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Sample records for a13 control mouse

  1. Low levels of citrin (SLC25A13) expression in adult mouse brain restricted to neuronal clusters.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Laura; Urbieta, Almudena; Kobayashi, Keiko; Saheki, Takeyori; Satrústegui, Jorgina

    2010-04-01

    The mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carriers (AGC) aralar (SLC25A12) and citrin (SLC25A13) are components of the malate aspartate shuttle (MAS), a major intracellular pathway to transfer reducing equivalents from NADH to the mitochondrial matrix. Aralar is the main AGC isoform present in the adult brain, and it is expressed mainly in neurons. To search for the other AGC isoform, citrin, in brain glial cells, we used a citrin knockout mouse in which the lacZ gene was inserted into the citrin locus as reporter gene. In agreement with the low citrin levels known to be present in the adult mouse brain, beta-galactosidase expression was very low. Surprisingly, unlike the case with astroglial cultures that express citrin, no beta-galactosidase was found in brain glial cells. It was confined to neuronal cells within discrete neuronal clusters. Double-immunolabelling experiments showed that beta-galactosidase colocalized not with glial cell markers but with the pan-neuronal marker NeuN. The deep cerebellar nuclei and a few midbrain nuclei (reticular tegmental pontine nuclei; magnocellular red nuclei) were the regions where beta-galactosidase expression was highest, and it was up-regulated in fasted mice, as was also the case for liver beta-galactosidase. The results support the notion that glial cells have much lower AGC levels and MAS activity than neurons. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. A head movement image (HMI)-controlled computer mouse for people with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Luen; Chen, Weoi-Luen; Kuo, Te-Son; Lai, Jin-Shin

    2003-02-04

    This study proposes image processing and microprocessor technology for use in developing a head movement image (HMI)-controlled computer mouse system for the spinal cord injured (SCI). The system controls the movement and direction of the mouse cursor by capturing head movement images using a marker installed on the user's headset. In the clinical trial, this new mouse system was compared with an infrared-controlled mouse system on various tasks with nine subjects with SCI. The results were favourable to the new mouse system. The differences between the new mouse system and the infrared-controlled mouse were reaching statistical significance in each of the test situations (p<0.05). The HMI-controlled computer mouse improves the input speed. People with disabilities need only wear the headset and move their heads to freely control the movement of the mouse cursor.

  3. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Behavior to Control Environmental Stimulation through a Mouse Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Lin, Kun-Tsan; Chiang, Ming-Shan

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed whether two people with profound multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior would be able to control environmental stimulation using thumb poke ability with a mouse wheel and a newly developed mouse driver (i.e., a new mouse driver replacing standard mouse driver, and turning a mouse into a precise thumb poke detector).…

  4. Reversal of metabolic deficits by lipoic acid in a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease: a 13C NMR study

    PubMed Central

    Sancheti, Harsh; Kanamori, Keiko; Patil, Ishan; Díaz Brinton, Roberta; Ross, Brian D; Cadenas, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is an age-related neurodegenerative disease characterized by deterioration of cognition and loss of memory. Several clinical studies have shown Alzheimer's disease to be associated with disturbances in glucose metabolism and the subsequent tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle-related metabolites like glutamate (Glu), glutamine (Gln), and N-acetylaspartate (NAA). These metabolites have been viewed as biomarkers by (a) assisting early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and (b) evaluating the efficacy of a treatment regimen. In this study, 13-month-old triple transgenic mice (a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (3xTg-AD)) were given intravenous infusion of [1-13C]glucose followed by an ex vivo 13C NMR to determine the concentrations of 13C-labeled isotopomers of Glu, Gln, aspartate (Asp), GABA, myo-inositol, and NAA. Total (12C+13C) Glu, Gln, and Asp were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography to calculate enrichment. Furthermore, we examined the effects of lipoic acid in modulating these metabolites, based on its previously established insulin mimetic effects. Total 13C labeling and percent enrichment decreased by ∼50% in the 3xTg-AD mice. This hypometabolism was partially or completely restored by lipoic acid feeding. The ability of lipoic acid to restore glucose metabolism and subsequent TCA cycle-related metabolites further substantiates its role in overcoming the hypometabolic state inherent in early stages of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24220168

  5. System parameters for erythropoiesis control model: Comparison of normal values in human and mouse model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The computer model for erythropoietic control was adapted to the mouse system by altering system parameters originally given for the human to those which more realistically represent the mouse. Parameter values were obtained from a variety of literature sources. Using the mouse model, the mouse was studied as a potential experimental model for spaceflight. Simulation studies of dehydration and hypoxia were performed. A comparison of system parameters for the mouse and human models is presented. Aside from the obvious differences expected in fluid volumes, blood flows and metabolic rates, larger differences were observed in the following: erythrocyte life span, erythropoietin half-life, and normal arterial pO2.

  6. Hypermetabolic state in the 7-month-old triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and the effect of lipoic acid: a 13C-NMR study

    PubMed Central

    Sancheti, Harsh; Patil, Ishan; Kanamori, Keiko; Díaz Brinton, Roberta; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Ai-Ling; Cadenas, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by age-dependent biochemical, metabolic, and physiologic changes. These age-dependent changes ultimately converge to impair cognitive functions. This study was carried out to examine the metabolic changes by probing glucose and tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolism in a 7-month-old triple transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTg-AD). The effect of lipoic acid, an insulin-mimetic agent, was also investigated to examine its ability in modulating age-dependent metabolic changes. Seven-month-old 3xTg-AD mice were given intravenous infusion of [1-13C]glucose followed by an ex vivo 13C nuclear magnetic resonance to determine the concentrations of 13C-labeled isotopomers of glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, gamma aminobutyric acid, and N-acetylaspartate. An intravenous infusion of [1-13C]glucose+[1,2-13C]acetate was given for different periods of time to distinguish neuronal and astrocytic metabolism. Enrichments of glutamate, glutamine, and aspartate were calculated after quantifying the total (12C+13C) concentrations by high-performance liquid chromatography. A hypermetabolic state was clearly evident in 7-month-old 3xTg-AD mice in contrast to the hypometabolic state reported earlier in 13-month-old mice. Hypermetabolism was evidenced by prominent increase of 13C labeling and enrichment in the 3xTg-AD mice. Lipoic acid feeding to the hypermetabolic 3xTg-AD mice brought the metabolic parameters to the levels of nonTg mice. PMID:25099753

  7. Improvement of mouse controlling in Essential tremor by a tremor filter: A case report.

    PubMed

    López-Blanco, Roberto; Méndez-Guerrero, Antonio; Velasco, Miguel A

    2018-07-15

    The interaction with electronic devices is crucial in our technological society. Hand kinetic tremor complicates mouse driving in Essential tremor patients. To solve this issue some technological solutions are available and accessible online. We present a 71-year-old patient with prominent mouse controlling tremor who improved with one of these systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Controlling complexity: the clinical relevance of mouse complex genetics

    PubMed Central

    Schughart, Klaus; Libert, Claude; Kas, Martien J

    2013-01-01

    Experimental animal models are essential to obtain basic knowledge of the underlying biological mechanisms in human diseases. Here, we review major contributions to biomedical research and discoveries that were obtained in the mouse model by using forward genetics approaches and that provided key insights into the biology of human diseases and paved the way for the development of novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:23632795

  9. A New Movement Detector to Enable People with Multiple Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation with Hand Swing through a Commercial Mouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed whether two persons with profound multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using hand swing and a standard mouse with a newly developed mouse driver (i.e. a new mouse driver replaces standard mouse driver, and turns a mouse into a precise two-dimensional motion detector). The study was performed…

  10. Dnd1-mediated epigenetic control of teratoma formation in mouse

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Wei; Mochizuki, Kentaro; Otsuka, Kei; Hamada, Ryohei; Takehara, Asuka

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spontaneous testicular teratoma develops from primordial germ cells (PGCs) in embryos; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying teratoma formation are not fully understood. Mutation of the dead-end 1 (Dnd1) gene, which encodes an RNA-binding protein, drastically enhances teratoma formation in the 129/Sv mouse strain. To elucidate the mechanism of Dnd1 mutation-induced teratoma formation, we focused on histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) trimethylation (me3), and found that the levels of H3K27me3 and its responsible methyltransferase, enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2), were decreased in the teratoma-forming cells of Dnd1 mutant embryos. We also showed that Dnd1 suppressed miR-26a-mediated inhibition of Ezh2 expression, and that Dnd1 deficiency resulted in decreased H3K27me3 of a cell-cycle regulator gene, Ccnd1. In addition, Ezh2 expression or Ccnd1 deficiency repressed the reprogramming of PGCs into pluripotent stem cells, which mimicked the conversion of embryonic germ cells into teratoma-forming cells. These results revealed an epigenetic molecular linkage between Dnd1 and the suppression of testicular teratoma formation. PMID:29378702

  11. Which Governmental Agencies are Involved in Rat and Mouse Control?

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA works with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and various other state and local agencies and institutions to provide to the public information and tools for controlling rodents and the risks they may pose.

  12. Biological control agents elevate hantavirus by subsidizing deer mouse populations

    Treesearch

    Dean E. Pearson; Ragan M. Callaway

    2006-01-01

    Biological control of exotic invasive plants using exotic insects is practiced under the assumption that biological control agents are safe if they do not directly attack non-target species. We tested this assumption by evaluating the potential for two host-specific biological control agents (Urophora spp.), widely established in North America for spotted...

  13. Young Children's Skill in Using a Mouse to Control a Graphical Computer Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Charles

    1992-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated the performance of preschoolers and children in the first three years of formal education on tasks that involved skills using a mouse-based control of a graphical computer interface. The children's performance is compared with that of novice adult users and expert users. (five references) (LRW)

  14. Biological control agents elevate hantavirus by subsidizing deer mouse populations.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Dean E; Callaway, Ragan M

    2006-04-01

    Biological control of exotic invasive plants using exotic insects is practiced under the assumption that biological control agents are safe if they do not directly attack non-target species. We tested this assumption by evaluating the potential for two host-specific biological control agents (Urophora spp.), widely established in North America for spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) control, to indirectly elevate Sin Nombre hantavirus by providing food subsidies to populations of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), the primary reservoir for the virus. We show that seropositive deer mice (mice testing positive for hantavirus) were over three times more abundant in the presence of the biocontrol food subsidy. Elevating densities of seropositive mice may increase risk of hantavirus infection in humans and significantly alter hantavirus ecology. Host specificity alone does not ensure safe biological control. To minimize indirect risks to non-target species, biological control agents must suppress pest populations enough to reduce their own numbers.

  15. Temporally and spatially controllable gene expression and knockout in mouse urothelium.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haiping; Liu, Yan; He, Feng; Mo, Lan; Sun, Tung-Tien; Wu, Xue-Ru

    2010-08-01

    Urothelium that lines almost the entire urinary tract performs important functions and is prone to assaults by urinary microbials, metabolites, and carcinogens. To improve our understanding of urothelial physiology and disease pathogenesis, we sought to develop two novel transgenic systems, one that would allow inducible and urothelium-specific gene expression, and another that would allow inducible and urothelium-specific knockout. Toward this end, we combined the ability of the mouse uroplakin II promoter (mUPII) to drive urothelium-specific gene expression with a versatile tetracycline-mediated inducible system. We found that, when constructed under the control of mUPII, only a modified, reverse tetracycline trans-activator (rtTA-M2), but not its original version (rtTA), could efficiently trans-activate reporter gene expression in mouse urothelium on doxycycline (Dox) induction. The mUPII/rtTA-M2-inducible system retained its strict urothelial specificity, had no background activity in the absence of Dox, and responded rapidly to Dox administration. Using a reporter gene whose expression was secondarily controlled by histone remodeling, we were able to identify, colocalize with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine incorporation, and semiquantify newly divided urothelial cells. Finally, we established that, when combined with a Cre recombinase under the control of the tetracycline operon, the mUPII-driven rtTA-M2 could inducibly inactivate any gene of interest in mouse urothelium. The establishment of these two new transgenic mouse systems enables the manipulation of gene expression and/or inactivation in adult mouse urothelium at any given time, thus minimizing potential compensatory effects due to gene overexpression or loss and allowing more accurate modeling of urothelial diseases than previously reported constitutive systems.

  16. The subcortical maternal complex controls symmetric division of mouse zygotes by regulating F-actin dynamics.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xing-Jiang; Yi, Zhaohong; Gao, Zheng; Qin, Dandan; Zhai, Yanhua; Chen, Xue; Ou-Yang, Yingchun; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Zheng, Ping; Zhu, Min-Sheng; Wang, Haibin; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Dean, Jurrien; Li, Lei

    2014-09-11

    Maternal effect genes play critical roles in early embryogenesis of model organisms where they have been intensively investigated. However, their molecular function in mammals remains largely unknown. Recently, we identified a subcortical maternal complex (SCMC) that contains four proteins encoded by maternal effect genes (Mater, Filia, Floped and Tle6). Here we report that TLE6, similar to FLOPED and MATER, stabilizes the SCMC and is necessary for cleavage beyond the two-cell stage of development. We document that the SCMC is required for formation of the cytoplasmic F-actin meshwork that controls the central position of the spindle and ensures symmetric division of mouse zygotes. We further demonstrate that the SCMC controls formation of the actin cytoskeleton specifically via Cofilin, a key regulator of F-actin assembly. Our results provide molecular insight into the physiological function of TLE6, its interaction with the SCMC and their roles in the symmetric division of the zygote in early mouse development.

  17. Pointright: a system to redirect mouse and keyboard control among multiple machines

    DOEpatents

    Johanson, Bradley E [Palo Alto, CA; Winograd, Terry A [Stanford, CA; Hutchins, Gregory M [Mountain View, CA

    2008-09-30

    The present invention provides a software system, PointRight, that allows for smooth and effortless control of pointing and input devices among multiple displays. With PointRight, a single free-floating mouse and keyboard can be used to control multiple screens. When the cursor reaches the edge of a screen it seamlessly moves to the adjacent screen and keyboard control is simultaneously redirected to the appropriate machine. Laptops may also redirect their keyboard and pointing device, and multiple pointers are supported simultaneously. The system automatically reconfigures itself as displays go on, go off, or change the machine they display.

  18. Non-target effects of an introduced biological control agent on deer mouse ecology.

    PubMed

    Pearson, D E; McKelvey, K S; Ruggiero, L F

    2000-01-01

    Release of exotic insects as biological control agents is a common approach to controlling exotic plants. Though controversy has ensued regarding the deleterious direct effects of biological control agents to non-target species, few have examined the indirect effects of a "well-behaved" biological control agent on native fauna. We studied a grassland in west-central Montana infested with spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) to examine the effects of knapweed invasion and two gall flybiological control agents (Urophora affinis and U. quadrifasciata) on the native deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). Stomach-content analysis revealed that Urophora were the primary food item in Peromyscus diets for most of the year and made up 84-86% of the winter diet. Stomach contents indicated that wild-caught mice consumed on average up to 247 Urophora larvae mouse -1 day -1 , while feeding trials revealed that deer mice could depredate nearly 5 times as many larvae under laboratory conditions. In feeding trials, deer mice selected knapweed seedheads with greater numbers of galls while avoiding uninfested seedheads. When Urophora larvae were present in knapweed seedheads, deer mice selected microhabitats with moderately high (31-45% cover) and high knapweed infestation (≥46% cover). After Urophora emerged and larvae were unavailable to Peromyscus, mice reversed habitat selection to favor sites dominated by native-prairie with low knapweed infestation (0-15%). Establishment of the biological control agent, Urophora spp., has altered deer mouse diets and habitat selection by effecting changes in foraging strategies. Deer mice and other predators may reduce Urophora populations below a threshold necessary to effectively control spotted knapweed.

  19. Transcriptional and epigenetic control in mouse pluripotency: lessons from in vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Ehsan; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G

    2017-10-01

    Pluripotent cells were first derived from mouse blastocysts several decades ago. Since then, our knowledge of the molecular events that occur in the pre-implantation embryo has been vastly progressing. The emergence of epigenetics has revolutionized stem cell and developmental biology and further deepened our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms controlling the early embryo development. In particular, the emergence of massive parallel sequencing technologies has opened new avenues and became indispensable tools in modern biology. Additionally, development of new and exciting techniques for genome manipulation (TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9) and in vivo imaging provide unique opportunities to perturb and trace biological systems at very high resolution. Finally, recent single-cell - omics combined with sophisticated computational methodologies allow accurate, quantitative measurements for deconvolution of cellular variation in complex cell populations. Collectively, these achievements enabled the detailed characterization and monitoring of various cell states and trajectories during early stages of embryonic development. Here we review recent studies of the transcriptional and epigenetic changes during very early stages of mouse embryo development and compare these with pluripotent cells grown in vitro under different culture conditions. We discuss whether the in vitro cell states have an 'epi-phenocopy' in the embryo and refine our understanding of the circuitries controlling pluripotency and lineage commitment during early stages of mouse development. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Immunohistochemical localization of translationally controlled tumor protein in the mouse digestive system.

    PubMed

    Sheverdin, Vadim; Jung, Jiwon; Lee, Kyunglim

    2013-09-01

    Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a housekeeping protein, highly conserved among various species. It plays a major role in cell differentiation, growth, proliferation, apoptosis and carcinogenesis. Studies reported so far on TCTP expression in different digestive organs have not led to any understanding of the role of TCTP in digestion, so we localized TCTP in organs of the mouse digestive system employing immunohistochemical techniques. Translationally controlled tumor protein was found expressed in all organs studied: tongue, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, liver and pancreas. The expression of TCTP was found to be predominant in epithelia and neurons of myenteric nerve ganglia; high in serous glands (parotid, submandibular, gastric, intestinal crypts, pancreatic acini) and in neurons of myenteric nerve ganglia, and moderate to low in epithelia. In epithelia, expression of TCTP varied depending on its type and location. In enteric neurons, TCTP was predominantly expressed in the processes. Translationally controlled tumor protein expression in the liver followed porto-central gradient with higher expression in pericentral hepatocytes. In the pancreas, TCTP was expressed in both acini and islet cells. Our finding of nearly universal localization and expression of TCTP in mouse digestive organs points to the hitherto unrecognized functional importance of TCTP in the digestive system and suggests the need for further studies of the possible role of TCTP in the proliferation, secretion, absorption and neural regulation of the digestive process and its importance in the physiology and pathology of digestive process. © 2013 Anatomical Society.

  1. Immunohistochemical localization of translationally controlled tumor protein in the mouse digestive system

    PubMed Central

    Sheverdin, Vadim; Jung, Jiwon; Lee, Kyunglim

    2013-01-01

    Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a housekeeping protein, highly conserved among various species. It plays a major role in cell differentiation, growth, proliferation, apoptosis and carcinogenesis. Studies reported so far on TCTP expression in different digestive organs have not led to any understanding of the role of TCTP in digestion, so we localized TCTP in organs of the mouse digestive system employing immunohistochemical techniques. Translationally controlled tumor protein was found expressed in all organs studied: tongue, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, liver and pancreas. The expression of TCTP was found to be predominant in epithelia and neurons of myenteric nerve ganglia; high in serous glands (parotid, submandibular, gastric, intestinal crypts, pancreatic acini) and in neurons of myenteric nerve ganglia, and moderate to low in epithelia. In epithelia, expression of TCTP varied depending on its type and location. In enteric neurons, TCTP was predominantly expressed in the processes. Translationally controlled tumor protein expression in the liver followed porto-central gradient with higher expression in pericentral hepatocytes. In the pancreas, TCTP was expressed in both acini and islet cells. Our finding of nearly universal localization and expression of TCTP in mouse digestive organs points to the hitherto unrecognized functional importance of TCTP in the digestive system and suggests the need for further studies of the possible role of TCTP in the proliferation, secretion, absorption and neural regulation of the digestive process and its importance in the physiology and pathology of digestive process. PMID:23834399

  2. [Evaluation on the application of the mouse nicotine toxicity experiment in tobacco control among adolescents].

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiaozhong; Chen, Weiqing; Liang, Caihua; Qiu, Quan

    2007-07-01

    To explore the application of the mouse nicotine toxicity experiment in tobacco control among adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1626 students of three secondary schools with self-administered questionnaires three months after the intervention. The measurements of the student' s evaluation included their response, confidence and support to the experiment. Among the respondents, 87.4% had interest in the experiment and 84.0% had perceived its impact. The mouse nicotine toxicity experiment was attracted by greater interest from the students and was strong perceived by impact on them, when compared with the multi-media and the textbook. There were statistically significant (P < 0.001) difference in students' response between the three interventions. And 85.5% of the students believed that nicotine could be similar effects on the human body and 83.7% thought that the experiment could educate middle school students refuse smoking. Among the students, 76.4% agreed to show this kind of animal experiments to middle school students but 9.4% objected. 843 (51.9%) students were willing to do the experiment by themselves. The grade 7 students had lower response and confidence to the experiment than grade 8 students (P < 0.05). The evaluation on the experiment were significant (P < 0.05) different among the students in three smoking stages: non-smokers more than irregular smokers more than regular smokers. The mouse nicotine toxicity experiment was believed by most students and could get great support from them. It could deserve wider application in school-based tobacco control programs.

  3. Control of Mycobacterial Infections in Mice Expressing Human Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) but Not Mouse TNF.

    PubMed

    Olleros, Maria L; Chavez-Galan, Leslie; Segueni, Noria; Bourigault, Marie L; Vesin, Dominique; Kruglov, Andrey A; Drutskaya, Marina S; Bisig, Ruth; Ehlers, Stefan; Aly, Sahar; Walter, Kerstin; Kuprash, Dmitry V; Chouchkova, Miliana; Kozlov, Sergei V; Erard, François; Ryffel, Bernard; Quesniaux, Valérie F J; Nedospasov, Sergei A; Garcia, Irene

    2015-09-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is an important cytokine for host defense against pathogens but is also associated with the development of human immunopathologies. TNF blockade effectively ameliorates many chronic inflammatory conditions but compromises host immunity to tuberculosis. The search for novel, more specific human TNF blockers requires the development of a reliable animal model. We used a novel mouse model with complete replacement of the mouse TNF gene by its human ortholog (human TNF [huTNF] knock-in [KI] mice) to determine resistance to Mycobacterium bovis BCG and M. tuberculosis infections and to investigate whether TNF inhibitors in clinical use reduce host immunity. Our results show that macrophages from huTNF KI mice responded to BCG and lipopolysaccharide similarly to wild-type macrophages by NF-κB activation and cytokine production. While TNF-deficient mice rapidly succumbed to mycobacterial infection, huTNF KI mice survived, controlling the bacterial burden and activating bactericidal mechanisms. Administration of TNF-neutralizing biologics disrupted the control of mycobacterial infection in huTNF KI mice, leading to an increased bacterial burden and hyperinflammation. Thus, our findings demonstrate that human TNF can functionally replace murine TNF in vivo, providing mycobacterial resistance that could be compromised by TNF neutralization. This new animal model will be helpful for the testing of specific biologics neutralizing human TNF. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Control Board Digital Interface Input Devices – Touchscreen, Trackpad, or Mouse?

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas A. Ulrich; Ronald L. Boring; Roger Lew

    The authors collaborated with a power utility to evaluate input devices for use in the human system interface (HSI) for a new digital Turbine Control System (TCS) at a nuclear power plant (NPP) undergoing a TCS upgrade. A standalone dynamic software simulation of the new digital TCS and a mobile kiosk were developed to conduct an input device study to evaluate operator preference and input device effectiveness. The TCS software presented the anticipated HSI for the TCS and mimicked (i.e., simulated) the turbine systems’ responses to operator commands. Twenty-four licensed operators from the two nuclear power units participated in themore » study. Three input devices were tested: a trackpad, mouse, and touchscreen. The subjective feedback from the survey indicates the operators preferred the touchscreen interface. The operators subjectively rated the touchscreen as the fastest and most comfortable input device given the range of tasks they performed during the study, but also noted a lack of accuracy for selecting small targets. The empirical data suggest the mouse input device provides the most consistent performance for screen navigation and manipulating on screen controls. The trackpad input device was both empirically and subjectively found to be the least effective and least desired input device.« less

  5. Prdm9 incompatibility controls oligospermia and delayed fertility but no selfish transmission in mouse intersubspecific hybrids.

    PubMed

    Flachs, Petr; Bhattacharyya, Tanmoy; Mihola, Ondřej; Piálek, Jaroslav; Forejt, Jiří; Trachtulec, Zdenek

    2014-01-01

    PR-domain 9 (Prdm9) is the first hybrid sterility gene identified in mammals. The incompatibility between Prdm9 from Mus musculus domesticus (Mmd; the B6 strain) and the Hstx2 region of chromosome (Chr) X from M. m. musculus (Mmm; the PWD strain) participates in the complete meiotic arrest of mouse intersubspecific (PWD×B6)F1 hybrid males. Other studies suggest that also semisterile intersubspecific hybrids are relevant for mouse speciation, but the genes responsible remain unknown. To investigate the causes of this semisterility, we analyzed the role of Prdm9 and Chr X in hybrids resulting from the crosses of PWK, another Mmm-derived inbred strain. We demonstrate that Prdm9 and Chr X control the partial meiotic arrest and reduced sperm count in (PWK×B6)F1 males. Asynapsis of heterosubspecific chromosomes and semisterility were partially suppressed by removal of the B6 allele of Prdm9. Polymorphisms between PWK and PWD on Chr X but not in the Prdm9 region were responsible for the modification of the outcome of Prdm9-Chr X F1 hybrid incompatibility. Furthermore, (PWK×B6)F1 hybrid males displayed delayed fertility dependent on the Prdm9 incompatibility. While the Drosophila hybrid sterility gene Overdrive causes both delayed fertility and increased transmission of its own chromosome to the offspring, the segregation of Chr X and the Prdm9 region from the mouse (PWK×B6)F1 males was normal. Our results indicate extended functional consequences of Prdm9-Chr X intersubspecific incompatibility on the fertility of hybrids and should influence the design of fertility analyses in hybrid zones and of laboratory crosses between Mmm and Mmd strains.

  6. The circadian clock controls sunburn apoptosis and erythema in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Gaddameedhi, Shobhan; Selby, Christopher P; Kemp, Michael G; Ye, Rui; Sancar, Aziz

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological studies of humans and experimental studies with mouse models suggest that sunburn resulting from exposure to excessive UV light and damage to DNA confers an increased risk for melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer. Previous reports have shown that both nucleotide excision repair, which is the sole pathway in humans for removing UV photoproducts, and DNA replication are regulated by the circadian clock in mouse skin. Furthermore, the timing of UV exposure during the circadian cycle has been shown to affect skin carcinogenesis in mice. Because sunburn and skin cancer are causally related, we investigated UV-induced sunburn apoptosis and erythema in mouse skin as a function of circadian time. Interestingly, we observed that sunburn apoptosis, inflammatory cytokine induction, and erythema were maximal following an acute early-morning exposure to UV and minimal following an afternoon exposure. Early-morning exposure to UV also produced maximal activation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related (Atr)-mediated DNA damage checkpoint signaling, including activation of the tumor suppressor p53, which is known to control the process of sunburn apoptosis. These data provide early evidence that the circadian clock has an important role in the erythemal response in UV-irradiated skin. The early morning is when DNA repair is at a minimum, and thus the acute responses likely are associated with unrepaired DNA damage. The prior report that mice are more susceptible to skin cancer induction following chronic irradiation in the AM, when p53 levels are maximally induced, is discussed in terms of the mutational inactivation of p53 during chronic irradiation.

  7. The Circadian Clock Controls Sunburn Apoptosis and Erythema in Mouse Skin

    PubMed Central

    Gaddameedhi, Shobhan; Selby, Christopher P.; Kemp, Michael G.; Ye, Rui; Sancar, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of humans and experimental studies with mouse models suggest that sunburn resulting from exposure to excessive UV light and damage to DNA confers an increased risk for melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer. Previous reports have shown that both nucleotide excision repair, which is the sole pathway in humans for removing UV photoproducts, and DNA replication, are regulated by the circadian clock in mouse skin. Furthermore, the timing of UV exposure during the circadian cycle has been shown to affect skin carcinogenesis in mice. Because sunburn and skin cancer are causally related, we investigated UV-induced sunburn apoptosis and erythema in mouse skin as a function of circadian time. Interestingly, we observed that sunburn apoptosis, inflammatory cytokine induction, and erythema were maximal following an acute early morning exposure to UV and minimal following an afternoon exposure. Early morning exposure to UV also produced maximal activation of Atr-mediated DNA damage checkpoint signaling including activation of the tumor suppressor p53, which is known to control the process of sunburn apoptosis. To our knowledge these data provide the first evidence that the circadian clock plays an important role in the erythemal response in UV-irradiated skin. The early morning is when DNA repair is at a minimum, thus the acute responses likely are associated with unrepaired DNA damage. The prior report that mice are more susceptible to skin cancer induction following chronic irradiation in the AM, when p53 levels are maximally induced, is discussed in terms of the mutational inactivation of p53 during chronic irradiation. PMID:25431853

  8. The mouse mammary gland as a sentinel organ: distinguishing 'control' populations with diverse environmental histories.

    PubMed

    Kolla, SriDurgaDevi; Pokharel, Aastha; Vandenberg, Laura N

    2017-03-09

    There are numerous examples of laboratory animals that were inadvertently exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during the process of conducting experiments. Controlling contaminations in the laboratory is challenging, especially when their source is unknown. Unfortunately, EDC contaminations can interfere with the interpretation of data during toxicological evaluations. We propose that the male CD-1 mouse mammary gland is a sensitive bioassay to evaluate the inadvertent contamination of animal colonies. We evaluated mammary glands collected from two CD-1 mouse populations with distinct environmental histories. Population 1 was born and raised in a commercial laboratory with unknown EDC exposures; Population 2 was the second generation raised in an animal facility with limited exposures to xenoestrogens from caging, feed, etc. Mammary glands were collected from all animals and evaluated using morphometric techniques to quantify morphological characteristics of the mammary gland. Population 1 (with suspected history of environmental chemical exposure) and Population 2 (with known limited history of xenoestrogen exposure) were morphologically distinguishable in adult males, prepubertal females, and pubertal females. Mammary glands from males raised in the commercial animal facility were significantly more developed, with larger ductal trees and more branching points. The appearance of these mammary glands was consistent with prior reports of male mice exposed to low doses of bisphenol A (BPA) during early development. In females, the two populations were morphologically distinct at both prepuberty and puberty, with the most striking differences observed in the number, size, and density of terminal end buds, e.g. highly proliferative structures found in the developing mammary gland. Collectively, these results suggest that the mouse mammary gland has the potential to be used as a sentinel organ to evaluate and distinguish animal colonies raised in different

  9. Nasal Bone Shape Is under Complex Epistatic Genetic Control in Mouse Interspecific Recombinant Congenic Strains

    PubMed Central

    Burgio, Gaétan; Baylac, Michel; Heyer, Evelyne; Montagutelli, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Background Genetic determinism of cranial morphology in the mouse is still largely unknown, despite the localization of putative QTLs and the identification of genes associated with Mendelian skull malformations. To approach the dissection of this multigenic control, we have used a set of interspecific recombinant congenic strains (IRCS) produced between C57BL/6 and mice of the distant species Mus spretus (SEG/Pas). Each strain has inherited 1.3% of its genome from SEG/Pas under the form of few, small-sized, chromosomal segments. Results The shape of the nasal bone was studied using outline analysis combined with Fourier descriptors, and differential features were identified between IRCS BcG-66H and C57BL/6. An F2 cross between BcG-66H and C57BL/6 revealed that, out of the three SEG/Pas-derived chromosomal regions present in BcG-66H, two were involved. Segments on chromosomes 1 (∼32 Mb) and 18 (∼13 Mb) showed additive effect on nasal bone shape. The three chromosomal regions present in BcG-66H were isolated in congenic strains to study their individual effect. Epistatic interactions were assessed in bicongenic strains. Conclusions Our results show that, besides a strong individual effect, the QTL on chromosome 1 interacts with genes on chromosomes 13 and 18. This study demonstrates that nasal bone shape is under complex genetic control but can be efficiently dissected in the mouse using appropriate genetic tools and shape descriptors. PMID:22662199

  10. Unique roles of estrogen-dependent Pten control in epithelial cell homeostasis of mouse vagina.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, S; Sato, M; Sudo, T; Yamada, G; Iguchi, T

    2015-02-19

    Numerous studies support a role of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 (Pten) as a tumor suppressor gene that controls epithelial cell homeostasis to prevent tumor formation. Mouse vaginal epithelium cyclically exhibits cell proliferation and differentiation in response to estrogen and provides a unique model for analyzing homeostasis of stratified squamous epithelia. We analyzed vaginal epithelium-specific Pten conditional knockout (CKO) mice to provide new insights into Pten/phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt function. The vaginal epithelium of ovariectomized (OVX) mice (control) was composed of 1-2 layers of cuboidal cells, whereas OVX CKO mice exhibited epithelial hyperplasia in the suprabasal cells with increased cell mass and mucin production. This is possibly due to misactivation of mammalian target of rapamycin and mitogen-activated protein kinase. Intriguingly, estrogen administration to OVX Pten CKO mice induced stratification and keratinized differentiation in the vaginal epithelium, as in estrogen-treated controls. We found that Pten is exclusively expressed in the suprabasal cells in the absence of estrogens, whereas estrogen administration induced Pten expression in the basal cells. This suggests that Pten acts to prevent excessive cell proliferation as in the case of other squamous tissues. Thus, Pten exhibits a dual role on the control of vaginal homeostasis, depending on whether estrogens are present or absent. Our results provide new insights into how Pten functions in tissue homeostasis.

  11. Rod electrical coupling is controlled by a circadian clock and dopamine in mouse retina

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Nan Ge; Chuang, Alice Z; Masson, Philippe J; Ribelayga, Christophe P

    2015-01-01

    Key points Rod photoreceptors play a key role in vision in dim light; in the mammalian retina, although rods are anatomically connected or coupled by gap junctions, a type of electrical synapse, the functional importance and regulation of rod coupling has remained elusive. We have developed a new technique in the mouse: perforated patch-clamp recording of rod inner segments in isolated intact retinae maintained by superfusion. We find that rod electrical coupling is controlled by a circadian clock and dopamine, and is weak during the day and stronger at night. The results also indicate that the signal-to-noise ratio for a dim light response is increased at night because of coupling. Our observations will provide a framework for understanding the daily variations in human vision as well as the basis of specific retinal malfunctions. Abstract Rod single-photon responses are critical for vision in dim light. Electrical coupling via gap junction channels shapes the light response properties of vertebrate photoreceptors, but the regulation of rod coupling and its impact on the single-photon response have remained unclear. To directly address these questions, we developed a perforated patch-clamp recording technique and recorded from single rod inner segments in isolated intact neural mouse retinae, maintained by superfusion. Experiments were conducted at different times of the day or under constant environmental conditions, at different times across the circadian cycle. We show that rod electrical coupling is regulated by a circadian clock and dopamine, so that coupling is weak during the day and strong at night. Altogether, patch-clamp recordings of single-photon responses in mouse rods, tracer coupling, receptive field measurements and pharmacological manipulations of gap junction and dopamine receptor activity provide compelling evidence that rod coupling is modulated in a circadian manner. These data are consistent with computer modelling. At night, single

  12. Hybrid Sterility Locus on Chromosome X Controls Meiotic Recombination Rate in Mouse.

    PubMed

    Balcova, Maria; Faltusova, Barbora; Gergelits, Vaclav; Bhattacharyya, Tanmoy; Mihola, Ondrej; Trachtulec, Zdenek; Knopf, Corinna; Fotopulosova, Vladana; Chvatalova, Irena; Gregorova, Sona; Forejt, Jiri

    2016-04-01

    Meiotic recombination safeguards proper segregation of homologous chromosomes into gametes, affects genetic variation within species, and contributes to meiotic chromosome recognition, pairing and synapsis. The Prdm9 gene has a dual role, it controls meiotic recombination by determining the genomic position of crossover hotspots and, in infertile hybrids of house mouse subspecies Mus m. musculus (Mmm) and Mus m. domesticus (Mmd), it further functions as the major hybrid sterility gene. In the latter role Prdm9 interacts with the hybrid sterility X 2 (Hstx2) genomic locus on Chromosome X (Chr X) by a still unknown mechanism. Here we investigated the meiotic recombination rate at the genome-wide level and its possible relation to hybrid sterility. Using immunofluorescence microscopy we quantified the foci of MLH1 DNA mismatch repair protein, the cytological counterparts of reciprocal crossovers, in a panel of inter-subspecific chromosome substitution strains. Two autosomes, Chr 7 and Chr 11, significantly modified the meiotic recombination rate, yet the strongest modifier, designated meiotic recombination 1, Meir1, emerged in the 4.7 Mb Hstx2 genomic locus on Chr X. The male-limited transgressive effect of Meir1 on recombination rate parallels the male-limited transgressive role of Hstx2 in hybrid male sterility. Thus, both genetic factors, the Prdm9 gene and the Hstx2/Meir1 genomic locus, indicate a link between meiotic recombination and hybrid sterility. A strong female-specific modifier of meiotic recombination rate with the effect opposite to Meir1 was localized on Chr X, distally to Meir1. Mapping Meir1 to a narrow candidate interval on Chr X is an important first step towards positional cloning of the respective gene(s) responsible for variation in the global recombination rate between closely related mouse subspecies.

  13. Hybrid Sterility Locus on Chromosome X Controls Meiotic Recombination Rate in Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Balcova, Maria; Faltusova, Barbora; Gergelits, Vaclav; Bhattacharyya, Tanmoy; Mihola, Ondrej; Trachtulec, Zdenek; Knopf, Corinna; Fotopulosova, Vladana; Chvatalova, Irena; Gregorova, Sona; Forejt, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination safeguards proper segregation of homologous chromosomes into gametes, affects genetic variation within species, and contributes to meiotic chromosome recognition, pairing and synapsis. The Prdm9 gene has a dual role, it controls meiotic recombination by determining the genomic position of crossover hotspots and, in infertile hybrids of house mouse subspecies Mus m. musculus (Mmm) and Mus m. domesticus (Mmd), it further functions as the major hybrid sterility gene. In the latter role Prdm9 interacts with the hybrid sterility X 2 (Hstx2) genomic locus on Chromosome X (Chr X) by a still unknown mechanism. Here we investigated the meiotic recombination rate at the genome-wide level and its possible relation to hybrid sterility. Using immunofluorescence microscopy we quantified the foci of MLH1 DNA mismatch repair protein, the cytological counterparts of reciprocal crossovers, in a panel of inter-subspecific chromosome substitution strains. Two autosomes, Chr 7 and Chr 11, significantly modified the meiotic recombination rate, yet the strongest modifier, designated meiotic recombination 1, Meir1, emerged in the 4.7 Mb Hstx2 genomic locus on Chr X. The male-limited transgressive effect of Meir1 on recombination rate parallels the male-limited transgressive role of Hstx2 in hybrid male sterility. Thus, both genetic factors, the Prdm9 gene and the Hstx2/Meir1 genomic locus, indicate a link between meiotic recombination and hybrid sterility. A strong female-specific modifier of meiotic recombination rate with the effect opposite to Meir1 was localized on Chr X, distally to Meir1. Mapping Meir1 to a narrow candidate interval on Chr X is an important first step towards positional cloning of the respective gene(s) responsible for variation in the global recombination rate between closely related mouse subspecies. PMID:27104744

  14. The relevance and use of mouse embryo bioassays for quality control in an assisted reproductive technology program.

    PubMed

    Scott, L F; Sundaram, S G; Smith, S

    1993-09-01

    To define both the limits of a mouse embryo bioassay for quality control in an assisted reproductive technology (ART) program and the areas where it can be effectively used. Embryos at the pronuclear and two-cell stage from three different strains of mice were used to assess the effectiveness of this assay for media quality control using five different media routinely used in ART. Pronuclear and two-cell embryos from CD-1 mice were used to test the ability of a mouse embryo bioassay to control for water quality, contaminants in the culture system, and fluctuations in the environmental conditions using a medium, culture system, and scoring technique that were optimized for this strain. The mouse embryo bioassay is not effective in differentiating media appropriate for supporting human embryo development since the development of mouse embryos in vitro is strain, stage, and media related. However, CD-1 embryos were shown to be sensitive to variations in water quality, pH, temperature, incubator conditions, and contaminants in the system when grown in a protein-free medium optimized for their development. Both total blastocyst number and the cell count in the blastocysts were affected. Pronuclear embryos were more sensitive to perturbations in the culture system than two-cell embryos. A mouse embryo bioassay can be effectively used as a means of quality control of water, chemicals, and contact materials and for technique standardization and training in an assisted reproduction program. All the conditions of the test should be defined, pronuclear embryos should be used, and the end point should be fully expanded blastocysts and/or cell numbers in these blastocysts where appropriate.

  15. Hydrogeophysical Cyberinfrastructure For Real-Time Interactive Browser Controlled Monitoring Of Near Surface Hydrology: Results Of A 13 Month Monitoring Effort At The Hanford 300 Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versteeg, R. J.; Johnson, T.; Henrie, A.; Johnson, D.

    2013-12-01

    . This infrastructure was used for the acquisition and processing of an electrical geophysical timelapse survey which was collected over a highly instrumented field site in the Hanford 300 Area. Over a 13 month period between November 2011 and December 2012 1823 timelapse datasets were collected (roughly 5 datasets a day for a total of 23 million individual measurements) on three parallel resistivity lines of 30 m each with 0.5 meter electrode spacing. In addition, hydrological and environmental data were collected from dedicated and general purpose sensors. This dataset contains rich information on near surface processes on a range of different spatial and temporal scales (ranging from hourly to seasonal). We will show how this cyberinfrastructure was used to manage and process this dataset and how the cyberinfrastructure can be used to access, mine and visualize the resulting data and information.

  16. Effects of diamines on ornithine decarboxylase activity in control and virally transformed mouse fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Bethell, D R; Pegg, A E

    1979-01-01

    1. The induction of ornithine decarboxylase activity in mouse 3T3 fibroblasts or an SV-40 transformed 3T3 cell line by serum was prevented by addition of the naturally occurring polyamines putrescine (butane-1,4-diamine) and spermidine. Much higher concentrations of these amines were required to fully suppress ornithine decarboxylase activity in the transformed SV-3T3 cells than in the 3T3 fibroblasts. 2. Synthetic alpha omega-diamines with 3--12 carbon atoms also prevented the increase in ornithine decarboxylase activity induced by serum in these cells. The longer chain diamines were somewhat more potent than propane-1,3-diamine in this effect, but the synthetic diamines were less active than putrescine in the 3T3 cells. There was little difference between the responses of 3T3 and SV-3T3 cells to the synthetic diamines propane-1,3-diamine and heptane-1,7-diamine. 3. These results are discussed in relation to the control of polyamine synthesis in mammalian cells. PMID:486108

  17. Identification of structural determinants controlling human and mouse stromelysin-3 proteolytic activities.

    PubMed

    Noël, A; Santavicca, M; Stoll, I; L'Hoir, C; Staub, A; Murphy, G; Rio, M C; Basset, P

    1995-09-29

    Matrix metalloproteinases (matrixins) constitute a group of extracellular proteinases belonging to the metzincin superfamily. They are involved in both physiological and pathological tissue remodeling processes, including those associated with cancer progression. Stromelysin-3, which is expressed in most invasive human carcinomas, is a matrix metalloproteinase with unusual functional properties. In particular, its mature form does not cleave any of the major extracellular matrix components. To define critical structural determinants involved in controlling stromelysin-3 proteolytic activity, we have used site-directed mutagenesis. We show that the deletion of at least 175 C-terminal amino-acids is sufficient to endow mouse stromelysin-3 with activities against casein, laminin, and type IV collagen. In the case of the human enzyme, however, a further and single Ala-235-->Pro substitution is necessary to observe similar activities. Ala-235, which characterizes human stromelysin-3 among matrixins, is located immediately after the C terminus of the "Met-turn," which forms a hydrophobic basis for the catalytic zinc atom in the metzincin family. We conclude that human stromelysin-3 has gained specific functional properties during evolution by amino acid substitution in the catalytic zinc environment, and that it represents an attractive target for specific inhibitors that may be used to prevent cancer progression.

  18. Guiding the osteogenic fate of mouse and human mesenchymal stem cells through feedback system control.

    PubMed

    Honda, Yoshitomo; Ding, Xianting; Mussano, Federico; Wiberg, Akira; Ho, Chih-Ming; Nishimura, Ichiro

    2013-12-05

    Stem cell-based disease modeling presents unique opportunities for mechanistic elucidation and therapeutic targeting. The stable induction of fate-specific differentiation is an essential prerequisite for stem cell-based strategy. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) initiates receptor-regulated Smad phosphorylation, leading to the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) in vitro; however, it requires supra-physiological concentrations, presenting a bottleneck problem for large-scale drug screening. Here, we report the use of a double-objective feedback system control (FSC) with a differential evolution (DE) algorithm to identify osteogenic cocktails of extrinsic factors. Cocktails containing significantly reduced doses of BMP-2 in combination with physiologically relevant doses of dexamethasone, ascorbic acid, beta-glycerophosphate, heparin, retinoic acid and vitamin D achieved accelerated in vitro mineralization of mouse and human MSC. These results provide insight into constructive approaches of FSC to determine the applicable functional and physiological environment for MSC in disease modeling, drug screening and tissue engineering.

  19. Mechanical control of notochord morphogenesis by extra-embryonic tissues in mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Imuta, Yu; Koyama, Hiroshi; Shi, Dongbo; Eiraku, Mototsugu; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Sasaki, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    Mammalian embryos develop in coordination with extraembryonic tissues, which support embryonic development by implanting embryos into the uterus, supplying nutrition, providing a confined niche, and also providing patterning signals to embryos. Here, we show that in mouse embryos, the expansion of the amniotic cavity (AC), which is formed between embryonic and extraembryonic tissues, provides the mechanical forces required for a type of morphogenetic movement of the notochord known as convergent extension (CE) in which the cells converge to the midline and the tissue elongates along the antero-posterior (AP) axis. The notochord is stretched along the AP axis, and the expansion of the AC is required for CE. Both mathematical modeling and physical simulation showed that a rectangular morphology of the early notochord caused the application of anisotropic force along the AP axis to the notochord through the isotropic expansion of the AC. AC expansion acts upstream of planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling, which regulates CE movement. Our results highlight the importance of extraembryonic tissues as a source of the forces that control the morphogenesis of embryos. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Guiding the osteogenic fate of mouse and human mesenchymal stem cells through feedback system control

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Yoshitomo; Ding, Xianting; Mussano, Federico; Wiberg, Akira; Ho, Chih-ming; Nishimura, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell-based disease modeling presents unique opportunities for mechanistic elucidation and therapeutic targeting. The stable induction of fate-specific differentiation is an essential prerequisite for stem cell-based strategy. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) initiates receptor-regulated Smad phosphorylation, leading to the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) in vitro; however, it requires supra-physiological concentrations, presenting a bottleneck problem for large-scale drug screening. Here, we report the use of a double-objective feedback system control (FSC) with a differential evolution (DE) algorithm to identify osteogenic cocktails of extrinsic factors. Cocktails containing significantly reduced doses of BMP-2 in combination with physiologically relevant doses of dexamethasone, ascorbic acid, beta-glycerophosphate, heparin, retinoic acid and vitamin D achieved accelerated in vitro mineralization of mouse and human MSC. These results provide insight into constructive approaches of FSC to determine the applicable functional and physiological environment for MSC in disease modeling, drug screening and tissue engineering. PMID:24305548

  1. A New Limb Movement Detector Enabling People with Multiple Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation through Limb Swing with a Gyration Air Mouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Man-Ling; Shih, Ching-Tien

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using limb swing with a gyration air mouse and a newly developed limb movement detection program (LMDP, i.e., a new software program that turns a gyration air mouse into a precise limb movement detector). The study was performed…

  2. Assisting People with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder by Actively Reducing Limb Hyperactive Behavior with a Gyration Air Mouse through a Controlled Environmental Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    The latest researches have adopted software technology turning the gyration air mouse into a high performance limb movement detector, and have assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control an environmental stimulation using limb movement. This study extends gyration air mouse functionality by actively reducing…

  3. Increasing physical activity in office workers--the Inphact Treadmill study; a study protocol for a 13-month randomized controlled trial of treadmill workstations.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Frida; Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan; Wennberg, Patrik; Sörlin, Ann; Olsson, Tommy

    2015-07-10

    Sedentary behaviour is an independent risk factor for mortality and morbidity, especially for type 2 diabetes. Since office work is related to long periods that are largely sedentary, it is of major importance to find ways for office workers to engage in light intensity physical activity (LPA). The Inphact Treadmill study aims to investigate the effects of installing treadmill workstations in offices compared to conventional workstations. A two-arm, 13-month, randomized controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted. Healthy overweight and obese office workers (n = 80) with mainly sedentary tasks will be recruited from office workplaces in Umeå, Sweden. The intervention group will receive a health consultation and a treadmill desk, which they will use for at least one hour per day for 13 months. The control group will receive the same health consultation, but continue to work at their regular workstations. Physical activity and sedentary time during workdays and non-workdays as well as during working and non-working hours on workdays will be measured objectively using accelerometers (Actigraph and activPAL) at baseline and after 2, 6, 10, and 13 months of follow-up. Food intake will be recorded and metabolic and anthropometric variables, body composition, stress, pain, depression, anxiety, cognitive function, and functional magnetic resonance imaging will be measured at 3-5 time points during the study period. Interviews with participants from the intervention group will be performed at the end of the study. This will be the first long-term RCT on the effects of treadmill workstations on objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time as well as other body functions and structures/morphology during working and non-working hours among office workers. This will provide further insight on the effects of active workstations on our health and could fill in some of the knowledge gaps regarding how we can reduce sedentary time in office environments. Clinical

  4. X Chromosome Control of Meiotic Chromosome Synapsis in Mouse Inter-Subspecific Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Tanmoy; Reifova, Radka; Gregorova, Sona; Simecek, Petr; Gergelits, Vaclav; Mistrik, Martin; Martincova, Iva; Pialek, Jaroslav; Forejt, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid sterility (HS) belongs to reproductive isolation barriers that safeguard the integrity of species in statu nascendi. Although hybrid sterility occurs almost universally among animal and plant species, most of our current knowledge comes from the classical genetic studies on Drosophila interspecific crosses or introgressions. With the house mouse subspecies Mus m. musculus and Mus m. domesticus as a model, new research tools have become available for studies of the molecular mechanisms and genetic networks underlying HS. Here we used QTL analysis and intersubspecific chromosome substitution strains to identify a 4.7 Mb critical region on Chromosome X (Chr X) harboring the Hstx2 HS locus, which causes asymmetrical spermatogenic arrest in reciprocal intersubspecific F1 hybrids. Subsequently, we mapped autosomal loci on Chrs 3, 9 and 13 that can abolish this asymmetry. Combination of immunofluorescent visualization of the proteins of synaptonemal complexes with whole-chromosome DNA FISH on pachytene spreads revealed that heterosubspecific, unlike consubspecific, homologous chromosomes are predisposed to asynapsis in F1 hybrid male and female meiosis. The asynapsis is under the trans- control of Hstx2 and Hst1/Prdm9 hybrid sterility genes in pachynemas of male but not female hybrids. The finding concurred with the fertility of intersubpecific F1 hybrid females homozygous for the Hstx2Mmm allele and resolved the apparent conflict with the dominance theory of Haldane's rule. We propose that meiotic asynapsis in intersubspecific hybrids is a consequence of cis-acting mismatch between homologous chromosomes modulated by the trans-acting Hstx2 and Prdm9 hybrid male sterility genes. PMID:24516397

  5. X chromosome control of meiotic chromosome synapsis in mouse inter-subspecific hybrids.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Tanmoy; Reifova, Radka; Gregorova, Sona; Simecek, Petr; Gergelits, Vaclav; Mistrik, Martin; Martincova, Iva; Pialek, Jaroslav; Forejt, Jiri

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid sterility (HS) belongs to reproductive isolation barriers that safeguard the integrity of species in statu nascendi. Although hybrid sterility occurs almost universally among animal and plant species, most of our current knowledge comes from the classical genetic studies on Drosophila interspecific crosses or introgressions. With the house mouse subspecies Mus m. musculus and Mus m. domesticus as a model, new research tools have become available for studies of the molecular mechanisms and genetic networks underlying HS. Here we used QTL analysis and intersubspecific chromosome substitution strains to identify a 4.7 Mb critical region on Chromosome X (Chr X) harboring the Hstx2 HS locus, which causes asymmetrical spermatogenic arrest in reciprocal intersubspecific F1 hybrids. Subsequently, we mapped autosomal loci on Chrs 3, 9 and 13 that can abolish this asymmetry. Combination of immunofluorescent visualization of the proteins of synaptonemal complexes with whole-chromosome DNA FISH on pachytene spreads revealed that heterosubspecific, unlike consubspecific, homologous chromosomes are predisposed to asynapsis in F1 hybrid male and female meiosis. The asynapsis is under the trans- control of Hstx2 and Hst1/Prdm9 hybrid sterility genes in pachynemas of male but not female hybrids. The finding concurred with the fertility of intersubpecific F1 hybrid females homozygous for the Hstx2(Mmm) allele and resolved the apparent conflict with the dominance theory of Haldane's rule. We propose that meiotic asynapsis in intersubspecific hybrids is a consequence of cis-acting mismatch between homologous chromosomes modulated by the trans-acting Hstx2 and Prdm9 hybrid male sterility genes.

  6. Sensorimotor control of breathing in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Burns, David P; Roy, Arijit; Lucking, Eric F; McDonald, Fiona B; Gray, Sam; Wilson, Richard J; Edge, Deirdre; O'Halloran, Ken D

    2017-11-01

    Respiratory failure is a leading cause of mortality in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), but little is known about the control of breathing in DMD and animal models. We show that young (8 weeks of age) mdx mice hypoventilate during basal breathing due to reduced tidal volume. Basal CO 2 production is equivalent in wild-type and mdx mice. We show that carotid bodies from mdx mice have blunted responses to hyperoxia, revealing hypoactivity in normoxia. However, carotid body, ventilatory and metabolic responses to hypoxia are equivalent in wild-type and mdx mice. Our study revealed profound muscle weakness and muscle fibre remodelling in young mdx diaphragm, suggesting severe mechanical disadvantage in mdx mice at an early age. Our novel finding of potentiated neural motor drive to breathe in mdx mice during maximal chemoactivation suggests compensatory neuroplasticity enhancing respiratory motor output to the diaphragm and probably other accessory muscles. Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) hypoventilate with consequential arterial blood gas derangement relevant to disease progression. Whereas deficits in DMD diaphragm are recognized, there is a paucity of knowledge in respect of the neural control of breathing in dystrophinopathies. We sought to perform an analysis of respiratory control in a model of DMD, the mdx mouse. In 8-week-old male wild-type and mdx mice, ventilation and metabolism, carotid body afferent activity, diaphragm muscle force-generating capacity, and muscle fibre size, distribution and centronucleation were determined. Diaphragm EMG activity and responsiveness to chemostimulation was determined. During normoxia, mdx mice hypoventilated, owing to a reduction in tidal volume. Basal CO 2 production was not different between wild-type and mdx mice. Carotid sinus nerve responses to hyperoxia were blunted in mdx, suggesting hypoactivity. However, carotid body, ventilatory and metabolic responses to hypoxia were equivalent in wild-type and

  7. Noradrenergic Control of Odor Recognition in a Nonassociative Olfactory Learning Task in the Mouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veyrac, Alexandra; Nguyen, Veronique; Marien, Marc; Didier, Anne; Jourdan, Francois

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of pharmacological modulations of the locus coeruleus noradrenergic system on odor recognition in the mouse. Mice exposed to a nonrewarded olfactory stimulation (training) were able to memorize this odor and to discriminate it from a new odor in a recall test performed 15 min later. At longer delays (30 or…

  8. Analogue mouse pointer control via an online steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) brain-computer interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John J.; Palaniappan, Ramaswamy

    2011-04-01

    The steady state visual evoked protocol has recently become a popular paradigm in brain-computer interface (BCI) applications. Typically (regardless of function) these applications offer the user a binary selection of targets that perform correspondingly discrete actions. Such discrete control systems are appropriate for applications that are inherently isolated in nature, such as selecting numbers from a keypad to be dialled or letters from an alphabet to be spelled. However motivation exists for users to employ proportional control methods in intrinsically analogue tasks such as the movement of a mouse pointer. This paper introduces an online BCI in which control of a mouse pointer is directly proportional to a user's intent. Performance is measured over a series of pointer movement tasks and compared to the traditional discrete output approach. Analogue control allowed subjects to move the pointer faster to the cued target location compared to discrete output but suffers more undesired movements overall. Best performance is achieved when combining the threshold to movement of traditional discrete techniques with the range of movement offered by proportional control.

  9. A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) system to use arbitrary Windows applications by directly controlling mouse and keyboard.

    PubMed

    Spuler, Martin

    2015-08-01

    A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) allows to control a computer by brain activity only, without the need for muscle control. In this paper, we present an EEG-based BCI system based on code-modulated visual evoked potentials (c-VEPs) that enables the user to work with arbitrary Windows applications. Other BCI systems, like the P300 speller or BCI-based browsers, allow control of one dedicated application designed for use with a BCI. In contrast, the system presented in this paper does not consist of one dedicated application, but enables the user to control mouse cursor and keyboard input on the level of the operating system, thereby making it possible to use arbitrary applications. As the c-VEP BCI method was shown to enable very fast communication speeds (writing more than 20 error-free characters per minute), the presented system is the next step in replacing the traditional mouse and keyboard and enabling complete brain-based control of a computer.

  10. An evaluation of touchscreen versus keyboard/mouse interaction for large screen process control displays.

    PubMed

    Noah, Benjamin; Li, Jingwen; Rothrock, Ling

    2017-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the effect of interaction device on performance in a process control task (managing a tank farm). The study compared the following two conditions: a) 4K-resolution 55" screen with a 21" touchscreen versus b) 4K-resolution 55″ screen with keyboard/mouse. The touchscreen acted both as an interaction device for data entry and navigation and as an additional source of information. A within-subject experiment was conducted among 20 college engineering students. A primary task of preventing tanks from overfilling as well as a secondary task of manual logging with situation awareness questions were designed for the study. Primary Task performance (including tank level at discharge, number of tank discharged and performance score), Secondary Task Performance (including Tank log count, performance score), system interaction times, subjective workload, situation awareness questionnaire, user experience survey regarding usability and condition comparison were used as the measures. Parametric data resulted in two metrics statistically different means between the two conditions: The 4K-keyboard condition resulted in faster Detection + Navigation time compared to the 4K-touchscreen condition, by about 2 s, while participants within the 4K-touchscreen condition were about 2 s faster in data entry than in the 4K-keyboard condition. No significant results were found for: performance on the secondary task, situation awareness, and workload. Additionally, no clear significant differences were found in the non-parametric data analysis. However, participants showed a slight preference for the 4K-touchscreen condition compared to the 4K-keyboard condition in subjective responses in comparing the conditions. Introducing the touchscreen as an additional/alternative input device showed to have an effect in interaction times, which suggests that proper design considerations need to be made. While having values shown on the interaction device

  11. F-actin mechanics control spindle centring in the mouse zygote

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaigne, Agathe; Campillo, Clément; Voituriez, Raphaël; Gov, Nir S.; Sykes, Cécile; Verlhac, Marie-Hélène; Terret, Marie-Emilie

    2016-01-01

    Mitotic spindle position relies on interactions between astral microtubules nucleated by centrosomes and a rigid cortex. Some cells, such as mouse oocytes, do not possess centrosomes and astral microtubules. These cells rely only on actin and on a soft cortex to position their spindle off-centre and undergo asymmetric divisions. While the first mouse embryonic division also occurs in the absence of centrosomes, it is symmetric and not much is known on how the spindle is positioned at the exact cell centre. Using interdisciplinary approaches, we demonstrate that zygotic spindle positioning follows a three-step process: (1) coarse centring of pronuclei relying on the dynamics of an F-actin/Myosin-Vb meshwork; (2) fine centring of the metaphase plate depending on a high cortical tension; (3) passive maintenance at the cell centre. Altogether, we show that F-actin-dependent mechanics operate the switch between asymmetric to symmetric division required at the oocyte to embryo transition.

  12. Creation of a Mouse with Stress-Induced Dystonia: Control of an ATPase Chaperone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    was successful, and a mouse with the desired dystonic symptoms was obtained. It has two mutations , one a dominantly inherited gene with 100...the hallmark of dystonia. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Dystonia, genetically modified mice, stress, gene mutations , animal model of disease. 16...there are a variety of hypotheses that should be testable if there were a realistic animal model. Mice with mutations in genes known to cause dystonia

  13. Healthy eating decisions require efficient dietary self-control in children: A mouse-tracking food decision study.

    PubMed

    Ha, Oh-Ryeong; Bruce, Amanda S; Pruitt, Stephen W; Cherry, J Bradley C; Smith, T Ryan; Burkart, Dominic; Bruce, Jared M; Lim, Seung-Lark

    2016-10-01

    Learning how to make healthy eating decisions, (i.e., resisting unhealthy foods and consuming healthy foods), enhances physical development and reduces health risks in children. Although healthy eating decisions are known to be challenging for children, the mechanisms of children's food choice processes are not fully understood. The present study recorded mouse movement trajectories while eighteen children aged 8-13 years were choosing between eating and rejecting foods. Children were inclined to choose to eat rather than to reject foods, and preferred unhealthy foods over healthy foods, implying that rejecting unhealthy foods could be a demanding choice. When children rejected unhealthy foods, mouse trajectories were characterized by large curvature toward an eating choice in the beginning, late decision shifting time toward a rejecting choice, and slowed response times. These results suggested that children exercised greater cognitive efforts with longer decision times to resist unhealthy foods, providing evidence that children require dietary self-control to make healthy eating-decisions by resisting the temptation of unhealthy foods. Developmentally, older children attempted to exercise greater cognitive efforts for consuming healthy foods than younger children, suggesting that development of dietary self-control contributes to healthy eating-decisions. The study also documents that healthy weight children with higher BMIs were more likely to choose to reject healthy foods. Overall, findings have important implications for how children make healthy eating choices and the role of dietary self-control in eating decisions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. A detailed analysis of the erythropoietic control system in the human, squirrel, monkey, rat and mouse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordheim, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    The erythropoiesis modeling performed in support of the Body Fluid and Blood Volume Regulation tasks is described. The mathematical formulation of the species independent model, the solutions to the steady state and dynamic versions of the model, and the individual species specific models for the human, squirrel monkey, rat and mouse are outlined. A detailed sensitivity analysis of the species independent model response to parameter changes and how those responses change from species to species is presented. The species to species response to a series of simulated stresses directly related to blood volume regulation during space flight is analyzed.

  15. Creation of a Mouse with Stress-Induced Dystonia: Control of an ATPase Chaperone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Mice with mutations in genes known to cause dystonia in humans are so far virtually asymptomatic. Only mild motor deficiencies have been seen, such...identified the gene for one of the subunits of Na,K- ATPase, ATP1A3, as the site of mutations in RDP (de Carvalho Aguiar et al. 2004). Our prior work in...first paper, and to be able to give the mouse line an official name based on the mutated gene . Funding has been applied for from the following

  16. Immunotherapy by targeting of VGKC complex for seizure control and prevention of cognitive impairment in a mouse model of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhiliang; Feng, Xiaojuan; Fan, Zhigang; Zhu, Xingyuan; Yin, Shaohua

    2018-05-09

    Epilepsy is a type of refractory neurologic disorder mental disease, which is associated with cognitive impairments and memory dysfunction. However, the potential mechanisms of epilepsy are not well understood. Previous evidence has identified the voltage gated potassium channel complex (VGKC) as a target in various cohorts of patients with epilepsy. In the present study, the efficacy of an antibody against VGKC (anti‑VGKC) for the treatment of epilepsy in mice was investigated. A mouse model of lithium‑pilocarpine temporal lobe epilepsy was established and anti‑VGKC treatment was administered for 30 days. Memory impairment, anxiety, visual attention, inhibitory control and neuronal loss were measured in the mouse model of lithium‑pilocarpine temporal lobe epilepsy. The results revealed that epileptic mice treated with anti‑VGKC were able to learn the task and presented attention impairment, even a tendency toward impulsivity and compulsivity. It was also exhibited that anti‑VGKC treatment decreased neuronal loss in structures classically associated with attentional performance in hippocampus. Mice who received Anti‑VGKC treatment had inhibited motor seizures and hippocampal damage as compared with control mice. In conclusion, these results indicated that anti‑VGKC treatment may present benefits for improvements of the condition of motor attention impairment and cognitive competence, which suggests that VGKC may be a potential target for the treatment of epilepsy.

  17. Huntingtin Acts Non Cell-Autonomously on Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Controls Anxiety-Related Behaviors in Adult Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Pla, Patrick; Orvoen, Sophie; Benstaali, Caroline; Dodier, Sophie; Gardier, Alain M.; David, Denis J.; Humbert, Sandrine; Saudou, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, characterized by motor defects and psychiatric symptoms, including mood disorders such as anxiety and depression. HD is caused by an abnormal polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion in the huntingtin (HTT) protein. The development and analysis of various mouse models that express pathogenic polyQ-HTT revealed a link between mutant HTT and the development of anxio-depressive behaviors and various hippocampal neurogenesis defects. However, it is unclear whether such phenotype is linked to alteration of HTT wild-type function in adults. Here, we report the analysis of a new mouse model in which HTT is inducibly deleted from adult mature cortical and hippocampal neurons using the CreERT2/Lox system. These mice present defects in both the survival and the dendritic arborization of hippocampal newborn neurons. Our data suggest that these non-cell autonomous effects are linked to defects in both BDNF transport and release upon HTT silencing in hippocampal neurons, and in BDNF/TrkB signaling. The controlled deletion of HTT also had anxiogenic-like effects. Our results implicate endogenous wild-type HTT in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and in the control of mood disorders. PMID:24019939

  18. GATA3 controls the specification of prosensory domain and neuronal survival in the mouse cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiong-jian; Deng, Min; Xie, Xiaoling; Huang, Liang; Wang, Hui; Jiang, Lichun; Liang, Guoqing; Hu, Fang; Tieu, Roger; Chen, Rui; Gan, Lin

    2013-01-01

    HDR syndrome (also known as Barakat syndrome) is a developmental disorder characterized by hypoparathyroidism, sensorineural deafness and renal disease. Although genetic mapping and subsequent functional studies indicate that GATA3 haplo-insufficiency causes human HDR syndrome, the role of Gata3 in sensorineural deafness and auditory system development is largely unknown. In this study, we show that Gata3 is continuously expressed in the developing mouse inner ear. Conditional knockout of Gata3 in the developing inner ear disrupts the morphogenesis of mouse inner ear, resulting in a disorganized and shortened cochlear duct with significant fewer hair cells and supporting cells. Loss of Gata3 function leads to the failure in the specification of prosensory domain and subsequently, to increased cell death in the cochlear duct. Moreover, though the initial generation of cochleovestibular ganglion (CVG) cells is not affected in Gata3-null mice, spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) are nearly depleted due to apoptosis. Our results demonstrate the essential role of Gata3 in specifying the prosensory domain in the cochlea and in regulating the survival of SGNs, thus identifying a molecular mechanism underlying human HDR syndrome. PMID:23666531

  19. [The genetic control of mouse coat color and its applications in genetics teaching].

    PubMed

    Xing, Wanjin; Morigen, Morigen

    2014-10-01

    Mice are the most commonly used mammalian model. The coat colors of mice are typical Mendelian traits, which have various colors such as white, black, yellow and agouti. The inheritance of mouse coat color is usually stated as an example only in teaching the knowledge of recessive lethal alleles. After searched the related literatures and summarized the molecular mechanisms of mouse coat color inheritance, we further expanded the application of this example into the introduction of the basic concepts of alleles and Mendelian laws, demonstration of the gene structure and function, regulation of gene expression, gene interaction, epigenetic modification, quantitative genetics, as well as evolutionary genetics. By running this example through the whole genetics-teaching lectures, we help the student to form a systemic and developmental view of genetic analysis. At the same time, this teaching approach not only highlights the advancement and integrity of genetics, but also results in a good teaching effect on inspiring the students' interest and attracting students' attention.

  20. Controlled insertional mutagenesis using a LINE-1 (ORFeus) gene-trap mouse model.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Kathryn A; An, Wenfeng; Schrum, Christina T; Wheelan, Sarah J; Boeke, Jef D

    2013-07-16

    A codon-optimized mouse LINE-1 element, ORFeus, exhibits dramatically higher retrotransposition frequencies compared with its native long interspersed element 1 counterpart. To establish a retrotransposon-mediated mouse model with regulatable and potent mutagenic capabilities, we generated a tetracycline (tet)-regulated ORFeus element harboring a gene-trap cassette. Here, we show that mice expressing tet-ORFeus broadly exhibit robust retrotransposition in somatic tissues when treated with doxycycline. Consistent with a significant mutagenic burden, we observed a reduced number of double transgenic animals when treated with high-level doxycycline during embryogenesis. Transgene induction in skin resulted in a white spotting phenotype due to somatic ORFeus-mediated mutations that likely disrupt melanocyte development. The data suggest a high level of transposition in melanocyte precursors and consequent mutation of genes important for melanoblast proliferation, differentiation, or migration. These findings reveal the utility of a retrotransposon-based mutagenesis system as an alternative to existing DNA transposon systems. Moreover, breeding these mice to different tet-transactivator/reversible tet-transactivator lines supports broad functionality of tet-ORFeus because of the potential for dose-dependent, tissue-specific, and temporal-specific mutagenesis.

