPS include the use of diagnostic ultrasound and biomarkers. Further research is needed to advance the development of composite diagnostic criteria employing ultrasound imaging, biomarker assessments and physical assessment to enhance the accuracy and objectivity of MTrP detection and diagnosis of chronic MPS disorder. PMID:27713577

  11. Efficacy of myofascial trigger point dry needling in the prevention of pain after total knee arthroplasty: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mayoral, Orlando; Salvat, Isabel; Martín, María Teresa; Martín, Stella; Santiago, Jesús; Cotarelo, José; Rodríguez, Constantino

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the dry needling of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) is superior to placebo in the prevention of pain after total knee arthroplasty. Forty subjects were randomised to a true dry needling group (T) or to a sham group (S). All were examined for MTrPs by an experienced physical therapist 4-5 hours before surgery. Immediately following anesthesiology and before surgery started, subjects in the T group were dry needled in all previously diagnosed MTrPs, while the S group received no treatment in their MTrPs. Subjects were blinded to group allocation as well as the examiner in presurgical and follow-up examinations performed 1, 3, and 6 months after arthroplasty. Subjects in the T group had less pain after intervention, with statistically significant differences in the variation rate of the visual analogue scale (VAS) measurements 1 month after intervention and in the need for immediate postsurgery analgesics. Differences were not significant at 3- and 6-month follow-up examinations. In conclusion, a single dry needling treatment of MTrP under anaesthesia reduced pain in the first month after knee arthroplasty, when pain was the most severe. Results show a superiority of dry needling versus placebo. An interesting novel placebo methodology for dry needling, with a real blinding procedure, is presented.

  12. Trypanosoma brucei spliced leader RNA maturation by the cap 1 2'-O-ribose methyltransferase and SLA1 H/ACA snoRNA pseudouridine synthase complex.

    PubMed

    Zamudio, Jesse R; Mittra, Bidyottam; Chattopadhyay, Arnab; Wohlschlegel, James A; Sturm, Nancy R; Campbell, David A

    2009-03-01

    Kinetoplastid flagellates attach a 39-nucleotide spliced leader (SL) upstream of protein-coding regions in polycistronic RNA precursors through trans splicing. SL modifications include cap 2'-O-ribose methylation of the first four nucleotides and pseudouridine (psi) formation at uracil 28. In Trypanosoma brucei, TbMTr1 performs 2'-O-ribose methylation of the first transcribed nucleotide, or cap 1. We report the characterization of an SL RNA processing complex with TbMTr1 and the SLA1 H/ACA small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein (snoRNP) particle that guides SL psi(28) formation. TbMTr1 is in a high-molecular-weight complex containing the four conserved core proteins of H/ACA snoRNPs, a kinetoplastid-specific protein designated methyltransferase-associated protein (TbMTAP), and the SLA1 snoRNA. TbMTAP-null lines are viable but have decreased SL RNA processing efficiency in cap methylation, 3'-end maturation, and psi(28) formation. TbMTAP is required for association between TbMTr1 and the SLA1 snoRNP but does not affect U1 small nuclear RNA methylation. A complex methylation profile in the mRNA population of TbMTAP-null lines indicates an additional effect on cap 4 methylations. The TbMTr1 complex specializes the SLA1 H/ACA snoRNP for efficient processing of multiple modifications on the SL RNA substrate.

  13. Multi-parameter MRI in the 6-OPRI variant of inherited prion disease

    PubMed Central

    De Vita, Enrico; Ridgway, Gerard R.; Scahill, Rachael I; Caine, Diana; Rudge, Peter; Yousry, Tarek A; Mead, Simon; Collinge, John; Jäger, H R; Thornton, John S; Hyare, Harpreet

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose To define the distribution of cerebral volumetric and microstructural parenchymal tissue changes in a specific mutation within inherited human prion diseases (IPD) combining voxel-based morphometry (VBM) with voxel-based analysis (VBA) of cerebral magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and mean diffusivity (MD). Materials and Methods VBM and VBA of cerebral MTR and MD were performed in 16 healthy controls and 9 patients with the 6-octapeptide repeat insertion (6-OPRI) mutation. An ANCOVA consisting of diagnostic grouping with age and total intracranial volume as covariates was performed. Results On VBM there was significant grey matter (GM) volume reduction in patients compared with controls in the basal ganglia, perisylvian cortex, lingual gyrus and precuneus. Significant MTR reduction and MD increases were more anatomically extensive than volume differences on VBM in the same cortical areas, but MTR and MD changes were not seen in the basal ganglia. Conclusions GM and WM changes were seen in brain areas associated with motor and cognitive functions known to be impaired in patients with the 6-OPRI mutation. There were some differences in the anatomical distribution of MTR-VBA and MDVBA changes compared to VBM, likely to reflect regional variations in the type and degree of the respective pathophysiological substrates. Combined analysis of complementary multi-parameter MRI data furthers our understanding of prion disease pathophysiology. PMID:23538406

  14. Efficacy of Myofascial Trigger Point Dry Needling in the Prevention of Pain after Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mayoral, Orlando; Salvat, Isabel; Martín, María Teresa; Martín, Stella; Santiago, Jesús; Cotarelo, José; Rodríguez, Constantino

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the dry needling of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) is superior to placebo in the prevention of pain after total knee arthroplasty. Forty subjects were randomised to a true dry needling group (T) or to a sham group (S). All were examined for MTrPs by an experienced physical therapist 4–5 hours before surgery. Immediately following anesthesiology and before surgery started, subjects in the T group were dry needled in all previously diagnosed MTrPs, while the S group received no treatment in their MTrPs. Subjects were blinded to group allocation as well as the examiner in presurgical and follow-up examinations performed 1, 3, and 6 months after arthroplasty. Subjects in the T group had less pain after intervention, with statistically significant differences in the variation rate of the visual analogue scale (VAS) measurements 1 month after intervention and in the need for immediate postsurgery analgesics. Differences were not significant at 3- and 6-month follow-up examinations. In conclusion, a single dry needling treatment of MTrP under anaesthesia reduced pain in the first month after knee arthroplasty, when pain was the most severe. Results show a superiority of dry needling versus placebo. An interesting novel placebo methodology for dry needling, with a real blinding procedure, is presented. PMID:23606888

  15. Uncovering the biochemical milieu of myofascial trigger points using in vivo microdialysis: an application of muscle pain concepts to myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shah, Jay P; Gilliams, Elizabeth A

    2008-10-01

    This article discusses muscle pain concepts in the context of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) and summarizes microdialysis studies that have surveyed the biochemical basis of this musculoskeletal pain condition. Though MPS is a common type of non-articular pain, its pathophysiology is only beginning to be understood due to its enormous complexity. MPS is characterized by the presence of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs), which are defined as hyperirritable nodules located within a taut band of skeletal muscle. MTrPs may be active (spontaneously painful and symptomatic) or latent (non-spontaneously painful). Painful MTrPs activate muscle nociceptors that, upon sustained noxious stimulation, initiate motor and sensory changes in the peripheral and central nervous systems. This process is called sensitization. In order to investigate the peripheral factors that influence the sensitization process, a microdialysis technique was developed to quantitatively measure the biochemical milieu of skeletal muscle. Biochemical differences were found between active and latent MTrPs, as well as in comparison with healthy muscle tissue. In this paper we relate the findings of elevated levels of sensitizing substances within painful muscle to the current theoretical framework of muscle pain and MTrP development.

  16. Trigger point needling: techniques and outcome.

    PubMed

    Vulfsons, Simon; Ratmansky, Motti; Kalichman, Leonid

    2012-10-01

    In this review we provide the updates on last years' advancements in basic science, imaging methods, efficacy, and safety of dry needling of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). The latest studies confirmed that dry needling is an effective and safe method for the treatment of MTrPs when provided by adequately trained physicians or physical therapists. Recent basic studies have confirmed that at the site of an active MTrP there are elevated levels of inflammatory mediators, known to be associated with persistent pain states and myofascial tenderness and that this local milieu changes with the occurrence of local twitch response. Two new modalities, sonoelastography and magnetic resonance elastography, were recently introduced allowing noninvasive imaging of MTrPs. MTrP dry needling, at least partially, involves supraspinal pain control via midbrain periaqueductal gray matter activation. A recent study demonstrated that distal muscle needling reduces proximal pain by means of the diffuse noxious inhibitory control. Therefore, in a patient too sensitive to be needled in the area of the primary pain source, the treatment can be initiated with distal needling.

  17. Links between dwarf and classical novae, and implications for the space densities and evolution of cataclysmic binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Shara, M.M.; Livio, M.; Moffat, A.F.J.; Orio, M.

    1986-12-01

    The effects of mass and angular momentum losses during a nova eruption are investigated by simulation in the context of a new nova evolution model. It is argued that surveys for cataclysmic variables (CVs) are very incomplete and that the local space density of CVs could well be 0.0001/cu pc. It is shown that the competing effets of mass and angular momentum loss usually increase the separation of a red and white dwarf during a nova eruption. The reasons why old novae remain bright for about a century after eruption and why they reduce the mass transfer rate (MTR) and eventually go into a state of hibernation for a thousand to a million years, eventually reviving as dwarf novae or novalike variables, are discussed. The results of these simulations are used to demonstrate the consistency of variable MTR in resolving the MTR discrepancy. 43 references.

  18. ADP-2Ho as a Phasing Tool for Nucleotide-Containing Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Ku,S.; Smith, G.; Howell, P.

    2007-01-01

    Trivalent holmium ions were shown to isomorphously replace magnesium ions to form an ADP-2Ho complex in the nucleotide-binding domain of Bacillus subtilis 5-methylthioribose (MTR) kinase. This nucleotide-holmium complex provided sufficient phasing power to allow SAD and SIRAS phasing of this previously unknown structure using the L{sub III} absorption edge of holmium. The structure of ADP-2Ho reveals that the two Ho ions are approximately 4 {angstrom} apart and are likely to share their ligands: the phosphoryl O atoms of ADP and a water molecule. The structure determination of MTR kinase using data collected using Cu K X-radiation was also attempted. Although the heavy-atom substructure determination was successful, interpretation of the map was more challenging. The isomorphous substitution of holmium for magnesium in the MTR kinase-nucleotide complex suggests that this could be a useful phasing tool for other metal-dependent nucleotide-containing proteins.

  19. Profiles of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone and melatonin during the sex change and maturation of cinnamon clownfish, Amphiprion melanopus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Jae; Habibi, Hamid R; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-06-24

    The present study aimed to determine the relationship between melatonin and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) and their effect on reproduction in cinnamon clownfish, Amphiprion melanopus. Accordingly, we investigated the expression pattern of GnIH, GnIH receptor (GnIH-R), and melatonin receptor (MT-R1) mRNA and protein, as well as the plasma levels of melatonin, during sex change in cinnamon clownfish. We found that GnIH and MT-R1 mRNA and melatonin activity were higher in fish with mature brain than in fish with developing gonads, and using double immunofluorescence staining, we found that both GnIH and MT-R1 proteins were co-expressed in the hypothalamus of cinnamon clownfish. These findings support the hypothesis that melatonin plays an important role in the negative regulation of maturation and GnIH regulation during reproduction. PMID:27208779

  20. Inhibition of Experimental Liver Cirrhosis in Mice by Telomerase Gene Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, Karl Lenhard; Chang, Sandy; Millard, Melissa; Schreiber-Agus, Nicole; DePinho, Ronald A.

    2000-02-01

    Accelerated telomere loss has been proposed to be a factor leading to end-stage organ failure in chronic diseases of high cellular turnover such as liver cirrhosis. To test this hypothesis directly, telomerase-deficient mice, null for the essential telomerase RNA (mTR) gene, were subjected to genetic, surgical, and chemical ablation of the liver. Telomere dysfunction was associated with defects in liver regeneration and accelerated the development of liver cirrhosis in response to chronic liver injury. Adenoviral delivery of mTR into the livers of mTR-/- mice with short dysfunctional telomeres restored telomerase activity and telomere function, alleviated cirrhotic pathology, and improved liver function. These studies indicate that telomere dysfunction contributes to chronic diseases of continual cellular loss-replacement and encourage the evaluation of ``telomerase therapy'' for such diseases.

  1. Changes in blood flow and cellular metabolism at a myofascial trigger point with trigger point release (ischemic compression): a proof-of-principle pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Moraska, Albert F.; Hickner, Robert C.; Kohrt, Wendy M.; Brewer, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate proof-of-principle measurement for physiological change within an active myofascial trigger point (MTrP) undergoing trigger point release (ischemic compression). Design Interstitial fluid was sampled continuously at a trigger point before and after intervention. Setting A biomedical research clinic at a university hospital. Participants Two subjects from a pain clinic presenting with chronic headache pain. Interventions A single microdialysis catheter was inserted into an active MTrP of the upper trapezius to allow for continuous sampling of interstitial fluid before and after application of trigger point therapy by a massage therapist. Main Outcome Measures Procedural success, pain tolerance, feasibility of intervention during sample collection, determination of physiologically relevant values for local blood flow, as well as glucose and lactate concentrations. Results Both patients tolerated the microdialysis probe insertion into the MTrP and treatment intervention without complication. Glucose and lactate concentrations were measured in the physiological range. Following intervention, a sustained increase in lactate was noted for both subjects. Conclusions Identifying physiological constituents of MTrP’s following intervention is an important step toward understanding pathophysiology and resolution of myofascial pain. The present study forwards that aim by showing proof-of-concept for collection of interstitial fluid from an MTrP before and after intervention can be accomplished using microdialysis, thus providing methodological insight toward treatment mechanism and pain resolution. Of the biomarkers measured in this study, lactate may be the most relevant for detection and treatment of abnormalities in the MTrP. PMID:22975226

  2. Possible dynamically gated conductance along heme wires in bacterial multiheme cytochromes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dayle M A; Rosso, Kevin M

    2014-07-24

    The staggered cross decaheme configuration of electron transfer cofactors in the outer-membrane cytochrome MtrF serves as a prototype for conformationally gated multiheme electron transport. Derived from the bacterium Shewanella oneidensis, the staggered cross configuration reveals intersecting c-type octaheme and tetraheme "wires" containing thermodynamic "hills" and "valleys" (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2014, 11, 611-616), suggesting that the protein structure may include a dynamical mechanism for conductance and pathway switching depending on enzymatic functional need. Here, we applied classical molecular and statistical mechanics calculations of large-amplitude protein dynamics in MtrF, to address its potential to modulate pathway conductance, including assessment of the effect of the total charge state. Explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations of fully oxidized and fully reduced MtrF showed that the slowest mode of collective decaheme motion is 90% similar between the oxidized and reduced states and consists primarily of interheme separation with minor rotational contributions. The frequency of this motion is 1.7 × 10(7) s(-1), both for fully oxidized and fully reduced MtrF, slower than the downhill electron transfer rates between stacked heme pairs at the octaheme termini and faster than the electron transfer rates between parallel hemes in the tetraheme chain. This implies that MtrF uses slow conformational fluctuations to modulate electron flow along the octaheme pathway, apparently for the purpose of increasing the residence time of electrons on lowest potential hemes 4 and 9. This apparent gating mechanism should increase the success rate of electron transfer from MtrF to low potential environmental acceptors via these two solvent-exposed hemes.