  1. Mouse species-specific control of hepatocarcinogenesis and metabolism by FGF19/FGF15.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mei; Luo, Jian; Chen, Michael; Yang, Hong; Learned, R Marc; DePaoli, Alex M; Tian, Hui; Ling, Lei

    2017-06-01

    Bile acid nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a key molecular mediator of many metabolic processes, including the regulation of bile acid, lipid and glucose homeostasis. A significant component of FXR-mediated events essential to its biological activity is attributed to induction of the enteric endocrine hormone fibroblast growth factor (FGF)19 or its rodent ortholog, FGF15. In this report, we compared the properties of human FGF19 and murine FGF15 in the regulation of hepatocarcinogenesis and metabolism in various mouse models of disease. Tumorigenicity was assessed in three mouse models (db/db, diet-induced obese, and multi-drug resistance 2 [Mdr2]-deficient) following continuous exposure to FGF19 or FGF15 via adeno-associated viral-mediated gene delivery. Glucose, hemoglobin A1c and β-cell mass were characterized in db/db mice. Oxygen consumption, energy expenditure, and body composition were evaluated in diet-induced obese mice. Serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase were assessed in Mdr2-deficient mice. Expression profiles of genes encoding key proteins involved in bile acid synthesis and hepatocarcinogenesis were also determined. Both FGF15 and FGF19 hormones repressed bile acid synthesis (p<0.001 for both). However, murine FGF15 lacked the protective effects characteristic of human FGF19 in db/db mice with overt diabetes, such as weight-independent HbA1c-lowering and β-cell-protection. Unlike FGF19, FGF15 did not induce hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) in three mouse models of metabolic diseases (db/db, diet-induced obese, and multi-drug resistance 2 [Mdr2]-deficient mice), even at supra-pharmacological exposure levels. Fundamental species-associated differences between FGF19 and FGF15 may restrict the relevance of mouse models for the study of the FXR/FGF19 pathway, and underscore the importance of clinical assessment of this pathway, with respect to both safety and efficacy in humans

  2. Brain oxygen tension controls the expansion of outer subventricular zone-like basal progenitors in the developing mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Wagenführ, Lisa; Meyer, Anne K; Braunschweig, Lena; Marrone, Lara; Storch, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    The mammalian neocortex shows a conserved six-layered structure that differs between species in the total number of cortical neurons produced owing to differences in the relative abundance of distinct progenitor populations. Recent studies have identified a new class of proliferative neurogenic cells in the outer subventricular zone (OSVZ) in gyrencephalic species such as primates and ferrets. Lissencephalic brains of mice possess fewer OSVZ-like progenitor cells and these do not constitute a distinct layer. Most in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that oxygen regulates the maintenance, proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells. Here we dissect the effects of fetal brain oxygen tension on neural progenitor cell activity using a novel mouse model that allows oxygen tension to be controlled within the hypoxic microenvironment in the neurogenic niche of the fetal brain in vivo. Indeed, maternal oxygen treatment of 10%, 21% and 75% atmospheric oxygen tension for 48 h translates into robust changes in fetal brain oxygenation. Increased oxygen tension in fetal mouse forebrain in vivo leads to a marked expansion of a distinct proliferative cell population, basal to the SVZ. These cells constitute a novel neurogenic cell layer, similar to the OSVZ, and contribute to corticogenesis by heading for deeper cortical layers as a part of the cortical plate. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Phage ΦPan70, a Putative Temperate Phage, Controls Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Planktonic, Biofilm and Burn Mouse Model Assays

    PubMed Central

    Holguín, Angela V.; Rangel, Guillermo; Clavijo, Viviana; Prada, Catalina; Mantilla, Marcela; Gomez, María Catalina; Kutter, Elizabeth; Taylor, Corinda; Fineran, Peter C.; Barrios, Andrés Fernando González; Vives, Martha J.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the Multi-Drug-Resistant organisms most frequently isolated worldwide and, because of a shortage of new antibiotics, bacteriophages are considered an alternative for its treatment. Previously, P. aeruginosa phages were isolated and best candidates were chosen based on their ability to form clear plaques and their host range. This work aimed to characterize one of those phages, ΦPan70, preliminarily identified as a good candidate for phage-therapy. We performed infection curves, biofilm removal assays, transmission-electron-microscopy, pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis, and studied the in vivo ΦPan70 biological activity in the burned mouse model. ΦPan70 was classified as a member of the Myoviridae family and, in both planktonic cells and biofilms, was responsible for a significant reduction in the bacterial population. The burned mouse model showed an animal survival between 80% and 100%, significantly different from the control animals (0%). However, analysis of the ΦPan70 genome revealed that it was 64% identical to F10, a temperate P. aeruginosa phage. Gene annotation indicated ΦPan70 as a new, but possible temperate phage, therefore not ideal for phage-therapy. Based on this, we recommend genome sequence analysis as an early step to select candidate phages for potential application in phage-therapy, before entering into a more intensive characterization. PMID:26274971

  4. Deletion of neurturin impairs development of cholinergic nerves and heart rate control in postnatal mouse hearts.

    PubMed

    Downs, Anthony M; Jalloh, Hawa B; Prater, Kayla J; Fregoso, Santiago P; Bond, Cherie E; Hampton, Thomas G; Hoover, Donald B

    2016-05-01

    The neurotrophic factor neurturin is required for normal cholinergic innervation of adult mouse heart and bradycardic responses to vagal stimulation. Our goals were to determine effects of neurturin deletion on development of cardiac chronotropic and dromotropic functions, vagal baroreflex response, and cholinergic nerve density in nodal regions of postnatal mice. Experiments were performed on postnatal C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and neurturin knockout (KO) mice. Serial electrocardiograms were recorded noninvasively from conscious pups using an ECGenie apparatus. Mice were treated with atenolol to evaluate and block sympathetic effects on heart rate (HR) and phenylephrine (PE) to stimulate the baroreflex. Immunohistochemistry was used to label cholinergic nerves in paraffin sections. WT and KO mice showed similar age-dependent increases in HR and decreases in PR interval between postnatal days (P) 2.5 and 21. Treatment with atenolol reduced HR significantly in WT and KO pups at P7.5. PE caused a reflex bradycardia that was significantly smaller in KO pups. Cholinergic nerve density was significantly less in nodal regions of P7.5 KO mice. We conclude that cholinergic nerves have minimal influence on developmental changes in HR and PR, QRS, and QTc intervals in mouse pups. However, cholinergic nerves mediate reflex bradycardia by 1 week postnatally. Deletion of neurturin impairs cholinergic innervation of the heart and the vagal efferent component of the baroreflex early during postnatal development. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  5. Non-target effects of an introduced biological control agent on deer mouse ecology

    Treesearch

    Dean E. Pearson; Kevin S. McKelvey; Leonard F. Ruggiero

    2000-01-01

    Release of exotic insects as biological control agents is a common approach to controlling exotic plants. Though controversy has ensued regarding the deleterious direct effects of biological control agents to non-target species, few have examined the indirect effects of a "well-behaved" biological control agent on native fauna. We studied a grassland in west-...

  6. Regulation of Torpor in the Gray Mouse Lemur: Transcriptional and Translational Controls and Role of AMPK Signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Tessier, Shannon N; Biggar, Kyle K; Wu, Cheng-Wei; Pifferi, Fabien; Perret, Martine; Storey, Kenneth B

    2015-04-01

    The gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) is one of few primate species that is able to enter daily torpor or prolonged hibernation in response to environmental stresses. With an emerging significance to human health research, lemurs present an optimal model for exploring molecular adaptations that regulate primate hypometabolism. A fundamental challenge is how to effectively regulate energy expensive cellular processes (e.g., transcription and translation) during transitions to/from torpor without disrupting cellular homeostasis. One such regulatory mechanism is reversible posttranslational modification of selected protein targets that offers fine cellular control without the energetic burden. This study investigates the role of phosphorylation and/or acetylation in regulating key factors involved in energy homeostasis (AMP-activated protein kinase, or AMPK, signaling pathway), mRNA translation (eukaryotic initiation factor 2α or eIF2α, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E or eIF4E, and initiation factor 4E binding protein or 4EBP), and gene transcription (histone H3) in six tissues of torpid and aroused gray mouse lemurs. Our results indicated selective tissue-specific changes of these regulatory proteins. The relative level of Thr172-phosphorylated AMPKα was significantly elevated in the heart but reduced in brown adipose tissue during daily torpor, as compared to the aroused lemurs, implicating the regulation of AMPK activity during daily torpor in these tissues. Interestingly, the levels of the phosphorylated eIFs were largely unaltered between aroused and torpid animals. Phosphorylation and acetylation of histone H3 were examined as a marker for transcriptional regulation. Compared to the aroused lemurs, level of Ser10-phosphorylated histone H3 decreased significantly in white adipose tissue during torpor, suggesting global suppression of gene transcription. However, a significant increase in acetyl-histone H3 in the heart of torpid lemurs indicated a possible

  7. Semaphorin 4D induces vaginal epithelial cell apoptosis to control mouse postnatal vaginal tissue remodeling.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takuji; Bai, Tao; Tanaka, Tetsuji; Yoshida, Kenji; Ueyama, Takashi; Miyajima, Masayasu; Negishi, Takayuki; Kawasaki, Takahiko; Takamatsu, Hyota; Kikutani, Hitoshi; Kumanogoh, Atsushi; Yukawa, Kazunori

    2015-02-01

    The opening of the mouse vaginal cavity to the skin is a postnatal tissue remodeling process that occurs at approximately five weeks of age for the completion of female genital tract maturation at puberty. The tissue remodeling process is primarily composed of a hormonally triggered apoptotic process predominantly occurring in the epithelium of the distal section of the vaginal cavity. However, the detailed mechanism underlying the apoptotic induction remains to be elucidated. In the present study, it was observed that the majority of BALB/c mice lacking the class 4 semaphorin, semaphorin 4D (Sema4D), developed imperforate vagina and hydrometrocolpos resulting in a perpetually unopened vaginal cavity regardless of a normal estrogen level comparable with that in wild‑type (WT) mice. Administration of β‑estradiol to infant Sema4D‑deficient (Sema4D‑/‑) mice did not induce precocious vaginal opening, which was observed in WT mice subjected to the same β‑estradiol administration, excluding the possibility that the closed vaginal phenotype was due to insufficient estrogen secretion at the time of vaginal opening. In order to assess the role of Sema4D in the postnatal vaginal tissue remodeling process, the expression of Sema4D and its receptor, plexin‑B1, was examined as well as the level of apoptosis in the vaginal epithelia of five‑week‑old WT and Sema4D‑/‑ mice. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the localization of Sema4D and plexin‑B1 in the mouse vaginal epithelia. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay and immunohistochemistry detecting activated caspase‑3 revealed significantly fewer apoptotic cells in situ in the vaginal mucosa of five‑week‑old Sema4D‑/‑ mice compared with WT mice. The addition of recombinant Sema4D to Sema4D‑/‑ vaginal epithelial cells in culture significantly enhanced apoptosis of the vaginal epithelial cells, demonstrating the apoptosis‑inducing activity of Sema4D. The

  8. Semaphorin 4D induces vaginal epithelial cell apoptosis to control mouse postnatal vaginal tissue remodeling

    PubMed Central

    ITO, TAKUJI; BAI, TAO; TANAKA, TETSUJI; YOSHIDA, KENJI; UEYAMA, TAKASHI; MIYAJIMA, MASAYASU; NEGISHI, TAKAYUKI; KAWASAKI, TAKAHIKO; TAKAMATSU, HYOTA; KIKUTANI, HITOSHI; KUMANOGOH, ATSUSHI; YUKAWA, KAZUNORI

    2015-01-01

    The opening of the mouse vaginal cavity to the skin is a postnatal tissue remodeling process that occurs at approximately five weeks of age for the completion of female genital tract maturation at puberty. The tissue remodeling process is primarily composed of a hormonally triggered apoptotic process predominantly occurring in the epithelium of the distal section of the vaginal cavity. However, the detailed mechanism underlying the apoptotic induction remains to be elucidated. In the present study, it was observed that the majority of BALB/c mice lacking the class 4 semaphorin, semaphorin 4D (Sema4D), developed imperforate vagina and hydrometrocolpos resulting in a perpetually unopened vaginal cavity regardless of a normal estrogen level comparable with that in wild-type (WT) mice. Administration of β-estradiol to infant Sema4D-deficient (Sema4D−/−) mice did not induce precocious vaginal opening, which was observed in WT mice subjected to the same β-estradiol administration, excluding the possibility that the closed vaginal phenotype was due to insufficient estrogen secretion at the time of vaginal opening. In order to assess the role of Sema4D in the postnatal vaginal tissue remodeling process, the expression of Sema4D and its receptor, plexin-B1, was examined as well as the level of apoptosis in the vaginal epithelia of five-week-old WT and Sema4D−/− mice. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the localization of Sema4D and plexin-B1 in the mouse vaginal epithelia. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay and immunohistochemistry detecting activated caspase-3 revealed significantly fewer apoptotic cells in situ in the vaginal mucosa of five-week-old Sema4D−/− mice compared with WT mice. The addition of recombinant Sema4D to Sema4D−/− vaginal epithelial cells in culture significantly enhanced apoptosis of the vaginal epithelial cells, demonstrating the apoptosis-inducing activity of Sema4D. The experimental reduction of

  9. A major locus on mouse chromosome 18 controls XX sex reversal in Odd Sex (Ods) mice.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yangjun; Poirier, Christophe; Truong, Cavatina; Schumacher, Armin; Agoulnik, Alexander I; Bishop, Colin E

    2003-03-01

    We have previously reported a dominant mouse mutant, Odd sex (Ods), in which XX Ods/+ mice on the FVB/N background show complete sex reversal, associated with expression of Sox9 in the fetal gonads. Remarkably, when crossed to the A/J strain approximately 95% of the (AXFVB) F(1) XX Ods/+ mice developed as fully fertile, phenotypic females, the remainder developing as males or hermaphrodites. Using a (AXFVB) F(2) population, we conducted a genome-wide linkage scan to identify the number and chromosomal location of potential Ods modifier genes. A single major locus termed Odsm1 was mapped to chromosome 18, tightly linked to D18Mit189 and D18Mit210. Segregation at this locus could account for the presence of sex reversal in 100% of XX Ods/+ mice which develop as males, for the absence of sex reversal in approximately 92% of XX Ods/+ mice which develop as females, and for the mixed sexual phenotype in approximately 72% of XX Ods/+ mice that develop with ambiguous genitalia. We propose that homozygosity for the FVB-derived allele strongly favors Ods sex reversal, whereas homozygosity for the A/J-derived allele inhibits it. In mice heterozygous at Odsm1, the phenotypic outcome, male, female or hermaphrodite, is determined by a complex interaction of several minor modifying loci. The close proximity of Smad2, Smad7 and Smad4 to D18Mit189/210 provides a potential mechanism through which Odsm1 might act.

  10. The mouse bagpipe gene controls development of axial skeleton, skull, and spleen

    PubMed Central

    Lettice, Laura A.; Purdie, Lorna A.; Carlson, Geoffrey J.; Kilanowski, Fiona; Dorin, Julia; Hill, Robert E.

    1999-01-01

    The mouse Bapx1 gene is homologous to the Drosophila homeobox containing bagpipe (bap) gene. A shared characteristic of the genes in these two organisms is expression in gut mesoderm. In Drosophila, bap functions to specify the formation of the musculature of the midgut. To determine the function of the mammalian cognate, we targeted a mutation into the Bapx1 locus. Bapx1, similar to Drosophila, does have a conspicuous role in gut mesoderm; however, this appears to be restricted to development of the spleen. In addition, Bapx1 has a major role in the development of the axial skeleton. Loss of Bapx1 affects the distribution of sclerotomal cells, markedly reducing the number that appear ventromedially around the notochord. Subsequently, the structures in the midaxial region, the intervertebral discs, and centra of the vertebral bodies, fail to form. Abnormalities are also found in those bones of the basal skull (basioccipital and basisphenoid bones) associated with the notochord. We postulate that Bapx1 confers the capacity of cells to interact with the notochord, effecting inductive interactions essential for development of the vertebral column and chondrocranium. PMID:10449756

  11. Organization of pontine reticulospinal inputs to motoneurons controlling axial and limb muscles in the neonatal mouse

    PubMed Central

    Sivertsen, Magne S.; Glover, Joel C.

    2014-01-01

    Using optical recording of synaptically mediated calcium transients and selective spinal lesions, we investigated the pattern of activation of spinal motoneurons (MNs) by the pontine reticulospinal projection in isolated brain stem-spinal cord preparations from the neonatal mouse. Stimulation sites throughout the region where the pontine reticulospinal neurons reside reliably activated MNs at cervical, thoracic, and lumbar levels. Activation was similar in MNs ipsi- and contralateral to the stimulation site, similar in medial and lateral motor columns that contain trunk and limb MNs, respectively, and similar in the L2 and L5 segments that predominantly contain flexor and extensor MNs, respectively. In nonlesioned preparations, responses in both ipsi- and contralateral MNs followed individual stimuli in stimulus trains nearly one-to-one (with few failures). After unilateral hemisection at C1 on the same side as the stimulation, responses had substantially smaller magnitudes and longer latencies and no longer followed individual stimuli. After unilateral hemisection at C1 on the side opposite to the stimulation, the responses were also smaller, but their latencies were not affected. Thus we distinguish two pontine reticulospinal pathways to spinal MNs, one uncrossed and the other crossed, of which the uncrossed pathway transmits more faithfully and appears to be more direct. PMID:24944221

  12. LSD1 Neurospecific Alternative Splicing Controls Neuronal Excitability in Mouse Models of Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Rusconi, Francesco; Paganini, Leda; Braida, Daniela; Ponzoni, Luisa; Toffolo, Emanuela; Maroli, Annalisa; Landsberger, Nicoletta; Bedogni, Francesco; Turco, Emilia; Pattini, Linda; Altruda, Fiorella; De Biasi, Silvia; Sala, Mariaelvina; Battaglioli, Elena

    2015-09-01

    Alternative splicing in the brain is dynamic and instrumental to adaptive changes in response to stimuli. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A) is a ubiquitously expressed histone H3Lys4 demethylase that acts as a transcriptional co-repressor in complex with its molecular partners CoREST and HDAC1/2. In mammalian brain, alternative splicing of LSD1 mini-exon E8a gives rise to neuroLSD1, a neurospecific isoform that, upon phosphorylation, acts as a dominant-negative causing disassembly of the co-repressor complex and de-repression of target genes. Here we show that the LSD1/neuroLSD1 ratio changes in response to neuronal activation and such effect is mediated by neurospecific splicing factors NOVA1 and nSR100/SRRM4 together with a novel cis-silencer. Indeed, we found that, in response to epileptogenic stimuli, downregulation of NOVA1 reduces exon E8a splicing and expression of neuroLSD1. Using behavioral and EEG analyses we observed that neuroLSD1-specific null mice are hypoexcitable and display decreased seizure susceptibility. Conversely, in a mouse model of Rett syndrome characterized by hyperexcitability, we measured higher levels of NOVA1 protein and upregulation of neuroLSD1. In conclusion, we propose that, in the brain, correct ratio between LSD1 and neuroLSD1 contributes to excitability and, when altered, could represent a pathogenic event associated with neurological disorders involving altered E/I. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. 12 CFR 708a.13 - Voting guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting guidelines. 708a.13 Section 708a.13... INSURED CREDIT UNIONS TO MUTUAL SAVINGS BANKS § 708a.13 Voting guidelines. A converting credit union must conduct its member vote on conversion in a fair and legal manner. NCUA provides the following guidelines...

  14. A pilot randomised control trial of the effectiveness of a biofeedback mouse in reducing self-reported pain among office workers.

    PubMed

    King, Trevor K; Severin, Colette N; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Cole, Donald; Amick, Ben; Steenstra, Ivan A

    2013-01-01

    A pilot study examined the effectiveness of a biofeedback mouse in reducing upper extremity pain and discomfort in office workers; in addition, relative mouse use (RMU), satisfaction and the feasibility of running a randomised controlled trial (RCT) in a workplace setting were evaluated. The mouse would gently vibrate if the hand was idle for more than 12 s. The feedback reminded users to rest the arm in neutral, supported postures. Analysis showed a statistically significant reduction in shoulder pain and discomfort for the intervention group at T2 (38.7% lower than controls). Statistically significant differences in RMU time between groups were seen post intervention (-7% at T1 and +15% at T2 for the intervention group). Fifty-five percent of the intervention group was willing to continue using the mouse. It appears feasible to perform an RCT for this type of intervention in a workplace setting. Further study including more participants is suggested. The study findings support the feasibility of conducting randomised control trials in office settings to evaluate ergonomics interventions. The intervention resulted in reduced pain and discomfort in the shoulder. The intervention could be a relevant tool in the reduction of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder. Further research will better explain the study's preliminary findings.

  15. Oxygen-controlled automated neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mondragon-Teran, Paul; Tostoes, Rui; Mason, Chris; Lye, Gary J; Veraitch, Farlan S

    2013-03-01

    Automation and oxygen tension control are two tools that provide significant improvements to the reproducibility and efficiency of stem cell production processes. the aim of this study was to establish a novel automation platform capable of controlling oxygen tension during both the cell-culture and liquid-handling steps of neural differentiation processes. We built a bespoke automation platform, which enclosed a liquid-handling platform in a sterile, oxygen-controlled environment. An airtight connection was used to transfer cell culture plates to and from an automated oxygen-controlled incubator. Our results demonstrate that our system yielded comparable cell numbers, viabilities, metabolism profiles and differentiation efficiencies when compared with traditional manual processes. Interestingly, eliminating exposure to ambient conditions during the liquid-handling stage resulted in significant improvements in the yield of MAP2-positive neural cells, indicating that this level of control can improve differentiation processes. This article describes, for the first time, an automation platform capable of maintaining oxygen tension control during both the cell-culture and liquid-handling stages of a 2D embryonic stem cell differentiation process.

  16. Effects of biological control agents and exotic plant invasion on deer mouse populations

    Treesearch

    Yvette K. Ortega; Dean E. Pearson; Kevin S. McKelvey

    2004-01-01

    Exotic insects are commonly introduced as biological control agents to reduce densities of invasive exotic plants. Although current biocontrol programs for weeds take precautions to minimize ecological risks, little attention is paid to the potential nontarget effects of introduced food subsidies on native consumers. Previous research demonstrated that two gall flies (...

  17. Gesture-Controlled Interface for Contactless Control of Various Computer Programs with a Hooking-Based Keyboard and Mouse-Mapping Technique in the Operating Room.

    PubMed

    Park, Ben Joonyeon; Jang, Taekjin; Choi, Jong Woo; Kim, Namkug

    2016-01-01

    We developed a contactless interface that exploits hand gestures to effectively control medical images in the operating room. We developed an in-house program called GestureHook that exploits message hooking techniques to convert gestures into specific functions. For quantitative evaluation of this program, we used gestures to control images of a dynamic biliary CT study and compared the results with those of a mouse (8.54 ± 1.77 s to 5.29 ± 1.00 s; p < 0.001) and measured the recognition rates of specific gestures and the success rates of tasks based on clinical scenarios. For clinical applications, this program was set up in the operating room to browse images for plastic surgery. A surgeon browsed images from three different programs: CT images from a PACS program, volume-rendered images from a 3D PACS program, and surgical planning photographs from a basic image viewing program. All programs could be seamlessly controlled by gestures and motions. This approach can control all operating room programs without source code modification and provide surgeons with a new way to safely browse through images and easily switch applications during surgical procedures.

  18. Gesture-Controlled Interface for Contactless Control of Various Computer Programs with a Hooking-Based Keyboard and Mouse-Mapping Technique in the Operating Room

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ben Joonyeon; Jang, Taekjin; Choi, Jong Woo; Kim, Namkug

    2016-01-01

    We developed a contactless interface that exploits hand gestures to effectively control medical images in the operating room. We developed an in-house program called GestureHook that exploits message hooking techniques to convert gestures into specific functions. For quantitative evaluation of this program, we used gestures to control images of a dynamic biliary CT study and compared the results with those of a mouse (8.54 ± 1.77 s to 5.29 ± 1.00 s; p < 0.001) and measured the recognition rates of specific gestures and the success rates of tasks based on clinical scenarios. For clinical applications, this program was set up in the operating room to browse images for plastic surgery. A surgeon browsed images from three different programs: CT images from a PACS program, volume-rendered images from a 3D PACS program, and surgical planning photographs from a basic image viewing program. All programs could be seamlessly controlled by gestures and motions. This approach can control all operating room programs without source code modification and provide surgeons with a new way to safely browse through images and easily switch applications during surgical procedures. PMID:26981146

  19. The controlled-environment chamber: a new mouse model of dry eye.

    PubMed

    Barabino, Stefano; Shen, Linling; Chen, Lu; Rashid, Saadia; Rolando, Maurizio; Dana, M Reza

    2005-08-01

    To develop a controlled-environment chamber (CEC) for mice and verify the effects of a low-humidity setting on ocular surface signs in normal mice. Eight- to 12-week-old BALB/c mice were used in a controlled-environment chamber (CEC) where relative humidity (RH), temperature (T), and airflow (AF) are regulated and monitored. Mice were placed into the CEC and exposed to specific environmentally controlled conditions (RH = 18.5% +/- 5.1%, AF = 15 L/min, T = 21-23 degrees C) for 3, 7, 14, and 28 days. Control mice were kept in a normal environment (RH = 50%-80%, no AF, T = 21-23 degrees C) for the same duration. Aqueous tear production by means of the cotton thread test, corneal fluorescein staining (score, 0-15), and goblet cell density in the superior and inferior conjunctiva were measured by a masked observer. No statistically significant differences between the groups were found at baseline. Decreased tear secretion and increased corneal fluorescein staining were significantly present on day 3, 7, 14, and 28 in animals kept in the CEC. Goblet cell density was significantly decreased in the superior conjunctiva on day 7, and on day 3, 7, and 14 in the inferior conjunctiva in the CEC-kept mice compared with control animals. This study indicates that exposure of normal mice to a low-humidity environment in a CEC can lead to significant alterations in tear secretion, goblet cell density, and acquisition of dry eye-related ocular surface signs.

  20. Hox paralog group 2 genes control the migration of mouse pontine neurons through slit-robo signaling.

    PubMed

    Geisen, Marc J; Di Meglio, Thomas; Pasqualetti, Massimo; Ducret, Sebastien; Brunet, Jean-François; Chedotal, Alain; Rijli, Filippo M

    2008-06-10

    The pontine neurons (PN) represent a major source of mossy fiber projections to the cerebellum. During mouse hindbrain development, PN migrate tangentially and sequentially along both the anteroposterior (AP) and dorsoventral (DV) axes. Unlike DV migration, which is controlled by the Netrin-1/Dcc attractive pathway, little is known about the molecular mechanisms guiding PN migration along the AP axis. Here, we show that Hoxa2 and Hoxb2 are required both intrinsically and extrinsically to maintain normal AP migration of subsets of PN, by preventing their premature ventral attraction towards the midline. Moreover, the migration defects observed in Hoxa2 and Hoxb2 mutant mice were phenocopied in compound Robo1;Robo2, Slit1;Slit2, and Robo2;Slit2 knockout animals, indicating that these guidance molecules act downstream of Hox genes to control PN migration. Indeed, using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we further demonstrated that Robo2 is a direct target of Hoxa2 in vivo and that maintenance of high Robo and Slit expression levels was impaired in Hoxa2 mutant mice. Lastly, the analysis of Phox2b-deficient mice indicated that the facial motor nucleus is a major Slit signaling source required to prevent premature ventral migration of PN. These findings provide novel insights into the molecular control of neuronal migration from transcription factor to regulation of guidance receptor and ligand expression. Specifically, they address the question of how exposure to multiple guidance cues along the AP and DV axes is regulated at the transcriptional level and in turn translated into stereotyped migratory responses during tangential migration of neurons in the developing mammalian brain.

  1. Hox Paralog Group 2 Genes Control the Migration of Mouse Pontine Neurons through Slit-Robo Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Pasqualetti, Massimo; Ducret, Sebastien; Brunet, Jean-François; Chedotal, Alain; Rijli, Filippo M

    2008-01-01

    The pontine neurons (PN) represent a major source of mossy fiber projections to the cerebellum. During mouse hindbrain development, PN migrate tangentially and sequentially along both the anteroposterior (AP) and dorsoventral (DV) axes. Unlike DV migration, which is controlled by the Netrin-1/Dcc attractive pathway, little is known about the molecular mechanisms guiding PN migration along the AP axis. Here, we show that Hoxa2 and Hoxb2 are required both intrinsically and extrinsically to maintain normal AP migration of subsets of PN, by preventing their premature ventral attraction towards the midline. Moreover, the migration defects observed in Hoxa2 and Hoxb2 mutant mice were phenocopied in compound Robo1;Robo2, Slit1;Slit2, and Robo2;Slit2 knockout animals, indicating that these guidance molecules act downstream of Hox genes to control PN migration. Indeed, using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we further demonstrated that Robo2 is a direct target of Hoxa2 in vivo and that maintenance of high Robo and Slit expression levels was impaired in Hoxa2 mutant mice. Lastly, the analysis of Phox2b-deficient mice indicated that the facial motor nucleus is a major Slit signaling source required to prevent premature ventral migration of PN. These findings provide novel insights into the molecular control of neuronal migration from transcription factor to regulation of guidance receptor and ligand expression. Specifically, they address the question of how exposure to multiple guidance cues along the AP and DV axes is regulated at the transcriptional level and in turn translated into stereotyped migratory responses during tangential migration of neurons in the developing mammalian brain. PMID:18547144

  2. An interglomerular circuit gates glomerular output and implements gain control in the mouse olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Arkarup; Marbach, Fred; Anselmi, Francesca; Koh, Matthew S.; Davis, Martin B.; da Silva, Pedro Garcia; Delevich, Kristen; Oyibo, Hassana K.; Gupta, Priyanka; Li, Bo; Albeanu, Dinu F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Odors elicit distributed activation of glomeruli in the olfactory bulb (OB). Crosstalk between co-active glomeruli has been proposed to perform a variety of computations, facilitating efficient extraction of sensory information by the cortex. Dopaminergic/GABAergic cells in the OB, which can be identified by their expression of the dopamine transporter (DAT), provide the earliest opportunity for such crosstalk. Here we show in mice that DAT+ cells carry concentration dependent odor signals and broadcast focal glomerular inputs throughout the OB to cause suppression of mitral/tufted (M/T) cell firing, an effect that is mediated by the external tufted (ET) cells coupled to DAT+ cells via chemical and electrical synapses. We find that DAT+ cells implement gain control and decorrelate odor representations in the M/T cell population. Our results further indicate that ET cells are gatekeepers of glomerular output and prime determinants of M/T responsiveness. PMID:26139373

  3. Control of Intermale Aggression by Medial Prefrontal Cortex Activation in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Aki; Nagayasu, Kazuki; Nishitani, Naoya; Kaneko, Shuji; Koide, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is widely observed throughout the animal kingdom because of its adaptiveness for social animals. However, when aggressive behavior exceeds the species-typical level, it is no longer adaptive, so there should be a mechanism to control excessive aggression to keep it within the adaptive range. Using optogenetics, we demonstrate that activation of excitatory neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but not the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), inhibits inter-male aggression in mice. At the same time, optogenetic silencing of mPFC neurons causes an escalation of aggressive behavior both quantitatively and qualitatively. Activation of the mPFC suppresses aggressive bursts and reduces the intensity of aggressive behavior, but does not change the duration of the aggressive bursts. Our findings suggest that mPFC activity has an inhibitory role in the initiation and execution, but not the termination, of aggressive behavior, and maintains such behavior within the adaptive range. PMID:24740241

  4. Role of adrenal hormones and prostaglandins in the control of mouse thymocytes lysis.

    PubMed

    Durant, S; Seillan, C; Duval, D; Homo-Delarche, F

    1984-01-01

    The cytolytic actions of glucocorticoids and of agents increasing cyclic AMP were studied in vitro in thymocyte suspensions isolated from adrenalectomized or hydrocortisone-treated mice. Although considered as corticoresistant cells, the thymocytes isolated from hydrocortisone-treated mice were lysed to the same extent although more slowly in vitro by dexamethasone than whole thymocyte populations (i.e. corticosensitive cells). Moreover, these two cell populations were shown to contain comparable amounts of glucocorticoid receptors and to be almost equally sensitive to the metabolic effects of glucocorticoids when measured by inhibition of RNA and DNA synthesis. Studies performed with corticosensitive cells showed that prostaglandin E2, isoproterenol and dibutyrilcyclic AMP were also able to induce cell lysis and that, isoproterenol and dexamethasone exerted additive cytolytic action in vitro. In vivo experiments showed also an additive effect of steroids and isoproterenol on thymus atrophy. In contrast, cells isolated from hydrocortisone-treated animals were not sensitive to the cytotoxic action of prostaglandin E2, isoproterenol and dibutyril cyclic AMP. This difference between the two populations was not associated with any difference in the responsiveness of adenylate cyclase as determined following isoproterenol-induced accumulation of cyclic AMP. The cytolytic action of dexamethasone but also that of prostaglandin E2 and isoproterenol, could be blocked in the presence of cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, thus suggesting that glucocorticoids and agents increasing cyclic AMP control the synthesis of some proteins involved in the triggering of cell lysis. Among the hypotheses proposed to explain the differences between in vitro and in vivo sensitivity of lymphoid cell to glucocorticoids, it was suggested that the drug may in vivo indirectly control the viability or the proliferation of thymocytes through the release of other mediators. We have

  5. Mucosal and systemic anti-HIV immunity controlled by A20 in mouse dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Hong, Bangxing; Song, Xiao-Tong; Rollins, Lisa; Berry, Lindsey; Huang, Xue F; Chen, Si-Yi

    2011-02-01

    Both mucosal and systemic immune responses are required for preventing or containing HIV transmission and chronic infection. However, currently described vaccination approaches are largely ineffective in inducing both mucosal and systemic responses. In this study, we found that the ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20--an inducible feedback inhibitor of the TNFR, RIG-I, and TLR signaling pathways that broadly controls the maturation, cytokine production, and immunostimulatory potency of DCs--restricted systemically immunized DCs to induce both robust mucosal and systemic HIV-specific cellular and humoral responses. Mechanistic studies revealed that A20 regulated DC production of retinoic acid and proinflammatory cytokines, inhibiting the expression of gut-homing receptors on T and B cells. Furthermore, A20-silenced, hyperactivated DCs exhibited an enhanced homing capacity to draining and gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALTs) after systemic administration. Thus, this study provides insights into the role of A20 in innate immunity. This work may allow the development of an efficient HIV vaccination strategy that is capable of inducing both robust systemic and mucosal anti-HIV cellular and humoral responses.

  6. Genetic control of gamete quality in the mouse--a tribute to Halina Krzanowska.

    PubMed

    Styrna, Jozefa

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we summarise the principal research findings of the distinguished Polish scientist, Professor Halina Krzanowska, related to the genetic control of mammalian gamete quality. During the early stages of her career, Halina Krzanowska conducted experiments on poultry and then she moved on to work on mice. All her research on gamete quality was conducted on the research models, consomic, congenic and recombinant inbred strains, which Krzanowska developed herself. These models differed mostly in their fertility. Krzanowska was one of the first researchers to demonstrate the influence of chromosome Y on the morphology of mice spermatozoa. She also showed that the uterotubal junction is in vivo a selection barrier for the morphologically abnormal spermatozoa, whereas in vitro abnormal spermatozoa are able to participate in fertilization, the function of selective barrier being performed by the granulosa cell layer and the zona pellucida. Another model which Krzanowska produced were chimaeras, which she used to find out if the percentage of abnormal spermatozoa and the efficiency of fertilization are determined by germ cells themselves or by environmental factors and she discovered that sperm head shape, the proportion of abnormal sperm and fertilizing capacity are determined mainly by the genotype of germ cells and only minimally by environmental factors.

  7. NFATc1 affects mouse splenic B cell function by controlling the calcineurin–NFAT signaling network

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sankar; Deb, Jolly; Patra, Amiya K.; Thuy Pham, Duong Anh; Chen, Wen; Vaeth, Martin; Berberich-Siebelt, Friederike; Klein-Hessling, Stefan; Lamperti, Edward D.; Reifenberg, Kurt; Jellusova, Julia; Schweizer, Astrid; Nitschke, Lars; Leich, Ellen; Rosenwald, Andreas; Brunner, Cornelia; Engelmann, Swen; Bommhardt, Ursula; Avots, Andris; Müller, Martin R.; Kondo, Eisaku

    2011-01-01

    By studying mice in which the Nfatc1 gene was inactivated in bone marrow, spleen, or germinal center B cells, we show that NFATc1 supports the proliferation and suppresses the activation-induced cell death of splenic B cells upon B cell receptor (BCR) stimulation. BCR triggering leads to expression of NFATc1/αA, a short isoform of NFATc1, in splenic B cells. NFATc1 ablation impaired Ig class switch to IgG3 induced by T cell–independent type II antigens, as well as IgG3+ plasmablast formation. Mice bearing NFATc1−/− B cells harbor twofold more interleukin 10–producing B cells. NFATc1−/− B cells suppress the synthesis of interferon-γ by T cells in vitro, and these mice exhibit a mild clinical course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In large part, the defective functions of NFATc1−/− B cells are caused by decreased BCR-induced Ca2+ flux and calcineurin (Cn) activation. By affecting CD22, Rcan1, CnA, and NFATc1/αA expression, NFATc1 controls the Ca2+-dependent Cn–NFAT signaling network and, thereby, the fate of splenic B cells upon BCR stimulation. PMID:21464221

  8. Exacerbated Glial Response in the Aged Mouse Hippocampus Following Controlled Cortical Impact Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sandhir, Rajat; Onyszchuk, Gregory; Berman, Nancy E. J.

    2008-01-01

    Old age is associated with enhanced susceptibility to and poor recovery from brain injury. An exacerbated microglial and astrocyte response to brain injury might be involved in poor outcomes observed in the elderly. The present study was therefore designed to quantitate the expression of markers of microglia and astrocyte activation using real-time RT-PCR, immunoblot and immunohistochemical analysis in aging brain in response to brain injury. We examined the hippocampus, a region that undergoes secondary neuron death, in aged (21–24 month) and adult (5–6 month) mice following controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury to the sensorimotor cortex. Basal mRNA expression of CD11b and Iba1, markers of activated microglia, was higher in aged hippocampus as compared to the adult. The mRNA expression of microglial markers increased and reached maximum 3 days post injury in both adult and aged mice, but was higher in the aged mice at all time points studied, and in the aged mice the return to baseline levels was delayed. Basal mRNA expression of GFAP and S100B, markers of activated astrocytes, was higher in aged mice. Both markers increased and reached maximum 7 days post injury. The mRNA expression of astrocyte markers returned to near basal levels rapidly after injury in the adult mice, whereas again in the aged mice return to baseline was delayed. Immunochemical analysis using Iba1 and GFAP antibodies indicate accentuated glial responses in the aged hippocampus after injury. The pronounced and prolonged activation of microglia and astrocytes in hippocampus may contribute to worse cognitive outcomes in the elderly following TBI. PMID:18692046

  9. Assisting people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by actively reducing limb hyperactive behavior with a gyration air mouse through a controlled environmental stimulation.

    PubMed

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    The latest researches have adopted software technology turning the gyration air mouse into a high performance limb movement detector, and have assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control an environmental stimulation using limb movement. This study extends gyration air mouse functionality by actively reducing limb hyperactive behavior to assess whether two persons with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) would be able to actively reduce their limb hyperactive behavior by controlling their favorite stimulation on/off using a gyration air mouse with a newly developed actively limb hyperactive behavior reducing program (ALHBRP). The study was performed according to an ABAB design, in which A represented the baseline and B represented intervention phases. Data showed that both participants significantly increased their time duration of maintaining a static limb posture (TDMSLP) to activate the control system in order to produce environmental stimulation during the intervention phases. Practical and developmental implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Integration of Oncogenes via Sleeping Beauty as a Mouse Model of HPV16+ Oral Tumors and Immunologic Control.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Hsin; Yang, Ming-Chieh; Tseng, Ssu-Hsueh; Jiang, Rosie; Yang, Andrew; Farmer, Emily; Peng, Shiwen; Henkle, Talia; Chang, Yung-Nien; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T-C

    2018-01-23

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is the etiologic factor for cervical cancer and a subset of oropharyngeal cancers. Although several prophylactic HPV vaccines are available, no effective therapeutic strategies to control active HPV diseases exist. Tumor implantation models are traditionally used to study HPV-associated buccal tumors. However, they fail to address precancerous phases of disease progression and display tumor microenvironments distinct from those observed in patients. Previously, K14-E6/E7 transgenic mouse models have been used to generate spontaneous tumors. However, the rate of tumor formation is inconsistent, and the host often develops immune tolerance to the viral oncoproteins. We developed a preclinical, spontaneous, HPV16 + buccal tumor model using submucosal injection of oncogenic plasmids expressing HPV16-E6/E7, NRas G12V , luciferase, and sleeping beauty (SB) transposase, followed by electroporation in the buccal mucosa. We evaluated responses to immunization with a pNGVL4a-CRT/E7(detox) therapeutic HPV DNA vaccine and tumor cell migration to distant locations. Mice transfected with plasmids encoding HPV16-E6/E7, NRas G12V , luciferase, and SB transposase developed tumors within 3 weeks. We also found transient anti-CD3 administration is required to generate tumors in immunocompetent mice. Bioluminescence signals from luciferase correlated strongly with tumor growth, and tumors expressed HPV16-associated markers. We showed that pNGVL4a-CRT/E7(detox) administration resulted in antitumor immunity in tumor-bearing mice. Lastly, we demonstrated that the generated tumor could migrate to tumor-draining lymph nodes. Our model provides an efficient method to induce spontaneous HPV + tumor formation, which can be used to identify effective therapeutic interventions, analyze tumor migration, and conduct tumor biology research. Cancer Immunol Res; 6(3); 1-15. ©2018 AACR. ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. ENHANCED 5-HT1A RECEPTOR-DEPENDENT FEEDBACK CONTROL OVER DORSAL RAPHE SEROTONIN NEURONS IN THE SERT KNOCKOUT MOUSE

    PubMed Central

    Soiza-Reilly, Mariano; Goodfellow, Nathalie M.; Lambe, Evelyn K.; Commons, Kathryn G.

    2014-01-01

    5-HT1A receptors are widely expressed in the brain and play a critical role in feedback inhibition of serotonin (5-HT) neurons through multiple mechanisms. Yet, it remains poorly understood how these feedback mechanisms, particularly those involving long-range projections, adapt in mood disorders. Here, we examined several aspects of 5-HT1A receptor function in the 5-HT transporter knockout mouse (SERT-KO), a model of vulnerability to stress and mood disorders. We found that in comparison to wild-type (WT) mice, SERT-KO mice had more passive coping in response to acute swim stress and this was accompanied by hypo-activation of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) Fos expression. Both of these effects were reversed by systemically blocking 5-HT1A receptors. Ex-vivo electrophysiological experiments showed that 5-HT exerted greater 5-HT1A-mediated inhibitory effects in the mPFC of SERT-KO mice compared to WT. Since 5-HT1A receptors in the mPFC provide a key feedback regulation of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), we used a disinhibition strategy to examined endogenous feedback control of 5-HT neurons. Blocking 5-HT1A receptors disinhibited several fold more 5-HT neurons in the DRN of SERT-KO than in WT mice, revealing the presence of enhanced feedback inhibition of 5-HT neurons in the SERT-KO. Taken together our results indicate that increased stress sensitivity in the SERT-KO is associated with the enhanced capacity of 5-HT1A receptors to inhibit neurons in the mPFC as well as to exert feedback inhibition of DRN 5-HT neurons. PMID:25261781

  12. Lentiviral vectors containing mouse Csf1r control elements direct macrophage-restricted expression in multiple species of birds and mammals

    PubMed Central

    Pridans, Clare; Lillico, Simon; Whitelaw, Bruce; Hume, David A

    2014-01-01

    The development of macrophages requires signaling through the lineage-restricted receptor Csf1r. Macrophage-restricted expression of transgenic reporters based upon Csf1r requires the highly conserved Fms-intronic regulatory element (FIRE). We have created a lentiviral construct containing mouse FIRE and promoter. The lentivirus is capable of directing macrophage-restricted reporter gene expression in mouse, rat, human, pig, cow, sheep, and even chicken. Rat bone marrow cells transduced with the lentivirus were capable of differentiating into macrophages expressing the reporter gene in vitro. Macrophage-restricted expression may be desirable for immunization or immune response modulation, and for gene therapy for lysosomal storage diseases and some immunodeficiencies. The small size of the Csf1r transcription control elements will allow the insertion of large “cargo” for applications in gene therapy and vaccine delivery. PMID:26015955

  13. Genomic characterization and regulation of CYP3a13: role of xenobiotics and nuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Anakk, Sayeepriyadarshini; Kalsotra, Auinash; Shen, Qi; Vu, Mary T; Staudinger, Jeffrey L; Davies, Peter J A; Strobel, Henry W

    2003-09-01

    We report that CYP3a13 gene, located on mouse chromosome 5, spans 27.5 Kb and contains 13 exons. The transcription start site is 35 bp upstream of the coding region and results in a 109 bp 5' untranslated region. CYP3a13 promoter shows putative binding sites for retinoid X receptor, pregnane X receptor, and estrogen receptor. CYP3a13 shows a broad tissue distribution with predominant expression in liver. Although CYP3a13 shares 92% nucleotide identity with the female-specific rat CYP3A9, its expression does not exhibit sexual dimorphism. Ligand activation of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and retinoid X receptor inhibit expression of CYP3a13 at the transcription level in a tissue-specific manner. Another novel finding is hepatic induction of CYP3a13 by dexamethasone occurring only in pregnane X receptor null mice. We also report that pregnane X receptor is essential to maintain robust in vivo basal levels of CYP3a13 in contrast to CYP3a11. CYP3a13 protein expressed in vitro can metabolize clinically active drugs ethylmorphine and erythromycin, as well as benzphetamine. We conclude that CYP3a13 is regulated differentially by various nuclear receptors. In humans this may lead to altered drug metabolism, as many of the newly synthesized ligands/drugs targeted toward these nuclear receptors could influence CYP3A gene expression.

  14. Mouse phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Adler, Thure; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Becker, Lore; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Da Silva-Buttkus, Patricia; Neff, Frauke; Götz, Alexander; Hans, Wolfgang; Hölter, Sabine M; Horsch, Marion; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Kemter, Elisabeth; Lengger, Christoph; Maier, Holger; Matloka, Mikolaj; Möller, Gabriele; Naton, Beatrix; Prehn, Cornelia; Puk, Oliver; Rácz, Ildikó; Rathkolb, Birgit; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Rozman, Jan; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Schrewe, Anja; Stöger, Claudia; Tost, Monica; Adamski, Jerzy; Aigner, Bernhard; Beckers, Johannes; Behrendt, Heidrun; Busch, Dirk H; Esposito, Irene; Graw, Jochen; Illig, Thomas; Ivandic, Boris; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Mempel, Martin; Neschen, Susanne; Ollert, Markus; Schulz, Holger; Suhre, Karsten; Wolf, Eckhard; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin

    2011-02-01

    Model organisms like the mouse are important tools to learn more about gene function in man. Within the last 20 years many mutant mouse lines have been generated by different methods such as ENU mutagenesis, constitutive and conditional knock-out approaches, knock-down, introduction of human genes, and knock-in techniques, thus creating models which mimic human conditions. Due to pleiotropic effects, one gene may have different functions in different organ systems or time points during development. Therefore mutant mouse lines have to be phenotyped comprehensively in a highly standardized manner to enable the detection of phenotypes which might otherwise remain hidden. The German Mouse Clinic (GMC) has been established at the Helmholtz Zentrum München as a phenotyping platform with open access to the scientific community (www.mousclinic.de; [1]). The GMC is a member of the EUMODIC consortium which created the European standard workflow EMPReSSslim for the systemic phenotyping of mouse models (http://www.eumodic.org/[2]). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of L-arginine on cerebral hemodynamics after controlled cortical impact injury in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Goodman, J Clay; Robertson, Claudia S

    2002-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces vascular changes that may influence neurological outcome by causing the brain to be more susceptible to secondary ischemic insults. In rat models of TBI, L-arginine administration has been shown to restore cerebral blood flow and improve neurological outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine if hypoperfusion occurs in a mouse model of TBI and if L-arginine administration has the same beneficial effects after injury in the mouse. C57BL6 mice were anesthetized with isoflurane, intubated and mechanically ventilated, and underwent a 3-m/sec, 1.5-mm deformation cortical impact injury. Five minutes after injury, L-arginine, 300 mg/kg, or saline were administered. Arterial blood pressure, intracranial pressure, and laser Doppler flow at the impact site were monitored for 3 h after the injury. The cerebral hemodynamic effects of the TBI induced by cortical impact injury were similar to that previously observed in rats. Intracranial hypertension, with ICP peaking at 46+/-2 mm Hg, and systemic hypotension both contributed to a reduction in CPP. In addition, LDF decreased significantly at the impact site. L-Arginine administration restored LDF to near baseline levels without increasing ICP. These studies demonstrate that cerebral hemodynamics can be measured in mouse models of TBI. The changes in cerebral hemodynamics are relatively simlar to those see in the rat model of cortical impact injury and suggest an important role for nitric oxide metabolism in the maintenance of cerebral blood flow following TBI.

  16. The risk of vector-borne infections in sled dogs associated with existing and new endemic areas in Poland. Part 2: Occurrence and control of babesiosis in a sled dog kennel during a 13-year-long period.

    PubMed

    Bajer, Anna; Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Rodo, Anna; Welc-Falęciak, Renata

    2014-05-28

    The achievements of sled dogs in competitions depend both on their training and on their health. Vector-borne infections may lead to anemia, affect joints or heart muscles or even cause death. Canine babesiosis is an emerging, quickly spreading tick-borne disease in Central Europe. Over a 13-year period (2000-2012) the occurrence of babesiosis cases was analyzed in one sled dog kennel situated in Kury, a village near Tłuszcz (N 52°24'56.78″, E 21°30'37.55″) in Central Poland. Twenty cases/episodes of babesiosis were noted among the 10-12 dogs living in the kennel. In 2000-2004, no cases of babesiosis were noted; the first two cases were noted in April 2005. Since that time, only one dog remained uninfected; 6 dogs were infected once, 3 dogs demonstrated symptoms of babesiosis twice, one dog was infected three times and one dog had it five times. Babesiosis appeared in Spring and Autumn, despite the application of anti-tick treatment. No fatal cases were recorded, but in one case a splenectomy was performed due to splenomegaly and spleen rupture. Additionally, the abundance of the main Babesia canis vector, the Dermacentor reticulatus tick, was estimated and monitored during a 4-year period (2008-2012) close to the dog kennel. The abundance of questing ticks was high in 2008 and 2009, but dropped by 10-fold between 2010 and 2012, when the abandoned meadow was cut and used as horse pasture by the local farmer. The regular occurrence, typical seasonal pattern and identification of B. canis DNA in questing tick from this locality confirmed the establishment of a new hyper enzootic region for canine babesiosis. The effectiveness and schedule of applied preventive measures were discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Assisting people with disabilities in actively performing physical activities by controlling the preferred environmental stimulation with a gyration air mouse.

    PubMed

    Shih, Ching-Tien; Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Luo, Ching-Hsing

    2013-12-01

    The latest researchers have employed software technology to turn gyration air mice into a high performance limb detector to detect specific limb movement, and to further collaborate using the preferred environmental stimulation to help people with disabilities to suppress unwanted behaviors or habits and to reward good behaviors. This study extended the functionality of a gyration air mouse, and used the mouse as a precise physical activity detector integrated with the preferred environmental stimulation to assess if this integrated set can be used to help two disabled people who are overweight and lacking in exercise to actively perform physical activities. The study was conducted based on an A-B-A-B design. The results showed that both participants increased significantly the time duration required for them to maintain their physical activity status so that they could obtain their favorite environmental stimulation during the intervention phases. Both the practical and developmental implications of the findings are then discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. RNAi-Dependent and Independent Control of LINE1 Accumulation and Mobility in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ciaudo, Constance; Jay, Florence; Okamoto, Ikuhiro; Chen, Chong-Jian; Sarazin, Alexis; Servant, Nicolas; Barillot, Emmanuel; Heard, Edith; Voinnet, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    In most mouse tissues, long-interspersed elements-1 (L1s) are silenced via methylation of their 5′-untranslated regions (5′-UTR). A gradual loss-of-methylation in pre-implantation embryos coincides with L1 retrotransposition in blastocysts, generating potentially harmful mutations. Here, we show that Dicer- and Ago2-dependent RNAi restricts L1 accumulation and retrotransposition in undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), derived from blastocysts. RNAi correlates with production of Dicer-dependent 22-nt small RNAs mapping to overlapping sense/antisense transcripts produced from the L1 5′-UTR. However, RNA-surveillance pathways simultaneously degrade these transcripts and, consequently, confound the anti-L1 RNAi response. In Dicer−/− mESC complementation experiments involving ectopic Dicer expression, L1 silencing was rescued in cells in which microRNAs remained strongly depleted. Furthermore, these cells proliferated and differentiated normally, unlike their non-complemented counterparts. These results shed new light on L1 biology, uncover defensive, in addition to regulatory roles for RNAi, and raise questions on the differentiation defects of Dicer−/− mESCs. PMID:24244175

  19. Sodium phenylbutyrate controls neuroinflammatory and antioxidant activities and protects dopaminergic neurons in mouse models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Roy, Avik; Ghosh, Anamitra; Jana, Arundhati; Liu, Xiaojuan; Brahmachari, Saurav; Gendelman, Howard E; Pahan, Kalipada

    2012-01-01

    Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress underlie the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative disorders. Here we demonstrate that sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB), an FDA-approved therapy for reducing plasma ammonia and glutamine in urea cycle disorders, can suppress both proinflammatory molecules and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in activated glial cells. Interestingly, NaPB also decreased the level of cholesterol but involved only intermediates, not the end product of cholesterol biosynthesis pathway for these functions. While inhibitors of both geranylgeranyl transferase (GGTI) and farnesyl transferase (FTI) inhibited the activation of NF-κB, inhibitor of GGTI, but not FTI, suppressed the production of ROS. Accordingly, a dominant-negative mutant of p21(rac), but not p21(ras), attenuated the production of ROS from activated microglia. Inhibition of both p21(ras) and p21(rac) activation by NaPB in microglial cells suggests that NaPB exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects via inhibition of these small G proteins. Consistently, we found activation of both p21(ras) and p21(rac)in vivo in the substantia nigra of acute 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Oral administration of NaPB reduced nigral activation of p21(ras) and p21(rac), protected nigral reduced glutathione, attenuated nigral activation of NF-κB, inhibited nigral expression of proinflammatory molecules, and suppressed nigral activation of glial cells. These findings paralleled dopaminergic neuronal protection, normalized striatal neurotransmitters, and improved motor functions in MPTP-intoxicated mice. Consistently, FTI and GGTI also protected nigrostriata in MPTP-intoxicated mice. Furthermore, NaPB also halted the disease progression in a chronic MPTP mouse model. These results identify novel mode of action of NaPB and suggest that NaPB may be of therapeutic benefit for neurodegenerative disorders.

  20. Sodium Phenylbutyrate Controls Neuroinflammatory and Antioxidant Activities and Protects Dopaminergic Neurons in Mouse Models of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Arundhati; Liu, Xiaojuan; Brahmachari, Saurav; Gendelman, Howard E.; Pahan, Kalipada

    2012-01-01

    Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress underlie the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative disorders. Here we demonstrate that sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB), an FDA-approved therapy for reducing plasma ammonia and glutamine in urea cycle disorders, can suppress both proinflammatory molecules and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in activated glial cells. Interestingly, NaPB also decreased the level of cholesterol but involved only intermediates, not the end product of cholesterol biosynthesis pathway for these functions. While inhibitors of both geranylgeranyl transferase (GGTI) and farnesyl transferase (FTI) inhibited the activation of NF-κB, inhibitor of GGTI, but not FTI, suppressed the production of ROS. Accordingly, a dominant-negative mutant of p21rac, but not p21ras, attenuated the production of ROS from activated microglia. Inhibition of both p21ras and p21rac activation by NaPB in microglial cells suggests that NaPB exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects via inhibition of these small G proteins. Consistently, we found activation of both p21ras and p21rac in vivo in the substantia nigra of acute 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson’s disease. Oral administration of NaPB reduced nigral activation of p21ras and p21rac, protected nigral reduced glutathione, attenuated nigral activation of NF-κB, inhibited nigral expression of proinflammatory molecules, and suppressed nigral activation of glial cells. These findings paralleled dopaminergic neuronal protection, normalized striatal neurotransmitters, and improved motor functions in MPTP-intoxicated mice. Consistently, FTI and GGTI also protected nigrostriata in MPTP-intoxicated mice. Furthermore, NaPB also halted the disease progression in a chronic MPTP mouse model. These results identify novel mode of action of NaPB and suggest that NaPB may be of therapeutic benefit for neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:22723850

  1. A new method for locating changes in a tree reveals distinct nucleotide polymorphism vs. divergence patterns in mouse mitochondrial control region.

    PubMed

    Galtier, N; Boursot, P

    2000-03-01

    A new, model-based method was devised to locate nucleotide changes in a given phylogenetic tree. For each site, the posterior probability of any possible change in each branch of the tree is computed. This probabilistic method is a valuable alternative to the maximum parsimony method when base composition is skewed (i.e., different from 25% A, 25% C, 25% G, 25% T): computer simulations showed that parsimony misses more rare --> common than common --> rare changes, resulting in biased inferred change matrices, whereas the new method appeared unbiased. The probabilistic method was applied to the analysis of the mutation and substitution processes in the mitochondrial control region of mouse. Distinct change patterns were found at the polymorphism (within species) and divergence (between species) levels, rejecting the hypothesis of a neutral evolution of base composition in mitochondrial DNA.

  2. Basal activity of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels controls the IP3-mediated contraction by α(1)-adrenoceptor stimulation of mouse aorta segments.

    PubMed

    Leloup, Arthur J; Van Hove, Cor E; De Meyer, Guido R Y; Schrijvers, Dorien M; Fransen, Paul

    2015-08-05

    α1-Adrenoceptor stimulation of mouse aorta causes intracellular Ca(2+) release from sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores via stimulation of inositoltriphosphate (IP3) receptors. It is hypothesized that this Ca(2+) release from the contractile and IP3-sensitive Ca(2+) store is under the continuous dynamic control of time-independent basal Ca(2+) influx via L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (LCC) residing in their window voltage range. Mouse aortic segments were α1-adrenoceptor stimulated with phenylephrine in the absence of external Ca(2+) (0Ca) to measure phasic isometric contractions. They gradually decreased with time in 0Ca, were inhibited with 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, and declined with previous membrane potential hyperpolarization (levcromakalim) or with previous inhibition of LCC (diltiazem). Former basal stimulation of LCC with depolarization (15 mM K(+)) or with BAY K8644 increased the subsequent phasic contractions by phenylephrine in 0Ca. Although exogenous NO (diethylamine NONOate) reduced the phasic contractions by phenylephrine, stimulation of endothelial cells with acetylcholine in 0Ca failed to attenuate these phasic contractions. Finally, inhibition of the basal release of NO with N(Ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester also attenuated the phasic contractions by phenylephrine. Results indicated that α1-adrenoceptor stimulation with phenylephrine causes phasic contractions, which are controlled by basal LCC and endothelial NO synthase activity. Endothelial NO release by acetylcholine was absent in 0Ca. Given the growing interest in the active regulation of arterial compliance, the dependence of contractile SR Ca(2+) store-refilling in basal conditions on the activity of LCC and basal eNOS may contribute to a more thorough understanding of physiological mechanisms leading to arterial stiffness. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Selective effects of citalopram in a mouse model of stress-induced anhedonia with a control for chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Strekalova, Tatyana; Gorenkova, Natalia; Schunk, Edward; Dolgov, Oleg; Bartsch, Dusan

    2006-05-01

    A stress-induced decrease in sucrose preference in rodents is regarded as an analog of anhedonia, a key symptom of depression. We investigated the effects of citalopram, administrated via drinking water (15 mg/kg/day), in a mouse model of stress-induced anhedonia. In this model, chronic stress induces anhedonia in a subset of C57BL/6N mice, while the remaining animals do not show a hedonic deficit or other depressive-like behaviors, although they are exposed to the same stressors as the anhedonic mice. Pre-stress and post-stress treatment with citalopram counteracted the development and maintenance of anhedonia and rescued normal floating in the forced swim test, demonstrating an antidepressant-like action. During the post-stress treatment, citalopram selectively increased sucrose preference and intake on the fourth week of treatment in anhedonic mice without affecting non-anhedonic animals. Citalopram also decreased elevated water consumption in the anhedonic group. Citalopram, administered 1 week before and during a 4-week stress procedure, decreased the percentage of anhedonic mice and reduced the increase of water intake in stressed mice. This study suggests that our chronic stress paradigm can serve as a model of anhedonia, in which antidepressant treatment is selectively effective in animals with a hedonic deficit.

  4. Adrenergic factors involved in the control of crypt cell proliferation in jejunum and descending colon of mouse.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, M F; Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1983-01-01

    The mitotic rates in the crypts of Lieberkühn of the proximal jejunum and descending colon of mouse, following different treatments, were measured using a stathmokinetic technique. Regression coefficients, representing mitotic rates, were then calculated by the method of least squares. Treatment with adrenaline, isoprenaline, phenylephrine, phentolamine, and yohimbine all resulted in decreased mitotic rate of jejunal and colonic crypt cells. Chemical sympathectomy and cryosympathectomy had a similar effect, and chemical sympathectomy was followed by a supersensitivity to clonidine. Intraperitoneal injection of metaraminol, clonidine, propranolol, prazosin, labetolol and simultaneous injection of propranolol and adrenaline all resulted in an increased rate of crypt cell proliferation in both jejunum and colon. A significant increase in mitotic rate was observed in both tissues at night. The amplitude of this diurnal variation was decreased in both jejunum and colon following chemical sympathectomy. In addition, the amplitude of this variation in jejunum was decreased after treatment with yohimbine or phentolamine. The results of the study suggest that the sympathetic nervous system stimulates epithelial cell proliferation in both the small and large intestine and that this effect is mediated by an alpha 2-adrenoceptor. By contrast, stimulation of alpha 1- and beta-adrenoceptors is inhibitory to cell proliferation in these tissues.

  5. Using an Extended Dynamic Drag-and-Drop Assistive Program to Assist People with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Control to Improve Computer Drag-and-Drop Ability through a Mouse Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2012-01-01

    Software technology is adopted by the current research to improve the Drag-and-Drop abilities of two people with multiple disabilities and minimal motor control. This goal was realized through a Dynamic Drag-and-Drop Assistive Program (DDnDAP) in which the complex dragging process is replaced by simply poking the mouse wheel and clicking. However,…

  6. Design and use of mouse control DNA for DNA biomarker extraction and PCR detection from urine: Application for transrenal Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA detection.

    PubMed

    Bordelon, Hali; Ricks, Keersten M; Pask, Megan E; Russ, Patricia K; Solinas, Francesca; Baglia, Mark L; Short, Philip A; Nel, Andrew; Blackburn, Jonathan; Dheda, Keertan; Zamudio, Carlos; Cáceres, Tatiana; Wright, David W; Haselton, Frederick R; Pettit, April C

    2017-05-01

    Urine samples are increasingly used for diagnosing infections including Escherichia coli, Ebola virus, and Zika virus. However, extraction and concentration of nucleic acid biomarkers from urine is necessary for many molecular detection strategies such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Since urine samples typically have large volumes with dilute biomarker concentrations making them prone to false negatives, another impediment for urine-based diagnostics is the establishment of appropriate controls particularly to rule out false negatives. In this study, a mouse glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) DNA target was added to retrospectively collected urine samples from tuberculosis (TB)-infected and TB-uninfected patients to indicate extraction of intact DNA and removal of PCR inhibitors from urine samples. We tested this design on surrogate urine samples, retrospective 1milliliter (mL) urine samples from patients in Lima, Peru and retrospective 5mL urine samples from patients in Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction/PCR control DNA was detectable in 97% of clinical samples with no statistically significant differences among groups. Despite the inclusion of this control, there was no difference in the amount of TB IS6110 Tr-DNA detected between TB-infected and TB-uninfected groups except for samples from known HIV-infected patients. We found an increase in TB IS6110 Tr-DNA between TB/HIV co-infected patients compared to TB-uninfected/HIV-infected patients (N=18, p=0.037). The inclusion of an extraction/PCR control DNA to indicate successful DNA extraction and removal of PCR inhibitors should be easily adaptable as a sample preparation control for other acellular sample types. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Design and use of mouse control DNA for DNA biomarker extraction and PCR detection from urine: application for transrenal Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA detection

    PubMed Central

    Bordelon, Hali; Ricks, Keersten M.; Pask, Megan E.; Russ, Patricia K.; Solinas, Francesca; Baglia, Mark L.; Short, Philip A.; Nel, Andrew; Blackburn, Jonathan; Dheda, Keertan; Zamudio, Carlos; Cáceres, Tatiana; Wright, David W.; Haselton, Frederick R.; Pettit, April C.

    2017-01-01

    Urine samples are increasingly used for diagnosing infections including Escherichia coli, Ebola virus, and Zika virus. However, extraction and concentration of nucleic acid biomarkers from urine is necessary for many molecular detection strategies such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Since urine samples typically have large volumes with dilute biomarker concentrations making them prone to false negatives, another impediment for urine-based diagnostics is the establishment of appropriate controls particularly to rule out false negatives. In this study, a mouse glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) DNA target was added to retrospectively collected urine samples from tuberculosis (TB)-infected and TB-uninfected patients to indicate extraction of intact DNA and removal of PCR inhibitors from urine samples. We tested this design on surrogate urine samples, retrospective 1 milliliter (mL) urine samples from patients in Lima, Peru and retrospective 5 mL urine samples from patients in Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction/PCR control DNA was detectable in 97% of clinical samples with no statistically significant differences among groups. Despite the inclusion of this control, there was no difference in the amount of TB IS6110 Tr-DNA detected between TB-infected and TB-uninfected groups except for samples from known HIV-infected patients. We found a increase in TB IS6110 Tr-DNA between TB/HIV co-infected patients compared to TB-uninfected/HIV-infected patients (N=18, p=0.037). The inclusion of an extraction/PCR control DNA to indicate successful DNA extraction and removal of PCR inhibitors should be easily adaptable as a sample preparation control for other acellular sample types. PMID:28285168

  8. JMJD1C Ensures Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Self-Renewal and Somatic Cell Reprogramming through Controlling MicroRNA Expression.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Feng; Liao, Bing; Hu, Jing; Li, Shuang; Zhao, Haixin; Sun, Ming; Gu, Junjie; Jin, Ying

    2017-09-12

    The roles of histone demethylases (HDMs) for the establishment and maintenance of pluripotency are incompletely characterized. Here, we show that JmjC-domain-containing protein 1c (JMJD1C), an H3K9 demethylase, is required for mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal. Depletion of Jmjd1c leads to the activation of ERK/MAPK signaling and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to induce differentiation of ESCs. Inhibition of ERK/MAPK signaling rescues the differentiation phenotype caused by Jmjd1c depletion. Mechanistically, JMJD1C, with the help of pluripotency factor KLF4, maintains ESC identity at least in part by regulating the expression of the miR-200 family and miR-290/295 cluster to suppress the ERK/MAPK signaling and EMT. Additionally, we uncover that JMJD1C ensures efficient generation and maintenance of induced pluripotent stem cells, at least partially through controlling the expression of microRNAs. Collectively, we propose an integrated model of epigenetic and transcriptional control mediated by the H3K9 demethylase for ESC self-renewal and somatic cell reprogramming. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Remodeling pathway control of mitochondrial respiratory capacity by temperature in mouse heart: electron flow through the Q-junction in permeabilized fibers.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Hélène; Blier, Pierre U; Gnaiger, Erich

    2017-06-06

    Fuel substrate supply and oxidative phosphorylation are key determinants of muscle performance. Numerous studies of mammalian mitochondria are carried out (i) with substrate supply that limits electron flow, and (ii) far below physiological temperature. To analyze potentially implicated biases, we studied mitochondrial respiratory control in permeabilized mouse myocardial fibers using high-resolution respirometry. The capacity of oxidative phosphorylation at 37 °C was nearly two-fold higher when fueled by physiological substrate combinations reconstituting tricarboxylic acid cycle function, compared with electron flow measured separately through NADH to Complex I or succinate to Complex II. The relative contribution of the NADH pathway to physiological respiratory capacity increased with a decrease in temperature from 37 to 25 °C. The apparent excess capacity of cytochrome c oxidase above physiological pathway capacity increased sharply under hypothermia due to limitation by NADH-linked dehydrogenases. This mechanism of mitochondrial respiratory control in the hypothermic mammalian heart is comparable to the pattern in ectotherm species, pointing towards NADH-linked mt-matrix dehydrogenases and the phosphorylation system rather than electron transfer complexes as the primary drivers of thermal sensitivity at low temperature. Delineating the link between stress and remodeling of oxidative phosphorylation is important for understanding metabolic perturbations in disease evolution and cardiac protection.