  3. Fluence-dependent effects of low-level laser therapy in myofascial trigger spots on modulation of biochemicals associated with pain in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yueh-Ling; Hong, Chang-Zern; Chou, Li-Wei; Yang, Shun-An; Yang, Chen-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Evidence strongly supports that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is an effective physical modality for the treatment of pain associated with myofascial trigger points (MTrP). However, the effect of laser fluence (energy intensity in J/cm(2)) on biochemical regulation related to pain is unclear. To better understand the biochemical mechanisms modulated by high- and low-fluence LLLT at myofascial trigger spots (MTrSs; similar to human MTrPs) in skeletal muscles of rabbits, the levels of β-endorphin (β-ep), substance P (SP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were investigated in this study. New Zealand rabbits (2.5-3.0 kg in weight) were used in this study. High-fluence LLLT (27 J/cm(2)), low-fluence LLLT (4.5 J/cm(2)), or sham operations were applied on MTrSs of biceps femoris of rabbits for five sessions (one session per day). Effects of LLLT at two different fluences on biceps femoris, dorsal root ganglion (DRG), and serum were determined by β-ep, SP, TNF-α, and COX-2 immunoassays. LLLT irradiation with fluences of 4.5 and 27 J/cm(2) at MTrSs can significantly reduce SP level in DRG. LLLT with lower fluence of 4.5 J/cm(2) exerted lower levels of TNF-α and COX-2 expression in laser-treated muscle, but LLLT with higher fluence of 27 J/cm(2) elevated the levels of β-ep in serum, DRG, and muscle. This study demonstrated fluence-dependent biochemical effects of LLLT in an animal model on management of myofascial pain. The findings can contribute to the development of dosage guideline for LLLT for treating MTrP-induced pain. PMID:25190639

  4. Mechanical pain sensitivity of deep tissues in children - possible development of myofascial trigger points in children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background It is still unclear when latent myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) develop during early life. This study is designed to investigate the mechanical pain sensitivity of deep tissues in children in order to see the possible timing of the development of latent MTrPs and attachment trigger points (A-TrPs) in school children. Methods Five hundreds and five healthy school children (age 4- 11 years) were investigated. A pressure algometer was used to measure the pressure pain threshold (PPT) at three different sites in the brachioradialis muscle: the lateral epicondyle at elbow (site A, assumed to be the A-TrP site), the mid-point of the muscle belly (site B, assumed to be the MTrP site), and the muscle-tendon junction as a control site (site C). Results The results showed that, for all children in this study, the mean PPT values was significantly lower (p < 0.05) at the assumed A-TrP site (site A) than at the other two sites, and was significantly lower (p < 0.05) at the assumed MTrP site (site B) than at the control site (site C). These findings are consistent if the data is analyzed for different genders, different dominant sides, and different activity levels. Conclusions It is concluded that a child had increased sensitivity at the tendon attachment site and the muscle belly (endplate zone) after age of 4 years. Therefore, it is likely that a child may develop an A-Trp and a latent MTrP at the brachioradialis muscle after the age of 4 years. The changes in sensitivity, or the development for these trigger points, may not be related to the activity level of children aged 7-11 years. Further investigation is still required to indentify the exact timing of the initial occurrence of a-Trps and latent MTrPs. PMID:22316064

  5. In Vitro Activity of Delafloxacin against Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates and Selection of Gonococcal Delafloxacin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Soge, Olusegun O; Salipante, Stephen J; No, David; Duffy, Erin; Roberts, Marilyn C

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the in vitro activity of delafloxacin against a panel of 117 Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains, including 110 clinical isolates collected from 2012 to 2015 and seven reference strains, compared with the activities of seven antimicrobials currently or previously recommended for treatment of gonorrhea. We examined the potential for delafloxacin to select for resistant mutants in ciprofloxacin-susceptible and ciprofloxacin-resistant N. gonorrhoeae We characterized mutations in the gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes and the multidrug-resistant efflux pumps (MtrC-MtrD-MtrE and NorM) by PCR and sequencing and by whole-genome sequencing. The MIC50, MIC90, and MIC ranges of delafloxacin were 0.06 μg/ml, 0.125 μg/ml, and ≤0.001 to 0.25 μg/ml, respectively. The frequency of spontaneous mutation ranged from 10(-7) to <10(-9) The multistep delafloxacin resistance selection of 30 daily passages resulted in stable resistant mutants. There was no obvious cross-resistance to nonfluoroquinolone comparator antimicrobials. A mutant with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (MIC, 0.25 μg/ml) obtained from the ciprofloxacin-susceptible parental strain had a novel Ser91Tyr alteration in the gyrA gene. We also identified new mutations in the gyrA and/or parC and parE genes and the multidrug-resistant efflux pumps (MtrC-MtrD-MtrE and NorM) of two mutant strains with elevated delafloxacin MICs of 1 μg/ml. Although delafloxacin exhibited potent in vitro activity against N. gonorrhoeae isolates and reference strains with diverse antimicrobial resistance profiles and demonstrated a low tendency to select for spontaneous mutants, it is important to establish the correlation between these excellent in vitro data and treatment outcomes through appropriate randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:26976873

  6. Fluence-dependent effects of low-level laser therapy in myofascial trigger spots on modulation of biochemicals associated with pain in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yueh-Ling; Hong, Chang-Zern; Chou, Li-Wei; Yang, Shun-An; Yang, Chen-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Evidence strongly supports that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is an effective physical modality for the treatment of pain associated with myofascial trigger points (MTrP). However, the effect of laser fluence (energy intensity in J/cm(2)) on biochemical regulation related to pain is unclear. To better understand the biochemical mechanisms modulated by high- and low-fluence LLLT at myofascial trigger spots (MTrSs; similar to human MTrPs) in skeletal muscles of rabbits, the levels of β-endorphin (β-ep), substance P (SP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were investigated in this study. New Zealand rabbits (2.5-3.0 kg in weight) were used in this study. High-fluence LLLT (27 J/cm(2)), low-fluence LLLT (4.5 J/cm(2)), or sham operations were applied on MTrSs of biceps femoris of rabbits for five sessions (one session per day). Effects of LLLT at two different fluences on biceps femoris, dorsal root ganglion (DRG), and serum were determined by β-ep, SP, TNF-α, and COX-2 immunoassays. LLLT irradiation with fluences of 4.5 and 27 J/cm(2) at MTrSs can significantly reduce SP level in DRG. LLLT with lower fluence of 4.5 J/cm(2) exerted lower levels of TNF-α and COX-2 expression in laser-treated muscle, but LLLT with higher fluence of 27 J/cm(2) elevated the levels of β-ep in serum, DRG, and muscle. This study demonstrated fluence-dependent biochemical effects of LLLT in an animal model on management of myofascial pain. The findings can contribute to the development of dosage guideline for LLLT for treating MTrP-induced pain.

  7. MTRETR MAINTENANCE SHOP, TRA653. FLOOR PLAN FOR FIRST FLOOR: MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR-ETR MAINTENANCE SHOP, TRA-653. FLOOR PLAN FOR FIRST FLOOR: MACHINE SHOP, ELECTRICAL AND INSTRUMENT SHOP, TOOL CRIB, ELECTRONIC SHOP, LOCKER ROOM, SPECIAL TEMPERATURE CONTROLLED ROOM, AND OFFICES. "NEW" ON DRAWING REFERS TO REVISION OF 11/1956 DRAWING ON WHICH AREAS WERE DESIGNATED AS "FUTURE." HUMMEL HUMMEL & JONES 810-MTR-ETR-653-A-7, 5/1957. INL INDEX NO. 532-0653-00-381-101839, REV. 2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. FAST CHOPPER DETECTOR HOUSE, TRA665. FIRST FLOOR, PLAN AND SECTION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FAST CHOPPER DETECTOR HOUSE, TRA-665. FIRST FLOOR, PLAN AND SECTION, AS PROPOSED FOR MODIFICATION IN 1962. CONCRETE WALLS THREE FEET THICK. EXISTING WINDOWS IN MTR AND DETECTOR HOUSE WALLS WERE TO BE FILLED IN WITH HIGH-DENSITY BRICK. NOTE 20-METER MARK, WHERE THE FAST CHOPPER DETECTOR HAD BEEN LOCATED. F.C. TORKELSON 842-MTR-665-S-2, 4/1962. INL INDEX NO. 531-0665-60-851-150996, REV. 5. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. MRT fuel element inspection at Dounreay

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J.

    1997-08-01

    To ensure that their production and inspection processes are performed in an acceptable manner, ie. auditable and traceable, the MTR Fuel Element Fabrication Plant at Dounreay operates to a documented quality system. This quality system, together with the fuel element manufacturing and inspection operations, has been independently certified to ISO9002-1987, EN29002-1987 and BS5750:Pt2:1987 by Lloyd`s Register Quality Assurance Limited (LRQA). This certification also provides dual accreditation to the relevant German, Dutch and Australian certification bodies. This paper briefly describes the quality system, together with the various inspection stages involved in the manufacture of MTR fuel elements at Dounreay.

  10. Possible Dynamically Gated Conductance along Heme Wires in Bacterial Multiheme Cytochromes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Dayle MA; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2014-07-24

    The staggered cross decaheme configuration of electron transfer co-factors in the outer-membrane cytochrome MtrF may serve as a prototype for conformationally-gated multi-heme electron transport. Derived from the bacterium Shewanella oneidensis, the staggered cross configuration reveals intersecting c-type octaheme and tetraheme “wires” containing thermodynamic “hills” and “valleys”, suggesting that the protein structure may include a dynamical mechanism for conductance and pathway switching depending on enzymatic functional need. Recent molecular simulations have established the pair-wise electronic couplings, redox potentials, and reorganization energies to predict the maximum conductance along the various heme wire pathways by sequential hopping of a single electron (PNAS (2014) 11,611-616). Here, we expand this information with classical molecular and statistical mechanics calculations of large-amplitude protein dynamics in MtrF, to address its potential to modulate pathway conductance, including assessment of the effect of the total charge state. Explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations of fully oxidized and fully reduced MtrF employing ten independent 50-ns simulations at 300 K and 1 atm showed that reduced MtrF is more expanded and explores more conformational space than oxidized MtrF, and that heme reduction leads to increased heme solvent exposure. The slowest mode of collective decaheme motion is 90% similar between the oxidized and reduced states, and consists primarily of inter-heme separation with minor rotational contributions. The frequency of this motion is 1.7×107 s 1 for fully-oxidized and fully-reduced MtrF, respectively, slower than the downhill electron transfer rates between stacked heme pairs at the octaheme termini and faster than the electron transfer rates between parallel hemes in the tetraheme chain. This implies that MtrF uses slow conformational fluctuations to modulate electron flow along the octaheme pathway

  11. The Multi-index Mittag-Leffler Functions and Their Applications for Solving Fractional Order Problems in Applied Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiryakova, V. S.; Luchko, Yu. F.

    2010-11-01

    During the last few decades, differential equations and systems of fractional order (that is arbitrary one, not necessarily integer) begun to play an important role in modeling of various phenomena of physical, engineering, automatization, biological and biomedical, chemical, earth, economics, social relations, etc. nature. The so-called Special Functions of Fractional Calculus (SF of FC) provide an important tool of Fractional Calculus (FC) and Applied Analysis (AA). In particular, they are often used to represent the solutions of fractional differential equations in explicit form. Among the most popular representatives of the SF of FC are: the Mittag-Leffler (ML) function, the Wright generalized hypergeometric function pΨq, the more general Fox H-function, and the Inayat-HussainH-function. The classical Special Functions (called also SF of Mathematical Physics), including the orthogonal polynomials, and the pFq-hypergeometric functions fall in this scheme as examples of the simpler Meijer G-function. In this survey talk, we overview the properties and some applications of an important class of SF of FC, introduced for the first time in our works. For integer m>1 and arbitrary real (or complex, under suitable restrictions) indices ρ1,…,ρm>0 and μ1,…,μm, we define the multi-index (vector-index) Mittag-Leffler functions by: E(1/ρi),(μi)(z) = E)1/ρi),(μi)(m)(z) = ∑ K=0∞zk/Γ(μ1+kρ1)…Γ(μm+k/ρm) = 1Ψm[mtr>(1,1)mtr>>(μ1,1/ρi)1m;zmtr>] = H1,m+11,1[-z‖mtr>(0,1)mtr>>(0,1),(1-μi,1/ρi)1mmtr>]. We propose also a list of examples of SF of FC that are E(1/ρi),(μi)-functions and play important role in pure mathematics and in solving problems from natural, applied and social sciences, and state

  12. PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA605. AERIAL TAKEN WHILE SEVERAL PIPE TRENCHES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA-605. AERIAL TAKEN WHILE SEVERAL PIPE TRENCHES REMAINED OPEN. CAMERA FACES EASTERLY. NOTE DUAL PIPES BETWEEN REACTOR BUILDING AND NORTH SIDE OF PROCESS WATER BUILDING. PIPING NEAR WORKING RESERVOIR HEADS FOR RETENTION RESERVOIR. PIPE FROM DEMINERALIZER ENTERS MTR FROM NORTH. SEE ALSO TRENCH FOR COOLANT AIR DUCT AT SOUTH SIDE OF MTR AND LEADING TO FAN HOUSE AND STACK. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2966-A. Unknown Photographer, 7/31/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA632. CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF HOT CELL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA-632. CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF HOT CELL BUILDING, IN VIEW AT LEFT, AS YET WITHOUT ROOF. PLUG STORAGE BUILDING LIES BETWEEN IT AND THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE MTR BUILDING AND ITS WING. NOTE CONCRETE DRIVE BETWEEN ROLL-UP DOOR IN MTR BUILDING AND CHARGING FACE OF PLUG STORAGE. REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING (TRA-635) WILL COVER THIS DRIVE AND BUTT UP TO CHARGING FACE. DOTTED LINE IS ON ORIGINAL NEGATIVE. TRA PARKING LOT IN LEFT CORNER OF THE VIEW. CAMERA FACING NORTHWESTERLY. INL NEGATIVE NO. 8274. Unknown Photographer, 7/2/1953 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. Multivariate combination of magnetization transfer, T2* and B0 orientation to study the myelo-architecture of the in vivo human cortex

    PubMed Central

    Mangeat, G.; Govindarajan, S. T.; Mainero, C.; Cohen-Adad, J.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, T2* imaging at 7 tesla (T) MRI was shown to reveal microstructural features of the cortical myeloarchitecture thanks to an increase in contrast-to-noise ratio. However, several confounds hamper the specificity of T2* measures (iron content, blood vessels, tissues orientation). Another metric, magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), is known to also be sensitive to myelin content and thus would be an excellent complementary measure because its underlying contrast mechanisms are different than that from T2*. The goal of this study was thus to combine MTR and T2* using multivariate statistics in order to gain insights into cortical myelin content. Seven healthy subjects were scanned at 7T and 3T to obtain T2* and MTR data, respectively. A multivariate myelin estimation model (MMEM) was developed, and consists in (i) normalizing T2* and MTR values and (ii) extracting their shared information using independent component analysis (ICA). B0 orientation dependence and cortical thickness were also computed and included in the model. Results showed high correlation between MTR and T2* in the whole cortex (r=0.76, p<10−16), suggesting that both metrics are partly driven by a common source of contrast, here assumed to be the myelin. Average MTR and T2* were respectively 31.0 +/− 0.3% and 32.1 +/− 1.4 ms. Results of the MMEM spatial distribution showed similar trends to that from histological work stained for myelin (r=0.77, p<0.01). Significant right-left differences were detected in the primary motor cortex (p<0.05), the posterior cingulate cortex (p<0.05) and the visual cortex (p<0.05). This study demonstrates that MTR and T2* are highly correlated in the cortex. The combination of MTR, T2*, CT and B0 orientation may be a useful means to study cortical myeloarchitecture with more specificity than using any of the individual methods. The MMEM framework is extendable to other contrasts such as T1 and diffusion MRI. PMID:26095090

  15. ETR CRITICAL FACILITY, TRA654. CONTEXTUAL VIEW. CAMERA ON ROOF OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR CRITICAL FACILITY, TRA-654. CONTEXTUAL VIEW. CAMERA ON ROOF OF MTR BUILDING AND FACING SOUTH. ETR AND ITS COOLANT BUILDING AT UPPER PART OF VIEW. ETR COOLING TOWER NEAR TOP EDGE OF VIEW. EXCAVATION AT CENTER IS FOR ETR CF. CENTER OF WHICH WILL CONTAIN POOL FOR REACTOR. NOTE CHOPPER TUBE PROCEEDING FROM MTR IN LOWER LEFT OF VIEW, DIAGONAL TOWARD LEFT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4227. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 12/18/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. Polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genes in Moldavian patients with ulcerative colitis: Genotype-phenotype correlation

    PubMed Central

    Varzari, Alexander; Deyneko, Igor V.; Tudor, Elena; Turcan, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Background Glutathione S-transferases (GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) are important enzymes for protection against oxidative stress. In addition, MTHFR has an essential role in DNA synthesis, repair, and methylation. Their polymorphisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of selected polymorphisms in these genes in the development of UC in the Moldavian population. Methods In a case-control study including 128 UC patients and 136 healthy individuals, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes (polymorphic deletions) were determined using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The GSTP1 rs1695 (Ile105Val), MTHFR rs1801133 (C677T), and MTHFR rs1801131 (A1298C) polymorphisms were studied with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Genotype–phenotype correlations were examined using logistic regression analysis. Results None of the genotypes, either alone or in combination, showed a strong association with UC. The case-only sub-phenotypic association analysis showed an association of the MTHFR rs1801133 polymorphism with the extent of UC under co-dominant (p corrected = 0.040) and recessive (p corrected = 0.020; OR = 0.15; CI = 0.04–0.63) genetic models. Also, an association between the MTHFR rs1801131 polymorphism and the severity of UC was reported for the over-dominant model (p corrected = 0.023; coefficient = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.10–0.54). Conclusion The GST and MTHFR genotypes do not seem to be a relevant risk factor for UC in our sample. There was, however, evidence that variants in MTHFR may influence the clinical features in UC patients. Additional larger studies investigating the relationship between GST and MTHFR polymorphisms and UC are required. PMID:26862484

  17. A Possible Genetic Link between MTHFR Genotype and Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Linnebank, Michael; Moskau, Susanna; Semmler, Alexander; Hoefgen, Barbara; Bopp, Gisela; Kallweit, Ulf; Maier, Wolfgang; Schütz, Christian G.; Wüllner, Ullrich

    2012-01-01

    Background Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for stroke and other vascular events. The variant methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T is associated with elevated homocysteine levels, cardiovascular disease and stroke, which supports a causal relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and vascular disease. However, MTHFR variants have also been reported to be associated with smoking behavior, which could be an important confounder. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the MTHFR variants C677T and A1298C in two independent samples of 525 and 535 individuals, respectively. 21% of the non-smokers, but only 12% of the smokers were homozygous carriers of both MTHFR wildtype alleles, i.e. 677CC and 1298AA (Chi2 = 15.8; p<0.001; binary regression). Plasma homocysteine levels were higher in smokers (13.9±4.1 µmol/L) than in non-smokers (12.6±4.0 µmol/L; F = 11.4; p = 0.001; ANOVA). Smoking MTHFR 677TT individuals had the highest plasma homocysteine levels (16.2±5.2 µmol/L), non-smoking 677CC individuals had the lowest (12.2±13.6 µmol/L). Conclusions/Significance In our study samples, MTHFR variants and smoking behaviour were associated with homocysteine plasma levels. In addition, the MTHFR variants were associated with smoking behaviour. Such an association may be a relevant confounder between MTHFR variants, homocysteine plasma levels and vascular diseases. PMID:23285280

  18. Potential Risk Factors Associated With Vascular Diseases in Patients Receiving Treatment for Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunjung; Park, Joonhong; Chae, Hyojin; Lee, Gun Dong; Lee, Sang Yoon; Lee, Jong Min; Oh, Yong-Seog

    2016-01-01

    Background Currently, the hypertension (HTN) patients undergo appropriate medical treatment, and traditional risk factors are highly controlled. Therefore, potential risk factors of atherosclerotic vascular diseases (AVD) and venous thromboembolisms (VTE) in HTN should be reconsidered. We investigated thrombophilic genetic mutations and existing biomarkers for AVD or VTE in HTN patients receiving treatment. Methods A total of 183 patients were enrolled: AVD with HTN (group A, n=45), VTE with HTN (group B, n=62), and HTN patients without any vascular diseases (group C, n=76). The lipid profile, homocysteine (Hcy) levels, D-dimers, fibrinogen, antithrombin, lupus anticoagulant, and anti-cardiolipin antibody (aCL) were evaluated. Prothrombin G20210A, Factor V G1691A, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C were analyzed. Results All patients revealed wild type prothrombin G20210A and Factor V G1691A polymorphisms. The frequency of MTHFR polymorphisms was 677CT (n=84, 45.9%); 677TT (n=46, 25.1%); 1298AC (n=46, 25.1%); and 1298CC (n=2, 1.1%). The MTHFR 677TT genotype tended to increase the odds ratio (OR) to AVD events in HTN patients (OR 2.648, confidence interval 0.982-7.143, P=0.05). The group A demonstrated significantly higher Hcy levels (P=0.009), fibrinogen (P=0.004), and platelet counts (P=0.04) than group C. Group B had significantly higher levels of D-dimers (P=0.0001), platelet count (P=0.0002), and aCL (P=0.02) frequency than group C. Conclusions The MTHFR 677TT genotype and Hcy level could be potential risk factors associated with development of AVD in HTN patients receiving treatment. D-dimer and aCL might be useful to estimate the occurrence of VTE in them. PMID:26915609

  19. Specific and common genes implicated across major mental disorders: a review of meta-analysis studies.

    PubMed

    Gatt, Justine M; Burton, Karen L O; Williams, Leanne M; Schofield, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    Major efforts have been directed at family-based association and case-control studies to identify the involvement of candidate genes in the major disorders of mental health. What remains unknown is whether candidate genes are associated with multiple disorders via pleiotropic mechanisms, and/or if other genes are specific to susceptibility for individual disorders. Here we undertook a review of genes that have been identified in prior meta-analyses examining specific genes and specific mental disorders that have core disruptions to emotional and cognitive function and contribute most to burden of illness- major depressive disorder (MDD), anxiety disorders (AD, including panic disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder), schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A literature review was conducted up to end-March 2013 which included a total of 1519 meta-analyses across 157 studies reporting multiple genes implicated in one or more of the five disorders studied. A total of 134 genes (206 variants) were identified as significantly associated risk variants for MDD, AD, ADHD, SZ or BD. Null genetic effects were also reported for 195 genes (426 variants). 13 genetic variants were shared in common between two or more disorders (APOE e4, ACE Ins/Del, BDNF Val66Met, COMT Val158Met, DAOA G72/G30 rs3918342, DAT1 40-bp, DRD4 48-bp, SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR, HTR1A C1019G, MTHR C677T, MTHR A1298C, SLC6A4 VNTR and TPH1 218A/C) demonstrating evidence for pleiotrophy. Another 12 meta-analyses of GWAS studies of the same disorders were identified, with no overlap in genetic variants reported. This review highlights the progress that is being made in identifying shared and unique genetic mechanisms that contribute to the risk of developing several major psychiatric disorders, and identifies further steps for progress.

  20. Association between Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) Gene Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in an Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Bahari, Gholamreza; Hashemi, Mohammad; Naderi, Majid; Taheri, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present study was aimed to examine the possible association between methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in a sample of Iranian population. Subjects and Methods: A total of 220 subjects including 100 children diagnosed with ALL and 120 healthy children participated in the case-control study. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of MTHFR were determined by ARMS-PCR or PCR-RFLP method. Results: Our investigation revealed that rs13306561 both TC and TC + CC genotypes decreased the risk of ALL compared to TT genotype (OR=0.32, 95%CI=0.15-0.68, p=0.002 and OR=0.35, 95%CI=0.17-0.70, p=0.003, respectively). In addition, the rs13306561 C allele decreased the risk of ALL in comparison with T allele (OR=0.42, 95% CI=0.22-0.78, P=0.005). MTHFR rs1801131 (A1298C) polymorphism showed that the AC heterozygous genotype decreased the risk of ALL in comparison with AA homozygous genotype (OR=0.43, 95%CI=0.21-0.90, p=0.037). Neither the overall Chi-square comparison of cases and control subjects (𝜒2=5.54, p=0.063) nor the logistic regression analysis showed significant association between C677T polymorphism and ALL (OR=1.25, 95% CI=0.69-2.23, p=0.552; CT vs. CC). Conclusion: The current investigation findings showed that MTHFR rs1801131 and rs13306561 polymorphisms decreased the risk of ALL in the population which has been studied. Further studies with larger sample sizes and different ethnicities are required to validate our findings. PMID:27489588

  1. Ramifications of four concurrent thrombophilic mutations and one hypofibrinolytic mutation.

    PubMed

    Glueck, Charles J; Goldenberg, Naila; Wang, Ping; Aregawi, Dawit

    2004-10-01

    A kindred was examined in which the 48-year-old white female proband with three deep venous thrombosis-pulmonary emboli events had four thrombophilic and one hypofibrinolytic mutations, and in which her 14-year-old asymptomatic daughter had four thrombophilic mutations. The proband was heterozygous for the G1691A factor V Leiden, G20210A prothrombin, and platelet glycoprotein IIIa PL A1/A2 mutations, had high factor VIII (221%), and was homozygous for the 4G4G plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene mutation, with high plasminogen activator inhibitor activity (23.7 U/mL). Her 14-year-old daughter was homozygous for the G1691A factor V Leiden and platelet glycoprotein IIb-IIIa PL A2/A2 mutations, compound heterozygous for the C677T and A1298C methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutations, and heterozygous for the G20210A prothrombin mutation, a combination with an estimated likelihood of 1.6 x 10(-7). In 247 white healthy controls, there was no V Leiden homozygosity and no V Leiden-prothrombin gene compound heterozygosity. Heterozygosity for the V Leiden and prothrombin gene mutations was 3.2% and 4.1%, respectively. Homozygosity for the platelet glycoprotein IIb-IIIa PL A2A2, PAI-1 gene 4G4G, and C677T MTHFR mutations was 3.2%, 22.7%, and 12%, respectively. The proband will receive anticoagulation therapy for life. Beyond aspirin, avoidance of exogenous estrogens, and enoxaparin prophylaxis during pregnancy, it is not known whether the proband's daughter should have lifelong anticoagulation therapy, or only after her first thrombotic event. PMID:15497023

  2. STORAGE AND RECIEVING, TRA662. ELEVATIONS. LOWBAY SECTION ON SOUTH SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STORAGE AND RECIEVING, TRA-662. ELEVATIONS. LOW-BAY SECTION ON SOUTH SIDE WAS FLAMMABLE STORAGE AREA. HUMMEL HUMMEL & JONES 1038-MTR-ETR-662-A-3, 6/1960. INL INDEX NO. 532-0653-00-381-102036, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. ETRMTR MECHANICAL SERVICES BUILDING, TRA653, INTERIOR. CAMERA IS INSIDE MEN'S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR-MTR MECHANICAL SERVICES BUILDING, TRA-653, INTERIOR. CAMERA IS INSIDE MEN'S LAVATORY AND SHOWER FACING SOUTHEAST. SHOWER AND TOILET STALLS ARE IN PLACE. ROUND COMMUNAL SINK AT LEFT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 57-3652. K. Mansfield, Photographer, 7/22/1957 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. ETRMTR MECHANICAL SERVICES BUILDING, TRA653. CAMERA FACING NORTHWEST AS BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR-MTR MECHANICAL SERVICES BUILDING, TRA-653. CAMERA FACING NORTHWEST AS BUILDING WAS NEARLY COMPLETE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 57-3653. K. Mansfield, Photographer, 7/22/1957 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. Effect of Latent Myofascial Trigger Points on Strength Measurements of the Upper Trapezius: A Case-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Anshul

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The purpose of this article was to determine whether strength is altered in the upper trapezius in the presence of latent myofascial trigger points (MTrP). Methods: This study was case controlled and used convenience sampling. The sample recruited was homogeneous with respect to age, sex, height, and body mass. Participants were assessed for the presence of latent MTrP in the upper trapezius and placed into two groups: an experimental group that had latent MTrP in the upper trapezius and a control group that did not. Eighteen women (mean age 21.4 y, SD 1.89; mean height 156.9 cm, SD 4.03; and mean body mass 51.7 kg, SD 5.84) made up the experimental group, and 19 women (mean age 20.3 y, SD 1.86; mean height 158.6 cm, SD 3.14; and mean body mass 53.2 kg, SD 5.17) made up the control group. We obtained strength measurements of the non-dominant arm using a handheld dynamometer and compared them between the two groups. Results: The difference in the strength measurements between the two groups was not statistically significant (p=0.59). Conclusions: The presence of latent MTrPs may not affect the strength of the upper trapezius. PMID:22942517

  6. ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA644. FLOOR PLAN AND SECTIONS. PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA-644. FLOOR PLAN AND SECTIONS. PUMP CUBICLES WITH PUMP MOTORS OUTSIDE CUBICLES. HEAT EXCHANGER EQUIPMENT. COOLANT PIPE TUNNEL ENTERS FROM REACTOR BUILDING. KAISER ETR-5582-MTR-644-A-3, 2/1956. INL INDEX NO. 532-0644-00-486-101294, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA632. ELEVATIONS FOR SOUTH, NORTH AND WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA-632. ELEVATIONS FOR SOUTH, NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF 1958 EXTENSION. H.K. FERGUSON CO. 895-MTR-ETR-632-A3, 12/1958. INL INDEX NO. 531-0632-00-279-101926, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. FAST CHOPPER DETECTOR HOUSE, TRA665. SECOND FLOOR ADDITION: PLAN, SECTIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FAST CHOPPER DETECTOR HOUSE, TRA-665. SECOND FLOOR ADDITION: PLAN, SECTIONS AND DETAILS AS ADDED TO THE EXISTING CHOPPER HOUSE IN 1962. F.C. TORKELSON 842-MTR-665-S-3, 4/1962. INL INDEX NO. 531-0665-60-851-150997, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. Magnetization transfer imaging reveals geniculocalcarine and striate area degeneration in primary glaucoma: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Liang, Wenwen; Wu, Guijun; Zhang, Xuelin

    2016-01-01

    Background Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease that affects both the retina and central visual pathway. Magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) is a sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that can detect degenerative changes in the brain. Purpose To investigate the geniculocalcarine (GCT) and striate areas in primary glaucoma patients using region of interest (ROI) analysis of magnetization transfer ratio (MTR). Material and Methods Twenty patients with primary glaucoma in both eyes were compared with 31 healthy control patients. All of the participants were examined on a 3.0 T scanner using a three-dimensional T1-weighted spoiled gradient recalled acquisition (SPGR) with and without a MT saturation pulse. A two-sample t-test was used to evaluate the MTR difference between the groups. P < 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance. Results The MTR of the glaucoma group was lower than the healthy controls in both the bilateral GCT (t = 3.781, P = 0.001) and striate areas (t = 4.177, P = 0.000). Conclusion The MTR reductions in the bilateral GCT and striate areas suggest that there is GCT demyelination and striate area degeneration in primary glaucoma. These neurodegenerative effects may be induced as a direct effect of retrograde axonal degeneration along with the indirect effect of anterograde trans-synaptic degeneration.