  10. The Mouse That Soared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-09-01

    diameter of about 12 miles. Their formation is associated with a Type II supernova, the collapse and subsequent explosion of a massive star. The origin of a pulsar's high velocity is not known, but many astrophysicists suspect that it is directly related to the explosive circumstances involved in the birth of the pulsar. The rapid rotation and strong magnetic field of a pulsar can generate a wind of high-energy matter and antimatter particles that rush out at near the speed of light. These pulsar winds create large, magnetized bubbles of high-energy particles called pulsar wind nebulae. The X-ray and radio data on the Mouse have enabled Gaensler and his colleagues to constrain the properties of the ambient gas, to estimate the velocity of the pulsar, and to analyze the structure of the various shock waves created by the pulsar, the flow of particles away from the pulsar, and the magnetic field in the nebula. Zoom into Chandra's Image of the Mouse Zoom into Chandra's Image of the Mouse Other members of the research team were Eric van der Swaluw (FOM Institute of Physics, The Netherlands), Fernando Camilo (Columbia Univ., New York), Vicky Kaspi (McGill Univ., Montreal), Frederick K. Baganoff (MIT, Cambridge, Mass.), Farhad Yusef-Zadeh (Northwestern), and Richard Manchester (Australia Telescope National Facility). The pulsar in the Mouse was originally detected by Camilo et al. in 2002 using Australia's Parkes radio telescope. Chandra observed the Mouse on October 23 and 24, 2002. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington. Northrop Grumman of Redondo Beach, Calif., formerly TRW, Inc., was the prime development contractor for the observatory. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass. Additional information and images are available at: http://chandra.harvard.edu and http://chandra.nasa.gov

  11. RNAi as a tool to control the sex ratio of mouse offspring by interrupting Zfx/Zfy genes in the testis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, YongSheng; Xi, JiFeng; Jia, Bin; Wang, XiangZu; Wang, XuHai; Li, ChaoCheng; Li, YaQiang; Zeng, XianCun; Ying, RuiWen; Li, Xin; Jiang, Song; Yuan, FangYuan

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to explore a novel method to alter the sex-ratio balance of mouse offspring by silencing the paralogous genes Zfx/Zfy (Zinc finger X/Y-chromosomal transcription factor gene) during spermatogenesis. Four recombined vectors PRZ1, PRZ2, PRZ3, and PRZ4 (RNAi-Ready-pSIREN-RetroQ-ZsGreen) were constructed for interrupting the Zfx gene. Additionally, a recombined vector Psilencer/Zfy-shRNA was constructed for interrupting the Zfy gene. Male mice were randomly divided into 8 groups, with 20 animals per group. Five groups of mice were injected with PRZ1, PRZ2, PRZ3, PRZ4, and Psilencer/Zfy-shRNA vectors, respectively. The three control groups were injected with an equal volume of physiological saline, empty RNAi-Ready-pSIREN-RetroQ-ZsGreen vector, and empty Psilencer/Zfy-shRNA vector, respectively. All groups were injected every 7 days for a total of four injections. Fourteen days after the fourth injection, 10 male mice from each group were mated individually with 10 females. Testicular tissue of 10 male mice in each group was collected, and the expression level of Zfx/Zfy mRNA was determined by qRT-PCR. Results showed that, compared with the empty RNAi-Ready-pSIREN-RetroQ-ZsGreen vector and the physiological saline group, expression of Zfx mRNA decreased significantly after injection of PRZ1 (p < 0.01), PRZ3 (p < 0.01), and PRZ4 (p < 0.01), and 78.75 ± 7.50% of the offspring were male in PRZ4 group, significantly higher than the offspring derived from the empty RNAi-Ready-pSIREN-RetroQ-ZsGreen vector and physiological saline group (p < 0.01). In the PRZ1 group, the expression of Zfx mRNA was also significantly lower (p < 0.01), but the male rate of offspring was not different (p > 0.05). Conversely, the expression of Zfy mRNA decreased significantly after injection of Psilencer/Zfy-shRNA (p < 0.01) and 31.00 ± 11.00% of the offspring were male, significantly lower than in the physiological saline group

  12. Par-aPKC-dependent and -independent mechanisms cooperatively control cell polarity, Hippo signaling, and cell positioning in 16-cell stage mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Hirate, Yoshikazu; Hirahara, Shino; Inoue, Ken-Ichi; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Niwa, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    In preimplantation mouse embryos, the Hippo signaling pathway plays a central role in regulating the fates of the trophectoderm (TE) and the inner cell mass (ICM). In early blastocysts with more than 32 cells, the Par-aPKC system controls polarization of the outer cells along the apicobasal axis, and cell polarity suppresses Hippo signaling. Inactivation of Hippo signaling promotes nuclear accumulation of a coactivator protein, Yap, leading to induction of TE-specific genes. However, whether similar mechanisms operate at earlier stages is not known. Here, we show that slightly different mechanisms operate in 16-cell stage embryos. Similar to 32-cell stage embryos, disruption of the Par-aPKC system activated Hippo signaling and suppressed nuclear Yap and Cdx2 expression in the outer cells. However, unlike 32-cell stage embryos, 16-cell stage embryos with a disrupted Par-aPKC system maintained apical localization of phosphorylated Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin (p-ERM), and the effects on Yap and Cdx2 were weak. Furthermore, normal 16-cell stage embryos often contained apolar cells in the outer position. In these cells, the Hippo pathway was strongly activated and Yap was excluded from the nuclei, thus resembling inner cells. Dissociated blastomeres of 8-cell stage embryos form polar-apolar couplets, which exhibit different levels of nuclear Yap, and the polar cell engulfed the apolar cell. These results suggest that cell polarization at the 16-cell stage is regulated by both Par-aPKC-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Asymmetric cell division is involved in cell polarity control, and cell polarity regulates cell positioning and most likely controls Hippo signaling. © The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  13. 29 CFR 1912a.13 - Subcommittees and subgroups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Subcommittees and subgroups. 1912a.13 Section 1912a.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH § 1912a.13...

  14. 29 CFR 1912a.13 - Subcommittees and subgroups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Subcommittees and subgroups. 1912a.13 Section 1912a.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH § 1912a.13...

  15. The effect of preconception paternal alcohol exposure on epigenetic remodeling of the h19 and rasgrf1 imprinting control regions in mouse offspring.

    PubMed

    Knezovich, Jaysen Gregory; Ramsay, Michèle

    2012-01-01

    Imprinted loci play a critical role in fetal development. Their expression is often regulated by CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) protein binding at imprinting control regions (ICRs). Prenatal alcohol exposure has been shown to reduce global DNA methylation in the developing mouse fetus. This study explored the effect of preconception paternal alcohol exposure on DNA methylation at two paternally methylated ICRs (H19 and Rasgrf1) in the sperm of exposed males and somatic DNA of sired offspring. Significant reductions at the H19 CTCF 1 (p = 0.0027) and CTCF 2 (p = 0.0009) binding sites were observed in the offspring of ethanol-treated sires, which was significantly correlated with reduced weight at postnatal days 35-42 (p < 0.05). As birth weight was unaffected and growth was only delayed during the postnatal weaning period, with subsequent re-convergence, we hypothesize that this may be the result of a mental deficit causing delayed establishment of independent feeding following weaning and would explain why this effect is transient. No difference in DNA methylation was observed in the sperm of alcohol-exposed males, indicating that the transmission of the epigenetic signal at conception is not due to altered methylation, but may be the result of an RNA-mediated mechanism or altered chromatin remodeling.

  16. Absence of a gestational diabetes phenotype in the LepRdb/+ mouse is independent of control strain, diet, misty allele, or parity

    PubMed Central

    Plows, Jasmine F.; Yu, XinYang; Broadhurst, Ric; Vickers, Mark H.; Tong, Chao; Zhang, Hua; Qi, HongBo; Stanley, Joanna L.; Baker, Philip N.

    2017-01-01

    Treatment options for gestational diabetes (GDM) are limited. In order to better understand mechanisms and improve treatments, appropriate animal models of GDM are crucial. Heterozygous db mice (db/+) present with glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and increased weight gain during, but not prior to, pregnancy. This makes them an ideal model for GDM. However, several recent studies have reported an absence of GDM phenotype in their colony. We investigated several hypotheses for why the phenotype may be absent, with the aim of re-establishing it and preventing further resources being wasted on an ineffective model. Experiments were carried out across two laboratories in two countries (New Zealand and China), and were designed to assess type of control strain, diet, presence of the misty allele, and parity as potential contributors to the lost phenotype. While hyperleptinemia and pre-pregnancy weight gain were present in all db/+mice across the four studies, we found no consistent evidence of glucose intolerance or insulin resistance during pregnancy. In conclusion, we were unable to acquire the GDM phenotype in any of our experiments, and we recommend researchers do not use the db/+ mouse as a model of GDM unless they are certain the phenotype remains in their colony. PMID:28338021

  17. Absence of a gestational diabetes phenotype in the LepRdb/+ mouse is independent of control strain, diet, misty allele, or parity.

    PubMed

    Plows, Jasmine F; Yu, XinYang; Broadhurst, Ric; Vickers, Mark H; Tong, Chao; Zhang, Hua; Qi, HongBo; Stanley, Joanna L; Baker, Philip N

    2017-03-24

    Treatment options for gestational diabetes (GDM) are limited. In order to better understand mechanisms and improve treatments, appropriate animal models of GDM are crucial. Heterozygous db mice (db/+) present with glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and increased weight gain during, but not prior to, pregnancy. This makes them an ideal model for GDM. However, several recent studies have reported an absence of GDM phenotype in their colony. We investigated several hypotheses for why the phenotype may be absent, with the aim of re-establishing it and preventing further resources being wasted on an ineffective model. Experiments were carried out across two laboratories in two countries (New Zealand and China), and were designed to assess type of control strain, diet, presence of the misty allele, and parity as potential contributors to the lost phenotype. While hyperleptinemia and pre-pregnancy weight gain were present in all db/+mice across the four studies, we found no consistent evidence of glucose intolerance or insulin resistance during pregnancy. In conclusion, we were unable to acquire the GDM phenotype in any of our experiments, and we recommend researchers do not use the db/+ mouse as a model of GDM unless they are certain the phenotype remains in their colony.

  18. Linkage mapping of a mouse gene, iv, that controls left-right asymmetry of the heart and viscera.

    PubMed Central

    Brueckner, M; D'Eustachio, P; Horwich, A L

    1989-01-01

    Inherited single gene defects have been identified in both humans and mice that lead to loss of developmental control over the left-right asymmetry of the heart and viscera. In mice the recessively inherited mutation iv leads to such apparent loss of control over situs: 50% of iv/iv mice exhibit situs inversus and 50% exhibit normal situs. The affected gene product has not been identified in these animals. To study the normal function of iv, we have taken an approach directed to the gene itself. As a first step, we have mapped iv genetically, by examining its segregation in backcrosses with respect to markers defined by restriction fragment length polymorphisms. The iv locus lies 3 centimorgans (cM) from the immunoglobulin heavy-chain constant-region gene complex (Igh-C) on chromosome 12. A multilocus map of the region suggests the gene order centromere-Aat (alpha 1-antitrypsin gene complex)-(11 cM)-iv-(3 cM)-Igh-C-(1 cM)-Igh-V (immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable-region gene complex). Images PMID:2740340

  19. Centralized mouse repositories.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Leah Rae; Hrabe de Angelis, Martin; Hagn, Michael; Franklin, Craig; Lloyd, K C Kent; Magnuson, Terry; McKerlie, Colin; Nakagata, Naomi; Obata, Yuichi; Read, Stuart; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hörlein, Andreas; Davisson, Muriel T

    2012-10-01

    Because the mouse is used so widely for biomedical research and the number of mouse models being generated is increasing rapidly, centralized repositories are essential if the valuable mouse strains and models that have been developed are to be securely preserved and fully exploited. Ensuring the ongoing availability of these mouse strains preserves the investment made in creating and characterizing them and creates a global resource of enormous value. The establishment of centralized mouse repositories around the world for distributing and archiving these resources has provided critical access to and preservation of these strains. This article describes the common and specialized activities provided by major mouse repositories around the world.

  20. Centralized Mouse Repositories

    PubMed Central

    Donahue, Leah Rae; de Angelis, Martin Hrabe; Hagn, Michael; Franklin, Craig; Lloyd, K. C. Kent; Magnuson, Terry; McKerlie, Colin; Nakagata, Naomi; Obata, Yuichi; Read, Stuart; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hörlein, Andreas; Davisson, Muriel T.

    2013-01-01

    Because the mouse is used so widely for biomedical research and the number of mouse models being generated is increasing rapidly, centralized repositories are essential if the valuable mouse strains and models that have been developed are to be securely preserved and fully exploited. Ensuring the ongoing availability of these mouse strains preserves the investment made in creating and characterizing them and creates a global resource of enormous value. The establishment of centralized mouse repositories around the world for distributing and archiving these resources has provided critical access to and preservation of these strains. This article describes the common and specialized activities provided by major mouse repositories around the world. PMID:22945696

  1. Identification of multiple genetic loci in the mouse controlling immobility time in the tail suspension and forced swimming tests.

    PubMed

    Abou-Elnaga, Ahmed F; Torigoe, Daisuke; Fouda, Mohamed M; Darwish, Ragab A; Abou-Ismail, Usama A; Morimatsu, Masami; Agui, Takashi

    2015-05-01

    Depression is one of the most famous psychiatric disorders in humans in all over the countries and considered a complex neurobehavioral trait and difficult to identify causal genes. Tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST) are widely used for assessing depression-like behavior and antidepressant activity in mice. A variety of antidepressant agents are known to reduce immobility time in both TST and FST. To identify genetic determinants of immobility duration in both tests, we analyzed 101 F2 mice from an intercross between C57BL/6 and DBA/2 strains. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping using 106 microsatellite markers revealed three loci (two significant and one suggestive) and five suggestive loci controlling immobility time in the TST and FST, respectively. Results of QTL analysis suggest a broad description of the genetic architecture underlying depression, providing underpinnings for identifying novel molecular targets for antidepressants to clear the complex genetic mechanisms of depressive disorders.

  2. Neuronal Deletion of Caspase 8 Protects against Brain Injury in Mouse Models of Controlled Cortical Impact and Kainic Acid-Induced Excitotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Krajewska, Maryla; You, Zerong; Rong, Juan; Kress, Christina; Huang, Xianshu; Yang, Jinsheng; Kyoda, Tiffany; Leyva, Ricardo; Banares, Steven; Hu, Yue; Sze, Chia-Hung; Whalen, Michael J.; Salmena, Leonardo; Hakem, Razqallah; Head, Brian P.; Reed, John C.; Krajewski, Stan

    2011-01-01

    Background Acute brain injury is an important health problem. Given the critical position of caspase 8 at the crossroads of cell death pathways, we generated a new viable mouse line (Ncasp8 −/−), in which the gene encoding caspase 8 was selectively deleted in neurons by cre-lox system. Methodology/Principal Findings Caspase 8 deletion reduced rates of neuronal cell death in primary neuronal cultures and in whole brain organotypic coronal slice cultures prepared from 4 and 8 month old mice and cultivated up to 14 days in vitro. Treatments of cultures with recombinant murine TNFα (100 ng/ml) or TRAIL (250 ng/mL) plus cyclohexamide significantly protected neurons against cell death induced by these apoptosis-inducing ligands. A protective role of caspase 8 deletion in vivo was also demonstrated using a controlled cortical impact (CCI) model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and seizure-induced brain injury caused by kainic acid (KA). Morphometric analyses were performed using digital imaging in conjunction with image analysis algorithms. By employing virtual images of hundreds of brain sections, we were able to perform quantitative morphometry of histological and immunohistochemical staining data in an unbiased manner. In the TBI model, homozygous deletion of caspase 8 resulted in reduced lesion volumes, improved post-injury motor performance, superior learning and memory retention, decreased apoptosis, diminished proteolytic processing of caspases and caspase substrates, and less neuronal degeneration, compared to wild type, homozygous cre, and caspase 8-floxed control mice. In the KA model, Ncasp8 −/− mice demonstrated superior survival, reduced seizure severity, less apoptosis, and reduced caspase 3 processing. Uninjured aged knockout mice showed improved learning and memory, implicating a possible role for caspase 8 in cognitive decline with aging. Conclusions Neuron-specific deletion of caspase 8 reduces brain damage and improves post-traumatic functional

  3. FXR controls the tumor suppressor NDRG2 and FXR agonists reduce liver tumor growth and metastasis in an orthotopic mouse xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Deuschle, Ulrich; Schüler, Julia; Schulz, Andreas; Schlüter, Thomas; Kinzel, Olaf; Abel, Ulrich; Kremoser, Claus

    2012-01-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is expressed predominantly in tissues exposed to high levels of bile acids and controls bile acid and lipid homeostasis. FXR(-/-) mice develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and show an increased prevalence for intestinal malignancies, suggesting a role of FXR as a tumor suppressor in enterohepatic tissues. The N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) has been recognized as a tumor suppressor gene, which is downregulated in human hepatocellular carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma and many other malignancies.We show reduced NDRG2 mRNA in livers of FXR(-/-) mice compared to wild type mice and both, FXR and NDRG2 mRNAs, are reduced in human HCC compared to normal liver. Gene reporter assays and Chromatin Immunoprecipitation data support that FXR directly controls NDRG2 transcription via IR1-type element(s) identified in the first introns of the human, mouse and rat NDRG2 genes. NDRG2 mRNA was induced by non-steroidal FXR agonists in livers of mice and the magnitude of induction of NDRG2 mRNA in three different human hepatoma cell lines was increased when ectopically expressing human FXR. Growth and metastasis of SK-Hep-1 cells was strongly reduced by non-steroidal FXR agonists in an orthotopic liver xenograft tumor model. Ectopic expression of FXR in SK-Hep1 cells reduced tumor growth and metastasis potential of corresponding cells and increased the anti-tumor efficacy of FXR agonists, which may be partly mediated via increased NDRG2 expression. FXR agonists may show a potential in the prevention and/or treatment of human hepatocellular carcinoma, a devastating malignancy with increasing prevalence and limited therapeutic options.

  4. RISC-mediated control of selected chromatin regulators stabilizes ground state pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Pandolfini, Luca; Luzi, Ettore; Bressan, Dario; Ucciferri, Nadia; Bertacchi, Michele; Brandi, Rossella; Rocchiccioli, Silvia; D'Onofrio, Mara; Cremisi, Federico

    2016-05-06

    Embryonic stem cells are intrinsically unstable and differentiate spontaneously if they are not shielded from external stimuli. Although the nature of such instability is still controversial, growing evidence suggests that protein translation control may play a crucial role. We performed an integrated analysis of RNA and proteins at the transition between naïve embryonic stem cells and cells primed to differentiate. During this transition, mRNAs coding for chromatin regulators are specifically released from translational inhibition mediated by RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). This suggests that, prior to differentiation, the propensity of embryonic stem cells to change their epigenetic status is hampered by RNA interference. The expression of these chromatin regulators is reinstated following acute inactivation of RISC and it correlates with loss of stemness markers and activation of early cell differentiation markers in treated embryonic stem cells. We propose that RISC-mediated inhibition of specific sets of chromatin regulators is a primary mechanism for preserving embryonic stem cell pluripotency while inhibiting the onset of embryonic developmental programs.

  5. Downregulation of BTLA on NKT Cells Promotes Tumor Immune Control in a Mouse Model of Mammary Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sekar, Divya; Govene, Luisa; del Río, María-Luisa; Sirait-Fischer, Evelyn; Fink, Annika F.

    2018-01-01

    Natural Killer T cells (NKT cells) are emerging as critical regulators of pro- and anti-tumor immunity, both at baseline and in therapeutic settings. While type I NKT cells can promote anti-tumor immunity, their activity in the tumor microenvironment may be limited by negative regulators such as inhibitory immune checkpoints. We observed dominant expression of B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) on type I NKT cells in polyoma middle T oncogene-driven (PyMT) murine autochthonous mammary tumors. Other immune checkpoint receptors, such as programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) were equally distributed among T cell populations. Interference with BTLA using neutralizing antibodies limited tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis in the PyMT model in a therapeutic setting, correlating with an increase in type I NKT cells and expression of cytotoxic marker genes. While therapeutic application of an anti-PD-1 antibody increased the number of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells and elevated IL-12 expression, tumor control was not established. Expression of ZBTB16, the lineage-determining transcription factor of type I NKT cells, was correlated with a favorable patient prognosis in the METABRIC dataset, and BTLA levels were instrumental to further distinguish prognosis in patents with high ZBTB16 expression. Taken together, these data support a role of BTLA on type I NKT cells in limiting anti-tumor immunity. PMID:29518903

  6. Downregulation of BTLA on NKT Cells Promotes Tumor Immune Control in a Mouse Model of Mammary Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Divya; Govene, Luisa; Del Río, María-Luisa; Sirait-Fischer, Evelyn; Fink, Annika F; Brüne, Bernhard; Rodriguez-Barbosa, José I; Weigert, Andreas

    2018-03-07

    Natural Killer T cells (NKT cells) are emerging as critical regulators of pro- and anti-tumor immunity, both at baseline and in therapeutic settings. While type I NKT cells can promote anti-tumor immunity, their activity in the tumor microenvironment may be limited by negative regulators such as inhibitory immune checkpoints. We observed dominant expression of B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) on type I NKT cells in polyoma middle T oncogene-driven (PyMT) murine autochthonous mammary tumors. Other immune checkpoint receptors, such as programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) were equally distributed among T cell populations. Interference with BTLA using neutralizing antibodies limited tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis in the PyMT model in a therapeutic setting, correlating with an increase in type I NKT cells and expression of cytotoxic marker genes. While therapeutic application of an anti-PD-1 antibody increased the number of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells and elevated IL-12 expression, tumor control was not established. Expression of ZBTB16, the lineage-determining transcription factor of type I NKT cells, was correlated with a favorable patient prognosis in the METABRIC dataset, and BTLA levels were instrumental to further distinguish prognosis in patents with high ZBTB16 expression. Taken together, these data support a role of BTLA on type I NKT cells in limiting anti-tumor immunity.

  7. Baicalin inhibits biofilm formation, attenuates the quorum sensing-controlled virulence and enhances Pseudomonas aeruginosa clearance in a mouse peritoneal implant infection model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke; Cai, Shuangqi; Liu, Tangjuan; Cheng, Xiaojing; Lei, Danqing; Chen, Yanling; Li, Yanan; Kong, Jinliang; Chen, Yiqiang

    2017-01-01

    The quorum sensing (QS) circuit plays a role in the precise regulation of genes controlling virulence factors and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. QS-controlled biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in clinical settings has remained controversial due to emerging drug resistance; therefore, screening diverse compounds for anti-biofilm or anti-QS activities is important. This study demonstrates the ability of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of baicalin, an active natural compound extracted from the traditional Chinese medicinal Scutellaria baicalensis, to inhibit the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms and enhance the bactericidal effects of various conventional antibiotics in vitro. In addition, baicalin exerted dose-dependent inhibitory effects on virulence phenotypes (LasA protease, LasB elastase, pyocyanin, rhamnolipid, motilities and exotoxin A) regulated by QS in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Moreover, the expression levels of QS-regulatory genes, including lasI, lasR, rhlI, rhlR, pqsR and pqsA, were repressed after sub-MIC baicalin treatment, resulting in significant decreases in the QS signaling molecules 3-oxo-C12-HSL and C4-HSL, confirming the ability of baicalin-mediated QS inhibition to alter gene and protein expression. In vivo experiments indicated that baicalin treatment reduces Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenicity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Greater worm survival in the baicalin-treated group manifested as an increase in the LT50 from 24 to 96 h. In a mouse peritoneal implant infection model, baicalin treatment enhanced the clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the implants of mice infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared with the control group. Moreover, the combination of baicalin and antibiotics significantly reduced the numbers of colony-forming units in the implants to a significantly greater degree than antibiotic treatment alone. Pathological and histological analyses revealed mitigation of the

  8. Mouse Curve Biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, Douglas A.

    2007-10-08

    A biometric system suitable for validating user identity using only mouse movements and no specialized equipment is presented. Mouse curves (mouse movements with little or no pause between them) are individually classied and used to develop classication histograms, which are representative of an individual's typical mouse use. These classication histograms can then be compared to validate identity. This classication approach is suitable for providing continuous identity validation during an entire user session.

  9. Building a Brainier Mouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsien, Joe Z.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a genetic engineering project to build an intelligent mouse. Cites understanding the molecular basis of learning and memory as a very important step. Concludes that while science will never create a genius mouse that plays the stock market, it can turn a mouse into a quick learner with a better memory. (YDS)

  10. Clinical Evaluation of a Royal Jelly Supplementation for the Restoration of Dry Eye: A Prospective Randomized Double Blind Placebo Controlled Study and an Experimental Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Sachiko; Kawashima, Motoko; Hisamura, Ryuji; Imada, Toshihiro; Izuta, Yusuke; Nakamura, Shigeru; Ito, Masataka; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    Dry eye is a multifactorial disease characterized by ocular discomfort and visual impairment. Lacrimal gland function has been shown to decrease with aging, a known potent risk factor for dry eye. We have previously found that orally administrated royal jelly (RJ) restored tear secretion in a rat model of dry eye. We examined the effects of RJ oral administration on dry eye in this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Forty-three Japanese patients aged 20-60 years with subjective dry eye symptoms were randomized to an RJ group (1200 mg/tablet, six tablets daily) or a placebo group for 8 weeks. Keratoconjunctival epithelial damage, tear film break-up time, tear secretion volume, meibum grade, biochemical data, and subjective dry eye symptoms based on a questionnaire were investigated at baseline, and at 4 and 8 weeks after intervention. Adverse events were reported via medical interviews. In the RJ group, tear volume significantly increased after intervention (p = 0.0009). In particular, patients with a baseline Schirmer value of ≤10 mm showed a significant increase compared with baseline volume (p = 0.0005) and volume in the placebo group (p = 0.0051). No adverse events were reported. We also investigated the effect of RJ (300 mg/kg per day) administration using a mouse model of dry eye. Orally repeated administration of RJ preserved tear secretion, potentially through direct activation of the secretory function of the lacrimal glands. Our results suggest that RJ improves tear volume in patients with dry eye. Registered NO. the University Hospital Medical Information Network in Japan (UMIN000014446).

  11. Clinical Evaluation of a Royal Jelly Supplementation for the Restoration of Dry Eye: A Prospective Randomized Double Blind Placebo Controlled Study and an Experimental Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Sachiko; Kawashima, Motoko; Hisamura, Ryuji; Imada, Toshihiro; Izuta, Yusuke; Nakamura, Shigeru; Ito, Masataka; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    Background Dry eye is a multifactorial disease characterized by ocular discomfort and visual impairment. Lacrimal gland function has been shown to decrease with aging, a known potent risk factor for dry eye. We have previously found that orally administrated royal jelly (RJ) restored tear secretion in a rat model of dry eye. Methods and Findings We examined the effects of RJ oral administration on dry eye in this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Forty-three Japanese patients aged 20–60 years with subjective dry eye symptoms were randomized to an RJ group (1200 mg/tablet, six tablets daily) or a placebo group for 8 weeks. Keratoconjunctival epithelial damage, tear film break-up time, tear secretion volume, meibum grade, biochemical data, and subjective dry eye symptoms based on a questionnaire were investigated at baseline, and at 4 and 8 weeks after intervention. Adverse events were reported via medical interviews. In the RJ group, tear volume significantly increased after intervention (p = 0.0009). In particular, patients with a baseline Schirmer value of ≤10 mm showed a significant increase compared with baseline volume (p = 0.0005) and volume in the placebo group (p = 0.0051). No adverse events were reported. We also investigated the effect of RJ (300 mg/kg per day) administration using a mouse model of dry eye. Orally repeated administration of RJ preserved tear secretion, potentially through direct activation of the secretory function of the lacrimal glands. Conclusion Our results suggest that RJ improves tear volume in patients with dry eye. Trial Registration Registered NO. the University Hospital Medical Information Network in Japan (UMIN000014446) PMID:28060936

  12. Tissue-Specific Inactivation of Type 2 Deiodinase Reveals Multilevel Control of Fatty Acid Oxidation by Thyroid Hormone in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Tatiana L.; Werneck-De-Castro, Joao Pedro; Castillo, Melany; Bocco, Barbara M.L.C.; Fernandes, Gustavo W.; McAninch, Elizabeth A.; Ignacio, Daniele L.; Moises, Caio C.S.; Ferreira, Alexandre; Gereben, Balázs

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 deiodinase (D2) converts the prohormone thyroxine (T4) to the metabolically active molecule 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3), but its global inactivation unexpectedly lowers the respiratory exchange rate (respiratory quotient [RQ]) and decreases food intake. Here we used FloxD2 mice to generate systemically euthyroid fat-specific (FAT), astrocyte-specific (ASTRO), or skeletal-muscle-specific (SKM) D2 knockout (D2KO) mice that were monitored continuously. The ASTRO-D2KO mice also exhibited lower diurnal RQ and greater contribution of fatty acid oxidation to energy expenditure, but no differences in food intake were observed. In contrast, the FAT-D2KO mouse exhibited sustained (24 h) increase in RQ values, increased food intake, tolerance to glucose, and sensitivity to insulin, all supporting greater contribution of carbohydrate oxidation to energy expenditure. Furthermore, FAT-D2KO animals that were kept on a high-fat diet for 8 weeks gained more body weight and fat, indicating impaired brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and/or inability to oxidize the fat excess. Acclimatization of FAT-D2KO mice at thermoneutrality dissipated both features of this phenotype. Muscle D2 does not seem to play a significant metabolic role given that SKM-D2KO animals exhibited no phenotype. The present findings are unique in that they were obtained in systemically euthyroid animals, revealing that brain D2 plays a dominant albeit indirect role in fatty acid oxidation via its sympathetic control of BAT activity. D2-generated T3 in BAT accelerates fatty acid oxidation and protects against diet-induced obesity. PMID:24487027

  13. Tissue-specific inactivation of type 2 deiodinase reveals multilevel control of fatty acid oxidation by thyroid hormone in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Tatiana L; Werneck-De-Castro, Joao Pedro; Castillo, Melany; Bocco, Barbara M L C; Fernandes, Gustavo W; McAninch, Elizabeth A; Ignacio, Daniele L; Moises, Caio C S; Ferreira, Alexander R; Ferreira, Alexandre; Gereben, Balázs; Bianco, Antonio C

    2014-05-01

    Type 2 deiodinase (D2) converts the prohormone thyroxine (T4) to the metabolically active molecule 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), but its global inactivation unexpectedly lowers the respiratory exchange rate (respiratory quotient [RQ]) and decreases food intake. Here we used FloxD2 mice to generate systemically euthyroid fat-specific (FAT), astrocyte-specific (ASTRO), or skeletal-muscle-specific (SKM) D2 knockout (D2KO) mice that were monitored continuously. The ASTRO-D2KO mice also exhibited lower diurnal RQ and greater contribution of fatty acid oxidation to energy expenditure, but no differences in food intake were observed. In contrast, the FAT-D2KO mouse exhibited sustained (24 h) increase in RQ values, increased food intake, tolerance to glucose, and sensitivity to insulin, all supporting greater contribution of carbohydrate oxidation to energy expenditure. Furthermore, FAT-D2KO animals that were kept on a high-fat diet for 8 weeks gained more body weight and fat, indicating impaired brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and/or inability to oxidize the fat excess. Acclimatization of FAT-D2KO mice at thermoneutrality dissipated both features of this phenotype. Muscle D2 does not seem to play a significant metabolic role given that SKM-D2KO animals exhibited no phenotype. The present findings are unique in that they were obtained in systemically euthyroid animals, revealing that brain D2 plays a dominant albeit indirect role in fatty acid oxidation via its sympathetic control of BAT activity. D2-generated T3 in BAT accelerates fatty acid oxidation and protects against diet-induced obesity.

  14. Differential effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on metabolic control and vascular reactivity in the type 2 diabetic ob/ob mouse.

    PubMed

    Mustad, Vikkie A; Demichele, Stephen; Huang, Yung-Sheng; Mika, Amanda; Lubbers, Nathan; Berthiaume, Nathalie; Polakowski, Jim; Zinker, Brad

    2006-10-01

    Diets rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) are recommended for individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The American Heart Association recommends increasing intakes of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to reduce the risk of vascular disease in high-risk individuals; however, the long-term effects of these bioactive fatty acids on glucose metabolism in insulin resistance are controversial. The present studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of diets rich in both MUFA and alpha linolenic acid (C18:3n-3, ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3, EPA), or docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3, DHA), on glycemic control and other parameters related to vascular health in a mouse model of T2DM and insulin resistance. Male ob/ob mice (n = 15 per treatment) were fed 1 of 4 lipid-modified formula diets (LFDs) for 4 weeks: (1) MUFA control, (2) ALA blend, (3) EPA blend, and (4) DHA blend. A portion of a MUFA-rich lipid blend in the control LFD was replaced with 11% to 14% energy as n-3 PUFA. After 4 weeks, plasma glucose response to a standard meal (1.5 g carbohydrate/kg body weight) and insulin challenge (2 U/kg body weight, IP) was assessed, and samples were collected for analysis of glucose, insulin, and lipids. Vascular reactivity of isolated aortic rings was assessed in an identical follow-up study. The results showed that insulin-resistant mice fed an LFD with EPA and/or DHA blends had significantly (P < .05) lower triglycerides and free fatty acids, but insulin sensitivity and fasting plasma glucose were not improved. However, mice fed with the ALA blend had significantly improved insulin sensitivity when compared to those fed with other LFD (P < .05). Animals fed an LFD with n-3 PUFA from marine or plant sources showed significantly improved vascular responses as compared with the MUFA-rich LFD (E(max), P < .05) and ob/ob reference mice consuming chow (E(max) and pEC(50), P < .05). In summary, long-term consumption of LFD with n-3 PUFAs improved blood

  15. Zinc stimulates glucose oxidation and glycemic control by modulating the insulin signaling pathway in human and mouse skeletal muscle cell lines.

    PubMed

    Norouzi, Shaghayegh; Adulcikas, John; Sohal, Sukhwinder Singh; Myers, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    Zinc is a metal ion that is an essential cell signaling molecule. Highlighting this, zinc is an insulin mimetic, activating cellular pathways that regulate cellular homeostasis and physiological responses. Previous studies have linked dysfunctional zinc signaling with several disease states including cancer, obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The present study evaluated the insulin-like effects of zinc on cell signaling molecules including tyrosine, PRSA40, Akt, ERK1/2, SHP-2, GSK-3β and p38, and glucose oxidation in human and mouse skeletal muscle cells. Insulin and zinc independently led to the phosphorylation of these proteins over a 60-minute time course in both mouse and human skeletal muscle cells. Similarly, utilizing a protein array we identified that zinc could active the phosphorylation of p38, ERK1/2 and GSK-3B in human and ERK1/2 and GSK-3B in mouse skeletal muscle cells. Glucose oxidation assays were performed on skeletal muscle cells treated with insulin, zinc, or a combination of both and resulted in a significant induction of glucose consumption in mouse (p<0.01) and human (p<0.05) skeletal muscle cells when treated with zinc alone. Insulin, as expected, increased glucose oxidation in mouse (p<0.001) and human (0.001) skeletal muscle cells, however the combination of zinc and insulin did not augment glucose consumption in these cells. Zinc acts as an insulin mimetic, activating key molecules implicated in cell signaling to maintain glucose homeostasis in mouse and human skeletal muscle cells. Zinc is an important metal ion implicated in several biological processes. The role of zinc as an insulin memetic in activating key signaling molecules involved in glucose homeostasis could provide opportunities to utilize this ion therapeutically in treating disorders associated with dysfunctional zinc signaling.

  16. Evaluation of a bioluminescent mouse model expressing aromatase PII-promoter-controlled luciferase as a tool for the study of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Rivest, Patricia, E-mail: patricia.rivest@iaf.inrs.ca; Devine, Patrick J., E-mail: patrick.devine@iaf.inrs.ca; Sanderson, J. Thomas, E-mail: thomas.sanderson@iaf.inrs.c

    Dysfunction of the enzyme aromatase (CYP19) is associated with endocrine pathologies such as osteoporosis, impaired fertility and development of hormone-dependent cancers. Certain endocrine disrupting chemicals affect aromatase expression and activity in vitro, but little is known about their ability to do so in vivo. We evaluated a bioluminescent mouse model (LPTA (registered)) CD-1-Tg(Cyp19-luc)-Xen) expressing luciferase under control of the gonadal aromatase pII promoter as an in vivo screening tool for chemicals that may affect aromatase expression. We studied the effects of forskolin, pregnant mare serum gonadotropin and atrazine in this model (atrazine was previously shown to induced pII-promoter-driven aromatase expressionmore » in H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells). About 2-4 out of every group of 10 male or female Cyp19-luc mice injected i.p. with 10 mg/kg forskolin had increased gonadal bioluminescence after 3-5 days compared to controls; the others appeared non-responsive. Similarly, about 4 per group of 9 individual females injected with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin had increased ovarian bioluminescence after 24 h. There was a statistically significant correlation between ovarian bioluminescence and plasma estradiol concentrations (n = 14; p = 0.022). Males exposed to a single dose of 100 mg/kg or males and females exposed to 5 daily injections of 30 mg/kg atrazine showed no change in gonadal bioluminescence over a 7 day period, but a significant interaction was found between atrazine (100 mg/kg) and time in female mice (p < 0.05; two-way ANOVA). Ex vivo luciferase activity in dissected organs was increased by forskolin in testis, epididymis and ovaries. Atrazine (30 mg/kg/day) increased (30%) luciferase activity significantly in epididymis only. In conclusion, certain individual Cyp19-luc mice are highly responsive to aromatase inducers, suggesting this model, with further optimization, may have potential as an in vivo screening tool

  17. 42 CFR 136a.13 - Authorization for contract health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authorization for contract health services. 136a.13 Section 136a.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH What Services Are Available and Who Is...

  18. 18 CFR 3a.13 - Classification responsibility and procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Classification responsibility and procedure. 3a.13 Section 3a.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification § 3a...

  19. 18 CFR 3a.13 - Classification responsibility and procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification responsibility and procedure. 3a.13 Section 3a.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification § 3a...

  20. 18 CFR 3a.13 - Classification responsibility and procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Classification responsibility and procedure. 3a.13 Section 3a.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification § 3a...

  1. 18 CFR 3a.13 - Classification responsibility and procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Classification responsibility and procedure. 3a.13 Section 3a.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification § 3a...

  2. Region-specific RNA m6A methylation represents a new layer of control in the gene regulatory network in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mengqi; Lv, Hongyi; Zhang, Weilong; Ma, Chunhui; He, Xue; Zhao, Shunli; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Song, Shuhui; Niu, Yamei; Tong, Wei-Min

    2017-09-01

    N 6 -methyladenosine (m 6 A) is the most abundant epitranscriptomic mark found on mRNA and has important roles in various physiological processes. Despite the relatively high m 6 A levels in the brain, its potential functions in the brain remain largely unexplored. We performed a transcriptome-wide methylation analysis using the mouse brain to depict its region-specific methylation profile. RNA methylation levels in mouse cerebellum are generally higher than those in the cerebral cortex. Heterogeneity of RNA methylation exists across different brain regions and different types of neural cells including the mRNAs to be methylated, their methylation levels and methylation site selection. Common and region-specific methylation have different preferences for methylation site selection and thereby different impacts on their biological functions. In addition, high methylation levels of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) target mRNAs suggest that m 6 A methylation is likely to be used for selective recognition of target mRNAs by FMRP in the synapse. Overall, we provide a region-specific map of RNA m 6 A methylation and characterize the distinct features of specific and common methylation in mouse cerebellum and cerebral cortex. Our results imply that RNA m 6 A methylation is a newly identified element in the region-specific gene regulatory network in the mouse brain. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Augmented Computer Mouse Would Measure Applied Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Larry C. H.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed computer mouse measures force of contact applied by user. Adds another dimension to two-dimensional-position-measuring capability of conventional computer mouse; force measurement designated to represent any desired continuously variable function of time and position, such as control force, acceleration, velocity, or position along axis perpendicular to computer video display. Proposed mouse enhances sense of realism and intuition in interaction between operator and computer. Useful in such applications as three-dimensional computer graphics, computer games, and mathematical modeling of dynamics.

  4. Assisted Reproductive Technology affects developmental kinetics, H19 Imprinting Control Region methylation and H19 gene expression in individual mouse embryos

    PubMed Central

    Fauque, Patricia; Jouannet, Pierre; Lesaffre, Corinne; Ripoche, Marie-Anne; Dandolo, Luisa; Vaiman, Daniel; Jammes, Hélène

    2007-01-01

    Background In the last few years, an increase in imprinting anomalies has been reported in children born from Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). Various clinical and experimental studies also suggest alterations of embryo development after ART. Therefore, there is a need for studying early epigenetic anomalies which could result from ART manipulations, especially on single embryos. In this study, we evaluated the impact of superovulation, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo culture conditions on proper genomic imprinting and blastocyst development in single mouse embryos. In this study, different experimental groups were established to obtain embryos from superovulated and non-superovulated females, either from in vivo or in vitro fertilized oocytes, themselves grown in vitro or not. The embryos were cultured either in M16 medium or in G1.2/G2.2 sequential medium. The methylation status of H19 Imprinting Control Region (ICR) and H19 promoter was assessed, as well as the gene expression level of H19, in individual blastocysts. In parallel, we have evaluated embryo cleavage kinetics and recorded morphological data. Results We show that: 1. The culture medium influences early embryo development with faster cleavage kinetics for culture in G1.2/G2.2 medium compared to M16 medium. 2. Epigenetic alterations of the H19 ICR and H19 PP are influenced by the fertilization method since methylation anomalies were observed only in the in vitro fertilized subgroup, however to different degrees according to the culture medium. 3. Superovulation clearly disrupted H19 gene expression in individual blastocysts. Moreover, when embryos were cultured in vitro after either in vivo or in vitro fertilization, the percentage of blastocysts which expressed H19 was higher in G1.2/G2.2 medium compared to M16. Conclusion Compared to previous reports utilizing pools of embryos, our study enables us to emphasize a high individual variability of blastocysts in the H19 ICR and H19

  5. Assisted Reproductive Technology affects developmental kinetics, H19 Imprinting Control Region methylation and H19 gene expression in individual mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Fauque, Patricia; Jouannet, Pierre; Lesaffre, Corinne; Ripoche, Marie-Anne; Dandolo, Luisa; Vaiman, Daniel; Jammes, Hélène

    2007-10-18

    In the last few years, an increase in imprinting anomalies has been reported in children born from Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). Various clinical and experimental studies also suggest alterations of embryo development after ART. Therefore, there is a need for studying early epigenetic anomalies which could result from ART manipulations, especially on single embryos. In this study, we evaluated the impact of superovulation, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo culture conditions on proper genomic imprinting and blastocyst development in single mouse embryos. In this study, different experimental groups were established to obtain embryos from superovulated and non-superovulated females, either from in vivo or in vitro fertilized oocytes, themselves grown in vitro or not. The embryos were cultured either in M16 medium or in G1.2/G2.2 sequential medium. The methylation status of H19 Imprinting Control Region (ICR) and H19 promoter was assessed, as well as the gene expression level of H19, in individual blastocysts. In parallel, we have evaluated embryo cleavage kinetics and recorded morphological data. We show that: 1. The culture medium influences early embryo development with faster cleavage kinetics for culture in G1.2/G2.2 medium compared to M16 medium. 2. Epigenetic alterations of the H19 ICR and H19 PP are influenced by the fertilization method since methylation anomalies were observed only in the in vitro fertilized subgroup, however to different degrees according to the culture medium. 3. Superovulation clearly disrupted H19 gene expression in individual blastocysts. Moreover, when embryos were cultured in vitro after either in vivo or in vitro fertilization, the percentage of blastocysts which expressed H19 was higher in G1.2/G2.2 medium compared to M16. Compared to previous reports utilizing pools of embryos, our study enables us to emphasize a high individual variability of blastocysts in the H19 ICR and H19 promoter methylation and H19 gene

  6. View south; detail view of column A13, south bay ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View south; detail view of column A13, south bay - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Foundry-Propeller Shop, North of Porter Avenue, west of Third Street West, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. Evaluation of the Genetic and Nutritional Control of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes in a Novel Mouse Model on Chromosome 7: An Insight into Insulin Signaling and Glucose Homeostasis

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.; Dhar, M.

    Obesity is the main cause of type 2 diabetes, accounting for 90-95% of all diabetes cases in the US. Human obesity is a complex trait and can be studied using appropriate mouse models. A novel polygenic mouse model for studying the genetic and environmental contributions to and the physiological ramifications of obesity and related phenotypes is found in specific lines of mice bred and maintained at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Heterozygous mice with a maternally inherited copy of two radiation-induced deletions in the p region of mouse chromosome 7, p23DFioD and p30PUb, have significantly greater body fat and show hyperinsulinemiamore » compared to the wild-type. A single gene, Atp10c, maps to this critical region and codes for a putative aminophospholipid translocase. Biochemical and molecular studies were initiated to gain insight into obesity and glucose homeostasis in these animals and to study the biological role of Atp10c in creating these phenotypes. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were standardized for the heterozygous p23DFioD and control mice on a custom-made diet containing 20% protein, 70% carbohydrate, and 10% fat (kcal). Atp10c expression profiles were also generated using Reverse-Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Heterozygous p23DFioD animals showed insulin resistance after receiving a dose of either 0.375 or 0.75 U/kg Illetin R insulin. RT-PCR data also shows differences in Atp10c expression in the mutants versus control mice. Using these standardized biochemical assays, future studies will further the understanding of genetic and nutritional controls of glucose homeostasis and obesity in animal models and subsequently in human populations.« less

  8. NCI Mouse Repository | FNLCR Staging

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Mouse Repository is an NCI-funded resource for mouse cancer models and associated strains. The repository makes strains available to all members of the scientific community (academic, non-profit, and commercial). NCI Mouse Repository strains

  9. The MOUSE Squad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a New York city after-school program started by MOUSE (Making Opportunities for Upgrading Schools and Education), a national nonprofit group that teaches students how to fix computers, and equips them with the communication and problem-solving skills to help them in the working world. The MOUSE program is part of a trend…

  10. Discrimination of tumorigenic triazole conazoles from phenobarbital by transcriptional analyses of mouse liver gene expression

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles are fungicides used to control fungal growth in environmental settings and to treat humans with fungal infections. Mouse hepatotumorigenic conazoles display many of the same hepatic toxicologic responses as the mouse liver carcinogen phenobarbital (PB): constitutive and...

  11. Type I interferon signals in macrophages and dendritic cells control dengue virus infection: implications for a new mouse model to test dengue vaccines.

    PubMed

    Züst, Roland; Toh, Ying-Xiu; Valdés, Iris; Cerny, Daniela; Heinrich, Julia; Hermida, Lisset; Marcos, Ernesto; Guillén, Gerardo; Kalinke, Ulrich; Shi, Pei-Yong; Fink, Katja

    2014-07-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infects an estimated 400 million people every year, causing prolonged morbidity and sometimes mortality. Development of an effective vaccine has been hampered by the lack of appropriate small animal models; mice are naturally not susceptible to DENV and only become infected if highly immunocompromised. Mouse models lacking both type I and type II interferon (IFN) receptors (AG129 mice) or the type I IFN receptor (IFNAR(-/-) mice) are susceptible to infection with mouse-adapted DENV strains but are severely impaired in mounting functional immune responses to the virus and thus are of limited use for study. Here we used conditional deletion of the type I IFN receptor (IFNAR) on individual immune cell subtypes to generate a minimally manipulated mouse model that is susceptible to DENV while retaining global immune competence. Mice lacking IFNAR expression on CD11c(+) dendritic cells and LysM(+) macrophages succumbed completely to DENV infection, while mice deficient in the receptor on either CD11c(+) or LysM(+) cells were susceptible to infection but often resolved viremia and recovered fully from infection. Conditional IFNAR mice responded with a swift and strong CD8(+) T-cell response to viral infection, compared to a weak response in IFNAR(-/-) mice. Furthermore, mice lacking IFNAR on either CD11c(+) or LysM(+) cells were also sufficiently immunocompetent to raise a protective immune response to a candidate subunit vaccine against DENV-2. These data demonstrate that mice with conditional deficiencies in expression of the IFNAR represent improved models for the study of DENV immunology and screening of vaccine candidates. Dengue virus infects 400 million people every year worldwide, causing 100 million clinically apparent infections, which can be fatal if untreated. Despite many years of research, there are no effective vaccine and no antiviral treatment available for dengue. Development of vaccines has been hampered in particular by the lack of

  12. Isolation of a promoter region in mouse cytochrome P450 3A (Cyp3A16) gene and its transcriptional control.

    PubMed

    Itoh, S; Abe, Y; Kubo, A; Okuda, M; Shimoji, M; Nakayama, K; Kamataki, T

    1997-02-07

    An 11.5 kb fragment of the mouse Cyp3a16 gene containing the 5' flanking region was isolated from the lambda DASHII mouse genomic library. A part of the 5' flanking region and the first exon of Cyp3a16 gene were sequenced. S1 mapping analysis showed the presence of two transcriptional initiation sites. The first exon was completely identical to Cyp3a16 cDNA. The identity of 5' flanking sequences between Cyp3a16 and Cyp3a11 genes was about 69%. A typical TATA box and a basic transcription element (BTE) were found as seen with other CYP3A genes from various animal species Moreover, some putative transcriptional regulatory elements were also found in addition to the sequence motif seen for the formation of Z-type DNA. To examine the transcriptional activity of Cyp3a11 gene, DNA fragments in the 5'-flanking region of the gene were inserted front of the luciferase structural gene, and the constructs were transfected in primary hepatocytes. The analysis of the luciferase activity indicated that the region between -146 and -56 was necessary for the transcription of CYP3a16 gene.

  13. A 13-Week Research-Based Biochemistry Laboratory Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefurgy, Scott T.; Mundorff, Emily C.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we present a 13-week research-based biochemistry laboratory curriculum designed to provide the students with the experience of engaging in original research while introducing foundational biochemistry laboratory techniques. The laboratory experience has been developed around the directed evolution of an enzyme chosen by the instructor, with…

  14. Mouse Cleaning Apparatus and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The method of using the mouse pad cleaning apparatus is disclosed and claimed. The method comprises the steps of uncovering the mouse cleaning surface, applying the mouse and ball of the mouse to the cleaning surface, moving the mouse in a rotational pattern on the mouse cleaning surface, removing the mouse form the mouse cleaning surface, washing the cleaning surface, and covering the mouse cleaning surface. A mouse pad cleaning apparatus comprising a plurality of substrates, each said substrate having adhesive thereon, said plurality of substrates residing in and affixed to a receptacle. A single substrate having adhesive, which may be washable or non-washable, thereon may be employed. The washable adhesive may be an organopolysiloxane or gelatinous elastomer.

  15. How Mouse-tracking Can Advance Social Cognitive Theory.

    PubMed

    Stillman, Paul E; Shen, Xi; Ferguson, Melissa J

    2018-06-01

    Mouse-tracking - measuring computer-mouse movements made by participants while they choose between response options - is an emerging tool that offers an accessible, data-rich, and real-time window into how people categorize and make decisions. In the present article we review recent research in social cognition that uses mouse-tracking to test models and advance theory. In particular, mouse-tracking allows examination of nuanced predictions about both the nature of conflict (e.g., its antecedents and consequences) as well as how this conflict is resolved (e.g., how decisions evolve). We demonstrate how mouse-tracking can further our theoretical understanding by highlighting research in two domains - social categorization and self-control. We conclude with future directions and a discussion of the limitations of mouse-tracking as a method. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetically Engineered Mouse Models for Studying Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mizoguchi, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Takahito; Himuro, Hidetomo; Okada, Toshiyuki; Mizoguchi, Emiko

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammatory condition that is mediated by very complex mechanisms controlled by genetic, immune, and environmental factors. More than 74 kinds of genetically engineered mouse strains have been established since 1993 for studying IBD. Although mouse models cannot fully reflect human IBD, they have provided significant contributions for not only understanding the mechanism, but also developing new therapeutic means for IBD. Indeed, 20 kinds of genetically engineered mouse models carry the susceptibility genes identified in human IBD, and the functions of some other IBD susceptibility genes have also been dissected out using mouse models. Cutting-edge technologies such as cell-specific and inducible knockout systems, which were recently employed to mouse IBD models, have further enhanced the ability of investigators to provide important and unexpected rationales for developing new therapeutic strategies for IBD. In this review article, we briefly introduce 74 kinds of genetically engineered mouse models that spontaneously develop intestinal inflammation. PMID:26387641

  17. Benzylmorpholine Analogs as Selective Inhibitors of Lung Cytochrome P450 2A13 for the Chemoprevention of Lung Cancer in Tobacco Users

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Linda C.; Roy, Anuradha; Neul, David; Schoenen, Frank J.; Aubé, Jeffrey; Scott, Emily E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), one of the most prevalent and procarcinogenic compounds in tobacco, is bioactivated by respiratory cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A13, forming DNA adducts and initiating lung cancer. CYP2A13 inhibition offers a novel strategy for chemoprevention of tobacco-associated lung cancer. Methods Twenty-four analogs of a 4-benzylmorpholine scaffold identified by high throughput screening were evaluated for binding and inhibition of both functional human CYP2A enzymes, CYP2A13 and the 94%-identical hepatic CYP2A6, whose inhibition is undesirable. Thus, selectivity is the major challenge in compound design. Results A key feature resulting in CYP2A13-selective binding and inhibition was substitution at the benzyl ortho position, with three analogs being >25-fold selective for CYP2A13 over CYP2A6. Conclusions Two such analogs were negative for genetic and hERG toxicities and metabolically stable in human lung microsomes, but displayed rapid metabolism in human liver and in mouse and rat lung and liver microsomes, likely due to CYP2B-mediated degradation. A specialized knockout mouse mimicking the human lung demonstrates compound persistence in lung and provides an appropriate test model. Compound delivered by inhalation may be effective in the lung but rapidly cleared otherwise, limiting systemic exposure. PMID:23756756

  18. Independent genetic control of early and late stages of chemically induced skin tumors in a cross of a Japanese wild-derived inbred mouse strain, MSM/Ms.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Kazuhiro; Sato, Miho; Saito, Megumi; Miura, Ikuo; Wakana, Shigeharu; Mao, Jian-Hua; Miyasaka, Yuki; Kominami, Ryo; Wakabayashi, Yuichi

    2012-11-01

    MSM/Ms is an inbred mouse strain derived from a Japanese wild mouse, Mus musculus molossinus. In this study, we showed that MSM/Ms mice exhibit dominant resistance when crossed with susceptible FVB/N mice and subjected to the two-stage skin carcinogenesis protocol using 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)/ 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). A series of F1 backcross mice were generated by crossing p53(+/+) or p53(+/-) F1 (FVB/N × MSM/Ms) males with FVB/N female mice. These generated 228 backcross animals, approximately half of which were p53(+/-), enabling us to search for p53-dependent skin tumor modifier genes. Highly significant linkage for papilloma multiplicity was found on chromosomes 6 and 7 and suggestive linkage was found on chromosomes 3, 5 and 12. Furthermore, in order to identify stage-dependent linkage loci we classified tumors into three categories (<2mm, 2-6mm and >6mm), and did linkage analysis. The same locus on chromosome 7 showed strong linkage in groups with <2mm or 2-6mm papillomas. No linkage was detected on chromosome 7 to papillomas >6mm, but a different locus on chromosome 4 showed strong linkage both to papillomas >6mm and to carcinomas. This locus, which maps near the Cdkn2a/p19(Arf) gene, was entirely p53-dependent, and was not seen in p53 (+/-) backcross animals. Suggestive linkage conferring susceptibility to carcinoma was also found on chromosome 5. These results clearly suggest distinct loci regulate each stage of tumorigenesis, some of which are p53-dependent.

  19. Weaker control of the electrical properties of cerebellar granule cells by tonically active GABAA receptors in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down’s syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Down’s syndrome (DS) is caused by triplication of all or part of human chromosome 21 and is characterized by a decrease in the overall size of the brain. One of the brain regions most affected is the cerebellum, in which the number of granule cells (GCs) is markedly decreased. GCs process sensory information entering the cerebellum via mossy fibres and pass it on to Purkinje cells and inhibitory interneurons. How GCs transform incoming signals depends on their input–output relationship, which is adjusted by tonically active GABAA receptor channels. Results We report that in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS, in which cerebellar volume and GC number are decreased as in DS, the tonic GABAA receptor current in GCs is smaller than in wild-type mice and is less effective in moderating input resistance and raising the minimum current required for action potential firing. We also find that tonically active GABAA receptors curb the height and broaden the width of action potentials in wild-type GCs but not in Ts65Dn GCs. Single-cell real-time quantitative PCR reveals that these electrical differences are accompanied by decreased expression of the gene encoding the GABAA receptor β3 subunit but not genes coding for some of the other GABAA receptor subunits expressed in GCs (α1, α6, β2 and δ). Conclusions Weaker moderation of excitability and action potential waveform in GCs of the Ts65Dn mouse by tonically active GABAA receptors is likely to contribute to atypical transfer of information through the cerebellum. Similar changes may occur in DS. PMID:23870245

  20. 40 CFR 798.5200 - Mouse visible specific locus test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... control groups. (4) Control groups—(i) Concurrent controls. The use of positive or spontaneous controls is... control groups. (ii) Test chemical vehicle, doses used and rationale for dose selection, toxicity data... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) HEALTH EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Genetic Toxicity § 798.5200 Mouse...

  1. 40 CFR 798.5200 - Mouse visible specific locus test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... control groups. (4) Control groups—(i) Concurrent controls. The use of positive or spontaneous controls is... control groups. (ii) Test chemical vehicle, doses used and rationale for dose selection, toxicity data... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) HEALTH EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Genetic Toxicity § 798.5200 Mouse...

  2. 40 CFR 798.5200 - Mouse visible specific locus test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... control groups. (4) Control groups—(i) Concurrent controls. The use of positive or spontaneous controls is... control groups. (ii) Test chemical vehicle, doses used and rationale for dose selection, toxicity data... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) HEALTH EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Genetic Toxicity § 798.5200 Mouse...

  3. 40 CFR 798.5200 - Mouse visible specific locus test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... control groups. (4) Control groups—(i) Concurrent controls. The use of positive or spontaneous controls is... control groups. (ii) Test chemical vehicle, doses used and rationale for dose selection, toxicity data... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) HEALTH EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Genetic Toxicity § 798.5200 Mouse...

  4. 40 CFR 798.5200 - Mouse visible specific locus test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... control groups. (4) Control groups—(i) Concurrent controls. The use of positive or spontaneous controls is... control groups. (ii) Test chemical vehicle, doses used and rationale for dose selection, toxicity data... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) HEALTH EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Genetic Toxicity § 798.5200 Mouse...

  5. Endometrial adenocarcinoma in a 13-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Mee; Shin, So Jin; Bae, Jin Gon; Kwon, Kun Young; Rhee, Jeong Ho

    2016-03-01

    Endometrial cancer is the third most common gynecologic cancer in the Korea and occurs mainly in menopausal women. Although it can develop in young premenopausal women cancer as well, an attack in the adolescent girl is very rare. A 13-year-old girl visited gynecology department with the complaint of abnormal uterine bleeding. An endometrial biopsy revealed FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) grade II endometrial adenocarcinoma. In the treatment of endometrial cancer, conservative management should be considered if the patient is nulliparous or wants the fertility preservation. Therefore, we decided to perform a hormonal therapy and a follow-up endometrial biopsy after progestin administration for eight months revealed no residual tumor. We report a case of endometrial cancer occurred in a 13-year-old girl with a brief review of the literature.

  6. The Zinc Transporter SLC39A13/ZIP13 Is Required for Connective Tissue Development; Its Involvement in BMP/TGF-β Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Shinji; Mishima, Kenji; Higashiyama, Hiroyuki; Idaira, Yayoi; Asada, Yoshinobu; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Yamasaki, Satoru; Hojyo, Shintaro; Nakayama, Manabu; Ohara, Osamu; Koseki, Haruhiko; dos Santos, Heloisa G.; Bonafe, Luisa; Ha-Vinh, Russia; Zankl, Andreas; Unger, Sheila; Kraenzlin, Marius E.; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Saito, Ichiro; Rivolta, Carlo; Ikegawa, Shiro; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Hirano, Toshio

    2008-01-01

    Background Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element and it is abundant in connective tissues, however biological roles of Zn and its transporters in those tissues and cells remain unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report that mice deficient in Zn transporter Slc39a13/Zip13 show changes in bone, teeth and connective tissue reminiscent of the clinical spectrum of human Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). The Slc39a13 knockout (Slc39a13-KO) mice show defects in the maturation of osteoblasts, chondrocytes, odontoblasts, and fibroblasts. In the corresponding tissues and cells, impairment in bone morphogenic protein (BMP) and TGF-β signaling were observed. Homozygosity for a SLC39A13 loss of function mutation was detected in sibs affected by a unique variant of EDS that recapitulates the phenotype observed in Slc39a13-KO mice. Conclusions/Significance Hence, our results reveal a crucial role of SLC39A13/ZIP13 in connective tissue development at least in part due to its involvement in the BMP/TGF-β signaling pathways. The Slc39a13-KO mouse represents a novel animal model linking zinc metabolism, BMP/TGF-β signaling and connective tissue dysfunction. PMID:18985159

  7. Improvement of two-photon microscopic imaging in deep regions of living mouse brains by utilizing a light source based on an electrically controllable gain-switched laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Kazuaki; Kawakami, Ryosuke; Fang, Yi-Cheng; Hung, Jui-Hung; Kozawa, Yuichi; Otomo, Kohei; Sato, Shunichi; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki; Nemoto, Tomomi

    2018-02-01

    In vivo two-photon microscopy is an advantageous technique for observing living mouse brains at high spatial resolutions. We previously used a 1064 nm high-power light source based on an electrically controllable gain-switched laser diode (maximum power: 4 W, repetition rate: 10 MHz, pulse width: 7.5 picoseconds) and successfully visualized EYFP expressing neurons at deeper regions in H-line mouse brains under living conditions. However, severe damages were frequently observed when the laser power after the objective lens was over 600 mW, suggesting that a higher average power might not be suitable for visualizing neural structures and functions at deep regions. To increase fluorescent signals as a strategy to avoid such invasions, here, we evaluated the effects of the excitation laser parameters such as the repetition rate (5 - 10 MHz), or the peak power, at the moderate average powers (10 - 500 mW), by taking the advantage that this electrically controllable light source could be used to change the repetition rate independently from the average power or the pulse width. The fluorescent signals of EYFP at layer V of the cerebral cortex were increased by approximately twofold when the repetition rate was decreased from 10 MHz to 5 MHz at the same average power. We also confirmed similar effects in the EYFP solution (335 μM) and fixed brain slices. These results suggest that in vivo two-photon microscopic imaging might be improved by increasing the peak power at the same average power while avoiding the severe damages in living brains.

  8. Catecholamine exocytosis during low frequency stimulation in mouse adrenal chromaffin cells is primarily asynchronous and controlled by the novel mechanism of Ca2+ syntilla suppression

    PubMed Central

    Lefkowitz, Jason J; DeCrescenzo, Valerie; Duan, Kailai; Bellve, Karl D; Fogarty, Kevin E; Walsh, John V; ZhuGe, Ronghua

    2014-01-01

    Adrenal chromaffin cells (ACCs), stimulated by the splanchnic nerve, generate action potentials (APs) at a frequency near 0.5 Hz in the resting physiological state, at times described as ‘rest and digest’. How such low frequency stimulation in turn elicits sufficient catecholamine exocytosis to set basal sympathetic tone is not readily explained by the classical mechanism of stimulus–secretion coupling, where exocytosis is synchronized to AP-induced Ca2+ influx. By using simulated action potentials (sAPs) at 0.5 Hz in isolated patch-clamped mouse ACCs, we show here that less than 10% of all catecholaminergic exocytosis, measured by carbon fibre amperometry, is synchronized to an AP. The asynchronous phase, the dominant phase, of exocytosis does not require Ca2+ influx. Furthermore, increased asynchronous exocytosis is accompanied by an AP-dependent decrease in frequency of Ca2+ syntillas (i.e. transient, focal Ca2+ release from internal stores) and is ryanodine sensitive. We propose a mechanism of disinhibition, wherein APs suppress Ca2+ syntillas, which themselves inhibit exocytosis as they do in the case of spontaneous catecholaminergic exocytosis. PMID:25128575

  9. Flt3L controls the development of radiosensitive dendritic cells in the meninges and choroid plexus of the steady-state mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Anandasabapathy, Niroshana; Victora, Gabriel D.; Meredith, Matthew; Feder, Rachel; Dong, Baojun; Kluger, Courtney; Yao, Kaihui; Dustin, Michael L.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Steinman, Ralph M.

    2011-01-01

    Antigen-presenting cells in the disease-free brain have been identified primarily by expression of antigens such as CD11b, CD11c, and MHC II, which can be shared by dendritic cells (DCs), microglia, and monocytes. In this study, starting with the criterion of Flt3 (FMS-like receptor tyrosine kinase 3)-dependent development, we characterize the features of authentic DCs within the meninges and choroid plexus in healthy mouse brains. Analyses of morphology, gene expression, and antigen-presenting function established a close relationship between meningeal and choroid plexus DCs (m/chDCs) and spleen DCs. DCs in both sites shared an intrinsic requirement for Flt3 ligand. Microarrays revealed differences in expression of transcripts encoding surface molecules, transcription factors, pattern recognition receptors, and other genes in m/chDCs compared with monocytes and microglia. Migrating pre-DC progenitors from bone marrow gave rise to m/chDCs that had a 5–7-d half-life. In contrast to microglia, DCs actively present self-antigens and stimulate T cells. Therefore, the meninges and choroid plexus of a steady-state brain contain DCs that derive from local precursors and exhibit a differentiation and antigen-presenting program similar to spleen DCs and distinct from microglia. PMID:21788405

  10. Flt3L controls the development of radiosensitive dendritic cells in the meninges and choroid plexus of the steady-state mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Anandasabapathy, Niroshana; Victora, Gabriel D; Meredith, Matthew; Feder, Rachel; Dong, Baojun; Kluger, Courtney; Yao, Kaihui; Dustin, Michael L; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Steinman, Ralph M; Liu, Kang

    2011-08-01

    Antigen-presenting cells in the disease-free brain have been identified primarily by expression of antigens such as CD11b, CD11c, and MHC II, which can be shared by dendritic cells (DCs), microglia, and monocytes. In this study, starting with the criterion of Flt3 (FMS-like receptor tyrosine kinase 3)-dependent development, we characterize the features of authentic DCs within the meninges and choroid plexus in healthy mouse brains. Analyses of morphology, gene expression, and antigen-presenting function established a close relationship between meningeal and choroid plexus DCs (m/chDCs) and spleen DCs. DCs in both sites shared an intrinsic requirement for Flt3 ligand. Microarrays revealed differences in expression of transcripts encoding surface molecules, transcription factors, pattern recognition receptors, and other genes in m/chDCs compared with monocytes and microglia. Migrating pre-DC progenitors from bone marrow gave rise to m/chDCs that had a 5-7-d half-life. In contrast to microglia, DCs actively present self-antigens and stimulate T cells. Therefore, the meninges and choroid plexus of a steady-state brain contain DCs that derive from local precursors and exhibit a differentiation and antigen-presenting program similar to spleen DCs and distinct from microglia.

  11. [Effects of simulated hypoxia on dielectric properties of mouse erythrocytes].

    PubMed

    Ma, Qing; Tang, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Qin-Wen; Zhao, Xin

    2008-02-01

    To explore the influence of simulated altitude hypoxia on dielectric properties of mouse erythrocytes. Experimental animals were divided into the plain control group(control) and simulated altitude hypoxia group (altitude). The AC impedance of mouse erythrocytes was measured with the Agilent 4294A impedance analyzer, the influence of simulated altitude hypoxia on dielectric properties of mouse erythrocytes was observed by cell dielectric spectroscopy, Cole-Cole plots, loss factor spectrum, loss tangent spectrum, and curve fitting analysis of Cole-Cole equation. After mice were exposed to hypoxia at simulated 5000 m altitude for 4 weeks, permittivity at low frequency (epsilonl) and dielectric increment (deltaepsilon) increased 57% and 59% than that of control group respectively, conductivity at low frequency (kappal) and conductivity at high frequency (kappah) reduced 49% and 11% than that of control group respectively. The simulated altitude hypoxia could arise to increase dielectric capability and depress conductive performance on mouse erythrocytes.

  12. Quantitative trait loci that control plasma lipid levels in an F2 intercross between C57BL/6J and DDD.Cg-A(y) inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Suto, Jun-ichi

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize plasma lipid phenotypes and dissect the genetic basis of plasma lipid levels in an obese DDD.Cg-A(y) mouse strain. Plasma triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly higher in the DDD.Cg-A(y) strain than in the B6.Cg-A(y) strain. In contrast, plasma total-cholesterol (CHO) levels did not substantially differ between the two strains. As a rule, the A(y) allele significantly increased TG levels, but did not increase CHO levels. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses for plasma TG and CHO levels were performed in two types of F(2) female mice [F(2)A(y) (F(2) mice carrying the A(y) allele) and F(2) non- A(y) mice (F(2) mice without the A(y) allele)] produced by crossing C57BL/6J females and DDD.Cg-A(y) males. Single QTL scan identified one significant QTL for TG levels on chromosome 1, and two significant QTLs for CHO levels on chromosomes 1 and 8. When the marker nearest to the QTL on chromosome 1 was used as covariates, four additional significant QTLs for CHO levels were identified on chromosomes 5, 6, and 17 (two loci). In contrast, consideration of the agouti locus genotype as covariates did not detect additional QTLs. DDD.Cg-A(y) showed a low CHO level, although it had Apoa2(b), which was a CHO-increasing allele at the Apoa2 locus. This may have been partly due to the presence of multiple QTLs, which were associated with decreased CHO levels, on chromosome 8.

  13. Colonization, mouse-style

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Several recent papers, including one in BMC Evolutionary Biology, examine the colonization history of house mice. As well as background for the analysis of mouse adaptation, such studies offer a perspective on the history of movements of the humans that accidentally transported the mice. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/325 PMID:20977781

  14. Wrist Hypothermia Related to Continuous Work with a Computer Mouse: A Digital Infrared Imaging Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Reste, Jelena; Zvagule, Tija; Kurjane, Natalja; Martinsone, Zanna; Martinsone, Inese; Seile, Anita; Vanadzins, Ivars

    2015-01-01

    Computer work is characterized by sedentary static workload with low-intensity energy metabolism. The aim of our study was to evaluate the dynamics of skin surface temperature in the hand during prolonged computer mouse work under different ergonomic setups. Digital infrared imaging of the right forearm and wrist was performed during three hours of continuous computer work (measured at the start and every 15 minutes thereafter) in a laboratory with controlled ambient conditions. Four people participated in the study. Three different ergonomic computer mouse setups were tested on three different days (horizontal computer mouse without mouse pad; horizontal computer mouse with mouse pad and padded wrist support; vertical computer mouse without mouse pad). The study revealed a significantly strong negative correlation between the temperature of the dorsal surface of the wrist and time spent working with a computer mouse. Hand skin temperature decreased markedly after one hour of continuous computer mouse work. Vertical computer mouse work preserved more stable and higher temperatures of the wrist (>30 °C), while continuous use of a horizontal mouse for more than two hours caused an extremely low temperature (<28 °C) in distal parts of the hand. The preliminary observational findings indicate the significant effect of the duration and ergonomics of computer mouse work on the development of hand hypothermia. PMID:26262633

  15. Wrist Hypothermia Related to Continuous Work with a Computer Mouse: A Digital Infrared Imaging Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Reste, Jelena; Zvagule, Tija; Kurjane, Natalja; Martinsone, Zanna; Martinsone, Inese; Seile, Anita; Vanadzins, Ivars

    2015-08-07

    Computer work is characterized by sedentary static workload with low-intensity energy metabolism. The aim of our study was to evaluate the dynamics of skin surface temperature in the hand during prolonged computer mouse work under different ergonomic setups. Digital infrared imaging of the right forearm and wrist was performed during three hours of continuous computer work (measured at the start and every 15 minutes thereafter) in a laboratory with controlled ambient conditions. Four people participated in the study. Three different ergonomic computer mouse setups were tested on three different days (horizontal computer mouse without mouse pad; horizontal computer mouse with mouse pad and padded wrist support; vertical computer mouse without mouse pad). The study revealed a significantly strong negative correlation between the temperature of the dorsal surface of the wrist and time spent working with a computer mouse. Hand skin temperature decreased markedly after one hour of continuous computer mouse work. Vertical computer mouse work preserved more stable and higher temperatures of the wrist (>30 °C), while continuous use of a horizontal mouse for more than two hours caused an extremely low temperature (<28 °C) in distal parts of the hand. The preliminary observational findings indicate the significant effect of the duration and ergonomics of computer mouse work on the development of hand hypothermia.