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Myelin and Axonal Remodeling in the Uninjured Motor Network After Stroke.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Chia; Daducci, Alessandro; Meskaldji, Djalel Eddine; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Michel, Patrik; Meuli, Reto; Krueger, Gunnar; Menegaz, Gloria; Granziera, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    Contralesional brain connectivity plasticity was previously reported after stroke. This study aims at disentangling the biological mechanisms underlying connectivity plasticity in the uninjured motor network after an ischemic lesion. In particular, we measured generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) to assess whether poststroke connectivity remodeling depends on axonal and/or myelin changes. Diffusion-spectrum imaging and magnetization transfer MRI at 3T were performed in 10 patients in acute phase, at 1 and 6 months after stroke, which was affecting motor cortical and/or subcortical areas. Ten age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers were scanned 1 month apart for longitudinal comparison. Clinical assessment was also performed in patients prior to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the contralesional hemisphere, average measures and tract-based quantitative analysis of GFA and MTR were performed to assess axonal integrity and myelination along motor connections as well as their variations in time. Mean and tract-based measures of MTR and GFA showed significant changes in a number of contralesional motor connections, confirming both axonal and myelin plasticity in our cohort of patients. Moreover, density-derived features (peak height, standard deviation, and skewness) of GFA and MTR along the tracts showed additional correlation with clinical scores than mean values. These findings reveal the interplay between contralateral myelin and axonal remodeling after stroke.

  11. Structural and Functional Characteristics of Natural and Constructed Channels Draining a Reclaimed Mountaintop Removal and Valley Fill Coal Mine

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop removal and valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining has altered the landscape of the Central Appalachian region in the USA. Among the changes are large-scale topographic recontouring, burial of headwater streams, and degradation of downstream water quality. The goals of our ...

  12. 40 CFR 264.554 - Staging piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Technological Requirements (MTR)? No. Placing hazardous remediation wastes into a staging pile does not constitute land disposal of hazardous wastes or create a unit that is subject to the minimum technological... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS...

  13. 40 CFR 264.554 - Staging piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Technological Requirements (MTR)? No. Placing hazardous remediation wastes into a staging pile does not constitute land disposal of hazardous wastes or create a unit that is subject to the minimum technological... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS...

  14. 40 CFR 264.554 - Staging piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Technological Requirements (MTR)? No. Placing hazardous remediation wastes into a staging pile does not constitute land disposal of hazardous wastes or create a unit that is subject to the minimum technological... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS...

  15. 40 CFR 264.554 - Staging piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Technological Requirements (MTR)? No. Placing hazardous remediation wastes into a staging pile does not constitute land disposal of hazardous wastes or create a unit that is subject to the minimum technological... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS...

  16. 40 CFR 264.554 - Staging piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Technological Requirements (MTR)? No. Placing hazardous remediation wastes into a staging pile does not constitute land disposal of hazardous wastes or create a unit that is subject to the minimum technological... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS...

  17. Association between microscopic brain damage as indicated by magnetization transfer imaging and anticardiolipin antibodies in neuropsychiatric lupus

    PubMed Central

    Steens, Stefan CA; Bosma, Gerlof PTh; Steup-Beekman, Gerda M; le Cessie, Saskia; Huizinga, Tom WJ; van Buchem, Mark A

    2006-01-01

    The pathogenetic role of anticardiolipin antibodies (aCLs) in patients with neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) without cerebral infarcts remains elusive. Magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) has proved to be a sensitive tool for detecting diffuse microscopic brain damage in NPSLE patients. In this study we examined the correlation between grey and white matter magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) parameters and the presence of IgM and IgG aCLs and lupus anticoagulant in 18 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and a history of NPSLE but without cerebral infarcts on conventional magnetic resonance imaging. Lower grey matter mean MTR (P < 0.05), white matter mean MTR (P < 0.05), white matter peak location (P < 0.05) and grey matter peak location (trend toward statistical significance) were observed in IgM aCL-positive patients than in IgM aCL-negative patients. No significant differences were found in MTR histogram parameters with respect to IgG aCL and lupus anticoagulant status, nor with respect to anti-dsDNA or anti-ENA (extractable nuclear antigen) status. This is the first report of an association between the presence of aCLs and cerebral damage in grey and white matter in NPSLE. Our findings suggest that aCLs are associated with diffuse brain involvement in NPSLE patients. PMID:16469116

  18. Neural substrate of quality of life in patients with schizophrenia: a magnetisation transfer imaging study.

    PubMed

    Faget-Agius, Catherine; Catherine, Faget-Agius; Boyer, Laurent; Wirsich, Jonathan; Jonathan, Wirsich; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Jean-Philippe, Ranjeva; Richieri, Raphaelle; Raphaelle, Richieri; Soulier, Elisabeth; Elisabeth, Soulier; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Sylviane, Confort-Gouny; Auquier, Pascal; Pascal, Auquier; Guye, Maxime; Maxime, Guye; Lançon, Christophe; Christophe, Lançon

    2015-12-03

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neural substrate underlying quality of life (QoL) and to demonstrate the microstructural abnormalities associated with impaired QoL in a large sample of patients with schizophrenia, using magnetisation transfer imaging. A total of 81 right-handed men with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and 25 age- and sex-similar healthy controls were included and underwent a 3T MRI with magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) to detect microstructural abnormalities. Compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia had grey matter (GM) decreased MTR values in the temporal lobe (BA21, BA37 and BA38), the bilateral insula, the occipital lobe (BA17, BA18 and BA19) and the cerebellum. Patients with impaired QoL had lower GM MTR values relative to patients with preserved QoL in the bilateral temporal pole (BA38), the bilateral insula, the secondary visual cortex (BA18), the vermis and the cerebellum. Significant correlations between MTR values and QoL scores (p < 0.005) were observed in the GM of patients in the right temporal pole (BA38), the bilateral insula, the vermis and the right cerebellum. Our study shows that QoL impairment in patients with schizophrenia is related to the microstructural changes in an extensive network, suggesting that QoL is a bio-psychosocial marker.

  19. 75 FR 74768 - Madison Terminal Railway, LLC-Lease and Operation Exemption-Line of Railroad in Dane County, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Madison Terminal Railway, LLC--Lease and Operation Exemption-- Line of Railroad in Dane County, WI Madison Terminal Railway, LLC (MTR), a noncarrier, has filed a verified...

  20. Single-Cell Imaging and Spectroscopic Analyses of Cr(VI) Reduction on the Surface of Bacterial Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuanmin; Sevinc, Papatya C.; Belchik, Sara M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Shi, Liang; Lu, H. Peter

    2013-01-22

    We investigate single-cell reduction of toxic Cr(VI) by the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (MR-1), an important bioremediation process, using Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Our experiments indicate that the toxic and highly soluble Cr(VI) can be efficiently reduced to the less toxic and non-soluble Cr2O3 nanoparticles by MR-1. Cr2O3 is observed to emerge as nanoparticles adsorbed on the cell surface and its chemical nature is identified by EDX imaging and Raman spectroscopy. Co-localization of Cr2O3 and cytochromes by EDX imaging and Raman spectroscopy suggests a terminal reductase role for MR-1 surface-exposed cytochromes MtrC and OmcA. Our experiments revealed that the cooperation of surface proteins OmcA and MtrC makes the reduction reaction most efficient, and the sequence of the reducing reactivity of the MR-1 is: wild type > single mutant @mtrC or mutant @omcA > double mutant (@omcA-@mtrC). Moreover, our results also suggest that the direct microbial Cr(VI) reduction and Fe(II) (hematite)-mediated Cr(VI) reduction mechanisms may co-exist in the reduction processes.

  1. High bit rate mass data storage device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The HDDR-II mass data storage system consists of a Leach MTR 7114 recorder reproducer, a wire wrapped, integrated circuit flat plane and necessary power supplies for the flat plane. These units, with interconnecting cables and control panel are enclosed in a common housing mounted on casters. The electronics used in the HDDR-II double density decoding and encoding techniques are described.

  2. Toward Distinguishing Recurrent Tumor From Radiation Necrosis: DWI and MTC in a Gamma Knife–Irradiated Mouse Glioma Model

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Torres, Carlos J.; Engelbach, John A.; Cates, Jeremy; Thotala, Dinesh; Yuan, Liya; Schmidt, Robert E.; Rich, Keith M.; Drzymala, Robert E.; Ackerman, Joseph J.H.; Garbow, Joel R.

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: Accurate noninvasive diagnosis is vital for effective treatment planning. Presently, standard anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is incapable of differentiating recurring tumor from delayed radiation injury, as both lesions are hyperintense in both postcontrast T1- and T2-weighted images. Further studies are therefore necessary to identify an MRI paradigm that can differentially diagnose these pathologies. Mouse glioma and radiation injury models provide a powerful platform for this purpose. Methods and Materials: Two MRI contrasts that are widely used in the clinic were chosen for application to a glioma/radiation-injury model: diffusion weighted imaging, from which the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is obtained, and magnetization transfer contrast, from which the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) is obtained. These metrics were evaluated longitudinally, first in each lesion type alone–glioma versus irradiation – and then in a combined irradiated glioma model. Results: MTR was found to be consistently decreased in all lesions compared to nonlesion brain tissue (contralateral hemisphere), with limited specificity between lesion types. In contrast, ADC, though less sensitive to the presence of pathology, was increased in radiation injury and decreased in tumors. In the irradiated glioma model, ADC also increased immediately after irradiation, but decreased as the tumor regrew. Conclusions: ADC is a better metric than MTR for differentiating glioma from radiation injury. However, MTR was more sensitive to both tumor and radiation injury than ADC, suggesting a possible role in detecting lesions that do not enhance strongly on T1-weighted images.

  3. HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA632. FIRST FLOOR FOUNDATION PLAN SHOWS SECTIONALIZED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA-632. FIRST FLOOR FOUNDATION PLAN SHOWS SECTIONALIZED FLOOR LOADINGS AND CONCRETE SLAB THICKNESSES, A TYPICAL FEATURE OF NUCLEAR ARCHITECTURE. IDAHO OPERATIONS OFFICE MTR-632-IDO-2, 11/1952. INL INDEX NO. 531-0632-62-396-110561, REV. 1. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. Cognitive impairment as marker of diffuse brain abnormalities in early relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Deloire, M; Salort, E; Bonnet, M; Arimone, Y; Boudineau, M; Amieva, H; Barroso, B; Ouallet, J; Pachai, C; Galliaud, E; Petry, K; Dousset, V; Fabrigoule, C; Brochet, B

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To establish the frequency of cognitive impairment in a population based sample of patients with recently diagnosed relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), and to determine the relation between cognitive abnormalities and the extent of macroscopic and microscopic tissue damage revealed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetisation transfer (MT) imaging. Methods: 58 patients with RRMS consecutively diagnosed in the previous six months in Aquitaine and 70 healthy controls underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests. Lesion load and atrophy indices (brain parenchymal fraction and ventricular fraction) were measured on brain MRI. MT ratio (MTR) histograms were obtained from lesions, normal appearing white matter (NAWM), and normal appearing grey matter (NAGM). Gadolinium enhanced lesions were counted. Results: 44 RRMS patients could be individually matched with healthy controls for age, sex, and education. Patients performed worse in tests of verbal and spatial memory, attention, information processing speed, inhibition, and conceptualisation. Measures of attention and information processing speed were correlated with lesion load, mean NAWM MTR, and the peak location of the NAGM MTR histogram in the patients. Multivariate regression analysis showed that lesion load and mean NAWM MTR were among the MR indices that were most significantly associated with impairment of attention and information processing speed in these early RRMS cases. Conclusions: Cognitive impairment appears to be common in the early stages of RRMS, mainly affecting attention, information processing speed, memory, inhibition, and conceptualisation. The severity of these deficits reflects the extent of the lesions and the severity of tissue disorganisation outside lesions. PMID:15774439

  5. Catalog of experimental projects for a fissioning plasma reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzo, C. D.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations were carried out to determine the feasibility of using a small scale fissioning uranium plasma as the power source in a driver reactor. The driver system is a light water cooled and moderated reactor of the MTR type. The eight experiments and proposed configurations for the reactor are outlined.

  6. Methionine salvage pathway in relation to ethylene biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The recycling of methionine during ethylene biosynthesis (the methionine cycle) was studied. During ethylene biosynthesis, the H/sub 3/CS-group of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is released at 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA), which is recycled to methionine via 5'-methylthioribose (MTS). In mungbean hypocotyls and cell-free extracts of avocado fruit, (/sup 14/C)MTR was converted to labeled methionine via 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyric acid (KMB) and 2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutyric acid (HMB) as intermediates. Radioactive tracer studies showed that KMB was converted readily in vivo and in vitro to methionine, while HMB was converted much more slowly. The conversion of KMB to methionine by dialyzed avocado extract required an amino group donor. Among several potential donors tested, L-glutamine was the most efficient. Incubation of (ribose-U-/sup 14/C)MTR with avocado extract resulted in the production of (/sup 14/C)formate, with little evolution of other /sup 14/C-labeled one-carbon compounds, indicating that the conversion of MTR to KMB involves a loss of formate, presumably from C-1 of MTR.