  16. Chimeric elk/mouse prion proteins in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Giles, Kurt; Oehler, Abby; Johnson, Natrina L; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2013-02-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer and elk is a highly communicable neurodegenerative disorder caused by prions. Investigations of CWD are hampered by slow bioassays in transgenic (Tg) mice. Towards the development of Tg mice that will be more susceptible to CWD prions, we created a series of chimeric elk/mouse transgenes that encode the N terminus of elk PrP (ElkPrP) up to residue Y168 and the C terminus of mouse PrP (MoPrP) beyond residue 169 (mouse numbering), designated Elk3M(SNIVVK). Between codons 169 and 219, six residues distinguish ElkPrP from MoPrP: N169S, T173N, V183I, I202V, I214V and R219K. Using chimeric elk/mouse PrP constructs, we generated 12 Tg mouse lines and determined incubation times after intracerebral inoculation with the mouse-passaged RML scrapie or Elk1P CWD prions. Unexpectedly, one Tg mouse line expressing Elk3M(SNIVVK) exhibited incubation times of <70 days when inoculated with RML prions; a second line had incubation times of <90 days. In contrast, mice expressing full-length ElkPrP had incubation periods of >250 days for RML prions. Tg(Elk3M,SNIVVK) mice were less susceptible to CWD prions than Tg(ElkPrP) mice. Changing three C-terminal mouse residues (202, 214 and 219) to those of elk doubled the incubation time for mouse RML prions and rendered the mice resistant to Elk1P CWD prions. Mutating an additional two residues from mouse to elk at codons 169 and 173 increased the incubation times for mouse prions to >300 days, but made the mice susceptible to CWD prions. Our findings highlight the role of C-terminal residues in PrP that control the susceptibility and replication of prions.

  17. Subarachnoid hemorrhage in a 13-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Tilney, Peter

    2010-01-01

    At 5:20 pm, a local flight team was activated to respond for an interfacility transfer of a 13-year-old girl with a subarachnoid hemorrhage. In the history obtained, the patient's parents noted that she had not been feeling well for the past several days. She had been complaining of intermittent dizziness and a persistent headache. Until the onset of these prodromal events, she had been active with no medical history. That afternoon, the child was playing with her friends at the school playground. As the group was walking home, they noticed that the patient was not with them. They subsequently returned and found her lying face-down in the bushes, unresponsive, with agonal respirations. Copyright (c) 2010 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mouse Phenome Database

    PubMed Central

    Grubb, Stephen C.; Bult, Carol J.; Bogue, Molly A.

    2014-01-01

    The Mouse Phenome Database (MPD; phenome.jax.org) was launched in 2001 as the data coordination center for the international Mouse Phenome Project. MPD integrates quantitative phenotype, gene expression and genotype data into a common annotated framework to facilitate query and analysis. MPD contains >3500 phenotype measurements or traits relevant to human health, including cancer, aging, cardiovascular disorders, obesity, infectious disease susceptibility, blood disorders, neurosensory disorders, drug addiction and toxicity. Since our 2012 NAR report, we have added >70 new data sets, including data from Collaborative Cross lines and Diversity Outbred mice. During this time we have completely revamped our homepage, improved search and navigational aspects of the MPD application, developed several web-enabled data analysis and visualization tools, annotated phenotype data to public ontologies, developed an ontology browser and released new single nucleotide polymorphism query functionality with much higher density coverage than before. Here, we summarize recent data acquisitions and describe our latest improvements. PMID:24243846

  19. RYGB produces more sustained body weight loss and improvement of glycemic control compared with VSG in the diet-induced obese mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Zheng; Townsend, R. Leigh; Mumphrey, Michael B; Morrison, Christopher D; Münzberg, Heike; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2018-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of murine models of vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery on body weight, body composition, food intake, energy expenditure, and glycemic control. Background Weight regain and type-2 diabetes relapse has been reported in a significant proportion of VSG patients in some studies, but definitive conclusions regarding the long-term comparative effectiveness of VSG and RYGB are lacking both in humans and rodent models. Methods VSG, RYGB, and sham surgery was performed in high-fat diet-induced obese mice and the effects on body weight and glycemic control were observed for a period of 12 weeks. Results After the initial weight loss, VSG mice regained significant amounts of body weight and fat mass that were only marginally lower than in sham-operated mice. In contrast, RYGB produced sustained loss of body weight and fat mass up to 12 weeks, and drastically improved fasting insulin and HOMA-IR compared with sham-operated mice. Using weight-matched control groups we also found that the adaptive hypometabolic response to weight loss was blunted by both VSG and RYGB, and that despite large weight/fat regain, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were markedly improved, but not reversed, in VSG mice. Conclusions VSG is less effective to lastingly suppress body weight and improve glycemic control compared with RYGB in mice. Given similar observations in many human studies, the run towards replacing RYGB with VSG is premature and should await carefully controlled randomized long term trials with VSG and RYGB. PMID:28386755

  20. RYGB Produces more Sustained Body Weight Loss and Improvement of Glycemic Control Compared with VSG in the Diet-Induced Obese Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zheng; Townsend, R Leigh; Mumphrey, Michael B; Morrison, Christopher D; Münzberg, Heike; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2017-09-01

    Weight regain and type-2 diabetes relapse has been reported in a significant proportion of vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) patients in some studies, but definitive conclusions regarding the long-term comparative effectiveness of VSG and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery are lacking both in humans and rodent models. This study's objective was to compare the effects of murine models of VSG and RYGB surgery on body weight, body composition, food intake, energy expenditure, and glycemic control. VSG, RYGB, and sham surgery was performed in high-fat diet-induced obese mice, and the effects on body weight and glycemic control were observed for a period of 12 weeks. After the initial weight loss, VSG mice regained significant amounts of body weight and fat mass that were only marginally lower than in sham-operated mice. In contrast, RYGB produced sustained loss of body weight and fat mass up to 12 weeks and drastically improved fasting insulin and HOMA-IR compared with sham-operated mice. Using weight-matched control groups, we also found that the adaptive hypometabolic response to weight loss was blunted by both VSG and RYGB, and that despite large weight/fat regain, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were markedly improved, but not reversed, in VSG mice. VSG is less effective to lastingly suppress body weight and improve glycemic control compared with RYGB in mice. Given similar observations in many human studies, the run towards replacing RYGB with VSG is premature and should await carefully controlled randomized long-term trials with VSG and RYGB.

  1. Teleconsultation in vascular surgery: a 13 year single centre experience.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Christian A P; Schmidt-Weitmann, Sabine H; Lachat, Mario L; Brockes, Christiane M

    2014-01-01

    The University Hospital of Zurich has provided an email-based medical consultation service for the general public since 1999. We examined the enquiries in a 13-year period to identify those related to vascular surgery (based on 22 ICD-10 codes specific for vascular surgery). There were 40,062 questions, of which 643 (2%) were selected by ICD-10 codes. After exclusion of diagnoses not relevant to vascular surgery, 139 questions remained, i.e. an average rate of about one per month. The mean age of the users was 43 years (range 19-88). Most users (61%) were women. The majority of users asked questions about their own health problems (79%) with varicose veins and spider veins accounting for 63% of all questions. Arterial diseases accounted for 30%. The patient's intention in contacting the service was to obtain advice on treatment options (37%), information about a diagnosis or symptoms (27%), or a second opinion (15%). The online service responded with detailed information and advice (87%) and suggested a referral to the family doctor or a specialist in 75%. Most patients (82%) rated the service overall as good or very good. It appears likely that telemedicine and in particular email teleconsultations will increase in vascular surgery in the future.

  2. A 13-week research-based biochemistry laboratory curriculum.

    PubMed

    Lefurgy, Scott T; Mundorff, Emily C

    2017-09-01

    Here, we present a 13-week research-based biochemistry laboratory curriculum designed to provide the students with the experience of engaging in original research while introducing foundational biochemistry laboratory techniques. The laboratory experience has been developed around the directed evolution of an enzyme chosen by the instructor, with mutations designed by the students. Ideal enzymes for this curriculum are able to be structurally modeled, solubly expressed, and monitored for activity by UV/Vis spectroscopy, and an example curriculum for haloalkane dehalogenase is given. Unique to this curriculum is a successful implementation of saturation mutagenesis and high-throughput screening of enzyme function, along with bioinformatics analysis, homology modeling, structural analysis, protein expression and purification, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, UV/Vis spectroscopy, and enzyme kinetics. Each of these techniques is carried out using a novel student-designed mutant library or enzyme variant unique to the lab team and, importantly, not described previously in the literature. Use of a well-established set of protocols promotes student data quality. Publication may result from the original student-generated hypotheses and data, either from the class as a whole or individual students that continue their independent projects upon course completion. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(5):437-448, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  3. Measurements of carbonyls in a 13-story building.

    PubMed

    Báez, Armando P; Padilla, Hugo G; García, Rocío M; Belmont, Raúl D; Torres, Maria del Carmen B

    2004-01-01

    Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde are emitted by many mobile and stationary sources and secondary aldehydes are intermediates in the photo-oxidation of organic compounds in the atmosphere. These aldehydes are emitted indoors by many materials such as furniture, carpets, heating and cooling systems, an by smoking. Carbonyls, mainly formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, have been studied because of their adverse health effects. In addition, formaldehyde is a suspected carcinogen. Therefore, the concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were determined to assess the inhalation exposure doses to carbonyls for people who work in a 13-story building and in order to evaluate the cancer hazard. Carbonyl compounds in indoor and outdoor air were measured at a 13-story building located in Mexico City. The mezzanine, fifth and tenth floors, and the third level-parking garage were selected for sampling. Samples were collected in two sampling periods, the first from April 20 to 29, 1998 and the second from December 1 to 20, 1998. Carbonyls were sampled by means of DNHP-coated cartridges at a flow rate of 1 l min(-1) from 9:00 to 19:00 hours, during 2-hour time intervals and analyzed by HPLC with hours, during 2-hour time intervals and analyzed by HPLC with UV/VIS detection. Mean carbonyl concentrations were highest in the 3rd level-parking garage, with the formaldehyde concentration being the highest ranging from 108 to 418 microg m(-3). In working areas, the highest carbonyl arithmetic mean concentrations (AM) were observed on the 5th floor. Acetone and formaldehyde concentrations were highest in April ranging from 161 to 348 microg m(-3) (AM = 226) and from 157 to 270 microg m(-3) (AM = 221), respectively. Propionaldehyde and butyraldehyde were present in smaller concentrations ranging from 2 to 25 and 1 to 28 microg m(-3), respectively, considering all the samples. Mean indoor/outdoor ratios of carbonyls ranged from 1.8 to 9.6. A reduction of inhalation exposure doses of 41% and

  4. Analysis of transcriptional responses in the mouse dorsal striatum following acute 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy): identification of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-controlled genes

    PubMed Central

    Salzmann, Julie; Canestrelli, Corinne; Noble, Florence; Marie-Claire, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), a widely used recreational drug with psychoactive properties, induces both serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) release in the brain. However, little is known about its intracellular effects. We previously showed that MDMA rewarding effects in mice were dependent upon ERK activation and that dorsal striatum was a critical region for mediating ERK-dependent Egr1 MDMA-induced transcription. Here, we extend these findings by showing that MDMA is indeed able to activate ERK within this structure. To identify genes regulated by acute MDMA in the mice dorsal striatum, and selectively controlled by this kinase, we performed microarray experiments by using a selective inhibitor of ERK activation, SL327. Of the ~24,000 genes from the microarray, 27 showed altered expression after exposure to MDMA, and among these, 59% were partially or totally inhibited by SL327 pretreatment. Our results showed that the genes regulated by MDMA encode proteins that belong to transcription factors family, signalling pathways (phosphatases, cytoskeleton regulation), and synaptic functions. These early changes, and especially those controlled by ERK activation might play significant roles in the expression of many of the behaviours that occur following MDMA taking. PMID:16289835

  5. Gαs Relays Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor 1 Signaling to Stabilize Vascular Endothelial-Cadherin at Endothelial Junctions to Control Mouse Embryonic Vascular Integrity.

    PubMed

    Shao, Ximing; Liu, Ke; Fan, Yi; Ding, Zhihao; Chen, Min; Zhu, Minyan; Weinstein, Lee S; Li, Hongchang; Li, Huashun

    2015-11-20

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), controls vascular stability by stabilizing vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin junctional localization and inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) signaling. However, the molecular mechanisms that link S1PR1 signaling to intracellular effectors remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the heterotrimeric G protein subfamily member Gαs, encoded by GNAS, acts as a relay mediator of S1PR1 signaling to control vascular integrity by stabilizing VE-cadherin at endothelial junctions. The endothelial cell-specific deletion of Gαs in mice causes early embryonic lethality with massive hemorrhage and a disorganized vasculature. The immunostaining results revealed that Gαs deletion remarkably reduces the junctional localization of VE-cadherin, whereas the mural cell coverage of the vessels is not impaired. In addition, we found that Gαs depletion blocks the S1PR1-activation induced VE-cadherin stabilization at junctions, supporting that Gαs acts downstream of S1PR1 signaling. Thus, our results demonstrate that Gαs is an essential mediator to relay S1PR1 signaling and maintain vascular integrity. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mouse models for human hair loss disorders

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Rebecca M

    2003-01-01

    The outer surface of the hand, limb and body is covered by the epidermis, which is elaborated into a number of specialized appendages, evolved not only to protect and reinforce the skin but also for social signalling. The most prominent of these appendages is the hair follicle. Hair follicles are remarkable because of their prolific growth characteristics and their complexity of differentiation. After initial embryonic morphogenesis, the hair follicle undergoes repeated cycles of regression and regeneration throughout the lifetime of the organism. Studies of mouse mutants with hair loss phenotypes have suggested that the mechanisms controlling the hair cycle probably involve many of the major signalling molecules used elsewhere in development, although the complete pathway of hair follicle growth control is not yet understood. Mouse studies have also led to the discovery of genes underlying several human disorders. Future studies of mouse hair-loss mutants are likely to benefit the understanding of human hair loss as well as increasing our knowledge of mechanisms controlling morphogenesis and tumorigenesis. PMID:12587927

  7. Reduction of emission level in approach signals of greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis): No evidence for a closed loop control system for intensity compensation.

    PubMed

    Budenz, Tobias; Denzinger, Annette; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Bats lower the emission SPL when approaching a target. The SPL reduction has been explained by intensity compensation which implies that bats adjust the emission SPL to perceive the retuning echoes at the same level. For a better understanding of this control mechanism we recorded the echolocation signals of four Myotis myotis with an onboard microphone when foraging in the passive mode for rustling mealworms offered in two feeding dishes with different target strength, and determined the reduction rate for the emission SPL and the increase rate for the SPL of the returning echoes. When approaching the dish with higher target strength bats started the reduction of the emission SPL at a larger reaction distance (1.05 ± 0.21 m) and approached it with a lower reduction rate of 7.2 dB/halving of distance (hd), thus producing a change of echo rate at the ears of + 4 dB/hd. At the weaker target reaction distance was shorter (0.71 ± 0.24 m) and the reduction rate (9.1 dB/hd) was higher, producing a change of echo rate of-1.2 dB/hd. Independent of dish type, bats lowered the emission SPL by about 26 dB on average. In one bat where the echo SPL from both targets could be measured, the reduction of emission SPL was triggered when the echo SPL surpassed a similar threshold value around 41-42 dB. Echo SPL was not adjusted at a constant value indicating that Myotis myotis and most likely all other bats do not use a closed loop system for intensity compensation when approaching a target of interest. We propose that bats lower the emission SPL to adjust the SPL of the perceived pulse-echo-pairs to the optimal auditory range for the processing of range information and hypothesize that bats use flow field information not only to control the reduction of the approach speed to the target but also to control the reduction of emission SPL.

  8. Combined BTK and PI3Kδ Inhibition with Acalabrutinib and ACP-319 Improves Survival and Tumor Control in CLL Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Niemann, Carsten U; Mora-Jensen, Helena I; Dadashian, Eman L; Krantz, Fanny; Covey, Todd; Chen, Shih-Shih; Chiorazzi, Nicholas; Izumi, Raquel; Ulrich, Roger; Lannutti, Brian J; Wiestner, Adrian; Herman, Sarah E M

    2017-10-01

    Purpose: Targeting the B-cell receptor (BCR) pathway with inhibitors of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) and PI3Kδ is highly effective for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, deep remissions are uncommon, and drug resistance with single-agent therapy can occur. In vitro studies support the effectiveness of combing PI3Kδ and BTK inhibitors. Experimental Design: As CLL proliferation and survival depends on the microenvironment, we used murine models to assess the efficacy of the BTK inhibitor acalabrutinib combined with the PI3Kδ inhibitor ACP-319 in vivo We compared single-agent with combination therapy in TCL1-192 cell-injected mice, a model of aggressive CLL. Results: We found significantly larger reductions in tumor burden in the peripheral blood and spleen of combination-treated mice. Although single-agent therapy improved survival compared with control mice by a few days, combination therapy extended survival by over 2 weeks compared with either single agent. The combination reduced tumor proliferation, NF-κB signaling, and expression of BCL-xL and MCL-1 more potently than single-agent therapy. Conclusions: The combination of acalabrutinib and ACP-319 was superior to single-agent treatment in a murine CLL model, warranting further investigation of this combination in clinical studies. Clin Cancer Res; 23(19); 5814-23. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Cytochrome P2A13 and P1A1 gene polymorphisms are associated with the occurrence of uterine leiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Herr, D; Bettendorf, H; Denschlag, D; Keck, C; Pietrowski, D

    2006-10-01

    To investigate the association between the occurrence of uterine leiomyoma and two SNPs of the CYP 2A13 and CYP 1A1 genes. Prospective case control study with 132 women with clinically and surgically diagnosed uterine leiomyoma and 260 controls. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based amplification of CYP 2A13 and CYP 1A1 genes, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Comparing women with uterine leiomyoma and controls, we demonstrate statistical significant differences of allele frequency and genotype distribution for the CYP 1A1 polymorphism (P = 0.025 and P = 0.046, respectively). Furthermore, for the CYP 2A13 polymorphism we found a significant difference concerning allele frequency (P = 0.033). However, for the genotype distribution, only borderline significance was observed (P = 0.064). The CYP 2A13 and CYP 1A1 SNPs are associated with uterine leiomyoma in a Caucasian population and may contribute to the understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of uterine leiomyoma.

  10. Chandra Catches the `Mouse'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Astronomers have used an x-ray image to make the first detailed study of the behavior of high-energy particles around a fast moving pulsar. This image, from NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), shows the shock wave created as a pulsar plows supersonically through interstellar space. These results will provide insight into theories for the production of powerful winds of matter and antimatter by pulsars. Chandra's image of the glowing cloud, known as the Mouse, shows a stubby bright column of high-energy particles, about four light years in length, swept back by the pulsar's interaction with interstellar gas. The intense source at the head of the X-ray column is the pulsar, estimated to be moving through space at about 1.3 million miles per hour. A cone-shaped cloud of radio-wave-emitting particles envelopes the x-ray column. The Mouse, a.k.a. G359.23-0.82, was discovered in 1987 by radio astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array in New Mexico. G359.23-0.82 gets its name from its appearance in radio images that show a compact snout, a bulbous body, and a remarkable long, narrow, tail that extends for about 55 light years. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama manages the Chandler program.

  11. KRAS Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    O’Hagan, Rónán C.; Heyer, Joerg

    2011-01-01

    KRAS is a potent oncogene and is mutated in about 30% of all human cancers. However, the biological context of KRAS-dependent oncogenesis is poorly understood. Genetically engineered mouse models of cancer provide invaluable tools to study the oncogenic process, and insights from KRAS-driven models have significantly increased our understanding of the genetic, cellular, and tissue contexts in which KRAS is competent for oncogenesis. Moreover, variation among tumors arising in mouse models can provide insight into the mechanisms underlying response or resistance to therapy in KRAS-dependent cancers. Hence, it is essential that models of KRAS-driven cancers accurately reflect the genetics of human tumors and recapitulate the complex tumor-stromal intercommunication that is manifest in human cancers. Here, we highlight the progress made in modeling KRAS-dependent cancers and the impact that these models have had on our understanding of cancer biology. In particular, the development of models that recapitulate the complex biology of human cancers enables translational insights into mechanisms of therapeutic intervention in KRAS-dependent cancers. PMID:21779503

  12. Polygenic Control of Carotid Atherosclerosis in a BALB/cJ × SM/J Intercross and a Combined Cross Involving Multiple Mouse Strains.

    PubMed

    Grainger, Andrew T; Jones, Michael B; Chen, Mei-Hua; Shi, Weibin

    2017-02-09

    Atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries is a major cause of ischemic stroke, which accounts for 85% of all stroke cases. Genetic factors contributing to carotid atherosclerosis remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify chromosomal regions harboring genes contributing to carotid atherosclerosis in mice. From an intercross between BALB/cJ (BALB) and SM/J (SM) apolipoprotein E-deficient ( Apoe -/- ) mice, 228 female F2 mice were generated and fed a "Western" diet for 12 wk. Atherosclerotic lesion sizes in the left carotid artery were quantified. Across the entire genome, 149 genetic markers were genotyped. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis revealed eight loci for carotid lesion sizes, located on chromosomes 1, 5, 12, 13, 15, 16, and 18. Combined cross-linkage analysis using data from this cross, and two previous F2 crosses derived from BALB, C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ strains, identified five significant QTL on chromosomes 5, 9, 12, and 13, and nine suggestive QTL for carotid atherosclerosis. Of them, the QTL on chromosome 12 had a high LOD score of 9.95. Bioinformatic analysis prioritized Arhgap5 , Akap6 , Mipol1 , Clec14a , Fancm , Nin , Dact1 , Rtn1 , and Slc38a6 as probable candidate genes for this QTL. Atherosclerotic lesion sizes were significantly correlated with non-HDL cholesterol levels ( r = 0.254; p = 0.00016) but inversely correlated with HDL cholesterol levels ( r = -0.134; p = 0.049) in the current cross. Thus, we demonstrated the polygenic control of carotid atherosclerosis in mice. The correlations of carotid lesion sizes with non-HDL and HDL suggest that genetic factors exert effects on carotid atherosclerosis partially through modulation of lipoprotein homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Grainger et al.

  13. Targeted deletion of the Nesp55 DMR defines another Gnas imprinting control region and provides a mouse model of autosomal dominant PHP-Ib.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Leopold F; Mrakovcic, Maria; Steinborn, Ralf; Chung, Ung-Il; Bastepe, Murat; Jüppner, Harald

    2010-05-18

    Approximately 100 genes undergo genomic imprinting. Mutations in fewer than 10 imprinted genetic loci, including GNAS, are associated with complex human diseases that differ phenotypically based on the parent transmitting the mutation. Besides the ubiquitously expressed Gsalpha, which is of broad biological importance, GNAS gives rise to an antisense transcript and to several Gsalpha variants that are transcribed from the nonmethylated parental allele. We previously identified two almost identical GNAS microdeletions extending from exon NESP55 to antisense (AS) exon 3 (delNESP55/delAS3-4). When inherited maternally, both deletions are associated with erasure of all maternal GNAS methylation imprints and autosomal-dominant pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib, a disorder characterized by parathyroid hormone-resistant hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. As for other imprinting disorders, the mechanisms resulting in abnormal GNAS methylation are largely unknown, in part because of a paucity of suitable animal models. We now showed in mice that deletion of the region equivalent to delNESP55/delAS3-4 on the paternal allele (DeltaNesp55(p)) leads to healthy animals without Gnas methylation changes. In contrast, mice carrying the deletion on the maternal allele (DeltaNesp55(m)) showed loss of all maternal Gnas methylation imprints, leading in kidney to increased 1A transcription and decreased Gsalpha mRNA levels, and to associated hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Besides representing a murine autosomal-dominant pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib model and one of only few animal models for imprinted human disorders, our findings suggest that the Nesp55 differentially methylated region is an additional principal imprinting control region, which directs Gnas methylation and thereby affects expression of all maternal Gnas-derived transcripts.

  14. Oral recombinant human or mouse lactoferrin reduces Mycobacterium tuberculosis TDM induced granulomatous lung pathology.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Shen-An; Kruzel, Marian L; Actor, Jeffrey K

    2017-02-01

    Trehalose 6'6-dimycolate (TDM) is the most abundant glycolipid on the cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). TDM is capable of inducing granulomatous pathology in mouse models that resembles those induced by MTB infection. Using the acute TDM model, this work investigates the effect of recombinant human and mouse lactoferrin to reduce granulomatous pathology. C57BL/6 mice were injected intravenously with TDM at a dose of 25 μg·mouse -1 . At day 4 and 6, recombinant human or mouse lactoferrin (1 mg·(100 μL) -1 ·mouse -1 ) were delivered by gavage. At day 7 after TDM injection, mice were evaluated for lung pathology, cytokine production, and leukocyte populations. Mice given human or mouse lactoferrin had reduced production of IL-12p40 in their lungs. Mouse lactoferrin increased IL-6 and KC (CXCL1) in lung tissue. Increased numbers of macrophages were observed in TDM-injected mice given human or mouse lactoferrin. Granulomatous pathology, composed of mainly migrated leukocytes, was visually reduced in mice that received human or mouse lactoferrin. Quantitation of granulomatous pathology demonstrated a significant decrease in mice given human or mouse lactoferrin compared with TDM control mice. This report is the first to directly compare the immune modulatory effects of both heterologous recombinant human and homologous mouse lactoferrin on the development of TDM-induced granulomas.

  15. Identification of transcriptional regulators in the mouse immune system

    PubMed Central

    Jojic, Vladimir; Shay, Tal; Sylvia, Katelyn; Zuk, Or; Sun, Xin; Kang, Joonsoo; Regev, Aviv; Koller, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    The differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells into immune cells has been extensively studied in mammals, but the transcriptional circuitry controlling it is still only partially understood. Here, the Immunological Genome Project gene expression profiles across mouse immune lineages allowed us to systematically analyze these circuits. Using a computational algorithm called Ontogenet, we uncovered differentiation-stage specific regulators of mouse hematopoiesis, identifying many known hematopoietic regulators, and 175 new candidate regulators, their target genes, and the cell types in which they act. Among the novel regulators, we highlight the role of ETV5 in γδT cells differntiation. Since the transcriptional program of human and mouse cells is highly conserved1, it is likely that many lessons learned from the mouse model apply to humans. PMID:23624555

  16. MR images of mouse brain using clinical 3T MR scanner and 4CH-Mouse coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Soo Mee; Park, Eun Mi; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Lee, Junghyun; Han, Bo Mi; Lee, Jeong Kyong; Lee, Su Bin

    2015-07-01

    Objectives: Although small-bore high-field magnets are useful for research in small rodent models,this technology, however, has not been easily accessible to most researchers. This current study, thus,tried to evaluate the usability of 4CH-Mouse coil (Philips Healthcare, Best, the Netherlands) forpreclinical investigations in clinical 3T MR scan environment. We evaluated the effects of ischemicpreconditioning (IP) in the mouse stroke model with clinical 3T MR scanner and 4CH-Mouse coil. Materials and Methods: Experiments were performed on male C57BL/6 mice that either received the IP or sham operation (control). Three different MR sequences including diffusion weighted images (DWI), T2-weighted images (T2WI), and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) were performed on the mouse brains following 24, 72 hours of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and analyzed for infarct lesions. Results: The images showed that the IP-treated mouse brains had significantly smaller infarct volumes compared to the control group. Of the MR sequences employed, the T2WI showed the highest level of correlations with postmortem infarct volume measurements. Conclusions: The clinical 3T MR scanner turned out to have a solid potential as a practical tool for imaging small animal brains. MR sequences including DWI, T2WI, FLAIR were obtained with acceptable resolution and in a reasonable time constraint in evaluating a mouse stroke model brain.

  17. 46 CFR 147A.13 - Person in charge of the vessel; before fumigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Person in charge of the vessel; before fumigation. 147A.13 Section 147A.13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION Before Fumigation § 147A.13 Person in charge of the...

  18. 46 CFR 147A.13 - Person in charge of the vessel; before fumigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Person in charge of the vessel; before fumigation. 147A.13 Section 147A.13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION Before Fumigation § 147A.13 Person in charge of the...

  19. 46 CFR 147A.13 - Person in charge of the vessel; before fumigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Person in charge of the vessel; before fumigation. 147A.13 Section 147A.13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION Before Fumigation § 147A.13 Person in charge of the...

  20. 42 CFR 54a.13 - Educational requirements for personnel in drug treatment programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....S.C. 290aa, et seq., FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES § 54a.13 Educational requirements for personnel in drug treatment programs. In determining whether personnel of a program... treatment programs. 54a.13 Section 54a.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  1. 42 CFR 54a.13 - Educational requirements for personnel in drug treatment programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....S.C. 290aa, ET SEQ., FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES § 54a.13 Educational requirements for personnel in drug treatment programs. In determining whether personnel of a program... treatment programs. 54a.13 Section 54a.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  2. 42 CFR 54a.13 - Educational requirements for personnel in drug treatment programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....S.C. 290aa, ET SEQ., FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES § 54a.13 Educational requirements for personnel in drug treatment programs. In determining whether personnel of a program... treatment programs. 54a.13 Section 54a.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  3. 42 CFR 54a.13 - Educational requirements for personnel in drug treatment programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....S.C. 290aa, et seq., FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES § 54a.13 Educational requirements for personnel in drug treatment programs. In determining whether personnel of a program... treatment programs. 54a.13 Section 54a.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  4. 42 CFR 54a.13 - Educational requirements for personnel in drug treatment programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....S.C. 290aa, ET SEQ., FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES § 54a.13 Educational requirements for personnel in drug treatment programs. In determining whether personnel of a program... treatment programs. 54a.13 Section 54a.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  5. 7 CFR 15a.13 - Military and merchant marine educational institution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military and merchant marine educational institution. 15a.13 Section 15a.13 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 15a.13 Military and merchant...

  6. [Programmed mouse genome modifications].

    PubMed

    Babinet, C

    1998-02-01

    The availability, in the mouse, of embryonic stem cells (ES cells) which have the ability to colonize the germ line of a developing embryo, has opened entirely new avenues to the genetic approach of embryonic development, physiology and pathology of this animal. Indeed, it is now possible, using homologous recombination in ES cells, to introduce mutations in any gene as long as it has been cloned. Thus, null as well as more subtle mutations can be created. Furthermore, scenarios are currently being derived which will allow one to generate conditional mutations. Taken together, these methods offer a tremendous tool to study gene function in vivo; they also open the way to creating murine models of human genetic diseases.

  7. Whole mouse cryo-imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, David; Roy, Debashish; Steyer, Grant; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Stone, Meredith; McKinley, Eliot

    2008-03-01

    The Case cryo-imaging system is a section and image system which allows one to acquire micron-scale, information rich, whole mouse color bright field and molecular fluorescence images of an entire mouse. Cryo-imaging is used in a variety of applications, including mouse and embryo anatomical phenotyping, drug delivery, imaging agents, metastastic cancer, stem cells, and very high resolution vascular imaging, among many. Cryo-imaging fills the gap between whole animal in vivo imaging and histology, allowing one to image a mouse along the continuum from the mouse -> organ -> tissue structure -> cell -> sub-cellular domains. In this overview, we describe the technology and a variety of exciting applications. Enhancements to the system now enable tiled acquisition of high resolution images to cover an entire mouse. High resolution fluorescence imaging, aided by a novel subtraction processing algorithm to remove sub-surface fluorescence, makes it possible to detect fluorescently-labeled single cells. Multi-modality experiments in Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Cryo-imaging of a whole mouse demonstrate superior resolution of cryo-images and efficiency of registration techniques. The 3D results demonstrate the novel true-color volume visualization tools we have developed and the inherent advantage of cryo-imaging in providing unlimited depth of field and spatial resolution. The recent results continue to demonstrate the value cryo-imaging provides in the field of small animal imaging research.

  8. Cytochrome P450 2A13 enhances the sensitivity of human bronchial epithelial cells to aflatoxin B1-induced DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xuejiao; Jiaojiang District Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 518 Jingdong Rd., Taizhou 318000; Zhang, Zhan

    Cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13) mainly expresses in human respiratory system and mediates the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Our previous study suggested that CYP2A13 could increase the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of AFB1 in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). However, the role of CYP2A13 in AFB1-induced DNA damage is unclear. Using BEAS-2B cells that stably express CYP2A13 (B-2A13), CYP1A2 (B-1A2), and CYP2A6 (B-2A6), we compared their effects in AFB1-induced DNA adducts, DNA damage, and cell cycle changes. BEAS-2B cells that were transfected with vector (B-vector) were used as a control. The results showed that AFB1 (5–80 nM) dose-more » and time-dependently induced DNA damage in B-2A13 cells. AFB1 at 10 and 80 nM significantly augmented this effect in B-2A13 and B-1A2 cells, respectively. B-2A6 cells showed no obvious DNA damage, similar to B-vector cells and the vehicle control. Similarly, compared with B-vector, B-1A2 or B-2A6 cells, B-2A13 cells showed more sensitivity in AFB1-induced γH2AX expression, DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine formation, and S-phase cell-cycle arrest. Furthermore, AFB1 activated the proteins related to DNA damage responses, such as ATM, ATR, Chk2, p53, BRCA1, and H2AX, rather than the proteins related to DNA repair. These effects could be almost completely inhibited by 100 μM nicotine (a substrate of CYP2A13) or 1 μM 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP; an inhibitor of CYP enzyme). Collectively, these findings suggest that CYP2A13 plays an important role in low-concentration AFB1-induced DNA damage, possibly linking environmental airborne AFB1 to genetic injury in human respiratory system. - Highlights: • CYP2A13 plays a critical role in low concentration of AFB1-induced DNA damage. • B-2A13 cells were more sensitive to AFB1 than B-1A2 cells and B-2A6 cells. • AFB1 dose- and time-dependently induced DNA damage in B-2A13 cells • AFB1-induced DNA adducts and damage can be inhibited by

  9. Genetically engineered mouse models for studying inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Takahito; Himuro, Hidetomo; Okada, Toshiyuki; Mizoguchi, Emiko

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammatory condition that is mediated by very complex mechanisms controlled by genetic, immune, and environmental factors. More than 74 kinds of genetically engineered mouse strains have been established since 1993 for studying IBD. Although mouse models cannot fully reflect human IBD, they have provided significant contributions for not only understanding the mechanism, but also developing new therapeutic means for IBD. Indeed, 20 kinds of genetically engineered mouse models carry the susceptibility genes identified in human IBD, and the functions of some other IBD susceptibility genes have also been dissected out using mouse models. Cutting-edge technologies such as cell-specific and inducible knockout systems, which were recently employed to mouse IBD models, have further enhanced the ability of investigators to provide important and unexpected rationales for developing new therapeutic strategies for IBD. In this review article, we briefly introduce 74 kinds of genetically engineered mouse models that spontaneously develop intestinal inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases: criteria and general methodology.

    PubMed

    Janus, Christopher; Welzl, Hans

    2010-01-01

    The major symptom of Alzheimer's disease is rapidly progressing dementia, coinciding with the formation of amyloid and tau deposits in the central nervous system, and neuronal death. At present familial cases of dementias provide the most promising foundation for modelling neurodegeneration. We describe the mnemonic and other major behavioral symptoms of tauopathies, briefly outline the genetics underlying familiar cases and discuss the arising implications for modelling the disease in mostly transgenic mouse lines. We then depict to what degree the most recent mouse models replicate pathological and cognitive characteristics observed in patients.There is no universally valid behavioral test battery to evaluate mouse models. The selection of individual tests depends on the behavioral and/or memory system in focus, the type of a model and how well it replicates the pathology of a disease and the amount of control over the genetic background of the mouse model. However it is possible to provide guidelines and criteria for modelling the neurodegeneration, setting up the experiments and choosing relevant tests. One should not adopt a "one (trans)gene, one disease" interpretation, but should try to understand how the mouse genome copes with the protein expression of the transgene in question. Further, it is not possible to recommend some mouse models over others since each model is valuable within its own constraints, and the way experiments are performed often reflects the idiosyncratic reality of specific laboratories. Our purpose is to improve bridging molecular and behavioural approaches in translational research.

  11. Reactivity of mouse antibodies against bromelain-treated mouse erythrocytes with thrombin-treated mouse platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, S

    1989-01-01

    The reactivity of mouse antibodies against bromelain-treated mouse erythrocytes (BrMRBC) with mouse platelets before and after thrombin treatment was assessed by flow cytometry. Anti-BrMRBC antibodies could bind to thrombin-treated platelets, although normal platelets were also weakly reactive with the antibodies. The binding of anti-BrMRBC antibodies to platelets was confirmed by complement-dependent lysis. It is suggested that thrombin-activated platelets may be a real target for anti-BrMRBC antibodies. PMID:2467876

  12. Mouse Phenome Database

    PubMed Central

    Grubb, Stephen C.; Maddatu, Terry P.; Bult, Carol J.; Bogue, Molly A.

    2009-01-01

    The Mouse Phenome Database (MPD; http://www.jax.org/phenome) is an open source, web-based repository of phenotypic and genotypic data on commonly used and genetically diverse inbred strains of mice and their derivatives. MPD is also a facility for query, analysis and in silico hypothesis testing. Currently MPD contains about 1400 phenotypic measurements contributed by research teams worldwide, including phenotypes relevant to human health such as cancer susceptibility, aging, obesity, susceptibility to infectious diseases, atherosclerosis, blood disorders and neurosensory disorders. Electronic access to centralized strain data enables investigators to select optimal strains for many systems-based research applications, including physiological studies, drug and toxicology testing, modeling disease processes and complex trait analysis. The ability to select strains for specific research applications by accessing existing phenotype data can bypass the need to (re)characterize strains, precluding major investments of time and resources. This functionality, in turn, accelerates research and leverages existing community resources. Since our last NAR reporting in 2007, MPD has added more community-contributed data covering more phenotypic domains and implemented several new tools and features, including a new interactive Tool Demo available through the MPD homepage (quick link: http://phenome.jax.org/phenome/trytools). PMID:18987003

  13. Producing a Mouse Model to Explore the Linkages Between Tocopherol Biology and Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    Edwards, Prostate cancer and supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta -carotene: incidence and mortality in a controlled trial. J Natl Cancer ...1-0153 TITLE: Producing a Mouse Model to Explore the Linkages Between Tocopherol Biology and Prostate Cancer ...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Producing a Mouse Model to Explore the Linkages Between Tocopherol 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Biology and Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT

  14. Control of Collagen Production in Mouse Chondrocytes by Using a Combination of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 and Small Interfering RNA Targeting Col1a1 for Hydrogel-Based Tissue-Engineered Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Perrier-Groult, Emeline; Pasdeloup, Marielle; Malbouyres, Marilyne; Galéra, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Because articular cartilage does not self-repair, tissue-engineering strategies should be considered to regenerate this tissue. Autologous chondrocyte implantation is already used for treatment of focal damage of articular cartilage. Unfortunately, this technique includes a step of cell amplification, which results in dedifferentiation of chondrocytes, with expression of type I collagen, a protein characteristic of fibrotic tissues. Therefore, the risk of producing a fibrocartilage exists. The aim of this study was to propose a new strategy for authorizing the recovery of the differentiated status of the chondrocytes after their amplification on plastic. Because the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 and the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 are cytokines both proposed as stimulants for cartilage repair, we undertook a detailed comparative analysis of their biological effects on chondrocytes. As a cellular model, we used mouse chondrocytes after their expansion on plastic and we tested the capability of BMP-2 or TGF-β1 to drive their redifferentiation, with special attention given to the nature of the proteins synthesized by the cells. To prevent any fibrotic character of the newly synthesized extracellular matrix, we silenced type I collagen by transfecting small interfering RNA (siRNA) into the chondrocytes, before their exposure to BMP-2 or TGF-β1. Our results showed that addition of siRNA targeting the mRNA encoded by the Col1a1 gene (Col1a1 siRNA) and BMP-2 represents the most efficient combination to control the production of cartilage-characteristic collagen proteins. To go one step further toward scaffold-based cartilage engineering, Col1a1 siRNA-transfected chondrocytes were encapsulated in agarose hydrogel and cultured in vitro for 1 week. The analysis of the chondrocyte–agarose constructs by using real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western-blotting, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy techniques demonstrated that the BMP-2/Col1a1 si

  15. In Vivo Axial Loading of the Mouse Tibia

    PubMed Central

    Melville, Katherine M.; Robling, Alexander G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Non-invasive methods to apply controlled, cyclic loads to the living skeleton are used as an anabolic agent to stimulate new bone formation in adults and enhance bone mass accrual in growing animals. These methods are also invaluable for understanding bone signaling pathways. Our focus here is on a particular loading model: in vivo axial compression of the mouse tibia. An advantage of loading the tibia is that changes are present in both the cancellous envelope of the proximal tibia and the cortical bone of the tibial diaphysis. To load the tibia of the mouse axially in vivo, a cyclic compressive load is applied up to five times a week to a single tibia per mouse for a duration lasting from 1 day to 6 weeks. With the contralateral limb as an internal control, the anabolic response of the skeleton to mechanical stimuli can be studied in a pairwise experimental design. Here, we describe the key parameters that must be considered before beginning an in vivo mouse tibial loading experiment, including methods for in vivo strain gauging of the tibial midshaft, and then we describe general methods for loading the mouse tibia for an experiment lasting multiple days. PMID:25331046

  16. 7 CFR 15a.13 - Military and merchant marine educational institution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Military and merchant marine educational institution. 15a.13 Section 15a.13 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR... marine educational institution. This part does not apply to an educational institution whose primary...

  17. 7 CFR 15a.13 - Military and merchant marine educational institution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Military and merchant marine educational institution. 15a.13 Section 15a.13 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR... marine educational institution. This part does not apply to an educational institution whose primary...

  18. 7 CFR 15a.13 - Military and merchant marine educational institution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Military and merchant marine educational institution. 15a.13 Section 15a.13 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR... marine educational institution. This part does not apply to an educational institution whose primary...

  19. 7 CFR 15a.13 - Military and merchant marine educational institution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Military and merchant marine educational institution. 15a.13 Section 15a.13 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR... marine educational institution. This part does not apply to an educational institution whose primary...

  20. 17 CFR 240.14a-13 - Obligation of registrants in communicating with beneficial owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... section at least 20 business days prior to the record date of the meeting of security holders, or (i) If... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obligation of registrants in communicating with beneficial owners. 240.14a-13 Section 240.14a-13 Commodity and Securities Exchanges...

  1. 26 CFR 1.170A-13 - Recordkeeping and return requirements for deductions for charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recordkeeping and return requirements for deductions for charitable contributions. 1.170A-13 Section 1.170A-13 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations (continued) §...

  2. 26 CFR 1.170A-13 - Recordkeeping and return requirements for deductions for charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recordkeeping and return requirements for deductions for charitable contributions. 1.170A-13 Section 1.170A-13 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations ...

  3. 17 CFR 240.16a-13 - Change in form of beneficial ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... exercise or conversion of a derivative security or deposit into or withdrawal from a voting trust, that... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in form of beneficial ownership. 240.16a-13 Section 240.16a-13 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE...

  4. 29 CFR 788.6 - Scope of the section 13(a)(13) exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... The named operations are described in terms of ordinary speech and mean what they mean in ordinary... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of the section 13(a)(13) exemption. 788.6 Section 788... OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.6 Scope of the section 13(a)(13...

  5. Teratology studies in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Marsden, Edward; Leroy, Mariline

    2013-01-01

    The rat is the routine species of choice as the rodent model for regulatory safety testing of xenobiotics such as medicinal products, food additives, and other chemicals. However, the rat is not always suitable for pharmacological, toxicological, immunogenic, pharmacokinetic, or even practical reasons. Under such circumstances, the mouse offers an alternative for finding a suitable rodent model acceptable to the regulatory authorities. Since all essential routes of administration are possible, the short reproductive cycle and large litter size of the mouse make it a species well adapted for use in teratology studies. Given that good quality animals, including virgin mated females, can be acquired relatively easily and inexpensively, the mouse has been used in reproductive toxicity studies for decades and study protocols are well established.

  6. Testing of gastric contents for peanut proteins in a 13-year old anaphylaxis victim.

    PubMed

    Beavers, Charles; Stauble, M Elaine; Jortani, Saeed A

    2014-02-15

    We report the case of a 13-y female who went into anaphylactic shock following the ingestion of a meal suspected to be contaminated by peanuts. The teenager had a known sensitivity to peanuts, however, the restaurant claimed that no peanut products were used in the preparation of her meal. The gastric contents of the decedent were retained and tested for peanut proteins due to the possible legal liability of the proprietor. Using antibodies against peanut proteins (roasted and unroasted), we optimized a method to detect total soluble peanut proteins by Western-blot analysis in gastric contents. In addition, we validated two commercially available tests which were originally intended for detection of peanut proteins in food matrices to examine the same gastric sample. One was an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that utilized polyclonal antibodies against Ara h 1 (Tepnel Life Sciences). The other was a laminar-flow assay directed against Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 3 (R-Biopharm). A positive food-based control was created by reducing bread and peanuts (1:1, w/w) with water (1:1, w/v) using a mortar and pestle. A food-based negative food control was created similar to the positive control, except the peanuts were omitted and the amount of bread was doubled. The Western-blot assay was sensitive down to 2.5ng/ml of total peanut protein. The laminar flow was the most rapid and least complex. The ELISA was the most analytically sensitive with a cut-off of 1ng/ml of Ara h 1 protein compared to the laminar flow which had a cut-off of 4ng/ml Ara h 1 equivalent. Both ELISA and laminar flow assays were able to detect peanut proteins in the food matrices and positive controls, and not in negative controls. No peanut related proteins were detected in the decedent's gastric sample. The gastric sample spiked with peanuts was reliably detectable. The anaphylaxis patient had no peanut allergens detected in her gastric contents by any of the three methods employed. Both

  7. Spallanzani's mouse: a model of restoration and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Heber-Katz, E; Leferovich, J M; Bedelbaeva, K; Gourevitch, D

    2004-01-01

    The ability to regenerate is thought to be a lost phenotype in mammals, though there are certainly sporadic examples of mammalian regeneration. Our laboratory has identified a strain of mouse, the MRL mouse, which has a unique capacity to heal complex tissue in an epimorphic fashion, i.e., to restore a damaged limb or organ to its normal structure and function. Initial studies using through-and-through ear punches showed rapid full closure of the ear holes with cartilage growth, new hair follicles, and normal tissue architecture reminiscent of regeneration seen in amphibians as opposed to the scarring usually seen in mammals. Since the ear hole closure phenotype is a quantitative trait, this has been used to show-through extensive breeding and backcrossing--that the trait is heritable. Such analysis reveals that there is a complex genetic basis for this trait with multiple loci. One of the major phenotypes of the MRL mouse is a potent remodeling response with the absence or a reduced level of scarring. MRL healing is associated with the upregulation of the metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 and the downregulation of their inhibitors TIMP-2 and TIMP-3, both present in inflammatory cells such as neutrophils and macrophages. This model has more recently been extended to the heart. In this case, a cryoinjury to the right ventricle leads to near complete scarless healing in the MRL mouse whereas scarring is seen in the control mouse. In the MRL heart, bromodeoxyuridine uptake by cardiomyocytes filling the wound site can be seen 60 days after injury. This does not occur in the control mouse. Function in the MRL heart, as measured by echocardiography, returns to normal.

  8. Growth of Lactobacillus paracasei A13 in Argentinian probiotic cheese and its impact on the characteristics of the product.

    PubMed

    Vinderola, G; Prosello, W; Molinari, F; Ghiberto, D; Reinheimer, J

    2009-10-31

    The growth capacity of probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei A13, Bifidobacterium bifidum A1 and L. acidophilus A3 in a probiotic fresh cheese commercialized in Argentina since 1999 was studied during its manufacture and refrigerated storage at 5 degrees C and 12 degrees C for 60 days. Additionally, viable cell counts for probiotic bacteria in the commercial product are reported for batch productions over the last 9 years. L. paracasei A13 grew a half log order at 43 degrees C during the manufacturing process of probiotic cheese and another half log order during the first 15 days of storage at 5 degrees C, without negative effects on sensorial properties of the product. However, a negative impact on sensorial characteristics was observed when cheeses were stored at 12 degrees C for 60 days. Colony counts in the commercial product showed variations from batch to batch over the last 9 years. However, colony counts for each probiotic bacterium were always above the minimum suggested. Growth capacity of L. paracasei A13 in cheese during manufacturing and storage, mainly at temperatures commonly found in retail display cabinets in supermarkets (12 degrees C or more), would make it necessary to re-evaluate its role as possible probiotic starter and the consequences on food sensorial characteristics if storage temperature during commercial shelf life is not tightly controlled.

  9. Effect of potassium channel modulators in mouse forced swimming test

    PubMed Central

    Galeotti, Nicoletta; Ghelardini, Carla; Caldari, Bernardetta; Bartolini, Alessandro

    1999-01-01

    The effect of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of different potassium channel blockers (tetraethylammonium, apamin, charybdotoxin, gliquidone), potassium channel openers (pinacidil, minoxidil, cromakalim) and aODN to mKv1.1 on immobility time was evaluated in the mouse forced swimming test, an animal model of depression. Tetraethylammonium (TEA; 5 μg per mouse i.c.v.), apamin (3 ng per mouse i.c.v.), charybdotoxin (1 μg per mouse i.c.v.) and gliquidone (6 μg per mouse i.c.v.) administered 20 min before the test produced anti-immobility comparable to that induced by the tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline (15 mg kg−1 s.c.) and imipramine (30 mg kg−1 s.c.). By contrast pinacidil (10–20 μg per mouse i.c.v.), minoxidil (10–20 μg per mouse i.c.v.) and cromakalim (20–30 μg per mouse i.c.v.) increased immobility time when administered in the same experimental conditions. Repeated administration of an antisense oligonucleotide (aODN) to the mKv1.1 gene (1 and 3 nmol per single i.c.v. injection) produced a dose-dependent increase in immobility time of mice 72 h after the last injection. At day 7, the increasing effect produced by aODN disappeared. A degenerate mKv1.1 oligonucleotide (dODN), used as control, did not produce any effect in comparison with saline- and vector-treated mice. At the highest effective dose, potassium channels modulators and the mKv1.1 aODN did not impair motor coordination, as revealed by the rota rod test, nor did they modify spontaneous motility as revealed by the Animex apparatus. These results suggest that modulation of potassium channels plays an important role in the regulation of immobility time in the mouse forced swimming test. PMID:10323599

  10. APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Apoptosis in Whole Mouse Ovaries
    Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 27711.

  11. Mouse model of plasma cell mastitis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian-jun; Bao, Shan-lin; Yu, Sheng-lin; Zhang, Da-Qing; Loo, Wings T Y; Chow, Louis W C; Su, Li; Cui, Zhen; Chen, Kai; Ma, Li-Qiong; Zhang, Ning; Yu, Hui; Yang, Yun-Zhen; Dong, Yu; Yip, Adrian Y S; Ng, Elizabeth L Y

    2012-09-19

    Plasma cell mastitis is distinct from the common form of mastitis and clinically resembles breast carcinoma. The lesion occurs in non-lactating young women, and the incidence rate is rising. Surgical resection is the main treatment, but cannot prevent recurrence of the disease. Disfigurement or removal of breast after the operations can cause marked physical and psychological distress. The etiology of plasma cell mastitis is unclear up till now. It is therefore necessary to investigate further the underlying immunological changes of the disease. The lesions of plasma cell mastitis removed from patients through aseptic operation were mixed with normal saline into homogenate tube machine (homogenate tubes were disinfected and sterilized prior to treatment). The mixture was homogenized at medium speed and grinded in ultrasonic cell disruptor. The homogenate obtained was made into oil emulsion with Freund's adjuvant. Thirty female BALB/c mice (6 weeks after sexual maturity) were divided into five groups A-E: group A was blank control; group B was normal saline control; group C was inoculated with 0.02 ml water-in-oil emulsion; group D was inoculated with 0.04 ml water-in-oil emulsion; group E was complete Freund's adjuvant control. Pathology results showed that mouse mammary gland acinar cells remained integral without any abnormal changes observed in control groups A and B. Experimental groups C and D showed dilation of mouse mammary ductal tissue with a large number of epithelial cells and debris in the lumen, and fibrosis around ducts accompanied by large duct cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and especially plasma cell infiltration. Pathological changes were observed in 3 (50%) mice and 5 (83.3%) mice in group C and D respectively. In group E, neutrophil infiltration in mammary gland was observed in 5 mice, but neither infiltration of plasma cells nor other abnormal pathological changes were observed. The lesions of patient with plasma cell mastitis could make the

  12. A 13-week dermal repeat-dose neurotoxicity study of hydrodesulfurized kerosene in rats.

    PubMed

    Breglia, Rudolph; Bui, Quang; Burnett, Donald; Koschier, Francis; Lapadula, Elizabeth; Podhasky, Paula; Schreiner, Ceinwen; White, Russell

    2014-01-01

    A 13-week dermal repeat-dose toxicity study was conducted with hydrodesulfurized (HDS) kerosene, a test material that also met the commercial specifications for aviation turbine fuel (jet A). The objectives were to assess the potential for target organ toxicity and neurotoxicity. The HDS kerosene was applied to the shaved backs of Sprague-Dawley CD rats, 12/sex/group, 6 h/d, 5 d/wk in doses of 0 (vehicle control), 165 mg/kg (20% HDS kerosene), 330 mg/kg (40% HDS kerosene), or 495 mg/kg (60% HDS kerosene). Additional rats (12/sex) from the control and the high-dose groups were held without treatment for 4 weeks to assess recovery. Standard parameters of toxicity were investigated during the in-life phase. At necropsy, organs were weighed and selected tissues were processed for microscopic evaluation. Neurobehavioral evaluations included tests of motor activity and functional observations that were conducted pretest, at intervals during the exposure period and after recovery. No test substance-related effects on mortality, clinical observations (except dermal irritation), body weight, or clinical chemistry values were observed. A dose-related increase in skin irritation, confirmed histologically as minimal, was evident at the dosing site. The only statistically significant change considered potentially treatment related was an increase in the neutrophil count in females at 13 weeks. No test article-related effects were observed in the neurobehavioral assessments or gross or microscopic findings in the peripheral or central nervous system tissues in any of the dose groups. Excluding skin irritation, the no observed adverse effect level value for all effects was considered 495 mg/kg/d.

  13. The mouse cornea micropocket angiogenesis assay.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Michael S; Birsner, Amy E; D'Amato, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    The mouse corneal micropocket angiogenesis assay uses the avascular cornea as a canvas to study angiogenesis in vivo. Through the use of standardized slow-release pellets, a predictable angiogenic response is generated over the course of 5 d and then quantified. Uniform slow-release pellets are prepared by mixing purified angiogenic growth factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor or vascular endothelial growth factor with sucralfate (a stabilizer) and Hydron (poly-HEMA (poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)) to allow slow release). This mixture is applied to a mesh that controls unit size and then allowed to harden. A micropocket is surgically created in the mouse cornea and a pellet implanted. Five days later, the area of the cornea overgrown by the angiogenic response is measured using a slit lamp. A skilled investigator can implant and grade 40 eyes in about 2.5 h. The results of the assay are used to assess the ability of potential therapeutic molecules or genetic differences to modulate angiogenesis in vivo.

  14. View south; detail view of south façade at column A13 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View south; detail view of south façade at column A13 - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Foundry-Propeller Shop, North of Porter Avenue, west of Third Street West, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. View south; interior structural detail at column A13 south bay ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View south; interior structural detail at column A13 south bay - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Foundry-Propeller Shop, North of Porter Avenue, west of Third Street West, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. Amino Acids 257 to 288 of Mouse p48 Control the Cooperation of Polyomavirus Large T Antigen, Replication Protein A, and DNA Polymerase α-Primase To Synthesize DNA In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kautz, Armin R.; Weisshart, Klaus; Schneider, Annerose; Grosse, Frank; Nasheuer, Heinz-Peter

    2001-01-01

    Although p48 is the most conserved subunit of mammalian DNA polymerase α-primase (pol-prim), the polypeptide is the major species-specific factor for mouse polyomavirus (PyV) DNA replication. Human and murine p48 contain two regions (A and B) that show significantly lower homology than the rest of the protein. Chimerical human-murine p48 was prepared and coexpressed with three wild-type subunits of pol-prim, and four subunit protein complexes were purified. All enzyme complexes synthesized DNA on single-stranded (ss) DNA and replicated simian virus 40 DNA. Although the recombinant protein complexes physically interacted with PyV T antigen (Tag), we determined that the murine region A mediates the species specificity of PyV DNA replication in vitro. More precisely, the nonconserved phenylalanine 262 of mouse p48 is crucial for this activity, and pol-prim with mutant p48, h-S262F, supports PyV DNA replication in vitro. DNA synthesis on RPA-bound ssDNA revealed that amino acid (aa) 262, aa 266, and aa 273 to 288 are involved in the functional cooperation of RPA, pol-prim, and PyV Tag. PMID:11507202

  17. 26 CFR 1.263A-13 - Oil and gas activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oil and gas activities. 1.263A-13 Section 1.263A... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.263A-13 Oil and gas activities. (a) In general... section 263A(g)) of oil or gas property. For this purpose, oil or gas property consists of each separate...

  18. 26 CFR 1.263A-13 - Oil and gas activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oil and gas activities. 1.263A-13 Section 1.263A... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.263A-13 Oil and gas activities. (a) In general... section 263A(g)) of oil or gas property. For this purpose, oil or gas property consists of each separate...

  19. 26 CFR 1.263A-13 - Oil and gas activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oil and gas activities. 1.263A-13 Section 1.263A... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.263A-13 Oil and gas activities. (a) In general... section 263A(g)) of oil or gas property. For this purpose, oil or gas property consists of each separate...

  20. 26 CFR 1.263A-13 - Oil and gas activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oil and gas activities. 1.263A-13 Section 1.263A... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.263A-13 Oil and gas activities. (a) In general... section 263A(g)) of oil or gas property. For this purpose, oil or gas property consists of each separate...

  1. Ground-based assessment of JAXA mouse habitat cage unit by mouse phenotypic studies.

    PubMed

    Shimbo, Miki; Kudo, Takashi; Hamada, Michito; Jeon, Hyojung; Imamura, Yuki; Asano, Keigo; Okada, Risa; Tsunakawa, Yuki; Mizuno, Seiya; Yagami, Ken-Ichi; Ishikawa, Chihiro; Li, Haiyan; Shiga, Takashi; Ishida, Junji; Hamada, Juri; Murata, Kazuya; Ishimaru, Tomohiro; Hashimoto, Misuzu; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Yamane, Mutsumi; Ikawa, Masahito; Morita, Hironobu; Shinohara, Masahiro; Asahara, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Taishin; Akiyama, Nobuko; Sasanuma, Hiroki; Yoshida, Nobuaki; Zhou, Rui; Wang, Ying-Ying; Ito, Taito; Kokubu, Yuko; Noguchi, Taka-Aki K; Ishimine, Hisako; Kurisaki, Akira; Shiba, Dai; Mizuno, Hiroyasu; Shirakawa, Masaki; Ito, Naoki; Takeda, Shin; Takahashi, Satoru

    2016-05-20

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency developed the mouse Habitat Cage Unit (HCU) for installation in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility (CBEF) onboard the Japanese Experimental Module ("Kibo") on the International Space Station. The CBEF provides "space-based controls" by generating artificial gravity in the HCU through a centrifuge, enabling a comparison of the biological consequences of microgravity and artificial gravity of 1 g on mice housed in space. Therefore, prior to the space experiment, a ground-based study to validate the habitability of the HCU is necessary to conduct space experiments using the HCU in the CBEF. Here, we investigated the ground-based effect of a 32-day housing period in the HCU breadboard model on male mice in comparison with the control cage mice. Morphology of skeletal muscle, the thymus, heart, and kidney, and the sperm function showed no critical abnormalities between the control mice and HCU mice. Slight but significant changes caused by the HCU itself were observed, including decreased body weight, increased weights of the thymus and gastrocnemius, reduced thickness of cortical bone of the femur, and several gene expressions from 11 tissues. Results suggest that the HCU provides acceptable conditions for mouse phenotypic analysis using CBEF in space, as long as its characteristic features are considered. Thus, the HCU is a feasible device for future space experiments.

  2. Effect of Fetal Mouse Lung Tissue Co-Culture on In Vitro Maturation of Mouse Immature Oocytes.

    PubMed

    Belbasi, Masomeh; Jorsaraei, Seyed Gholam Ali; Gholamitabar Tabari, Maryam; Khanbabaei, Ramzan

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fetal mouse lung tissue co-culture on in vitro maturation (IVM) of mouse immature oocytes. In this experimental study, germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes from ovaries of a group of 25 female mice, 6-8 weeks of age, were dissected after being stimulated by 7.5 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) through an intraperitoneal (IP) injection. The fetal lung tissues were then prepared and cultured individually. A total number of 300 oocytes were cultured in the following three groups for 24 hours: control group (n=100) containing only base medium, group I (n=100) containing base medium co-cultured with 11.5- to 12.5-day old fetal mouse lung tissues, and group II (n=100) containing base medium co-cultured with 12.5- to 13.5-day old fetal mouse lung tissues. The proportion of GV and metaphase І (MI) oocytes matured into MІІ oocytes were compared among the three groups using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Correlation test were also used to evaluate the successful rate of IVM oocytes. The proportions of GV oocytes reaching MІІ stage were 46, 65, and 56%, in control, I and II groups, respectively (P<0.05). The percentage of the oocytes remaining at the GV stage were higher in control group as compared with two treatment groups (P<0.05). This study indicated that fetal mouse lung tissue co-culture method increased the percentage of GV oocytes reaching MII stage. Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.

  3. Cognitive changes in people with temporal lobe epilepsy over a 13-year period.

    PubMed

    Mameniškienė, Rūta; Rimšienė, Justė; Puronaitė, Roma

    2016-10-01

    The aims of our study were to evaluate cognitive decline in people with temporal lobe epilepsy over a period of 13years and to determine what clinical and treatment characteristics may have been associated with these. Thirty-three individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy underwent the same neuropsychological assessment of verbal and nonverbal memory, attention, and executive functions using the same cognitive test battery as one used 13years ago. Long-term verbal and nonverbal memory was tested four weeks later. Results were compared with those carried out 13years earlier. There was no significant change in verbal and verbal-logical memory tests; however, nonverbal memory worsened significantly. Long-term verbal memory declined for 21.9% of participants, long-term verbal-logical memory for 34.4%, and long-term nonverbal memory for 56.3%. Worsening of working verbal and verbal-logical memory was associated with longer epilepsy duration and lower levels of patients' education; worsening of verbal delayed recall and long-term verbal-logical memory was associated with higher seizure frequency. Decline in long-term nonverbal memory had significant association with a longer duration of epilepsy. The worsening of reaction and attention inversely correlated with the symptoms of depression. Over a 13-year period, cognitive functions did not change significantly. Good seizure control and reduced symptoms of depression in this sample of people with temporal lobe epilepsy were associated with better cognitive functioning. The predictors of change of cognitive functions could be complex and require further study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Methods of in-vivo mouse lung micro-CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recheis, Wolfgang A.; Nixon, Earl; Thiesse, Jacqueline; McLennan, Geoffrey; Ross, Alan; Hoffman, Eric

    2005-04-01

    Micro-CT will have a profound influence on the accumulation of anatomical and physiological phenotypic changes in natural and transgenetic mouse models. Longitudinal studies will be greatly facilitated, allowing for a more complete and accurate description of events if in-vivo studies are accomplished. The purpose of the ongoing project is to establish a feasible and reproducible setup for in-vivo mouse lung micro-computed tomography (μCT). We seek to use in-vivo respiratory-gated μCT to follow mouse models of lung disease with subsequent recovery of the mouse. Methodologies for optimizing scanning parameters and gating for the in-vivo mouse lung are presented. A Scireq flexiVent ventilated the gas-anesthetized mice at 60 breaths/minute, 30 cm H20 PEEP, 30 ml/kg tidal volume and provided a respiratory signal to gate a Skyscan 1076 μCT. Physiologic monitoring allowed the control of vital functions and quality of anesthesia, e.g. via ECG monitoring. In contrary to longer exposure times with ex-vivo scans, scan times for in-vivo were reduced using 35μm pixel size, 158ms exposure time and 18μm pixel size, 316ms exposure time to reduce motion artifacts. Gating via spontaneous breathing was also tested. Optimal contrast resolution was achieved at 50kVp, 200μA, applying an aluminum filter (0.5mm). There were minimal non-cardiac related motion artifacts. Both 35μm and 1μm voxel size images were suitable for evaluation of the airway lumen and parenchymal density. Total scan times were 30 and 65 minutes respectively. The mice recovered following scanning protocols. In-vivo lung scanning with recovery of the mouse delivered reasonable image quality for longitudinal studies, e.g. mouse asthma models. After examining 10 mice, we conclude μCT is a feasible tool evaluating mouse models of lung pathology in longitudinal studies with increasing anatomic detail available for evaluation as one moves from in-vivo to ex-vivo studies. Further developments include automated

  5. Aging Research Using Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl L.; Anderson, Laura; Sheehan, Susan; Hill, Warren G.; Chang, Bo; Churchill, Gary A.; Chesler, Elissa J.; Korstanje, Ron; Peters, Luanne L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the dramatic increase in human lifespan over the past century, there remains pronounced variability in “health-span”, or the period of time in which one is generally healthy and free of disease. Much of the variability in health-span and lifespan is thought to be genetic in origin. Understanding the genetic mechanisms of aging and identifying ways to boost longevity is a primary goal in aging research. Here, we describe a pipeline of phenotypic assays for assessing mouse models of aging. This pipeline includes behavior/cognition testing, body composition analysis, and tests of kidney function, hematopoiesis, immune function and physical parameters. We also describe study design methods for assessing lifespan and health-span, and other important considerations when conducting aging research in the laboratory mouse. The tools and assays provided can assist researchers with understanding the correlative relationships between age-associated phenotypes and, ultimately, the role of specific genes in the aging process. PMID:26069080

  6. A Disk Origin for the Monoceros Ring and A13 Stellar Overdensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, Allyson A.; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Tzanidakis, Anastasios; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Laporte, Chervin F. P.; Sesar, Branimir

    2018-02-01

    The Monoceros Ring (also known as the Galactic Anticenter Stellar Structure) and A13 are stellar overdensities at estimated heliocentric distances of d ∼ 11 kpc and 15 kpc observed at low Galactic latitudes toward the anticenter of our Galaxy. While these overdensities were initially thought to be remnants of a tidally disrupted satellite galaxy, an alternate scenario is that they are composed of stars from the Milky Way (MW) disk kicked out to their current location due to interactions between a satellite galaxy and the disk. To test this scenario, we study the stellar populations of the Monoceros Ring and A13 by measuring the number of RR Lyrae and M giant stars associated with these overdensities. We obtain low-resolution spectroscopy for RR Lyrae stars in the two structures and measure radial velocities to compare with previously measured velocities for M giant stars in the regions of the Monoceros Ring and A13, to assess the fraction of RR Lyrae to M giant stars (f RR:MG) in A13 and Mon/GASS. We perform velocity modeling on 153 RR Lyrae stars (116 in the Monoceros Ring and 37 in A13) and find that both structures have very low f RR:MG. The results support a scenario in which stars in A13 and Mon/GASS formed in the MW disk. We discuss a possible association between Mon/GASS, A13, and the Triangulum-Andromeda overdensity based on their similar velocity distributions and f RR:MG.

  7. A Transgenic Mouse Model of Poliomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Koike, Satoshi; Nagata, Noriyo

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic mice (tg mice) that express the human poliovirus receptor (PVR), CD155, are susceptible to poliovirus and develop a neurological disease that resembles human poliomyelitis. Assessment of the neurovirulence levels of poliovirus strains, including mutant viruses produced by reverse genetics, circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus, and vaccine candidates, is useful for basic research of poliovirus pathogenicity, the surveillance of circulating polioviruses, and the quality control of oral live poliovirus vaccines, and does not require the use of monkeys. Furthermore, PVR-tg mice are useful for studying poliovirus tissue tropism and host immune responses. PVR-tg mice can be bred with mice deficient in the genes involved in viral pathogenicity. This report describes the methods used to analyze the pathogenicity and immune responses of poliovirus using the PVR-tg mouse model.

  8. Preclinical Mouse Models of Neurofibromatosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    collaborated closely and have shared expertise and reagents extensively. This NF Consortium is a member of the Moue Models of Human Cancer Consortium...of the National Cancer Institute and is participating fully in the activities of the group. The current award will support these collaborative...studies through 2005. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Neurofibromatosis, cancer , mouse models 48 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 78

  9. Monitoring blood-flow in the mouse cochlea using an endoscopic laser speckle contrast imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sunkon; Jung, Byungjo; Choi, Jin Sil

    2018-01-01

    Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) enables continuous high-resolution assessment of microcirculation in real-time. We applied an endoscope to LSCI to measure cochlear blood-flow in an ischemia–reperfusion mouse model. We also explored whether using xenon light in combination with LSCI facilitates visualization of anatomical position. Based on a previous preliminary study, the appropriate wavelength for penetrating the thin bony cochlea was 830 nm. A 2.7-mm-diameter endoscope was used, as appropriate for the size of the mouse cochlea. Our endoscopic LSCI system was used to illuminate the right cochlea after dissection of the mouse. We observed changes in the speckle signals when we applied the endoscopic LSCI system to the ischemia-reperfusion mouse model. The anatomical structure of the mouse cochlea and surrounding structures were clearly visible using the xenon light. The speckle signal of the cochlea was scattered, with an intensity that varied between that of the stapes (with the lowest signal), the negative control, and the stapedial artery (with the highest signal), the positive control. In the cochlear ischemia–reperfusion mouse model, the speckle signal of the cochlea decreased during the ischemic phase, and increased during the reperfusion phase, clearly reflecting cochlear blood-flow. The endoscopic LSCI system generates high-resolution images in real-time, allowing visualization of blood-flow and its changes in the mouse cochlea. Anatomical structures were clearly matched using LSCI along with visible light. PMID:29489849

  10. Monitoring blood-flow in the mouse cochlea using an endoscopic laser speckle contrast imaging system.

    PubMed

    Kong, Tae Hoon; Yu, Sunkon; Jung, Byungjo; Choi, Jin Sil; Seo, Young Joon

    2018-01-01

    Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) enables continuous high-resolution assessment of microcirculation in real-time. We applied an endoscope to LSCI to measure cochlear blood-flow in an ischemia-reperfusion mouse model. We also explored whether using xenon light in combination with LSCI facilitates visualization of anatomical position. Based on a previous preliminary study, the appropriate wavelength for penetrating the thin bony cochlea was 830 nm. A 2.7-mm-diameter endoscope was used, as appropriate for the size of the mouse cochlea. Our endoscopic LSCI system was used to illuminate the right cochlea after dissection of the mouse. We observed changes in the speckle signals when we applied the endoscopic LSCI system to the ischemia-reperfusion mouse model. The anatomical structure of the mouse cochlea and surrounding structures were clearly visible using the xenon light. The speckle signal of the cochlea was scattered, with an intensity that varied between that of the stapes (with the lowest signal), the negative control, and the stapedial artery (with the highest signal), the positive control. In the cochlear ischemia-reperfusion mouse model, the speckle signal of the cochlea decreased during the ischemic phase, and increased during the reperfusion phase, clearly reflecting cochlear blood-flow. The endoscopic LSCI system generates high-resolution images in real-time, allowing visualization of blood-flow and its changes in the mouse cochlea. Anatomical structures were clearly matched using LSCI along with visible light.

  11. Mouse Models of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Fox, James G.; Gonda, Tamas; Worthley, Daniel L.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Wang, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have greatly enriched our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of numerous types of cancers. Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with a poor prognosis and high incidence of drug-resistance. However, most inbred strains of mice have proven resistant to gastric carcinogenesis. To establish useful models which mimic human gastric cancer phenotypes, investigators have utilized animals infected with Helicobacter species and treated with carcinogens. In addition, by exploiting genetic engineering, a variety of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have emerged, such as INS-GAS mice and TFF1 knockout mice. Investigators have used the combination of carcinogens and gene alteration to accelerate gastric cancer development, but rarely do mouse models show an aggressive and metastatic gastric cancer phenotype that could be relevant to preclinical studies, which may require more specific targeting of gastric progenitor cells. Here, we review current gastric carcinogenesis mouse models and provide our future perspectives on this field. PMID:24216700

  12. Localization and regulation of mouse pantothenate kinase 2 [The PanK2 Genes of Mouse and Human Specify Proteins with Distinct Subcellular Locations

    SciTech Connect

    Leonardi, Roberta; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Lykidis, Athanasios

    2007-09-07

    Coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis is initiated by pantothenatekinase (PanK) and CoA levels are controlled through differentialexpression and feedback regulation of PanK isoforms. PanK2 is amitochondrial protein in humans, but comparative genomics revealed thatacquisition of a mitochondrial targeting signal was limited to primates.Human and mouse PanK2 possessed similar biochemical properties, withinhibition by acetylCoA and activation by palmitoylcarnitine. Mouse PanK2localized in the cytosol, and the expression of PanK2 was higher in humanbrain compared to mouse brain. Differences in expression and subcellularlocalization should be considered in developing a mouse model for humanPanK2 deficiency.

  13. Ground-based assessment of JAXA mouse habitat cage unit by mouse phenotypic studies

    PubMed Central

    Shimbo, Miki; Kudo, Takashi; Hamada, Michito; Jeon, Hyojung; Imamura, Yuki; Asano, Keigo; Okada, Risa; Tsunakawa, Yuki; Mizuno, Seiya; Yagami, Ken-ichi; Ishikawa, Chihiro; Li, Haiyan; Shiga, Takashi; Ishida, Junji; Hamada, Juri; Murata, Kazuya; Ishimaru, Tomohiro; Hashimoto, Misuzu; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Yamane, Mutsumi; Ikawa, Masahito; Morita, Hironobu; Shinohara, Masahiro; Asahara, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Taishin; Akiyama, Nobuko; Sasanuma, Hiroki; Yoshida, Nobuaki; Zhou, Rui; Wang, Ying-Ying; Ito, Taito; Kokubu, Yuko; Noguchi, Taka-aki K.; Ishimine, Hisako; Kurisaki, Akira; Shiba, Dai; Mizuno, Hiroyasu; Shirakawa, Masaki; Ito, Naoki; Takeda, Shin; Takahashi, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency developed the mouse Habitat Cage Unit (HCU) for installation in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility (CBEF) onboard the Japanese Experimental Module (“Kibo”) on the International Space Station. The CBEF provides “space-based controls” by generating artificial gravity in the HCU through a centrifuge, enabling a comparison of the biological consequences of microgravity and artificial gravity of 1 g on mice housed in space. Therefore, prior to the space experiment, a ground-based study to validate the habitability of the HCU is necessary to conduct space experiments using the HCU in the CBEF. Here, we investigated the ground-based effect of a 32-day housing period in the HCU breadboard model on male mice in comparison with the control cage mice. Morphology of skeletal muscle, the thymus, heart, and kidney, and the sperm function showed no critical abnormalities between the control mice and HCU mice. Slight but significant changes caused by the HCU itself were observed, including decreased body weight, increased weights of the thymus and gastrocnemius, reduced thickness of cortical bone of the femur, and several gene expressions from 11 tissues. Results suggest that the HCU provides acceptable conditions for mouse phenotypic analysis using CBEF in space, as long as its characteristic features are considered. Thus, the HCU is a feasible device for future space experiments. PMID:26822934

  14. Mouse allergen, lung function, and atopy in Puerto Rican children.

    PubMed

    Forno, Erick; Cloutier, Michelle M; Datta, Soma; Paul, Kathryn; Sylvia, Jody; Calvert, Deanna; Thornton-Thompson, Sherell; Wakefield, Dorothy B; Brehm, John; Hamilton, Robert G; Alvarez, María; Colón-Semidey, Angel; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Canino, Glorisa; Celedón, Juan C

    2012-01-01

    To examine the relation between mouse allergen exposure and asthma in Puerto Rican children. Mus m 1, Der p 1, Bla g 2, and Fel d 1 allergens were measured in dust samples from homes of Puerto Rican children with (cases) and without (controls) asthma in Hartford, CT (n = 449) and San Juan (SJ), Puerto Rico (n = 678). Linear or logistic regression was used for the multivariate analysis of mouse allergen (Mus m 1) and lung function (FEV(1) and FEV(1)/FVC) and allergy (total IgE and skin test reactivity (STR) to ≥1 allergen) measures. Homes in SJ had lower mouse allergen levels than those in Hartford. In multivariate analyses, mouse allergen was associated with higher FEV(1) in cases in Hartford (+70.6 ml, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 8.6-132.7 ml, P = 0.03) and SJ (+45.1 ml, 95% CI =  -0.5 to 90.6 ml, P = 0.05). In multivariate analyses of controls, mouse allergen was inversely associated with STR to ≥1 allergen in non-sensitized children (odds ratio [OR] for each log-unit increment in Mus m 1 = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.5-0.9, P<0.01). In a multivariate analysis including all children at both study sites, each log-increment in mouse allergen was positively associated with FEV(1) (+28.3 ml, 95% CI = 1.4-55.2 ml, P = 0.04) and inversely associated with STR to ≥1 allergen (OR for each log-unit increment in Mus m 1 = 0.8, 95% CI = 0.6-0.9, P<0.01). Mouse allergen is associated with a higher FEV(1) and lower odds of STR to ≥1 allergen in Puerto Rican children. This may be explained by the allergen itself or correlated microbial exposures.

  15. Mouse Allergen, Lung Function, and Atopy in Puerto Rican Children

    PubMed Central

    Forno, Erick; Cloutier, Michelle M.; Datta, Soma; Paul, Kathryn; Sylvia, Jody; Calvert, Deanna; Thornton-Thompson, Sherell; Wakefield, Dorothy B.; Brehm, John; Hamilton, Robert G.; Alvarez, María; Colón-Semidey, Angel; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Canino, Glorisa; Celedón, Juan C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation between mouse allergen exposure and asthma in Puerto Rican children. Methods Mus m 1, Der p 1, Bla g 2, and Fel d 1 allergens were measured in dust samples from homes of Puerto Rican children with (cases) and without (controls) asthma in Hartford, CT (n = 449) and San Juan (SJ), Puerto Rico (n = 678). Linear or logistic regression was used for the multivariate analysis of mouse allergen (Mus m 1) and lung function (FEV1 and FEV1/FVC) and allergy (total IgE and skin test reactivity (STR) to ≥1 allergen) measures. Results Homes in SJ had lower mouse allergen levels than those in Hartford. In multivariate analyses, mouse allergen was associated with higher FEV1 in cases in Hartford (+70.6 ml, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 8.6–132.7 ml, P = 0.03) and SJ (+45.1 ml, 95% CI =  −0.5 to 90.6 ml, P = 0.05). In multivariate analyses of controls, mouse allergen was inversely associated with STR to ≥1 allergen in non-sensitized children (odds ratio [OR] for each log-unit increment in Mus m 1 = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.5–0.9, P<0.01). In a multivariate analysis including all children at both study sites, each log-increment in mouse allergen was positively associated with FEV1 (+28.3 ml, 95% CI = 1.4–55.2 ml, P = 0.04) and inversely associated with STR to ≥1 allergen (OR for each log-unit increment in Mus m 1 = 0.8, 95% CI = 0.6–0.9, P<0.01). Conclusions Mouse allergen is associated with a higher FEV1 and lower odds of STR to ≥1 allergen in Puerto Rican children. This may be explained by the allergen itself or correlated microbial exposures. PMID:22815744

  16. A Mouse Geneticist’s Practical Guide to CRISPR Applications

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Priti; Schimenti, John C.; Bolcun-Filas, Ewelina

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 system of RNA-guided genome editing is revolutionizing genetics research in a wide spectrum of organisms. Even for the laboratory mouse, a model that has thrived under the benefits of embryonic stem (ES) cell knockout capabilities for nearly three decades, CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)/Cas9 technology enables one to manipulate the genome with unprecedented simplicity and speed. It allows generation of null, conditional, precisely mutated, reporter, or tagged alleles in mice. Moreover, it holds promise for other applications beyond genome editing. The crux of this system is the efficient and targeted introduction of DNA breaks that are repaired by any of several pathways in a predictable but not entirely controllable manner. Thus, further optimizations and improvements are being developed. Here, we summarize current applications and provide a practical guide to use the CRISPR/Cas9 system for mouse mutagenesis, based on published reports and our own experiences. We discuss critical points and suggest technical improvements to increase efficiency of RNA-guided genome editing in mouse embryos and address practical problems such as mosaicism in founders, which complicates genotyping and phenotyping. We describe a next-generation sequencing strategy for simultaneous characterization of on- and off-target editing in mice derived from multiple CRISPR experiments. Additionally, we report evidence that elevated frequency of precise, homology-directed editing can be achieved by transient inhibition of the Ligase IV-dependent nonhomologous end-joining pathway in one-celled mouse embryos. PMID:25271304

  17. Preimplantation death of xenomitochondrial mouse embryo harbouring bovine mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Manabu; Koyama, Shiori; Iimura, Satomi; Yamazaki, Wataru; Tanaka, Aiko; Kohri, Nanami; Sasaki, Keisuke; Takahashi, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria, cellular organelles playing essential roles in eukaryotic cell metabolism, are thought to have evolved from bacteria. The organization of mtDNA is remarkably uniform across species, reflecting its vital and conserved role in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Our objectives were to evaluate the compatibility of xenogeneic mitochondria in the development of preimplantation embryos in mammals. Mouse embryos harbouring bovine mitochondria (mtB-M embryos) were prepared by the cell-fusion technique employing the haemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ). The mtB-M embryos showed developmental delay at embryonic days (E) 3.5 after insemination. Furthermore, none of the mtB-M embryos could implant into the maternal uterus after embryo transfer, whereas control mouse embryos into which mitochondria from another mouse had been transferred developed as well as did non-manipulated embryos. When we performed quantitative PCR (qPCR) of mouse and bovine ND5, we found that the mtB-M embryos contained 8.3% of bovine mitochondria at the blastocyst stage. Thus, contamination with mitochondria from another species induces embryonic lethality prior to implantation into the maternal uterus. The heteroplasmic state of these xenogeneic mitochondria could have detrimental effects on preimplantation development, leading to preservation of species-specific mitochondrial integrity in mammals. PMID:26416548

  18. Contrast imaging in mouse embryos using high-frequency ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Denbeigh, Janet M; Nixon, Brian A; Puri, Mira C; Foster, F Stuart

    2015-03-04

    Ultrasound contrast-enhanced imaging can convey essential quantitative information regarding tissue vascularity and perfusion and, in targeted applications, facilitate the detection and measure of vascular biomarkers at the molecular level. Within the mouse embryo, this noninvasive technique may be used to uncover basic mechanisms underlying vascular development in the early mouse circulatory system and in genetic models of cardiovascular disease. The mouse embryo also presents as an excellent model for studying the adhesion of microbubbles to angiogenic targets (including vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) or αvβ3) and for assessing the quantitative nature of molecular ultrasound. We therefore developed a method to introduce ultrasound contrast agents into the vasculature of living, isolated embryos. This allows freedom in terms of injection control and positioning, reproducibility of the imaging plane without obstruction and motion, and simplified image analysis and quantification. Late gestational stage (embryonic day (E)16.6 and E17.5) murine embryos were isolated from the uterus, gently exteriorized from the yolk sac and microbubble contrast agents were injected into veins accessible on the chorionic surface of the placental disc. Nonlinear contrast ultrasound imaging was then employed to collect a number of basic perfusion parameters (peak enhancement, wash-in rate and time to peak) and quantify targeted microbubble binding in an endoglin mouse model. We show the successful circulation of microbubbles within living embryos and the utility of this approach in characterizing embryonic vasculature and microbubble behavior.

  19. Discovery of cancer biomarkers through the use of mouse models.

    PubMed

    Kuick, Rork; Misek, David E; Monsma, David J; Webb, Craig P; Wang, Hong; Peterson, Kelli J; Pisano, Michael; Omenn, Gilbert S; Hanash, Samir M

    2007-04-28

    Although our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of common types of cancer has improved considerably, the development of effective strategies for cancer diagnosis and treatment have lagged behind. Mouse models of cancer potentially represent an efficient means for uncovering diagnostic markers as genetic alterations associated with human tumors can be engineered in mice. In addition, defined stages of tumor development, breeding conditions, and blood sampling can all be controlled and standardized to limit heterogeneity. Alternatively human cancer cells can be injected into mice and tumor development monitored in xenotransplants. Mouse-based studies promise to elucidate a repertoire of protein changes that occur in blood and biological fluids during tumor development. This is illustrated in a study in which we have applied a three-dimensional intact protein analysis system (IPAS) to elucidate detectable protein changes in serum from immunodeficient mice with lung xenografts from orthotopically implanted human A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. With sufficiently detailed protein sequence identifications, the observed protein changes can be attributed to either the host mouse or the human tumor cells. It is noteworthy that the majority of increases identified have corresponded to relatively abundant serum proteins, some of which have previously been reported as increased in the sera of cancer patients. Proteomic studies of mouse models of cancer allow assessment of the range of changes in plasma proteins that occur with tumor development and may lead to the identification of potential cancer markers applicable to humans.

  20. Effect of human alpha 2HS glycoprotein on mouse macrophage function.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, J G; André, C M

    1980-01-01

    alpha 2HS glycoprotein was isolated from normal adult serum. The ability of alpha 2HS glycoprotein to promote the endocytosis of radiolabelled DNA and radiolabelled latex particles by mouse macrophages was investigated. The results using both radiolabelled latex particles and radiolabelled DNA show that alpha 2HS glycoprotein enhances the ability of mouse macrophages to take up these radiolabelled substrates as compared to control cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7439929

  1. Low-cost computer mouse for the elderly or disabled in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, C-C; Chen, W-L; Chen, B-N; Shih, Y-Y; Lai, J-S; Chen, Y-L

    2014-01-01

    A mouse is an important communication interface between a human and a computer, but it is still difficult to use for the elderly or disabled. To develop a low-cost computer mouse auxiliary tool. The principal structure of the low-cost mouse auxiliary tool is the IR (infrared ray) array module and the Wii icon sensor module, which combine with reflective tape and the SQL Server database. This has several benefits including cheap hardware cost, fluent control, prompt response, adaptive adjustment and portability. Also, it carries the game module with the function of training and evaluation; to the trainee, it is really helpful to upgrade the sensitivity of consciousness/sense and the centralization of attention. The intervention phase/maintenance phase, with regard to clicking accuracy and use of time, p value (p< 0.05) reach the level of significance. The development of the low cost adaptive computer mouse auxiliary tool was completed during the study and was also verified as having the characteristics of low cost, easy operation and the adaptability. To patients with physical disabilities, if they have independent control action parts of their limbs, the mouse auxiliary tool is suitable for them to use, i.e. the user only needs to paste the reflective tape by the independent control action parts of the body to operate the mouse auxiliary tool.

  2. Live imaging of mouse secondary palate fusion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seungil; Prochazka, Jan; Bush, Jeffrey O.

    2017-01-01

    LONG ABSTRACT The fusion of the secondary palatal shelves to form the intact secondary palate is a key process in mammalian development and its disruption can lead to cleft secondary palate, a common congenital anomaly in humans. Secondary palate fusion has been extensively studied leading to several proposed cellular mechanisms that may mediate this process. However, these studies have been mostly performed on fixed embryonic tissues at progressive timepoints during development or in fixed explant cultures analyzed at static timepoints. Static analysis is limited for the analysis of dynamic morphogenetic processes such a palate fusion and what types of dynamic cellular behaviors mediate palatal fusion is incompletely understood. Here we describe a protocol for live imaging of ex vivo secondary palate fusion in mouse embryos. To examine cellular behaviors of palate fusion, epithelial-specific Keratin14-cre was used to label palate epithelial cells in ROSA26-mTmGflox reporter embryos. To visualize filamentous actin, Lifeact-mRFPruby reporter mice were used. Live imaging of secondary palate fusion was performed by dissecting recently-adhered secondary palatal shelves of embryonic day (E) 14.5 stage embryos and culturing in agarose-containing media on a glass bottom dish to enable imaging with an inverted confocal microscope. Using this method, we have detected a variety of novel cellular behaviors during secondary palate fusion. An appreciation of how distinct cell behaviors are coordinated in space and time greatly contributes to our understanding of this dynamic morphogenetic process. This protocol can be applied to mutant mouse lines, or cultures treated with pharmacological inhibitors to further advance understanding of how secondary palate fusion is controlled. PMID:28784960

  3. Generation and gene expression profiling of 48 transcription-factor-inducible mouse embryonic stem cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yamamizu, Kohei; Sharov, Alexei A; Piao, Yulan; Amano, Misa; Yu, Hong; Nishiyama, Akira; Dudekula, Dawood B; Schlessinger, David; Ko, Minoru S H

    2016-05-06

    Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can differentiate into a wide range - and possibly all cell types in vitro, and thus provide an ideal platform to study systematically the action of transcription factors (TFs) in cell differentiation. Previously, we have generated and analyzed 137 TF-inducible mouse ESC lines. As an extension of this "NIA Mouse ESC Bank," we generated and characterized 48 additional mouse ESC lines, in which single TFs in each line could be induced in a doxycycline-controllable manner. Together, with the previous ESC lines, the bank now comprises 185 TF-manipulable ESC lines (>10% of all mouse TFs). Global gene expression (transcriptome) profiling revealed that the induction of individual TFs in mouse ESCs for 48 hours shifts their transcriptomes toward specific differentiation fates (e.g., neural lineages by Myt1 Isl1, and St18; mesodermal lineages by Pitx1, Pitx2, Barhl2, and Lmx1a; white blood cells by Myb, Etv2, and Tbx6, and ovary by Pitx1, Pitx2, and Dmrtc2). These data also provide and lists of inferred target genes of each TF and possible functions of these TFs. The results demonstrate the utility of mouse ESC lines and their transcriptome data for understanding the mechanism of cell differentiation and the function of TFs.

  4. Biological and metabolic response in STS-135 space-flown mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Mao, X W; Pecaut, M J; Stodieck, L S; Ferguson, V L; Bateman, T A; Bouxsein, M L; Gridley, D S

    2014-08-01

    There is evidence that space flight condition-induced biological damage is associated with increased oxidative stress and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. To explore possible mechanisms, changes in gene expression profiles implicated in oxidative stress and in ECM remodeling in mouse skin were examined after space flight. The metabolic effects of space flight in skin tissues were also characterized. Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-135) was launched at the Kennedy Space Center on a 13-day mission. Female C57BL/6 mice were flown in the STS-135 using animal enclosure modules (AEMs). Within 3-5 h after landing, the mice were euthanized and skin samples were harvested for gene array analysis and metabolic biochemical assays. Many genes responsible for regulating production and metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were significantly (p < 0.05) altered in the flight group, with fold changes >1.5 compared to AEM control. For ECM profile, several genes encoding matrix and metalloproteinases involved in ECM remodeling were significantly up-/down-regulated following space flight. To characterize the metabolic effects of space flight, global biochemical profiles were evaluated. Of 332 named biochemicals, 19 differed significantly (p < 0.05) between space flight skin samples and AEM ground controls, with 12 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated including altered amino acid, carbohydrate metabolism, cell signaling, and transmethylation pathways. Collectively, the data demonstrated that space flight condition leads to a shift in biological and metabolic homeostasis as the consequence of increased regulation in cellular antioxidants, ROS production, and tissue remodeling. This indicates that astronauts may be at increased risk for pathophysiologic damage or carcinogenesis in cutaneous tissue.

  5. Preclinical Mouse Models of Neurofibromatosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    these tumors became evident 7-33 weeks after injury (average 25 ± 9 weeks), requiring the mice to be euthanized. Tumor histopathology closely mimicked...arose in a K-rasG12D-only mouse following adeno-Cre administration (1/7). However, the histopathology of this tumor differed significantly from that...Arf mice did not develop detectable tumors in this study (0/6). Figure 1. The full spectrum of meningioma histopathology can be modeled by Nf2

  6. Therapeutic cloning in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Mombaerts, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear transfer technology can be applied to produce autologous differentiated cells for therapeutic purposes, a concept termed therapeutic cloning. Countless articles have been published on the ethics and politics of human therapeutic cloning, reflecting the high expectations from this new opportunity for rejuvenation of the aging or diseased body. Yet the research literature on therapeutic cloning, strictly speaking, is comprised of only four articles, all in the mouse. The efficiency of derivation of embryonic stem cell lines via nuclear transfer is remarkably consistent among these reports. However, the efficiency is so low that, in its present form, the concept is unlikely to become widespread in clinical practice. PMID:12949262

  7. Proteomics analysis of melanoma metastases: association between S100A13 expression and chemotherapy resistance

    PubMed Central

    Azimi, A; Pernemalm, M; Frostvik Stolt, M; Hansson, J; Lehtiö, J; Egyházi Brage, S; Hertzman Johansson, C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Disseminated cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is commonly unresponsive to standard chemotherapies, and there are as yet no predictive markers of therapy response. Methods: In the present study we collected fresh-frozen pretreatment lymph-node metastasis samples (n=14) from melanoma patients with differential response to dacarbazine (DTIC) or temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy, to identify proteins with an impact on treatment response. We performed quantitative protein profiling using tandem mass spectrometry and compared the proteome differences between responders (R) and non-responders (NR), matched for age, gender and histopathological type of CMM. Results: Biological pathway analyses showed several signalling pathways differing between R vs NR, including Rho signalling. Gene expression profiling data was available for a subset of the samples, and the results were compared with the proteomics data. Four proteins with differential expression between R and NR were selected for technical validation by immunoblotting (ISYNA1, F13A1, CSTB and S100A13), and CSTB and S100A13 were further validated on a larger sample set by immunohistochemistry (n=48). The calcium binding protein S100A13 was found to be significantly overexpressed in NR compared with R in all analyses performed. Conclusions: Our results suggest that S100A13 is involved in CMM resistance to DTIC/TMZ. PMID:24722184

  8. Eating Order: A 13-Week Trust Model Class for Dieting Casualties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Elizabeth G.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic dieting distorts eating behaviors and causes weight escalation. Desperation about losing weight results in pursuit of extreme weight loss measures. Instead of offering yet another diet, nutrition educators can teach chronic dieters (dieting casualties) to develop eating competence. Eating Order, a 13-week class for chronic dieters based on…

  9. 26 CFR 1.411(a)(13)-1 - Statutory hybrid plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... another benefit amount) and at least one of those formulas is a statutory hybrid benefit formula, the... certain statutory hybrid plans that determine benefits under a lump sum-based benefit formula. Paragraph... current balance or current value under a lump sum-based benefit formula. Pursuant to section 411(a)(13)(A...

  10. 26 CFR 1.411(a)(13)-1 - Statutory hybrid plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... another benefit amount) and at least one of those formulas is a statutory hybrid benefit formula, the... certain statutory hybrid plans that determine benefits under a lump sum-based benefit formula. Paragraph... current balance or current value under a lump sum-based benefit formula. Pursuant to section 411(a)(13)(A...

  11. 26 CFR 1.411(a)(13)-1 - Statutory hybrid plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... another benefit amount) and at least one of those formulas is a statutory hybrid benefit formula, the... certain statutory hybrid plans that determine benefits under a lump sum-based benefit formula. Paragraph... current balance or current value under a lump sum-based benefit formula. Pursuant to section 411(a)(13)(A...

  12. 26 CFR 1.411(a)(13)-1 - Statutory hybrid plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... another benefit amount) and at least one of those formulas is a statutory hybrid benefit formula, the... certain statutory hybrid plans that determine benefits under a lump sum-based benefit formula. Paragraph... current balance or current value under a lump sum-based benefit formula. Pursuant to section 411(a)(13)(A...

  13. 26 CFR 1.401(a)-13 - Assignment or alienation of benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assignment or alienation of benefits. 1.401(a...)-13 Assignment or alienation of benefits. (a) Scope of the regulations. This section applies only to..., provided for employer contributions. (b) No assignment or alienation—(1) General rule. Under section 401(a...

  14. 42 CFR 59a.13 - Who is eligible for a grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE GRANTS Establishment of Regional Medical Libraries § 59a.13 Who is eligible for a grant? Except as... to operate a medical library is eligible for a grant under this subpart. ...

  15. 42 CFR 59a.13 - Who is eligible for a grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE GRANTS Establishment of Regional Medical Libraries § 59a.13 Who is eligible for a grant? Except as... to operate a medical library is eligible for a grant under this subpart. ...

  16. 42 CFR 59a.13 - Who is eligible for a grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE GRANTS Establishment of Regional Medical Libraries § 59a.13 Who is eligible for a grant? Except as... to operate a medical library is eligible for a grant under this subpart. ...

  17. 42 CFR 59a.13 - Who is eligible for a grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE GRANTS Establishment of Regional Medical Libraries § 59a.13 Who is eligible for a grant? Except as... to operate a medical library is eligible for a grant under this subpart. ...

  18. 42 CFR 59a.13 - Who is eligible for a grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE GRANTS Establishment of Regional Medical Libraries § 59a.13 Who is eligible for a grant? Except as... to operate a medical library is eligible for a grant under this subpart. ...

  19. 32 CFR 169a.13 - CAs involving forty-five or fewer DoD civilian employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false CAs involving forty-five or fewer DoD civilian employees. 169a.13 Section 169a.13 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Procedures § 169a.13 CAs involving forty-five...

  20. 32 CFR 169a.13 - CAs involving forty-five or fewer DoD civilian employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false CAs involving forty-five or fewer DoD civilian employees. 169a.13 Section 169a.13 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Procedures § 169a.13 CAs involving forty-five...

  1. 32 CFR 169a.13 - CAs involving forty-five or fewer DoD civilian employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false CAs involving forty-five or fewer DoD civilian employees. 169a.13 Section 169a.13 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Procedures § 169a.13 CAs involving forty-five...

  2. Intact calcium signaling in adrenergic-deficient embryonic mouse hearts.

    PubMed

    Peoples, Jessica N; Taylor, David G; Katchman, Alexander N; Ebert, Steven N

    2018-01-22

    Mouse embryos that lack the ability to produce the adrenergic hormones, norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI), due to disruption of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (Dbh -/- ) gene inevitably perish from heart failure during mid-gestation. Since adrenergic stimulation is well-known to enhance calcium signaling in developing as well as adult myocardium, and impairments in calcium signaling are typically associated with heart failure, we hypothesized that adrenergic-deficient embryonic hearts would display deficiencies in cardiac calcium signaling relative to adrenergic-competent controls at a developmental stage immediately preceding the onset of heart failure, which first appears beginning or shortly after mouse embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5). To test this hypothesis, we used ratiometric fluorescent calcium imaging techniques to measure cytosolic calcium transients, [Ca 2+ ] i in isolated E10.5 mouse hearts. Our results show that spontaneous [Ca 2+ ] i oscillations were intact and robustly responded to a variety of stimuli including extracellular calcium (5 mM), caffeine (5 mM), and NE (100 nM) in a manner that was indistinguishable from controls. Further, we show similar patterns of distribution (via immunofluorescent histochemical staining) and activity (via patch-clamp recording techniques) for the major voltage-gated plasma membrane calcium channel responsible for the L-type calcium current, I Ca,L , in adrenergic-deficient and control embryonic cardiac cells. These results demonstrate that despite the absence of vital adrenergic hormones that consistently leads to embryonic lethality in vivo, intracellular and extracellular calcium signaling remain essentially intact and functional in embryonic mouse hearts through E10.5. These findings suggest that adrenergic stimulation is not required for the development of intracellular calcium oscillations or extracellular calcium signaling through I Ca,L and that aberrant calcium signaling does not likely contribute

  3. NCI Mouse Repository | Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Mouse Repository is an NCI-funded resource for mouse cancer models and associated strains. The repository makes strains available to all members of the scientific community (academic, non-profit, and commercial). NCI Mouse Repository strains

  4. Chromatin immunoprecipitation of mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Voss, Anne K; Dixon, Mathew P; McLennan, Tamara; Kueh, Andrew J; Thomas, Tim

    2012-01-01

    During prenatal development, a large number of different cell types are formed, the vast majority of which contain identical genetic material. The basis of the great variety in cell phenotype and function is the differential expression of the approximately 25,000 genes in the mammalian genome. Transcriptional activity is regulated at many levels by proteins, including members of the basal transcriptional apparatus, DNA-binding transcription factors, and chromatin-binding proteins. Importantly, chromatin structure dictates the availability of a specific genomic locus for transcriptional activation as well as the efficiency, with which transcription can occur. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a method to assess if chromatin modifications or proteins are present at a specific locus. ChIP involves the cross linking of DNA and associated proteins and immunoprecipitation using specific antibodies to DNA-associated proteins followed by examination of the co-precipitated DNA sequences or proteins. In the last few years, ChIP has become an essential technique for scientists studying transcriptional regulation and chromatin structure. Using ChIP on mouse embryos, we can document the presence or absence of specific proteins and chromatin modifications at genomic loci in vivo during mammalian development. Here, we describe a ChIP technique adapted for mouse embryos.

  5. 10. international mouse genome conference

    SciTech Connect

    Meisler, M.H.

    Ten years after hosting the First International Mammalian Genome Conference in Paris in 1986, Dr. Jean-Louis Guenet presided over the Tenth Conference at the Pasteur Institute, October 7--10, 1996. The 1986 conference was a satellite to the Human Gene Mapping Workshop and had approximately 50 attendees. The 1996 meeting was attended by 300 scientists from around the world. In the interim, the number of mapped loci in the mouse increased from 1,000 to over 20,000. This report contains a listing of the program and its participants, and two articles that review the meeting and the role of the laboratory mousemore » in the Human Genome project. More than 200 papers were presented at the conference covering the following topics: International mouse chromosome committee meetings; Mutant generation and identification; Physical and genetic maps; New technology and resources; Chromatin structure and gene regulation; Rate and hamster genetic maps; Informatics and databases; and Quantitative trait analysis.« less

  6. Light and the laboratory mouse.

    PubMed

    Peirson, Stuart N; Brown, Laurence A; Pothecary, Carina A; Benson, Lindsay A; Fisk, Angus S

    2018-04-15

    Light exerts widespread effects on physiology and behaviour. As well as the widely-appreciated role of light in vision, light also plays a critical role in many non-visual responses, including regulating circadian rhythms, sleep, pupil constriction, heart rate, hormone release and learning and memory. In mammals, responses to light are all mediated via retinal photoreceptors, including the classical rods and cones involved in vision as well as the recently identified melanopsin-expressing photoreceptive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs). Understanding the effects of light on the laboratory mouse therefore depends upon an appreciation of the physiology of these retinal photoreceptors, including their differing sens itivities to absolute light levels and wavelengths. The signals from these photoreceptors are often integrated, with different responses involving distinct retinal projections, making generalisations challenging. Furthermore, many commonly used laboratory mouse strains carry mutations that affect visual or non-visual physiology, ranging from inherited retinal degeneration to genetic differences in sleep and circadian rhythms. Here we provide an overview of the visual and non-visual systems before discussing practical considerations for the use of light for researchers and animal facility staff working with laboratory mice. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Head Transplantation in Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiao-Ping; Ye, Yi-Jie; Li, Peng-Wei; Shen, Zi-Long; Han, Ke-Cheng; Song, Yang

    2015-08-01

    The mouse model of allo-head and body reconstruction (AHBR) has recently been established to further the clinical development of this strategy for patients who are suffering from mortal bodily trauma or disease, yet whose mind remains healthy. Animal model studies are indispensable for developing such novel surgical practices. The goal of this work was to establish head transplant mouse model, then the next step through the feasible biological model to investigate immune rejection and brain function in next step, thereby promoting the goal of translation of AHBR to the clinic in the future. Our approach involves retaining adequate blood perfusion in the transplanted head throughout the surgical procedure by establishing donor-to-recipient cross-circulation by cannulating and anastomosing the carotid artery on one side of the body and the jugular vein on the other side. Neurological function was preserved by this strategy as indicated by electroencephalogram and intact cranial nerve reflexes. The results of this study support the feasibility of this method for avoiding brain ischemia during transplantation, thereby allowing for the possibility of long-term studies of head transplantation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Drug discovery in prostate cancer mouse models.

    PubMed

    Valkenburg, Kenneth C; Pienta, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    The mouse is an important, though imperfect, organism with which to model human disease and to discover and test novel drugs in a preclinical setting. Many experimental strategies have been used to discover new biological and molecular targets in the mouse, with the hopes of translating these discoveries into novel drugs to treat prostate cancer in humans. Modeling prostate cancer in the mouse, however, has been challenging, and often drugs that work in mice have failed in human trials. The authors discuss the similarities and differences between mice and men; the types of mouse models that exist to model prostate cancer; practical questions one must ask when using a mouse as a model; and potential reasons that drugs do not often translate to humans. They also discuss the current value in using mouse models for drug discovery to treat prostate cancer and what needs are still unmet in field. With proper planning and following practical guidelines by the researcher, the mouse is a powerful experimental tool. The field lacks genetically engineered metastatic models, and xenograft models do not allow for the study of the immune system during the metastatic process. There remain several important limitations to discovering and testing novel drugs in mice for eventual human use, but these can often be overcome. Overall, mouse modeling is an essential part of prostate cancer research and drug discovery. Emerging technologies and better and ever-increasing forms of communication are moving the field in a hopeful direction.

  9. Measuring Viscoelastic Deformation with an Optical Mouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, T. W.

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of using an optical mouse to track the viscoelastic deformation of low-density polyethylene films that have a fixed attached load is presented. It is seen that using an optical mouse and with rudimentary experiment paraphernalia and arrangement, it is possible to get good measurements of viscoelastic deformation.

  10. Organization and roles of nucleosomes at mouse meiotic recombination hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Getun, Irina V.; Wu, Zhen K.; Bois, Philippe R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Meiotic double strand breaks (DSBs) occur at discrete regions in the genome coined hotspots. Precisely what directs site selection of these DSBs is hotly debated and in particular it is unclear which chromatin features, and regulatory factors are necessary for a genomic region to initiate and resolve DSBs as a crossover (CO) event. In human and mouse, one layer of hotspot selection control is a recognition sequence element present at these sites that is bound by the Prdm9 zinc-finger protein. Furthermore, an overall open chromatin structure is thought to be required to allow access of the recombination machinery, and this is often dictated by the packaging of DNA around nucleosomes. We recently defined the nucleosome occupancy maps of four mouse recombination hotspots throughout meiosis. These analyses revealed no obvious dynamic changes in nucleosome occupancy, suggesting an intrinsic nature of recombinogenic sites, yet they also revealed that nucleosomes define zones of exclusion for CO resolution. Here, we discuss new evidence implicating nucleosome occupancy in recombinogenic repair and its potential roles in controlling chromatin structure at mouse meiotic hotspots. PMID:22572955

  11. Mouse-tracking evidence for parallel anticipatory option evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cranford, Edward A; Moss, Jarrod

    2017-12-23

    In fast-paced, dynamic tasks, the ability to anticipate the future outcome of a sequence of events is crucial to quickly selecting an appropriate course of action among multiple alternative options. There are two classes of theories that describe how anticipation occurs. Serial theories assume options are generated and evaluated one at a time, in order of quality, whereas parallel theories assume simultaneous generation and evaluation. The present research examined the option evaluation process during a task designed to be analogous to prior anticipation tasks, but within the domain of narrative text comprehension. Prior research has relied on indirect, off-line measurement of the option evaluation process during anticipation tasks. Because the movement of the hand can provide a window into underlying cognitive processes, online metrics such as continuous mouse tracking provide more fine-grained measurements of cognitive processing as it occurs in real time. In this study, participants listened to three-sentence stories and predicted the protagonists' final action by moving a mouse toward one of three possible options. Each story was presented with either one (control condition) or two (distractor condition) plausible ending options. Results seem most consistent with a parallel option evaluation process because initial mouse trajectories deviated further from the best option in the distractor condition compared to the control condition. It is difficult to completely rule out all possible serial processing accounts, although the results do place constraints on the time frame in which a serial processing explanation must operate.

  12. Development and testing of a mouse simulated space flight model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    1985-01-01

    The development and testing of a mouse model for simulating some aspects of weightlessness that occur during space flight, and the carrying out of immunological flight experiments on animals was discussed. The mouse model is an antiorthostatic, hypokinetic, hypodynamic suspension model similar to the one used with rats. It is shown that this murine model yield similar results to the rat model of antiorthostatic suspension for simulating some aspects of weightlessness. It is also shown that mice suspended in this model have decreased interferon-alpha/beta production as compared to control, nonsuspended mice or to orthostatically suspended mice. It is suggested that the conditions occuring during space flight could possibly affect interferon production. The regulatory role of interferon in nonviral diseases is demonstrated including several bacterial and protozoan infections indicating the great significance of interferon in resistance to many types of infectious diseases.

  13. Circular RNA profiles in mouse lung tissue induced by radon.

    PubMed

    Pei, Weiwei; Tao, Lijing; Zhang, Leshuai W; Zhang, Shuyu; Cao, Jianping; Jiao, Yang; Tong, Jian; Nie, Jihua

    2017-04-07

    Radon is a known human lung carcinogen, whose underlying carcinogenic mechanism remains unclear. Recently, circular RNA (circRNA), a class of endogenous non-protein coding RNAs that contain a circular loop, was found to exhibit multiple biological effects. In this study, circRNA profiles in mouse lung tissues between control and radon exposure were analyzed. Six mice were exposed to radon at concentration of 100,000 Bq/m 3 , 12 h/d, for up to cumulative doses of 60 working level months (WLM). H&E staining and immunohistochemistry of caspase-3 were used to detect the damages in lung tissue. The lung tissue of control and exposed group were selected for circRNA microarray study. The circRNA/microRNA interaction was analyzed by starBase prediction software. 5 highest expressing circRNAs were selected by real-time PCR to validate the consistency in mouse lung tissue exposed to radon. Inflammatory reaction was found in mouse lung tissue exposed to radon, and caspase-3 expression was significantly increased. Microarray screening revealed 107 up-regulated and 83 down-regulated circRNAs, among which top 30 circRNAs with the highest fold changes were chosen for further analysis, with 5 microRNAs binding sites listed for each circRNA. Consistency of the top 5 circRNAs with the highest expressions were confirmed in mice exposed with 60WLM of radon. Mouse lung tissue was severely injured when exposed to radon through pathological diagnosis and immunohistochemical analysis. A series of differentially expressed circRNAs demonstrated that they may play an important role in pulmonary toxicity induced by radon.

  14. Laminar circuit organization and response modulation in mouse visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Olivas, Nicholas D.; Quintanar-Zilinskas, Victor; Nenadic, Zoran; Xu, Xiangmin

    2012-01-01

    The mouse has become an increasingly important animal model for visual system studies, but few studies have investigated local functional circuit organization of mouse visual cortex. Here we used our newly developed mapping technique combining laser scanning photostimulation (LSPS) with fast voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging to examine the spatial organization and temporal dynamics of laminar circuit responses in living slice preparations of mouse primary visual cortex (V1). During experiments, LSPS using caged glutamate provided spatially restricted neuronal activation in a specific cortical layer, and evoked responses from the stimulated layer to its functionally connected regions were detected by VSD imaging. In this study, we first provided a detailed analysis of spatiotemporal activation patterns at specific V1 laminar locations and measured local circuit connectivity. Then we examined the role of cortical inhibition in the propagation of evoked cortical responses by comparing circuit activity patterns in control and in the presence of GABAa receptor antagonists. We found that GABAergic inhibition was critical in restricting layer-specific excitatory activity spread and maintaining topographical projections. In addition, we investigated how AMPA and NMDA receptors influenced cortical responses and found that blocking AMPA receptors abolished interlaminar functional projections, and the NMDA receptor activity was important in controlling visual cortical circuit excitability and modulating activity propagation. The NMDA receptor antagonist reduced neuronal population activity in time-dependent and laminar-specific manners. Finally, we used the quantitative information derived from the mapping experiments and presented computational modeling analysis of V1 circuit organization. Taken together, the present study has provided important new information about mouse V1 circuit organization and response modulation. PMID:23060751

  15. Wireless infrared computer control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, George C.; He, Xiaofei

    2004-04-01

    Wireless mouse is not restricted by cable"s length and has advantage over its wired counterpart. However, all the mice available in the market have detection range less than 2 meters and angular coverage less than 180 degrees. Furthermore, commercial infrared mice are based on track ball and rollers to detect movements. This restricts them to be used in those occasions where users want to have dynamic movement, such as presentations and meetings etc. This paper presents our newly developed infrared wireless mouse, which has a detection range of 6 meters and angular coverage of 180 degrees. This new mouse uses buttons instead of traditional track ball and is developed to be a hand-held device like remote controller. It enables users to control cursor with a distance closed to computer and the mouse to be free from computer operation.

  16. The Mouse Forced Swim Test

    PubMed Central

    Can, Adem; Dao, David T.; Arad, Michal; Terrillion, Chantelle E.; Piantadosi, Sean C.; Gould, Todd D.

    2012-01-01

    The forced swim test is a rodent behavioral test used for evaluation of antidepressant drugs, antidepressant efficacy of new compounds, and experimental manipulations that are aimed at rendering or preventing depressive-like states. Mice are placed in an inescapable transparent tank that is filled with water and their escape related mobility behavior is measured. The forced swim test is straightforward to conduct reliably and it requires minimal specialized equipment. Successful implementation of the forced swim test requires adherence to certain procedural details and minimization of unwarranted stress to the mice. In the protocol description and the accompanying video, we explain how to conduct the mouse version of this test with emphasis on potential pitfalls that may be detrimental to interpretation of results and how to avoid them. Additionally, we explain how the behaviors manifested in the test are assessed. PMID:22314943

  17. Apoptotic Signaling in Mouse Odontogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Svandova, Eva; Tucker, Abigail S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Apoptosis is an important morphogenetic event in embryogenesis as well as during postnatal life. In the last 2 decades, apoptosis in tooth development (odontogenesis) has been investigated with gradually increasing focus on the mechanisms and signaling pathways involved. The molecular machinery responsible for apoptosis exhibits a high degree of conservation but also organ and tissue specific patterns. This review aims to discuss recent knowledge about apoptotic signaling networks during odontogenesis, concentrating on the mouse, which is often used as a model organism for human dentistry. Apoptosis accompanies the entire development of the tooth and corresponding remodeling of the surrounding bony tissue. It is most evident in its role in the elimination of signaling centers within developing teeth, removal of vestigal tooth germs, and in odontoblast and ameloblast organization during tooth mineralization. Dental apoptosis is caspase dependent and proceeds via mitochondrial mediated cell death with possible amplification by Fas-FasL signaling modulated by Bcl-2 family members. PMID:22204278

  18. The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium Web Portal, a unified point of access for knockout mice and related phenotyping data

    PubMed Central

    Koscielny, Gautier; Yaikhom, Gagarine; Iyer, Vivek; Meehan, Terrence F.; Morgan, Hugh; Atienza-Herrero, Julian; Blake, Andrew; Chen, Chao-Kung; Easty, Richard; Di Fenza, Armida; Fiegel, Tanja; Grifiths, Mark; Horne, Alan; Karp, Natasha A.; Kurbatova, Natalja; Mason, Jeremy C.; Matthews, Peter; Oakley, Darren J.; Qazi, Asfand; Regnart, Jack; Retha, Ahmad; Santos, Luis A.; Sneddon, Duncan J.; Warren, Jonathan; Westerberg, Henrik; Wilson, Robert J.; Melvin, David G.; Smedley, Damian; Brown, Steve D. M.; Flicek, Paul; Skarnes, William C.; Mallon, Ann-Marie; Parkinson, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) web portal (http://www.mousephenotype.org) provides the biomedical community with a unified point of access to mutant mice and rich collection of related emerging and existing mouse phenotype data. IMPC mouse clinics worldwide follow rigorous highly structured and standardized protocols for the experimentation, collection and dissemination of data. Dedicated ‘data wranglers’ work with each phenotyping center to collate data and perform quality control of data. An automated statistical analysis pipeline has been developed to identify knockout strains with a significant change in the phenotype parameters. Annotation with biomedical ontologies allows biologists and clinicians to easily find mouse strains with phenotypic traits relevant to their research. Data integration with other resources will provide insights into mammalian gene function and human disease. As phenotype data become available for every gene in the mouse, the IMPC web portal will become an invaluable tool for researchers studying the genetic contributions of genes to human diseases. PMID:24194600

  19. Regional Fluctuation in the Functional Consequence of LINE-1 Insertion in the Mitf Gene: The Black Spotting Phenotype Arisen from the Mitfmi-bw Mouse Lacking Melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kazuhisa; Hozumi, Hiroki; Ohba, Koji; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Shibahara, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) is a key regulator for differentiation of melanoblasts, precursors to melanocytes. The mouse homozygous for the black-eyed white (Mitfmi-bw) allele is characterized by the white-coat color and deafness with black eyes due to the lack of melanocytes. The Mitfmi-bw allele carries LINE-1, a retrotransposable element, which results in the Mitf deficiency. Here, we have established the black spotting mouse that was spontaneously arisen from the homozygous Mitfmi-bw mouse lacking melanocytes. The black spotting mouse shows multiple black patches on the white coat, with age-related graying. Importantly, each black patch also contains hair follicles lacking melanocytes, whereas the white-coat area completely lacks melanocytes. RT-PCR analyses of the pigmented patches confirmed that the LINE-1 insertion is retained in the Mitf gene of the black spotting mouse, thereby excluding the possibility of the somatic reversion of the Mitfmi-bw allele. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the staining intensity for beta-catenin was noticeably lower in hair follicles lacking melanocytes of the homozygous Mitfmi-bw mouse and the black spotting mouse, compared to the control mouse. In contrast, the staining intensity for beta-catenin and cyclin D1 was higher in keratinocytes of the black spotting mouse, compared to keratinocytes of the control mouse and the Mitfmi-bw mouse. Moreover, the keratinocyte layer appears thicker in the Mitfmi-bw mouse, with the overexpression of Ki-67, a marker for cell proliferation. We also show that the presumptive black spots are formed by embryonic day 15.5. Thus, the black spotting mouse provides the unique model to explore the molecular basis for the survival and death of developing melanoblasts and melanocyte stem cells in the epidermis. These results indicate that follicular melanocytes are responsible for maintaining the epidermal homeostasis; namely, the present study has provided

  20. Regional Fluctuation in the Functional Consequence of LINE-1 Insertion in the Mitf Gene: The Black Spotting Phenotype Arisen from the Mitfmi-bw Mouse Lacking Melanocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Shibahara, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) is a key regulator for differentiation of melanoblasts, precursors to melanocytes. The mouse homozygous for the black-eyed white (Mitfmi-bw) allele is characterized by the white-coat color and deafness with black eyes due to the lack of melanocytes. The Mitfmi-bw allele carries LINE-1, a retrotransposable element, which results in the Mitf deficiency. Here, we have established the black spotting mouse that was spontaneously arisen from the homozygous Mitfmi-bw mouse lacking melanocytes. The black spotting mouse shows multiple black patches on the white coat, with age-related graying. Importantly, each black patch also contains hair follicles lacking melanocytes, whereas the white-coat area completely lacks melanocytes. RT-PCR analyses of the pigmented patches confirmed that the LINE-1 insertion is retained in the Mitf gene of the black spotting mouse, thereby excluding the possibility of the somatic reversion of the Mitfmi-bw allele. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the staining intensity for beta-catenin was noticeably lower in hair follicles lacking melanocytes of the homozygous Mitfmi-bw mouse and the black spotting mouse, compared to the control mouse. In contrast, the staining intensity for beta-catenin and cyclin D1 was higher in keratinocytes of the black spotting mouse, compared to keratinocytes of the control mouse and the Mitfmi-bw mouse. Moreover, the keratinocyte layer appears thicker in the Mitfmi-bw mouse, with the overexpression of Ki-67, a marker for cell proliferation. We also show that the presumptive black spots are formed by embryonic day 15.5. Thus, the black spotting mouse provides the unique model to explore the molecular basis for the survival and death of developing melanoblasts and melanocyte stem cells in the epidermis. These results indicate that follicular melanocytes are responsible for maintaining the epidermal homeostasis; namely, the present study has provided

  1. Ultrasound biomicroscopy in mouse cardiovascular development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, Daniel H.

    2004-05-01

    The mouse is the preferred animal model for studying mammalian cardiovascular development and many human congenital heart diseases. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), utilizing high-frequency (40-50-MHz) ultrasound, is uniquely capable of providing in vivo, real-time microimaging and Doppler blood velocity measurements in mouse embryos and neonates. UBM analyses of normal and abnormal mouse cardiovascular function will be described to illustrate the power of this microimaging approach. In particular, real-time UBM images have been used to analyze dimensional changes in the mouse heart from embryonic to neonatal stages. UBM-Doppler has been used recently to examine the precise timing of onset of a functional circulation in early-stage mouse embryos, from the first detectable cardiac contractions. In other experiments, blood velocity waveforms have been analyzed to characterize the functional phenotype of mutant mouse embryos having defects in cardiac valve formation. Finally, UBM has been developed for real-time, in utero image-guided injection of mouse embryos, enabling cell transplantation and genetic gain-of-function experiments with transfected cells and retroviruses. In summary, UBM provides a unique and powerful approach for in vivo analysis and image-guided manipulation in normal and genetically engineered mice, over a wide range of embryonic to neonatal developmental stages.

  2. Establishment of mouse neuron and microglial cell co-cultured models and its action mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Yang, Yunfeng; Tang, Jun; Tao, Yihao; Jiang, Bing; Chen, Zhi; Feng, Hua; Yang, Liming; Zhu, Gang

    2017-06-27

    The objective of this study is to establish a co-culture model of mouse neurons and microglial cells, and to analyze the mechanism of action of oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) and transient oxygen glucose deprivation (tOGD) preconditioning cell models. Mouse primary neurons and BV2 microglial cells were successfully cultured, and the OGD and tOGD models were also established. In the co-culture of mouse primary neurons and microglial cells, the cell number of tOGD mouse neurons and microglial cells was larger than the OGD cell number, observed by a microscope. CCK-8 assay result showed that at 1h after treatment, the OD value in the control group is lower compared to all the other three groups (P < 0.05). The treatment group exhibited the highest OD value among the four groups. The results observed at 5h were consistent with the results at 1 h. Flow cytometry results showed that at 1h after treatment the apoptosis percentages is higher in the control group compared to other three groups (P < 0.05). Mouse brain tissues were collected and primary neurons cells were cultured. In the meantime mouse BV2 microglia cells were cultured. Two types of cells were co-cultured, and OGD and tOGD cell models were established. There were four groups in the experiment: control group (OGD), treatment group (tOGD+OGD), placebo group (tOGD+OGD+saline) and minocycline intervention group (tOGD+OGD+minocycline). CCK-8 kit was used to detect cell viability and flow cytometry was used to detect apoptosis. In this study, mouse primary neurons and microglial cells were co-cultured. The OGD and tOGD models were established successfully. tOGD was able to effectively protect neurons and microglial cells from damage, and inhibit the apoptosis caused by oxygen glucose deprivation.

  3. Phototransduction Influences Metabolic Flux and Nucleotide Metabolism in Mouse Retina.

    PubMed

    Du, Jianhai; Rountree, Austin; Cleghorn, Whitney M; Contreras, Laura; Lindsay, Ken J; Sadilek, Martin; Gu, Haiwei; Djukovic, Danijel; Raftery, Dan; Satrústegui, Jorgina; Kanow, Mark; Chan, Lawrence; Tsang, Stephen H; Sweet, Ian R; Hurley, James B

    2016-02-26

    Production of energy in a cell must keep pace with demand. Photoreceptors use ATP to maintain ion gradients in darkness, whereas in light they use it to support phototransduction. Matching production with consumption can be accomplished by coupling production directly to consumption. Alternatively, production can be set by a signal that anticipates demand. In this report we investigate the hypothesis that signaling through phototransduction controls production of energy in mouse retinas. We found that respiration in mouse retinas is not coupled tightly to ATP consumption. By analyzing metabolic flux in mouse retinas, we also found that phototransduction slows metabolic flux through glycolysis and through intermediates of the citric acid cycle. We also evaluated the relative contributions of regulation of the activities of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and the aspartate-glutamate carrier 1. In addition, a comprehensive analysis of the retinal metabolome showed that phototransduction also influences steady-state concentrations of 5'-GMP, ribose-5-phosphate, ketone bodies, and purines. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Modularity in the Organization of Mouse Primary Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Weiqing; Gămănuţ, Răzvan; Bista, Pawan; D’Souza, Rinaldo D.; Wang, Quanxin; Burkhalter, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Layer 1 (L1) of primary visual cortex (V1) is the target of projections from many brain regions outside of V1. We found that inputs to the non-columnar mouse V1 from the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and feedback projections from multiple higher cortical areas to L1 are patchy. The patches are matched to a pattern of M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor expression at fixed locations of mouse, rat and monkey V1. Neurons in L2/3 aligned with M2-rich patches have high spatial acuity whereas cells in M2-poor zones exhibited high temporal acuity. Together M2+ and M2− zones form constant-size domains that are repeated across V1. Domains map subregions of the receptive field, such that multiple copies are contained within the point image. The results suggest that the modular network in mouse V1 selects spatiotemporally distinct clusters of neurons within the point image for top-down control and differential routing of inputs to cortical streams. PMID:26247867

  5. How informative is the mouse for human gut microbiota research?

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thi Loan Anh; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Liston, Adrian; Raes, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    The microbiota of the human gut is gaining broad attention owing to its association with a wide range of diseases, ranging from metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity and type 2 diabetes) to autoimmune diseases (such as inflammatory bowel disease and type 1 diabetes), cancer and even neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism). Having been increasingly used in biomedical research, mice have become the model of choice for most studies in this emerging field. Mouse models allow perturbations in gut microbiota to be studied in a controlled experimental setup, and thus help in assessing causality of the complex host-microbiota interactions and in developing mechanistic hypotheses. However, pitfalls should be considered when translating gut microbiome research results from mouse models to humans. In this Special Article, we discuss the intrinsic similarities and differences that exist between the two systems, and compare the human and murine core gut microbiota based on a meta-analysis of currently available datasets. Finally, we discuss the external factors that influence the capability of mouse models to recapitulate the gut microbiota shifts associated with human diseases, and investigate which alternative model systems exist for gut microbiota research. PMID:25561744

  6. How informative is the mouse for human gut microbiota research?

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Loan Anh; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Liston, Adrian; Raes, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    The microbiota of the human gut is gaining broad attention owing to its association with a wide range of diseases, ranging from metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity and type 2 diabetes) to autoimmune diseases (such as inflammatory bowel disease and type 1 diabetes), cancer and even neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism). Having been increasingly used in biomedical research, mice have become the model of choice for most studies in this emerging field. Mouse models allow perturbations in gut microbiota to be studied in a controlled experimental setup, and thus help in assessing causality of the complex host-microbiota interactions and in developing mechanistic hypotheses. However, pitfalls should be considered when translating gut microbiome research results from mouse models to humans. In this Special Article, we discuss the intrinsic similarities and differences that exist between the two systems, and compare the human and murine core gut microbiota based on a meta-analysis of currently available datasets. Finally, we discuss the external factors that influence the capability of mouse models to recapitulate the gut microbiota shifts associated with human diseases, and investigate which alternative model systems exist for gut microbiota research. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. A methodology for the investigation of toughness and crack propagation in mouse bone.

    PubMed

    Carriero, Alessandra; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Shefelbine, Sandra J; Ritchie, Robert O

    2014-11-01

    Bone fracture is a health concern for those with aged bone and brittle bone diseases. Mouse bone is widely used as a model of human bone, especially to investigate preclinical treatment strategies. However, little is known about the mechanisms of mouse bone fracture and its similarities and differences from fracture in human bone. In this work we present a methodology to investigate the fracture toughness during crack initiation and crack propagation for mouse bone. Mouse femora were dissected, polished on their periosteal surface, notched on the posterior surface at their mid-diaphysis, and tested in three-point bending under displacement control at a rate of 0.1mm/min using an in situ loading stage within an environmental scanning electron microscope. We obtained high-resolution real-time imaging of the crack initiation and propagation in mouse bone. From the images we can measure the crack extension at each step of the crack growth and calculate the toughness of the bone (in terms of stress intensity factor (K) and work to fracture (Wf)) as a function of stable crack length (Δa), thus generating a resistance curve for the mouse bone. The technique presented here provides insight into the evolution of microdamage and the toughening mechanisms that resist crack propagation, which are essential for preclinical development of treatments to enhance bone quality and combat fracture risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Finding mouse models of human lymphomas and leukemia's using the Jackson laboratory mouse tumor biology database.

    PubMed

    Begley, Dale A; Sundberg, John P; Krupke, Debra M; Neuhauser, Steven B; Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Morse, Herbert C; Ward, Jerrold M

    2015-12-01

    Many mouse models have been created to study hematopoietic cancer types. There are over thirty hematopoietic tumor types and subtypes, both human and mouse, with various origins, characteristics and clinical prognoses. Determining the specific type of hematopoietic lesion produced in a mouse model and identifying mouse models that correspond to the human subtypes of these lesions has been a continuing challenge for the scientific community. The Mouse Tumor Biology Database (MTB; http://tumor.informatics.jax.org) is designed to facilitate use of mouse models of human cancer by providing detailed histopathologic and molecular information on lymphoma subtypes, including expertly annotated, on line, whole slide scans, and providing a repository for storing information on and querying these data for specific lymphoma models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mouse oocytes nucleoli rescue embryonic development of porcine enucleolated oocytes.

    PubMed

    Morovic, Martin; Strejcek, Frantisek; Nakagawa, Shoma; Deshmukh, Rahul S; Murin, Matej; Benc, Michal; Fulka, Helena; Kyogoku, Hirohisa; Pendovski, Lazo; Fulka, Josef; Laurincik, Jozef

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that nucleoli of fully grown mammalian oocytes are indispensable for embryonic development. Therefore, the embryos originated from previously enucleolated (ENL) oocytes undergo only one or two cleavages and then their development ceases. In our study the interspecies (mouse/pig) nucleolus transferred embryos (NuTE) were produced and their embryonic development was analyzed by autoradiography, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunofluorescence (C23 and upstream binding factor (UBF)). Our results show that the re-injection of isolated oocyte nucleoli, either from the pig (P + P) or mouse (P + M), into previously enucleolated and subsequently matured porcine oocytes rescues their development after parthenogenetic activation and some of these develop up to the blastocyst stage (P + P, 11.8%; P + M, 13.5%). In nucleolus re-injected 8-cell and blastocyst stage embryos the number of nucleoli labeled with C23 in P + P and P + M groups was lower than in control (non-manipulated) group. UBF was localized in small foci within the nucleoli of blastocysts in control and P + P embryos, however, in P + M embryos the labeling was evenly distributed in the nucleoplasm. The TEM and autoradiographic evaluations showed the formation of functional nucleoli and de novo rRNA synthesis at the 8-cell stage in both, control and P + P group. In the P + M group the formation of comparable nucleoli was delayed. In conclusion, our results indicate that the mouse nucleolus can rescue embryonic development of enucleolated porcine oocytes, but the localization of selected nucleolar proteins, the timing of transcription activation and the formation of the functional nucleoli in NuTE compared with control group show evident aberrations.

  10. Mouse Embryo Cryopreservation by Rapid Cooling.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jillian

    2018-05-01

    Embryo cryopreservation has been used to archive mouse strains. Protocols have evolved over this time and now vary considerably in terms of cryoprotectant solution, cooling and warming rates, methods to add and remove cryoprotectant, container or carrier type, volume of cryoprotectant, the stage of preimplantation development, and the use of additional treatments such as blastocyst puncture and microinjection. The rapid cooling methods use concentrated solutions of cryoprotectants to reduce the water content of the cell before cooling commences, thus preventing the formation of ice crystals. Embryos are equilibrated with the cryoprotectants, loaded into a carrier, and then rapidly cooled (e.g., by being plunged directly into LN 2 or onto a surface cooled in LN 2 ). The rapid cooling methods eliminate the need for controlled-rate freezers and seeding procedures. However, they are much more sensitive to minor variations when performing the steps. The rapid-cooling protocol described here is suitable for use with plastic insemination straws. Because it uses relatively large volumes, it is less technically demanding than some other methods that use minivolume devices. © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  11. Mouse Model of Halogenated Platinum Salt Hypersensitivity ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Occupational exposure to halogenated platinum salts can trigger the development of asthma. Concern for increased asthma risk exists for the general population due to the use of platinum (Pt) in catalytic converters and its emerging use as a diesel fuel additive. To investigate airway responses to Pt, we developed a mouse model of Pt hypersensitivity. Previously, we confirmed the dermal sensitizing potency of ammonium hexachloroplatinate (AHCP) using an ex vivo [3H]methyl thymidine labeling version of the local lymph node assay in BALB/c mice. Here, we investigated the ability of AHCP to induce airway responses in mice sensitized by the dermal route. Mice were sensitized through application of 100 µL 1% AHCP in DMSO to the shaved back on days 0, 5 and 19, and 25 µl to each ear on days 10, 11 and 12. Unsensitized mice received vehicle. On day 24, mice were challenged by oropharyngeal aspiration (OPA) with 0 or 100 µg AHCP in saline. Before and immediately after challenge, airway responses were assessed using whole body plethysmography (WBP). On day 26, changes in ventilatory responses to methacholine (Mch) aerosol were assessed by WBP; dose-dependent increases in Mch responsiveness occurred in sensitized mice. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid harvested from sensitized mice contained an average of 7.5% eosinophils compared to less than 0.5% in control mice (p < 0.05). This model will be useful for assessing both relative sensitizing potency and cross-reacti

  12. The mouse F3/contactin glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Bizzoca, Antonella; Corsi, Patrizia

    2009-01-01

    F3/Contactin is an immunoglobulin superfamily component expressed in the nervous tissue of several species. Here we focus on the structural and functional properties of its mouse relative, on the mechanisms driving its regulated expression and on its developmental role. F3/Contactin is differentially expressed in distinct populations of central and peripheral neurons and in some non-neuronal cells. Accordingly, the regulatory region of the underlying gene includes promoter elements undergoing differential activation, associated with an intricate splicing profile, indicating that transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms contribute to its expression. Transgenic models allowed to follow F3/Contactin promoter activation in vivo and to modify F3/Contactin gene expression under a heterologous promoter, which resulted in morphological and functional phenotypes. Besides axonal growth and pathfinding, these concerned earlier events, including precursor proliferation and commitment. This wide role in neural ontogenesis is consistent with the recognized interaction of F3/Contactin with developmental control genes belonging to the Notch pathway. PMID:19372728

  13. IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOANTIGENS (ALLOTYPES) IN THE MOUSE

    PubMed Central

    Herzenberg, Leonard A.; Warner, Noel L.; Herzenberg, Leonore A.

    1965-01-01

    Eight antigens of 7S γ2-immunoglobulins controlled by alleles at a single locus Ig-1, have been identified in mice. This locus has previously been shown to determine antigenic specificities on the F fragments of 7S γ2a-globulins. The reactions of these antigens with various isoantisera have shown that the antigens all cross react with one another. New methods for the analysis of antigenic specificities of soluble proteins are presented in detail. A sensitive method for detecting in the order of 0.01 µg of these isoantigens has been developed, based on the quantitative inhibition of precipitation of I125-labeled antigen. Cross-reactions of the antigens were analysed in inhibition assays and the data is compatible with the existence of a minimum of eight antigenic specificities. Each of the antigens is composed of different combinations of these specificities, with only one antigen having a specificity not present in any other. Sixty-eight mouse strains have been tested with specific isoantisera, and on the basis of the results, have been placed into the eight allele groups. Evidence for close genetic linkage of the Ig-1 locus and 11 chromosome markers has been sought and not found. PMID:14270242

  14. Pyogenic Sacroiliitis in a 13-Month-Old Child: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Julien; Julien, Leroux; Bernardini, Isabelle; Isabelle, Bernardini; Grynberg, Lucie; Lucie, Grynberg; Grandguillaume, Claire; Claire, Grandguillaume; Michelin, Paul; Paul, Michelin; Ould Slimane, Mourad; Slimane, Ould Slimane; Nectoux, Eric; Eric, Nectoux; Deroussen, François; François, Deroussen; Gouron, Richard; Richard, Gouron; Angelliaume, Audrey; Audrey, Angelliaume; Ilharreborde, Brice; Brice, Ilharreborde; Renaux-Petel, Mariette; Mariette, Renaux-Petel

    2015-10-01

    Pyogenic sacroiliitis is exceptional in very young children. Diagnosis is difficult because clinical examination is misleading. FABER test is rarely helpful in very young children. Inflammatory syndrome is frequent. Bone scintigraphy and MRI are very sensitive for the diagnosis. Joint fluid aspiration and blood cultures are useful to identify the pathogen. Appropriate antibiotic therapy provides rapid regression of symptoms and healing. We report the case of pyogenic sacroiliitis in a 13-month-old child.Clinical, biological, and imaging data of this case were reviewed and reported retrospectively.A 13-month-old girl consulted for decreased weight bearing without fever or trauma. Clinical examination was not helpful. There was an inflammatory syndrome. Bone scintigraphy found a sacroiliitis, confirmed on MRI. Aspiration of the sacroiliac joint was performed. Empiric intravenous biantibiotic therapy was started. Patient rapidly recovered full weight bearing. On the 5th day, clinical examination and biological analysis returned to normal. Intravenous antibiotic therapy was switched for oral. One month later, clinical examination and biological analysis were normal and antibiotic therapy was stopped.Hematogenous osteoarticular infections are common in children but pyogenic sacroiliitis is rare and mainly affects older children. Diagnosis can be difficult because clinical examination is poor. Moreover, limping and decreased weight bearing are very common reasons for consultation. This may delay the diagnosis or refer misdiagnosis. Bone scintigraphy is useful to locate a bone or joint disease responsible for limping. In this observation, bone scintigraphy located the infection at the sacroiliac joint. Given the young age, MRI was performed to confirm the diagnosis. Despite the very young age of the patient, symptoms rapidly disappeared with appropriate antibiotic therapy.We report the case of pyogenic sacroiliitis in a 13-month-old child. It reminds the risk of

  15. Atypical Fibroxanthoma in a 13-Year-Old Guatemalan Girl with Xeroderma Pigmentosum.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Ava G; Chase, Elizabeth P; Chang, Beverly; Cunningham, Eric; Mihm, Fred; Calame, Antoanella; Fudem, Gary; Cunningham, Bari

    2016-05-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare, autosomal recessive disease involving a defect in DNA repair leading to the premature development of numerous aggressive cutaneous malignancies. Although atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is a neoplasm typically found in the setting of extensive sun exposure or therapeutic radiation, AFXs are rarely associated with children with XP. We report the case of a 13-year-old Guatemalan girl with the XP type C variant who developed one of the largest AFXs reported on a child's finger. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Primary Neuroendocrine Breast Carcinoma in a 13-Year-Old Girl: Ultrasonography and Pathology Findings

    PubMed Central

    Folligan, Koué; Sabi, Akomola; Sonhaye, Lantam; Boumé, Azanledji; Bassowa, Akila; Adani-Ifé, Solange; Napo-Koura, Gado

    2017-01-01

    Neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) of the breast is a rare disease and has been scarcely reported by African authors. The authors report a case of breast NEC in a 13-year-old African girl initially diagnosed as an atypical adenofibroma by ultrasonography. Ultrasound-guided biopsy and conventional histological examination indicated two potential diagnoses: primary malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and undifferentiated carcinoma. According to immunohistochemistry performed on paraffin blocks in France, infiltrating ductal carcinoma with a strong neuroendocrine component was confirmed by CD56, CD57, and chromogranin A markers. PMID:29082059

  17. Acquired toxoplasmosis of a submandibular lymph node in a 13-year-old boy: case report.

    PubMed

    Azaz, B; Milhem, I; Hasson, O; Kirsch, G

    1994-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection divided into congenital and acquired forms. In the latter form, malaise, fatigue, and lymphadenopathy are commonly found, and submandibular lymphadenopathy is sometimes a manifestation. In children, cervical lymph nodes usually are affected. This is a case of a 13-year-old boy suffering from acquired toxoplasmosis, in which submandibular lymphadenopathy was the only clinical sign of the disease. Meticulous history taking, clinical examination, and specific serological tests should be performed in these cases. Positive serological results will confirm toxoplasmosis infections. Conservative treatment must be attempted initially.