  7. 33 CFR 154.1210 - Purpose and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Response Plans for Animal Fats and Vegetable Oils Facilities § 154.1210 Purpose and applicability. (a) The requirements of this... fats or vegetable oils including— (1) A fixed MTR facility capable of transferring oil in bulk, to...

  8. 33 CFR 154.1210 - Purpose and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Response Plans for Animal Fats and Vegetable Oils Facilities § 154.1210 Purpose and applicability. (a) The requirements of this... fats or vegetable oils including— (1) A fixed MTR facility capable of transferring oil in bulk, to...

  9. 33 CFR 154.1210 - Purpose and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Response Plans for Animal Fats and Vegetable Oils Facilities § 154.1210 Purpose and applicability. (a) The requirements of this... fats or vegetable oils including— (1) A fixed MTR facility capable of transferring oil in bulk, to...

  10. 33 CFR 154.1210 - Purpose and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Response Plans for Animal Fats and Vegetable Oils Facilities § 154.1210 Purpose and applicability. (a) The requirements of this... fats or vegetable oils including— (1) A fixed MTR facility capable of transferring oil in bulk, to...

  11. 33 CFR 154.1210 - Purpose and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Response Plans for Animal Fats and Vegetable Oils Facilities § 154.1210 Purpose and applicability. (a) The requirements of this... fats or vegetable oils including— (1) A fixed MTR facility capable of transferring oil in bulk, to...

  12. Single-Cell Imaging and Spectroscopic Analyses of Cr(VI) Reduction on the Surface of Bacterial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuanmin; Sevinc, Papatya C.; Balchik, Sara M.; Fridrickson, Jim; Shi, Liang; Lu, H. Peter

    2013-01-01

    We investigate single-cell reduction of toxic Cr(VI) by the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (MR-1), an important bioremediation process, using Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Our experiments indicate that the toxic and highly soluble Cr(VI) can be efficiently reduced to the less toxic and non-soluble Cr2O3 nanoparticles by MR-1. Cr2O3 is observed to emerge as nanoparticles adsorbed on the cell surface and its chemical nature is identified by EDX imaging and Raman spectroscopy. Co-localization of Cr2O3 and cytochromes by EDX imaging and Raman spectroscopy suggests a terminal reductase role for MR-1 surface-exposed cytochromes MtrC and OmcA. Our experiments revealed that the cooperation of surface proteins OmcA and MtrC makes the reduction reaction most efficient, and the sequence of the reducing reactivity of the MR-1 is: wild type > single mutant ΔmtrC or mutant ΔomcA > double mutant (ΔomcA-ΔmtrC). Moreover, our results also suggest that the direct microbial Cr(VI) reduction and Fe(II) (hematite)-mediated Cr(VI) reduction mechanisms may co-exist in the reduction processes. PMID:23249294

  13. Impacts of Mountaintop Removal and Valley Fill Coal Mining on C and N Processing in Terrestrial Soils and Headwater Streams.

    EPA Science Inventory

    We measured C and N cycling indicators in Appalachian watersheds impacted by mountaintop removal and valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining, and in nearby forested watersheds. These watersheds include ephemeral, intermittent, and perennial stream reaches, and the length of time since d...

  14. PLUG STORAGE BUILDING, TRA611, AWAITS SHIELDING SOIL TO BE PLACED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLUG STORAGE BUILDING, TRA-611, AWAITS SHIELDING SOIL TO BE PLACED OVER PLUG STORAGE TUBES. WING WALLS WILL SUPPORT EARTH FILL. MTR, PROCESS WATER BUILDING, AND WORKING RESERVOIR IN VIEW BEYOND PLUG STORAGE. CAMERA FACES NORTHEAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2949. Unknown Photographer, 7/30/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. The neurophysiological effects of dry needling in patients with upper trapezius myofascial trigger points: study protocol of a controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Abbaszadeh-Amirdehi, Maryam; Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin; Naghdi, Soofia; Olyaei, Gholamreza; Nourbakhsh, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Dry needling (DN) is an effective method for the treatment of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). There is no report on the neurophysiological effects of DN in patients with MTrPs. The aim of the present study will be to assess the immediate neurophysiological efficacy of deep DN in patients with upper trapezius MTrPs. Methods and analysis A prospective, controlled clinical trial was designed to include patients with upper trapezius MTrPs and volunteered healthy participants to receive one session of DN. The primary outcome measures are neuromuscular junction response and sympathetic skin response. The secondary outcomes are pain intensity and pressure pain threshold. Data will be collected at baseline and immediately after intervention. Ethics and dissemination This study protocol has been approved by the Research Council, School of Rehabilitation and the Ethics Committee of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The results of the study will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international congresses. PMID:23793673

  16. SCIENTIST DEMONSTRATES PLACING A "RABBIT CATCHER" INTO ONE OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SCIENTIST DEMONSTRATES PLACING A "RABBIT CATCHER" INTO ONE OF THE VERTICAL TEST HOLES AT THE TOP OF THE MTR. CONTROL ROD DRIVES ARE BEHIND HIM TOWARDS LEFT OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-513. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 2/13/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. 33 CFR 154.1055 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exercises. 154.1055 Section 154... Exercises. (a) A response plan submitted by an owner or operator of an MTR facility must include an exercise program containing both announced and unannounced exercises. The following are the minimum...

  18. 33 CFR 154.1055 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exercises. 154.1055 Section 154... Exercises. (a) A response plan submitted by an owner or operator of an MTR facility must include an exercise program containing both announced and unannounced exercises. The following are the minimum...

  19. 33 CFR 154.1055 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exercises. 154.1055 Section 154... Exercises. (a) A response plan submitted by an owner or operator of an MTR facility must include an exercise program containing both announced and unannounced exercises. The following are the minimum...

  20. 33 CFR 154.1055 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exercises. 154.1055 Section 154... Exercises. (a) A response plan submitted by an owner or operator of an MTR facility must include an exercise program containing both announced and unannounced exercises. The following are the minimum...

  1. 33 CFR 154.1055 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exercises. 154.1055 Section 154... Exercises. (a) A response plan submitted by an owner or operator of an MTR facility must include an exercise program containing both announced and unannounced exercises. The following are the minimum...

  2. ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA648. FLOOR PLANS FOR FIRST FLOOR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA-648. FLOOR PLANS FOR FIRST FLOOR AND BASEMENT. SECTIONS. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-648-A-2, 12/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0648-00-486-101402, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA648. ELEVATIONS AND DETAILS. ROOF PLAN. DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA-648. ELEVATIONS AND DETAILS. ROOF PLAN. DOOR SCHEDULE. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-648-A-3, 1/1956. INL INDEX NO. 532-0648-00-486-101403, REV. 5. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. ETR, TRA642. WALL SECTION DETAILS. METAL SIDING JOINS TO ELECTRICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. WALL SECTION DETAILS. METAL SIDING JOINS TO ELECTRICAL BUILDING, OFFICE BUILDING, AND ROOF. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-A-13, 11/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0642-00-486-100920, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. ETR, TRA642. ELEVATIONS. METAL SIDING. OFFICE BUILDING (TRA647) AND ELECTRICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. ELEVATIONS. METAL SIDING. OFFICE BUILDING (TRA-647) AND ELECTRICAL BUILDING (TRA-648) ATTACHED. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-642-A-11, 11/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0642-00-486-100919, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA605. EAST SIDE. CAMERA FACING WEST. REMOVABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA-605. EAST SIDE. CAMERA FACING WEST. REMOVABLE OPENINGS WERE NOT BENEFICIALLY USED FOR FUTURE EXPANSION. PART OF MTR APPEARS BEHIND BUILDING AT LEFT. ATR BUILDING IN BACKGROUND ON RIGHT. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-34-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA626. ELEVATIONS. WINDOWS. WALL SECTIONS. PUMICE BLOCK BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-626. ELEVATIONS. WINDOWS. WALL SECTIONS. PUMICE BLOCK BUILDING HOUSED COMPRESSORS FOR AIRCRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION EXPERIMENTS. MTR-626-IDO-2S, 3/1952. INL INDEX NO. 531-0626-00-396-110535, REV. 2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. ARMF, TRA660. NORTH, WEST AND EAST ELEVATIONS. PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARMF, TRA-660. NORTH, WEST AND EAST ELEVATIONS. PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. VERTICAL LIFT DOOR IN WEST WALL. WINDOWS AND LOUVERS WERE LATER COVERED. H.K. FERGUSON 8956 MTR-ETR-660-53, 9/1959. INL INDEX NO. 531-0660-00-279-101994, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. CONTROL HOUSE, TRA620. MASONS ERECT PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. BUILDING WILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTROL HOUSE, TRA-620. MASONS ERECT PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. BUILDING WILL CONTROL ACCESS TO MTR AND OTHER "HOT" AND CLASSIFIED AREAS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 577. Unknown Photographer, 9/11/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA632. ELEVATIONS. PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. BLOWER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA-632. ELEVATIONS. PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. BLOWER AND FILTER LOFT PLATFORM AND LADDER ON EAST SIDE. IDAHO OPERATIONS OFFICE MTR-632-IDO-4, 11/1952. INL INDEX NO. 531-0632-00-396-110563, REV. 2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. A conserved virus-induced cytoplasmic TRAMP-like complex recruits the exosome to target viral RNA for degradation.

    PubMed

    Molleston, Jerome M; Sabin, Leah R; Moy, Ryan H; Menghani, Sanjay V; Rausch, Keiko; Gordesky-Gold, Beth; Hopkins, Kaycie C; Zhou, Rui; Jensen, Torben Heick; Wilusz, Jeremy E; Cherry, Sara

    2016-07-15

    RNA degradation is tightly regulated to selectively target aberrant RNAs, including viral RNA, but this regulation is incompletely understood. Through RNAi screening in Drosophila cells, we identified the 3'-to-5' RNA exosome and two components of the exosome cofactor TRAMP (Trf4/5-Air1/2-Mtr4 polyadenylation) complex, dMtr4 and dZcchc7, as antiviral against a panel of RNA viruses. We extended our studies to human orthologs and found that the exosome as well as TRAMP components hMTR4 and hZCCHC7 are antiviral. While hMTR4 and hZCCHC7 are normally nuclear, infection by cytoplasmic RNA viruses induces their export, forming a cytoplasmic complex that specifically recognizes and induces degradation of viral mRNAs. Furthermore, the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of bunyaviral mRNA is sufficient to confer virus-induced exosomal degradation. Altogether, our results reveal that signals from viral infection repurpose TRAMP components to a cytoplasmic surveillance role where they selectively engage viral RNAs for degradation to restrict a broad range of viruses. PMID:27474443

  12. CAFETERIA, TRA616. MODIFICATIONS ENLARGED SEATING AND WORK AREAS IN 1957. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CAFETERIA, TRA-616. MODIFICATIONS ENLARGED SEATING AND WORK AREAS IN 1957. FLOOR PLAN. WALL BETWEEN CAFETERIA AND WAREHOUSE SECTIONS. C.A. SUNDBERG AND ASSOCIATES 884-MTR-616-A-2, 12/1956. INL INDEX NO. 531-0616-00-822-101880, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. 33 CFR 154.1016 - Facility classification by COTP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Facility classification by COTP... Facilities § 154.1016 Facility classification by COTP. (a) The COTP may upgrade the classification of: (1) An...) The COTP may downgrade, the classification of: (1) An MTR facility specified in § 154.1015(c) to...

  14. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2005-12-22

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR will be working with the company's Randall Gas Technology Group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group first found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produced about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit was built to bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid was built by ABB. NTE ordered the required compressor and MTR made the membrane modules for a December 2004 delivery. However, the gas supply was not steady enough for field testing, and MTR/ABB have now located other sites for field testing and commercial development.

  15. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2005-12-15

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR is now working with the company's Randall Gas Technology Group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group first found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produced about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit was built to bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid was built by ABB. NTE ordered the required compressor and MTR made the membrane modules for a December 2004 delivery. However, the gas supply was not steady enough for field testing, and MTR/ABB have now located other sites for field testing and commercial development.

  16. PLUG STORAGE BUILDING, TRA611. STRUCTURAL DETAILS. FACE PLATE. FOURTEEN OPENINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLUG STORAGE BUILDING, TRA-611. STRUCTURAL DETAILS. FACE PLATE. FOURTEEN OPENINGS LABELED FOR PLUGS FROM SPECIFIC SIZE GROUPS IN THE MTR. BLAW-KNOX 3150-811-2, 1/1951. INL INDEX NO. 531-0611-00-098-100694, REV. 1. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. TRITIUM LAB, TRA666. SECTIONS THROUGH LENGTH AND WIDTH OF BUILDING. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRITIUM LAB, TRA-666. SECTIONS THROUGH LENGTH AND WIDTH OF BUILDING. STRUCTURAL STEEL CEILING BEAM. CRANE BRIDGE WITH ENDLESS CHAIN. F.C. TORKELSON 842-MTR-666-A2, 12/1962. INL INDEX NO. 531-0666-00-851-150948, REV. 5. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. Effects of guaifenesin, N-acetylcysteine, and ambroxol on MUC5AC and mucociliary transport in primary differentiated human tracheal-bronchial cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Therapeutic intervention in the pathophysiology of airway mucus hypersecretion is clinically important. Several types of drugs are available with different possible modes of action. We examined the effects of guaifenesin (GGE), N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and ambroxol (Amb) on differentiated human airway epithelial cells stimulated with IL-13 to produce additional MUC5AC. Methods After IL-13 pre-treatment (3 days), the cultures were treated with GGE, NAC or Amb (10–300 μM) in the continued presence of IL-13. Cellular and secreted MUC5AC, mucociliary transport rates (MTR), mucus rheology at several time points, and the antioxidant capacity of the drugs were assessed. Results IL-13 increased MUC5AC content (~25%) and secretion (~2-fold) and decreased MTR, but only slightly affected the G’ (elastic) or G” (viscous) moduli of the secretions. GGE significantly inhibited MUC5AC secretion and content in the IL-13-treated cells in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50s at 24 hr ~100 and 150 μM, respectively). NAC or Amb were less effective. All drugs increased MTR and decreased G’ and G” relative to IL-13 alone. Cell viability was not affected and only NAC exhibited antioxidant capacity. Conclusions Thus, GGE effectively reduces cellular content and secretion of MUC5AC, increases MTR, and alters mucus rheology, and may therefore be useful in treating airway mucus hypersecretion and mucostasis in airway diseases. PMID:23113953

  19. Quantitative Magnetic Resonance of Post Mortem Multiple Sclerosis Brain before and after Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Schmierer, Klaus; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia AM; Tozer, Daniel J; Boulby, Phil A; Parkes, Harold G; Yousry, Tarek A; Scaravilli, Francesco; Barker, Gareth J; Tofts, Paul S; Miller, David H

    2007-01-01

    Unfixed and fixed post mortem multiple sclerosis (MS) brain is being used to probe pathology underlying quantitative MR (qMR) changes. Effects of fixation on qMR indices in MS brain are unknown. In 15 post mortem MS brain slices T1, T2, MT ratio (MTR), macromolecular proton fraction (fB), mean, axial and radial diffusivity (MD, Dax and Drad), and fractional anisotropy (FA) were assessed in white matter (WM) lesions (WML) and normal appearing WM (NAWM) before and after fixation in formalin. Myelin content, axonal count and gliosis were quantified histologically. Student's t-test and regression were used for analysis. T1, T2, MTR, and fB obtained in unfixed MS brain were similar to published values obtained in patients with MS in vivo. Following fixation T1, T2 (NAWM, WML) and MTR (NAWM) dropped, whereas fB (NAWM, WML) increased. Compared to published in vivo data all diffusivity measures were lower in unfixed MS brain, and dropped further following fixation (except for FA). MTR was the best predictor of myelin in unfixed MS brain (r=−0.83; p<0.01) whereas post-fixation T2 (r=0.92; p<0.01), T1 (r=−0.89; p<0.01) and fB (r=−0.86; p<0.01) were superior. All diffusivity measures (except for Dax in unfixed tissue) were predictors of myelin content. PMID:18228601

  20. Emergence of high level azithromycin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain isolated in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Galarza, Patricia G; Alcalá, Belén; Salcedo, Celia; Canigia, Liliana Fernández; Buscemi, Luis; Pagano, Irene; Oviedo, Claudia; Vázquez, Julio A

    2009-12-01

    One Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains highly resistant to azithromycin AzHLR (MIC >2048 mg/L) was isolated in Argentina in 2001 and it has been characterized by N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) as ST696, suggesting a different event to other isolates in Europe. Neither, mtrR mutations or presence of mef gene were detected.