  18. Clean it up: motivating a 13-year-old boy to pick up his room.

    PubMed

    James, Helene M; Luyben, Paul D

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reduce the messiness in a 13-year-old boy's room. Previous research indicated that contingent access to an activity reinforcer such as computer time might well provide the motivation to do what the participant had steadfastly refused to do in the past. The data show that relative to baseline there was a substantial decrease in the number of objects out-of-place once the contingency was in effect, although limitations in the design preclude absolute confidence that the intervention produced the reductions observed.

  19. Rat astrocytes are more supportive for mouse OPC self-renewal than mouse astrocytes in culture.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xuejun; Xie, Binghua; Qi, Jiajun; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Zunyi; Qiu, Mengsheng; Yang, Junlin

    2017-09-01

    Mouse primary oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are increasingly used to study the molecular mechanisms underlying the phenotype changes in oligodendrocyte differentiation and axonal myelination observed in transgenic or mutant mouse models. However, mouse OPCs are much more difficult to be isolated by the simple dissociation culture of brain tissues than their rat counterparts. To date, the mechanisms underlying the species difference in OPC preparation remain obscure. In this study, we showed that astrocytes from rats have a stronger effect than those from mouse in promoting OPC proliferation and survival in vitro. Mouse astrocytes displayed significantly weaker viability in culture and reduced potential in maintaining OPC self-renewal, as confirmed by culturing OPCs with conditioned media from rat or mouse astrocytes. These results explained the reason for why stratified cultures of OPCs and astrocytes are difficult to be achieved in mouse CNS tissues. Based on these findings, we adopted inactivated rat astrocytes as feeder cells to support the self-renewal of mouse cortical OPCs and preparation of high-purity mouse OPCs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 907-916, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The Mouse Genome Database (MGD): facilitating mouse as a model for human biology and disease.

    PubMed

    Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Bult, Carol J; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2015-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD, http://www.informatics.jax.org) serves the international biomedical research community as the central resource for integrated genomic, genetic and biological data on the laboratory mouse. To facilitate use of mouse as a model in translational studies, MGD maintains a core of high-quality curated data and integrates experimentally and computationally generated data sets. MGD maintains a unified catalog of genes and genome features, including functional RNAs, QTL and phenotypic loci. MGD curates and provides functional and phenotype annotations for mouse genes using the Gene Ontology and Mammalian Phenotype Ontology. MGD integrates phenotype data and associates mouse genotypes to human diseases, providing critical mouse-human relationships and access to repositories holding mouse models. MGD is the authoritative source of nomenclature for genes, genome features, alleles and strains following guidelines of the International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice. A new addition to MGD, the Human-Mouse: Disease Connection, allows users to explore gene-phenotype-disease relationships between human and mouse. MGD has also updated search paradigms for phenotypic allele attributes, incorporated incidental mutation data, added a module for display and exploration of genes and microRNA interactions and adopted the JBrowse genome browser. MGD resources are freely available to the scientific community. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Mouse homologues of human hereditary disease.

    PubMed Central

    Searle, A G; Edwards, J H; Hall, J G

    1994-01-01

    Details are given of 214 loci known to be associated with human hereditary disease, which have been mapped on both human and mouse chromosomes. Forty two of these have pathological variants in both species; in general the mouse variants are similar in their effects to the corresponding human ones, but exceptions include the Dmd/DMD and Hprt/HPRT mutations which cause little, if any, harm in mice. Possible reasons for phenotypic differences are discussed. In most pathological variants the gene product seems to be absent or greatly reduced in both species. The extensive data on conserved segments between human and mouse chromosomes are used to predict locations in the mouse of over 50 loci of medical interest which are mapped so far only on human chromosomes. In about 80% of these a fairly confident prediction can be made. Some likely homologies between mapped mouse loci and unmapped human ones are also given. Sixty six human and mouse proto-oncogene and growth factor gene homologies are also listed; those of confirmed location are all in known conserved segments. A survey of 18 mapped human disease loci and chromosome regions in which the manifestation or severity of pathological effects is thought to be the result of genomic imprinting shows that most of the homologous regions in the mouse are also associated with imprinting, especially those with homologues on human chromosomes 11p and 15q. Useful methods of accelerating the production of mouse models of human hereditary disease include (1) use of a supermutagen, such as ethylnitrosourea (ENU), (2) targeted mutagenesis involving ES cells, and (3) use of gene transfer techniques, with production of 'knockout mutations'. PMID:8151633

  2. Generation Of A Mouse Model For Schwannomatosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    TITLE: Generation of a Mouse Model for Schwannomatosis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Long-Sheng Chang, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: The...Annual 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 Sep 2009 - 31 Aug 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Generation of a Mouse Model for Schwannomatosis 5a. CONTRACT...hypothesis involving inactivation of both the INI1/SNF5 and NF2 tumor suppressor genes in the formation of schwannomatosis -associated tumors. To

  3. Purification, biochemical characterization, and genetic cloning of the phytase produced by Burkholderia sp. strain a13.

    PubMed

    Graminho, Eduardo Rezende; Takaya, Naoki; Nakamura, Akira; Hoshino, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    A phytase-producing bacterium, Burkholderia sp. a13 (JCM 30421), was isolated from Lake Kasumigaura by enrichment cultivation using minimum medium containing phytic acid as the sole phosphorus source. The phytase production by strain a13 was induced by the presence of phytic acid and repressed by the addition of glucose. The purified enzyme had a molecular weight of 44 kDa and a phytase activity of 174 μmol min(-1) mg(-1). The enzyme showed broad substrate specificity, but the highest activity was observed with phytic acid. The enzyme activity was strongly inhibited by Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Hg(2+), and iodoacetic acid, indicating the requirement of a thiol group for the activity. Genetic cloning reveals that the mature portion of this enzyme consists of 428 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 46 kDa. The amino acid sequence showed the highest similarity to the phytase produced by Hafnia alvei with 48% identity; it also contained histidine acid phosphatase (HAP) motifs (RHGXRXP and HD), indicating the classification of this enzyme in the HAP phytase family. We have successfully expressed the cloned gene in Escherichia coli from its putative initiation codon, showing that the gene actually encodes the phytase.

  4. Surface immunoglobulin on cultured foetal mouse thymocytes

    PubMed Central

    Haustein, D.; Mandel, T. E.

    1979-01-01

    Organ cultures of 14–15 day foetal mouse thymus were used as a source of non-neoplastic differentiating T cells, free of contaminating B cells. Viable cells obtained from such cultured thymuses were radio-iodinated and immunoglobulins (Ig) were isolated by co-precipitation from the 125I-labelled cell-surface proteins released during 1 h of incubation at 37°. The precipitates, both reduced and unreduced, were then analysed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The unreduced material migrated in a 5% gel as a single peak with a mobility slightly faster than that of mouse IgG. After reduction, however, two peaks were obtained (in a 10% gel), one corresponding in migration to mouse light chain and the other which moved slightly faster than mouse μ chain. This pattern was identical with that previously seen for both surface Ig of normal mouse thymocytes and neoplastic T lymphoma cells. Uncultured, 15 day foetal thymocytes did not produce any detectable co-precipitated cell surface material. Ig detected in these experiments was therefore produced during in vitro culture by non-neoplastic T cells in a system free of contaminating B cells and mouse serum proteins. PMID:315364

  5. An extended Kalman filter for mouse tracking.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hongjun; Kim, Mingi; Lee, Onseok

    2018-05-19

    Animal tracking is an important tool for observing behavior, which is useful in various research areas. Animal specimens can be tracked using dynamic models and observation models that require several types of data. Tracking mouse has several barriers due to the physical characteristics of the mouse, their unpredictable movement, and cluttered environments. Therefore, we propose a reliable method that uses a detection stage and a tracking stage to successfully track mouse. The detection stage detects the surface area of the mouse skin, and the tracking stage implements an extended Kalman filter to estimate the state variables of a nonlinear model. The changes in the overall shape of the mouse are tracked using an oval-shaped tracking model to estimate the parameters for the ellipse. An experiment is conducted to demonstrate the performance of the proposed tracking algorithm using six video images showing various types of movement, and the ground truth values for synthetic images are compared to the values generated by the tracking algorithm. A conventional manual tracking method is also applied to compare across eight experimenters. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the proposed tracking method is also demonstrated by applying the tracking algorithm with actual images of mouse. Graphical abstract.

  6. Practical use of advanced mouse models for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Safari, Roghaiyeh; Meuwissen, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    To date a variety of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) mouse models have been developed that mimic human lung cancer. Chemically induced or spontaneous lung cancer in susceptible inbred strains has been widely used, but the more recent genetically engineered somatic mouse models recapitulate much better the genotype-phenotype correlations found in human lung cancer. Additionally, improved orthotopic transplantation of primary human cancer tissue fragments or cells into lungs of immune-compromised mice can be valuable tools for preclinical research such as antitumor drug tests. Here we give a short overview of most somatic mouse models for lung cancer that are currently in use. We accompany each different model with a description of its practical use and application for all major lung tumor types, as well as the intratracheal injection or direct injection of fresh or freeze-thawed tumor cells or tumor cell lines into lung parenchyma of recipient mice. All here presented somatic mouse models are based on the ability to (in) activate specific alleles at a time, and in a tissue-specific cell type, of choice. This spatial-temporal controlled induction of genetic lesions allows the selective introduction of main genetic lesions in an adult mouse lung as found in human lung cancer. The resulting conditional somatic mouse models can be used as versatile powerful tools in basic lung cancer research and preclinical translational studies alike. These distinctively advanced lung cancer models permit us to investigate initiation (cell of origin) and progression of lung cancer, along with response and resistance to drug therapy. Cre/lox or FLP/frt recombinase-mediated methods are now well-used techniques to develop tissue-restricted lung cancer in mice with tumor-suppressor gene and/or oncogene (in)activation. Intranasal or intratracheal administration of engineered adenovirus-Cre or lentivirus-Cre has been optimized for introducing Cre

  7. Polysaccharide from seeds of Plantago asiatica L. affects lipid metabolism and colon microbiota of mouse.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jie-Lun; Nie, Shao-Ping; Wu, Qi-Meng; Li, Chang; Fu, Zhi-Hong; Gong, Joshua; Cui, Steve W; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2014-01-08

    Polysaccharide from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. was given via oral administration to mice (0.4 g/kg body weight, 30 days) to observe its effects on mouse nutrient metabolism and colon microbiota. It was found the polysaccharide intake could lower the apparent absorption of lipid. Total triglyceride, cholesterol, and atherogenic index in blood serum with total lipid and cholesterol levels in liver of polysaccharide group mice were all significantly lower than those of the control group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the effect of the polysaccharide intake on mouse colon bacterial communities was investigated. Mice from the polysaccharide group showed a higher colon bacterial diversity than the control group. Bacteroides sp., Eubacterium sp., butyrate-producing bacteria Butyrivibrio sp., and probiotics Bifidobacterium bifidum , Lactobacillus fermentum , and Lactobacillus reuteri in mouse colon were all increased after polysaccharide intake. These indicated that the intake of polysaccharide from P. asiatica L. could be beneficial for lipid metabolism and colon microbiota.

  8. Effects of hanging drop culture conditions on embryoid body formation and neuronal cell differentiation using mouse embryonic stem cells: optimization of culture conditions for the formation of well-controlled embryoid bodies.

    PubMed

    Ohnuki, Yoshitsugu; Kurosawa, Hiroshi

    2013-05-01

    Hanging drop (HD) cultures were carried out with a drop volume of either 20 or 30 μl. An incubation period of 3 days was determined to be appropriate for the formation of well-controlled embryoid bodies (EBs), and the initial cell number was identified as the most critical factor in the growth and neuronal cell differentiation of EBs. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Data from SILAC-based quantitative analysis of lysates from mouse microglial cells treated with Withaferin A (WA).

    PubMed

    Narayan, Malathi; Seeley, Kent W; Jinwal, Umesh K

    2016-06-01

    Mass spectrometry data collected in a study analyzing the effect of withaferin A (WA) on a mouse microglial (N9) cell line is presented in this article. Data was collected from SILAC-based quantitative analysis of lysates from mouse microglial cells treated with either WA or DMSO vehicle control. This article reports all the proteins that were identified in this analysis. The data presented here is related to the published research article on the effect of WA on the differential regulation of proteins in mouse microglial cells [1]. Mass spectrometry data has also been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD003032.

  10. Effects of Milnacipran on Neurocognition, Pain, and Fatigue in Fibromyalgia: A 13-Week, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Lan; Rele, Shilpa; Marks, David M.; Masand, Prakash S.; Yerramsetty, Pallavi; Millet, Robert A.; Keefe, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether milnacipran is safe and effective in improving cognitive function in patients with fibromyalgia. Method: Patients were randomly assigned to receive milnacipran or placebo for 6 weeks, followed by a 1-week washout and then crossover to the other arm for another 6 weeks. The overall trial lasted 13 weeks and was conducted between July 2011 and May 2013. Assessments were performed at each visit. Neurocognition was measured by the Brief Assessment of Cognition (BAC) and MATRICS. Pain was assessed by the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain. Global assessment of fibromyalgia symptoms was measured by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and tender point examination. Depression was assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Fatigue was assessed by the Fatigue Severity Scale. Functional outcome was evaluated by the Health Assessment Questionnaire. The Clinical Global Impressions–Severity of Illness (CGI-S) and Improvement (CGI-I) scales and the Patients Clinical Global Impression of Change were used to measure the global impression of severity and improvement. Results: 26 subjects were screened, and 20 subjects completed the trial. The change in verbal memory (P = .001) and the composite T score (P = .044) of the BAC and the change in the attention-vigilance domain T score (P = .042) were significantly improved, but there were no differences between the drug and placebo groups. The changes in the CGI-S scores were not significant, but the changes in the Clinical Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scores showed worsening in the placebo group at week 1 (P = .032), week 2 (P = .024), week 4 (P = .024), and week 6 (P = .60) compared to baseline. The change in FIQ scores was not significant. Conclusions: Milnacipran may have a potential role in the improvement of pain, disability, and mood. The effect of milnacipran on cognition in fibromyalgia needs further research. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01829243 PMID:24800123

  11. Intravital multiphoton imaging of mouse tibialis anterior muscle

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Jasmine; Goh, Chi Ching; Devi, Sapna; Keeble, Jo; See, Peter; Ginhoux, Florent; Ng, Lai Guan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intravital imaging by multiphoton microscopy is a powerful tool to gain invaluable insight into tissue biology and function. Here, we provide a step-by-step tissue preparation protocol for imaging the mouse tibialis anterior skeletal muscle. Additionally, we include steps for jugular vein catheterization that allow for well-controlled intravenous reagent delivery. Preparation of the tibialis anterior muscle is minimally invasive, reducing the chances of inducing damage and inflammation prior to imaging. The tibialis anterior muscle is useful for imaging leukocyte interaction with vascular endothelium, and to understand muscle contraction biology. Importantly, this model can be easily adapted to study neuromuscular diseases and myopathies. PMID:28243520

  12. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(13)-1 - Remuneration for services performed by Peace Corps volunteers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Corps volunteers. 31.3401(a)(13)-1 Section 31.3401(a)(13)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Remuneration for services performed by Peace Corps volunteers. (a) Remuneration paid after September 22, 1961, for services performed as a volunteer or volunteer leader within the meaning of the Peace Corps Act...

  13. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(13)-1 - Remuneration for services performed by Peace Corps volunteers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Corps volunteers. 31.3401(a)(13)-1 Section 31.3401(a)(13)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Remuneration for services performed by Peace Corps volunteers. (a) Remuneration paid after September 22, 1961, for services performed as a volunteer or volunteer leader within the meaning of the Peace Corps Act...

  14. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(13)-1 - Remuneration for services performed by Peace Corps volunteers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Corps volunteers. 31.3401(a)(13)-1 Section 31.3401(a)(13)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Remuneration for services performed by Peace Corps volunteers. (a) Remuneration paid after September 22, 1961, for services performed as a volunteer or volunteer leader within the meaning of the Peace Corps Act...

  15. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(13)-1 - Remuneration for services performed by Peace Corps volunteers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Corps volunteers. 31.3401(a)(13)-1 Section 31.3401(a)(13)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Remuneration for services performed by Peace Corps volunteers. (a) Remuneration paid after September 22, 1961, for services performed as a volunteer or volunteer leader within the meaning of the Peace Corps Act...

  16. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(13)-1 - Remuneration for services performed by Peace Corps volunteers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Corps volunteers. 31.3401(a)(13)-1 Section 31.3401(a)(13)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Remuneration for services performed by Peace Corps volunteers. (a) Remuneration paid after September 22, 1961, for services performed as a volunteer or volunteer leader within the meaning of the Peace Corps Act...

  17. Deficiency of merosin in dystrophic dy mouse homologue of congenital muscular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Sunada, Y.; Campbell, K.P.; Bernier, S.M.

    1994-09-01

    Merosin (laminin M chain) is the predominant laminin isoform in the basal lamina of striated muscle and peripheral nerve and is a native ligand for {alpha}-dystroglycan, a novel laminin receptor. Merosin is linked to the subsarcolemmal actin cytoskeleton via the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC), which plays an important role for maintenance of normal muscle function. We have mapped the mouse merosin gene, Lamm, to the region containing the dystrophia muscularis (dy) locus on chromosome 10. This suggested the possibility that a mutation in the merosin gene could be responsible for the dy mouse, an animal model for autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy,more » and prompted us to test this hypothesis. We analyzed the status of merosin expression in dy mouse by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. In dy mouse skeletal and cardiac muscle and peripheral nerve, merosin was reduced greater than 90% as compared to control mice. However, the expression of laminin B1/B2 chains and collagen type IV was smaller to that in control mice. These findings strongly suggest that merosin deficiency may be the primary defect in the dy mouse. Furthermore, we have identified two patients afflicted with congenital muscular dystrophy with merosin deficiency, providing the basis for future studies of molecular pathogenesis and gene therapy.« less

  18. Imaging mouse lung allograft rejection with 1H MRI

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jinbang; Huang, Howard J.; Wang, Xingan; Wang, Wei; Ellison, Henry; Thomen, Robert P.; Gelman, Andrew E.; Woods, Jason C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate that longitudinal, non-invasive monitoring via MRI can characterize acute cellular rejection (ACR) in mouse orthotopic lung allografts. Methods Nineteen Balb/c donor to C57BL/6 recipient orthotopic left lung transplants were performed, further divided into control-Ig vs anti-CD4/anti-CD8 treated groups. A two-dimensional multi-slice gradient-echo pulse sequence synchronized with ventilation was used on a small-animal MR scanner to acquire proton images of lung at post-operative days 3, 7 and 14, just before sacrifice. Lung volume and parenchymal signal were measured, and lung compliance was calculated as volume change per pressure difference between high and low pressures. Results Normalized parenchymal signal in the control-Ig allograft increased over time, with statistical significance between day 14 and day 3 post transplantation (0.046→0.789, P < 0.05), despite large inter-mouse variations; this was consistent with histopathologic evidence of rejection. Compliance of the control-Ig allograft decreased significantly over time (0.013→0.003, P < 0.05), but remained constant in mice treated with anti-CD4/anti-CD8 antibodies. Conclusion Lung allograft rejection in individual mice can be monitored by lung parenchymal signal changes and by lung compliance through MRI. Longitudinal imaging can help us better understand the time course of individual lung allograft rejection and response to treatment. PMID:24954886

  19. Dual effects of fluoxetine on mouse early embryonic development

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Chang-Woon; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Changwon Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University, Changwon 630-723; Choe, Changyong

    2012-11-15

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, regulates a variety of physiological processes, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis, in mammalian cells. Little is known about the role of fluoxetine in early embryonic development. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of fluoxetine during mouse early embryonic development. Late two-cell stage embryos (2-cells) were cultured in the presence of various concentrations of fluoxetine (1 to 50 μM) for different durations. When late 2-cells were incubated with 5 μM fluoxetine for 6 h, the percentage that developed into blastocysts increased compared to the control value. However, late 2-cells exposed to fluoxetinemore » (5 μM) over 24 h showed a reduction in blastocyst formation. The addition of fluoxetine (5 μM) together with KN93 or KN62 (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors) failed to increase blastocyst formation. Fluoxetine treatment inhibited TREK-1 and TREK-2, members of the two-pore domain K{sup +} channel family expressed in mouse embryos, activities, indicating that fluoxetine-induced membrane depolarization in late 2-cells might have resulted from TREK inhibition. In addition, long-term exposure to fluoxetine altered the TREK mRNA expression levels. Furthermore, injection of siRNA targeting TREKs significantly decreased blastocyst formation by ∼ 30% compared to injection of scrambled siRNA. Long-term exposure of fluoxetine had no effect on blastocyst formation of TREK deficient embryos. These results indicate that low-dose and short-term exposures of late 2-cells to fluoxetine probably increase blastocyst formation through activation of CaMKII-dependent signal transduction pathways, whereas long-term exposure decreases mouse early embryonic development through inhibition of TREK channel gating. Highlights: ► Short-term exposure of 2-cells to fluoxetine enhances mouse blastocyst formation. ► The enhancive effect of fluoxetine is resulted from Ca

  20. Mickey Mouse Spotted on Mercury!

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-06-15

    NASA image acquired: June 03, 2012 This scene is to the northwest of the recently named crater Magritte, in Mercury's south. The image is not map projected; the larger crater actually sits to the north of the two smaller ones. The shadowing helps define the striking "Mickey Mouse" resemblance, created by the accumulation of craters over Mercury's long geologic history. This image was acquired as part of MDIS's high-incidence-angle base map. The high-incidence-angle base map is a major mapping activity in MESSENGER's extended mission and complements the surface morphology base map of MESSENGER's primary mission that was acquired under generally more moderate incidence angles. High incidence angles, achieved when the Sun is near the horizon, result in long shadows that accentuate the small-scale topography of geologic features. The high-incidence-angle base map is being acquired with an average resolution of 200 meters/pixel. The MESSENGER spacecraft is the first ever to orbit the planet Mercury, and the spacecraft's seven scientific instruments and radio science investigation are unraveling the history and evolution of the Solar System's innermost planet. Visit the Why Mercury? section of this website to learn more about the key science questions that the MESSENGER mission is addressing. During the one-year primary mission, MESSENGER acquired 88,746 images and extensive other data sets. MESSENGER is now in a yearlong extended mission, during which plans call for the acquisition of more than 80,000 additional images to support MESSENGER's science goals. Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency

  1. Connecting Stellar Substructures to the Oscillating Disk: Monoceros and A13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, Allyson; Tzanidakis, Anastasios; Johnston, Kathryn; Price-Whelan, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    Recent observations of stellar substructures in the Milky Way have challenged our view of where the traditional disk ends. By assessing the stellar populations in a stellar feature, particularly the fraction of RR Lyrae to M giant stars, an accretion scenario can be ruled out in favor of a kicked-out disk origin. A more definitive distinction can be made with the inclusion of high-resolution abundances. I will present evidence that two low latitude stellar substructures, the Monoceros Ring and A13, originated in the Galactic disk and were kicked out to their current location, in the outer regions of the stellar disk, due to a dynamic perturbation to the disk.

  2. Early onset of colorectal cancer in a 13-year-old girl with Lynch syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Do Hee; Rho, Jung Hee; Tchah, Hann; Jeon, In-Sang

    2016-01-01

    Lynch syndrome is the most common inherited colon cancer syndrome. Patients with Lynch syndrome develop a range of cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC) and carry a mutation on one of the mismatched repair (MMR) genes. Although CRC usually occurs after the fourth decade in patients with Lynch syndrome harboring a heterozygous MMR gene mutation, it can occur in children with Lynch syndrome who have a compound heterozygous or homozygous MMR gene mutation. We report a case of CRC in a 13-year-old patient with Lynch syndrome and congenital heart disease. This patient had a heterozygous mutation in MLH1 (an MMR gene), but no compound MMR gene defects, and a K-RAS somatic mutation in the cancer cells.

  3. A 13-15/21 Translocation Chromosome in Carrier Father and Mongol Son

    PubMed Central

    Sergovich, Frederick R.; Soltan, Hubert C.; Carr, David H.

    1962-01-01

    Cytogenetic and dermatoglyphic features were studied in a family in which the mongoloid propositus inherited a 13-15/21 translocation chromosome from his father. Seven other healthy male carriers scattered throughout the pedigree produced nine chromosomally normal children and five carrier children in addition to the mongoloid propositus. These results show that carrier males do not necessarily produce an unusually large proportion of carrier children as previous reports would indicate. Dermatoglyphic studies showed that translocation carriers in this family have neither significantly more centralized nor less centralized palmar axial triradii than non-carrier relatives. No direct evidence was therefore found for the hypothesis that an allele is present on chromosome 21 which influences the height of the triradius. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:13988069

  4. A 13-15/21 translocation chromosome in carrier father and mongol son.

    PubMed

    SERGOVICH, F R; SOLTAN, H C; CARR, D H

    1962-10-20

    Cytogenetic and dermatoglyphic features were studied in a family in which the mongoloid propositus inherited a 13-15/21 translocation chromosome from his father. Seven other healthy male carriers scattered throughout the pedigree produced nine chromosomally normal children and five carrier children in addition to the mongoloid propositus. These results show that carrier males do not necessarily produce an unusually large proportion of carrier children as previous reports would indicate. Dermatoglyphic studies showed that translocation carriers in this family have neither significantly more centralized nor less centralized palmar axial triradii than non-carrier relatives. No direct evidence was therefore found for the hypothesis that an allele is present on chromosome 21 which influences the height of the triradius.

  5. Identification of the sexually dimorphic gastrin-releasing peptide system in the lumbosacral spinal cord that controls male reproductive function in the mouse and Asian house musk shrew (Suncus murinus).

    PubMed

    Tamura, Kei; Kobayashi, Yasuhisa; Hirooka, Asuka; Takanami, Keiko; Oti, Takumi; Jogahara, Takamichi; Oda, Sen-Ichi; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Sakamoto, Hirotaka

    2017-05-01

    Several regions of the brain and spinal cord control male reproductive function. We previously demonstrated that the gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) system, located in the lumbosacral spinal cord of rats, controls spinal centers to promote penile reflexes during male copulatory behavior. However, little information exists on the male-specific spinal GRP system in animals other than rats. The objective of this study was to examine the functional generality of the spinal GRP system in mammals using the Asian house musk shrew (Suncus murinus; suncus named as the laboratory strain), a specialized placental mammal model. Mice are also used for a representative model of small laboratory animals. We first isolated complementary DNA encoding GRP in suncus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that suncus preproGRP was clustered to an independent branch. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that GRP and its receptor mRNAs were both expressed in the lumbar spinal cord of suncus and mice. Immunohistochemistry for GRP demonstrated that the sexually dimorphic GRP system and male-specific expression/distribution patterns of GRP in the lumbosacral spinal cord in suncus are similar to those of mice. In suncus, we further found that most GRP-expressing neurons in males also express androgen receptors, suggesting that this male-dominant system in suncus is also androgen-dependent. Taken together, these results indicate that the sexually dimorphic spinal GRP system exists not only in mice but also in suncus, suggesting that this system is a conserved property in mammals. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1586-1598, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A Mutation Associated with Stuttering Alters Mouse Pup Ultrasonic Vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Terra D; Wozniak, David F; Gutierrez, Joanne; Han, Tae-Un; Drayna, Dennis; Holy, Timothy E

    2016-04-13

    A promising approach to understanding the mechanistic basis of speech is to study disorders that affect speech without compromising other cognitive or motor functions. Stuttering, also known as stammering, has been linked to mutations in the lysosomal enzyme-targeting pathway, but how this remarkably specific speech deficit arises from mutations in a family of general "cellular housekeeping" genes is unknown. To address this question, we asked whether a missense mutation associated with human stuttering causes vocal or other abnormalities in mice. We compared vocalizations from mice engineered to carry a mutation in the Gnptab (N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase subunits alpha/beta) gene with wild-type littermates. We found significant differences in the vocalizations of pups with the human Gnptab stuttering mutation compared to littermate controls. Specifically, we found that mice with the mutation emitted fewer vocalizations per unit time and had longer pauses between vocalizations and that the entropy of the temporal sequence was significantly reduced. Furthermore, Gnptab missense mice were similar to wild-type mice on an extensive battery of non-vocal behaviors. We then used the same language-agnostic metrics for auditory signal analysis of human speech. We analyzed speech from people who stutter with mutations in this pathway and compared it to control speech and found abnormalities similar to those found in the mouse vocalizations. These data show that mutations in the lysosomal enzyme-targeting pathway produce highly specific effects in mouse pup vocalizations and establish the mouse as an attractive model for studying this disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Treatment of d-galactose induced mouse aging with Lycium barbarum polysaccharides and its mechanism study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Tao; He, Bixiu

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides LBP) on D-galactose aging model mouse, and explored its possible mechanism. Kunming mice were randomly divided into the control group, the model group, the high-dose LBP group, and the low-dose LBP group. Except the control group, D-galactose was used for modelling. The drug was administrated when modelling. Mouse behavioural, learning and memory changes were observed, and the contents of lipid peroxidation (LPO), lipofuscin (LF) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) in mouse brain tissue and the weight of immune organs were measured after 6 weeks. Compared with the control group, mouse weight gain in the model group reduced significantly. Compared with model group, after mice drank LBP, the times of electric shock was less than aging mice (in which, the high-dose LBP group, P<0.05), and electric shock incubation period was longer (P<0.01). On Day 45 after modelling and drug administration, the contents of LPO, LF and MAO-B in mouse brain tissue in the model group increased significantly, while those in the drug administration groups decreased significantly. The thymus index in the aging model group decreased significantly; the thymus index and the spleen index in the high-dose LBP group and the low-dose LBP group rebounded significantly (P<0.01). We concluded that LBP has an anti-aging effect on D-galactose induced aging model mouse, and its mechanism may be related with the alleviation of glucose metabolism disorder and the resistance of the generation of lipid peroxide and other substances, which damage cell membrane lipid.

  8. Epigenetic functions enriched in transcription factors binding to mouse recombination hotspots.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min; Kwoh, Chee-Keong; Przytycka, Teresa M; Li, Jing; Zheng, Jie

    2012-06-21

    The regulatory mechanism of recombination is a fundamental problem in genomics, with wide applications in genome-wide association studies, birth-defect diseases, molecular evolution, cancer research, etc. In mammalian genomes, recombination events cluster into short genomic regions called "recombination hotspots". Recently, a 13-mer motif enriched in hotspots is identified as a candidate cis-regulatory element of human recombination hotspots; moreover, a zinc finger protein, PRDM9, binds to this motif and is associated with variation of recombination phenotype in human and mouse genomes, thus is a trans-acting regulator of recombination hotspots. However, this pair of cis and trans-regulators covers only a fraction of hotspots, thus other regulators of recombination hotspots remain to be discovered. In this paper, we propose an approach to predicting additional trans-regulators from DNA-binding proteins by comparing their enrichment of binding sites in hotspots. Applying this approach on newly mapped mouse hotspots genome-wide, we confirmed that PRDM9 is a major trans-regulator of hotspots. In addition, a list of top candidate trans-regulators of mouse hotspots is reported. Using GO analysis we observed that the top genes are enriched with function of histone modification, highlighting the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms of recombination hotspots.

  9. Epigenetic functions enriched in transcription factors binding to mouse recombination hotspots

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The regulatory mechanism of recombination is a fundamental problem in genomics, with wide applications in genome-wide association studies, birth-defect diseases, molecular evolution, cancer research, etc. In mammalian genomes, recombination events cluster into short genomic regions called "recombination hotspots". Recently, a 13-mer motif enriched in hotspots is identified as a candidate cis-regulatory element of human recombination hotspots; moreover, a zinc finger protein, PRDM9, binds to this motif and is associated with variation of recombination phenotype in human and mouse genomes, thus is a trans-acting regulator of recombination hotspots. However, this pair of cis and trans-regulators covers only a fraction of hotspots, thus other regulators of recombination hotspots remain to be discovered. In this paper, we propose an approach to predicting additional trans-regulators from DNA-binding proteins by comparing their enrichment of binding sites in hotspots. Applying this approach on newly mapped mouse hotspots genome-wide, we confirmed that PRDM9 is a major trans-regulator of hotspots. In addition, a list of top candidate trans-regulators of mouse hotspots is reported. Using GO analysis we observed that the top genes are enriched with function of histone modification, highlighting the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms of recombination hotspots. PMID:22759569

  10. Kisspeptin modulates fertilization capacity of mouse spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Meng-Chieh; Wang, Jyun-Yuan; Lee, Yue-Jia; Jong, De-Shien; Tsui, Kuan-Hao; Chiu, Chih-Hsien

    2014-06-01

    Kisspeptin acts as an upstream regulator of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis, which is one of the main regulatory systems for mammalian reproduction. Kiss1 and its receptor Kiss1r (also known as G protein-coupled receptor 54 (Gpr54)) are expressed in various organs, but their functions are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression profiles and functions of kisspeptin and KISS1R in the reproductive tissues of imprinting control region mice. To identify the expression pattern and location of kisspeptin and KISS1R in gonads, testes and ovarian tissues were examined by immunohistochemical or immunofluorescent staining. Kisspeptin and KISS1R were expressed primarily in Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules respectively. KISS1R was specifically localized in the acrosomal region of spermatids and mature spermatozoa. Kisspeptin, but not KISS1R, was expressed in the cumulus-oocyte complex and oviductal epithelium of ovarian and oviductal tissues. The sperm intracellular calcium concentrations significantly increased in response to treatment with kisspeptin 10 in Fluo-4-loaded sperm. The IVF rates decreased after treatment of sperm with the kisspeptin antagonist peptide 234. These results suggest that kisspeptin and KISS1R might be involved in the fertilization process in the female reproductive tract. In summary, this study indicates that kisspeptin and KISS1R are expressed in female and male gametes, respectively, and in mouse reproductive tissues. These data strongly suggest that the kisspeptin system could regulate mammalian fertilization and reproduction. © 2014 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  11. Radioadaptive Cytoprotective Pathways in the Mouse Retina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanello, Susana B.; Wotring, V.; Theriot, C.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, H.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to cosmic radiation implies a risk of tissue degeneration. Radiation retinopathy is a complication of radiotherapy and exhibits common features with other retinopathies and neuropathies. Exposure to a low radiation dose elicits protective cellular events (radioadaptive response), reducing the stress of a subsequent higher dose. To assess the risk of radiation-induced retinal changes and the extent to which a small priming dose reduces this risk, we used a mouse model exposed to a source of Cs-137-gamma radiation. Gene expression profiling of retinas from non-irradiated control C57BL/6J mice (C) were compared to retinas from mice treated with a low 50 mGy dose (LD), a high 6 Gy dose (HD), and a combined treatment of 50 mGy (priming) and 6 Gy (challenge) doses (LHD). Whole retina RNA was isolated and expression analysis for selected genes performed by RTqPCR. Relevant target genes associated with cell death/survival, oxidative stress, cellular stress response and inflammation pathways, were analyzed. Cellular stress response genes were upregulated at 4 hr after the challenge dose in LHD retinas (Sirt1: 1.5 fold, Hsf1: 1.7 fold, Hspa1a: 2.5 fold; Hif1a: 1.8 fold, Bag1: 1.7). A similar trend was observed in LD animals. Most antioxidant enzymes (Hmox1, Sod2, Prdx1, Cygb, Cat1) and inflammatory mediators (NF B, Ptgs2 and Tgfb1) were upregulated in LHD and LD retinas. Expression of the pro-survival gene Bcl2 was upregulated in LD (6-fold) and LHD (4-fold) retinas. In conclusion, cytoprotective gene networks activation in the retina suggests a radioadaptive response to a priming irradiation dose, with mitigation of the deleterious effects of a subsequent high dose exposure. The enhancement of these cytoprotective mechanisms has potential value as a countermeasure to ocular alterations caused by radiation alone or in combination with other factors in spaceflight environments.

  12. Arabidopsis Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase 71A13 Catalyzes the Conversion of Indole-3-Acetaldoxime in Camalexin Synthesis[W

    PubMed Central

    Nafisi, Majse; Goregaoker, Sameer; Botanga, Christopher J.; Glawischnig, Erich; Olsen, Carl E.; Halkier, Barbara A.; Glazebrook, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Camalexin (3-thiazol-2-yl-indole) is an indole alkaloid phytoalexin produced by Arabidopsis thaliana that is thought to be important for resistance to necrotrophic fungal pathogens, such as Alternaria brassicicola and Botrytis cinerea. It is produced from Trp, which is converted to indole acetaldoxime (IAOx) by the action of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases CYP79B2 and CYP79B3. The remaining biosynthetic steps are unknown except for the last step, which is conversion of dihydrocamalexic acid to camalexin by CYP71B15 (PAD3). This article reports characterization of CYP71A13. Plants carrying cyp71A13 mutations produce greatly reduced amounts of camalexin after infection by Pseudomonas syringae or A. brassicicola and are susceptible to A. brassicicola, as are pad3 and cyp79B2 cyp79B3 mutants. Expression levels of CYP71A13 and PAD3 are coregulated. CYP71A13 expressed in Escherichia coli converted IAOx to indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN). Expression of CYP79B2 and CYP71A13 in Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in conversion of Trp to IAN. Exogenously supplied IAN restored camalexin production in cyp71A13 mutant plants. Together, these results lead to the conclusion that CYP71A13 catalyzes the conversion of IAOx to IAN in camalexin synthesis and provide further support for the role of camalexin in resistance to A. brassicicola. PMID:17573535

  13. A Deformable Atlas of the Laboratory Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongkai; Stout, David B.; Chatziioannou, Arion F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This paper presents a deformable mouse atlas of the laboratory mouse anatomy. This atlas is fully articulated and can be positioned into arbitrary body poses. The atlas can also adapt body weight by changing body length and fat amount. Procedures A training set of 103 micro-CT images was used to construct the atlas. A cage-based deformation method was applied to realize the articulated pose change. The weight-related body deformation was learned from the training set using a linear regression method. A conditional Gaussian model and thin-plate spline mapping were used to deform the internal organs following the changes of pose and weight. Results The atlas was deformed into different body poses and weights, and the deformation results were more realistic compared to the results achieved with other mouse atlases. The organ weights of this atlas matched well with the measurements of real mouse organ weights. This atlas can also be converted into voxelized images with labeled organs, pseudo CT images and tetrahedral mesh for phantom studies. Conclusions With the unique ability of articulated pose and weight changes, the deformable laboratory mouse atlas can become a valuable tool for preclinical image analysis. PMID:25049072

  14. In Amnio MRI of Mouse Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Thomas A.; Norris, Francesca C.; Carnaghan, Helen; Savery, Dawn; Wells, Jack A.; Siow, Bernard; Scambler, Peter J.; Pierro, Agostino; De Coppi, Paolo; Eaton, Simon; Lythgoe, Mark F.

    2014-01-01

    Mouse embryo imaging is conventionally carried out on ex vivo embryos excised from the amniotic sac, omitting vital structures and abnormalities external to the body. Here, we present an in amnio MR imaging methodology in which the mouse embryo is retained in the amniotic sac and demonstrate how important embryonic structures can be visualised in 3D with high spatial resolution (100 µm/px). To illustrate the utility of in amnio imaging, we subsequently apply the technique to examine abnormal mouse embryos with abdominal wall defects. Mouse embryos at E17.5 were imaged and compared, including three normal phenotype embryos, an abnormal embryo with a clear exomphalos defect, and one with a suspected gastroschisis phenotype. Embryos were excised from the mother ensuring the amnion remained intact and stereo microscopy was performed. Embryos were next embedded in agarose for 3D, high resolution MRI on a 9.4T scanner. Identification of the abnormal embryo phenotypes was not possible using stereo microscopy or conventional ex vivo MRI. Using in amnio MRI, we determined that the abnormal embryos had an exomphalos phenotype with varying severities. In amnio MRI is ideally suited to investigate the complex relationship between embryo and amnion, together with screening for other abnormalities located outside of the mouse embryo, providing a valuable complement to histology and existing imaging methods available to the phenotyping community. PMID:25330230

  15. Chromosomal locations of mouse immunoglobulin genes.

    PubMed Central

    Valbuena, O; Marcu, K B; Croce, C M; Huebner, K; Weigert, M; Perry, R P

    1978-01-01

    The chromosomal locations of the structural genes coding for the constant portions of mouse heavy (H) and light chain immunoglobulins were studied by molecular hybridization techniques. Complementary DNA probes containing the constant-region sequences of kappa and lambdaI light chain and alpha, gamma2b, and mu heavy chain mRNAs were annealed to a large excess of DNA from a series of eight mouse-human hybrid cell lines that are deficient for various mouse chromosomes. The lines were scored as positive when a high proportion of a probe annealed and negative when an insignificant proportion annealed. Some lines were clearly negative for H and lambda and clearly positive for kappa. Others were positive or intermediate for lambda, positive for kappa and negative for H. Still others, including a line that was selected for the absence of the mouse X chromosome, were positive for all immunoglobulin species. These results demonstrate that the Clambda, Ckappa, and CH genes are located on different autosomes in the mouse. In contrast, the three heavy-chain families exhibited consistently uniform hybridization results, suggesting that the genes for Calpha, Cgamma, and Cmu are located on the same chromosome. A comparison of karyotypic data with hybridization data has limited the possible locations of the Ig genes to only a few chromosomes. PMID:96442

  16. Mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV) and human breast cancer with neuroendocrine differentiation.

    PubMed

    Js, Lawson; Cc, Ngan; Wk, Glenn; Dd, Tran

    2017-01-01

    Mouse mammary tumour viruses (MMTVs) may have a role in a subset of human breast cancers. MMTV positive human breast cancers have similar histological characteristics to neuroendocrine breast cancers and to MMTV positive mouse mammary tumours. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of neuroendocrine biomarkers - synaptophysin and chromogranin, to determine if these histological characteristics and biomarker expression were due to the influences of MMTV. Immunohistochemistry analyses to identify synaptophysin and chromogranin were conducted on a series of human breast cancers in which (i) MMTV had been previously identified and had similar histological characteristics to MMTV positive mouse mammary tumours and (ii) MMTV positive mouse mammary tumours. The expression of synaptophysin and chromogranin in MMTV positive mouse mammary tumors were all positive (7 of 7 specimens - 100% positive). The expression of synaptophysin and chromogranin in MMTV positive human breast cancers was much less prevalent (3 of 22 - 14%). There was no expression of synaptophysin and chromogranin in the normal breast tissue control specimens. It is not possible to draw any firm conclusions from these observations. However, despite the small numbers of MMTV positive mouse mammary tumours in this study, the universal expression in these specimens of synaptophysin and chromogranin proteins is striking. This pattern of synaptophysin and chromogranin expression is very different from their expression in MMTV positive human breast cancers. The reason for these differences is not known. The high prevalence of positive expression of synaptophysin and chromogranin in MMTV positive mouse mammary tumours and low expression of synaptophysin and chromogranin in MMTV positive human breast cancers indicates that MMTV is not usually associated with neuroendocrine human breast cancers.

  17. Role of YAP activation in nuclear receptor CAR-mediated proliferation of mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Abe, Taiki; Amaike, Yuto; Shizu, Ryota; Takahashi, Miki; Kano, Makoto; Hosaka, Takuomi; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Kodama, Susumu; Matsuzawa, Atsushi; Yoshinari, Kouichi

    2018-06-08

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a xenobiotic-responsive nuclear receptor that is highly expressed in the liver. CAR activation induces hepatocyte proliferation and hepatocarcinogenesis in rodents, but the mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the association of CAR-dependent cell proliferation with Yes-associated protein (YAP), which is a transcriptional cofactor controlling organ size and cell growth through the interaction with various transcriptional factors including TEAD. In mouse livers, TCPOBOP (a mouse CAR activator) treatment increased the nuclear YAP accumulation and mRNA levels of YAP target genes as well as cell-cycle related genes along with liver hypertrophy and verteporfin (an inhibitor of YAP/TEAD interaction) cotreatment tended to attenuate them. Furthermore, in cell-based reporter gene assays, CAR activation enhanced the YAP/TEAD-dependent transcription. To investigate the role of YAP/TEAD activation in the CAR-dependent hepatocyte proliferation, we sought to establish an in vitro system completely reproducing CAR-dependent cell proliferation. Since CAR was only slightly expressed in cultured mouse primary hepatocytes compared to mouse livers and no proliferation was observed after treatment with TCPOBOP, we overexpressed CAR using mouse CAR expressing adenovirus (Ad-mCAR-V5) in mouse primary hepatocytes. Ad-mCAR-V5 infection and TCPOBOP treatment induced hepatocyte proliferation. Similar results were obtained with immortalized normal mouse hepatocytes as well. In the established in vitro system, CAR-dependent proliferation was strongly inhibited by Yap knockdown and completely abolished by verteporfin treatment. Our present results obtained in in vivo and in vitro experiments suggest that YAP/TEAD activation plays key roles in CAR-dependent proliferation of murine hepatocytes.

  18. Vesicular monoamine transporter-1 (VMAT-1) mRNA and immunoreactive proteins in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Ashe, Karen M; Chiu, Wan-Ling; Khalifa, Ahmed M; Nicolas, Antoine N; Brown, Bonnie L; De Martino, Randall R; Alexander, Clayton P; Waggener, Christopher T; Fischer-Stenger, Krista; Stewart, Jennifer K

    2011-01-01

    Vesicular monoamine transporter 1 (VMAT-1) mRNA and protein were examined (1) to determine whether adult mouse brain expresses full-length VMAT-1 mRNA that can be translated to functional transporter protein and (2) to compare immunoreactive VMAT-1 proteins in brain and adrenal. VMAT-1 mRNA was detected in mouse brain with RT-PCR. The cDNA was sequenced, cloned into an expression vector, transfected into COS-1 cells, and cell protein was assayed for VMAT-1 activity. Immunoreactive proteins were examined on western blots probed with four different antibodies to VMAT-1. Sequencing confirmed identity of the entire coding sequences of VMAT-1 cDNA from mouse medulla oblongata/pons and adrenal to a Gen-Bank reference sequence. Transfection of the brain cDNA into COS-1 cells resulted in transporter activity that was blocked by the VMAT inhibitor reserpine and a proton ionophore, but not by tetrabenazine, which has a high affinity for VMAT-2. Antibodies to either the C- or N- terminus of VMAT-1 detected two proteins (73 and 55 kD) in transfected COS-1 cells. The C-terminal antibodies detected both proteins in extracts of mouse medulla/pons, cortex, hypothalamus, and cerebellum but only the 73 kD protein and higher molecular weight immunoreactive proteins in mouse adrenal and rat PC12 cells, which are positive controls for rodent VMAT-1. These findings demonstrate that a functional VMAT-1 mRNA coding sequence is expressed in mouse brain and suggest processing of VMAT-1 protein differs in mouse adrenal and brain.

  19. Development of the mouse vestibular system in the absence of gravity perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael; Yuan Wang, Xiang; Wolgemuth, Debra J.; Murashov, Alexander K.

    2003-01-01

    The tilted mutant mouse, which lacks otoconia in the inner ear, was used to study development of the mouse vestibular system in the absence of gravity perception. Otoconia are dense particles composed of proteins and calcium carbonate crystals suspended in the gelatinous macular membrane. They enhance, and are largely responsible for, sensitivity to gravity. Morphometric analysis of the vestibular ganglion showed that the mutant developed more slowly than the normal controls, both in rate of development and cell number, particularly during the first week of post-natal development. The mutant ganglia also exhibited a reduction of cells during the first 6 days of post-natal development.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of amyloid plaques in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Ryan; Wengenack, Thomas M.; Poduslo, Joseph F.; Garwood, Michael; Jack, Clifford R.

    2011-01-01

    A major objective in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease is amyloid plaque reduction. Transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease provide a controlled and consistent environment for studying amyloid plaque deposition in Alzheimer's disease. Magnetic resonance imaging is an attractive tool for longitudinal studies because it offers non-invasive monitoring of amyloid plaques. Recent studies have demonstrated the ability of magnetic resonance imaging to detect individual plaques in living mice. This review discusses the mouse models, MR pulse sequences, and parameters that have been used to image plaques and how they can be optimized for future studies. PMID:21499442

  1. Ginsenoside F2 reduces hair loss by controlling apoptosis through the sterol regulatory element-binding protein cleavage activating protein and transforming growth factor-β pathways in a dihydrotestosterone-induced mouse model.

    PubMed

    Shin, Heon-Sub; Park, Sang-Yong; Hwang, Eun-Son; Lee, Don-Gil; Mavlonov, Gafurjon Turdalievich; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to test whether ginsenoside F2 can reduce hair loss by influencing sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) and the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) pathway of apoptosis in dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated hair cells and in a DHT-induced hair loss model in mice. Results for ginsenoside F2 were compared with finasteride. DHT inhibits proliferation of hair cells and induces androgenetic alopecia and was shown to activate an apoptosis signal pathway both in vitro and in vivo. The cell-based 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that the proliferation rates of DHT-treated human hair dermal papilla cells (HHDPCs) and HaCaTs increased by 48% in the ginsenoside F2-treated group and by 12% in the finasteride-treated group. Western blot analysis showed that ginsenoside F2 decreased expression of TGF-β2 related factors involved in hair loss. The present study suggested a hair loss related pathway by changing SCAP related apoptosis pathway, which has been known to control cholesterol metabolism. SCAP, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) and caspase-12 expression in the ginsenoside F2-treated group were decreased compared to the DHT and finasteride-treated group. C57BL/6 mice were also prepared by injection with DHT and then treated with ginsenoside F2 or finasteride. Hair growth rate, density, thickness measurements and tissue histotological analysis in these groups suggested that ginsenoside F2 suppressed hair cell apoptosis and premature entry to catagen more effectively than finasteride. Our results indicated that ginsenoside F2 decreased the expression of TGF-β2 and SCAP proteins, which have been suggested to be involved in apoptosis and entry into catagen. This study provides evidence those factors in the SCAP pathway could be targets for hair loss prevention drugs.

  2. Development of a novel mouse glioma model using lentiviral vectors

    PubMed Central

    Marumoto, Tomotoshi; Tashiro, Ayumu; Friedmann-Morvinski, Dinorah; Scadeng, Miriam; Soda, Yasushi; Gage, Fred H; Verma, Inder M

    2009-01-01

    We report the development of a new method to induce glioblastoma multiforme in adult immunocompetent mice by injecting Cre-loxP–controlled lentiviral vectors expressing oncogenes. Cell type- or region-specific expression of activated forms of the oncoproteins Harvey-Ras and AKT in fewer than 60 glial fibrillary acidic protein–positive cells in the hippocampus, subventricular zone or cortex of mice heterozygous for the gene encoding the tumor suppressor Tp53 were tested. Mice developed glioblastoma multiforme when transduced either in the subventricular zone or the hippocampus. However, tumors were rarely detected when the mice were transduced in the cortex. Transplantation of brain tumor cells into naive recipient mouse brain resulted in the formation of glioblastoma multiforme–like tumors, which contained CD133+ cells, formed tumorspheres and could differentiate into neurons and astrocytes. We suggest that the use of Cre-loxP–controlled lentiviral vectors is a novel way to generate a mouse glioblastoma multiforme model in a region- and cell type-specific manner in adult mice. PMID:19122659

  3. Measuring Pressure Volume Loops in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Townsend, DeWayne

    2016-05-02

    Understanding the causes and progression of heart disease presents a significant challenge to the biomedical community. The genetic flexibility of the mouse provides great potential to explore cardiac function at the molecular level. The mouse's small size does present some challenges in regards to performing detailed cardiac phenotyping. Miniaturization and other advancements in technology have made many methods of cardiac assessment possible in the mouse. Of these, the simultaneous collection of pressure and volume data provides a detailed picture of cardiac function that is not available through any other modality. Here a detailed procedure for the collection of pressure-volume loop data is described. Included is a discussion of the principles underlying the measurements and the potential sources of error. Anesthetic management and surgical approaches are discussed in great detail as they are both critical to obtaining high quality hemodynamic measurements. The principles of hemodynamic protocol development and relevant aspects of data analysis are also addressed.

  4. Using Genetic Mouse Models to Gain Insight into Glaucoma: Past Results and Future Possibilities

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Kimberly A.; Harder, Jeffrey M.; Williams, Pete A.; Rausch, Rebecca L.; Kiernan, Amy E.; Nair, K. Saidas; Anderson, Michael G.; John, Simon W.; Howell, Gareth R.; Libby, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    While all forms of glaucoma are characterized by a specific pattern of retinal ganglion cell death, they are clinically divided into several distinct subclasses, including normal tension glaucoma, primary open angle glaucoma, congenital glaucoma, and secondary glaucoma. For each type of glaucoma there are likely numerous molecular pathways that control susceptibility to the disease. Given this complexity, a single animal model will never precisely model all aspects of all the different types of human glaucoma. Therefore, multiple animal models have been utilized to study glaucoma but more are needed. Because of the powerful genetic tools available to use in the laboratory mouse, it has proven to be a highly useful mammalian system for studying the pathophysiology of human disease. The similarity between human and mouse eyes coupled with the ability to use a combination of advanced cell biological and genetic tools in mice have led to a large increase in the number of studies using mice to model specific glaucoma phenotypes. Over the last decade, numerous new mouse models and genetic tools have emerged, providing important insight into the cell biology and genetics of glaucoma. In this review, we describe available mouse genetic models that can be used to study glaucoma-relevant disease/pathobiology. Furthermore, we discuss how these models have been used to gain insights into ocular hypertension (a major risk factor for glaucoma) and glaucomatous retinal ganglion cell death. Finally, the potential for developing new mouse models and using advanced genetic tools and resources for studying glaucoma are discussed. PMID:26116903

  5. A Dynamic Simulation of Musculoskeletal Function in the Mouse Hindlimb During Trotting Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Charles, James P.; Cappellari, Ornella; Hutchinson, John R.

    2018-01-01

    Mice are often used as animal models of various human neuromuscular diseases, and analysis of these models often requires detailed gait analysis. However, little is known of the dynamics of the mouse musculoskeletal system during locomotion. In this study, we used computer optimization procedures to create a simulation of trotting in a mouse, using a previously developed mouse hindlimb musculoskeletal model in conjunction with new experimental data, allowing muscle forces, activation patterns, and levels of mechanical work to be estimated. Analyzing musculotendon unit (MTU) mechanical work throughout the stride allowed a deeper understanding of their respective functions, with the rectus femoris MTU dominating the generation of positive and negative mechanical work during the swing and stance phases. This analysis also tested previous functional inferences of the mouse hindlimb made from anatomical data alone, such as the existence of a proximo-distal gradient of muscle function, thought to reflect adaptations for energy-efficient locomotion. The results do not strongly support the presence of this gradient within the mouse musculoskeletal system, particularly given relatively high negative net work output from the ankle plantarflexor MTUs, although more detailed simulations could test this further. This modeling analysis lays a foundation for future studies of the control of vertebrate movement through the development of neuromechanical simulations. PMID:29868576

  6. Mouse Sperm Cryopreservation and Recovery using the I·Cryo Kit

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ling; Sansing, Steven R.; Morse, Iva S.; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R.

    2011-01-01

    Thousands of new genetically modified (GM) strains of mice have been created since the advent of transgenesis and knockout technologies. Many of these valuable animals exist only as live animals, with no backup plan in case of emergency. Cryopreservation of embryos can provide this backup, but is costly, can be a lengthy procedure, and generally requires a large number of animals for success. Since the discovery that mouse sperm can be successfully cryopreserved with a basic cryoprotective agent (CPA) consisting of 18% raffinose and 3% skim milk, sperm cryopreservation has become an acceptable and cost-effective procedure for archiving, distributing and recovery of these valuable strains. Here we demonstrate a newly developed I•Cryo kit for mouse sperm cryopreservation. Sperm from five commonly-used strains of inbred mice were frozen using this kit and then recovered. Higher protection ratios of sperm motility (> 60%) and rapid progressive motility (> 45%) compared to the control (basic CPA) were seen for sperm frozen with this kit in 5 inbred mouse strains. Two cell stage embryo development after IVF with the recovered sperm was improved consistently in all 5 mouse strains examined. Over a 1.5 year period, 49 GM mouse lines were archived by sperm cryopreservation with the I•Cryo kit and later recovered by IVF. PMID:22214993

  7. The roles of ERAS during cell lineage specification of mouse early embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhen-Ao; Yu, Yang; Ma, Huai-Xiao; Wang, Xiao-Xiao; Lu, Xukun; Zhai, Yanhua; Zhang, Xiaoxin; Wang, Haibin; Li, Lei

    2015-08-01

    Eras encodes a Ras-like GTPase protein that was originally identified as an embryonic stem cell-specific Ras. ERAS has been known to be required for the growth of embryonic stem cells and stimulates somatic cell reprogramming, suggesting its roles on mouse early embryonic development. We now report a dynamic expression pattern of Eras during mouse peri-implantation development: its expression increases at the blastocyst stage, and specifically decreases in E7.5 mesoderm. In accordance with its expression pattern, the increased expression of Eras promotes cell proliferation through controlling AKT activation and the commitment from ground to primed state through ERK activation in mouse embryonic stem cells; and the reduced expression of Eras facilitates primitive streak and mesoderm formation through AKT inhibition during gastrulation. The expression of Eras is finely regulated to match its roles in mouse early embryonic development during which Eras expression is negatively regulated by the β-catenin pathway. Thus, beyond its well-known role on cell proliferation, ERAS may also play important roles in cell lineage specification during mouse early embryonic development. © 2015 The Authors.

  8. Mouse embryo attachment to substratum and interaction of trophoblast with cultured cells

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R.H.; Spindle, A.I.; Pedersen, R.A.

    1979-06-01

    Hatching, attachment, and trophoblast outgrowth of mouse embryos in vitro were examined as a model for implantation. Mouse embryos attached and grew out on glass cover slips that were partially covered with cultured mouse cells (L cells, liver cells, transformed JLS-V11 cells, and teratocarcinoma cells). Scanning electron microscopy showed that processes of these cells made contact with trophoblast, but there was no evidence of cell lysis or of phagocytosis of the cells by trophoblast. Time-lapse cinematography showed that after contact the cultured mouse cells retracted from the trophoblast, which then spread into the areas vacated by those cells. This suggestsmore » a means by which the trophoblast gains entry into the endometrium without destruction of maternal cells. Neuraminidase (100 or 250 units/ml) had no effect on attachment of mouse embryos to glass. However, attachment was inhibited by trypsin at concentrations of 0.25%, 0.025%, and 0.0025%. Treatment of early blastocysts with diazooxo-norleucine, an inhibitor of glycoprotein synthesis, decreased the number of embryos hatching from the zona pellucida; treatment at the late blastocyst stage decreased hatching to a lesser extent. Among the late blastocysts that did hatch, the number forming trophoblast outgrowths was lower than in controls. These results suggest that glycoproteins may be of importance for embryo hatching, attachment, and outgrowth.« less

  9. Galantamine improves olfactory learning in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Simoes de Souza, Fabio M.; Busquet, Nicolas; Blatner, Megan; Maclean, Kenneth N.; Restrepo, Diego

    2011-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common form of congenital intellectual disability. Although DS involves multiple disturbances in various tissues, there is little doubt that in terms of quality of life cognitive impairment is the most serious facet and there is no effective treatment for this aspect of the syndrome. The Ts65Dn mouse model of DS recapitulates multiple aspects of DS including cognitive impairment. Here the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS was evaluated in an associative learning paradigm based on olfactory cues. In contrast to disomic controls, trisomic mice exhibited significant deficits in olfactory learning. Treatment of trisomic mice with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor galantamine resulted in a significant improvement in olfactory learning. Collectively, our study indicates that olfactory learning can be a sensitive tool for evaluating deficits in associative learning in mouse models of DS and that galantamine has therapeutic potential for improving cognitive abilities. PMID:22355654

  10. Galantamine improves olfactory learning in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Fabio M Simoes; Busquet, Nicolas; Blatner, Megan; Maclean, Kenneth N; Restrepo, Diego

    2011-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common form of congenital intellectual disability. Although DS involves multiple disturbances in various tissues, there is little doubt that in terms of quality of life cognitive impairment is the most serious facet and there is no effective treatment for this aspect of the syndrome. The Ts65Dn mouse model of DS recapitulates multiple aspects of DS including cognitive impairment. Here the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS was evaluated in an associative learning paradigm based on olfactory cues. In contrast to disomic controls, trisomic mice exhibited significant deficits in olfactory learning. Treatment of trisomic mice with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor galantamine resulted in a significant improvement in olfactory learning. Collectively, our study indicates that olfactory learning can be a sensitive tool for evaluating deficits in associative learning in mouse models of DS and that galantamine has therapeutic potential for improving cognitive abilities.

  11. [Effect of Tribulus terrestris extract on melanocyte-stimulating hormone expression in mouse hair follicles].

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Lu, Jian-wei; An, Jing; Jiang, Xuan

    2006-12-01

    To observe the effect of Tribulus terrestris extract on melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) expression in C57BL/6J mouse hair follicles, and investigate the role of Tribulus terrestris extract in activation, proliferation, epidermal migration of dormant hair follicle melanocytes. The aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris was administered orally in specific pathogen-free C57BL/6J mouse at the daily dose equivalent to 1 g/1 kg in adult human, and the expression and distribution of MSH in the mouse hair follicles was observed with immunohistochemistry. The positivity rate of MSH expression in the hair follicle melanocytes was 75% in mice treated with the extract, significantly higher than the rate of only 18.75% in the control group (P<0.01). The aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris can significantly increase MSH expression in the hair follicle melanocytes by activating tyrosinase activity and promoting melanocyte proliferation, melanine synthesis, and epidermal migration of dormant melanocytes.

  12. Genetically engineered mouse models of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Guijarro, Eva; Day, Chi-Ping; Merlino, Glenn; Zaidi, M Raza

    2017-06-01

    Melanoma is a complex disease that exhibits highly heterogeneous etiological, histopathological, and genetic features, as well as therapeutic responses. Genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models provide powerful tools to unravel the molecular mechanisms critical for melanoma development and drug resistance. Here, we expound briefly the basis of the mouse modeling design, the available technology for genetic engineering, and the aspects influencing the use of GEMs to model melanoma. Furthermore, we describe in detail the currently available GEM models of melanoma. Cancer 2017;123:2089-103. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  13. Humanized mouse models: Application to human diseases.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ryoji; Takahashi, Takeshi; Ito, Mamoru

    2018-05-01

    Humanized mice are superior to rodents for preclinical evaluation of the efficacy and safety of drug candidates using human cells or tissues. During the past decade, humanized mouse technology has been greatly advanced by the establishment of novel platforms of genetically modified immunodeficient mice. Several human diseases can be recapitulated using humanized mice due to the improved engraftment and differentiation capacity of human cells or tissues. In this review, we discuss current advanced humanized mouse models that recapitulate human diseases including cancer, allergy, and graft-versus-host disease. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. 26 CFR 31.3121(a)(13)-1 - Payments under certain employers' plans after retirement, disability, or death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... section and section 3121(a)(13). For example, lump-sum payments for unused vacation time or a final... is paid or commences to be paid upon or within a reasonable time after the termination of an employee...

  15. 26 CFR 31.3121(a)(13)-1 - Payments under certain employers' plans after retirement, disability, or death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... section and section 3121(a)(13). For example, lump-sum payments for unused vacation time or a final... is paid or commences to be paid upon or within a reasonable time after the termination of an employee...

  16. Successful endovascular treatment of a 13-month-old child with gastrointestinal bleeding due to Dieulafoy syndrome of duodenum.

    PubMed

    Komissarov, Igor Alexeevich; Borisova, Natalia Alexandrovna; Komissarov, Michail Igorevich; Aleshin, Ivan Jurievich

    2018-06-01

    Dieulafoy disease can manifest itself with spontaneous massive recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding in children. We report a case of successful management of a 13-month-old child with Dieulafoy disease of duodenum when traditional methods of examination and treatment failed.

  17. Gyroscope-driven mouse pointer with an EMOTIV® EEG headset and data analysis based on Empirical Mode Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Cholula, Gerardo; Ramirez-Cortes, Juan Manuel; Alarcon-Aquino, Vicente; Gomez-Gil, Pilar; Rangel-Magdaleno, Jose de Jesus; Reyes-Garcia, Carlos

    2013-08-14

    This paper presents a project on the development of a cursor control emulating the typical operations of a computer-mouse, using gyroscope and eye-blinking electromyographic signals which are obtained through a commercial 16-electrode wireless headset, recently released by Emotiv. The cursor position is controlled using information from a gyroscope included in the headset. The clicks are generated through the user's blinking with an adequate detection procedure based on the spectral-like technique called Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD). EMD is proposed as a simple and quick computational tool, yet effective, aimed to artifact reduction from head movements as well as a method to detect blinking signals for mouse control. Kalman filter is used as state estimator for mouse position control and jitter removal. The detection rate obtained in average was 94.9%. Experimental setup and some obtained results are presented.

  18. Gyroscope-Driven Mouse Pointer with an EMOTIV® EEG Headset and Data Analysis Based on Empirical Mode Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Rosas-Cholula, Gerardo; Ramirez-Cortes, Juan Manuel; Alarcon-Aquino, Vicente; Gomez-Gil, Pilar; Rangel-Magdaleno, Jose de Jesus; Reyes-Garcia, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a project on the development of a cursor control emulating the typical operations of a computer-mouse, using gyroscope and eye-blinking electromyographic signals which are obtained through a commercial 16-electrode wireless headset, recently released by Emotiv. The cursor position is controlled using information from a gyroscope included in the headset. The clicks are generated through the user's blinking with an adequate detection procedure based on the spectral-like technique called Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD). EMD is proposed as a simple and quick computational tool, yet effective, aimed to artifact reduction from head movements as well as a method to detect blinking signals for mouse control. Kalman filter is used as state estimator for mouse position control and jitter removal. The detection rate obtained in average was 94.9%. Experimental setup and some obtained results are presented. PMID:23948873

  19. Automatic Single Event Effects Sensitivity Analysis of a 13-Bit Successive Approximation ADC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márquez, F.; Muñoz, F.; Palomo, F. R.; Sanz, L.; López-Morillo, E.; Aguirre, M. A.; Jiménez, A.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents Analog Fault Tolerant University of Seville Debugging System (AFTU), a tool to evaluate the Single-Event Effect (SEE) sensitivity of analog/mixed signal microelectronic circuits at transistor level. As analog cells can behave in an unpredictable way when critical areas interact with the particle hitting, there is a need for designers to have a software tool that allows an automatic and exhaustive analysis of Single-Event Effects influence. AFTU takes the test-bench SPECTRE design, emulates radiation conditions and automatically evaluates vulnerabilities using user-defined heuristics. To illustrate the utility of the tool, the SEE sensitivity of a 13-bits Successive Approximation Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) has been analysed. This circuit was selected not only because it was designed for space applications, but also due to the fact that a manual SEE sensitivity analysis would be too time-consuming. After a user-defined test campaign, it was detected that some voltage transients were propagated to a node where a parasitic diode was activated, affecting the offset cancelation, and therefore the whole resolution of the ADC. A simple modification of the scheme solved the problem, as it was verified with another automatic SEE sensitivity analysis.

  20. Dengue epidemiological trend in Oman: a 13-year national surveillance and strategic proposition of imported cases.

    PubMed

    Al Awaidy, Salah Thabit; Al Obeidani, Idris; Bawikar, Shyam; Al Mahrouqi, Salim; Al Busaidy, Suleiman Salim; Al Baqlani, Said; Patel, Prakash K

    2014-10-01

    Dengue fever has emerged as a major public health problem globally in the past three decades. A 13-year national surveillance data analysis was done to describe the epidemiology and its trend of dengue disease in Oman reported between 2001 and 2013. Laboratory-confirmed dengue virus infections reported were studied retrospectively during the study period. A total of 64 laboratory confirmed cases were reported. All the patients contracted the disease during their visit to South-East Asian countries, hence classified as imported cases. The majority of the cases were reported in the year 2012 (23.4%). The most important clinical characteristics were fever (90.6%), myalgia (35.9%) and rash/petechial rash (20.3%). Thrombocytopenia was seen in 31.2% of the study subjects. The mortality was nearly 4.6% and all other patients made a full recovery. The most effective measure for travellers is taking precautions to avoid mosquito bites. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. Beam tracking simulation in the central region of a 13 MeV PET cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anggraita, Pramudita; Santosa, Budi; Taufik, Mulyani, Emy; Diah, Frida Iswinning

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports the trajectories simulation of proton beam in the central region of a 13 MeV PET cyclotron, operating with negative proton beam (for easier beam extraction using a stripper foil), 40 kV peak accelerating dee voltage at fourth harmonic frequency of 77.88 MHz, and average magnetic field of 1.275 T. The central region covers fields of 240mm × 240mm × 30mm size at 1mm resolution. The calculation was also done at finer 0.25mm resolution covering fields of 30mm × 30mm × 4mm size to see the effects of 0.55mm horizontal width of the ion source window and the halted trajectories of positive proton beam. The simulations show up to 7 turns of orbital trajectories, reaching about 1 MeV of beam energy. The distribution of accelerating electric fields and magnetic fields inside the cyclotron were calculated in 3 dimension using Opera3D code and Tosca modules for static magnetic and electric fields. The trajectory simulation was carried out using Scilab 5.3.3 code.