  1. Neural substrate of quality of life in patients with schizophrenia: a magnetisation transfer imaging study.

    PubMed

    Faget-Agius, Catherine; Catherine, Faget-Agius; Boyer, Laurent; Wirsich, Jonathan; Jonathan, Wirsich; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Jean-Philippe, Ranjeva; Richieri, Raphaelle; Raphaelle, Richieri; Soulier, Elisabeth; Elisabeth, Soulier; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Sylviane, Confort-Gouny; Auquier, Pascal; Pascal, Auquier; Guye, Maxime; Maxime, Guye; Lançon, Christophe; Christophe, Lançon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neural substrate underlying quality of life (QoL) and to demonstrate the microstructural abnormalities associated with impaired QoL in a large sample of patients with schizophrenia, using magnetisation transfer imaging. A total of 81 right-handed men with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and 25 age- and sex-similar healthy controls were included and underwent a 3T MRI with magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) to detect microstructural abnormalities. Compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia had grey matter (GM) decreased MTR values in the temporal lobe (BA21, BA37 and BA38), the bilateral insula, the occipital lobe (BA17, BA18 and BA19) and the cerebellum. Patients with impaired QoL had lower GM MTR values relative to patients with preserved QoL in the bilateral temporal pole (BA38), the bilateral insula, the secondary visual cortex (BA18), the vermis and the cerebellum. Significant correlations between MTR values and QoL scores (p < 0.005) were observed in the GM of patients in the right temporal pole (BA38), the bilateral insula, the vermis and the right cerebellum. Our study shows that QoL impairment in patients with schizophrenia is related to the microstructural changes in an extensive network, suggesting that QoL is a bio-psychosocial marker. PMID:26632639

  2. Magnetization transfer imaging reveals geniculocalcarine and striate area degeneration in primary glaucoma: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Liang, Wenwen; Wu, Guijun; Zhang, Xuelin

    2016-01-01

    Background Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease that affects both the retina and central visual pathway. Magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) is a sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that can detect degenerative changes in the brain. Purpose To investigate the geniculocalcarine (GCT) and striate areas in primary glaucoma patients using region of interest (ROI) analysis of magnetization transfer ratio (MTR). Material and Methods Twenty patients with primary glaucoma in both eyes were compared with 31 healthy control patients. All of the participants were examined on a 3.0 T scanner using a three-dimensional T1-weighted spoiled gradient recalled acquisition (SPGR) with and without a MT saturation pulse. A two-sample t-test was used to evaluate the MTR difference between the groups. P < 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance. Results The MTR of the glaucoma group was lower than the healthy controls in both the bilateral GCT (t = 3.781, P = 0.001) and striate areas (t = 4.177, P = 0.000). Conclusion The MTR reductions in the bilateral GCT and striate areas suggest that there is GCT demyelination and striate area degeneration in primary glaucoma. These neurodegenerative effects may be induced as a direct effect of retrograde axonal degeneration along with the indirect effect of anterograde trans-synaptic degeneration. PMID:27651931

  3. 'Fishing' for Alternatives to Mountaintop Mining in Southern West Virginia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop removal mining (MTR) is a major industry in southern West Virginia with many detrimental effects for small to mid-sized streams, and interest in alternative, sustainable industries is on the rise. As a first step in a larger effort to assess the value of sport fisheri...

  4. FAST CHOPPER BUILDING, TRA665. DETAIL SHOWS UPPER AND LOWER LEVEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FAST CHOPPER BUILDING, TRA-665. DETAIL SHOWS UPPER AND LOWER LEVEL WALLS OF DIFFERING MATERIALS. NOTE DOORWAY TO MTR TO RIGHT OF CHOPPER BUILDING'S CLIPPED CORNER. CAMERA FACING WEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD42-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 3/2004 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING, TRA635, INTERIOR. ALSO KNOWN AS MATERIAL RECEIVING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING, TRA-635, INTERIOR. ALSO KNOWN AS MATERIAL RECEIVING AREA AND LABORATORY. CAMERA ON FIRST FLOOR FACING NORTH TOWARD MTR BUILDING. MOCK-UP AREA WAS TO THE RIGHT OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-10-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING, TRA635. EAST, WEST, AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS. WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING, TRA-635. EAST, WEST, AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS. WEST ELEVATION HAS TWO STORIES. IDO MTR-635-IDO-7-A, 6/1953. INL INDEX NO. 531-0635-00-396-110590, REV. 1. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING, TRA635. FIRST FLOOR PLAN. MOCKUP AND PRESSURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING, TRA-635. FIRST FLOOR PLAN. MOCK-UP AND PRESSURE TEST AREAS. ISSUE ROOM, LAUNDRY, STORAGE. IDO MTR-635-IDO-5-A, 6/1953. INL INDEX NO. 531-0635-00-396-110588, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING, TRA635. SECOND FLOOR PLAN. WOMEN'S REST ROOM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING, TRA-635. SECOND FLOOR PLAN. WOMEN'S REST ROOM. IDO MTR-635-IDO-6-A, 6/1953. INL INDEX NO. 531-0635-00-396-110589, REV. 1. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. REACTOR SERVICE BUILDING, TRA635. CAMERA FACING NORTHWEST. BUILDING PROJECTS FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REACTOR SERVICE BUILDING, TRA-635. CAMERA FACING NORTHWEST. BUILDING PROJECTS FROM AND CONNECTS TO SOUTH WALL OF MTR BUILDING. EARTH BERM SHIELDING PLUG STORAGE BUILDING IS AT RIGHT OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. 9913. Unknown Photographer, 2/23/1954 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. Dry Needling at Myofascial Trigger Spots of Rabbit Skeletal Muscles Modulates the Biochemicals Associated with Pain, Inflammation, and Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Yueh-Ling; Yang, Shun-An; Yang, Chen-Chia; Chou, Li-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Dry needling is an effective therapy for the treatment of pain associated with myofascial trigger point (MTrP). However, the biochemical effects of dry needling that are associated with pain, inflammation, and hypoxia are unclear. This study investigated the activities of β-endorphin, substance P, TNF-α, COX-2, HIF-1α, iNOS, and VEGF after different dosages of dry needling at the myofascial trigger spots (MTrSs) of a skeletal muscle in rabbit. Materials and Methods. Dry needling was performed either with one dosage (1D) or five dosages (5D) into the biceps femoris with MTrSs in New Zealand rabbits. Biceps femoris, serum, and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) were sampled immediately and 5 d after dry needling for β-endorphin, substance P, TNF-α, COX-2, HIF-1α, iNOS, and VEGF immunoassays. Results. The 1D treatment enhanced the β-endorphin levels in the biceps femoris and serum and reduced substance P in the biceps femoris and DRG. The 5D treatment reversed these effects and was accompanied by increase of TNF-α, COX-2, HIF-1α, iNOS, and VEGF production in the biceps femoris. Moreover, the higher levels of these biochemicals were still maintained 5 d after treatment. Conclusion. Dry needling at the MTrSs modulates various biochemicals associated with pain, inflammation, and hypoxia in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:23346198

  11. Dry needling at myofascial trigger spots of rabbit skeletal muscles modulates the biochemicals associated with pain, inflammation, and hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yueh-Ling; Yang, Shun-An; Yang, Chen-Chia; Chou, Li-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Dry needling is an effective therapy for the treatment of pain associated with myofascial trigger point (MTrP). However, the biochemical effects of dry needling that are associated with pain, inflammation, and hypoxia are unclear. This study investigated the activities of β-endorphin, substance P, TNF-α, COX-2, HIF-1α, iNOS, and VEGF after different dosages of dry needling at the myofascial trigger spots (MTrSs) of a skeletal muscle in rabbit. Materials and Methods. Dry needling was performed either with one dosage (1D) or five dosages (5D) into the biceps femoris with MTrSs in New Zealand rabbits. Biceps femoris, serum, and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) were sampled immediately and 5 d after dry needling for β-endorphin, substance P, TNF-α, COX-2, HIF-1α, iNOS, and VEGF immunoassays. Results. The 1D treatment enhanced the β-endorphin levels in the biceps femoris and serum and reduced substance P in the biceps femoris and DRG. The 5D treatment reversed these effects and was accompanied by increase of TNF-α, COX-2, HIF-1α, iNOS, and VEGF production in the biceps femoris. Moreover, the higher levels of these biochemicals were still maintained 5 d after treatment. Conclusion. Dry needling at the MTrSs modulates various biochemicals associated with pain, inflammation, and hypoxia in a dose-dependent manner.

  12. PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA605. CAMERA LOOKING EAST AND TO WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA-605. CAMERA LOOKING EAST AND TO WEST WALL NOW ENCLOSING FLASH EVAPORATORS. PIPES IN FOREGROUND WILL CARRY DEMINERALIZED COOLING WATER TO AND FROM THE MTR. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2937. Unknown Photographer, 7/30/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. PLUG STORAGE BUILDING, TRA611, AS IT LOOKED WITH EARTHEN SHIELD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLUG STORAGE BUILDING, TRA-611, AS IT LOOKED WITH EARTHEN SHIELD COVERING STORAGE TUBES. MTR WING, TRA-604, AT RIGHT OF VIEW. CAMERA FACES NORTHWEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 3177. Unknown Photographer, 8/29/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. Hydrolytic activity and metabolism of sediment and epilithon in streams draining mountaintop removal coal mining, West Virginia, U.S.A.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop removal and valley filling (MTR/VF) is a method of coal mining used in the Central Appalachians. Regulations require that potential impacts to stream functions must be considered when determining the compensatory mitigation necessary for replacing aquatic resources un...

  15. ETR CONTROL BUILDING, TRA647. FLOOR PLANS FOR BASEMENT, FIRST AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR CONTROL BUILDING, TRA-647. FLOOR PLANS FOR BASEMENT, FIRST AND SECOND FLOORS. METAL PANEL WALL. NAMES OF ROOMS. STAIRWAYS. WALL CONSTRUCTION LEGEND. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-647-A-6, 12/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0647-00-486-101357, REV. 9. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. ETR COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE, TRA645. PUMP HOUSE TAKES SHAPE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-645. PUMP HOUSE TAKES SHAPE. CAMERA FACES NORTH TOWARD ETR CONSTRUCTION AND MTR BEYOND. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-2041. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 6/14/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA632. INSTRUMENT FITTINGS, MASTER/SLAVE MANIPULATOR, "POT LID ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA-632. INSTRUMENT FITTINGS, MASTER/SLAVE MANIPULATOR, "POT LID CRANE." IDAHO OPERATIONS OFFICE MTR-632-IDO-16, 11/1952. INL INDEX NO. 531-0632-40-396-110574, REV. 2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. ETR, TRA642. NORTHSOUTH SECTION, LOOKING EAST. ROOF PLAN. STAIRWELLS, ELEVATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. NORTH-SOUTH SECTION, LOOKING EAST. ROOF PLAN. STAIRWELLS, ELEVATOR MACHINE ROOM. PIPE TUNNEL. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-642-A-9, 12/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0642-00-486-100917, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. Spontaneous electrical activities at myofascial trigger points at different stages of recovery from injury in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qiang-Min; Lv, Jiao-Jiao; Ruanshi, Qiong-Mei; Liu, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background Spontaneous electrical activity (SEA) is a feature of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs), which can either be latent or active. However, SEA at different stages of recovery from MTrPs remains unclear. Objective To investigate the temporal changes in the nature of SEA after generation of MTrPs in a rat model. Methods 32 rats were divided into four groups: 24 rats were assigned to experimental groups (EGs), which underwent the MTrP modelling intervention and 8 were allocated to a control group (CG). All EG rats received a blunt strike to the left vastus medialis combined with eccentric exercise for 8 weeks. After modelling, the EG rats were subdivided into three groups with total recovery times of 4, 8 and 12 weeks (EG-4w, EG-8w and EG-12w, respectively). Taut bands (TBs) with and without the presence of active MTrPs were identified in the left hind limb muscles of all rats, verified by SEA and further examined with electromyography recordings. Myoelectrical signals were also categorised into one of five types. Results CG rats had fewer TBs than EG rats and EGs showed variable frequencies of SEA. SEA frequencies were higher in EG-4w than in EG-8w and EG-12w groups (240.57±72.9 vs 168.14±64.5 and 151.63±65.4, respectively, p<0.05) and were significantly greater in all EGs than in the CG (55.75±21.9). Relative to CG rats, amplitudes and durations of electrical potentials in the EG were only increased in the EG-8w and EG-12w groups. Types IV and V myoelectrical signals were never seen in latent MTrPs and type V signals did not occur in EG-4w rats. Conclusions Increasing recovery periods following a MTrP modelling intervention in rats are characterised by different frequencies and amplitudes of SEA from TBs. Trial registration number 2014012. PMID:25971282

  20. Characterization of the periplasmic redox network that sustains the versatile anaerobic metabolism of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    PubMed

    Alves, Mónica N; Neto, Sónia E; Alves, Alexandra S; Fonseca, Bruno M; Carrêlo, Afonso; Pacheco, Isabel; Paquete, Catarina M; Soares, Cláudio M; Louro, Ricardo O

    2015-01-01

    The versatile anaerobic metabolism of the Gram-negative bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (SOMR-1) relies on a multitude of redox proteins found in its periplasm. Most are multiheme cytochromes that carry electrons to terminal reductases of insoluble electron acceptors located at the cell surface, or bona fide terminal reductases of soluble electron acceptors. In this study, the interaction network of several multiheme cytochromes was explored by a combination of NMR spectroscopy, activity assays followed by UV-visible spectroscopy and comparison of surface electrostatic potentials. From these data the small tetraheme cytochrome (STC) emerges as the main periplasmic redox shuttle in SOMR-1. It accepts electrons from CymA and distributes them to a number of terminal oxidoreductases involved in the respiration of various compounds. STC is also involved in the electron transfer pathway to reduce nitrite by interaction with the octaheme tetrathionate reductase (OTR), but not with cytochrome c nitrite reductase (ccNiR). In the main pathway leading the metal respiration STC pairs with flavocytochrome c (FccA), the other major periplasmic cytochrome, which provides redundancy in this important pathway. The data reveals that the two proteins compete for the binding site at the surface of MtrA, the decaheme cytochrome inserted on the periplasmic side of the MtrCAB-OmcA outer-membrane complex. However, this is not observed for the MtrA homologues. Indeed, neither STC nor FccA interact with MtrD, the best replacement for MtrA, and only STC is able to interact with the decaheme cytochrome DmsE of the outer-membrane complex DmsEFABGH. Overall, these results shown that STC plays a central role in the anaerobic respiratory metabolism of SOMR-1. Nonetheless, the trans-periplasmic electron transfer chain is functionally resilient as a consequence of redundancies that arise from the presence of alternative pathways that bypass/compete with STC.