  2. Phenotypic outcomes in Mouse and Human Foxc1 dependent Dandy-Walker cerebellar malformation suggest shared mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Haldipur, Parthiv; Dang, Derek; Aldinger, Kimberly A; Janson, Olivia K; Guimiot, Fabien; Adle-Biasette, Homa; Dobyns, William B; Siebert, Joseph R; Russo, Rosa; Millen, Kathleen J

    2017-01-16

    FOXC1 loss contributes to Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM), a common human cerebellar malformation. Previously, we found that complete Foxc1 loss leads to aberrations in proliferation, neuronal differentiation and migration in the embryonic mouse cerebellum (Haldipur et al., 2014). We now demonstrate that hypomorphic Foxc1 mutant mice have granule and Purkinje cell abnormalities causing subsequent disruptions in postnatal cerebellar foliation and lamination. Particularly striking is the presence of a partially formed posterior lobule which echoes the posterior vermis DW 'tail sign' observed in human imaging studies. Lineage tracing experiments in Foxc1 mutant mouse cerebella indicate that aberrant migration of granule cell progenitors destined to form the posterior-most lobule causes this unique phenotype. Analyses of rare human del chr 6p25 fetal cerebella demonstrate extensive phenotypic overlap with our Foxc1 mutant mouse models, validating our DWM models and demonstrating that many key mechanisms controlling cerebellar development are likely conserved between mouse and human.

  3. The IgG2a antibody response to thyroglobulin is linked to the Igh locus in mouse.

    PubMed

    Kuppers, R C; Epstein, L D; Outschoorn, I M; Rose, N R

    1994-01-01

    The IgG-subclass usage by several strains of mice in the response to immunization with mouse thyroglobulin (mTg) was examined in the experimental autoimmune thyroiditis model. While the subclass usage by most mouse strains was similar, the Ighb allotype-bearing mice consistently produced lower IgG2a levels to mTg. Using CBA-Ighb congenic and recombinant inbred strains of mice, the lower level of IgG2a in the Ighb mouse was mapped to the Igh locus. The regulation of IgG2a appeared to be cis controlled, as the CBA x C57BL/6F1 mouse also produced reduced IgG2a of the Ighb (B6) allotype but not of the Ighj (CBA) allotype.

  4. Genetic mouse models of brain ageing and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bilkei-Gorzo, Andras

    2014-05-01

    Progression of brain ageing is influenced by a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Analysis of genetically modified animals with uniform genetic backgrounds in a standardised, controlled environment enables the dissection of critical determinants of brain ageing on a molecular level. Human and animal studies suggest that increased load of damaged macromolecules, efficacy of DNA maintenance, mitochondrial activity, and cellular stress defences are critical determinants of brain ageing. Surprisingly, mouse lines with genetic impairment of anti-oxidative capacity generally did not show enhanced cognitive ageing but rather an increased sensitivity to oxidative challenge. Mouse lines with impaired mitochondrial activity had critically short life spans or severe and rapidly progressing neurodegeneration. Strains with impaired clearance in damaged macromolecules or defects in the regulation of cellular stress defences showed alterations in the onset and progression of cognitive decline. Importantly, reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling generally increased life span but impaired cognitive functions revealing a complex interaction between ageing of the brain and of the body. Brain ageing is accompanied by an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. Transgenic mouse models expressing high levels of mutant human amyloid precursor protein showed a number of symptoms and pathophysiological processes typical for early phase of Alzheimer's disease. Generally, therapeutic strategies effective against Alzheimer's disease in humans were also active in the Tg2576, APP23, APP/PS1 and 5xFAD lines, but a large number of false positive findings were also reported. The 3xtg AD model likely has the highest face and construct validity but further studies are needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Experimental evidence for olfactory predator recognition in wild mouse lemurs.

    PubMed

    Kappel, Philipp; Hohenbrink, Sarah; Radespiel, Ute

    2011-09-01

    Although primates have remarkable olfactory capabilities, their ability for olfactory predator recognition is still understudied. We investigated this cognitive ability in wild gray and golden-brown mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus and M. ravelobensis) that were confronted with four different olfactory stimuli, derived from two Malagasy predators (fossa and barn owl) and two local nonpredator species (brown lemur and sifaka). The predator response was tested (1) in a systematic cage setup and (2) in a two-way choice experiment with two Sherman traps on platforms in the forest (stimulus trap vs. nonstimulus trap). For part 1, the study animals were housed in cages during habituation and 5 days of experiments. One stimulus was tested per night and was presented underneath a drinking bottle. The changes in the time spent close to the stimulus and the drinking time at the bottle were used as indicators of predator recognition. A timidity score was established by classifying the strength of the antipredator response during the experiment. The study animals spent significantly less time drinking and less time in the stimulus area when confronted with fossa odor compared with the other stimuli. The timidity score was significantly higher during the fossa stimulus compared with the nonpredator and the control stimuli. The two-way choice experiments revealed a complete avoidance of the fossa odor, which was not found with the other stimuli. Thus, wild mouse lemurs showed clear signs of olfactory predator recognition in the case of the fossa in both experiments, but no signs of avoidance to the other presented stimuli. The lack of owl avoidance may be explained by less or no aversive metabolites in the owl stimulus or by lower significance for olfactory recognition of aerial predators. Furthermore, the results showed slight differences between the two mouse lemur species that may be linked to differences in their ecology. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Experimental Mouse Model of Lumbar Ligamentum Flavum Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takeyuki; Yokota, Kazuya; Kobayakawa, Kazu; Hara, Masamitsu; Kubota, Kensuke; Harimaya, Katsumi; Kawaguchi, Kenichi; Hayashida, Mitsumasa; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Doi, Toshio; Shiba, Keiichiro; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Okada, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    Lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS) is one of the most common spinal disorders in elderly people, with the number of LSCS patients increasing due to the aging of the population. The ligamentum flavum (LF) is a spinal ligament located in the interior of the vertebral canal, and hypertrophy of the LF, which causes the direct compression of the nerve roots and/or cauda equine, is a major cause of LSCS. Although there have been previous studies on LF hypertrophy, its pathomechanism remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to establish a relevant mouse model of LF hypertrophy and to examine disease-related factors. First, we focused on mechanical stress and developed a loading device for applying consecutive mechanical flexion-extension stress to the mouse LF. After 12 weeks of mechanical stress loading, we found that the LF thickness in the stress group was significantly increased in comparison to the control group. In addition, there were significant increases in the area of collagen fibers, the number of LF cells, and the gene expression of several fibrosis-related factors. However, in this mecnanical stress model, there was no macrophage infiltration, angiogenesis, or increase in the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), which are characteristic features of LF hypertrophy in LSCS patients. We therefore examined the influence of infiltrating macrophages on LF hypertrophy. After inducing macrophage infiltration by micro-injury to the mouse LF, we found excessive collagen synthesis in the injured site with the increased TGF-β1 expression at 2 weeks after injury, and further confirmed LF hypertrophy at 6 weeks after injury. Our findings demonstrate that mechanical stress is a causative factor for LF hypertrophy and strongly suggest the importance of macrophage infiltration in the progression of LF hypertrophy via the stimulation of collagen production.

  7. Dual effects of fluoxetine on mouse early embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Woon; Choe, Changyong; Kim, Eun-Jin; Lee, Jae-Ik; Yoon, Sook-Young; Cho, Young-Woo; Han, Sunkyu; Tak, Hyun-Min; Han, Jaehee; Kang, Dawon

    2012-11-15

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, regulates a variety of physiological processes, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis, in mammalian cells. Little is known about the role of fluoxetine in early embryonic development. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of fluoxetine during mouse early embryonic development. Late two-cell stage embryos (2-cells) were cultured in the presence of various concentrations of fluoxetine (1 to 50μM) for different durations. When late 2-cells were incubated with 5μM fluoxetine for 6h, the percentage that developed into blastocysts increased compared to the control value. However, late 2-cells exposed to fluoxetine (5μM) over 24h showed a reduction in blastocyst formation. The addition of fluoxetine (5μM) together with KN93 or KN62 (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors) failed to increase blastocyst formation. Fluoxetine treatment inhibited TREK-1 and TREK-2, members of the two-pore domain K(+) channel family expressed in mouse embryos, activities, indicating that fluoxetine-induced membrane depolarization in late 2-cells might have resulted from TREK inhibition. In addition, long-term exposure to fluoxetine altered the TREK mRNA expression levels. Furthermore, injection of siRNA targeting TREKs significantly decreased blastocyst formation by ~30% compared to injection of scrambled siRNA. Long-term exposure of fluoxetine had no effect on blastocyst formation of TREK deficient embryos. These results indicate that low-dose and short-term exposures of late 2-cells to fluoxetine probably increase blastocyst formation through activation of CaMKII-dependent signal transduction pathways, whereas long-term exposure decreases mouse early embryonic development through inhibition of TREK channel gating. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Streptozocin-induced diabetic mouse model of urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Rosen, David A; Hung, Chia-Suei; Kline, Kimberly A; Hultgren, Scott J

    2008-09-01

    Diabetics have a higher incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI), are infected with a broader range of uropathogens, and more commonly develop serious UTI sequelae than nondiabetics. To better study UTI in the diabetic host, we created and characterized a murine model of diabetic UTI using the pancreatic islet beta-cell toxin streptozocin in C3H/HeN, C3H/HeJ, and C57BL/6 mouse backgrounds. Intraperitoneal injections of streptozocin were used to initiate diabetes in healthy mouse backgrounds, as defined by consecutive blood glucose levels of >250 mg/dl. UTIs caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UTI89), Klebsiella pneumoniae (TOP52 1721), and Enterococcus faecalis (0852) were studied, and diabetic mice were found to be considerably more susceptible to infection. All three uropathogens produced significantly higher bladder and kidney titers than buffer-treated controls. Uropathogens did not have as large an advantage in the Toll-like receptor 4-defective C3H/HeJ diabetic mouse, arguing that the dramatic increase in colonization seen in C3H/HeN diabetic mice may partially be due to diabetic-induced defects in innate immunity. Competition experiments demonstrated that E. coli had a significant advantage over K. pneumoniae in the bladders of healthy mice and less of an advantage in diabetic bladders. In the kidneys, K. pneumoniae outcompeted E. coli in healthy mice but in diabetic mice E. coli outcompeted K. pneumoniae and caused severe pyelonephritis. Diabetic kidneys contained renal tubules laden with communities of E. coli UTI89 bacteria within an extracellular-matrix material. Diabetic mice also had glucosuria, which may enhance bacterial replication in the urinary tract. These data support that this murine diabetic UTI model is consistent with known characteristics of human diabetic UTI and can provide a powerful tool for dissecting this infection in the multifactorial setting of diabetes.

  9. Interaction of S100A13 with C2 domain of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE).

    PubMed

    Rani, Sandhya G; Sepuru, Krishna Mohan; Yu, Chin

    2014-09-01

    S100A13 is involved in several key biological functions like angiogenesis, tumor formation and cell apoptosis. It is a homodimeric protein that belongs to the S100 protein family. S100A13 is co-expressed with acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF1) and interleukin-1α which are key angiogenesis inducers. The S100 proteins have been shown to be involved in several cellular functions such as calcium homeostasis, cell growth and differentiation dynamic of cytoskeleton. Its biological functions are mainly mediated through the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) signaling. RAGE is involved in inflammatory processes and is associated with diabetic complications, tumor outgrowth, and neurodegenerative disorders. RAGE induces cellular signaling upon binding of different ligands, such as S100 proteins, glycated proteins, and HMGB1. RAGE signaling is complex, and it depends on the cell type and concentration of the ligand. Molecular level interactions of RAGE and S100 proteins are useful to understand the RAGE signaling diversity. In this report we focus on the molecular level interactions of S100A13 and RAGE C2 domain. The binding between RAGE C2 and S100A13 is moderately strong (Kd~1.3μM). We have solved the solution structure of the S100A13-RAGE C2 complex and pronounce the interface regions in S100A13-RAGE C2 complex which are helpful for drug development of RAGE induced diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Gene expression of Hsp70, Hsp90 and Hsp110 families in normal palate and cleft palate during mouse embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yongfei; Ren, Chuanlu; Wan, Xuying; Zhu, Yuping; Zhu, Jiangbo; Zhou, Hongyuan; Zhang, Tianbao

    2013-11-01

    Most previous studies focused on a small number of heat shock proteins (Hsps) and their relationships with embryogenesis, and the actual roles of these Hsps in normal and abnormal embryonic development remain unclear. It was found in the present systemic study that except for Grp170, whose expression was not detectable at GD18, all 19 Hsps of Hsp70, Hsp90 and Hsp110 families were expressed in the normal development of embryonic palate tissue in mice, but their expression patterns varied with different Hsps, presenting as a correlation with the developmental phases. In the treatment group by all-trans retinoic acid (atRA), the messenger RNA (mRNA) abundance of HspA1A, HspA1L, HspA8, HspA9, HspA12A, HspA12B, HspA13, HspA14, Hsp90AA1, Hsp90AB1, Grp94, Trap1, Hsp105, Hsp110 and Grp170 was higher in the palates at GD11 (the beginning of palate development), the mRNA abundance of HspA1A, HspA12A and HspA12B was higher at GD18 (before birth) and an mRNA expression peak of HspA1L, HspA8, HspA9, Hsp90AA1, Grp94, Hsp110 and Grp170 was observed at GD17. The mRNA abundance of most genes in atRA-induced cleft palates of the treatment group was different from that of the control group. Grp78, HspA14 and Hsp105 were closely associated with the normal palate development and cleft palate in mouse embryo, possibly as palate development-related genes. Except Grp170, the other genes may be closely associated with the development of mouse palates through participating in the stress response process and/or the antiapoptosis process.

  11. Cytoplasmic removal, enucleation, and cell fusion of mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Kyogoku, Hirohisa; Yoshida, Shuhei; Kitajima, Tomoya S

    2018-01-01

    Meiotic divisions in females occur in fully grown oocytes that have a large cytoplasmic volume. The intracellular processes that are needed to accomplish meiotic divisions, such as spindle formation, chromosome segregation, and polar body extrusion, are controlled by the concerted actions of nuclear and cytoplasmic factors, which exhibit dynamic quantitative and spatiotemporal changes during meiotic maturation. Thus, distinguishing between meiotic controls that are mediated by cytoplasmic factors and those mediated by nuclear factors helps in the understanding of the mechanisms underlying meiotic divisions. Here, we describe a method to artificially modify the number of nuclei and the volume of the cytoplasm of mouse oocytes through cytoplasmic removal, enucleation, and cell fusion. The oocytes generated by this method are viable and undergo reproducible meiotic divisions exhibiting the effects of altered amounts of cytoplasmic and nuclear factors, which can be analyzed by various assays, such as live imaging microscopy. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 9 CFR 113.33 - Mouse safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mouse safety tests. 113.33 Section 113... Procedures § 113.33 Mouse safety tests. One of the mouse safety tests provided in this section shall be... or more ingredients makes the biological product lethal or toxic for mice but not lethal or toxic for...

  13. 9 CFR 113.33 - Mouse safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mouse safety tests. 113.33 Section 113... Procedures § 113.33 Mouse safety tests. One of the mouse safety tests provided in this section shall be... or more ingredients makes the biological product lethal or toxic for mice but not lethal or toxic for...

  14. 9 CFR 113.33 - Mouse safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mouse safety tests. 113.33 Section 113... Procedures § 113.33 Mouse safety tests. One of the mouse safety tests provided in this section shall be... or more ingredients makes the biological product lethal or toxic for mice but not lethal or toxic for...

  15. 9 CFR 113.33 - Mouse safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mouse safety tests. 113.33 Section 113... Procedures § 113.33 Mouse safety tests. One of the mouse safety tests provided in this section shall be... or more ingredients makes the biological product lethal or toxic for mice but not lethal or toxic for...

  16. 9 CFR 113.33 - Mouse safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mouse safety tests. 113.33 Section 113... Procedures § 113.33 Mouse safety tests. One of the mouse safety tests provided in this section shall be... or more ingredients makes the biological product lethal or toxic for mice but not lethal or toxic for...

  17. The terminator mouse: salvation for primary cell culture.

    PubMed

    Kabgani, Nazanin; Moeller, Marcus J

    2013-11-01

    The Terminator had to come back from the future already several times in an effort to bring salvation to mankind. In the present issue of Kidney International, Guo et al. brought us a novel transgenic mouse model: the terminator mouse. This highly elegant mouse may facilitate significantly the derivation of primary cultures of a specific cell type from a tissue containing multiple cell populations.

  18. Duplex sonography for detection of deep vein thrombosis of upper extremities: a 13-year experience.

    PubMed

    Chung, Amy S Y; Luk, W H; Lo, Adrian X N; Lo, C F

    2015-04-01

    To determine the prevalence and characteristics of sonographically evident upper-extremity deep vein thrombosis in symptomatic Chinese patients and identify its associated risk factors. Regional hospital, Hong Kong. Data on patients undergoing upper-extremity venous sonography examinations during a 13-year period from November 1999 to October 2012 were retrieved. Variables including age, sex, history of smoking, history of lower-extremity deep vein thrombosis, major surgery within 30 days, immobilisation within 30 days, cancer (history of malignancy), associated central venous or indwelling catheter, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, sepsis within 30 days, and stroke within 30 days were tested using binary logistic regression to understand the risk factors for upper-extremity deep vein thrombosis. The presence of upper-extremity deep vein thrombosis identified. Overall, 213 patients with upper-extremity sonography were identified. Of these patients, 29 (13.6%) had upper-extremity deep vein thrombosis. The proportion of upper-extremity deep vein thrombosis using initial ultrasound was 0.26% of all deep vein thrombosis ultrasound requests. Upper limb swelling was the most common presentation seen in a total of 206 (96.7%) patients. Smoking (37.9%), history of cancer (65.5%), and hypertension (27.6%) were the more prevalent conditions among patients in the upper-extremity deep vein thrombosis-positive group. No statistically significant predictor of upper-extremity deep vein thrombosis was noted if all variables were included. After backward stepwise logistic regression, the final model was left with only age (P=0.119), female gender (P=0.114), and history of malignancy (P=0.024) as independent variables. History of malignancy remained predictive of upper-extremity deep vein thrombosis. Upper-extremity deep vein thrombosis is uncommon among symptomatic Chinese population. The most common sign is swelling and the major risk factor for upper-extremity deep vein

  19. Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) Is the International Resource for Information on the Laboratory Mouse.

    PubMed

    Law, MeiYee; Shaw, David R

    2018-01-01

    Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI, http://www.informatics.jax.org/ ) web resources provide free access to meticulously curated information about the laboratory mouse. MGI's primary goal is to help researchers investigate the genetic foundations of human diseases by translating information from mouse phenotypes and disease models studies to human systems. MGI provides comprehensive phenotypes for over 50,000 mutant alleles in mice and provides experimental model descriptions for over 1500 human diseases. Curated data from scientific publications are integrated with those from high-throughput phenotyping and gene expression centers. Data are standardized using defined, hierarchical vocabularies such as the Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology, Mouse Developmental Anatomy and the Gene Ontologies (GO). This chapter introduces you to Gene and Allele Detail pages and provides step-by-step instructions for simple searches and those that take advantage of the breadth of MGI data integration.

  20. Optical properties of the mouse eye

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Ying; Schery, Lee Anne; Sharma, Robin; Dubra, Alfredo; Ahmad, Kamran; Libby, Richard T.; Williams, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) spots upon which ocular aberration measurements depend have poor quality in mice due to light reflected from multiple retinal layers. We have designed and implemented a SHWS that can favor light from a specific retinal layer and measured monochromatic aberrations in 20 eyes from 10 anesthetized C57BL/6J mice. Using this instrument, we show that mice are myopic, not hyperopic as is frequently reported. We have also measured longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) of the mouse eye and found that it follows predictions of the water-filled schematic mouse eye. Results indicate that the optical quality of the mouse eye assessed by measurement of its aberrations is remarkably good, better for retinal imaging than the human eye. The dilated mouse eye has a much larger numerical aperture (NA) than that of the dilated human eye (0.5 NA vs. 0.2 NA), but it has a similar amount of root mean square (RMS) higher order aberrations compared to the dilated human eye. These measurements predict that adaptive optics based on this method of wavefront sensing will provide improvements in retinal image quality and potentially two times higher lateral resolution than that in the human eye. PMID:21483598

  1. Agglutination of Mouse Erythrocytes by Eperythrozoon coccoides

    PubMed Central

    Iralu, Vichazelhu; Ganong, Kevin D.

    1983-01-01

    Erythrocytes from blood of mice infected with Eperythrozoon coccoides for 3 or 4 days agglutinated spontaneously. Washed E. coccoides particles agglutinated washed erythrocytes of uninfected mice. E. coccoides-mediated agglutination of normal mouse erythrocytes would be an excellent system for studies of bacterial adhesion. Images PMID:6832825

  2. Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer in the Mouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has become a unique and powerful tool for epigenetic reprogramming research and gene manipulation in animals since “Dolly,” the first animal cloned from an adult cell was reported in 1997. Although the success rates of somatic cloning have been inefficient and the mechanism of reprogramming is still largely unknown, this technique has been proven to work in more than 10 mammalian species. Among them, the mouse provides the best model for both basic and applied research of somatic cloning because of its abounding genetic resources, rapid sexual maturity and propagation, minimal requirements for housing, etc. This chapter describes a basic protocol for mouse cloning using cumulus cells, the most popular cell type for NT, in which donor nuclei are directly injected into the oocyte using a piezo-actuated micromanipulator. In particular, we focus on a new, more efficient mouse cloning protocol using trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, which increases both in vitro and in vivo developmental rates from twofold to fivefold. This new method including TSA will be helpful to establish mouse cloning in many laboratories.

  3. MPHASYS: a mouse phenotype analysis system

    PubMed Central

    Calder, R Brent; Beems, Rudolf B; van Steeg, Harry; Mian, I Saira; Lohman, Paul HM; Vijg, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Background Systematic, high-throughput studies of mouse phenotypes have been hampered by the inability to analyze individual animal data from a multitude of sources in an integrated manner. Studies generally make comparisons at the level of genotype or treatment thereby excluding associations that may be subtle or involve compound phenotypes. Additionally, the lack of integrated, standardized ontologies and methodologies for data exchange has inhibited scientific collaboration and discovery. Results Here we introduce a Mouse Phenotype Analysis System (MPHASYS), a platform for integrating data generated by studies of mouse models of human biology and disease such as aging and cancer. This computational platform is designed to provide a standardized methodology for working with animal data; a framework for data entry, analysis and sharing; and ontologies and methodologies for ensuring accurate data capture. We describe the tools that currently comprise MPHASYS, primarily ones related to mouse pathology, and outline its use in a study of individual animal-specific patterns of multiple pathology in mice harboring a specific germline mutation in the DNA repair and transcription-specific gene Xpd. Conclusion MPHASYS is a system for analyzing multiple data types from individual animals. It provides a framework for developing data analysis applications, and tools for collecting and distributing high-quality data. The software is platform independent and freely available under an open-source license [1]. PMID:17553167

  4. Having Fun with a Cordless Mouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, John

    2016-01-01

    A cordless mouse with an added reed switch is used as a wireless data logger to record every time the wheel of a trolley completes a revolution. The limitations of the system in terms of maximum clicking rate and spatial resolution are considered and data obtained from the descent of a trolley down a ramp at various different angles is analysed in…

  5. TRANSGENIC MOUSE MODELS AND PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hypothesis to be tested is that metal catalyzed oxidative stress can contribute to the biological effects of particulate matter. We acquired several transgenic mouse strains to test this hypothesis. Breeding of the mice was accomplished by Duke University. Particles employed ...

  6. Mouse Driven Window Graphics for Network Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makinson, G. J.; And Others

    Computer enhanced teaching of computational mathematics on a network system driving graphics terminals is being redeveloped for a mouse-driven, high resolution, windowed environment of a UNIX work station. Preservation of the features of networked access by heterogeneous terminals is provided by the use of the X Window environment. A dmonstrator…

  7. Mouse manipulation through single-switch scanning.

    PubMed

    Blackstien-Adler, Susie; Shein, Fraser; Quintal, Janet; Birch, Shae; Weiss, Patrice L Tamar

    2004-01-01

    Given the current extensive reliance on the graphical user interface, independent access to computer software requires that users be able to manipulate a pointing device of some type (e.g., mouse, trackball) or be able to emulate a mouse by some other means (e.g., scanning). The purpose of the present study was to identify one or more optimal single-switch scanning mouse emulation strategies. Four alternative scanning strategies (continuous Cartesian, discrete Cartesian, rotational, and hybrid quadrant/continuous Cartesian) were selected for testing based on current market availability as well as on theoretical considerations of their potential speed and accuracy. Each strategy was evaluated using a repeated measures study design by means of a test program that permitted mouse emulation via any one of four scanning strategies in a motivating environment; response speed and accuracy could be automatically recorded and considered in view of the motor, cognitive, and perceptual demands of each scanning strategy. Ten individuals whose disabilities required them to operate a computer via single-switch scanning participated in the study. Results indicated that Cartesian scanning was the preferred and most effective scanning strategy. There were no significant differences between results from the Continuous Cartesian and Discrete Cartesian scanning strategies. Rotational scanning was quite slow with respect to the other strategies, although it was equally accurate. Hybrid Quadrant scanning improved access time but at the cost of fewer correct selections. These results demonstrated the importance of testing and comparing alternate single-switch scanning strategies.

  8. Derivation of mouse embryonic stem cell lines from tyrosine hydroxylase reporter mice crossed with a human SNCA transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chumarina, Margarita; Azevedo, Carla; Bigarreau, Julie; Vignon, Clémentine; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Li, Jia-Yi; Roybon, Laurent

    2017-03-01

    Mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) lines were derived by crossing heterozygous transgenic (tg) mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the rat tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter, with homozygous alpha-synuclein (aSYN) mice expressing human mutant SNCA A53T under the control of the mouse Prion promoter (MoPrP), or wildtype (WT) mice. The expression of GFP and human aSYN was validated by immunocytochemistry in midbrain neuron cultures upon differentiation of mESC lines using stromal cell-derived inducing activity. These mESC lines can help to study the impact of human aSYN expression in neurons and oligodendrocytes, and also trace GFP-expressing midbrain neurons. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Structured Illumination Diffuse Optical Tomography for Mouse Brain Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisman, Matthew David

    As advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have transformed the study of human brain function, they have also widened the divide between standard research techniques used in humans and those used in mice, where high quality images are difficult to obtain using fMRI given the small volume of the mouse brain. Optical imaging techniques have been developed to study mouse brain networks, which are highly valuable given the ability to study brain disease treatments or development in a controlled environment. A planar imaging technique known as optical intrinsic signal (OIS) imaging has been a powerful tool for capturing functional brain hemodynamics in rodents. Recent wide field-of-view implementations of OIS have provided efficient maps of functional connectivity from spontaneous brain activity in mice. However, OIS requires scalp retraction and is limited to imaging a 2-dimensional view of superficial cortical tissues. Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a non-invasive, volumetric neuroimaging technique that has been valuable for bedside imaging of patients in the clinic, but previous DOT systems for rodent neuroimaging have been limited by either sparse spatial sampling or by slow speed. My research has been to develop diffuse optical tomography for whole brain mouse neuroimaging by expanding previous techniques to achieve high spatial sampling using multiple camera views for detection and high speed using structured illumination sources. I have shown the feasibility of this method to perform non-invasive functional neuroimaging in mice and its capabilities of imaging the entire volume of the brain. Additionally, the system has been built with a custom, flexible framework to accommodate the expansion to imaging multiple dynamic contrasts in the brain and populations that were previously difficult or impossible to image, such as infant mice and awake mice. I have contributed to preliminary feasibility studies of these more advanced techniques using

  10. Mouse Activity across Time Scales: Fractal Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Lima, G. Z. dos Santos; Lobão-Soares, B.; do Nascimento, G. C.; França, Arthur S. C.; Muratori, L.; Ribeiro, S.; Corso, G.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we devise a classification of mouse activity patterns based on accelerometer data using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis. We use two characteristic mouse behavioural states as benchmarks in this study: waking in free activity and slow-wave sleep (SWS). In both situations we find roughly the same pattern: for short time intervals we observe high correlation in activity - a typical 1/f complex pattern - while for large time intervals there is anti-correlation. High correlation of short intervals ( to : waking state and to : SWS) is related to highly coordinated muscle activity. In the waking state we associate high correlation both to muscle activity and to mouse stereotyped movements (grooming, waking, etc.). On the other side, the observed anti-correlation over large time scales ( to : waking state and to : SWS) during SWS appears related to a feedback autonomic response. The transition from correlated regime at short scales to an anti-correlated regime at large scales during SWS is given by the respiratory cycle interval, while during the waking state this transition occurs at the time scale corresponding to the duration of the stereotyped mouse movements. Furthermore, we find that the waking state is characterized by longer time scales than SWS and by a softer transition from correlation to anti-correlation. Moreover, this soft transition in the waking state encompass a behavioural time scale window that gives rise to a multifractal pattern. We believe that the observed multifractality in mouse activity is formed by the integration of several stereotyped movements each one with a characteristic time correlation. Finally, we compare scaling properties of body acceleration fluctuation time series during sleep and wake periods for healthy mice. Interestingly, differences between sleep and wake in the scaling exponents are comparable to previous works regarding human heartbeat. Complementarily, the nature of these sleep-wake dynamics could lead to a better

  11. Connective Tissue Growth Factor Transgenic Mouse Develops Cardiac Hypertrophy, Lean Body Mass and Alopecia.

    PubMed

    Nuglozeh, Edem

    2017-07-01

    Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF/CCN2) is one of the six members of cysteine-rich, heparin-binding proteins, secreted as modular protein and recognised to play a major function in cell processes such as adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation as well as chondrogenesis, skeletogenesis, angiogenesis and wound healing. The capacity of CTGF to interact with different growth factors lends an important role during early and late development, especially in the anterior region of the embryo. CTGF Knockout (KO) mice have several craniofacial defects and bone miss shaped due to an impairment of the vascular system development during chondrogenesis. The aim of the study was to establish an association between multiple modular functions of CTGF and the phenotype and cardiovascular functions in transgenic mouse. Bicistronic cassette was constructed using pIRES expressing vector (Clontech, Palo Alto, CA). The construct harbours mouse cDNA in tandem with LacZ cDNA as a reporter gene under the control of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. The plasmid was linearised with NotI restriction enzyme, and 50 ng of linearised plasmid was injected into mouse pronucleus for the chimaera production. Immunohistochemical methods were used to assess the colocalisation renin and CTGF as well as morphology and rheology of the cardiovascular system. The chimeric mice were backcrossed against the wild-type C57BL/6 to generate hemizygous (F1) mouse. Most of the offsprings died as a result of respiratory distress and those that survived have low CTGF gene copy number, approximately 40 molecules per mouse genome. The copy number assessment on the dead pups showed 5×10 3 molecules per mouse genome explaining the threshold of the gene in terms of toxicity. Interestingly, the result of this cross showed 85% of the progenies to be positive deviating from Mendelian first law. All F2 progenies died excluding the possibility of establishing the CTGF transgenic mouse line, situation that

  12. Genes Critical for Developing Periodontitis: Lessons from Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Teun J; Andreotta, Stefano; Loos, Bruno G; Nicu, Elena A

    2017-01-01

    Since the etiology of periodontitis in humans is not fully understood, genetic mouse models may pinpoint indispensable genes for optimal immunological protection of the periodontium against tissue destruction. This review describes the current knowledge of genes that are involved for a proper maintenance of a healthy periodontium in mice. Null mutations of genes required for leukocyte cell-cell recognition and extravasation (e.g., Icam-1, P-selectin, Beta2-integrin/Cd18 ), for pathogen recognition and killing (e.g., Tlr2, Tlr4, Lamp-2 ), immune modulatory molecules (e.g., Cxcr2, Ccr4, IL-10, Opg, IL1RA, Tnf- α receptor, IL-17 receptor, Socs3, Foxo1 ), and proteolytic enzymes (e.g., Mmp8, Plasmin ) cause periodontitis, most likely due to an inefficient clearance of bacteria and bacterial products. Several mechanisms resulting in periodontitis can be recognized: (1) inefficient bacterial control by the polymorphonuclear neutrophils (defective migration, killing), (2) inadequate antigen presentation by dendritic cells, or (3) exaggerated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In all these cases, the local immune reaction is skewed toward a Th1/Th17 (and insufficient activation of the Th2/Treg) with subsequent osteoclast activation. Finally, genotypes are described that protect the mice from periodontitis: the SCID mouse, and mice lacking Tlr2/Tlr4 , the Ccr1/Ccr5 , the Tnf- α receptor p55 , and Cathepsin K by attenuating the inflammatory reaction and the osteoclastogenic response.

  13. EGFR-specific nanoprobe biodistribution in mouse models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fashir, Samia A.; Castilho, Maiara L.; Hupman, Michael A.; Lee, Christopher L. D.; Raniero, Leandro J.; Alwayn, Ian; Hewitt, Kevin C.

    2015-06-01

    Nanotechnology offers a targeted approach to both imaging and treatment of cancer, the leading cause of death worldwide. Previous studies have found nanoparticles with a wide variety of coatings initiate an immune response leading to sequestration in the liver and spleen. In an effort to find a nanoparticle platform which does not elicit an immune response we created 43/44 nm gold or silver nanoparticles coated with biomolecules normally produced by the body, α-lipoic acid and the Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), and have used mass spectroscopy to determine their biodistribution in mouse models, 24 hours following tail vein injection. Relative to controls, mouse EGF (mEGF) coated silver and gold nanoprobes are found at reduced levels in the liver and spleen. mEGF coated gold nanoprobes on the other hand do not appear to elicit any immune response, as they are found at background levels in these organs. As a result they should remain in circulation for longer and accumulate at high levels in tumors by the enhanced permeability retention (EPR) effect.

  14. Selenoprotein W expression and regulation in mouse brain and neurons

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Arjun V; Pitts, Matthew W; Seyedali, Ali; Hashimoto, Ann C; Bellinger, Frederick P; Berry, Marla J

    2013-01-01

    Background Selenoprotein W (Sepw1) is a selenium-containing protein that is abundant in brain and muscle of vertebrate animals. Muscular expression of Sepw1 is reduced by dietary selenium (Se) deficiency in mammals, whereas brain expression is maintained. However, expression of Sepw1 depends on the Se transporter selenoprotein P (Sepp1). Methods We assessed the regional and cellular expression of Sepw1 in the mouse brain and neuronal cultures. Results We found that Sepw1 is widespread in neurons and neuropil of mouse brain and appears in both the soma and processes of neurons in culture. Pyramidal neurons of cortex and hippocampus express high levels of Sepw1. It is also abundant in Purkinje neurons and their dendritic arbors in the cerebellum. Analysis of synaptosome fractions prepared from mice brains indicated that Sepw1 is present at synapses, as were several proteins involved in selenoprotein synthesis. Synaptic expression of Sepw1 expression is reduced in mice lacking Sepp1 compared with control mice, although selenoprotein synthesis factors were similarly expressed in both genotypes. Lastly, Sepw1 mRNA coimmunoprecipitates with Staufen 2 protein in a human neuronal cell line. Conclusions Our results suggest that Sepw1 may be locally synthesized in distal compartments of neurons including synapses. PMID:24392277

  15. Expression patterns of protein C inhibitor in mouse development.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Gerry T M; Uhrin, Pavel; Weipoltshammer, Klara; Almeder, Marlene; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Geiger, Margarethe; Meijers, Joost C M; Schöfer, Christian

    2010-02-01

    Proteolysis of extracellular matrix is an important requirement for embryonic development and is instrumental in processes such as morphogenesis, angiogenesis, and cell migration. Efficient remodeling requires controlled spatio-temporal expression of both the proteases and their inhibitors. Protein C inhibitor (PCI) effectively blocks a range of serine proteases, and recently has been suggested to play a role in cell differentiation and angiogenesis. In this study, we mapped the expression pattern of PCI throughout mouse development using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. We detected a wide-spread, yet distinct expression pattern with prominent PCI levels in skin including vibrissae, and in fore- and hindgut. Further sites of PCI expression were choroid plexus of brain ventricles, heart, skeletal muscles, urogenital tract, and cartilages. A strong and stage-dependent PCI expression was observed in the developing lung. In the pseudoglandular stage, PCI expression was present in distal branching tubules whereas proximal tubules did not express PCI. Later in development, in the saccular stage, PCI expression was restricted to distal bronchioli whereas sacculi did not express PCI. PCI expression declined in postnatal stages and was not detected in adult lungs. In general, embryonic PCI expression indicates multifunctional roles of PCI during mouse development. The expression pattern of PCI during lung development suggests its possible involvement in lung morphogenesis and angiogenesis.

  16. Genes Critical for Developing Periodontitis: Lessons from Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Teun J.; Andreotta, Stefano; Loos, Bruno G.; Nicu, Elena A.

    2017-01-01

    Since the etiology of periodontitis in humans is not fully understood, genetic mouse models may pinpoint indispensable genes for optimal immunological protection of the periodontium against tissue destruction. This review describes the current knowledge of genes that are involved for a proper maintenance of a healthy periodontium in mice. Null mutations of genes required for leukocyte cell–cell recognition and extravasation (e.g., Icam-1, P-selectin, Beta2-integrin/Cd18), for pathogen recognition and killing (e.g., Tlr2, Tlr4, Lamp-2), immune modulatory molecules (e.g., Cxcr2, Ccr4, IL-10, Opg, IL1RA, Tnf-α receptor, IL-17 receptor, Socs3, Foxo1), and proteolytic enzymes (e.g., Mmp8, Plasmin) cause periodontitis, most likely due to an inefficient clearance of bacteria and bacterial products. Several mechanisms resulting in periodontitis can be recognized: (1) inefficient bacterial control by the polymorphonuclear neutrophils (defective migration, killing), (2) inadequate antigen presentation by dendritic cells, or (3) exaggerated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In all these cases, the local immune reaction is skewed toward a Th1/Th17 (and insufficient activation of the Th2/Treg) with subsequent osteoclast activation. Finally, genotypes are described that protect the mice from periodontitis: the SCID mouse, and mice lacking Tlr2/Tlr4, the Ccr1/Ccr5, the Tnf-α receptor p55, and Cathepsin K by attenuating the inflammatory reaction and the osteoclastogenic response. PMID:29163477

  17. Resveratrol Inhibited Hydroquinone-Induced Cytotoxicity in Mouse Primary Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Da-Hong; Ootsuki, Yoshie; Fujita, Hirofumi; Miyazaki, Masahiro; Yie, Qinxia; Tsutsui, Ken; Sano, Kuniaki; Masuoka, Noriyoshi; Ogino, Keiki

    2012-01-01

    Hydroquinone (1,4-benzenediol) has been widely used in clinical situations and the cosmetic industry because of its depigmenting effects. Most skin-lightening hydroquinone creams contain 4%–5% hydroquinone. We have investigated the role of resveratrol in prevention of hydroquinone induced cytotoxicity in mouse primary hepatocytes. We found that 400 µM hydroquinone exposure alone induced apoptosis of the cells and also resulted in a significant drop of cell viability compared with the control, and pretreatment of resveratrol to a final concentration of 0.5 mM 1 h before hydroquinone exposure did not show a significant improvement in the survival rate of the hepatocytes, however, relatively higher concentrations of resveratrol (≥1 mM) inhibited apoptosis of the mouse primary hepatocytes and increased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, and in particular the survival rate of the hepatocytes was recovered from 28% to near 100% by 5 mM resveratrol. Interestingly, pretreatment with resveratrol for longer time (24 h), even in very low concentrations (50 µM, 100 µM), blocked the damage of hydroquinone to the cells. We also observed that resveratrol pretreatment suppressed hydroquinone-induced expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 mRNA dose-dependently. The present study suggests that resveratrol protected the cells against hydroquinone-induced toxicity through its antioxidant function and possibly suppressive effect on the expression of cytochrome P450 2E1. PMID:23202692

  18. Resveratrol inhibited hydroquinone-induced cytotoxicity in mouse primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Da-Hong; Ootsuki, Yoshie; Fujita, Hirofumi; Miyazaki, Masahiro; Yie, Qinxia; Tsutsui, Ken; Sano, Kuniaki; Masuoka, Noriyoshi; Ogino, Keiki

    2012-09-19

    Hydroquinone (1,4-benzenediol) has been widely used in clinical situations and the cosmetic industry because of its depigmenting effects. Most skin-lightening hydroquinone creams contain 4%-5% hydroquinone. We have investigated the role of resveratrol in prevention of hydroquinone induced cytotoxicity in mouse primary hepatocytes. We found that 400 µM hydroquinone exposure alone induced apoptosis of the cells and also resulted in a significant drop of cell viability compared with the control, and pretreatment of resveratrol to a final concentration of 0.5 mM 1 h before hydroquinone exposure did not show a significant improvement in the survival rate of the hepatocytes, however, relatively higher concentrations of resveratrol (≥1 mM) inhibited apoptosis of the mouse primary hepatocytes and increased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, and in particular the survival rate of the hepatocytes was recovered from 28% to near 100% by 5 mM resveratrol. Interestingly, pretreatment with resveratrol for longer time (24 h), even in very low concentrations (50 µM, 100 µM), blocked the damage of hydroquinone to the cells. We also observed that resveratrol pretreatment suppressed hydroquinone-induced expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 mRNA dose-dependently. The present study suggests that resveratrol protected the cells against hydroquinone-induced toxicity through its antioxidant function and possibly suppressive effect on the expression of cytochrome P450 2E1.

  19. A mouse model for Chlamydia suis genital infection.

    PubMed

    Donati, Manuela; Di Paolo, Maria; Favaroni, Alison; Aldini, Rita; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Ostanello, Fabio; Biondi, Roberta; Cremonini, Eleonora; Ginocchietti, Laura; Cevenini, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    A mouse model for Chlamydia suis genital infection was developed. Ninety-nine mice were randomly divided into three groups and intravaginally inoculated with chlamydia: 45 mice (group 1) received C. suis purified elementary bodies (EBs), 27 (group 2) were inoculated with C. trachomatis genotype E EBs and 27 mice (group 3) with C. trachomatis genotype F EBs. Additionally, 10 mice were used as a negative control. At seven days post-infection (dpi) secretory anti-C. suis IgA were recovered from vaginal swabs of all C. suis inoculated mice. Chlamydia suis was isolated from 93, 84, 71 and 33% vaginal swabs at 3, 5, 7 and 12 dpi. Chlamydia trachomatis genotype E and F were isolated from 100% vaginal swabs up to 7 dpi and from 61 and 72%, respectively, at 12 dpi. Viable C. suis and C. trachomatis organisms were isolated from uterus and tubes up to 16 and 28 dpi, respectively. The results of the present study show the susceptibility of mice to intravaginal inoculation with C. suis. A more rapid course and resolution of C. suis infection, in comparison to C. trachomatis, was highlighted. The mouse model could be useful for comparative investigations involving C. suis and C. trachomatis species. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Canceling Some d-CON Mouse and Rat Control Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has reached agreement with the manufacturer, to cancel 12 d-CON products that do not meet our testing protocols that better protect children, pets and non-target wildlife from accidental exposure to the pesticide. These products will be phased out.

  1. Human metabolism and elimination of the anthocyanin, cyanidin-3-glucoside: a (13)C-tracer study.

    PubMed

    Czank, Charles; Cassidy, Aedín; Zhang, Qingzhi; Morrison, Douglas J; Preston, Tom; Kroon, Paul A; Botting, Nigel P; Kay, Colin D

    2013-05-01

    Evidence suggests that the consumption of anthocyanin-rich foods beneficially affects cardiovascular health; however, the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME) of anthocyanin-rich foods are relatively unknown. We investigated the ADME of a (13)C5-labeled anthocyanin in humans. Eight male participants consumed 500 mg isotopically labeled cyanidin-3-glucoside (6,8,10,3',5'-(13)C5-C3G). Biological samples were collected over 48 h, and (13)C and (13)C-labeled metabolite concentrations were measured by using isotope-ratio mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The mean ± SE percentage of (13)C recovered in urine, breath, and feces was 43.9 ± 25.9% (range: 15.1-99.3% across participants). The relative bioavailability was 12.38 ± 1.38% (5.37 ± 0.67% excreted in urine and 6.91 ± 1.59% in breath). Maximum rates of (13)C elimination were achieved 30 min after ingestion (32.53 ± 14.24 μg(13)C/h), whereas (13)C-labeled metabolites peaked (maximum serum concentration: 5.97 ± 2.14 μmol/L) at 10.25 ± 4.14 h. The half-life for (13)C-labeled metabolites ranged between 12.44 ± 4.22 and 51.62 ± 22.55 h. (13)C elimination was greatest between 0 and 1 h for urine (90.30 ± 15.28 μg/h), at 6 h for breath (132.87 ± 32.23 μg/h), and between 6 and 24 h for feces (557.28 ± 247.88 μg/h), whereas the highest concentrations of (13)C-labeled metabolites were identified in urine (10.77 ± 4.52 μmol/L) and fecal samples (43.16 ± 18.00 μmol/L) collected between 6 and 24 h. Metabolites were identified as degradation products, phenolic, hippuric, phenylacetic, and phenylpropenoic acids. Anthocyanins are more bioavailable than previously perceived, and their metabolites are present in the circulation for ≤48 h after ingestion. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01106729.

  2. Olfactory predator recognition in predator-naïve gray mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus).

    PubMed

    Sündermann, Dina; Scheumann, Marina; Zimmermann, Elke

    2008-05-01

    Olfactory cues of predators, such as feces, are known to elicit antipredator responses in animals (e.g., avoidance, activity). To date, however, there is little information on olfactory predator recognition in primates. We tested whether the odor of feces of different predator categories (historical Malagasy predators and introduced predators) and of Malagasy nonpredators (control) induces antipredator behavior in captive born, predator-naïve gray mouse lemurs. In an olfactory predator experiment a mouse lemur was exposed to a particular odor, fixed at a preferred location, where the animal was trained to get a reward. The behavior of the mouse lemur toward the respective stimulus category was videotaped and quantified. Results showed that mouse lemurs avoided the place of odor presentation when the odor belonged to a predator. They reacted with a significantly enhanced activity when exposed to odors of carnivores compared to those of nonpredatory controls. These findings are in favor of a genetic predisposition of olfactory predator recognition that might be based on the perception of metabolites from meat digestion. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Functional cis-regulatory modules encoded by mouse-specific endogenous retrovirus

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Vasavi; Choudhary, Mayank N. K.; Pehrsson, Erica; Xing, Xiaoyun; Fiore, Christopher; Pandey, Manishi; Maricque, Brett; Udawatta, Methma; Ngo, Duc; Chen, Yujie; Paguntalan, Asia; Ray, Tammy; Hughes, Ava; Cohen, Barak A.; Wang, Ting

    2017-01-01

    Cis-regulatory modules contain multiple transcription factor (TF)-binding sites and integrate the effects of each TF to control gene expression in specific cellular contexts. Transposable elements (TEs) are uniquely equipped to deposit their regulatory sequences across a genome, which could also contain cis-regulatory modules that coordinate the control of multiple genes with the same regulatory logic. We provide the first evidence of mouse-specific TEs that encode a module of TF-binding sites in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The majority (77%) of the individual TEs tested exhibited enhancer activity in mouse ESCs. By mutating individual TF-binding sites within the TE, we identified a module of TF-binding motifs that cooperatively enhanced gene expression. Interestingly, we also observed the same motif module in the in silico constructed ancestral TE that also acted cooperatively to enhance gene expression. Our results suggest that ancestral TE insertions might have brought in cis-regulatory modules into the mouse genome. PMID:28348391

  4. Gender differences in methionine accumulation and metabolism in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes: Potential roles in toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Dever, Joseph T.; Elfarra, Adnan A.

    L-Methionine (Met) is hepatotoxic at high concentrations. Because Met toxicity in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes is gender-dependent, the goal of this study was to assess the roles of Met accumulation and metabolism in the increased sensitivity of male hepatocytes to Met toxicity compared with female hepatocytes. Male hepatocytes incubated with Met (30 mM) at 37 {sup o}C exhibited higher levels of intracellular Met at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 h, respectively, compared to female hepatocytes. Conversely, female hepatocytes had higher levels of S-adenosyl-L-methionine compared to male hepatocytes. Female hepatocytes also exhibited higher L-methionine-L-sulfoxide levels relative to control hepatocytes, whereas the increasesmore » in L-methionine-D-sulfoxide (Met-D-O) levels were similar in hepatocytes of both genders. Addition of aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), an inhibitor of Met transamination, significantly increased Met levels at 1.5 h and increased Met-D-O levels at 1.0 and 1.5 h only in Met-exposed male hepatocytes. No gender differences in cytosolic Met transamination activity by glutamine transaminase K were detected. However, female mouse liver cytosol exhibited higher methionine-DL-sulfoxide (MetO) reductase activity than male mouse liver cytosol at low (0.25 and 0.5 mM) MetO concentrations. Collectively, these results suggest that increased cellular Met accumulation, decreased Met transmethylation, and increased Met and MetO transamination in male mouse hepatocytes may be contributing to the higher sensitivity of the male mouse hepatocytes to Met toxicity in comparison with female mouse hepatocytes.« less

  5. Bloomsbury report on mouse embryo phenotyping: recommendations from the IMPC workshop on embryonic lethal screening.

    PubMed

    Adams, David; Baldock, Richard; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Copp, Andrew J; Dickinson, Mary; Greene, Nicholas D E; Henkelman, Mark; Justice, Monica; Mohun, Timothy; Murray, Stephen A; Pauws, Erwin; Raess, Michael; Rossant, Janet; Weaver, Tom; West, David

    2013-05-01

    Identifying genes that are important for embryo development is a crucial first step towards understanding their many functions in driving the ordered growth, differentiation and organogenesis of embryos. It can also shed light on the origins of developmental disease and congenital abnormalities. Current international efforts to examine gene function in the mouse provide a unique opportunity to pinpoint genes that are involved in embryogenesis, owing to the emergence of embryonic lethal knockout mutants. Through internationally coordinated efforts, the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) has generated a public resource of mouse knockout strains and, in April 2012, the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC), supported by the EU InfraCoMP programme, convened a workshop to discuss developing a phenotyping pipeline for the investigation of embryonic lethal knockout lines. This workshop brought together over 100 scientists, from 13 countries, who are working in the academic and commercial research sectors, including experts and opinion leaders in the fields of embryology, animal imaging, data capture, quality control and annotation, high-throughput mouse production, phenotyping, and reporter gene analysis. This article summarises the outcome of the workshop, including (1) the vital scientific importance of phenotyping embryonic lethal mouse strains for basic and translational research; (2) a common framework to harmonise international efforts within this context; (3) the types of phenotyping that are likely to be most appropriate for systematic use, with a focus on 3D embryo imaging; (4) the importance of centralising data in a standardised form to facilitate data mining; and (5) the development of online tools to allow open access to and dissemination of the phenotyping data.

  6. 4D MEMRI atlas of neonatal FVB/N mouse brain development.

    PubMed

    Szulc, Kamila U; Lerch, Jason P; Nieman, Brian J; Bartelle, Benjamin B; Friedel, Miriam; Suero-Abreu, Giselle A; Watson, Charles; Joyner, Alexandra L; Turnbull, Daniel H

    2015-09-01

    The widespread use of the mouse as a model system to study brain development has created the need for noninvasive neuroimaging methods that can be applied to early postnatal mice. The goal of this study was to optimize in vivo three- (3D) and four-dimensional (4D) manganese (Mn)-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) approaches for acquiring and analyzing data from the developing mouse brain. The combination of custom, stage-dependent holders and self-gated (motion-correcting) 3D MRI sequences enabled the acquisition of high-resolution (100-μm isotropic), motion artifact-free brain images with a high level of contrast due to Mn-enhancement of numerous brain regions and nuclei. We acquired high-quality longitudinal brain images from two groups of FVB/N strain mice, six mice per group, each mouse imaged on alternate odd or even days (6 3D MEMRI images at each day) covering the developmental stages between postnatal days 1 to 11. The effects of Mn-exposure, anesthesia and MRI were assessed, showing small but significant transient effects on body weight and brain volume, which recovered with time and did not result in significant morphological differences when compared to controls. Metrics derived from deformation-based morphometry (DBM) were used for quantitative analysis of changes in volume and position of a number of brain regions. The cerebellum, a brain region undergoing significant changes in size and patterning at early postnatal stages, was analyzed in detail to demonstrate the spatiotemporal characterization made possible by this new atlas of mouse brain development. These results show that MEMRI is a powerful tool for quantitative analysis of mouse brain development, with great potential for in vivo phenotype analysis in mouse models of neurodevelopmental diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Isolation and characterization of Xenopus laevis homologs of the mouse inv gene and functional analysis of the conserved calmodulin binding sites.

    PubMed

    Yasuhiko, Yukuto; Shiokawa, Koichiro; Mochizuki, Toshio; Asashima, Makoto; Yokoyama, Takahiko

    2006-04-01

    The homozygous inv (inversion of embryonic turning) mouse mutant shows situs inversus and polycystic kidney disease, both of which result from the lack of the inv gene. Previously, we suggested that inv may be important for the left-right axis formation, not only in mice but also in Xenopus, and that calmodulin regulates this inv protein function. Here, we isolated and characterized two Xenopus laevis homologs (Xinv-1 and Xinv-2) of the mouse inv gene, and performed functional analysis of the conserved IQ motifs that interact with calmodulin. Xinv-1 expresses early in development in the same manner as mouse inv does. Unexpectedly, a full-length Xenopus inv mRNA did not randomize cardiac orientation when injected into Xenopus embryos, which is different from mouse inv mRNA. Contrary to mouse inv mRNA, Xenopus inv mRNA with mutated IQ randomized cardiac orientation. The present study indicates that calmodulin binding sites (IQ motifs) are crucial in controlling the biological activity of both mouse and Xenopus inv proteins. Although mouse and Xenopus inv genes have a quite similar structure, the interaction with calmodulin and IQ motifs of Xenopus inv and mouse inv proteins may regulate their function in different ways.

  8. Cryo-imaging in a toxicological study on mouse fetuses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Debashish; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Sloter, Eddie; Watanabe, Michiko; Wilson, David

    2010-03-01

    We applied the Case cryo-imaging system to detect signals of developmental toxicity in transgenic mouse fetuses resulting from maternal exposure to a developmental environmental toxicant (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, TCDD). We utilized a fluorescent transgenic mouse model that expresses Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) exclusively in smooth muscles under the control of the smooth muscle gamma actin (SMGA) promoter (SMGA/EGFP mice kindly provided by J. Lessard, U. Cincinnati). Analysis of cryo-image data volumes, comprising of very high-resolution anatomical brightfield and molecular fluorescence block face images, revealed qualitative and quantitative morphological differences in control versus exposed fetuses. Fetuses randomly chosen from pregnant females euthanized on gestation day (GD) 18 were either manually examined or cryo-imaged. For cryo-imaging, fetuses were embedded, frozen and cryo-sectioned at 20 μm thickness and brightfield color and fluorescent block-face images were acquired with an in-plane resolution of ~15 μm. Automated 3D volume visualization schemes segmented out the black embedding medium and blended fluorescence and brightfield data to produce 3D reconstructions of all fetuses. Comparison of Treatment groups TCDD GD13, TCDD GD14 and control through automated analysis tools highlighted differences not observable by prosectors performing traditional fresh dissection. For example, severe hydronephrosis, suggestive of irreversible kidney damage, was detected by cryoimaging in fetuses exposed to TCDD. Automated quantification of total fluorescence in smooth muscles revealed suppressed fluorescence in TCDD-exposed fetuses. This application demonstrated that cryo-imaging can be utilized as a routine high-throughput screening tool to assess the effects of potential toxins on the developmental biology of small animals.

  9. Distraction induced enterogenesis: a unique mouse model using polyethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Okawada, Manabu; Maria, Haytham Mustafa; Teitelbaum, Daniel H

    2011-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the small intestine can be lengthened by applying mechanical forces to the bowel lumen-distraction-induced enterogenesis. However, the mechanisms which account for this growth are unknown, and might be best examined using a mouse model. The purpose of this study is to establish the feasibility of developing distractive-induced small bowel growth in mouse. Twelve-week old C57BL/6J mice had a jejunal segment taken out of continuity, and distended with polyethylene glycol (PEG: 3350 KDa); this group was compared with a control group without stretching. Segment length and diameter were measured intra-operatively and after 5 d. Villus height, crypt depth, and muscle thickness in the isolated segment were assessed. Rate of epithelial cell proliferation (5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine: BrdU incorporation) in crypts were also examined. The mucosal mRNA expression of targeted factors was performed to investigate potential mechanisms which might lead to distraction-induced enterogenesis. At harvest, the PEG-stretched group showed a significant increase in length and diameter versus controls. Villus height, crypt depth, and muscular layer thickness increased in the PEG group. The PEG group also showed significantly increased rates of epithelial cell proliferation versus controls. Real-time PCR showed a trend toward higher β-catenin and c-myc mRNA expression in the PEG-stretched group; however, this difference was not statistically significant. Radial distraction-induced enterogenesis with PEG is a viable method for increasing small intestinal length and diameter. This model may provide a new method for studying the mechanisms leading to distraction-induced enterogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermal Stimulation of the Retina Reduces Bruch's Membrane Thickness in Age Related Macular Degeneration Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Tode, Jan; Richert, Elisabeth; Koinzer, Stefan; Klettner, Alexa; von der Burchard, Claus; Brinkmann, Ralf; Lucius, Ralph; Roider, Johann

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the effect of thermal stimulation of the retina (TS-R) on Bruch's membrane (BrM) thickness in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) mouse models as a novel concept for the prophylaxis and treatment of dry AMD. Two knockout AMD mouse models, B6.129P2-Apoe tm1Unc /J (ApoE-/-) and B6.129X1-Nfe2I2 tm1Ywk /J (NRF2-/-), were chosen. One randomized eye of each mouse in four different groups (two of different age, two of different genotype) of five mice was treated by TS-R (532 nm, 10-ms duration, 50-μm spot size), the fellow eye served as control. Laser power was titrated to barely visible laser burns, then reduced by 70% to guarantee for thermal elevation without damage to the neuroretina, then applied uniformly to the murine retina. Fundus, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and fluorescein angiography (FLA) images were obtained at the day of treatment and 1 month after treatment. Eyes were enucleated thereafter to analyze BrM thickness by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in a standardized blinded manner. Fundus images revealed that all ApoE-/- and NRF2-/- mice had AMD associated retinal alterations. BrM thickness was increased in untreated controls of both mouse models. Subvisible TS-R laser spots were not detectable by fundus imaging, OCT, or FLA 2 hours or 1 month after laser treatment. TEM revealed a significant reduction of BrM thickness in laser-treated eyes of all four groups compared to their fellow control eyes. TS-R reduces BrM thickness in AMD mouse models ApoE-/- and NRF2-/- without damage to the neuroretina. It may become a prophylactic or even therapeutic treatment option for dry AMD. TS-R may become a prophylactic or even therapeutic treatment option for dry AMD.

  11. Binge consumption of ethanol during pregnancy leads to significant developmental delay of mouse embryonic brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudheendran, Narendran; Bake, Shameena; Miranda, Rajesh C.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2014-03-01

    Consumption of alcohol during pregnancy can be severely detrimental to the development of the brain in fetuses. This study explores the usage of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to the study the effects of maternal consumption of ethanol on brain development in mouse fetuses. On gestational day 14.5, fetuses were collected and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde. A swept-source OCT (SSOCT) system was used to acquire 3D images of the brain of ethanol-exposed and control fetuses. The volume of right and left brain ventricles were measured and used to compare between ethanol-exposed and control fetuses. A total of 5 fetuses were used for each of the two groups. The average volumes of the right and left ventricles were measured to be 0.35 and 0.15 mm3 for ethanol-exposed and control fetuses, respectively. The results demonstrated that there is an alcohol-induced developmental delay in mouse fetal brains.

  12. Response, use and habituation to a mouse house in C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Wirz, Annarita; Mandillo, Silvia; D'Amato, Francesca R; Giuliani, Alessandro; Riviello, M Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Animal welfare depends on the possibility to express species-specific behaviours and can be strongly compromised in socially and environmentally deprived conditions. Nesting materials and refuges are very important resources to express these behaviours and should be considered as housing supplementation items. We evaluated the effects of one item of housing supplementation in standard settings in laboratory mice. C57BL/6JOlaHsd (B6) and BALB/cOlaHsd (BALB) young male and female mice, upon arrival, were housed in groups of four in standard laboratory cages and after 10 days of acclimatization, a red transparent plastic triangular-shaped Mouse House™ was introduced into half of the home cages. Animals with or without a mouse house were observed in various contexts for more than one month. Body weight gain and food intake, home cage behaviours, emotionality and response to standard cage changing procedures were evaluated. The presence of a mouse house in the home cage did not interfere with main developmental and behavioural parameters or emotionality of BALB and B6 male and female mice compared with controls. Both strains habituated to the mouse house in about a week, but made use of it differently, with BALB mice using the house more than the B6 strain. Our results suggest that mice habituated to the mouse house rather quickly without disrupting their home cage activities. Scientists can thus be encouraged to use mouse houses, also in view of the implementation of the EU Directive (2010/63/EU).

  13. The Press and Government Restriction: A 13-Year Update of a Cross-National Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, David H.; Buddenbaum, Judith M.

    In 1974, David H. Weaver used path analysis with data from 137 countries during four periods between 1950 and 1966 to test relationships between government control of the press and six other societal characteristics. The present study, which extended the time period of the original analysis by adding recently available data from 1979, constructed…

  14. Tracking Bioluminescent ETEC during In vivo BALB/c Mouse Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Rodea, Gerardo E.; Montiel-Infante, Francisco X.; Cruz-Córdova, Ariadnna; Saldaña-Ahuactzi, Zeus; Ochoa, Sara A.; Espinosa-Mazariego, Karina; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a leading cause of diarrhea worldwide. Adhesion to the human intestinal tract is crucial for colonization. ETEC adhesive structures have been extensively studied; however, colonization dynamics remain uncharacterized. The aim of this study was to track bioluminescent ETEC during in vivo infection. The promoter region of dnaK was fused with the luc gene, resulting in the pRMkluc vector. E. coli K-12 and ETEC FMU073332 strains were electroporated with pRMkluc. E. coli K-12 pRMkluc was bioluminescent; in contrast, the E. coli K-12 control strain did not emit bioluminescence. The highest light emission was measured at 1.9 OD600 (9 h) and quantified over time. The signal was detected starting at time 0 and up to 12 h. Streptomycin-treated BALB/c mice were orogastrically inoculated with either ETEC FMU073332 pRMkluc or E. coli K-12 pRMkluc (control), and bacterial colonization was determined by measuring bacterial shedding in the feces. ETEC FMU073332 pRMkluc shedding started and stopped after inoculation of the control strain, indicating that mouse intestinal colonization by ETEC FMU073332 pRMkluc lasted longer than colonization by the control. The bioluminescence signal of ETEC FMU073332 pRMkluc was captured starting at the time of inoculation until 12 h after inoculation. The bioluminescent signal emitted by ETEC FMU073332 pRMkluc in the proximal mouse ileum was located, and the control signal was identified in the cecum. The detection of maximal light emission and bioluminescence duration allowed us to follow ETEC during in vivo infection. ETEC showed an enhanced colonization and tropism in the mouse intestine compared with those in the control strain. Here, we report the first study of ETEC colonization in the mouse intestine accompanied by in vivo imaging. PMID:28560186

  15. [Distribution diversity of integrins and calcium channels on major human and mouse host cells of Leptospira species].

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng-xue; Zhao, Xin; Qian, Jing; Yan, Jie

    2012-07-01

    To determine the distribution of integrins and calcium channels on major human and mouse host cells of Leptospira species. The expression of β1, β2 and β3 integrins was detected with immunofluorescence assay on the surface of human monocyte line THP-1, mouse mononuclear-macrophage-like cell line J774A.1, human vascular endothelial cell line HUVEC, mouse vascular endothelial cell EOMA, human hepatocyte line L-02, mouse hepatocyte line Hepa1-6, human renal tubular epithelial cell line HEK-293, mouse glomerular membrane epithelial cell line SV40-MES13, mouse collagen blast line NIH/3T3, human and mouse platelets. The distribution of voltage gate control calcium channels Cav3.1, Cav3.2, Cav3.3 and Cav2.3, and receptor gate calcium channels P(2)X(1), P(2)2X(2), P(2)X(3), P(2)X(4), P(2)X(5), P(2)X(6) and P(2)X(7) were determined with Western blot assay. β1 integrin proteins were positively expressed on the membrane surface of J774A.1, THP-1, HUVEC, EOMA, L-02, Hepa1-6 and HEK-239 cells as well as human and mouse platelets. β2 integrin proteins were expressed on the membrane surface of J774A.1, THP-1, HUVEC, EOMA, and NIH/3T3 cells. β3 integrin proteins were expressed on the membrane surface of J774A.1, THP-1, HUVEC, EOMA, Hepa1-6, HEK-239 and NIH/3T3 cells as well as human and mouse platelets. P(2)X(1) receptor gate calcium channel was expressed on the membrane surface of human and mouse platelets, while P(2)X(5) receptor gate calcium channel was expressed on the membrane surface of J774A.1, THP-1, L-02, Hepa1-6, HEK-239 and HUVEC cells. However, the other calcium channels were not detected on the tested cell lines or platelets. There is a large distribution diversity of integrins and calcium channel proteins on the major human and mouse host cells of Leptospira species, which may be associated with the differences of leptospira-induced injury in different host cells.

  16. Analysis of Mouse Growth Plate Development

    PubMed Central

    Mangiavini, Laura; Merceron, Christophe; Schipani, Ernestina

    2016-01-01

    To investigate skeletal development, pathophysiological mechanisms of cartilage and bone disease, and eventually assess innovative treatments, the mouse is a very important resource. During embryonic development, mesenchymal condensations are formed, and cells within these mesenchymal condensations either directly differentiate into osteoblasts and give origin to intramembranous bone, or differentiate into chondrocytes and form a cartilaginous anlage. The cartilaginous anlage or fetal growth plate is then replaced with bone. This process is also called endochondral bone development, and it is responsible for the generation of most of our skeleton. In this Review, we will discuss in detail the most common in vivo and in vitro techniques our laboratory is currently using for the analysis of the mouse fetal growth plate during development. PMID:26928664

  17. Isolation of Mouse Pancreatic Islets of Langerhans.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Domínguez, Miriam

    The aim of any pancreatic islet isolation is obtaining pure, viable and functional pancreatic islets, either for in vitro or in vivo purposes. The islets of Langerhans are complex microorgans with the important role of regulating glucose homeostasis. Imbalances in glucose homeostasis lead to diabetes, which is defined by the American Diabetes Association as a "group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both" (American Diabetes Association 2011). Currently, the rising demand of human islets is provoking a shortage of this tissue, limiting research and clinical practice on this field. In this scenario, it is essential to investigate and improve islet isolation procedures in animal models, while keeping in mind the anatomical and functional differences between species. This chapter discusses the main aspects of mouse islet isolation research, highlighting the critical factors and shortcomings to take into account for the selection and/or optimization of a mouse islet isolation protocol.

  18. Electroporation of Postimplantation Mouse Embryos In Utero.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng-Chiu; Carcagno, Abel

    2018-02-01

    Gene transfer by electroporation is possible in mouse fetuses within the uterus. As described in this protocol, the pregnant female is anesthetized, the abdominal cavity is opened, and the uterus with the fetuses is exteriorized. A solution of plasmid DNA is injected through the uterine wall directly into the fetus, typically into a cavity like the brain ventricle, guided by fiber optic illumination. Electrodes are positioned on the uterus around the region of the fetus that was injected, and electrical pulses are delivered. The uterus is returned to the abdominal cavity, the body wall is sutured closed, and the female is allowed to recover. The manipulated fetuses can then be collected and analyzed at various times after the electroporation. This method allows experimental access to later-stage developing mouse embryos. © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  19. The scarless heart and the MRL mouse.

    PubMed

    Heber-Katz, Ellen; Leferovich, John; Bedelbaeva, Khamilia; Gourevitch, Dmitri; Clark, Lise

    2004-05-29

    The ability to regenerate tissues and limbs in its most robust form is seen in many non-mammalian species. The serendipitous discovery that the MRL mouse has a profound capacity for regeneration in some ways rivalling the classic newt and axolotl species raises the possibility that humans, too, may have an innate regenerative ability. The adult MRL mouse regrows cartilage, skin, hair follicles and myocardium with near perfect fidelity and without scarring. This is seen in the ability to close through-and-through ear holes, which are generally used for lifelong identification of mice, and the anatomic and functional recovery of myocardium after a severe cryo-injury. We present histological, biochemical and genetic data indicating that the enhanced breakdown of scar-like tissue may be an underlying factor in the MRL regenerative response. Studies as to the source of the cells in the regenerating MRL tissue are discussed. Such studies appear to support multiple mechanisms for cell replacement.

  20. Learning to segment mouse embryo cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León, Juan; Pardo, Alejandro; Arbeláez, Pablo

    2017-11-01

    Recent advances in microscopy enable the capture of temporal sequences during cell development stages. However, the study of such sequences is a complex task and time consuming task. In this paper we propose an automatic strategy to adders the problem of semantic and instance segmentation of mouse embryos using NYU's Mouse Embryo Tracking Database. We obtain our instance proposals as refined predictions from the generalized hough transform, using prior knowledge of the embryo's locations and their current cell stage. We use two main approaches to learn the priors: Hand crafted features and automatic learned features. Our strategy increases the baseline jaccard index from 0.12 up to 0.24 using hand crafted features and 0.28 by using automatic learned ones.

  1. Identification of structural variation in mouse genomes.

    PubMed

    Keane, Thomas M; Wong, Kim; Adams, David J; Flint, Jonathan; Reymond, Alexandre; Yalcin, Binnaz

    2014-01-01

    Structural variation is variation in structure of DNA regions affecting DNA sequence length and/or orientation. It generally includes deletions, insertions, copy-number gains, inversions, and transposable elements. Traditionally, the identification of structural variation in genomes has been challenging. However, with the recent advances in high-throughput DNA sequencing and paired-end mapping (PEM) methods, the ability to identify structural variation and their respective association to human diseases has improved considerably. In this review, we describe our current knowledge of structural variation in the mouse, one of the prime model systems for studying human diseases and mammalian biology. We further present the evolutionary implications of structural variation on transposable elements. We conclude with future directions on the study of structural variation in mouse genomes that will increase our understanding of molecular architecture and functional consequences of structural variation.

  2. Risk assessment in man and mouse.

    PubMed

    Balci, Fuat; Freestone, David; Gallistel, Charles R

    2009-02-17

    Human and mouse subjects tried to anticipate at which of 2 locations a reward would appear. On a randomly scheduled fraction of the trials, it appeared with a short latency at one location; on the complementary fraction, it appeared after a longer latency at the other location. Subjects of both species accurately assessed the exogenous uncertainty (the probability of a short versus a long trial) and the endogenous uncertainty (from the scalar variability in their estimates of an elapsed duration) to compute the optimal target latency for a switch from the short- to the long-latency location. The optimal latency was arrived at so rapidly that there was no reliably discernible improvement over trials. Under these nonverbal conditions, humans and mice accurately assess risks and behave nearly optimally. That this capacity is well-developed in the mouse opens up the possibility of a genetic approach to the neurobiological mechanisms underlying risk assessment.

  3. Risk assessment in man and mouse

    PubMed Central

    Balci, Fuat; Freestone, David; Gallistel, Charles R.

    2009-01-01

    Human and mouse subjects tried to anticipate at which of 2 locations a reward would appear. On a randomly scheduled fraction of the trials, it appeared with a short latency at one location; on the complementary fraction, it appeared after a longer latency at the other location. Subjects of both species accurately assessed the exogenous uncertainty (the probability of a short versus a long trial) and the endogenous uncertainty (from the scalar variability in their estimates of an elapsed duration) to compute the optimal target latency for a switch from the short- to the long-latency location. The optimal latency was arrived at so rapidly that there was no reliably discernible improvement over trials. Under these nonverbal conditions, humans and mice accurately assess risks and behave nearly optimally. That this capacity is well-developed in the mouse opens up the possibility of a genetic approach to the neurobiological mechanisms underlying risk assessment. PMID:19188592

  4. Effects of clinostat rotation on mouse meiotic maturation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wolgemuth, D J; Grills, G S

    1984-01-01

    The effects of microgravity on meiosis, fertilization, and early embryonic development in mammals are being examined by using a clinostat to reorient the cells with respect to the gravity vector. A clinostat capable of supporting mammalian cells in tissue culture has been developed. Initial studies have focused on examining the effects of clinostat rotation on meiotic maturation in mouse oocytes. Oocytes recovered from ovarian follicles were subjected to clinostat rotation on a horizontal or vertical axis or to static conditions for a 16 hr period. No gross morphological changes and no effects on germinal vesicle breakdown were observed under any rotation conditions (1/4, 1, 10, 30, 100 RPM). Success of meiotic progression to Metaphase II was comparable among experimental and control groups except at 100 RPM, where a slight inhibition was observed.

  5. SIRT1, 2, 3 protect mouse oocytes from postovulatory aging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Teng; Zhou, Yang; Li, Li; Wang, Hong-Hui; Ma, Xue-Shan; Qian, Wei-Ping; Shen, Wei; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2016-04-01

    The quality of metaphase II oocytes will undergo a time-dependent deterioration following ovulation as the result of the oocyte aging process. In this study, we determined that the expression of sirtuin family members (SIRT1, 2, 3) was dramatically reduced in mouse oocytes aged in vivo or in vitro. Increased intracellular ROS was observed when SIRT1, 2, 3 activity was inhibited. Increased frequency of spindle defects and disturbed distribution of mitochondria were also observed in MII oocytes aged in vitro after treatment with Nicotinamide (NAM), indicating that inhibition of SIRT1, 2, 3 may accelerate postovulatory oocyte aging. Interestingly, when MII oocytes were exposed to caffeine, the decline of SIRT1, 2, 3 mRNA levels was delayed and the aging-associated defective phenotypes could be improved. The results suggest that the SIRT1, 2, 3 pathway may play a potential protective role against postovulatory oocyte aging by controlling ROS generation.

  6. Effects of clinostat rotation on mouse meiotic maturation in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolgemuth, D. J.; Grills, G. S.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of microgravity on meiosis, fertilization, and early embryonic development in mammals are being examined by using a clinostat to reorient the cells with respect to the gravity vector. A clinostat capable of supporting mammalian cells in tissue culture has been developed. Initial studies have focused on examining the effects of clinostat rotation on meiotic maturation in mouse oocytes. Oocytes recovered from ovarian follicles were subjected to clinostat rotation on a horizontal or vertical axis or to static conditions for a 16 hr period. No gross morphological changes and no effects on germinal vesicle breakdown were observed under any rotation conditions (1/4, 1, 10, 30, 100 RPM). Success of meiotic progression to Metaphase II was comparable among experimental and control groups except at 100 RPM, where a slight inhibition was observed.

  7. Development of the mouse cochlea database (MCD).

    PubMed

    Santi, Peter A; Rapson, Ian; Voie, Arne

    2008-09-01

    The mouse cochlea database (MCD) provides an interactive, image database of the mouse cochlea for learning its anatomy and data mining of its resources. The MCD website is hosted on a centrally maintained, high-speed server at the following URL: (http://mousecochlea.umn.edu). The MCD contains two types of image resources, serial 2D image stacks and 3D reconstructions of cochlear structures. Complete image stacks of the cochlea from two different mouse strains were obtained using orthogonal plane fluorescence optical microscopy (OPFOS). 2D images of the cochlea are presented on the MCD website as: viewable images within a stack, 2D atlas of the cochlea, orthogonal sections, and direct volume renderings combined with isosurface reconstructions. In order to assess cochlear structures quantitatively, "true" cross-sections of the scala media along the length of the basilar membrane were generated by virtual resectioning of a cochlea orthogonal to a cochlear structure, such as the centroid of the basilar membrane or the scala media. 3D images are presented on the MCD website as: direct volume renderings, movies, interactive QuickTime VRs, flythrough, and isosurface 3D reconstructions of different cochlear structures. 3D computer models can also be used for solid model fabrication by rapid prototyping and models from different cochleas can be combined to produce an average 3D model. The MCD is the first comprehensive image resource on the mouse cochlea and is a new paradigm for understanding the anatomy of the cochlea, and establishing morphometric parameters of cochlear structures in normal and mutant mice.

  8. 18th International Mouse Genome Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Lossie, Amy C.; Meehan, Thomas P.; Castillo, Andrew

    2005-07-01

    The 18th International Mouse Genome Conference was held in Seattle, WA, US on October 18-22,2004. The meeting was partially supported by the Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-04ER63851. Abstracts can be seen at imgs.org and the summary of the meeting was published in Mammalian Genome, Vol 16, Number 7, Pages 471-475.

  9. Development of amnesia in different mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Sinovyev, D R; Dubrovina, N I; Kulikov, A V

    2009-05-01

    We studied passive avoidance retrieval after amnestic stimulation (arrest in unsafe section of the experimental setup) in C57Bl/6J, BALB/c, CBA/Lac, AKR/J, DBA/2J, C3H/HeJ, and ASC/Icg mice. We demonstrated resistance to amnestic stimulation in mice with high predisposition to freezing reaction (ASC/Icg) and memory deficit in other mouse strains.

  10. Aging, Breast Cancer and the Mouse Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    architecture and function of the of normal human cells in culture ( Hayflick , 1965). This limit surrounding tissue and stimulate (or inhibit) the... LIMITATION 18. NUMBER 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON OF ABSTRACT OF PAGES USAMRMC a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area U...mammary cancers in the mouse and that these tumors have strikingly similar histology. Nonetheless, several limitations exists to this model system and

  11. Spatial integration in mouse primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Vaiceliunaite, Agne; Erisken, Sinem; Franzen, Florian; Katzner, Steffen; Busse, Laura

    2013-08-01

    Responses of many neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) are suppressed by stimuli exceeding the classical receptive field (RF), an important property that might underlie the computation of visual saliency. Traditionally, it has proven difficult to disentangle the underlying neural circuits, including feedforward, horizontal intracortical, and feedback connectivity. Since circuit-level analysis is particularly feasible in the mouse, we asked whether neural signatures of spatial integration in mouse V1 are similar to those of higher-order mammals and investigated the role of parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) inhibitory interneurons. Analogous to what is known from primates and carnivores, we demonstrate that, in awake mice, surround suppression is present in the majority of V1 neurons and is strongest in superficial cortical layers. Anesthesia with isoflurane-urethane, however, profoundly affects spatial integration: it reduces the laminar dependency, decreases overall suppression strength, and alters the temporal dynamics of responses. We show that these effects of brain state can be parsimoniously explained by assuming that anesthesia affects contrast normalization. Hence, the full impact of suppressive influences in mouse V1 cannot be studied under anesthesia with isoflurane-urethane. To assess the neural circuits of spatial integration, we targeted PV+ interneurons using optogenetics. Optogenetic depolarization of PV+ interneurons was associated with increased RF size and decreased suppression in the recorded population, similar to effects of lowering stimulus contrast, suggesting that PV+ interneurons contribute to spatial integration by affecting overall stimulus drive. We conclude that the mouse is a promising model for circuit-level mechanisms of spatial integration, which relies on the combined activity of different types of inhibitory interneurons.

  12. Behavior of captive mouse deer, Tragulus napu.

    PubMed

    Ralls, K; Barasch, C; Minkowski, K

    1975-06-01

    1. The behavior of a breeding colony of larger Malayan mouse deer was observed for seven months. 2. Mouse deer produce a noise by stamping with one or both hind feet when slightly alarmed. Other individuals may or may not stamp in response. 3. Both males and females mark objects with the inter-mandibular gland. Males mark much more frequently than females. 4. Males often lick the urine of females; less frequently, females lick the urine of males. Mouse deer do not "flehmen" in response to urine. 5. Males court both receptive and unreceptive females. Courting males mark the female on the back or rump with the inter-mandibular gland and emit a series of squeaks. The behavior of both unreceptive and receptive females and copulation are described. 6. Females have a post-partum estrus and return to estrus at approximately 14 day intervals unless they become pregnant. 7. Mothers spend little time with infants. Mothers emit a vocalization which sounds like the squeak of courting males. Both mothers and infants emit a higher pitched vocalization. If her infant emitted this vocalization the mother answered and approached and stood by it. The mother nurses in a standing position and raises the hind leg on the side towards the infant. 8. Intense agonistic behavior was seen only when strange individuals were introduced into established groups. Males fight by facing each other and biting each other on the ears, neck, and shoulders with their large upper canines. Fighting males usually hold the tail in a vertical position, exposing the white ventral surface, and may emit loud growls. If one male flees, the other pursues and attempts to bite him on the neck and body. 9. Mouse deer are morphologically primitive and many of their motor patterns are also thought to be primitive. 10. The behavior of all four living tragulid species appears to be quite similar, both with respect to motor patterns and social behavior.

  13. Human homolog of the mouse sperm receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlin, M.E.; Dean, J.

    1990-08-01

    The human zona pellucida, composed of three glycoproteins (ZP1, ZP2, and ZP3), forms an extracellular matrix that surrounds ovulated eggs and mediates species-specific fertilization. The genes that code for at least two of the zona proteins (ZP2 and ZP3) cross-hybridize with other mammalian DNA. The recently characterized mouse sperm receptor gene (Zp-3) was used to isolate its human homolog. The human homolog spans {approx}18.3 kilobase pairs (kbp) (compared to 8.6 kbp for the mouse gene) and contains eight exons, the sizes of which are strictly conserved between the two species. Four short (8-15 bp) sequences within the first 250 bpmore » of the 5{prime} flanking region in the human Zp-3 homolog are also present upstream of mouse Zp-3. These elements may modulate oocyte-specific gene expression. By using the polymerase chain reaction, a full-length cDNA of human ZP3 was isolated from human ovarian poly(A){sup +} RNA and used to deduce the structure of human ZP3 mRNA. Certain features of the human and mouse ZP3 transcripts are conserved. Both have unusually short 5{prime} and 3{prime} untranslated regions, both contain a single open reading frame that is 74% identical, and both code for 424 amino acid polypeptides that are 67% the same. The similarity between the two proteins may define domains that are important in maintaining the structural integrity of the zona pellucida, while the differences may play a role in mediating the species-specific events of mammalian fertilization.« less

  14. Engineering a new mouse model for vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Manga, Prashiela; Orlow, Seth J

    2012-07-01

    Although the precise mechanisms that trigger vitiligo remain elusive, autoimmune responses mediate its progression. The development of therapies has been impeded by a paucity of animal models, since mice lack interfollicular melanocytes, the primary targets in vitiligo. In this issue, Harris et al. describe a mouse model in which interfollicular melanocytes are retained by Kit ligand overexpression and an immune response is initiated by transplanting melanocyte-targeting CD8+ T cells.

  15. Mouse Models of Hrs Nf2 Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    heterozygotes also showed hepatocellular carcinoma or nuclear hyperplasia, again abnormalities that were not identified in any of the other mouse lines...Lung Liver Kidney Pancreas 4 +/- +/- ND ND ND ND 23 +/- +/- Adenocarcinoma N N N 26 +/- +/- Adenocarcinoma Hepatocellular Carcinoma N N 27...F3-59 wt +/- N Granuloma N N F3-60 wt +/- N N N N F4-16 wt +/- Adenocarcinoma N N N F4-19 wt +/- N Hepatocellular Carcinoma Hydronephrosis Islets

  16. Mouse Model of Human Hereditary Pancreatitis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    constructed and tested. The primary structure of the trypsinogen activation peptide in mouse T7 trypsinogen is shown. Positions mutated are indicated. 1...trypsinogen designed to increase autoactivation (spontaneous conversion to active trypsin). All mutations targeted the so-called activation peptide , a...mutations, as we previously seen in studies on human cationic trypsinogen. A peculiarity of the trypsinogen activation peptide is the 5

  17. Ibrutinib suppresses alloantibody responses in a mouse model of allosensitization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Irene; Wu, Gordon; Chai, Ning-Ning; Klein, Andrew S; Jordan, Stanley

    2017-12-01

    Ibrutinib is a Bruton's tyrosine Kinase (BTK) antagonist that inhibits B cell receptor (BCR) signaling. Complete BTK deficiency is associated with absence of B-cells. Ibrutinb is currently approved by FDA for treatment of B-cell malignancies, including Waldenström macroglobulinaemia. We recently carried out studies to determine if ibrutinib could modify alloantibody responses. A mouse model of allogenic sensitization using a C57BL/6 mouse as the recipient of a skin allograft from an HLA-A2 transgenic mouse was utilized to examine the effects of ibrutinib on alloantibody responses and B cell effector functions. Donor-specific antibody (DSA) levels were measured in a flow-cytometric antibody binding assay. Splenic T and B cell subsets and plasma cells were analyzed in flow cytometry. Control mice developed peak levels of DSA IgM at day 14 PTx while the ibrutinib treated mice had significantly lower levels of DSA IgM (p=0.0047). Control mice developed HLA.A2-specific IgG antibodies at day 14 (230±60 MFI) and reached peak levels at day 21 (426±61 MFI). In contrast, mice in the treatment group had low levels of HLA.A2-specific IgG at day 14 (109±59 MFI, p=0.004) and day 21 (241±86 MFI, p=0.003). FACS analysis found a reduction of B220 + or CD19 + B cell population (p<0.05). In addition, ibrutinib attenuated recall DSA IgG responses to re-sensitization (p<0.05) and reduced CD38 + CD138 + plasma cells (p<0.05) in the spleens. Ibrutinib is effective in suppressing alloantibody responses through blocking BTK-mediated BCR signaling, leading to reduction of B cells and short-lived plasma cells in the spleens. Use of ibrutinib may provide benefits to HLA-sensitized transplant patients for alloantibody suppression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Mouse Tumor Biology Database: A Comprehensive Resource for Mouse Models of Human Cancer.

    PubMed

    Krupke, Debra M; Begley, Dale A; Sundberg, John P; Richardson, Joel E; Neuhauser, Steven B; Bult, Carol J

    2017-11-01

    Research using laboratory mice has led to fundamental insights into the molecular genetic processes that govern cancer initiation, progression, and treatment response. Although thousands of scientific articles have been published about mouse models of human cancer, collating information and data for a specific model is hampered by the fact that many authors do not adhere to existing annotation standards when describing models. The interpretation of experimental results in mouse models can also be confounded when researchers do not factor in the effect of genetic background on tumor biology. The Mouse Tumor Biology (MTB) database is an expertly curated, comprehensive compendium of mouse models of human cancer. Through the enforcement of nomenclature and related annotation standards, MTB supports aggregation of data about a cancer model from diverse sources and assessment of how genetic background of a mouse strain influences the biological properties of a specific tumor type and model utility. Cancer Res; 77(21); e67-70. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Mouse Tumor Biology (MTB): a database of mouse models for human cancer.

    PubMed

    Bult, Carol J; Krupke, Debra M; Begley, Dale A; Richardson, Joel E; Neuhauser, Steven B; Sundberg, John P; Eppig, Janan T

    2015-01-01

    The Mouse Tumor Biology (MTB; http://tumor.informatics.jax.org) database is a unique online compendium of mouse models for human cancer. MTB provides online access to expertly curated information on diverse mouse models for human cancer and interfaces for searching and visualizing data associated with these models. The information in MTB is designed to facilitate the selection of strains for cancer research and is a platform for mining data on tumor development and patterns of metastases. MTB curators acquire data through manual curation of peer-reviewed scientific literature and from direct submissions by researchers. Data in MTB are also obtained from other bioinformatics resources including PathBase, the Gene Expression Omnibus and ArrayExpress. Recent enhancements to MTB improve the association between mouse models and human genes commonly mutated in a variety of cancers as identified in large-scale cancer genomics studies, provide new interfaces for exploring regions of the mouse genome associated with cancer phenotypes and incorporate data and information related to Patient-Derived Xenograft models of human cancers. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. The Mouse Genomes Project: a repository of inbred laboratory mouse strain genomes.

    PubMed

    Adams, David J; Doran, Anthony G; Lilue, Jingtao; Keane, Thomas M

    2015-10-01

    The Mouse Genomes Project was initiated in 2009 with the goal of using next-generation sequencing technologies to catalogue molecular variation in the common laboratory mouse strains, and a selected set of wild-derived inbred strains. The initial sequencing and survey of sequence variation in 17 inbred strains was completed in 2011 and included comprehensive catalogue of single nucleotide polymorphisms, short insertion/deletions, larger structural variants including their fine scale architecture and landscape of transposable element variation, and genomic sites subject to post-transcriptional alteration of RNA. From this beginning, the resource has expanded significantly to include 36 fully sequenced inbred laboratory mouse strains, a refined and updated data processing pipeline, and new variation querying and data visualisation tools which are available on the project's website ( http://www.sanger.ac.uk/resources/mouse/genomes/ ). The focus of the project is now the completion of de novo assembled chromosome sequences and strain-specific gene structures for the core strains. We discuss how the assembled chromosomes will power comparative analysis, data access tools and future directions of mouse genetics.

  1. Genetics of SLE: evidence from mouse models.

    PubMed

    Morel, Laurence

    2010-06-01

    Great progress has been made in the field of lupus genetics in the past few years, notably with the publication of genome-wide association studies in humans and the identification of susceptibility genes (including Fcgr2b, Ly108, Kallikrein genes and Coronin-1A) in mouse models of spontaneous lupus. This influx of new information has revealed an ever-increasing interdependence between the mouse and human systems for unraveling the genetic basis of lupus susceptibility. Studies in the 1980s and 1990s established that mice prone to spontaneous lupus constitute excellent models of the genetic architecture of human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This notion has been greatly strengthened by the convergence of the functional pathways that are defective in both human and murine lupus. Within these pathways, variants in a number of genes have now been shown to be directly associated with lupus in both species. Consequently, mouse models will continue to serve a pre-eminent role in lupus genetics research, with an increased emphasis on mechanistic and molecular studies of human susceptibility alleles.

  2. A mesoscale connectome of the mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seung Wook; Harris, Julie A.; Ng, Lydia; Winslow, Brent; Cain, Nicholas; Mihalas, Stefan; Wang, Quanxin; Lau, Chris; Kuan, Leonard; Henry, Alex M.; Mortrud, Marty T.; Ouellette, Benjamin; Nguyen, Thuc Nghi; Sorensen, Staci A.; Slaughterbeck, Clifford R.; Wakeman, Wayne; Li, Yang; Feng, David; Ho, Anh; Nicholas, Eric; Hirokawa, Karla E.; Bohn, Phillip; Joines, Kevin M.; Peng, Hanchuan; Hawrylycz, Michael J.; Phillips, John W.; Hohmann, John G.; Wohnoutka, Paul; Gerfen, Charles R.; Koch, Christof; Bernard, Amy; Dang, Chinh; Jones, Allan R.; Zeng, Hongkui

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive knowledge of the brain’s wiring diagram is fundamental for understanding how the nervous system processes information at both local and global scales. However, with the singular exception of the C. elegans microscale connectome, there are no complete connectivity data sets in other species. Here we report a brain-wide, cellular-level, mesoscale connectome for the mouse. The Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas uses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing adeno-associated viral vectors to trace axonal projections from defined regions and cell types, and high-throughput serial two-photon tomography to image the EGFP-labelled axons throughout the brain. This systematic and standardized approach allows spatial registration of individual experiments into a common three dimensional (3D) reference space, resulting in a whole-brain connectivity matrix. A computational model yields insights into connectional strength distribution, symmetry and other network properties. Virtual tractography illustrates 3D topography among interconnected regions. Cortico-thalamic pathway analysis demonstrates segregation and integration of parallel pathways. The Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas is a freely available, foundational resource for structural and functional investigations into the neural circuits that support behavioural and cognitive processes in health and disease. PMID:24695228

  3. Mouse and Guinea Pig Models of Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Orme, Ian M; Ordway, Diane J

    2016-08-01

    This article describes the nature of the host response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the mouse and guinea pig models of infection. It describes the great wealth of information obtained from the mouse model, reflecting the general availability of immunological reagents, as well as genetic manipulations of the mouse strains themselves. This has led to a good understanding of the nature of the T-cell response to the infection, as well as an appreciation of the complexity of the response involving multiple cytokine- and chemokine-mediated systems. As described here and elsewhere, we have a growing understanding of how multiple CD4-positive T-cell subsets are involved, including regulatory T cells, TH17 cells, as well as the subsequent emergence of effector and central memory T-cell subsets. While, in contrast, our understanding of the host response in the guinea pig model is less advanced, considerable strides have been made in the past decade in terms of defining the basis of the immune response, as well as a better understanding of the immunopathologic process. This model has long been the gold standard for vaccine testing, and more recently is being revisited as a model for testing new drug regimens (bedaquiline being the latest example).

  4. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation in Early Mouse Embryos.

    PubMed

    García-González, Estela G; Roque-Ramirez, Bladimir; Palma-Flores, Carlos; Hernández-Hernández, J Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation is achieved at many levels by different factors such as tissue-specific transcription factors, members of the basal transcriptional apparatus, chromatin-binding proteins, and noncoding RNAs. Importantly, chromatin structure dictates the availability of a specific genomic locus for transcriptional activation as well as the efficiency with which transcription can occur. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a method that allows elucidating gene regulation at the molecular level by assessing if chromatin modifications or proteins are present at a specific locus. Initially, the majority of ChIP experiments were performed on cultured cell lines and more recently this technique has been adapted to a variety of tissues in different model organisms. Using ChIP on mouse embryos, it is possible to document the presence or absence of specific proteins and chromatin modifications at genomic loci in vivo during mammalian development and to get biological meaning from observations made on tissue culture analyses. We describe here a ChIP protocol on freshly isolated mouse embryonic somites for in vivo analysis of muscle specific transcription factor binding on chromatin. This protocol has been easily adapted to other mouse embryonic tissues and has also been successfully scaled up to perform ChIP-Seq.

  5. Establishment of mouse expanded potential stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xuefei; Antunes, Liliana; Yu, Yong; Zhu, Zhexin; Wang, Juexuan; Kolodziejczyk, Aleksandra A.; Campos, Lia S.; Wang, Cui; Yang, Fengtang; Zhong, Zhen; Fu, Beiyuan; Eckersley-Maslin, Melanie A.; Woods, Michael; Tanaka, Yosuke; Chen, Xi; Wilkinson, Adam C.; Bussell, James; White, Jacqui; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Reik, Wolf; Göttgens, Berthold; Teichmann, Sarah A.; Tam, Patrick P. L.; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Zou, Xiangang; Lu, Liming; Liu, Pentao

    2018-01-01

    Mouse embryonic stem cells derived from the epiblast1 contribute to the somatic lineages and the germline but are excluded from the extra-embryonic tissues that are derived from the trophectoderm and the primitive endoderm2 upon reintroduction to the blastocyst. Here we report that cultures of expanded potential stem cells can be established from individual eight-cell blastomeres, and by direct conversion of mouse embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. Remarkably, a single expanded potential stem cell can contribute both to the embryo proper and to the trophectoderm lineages in a chimaera assay. Bona fide trophoblast stem cell lines and extra-embryonic endoderm stem cells can be directly derived from expanded potential stem cells in vitro. Molecular analyses of the epigenome and single-cell transcriptome reveal enrichment for blastomere-specific signature and a dynamic DNA methylome in expanded potential stem cells. The generation of mouse expanded potential stem cells highlights the feasibility of establishing expanded potential stem cells for other mammalian species. PMID:29019987

  6. Quantifying gaze and mouse interactions on spatial visual interfaces with a new movement analytics methodology.

    PubMed

    Demšar, Urška; Çöltekin, Arzu

    2017-01-01

    Eye movements provide insights into what people pay attention to, and therefore are commonly included in a variety of human-computer interaction studies. Eye movement recording devices (eye trackers) produce gaze trajectories, that is, sequences of gaze location on the screen. Despite recent technological developments that enabled more affordable hardware, gaze data are still costly and time consuming to collect, therefore some propose using mouse movements instead. These are easy to collect automatically and on a large scale. If and how these two movement types are linked, however, is less clear and highly debated. We address this problem in two ways. First, we introduce a new movement analytics methodology to quantify the level of dynamic interaction between the gaze and the mouse pointer on the screen. Our method uses volumetric representation of movement, the space-time densities, which allows us to calculate interaction levels between two physically different types of movement. We describe the method and compare the results with existing dynamic interaction methods from movement ecology. The sensitivity to method parameters is evaluated on simulated trajectories where we can control interaction levels. Second, we perform an experiment with eye and mouse tracking to generate real data with real levels of interaction, to apply and test our new methodology on a real case. Further, as our experiment tasks mimics route-tracing when using a map, it is more than a data collection exercise and it simultaneously allows us to investigate the actual connection between the eye and the mouse. We find that there seem to be natural coupling when eyes are not under conscious control, but that this coupling breaks down when instructed to move them intentionally. Based on these observations, we tentatively suggest that for natural tracing tasks, mouse tracking could potentially provide similar information as eye-tracking and therefore be used as a proxy for attention. However

  7. Quantifying gaze and mouse interactions on spatial visual interfaces with a new movement analytics methodology

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Eye movements provide insights into what people pay attention to, and therefore are commonly included in a variety of human-computer interaction studies. Eye movement recording devices (eye trackers) produce gaze trajectories, that is, sequences of gaze location on the screen. Despite recent technological developments that enabled more affordable hardware, gaze data are still costly and time consuming to collect, therefore some propose using mouse movements instead. These are easy to collect automatically and on a large scale. If and how these two movement types are linked, however, is less clear and highly debated. We address this problem in two ways. First, we introduce a new movement analytics methodology to quantify the level of dynamic interaction between the gaze and the mouse pointer on the screen. Our method uses volumetric representation of movement, the space-time densities, which allows us to calculate interaction levels between two physically different types of movement. We describe the method and compare the results with existing dynamic interaction methods from movement ecology. The sensitivity to method parameters is evaluated on simulated trajectories where we can control interaction levels. Second, we perform an experiment with eye and mouse tracking to generate real data with real levels of interaction, to apply and test our new methodology on a real case. Further, as our experiment tasks mimics route-tracing when using a map, it is more than a data collection exercise and it simultaneously allows us to investigate the actual connection between the eye and the mouse. We find that there seem to be natural coupling when eyes are not under conscious control, but that this coupling breaks down when instructed to move them intentionally. Based on these observations, we tentatively suggest that for natural tracing tasks, mouse tracking could potentially provide similar information as eye-tracking and therefore be used as a proxy for attention. However

  8. Strain preservation of experimental animals: vitrification of two-cell stage embryos for multiple mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Eto, Tomoo; Takahashi, Riichi; Kamisako, Tsutomu

    2015-04-01

    Strain preservation of experimental animals is crucial for experimental reproducibility. Maintaining complete animal strains, however, is costly and there is a risk for genetic mutations as well as complete loss due to disasters or illness. Therefore, the development of effective vitrification techniques for cryopreservation of multiple experimental animal strains is important. We examined whether a vitrification method using cryoprotectant solutions, P10 and PEPeS, is suitable for preservation of multiple inbred and outbred mouse strains. First, we investigated whether our vitrification method using cryoprotectant solutions was suitable for two-cell stage mouse embryos. In vitro development of embryos exposed to the cryoprotectant solutions was similar to that of fresh controls. Further, the survival rate of the vitrified embryos was extremely high (98.1%). Next, we collected and vitrified two-cell stage embryos of 14 mouse strains. The average number of embryos obtained from one female was 7.3-33.3. The survival rate of vitrified embryos ranged from 92.8% to 99.1%, with no significant differences among mouse strains. In vivo development did not differ significantly between fresh controls and vitrified embryos of each strain. For strain preservation using cryopreserved embryos, two offspring for inbred lines and one offspring for outbred lines must be produced from two-cell stage embryos collected from one female. The expected number of surviving fetuses obtained from embryos collected from one female of either the inbred or outbred strains ranged from 2.9 to 19.5. The findings of the present study indicated that this vitrification method is suitable for strain preservation of multiple mouse strains. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cyclic loading increases friction and changes cartilage surface integrity in lubricin-mutant mouse knees

    PubMed Central

    Drewniak, Elizabeth I; Jay, Gregory D; Fleming, Braden C; Zhang, Ling; Warman, Matthew L; Crisco, Joseph J

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of lubricin gene dosage and cyclic loading on whole joint coefficient of friction and articular cartilage surface integrity in mouse knee joints. Methods Joints from mice with 2 (Prg4+/+), 1 (Prg4+/−), or no (Prg4−/−) functioning lubricin alleles were subjected to 26 hours of cyclic loading using a custom-built pendulum. Coefficient of friction values were measured at multiple time points. Contralateral control joints were left unloaded. Following testing, joints were examined for histologic evidence of damage and cell viability. Results At baseline, the coefficient of friction values in Prg4−/− mice were significantly higher than those in Prg4+/+ and Prg4+/− mice (P < 0.001). Cyclic loading continuously increased the coefficient of friction in Prg4−/− mouse joints. In contrast, Prg4+/− and Prg4+/+ mouse joints had no coefficient of friction increases during the first 4 hours of loading. After 26 hours of loading, joints from all genotypes had increased coefficient of friction values compared to baseline and unloaded controls. Significantly greater increases occurred in Prg4−/− and Prg4+/− mouse joints compared to Prg4+/+ mouse joints. The coefficient of friction values were not significantly associated with histologic evidence of damage or loss of cell viability. Conclusion Our findings indicate that mice lacking lubricin have increased baseline coefficient of friction values and are not protected against further increases caused by loading. Prg4+/− mice are indistinguishable from Prg4+/+ mice at baseline, but have significantly greater coefficient of friction values following 26 hours of loading. Lubricin dosage affects joint properties during loading, and may have clinical implications in patients for whom injury or illness alters lubricin abundance. PMID:21905020

  10. A method to trace root-respired CO2 using a 13C label

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooperdock, S.; Breecker, D.; Litvak, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    In order to partition total soil respiration into root respiration and decomposition under ambient conditions in desert soils, the following method was developed using 13C-labeled CO2 in a modern juniper savannah in central New Mexico. The labeled CO2 was mixed with ambient air and pumped into a small (2.5 m diameter and 1.4 m tall) juniper tree canopy . 10 L of the 13CO2 was sufficient to generate a stream of air at 20 L/min for 1 hour with a CO2 concentration of 540 ppm and a δ13C value of approximately 35,000‰. Plastic tarpaulins were used as a wind block. The 13CO2 -labeled air was applied to the canopy during peak photosynthesis between 10 and 11 am on June 30 2014 during which canopy air CO2 was elevated by approximately 10 ppm over ambient and had δ13C values ranging from 50 to 1000 ‰. Over the next three days, gas and tissue samples were collected in order to trace the 13C label through the juniper tree. Leaf and root samples collected from the labeled tree and from several control trees were loaded into exetainer vials, flushed with CO2-free air and incubated in the dark for 5 hours in order to measure the carbon isotope composition of respired CO2. Samples of soil pore space gas were collected from wells under the labeled tree and a control tree and were transported to the laboratory in He-flushed exetainer vials. The δ13C values of CO2 in the soil gas samples and in the headspace of incubation vials were measured using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The δ13C values of foliar respiration were significantly higher than those of the control (by 3.6‰, p < 0.01) one and two days after labeling and δ13C values of root-respired CO2 were significantly higher (by 0.7‰, p = 0.01) than those of the control three days after labeling. In addition, δ13C values of soil respired CO2, determined from measurements of soil pore space CO2 at 50 cm three days after labeling, were significantly higher (by 0.7‰, p < 0.03)) for the labeled tree than control

  11. A 13-year cohort study of musculoskeletal disorders treated in an autoplant, on-site physiotherapy clinic.

    PubMed

    Sadi, Jackie; MacDermid, Joy C; Chesworth, Bert; Birmingham, Trevor

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the rate and distribution of treatment visits provided in an on-site, automotive plant, physiotherapy clinic over a 13-year period. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data collected at an on-site physiotherapy clinic (1990-2002, 65,977 visits; n = 2,636 workers). The average age of workers was 43 +/- 9 years; most remained at work (85%) when treated. Disorders most commonly affected the shoulder, lumbar, and cervical regions; the median number of visits for these was 7, 6, and 5, respectively. Elbow disorders occurred commonly only for work-related complaints and required a median of eight visits. Rate of utilization was higher for women, with 47% of the plant's female workers attending physiotherapy in 1 year. Women had higher rates of cervical spine (12 vs. 22%) and wrist (5 vs. 10%) disorders. The two most common causes of injury reported by workers with an industrial injury were "frank injury arising out of normal employment" (51%) and "gradual onset/no frank injury" (37%). The diagnosis most often reported by the physiotherapist after initial assessment was "strain" which was similar for both industrial (43%) and non-industrial (49%) injuries. The six main departments in this automotive plant account for 93% of all industrial injuries reported. Final Assembly accounted for the largest number and highest rate of injury, although shift variability was noted in utilization rates (13 vs. 26%), despite the same tasks, shift schedules, and demographics. Although there was no control group, the number of visits to discharge was lower than reported in the literature for off-site physical therapy; there was a large reduction in claims (441-275) following introduction of the clinic and reduced duration/costs of lost time were identified by the employer as a rationale to continue and enhance the service over time. On-site physiotherapy services can provide early, cost-effective management of WRMSD in the automotive

  12. Development of a 13 kW Hall Thruster Propulsion System Performance Model for AEPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Steven; Allen, May; Goodfellow, Keith; Chew, Gilbert; Rapetti, Ryan; Tofil, Todd; Herman, Dan; Jackson, Jerry; Myers, Roger

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Electric Propulsion System (AEPS) program will develop a flight 13kW Hall thruster propulsion system based on NASA's HERMeS thruster. The AEPS system includes the Hall Thruster, the Power Processing Unit (PPU) and the Xenon Flow Controller (XFC). These three primary components must operate together to ensure that the system generates the required combinations of thrust and specific impulse at the required system efficiencies for the desired system lifetime. At the highest level, the AEPS system will be integrated into the spacecraft and will receive power, propellant, and commands from the spacecraft. Power and propellant flow rates will be determined by the throttle set points commanded by the spacecraft. Within the system, the major control loop is between the mass flow rate and thruster current, with time-dependencies required to handle all expected transients, and additional, much slower interactions between the thruster and cathode temperatures, flow controller and PPU. The internal system interactions generally occur on shorter timescales than the spacecraft interactions, though certain failure modes may require rapid responses from the spacecraft. The AEPS system performance model is designed to account for all these interactions in a way that allows evaluation of the sensitivity of the system to expected changes over the planned mission as well as to assess the impacts of normal component and assembly variability during the production phase of the program. This effort describes the plan for the system performance model development, correlation to NASA test data, and how the model will be used to evaluate the critical internal and external interactions. The results will ensure the component requirements do not unnecessarily drive the system cost or overly constrain the development program. Finally, the model will be available to quickly troubleshoot any future unforeseen development challenges.

  13. Wood Decomposition of Cyrilla racemiflora (Cyrillaceae) in Puerto Rican Dry and Wet Forests: A 13-year Case Study.

    Treesearch

    Juan A. Torres; Grizelle Gonzalez

    2005-01-01

    We studied the decomposition of Cyrilla racemiflora logs over a 13-yr period in tropical dry and wet forests in Puerto Rico. The mean mass loss, ratio of soft to hard wood, nutrient concentrations, and the diversity of wood-inhabiting organisms were greater in logs decomposing in the dry forest than in the wet forest. Termites were also more abundant in the logs...

  14. Moved to Tears: Technical Considerations and Dilemmas Encountered in Working with a 13-Year-Old Boy with Acquired Quadriplegia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    This paper is about therapeutic work with David, a 13-year-old boy who, at the age of 5, was the victim of a hit-and-run road traffic accident resulting in quadriplegia. The circumstances leading to the accident and its sequelae reveal a particularly complex picture, which combines early emotional deprivation and trauma. Although cognitively…

  15. A 13-WEEK COMPARISON OF PASSIVE AND CONTINUOUS OZONE MONITORS AT FORESTED SITES IN NORTH-CENTRAL PENNSYLVANIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ogawa passive 03 samplers were used in a 13-233k study (June 1-September 1, 1999) involving 11 forested and mountaintop sites in north-central Pennsylvania. Four of the sites were collocated with TECO model 49 O3 analyzers. A significant correlation (p<0.0001) was found for 2...

  16. A 13-week toxicity study of acrylamide administered in drinking water to hamsters.

    PubMed

    Imai, Toshio; Kitahashi, Tsukasa

    2014-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is known to induce tumors in various organs/tissues in rats and mice. Epidemiological studies of oral exposure have generated controversial results but mortality studies of people who work with AA have indicated increased rates of pancreatic cancer. In the present study, for dose selection for chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity studies, 13-week toxicity of AA was evaluated in Syrian hamsters, which are sensitive to induction of pancreatic ductal carcinogenesis, at concentrations required to provide doses of 0 (control), 20, 30 and 50 mg kg(-1) body weight in drinking water. Treatment with AA caused abnormal gait advancing to hind limb paralysis in all males and females at 50 mg kg(-1). Body weights in 30 and 50 mg kg(-1) males and 50 mg kg(-1) females were lower than in the controls. At termination of the study, red blood cells (RBC) and hemoglobin (Hb) were decreased or showed a tendency for a decrease at 20 and 30 mg kg(-1) in females. Microscopically, axonal/myelin degeneration of sciatic nerves was observed in all AA-treated groups with dose dependence. No obvious changes were found in pancreatic ducts/ductules in any groups of animal. These results indicated the maximum tolerated dose for long-term studies of AA to be 20 mg kg(-1) or less in both male and female Syrian hamsters. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. A 13-week repeated-dose oral toxicity and bioaccumulation of aluminum oxide nanoparticles in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jung; Sim, Jaehoon; Kim, Younghun; Han, Beom Seok; Yoon, Cheolho; Lee, Somin; Cho, Myung-Haing; Lee, Byoung-Seok; Kim, Jae-Ho

    2015-03-01

    Because of an increase in the commercial applications of manufactured nanoparticles, the issue of potential adverse health effects of nanoparticles following intended or unintended exposure is rapidly gaining attention. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of aluminum oxide nanoparticles (AlNPs, rod-type, 1.5, 3, and 6 mg/kg) after oral administration to mice for 13 weeks. Compared with the control group, the consumption of diet and drinking water and body weight gain decreased in the group treated with AlNPs. The group treated with 6 mg/kg AlNPs also showed a marked elevation in the count of white blood cells that associated with a significant decrease and increase to the proportion of eosinophils and lymphocytes, respectively. In addition, the secretion of IL-6 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 increased in a dose-dependent manner in the treated groups. Furthermore, AlNPs showed the highest accumulation in the liver and kidneys compared with the control group, increased the lactate dehydrogenase level in the blood, and induced the development of a pathological lesion in the liver and kidneys. Taken together, we suggest that the target organs of rod-type AlNPs may be the liver, kidneys and the immune system, and the not-observed adverse effect level may be lower than 6 mg/kg.

  18. The Virtual Mouse Brain: A Computational Neuroinformatics Platform to Study Whole Mouse Brain Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Melozzi, Francesca; Woodman, Marmaduke M; Jirsa, Viktor K; Bernard, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Connectome-based modeling of large-scale brain network dynamics enables causal in silico interrogation of the brain's structure-function relationship, necessitating the close integration of diverse neuroinformatics fields. Here we extend the open-source simulation software The Virtual Brain (TVB) to whole mouse brain network modeling based on individual diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI)-based or tracer-based detailed mouse connectomes. We provide practical examples on how to use The Virtual Mouse Brain (TVMB) to simulate brain activity, such as seizure propagation and the switching behavior of the resting state dynamics in health and disease. TVMB enables theoretically driven experimental planning and ways to test predictions in the numerous strains of mice available to study brain function in normal and pathological conditions.

  19. Sequence analysis of 497 mouse brain ESTs expressed in the substantia nigra

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, G.J.; Savioz, A.; Davies, R.W.

    1997-01-15

    The use of subtracted, region-specific cDNA libraries combined with single-pass cDNA sequencing allows the discovery of novel genes and facilitates molecular description of the tissue or region involved. We report the sequence of 497 mouse expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from two subtracted libraries enriched for cDNAs expressed in the substantia nigra, a brain region with important roles in movement control and Parkinson disease. Of these, 238 ESTs give no database matches and therefore derive from novel genes. A further 115 ESTs show sequence similarity to ESTs from other organisms, which themselves do not yield any significant database matches to genesmore » of known function. Fifty-six ESTs show sequence similarity to previously identified genes whose mouse homologues have not been reported. The total number of ESTs reported that are new for the mouse is 407, which, together with the 90 ESTs corresponding to known mouse genes or cDNAs, contributes to the molecular description of the substantia nigra. 21 refs., 4 tabs.« less

  20. Histopathology reveals correlative and unique phenotypes in a high-throughput mouse phenotyping screen

    PubMed Central

    Adissu, Hibret A.; Estabel, Jeanne; Sunter, David; Tuck, Elizabeth; Hooks, Yvette; Carragher, Damian M.; Clarke, Kay; Karp, Natasha A.; Project, Sanger Mouse Genetics; Newbigging, Susan; Jones, Nora; Morikawa, Lily; White, Jacqueline K.; McKerlie, Colin

    2014-01-01

    The Mouse Genetics Project (MGP) at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute aims to generate and phenotype over 800 genetically modified mouse lines over the next 5 years to gain a better understanding of mammalian gene function and provide an invaluable resource to the scientific community for follow-up studies. Phenotyping includes the generation of a standardized biobank of paraffin-embedded tissues for each mouse line, but histopathology is not routinely performed. In collaboration with the Pathology Core of the Centre for Modeling Human Disease (CMHD) we report the utility of histopathology in a high-throughput primary phenotyping screen. Histopathology was assessed in an unbiased selection of 50 mouse lines with (n=30) or without (n=20) clinical phenotypes detected by the standard MGP primary phenotyping screen. Our findings revealed that histopathology added correlating morphological data in 19 of 30 lines (63.3%) in which the primary screen detected a phenotype. In addition, seven of the 50 lines (14%) presented significant histopathology findings that were not associated with or predicted by the standard primary screen. Three of these seven lines had no clinical phenotype detected by the standard primary screen. Incidental and strain-associated background lesions were present in all mutant lines with good concordance to wild-type controls. These findings demonstrate the complementary and unique contribution of histopathology to high-throughput primary phenotyping of mutant mice. PMID:24652767

  1. Broad AOX expression in a genetically tractable mouse model does not disturb normal physiology

    PubMed Central

    Szibor, Marten; Dhandapani, Praveen K.; Dufour, Eric; Holmström, Kira M.; Zhuang, Yuan; Salwig, Isabelle; Wittig, Ilka; Heidler, Juliana; Gizatullina, Zemfira; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Nandania, Jatin; Velagapudi, Vidya; Wietelmann, Astrid; Rustin, Pierre; Gellerich, Frank N.; Braun, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Plants and many lower organisms, but not mammals, express alternative oxidases (AOXs) that branch the mitochondrial respiratory chain, transferring electrons directly from ubiquinol to oxygen without proton pumping. Thus, they maintain electron flow under conditions when the classical respiratory chain is impaired, limiting excess production of oxygen radicals and supporting redox and metabolic homeostasis. AOX from Ciona intestinalis has been used to study and mitigate mitochondrial impairments in mammalian cell lines, Drosophila disease models and, most recently, in the mouse, where multiple lentivector-AOX transgenes conferred substantial expression in specific tissues. Here, we describe a genetically tractable mouse model in which Ciona AOX has been targeted to the Rosa26 locus for ubiquitous expression. The AOXRosa26 mouse exhibited only subtle phenotypic effects on respiratory complex formation, oxygen consumption or the global metabolome, and showed an essentially normal physiology. AOX conferred robust resistance to inhibitors of the respiratory chain in organello; moreover, animals exposed to a systemically applied LD50 dose of cyanide did not succumb. The AOXRosa26 mouse is a useful tool to investigate respiratory control mechanisms and to decipher mitochondrial disease aetiology in vivo. PMID:28067626

  2. Taltirelin alleviates fatigue-like behavior in mouse models of cancer-related fatigue.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, John P; Wolff, Brian S; Cullen, Mary J; Saligan, Leorey N; Gershengorn, Marvin C

    2017-10-01

    Fatigue affects most cancer patients and has numerous potential causes, including cancer itself and cancer treatment. Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is not relieved by rest, can decrease quality of life, and has no FDA-approved therapy. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) has been proposed as a potential novel treatment for CRF, but its efficacy against CRF remains largely untested. Thus, we tested the TRH analog, taltirelin (TAL), in mouse models of CRF. To model fatigue, we used a mouse model of chemotherapy, a mouse model of radiation therapy, and mice bearing colon 26 carcinoma tumors. We used the treadmill fatigue test to assess fatigue-like behavior after treatment with TAL. Additionally, we used wild-type and TRH receptor knockout mice to determine which TRH receptor was necessary for the actions of TAL. Tumor-bearing mice displayed muscle wasting and all models caused fatigue-like behavior, with mice running a shorter distance in the treadmill fatigue test than controls. TAL reversed fatigue-like behavior in all three models and the mouse TRH 1 receptor was necessary for the effects of TAL. These data suggest that TAL may be useful in alleviating fatigue in all cancer patients and provide further support for evaluating TAL as a potential therapy for CRF in humans. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. The detection of faked identity using unexpected questions and mouse dynamics.

    PubMed

    Monaro, Merylin; Gamberini, Luciano; Sartori, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    The detection of faked identities is a major problem in security. Current memory-detection techniques cannot be used as they require prior knowledge of the respondent's true identity. Here, we report a novel technique for detecting faked identities based on the use of unexpected questions that may be used to check the respondent identity without any prior autobiographical information. While truth-tellers respond automatically to unexpected questions, liars have to "build" and verify their responses. This lack of automaticity is reflected in the mouse movements used to record the responses as well as in the number of errors. Responses to unexpected questions are compared to responses to expected and control questions (i.e., questions to which a liar also must respond truthfully). Parameters that encode mouse movement were analyzed using machine learning classifiers and the results indicate that the mouse trajectories and errors on unexpected questions efficiently distinguish liars from truth-tellers. Furthermore, we showed that liars may be identified also when they are responding truthfully. Unexpected questions combined with the analysis of mouse movement may efficiently spot participants with faked identities without the need for any prior information on the examinee.

  4. A Novel, Real-Time, In Vivo Mouse Retinal Imaging System.

    PubMed

    Butler, Mark C; Sullivan, Jack M

    2015-11-01

    To develop an efficient, low-cost instrument for robust real-time imaging of the mouse retina in vivo, and assess system capabilities by evaluating various animal models. Following multiple disappointing attempts to visualize the mouse retina during a subretinal injection using commercially available systems, we identified the key limitation to be inadequate illumination due to off axis illumination and poor optical train optimization. Therefore, we designed a paraxial illumination system for Greenough-type stereo dissecting microscope incorporating an optimized optical launch and an efficiently coupled fiber optic delivery system. Excitation and emission filters control spectral bandwidth. A color coupled-charged device (CCD) camera is coupled to the microscope for image capture. Although, field of view (FOV) is constrained by the small pupil aperture, the high optical power of the mouse eye, and the long working distance (needed for surgical manipulations), these limitations can be compensated by eye positioning in order to observe the entire retina. The retinal imaging system delivers an adjustable narrow beam to the dilated pupil with minimal vignetting. The optic nerve, vasculature, and posterior pole are crisply visualized and the entire retina can be observed through eye positioning. Normal and degenerative retinal phenotypes can be followed over time. Subretinal or intraocular injection procedures are followed in real time. Real-time, intravenous fluorescein angiography for the live mouse has been achieved. A novel device is established for real-time viewing and image capture of the small animal retina during subretinal injections for preclinical gene therapy studies.

  5. Observations on gas exchange and element recycle within a gas-closed algal-mouse system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smernoff, D. T.; Wharton, R. A., Jr.; Averner, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    Life support systems based on bioregeneration rely on the control and manipulation of organisms. Algae are potentially useful for a variety of Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) functions including the revitalization of atmospheres, production of food and for nitrogen fixation. The results of experiments conducted with a gas-closed algal-mouse system designed to investigate gas exchange phenomena under varying algal environmental conditions, and the ability of algae to utilize oxidized mouse solid waste are reported. Inherent instabilities exist between the uptake and release of carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) by the mouse and algae in a gas-closed system. Variations in light intensity and cell density alter the photosynthetic rate of the algae and enable short-term steady-state concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and O2. Different nitrogen sources (urea and nitrate) result in different algal assimilatory quotients (AQ). Combinations of photosynthetic rate and AQ ratio manipulations were examined for their potential in stabilizing atmospheric gas concentrations in the gas-closed algal-mouse system.

  6. Tyrosinase Depletion Prevents the Maturation of Melanosomes in the Mouse Hair Follicle

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Elyse K.; Fielder, Thomas J.; MacGregor, Grant R.; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Gillen, Daniel L.; Eby, Victoria; Boissy, Raymond E.; Ganesan, Anand K.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms that lead to variation in human skin and hair color are not fully understood. To better understand the molecular control of skin and hair color variation, we modulated the expression of Tyrosinase (Tyr), which controls the rate-limiting step of melanogenesis, by expressing a single-copy, tetracycline-inducible shRNA against Tyr in mice. Moderate depletion of TYR was sufficient to alter the appearance of the mouse coat in black, agouti, and yellow coat color backgrounds, even though TYR depletion did not significantly inhibit accumulation of melanin within the mouse hair. Ultra-structural studies revealed that the reduction of Tyr inhibited the accumulation of terminal melanosomes, and inhibited the expression of genes that regulate melanogenesis. These results indicate that color in skin and hair is determined not only by the total amount of melanin within the hair, but also by the relative accumulation of mature melanosomes. PMID:26619124

  7. Orthology for comparative genomics in the mouse genome database.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Mary E; Baldarelli, Richard M; Bello, Susan M; Ni, Li; McAndrews, Monica S; Bult, Carol J; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E; Ringwald, Martin; Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A

    2015-08-01

    The mouse genome database (MGD) is the model organism database component of the mouse genome informatics system at The Jackson Laboratory. MGD is the international data resource for the laboratory mouse and facilitates the use of mice in the study of human health and disease. Since its beginnings, MGD has included comparative genomics data with a particular focus on human-mouse orthology, an essential component of the use of mouse as a model organism. Over the past 25 years, novel algorithms and addition of orthologs from other model organisms have enriched comparative genomics in MGD data, extending the use of orthology data to support the laboratory mouse as a model of human biology. Here, we describe current comparative data in MGD and review the history and refinement of orthology representation in this resource.

  8. Applications and Limitations of Mouse Models for Understanding Human Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    von Scheidt, Moritz; Zhao, Yuqi; Kurt, Zeyneb; Pan, Calvin; Zeng, Lingyao; Yang, Xia; Schunkert, Heribert; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2017-01-01

    Most of the biological understanding of mechanisms underlying coronary artery disease (CAD) derives from studies of mouse models. The identification of multiple CAD loci and strong candidate genes in large human genome-wide association studies (GWAS) presented an opportunity to examine the relevance of mouse models for the human disease. We comprehensively reviewed the mouse literature, including 827 literature-derived genes, and compared it to human data. First, we observed striking concordance of risk factors for atherosclerosis in mice and humans. Second, there was highly significant overlap of mouse genes with human genes identified by GWAS. In particular, of the 46 genes with strong association signals in CAD-GWAS that were studied in mouse models all but one exhibited consistent effects on atherosclerosis-related phenotypes. Third, we compared 178 CAD-associated pathways derived from human GWAS with 263 from mouse studies and observed that over 50% were consistent between both species. PMID:27916529

  9. Bessel beam OCM for analysis of global ischemia in mouse brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapolu, Mounika; Dolezyczek, Hubert; Tamborski, Szymon; Malinowska, Monika; Wilczynski, Grzegorz; Szkulmowski, Maciej; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2017-07-01

    We present the in-vivo imaging of the global mouse brain ischemia using Bessel beam optical coherence microscopy. This method allows to monitor changes in brain structure with extra control of blood flow during the process of artery occlusion. The results show the capability and sensitivity of OCM system with Bessel beam to analyze brain plasticity after severe injury within a period of 8 days.

  10. Transcript copy number estimation using a mouse whole-genome oligonucleotide microarray

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Mark G; Sharov, Alexei A; VanBuren, Vincent; Dudekula, Dawood B; Carmack, Condie E; Nelson, Charlie; Ko, Minoru SH

    2005-01-01

    The ability to quantitatively measure the expression of all genes in a given tissue or cell with a single assay is an exciting promise of gene-expression profiling technology. An in situ-synthesized 60-mer oligonucleotide microarray designed to detect transcripts from all mouse genes was validated, as well as a set of exogenous RNA controls derived from the yeast genome (made freely available without restriction), which allow quantitative estimation of absolute endogenous transcript abundance. PMID:15998450

  11. The Targeted Delivery of Interleukin 4 Inhibits Development of Endometriotic Lesions in a Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Quattrone, Federica; Sanchez, Ana Maria; Pannese, Maria; Hemmerle, Teresa; Viganò, Paola; Candiani, Massimo; Petraglia, Felice; Neri, Dario; Panina-Bordignon, Paola

    2015-09-01

    Endometriosis is caused by the displacement of endometrium outside the uterus contributing heavily to infertility and debilitating pelvic pain. Ectopic adhesion and growth are believed to occur under the influence of a favorable hormonal environment and immunological factors. The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of a targeted therapy with an antibody-based pharmacodelivery of interleukin 4 (F8-IL4) in a mouse model of experimentally induced endometriosis. Endometriosis-like lesions were induced in Balb/c mice. The animals were treated intravenously with F8-IL4 or with untargeted IL4 (KSF-IL4). Twelve days after disease induction, the lesions were isolated. A significant reduction in the number of total lesions/mouse and in the total volume of lesions/mouse was observed in mice treated with F8-IL4 compared to controls (P = .029 and P = .006, respectively), while no difference was found between KSF-IL4-treated mice and their controls. Gene expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Expression of genes involved in cell adhesion, extracellular matrix invasion, and neovascularization was significantly downregulated in F8-IL4-treated mice compared to their controls (integrin β1: P = .02; metalloproteinase [MMP] 3: P = .02; MMP9: P = .04; vascular endothelial growth factor: P = .04). Gene expression of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α, IL1β, IL1α, and IL6) did not vary in the ectopic lesions isolated from F8-IL4-treated mice compared to their controls. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated a significantly reduced expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin in the lesions of mice treated with F8-IL4. Our results show that the antibody-mediated targeted delivery of IL4 inhibits the development of endometriosis in a syngeneic mouse model by likely impairing adhesion, invasion, and vascularization of the ectopic endometrium. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Exaggerated NMDA Mediated LTD in a Mouse Model of Down Syndrome and Pharmacological Rescuing by Memantine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott-McKean, Jonah J.; Costa, Alberto C. S.

    2011-01-01

    The Ts65Dn mouse is the best-studied animal model for Down syndrome. In the experiments described here, NMDA-mediated or mGluR-mediated LTD was induced in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices from Ts65Dn and euploid control mice by bath application of 20 [mu]M NMDA for 3 min and 50 [mu]M DHPG for 5 min, respectively. We found that Ts65Dn mice…

  13. A new multiple trauma model of the mouse.

    PubMed

    Fitschen-Oestern, Stefanie; Lippross, Sebastian; Klueter, Tim; Weuster, Matthias; Varoga, Deike; Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh; Pufe, Thomas; Rose-John, Stefan; Andruszkow, Hagen; Hildebrand, Frank; Steubesand, Nadine; Seekamp, Andreas; Neunaber, Claudia

    2017-11-21

    Blunt trauma is the most frequent mechanism of injury in multiple trauma, commonly resulting from road traffic collisions or falls. Two of the most frequent injuries in patients with multiple trauma are chest trauma and extremity fracture. Several trauma mouse models combine chest trauma and head injury, but no trauma mouse model to date includes the combination of long bone fractures and chest trauma. Outcome is essentially determined by the combination of these injuries. In this study, we attempted to establish a reproducible novel multiple trauma model in mice that combines blunt trauma, major injuries and simple practicability. Ninety-six male C57BL/6 N mice (n = 8/group) were subjected to trauma for isolated femur fracture and a combination of femur fracture and chest injury. Serum samples of mice were obtained by heart puncture at defined time points of 0 h (hour), 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 3 d (days), and 7 d. A tendency toward reduced weight and temperature was observed at 24 h after chest trauma and femur fracture. Blood analyses revealed a decrease in hemoglobin during the first 24 h after trauma. Some animals were killed by heart puncture immediately after chest contusion; these animals showed the most severe lung contusion and hemorrhage. The extent of structural lung injury varied in different mice but was evident in all animals. Representative H&E-stained (Haematoxylin and Eosin-stained) paraffin lung sections of mice with multiple trauma revealed hemorrhage and an inflammatory immune response. Plasma samples of mice with chest trauma and femur fracture showed an up-regulation of IL-1β (Interleukin-1β), IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70 and TNF-α (Tumor necrosis factor- α) compared with the control group. Mice with femur fracture and chest trauma showed a significant up-regulation of IL-6 compared to group with isolated femur fracture. The multiple trauma mouse model comprising chest trauma and femur fracture enables many analogies to clinical cases of

  14. Dynamic changes in the distribution and time course of blood-brain barrier-permeative nitroxides in the mouse head with EPR imaging: visualization of blood flow in a mouse model of ischemia.

    PubMed

    Emoto, Miho C; Sato-Akaba, Hideo; Hirata, Hiroshi; Fujii, Hirotada G

    2014-09-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging using nitroxides as redox-sensitive probes is a powerful, noninvasive method that can be used under various physiological conditions to visualize changes in redox status that result from oxidative damage. Two blood-brain barrier-permeative nitroxides, 3-hydroxymethyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine-1-oxyl (HMP) and 3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine-1-yloxy (MCP), have been widely used as redox-sensitive probes in the brains of small animals, but their in vivo distribution and properties have not yet been analyzed in detail. In this study, a custom-made continuous-wave three-dimensional (3D) EPR imager was used to obtain 3D EPR images of mouse heads using MCP or HMP. This EPR imager made it possible to take 3D EPR images reconstructed from data from 181 projections acquired every 60s. Using this improved EPR imager and magnetic resonance imaging, the distribution and reduction time courses of HMP and MCP were examined in mouse heads. EPR images of living mice revealed that HMP and MCP have different distributions and different time courses for entering the brain. Based on the pharmacokinetics of the reduction reactions of HMP and MCP in the mouse head, the half-lives of HMP and MCP were clearly and accurately mapped pixel by pixel. An ischemic mouse model was prepared, and the half-life of MCP was mapped in the mouse head. Compared to the half-life in control mice, the half-life of MCP in the ischemic model mouse brain was significantly increased, suggesting a shift in the redox balance. This in vivo EPR imaging method using BBB-permeative MCP is a useful noninvasive method for assessing changes in the redox status in mouse brains under oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Stress increases descending inhibition in mouse and human colon.

    PubMed

    Reed, D E; Zhang, Y; Beyak, M J; Lourenssen, S; Blennerhassett, M G; Paterson, W G; Vanner, S J

    2016-04-01

    A relationship between stress and the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been well established but the cellular mechanisms are poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated effects of stress and stress hormones on colonic descending inhibition and transit in mouse models and human tissues. Stress was applied using water avoidance stress (WAS) in the animal model or mimicked using stress hormones, adrenaline (5 nM), and corticosterone (1 μM). Intracellular recordings were obtained from colonic circular smooth muscle cells in isolated smooth muscle/myenteric plexus preparations and the inhibitory junction potential (IJP) was elicited by nerve stimulation or balloon distension oral to the site of recording. Water avoidance stress increased the number of fecal pellets compared to control (p < 0.05). WAS also caused a significant increase in IJP amplitude following balloon distension. Stress hormones also increased the IJP amplitude following nerve stimulation and balloon distension (p < 0.05) in control mice but had no effect in colons from stressed mice. No differences were observed with application of ATP between stress and control tissues, suggesting the actions of stress hormones were presynaptic. Stress hormones had a large effect in the nerve stimulated IJP in human colon (increased >50%). Immunohistochemical studies identified alpha and beta adrenergic receptor immunoreactivity on myenteric neurons in human colon. These studies suggest that WAS and stress hormones can signal via myenteric neurons to increase inhibitory neuromuscular transmission. This could lead to greater descending relaxation, decreased transit time, and subsequent diarrhea. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Imaging mouse lung allograft rejection with (1)H MRI.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinbang; Huang, Howard J; Wang, Xingan; Wang, Wei; Ellison, Henry; Thomen, Robert P; Gelman, Andrew E; Woods, Jason C

    2015-05-01

    To demonstrate that longitudinal, noninvasive monitoring via MRI can characterize acute cellular rejection in mouse orthotopic lung allografts. Nineteen Balb/c donor to C57BL/6 recipient orthotopic left lung transplants were performed, further divided into control-Ig versus anti-CD4/anti-CD8 treated groups. A two-dimensional multislice gradient-echo pulse sequence synchronized with ventilation was used on a small-animal MR scanner to acquire proton images of lung at postoperative days 3, 7, and 14, just before sacrifice. Lung volume and parenchymal signal were measured, and lung compliance was calculated as volume change per pressure difference between high and low pressures. Normalized parenchymal signal in the control-Ig allograft increased over time, with statistical significance between day 14 and day 3 posttransplantation (0.046→0.789; P < 0.05), despite large intermouse variations; this was consistent with histopathologic evidence of rejection. Compliance of the control-Ig allograft decreased significantly over time (0.013→0.003; P < 0.05), but remained constant in mice treated with anti-CD4/anti-CD8 antibodies. Lung allograft rejection in individual mice can be monitored by lung parenchymal signal changes and by lung compliance through MRI. Longitudinal imaging can help us better understand the time course of individual lung allograft rejection and response to treatment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Efficacy of enrofloxacin in a mouse model of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Slate, Andrea R; Bandyopadhyay, Sheila; Francis, Kevin P; Papich, Mark G; Karolewski, Brian; Hod, Eldad A; Prestia, Kevin A

    2014-07-01

    We examined the efficacy of enrofloxacin administered by 2 different routes in a mouse model of sepsis. Male CD1 mice were infected with a bioluminescent strain of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and treated with enrofloxacin either by injection or in drinking water. Peak serum levels were evaluated by using HPLC. Mice were monitored for signs of clinical disease, and infections were monitored by using bioluminescence imaging. Serum levels of enrofloxacin and the active metabolite ciprofloxacin were greater in the group treated by injection than in controls or the groups treated by administration in drinking water. Survival of the group treated with enrofloxacin injection was greater than that of controls and groups treated with enrofloxacin in the drinking water. Bioluminescence in the group treated with enrofloxacin injection was less than that in the groups treated with oral administration at 12 h and in the groups treated orally and the control group at 16 h. According to these findings, we recommend the use of injectable enrofloxacin at 5 mg/kg SC for mice with systemic infections.

  18. Efficacy of Enrofloxacin in a Mouse Model of Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Sheila; Francis, Kevin P; Papich, Mark G; Karolewski, Brian; Hod, Eldad A; Prestia, Kevin A

    2014-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of enrofloxacin administered by 2 different routes in a mouse model of sepsis. Male CD1 mice were infected with a bioluminescent strain of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and treated with enrofloxacin either by injection or in drinking water. Peak serum levels were evaluated by using HPLC. Mice were monitored for signs of clinical disease, and infections were monitored by using bioluminescence imaging. Serum levels of enrofloxacin and the active metabolite ciprofloxacin were greater in the group treated by injection than in controls or the groups treated by administration in drinking water. Survival of the group treated with enrofloxacin injection was greater than that of controls and groups treated with enrofloxacin in the drinking water. Bioluminescence in the group treated with enrofloxacin injection was less than that in the groups treated with oral administration at 12 h and in the groups treated orally and the control group at 16 h. According to these findings, we recommend the use of injectable enrofloxacin at 5 mg/kg SC for mice with systemic infections. PMID:25199094

  19. Morphing Downwind-Aligned Rotor Concept Based on a 13-MW Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Ichter, Brian; Steele, Adam; Loth, Eric

    To alleviate the mass-scaling issues associated with conventional upwind rotors of extreme-scale wind turbines (>/=10 MW), a morphing downwind-aligned rotor (MoDaR) concept is proposed herein. The concept employs a downwind rotor with blades whose elements are stiff (no intentional flexibility) but with hub-joints that can be unlocked to allow for moment-free downwind alignment. Aligning the combination of gravitational, centrifugal and thrust forces along the blade path reduces downwind cantilever loads, resulting in primarily tensile loading. For control simplicity, the blade curvature can be fixed with a single morphing degree of freedom using a near-hub joint for coning angle: 22 degreesmore » at rated conditions. The conventional baseline was set as the 13.2-MW Sandia 100-m all glass blade in a three-bladed upwind configuration. To quantify potential mass savings, a downwind load-aligning, two-bladed rotor was designed. Because of the reduced number of blades, the MoDaR concept had a favorable 33% mass reduction. The blade reduction and coning led to a reduction in rated power, but morphing increased energy capture at lower speeds such that both the MoDaR and conventional rotors have the same average power: 5.4 MW. A finite element analysis showed that quasi-steady structural stresses could be reduced, over a range of operating wind speeds and azimuthal angles, despite the increases in loading per blade. However, the concept feasibility requires additional investigation of the mass, cost and complexity of the morphing hinge, the impact of unsteady aeroelastic influence because of turbulence and off-design conditions, along with system-level Levelized Cost of Energy analysis.« less

  20. Optimization of Glioblastoma Mouse Orthotopic Xenograft Models for Translational Research.

    PubMed

    Irtenkauf, Susan M; Sobiechowski, Susan; Hasselbach, Laura A; Nelson, Kevin K; Transou, Andrea D; Carlton, Enoch T; Mikkelsen, Tom; deCarvalho, Ana C

    2017-08-01

    Glioblastoma is an aggressive primary brain tumor predominantly localized to the cerebral cortex. We developed a panel of patient-derived mouse orthotopic xenografts (PDOX) for preclinical drug studies by implanting cancer stem cells (CSC) cultured from fresh surgical specimens intracranially into 8-wk-old female athymic nude mice. Here we optimize the glioblastoma PDOX model by assessing the effect of implantation location on tumor growth, survival, and histologic characteristics. To trace the distribution of intracranial injections, toluidine blue dye was injected at 4 locations with defined mediolateral, anterioposterior, and dorsoventral coordinates within the cerebral cortex. Glioblastoma CSC from 4 patients and a glioblastoma nonstem-cell line were then implanted by using the same coordinates for evaluation of tumor location, growth rate, and morphologic and histologic features. Dye injections into one of the defined locations resulted in dye dissemination throughout the ventricles, whereas tumor cell implantation at the same location resulted in a much higher percentage of small multifocal ventricular tumors than did the other 3 locations tested. Ventricular tumors were associated with a lower tumor growth rate, as measured by in vivo bioluminescence imaging, and decreased survival in 4 of 5 cell lines. In addition, tissue oxygenation, vasculature, and the expression of astrocytic markers were altered in ventricular tumors compared with nonventricular tumors. Based on this information, we identified an optimal implantation location that avoided the ventricles and favored cortical tumor growth. To assess the effects of stress from oral drug administration, mice that underwent daily gavage were compared with stress-positive and -negative control groups. Oral gavage procedures did not significantly affect the survival of the implanted mice or physiologic measurements of stress. Our findings document the importance of optimization of the implantation site for