  1. The AbgT family: A novel class of antimetabolite transporters.

    PubMed

    Delmar, Jared A; Yu, Edward W

    2016-02-01

    The AbgT family of transporters was thought to contribute to bacterial folate biosynthesis by importing the catabolite p-aminobenzoyl-glutamate for producing this essential vitamin. Approximately 13,000 putative transporters of the family have been identified. However, before our work, no structural information was available and even functional data were minimal for this family of membrane proteins. To elucidate the structure and function of the AbgT family of transporters, we recently determined the X-ray structures of the full-length Alcanivorax borkumensis YdaH and Neisseria gonorrhoeae MtrF membrane proteins. The structures reveal that these two transporters assemble as dimers with architectures distinct from all other families of transporters. Both YdaH and MtrF are bowl-shaped dimers with a solvent-filled basin extending from the cytoplasm halfway across the membrane bilayer. The protomers of YdaH and MtrF contain nine transmembrane helices and two hairpins. These structures directly suggest a plausible pathway for substrate transport. A combination of the crystal structure, genetic analysis and substrate accumulation assay indicates that both YdaH and MtrF behave as exporters, capable of removing the folate metabolite p-aminobenzoic acid from bacterial cells. Further experimental data based on drug susceptibility and radioactive transport assay suggest that both YdaH and MtrF participate as antibiotic efflux pumps, importantly mediating bacterial resistance to sulfonamide antimetabolite drugs. It is possible that many of these AbgT-family transporters act as exporters, thereby conferring bacterial resistance to sulfonamides. The AbgT-family transporters may be important targets for the rational design of novel antibiotics to combat bacterial infections.

  2. Effect of irregularity in shape and boundary of a macro-texture region in titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Jeong K.; Blackshire, James L.; Freed, Shaun L.

    2016-02-01

    Peak amplitudes of mode converted shear wave signals back scattered from macro-texture regions (MTRs) in an aerospace grade titanium alloy material are measured to be about the same level as corner trapped shear wave signals. In addition to the abnormally high shear wave responses, the time of flight data indicates that the MTR signals are back scattered from a location deep in the sample so that the round trip travel time is close to that of corner trapped signals. In this work, these two ultrasonic properties of an MTR in a test specimen cut from a titanium jet engine disk are closely studied to understand the root cause of abnormally high shear wave responses. Based on the amplitude and time of flight data collected in a laboratory condition, a decision has been made to investigate further experimentally and computationally how surface irregularity of an acoustically reflective surface affects incoming shear waves upon reflection. Attempts are made to correlate the localized back scattered signal response of the MTR in the test specimen to the beam focusing effect of a non-planar surface of an acoustically impedance mismatched boundary layer such as a fatigue crack face. From the current experimental and computational results on the reflection of corner trapped shear waves from a concave shaped section of a non-planar crack face and the time of flight data, it is speculated that the root cause of the abnormally high peak amplitude MTR signal is possibly due to the beam focusing effect caused by the shape of the MTR.

  3. Magnetization transfer ratio and volumetric analysis of the brain in macrocephalic patients with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Margariti, Persefoni N; Blekas, Konstantinos; Katzioti, Frosso G; Zikou, Anastasia K; Tzoufi, Meropi; Argyropoulou, Maria I

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate brain myelination by measuring the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and to measure grey (GMV) and white matter volume (WMV) in macrocephalic children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Seven NF1 patients (aged 0.65-16.67 years) and seven age- and gender-matched controls were studied. A three-dimensional (3D) gradient echo sequence with and without magnetization transfer (MT) prepulse was used for MTR assessment. Volume measurements of GM and WM were performed by applying segmentation techniques on T2-weighted turbo spin echo images (T2WI). MTR of unidentified bright objects (UBOs) on T2WI in cerebellar white matter (52.8+/-3.3), cerebral peduncles (48.5+/-1.5), hippocampus (52.6+/-1.1), internal capsule (55.7+/-0.3), globus pallidus (52.7+/-3.9), and periventricular white matter (52.6+/-1.2) was lower than in the corresponding areas of controls (64.6+/-2.5, 60.8+/-1.3, 56.4+/-0.9, 64.7+/-1.9, 59.2+/-2.3, 63.6+/-1.7, respectively; p<0.05). MTR of normal-appearing brain tissue in patients was not significantly different than in controls. Surface area (mm(2)) of the corpus callosum (809.1+/-62.8), GMV (cm(3)) (850.7+/-42.9), and white matter volume (WMV) (cm(3)) (785.1+/-85.2) were greater in patients than in controls (652.5+/-52.6 mm(2), 611.2+/-92.1 cm(3), 622.5+/-108.7 cm(3), respectively; p<0.05). To conclude, macrocephaly in NF1 patients is related to increased GMV and WMV and corpus callosum enlargement. MTR of UBOs is lower than that of normal brain tissue. PMID:16733674

  4. Myofascial trigger point-focused head and neck massage for recurrent tension-type headache: A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Moraska, Albert F.; Stenerson, Lea; Butryn, Nathan; Krutsch, Jason P.; Schmiege, Sarah J.; Mann, J. Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Objective Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are focal disruptions in skeletal muscle that can refer pain to the head and reproduce the pain patterns of tension-type headache (TTH). The present study applied massage focused on MTrPs of subjects with TTH in a placebo-controlled, clinical trial to assess efficacy on reducing headache pain. Methods Fifty-six subjects with TTH were randomized to receive 12 massage or placebo (detuned ultrasound) sessions over six weeks, or to wait-list. Trigger point release (TPR) massage focused on MTrPs in cervical musculature. Headache pain (frequency, intensity and duration) was recorded in a daily headache diary. Additional outcome measures included self-report of perceived clinical change in headache pain and pressure-pain threshold (PPT) at MTrPs in the upper trapezius and sub-occipital muscles. Results From diary recordings, group differences across time were detected in headache frequency (p=0.026), but not for intensity or duration. Post hoc analysis indicated headache frequency decreased from baseline for both massage (p<0.0003) and placebo (p=0.013), but no difference was detected between massage and placebo. Subject report of perceived clinical change was a greater reduction in headache pain for massage than placebo or wait-list groups (p=0.002). PPT improved in all muscles tested for massage only (all p's<0.002). Discussion Two findings from this study are apparent: 1) MTrPs are important components in the treatment of TTH, and 2) TTH, like other chronic conditions, is responsive to placebo. Clinical trials on headache that do not include a placebo group are at risk for overestimating the specific contribution from the active intervention. PMID:25329141

  5. NVL2, a nucleolar AAA-ATPase, is associated with the nuclear exosome and is involved in pre-rRNA processing

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikatsu, Yuki; Ishida, Yo-ichi; Sudo, Haruka; Yuasa, Keizo; Tsuji, Akihiko; Nagahama, Masami

    2015-08-28

    Nuclear VCP-like 2 (NVL2) is a member of the chaperone-like AAA-ATPase family and is involved in the biosynthesis of 60S ribosomal subunits in mammalian cells. We previously showed the interaction of NVL2 with a DExD/H-box RNA helicase MTR4/DOB1, which is a known cofactor for an exoribonuclease complex, the exosome. This finding implicated NVL2 in RNA metabolic processes during ribosome biogenesis. In the present study, we found that a series of mutations within the ATPase domain of NVL2 causes a defect in pre-rRNA processing into mature 28S and 5.8S rRNAs. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis showed that NVL2 was associated with the nuclear exosome complex, which includes RRP6 as a nucleus-specific catalytic subunit. This interaction was prevented by depleting either MTR4 or RRP6, indicating their essential role in mediating this interaction with NVL2. Additionally, knockdown of MPP6, another cofactor for the nuclear exosome, also prevented the interaction by causing MTR4 to dissociate from the nuclear exosome. These results suggest that NVL2 is involved in pre-rRNA processing by associating with the nuclear exosome complex and that MPP6 is required for maintaining the integrity of this rRNA processing complex. - Highlights: • ATPase-deficient mutants of NVL2 have decreased pre-rRNA processing. • NVL2 associates with the nuclear exosome through interactions with MTR4 and RRP6. • MPP6 stabilizes MTR4-RRP6 interaction and allows NVL2 to interact with the complex.

  6. A Systematic Comparison Between Subjects with No Pain and Pain Associated with Active Myofascial Trigger Points

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Lynn H.; Sikdar, Siddhartha; Armstrong, Katee; Diao, Guoqing; Heimur, Juliana; Kopecky, John; Turo, Diego; Otto, Paul; Gebreab, Tadesse; Shah, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether standard evaluations of pain distinguish subjects with no pain from those with myofascial pain syndromes (MPS) and active trigger points (MTrPs); and to assess whether self-reports of mood, function and health-related quality of life differ between these groups. Design Prospective, descriptive study. Setting University Patients Adults with and without neck pain Methods We evaluated adults with MPS and active (painful) MTrPs and those without pain. Subjects in the “Active” (‘A’) group had at least one active MTrP with spontaneous pain which was persistent, lasted more than 3 months and had characteristic pain on palpation. Subjects in the “No pain” (‘Np’) group had no spontaneous pain. However, some had discomfort on MTrP palpation (latent MTrP) while others in the Np group had no discomfort on palpation of nodules or had no nodules. Outcome Measures Each participant underwent range of motion (ROM) measurement, 10-point manual muscle test, and manual and algometric palpation. The latter determined the pain/pressure threshold using an algometer of 4 pre-determined anatomical sites along the upper trapezius. Participants rated pain using a verbal analogue scale (0–10); completed the Brief Pain Inventory and Oswestry Disability Scale (ODS), which included a sleep sub-scale; Short Form 36(SF36) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Results here were 24 in the ‘A’ group (mean 36 yrs, 16 women) and 26 in the ‘Np’ group (mean 26 yrs, 12 women). Subjects in group ‘A’ differed from ‘Np’ in number of latent MTrPs (p=.0062); asymmetrical cervical ROM (p=.01 side bending and p=.002 rotation); in all pain reports (p<.0001); algometry (p<.03); POMS (p<.038); SF36 (p<.01) and ODS (p<.0001). Conclusion A systematic musculoskeletal evaluation of people with MPS reliably distinguishes them from subjects with no pain. The two groups are significantly different in their physical findings and self-reports of pain, sleep

  7. Interrelationship of Polyamine and Ethylene Biosynthesis during Avocado Fruit Development and Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Kushad, Mosbah M.; Yelenosky, George; Knight, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Concentrations of polyamines (PA) and the activities of the PA-synthesizing enzymes ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and arginine decarboxylase (ADC) extracted from the mesocarp tissue of avocado (Persea americana Mill, cv `Simmonds') fruits at different stages of development were compared with DNA content and the activities of 5′-methylthioadenosine (MTA) nucleosidase and 5-methylthioribose (MTR) kinase. Putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were at their peak concentrations during the early stages of fruit development (362, 201, and 165 nanomoles per gram fresh weight, respectively, at 15 days from full bloom), then declined to 30% or less at full maturity. Agmatine showed only a slight change in concentration throughout the fruit development. The activity of ODC, which was low during flowering (8 nmoles per milligram protein per hour), increased more than threefold during the first 2 months then declined at the later stages of fruit development, while ADC activity showed only a slight increase. DNA content followed a similar pattern of change as that of PA and ODC. The decline in DNA and ODC activity suggest a lack of correlation between cell proliferation and PA at the later stages of the avocado fruit development. It is also possible that any cell division which may take place during the latter stages of the fruit development is not sufficient to alter the pattern of PA biosynthesis. MTA nucleosidase and MTR kinase activities increased during the first 15 days of fruit development followed by a slight decline at 60 and 90 days from full bloom. At 120 days (1 month before full maturity) both MTA nucleosidase and MTR kinase activities increased significantly. During maximum ethylene synthesis, MTA nucleosidase and MTR kinase activities were approximately fivefold and eightfold, respectively, higher than during maximum PA synthesis. The data indicate that the MTA molecules produced during PA and ethylene synthesis are actively metabolized to MTR and MTR-1-P, the

  8. Bacterial Nanowires Facilitate Extracellular Electron Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorby, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria, including Shewanella oneidensis and Geobacter sulfurreducens, produce electrically conductive nanowires that facilitate electron transfer to solid phase iron oxides. Nanowires produced by S. oneidensis strain MR-1 are functionalized by decaheme cytochromes MtrC and OmcA that are distributed along the length of the nanowires, as confirmed by immunolocalization experiments using peptide specific antibodies. Mutants lacking MtrC and OmcA produce nanowires that were poorly conductive, are unable to reduce solid phase iron oxides, and do not produce electric current in microbial fuel cells. Although less completely characterized, nanowires are also produced by organisms throughout a broad metabolic spectrum, from sulfate reducing bacteria to oxygenic, phototrophic cyanobacteria. Our research suggests that electrically conductive nanowires may be common throughout the microbial world and may serve as structures for efficient electron transfer and energy dissemination in complex communities such as microbial mats and biofilms.

  9. Genome sequence of a novel endornavirus from the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria brassicicola.

    PubMed

    Shang, Hong-Hong; Zhong, Jie; Zhang, Ru-Jia; Chen, Chuan-Yuan; Gao, Bi-Da; Zhu, Hong-Jian

    2015-07-01

    In an effort to discover new mycoviruses from phytopathogenic fungi, a dsRNA molecule of 10,290 nt, resembling those associated with the viruses belonging to the family Endornaviridae, was isolated from Alternaria brassicicola, one of the causal agents of rapeseed black spot disease. Genome analysis revealed the presence of a single open reading frame coding for a polyprotein of 3400 aa containing conserved viral methyltransferase (MTR), viral RNA helicase 1 (Hel-1), and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domains. In addition, a cysteine-rich region (CRR) with conserved CXCC motifs, shared among several endornaviruses, was also identified between the MTR and Hel-1 domains. Phylogenetic analysis based on the RdRp sequence strongly suggested that the virus infecting A. brassicicola should be considered a representative of a novel endornavirus species, and this virus was designated as Alternaria brassicicola endornavirus 1 (AbEV1).

  10. Exploring the biochemistry at the extracellular redox frontier of bacterial mineral Fe(III) respiration

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, David J.; Edwards, Marcus; White, Gaye F.; Baiden, Nanakow; Hartshorne, Robert S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Shi, Liang; Zachara, John M.; Gates, Andrew J.; Butt, Julea N.; Clarke, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Many species of the bacterial Shewanella genus are notable for their ability to respire in anoxic environments utilizing insoluble minerals of Fe(III) and Mn(IV) as extracellular electron acceptors. In Shewanella oneidensis, the process is dependent on the decahaem electron-transport proteins that lie at the extracellular face of the outer membrane where they can contact the insoluble mineral substrates. These extracellular proteins are charged with electrons provided by an inter-membrane electron-transfer pathway that links the extracellular face of the outer membrane with the inner cytoplasmic membrane and thereby intracellular electron sources. In the present paper, we consider the common structural features of two of these outermembrane decahaem cytochromes, MtrC and MtrF, and bring this together with biochemical, spectroscopic and voltammetric data to identify common and distinct properties of these prototypical members of different clades of the outer-membrane decahaem cytochrome superfamily.

  11. Evidence for a reserpine-affected mechanism of resistance to tetracycline in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Joaquim; Ribera, Anna; Jurado, Angels; Marco, Francesc; Vila, Jordi

    2005-10-01

    The presence of a reserpine-affected mechanism of tetracycline resistance was investigated in 17 Neisseria gonorrhoeae clinical isolates. To establish this fact the MIC of tetracycline in the presence and absence of reserpine was determined, and, in addition, mechanisms of tetracycline resistance were analyzed by PCR. The results showed that reserpine affects the MIC of tetracycline at least 4-fold in all isolates, including those containing the tetM gene. An inhibitory effect of reserpine against the MtrCDE efflux system was ruled out by using strains either with an inactive or with an unrepressed MtrCDE system. The results suggest the presence of a constitutive system of resistance to tetracycline, by a possible efflux pump, which may be inhibited by reserpine. Further studies are required to determine the exact nature of the action of reserpine on the MIC of tetracycline. PMID:16309425

  12. Genome sequence of a novel endornavirus from the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria brassicicola.

    PubMed

    Shang, Hong-Hong; Zhong, Jie; Zhang, Ru-Jia; Chen, Chuan-Yuan; Gao, Bi-Da; Zhu, Hong-Jian

    2015-07-01

    In an effort to discover new mycoviruses from phytopathogenic fungi, a dsRNA molecule of 10,290 nt, resembling those associated with the viruses belonging to the family Endornaviridae, was isolated from Alternaria brassicicola, one of the causal agents of rapeseed black spot disease. Genome analysis revealed the presence of a single open reading frame coding for a polyprotein of 3400 aa containing conserved viral methyltransferase (MTR), viral RNA helicase 1 (Hel-1), and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domains. In addition, a cysteine-rich region (CRR) with conserved CXCC motifs, shared among several endornaviruses, was also identified between the MTR and Hel-1 domains. Phylogenetic analysis based on the RdRp sequence strongly suggested that the virus infecting A. brassicicola should be considered a representative of a novel endornavirus species, and this virus was designated as Alternaria brassicicola endornavirus 1 (AbEV1). PMID:25951967

  13. Associations between genetic variants in folate and drug metabolizing pathways and relapse risk in pediatric acute lymphoid leukemia on CCG-1952

    PubMed Central

    Vujkovic, Marijana; Kershenbaum, Aaron; Wray, Lisa; McWilliams, Thomas; Cannon, Shannon; Devidas, Meenakshi; Stork, Linda; Aplenc, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variation in drug detoxification pathways may influence outcomes in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We evaluated relapse risk and 24 variants in 17 genes in 714 patients in CCG-1961. Three TPMT and 1 MTR variant were associated with increased risks of relapse (rs4712327, OR 3.3, 95%CI 1.2–8.6; rs2842947, OR 2.7, 95%CI 1.1–6.8; rs2842935, OR 2.5, 95%CI 1.1–5.0; rs10925235, OR 4.9, 95%CI 1.1–25.1). One variant in SLC19A1 showed a protective effect (rs4819128, OR 0.5, 95%CI 0.3–0.9). Our study provides data that relapse risk in pediatric ALL is associated with germline variations in TPMT, MTR and SLC19A1. PMID:26605150

  14. HEALTH AND SAFETY BUILDING, TRA667. SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS. FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HEALTH AND SAFETY BUILDING, TRA-667. SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS. FLOOR PLAN AND ROOM DESIGNATIONS. NOTE PAIR OF ENTRY DOORS IN WEST ELEVATION FOR MEN AND WOMEN. CONCRETE T-BEAMS. F.C. TORKELSON CO. 842-MTR-667-A1, 1/1963. INL INDEX NO. 531-0667-00-851-151143, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. Electron Flow in Multiheme Bacterial Cytochromes is a Balancing Act Between Heme Electronic Interaction and Redox Potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Breuer, Marian; Rosso, Kevin M.; Blumberger, Jochen

    2014-01-14

    The naturally widespread process of electron transfer from metal reducing bacteria to extracellular solid metal oxides entails unique biomolecular machinery optimized for long-range electron transport. To perform this function efficiently microorganisms have adapted multi-heme c-type cytochromes to arrange heme cofactors into wires that cooperatively span the cellular envelope, transmitting electrons along distances greater than 100 Angstroms. Implications and opportunities for bionanotechnological device design are self-evident. However, at the molecular level how these proteins shuttle electrons along their heme wires, navigating intraprotein intersections and interprotein interfaces effciently, remains a mystery so far inaccessible to experiment. To shed light on this critical topic, we carried out extensive computer simulations to calculate Marcus theory quantities for electron transfer along the ten heme cofactors in the recently crystallized outer membrane cytochrome MtrF. The combination of electronic coupling matrix elements with free energy calculations of heme redox potentials and reorganization energies for heme-to-heme electron transfer allows the step-wise and overall electron transfer rate to be estimated and understood in terms of structural and dynamical characteristics of the protein. By solving a master equation for electron hopping, we estimate an intrinsic, maximum possible electron flux through solvated MtrF of 104-105 s-1, consistent with recently measured rates for the related MtrCAB protein complex. Intriguingly, this flux must navigate thermodynamically uphill steps past low potential hemes. Our calculations show that the rapid electron transport through MtrF is the result of a clear correlation between heme redox potential and the strength of electronic coupling along the wire: Thermodynamically uphill steps occur only between electronically well connected stacked heme pairs. This suggests that the protein evolved to harbor low potential

  16. Experimental analysis of sapphire contact probes for Nd-YAG laser angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Ashley, S; Brooks, S G; Gehani, A A; Kester, R C; Rees, M R

    1990-06-01

    Laser angioplasty may offer percutaneous recanalization of occluded vessels where conventional guidewire and balloon techniques fail. Metal laser thermal angioplasty probes may, however, cause excessive thermal damage due to high tip temperatures (greater than 400.C). Therefore, contact probes made from artificial sapphire crystal designed for general laser surgery are currently being evaluated for use in laser angioplasty with continuous wave Nd-YAG energy. The sapphire modifies the laser energy in various ways, and this paper examines the physical characteristics of five types of rounded sapphire probe (SMTR, MTR, MTRL, OS, LT) and how these properties are affected by clinical usage. The laser beam profile emitted by these probes demonstrates a focal spot 1-2 mm in front of the tip. However, the forward transmission of Nd-YAG energy through the sapphires varied (SMTR, 85%; MTR, 83%; MTRL, 75%; OS, 54%; LT, 69%). Probe heating occurs owing to energy absorption within the sapphire. The surface temperature of the sapphires was measured in air by infrared thermography and the hottest region within the probes localized by an isothermographic technique. At energy settings used clinically (20 J, 10 watts for 2 s) the SMTR, MTR, and MTRL probes exhibited higher temperature rises (94-112.C) than the OS and LT probes (30.C), and heating was localized to the front surface of the former probes. Peak sapphire temperatures remained lower than those of metal probes even at higher energies. After clinical use, the MTR probe demonstrated reduced transmission, beam defocusing, and increased heating, due to surface pitting. Thus, recanalization with sapphire probes occurs by a combination of photothermal and contact thermal effects that are localized to the probe tip and may reduce the degree of thermal injury associated with metal probes. Understanding these basic properties is important to the application and development of contact probes for laser recanalization. PMID:2142867

  17. Changes in masseter muscle trigger points following strain-counterstrain or neuro-muscular technique.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-García, Jordi; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco; Rodríguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Girao, Didac; Atienza-Meseguer, Albert; Planella-Abella, Sergi; Fernández-de-Las Peñas, César

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the immediate effects, on pressure pain sensitivity and active mouth opening, following the application of neuromuscular or strain/counter-strain technique in latent myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in the masseter muscle. Seventy-one subjects, 34 men and 37 women, aged 20-65 years old, participated in this study. Subjects underwent a screening process to establish the presence of MTrPs in the masseter muscle. Subjects were divided randomly into three groups: group A which was treated with a neuromuscular intervention, group B treated with the strain/counter-strain technique, and group C as control group. Each treatment group received a weekly treatment session during 3 consecutive weeks. Outcomes measures were pressure pain thresholds (PPTs), active mouth opening and local pain (visual analogue scale, VAS) elicited by the application of 2.5kg/cm(2) of pressure over the MTrP. They were captured at baseline and 1 week after discharge by an assessor blinded to the treatment allocation of the subject. The ANOVA found a significant groupxtime interaction (F=25.3; p<0.001) for changes in PPT, changes in active mouth opening (F=10.5; p<0.001), and local pain evoked by 2.5kg/cm(2) of pressure (F=10.1; p<0.001). Within-group effect sizes were large (d>1) for PPT and mouth opening, and moderate for local pain (d<0.7, 0.5) in both intervention groups; but small (d<0.2) for the control group in all outcomes. No significant differences between both intervention groups were found for any outcome (p>0.8). Our results suggest that neuromuscular or strain/counter-strain technique might be employed in the management of latent MTrPs in the masseter muscle.

  18. Low-dose cisplatin converts the tumor microenvironment into a permissive state for HSVtk-induced antitumor immunity in HPV16-related tonsillar carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Goh, Ah Ra; Shin, Seung-Pil; Jung, Na-Rae; Ryu, Chang-Hwan; Eom, Hyeon Seok; Lee, John H; Choi, Kyungho; Lee, Sang-Jin; Jung, Yuh-S

    2015-01-28

    An adenovirus harboring the HSV thymidine kinase (HSVtk) gene under the regulation of a trans-splicing ribozyme that targets telomerase is cytotoxic to cancer cells because it inhibits DNA replication (Ad5mTR). Furthermore, it induces anti-tumor immunity by activating cytotoxic T cells. Because multiple chemotherapeutic agents also activate cytotoxic T-cell immunity during the direct killing process of tumor cells, we herein explored whether low-dose cisplatin could synergize with cytotoxic Ad5mTR to potentiate its therapeutic effect by boosting anti-tumor immunity in a murine HPV16-associated tonsillar carcinoma model. Tumor regression was enhanced when low-dose (1 mg/kg) cisplatin was added to suicide gene therapy using Ad5mTR. Meanwhile, 1 mg/kg cisplatin alone had no tumor-suppressive effects and did not result in any systemic toxicity. Thus, cisplatin along with Ad5mTR improved tumor clearance by increasing the number of E7-specific CD8+ T cells. Specifically, analysis of the tumors and lymph nodes supported improved immune clearance by increasing the number of E7-specific CD8+ T cells inside tumors (40%, P < 0.05) as a result of the combination of suicide gene and cisplatin therapy. These results suggest that a low dose of cisplatin potentiates CD8+ T-cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity, and its addition to the HSVtk-based adenovirus results in additional therapeutic benefits for HPV16-positive head and neck cancer patients.

  19. Electron flow in multiheme bacterial cytochromes is a balancing act between heme electronic interaction and redox potentials.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Marian; Rosso, Kevin M; Blumberger, Jochen

    2014-01-14

    The naturally widespread process of electron transfer from metal reducing bacteria to extracellular solid metal oxides entails unique biomolecular machinery optimized for long-range electron transport. To perform this function efficiently, microorganisms have adapted multiheme c-type cytochromes to arrange heme cofactors into wires that cooperatively span the cellular envelope, transmitting electrons along distances greater than 100 Å. Implications and opportunities for bionanotechnological device design are self-evident. However, at the molecular level, how these proteins shuttle electrons along their heme wires, navigating intraprotein intersections and interprotein interfaces efficiently, remains a mystery thus far inaccessible to experiment. To shed light on this critical topic, we carried out extensive quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics simulations to calculate stepwise heme-to-heme electron transfer rates in the recently crystallized outer membrane deca-heme cytochrome MtrF. By solving a master equation for electron hopping, we estimate an intrinsic, maximum possible electron flux through solvated MtrF of 10(4)-10(5) s(-1), consistent with recently measured rates for the related multiheme protein complex MtrCAB. Intriguingly, our calculations show that the rapid electron transport through MtrF is the result of a clear correlation between heme redox potential and the strength of electronic coupling along the wire: thermodynamically uphill steps occur only between electronically well-connected stacked heme pairs. This observation suggests that the protein evolved to harbor low-potential hemes without slowing down electron flow. These findings are particularly profound in light of the apparently well-conserved staggered cross-heme wire structural motif in functionally related outer membrane proteins.

  20. HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA632. FLOOR PLAN OF EXPANSION SHOWS LOCATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA-632. FLOOR PLAN OF EXPANSION SHOWS LOCATION OF NEW CELLS, "HEAVY" CELL AT WEST END, "LIGHT" CELLS AT EAST. MOCK-UP AND STORAGE AREAS IN SOUTH HALF OF FLOOR. H.K. FERGUSON 895-MTR-ETR-632-A1, 12/1958. INL INDEX NO. 531-0632-00-279-101924, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID